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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR

BULLETIN
OP THE

BUREAU OF LABOR




NO. 87-M ARCH, 1910
ISSUED EVEBY OTHBR MONTH

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1910




CONTENTS.
Wholesale prices, 1890 to March, 1910:
Page.
Introduction............................................................................................................
377
Prices of commodities, 1909 compared with 1908........................................... 377-384
Prices of commodities, 1909, and March, 1910, compared with previous
years back to 1890............................................................................................. 384-394
Prices of commodities, b y months, January, 1900, to March, 1910............ 394-399
Influences affecting prices...................................................................................
400
Explanation of tables........................................................................................... 401-430
Table I.—Wholesale prices of commodities from January, 1909, to
March, 1910......................................................................................................... 431-494
Table I I .—Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1909; monthly actual and relative prices, January, 1909, to
March, 1910, and base prices (average for 1890-1899)................................ 495-547
Table I I I .— Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1909, and
monthly relative prices, January, 1909, to March, 1910........................... 548-582
Wages and hours of labor of union carpenters in the United States and in
English-speaking foreign countries, b y Ethelbert Stewart............................ 583-598
Prices of wheat, bread, etc., in Milan, Italy, 1801 to 1908................................. 599-607
Cost of living of the working classes in the principal industrial towns of Bel­
gium:
Scope of the investigation.................................................................................... 608,609
Rents of working-class dwellings....................................................................... 609-612
Belgium ........................................................................................................... 609, 610
Belgium and Great Britain compared....................................................... 611,612
Retail prices..................................
612-620
Belgium..................................
612-617
617
Rents and prices com bined.......................................
Belgium and Great Britain compared...................................................... 617-620
Rates of wages........................................................................................................ 620-624
Belgium ............................................................................................................ 620-623
Relation of rates of wages to rents and prices.................................. 622,623
Belgium and Great Britain compared....................................................... 623,624
Hours of labor......................................................................................................... 624,625
Summary of conclusions.......................................................................................
625
Earnings and hours of labor in British building and woodworking trades:
General summary................................................................................................... 626,627
Building trades...................................................................................................... 628-631
Construction of harbors, docks, e tc ...................................................................
631
Saw milling, machine joinery, etc.....................................................................
632
Cabinetmaking industry.....................................................................................
633




hi

IV

CONTENTS.

Digest of recent reports of state bureaus of labor statistics:
Ohio— Thirty-second Annual Report, 1908: Manufactures— Coal mining—
Free public employment offices.....................................................................
Oklahoma—
First Annual Report, 1908: Labor organizations—Wage-earners—
Manufacturing— Free public employment offices...............................
Second Annual Report, 1909: Labor organizations—Wage-earners—
Manufacturing— Free public employment offices...............................
Decisions of courts affecting labor:
Decisions under statute law—
Contracts of employment—discharge—payment of wages— tender—
penalty—new employment (St. Louis, Iron Mountain and South­
ern Railroad Company v. Bryant et a l.)..................................................
E m p lo y e d liability— carriers—employees of express companies—
contracts waiving right of action for injuries—law governing
( Weir v . Rountree)......................................................................................
E m p lo y e d liability— employment of children in violation of stat­
ute—injury—proximate cause—waiver of law b y inspector (Stehle
v. Jaeger Automatic Machine Company)................................................
Employers’ liability—inspection of factories and workshops—notice
of injury— evidence (Berger v. Metropolitan Press Printing Com­
pany).............................................................................................................
Employers’ liability— mine regulations—negligence of certified
foremen—fellow-service (Golden v. Mount Jessup Coal Company)..
Employers’ liability—railroad companies—fellow-servant law—
state statutes as affecting interstate traffic—doctrine of compara­
tive negligence— constitutionality (Missouri Pacific Railway Com­
pany v . Castle).............................................................................................
Employers’ liability—railroad companies—fellow-servants—con­
struction of statute (Meyers v. San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt
Lake Railroad Company)...........................................................................
Em ployment of children—violation of statute—appeal—repeated
offenses— stay of proceedings—prohibition (State v. Rose)................
Examination and licensing of electricians—constitutionality of
statute— equal protection of laws (State v. Gantz)................................
Examination and licensing of plumbers—constitutionality of stat­
ute— construction (Bronold v . Engler)......................... .........................
Labor organizations—union label—unlawful use—injunction ( United
Garment Workers o f America v. Davis)...................................................
Payment of wages— time checks—redemption (Kentucky Coal Mining
Company v. Mattingly).............................................................................
Protection of employees on street railways—vestibules for motormen— corporations—penalty—constitutionality of statute (Beau­
mont Traction Company v . State)...........................................................
Strikes— damages to property—liability of municipalities— con­
struction of statute (Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis
Railway Company v. City o f Chicago).....................................................
Decisions under common law—
A ccident insurance— contracts—construction— forfeitures— classes of
occupations (Roseberry v. American Benevolent Association)..............
Blacklisting—unlawful discrimination—injury to property—relief
(Davis v. New England Railway Company)..........................................
Contract of employment—action for wages— quantum meruit— evi­
dence— other employment (Rosenow v. Wiener)...................................




Page.
634-636

636
636,637

638-640

640-642

642-645

645,646
646,647

647-649

649,650
650,651
651-653
653,654
654,655
655,656

656,657

658,659

659-662
662-664
664,665

CONTENTS.
Decisions of courts affecting labor— Concluded.
Decisions under common law— Concluded.
Contract of employment—breach—recovery for subsequent serv­
ices {K in gv. Western Union Telegraph Company!)................................
Contracts of employment—termination— competence of employee
(.Franklin v . T. H. Lilly Lumber Company)...........................................
Contracts of employm ent—termination—reduction of wages—no­
tice—evidence {Pennington v. Thompson Brothers Lumber Com­
pan y).............................
Em ployer and employee—negligence of employees—incom petency—
injuries to third persons—liability of employers ( Minot v. Snavely).
Em ployer and em ployee—negligence of employees—injuries to third
persons—liability of employers ( Western Real Estate Trustees v.
Hughes).........................................................................................................
Employers’ liability—civil law—fellow-servants— damages ( Taylor v.
E . C. Palmer & C o.).................................................................................
Employers’ liability—employment of children— fact of age as evi­
dence of capacity—presumptions as to defenses of assumed risks
and contributory negligence—status at common law {Ewing v.
Lanark Fuel Company)..............................................................................
Employers’ liability—injuries b y fellow-servants— “ initiation” of
new employees ( Medlin Milling Company v. Boutwell)......................
Employers’ liability— railroad com pany— rules— enforcement—
measure of damages—prospective earnings {Schaufele v. Central o f
Georgia Railway Company)........................................................................
Employers’ liability—release—fraud— evidence—mental capacity of
injured employee—return of benefits {Joseph Treadway v. UnionBuffalo Mills Company)...........................................................................
Interference with employment—motive—reasonable conduct {Huskie
v. Griffin)......................................................................................................
Labor organizations—injunction— dissolution—interference with con­
tracts of employm ent {Hitchman Coal Company v. Mitchell et a l.) . .
Labor organizations — strikes— injunctions— unlawful
acts of
strikers—rights of employers and employees—interference with
employm ent {Connett v. United Hatters o f North America)...............
Payment of wages— time checks—redemption {Attoyac River Lumber
Company v . Payne)....................................................................................




V
Page.

665,666
666,667

667-669
669,670

670,671
671,672

672-674
674,675

675-678

679,680
680-686
686-691

691-694
694,695




B U L L E T IN
OS’ THE

B U R E A T J OF L A B O R .
No. 87.

WASHINGTON.

M arch,

1910.

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO MARCH, 1910,
INTRODUCTION.

Wholesale prices in 1909, as measured by the prices of the 257 com­
modities included in the present investigation, advanced 3 per cent
over the wholesale prices in 1908, but with this advance they were
still 2.3 per cent below the high average of 1907 prices. Wholesale
prices in 1909 were 14.5 per cent higher than in 1900; 41 per cent
higher than in 1897, the year o f lowest prices in the twenty-year
period from 1890 to 1909; 12 per cent higher than in 1890; and 26.5
per cent higher than the average price for the ten years 1890 to 1899.
The highest point reached in 1907 was in the month of October,
from which month there was a general decline until August, 1908.
Beginning with September, 1908, there has been an increase without
a break in any month up to March, 1910. Wholesale prices in March,
1910, were higher than at any time in the preceding twenty years,
being 7.5 per cent higher than in March, 1909, 10.2 per cent higher
than in August, 1908, 21.1 per cent higher than the average yearly
price of 1900, 49.2 per cent higher than the average yearly price of
1897, and 33.8 per cent higher than the average price for the ten
years 1890 to 1899.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1909 COMPARED W IT H 1908.

Comparing 1909 with 1908 the group of commodities showing the
greatest increase in prices was farm products, the increase in the
group as a whole being 15 per cent. Five other groups show an
increase in 1909 of 1.8 to 5 per cent, while the remaining 3 of the 9
groups into which all commodities have been classified show a decrease
of one-half to 2 per cent.
Of the 257 articles for which wholesale prices were obtained, 125
showed an increase in the average price for 1909 as compared with
1908, 31 showed no change in the average price for the year, and 101




377

378

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

showed a decrease in price. The following table shows for each of
the 9 groups the number of articles covered, the per cent of increase
or decrease in the average price for 1909- as compared with that for
1908 for each group as a whole, and the number of articles that in­
creased or decreased in price:
P E R CENT OF INCREASE IN A V E R AG E PRICES FOR 1909 AS COMPARED W ITH
A VERAG E PRICES FOR 1908, AND NUM BER OF ARTICLES TH AT INCREASED OR
DECREASED IN PRICE, B Y GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.
Number of commodities show­
ing—
cent
Number Per in­
of
of com­
modities. crease in
No
price.
Increase. change in Decrease.
price.

Group.

Farm products............................................................
Food, etc.....................................................................
Cloths and clothing.....................................................
Fuel and lighting........................................................
Metals and implements..............................................
Lumber and building materials................................
Drugs and chemicals..................................................
House furnishing goods..............................................
Miscellaneous..............................................................

20
57
65
13
38
28
9
14
13

15.0
3.4
2.3
o l.l
o .5
4.0
1.8
o 2.0
5.0

17
31
38
1
14
14
3
2
5

1
8
1
9
3
1
6
2

3
25
19
11
15
11
5
6
6

All commodities................................................

257

3.0

125

31

101

« Decrease.

From the above table it is seen that in farm products, taken as a
whole, there was an increase in price of 15 per cent in 1909 over the
average price for 1908, this increase being the greatest of the 6 groups
showing an increase. Among the 17 articles for which prices
increased were hops, hogs, flaxseed, hides, wheat, tobacco, live poul­
try, cotton, mules, sheep, hay, and cattle. The 3 articles that
decreased in price were corn, oats, and barley
Food as a whole increased 3.4 per cent in the average price for 1909
as compared with 1908. Among the 31 articles showing an increase
in price were mess pork, bacon, lard, wheat flour, hams, dressed
poultry, eggs, butter, mutton, and fresh beef. No change took place
in the price of one quotation for loaf bread. The principal articles of
the 25 showing a decrease in price were canned tomatoes, dried fruit,
salt beef, sugar, and potatoes. All of the varieties of fish showed a
decrease in price.
In the group of cloths and clothing as a whole there was an average
increase of 2.3 per cent in price, the increase being mainly in the
prices of cotton and woolen goods, leather, and leather goods.
In fuel and lighting as a group there was a decrease in price of 1.1
per cent. Coke increased in price, matches remained the same; all
the other commodities decreased in price.
In the metals and implements group the decrease in the average
price for 1909 below 1908 was 0.5 per cent, being the smallest decline
in price of the three groups showing a decrease. Fourteen of the 38



W HOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M AR C H ; 1910.

379

articles in this group increased in price, 9 remained unchanged, and
15 decreased in price.
Fourteen of the 28 articles included under lumber and building
materials increased in price in 1909 as compared with 1908. Some
of the products showing an increase in price were brick, linseed oil,
tar, turpentine, and plate glass. In this group as a whole there was
an increase in price of 4 per cent; 3 of the articles showed no change,
and 11 articles decreased in price in 1909 compared with 1908.
The increase in the average price of drugs and chemicals in 1909
over 1908 was 1.8 per cent, the articles showing the greatest increase
in price being glycerin and wood alcohol. Quinine showed the great­
est decrease in price.
House furnishing goods as a whole decreased 2 per cent in price.
Six of the 14 articles did not change, while 2 increased in price.
In the miscellaneous group there was a marked increase in the
prices of rubber and castile soap. There was no change in the price
of tobacco, while there was a decrease in the prices of paper and 4
other articles. Taken together, the group of miscellaneous articles
increased in price 5 per cent.
The per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price
for 1909 in each of the 257 articles as compared with the price for
1908 is shown on pages 407 to 410.
In addition to the classification into the nine groups named above,
the 257 articles included in the investigation have been divided into
two general groups, designated as raw commodities and manufactured
commodities. A clearly defined classification of this character can
not be made; but the commodities here designated as raw may be
said to be such as are marketed in their natural state and such as
have been subjected to only a preliminary manufacturing process,
thus converting them into a marketable condition, but not to a
suitable form for final consumption, while the commodities here
designated as manufactured are such as have been subjected to
more than a preliminary factory manipulation and in which the
manufacturing labor cost constitutes an important element in the
price. In the group designated as raw are included all farm products,
beans, coffee, eggs, milk, rice, pepper, tea, vegetables, raw silk, wool,
coal, crude petroleum, copper ingots, pig lead, pig iron, bar silver,
spelter, pig tin, brimstone, jute, and rubber— a total of 54 articles.
All the other articles are classed as manufactured commodities.
As thus grouped the average wholesale price of raw commodities
for 1909 was 9 per cent above that for 1908, and the average
wholesale price of manufactured commodities for 1909 was 1.4 per
cent above that for 1908.
The following table shows the per cent that the average price for
each month of the year 1909 was above or below the average price for



380

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB,

the year and, in the last column, the per cent of increase of the average
December price above the average price for each preceding month:
COMPARISON OF AV E R AG E PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF 1909 W ITH THE AVERAGE
PRICE FOR THE Y E A R , AND OF THE A VERAG E PRICE FOR DECEMBER, 1909, W ITH
THE AVE R AG E PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE Y E A R .
Per cent of price per
month—
Month.

Above
average
price for
year.

January....................................................................................................
February..................................................................................................
March.......................................................................................................
April.........................................................................................................
May...........................................................................................................
June..........................................................................................................
July...........................................................................................................
August......................................................................................................
September................................................................................................
October....................................................................................................
November.................................................................................................
December.................................................................................................

Per cent of
increase in
December
over each
preceding
month.

Below
average
price for
year.
2.0
2.0
1.6
1.5
.9
.8
.2
.1

1.3
2.0
3.5
4.5

6.6
6.6
6.2
6.1
5.4
5.3
4.8
4.6
3.2
2.5
1.0

In January and February, 1909, prices were at the lowest point
of the year, being 2 per cent below the average price for the year.
Prices advanced each month from February to December, in which
month they were 4.5 per cent above the average for 1909.
From the figures given in the last column of the table it is seen
that the average of wholesale prices in December, 1909, was 6.6 per
cent above the average in January and February, and 1 per cent
above the average price in November.
The change that took place in wholesale prices month by month
during 1909 in each of the 9 groups already referred to will be seen
in the following table:
COMPARISON OF TH E AV E R AG E PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF 1909 W ITH A V E R AG E
PRICE FOR THE Y E A R , AND OF AVE R AG E PRICE FOR DECEMBER, 1909, W ITH THE
A V E R AG E PRICE FOR EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF TH E Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES.
Farm products.

Per cent Per cent of price
of in­
for month—
crease ( + )
or de­
crease ( —)
Below
Above Below in Decem­ Above
average average
average average ber as
price
price compared price
price
for
for
for
with each
for
year.
year.
year. preceding
year.
month.
Per cent of price
for month—

Month.

January________
February............
March.................
A pril...................
Mav.....................
June....................
July.....................
August................
September..........
October..............
November...........
December...........

9.5
7.4
3.7
2.2
2.2
1.7
.1
2.3
1.1
3.5
7.3
10.5




+22.2
+19.4
+14.7
+13.0
+ 8.2
+ 8.7
+10.4
+13.1
+11.8
+ 6.8
+ 3.0

Cloths and clothing.

Food, etc.

1.7
1.4
.7
6.3
1.4
1.4
1.6
.3
2.6
.6
2.2
3.4

Per cent Per cent of price
of in­
for month—
crease ( + )
or de­
crease ( —)
in Decem­ Above Below
average average
ber as
compared price
price
for
for
with each
year.
preceding year.
month.
+5.2
+ 5.0
+ 4.2
+3.1
+ 2.0
+ 2.0
+ 1.8
+3.1
+ .8
+2.9
+ 1,3

2.9
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.2
1.8
.1
1.2
1.4
2.5
4.1
4.7

Per cent
of in­
crease ( + )
or de­
crease ( —)
in Decem­
ber as
compared
with each
preceding
month.
+ 7.8
+7.5
+ 7.3
+7.3
+ 7.0
+ 6.6
+4.8
+3.5
+3.2
+2.1
+ .6

881

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,

COMPARISON OF T H E AV E R AG E PRICE FOR EACH MONTH OF 1909 W ITH A V E R A G E
PRICE F O R TH E Y E A R , AND OF AVE R AG E PRICE F O R DECEMBER, 19Q W ITH TH E
9>
AV E R AG E PRICE F O R EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF T H E Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF
COMMODITIES—Concluded.
Fuel and lighting.

Lumber and building
materials.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
Increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year.
year.
ceding,
month.

Month.

Metals and implements.

Per cent of price Per cent ©t
fear month.
increase
(+ > or de­
crease ( —)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year.
year.
ceding
month.

Per cent of price Per cent of
for month.
increase
( + ) or de­
crease ( —)
in Decem­
Above Below ber as com­
average average pared with
price for price for each pre­
year.
year.
ceding
month.

1.9
.5

January...
February..
March.......
April.........
May...........
June..........
July...........
August___
September.
O ctober...
N ovem ber....
D ecem ber....

+6.0
+ 4.9
+5.5
+ 3.9
- .3
(«)

.6

3.6
3.2
3.2

Drugs and chemicals.

Month.
Below
aver­
age
price
for
year.

0.2
1.3
1.6
1.9
2.6
1.7
.5

0.4

.6

2.0
3.5
4.3

1.8
2.4
2.8
2.6
2.0
1.0

.8

2.6
3.6
4.C

House furnishing
goods.
Per cent of
price for
month.

(-)in

Above
aver­
age
price
for
year.

January..,
February.
M arch___
A p ril.......
May.........
June.........
July..........
August. . .
September
October...
November
December

Per
cent of
increase
( + ) or
de­
crease

Decem­ Above
ber as aver­
com­
age
pared price
w*th
for
each
preced­ year.
ing
month.
+ 4.5
+5.7
+6.0
+ 6.3
+7.0
+6.1
+4.8
+4.9
+3.8

+ 2.2

+ .8

2.5
1.8
1.3
1.3
1.3

+ 3.6
+ 5.0
+ 6.5
+ 7.2
+ 7.7
+ 7.4
+6.8
+5.7
+ 3.8
+2.0
+1.0

0.3

+5.7
+5.8

2.6
1.6
2.2

Per cent of
price for
month.

1.0

+1.4
+2.7
+ 3.6

0.3
2.3
2.4

Below
aver­
age
price
for
year.

0.8
.8
.8
.9
1.6
1.7
1.7

(-)in
Decem­
ber as
com­
pared
with
each
preced­
ing
month.
-4 .1
- 3 .4
-2 .9
- 2 .9
- 2 .9
- .9
-

-

.8

.1

(a)

2.0
2.1
2.2
1.2

2.1

L6
3.7
4.8

Miscellaneous.

Per
cent of
increase
( + ) or
de-

+ 5.5
+ 5.2
+ 6.5

0.7
.4
1.7
1.9

All commodities.

Percent of
Per
price for
cent of
month.
increase
( + ) or
de­
crease
( —) in
Below Decem­ Above Below
aver­ ber as aver­ aver­
com­
age
age
age
price pared price price
with
for
for
for
each
year. preced­ year. year.
ing
month.
7.0
6.4
1.5
2.9
1.2

0.4
.6
3.7
2.2
3.9
4.1
4.4

2.0
2.0
1.6
1.5
.9
.8
.2
.1

+ 12.2

+11.5
+ 6.0
+ 7.4
+ 5.6
+ 4.0
+ 3.7

+

.6

+

.5

+ 2.1

+

+6.9
+ 7.0
+7.2
+6.0
+2.6
+3.1

+1.0

Per cent of
price for
month.

Above
aver­
age
price
for
year.

+ 6.8

.2

1.3
2.0
3.5
4.5

Per
cent of
increase
( + ) or
de­
crease

(-)in

Decem­
ber as
com­
pared
with
each
ing
month.
+6.6
+6.6
+ 6.2

+6.1
+ 5.4
+5.3
+ 4.8
+ 4.6
+ 3.2
+ 2.5
+1.0

a Same as average price for December.

In January, 1909, the wholesale prices of farm products were 9.5 per
cent below the average price for the year, this being the lowest point
of the year.
The highest point reached during the year was in December, being
22.2 per cent above the average price for January. The movement
in prices during the year for each of the articles that enter into this



382

BULLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR.

and the other groups will be found in Table II, pages 495 to 547, or if
desired, the full details of the prices throughout the year may be
found in Table I, pages 431 to 494.
Food commodities as a group were at their lowest price in January
and attained their highest point in December, when they were 3.4 per
cent above the average price for the year. The increase in price in
December as compared with January was 5.2 per cent. Food com­
modities increased in price each month from January to May, remained
the same in June as in May, advanced in July, declined in August,
advanced in September, declined in October, and advanced again in
November and December.
The price of cloths and clothing was below the average for the year
during the first seven months and above the average for the other five
months. From January to December no month showed a recession
from the prices for the month before. The January price was 2.9 per
cent below the average for the year and the December price was 7.8
per cent higher than the price for January.
The fuel and lighting group declined in price each month, from
January to June. The lowest price of this group was reached in
June when the price was 2.6 per cent below the average for the year.
The price in December was 3.2 per cent above the average price for the
year and 6 per cent above the price in June, the month of lowest prices.
The group of metals and implements reached its lowest point of the
year in May, when the price was 2.8 per cent below the average price
for the year, while from that time to December the price advanced
slightly each month. The December price w as 4.6 per cent above the
T
average for the year and 7.7 per cent above the price for May.
The price of lumber and building materials in the month of January
was 0.7 per cent below the average price for the year. W ith the
exception of a slight advance in February the price declined each
month to July. From August the price advanced each month,
except a slight decline in October, until December, when the price
was 4.8 per cent above the average for the year and was 7.2 per cent
higher than the July price.
Drugs and chemicals during the months from January to August
were below the average price for the year, but from September to
December the price was above the yearly average. In December the
price was 7 per cent higher than in May, the month of lowest prices,
and 4.3 per cent above the average price for the year.
House furnishing goods were above the average price of the year
during the first five months of the year and below the average during
the remaining seven months. This group reached the lowest point
of the year during the months of November and December. The
price in December was 4.1 per cent lower than in January, the month
of highest prices.



383

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

Miscellaneous articles in January were 7 per cent below the average
price for the year and in December 4.4 per cent above the average
price for the year, the price in December being 12.2 per cent above
the price in January.
A few of the articles showing the most marked variation in price
within the year 1909 are here noted. Choice to extra steers advanced
from an average of $6.7250 in February to $8.3400 in November, this
being an increase of 24 per cent. Cotton advanced 59.2 per cent from
January to December; heavy hogs 36.7 per cent from January to
December; light hogs, 36.9 per cent from January to December;
hops, 204 per cent from January to November; Elgin creamery but­
ter, 36.9 per cent from May to December; dairy butter, 52.9 per cent
from March to December; winter wheat flour, 44.2 per cent from
January to June; lard, 37.3 per cent from February to December;
short clear bacon, 46 per cent from February to December; short rib
bacon, 46.4 per cent from February to December; milk, 88.9 per cent
from June to December; coke, 81 per cent from June to October; rub­
ber, 71.9 per cent from February to October.
Of the decreases in prices within the year 1909 the most noticeable
are as follows: Oats declined 33.4 per cent from May to October;
wheat, 23.1 per cent from May to September; spring wheat flour, 19.4
per cent from June to September; and glucose, 34.4 per cent from
September to December.
The following table shows, for both raw and manufactured com­
modities, according to the classification already explained, the per
cent that prices in each month in 1909 were above or below the aver­
age prices of the year and the per cent of increase in December above
each preceding month of the year:
COMPARISON OF THE A VERAG E PRICES OF R A W AND M ANUFACTURED COMMODITIES
FOR EACH MONTH OF 1909 W ITH THE AVERAG E PRICES FOR THE Y E A R , AND OF
THE AV E R AG E PRICES FOR DECEMBER, 1909, W IT H THE A V E RAG E PRICES FOR
EACH PRECEDING MONTH OF THE Y EA R .
Raw commodities.

Manufactured commodities.

All commodities.

Per cent
of in­
crease in
Decem­
ber as
com­
Above
Below
pared
average average with each
price for price for preced­
year.
year.
ing
month.

Per cent
of in­
crease in
Decem­
ber as
com­
Above Below
pared
average average with each
price for price for preced­
year.
year.
ing
month.

Per cent
of in­
crease in
Decem­
ber as
com­
Above
Below
pared
average average with each
price for price for preced­
year.
year.
ing
month.

Per cent of price
for month.

Month.

January..............
February............
March.................
April...................
May....................
June....................
July....................
August................
September..........
O ctober.,...........
November..........
December...........

(a)
^ 2.3
1.5
1.5

2.9
1.8
.7

.3
1.0
1.4
3.1
4.6




7.7
6.5
5.4
4.6
2.3
3.0
3.1
4.9
3.5
3.2
1.5

Per cent of price
for month.

1.7
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.4
.7
(o)
1.4
2.2
3.6
4.5

a Same as average price for year.

6.3
6.6
6.5
6.6
6 3
6.0
5.3
4.5
3.1
2.3
.9

Per cent ef price
for month.

2.0
2.0
1.6
1.5
.9
.8
.2
.1
1.3
2.0
3.5
4.5

6.6
6.6
6.2
6.1
5.4
5.3
4.8
4.6
3.2
2.5
1.0

384

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

From this table it is seen that there was a little more fluctuation
in the prices of raw commodities during the year than in the prices
of manufactured commodities. In January the price of raw com­
modities was 2.9 per cent below the average price for the year, while
in December the price was 4.6 per cent above the average price for
the year. In manufactured commodities the lowest prices were in
February and April, when the average was 1.9 per cent below the
average price for the year, while in December the average was 4.5
per cent higher than the average price for the year. Thus, January
marked the lowest prices in raw commodities and February and April
marked the lowest prices in manufactured commodities, while
December marked the highest prices in both raw and manufactured
commodities. Prices of raw commodities in December averaged 7.7
per cent higher than in January. The December prices of manu­
factured commodities averaged 6.6 per cent higher than those
prevailing in February and April.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1909, AND MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W IT H
PREVIOUS YE A R S BACK TO 1890.

Thus far attention has been directed to the changes that took place
in wholesale prices in the year 1909, as compared with 1908, and the
movement of wholesale prices month by month during the year 1909.
Attention is now directed to the course of wholesale prices from year
to year since 1890. The following table shows, by relative prices, the
changes in the average wholesale prices of the articles for which
prices were secured by years from 1890 to 1909, inclusive, and by
months from January, 1909, to March, 1910. The relative price used
in this table is simply a percentage. The base on which the relative
price is computed is not the price in any one year, but the average
price for ten years, from 1890 to 1899, inclusive. The reason for
adopting this base is fully explained on pages 414 and 415. Kelative
prices, such as are here shown, are also sometimes spoken of as rela­
tive numbers or as index numbers. For explanation of the method
used in computing the relative price of all commodities see pages
414 and 415.
To assist in comparing the average wholesale prices for the year
1909 and for March, 1910, with the prices back to 1890, two columns
are given in the table, one showing the per cent of the increase in
prices for 1909 over the prices for each of the preceding years, and the
other showing the per cent of the increase in prices in March, 1910,
over the prices for the preceding years and months.




385

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

R E LA T IV E PBICES OF COMMODITIES, B Y Y E A R S , 1890 TO 1909, AND B Y MONTHS, JAN­
U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND P E R CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1909 OYER
EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , AND FOR MARCH, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING MONTH
OR Y E A R .
Per cent of in-

Year or month.

1890____
1881.......
1892
1893
1894
1896.......
1896
1897
1896____
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
19<M____
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909

,

___________
___________
....................
___________
....................
___________
___________
___________
....................
....................
___________
....................
___________
___________
___________
1909.

January...
February..
March.......
April.........
May..........
June.........
July..........
August___
September
October...
November.
December.

1910.

January..
February.
March....

Relative
price of
all com­ In 1909 In March,
1910, over
over
modities.
each pre­ each pre­
(«)
ceding
ceding
month
year.
or year.

a Average price for 1890-1899=100.0

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
98.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5

12.0
13.2
19.2
19.8
31.6
35.1
39.9
41.0
35.4
24.4
14.5
16.6
12.0
11.4
11.9
9.1
3.3
b 2.3
3.0

18.5
19.8
26.1
26.7
39.2
42.9
48.0
49.2
43.3
31.6
21.1
23.3
18.5
17.8
18.4
15.4
9.2
3.3
9.0
5.8

124.0
124.0
124.5
124.6
125.4
125.5
126.2
126.4
128.1
129.0
130.9
132.2

7.9
7.9
7.5
7.4
6.7
6.6
6.0
5.9
4.4
3.7
2.2
1.2

132.8
133.0
133.8

.8
.6

b Decrease.

The relative wholesale prices during the years 1890 to 1909, set
forth in tabular form in the preceding table, are shown also in the
graphic table which follows.




386

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF A L L COMMODITIES, 1S90 TO 1909.
[Average price for 1890 to 1899=100.0.]

This table shows that the average wholesale prices declined each
year from 1890 to 1897, or 8 years of constantly falling prices. From
1898 to 1909 has been a period of advancing prices with only 3 of
the 12 years showing a decrease from the prices of the previous year.
These 3 years were 1901,1904, and 1908, the decline of the 1908 prices
from those of 1907 being heavier than the decline in either 1901 or
1904. The lowest year of the 20-year period was 1897 and the high­
est was 1907.




W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

387

As indicated by the figures on page 385, the average of wholesale
prices of all commodities for 1890 was 112.9 per cent of the average
of wholesale prices for the years from 1890 to 1899; in other words,
the average of wholesale prices in 1890 was 12.9 per cent higher than
the average for the 10-year period named.
In 1891 relative wholesale prices declined to 111.7; that is, to a
point where the average wholesale price for the year was 11.7 per cent
above the average price for the 10 years from 1890 to 1899.
In 1892 relative wholesale prices dropped to 106.1 and in 1893 to
105.6. In the next year, 1894, wholesale prices fell to 96.1, a point
3.9 below the average price for the 10-year base period. In each of
the three succeeding years wholesale prices declined until in 1897 they
reached 89.7; that is, 10.3 per cent below the average price for the
10-year period. In each of the 3 years next succeeding wholesale
prices advanced, in 1900 reaching 110.5. In 1901 wholesale prices
dropped back to 108.5. The next year, however, marked an increase,
prices in 1902 being on an average a restoration of the prices in 1890,
namely, 112.9. In 1903 prices advanced to 113.6. The next year,
1904, showed a slight decline, nearly back to the prices of 1890 and
1902. In 1905, 1906, and 1907 prices advanced each year, reaching
in 1907, 129.5, a higher level than in any other year of the 20 full
years covered by the investigation. In 1908 prices declined to 122.8,
but advanced in 1909 to 126.5, or 26.5 per cent above the average
price for the 10 years from 1890 to 1899.
The second column of the table (page 385) shows that the price in
1909 was 3.0 per cent above the price in 1908, 2.3 per cent below the
price in 1907, 12 per cent above the price in 1890, and 41 per cent
above the price in 1897, the year of lowest average prices within the
last 20 years.
The last column of the table shows that the price in March, 1910,
was 7.5 per cent above the price for March, 1909, 5.8 per cent above
the average price for the year 1909, and 49.2 per cent above the price
for 1897.
The relative prices appearing in this table are based on 251 articles
in 1890 and 1891, on 253 articles in 1892, on 255 articles in 1893, on
256 articles in 1894, on 257 articles in 1909, on 258 articles from 1906
to 1908, on 259 articles in 1895,1904, and 1905, on 260 articles in 1896
and from 1899 to 1903, and on 261 articles in 1897 and 1898.
Having shown the movement in wholesale prices for the period
from 1890 to 1909 in all commodities taken as a whole, a table is given
showing the movement in each of the 9 groups previously referred to.
This table gives for each group the relative prices and the per cent of
increase or, in a few instances, decrease of prices for the year 1909 as
compared with the prices for each preceding year, and for March,
1910, with each preceding month or year.
43431— No. 87— 10----- 2




388

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, B Y Y EA R S, 1890 TO 1909, AND B Y MONTHS,
JANUARY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND P E R CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FOR 1909
OVER EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , AND FOR MARCH, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF COMMODITIES.
Food, etc.

Farm products.
Percent of increase—
Year
or
month. Relative
price.(o)

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___

Per cent of increase—

Per cent of increase—

In 1909 In March, Relative In 1909 In March, Relative In 1909 In March,
1910, over price.(o)
1910, over price.(o)
1910, over
over
over
over
each
each
each
each pre­ preceding
each pre­ preceding
each pre­ preceding
ceding
ceding
ceding
month
month
month
year.
year.
year.
or year.
or year.
or year.
64.5
49.0
62.0
67.7
88.7
94.0
131.2
112.4
88.3
81.0
65.3
54.8
38.7
52.4
43.4
45.7
46.4
32.0
36.0
18.2

112.4
115.7
103.6
110.2
99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7
112.6
117.8
120.6
124.7

138.5
141.7
147.5
149.7
156.4
155.7
153.3
149.6
151.4
158.4
164.3
169.2

30.7
27.7
22.7
20.9
15.7
16.2
18.1
21.0
19.6
14.3
10.2
7.0

169.4
175.1
181.0

6.8
3.4

110.0
121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1
100.0
109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1
133.1
153.1

Cloths and clothing.

39.2
26.0
37.1
41.9
59.6
64.1
95.5
79.7
59.3
53.1
39.8
31.0
17.3
28.9
21.3
23.3
23.9
11.7
15.0

10.9
7.8
20.4
13.2
24.9
31.8
48.8
42.2
32.1
26.9
19.7
17.8
12.0
16.4
16.3
14.7
10.7
5.9
3.4

5.4
7.5
9.7
11.6
24.5
29.0
31.0
31.3
28.1
23.7
12.0
18.4
17.3
12.2
8.9
6.8
6.3
65.6
2.3

16.5
13.1
26.4
18.8
31.2
38.4
56.2
49.3
38.7
33.2
25.6
23.6
17.6
22.2
22.1
20.4
16.3
11.1
8.5
5.0

113.5
111.3
109.0
107.2
96.1
92.7
91.3
91.1
93.4
96.7
106.8
101.0
102.0
106.6
109.8
112.0
120.0
126.7
116.9
119.6

122.6
122.9
123.8
125.1
126.5
126.5
126.7
125.1
128.0
125.4
127.4
129.0

6.8
6.5
5.7
4.6
3.5
3.5
3.3
4.6
2.3
4.4
2.7
1.5

116.1
116.5
116.7
116.7
117.0
117.5
119.5
121.0
121.3
122.6
124.5
125.2

8.9
8.5
8.3
8.3
8.0
7.6
5.8
4.5
4.2
3.1
1.5
1.0

129.1
128.2
130.9

1.4
2.1

127.2
126.9
126.3

6.6
6.4

11.4
13.6
16.0
17.9
31.5
36.4
38.4
38.7
35.3
30.7
18.4
25.1
23.9
18.6
15.1
12.9
5.3
6.2
8.1
5.7

1909.

Jan.......
Feb___
Mar___
A pr___
May___
June.__
July___
Aug___
Sept.. . .
Oct.......
N o v ....
Dec.......
1910.

Jan.......
Feb___
M ar.. . .

< Average price for 1890-1899—100.0.
*




6 Decrease.

389

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, B Y Y E A R S , 1890 TO 1909, AND B Y MONTHS,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND P E R CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES FO R 1909
OV E R EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , AND FOR MARCH, 1910, O V E R EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF COMMODITIES-Continued.
Fuel and lighting.

Metals and implements.

Lumber and building materials.

Per cent of Increase—
Per cent of increase—
Per cent of increase—
Year
or
In March, Relative
In March, Relative
In March,
month. Relative
In
price, (o) over 1909 1910, over price, (o) In 1909 1910, over price.(a) In 1909 1910, over
each each pre­
over each each pre­
over each each pre­
preced­
ceding
ceding
preced­
preced­
ceding
ing year.
month
ing year.
month
ing year.
month
or year.
or year.
or year.
1890....
1891___
1892___
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___

24.5
26.9
28.9
30.3
41.0
32.8
24.9
35.2
36.6
24.1
7.8
9.0
63.0
612.7
61.7
1.2
61.2
63.5
6.4
.8

119.2
111.7
106.0
100.7
90.7
92.0
93.7
86.6
86.4
114.7
120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
135.2
143.4
125.4
124.8

131.7
130.0
128.9
126.3
126.2
126.0
127.3
126.5
128.5
133.9
133.5
133.5

61.1
.2
1.1
3.2
3.2
3.4
2.4
3.0
1.4
62.7
62.4
62.4

131.1
130.3
130.3

6 .6
<‘ )

104.7
102.7
101.1
100.0
92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3

23.5
25.9
27.9
29.3
39.9
31.8
24.0
34.1
35.5
23.1
6.9
8.2
63.7
613.4
62.5
.4
62.0
6 4.2
61.1

4.7
11.7
17.7
23.9
37.6
35.7
33.2
44.1
44.4
8.8
3.6
11.5
6.5
6.1
13.9
1.9
67.7
613.0
6 .5

8.1
15.4
21.6
28.0
42.1
40.1
37.6
48.8
49.2
12.4
7.0
15.2
10.0
9.6
17.6
5.2
64.7
610.1
2.8
3.4

111.8
108.4
102.8
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
133.1
138.4

126.1
124.4
122.6
121.8
121.3
121.6
122.3
123.5
125.8
128.1
129.3
130.6

2.2
3.6
5.1
5.8
6.3
6.0
5.4
4.4
2.5
.6
6.3
61.3

137.4
137.8
136.1
135.8
135.7
135.5
135.3
136.8
141.3
140.6
143.5
145.0

10.1
9.8
11.2
11.4
11.5
11.7
11.8
10.6
7.1
7.6
5.4
4.3

129.7
129.3
128.9

6.6
6.3

149.3
151.5
151.3

1.3
6.1

23.8
27.7
34.6
35.843.7
47.1
48.2
53.1
44.5
30.8
19.6
18.6
16.5
14.0
12.8
8.4
61.2
65.8
4.0

35.3
39.6
47.2
48.5
57.1
60.8
62.0
67.4
57.9
43.0
30.8
29.6
27.4
24.6
23.3
18.5
8.0
3.0
13.7
9.3

1909.

Jan.......
F eb___
Mar___
A p r .. . .
May___
June....
J u ly ....
A ug___
Sept.. . .
Oct.......
N o v ....
Dec.......
1910.

Tan
F eb___
Mar___

« Average price for 1890-1899=-100.




&Decrease.

'

* Same as average price for March, 1910.

390

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, B Y Y E A R S , 1890 TO 1909, AND B Y MONTHS,
JAN U ARY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND P E R CENT OF INCREASE IN PRICES F O R 1909
OVER EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , AND FO R MARCH, 1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING
MONTH OR Y E A R , B Y GROUPS OF COMMODITIES—Concluded.

a Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.
b Decrease.




c Same as average price for 1909.
4 Same as average price for March, 1910.

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

391

In this table the average relative prices of farm products are based
on 16 articles from 1890 to 1907 and on 20 articles in 1908 and 1909;
of food, etc., on 53 articles from 1890 to 1892 and from 1904 to 1907,
54 from 1893 to 1903 and on 57 in 1908 and 1909; of cloths and
clothing on 65 in 1909, on 66 in 1908, on 70 articles in 1890 and 1891,
72 in 1892, 73 in 1893 and 1894, 75 in 1895, 1896, 1906, and 1907,
and 76 from 1897 to 1905; of fuel and lighting, on 13 articles; of
metals and implements, on 37 articles from 1890 to 1893, 38 in 1894
and 1895 and from 1899 to 1909, and 39 from 1896 to 1898; of iumber
and building materials, on 26 articles, from 1890 to 1894, 27 from
1895 to 1907 and on 28 in 1908 and 1909; of drugs and chemicals, on
9 articles; of house furnishing goods, on 14 articles, and of miscella­
neous, on 13 articles.
The greatest advance in any group was in farm products, in which
the advance in 1909 over 1896 was 95.5 per cent, making the price in
1909 nearly twice that in 1896, while in March, 1910, the price was
nearly two and one-third times that of the average price for the year
1896. The advance in March, 1910, over the average for the year
1908 was 36 per cent.
Food, etc., in 1909 was 48.8 per cent above 1896, and in March,
1910, the price was 5 per cent higher than the 1909 average price and
56.2 per cent higher than the average price for 1896. Cloths and
clothing in 1909 were 31.3 per cent higher than in 1897 and in March,
1910, they were 5.6 per cent higher than the 1909 average price.
Further study of the table shows that the March, 1910, price for 8
of the 9 groups was higher than the 1909 average price, only 1
group, house furnishing goods, comprising but 14 articles, beinglower
in price in March, 1910, than the average price for 1909. This group
was the only one lower in price in March, 1910, than in March, 1909.
The other 8 groups, comprising 243 commodities, advanced in price
from March, 1909, to March, 1910, by percentages from 1.1 per cent
to 22.7 per cent.




392

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU O F . LABOR.

In order to follow the movement in the two great classes— raw and
manufactured commodities— the following table has been prepared.
The articles included under each of the two groups are indicated on
page 379.
R E L A T IV E PRICES OF R A W AND M ANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, B Y Y E A R S , 1890
TO 1909, AND B Y MONTHS, JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND P E R CENT OF
INCREASE IN PRICES F O R 1909 OV E R EACH PRECEDING Y E A R , AND F O R MARCH,
1910, OVER EACH PRECEDING MONTH OR Y E A R .
Raw commodities.
Per cent of increase—

Year or
month.
Relative
price.(«)

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Manufactured commodities.

115.0
116.3
107.9
104.4
93.2
91.7
84.0
87.6
94.0
105.9
111.9
111.4
122.4
122.7
119.7
121.2
126.5
133.4
125.5
136.8

Per cent of increase—

In March,
In 1909 1910, over Relative In 1909
price.(a)
over each each pre­
over each
preceding ceding
preceding
month
year.
year.
or year.
19.0
17.6
26.8
31.0
46.8
49.2
62.9
56.2
45.5
29.2
22.3
22.8
11.8
11.5
14.3
12.9
8.1
2.5
9.0

All commodities.

26.0
24.6
34.3
38.8
55.5
58.0
72.5
65.4
54.1
36.8
29.5
30.1
18.4
18.1
21.1
19.6
14.5
8.6
15.5
5.9

112.3
110.6
105.6
105.9
96.8
94.0
91.9
90.1
93.3
100.7
110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5
111.3
114.6
121.6
128.6
122.2
123.9

9.0
7.8
6.7
5.9
3.6
4.3
4.4
6.2
4.8
4.5
2.8
1.3

10.3
12.0
17.3
17.0
28.0
31.8
34.8
37.5
32.8
23.0
12.4
14.9
12.0
11.1
11.3
8.1
1.9
53.7
1.4

Per cent of increase—

In March,
In March,
1910, over Relative In 1909 1910, over
price.(o)
each pre­
over each each pre­
ceding
preceding ceding
month
year.
month
or year.
or year.
16.7
18.4
24.1
23.7
35.3
39.4
42.5
45.4
40.4
30.1
18.9
21.5
18.4
17.5
17.7
14.3
7.7
1.9
7.2
5.7

112.9
111.7
106.1
105.6
96.1
93.6
90.4
89.7
93.4
101.7
110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5

121.8
121.5
121.6
121.5
121.8
122.2
123.0
123.9
125.6
126.6
128.4
129.5

7. 6
7.8
7.7
7.8
7.6
7.2
6.5
5.7
4.3
3.5
2.0
1.2

124.0
124.0
124.5
124.6
125.4
125.5
126.2
126 4
128.1
129.0
130.9
132.2

7.9
7.9
7.5
7.4
6.7
6.6
6.0
5.9
4.4
3.7
2.2
1.2

129.7
130.0
131.0

1.0
.8

132.8
133.0
133.8

.8
.6

12.0
13.2
19.2
19.8
31.6
35.1
39.9
41.0
35.4
24.4
14.5
16.6
12.0
11.4
11.9
9.1
3.3
52.3
3.0

18.5
19.8
26.1
26.7
39.2
42.9
48.0
49.2
43.3
31.6
21.1
23.3
18.5
17.8
18.4
15.4
9.2
3.3
9.0
5.8

19 09.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
May___
June. . .
J u ly ....
Aug___
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
D e c ___

132.9
134.4
135.8
136.8
139.9
138.9
138.8
136.4
138.2
138.7
141.0
143.1

19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar...*.

144.9
144.9
144.9

(c)
(*)

a Average price for 1890-1899=100.

5 Decrease.

c Same as average price for March, 1910.

In 1890, the relative prices of raw commodities were higher than
those of manufactured commodities and remained so until 1893,
when prices of raw commodities declined and those of manufactured
commodities were slightly above the prices of 1892. From 1894 to
1896 there was a marked decline in both groups, the raw commodi­
ties being lower than the manufactured in each of these years. In



W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

393

R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O F R A W AN D M ANUFACTURED COMMODITIES,
1890 TO 1909.

Raw




Manufactured

394

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

1897 raw commodities advanced and manufactured declined. From
1898 to 1900 there was a decided advance in both groups each year,
raw commodities advancing to a higher point than manufactured. In
1901 there was a very slight decline in raw and a more marked decline
in manufactured commodities. In 1902 both groups made a decided
advance, raw commodities much the greater, and in 1903 both
slightly advanced. In 1904 both raw and manufactured commodi­
ties declined, but in 1905 both groups advanced. In 1906 both
made a sharp advance, and another advance, equally great, was made
in both groups in 1907. In 1908 both raw and manufactured com­
modities declined.
In 1909 both general groups advanced, but the increase in raw was
much more marked than in manufactured commodities. Both the
raw and manufactured groups during the three months of 1910 show
an advance over each month of 1909, and in March they were at the
highest point attained during the 20 years and 3 months covered.
For the period included in this table it will be seen that generally
during the years of high prices raw commodities were higher than
manufactured commodities, and during the years of low prices raw
commodities were lower than manufactured commodities. This is
more clearly shown in the graphic table on page 393.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES, B Y MONTHS, JAN U ARY, 1900, TO MARCH, 1910.

An opportunity is given in the table below to study the movement
in prices for each of the 9 groups and for all commodities month by
month from January, 1900, to March, 1910, inclusive.
R E LA T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JA N U A R Y, 1900, TO MARCH,
1910, B Y GROUPS.

FARM PRODUCTS.
[Average price for 1890-1899—100.0.]

Year­
Year.

1900..........................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909
...............
1910
...............

Jan.

Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. ly
aver­
age.

104.5
112.8
126.7
123.3
120.8
124.1
119.5
129.0
129.8
138.5
169.4

108.7
113.2
126.8
124.8
127.2
125.9
118.7
134.6
128.8
141.7
175.1




109.8
114.0
129.0
127.0
130.3
127.1
119.4
135.4
134.2
147.5
181.0

114.3
115.9
134.4
125.0
129.2
127.0
122.5
136.5
135.0
149.7

110.8
116.8
137.7
122.1
127.6
125.2
124.2
139.9
134.9
156.4

109.6
114.3
137.6
121.1
126.8
126.2
126.2
144.2
132.8
155.7

109.2
117.1
141.1
115.8
125.2
128.9
124.0
140.5
134.0
153.3

106.8
119.0
131.0
114.8
125.3
125.3
122.8
141.0
133.8
149.6

108.1
117.8
129.7
117.2
126.0
120.4
123.8
145.5
132.7
151.4

109.8
118.3
126.3
112.5
125.4
120.1
125.2
144.4
133.9
158.4

112.6
118.4
123.5
109.9
126.4
119.7
126.9
128.9
133.5
164.3

110.9
124.1
122.3
112.2
122.2
121.8
130.0
128.3
135.2
169.2

109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1
133.1
153.1

395

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JAN U ARY, 1900, TO MARCH,
1910, B Y GROUPS—Continued.

FOOD, ETC.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

Jan.

Year­
ly
Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
aver­
age.

1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
...............
1909
1910
...............

103.7
106.4
111.4
112.3
106.3
112.2
112.3
117.0
120.5
122.6
129.1

103.6
105.6
111.8
111.4
108.3
113.6
112.2
118.2
119.8
122.9
128.2

102.9
104.9
111.1
112.3
108.7
110.3
111.7
116.7
120.2
123.8
130.9

102.5
103.2
111.4
110.0
107.4
109.0
111.0
113.9
121.3
125.1

101.6
102.9
112.6
104.8
105.2
104.6
109.8
113.8
118.2
126.5

101.2
102.9
109.3
105.6
105.1
102.7
111.1
115.2
120.3
126.5

102.5
103.2
109.3
103.8
105.2
103.2
112.3
114.9
120.2
126.7

104.4
109.9
107.9
107.1
108.5
108.3
112.4
117.4
121.9
128.0

106.7
107.4
112.2
104.4
107.8
108.8
112.7
123.5
122.6
125.4

108.5
107.6
112.6
105.6
110.2
110.2
115.8
122.8
121.9
127.4

108.3
111.1
114.1
105.5
111.4
112.1
118.2
120.8
124.4
129.0

104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7
112.6
117.8
120.6
124.7

105.5
99.7
101.5
107.8
108.6
113.8
119.3
128.3
114.4
121.0

105.2
100.8
102.0
108.2
108.4
114.5
119.7
129.2
114.2
121.3

104.4
101.0
102.7
108.0
108.4
115.2
120.3
128.8
114.2
122.6

104.7
101.2
102.8
108.1
108.3
116.1
121.6
128.2
114.8
124.5

105.2
101.4
103.0
108.6
108.6
117.1
122.2
127.1
115.6
125.2

106.8
101.0
102.0
106.6
109.8
112.0
120.0
126.7
116.9
119.6

114.2
119.5
120.8
140.3
128.2
125.3
131.3
134.1
130.2
126.5

116.4
120.2
127.2
140.4
128.8
126.5
131.9
135.2
130.4
128.5

117.4
121.7
175.9
141.2
129.1
132.2
132.2
139.9
130.7
133.9

118.7
124.9
158.0
140.1
130.8
134.5
134.5
139.9
131.9
133.5

116.9
124.2
171.2
139.8
133.9
134.7
136.5
133.6
132.5
133.5

120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3

114.3
112.8
120.4
115.8
107.6
123.2
135.4
140.8
124.7
125.8

111.9
112.5
119.4
114.3
107.7
124.2
139.3
135.4
124.8
128.1

112.4
112.6
118.7
111.8
110.7
126.3
143.6
133.3
125.1
129.3

112.6
112.6
117.3
109.0
113.4
129.3
146.9
129.8
125.7
130.6

120.5
111.9
117.2
117.6
109.6
122.5
135.2
143.4
125.4
124.8

114.1
119.3
121.8
121.3
119.5
133.4
141.1
144.9
131.1
140.6

116.3
119.4
122.6
124.3
119.4
134.2
141.6
142.2
132.3
143.5

115.8
113.0
122.7
123.1
120.1
132.1
143.3
137.2
136.3
145.0

115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
133.1
138.4

103.3
106.0
108.5
103.1
106.3
105.9
113.2
115.3
120.0
125.1

CLOTHS AND CLOTHING.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904..........................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909
...............
1910
...............

107.7
102.8
101.5
104.2
110.4
109.6
119.4
123.2
124.0
116.1
127.2

108.4
102.2
101.5
104.5
112.1
108.5
119.5
123.9
121.2
116.5
126.9

109.0
101.8
101.9
104.9
111.9
108.7
119.6
124.6
119.9
116.7
126.4

108.9
100.4
101.5
105.0
111.7
108.8
119.3
125.3
118.5
116.7

108.5
99.8
101.5
105.4
110.9
109.0
119.5
125.9
117.6
117.0

108.1
99.8
101.6
106.3
110.5
110.1
119.4
126.9
114.7
117.5

106.5
100.3
101.8
107.5
108.8
111.5
119.3
128.0
114.5
119.5

FUEL AND LIGHTING.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................

122.6
119.3
119.4
178.6
143.6
130.8
134.0
135.8
134.3
131.7
131.1

127.5
120.0
118.6
178.6
141.9
132.8
131.3
136.6
132.5
130.0
130.3

129.3
120.5
118.9
154.8
138.7
130.5
130.9
135.5
132.9
128.9
130.3

126.9
116.5
118.1
149.0
130.6
125.8
131.7
132.1
128.5
126.3

122.2
115.5
123.3
145.0
129.1
124.0
129.9
132.6
127.8
126.2

117.8
115.3
125.9
143.1
129.4
124.4
128.6
131.2
129.0
126.0

115.2
116.8
121.0
141.1
127.8
124.3
129.7
132.9
129.2
127.3

METALS AND IMPLEMENTS.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909
...............
1910
...............

127.8
110.4
111.4
119.4
108.9
115.2
131.0
147.9
127.4
126.1
129.7

129.2
110.0
112.2
119.6
109.0
119.7
131.6
149.1
126.7
124.4
129.3

129.6
111.2
114.1
121.6
109.6
122.6
131.5
148.8
125.9
122.6
128.9

128.7
112.0
115.1
123.1
111.0
122.5
131.3
148.6
125.9
121.8

124.6
112.3
118.1
121.9
110.6
122.3
132.3
148.8
125.8
121.3

120.9
112.0
119.9
119.7
109.3
121.2
133.2
148.1
124.8
121.6

118.0
111.6
119.9
118.1
108.6
120.8
133.1
146.9
124.0
122.3

116.4
112.6
120.6
117.0
108.3
122.3
133.2
142.7
124.5
123.5

LUMBER AND BUILDING MATERIALS.
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1905..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..
1910..

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

115.5
114.4
111.4
120.7
123.6
120.1
135.0
145.9
138.9
137.4
149.3




116.4
115.2
112.8
122.8
124.4
121.9
138.4
147.3
138.1
137.8
151.5

117.1
117.7
113.2
123.5
123.5
120.7
139.6
149.1
135.2
136.1
151.3

116.9 115.4 114.4 113.0
116.1 118.0 117.3 115.7
121.5 120.1 121.6 121.0
120.6 120.1 119.5 121.5
125.5 124.4 123.6 120.4
130.7 128.0 131.6 131.9
139.8 141.5 139.9 141.0
149.8 149.2 149.0 147.2
128.8 128.8 129.9 130.4
135.5 135.3 136.8 141.3

[Average

price for 1890 to 1899—100.0.]

396
BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOB,




R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O F A L L COMMODITIES, B Y MONTHS, JA N U A R Y , 1905, T O MARCH, 1910.

397

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JANUARY, 1900, TO MARCH,
1910, B Y GROUPS—Concluded.

DRUGS AND CHEMICALS.
[Average price for 1890-1899=* 100.0.]

Year.

Jan.

Year­
ly
Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
aver­
age.

1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909
...............
1910
...............

114.6
115.8
119.1
111.8
111.7
108.9
102.9
102.1
109.5
112.2
116.7

115.6
112.0
117.2
111.4
110.4
109.4
101.5
103.5
111.1
110.9
116.8

116.8
112.7
117.4
113.7
110.6
110.0
101.2
103.4
110.9
110.6
116.4

115.9
113.1
117.3
111.4
111.8
110.5
101.0
105.0
110.2
110.3

113.8
113.9
114.3
112.8
112.3
109.0
100.2
104.8
107.1
109.5

112.9
114.5
114.3
113.7
110.6
108.8
100.3
104.4
108.4
110.5

113.1
114.3
112.6
113.1
109.9
106.4
100.3
108.1
112.7
111.8

116.5
117.2
111.4
113.9
109.6
108.1
101.6
119.1
112.1
111.7

117.5
115.3
110.2
112.8
108.5
110.0
100.9
119.1
111.2
112.9

117.1
114.2
112.3
112.6
108.2
110.2
100.7
116.7
109.7
114.7

116.7
120.5
113.5
112.5
107.7
109.5
100.7
115.8
110.2
116.3

117.5
118.7
111.5
111.4
109.1
108.8
102.9
112.4
110.9
117.2

115.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6
110.4
112.4

106.5
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
112.1
120.5
111.2
110.8

106.5 106.5
110.9 110.9
112.5 •112.5
112.7 113.5
111.8 111.8
109.1 109.1
112.1 112.7
120.5 120.5
111.2 111.2
110.7 109.9

106.5
110.9
112.5
113.5
111.8
109.1
115.0
120.2
110.5
109.8

105.6
110.9
112.5
113.5
111.8
109.1
115.0
120.2
110.5
109.8

106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5
114.0
111.7

108.1
107.1
114.2
114.4
111.6
111.6
123.0
127.5
118.9
130.6

108.5
108.2
113.6
114.4
111.2
111.8
121.4
127.8
118.5
128.7

107.5
109.3
111.7
114.5
111.6
112.5
120.3
129.5
118.2
130.8

106.5
109.5
110.9
110.4
109.7
113.3
123.4
124.3
116.7
131.1

105.8
111.8
112.9
110.1
111.5
115.1
125.8
120.6
117.1
131.4

109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6
111.7
112.8
121.1
127.1
119.9
125.9

108.7
108.5
112.2
112.2
112.0
116.0
122.3
130.2
121.4
126.4

108.6
109.4
112.3
113.3
112.0
116.7
122.6
130.8
121.8
128.1

108.7
109.4
115.5
112.3
111.8
117.6
123.5
131.0
122.1
129.0

109.6
109.9
114.6
112.1
112.7
118.7
125.7
128.9
122.1
130.9

109.5
110.4
115.3
111.7
113.5
119.8
127.6
126.4
123.6
132.2

110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5

HOUSE FURNISHING GOODS.
1900..
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904..
1906..
1906..
1907..
1908..
1909..
1910..

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

105.5
110.9
111.5
112.2
111.9
109.1
108.8
115.0
117.0
114.5
109.1

106.0
110.9
111.5
112.2
111.5
109.1
108.8
115.0
117.0
113.7
109.7

106.0
110.9
111.5
113.1
111.5
109.1
108.8
117.2
117.0
113.1
109.7

106.0
110.9
111.5
113.1
111.5
109.1
108.8
117.5
117.0
113.1

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
108.8
117.5
117.0
113.1

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
108.8
118.5
114.5
110.8

106.0
110.9
112.5
113.1
111.8
109.1
112.1
119.6
114.1
110.8

MISCELLANEOUS.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................

109.8
105.2
115.7
113.3
110.2
111.2
118.6
126.0
122.6
117.1
131.8

110.7
105.4
112.3
113.5
111.2
113.8
118.9
123.8
121.4
117.9
130.6

112.2
104.7
114.0
114.9
112.9
114.6
118.1
128.5
120.1
124.0
132.2

113.1
106.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
113.9
117.6
128.9
120.6
122.3

114.1
107.3
115.9
115.1
112.7
112.1
121.3
129.5
121.9
124.4

110.7
107.5
116.6
114.3
111.6
112.9
122.2
128.8
121.1
126.4

110.5
106.7
116.7
114.3
112.9
110.6
122.6
130.3
121.5
126.7

ALL COMMODITIES.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................

111.4
108.3
110.3
115.9
113.2
114.0
120.8
127.9
125.7
124.0
132.8

112.5
107.9
110.4
116.1
114.4
115.2
121.1
129.0
124.4
124.0
133.0

112.9
108.2
110.9
115.9
114.6
114.9
121.1
129.4
124.2
124.5
133.8

112.9
107.6
111.7
114.9
114.0
114.6
121.0
129.1
124.0
124.6

111.4
107.3
113.3
113.2
113.2
113.6
121.2
129.6
122.4
125.4

110.2
107.1
113.1
113.4
112.9
114.1
121.6
130.1
121.5
125.5

109.3
107.6
113.0
112.6
112.0
114.3
122.1
130.3
121.7
126.2

The course of prices, by months, from January, 1905, to March,
1910, as represented by all commodities is shown clearly in the
graphic table on page 396. The earlier years are omitted from the
chart for lack of space.




398

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

The following table shows the movement in the wholesale prices of
raw commodities and of manufactured commodities month by
month from January, 1900, to March, 1910. A description of the
two classes will be found on page 379.
R E LA TIV E PRICES OF R A W COMMODITIES, OF M ANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, AND
OF A L L COMMODITIES FOR EACH MONTH, JAN U ARY, 1900, TO MARCH, 1910.

RAW COMMODITIES.
[Average price for 1890-1899 = 100.0.]

Year.

Jan.

Year­
Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. ly av­
erage.

1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................
1910............................

115.1
111.0
117.0
133.0
121.8
123.0
125.5
134.7
124.3
132.9
144.9

116.4
110.3
116.2
133.0
123.6
124.1
124.4
136.1
123.9
134.4
144.9

116.1
110.8
117.0
127.8
123.2
122.6
123.0
136.2
125.2
135.8
144.9

116.2
108.7
117.5
125.8
121.1
119.6
124.7
133.9
124.0
136.8

113.5
109.4
122.8
121.5
119.7
118.2
123.6
136.0
122.4
139.9

109.8
107.5
121.1
121.6
118.5
117.4
124.9
136.9
123.8
138.9

108.7
109.6
121.8
119.9
117.5
118.4
124.9
134.2
124.8
138.8

107.4
112.9
119.6
120.7
119.1
119.6
126.3
132.8
125.6
138.2

108.1
112.4
131.3
118.1
117.3
122.1
128.4
134.3
127.1
138.7

110.8
114.3
128.7
117.2
120.7
123.8
132.4
128.1
127.8
141.0

110.8
117.6
131.4
117.5
122.1
126.3
135.6
124.2
132.2
143.1

111.9
111.4
122.4
122.7
119.7
121.2
126.5
133.4
125.5
136.8

108.9
107.5
110.4
110.7
110.4
115.4
121.5
129.7
120.5
123.9

108.8
108.6
110.6
111.6
110.3
116.0
121.8
130.3
120.9
125.6

108.8
108.7
111.7
110.9
110.5
116.6
122.4
130.2
120.9
126.6

109.3
108.9
111.2
110.9
110.8
117.5
124.1
129.1
120.8
128.4

109.1
108.7
111.5
110.4
111.5
118.2
125.6
127.0
121.5
129.5

110.2
107.8
110.6
111.5
111.3
114.6
121.6
128.6
122.2
123.9

108.7
108.5
112.2
112.2
112.0
116.0
122.3
130.2
121.4
126.4

108.6
109.4
112.3
113.3
112.0
116.7
122.6
130.8
121.8
128.1

108.7
109.4
115.5
112.3
111.8
117.6
123.5
131.0
122.1
129.0

109.6
109.9
114.6
112.1
112.7
118.7
125.7
128.9
122.1
130.9

109.5
110.4
115.3
111.7
113.5
119.8
127.6
126.4
123.6
132.2

110.5
108.5
112.9
113.6
113.0
115.9
122.5
129.5
122.8
126.5

107.8
112.5
119.8
118.6
118.7
118.4
125.4
132.3
125.3
136.4

MANUFACTURED COMMODITIES.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909............................

mo...................

110.5
107.7
108.7
111.8
111.1
111.9
119.7
126.3
126.1
121.8
129.7

111.5
107.3
109.0
112.0
112.2
113.1
120.3
127.3
124.7
121.5
130.0

112.2
107.5
109.5
113.1
112.5
113.1
120.6
127.8
124.0
12,1.6
131.0

112.1
107.3
110.3
112.3
112.3
113.4
120.1
128.0
124.0
121.5

110.9
106.8
111.0
111.3
111.6
112.5
120.6
128.0
122.4
121.8

110.3
107.0
111.2
111.4
111.5
113.3
120.9
128.5
121.1
122.2

109.4
107.1
110.9
110.9
110.7
113.3
121.5
129.4
120.9
123.0

ALL COMMODITIES.
1900............................
1901............................
1902............................
1903............................
1904............................
1905............................
1906............................
1907............................
1908............................
1909
...............
1910
...............

111.4
108.3
110.3
115.9
113.2
114.0
120.8
127.9
125.7
124.0
132.8

112.5
107.9
110.4
116.1
114.4
115.2
121.1
129.0
124.4
124.0
133.0

112.9
108.2
110.9
115.9
114.6
114.9
121.1
129.4
124.2
124.5
133.8

112.9
107.6
111.7
114.9
114.0
114.6
121.0
129.1
124.0
124.6

111.4
107.3
113.3
113.2
113.2
113.6
121.2
129.6
122.4
125.4

110.2
107.1
113.1
113.4
112.9
114.1
121.6
130.1
121.5
125.5

109.3
107.6
113.0
112.6
112.0
114.3
122.1
130.3
121.7
126.2

The course of prices of raw and manufactured commodities from
January, 1905, to March, 1910, is shown, by months, in the graphic
table which follows. The years 1900 to 1904 are omitted for lack
of space.




[Average price for 1890 to 1899-=100.0.]

W H O L E S A L E PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

399

R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF R A W AN D M ANUFACTURED COMMODITIES, B Y MONTHS, JA N U A R Y , 1905, TO M ARCH , 1910.




R
aw

Manufactured

400

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

INFLUENCES AFFECTING PRICES.

No attempt has been made to investigate the causes of the rise and
fall of prices. The aim has been to give only the prices as they actu­
ally prevailed in the market and such summaries thereof as appear
necessary. The causes are too complex, the relative influence of each
too uncertain, in some cases involving too many economic questions,
to permit their discussion in the present report. A n enumeration of
some of the influences that cause changes in prices m aybe of interest,
however. Such influences include variations in harvest, which not
only contract or expand the supply and consequently tend to increase
or decrease the price of a commodity, but also decrease or increase, to
a greater or less degree, the purchasing power of such communities as
are dependent in whole or in part upon such commodity; changes in
demand due to changes in fashions, seasons, etc.; legislation changing
internal-revenue taxes, import duties, or bounties; inspection as to
purity or adulteration; use of other articles as substitutes— as, for
instance, an advance in the price of beef will cause an increased con­
sumption of pork and mutton and, it may be added, a probable in­
crease in the price of both pork and mutton; improvements in meth­
ods of production which will tend to give either a better article for the
same price or an equal article for a lower price; cheapening of trans­
portation or handling; speculative manipulation of the supply or of
the raw product; commercial panic or depression; expanding or con­
tracting credit; overproduction; unusual demand owing to steady
employment of consumers; short supply owing to disputes between
labor and capital in industries of limited producing capacity, as in
the anthracite coal industry in 1902; organization or combination of
mills or producers, thus enabling, on the one hand, a greater or less
control of prices or, on the other hand, economies in production or
in transportation charges through the ability to supply the article
from the point of production or manufacture nearest the purchaser.
No conclusion can be formed safely as to causes without an examina­
tion of the possible influence of several— in some cases, perhaps all—
of these causes. For example, the various internal-revenue and tariff
acts have, in a marked degree, no doubt affected the prices of proof
spirits, of tobacco, and of sugar. But, on the other hand, they have
not been alone in their influences, and it probably would not in all
cases be accurate to give the change of tax or duty as representing
the measure of a certain and definite influence on the prices of those
commodities.




W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

401

EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

The general statistical tables of this report are three in number,
entitled as follows:
I.
— Wholesale prices of commodities from January, 1909, to March,
1910.
II.
—Average yearly actual and relative prices of commodities,
1890 to 1909, and monthly actual and relative prices, January, 1909,
to March, 1910, and base prices (average for 1890-1899).
III.
— Yearly relative prices of commodities, 1890 to 1909, and
monthly relative prices, January, 1909, to March, 1910.
Table L — Wholesale 'prices o f commodities, January , 1909 , to March ,
1910, pages 481 to 4&4-— This table shows in detail the actual prices
from January, 1909, to March, 1910, as obtained for the several com­
modities embraced by this report.
In 1901 the Bureau of Labor collected data relating to the whole­
sale prices of the principal staple commodities sold in the United
States for the period from 1890 to 1901, inclusive. The actual prices
for the 12 years and the relative prices computed therefrom were pub­
lished in Bulletin No. 39, issued in March, 1902. The purpose of the
investigation was to furnish a continuous record of wholesale prices
and to show the changes in the general price level from year to year.
The investigation thus begun has been continued each year and the
results published in the March issue of the Bulletin to show actual
prices for the year immediately preceding and relative prices for the
period since 1890. The present Bulletin contains actual prices for
January, 1909, to March, 1910, and relative prices for the 20 years
and 3 months from 1890 to March, 1910.
In these reports wholesale prices have been presented for a large
number of carefully selected representative staple articles secured in
representative markets of the United States. That it would be
impossible to secure prices for all articles in all markets is so apparent
that the fact hardly need be stated. In the present report prices are
given for 257 articles. With few exceptions these articles are of the
same description as those which have been covered in the preceding
reports on this subject, though several commodities shown in the
data for 1908 to March, 1910, were not included in previous years.
There is not space within a bulletin article to publish in full the
actual prices for all commodities for the entire 20-year period. Prices
for 1890 to 1908 may be found, however, in preceding March Bulle­
tins of this Bureau.
It is important that the greatest care be exercised in the choice of
commodities in order that a simple average of their relative prices
shall show a general price level, and it has been the aim of the Bureau
to select only important and representative articles in each group.



402

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

The use of a large number of articles, carefully selected, minimizes
the effect on the general price level of an unusual change in the price
of any one article or of a few articles. It will be seen that more than
one series of prices have been given in the case of articles of great
importance. This has been done for the purpose of giving weight to
these important commodities, no other method of accomplishing
this having been found satisfactory by the Bureau. The same means
have been employed by Mr. Sauerbeck in his English prices, as
explained in Bulletin No. 39, and the approximate accuracy of the
same, as an indication of the variation of prices, has been proved
by various tests based on the amount of production, etc.
Various methods of weighting have been attempted in connection
with compilations of relative prices. One method employed by Euro­
pean statisticians is to measure the importance of each commodity by
its annual consumption by the entire nation, the annual consumption
being found by adding to the home production the amount imported
and subtracting the amount exported. The method employed by the
Bureau of Labor in its publication of Retail Prices of Food in the
Eighteenth Annual Report and in Bulletins 59, 65, 71, and 77, con­
sisted in giving to the various articles of food an importance based
upon their average consumption in normal families. While it was
possible to determine the relative importance as far as the consump­
tion of food is concerned, there are, of course, many commodities the
importance of which can not be measured by this method. The
impossibility of securing even approximately accurate figures for
annual consumption in the United States of the commodities included
in this compilation renders this method unavailable for the Bureau.
It has been thought best in the present series of index numbers,
after a careful consideration of all methods of weighting, to use simply
a large number of representative staple articles, selecting them in
such a manner as to make them, to a large extent, weight themselves.
Upon a casual examination it may seem that by this method a com­
paratively unimportant commodity— such, for instance, as tea— has
been given the same weight or importance as one of the more impor­
tant commodities, such as wheat. A closer examination, however,
discloses the fact that tea enters into no other commodity under con­
sideration, while wheat is not only quoted as the raw material, but
enters into the two descriptions of wheat flour, the two descriptions
of crackers, and the three descriptions of loaf bread.
In securing these prices an effort has been made to include staple
commodities only. In a number of instances it was found possible
to continue prices for the same commodities that were included in the
Report on Wholesale Prices, Wages, and Transportation, submitted
by Mr. Aldrich, from the Senate Committee on Finance, March 3,1893.
Many articles which were included in that report are no longer manu­



WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

403

factured, or, if still manufactured, have ceased to be important
factors in the market. On the other hand, a number of articles not
shown in that report have become of such importance as to render
necessary their inclusion in any study of the course of prices.
Although in the case of commodities of great importance more than
one series of quotations have been used, in no case has an article of a
particular description been represented by more than one series of
quotations from the same market. For this reason the terms “ series
of quotations” and “ commodities” have been used interchangeably
in this report.
In the record of prices from 1890 to March, 1910,236 series of quota­
tions have been presented for the entire period and an additional 36
for some portion of the period. Of the latter number 15 articles have
been discontinued, as follows: No quotations are shown for imported
tin plate since 1898; for Ashton’s salt since 1903; for beaver over­
coatings since 1905; for sun-dried apples, nutmegs, cotton and wool
blankets, split boots, men’s 84-needle hose, linen thread, all-wool
chinchilla overcoatings, shawls, Atlantic brown sheetings, Hope
bleached sheetings, and indigo 16-ounce suitings since 1907; nor for
cotton warp chinchilla overcoatings in 1909 and 1910. The actual
prices of the above-named articles are not shown in any table in
this presentation, and those wishing to secure them for the years for
which quoted may do so by consulting preceding March Bulletins.
As may be seen by reference to Table II, 2 articles were quoted for
the first time in 1892; 2 in 1893; 1 in 1894; 3 in 1895; 1 in 1896; 1
in 1897; and 11 in 1908.
In all there are 257 series of quotations in the present report.
Material changes in the description of 3 articles were made in 1902,
of 2 articles in 1903, of 1 article in 1904, of 5 articles in 1905, of 7
articles in 1906, of 3 articles in 1907, of 19 articles in 1908, and of 1
article in 1909. For 7 of these articles the trade journals no longer
supply satisfactory quotations, the manufacture of the particular
grades of 11 previously quoted has been discontinued by the estab­
lishments heretofore furnishing quotations, and for 23 articles the
substituted descriptions more nearly represent the present demands
of the trade.
In'making these substitutions, articles were supplied corresponding
as closely as possible to those which were previously used.
The prices quoted in every instance are wholesale prices. Whole­
sale prices have invariably been used in compilations made for the
purpose of showing changes in the general price level of all commod­
ities. They are more sensitive than retail prices and more quickly
reflect changes in conditions, and, too, it is much more difficult to
follow the changes in the quality of commodities quoted in retail
43431— No. 87— 10----- 3




404

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

prices than in wholesale prices. Retail prices usually follow the
wholesale, but not always in the same proportion. The margin
between them in the case of some commodities is so great that slight
changes in the wholesale price do not affect the retail price. Changes
in the wholesale price, which last for a short time only, do not usually
result in corresponding changes in the retail price.
The net cash prices are shown for textiles and all articles whose list
prices are subject to large and varying discounts. In the case of a
number of articles, such as white pine, nails, etc., however, whose
prices are subject to a small discount for cash, no deduction has been
made.
The prices have been collected from the best available sources—
standard trade journals for 131 articles, officials of boards of trade
for 9 articles, chambers of commerce for 1 article, produce exchanges
for 7 articles, leading manufacturers or their selling agents for 108
articles, and a government bureau for 1 article.
About one-half of the prices quoted are the prices in the New York
market. For grains, live stock, etc., Chicago prices are quoted; for
fish, except salmon, Boston prices; for tar, Wilmington, N. C., prices;
for Elgin creamery butter, Elgin, 111., prices, etc. The prices for
textiles are the prices in the general distributing markets, such as
New York, Boston, and Philadelphia; and where no market is men­
tioned in the prefatory note to Table I it should be understood that
the prices are for the general market.
The following table shows the different markets represented and
the number of articles in each group quoted for each market:
NUMBER OF COMMODITIES OR SERIES OF QUOTATIONS CLASSIFIED B Y M ARKETS
FOR WHICH SECURED. JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910.

Market.

Lum­
Farm Food, Cloths Fuel Metals ber and
and
and
and
prod­ etc. cloth­ light­ imple­ build­
ucts.
ing. ments. ing ma­
ing.
terials.

New Y ork............................
Chicago.................................
Factory, mine, wells, e t c ...
Pittsburg.............................
Philadelphia........................
Boston..................................
Trenton, N. J ......................
Cincinnati............................
Eastern markets (Balt.,
Boston, N. Y ., P hila.).. .
East St. Louis 111...............
Elgin, III.........'.....................
La Salle, 111..........................
Louisville, K y .....................
Peoria, 111.............................
Washington, D. C...............
Wilmington, N. C...............
General market...................

3
15

Total..........................

20




46

2

9
3

21
1
1
7
4

1

6

23
1
3

Drugs House Mis­
fur­
ana
cella­
chem­ nishing neous. Total.
icals. goods.

9

1

6

12

3

3
3

131
23
10
7
4
3

2
i

1

1

1

1

1
2

61
57

65

13

38

1
28

2
9

14

13

257

405

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

As regards the description of the commodity it should be stated
that the greatest care has been taken to secure prices throughout the
period from 1890 to March, 1910, for a commodity of precisely the
same description. Changes in quality are, of course, reflected in
prices, and for this reason note has been made of any important
changes which have occurred. In the case of certain commodities,
such as butter, eggs, etc., prices for the best quality have been taken in
order to avoid frequent changes in grade. It should also be stated
in this connection that in the case of commodities for which prices
were secured from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter the lowest
quotations were taken where a range of prices was found, because
of the fact that in that publication these represent the prices of large
lots, while the high quotations represent the prices of smaller lots.
Weekly quotations have been secured in the case of all articles
which are subject to frequent fluctuations in price, such as butter,
cheese, eggs, grain, live stock, meats, etc. In the case of articles
whose prices are more stable, monthly or yearly quotations have
been taken. The following table shows the number of series of
weekly, monthly, and yearly price quotations:
NUMBER OF COMMODITIES OR SERIES OF QUOTATIONS, CLASSIFIED AS TO TH E IR
FREQUENCY OF QUOTATION, JAN U ARY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910.

Frequency of quotation.

Lum­
Farm Food, Cloths Fuel Metals ber and Drugs House Misand
and
and
and
fur­
prod­ etc. cloth­ light­ imple­ build­ chem­ nishing cellar Total.
ucts.
ing.
ing. ments. ing ma­ icals. goods. neous.
terials.

Weekly.................................
Monthly...............................
Yearly..................................

17
3

25
32

1
63
1

1
12

38

28

9

14

1
12

45
211
1

Total..........................

20

57

65

13

38

28

9

14

13

257

The character of each series of quotations as regards frequency is
shown in all cases in Table I in a prefatory note which states the
date of the quotations and, if weekly, whether the quotations are for
some particular day of the week, the average for the week, or the range
for the week. The m ajority of the weekly quotations show the price
on Tuesday, and if for any reason Tuesday’s price was not obtainable
the first price in the week has been taken. The quotations from trade
and other journals, when credited to the first of each month, are not
in all instances the price for the exact day stated, as it is a common
practice of the daily papers which make a specialty of market reports
to devote certain days to the review of the market of certain articles.
For example, the Boston Herald quotes fish on Saturday only. The
prices are, however, the earliest prices quoted in the journal to which
the article is credited. It should also be stated that the m onthly




406

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

prices credited to weekly publications are the earliest quotations
shown in such publications for each month.
In many localities the price of bread per loaf is not affected by
changes in the price of flour, yet the weight of the loaf is changed
from time to time. With the advance in the price of flour, the weight
of the loaf is decreased in some localities. For this reason the
relative prices of bread are computed on the price per pound and
not per loaf. Table I shows the price per loaf, the price per pound,
and the weight each month from January, 1909, to March, 1910.
The average price for the year was obtained by dividing the sum of
the quotations for a given commodity by the number of quotations
shown. For example, the sum of the 52 Tuesday’s prices of cotton
for 1909 (shown on page 433) was $6.2955. This total divided by
52 gives $0.12107 as the average price for the year. When a range
was shown the mean price for each date was found, and this was
used in computing the yearly average as above described. The
reader will understand that, in order to secure for any commodity a
strictly scientific average price for the year, one must know the
quantity marketed and the price for which each unit of quantity
was sold. It is manifestly impossible to secure such detail, and even
if it were possible the labor and cost involved in such a compilation
would be prohibitive. It is believed that the method adopted here,
which is also that used in the construction of other index numbers,
secures results which are quite as valuable for all practical purposes.
The price of 8-penny nails quoted in this report is, by the estab­
lished nail card of the trade, uniformly 10 cents per 100 pounds
higher than the base price, the price given in market quotations.
For an explanation of the nail card, the reader is referred to Bulletin
No. 39, page 226.
The prices for the two quotations of wool appearing in this report
were obtained as for washed wool and then reduced to the scouredwool basis by increasing the price in proportion to the amount of
shrinkage.




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

407

On preceding pages of this report an opportunity has been afforded
to note the extent of the change in wholesale prices between 1908 and
1909 by groups of commodities. The following table shows the per
cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price in 1909 for
each individual article as compared with the price in 1908:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE A VERAG E W HOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1909, COMPARED W ITH 1908.
[For a more detailed description of the articles, see Table I, page 431 et seq.]

Farm products, 20 articles.
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE

PRICE INCREASED.

Rye: No. 2, cash.......................................
Horses: draft, good to choice...................
Cattle: steers, good to choice...................
Cattle: steers, choice to prime.................
Hay: timothy, No. 1................................
Sheep: wethers, plain to choice...............
Sheep: wethers, fair to fancy...................
Mules: 16 hands high, medium to extra..
Cotton: upland, middling........................
Tobacco: Burley, dark red, good leaf___
Poultry: live, fowls..................................
Wheat: regular grades, cash.....................

W 3.e
7.6
7.7
9.1
9.5
9.7
10.9
15.7
16.8
20.3
21.2

Percent
of in­
crease or

Article.

in c r e a s e d —

concluded.

Hides: green, salted, packers*..................
Flaxseed: No. 1.........................................
Hogs: heavy..............................................
Hogs: light.................................................
Hops: New York State, prime to choice.

30.2
30.6
30.6
69.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Corn: contract grades, cash......................
Oats: contract grades, ^ a s h ......................
Barley: choice to fancy malting..............

8.1

Food, etc., 57 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

p r i c e i n c r e a s e d — c o n c lu d e d .

Bread: loaf, homemade (New York mar­
ket).........................................................
p r ic e in c r e a s e d .

Bread: crackers, oyster............................
Bread: crackers, soda...............................
Meal: corn, fine w h ite.............................
Canned goods: corn, Republic No. 2.......
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Canned goods: peas, Republic No. 2.......
Meat: beef,fresn,nativesides(NewYork
market)...................................................
Milk: fresh................................................
Meat: beef, fresh, carcass, good native
steers (Chicago market)........................
Salt: American, m edium ........................
Meat: mutton, dressed..............................
Starch: pure corn......................................
Beans: medium, choice...........................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)..........
Flour: wheat, spring patents..................
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Butter: creamery,extra (New Yorkmarket)..........................................................
Tallow........................................................
Butter: dairy. New York State...............
Cheese: New York State, full cream.........
Tea: Formosa, fine....................................
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by
(New York market)..............................
Meat: hams, smoked, loose......................
Poultry: dressed, fowls, western, dry
picked.....................................................
Coffee: Rio, No. 7......................................




0.6
.6
.6
.9

1.0
1.2
1.6
2.7

4.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.6
5.9

6.2
7.5

7.7
7.8
8.3
8.9
9.2

16.6
24.7

Flour: wheat, winter straights.................
Lard: prime,contract...............................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides...................
Meat: bacon, short rib sides.....................
Meat: pork, salt, mess.............................
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage........................

27.0
28.7
30.2
30.3
33.6
69.5

PRICE DECREASED.

Fish: herring, large. Nova Scotia sp lit..
Meal: corn, fine y ellow ............................
Spices: pepper, Singapore........................
Rice: domestic, choice, h ea d ...................
Fruit: currants, in barrels......................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle........
Sugar: 96°centrifugal...............................
Sugar: 89° fair refining.............................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch..........................
Sugar: granulated....................................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, w h ite .........
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large.....................
Flour: r y e .................................................
Glucose.......................................................
Soda: bicarbonate of, American............
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western..............
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3 s ............
Canned goods: tomatoes, standard New
Jersey, No. 3...........................................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, ch oice...........
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s.........
Fish: salmon, canned...............................
Vegetables, fresh: onions.........................
Meat: beef, salt, extra m ess.....................
Flour: buckwheat....................................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer..

a Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.

.2
.3
.6
.8

1.0
1.6
1.8

1.4

2.3
3.7
3.7
3.9
5.3
6.3
9.1
9.4
10.3

10.8
10.9
11.2
11.5
12.6
16.4
22.3
29.8

408

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1909, COMPARED WITH 1908—Continued.

,

C loths and clothing 65 articles.

Percent
of in-

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

Article.

Per cent
of in-

p r i c e i n c r e a s e d — c o n c lu d e d .

Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow..........
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each..
Hosiery: women's cotton nose, combed
peeler yarn.............................................
Lmen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Overcoatings: covert cloth, 14-ounce......
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard..............................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge..................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
merino, 60 per cent wool, 24-gauge.......
PRICE INCREASED.

0.2

Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.......................
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ..............
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale................
Women's dress goods: Panama cloth___
Broadcloths: first quality, black.............
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seamless,
fast black, carded yam ..........................
Leather: sole, hemlock.............................
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T —
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured..............
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell...............
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear w e lt......................................
Ginghams: Lancaster...............................
Drillings: brown, Pepperell.....................
Silk: raw, Italian......................................
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A ..................
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair..
Boots and shoes: men’s vici calf shoes,
Blucherbal............................................
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split...
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ..........................
Leather: chrome calf................................
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine...
Print cloths: 64 by 64...............................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes.......................................................
Ginghams: Amoskeag..............................

.7
.7

Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1........
Suitings: serge, Washington Mills6700...
Denims: Amoskeag..................................
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
less, fast black, carded yam .................
Sheetmgs: brown, Lawrence L. L ...........
Leather: harness, oak...............................
Leather: sole, oak.....................................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, Atlantic Mills...............................
Drillings: Stark A .....................................
Cotton yarns: northern, cones, 10/1........
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured.......
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16ounce, Washington Mills......................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 12ounce, Washington Mills......................
Worsted yarns: 2-32s, crossbred stock,
white.......................................................

7.4
7.5
7.9

8.1
8.1

8.6
8.6

9.2
9.5
10.7
10.8
10.9

11.1
15.2

PRICE DECREASED.

1.7

2.6
4.0
5.0
5.3
5.7
5.8

6.0
6.2

7.2

7.3
7.3

Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3.......
Trouserings: fancy worsted.....................
Shirtings: bleached, Fm it of the Loom..
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.......
Blankets: cotton, 2 pounds to the pair..
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Hamilton.....................................
Silk: raw, Japan.......................................
Women’s dress goods: Poplar cloth........
Overcoatings: Kersey, 28-ounce..............
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head..............
Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats___
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell...............
Women’s dress goods: Sicilian cloth.......
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta <^ > . . .
Shirtings: bleached, Williamsville A l . ..
Calico: American standard prints, 64 by
64.............................................................
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the p ou n d ..
Cotton flannels: 3§ yards to the p ou n d ..
Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic..................

.4
4
.5
.7
.8

3.0
3.4
3.5
4.0
4.7
5.0
5.5

9.0
9.1
13.3

Fuel and lighting, 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

PRICE DECREASED— concluded.

Matches: parlor, domestic...........
PRICE INCREASED.

Coke: Connellsville, furnace.......

17.2

PRICE DECREASED.

Coal:
Coal:
Coal:
Coal:

anthracite, chestnut..........
anthracite, broken.............
anthracite, stove................
anthracite, egg...................




(<*)

Ki
.7

Candles: adamantine................................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York H arbor)...............................
Petroleum: refined, for export.................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
mine)......................................................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lum p.........................................
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania............
Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white.......................................................

a Less than one tenth of 1 per cent.

0.8
3.9
4.3
4.9

6.6
9.3

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

409

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1909, COMPARED WITH 1908-Continued.
M etals and im p lem en ts , 3 8 articles.

Per cent
of in-

Article.

Article.

decrea se.

1908.

PRICE SAME AS IN

Per cent
of in­
decrea se.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c lu d e d .

Bar iron: common to best refined, from
mill.........................................................
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled.........................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated.............
Hammers: Maydole No. 1£......................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.............
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2 .................
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7......................
Steel rails...................................................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick.........................

Pig iron: gray forge, southern.................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound.......................
Wood screws: 1-inch................................
Spelter: western.......................................
PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Tin: p ig ....................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1............................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2 ............................
Lead: pig...................................................
Lead pipe...................................................
Pig iron: Bessemer...................................
Butts: loose pin, wroughtsteel, 3£ by 31
infthfis....................................................
Vine: sheet ..............................................
Bar iron: best refined, from store............
Quicksilver ............................................

3.9
5.3
15.7
16.0

0.5
.6
1.0
1.7
1.7
2.0
3.0
3.1
3.5
3.6

Axes: M. C. O., Yankee...........................
Copper: ingot, electrolytic.......................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........................
Copper wire: bare.....................................
Silver: bar, fine.........................................
Shovels: Ames No. 2................................
Tin plates: domestic, Bessemer..............
Locks: common mortise...........................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Steel billets................................................
Steel sheets: black, No. 27........................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Barb wire: galvanized..............................
Augers: extra, 1-inch...............................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch........

1.7
1.7

2.2

2.4
2.5
3.9

7.1
8.7

10.0

11.4

Lumber and building materials, 28 articles.
1908.

PRICE SAME AS IN

PRICE INCREASED— concluded.

Spruce........................................................
Brick: common domestic.........................
Linseed oil: raw........................................

Cement: Rosendale..................................
Lime: common.........................................
Putty: bulk...............................................

21.4
25.1
32.6

PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Oxide of z i n c :

A m e r ic a n ...................................
D o o r s : w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e . ............................

Pine: white boards, No. 2 ba m ...............
T ar.............................................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 5 to 10
s q u a r e f e e t .............................................................
'P i n e : y e l l o w , f l o o r i n g . ..... .......................
O a k : w h it e , q u a r t e r e d
.....................
Rosin; c o m m o n t o g o o d , s t r a i n e d ________

Pine: vellow. siding..................................
Turpentine: spirits of, in machine barrels
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 3 to 5
square feet..............................................

0.8
1.8
2.0
2.3
2.4
4.4
5.2
6.7
8.3
8.3

Shingles: red cedar...................................
Poplar........................................................
Hemlock....................................................
Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Window glass: American,single, thirds.
Oak: white, plain.....................................
Carbonate of lead: American...................
Maple: hard...............................................
Pine: white boards, uppers.....................
Cement: Portland, domestic...................
Shingles: cypress......................................

.4
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.0
3.2
3.3
7.7

16.4

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

PRICE DECREASED.

Alum: lu m p ............................................
PRICE INCREASED.
B r im s t o n e : c r u d e ..................................................

Glycerin: refined----- r .............................
.Alcohol: wood, refined.............................




1.0
13.9
17.0

Alcohol: grain...........................................
Muriatic acid.............................................
Sulphuric acid...........................................
Opium: natural, in cases.........................
Quinine. American..................................

0.7
.7
2.0
2.2
10.1

410

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN 1909, COMPARED WITH 1908—Concluded.
H o u se fu rn ish in g goodSj 1 4 articles.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —

Earthenware: plates, cream-colored.......
Earthenware: plates^ white granite........
Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite....................................................
Furniture: tables, kitchen.......................

concluded.

Glassware: pitchers..................................

3.4

PRICE DECREASED.

T a b l e c u t l e r y : c a r v e r s ........................................

Wooden ware: tubs, oak-grained.............
PRICE INCREASED.

Glassware: tumblers................................

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

1.3

Furniture: bedroom sets, 3 pieces...........
Glassware: nappies..................................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.........
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................
Table cutlery: knives and forks..............
Wooden ware: pails, oak-grained.............

1.1
4.1
4.4
6.9
7.7
8.7

Miscellaneous, 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN

1908.

PRICE DECREASED.

Tobacco: plug...........................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated................
PRICE INCREASED.

Proof spirits...............................................
Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prim e..
Cotton-seed meal.......................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure.....................
Rubber: Para Island, new.......................

0.1
7.6
9.0
48.9
70.1

Starch: laundry.......................................
Paper: wrapping, manila.........................
Jute: raw...................................................
Malt: western made.................................
Rope: manila............................................
Paper: news, w ood...................................

0.9
5.0
14.1
15.6
17.1
17.3

The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
average wholesale price in March, 1910, for each individual article as
compared with the price in March, 1909. Of the 257 articles, 149
were above the price in March, 1909, 57 at the same price, and 50
below the price in March, 1909, and for 1, onions, there was no quota­
tion in March, 1910.
P E R CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AV E R AG E W H OLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W ITH MARCH, 1909.

Farm products, 20 articles.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 431 et seq.]
Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

Cotton: upland, middling........................
Hogs: heavy..............................................
Hogs: light................................................
Hops: New York State, prime to choice.

PRICE INCREASED.




Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

price increased—concluded.

Mules: 16 hands high, medium to extra.

Barley: choice to fancy malting............
Poultry: live, fowls.................................
Horses: draft, good to choice.................
Cattle: steers, good to choice................ .
Cattle: steers, choice to prime...............
Flaxseed: No. 1.......................................
Sheep: wethers, plain to choice.............
Sheep: wethers, fair to fancy.................
Hay: timothy, No. 1............................. .

Article.

35
3.9
17.0
17.1
17.8
28.8
41.2
41.9
45.1

63.8
66.3
67.6
135.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Wheat: regular grades, cash.....................
R ye: No. 2, cash.......................................
Hides: green, salted, packers’ .................
Com; contract grades, ca sh .....................
Tobacco: Burley, dark red, good leaf___
Oats: contract grades, cash......................

1.2

3.4
5.4
11.4
16.8

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910.

411

PER CENT 0F INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN MARCH, 1910, COMPARED WITH MARCH, 1909—Continued.
F o o d , etc., 5 6 articles.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c lu d e d .

Bread: loaf, homemade ( New York mar­
ket).........................................................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Canned goods: peas, Republic No. 2___
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large......................
Fish: salmon, canned...............................
Fruit: currants, in barrels........................
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western...............
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............
Starch: pure co m .....................................
PRICE INCREASED.

Salt: American, medium..........................
Fish: herring, large, Nova Scotia split..
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.......
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Milk: fresh.................................................
Meat: beef, fresh, carcass, good native
steers (Chicago market)........................
Coffee: Rio No. 7......................................
Bread: crackers, oyster............................
Bread: crackers, soda...............................
Bread: loaf ( Washington market)..........
Meal: com , fine white..............................
Meal: com , fine yellow.............................
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market)...................................................
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by
(New York market)..............................
Canned goods: corn, Republic No. 2.......
C^ese: New York State, full cream.......
Sugar: granulated.....................................
Sugar: 96° centrifugal..............................
Poultry: dressed, fowls, western, dry
picked.....................................................

Article.

2.4
3.4
5.7
7.1
7.1
7.3
7.6
7.7
7.7
9.0
9.5
9.5

10.6
11.1
12.0
12.2
13.6

Sugar: 89° fair refining.............................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice...........
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New
York market)........................................
Spices: pepper, Singapore........................
Tallow.......................................................
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s............
Tea: Formosa, fine...................................
Lard: prime, contract..............................
Meat: beef, salt, extra mess.....................
Butter: dairy, New York State..............
Meat: pork, salt, mess..............................
Meat: bacon, short clear sid es................
Meat: bacon, short rib sides....................
Meat: mutton, dressed.............................
Meat: hams, smoked, loose......................

15.6
16.1
18.7
19.1
19.4
25.0
29.7
37.0
37.7
43.5
46.1
46.9
47.0
48.0
52.9

PRICE DECREASED.

Beans: medium, choice............................
Flour: wheat, spring patents...................
Flour: wheat, winter straights................
Flour: rye..................................................
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s........
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Glucose......................................................
Rice: domestic, choice, h ea d ...................
Flour: buckwheat....................................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch..........................
Canned goods: tomatoes, Standard New
Jersey No. 3 ............................................
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage.......................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........

.5
.8
1.7
4.0
8.4
9.3

10.1

11.1
14.3
40.3
62.6

15.5

Cloths and clothing, 65 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n t i n u e d .

Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt..........................................................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................................. .
Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats..........................
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yam ............................................................... .
Leather: sole, hemlock................................................
Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour................................
Overcoatings: covert cloth, 14-ounce.........................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge......................................................
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
merino, 60 per cent wool, 24-gauge..........................
Worsted yams: 2-40s, Australian fine........................
PRICE INCREASED.

Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.......
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow..........
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes.......................................................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Hamilton.....................................
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured___
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3 ___
Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seam­
less, fast black, carded yam .................
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seamless,
fast black, carded yam .........................




2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.6
2.9
3.1
3.1

Women’s dress goods: Panama cloth___
Boots and shoes: men’s vici calf shoes,
Blucher bal............................................
Broadcloths: first quality, black.............
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split...
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F ..........................
Trouserings: fancy worsted.....................
Women’s dress goods: Poplar d o th ........
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard...............................
Shirtings: bleached, Williamsville A l ... .
Leather: sole, oak......................................
Leather: harness, oak...............................
Horse blankets: all wool. 6 pounds each.
Women’s dress goods: Sicilian cloth.......
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.......................
Worsted yarns: 2-32s, crossbred stock,
white.......................................................
Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic..................
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair.
Blankets: cotton, 2 pounds to the p a ir...
Drillings: Stark A .....................................
Overcoatings: Kersey, 28-ounce..............
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, all
wool, Atlantic Mills...............................
Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16ounce, Washington Mills......................
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head..............

3.3
3.4
4.0
4.4
4.4
4.5
5.3
5.7
5.9

6.1
6.8
7.1

8.1
8.8

9.4
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
11.6
11.7
13.3

412

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN MARCH, 1910, COMPARED WITH MARCH, 1909-Continued.
Cloths and clothing , 6 5 articles— Concluded.

Per cent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

Article.

Percent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d — co n c lu d e d .

pr ic e in c r e a s e d —c o n tin u e d .

Suitings: d a y worsted diagonal, 12ounce, Washington Mills......................
Calico: American standard prints, 64 by
64.............................................................
Shirtings: bleached, Fruit of the Loom ..
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale.................
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell................
Ginghams: Lancaster...............................
Drillings: brown, Peppered.....................
Sheetings: brown, Lawrence L. L ..........
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ...............
Cotton flannels: 2| yards to the p ou n d ..
Cotton flannels: 3| yards to the p ou n d ..

13.7
14.2
14.3
14.6
14.7
16.7
17.4
17.9
19.0
19.2
20.0
20.0

Suitings: serge, Washington Mills6700...
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T ___
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1.........
Print cloths: 64 by 64...............................
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A ...................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1.........
Ginghams: Amoskeag..............................
Denims: Amoskeag..................................

20.9
21.4
22.0

22.2

24.4
25.7
27.3
27.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Silk: raw, Japan.......................................
Silk: raw, Italian......................................
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured..............
Leather: chrome calf................................

21.7
13.8
2.9

2.2

F uel and lighting, 13 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

PRICE DECREASED.

Candles: adamantine................................
Coal: anthracite, broken..........................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut........................
Coal: anthracite, egg................................
Coal: anthracite, stove.............................
Matches: parlor, domestic........................

Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o.
b. New York Harbor)...........................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lum p.........................................
Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white.......................................................

PRICE INCREASED.

Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania............

P e t r o le u m : r e f in e d , fo r e x p o r t ......................

Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
mine)......................................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace.....................

0.7

1.2
4.1
7.1
21.3

3.7
52.2

Metals and implements, 38 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

price increased —concluded.

Pig iron: gray forge, southern.................
Pig iron: Bessemer...................................
Tin: pig.....................................................
Zinc: sheet.................................................
Lead: pig...................................................
Steel billets................................................
Spelter: western.......................................
Bar iron: common to best refined, from
mill.........................................................
Bar iron: best refined, from store............
Lead pipe...................................................
Wood screws: 1-inch................................

Copper: sheet, hot-rolled..........................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated..............
Hammers: Maydole No. 14......................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.............
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2 .................
S a w s : hand, D is s t o n N o . 7......................
Steel rails...................................................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick..........................
Vises: solid box, 50-pound.......................
PRICE INCREASED.

Silver: bar, fine.........................................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common..
Shovels: Ames No. 2................................
Copper wire: bare.....................................
Copper: ingot, electrolytic........................
Steel sheets: black. No. 27.......................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2 ............................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1............................
Butts: loose pin, wrought steel, 3£ by 3£
inch.........................................................
Quicksilver...............................................




2.0
2.6
2.9
3.5
4.4
4.4
7.9
9.7
11.1
11.3

12.5
13.8
14.8
14.8
16.3
19.6
19.8
20.0
21.0
21.1
38.9

price decreased .

Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........................
Tin plates: domestic, Bessemer..............
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Axes: M. C. O., Yankee...........................
Locks: common mortise..........................
Barbwire: galvanized..............................
Augers: extra, 1-inch...............................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch........

1.1
1.3
4.9
8.1
9.6
9.7
10.3
23.8

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910.

413

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN MARCH, 1910, COMPARED WITH MARCH, 1909-Concluded.
L u m b er and building materials, 2 8 articles .

Percent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

Article.

PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

Article.

Percent
of in­
crease or
decrease.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Cement: Rosendale................
Lime: common.......................
Maple: hard............................
PRICE INCREASED.

Hemlock....................................................
Pine: white, boards, No. 2 bam .............
Pine: white, boards, uppers....................
Doors: western white pine......................
Poplar........................................................
Oxide of zinc: American..........................
Oak: white, quartered.............................
Carbonate of lead: American...................
Shingles: red cedar...................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 5 to 10
square feet..............................................
Oak: white, plain.....................................

2.4
2.7
2.7
4.0
4.4
4.9
7.3
7.7
10.3
16.7
18.3

Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Window glass: American, single, thirds..
Shingles: cypress......................................
Plate glass: polished, glazing, 3 to 5
square feet..............................................
Linseed oil: raw........................................
Rosin: common to good, strained...........
Turpentine: spirits of...............................
Tar.............................................................

20.0
20.0
20.3
25.0
37.5
43.3
48.2
66.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Cement: Portland, domestic..
Pine: yellow, flooring............
Putty: bulk............................
Pine: yellow, siding...............
Spruce.....................................
Brick: common domestic____

1.4

2.1
4.2
4.6
5.7
7.7

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

PRICE INCREASED.

Alcohol: grain...........................................
Opium: natural, in cases..........................
Glycerin: refined......................................

Alcohol: wood, refined.............................
Alum: lump..............................................
Brimstone: crude......................................
Quinine: American...................................
Sulphuric a cid ..........................................

0.4
25.3
27.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Muriatic acid.............................................

3.7

House furnishing goods, 14 articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

PRICE INCREASED.

Furniture: bedroom sets, 3 pieces...........
Furniture: tables, kitchen.......................

Earthenware: plates, cream-colored.......
Earthenware: plates, white granite.........
Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite.....................................................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.........
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................
Table cutlery: carvers..............................
Table cutlery: knives and forks..............
Woodenware: pails, oak-grained.............
Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained..............

7.0
8.3

PRICE DECREASED.

Glassware: nappies...................................
Glassware: tumblers.................................
Glassware: pitchers..................................

8.3
20.0
23.8

Miscellaneous, IS articles.
PRICE SAME AS IN MARCH,

1909.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prim e..
Rubber: Para Island, new.......................

Paper: wrapping, manila........................
Proof spirits...............................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure.....................
Tobacco: plug...........................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated...............

PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Malt: western made.................................
Cotton-seed meal.......................................




34.3
64.2

8.4
21.6

Rope: manila............................................
Jute: raw...................................................
Starch: laundry........................................
Paper: news, wood...................................

4.5
7.4
11.1
14.2

414

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .— Average yearly actual and relative 'prices o f commodities,
1890 to 1 9 0 9 ; monthly actual and relative prices, January, 1909, to
March, 1910, and base prices {average fo r 1 8 9 0 -1 8 9 9 ), pages 4 95 to
5 4 7 * This table shows for each com m odity the average price for
—

each of the 20 years from 1890 to 1909 and for each month from Janu­
ary, 1909, to March, 1910. In the parallel column following is given the
relative price for each year or month— that is, the per cent that the
price in each year or month is of the average price for the 10 years
from 1890 to 1899. In the line above the price for 1890 is given the
average price for the 10-year period taken as the basis of comparison.
The average price for each year or month was obtained, as has been
explained on page 406 by dividing the sum of the quotations shown
in Table I by the number of quotations. The average for articles in
which a range is quoted is computed from the mean of the two prices
limiting the range. In Table I a single quotation for the year is shown
for one article, the price being maintained throughout the year. For
this article the annual price is shown in Table II, as the price during
each month.
It was impossible to secure quotations during all of the months of
1909 for 4 of the 257 articles, viz: Buckwheat flour, cabbage, onions,
and herring. No quotations were secured in 1910 for onions.
For the 11 articles quoted in 1908 for the first time, no m onthly or
yearly relative price could be computed because the average for the
base period of 10 years was not secured. These articles have been
given due weight in the subgroups and general groups to which they
belong. See discussion on page 416.
In reducing a series of actual prices to relative prices or index num­
bers a base must first be chosen, and this may be either a single
quotation, the average price for one year, or the average for two or
more years. If the price for a single year is chosen, it is essential
that that year be a normal one, for if prices are high in the year chosen
for the base any subsequent fall will be unduly emphasized, while, on
the other hand, if prices are low any subsequent rise will be unduly
emphasized. For the reason that all the commodities probably
never present a normal condition as regards prices in any one year, it
was decided that an average price for a number of years would better
reflect average or approximately normal conditions and form a
broader and more satisfactory base than would the price for any
single year. The period chosen as this base was that from 1890 to
1899— a period of 10 years. For the 10 articles that do not show
prices for the entire period of 10 years the base in each case is the
average of the years prior to and including 1899.
The relative prices as shown in this and other tables have been
calculated in the usual manner and represent simply the percentage
which each m onthly or yearly price is of the base price. The aver­



WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

415

age price for the first 10 years of the period, that is, the base, always
represents 100, and the percentages for each month or year enable
the reader to measure readily the rise and fall, from month to month,
or from year to year, of the prices of each single com m odity, of any
group of commodities, or of all the commodities involved. These
commodities are arranged in alphabetical order under each of the
nine general groups, as in Table I.
In order that the method pursued may be more readily understood,
the reader is referred to the table itself, as given on pages 495 to 547.
Taking up the first com m odity shown, barley, we find that the aver­
age price per bushel for the base period, 1890 to 1899, inclusive, was
45.34 cents; the average price for January, 1909, was 64 cents; that
for February w as64.69 cents; the average for 1909 was 67.40 cents,
etc. The relative price for the base period, as heretofore explained, is
always placed at 100, and is so given in the table. The relative price
for January, 1909, is shown to be 141.2, or 41.2 per cent higher than
the base or average for the 10 years. In February the relative price
was 142.7, or 42.7 per cent above the base, etc. The relative price
for the year 1909 was 148.7, or 48.7 per cent above the base. The
remainder of the table may be analyzed in a similar manner.
The value of prices given in this relative form, it will readily be
seen, consists in the means afforded for tracing and measuring the
changes from month to month, from year to year, or from period to
period, and more especially in the grouping of the prices of a suffi­
cient number of commodities to show the general price level. It
must not be assumed that a system of relative prices of representative
commodities will enable one to trace the causes of changes in the
general price level or to determine the effect of such changes on any
class of consumers or on all consumers. The use of such a system
is to show the general course of prices from time to time of one com­
m odity, of a group of commodities, or of all commodities.
It is stated on page 403 that certain articles are no longer quoted
and other articles of the same class are substituted.
An explanation of the method of computing the relative price of
these articles is necessary, and harness leather will be used as an illus­
tration. It must be understood that during the years when “ country
m iddles” were quoted, they were assumed to represent the several
grades of oak harness leather— that is, that the course of prices of a
standard grade of o.ak harness leather in an index nuniber of prices
fairly represents the course of prices of the various grades of oak har­
ness leather. Therefore, when it became necessary to substitute, in
1902, “ packers’ hides” for the “ country middles,” prices were secured
for packers' hides for both 1901 and 1902, and it was found that the
average price for the year 1902 was the same as, or 100 per cent of, the
average price for the year 1901. The relative price of country mid­



416

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

dies in 1901 was 114.7 (average price for the ten years, 1890 to 1899,
equals 100), and if country middles represented oak harness leather
at that time, and packers’ hides represented the class in 1902, harness
leather (shown by the price of packers’ hides) remained the same
price in 1902 as in 1901, and the relative price in 1902 was therefore
100 per cent of 114.7, the relative price in 1901, which gives 114.7 as
the relative price in 1902. The same method was followed in com­
puting relative prices for each month. The average price of harness
leather in 1909 was 108.55 per cent o f the average price in 1908;
therefore the relative price in 1908 was 108.55 per cent of 121.1, the
relative price of 1908, which gives 131.5 as the relative price in 1909.
The same method of computing the relative prices was followed for
sheep, crackers, herring, blankets, boots and shoes, calico, hosiery,
leather, overcoatings, sheetings, women’s dress goods, worsted yam s,
augers, bar iron, butts, copper, vises, doors, plate glass, white pine,
shingles, bedroom sets, and jute. For trouserings and underwear the
exact grade quoted for 1903 was not manufactured in 1902. The
manufacturer o f trouserings, however, estimated that one-half o f the
advance in price over the price for the grade quoted for previous
years was due to the fact that it was a better article and the other half
to the advance in price of material and cost of manufacture. The
advance was $0.1125 per yard over the price in 1902; one-half o f this,
$0.05625, was added to the 1902 price o f the 22 to 23 ounce trouser­
ings to secure a theoretical 1902 price for the 21 to 22 ounce trouser­
ings, and the 1903 relative price was then com puted as above. Under­
wear was arbitrarily given the same relative price in 1903 as in 1902,
as the all-wool underwear manufactured by the same firm showed no
change in price. In 1904 and following years relative prices o f trouser­
ings and underwear were found in the same way as explained above
for harness leather.
Table 111 .— Yearly relative prices o f commodities, 1890 to 1 90 9, and
monthly relative prices, January, 1909, to March, 1910, pages 6 ^ 8 to 5 8 2 .—
In this table the relative prices appearing in Table I I are repeated
and arranged in groups for convenience in comparison. In addition,
averages are presented for the several groups and subgroups.
In 1908, as elsewhere stated, a number of articles were quoted for
the first time. Relative prices for these articles could not be com ­
puted, as the prices for the base period, 1890 to 1899, were not obtained.
As these articles were added, however, to make a larger representa­
tion for the groups in which they were included, it was deemed
necessary to carry their price into the group and subgroup averages.
Up to this time such averages were simple averages o f the relative
prices of the several articles in the group, but as relative prices for
these articles could not be com puted, a different method had to be
followed, which is here briefly explained:



417

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

When the 1908 prices were obtained prices were obtained for 1907.
The 1908 price for each article, old and new, was divided by the
1907 price, giving a percentage based on the 1907 price. These
several percentages for the articles in the group were then added and
divided b y the number of such percentages, giving an average per­
centage showing the per cent the price for the group in 1908 was of the
price for the group in 1907. The relative price of the group for 1907
having been established in the preceding report, such relative price
for 1907 was multiplied by the average percentage above described,
producing the relative price for the group in 1908.
This method of obtaining the yearly relative price for a group was
followed in obtaining the monthly relative price for a group, the
yearly average actual price in 1907 being used as the base and divided
into each m onthly actual price of 1908. In other words, having
obtained the average percentage for a group, the relative price for
a group was computed as was the relative price for a single article
when a substitution was made therein, for an explanation of which
see page 415.
This system also was followed in computing the relative price for all
commodities taken as a whole.
Averages for the year 1909 and the months of 1909 and 1910 were
computed by the same method.
The following table shows for each of the 9 general groups the
relative prices of 1909, compared with the average for 1890 to 1899.
There are included in this table only those commodities which
have retained practically the same description throughout the 20-year
period. The average price for 1890 to 1899 is in every case the base,
or 100 per cent. It should be kept in mind, in using the table, that
the comparison is between the relative prices for 1909 and the average
price for the base period.
R E LA T IV E PRICES, 1909, COMPARED W ITH AV E R AG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.

Farm 'products, 14 articles.
(For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 431 et seq. Average price for 18901899=100.0.J

Article.

Relative
price,
1909.




Relative
price,
1909.

price increased—concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Hops: New York State, prime to choice.
Hay: timothy, No. 1................................
Cattle: steers, good to choice...................
Cattle: steers, choice to prime.................
Flaxseed: No. 1.........................................
Rye: No. 2, cash.......................................
Barley: choice to fancy malting..............

Article.

113.4
129.0
136.3
138.0
140.6
148.0
148.7

Cotton: upland, m iddling.......................
Wheat: regular grades, cash....................
Hogs: light................................................
Hogs: heavy..............................................
Corn: contract grades, cash.....................
Hides: green, salted, packers'..................
Oats: contract grades, cash......................

156.0
159.7
166.5
171.6
175.5
175.8
178.9

418

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR.

RELATIVE PRICES, 1909, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899-Continued.
F o o d , etc., 4 8 articles.

Relative
price,
1909.

Article.

PRICE INCREASED.

p r ic e in c r e a s e d —

Sugar: granulated.....................................
Sugar: 89° fair refining...................... —
Sugar: 96° centrifugal...............................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)...........
Starch: pure corn.....................................
Rice: domestic, choice, head...................
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.......
Fish, salmon, canned...............................
Salt: American, medium.........................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Meat: mutton, dressed.............................
Flour: buckwheat.....................................
Vinegar: cider. Monarch..........................
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New York
market)...................................................
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large......................
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York
market)...................................................
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market)..................................................
Butter: dairy, New York State..............
Milk: fresh.................................................
Meat: hams, smoked, loose......................
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Flour: wheat, spring patents...................
Flour: rye..................................................
Tallow........................................................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........

100.7
103.0
103.4
106.5
109.5
110.3

111.1
115.4
116.1
118.5
119.2
121.4
121.8

130.2
131.1
132.5
133.1
133.3
134.0
135.2
136.6
137.4

co n c lu d e d .

Meat: beef, salt, extra mess.....................
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western...............
Flour: wheat, winter straights................
Beans: medium, choice...........................
Cheese: New York State, full cream___
Meal: corn, fine white...............................
Meal: corn, fine yellow.............................
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by
New York market)...............................
Fruit: currants, in barrels........................
Meat: bacon, short rib sides.....................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides..................
Lard: prime, contract..............................
Meat: pork, salt, mess..............................

123.1
125.7
126.2

Relative
price,
1909.

Article.

137.5
138.8
141.8
146.7
150.5
155.0
158.4
160.3
160.8
172.9
173.8
178.7
183.5

PRICE DECREASED.

Spices: pepper, Singapore........................
Bread: crackers, soda...............................
Vegetables, fresh: onions..........................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice............
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Tea: Formosa, fine....................................
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s............
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s.........
Coffee: Itio No. 7.....................................
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............

94.9
91.1
90.9
90.8
84.6
82.0
72.1
68.6
59.6
47.8

Cloths and clothing, 43 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Silk: raw, Italian......................................
Ginghams: Lancaster............................. .
Cotton flannels: 2| yards to the pound...
Cotton flannels: 3J yards to the pound...
Ginghams: Amoskeag..............................
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply. Lowell...............
Tickings: Amoskeag, A. C. A ................ .
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear w e lt ......................................
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1____
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge................................. .
Broadcloths: first quality, black........... .
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair..
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
W ool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured___
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.. . .
Denims: Amoskeag................................
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head............
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow........
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale................
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, sp lit..
Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3 . . . .




PRICE

102.1
102.9
104.0
106.8
110.1
110.3

111.1

111.3

111.6
113.0
114.8
115.8
116.6
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.1
119.9
120.1
120.2
120.9
121.3
121.9

in c r e a s e d — co n c lu d e d .

Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1........
Leather: sole, oak......................................
Shirtings: bleached. Fruit of the L oom ..
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ................
Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats.......
Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each.
Print cloths: 64 by 64...............................
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes............ ...........................................
Worsted yarns: 2-40s, Australian fine___
Drillings: brown, Pepperell.....................
Leather: sole, hemlock.............................
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured..............
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell................
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.......................
Women’s dress goods: casnmere, cottonwarp, Atlantic Mills F ..........................
Drillings: Stark A .....................................

122.3
122.7
124.7
124.9
126.4
126.5
126.5
127.2
128.3
129.0
131.5
133.5
133.6
134.6
146.7
150.9

PRICE DECREASED.

Shirtings: bleached, Williamsville A 1..
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta, S. T . . .
Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yam .............................................
Silk: raw, Japan.......................................

99.9
97.2
95.9
95.5

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

419

RELATIVE PRICES, 1909, COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899—Continued.
F u e l and lighting , IS articles.

Relative
price,
1909.

Article.

Article.

PRICE INCREASED.

price increased—concluded.

Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (f. o. b.
New York Harbor)...............................
Coke: ConneUsviUe, furnace.....................
Coal: anthracite, broken..........................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lum p.........................................
Coal: anthracite, stove.............................
Petroleum: refined, for export.................
Coal: anthracite, egg................................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut........................

Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white......................................................
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
mine)......................................................
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania............

Relative
price,
1909.

111.3
117.9
124.8
125.8
127.0
128.7
133.2
134.1

137.6
165.2
182.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Candles: adamantine...............................
Matches: parlor, domestic........................

92.7
85.4

Metals and implements, 31 articles.
PRICE INCREASED—concluded.

PRICE SAME AS BASE.
Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2.................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick..........................

100.0
100.0

PRICE INCREASED.
Lead pipe...................................................
Copper wire: bare.....................................
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7......................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common.
Bar iron: best refined, from store............
Steel rails...................................................
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled.........................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard.........................
Lead: pig...................................................
Quicksilver................................................
Steel billets................................................
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.............
Pig iron: foundry No. 1...........................
Spelter: western........................................

100.1
101.3
101.3
102.3
107.3
107.4
108.0
109.5
112.6
112.9
114.4
115.7
120.3
121.9

Zinc: sheet.................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 2............................
Pig iron: Bessemer....................................
Hammers: Mavdole No. 1|......................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern.................
Axes: M. C. 0 ., Yankee...........................
Tin: pig.....................................................
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.
Locks: common mortise...........................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated..............

125.1
125.7
126.3
129.0
134.7
142.4
161.1
175.2
195.0
235.7

PRICE DECREASED.
Shovels: Ames No. 2................................
Barb wire: galvanized..............................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Wood screws: 1-inch................................
Silver: bar, fine.........................................

96.9
93.4
88.7
76.6
69.6

Lumber and building materials, 20 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Cement: Rosendale..................................
Window glass: American, single, firsts...
Carbonate of lead: American...................
Brick: common domestic.........................
Shingles: cypress......................................
Maple: hard...............................................
Lime: common.........................................
Linseed oil: raw........................................
Oxide of zinc: American..........................
Oak: white, plain.....................................
Tar.............................................................

101.6
107.1
107.8
110.4
114.8
115.8
117.0
125.4
127.9
129.3
129.4
135.9

Turpentine: spirits of...................
Oak: white, quartered..................
Hemlock.........................................
Spruce............................................
Pme: yellow, siding......................
Poplar............................................
Rosin: common to good, strained.

146.8
157.1
172.1
176.0
178.9
183.7
243.1

PRICE DECREASED.

Putty: bulk...................................

75.9

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Alum: lump..............................................
Brimstone: crude.....................................
Sulphuric acid...........................................
Alcohol: grain...........................................
Glycerin: refined.......................................
Muriatic acid.............................................
Opium: natural, in cases.........................

43431— No. 87— 10------ i




PRICE DECREASED.

104.8
106.3
112.4
116.8
121.5
128.8
195.3

Quinine: American..................................
Alcohol: wood, refined.............................

57.2
52.4

420

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

R E LA TIV E PRICES, 1909, COMPARED W ITH A VERAG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899—Concluded.]

House furnishing goods, 18 articles.
Relative
price,
1909.

Article.

Relative
price,
1909.

Article.

PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE DECREASED.

102.4
104.0
104.5
122.5
124.7
145.3
145.9
147.6

Earthenware: plates, white granite........
Earthenware: plates, cream-colored.......
Glassware: nappies...................................
Wooden ware: tubs, oak-grained..............
Furniture: tables, kitchen.......................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple.........
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................
Woodenware: pails, oak-grained.............

Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite.....................................................
Table cutlery: carvers..............................
Glassware: pitchers..................................
Table cutlery: knives and forks..............
Glassware: tumblers.................................

98.8
93.8
84.8
82.5
75.6

Miscellaneous, 12 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE

Malt: western m^de.................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated................
Proof spirits...............................................
Tobacco: plug...........................................
Starch: laundry........................................
Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prim e..
Cotton-seed meal.......................................
Soap: castile, mottled, pure.....................

111.9
117.9
118.1
118.6
123.3
144.5
145.9
183.1

in c r e a s e d —

concluded.

Rubber: Para Island, new.......................

185.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Rope: manila............................................
Paper: wrapping, manila.........................
Paper: news, w ood...................................

90.0
85.9
68.6

The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following table, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each
group, classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PRICES OF ARTICLES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED B Y PE R CENT OF
CHANGE, 1909; COMPARED W ITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number of articles for which price—

Group.

Number of
arti­
cles.

Increased—

100
per
cent
and
more.

10
and
under
25
per
cent.

2

Farm products............................
Food, etc.....................................
Cloths and clothing....................
Fuel and lighting........................
Metals and implements..............
Lumber and building materials.
Drugs and chemicals..................
House furnishing goods..............
Miscellaneous..............................

14
48
43
13
31
20
9
13
12

1
1

Total..................................

203

2




50
25
and and
under under
100
50
per
per
cent. cent.

Decreased—

6
15
11
6
6
6
1
3
2

1
9
23
3
6
4
3
2
5

30

56

56

7
9
1
2
3
5
1

Less
than
10
per
cent.

Was
same
as
base.

5
4
8
3
2
3

2

25

2

10
25
Less and and
than under under
10
25
50
per
per
per
cent. cent. cent.

4
4
1
2

2
1
2
1

2
1

3
1

14

10

3

50
per
cent
and
more.

1

1
2
1
7

1

421

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

The number and per cent of the above articles which showed each
classified increase or decrease are given in the following table:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF ARTICLES, B Y CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE
OR DECREASE IN PRICE, 1909, COMPARED W ITH AVERAG E FOR 1890-1899.
Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Number Per cent
of
of
articles. articles.

Price increased:
100 per cent and more........
50 and under 100 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent...
10 and under 25 per cent...
Less than 10 per cent.........

2
30
56
56
25

1.0
14.7
27.6
27.6
12.3

Total................................

169

83.2

Total...............................

32

15.8

Price same as base....................

2

1.0

Grand total....................

203

100.0

Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent.......
10 and under 25 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cent..
50 per cent and more........

14
10
7
1

6.9
4.9
3.5
.5

In the following table the March, 1910, relative price is compared
with the average for 1890 to 1899. The average price for 1890 to
1899 is in every case the base, or 100 per cent. Only those commodi­
ties are included below for which the quotations throughout the 20year period have been for practically the same description of article.
In using this table it must be borne in mind that the comparison is
between the relative prices for March, 1910, and the average price
for the base period.
R E LA TIV E PRICES, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W ITH AVERAG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.

Farm products, 14 articles.
[For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 431 et seq. Average price for 18901899=100.0.]

Article.

Relative
price,
March,
1910.




Relative
price,
M a rch ,

1910.
PRICE increased—concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Rve: No. 2, cash........................
Hides: green, salted, packers'..
Barley: choice to fancy malting.
Cattle: steers, choice to prim e..
Cattle: steers, good to choice___
Wheat: regular grades, cash___
Hay: timothy, No. 1.................

Article.

149.6
152.1
152.9
153.9
156.7
158.1
163.5

Com: contract grades, cash......................
Oats: contract grades, cash......................
Hops: New York State, prime to choice.
Flaxseed: No. 1.........................................
Cotton: upland, middling........................
Hogs: light................................................
Hogs: heavy..............................................

164.2
166.4
186.3
192.7
193.8
235.4
240.6

422

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

RELA TIV E PRICES, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W ITH AVERAG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899—
Continued.

Food, etc., 47 articles.
Relative
price,
March,
1910.

Article.

Article.

Relative
price,
March,
1910.

price in c r ea se d — concluded.

PRICE INCREASED.

Flour: buckwheat................................
Spices: pepper, Singapore...................
Vinegar: cider, Monarch.....................
Sugar: granulated................................
Starch: pure co m .................................
Bread: loaf (Washington market)—
Sugar: 96° centrifugal..........................
Fish: salmon, canned..........................
Sugar: 89° fair refining........................
Bread: loaf, Vienna (New York market).
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.......
Salt: American, medium.........................
Fish: cod, dry, bank, large......................
Bread: loaf, homemade (New York
market).................................................
Flour: wheat, spring patents................. .
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by
(New York market).............................
Flour: rye................................................
Meat: beef, salt, hams, western.............
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New
York market).......................................
Flour: wheat, winter straights..............
Beans: medium, choice..........................
Butter: creamery, extra (New York
market).................................................
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elginmarket).

102.9
104.3
108.3
109.2
109.5
109.6

112.8

113.7
113.8
117.3
117.4
123.5
125.3
126.2
130.2
130.9
133.4
138.2
138.5
139.1
140.0
144.5
145.2

Milk: fresh..........................................
Butter: dairy. New York State........
Fruit: currants, in barrels.................
Tallow.................................................
Meal: com , fine white........................
Meal: corn, fine yellow......................
Cheese: New York State, full cream.
Meat: mutton, dressed......................
Meat: hams, smoked, loose...............
Meat: beef, salt, extra, mess.............
Meat: bacon, short rib sides..............
Lard: prime, contract........................
Meat: bacon, short clear sides...........
Meat: pork, salt, mess.......................

147.1
153.9
160.0
162.8
164.5
169.6
174.8
175.7
176.8
183.6
218.8
219.3
220.7
232.3

PRICE DECREASED.

Rice: domestic, choice, head....................
Bread: crackers, soda...............................
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice............
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 3s............
Tea: Formosa, fine....................................
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s........
Coffee: Rio No. 7.......................................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white...........
Soda: bicarbonate of, American..............

99.1
97.5
96.0
88.5
84.5
80.0
67.8
67.1
64.4
47.8

Cloths and clothing, 4$ articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour.............
Shirtings: bleached, Williamsville A l . . .
Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell................
Boots and shoes: men’s vici kid shoes,
Goodyear welt.......................................
Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta S. T ___
Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,
all wool, 18-gauge...................................
Ginghams: Lancaster...............................
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured.. . .
Boots and shoes: men’s brogans, split...
Broadcloths: first quality, black.............
Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.......
Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow...........
Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta
...
Flannel: white, Ballard Vale No. 3.........
Worsted yams: 2~40s, Australian fin e.. .
Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,
Middlesex standard...............................
Cotton thread: 6-cord, J. & P. C oats....
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 22/1........
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured..............
Cotton flannels: 2f yards to the pound..
Boots and shoes: women’s solid grain
shoes.......................................................
Leather: sole, oak.....................................




PRICE INCREASED— c o n c lu d e d .

102.1
102.7

111.1
113.0
115.3
115.8
117.8
118.7
118.8
118.9
119.9
121.1
123.9
124.4
125.2
125.9
126.4
127.0
127.1
127.5
128.4
129.3

Cotton flannels: 3i yards to the pound..
Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair.
Ginghams: Amoskeag..............................
Leather: sole, hemlock.............................
Tickings: Amoskeag A. C. A ...................
Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale.................
Horse blankets: all wool, 6pounds each.
Sheetings: brown, Indian Head..............
Cotton yams: northern, cones, 10/1........
Shirtings: bleached, Fruit of the Loom..
Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R ...............
Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag.......................
Denims: Amoskeag..................................
Drillings: brown, Pepperell.....................
Print cloths: 64 by 64...............................
Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell................
Women’s dress goods: cashmere, cotton
warp, Atlantic Mills F .........................
Drillings: Stark A ....................................

130.4
131.0
131.3
131.5
132.0
134.1
135.3
135.8
136.8
137.4
140.7
143.0
143.7
144.2
145.3
148.6
151.5
15& 3

PRICE DECREASED.

Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, combed
peeler yarn.............................................
Silk: raw, Italian......................................
Silk: raw, Japan.......................................

95.9
90.7
82.7

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 0X5 M A R C H , 1910.

423

R E LA T IV E PRICES, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W IT H AV E R AG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899—
Continued.

F uel and lighting, IS articles.
Relative
Article.

Article.
1910.

PRICE INCREASED.

price increased—concluded.

Coal: bituminous,Georges Creek (f.o .b .
New York Harbor)...............................
Petroleum: refined, for export................
Coal: bituminous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lump.........................................
Coal: anthracite, broken..........................
Coal: anthracite, stove.............................
Petroleum: refined, 150° fire test, water
white......................................................
Coal: anthracite, chestnut.......................

Coal: anthracite, egg.................................
Coke: Connellsville, furnace............
Petroleum: crude, Pennsylvania.......
Coal: bituminous, Georges Creek (at the
m ine)....................................................

Relative
price,
March,
1910.

109.4
121.7
124.4
124.7
130.4
132.0
137.7

137.7
150.2
153.8
157.5

PRICE DECREASED.

Candles: a d a m a n t i n e ..........................................
Matches: parlor, domestic.......................

92.7
85.4

Metals and implements, SI articles.
PRICE SAME AS BASE.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Saws: crosscut, Disston, No. 2................
Trowels: M. C. O., brick..........................

100.0
100.0

PRICE INCREASED.

Copper wire: bare.....................................
Saws: hand, Disston, No. 7.....................
Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common..
Steel rails...................................................
Files: 8-inch mill bastard........................
Lead pipe..................................................
Copper: sheet, hot-rolled.........................
Planes: Bailey, No. 5, jack plane............
Bar iron: best refined, from store............
Lead: p i g .................................................
Quicksilver................................................
Pig iron: foundry No. 1..........................
Spelter: western.......................................
Steel billets................................................

100.8
101.3
106.7
107.4
109.1
113.3
114.5
115.7
119.5
122.0
123.4
125.0
127.2
127.8

H a m m e r s ; Mavdole No. 14.....................
Pig iron: f o u n d r y No. 2 ..........................

Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.........
Axes: M. C. O., Y a n k ee...:.....................
Zinc: sheet.................................................
Pig iron: Bessemer...................................
Pig iron: gray forge, southern.................
Tin: pig.....................................................
Locks: common mortise..................
Doorknobs: steel, bronze-plated..............

129.0
13i.4
132.0
133.2
134.2
135.0
142.0
179.1
183.6
235.7

PRICE DECREASED.

Shovels: Ames, No. 2...............................
Wood screws: 1-inch.................................
Barb wire: galvanized..............................
Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common.
Silver: bar, fine.........................................

99.7
99.3
92.2
90.2
69.6

Lumber and building materials, 20 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

PRICE INCREASED— c o n c l u d e d .

Cement: Rosendale..................................
Brick: common domestic.........................
Maple: hard...............................................
Carbonate of lead: American...................
Lime: common.........................................
Window glass: American, single, thirds.
Window glass: American, single, firsts..
Oxide of zinc: American..........................
Shingles: cypress.......................................
Oak: white, plain.....................................
Oak: white, quartered.............................
Tar.............................................................

107.1
107.9
117.0
118.9
125.4
126.2
133.9
134.5
136.5
146.9
163.9
166.0

Pine: yellow, siding..................................
Linseed oil: raw......................: ................
Spruce........................................................
Hemlock....................................................
Poplar........................................................
Turpentine: spirits of...............................
Rosin: common to good, strained...........

167.9
169.8
174.2
175.5
188.1
188.5
316.0

PRICE DECREASED.

Putty: bulk..............................................

72.,8

Drugs and chemicals, 9 articles.
PRICE INCREASED.

Alum: lump..............................................
Brimstone: crude.....................................
Sulphuric acid..........................................
Alcohol: grain...........................................
Muriatic acid.............................................
Glycerin: refined.......................................
Opium: natural, in cases.........................




PRICE DECREASED.

104.8
106.3
112.4
116.5
125.0
143.0
230.9

Quinine: American..................................
Alcohol: Wood, refined.............................

56.9
52.4

424

BULLETIN OP T H E BUREAU OP LABOR.

R E LA T IV E PRICES, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W IT H AV E R AG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899Concluded.

House furnishing goods, IS articles.
Relative
price,
March,
1910.

Article.

Relative
price,
March,
1910.

Article.

PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

102.4
104.0
122.5
135.1
143.8
145.3
146.3

Earthenware: plates, white granite........
Earthenware: plates, cream-colored.......
Woodenware: tubs, oak-grained.............
Furniture: tables, kitchen.......................
Furniture: chairs, kitchen.......................
Furniture: chairs, bedroom, maple........
Wooden ware: pails, oak-grained............

Earthenware: teacups and saucers, white
granite....................................................
Glassware: nappies...................................
Table cutlery: carvers..............................
Table cutlery: knives and forks..............
Glassware: pitchers..................................
Glassware: tumblers................................

98.8
98.2
93.8
82.5
68.1
67.6

Miscellaneous, 12 articles.
PRICE DECREASED.

PRICE INCREASED.

Starch: laundry........................................
Proof spirits...............................................
Tobacco: smoking, granulated................
Tobacco: plug...........................................
Malt: western made.................................
Cotton-seed meal.......................................
Cotton-seed oil: summer yellow, prim e..
Soap: castile, mottled, pure.....................
Rubber: Para Island, new.......................

114.9
117.4
117.9
118.6
118.8
163.9
181.9
193.3
249.2

Paper: wrapping, manila.........................
Rope: manna............................................
Paper: news, w ood.........................

85.9
85.7
64.5

The facts presented in the foregoing table are summarized in the
following table, which shows the changes in prices of articles in each
group, classified by per cent of change:
CHANGES IN PRICES OF ARTICLES IN EACH GROUP, CLASSIFIED B Y PE R CENT OF
CHANGE, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W ITH AV E R AG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number of articles for which price—

Group.

Num­
ber
of
arti­
cles.

Farm products............................
Food, etc.....................................
Cloths and clothing.....................
Fuel and lighting........................
Metals andlmplements..............
Lumber and building materials.
Drugs and chemicals..................
House furnishing goods..............
Miscellaneous...............................

14
47
43
13
31

Total..................................

202

20

9
13
12

Increased—

Decreased—

Was
25
10
50
25
10
100 and and and
same Less and and
50
per under under under than
as
than under under per
cent 100
base.
10
10
cent
25
50
25
50
per
and per per per
per per per and
more. cent. cent. cent. cent.
cent. cent. cent. more.
2
4
1

11
9
2
3
2

1 8
1 ......

1
12
24
4
10

6
2

..................
4
1
3 ........
10

38

63

6

6

12

2

6
2

5

1

2

3

2

5

37

........

1 .......

2
2

20

2

........
........
....... .

3

2
1

3

1
1

4 ........
3

1

2
13

3

1

1
1

2
2

1

10

The number and per cent of the above articles which showed each
specified increase or decrease are given in the following table:



425

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

NUMBER AND PE R CENT OF ARTICLES, B Y CLASSIFIED PER CENT OF INCREASE OR
DECREASE, MARCH, 1910, COMPARED W ITH A VERAG E PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Number Per cent
of arti­
of arti­
cles.
cles.
Price increased:
100 per cent and more........
50 and under 100 per cent..
25 and under 50 per cen t...
10 and under 25 per cen t...
Less than 10 per cent.........

10
38
63
37
20

Price decreased:
Less than 10 per cent........
10 and under 25 per cen t..
25 and under 50 per cen t..
50 per cent and more........

5.0
18.8
31.2
18.3
9.9

168

Number Percent
of arti­
of arti­
cles.
cles.

83.2

32

flran rl fnfal

15.8
100.0

1.0

2

Price same as base....................

6.4
3.9
5.0
.5

202

T ota l

Total

13
8
10
1

In Table III, page 548 et seq., relative prices for articles of like char­
acter in a general group have been brought together for easy compari­
son. A table is here given in which the relative prices of certain raw
commodities and of articles manufactured therefrom, or of articles
otherwise closely related, classified in the general tables in different
groups, have been assembled for ready comparison:
R E LA TIV E PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA TE D ARTICLES, 1890 TO MARCH, 1910.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle and cattle products.
Year
or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893___
1894....
1895___
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Cattle.

Beef,
fresh.

Beef,
hams.

Beef,
mess.

Dairy products.

Tallow.

Hides.

Milk.

Butter.

Cheese.

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5
102.2
113.2
111.3
116.6
139.5
105.8
110.9
111.2
114.2
122.9
127.4
137.1

89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0
101.2
114.7
129.5
133.1

80.4
85.8
80.5
98.6
101.5
95.9
88.1
125.1
118.8
125.6
114.2
112.6
118.0
117.2
123.5
121.6
119.2
144.0
153.2
138.8

86.8
104.4
84.8
102.2
101.0
101.4
93.7
95.7
114.2
115.9
121.7
116.3
147.1
113.1
109.4
125.0
110.3
122.5
164.5
137.5

105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8
126.7
136.6

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8

103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4
129.0
132.5

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
94.5
82.3
84.1
86.8
95.8
101.7
97.7
112.1
105.7
98.4
112.8
113.1
128.5
122.1
131.7

97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
94.1
92.0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3
138.2
150.5

128.7
126.2
132.3
128.1
135.9
134.1
131.8
137.4
144.3
149.4
149.5
146.0

130.1
126.9
125.8
130.4
132.5
134.5
130.6
130.1
137.3
140.3
139.8
139.8

145.8
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2

144.7
134.1
133.3
131.0
131.0
138.0
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
134.7

135.9
138.6
136.3
132.2
129.4
129.0
127.8
127.8
131.5
145.7
154.7
149.4

169.5
169.5
157.4
149.4
169.5
178.8
180.1
181.4
180.1
192.1
192.1
189.4

153.3
142.4
137.3
122.7
104.7
88.2
107.8
122.7
137.3
147.1
158.8
166.7

133.0
127.8
124.5
122.4
122.0
119.8
121.0
126.1
139.3
141.8
145.3
160.1

143.8
146.3
156.0
159.6
130.5
132.2
137.4
147.4
154.5
159.0
167.2
171.6

137.1
139.6
155.3

135.7
131.7
142.1

138.2
138.2
138.2

145.3
151.2
183.6

155.9
157.2
162.8

189.4
176.1
152.1

161.6
156.9
147.1

155.2
135.5
148.1

174.2
174.8
174.8

19 09.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
M a y ....
June___
July—
Aug—
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....




426

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA T E D ARTICLES, 1890 TO MARCH,
1910—Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Hogs and hog products.
Year
or
month.

1890......
1891___
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903..,..
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908___
1909....

Hogs.

Bacon.

Hams,
smoked.

Mess pork.

Sheep and sheep products.
Lard.

Sheep.

Mutton.

Wool.

89.2
99.2
115.7
148.6
112.2
96.6
78.3
82.8
85.6
91.8
115.5
134.5
155.2
137.2
116.7
120.2
142.2
139.2
129.5
169.1

89.3
103.7
116.6
154.7
111.8
96.3
73.1
79.9
89.4
85.8
111.5
132.3
159.3
142.6
115.1
119.0
139.9
140.7
133.1
173.4

101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4
114.3
133.1

104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1
120.6
123.9
150.5
151.0
137.3
183.5

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1
111.8
113.9
135.6
140.7
138.8
178.7

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3
112.0
92.0
103.2
98.4
109.1
131.5
132.6
126.9
111.0
121.7

123.7
114.9
121.2
106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7
103.2
113.9
120.7
116.0
114.5
119.2

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5
118.3
126.5

139.2
146.2
151.7
162.7
164.1
175.0
179.3
177.4
186.1
177.1
181.1
190.5

142.2
140.5
149.6
154.8
166.4
176.7
184.2
184.6
192.9
189.1
192.6
205.5

108.2
114.3
115.7
118.2
128.0
136.7
139.7
140.2
144.8
150.4
149.3
149.3

146.1
149.4
159.0
160.1
163.1
179.7
186.7
190.0
206.3
218.1
222.4
216.5

150.2
150.2
160.1
163.0
166.8
181.2
183.9
184.4
194.3
194.8
206.1
205.7

123.0
122.0
133.7
135.4
147.7
126.9
112.7
109.1
111.3
104.3
105.5
122.0

105.3
108.6
118.7
127.7
149.2
127.3
121.9
113.4
110.2
107.8
114.1
126.8.

121.8
121.8
123.5
126.9
128.6
128.6
128.6
126.9
126.9
128.6
128.6
126.8

192.2
206.8
238.0

197.4
199.9
219.8

150.0
155.7
176.8

205.0
207.1
232.3

194.3
196.2
219.3

134.7
161.4
189.4

131.8
144.3
175.7

126.8
124.9
123.3

1909.
Jan.......
Feb......
M a r ....
A p r ....
May—
June___
July---A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec----1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....




427

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

R E LA T IV E PRICES OP CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA T E D AR TIC LE S, 1890 TO MARCH,
1910—Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Corn, etc.

Flaxseed, etc.

Year

Rye and rye
flour.

Wheat and
wheat flour.

Flour, etc.

month.

Glu­
Com. cose.^) Meal.

Flax­ Linseed
Rye.
seed.
oil.

Rye
flour.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1
132.6
131.7
121.8
138.8
179.9
175.5

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7
86.0
91.8
95.6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
125.1
142.9
159.4
186.2
174.4

100.8
142.0
114.0
105.8
105.6
103.3
77.4
76.5
83.7
91.2
97.0
115.5
148.2
124.7
129.5
128.4
122.5
131.5
156.4
156.7

125.5
97.1
91.4
97.7
121.6
111.8
72.9
78.1
99.8
104.0
145.7
145.8
135.0
94.1
99.6
107.6
99.1
106.1
108.0
140.6

135.8
106.8
90.0
102.2
115.6
115.6
81.2
72.2
86.5
94.1
138.7
140.0
130.8
91.9
91.7
103.1
89.3
95.7
96.5
127.9

103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4
148.0
148.0

101.4
148.3
121.1
93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3
100.1
103.8
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7
142.8
135.2

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8
131.8
159.7

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.3
96.8
108.6
118.8
138.6

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2
110.1
109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4
122.3
96.8
108.6
118.8
138.6

107.7
107.7
104.3
100.6
98.8
95.6
94.1
85.3
107.3
99.1
102.7
108.2
108.2
101.3
103.4
113.8
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.8

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
98.7
94.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
. 100.9
100.9
106.0
110.9
110.9
110.9
114.5
117.1

155.4
165.5
173.6
181.7
196.8
195.5
186.4
178.6
177.6
159.5
164.7
168.5

163.6
160.1
167.1
174.2
181.2
181.2
181.2
171.3
227.8
164.3
171.3
149.5

142.9
141.7
152.6
152.6
155.0
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2

135.6
139.7
149.6
146.6
144.2
143.7
143.7
126.2
124.0
123.1
150.9
159.9

110.3
121.3
123.5
123.5
123.5
130.1
134.5
134.5
125.7
125.7
138.9
143.3

144.6
145.3
151.5
157.9
162.6
165.8
152.7
133.8
135.6
138.9
140.7
146.8

128.1
130.4
135.7
135.7
143.2
145.5
145.5
139.4
129.6
129.6
129.6
130.4

143.2
152.8
159.6
176.5
185.4
185.2
168.7
144.0
142.5
149.2
151.2
158.3

122.8
128.9
136.5
146.3
154.6
161.7
150.5
136.5
124.3
132.5
131.6
133.7

122.8
128.9
136.5
146.3
154.6
161.7
150.5
136.5
124.3
132.5
131.6
133.7

112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
120.7

114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
117.9
119.2
119.2
119.2
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

Jan___ 171.0
F e b .... 169.6
Mar___ 164.2

149.5
153.0
153.0

162.3
167.1
167.1

178.8
187.7
192.7

167.6
169.8
169.8

151.7
153.1
149.6

131.9
131.9
133.4

158.4
159.7
158.1

136.8
136.5
135.4

136.8
136.5
135.4

120.7
120.7
120.7

117.9
117.9
117.9

Loaf
Wheat. Wheat Wheat Crack­ bread.
flour.
flour.
ers.

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....
A pr___
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....
S ept.. .
O c t ....
Nov___
Dec___
19 10.




a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.

428

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA T E D ARTICLES, 1890 TO MARCH,
1910—Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cotton and cotton goods.
Year
Cotton:
or
month. upland,
mid­
dling.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Bass:
2-bushel,
Amoskeag.

Calico.

Cotton Cotton
flannels. thread.

Cotton
yams.

Denims.

Drill­
ings.

Ging­
hams.

Ho­
siery.

115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.0
134.8
156.0

113.9
111.7
110.8
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4
112.6
101.0
102.4
104.2
128.4
109.6
129.1
138.5
134.3
134.6

117.5
104.0
117.5
113.0
99.5
94.9
94.9
90.4
81.4
87.3
94.9
90.4
90.4
91.1
95.7
93.5
99.5
121.0
104.3
97.1

121.8
121.8
115.9
101.4
95.7
91.7
93.9
88.6
81.0
88.0
101.6
95.4
96.1
106.8
125.6
119.7
128.2
139.5
119.2
108.4

101.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
120.1
134.8
131.7
126.4

111.7
112.8
117.0
110.5
93.0
92.1
93.0
90.6
90.8
88.5
115.5
98.3
94.0
112.9
119.5
105.7
120.8
133.9
108.8
118.6

112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3
111.1
119.9

121.1
114.6
102.2
105.6
97.1
93.2
100.2
90.4
86.8
88.5
105.0
102.2
102.0
109.9
126.7
123.8
138.8
147.2
130.6
139.7

119.1
122.1
122.1
114.9
89.5
87.0
88.0
84.2
83.1
89.7
96.3
92.3
99.2
101.8
99.9
93.4
104.7
122.0
101.5
107.2

129.7
122.8
117.4
109.4
100.8
94.4
90.5
86.7
83.4
82.5
87.3
85.9
85.2
90.1
89.2
87.5
89.7
97.4
89.5
92.3

123.8
126.9
126.0
135.4
145.7
148.4
164.9
164.4
168.0
179.1
190.5
197.1

132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
135.8
135.8
139.4

95.5
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
90.6
90.6
95.5
95.5
95.5
95.5
105.1

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
113.5
113.5

126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4

106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
109.4
115.3
119.4
123.5
124.8
131.1
138.9
135.1

112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
124.5
124.5
129.3
134.1
138.9

133.0
133.0
133.0
133.0
137.8
137.8
139.8
139.8
142.1
146.7
149.0
151.3

99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9

117.7
124.6

91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
93.4
93.4
93.4
93.4
93.4

191.3
189.4
193.8

139.4
143.0
143.0

105.1
105.1
114.6

128.9
128.9
128.9

126.4
126.4
126.4

139.1
136.2
131.9

143.7
143.7
143.7

151.4
151.4
151.4

124.5
124.5
124.5

93.4
93.4
93.4

142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1

1909.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay...
June...
July. . .
A u g ....
S e p t...
O c t ....
N ov___
D ec___

111.0
111.0
111.0

1910.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___




429

WHOLESALE PBIOES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

R E L A T IV E PRICES OP CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA T E D ARTICLES, 1890 TO MARCH,
1910—Continued.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cotton and cotton goods.
or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899,....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Print
cloths.

Sheet­
ings.

Shirt­
ings.

Wool and woolen goods.

Tick­
ings.

Wool.

Blan­
kets (all
wool).

Broad­
cloths.

Carpets.

Flan­
nels.

Horse
blan­
kets.

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
110.0
127.7
167.4
118.0
126.5

117.6
112.3
103.8
107.7
95.9
94.6
97.4
91.8
86.7
92.2
105.9
101.8
101.4
110.6
121.1
113.5
122.4
132.2
120.0
119.6

112.9
110.2
107.4
110.2
99.9
97.6
97.9
92.0
83.8
87.8
100.4
98.9
98.8
103.2
104.7
101.2
111.1
137.4
120.0
116.4

113.1
110.7
108.4
111.3
102.2
94.8
96.0
91.9
843
87.0
102.2
95.5
99.0
104.1
114 3
102.1
119.0
129.4
106.0
111.3

132.1
125.8
113.2
101.6
79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3
110.8
117.7
96.6
100.8
110.3
115.5
127.3
121.1
121.5
118.3
126.5

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0
113.1
119.0

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6
115.6
116.6

105.3
112.8
1045
104.5
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5
100.2
99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6
110.0
115.7
117.7
123.2
118.9
116.8

116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
941
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114 3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1
122.4
121.9

109.1
104.7
109.1
104 7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94 2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8
122.2
130.9
135.3
130.9
126.5
126.5

121.1
121.1
118.9
116.7
119.4
120.6
124.6
127.7
128.8
137.4
140.9
140.9

113.9
115.5
115.5
115.5
114.8
114.9
117.0
118.1
119.2
124.7
132.2
133.5

112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
113.4
116.8
118.1
118.9
126.6
127.4

106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
110.7
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8

121.8
121.8
123.5
126.9
128.6
128.6
128.6
126.9
126.9
128.6
128.6
126.8

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

114 3
114.3
114.3
114.3
1143
114 3
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
124.4

126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5

147.6
149.8
145.3

135.5
1341
134.7

129.9
129.9
126.6

132.0
132.0
132.0

126.8
124 9
123.3

131.0
131.0
131.0

118.9
118.9
118.9

117.3
117.3
117.3

124 4
124 4
124 4

135.3
135.3
135.3

19 09.
J a n ..,.
F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....
S ep t...
O c t ....
Nov___
D ec___
1910.
Jan___
F eb .. ..
M ar....




430

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR.

R E LA T IV E PRICES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF R E LA T E D ARTICLES, 1890 TO MARCH,
1910—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Hides, leather, and boots
and shoes.

Wool and woolen goods.
or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Over­
coat­
ings (all
wool).

Suit­
ings.

Under­ Women’s
Worst­
wear
dress
ed
(all
goods (all yams. * Hides.
wool).
wool).

Leather.

Boots
and
shoes.

Petroleum.

Crude.

Re­
fined.

111.9
111.9
111.9
108.6
97.5
90.8
86.7
87.8
97.1
100.6
116.1
105.3
105.3
110.2
110.3
118.2
126.1
124.8
122.6
109.8

113.1
113.1
113.4
112.7
98.3
89.2
87.8
88.7
103.4
106.1
115.8
104.9
105.8
109.0
109.0
122.7
134.8
133.1
127.6
135.1

106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

117.6
123.0
124.1
114 7
90.6
82.7
74.1
82.2
88.5
102.7
118,7
107.9
109.8
114 4
115.6
129.7
134.1
130.9
127.0
133.4

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74 0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4
102.2
111.7
118.0
116.5
124.7
128.5
127.9
117.6
130.2

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124 4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
124.0
119.4
126.8

104.8
103.5
102.7
100.9
99.4
98.7
99.6
97.2
96.3
96.8
99.4
99.2
98.9
100.2
101.1
107.4
121.8
125.9
121.3
128.1

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174 5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5
195.6
182.7

112.4
102.2
91.5
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119,3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1
143.1
,133.7

108.7
108,7
108.7
108.7
108.7
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
113.2

128.9
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
130.9
134.8
134.8
134.8
136.9
136.9
136.9

119.9
121.4
123.3
126.0
128.2
133.0
134 7
136.4
136.4
136.4
134.0
132.6

169.5
169.5
157.4
149.4
169.5
178.8
180.1
181.4
180.1
192.1
192.1
189.4

122.3
124 8
125.5
124.8
124.0
126.7
126.7
128.3
128.3
128.3
130.9
130.9

126.5
125.2
125.6
125.6
126.3
128.4
129.7
129.7
129.7
129.7
130.2
130.2

195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
184.6
179.1
173.6
173.6
173.6
168.1
162.6

141.5
141.5
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.1
130.2
130.2
130.2
128.6
128.6

114 0
114.0
114.0

141.0
142.2
142.2

115.8
115.8
115.8

140.7
140.7
140.7

130.0
130.0
128.7

189.4
176.1
152.1

130.8
130.8
128.9

129.5
128.8
128.8

157.1
153.8
153.8

127.4
127.4
127.4

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....
S e p t...
Oct___
Nov_
_
Dec___
1910.
Jan___
Feb___
Mar___




WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

431

T a b l e . I.~ W H O L E S A L E PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y ,
1909, TO M ARCH, 1910.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 401 to 413.]

FAR M PRODU CTS.
BARLEY: Choice to fancy m alting, by sample.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago Board
of Trade.]

CATTLE: Steers, choice to prime.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers' and
Drovers' Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

16.90-17.50
6.70- 7.35
6.25- 7.00
6.40- 6.90
6.506.256.406.506.606.756.506.606.656.406.606.406.25-

7.15
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.10
7,35
7.35
7.30
7.35
7.20
7.15
7.10
7.00

M ay .. .

Ju ne...

J u ly .. .

A u g ....




16.85-17.25
6.85- 7.25
6.90- 7.30
6.80- 7.25
6.85- 7.25
6.60- 7.10
6.70- 7.25
6.60- 7.25
6.75- 7.35
6.70- 7.30
6.70- 7.15
6.65- 7.15
6.50- 7 30
6.606.907.207.107.15-

7.35
7.55
7.65
7.80
8.00

Sept___

$7.10-$8.00
7.35- 8.40
7.25- 8.40
7.25- 8.40

Jan___

Oct........

7.50- 8.50
7.75- 8.75
7.35- 8.75
7.60- 9.10
7.40- 9.00
7.60-9.10
7.50- 9.25
7.40- 9.25
7.65- 9.25
7.75- 9.25
7.20-9.00
7.30- 8.75
7.35- 8.50

F e b ....

N ov___

Dec.......

Average.

aNo quotation for week.

$7.3394

Mar___

$7.15-18.40
7.15- 8.10
7.10- 7.90
6.85- 8.00
6.65- 7.75
(o)
7.00- 8.00
6.90- 7.90
7.25- 8.10
7.40- 8.15
7.65- 8.40
8.20- 8.65
8.15- 8.85
7.85-8.60

432

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
CATTLE: Steers, good to choice.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and
Drovers’ Journal.]
1909.
Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........

$5.90-16.85
5.70- 6.60
5.40- 6.20
5.55- 6.35

M a y ...

Feb.......

5.60-6.40
5.45- 6.15
5.65- 6.35
5.75- 6.40
5.85- 6.50
6.00- 6.70
5.80-6.45
5.95- 6.50
6.10- 6.50
6.00- 6.35
6.10-6.50
5.90- 6.35
5.60- 6.10

Ju ne...

Mar.......

Apr.......

J u ly ...

A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

36.20-16.75
6.35- 6.75
6.50- 6.85
6.40- 6.75
6.50- 6.80
6.40-6.75
6.35- 6.65
6.30- 6.50
6.40- 6.70
6.30- 6.65
6.10- 6.65
6.00- 6.60
5.75- 6.45
5.656.156.256.156.20-

6.50
6.85
7.10
7.00
7.00

Price.

Month.

Price.
$5.75-37.10
5.65- 7.10
5.60-7.00
5.80- 6.75
5.70- 6.60
(*)
6.00- 6.90
6.00- 6.85
6.30- 7.10
6.60-7.30
6.75- 7.60
7.25- 8.10
7.50-8.10
7.25- 7.75

S e p t ....

$6.25-17.00
6.50- 7.25
6.35- 7.10
6.40- 7.15

Jan___

Oct........

6.45- 7.35
6.60- 7.50
6.25- 7.20
6.35- 7.40
6.15- 7.25
6.25- 7.50
6.20- 7.40
5.90- 7.25
6.25-7.35
6.30- 7.40
5.80- 7.00
5.90- 7.25
5.80- 7.25

F e b ....

Nov.......

Dec.......

Average.

M ar....

$6.4529

CORN: Contract grades, cash.

Feb.......

$0.58*-$0.58$ M a y ...
.59 - .59*
.59 - .59*
.59*- .59|
.61 - .61* June...
.62*- .62*
.64 - .64*
.64 - .64*

Mar.......

.65*- .65* J u ly ...

Apr.......

A u g ....
!7ljb *72*




iT T T T iT T

Jan........

................... S

[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Sept___

Oct.......

.68 Nov.......
.73*- .73*
.72 - .72*
. 7 0 - .70*
.67*.67 .68 .69 .67*-

.68 Dec.......
.67*
.68*
.69*
.67|
Average.

aNo quotation for week.

$0.68*-$0.68f Jan___
.68*- .68*
.68 - .68*
.65 - .65*
.60 - .60* F e b ....
.60*- .60*
. 6 1 - .61*
.61 - .61*
.6 ij.62*.63|.63 . 62 .63*.63*.64 .64*-

.6i* M ar....
.62*
.64
.63*
. 62*
.64
.64
.64*
.65

$0.6677

$0.63*-$0.65*
.66 - .66*
.64*- .65
.64*- .65
.64 - .64*
.63*- .64
.65*- .65*
.64*- .65
.64*.6 1 .62*.6 1 .62 -

.65
.61*
.63
.61*
.62*

W H OLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

433

T a b l e I . —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
COTTON: Upland, middling.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Month.

Price.
$0.0925
.0950
.0975
.1000
.0990
.1000
.0985
.0965

May___

.0985
.0985
.0965
.0970
.0985
.1010
.1035
.1085
.1075

Ju ly....

Mar.......

Apr.......

Ju n e...

Price.
$0.1085
.1110
.1165
.1165
.1125
.1135
.1140
.1160
.1200
.1275
.1315
.1265
.1265

A u g ....

.1285
.1260
.1280
.1275
.1280

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.1300
.1250
.1310
.1355
.1340
.1365
.1400
.1455

Oct.......

Jan___

.1510
.1465
.1495
.1470
.1455
.1485
.1510
.1540
.1585

Sept___

M a r....

Nov.......

Dec.......

Average.

Price.
$0.1590
.1530
.1385
.1435
.1470
.1500
.1500
.1410

F e b ....

.1485
.1480
.1515
.1510
.1530

$0.12107

FLAXSEED: No. 1 and No. 1 Northwestern, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on the first of each month; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
$1.46 -$1.56
1.504- 1.60*
1.614- 1.714
1.58|-1.681

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
Aug—

$1.55H1>651 Sept___

Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.35-$l. 41
1.32- 1.42
1.63- 1.73
1.73- 1.83

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.94 -$2.04
2 .0 4 -2 .1 4
2.091- 2.191

$1.5652

1.55 - 1.65
1.55 - 1.65
1.36 - 1.45

HAY: Timothy, No. 1.
[Price per ton, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Inter-Ocean.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$11.00-$12.00
11.50- 12.50
11.50- 12.50
11.00- 11.50
11.50-12.00
11.50- 12.00
11.50- 12.00
11.50- 12.00
11.5011.5011.5011.5011.5011.5012.0013.0013.00-

12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
14.00




M a y .. .

Ju n e...

J u ly ...

A u g ....

$13.00-$14.00
13.00- 14.00
13.00-14.00
14.00- 15.00
14.50-15.50
13.50- 14.50
13.50- 14.50
13.50- 14.50
12.50- 13.50
12.50- 13.50
13.00- 14.00
13.00- 14.00
14.00- 14.50
14.0015.0015.0014.0012.00-

14.50
15.50
16.00
15.00
13.00

Sept___

Oct........

N o v .....

Dec.......

Average.

$13.00-$13.50
13.00- 13.50
13.00- 13.50
13.00- 13.50
13.00- 13.50
13.00- 14.00
13.00- 14.00
13.00- 14.00
i3.0013.5013.5014.0014.5016.5016.5016.5016.50-

14.00
14.50
14.00
14.50
15.00
17.00
17.50
17.50
17.50

$13.4567

Jan___

F e b ....

Mar___

$16.50-117.00
16.50- 17.00
18.00- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
17.50- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.0017.0016.5016.5016.50-

18.00
18.00
17.00
17.00
17.00

434

BU LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . ~ W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
HIDES: Green, salted, packers*, heavy native steers.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on the first of each month; quotations from the Shoe and Leather Reporter.)
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
10.15|-|0.16
.15$- .16 i
.14$
.14 i

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u l y ...
A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

$0.15$-$0.16
.164- .17
.16$- .17
.17

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.16$-$0.17 Jan___
.18 F e b ....
.18 M ar....
.17$

•0.1j|

10.1647

HOGS: Heavy.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers* and
Drovers* Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$6.00-16.25
5.95- 6.15
6.30- 6.55
6.30- 6.60
6.706.256.506.256.406.656.656.857.007.057.457.207.25-

6.95
6.45
6.65
6.40
6.55
6.85
6.80
7.00
7.15
7.15
7.55
7.35
7.35

M a y .. .

June...

J u ly ...

Aug—

$7.25 -$7.40
7.25 - 7.40
7.35 - 7.50
7 .3 0 -7 .5 0
7.32f- 7.45
7.60 - 7.75
7.85 - 8.05
7.95 - 8.15
7.85 - 8.15
7.95 - 8.30
7.65 - 8.05
7.90 - 8.30
7.80 - 8.30
7.60
7.40
7.45
7.55
7.65

-

8.05
8.05
8.00
8.15
8.10

S e p t....

Oct........

N o v ....

Dec.......

Average.

$7.95-$8.35
8.15- 8.55
8.10- 8.45
8.15- 8.50
8.057.807.657.857.808.008.158.058.308.458.558.458.50-

8.35
8.10
7.90
8.05
8.05
8.15
8.25
8.15
8.45
8.60
8.65
8.60
8.70

Jan___

F e b ....

M ar....

$8.55-$8.65
8.60- 8.72J
8.70- 8.85
8.35- 8.50
8.45- 8.574
(a )

8.75- 8.85
9.20- 9.40
9.55- 9.65
9.80- 9.95
10.55-10.80
10.75-10.90
10.75-10.90
10.80-10.95

$7.5721

HOGS: Light.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers* and
Drovers* Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$5.65-$6.20
5.60- 6.15
5.75- 6.50
5.85- 6.55

M a y ...

6.30- 6.90 June...
6.20- 6.50
6.25- 6.60
6.00- 6.35
6.20- 6.50 J u ly .. .
6.35-6.80
6.35-6.75
6.55- 6.85
6.70- 6.974
6.80- 7.05 A u g ....
7.10-7.424
6.85-7.20
6.90- 7.20




$6 95-$7.224 Sept___
.
6.90- 7.20
7.00-7.30
6.95- 7.25
7.05- 7.30
7.15-7.50 Oct........
7.25- 7.75
7.40- 7.90
7.45- 7.90
7.60- 8.00 N ov___
7.40- 7.80
7.75- 8.05
7.75-8.15
7.557.707.657.707.70-

7.95 Dec.......
8.10
8.00
8.124
8.10
Average.

a No quotation for week.

$7.90-$8.35
8.15- 8.50
7.85- 8.35
7.85- 8.30

Jan___

7.70- 8.20
7.35- 7.85
7.25- 7.65
7.50- 7.85
7.40- 7.80
7.65- 8.00
7.75- 8.10
7.65- 8.00
7.90- 8.25
8.00- 8.40
8.20- 8.50
8.05- 8.35
8.10-8.45

F e b ....

$7.3611

Mar___

$8.25-18.50
8.30- 8.60
8.40- 8.70
8.05- 8.35
8.15- 8.45
(0
)
8.50- 8.75
8.90- 9.25
9.25- 9.50
9.50- 9.80
10.25-10.65
10.50-10.75
10.55-10.80
10.45-10.80

435

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

T a ble I . —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
HOPS: New York State, prime to choice.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

1910.
Month.

Price.
$0.13-10.14
.13- .14
.15- .17
.18- .19

Price.

Month.

$0.12-10.13
.12- .14
.13- .15
.13- .15

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.18-$0.20
o.33 - .35
.37- .39
.34- .36

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.33-$0.35
.33- .35
.32- .34

$0.2008

HORSES: Draft, good to choice.
[Price per head, in Chicago, on Wednesday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and Drovers’
Journal.]
Jan........ $165.00-1215.00
165.00- 215.00
165.00- 215.00
165.00- 215.00

M ay.... $175.00-$215.00
175.00- 215.00
175.00- 215.00
170.00- 215.00

Feb....... 165.00175.00175.00175.00-

Ju ne... 170.00- 215.00
165.00- 210.00
185.00- 250.00
185.00- 250.00
182.50- 245.00
Ju ly.... 182.50- 245.00 Nov.......
182.50- 245.00
180.00242.50
180.00242.50

215.00
220.00
220.00
220.00

Mar....... 175.00- 220.00
175.00- 220.00
175.00- 220.00
175.00- 220.00
175.00- 215.00
Apr....... 175.00- 215.00
175.00- 215.00
175.00- 215.00
175.00- 215.00

A u g .... 177.50177.50175.00175.00-

240.00
240.00
240.00
240.00

Sept___ $175.00-$245.00 Jan___ $180.00-$255.00
175.00- 245.00
180.00- 255.00
172.50- 245.00
182.50- 260.00
172.50245.00
182.50- 260.00
172.50- 245.00
Oct........ 170.00242.50 e b .... 182.50- 260.00
F
170.00- 242.50
182.50- 260.00
170.00242.50
185.00- 260.00
170.00- 242.50
185.00- 260.00
172.50- 245.00 M a r....
172.50- 245.00
172.50- 245.00
172.50245.00

D ec....... 175.66^
175 00175.00175 00175.00Average.

250.66
250.00
250.00
250.00
250.00

187.50187.50190.00190.00190.00-

265.00
270.00
275.00
275.00
275.00

$203.17

MULES: 16 hands high, m edium to extra.
[Price per head, in East St. Louis, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Daily National Live
Stock Reporter.]
Jan........

$155-$225
160- 225
160- 225
160- 225

M ay....

$150-$275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275

Feb.......

i66^
160160150-

225
225
225
275

Ju ne...

Mar.......

150150150150150150150150-

275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275

July....

150150150150-

A u g ....

150150150150150-

A p r.. ..

43431—No. 87— 10------5



S e p t,...

$150-$275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275

Jan___

Oct........

150150150150-

275
275
275
275

F e b ....

275
275
275
275

Nov.......

Dec.......

275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275
275

M ar....

275
275
275
275
275

150150150150150150150150150-

Average.
a New crop.

$209.76

$150-$275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150- 275
150150150150-

275
275
275
275

436

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
OATS: Contract grades, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

M ay....

JO 56*-$0.56| Sept___
.

Feb.

June...

158
.62*
.59 Oct.......

Mar.

July....

Jan,

.4 7 -

$0.56*-

$0.45*-t0.46
.47*- .47*
.47

*.381 F e b ....
[39
.39*
.39f

•47i•46|- .47
.49
.46*

.39* Mar___
.39
.39*

.47*
.44|- .45
(a)

.57*
.54
.50 Nov.......
.51*
.50
.49
.42* Dec.......
.40*
.40*
.37*
.37*

A u g ....

Apr.

Price.

$0.38*-$0.39* Jan___
.39|- .40
. 39*— . 391

:3

.37 -

’ili

Month.

Price.

Average.

.41*. 43|.44*.44*-

:4
4

! 39i
.41*
. 43*
.44*
.44*

$0.4810

POULTRY: Live, fowls.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Saturday of each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.]
$0.13* M ay....
.15
.16*
.15
.13
.14 •June...
.13*
.15
.20

$0.16* Sept___
$0.17- .17*
.1 7 - .17*
.17*- .18
.1 7 - .18
.1 6 - .16* Oct.......
.15*- .16
.1 5 - .15*
.15*

Mar.......

.18 July....
.16*
.18
.17*

.16* Nov.......
.16*
.17*

Apr.......

.17* A u g ....
$0 .16- .17
.15*- .17
.1 5 - .16

Jan........

Feb.......




$0.17* Jan___
.17*
.17*
.15*
.16 F e b ....
.17
-15
.15
.13*
.14 Mar___
.14*
.16
.15*

ill
.16
.16
.17

Dec.......

.14
.15
.15
.15

Average.

.1 6 -

$0.1597

aNo quotation for week.

$0.15*
.16
.18
.17
.16
.17
$0.19- .20
.18
.20
.18- .18*
.17
.18
.19- .20

437

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a ble 1 .—W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
BYE: No. 2, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]

SHEEP: Native, wethers, fair to fancy.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and
Drovers’ Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$5.25-15.65
5.40- 5.90
5.15- 5.60
5.15- 5.65
5.155.155.155.255.355.355.505.856.156.256.255.255.40-

5.65
5.60
5.50
5.65
5.80
5.85
6.00
6.50
6.65
6.70
6.65
5.65
5.75




M a y ...

Ju ne...

J u ly .. .

A u g ....

$5.65-16.15
6.25- 6.85
6.25- 6.75
6.40- 6.90
6.60- 7.00
6.15- 6.50
5.40- 6.15
5.25- 6.00
4.50- 5.00
4.50- 5.00
4.65- 5.15
5.00- 5.60
5.15- 5.60
5.004.854.854.504.50-

5.35
5.25
5.25
5.00
5.00

Sept___

Oct.......

N o v ___

Dec.......

Average.

aNo quotation for week.

$4.65-$5.00
4.65- 5.25
4.90- 5.25
4.80- 5.15
4.654.504.504.354.254.654.854.50-

5.00
4.90
5.00
4.65
4.75
5.25
5.50
5.40

4.905.155.255.255.40-

5.60
5.75
5.65
5.75
6.00

$5.4303

Jan___

F e b ....

M ar....

$5.75-$6.25
5.85- 6.35
5.90- 6.40
5.60- 6.00
5.75- 6.25
(o )

6.357.007.257.507.658.158.758.50-

7.00
7.50
7.90
8.15
8.15
8.65
9.25
9.00

438

BULLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Continued.
SHEEP: Western, wethers, plain to choice.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Chicago, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Farmers’ and
Drovers’ Journal.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$5.00-$5.60
5.25- 5.85
5.00- 5.50
5.00- 5.60
5.105.105.105.155.255.305.405.756.006.156.205.155.25-

5.65
5.50
5.50
5.60
5.75
5.80
6.10
6.60
6.65
6.65
6.60
5.60
5.75

M a y ...

Ju ne...

J u ly ...

A u g ....

1910.
Month.

Price.
$5.50-$6.15
6.15- 6.85
6.65- 7.25
6.35- 6.85
6.40- 6.90
6.00- 6.40
5.25- 6.00
5.10- 6.10
4.50- 5.00
4.00- 4.85
4.25- 5.00
4.90- 5.40
4.90- 5.35
4.654.604.504.254.40-

5.00
4.90
4.70
4.65
4.80

Month.

Price.
$4.50-$4.90
4.65- 5.25
4.75- 5.00
4.70- 4.90

Sept-----

Oct........

4.354.304.404.153.754.004.254.254.755.005.005.005.25-

N ov___

Deo.......

Average.

4.70
4.60
4.85
4.50
4.35
4.65
5.00
4.85

Price.

Jan-----

$5.50-$6.10
5.60- 6.25
5.60- 6.30
5.35- 5.90
5.50- 6.25

5.35
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.75

F e b ....

M ar....

6
(.25- 6.90
6.75-7.40
7.00- 7.85
7.25- 8.10
7.40- 8.10
8.00- 8.60
8.60- 9.30
8.40- 9.00

$5.2707

TOBACCO: Burley, dark red, good leaf.
[Price per hundred pounds, in Louisville, on Monday of each week; quotations from the Western Tobacco
Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

A p r .......

(«)
$18.00-$18.50
18.00- 18.50
18.00- 18.50
18.0018.0018.0017.5017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.00-

18.50
18.50
18.50
18.50
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00




M ay....

June...

July....

A u g ....

$17.00-$18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18 00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.0017.0017.0017.0017.00-

18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

S e p t....

$17.00-$18.00
17.00- 18.00
17.00- 18.00
17. OO- 18.00

Oct.......

Nov.......

D ec.......

Average.

a No quotation for week.

17.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.0017.00-

18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18. 00
18.00
18.00

$17.5980

J a n ....

F e b ....

M ar....

(a)
$15.25-$16.75
15.25- 16.75
15.25- 16.75
15.00- 16.50
14.75- 16,25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25
14.75- 16.25

439

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

T a ble I . —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F A R M P R O D U C T S —Concluded.
WHEAT: Regular grades, cash.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago
Board of Trade.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

Price.

Month.

$1.05*-$1.10* M ay....
1.03*- 1.09*
1.06 - 1.10
1.05*- 1.10
1.084- 1.12 Ju ne...
1.10f- 1.14
1.15*- 1.184
1.17*- 1.2l|
1.17f- 1.23* July....
1.13f- 1.20
1.18 - 1.21|
1.17 - 1.21*
1.19*- 1.26*
1.30 - 1.36* A u g ....
1 .2 7 -1 .3 9
1.26*- 1.40!
1.19J- 1.41

Price.

Month.

$1.27*~$1.48 S e p t....
1.27*- 1.45*
1.29*- 1.48
1.34 - 1.54
1.34 - 1.53 Oct.......
1.32 - 1.59
1.32 - 1.60
1.29*- 1.31*
1.29 - 1.31
- 1.28 Nov.......
1 .2 8 -1 .3 2
1.18*- 1.40
1.06*- 1.33
i.0 2 !. 99*l.O lf1.00 1.00f-

i. 36
1.31
1.03
1.01
1.06

Dec.......

Price.

Month.

$1.00*-$l. 07 J a n ....
1.05 - 1.08*
1.05 - 1.13*
1.04*- 1.12
1.0 3-1 .17* F e b ....
1.05 - 1.19
1.06*- 1.19*
1.06*- 1.20
1.06*1.04*1.09*1.10|1.07*1.07 1.12*1.15!1.17*-

Average.

1.19* M a r....
1.18
1.21
1.20*
1.18*
1.21
1.26
1.27
1.24*

Price.
$1.15 $-1.26*
1.13|- 1.25|
1.10*- 1.23
1.12*- 1.25*
1 .15 - l! 26*
1.16*- 1.26
1.17|1.13*1.16*1.16*1.16 -

1.25
1.21
1.21
1.19
1.21

$1.1997

FOOD, ETC.
BEANS: Medium, choice.
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.27*
$2.27*-2.30
2.35
2.45 - 2.47*

M ay. . .
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$2.55-$2. 57*
2.70- 2. 75
2.75- 2. 77*
2.65- 2.70

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$2.40-$2.45 Jan___
2.30 F e b ....
2.30- 2.32* Mar___
2.25- 2. 27*

$2.25 -$2.30
2.37*
2.32*- 2.35

$2.4500

BREAD: Crackers, oyster, in boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650




M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.0650
.0650
.0650
.0700

Average.

$0.0654

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.0700
.0700
.0700

440

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — -WHOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
BREAD: Crackers, soda, in boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Price.

M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$0.0650
.0650
.0650
.0700

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.06^)
.0650
.0650
.0650

Month.

Month.

Price.

$0.0654

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—

$0.0700
.0700
.0700

BREAD: Loaf, after baking, 1 pound, January to April, 1909, and 14£ ounces, May, 1909,
to March, 1910.
[Price per loaf, in Washington, D. C., on the first of each month. Weight before baking 18 ounces, January
to April, 1909, and 16£ ounces, May, 1909, to March, 1910. Price per pound (before baking), January to
April, 1909, $0.0356, and May, 1909, to March, 1910, $0.0388.]
$0.04
.04
.04
.04

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.0400

$0.04
.04
.04

BREAD: Loaf, homemade.
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking, 16 ounces. Price per
pound (before baking), January. 1909, to March, 1910, $0.04. Standard weight and standard prices
charged by bread manufacturers in New York and Brooklyn and in New Jersey who deliver their bread
in Manhattan.]
$0.04
.04
.04
.04

M ay....
Ju ne...
J u ly....
A u g ....

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.0400

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.04
.04
.04

BREAD: Loaf, Vienna.
[Price per loaf, in New York, on the first of each month. Weight before baking 15& ounces, January to
May, 1909, and September, 1909, to March, 1910, and 15 ounces, June to August, 1909. Price per pound
(before baking), January to May, 1909, and September to March, 1910, $0.0413, and June to August, 1909,
$0.0427. Standard weight and standard prices charged by bread manufacturers in New York and
Brooklyn and in New Jersey who deliver their bread In Manhattan.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.04
.04
.04
.04




May___
June...
July___
A u g ....

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Average.

$0.0400

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.04
.04
.04

441

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T a b l e I , —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
BUTTER: Creamery, Elgin.
[Price per pound, in Elgin, 111., on Monday of each week; quotations furnished by W. 0. Willson, manager
of the Elgin Dairy Report.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Jan........

$0.32
.32
.32
.29

M ay....

Feb.......

.29
.30
.30
.30
.29
.29
.29
.30
.30
.28
.28
.28
.26

June...

Mar.......

Apr.......

July....

A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.27 Sept___
.25
.24
.25
.25
.26| Oct.......
.26*
.25
.25
.25* Nov.......
.26
.26
.26*

Month.

$0.30
.30
.30
.30

Jan___

.30 F e b ....
.30
.30
.31
.31 M ar....
.31
.30
.31*
.32*
.33
.34
.35
.36

.26 Dec.......
.26
.26*
.28
.29
Average.

Price.
$0.36
.36
.36
.30
.31
.29
.28
.30
.31
.31
.31
.32
.32

$0.2893

BUTTER: Creamery, extra.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........

Feb.......

$0. 32*-$0 .33 M ay....
.32 - .33
.32 - . 32*
.29 - . 29*
.29 - . 29* Ju ne...
.31 - . 31*
.29 - . 29*
. 3 0 - . 30*

Mar.......

. 28*- .29
. 28*- .29
.29

Apr.......

.27
.27
.27
.26

-

July___

i 29J
. 27* A u g ....
. 27*
. 27*
. 26*




$0. 28*-$0 .29 Sept___
. 26*
. 25*
.26
.26 O c t .....
. 26*- . 26}
.26 - . 26}
.25
.25 - . 25}
. 25*Nov.......
’26
.
. 26*- .27
. 26*- .27
. 26* Dec.......
.26 - . 26}
. 26*- .27
. 28*
.29
Average.

$0.30 Jan___
.30*
.30
.30
.30 F e b ....
$0.30- .30*
.31
.31- .31*

$0.34
.35
.35
.30
.29*
.29
.28
.31

.31- .31* M ar....
.30
.30-

.32
.32
.32
.32*
.33*

M
.33

.33
.34
.36*
.37
$0.2920

442

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
BUTTER: Dairy, New York State, tubs and half tubs, finest.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$0.21-10.25
.21- .25
.21- .25
.21- .25
.21- .25
.21- .25
.20- .25
.20- .25
.20.19.19.19.19.24.24.24.23-

.24
.24
.24
.24
.25
.25
.25
.25
.24

M ay....

Ju ne...

Ju ly....

Aug___

1910.
Month.

Price.

$0.28 Sept___
.26}
.25}
.25}
.25} O ct.......
$0.25}- .26
.26
.24}- .25
.24}- .25
.25 Nov.......
.25 - .25}
.25}- .26
.25}- .26
.25}.25 .25}.27}-

.26
.25}
.26
.28
.28

Dec.......

Average.

Month.

Price.

$0.28}-$0.29 Jan___
.30
.29 - .29}
.29 - .29}
.29 - .29} F e b ....
.2 9 - .30
.30}- .31
.31

.32 .32 .3 2 -

.31 Mar___
.30
.30
.31
.32}
.32}
.33
.34
.34

Price.
$0.33-$0.34
.33- .34
.33
.29- .30
.28- .29
.28
.27
.29
.30
.31
.31
.31- .31}
.32- .33

$0.2653

CANNED GOODS: Corn, Republic No. 2 , fancy.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
M ay....
June..
July....
A u g ....

$0.90
.90
.90
.90

$0.90
.90
.90
.90

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.90
.90
.95
.95

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.9083

$0.95
1.00
1.00

CANNED GOODS: Peas, Republic No. 2 , sifted.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review. j|
$1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

M ay. . .
June...
Ju ly . . .
A u g ....

$1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

S ept.. . .
Oct.......
N o v .....
Dec.......

$1.40
1.40
1.40
1.40

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....

$1.4000

$1.30
1.30
1.40

CANNED GOODS: Tomatoes, Standard New Jersey No. 3.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.05
1.05
1.05
.95




M ay....
June...
J u ly . ..
A u g ....

$0.95
.95
.95
.95

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.95
.90
.90
.90

Average.

$0.9625

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.90
.90
.90

443

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR CH , 1910.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
CHEESE: New York State, full cream, large, colored, fancy.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week, quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

$0.14 May .. .
.14*
.14*
.14*
.14* June...
.14*
.14*
.14*

Jan........

Feb.......

Apr.......

Price.

$0.15* J a n ....
.15*
.15*
.15*
.15* F e b ....
.15*
.16
.16*

$0.17
.17*
•17*
.17*
.m
.17*
.17*
.17*

.16* M a r....

.17*
.17*
.17*
•17*
•17*

. 16*
. 16*
.16|
.16*
.17
.17
.17

.14 Dec.......
.14*
.14*
.14f
.15
Average.

Month.

Price.

$0.14 S e p t....
.12*
.12*
.12*
.12* Oct.......
.13*
.13*
.13*
.13*
.13 Nov.......
.13*
.14
.14

.15 J u ly ...
.15
. 15*
. 15f
.15*
. 15| A u g ....
.15f
. 15f
. 15f

Mar.......

Month.

Price.

$0.1485

COFFEE: Rio No. 7, Brazil grades.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A p r.......

$0.07 - $0.07* M a y ...
. 07f- .07f June...
. 08*- .08* J u ly ...
.08*- .08* Aug—

$0.08*- $0.08| Sept___
.08 .08* Oct.......
.07*- .07| Nov.......
.07*- . 07* D ec.......
Average.

$0.07*- $0.07§ Jan___
.07*- .07f F e b ....
.08*- .08* M ar....
. 08*- . 08|

$0.08f-$0.08*
.08|- .08f
.08f- .08*

$0.0783

EGGS: New-laid, fair to fancy, near-by.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$0.35 -$0.40
.36 - .40
.35 - .38
.30 - .34
.37 - .40
.37 - .40
.3 6 - .38
.28 - .30
.24 .23 .21 .21 .21 .21*.21*.22*.22*-

M a y ...

Ju ne...

.26 July....
.25
.24
.23
.24
.24 A u g ....
.23
.23*
.23*




$0.23 -$0.24* Sept___
.22*- .24
.24 - .26
.25 - .26*
.24 - .26 Oct.......
.23*- .25
.24 - .26
.23*- .27
.24 - .29
.25 - .30 Nov.......
.25 - .31
.25 - .32
.25 - .32
.25 .25 .25 .2 6 .26 -

.32
.33
.31
.33
.34

Dec.......

Average.

$0.27-$0.35
.27- .35
.28- .37
.28- .37
.28- .38
.28- .40
.28- .43
.32- .50

Jan___

.53
.55
.53
.53
.53
.50
.52
.50
.48

M a r....

.35.35.35.35.35.35.32.36.35-

$0.3146

F e b ....

$0.36-$0.50
.40- .50
.42- .50
.38- .45
.32- .37
.28- .35
.28- .37
.30- .40
.26.25.25.23.22-

.30
.28
.28
.25
.25

444

BULLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I * — W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
FISH: Cod, dry, bank, large.
[Price per quintal, in Boston, on the first of each month; quotations from the Boston Herald.!]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$7.00-1.750
7.00
7.00
7.00

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
Aug—

$7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
D ec.......

$7.00
7.00
7.00
7.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A p r.......

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$7.0208

$7.00
7.00
7.00

FISH: Herring, large, Nova Scotia split.
[Price per quintal, in Boston, on the first of each month; quotations from the Boston Herald.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$6.50-$7.00
6.00- 7.00
6.00- 7.00
7.00

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$7.50-$8.00
7.50- 8.00
7.00- 8.00

Average.

$7.00-$7.50
6.50- 7.00
7.00- 7.50
6.50- 7.00

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$7.00-$8.00
7.00- 8.00
7.00- 8.00

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$11.50
12.00
12.50

$7.0682

(a )

FISH: Mackerel, salt, large No. 3s.
[Price per barrel, in Boston, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$9.50
9.50
10.00
10.50

S e p t....
O ct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$10.50
10.75
11.00
11.00

Average.

$10.00
10.00
10.00
9.50

$10.1875

FISH: Salm on, canned, Columbia River, 1-pound tails.
[Price per dozen cans, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A p r .......

$1.80-$l. 85 M ay....
1.80- 1.85 June...
1 .5 0 1.85
July....
1.50- 1.85 A u g ....

$1.50-$l. 85 Sept___
1.50- 1.85 Oct.......
1 .5 0 1.85
Nov.......
1.50- 1.85 Dec.......

$1.50-$l. 85
1.50- 1.85
1.50- 1.85
1.50- 1.85

Average.

$1.7000

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$1.50-$1.85
1.50- 1.85
1.50- 1.85

FLOUR: Buckwheat.
[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A p r.......

$2.35-42.50
2.40- 2.50
2.10- 2.35
(«)




M ay....
Ju n e...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

(a )

(a )
(a )
(a )

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

» No quotation for month.

(«)

$2.35
2.35
2.35

$2.3583

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.00
2.00
2.00

445

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

T a ble I . —W H OLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
FLOUR: Rye.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$4.00-14.50
4.15- 4.50
4.25- 4.75
4.25- 4.75

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
Aug—

$4.50-15.00
4.75- 4.90
4.75- 4.90
4.35- 4.90

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$4.15-$4.45
4.15- 4.45
4.15- 4.45
4.15- 4.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$4.15-$4.60
4.15- 4.60
4.25- 4.60

$4.4854

FLOUR: Wheat, spring patents.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$5.20-$5.75
5.10- 5.75
5.10- 5.75
5.10- 5.75
5.10- 5.75
5.20- 5.90
5.40- 6.00
5.40- 6.00
5.50- 6.00
5.40-5.90
5.40-5.90
5.30- 5.85
5.30-5.85
5.65-6.10
5.80- 6.25
5.80- 6.30
5.75- 6.20

M ay....

Ju ne...

July....

A u g ....

$5.90-$6.40
6.00- 6.50
6.00- 6.50
6.10- 6.75
6.20-6.85
6.20- 6.85
6.10- 6.75
6.10- 6.75
6.00- 6.60
6.00- 6.60
6.00- 6.60
6.10- 6.75
5.90- 6.50
5.605.505.505.505.50-

6.35
6.40
6.40
6.40
6.25

Sept___

Oct.......

Nov.......

Dec.......

Average.

$4.85-$5.35
4.80- 5.35
5.00- 5.60
5.00- 5.60
5.10- 5.70
5.15- 5.75
5.20- 5.80
5.25- 5.80

Jan___

5.25- 5.75
5.20- 5.60
5.20-5.60
5.20-5.60
5.20- 5.60
5.25- 5.65
5.25- 5.75
5.35- 5.85
5.35- 5.85

M ar....

F e b ....

$5.25-$5.85
5.50- 6.00
5.50- 6.00
5.40- 5.90
5.40-5.90
5.40- 5.85
5.40-5.85
5.45-5.90
5.45-5.90
5.40-5.80
5.35- 5.80
5.35- 5.80
5.30- 5.80

$5.7567

FLOUR: Wheat, winter straights.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$4.35-$4.75
4.35- 4.75
4.35- 4.75
4.40- 4.80
4.45- 4.80
4.65- 4.90
4.90- 5.10
5.00- 5.25
5.i05.155.205.205.205.355.805.805.75-

5.50
5.65
5.65
5.65
5.65
5.75
6.10
6.10
6.00




M ay....

Ju ne...

Ju ly....

A u g ....

$5.90-$6.25
6.00- 6.30
6.10- 6.35
6.25- 6.50
6.35- 6.75
6.50- 6.90
6.40- 6.80
6.35- 6.75
6.35- 6.65
6.35- 6.65
6.25- 6.50
5.60- 6.00
5.40- 5.85

Sept___

Oct.......

N ov.......

5.35- 5.60 D ec.......
5.00- 5.30
5.00- 5.30
5 .0 0 5.30
4.75-5.00
Average.

$4.65-$4.95
4.65- 4.95
4.75- 5.10
4.75- 5.10
4.80- 5.15
5.00- 5.35
5.20- 5.60
5.20- 5.60

Jan___

5.40
5.40
5.45
5.40
5.35
5.30
5.40
5.45
5.45

M ar....

5.105.005.005.055.005.005.155.205.20-

$5. 4510

F e b ....

$5.25-$5.50
5.25- 5.55
5.25- 5.55
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.55
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.50
5.25- 5.60
5.255.205.205.205.15-

5.60
5.50
5.50
5.50
5.40

446

BULLETIN OE TH E BUBEAU OE LABOB.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
FRUIT: Apples, evaporated, choice.
[Priceper pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

$0.06J-$0.08 M ay....
.06|- .07f June...
.06i- .07! July....
.06 - .07! A u g ....

Price.

Month.

$0.06 -$0.07! Sept___
.06 - .07! Oct.......
.06|- .08 Nov.......
.07 - .08* Dec.......

Price.

Month.

$0.07*-$0.08* Jan___
.08f- .09* F e b ....
.08*- .10* M ar....
.07*- .10

Average.

Price.
$0.07 -$0.09
.06!- -09*
.06 !- .09*

$0.0769

FRUIT: Currants, uncleaned, In barrels.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.05!-$0.06i
’ o ff”

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

-8 }

$0.05f-$0.06*
.05f- .06*
.05!- .06*
.05!- -06!

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
D ec.......

$0.05!-$0.061 Jan___
.06 - .06! F e b ....
.06 - .06* M a r....
.06 - .06!

Average.

$0.05|-$0.06
.06
.06

$0.0603

FRUIT: Prunes, California, 60s to 70s, in 25-pound boxes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.06 -$0.06!
.05!- .06
.05!- .05*
.051- -05*

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.04|-$0.05! Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.04|-$0.05i Jan___
.05 - .05! F e b ....
.05 - .051 M a r....
.051- .05*

Average.

$0.05!-$0.05*
.05!- .05*
.05 - .05*

$0.0531

FRUIT: Raisins, California, London layer.
[Price per box, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$ 1 .50-$l. 60 , M a y . ...
J u n e . ..
1 .5 0 - 1.60
1 .2 0 - 1.30 ! J u l y . ...
1 .2 0 - 1.30 1 A u g . . . .

$ 1 .2 0-$ l. 30
1 .1 5 - 1.20
1 .1 5 - 1.20
1 .1 5 - 1.20

S e p t ____
O c t .........
N o v ........
D e c .........

$1.15 -$ 1.2 0
1.20 - 1.25
1.20 - 1.25
1 .1 7 * - 1.30

A vera g e.

J a n .........
F e b .........
M a r.........
A p r .........

J a n ____
F e b ....
M a r ..* .

$1.2698

$1.17*—
$1.30
1.15 - 1.25
1.15 - 1.25

GLUCOSE: 42° mixing.
[Price per 100 poundsr m New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.32
2.27
2.37
2.47

May—
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....




$2.57
2.57
2.57
2.43

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$3.23
2.33
2.43
2.12

Average.

$2.4733

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.12
2.17
2.17

447

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
LARD: Prime, contract.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished b y the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
1909.
Month.

Price.

Jan........ 10.0970-10.0990
.0965- . 0990
.0980- , 1000
.
.0970- . 0990
Feb....... .0970- ,.0990
.0970- . 0985
.0980- . 0990
.0975- . 0995
Mar.......

Apr.......

.1005.1060.1045.1050.1035.1040.1065.1070.1065-

..1025
..1070
.,1060
.,1065
.,1050
..1055
.,1075
.,1080
.,1075

Month.

1910.
Month.

Price.

M ay.... 10.1055-t0.1075
.1080- ,1085
.
.1090- , 1100
.
.1115- ,.1125
Ju ne... .1135- . 1140
.1170- ,.1180
.1205- . 1215
.1195- ,.1205
.1195- . 1205
July___ .1205- ..1220
.1195- . 1205
.1200- .,1210
.1190- .,1200
A u g ....

.1150.1160.1200.1245.1250-

Price.

Month.

Price.

Sept___ tO. 1265-tO. 1275
.1250- .1255
.1260- ,1270
.1290- , 1300
.
Oct........ .1265- ,.1275
.1265- . 1275
.1265- , 1275
.
.1280- . 1290
N ov.......

.,1160
.,1170
.,1210
.,1255
.,1260

Jan___ tO. 1290-t0.1300
.1285- .1295
.1285- .1295
.1205- .1215
F e b ....
.1240- .1250
.1260- .1270
.1290- .1300
.1320- .1330
M a r....

Dec.......

.1255.1320.1365.1360.1415.1365.1395.1325.1275-

Average.

. 1265
..1330
..1375
.,1370
..1425
..1375
..1405
..1335
..1285

.1370.1390.1460.1460.1465-

.1380
.1400
.1470
.1470
.1475

tO. 1169

MEAL: Corn, fine white.
[Price per bag of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
Ju ne...
July—
Aug—

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

tl.60-tl.65
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70

tl. 65-tl. 70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70

Average.

tl. 45-tl. 50
1.50- 1.55
1.55- 1.60
1.55- 1.60

tl. 6250

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

tl. 65-tl. 70
1.70- 1.75
1.70- 1.75

MEAL: Com , fine yellow.
[Price per bag of 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York
Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

tl. 45-tl. 50
1.25- 1.55
1.55- 1.60
1.55- 1.60

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....




Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
1

tl. 65-tl. 70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70

Average.

tl. 55-tl. 60
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70
1.65- 1.70

tl. 6104

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

tl. 65-tl. 70
1.70- 1.75
1.70- 1.75

448

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
MEAT: Bacon, short clear sides, smoked, loose.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]




449

W HOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M AR C H ; 1910.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
MEAT: Beef, fresh, carcass, good native steers.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Price.

Month.

Price.

1910.
Month.

Month.

Price.

$0.10|-$0. 11| M ay....
.1 0 - .11|
.1 0 - .11*
.1 0 - .11|
. 10 - . ll|
.1 0 - .11| Ju ne...
.1 0 - .11|
.1 0 - .11
.1 0 - .10|

$0,101-10.11 Sept___
.1 0 - .10|
.1 0 - .10|
.1 0 - .11
.11
.11 Oct........
.11
.11
.10|

$0.11 Jan___
.111
$0.11|- .12
.11|- .12

.10| July....
.10|
.10|
.10|
.11
.11 A u g ....
.11
.11
.11

.10| Nov.......
.10|
.10|
.10|
.10|
.10| Dec.......
.10|
.10|
.10|

M a r....

Mar.......

.1 0 -

Apr.......

.1 0 .1 0 . 10 .1 0 .1 0 .1 0 .10|-

.11|.11|.11|.11|.11|.11|.11|.11|.11|-

.12
.12
.12
.12
.12
.12
.12
.12
.12

.1 1 .11 .111.111-

Price.
$0. ll|-$0.12
.10!- -12
.10|- .12
.10|- .12
.10 - . 11|
.1 0 - .11|
.1 0 - .11|
.1 0 - .11|
.1 0 - .11|

.12
.12
.12|
.12|

Average.

F e b ....

. 10 .1 0 .1 0 .11|-

. 11|
.11|
.11|
. 12|

$0.1095

MEAT: Beef, fresh, native sides.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily Tribune.)




450

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a ble I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
MEAT: Beef, salt, extra m ess.
[Average weekly price per barrel in New York; quotations furnished by the statistician of the New York
Produce Exchange.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Price.
$12.50
11.25
11.50
11.50
11.25
10.75
10.75
10.75
10.75

Month.
M ay....

June...

Mar.......

10.75
10.75
10.75
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
10.50
11.25
11.25
11.25

Sept___

$11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25

Jan___

Oct.......

F e b ....

11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25

Nov.......

11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25
11.25

J u ly ...

Apr.......

1910.

A u g ....

Dec.......

$12.00
11.25
11.50
11.75
11.75
11.75
12.25
12.25
12.25

M ar....

14.25
14.25
14.87
15.50

10.93
10.75
10.75
10.75

Average.

Price.

$11.0227

MEAT: Beef, salt, ham s, western.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$26.00-128.00
26.00- 28.00
25.00- 27.00
24.50- 26.50
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.00-

26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00




M ay....

Ju ne...

Ju ly....

A u g ....

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.0024.0024.0024.0024.00-

26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00

Sept-----

Oct.......

Nov.......

Dec.......

Average.

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.0024.00-

26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00

$25.1058

Jan___

F e b ....

M ar....

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.0024.0024.0024.0024.00-

26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
26.00

451

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
MEAT: Hams, smoked, loose.
[Price per pound, in Chicago, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Daily Trade Bulletin.]

MEAT: M utton, dressed.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the New York Daily Tribune.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$0.06 -$0.09} M a y ...
.06 - .10
.06 - .10
.0 6 - .10
.06 - .09} June...
.06 - .10
.07 - .10
.07 - .10
.07 .07 .07 .08 .08 .08 .08 .08 .08}-

.10} J u ly .. .
.10
.10}
.10}
.11
.11 A u g .. .
.11
.11
.11}

$0.09 -$0.12 Sept___
.10 - .13
.10 - .13
.10 - .13
.10 - .12} Oct.......
.08}- .12
.08 - .10}
.08 - .10
.07 - .09}
.08 - .09} N ov___
.08 - .11
.08 - .11
.0 8 - .10
.07 .08 .07}.07 .07 -

.io } Dec.......
.10}
.09
.09}
.09}
Average.

43431— No. 87— 10------ 6




$0.07
.07
.07
.07
.07
.07
.07
.07

-$0.10 Jan___
- .09}
- .09}
- .09}
- .09} F e b ....
- .09}
- .09
- .09

.07 .07 .08 .08 .08 .08 .08}.09 .08}-

.09 Mar___
.09
.10
.10
.10
.10
.10}
.11
.11

$0.0899

$0.08}-$0.11
.09 - .11
.09 - .11
.09 - .11
.08}- .11
.10 - .12
.10 - .12}
.10 - .13
.11 .11 .12 .12}.12}-

.13
.13}
.15
.16
.16

452

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
MEAT: Pork, salt, m ess, old to new.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New Y ork Produce Exchange.]
1909.

1910.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........

$16.75-117.25
16.75- 17.25
16.75- 17.25
16.75- 17.25
17.25- 17.50
17.25- 17.50
17.25- 17.50
17.25- 17.50

M a y .. .

$18.25-119.00
18.75- 19.25
18.75- 19.25
19.00- 19.50
19.75- 20.25
20.50- 21.50
20.50- 21.00
21.00- 22.00
21.00- 21.50
21.00- 21.50
21.25- 22.00
21.50- 22.00
22.00- 22.50

Sept___

$22.25-$22.75
23.75- 24.25
25.00- 25.50
23.00- 25.50
25.25- 25.50
25.25- 25.50
25.25- 25.50
25.25- 25.50

Jan___

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

17.5018.2518.2518.2518.2518.2518.2518.2518.25-

18.50
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00

June...

J u ly .. .

A u g .. .

21.7521.7521.7521.7522.25-

22.25
22.25
22.25
22.25
22.75

Oct.......

N ov___

Dec.......

Average.

25.7525.7525.7525.7525.7525.2525.2525.2524.50-

26.00
20.00
26.00
26.00
26.00
25.50
25.50
25.50
24.75

F e b ....

M ar....

Price.
$24.50-$24.75
24.00
23.50
23.00- 23.50
23.00- 23.50
23.00- 23.75
24.00-: 25.00
25.00- 25.50
26.0026.0027.0027.0027.75-

26.50
26.50
27.50
28.00
28.00

$21.3438

MILK: Fresh.
[Average monthly exchange price per quart; net price at shipping stations subject to a freight rate to New
York of 26 cents per can of 40 quarts; quotations from the Milk Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.0391
.0363
.0350
.0313

$0.0267
.0225
.0275
.0313

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.......

$0.0350
.0375
.0405
.0425

Average.

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.0338

$0.0412
.0400
.0375

MOLASSES: New Orleans, open kettle.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.28-$0.42
.2S- .42
.28- .42
.28- .42




M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.28-$0.42
.28- .42
.28- .42
.28- .42

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.28-$0.42
.28- .42
.28- .42
.28- .42

Average.

$0.3500

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.32-$0.42
.32- .42
.32- .42

453

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
POULTRY: Dressed, fowls, western, dry picked.
[Price per pound, in New York, each week; quotations from the National Provisioner.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Month.

Price.

1910.
Month.

Price.

$0.14 -10.14* M ay....
.14*
.1 5 - .15*
.15
.14*
.14*- .15 Ju ne...
.14*- .15
.15*- .16
.16

10.16 Sept___
.16*
.17
.16
.16*
.16* Oct.......
.16
.15
.15*

Mar.......

.16 Ju ly....
.16
.16
.16*

Apr.......

.16* A u g ....
.16*
.15
.15*

.15 Nov.......
.15
.16
.16
.16
.16 Dec.......
.17
$0.17- .17*
.18- .18*

Feb.......

Price.

Month.

$0.18 -$0.18* Jan___
.1 8 - .18*
.17*- .18
.17*
.17 F e b ....
.17
.17
.16*
.16*
.16 Mar___
.16
.16
.16*- .17

Price.
$0.17
.16
.17
.17*
.17*
.17*
.18
.18
.18*
$0.18*- .19
.18*
.18*
.18*- .19

.16*- .17
.14*- .17
.17*
.17

Average.

$0.1619

RICE: Domestic, choice, head.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.06 -$0.06*
.06 - .06*
.0 6 - .06*
.06*- .06|

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
Aug—

$0.06*-$0.06* Sept___
. 06*- . 06* Oct.......
.06*- .06* N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.06 -$0.06§ Jan___
.05*- . 06* F e b ....
M a r....
.05|- •05f

Average.

$0.05f-$0.05*
.051- .05|
.05|- .05*

$0.0619

SALT: American, m edium .
[Price per barrel, in Chicago, on Friday of each week; quotations furnished by the secretary of the
Chicago Board of Trade.]
Jan........

Feb.......

$0.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85

$0.72
.72
.72
.72

Sept___

$0.87
.87
.87
.87

Jan___

$0.87
.87
.87
.87

June...

.72
.72
.72
.77

Oct.......

F e b ....

.87
.87
.87
.87

.77
.77
.77
.75
.82
.82
.82
.82
.87

N ov......

.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87

M ar....

.87
.87
.87
.87

May—

Mar.......

.85
.85
.85
.85

Ju ly....

Apr.......

.72
.72
.72
.72
.72

A u g ....




Dec.......

.87
.87
.87
.87
.87

Average.

$0.8175

454

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
SODA: Bicarbonate of, American.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
1909.
Month.

Price.

Price.

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

Month.

1910.
Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

Price.

$0.0100

$0.01
.01
.01

SPICES: Pepper, Singapore.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.06f-$0.06|
.06|- .06|
.06|- .06f
.07*- .07f

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.06*-$0.07*
.06*- .07
. 06*- .06|
.06|- .06|

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.06*-$0.06f Jan___
.07|- .07f F e b ....
. 08 - . 08* M ar....
.08 - .08*

$0.08 -$0.08*
.08 - .08*
.07*- .07|

$0.0711

STARCH: Pure corn, for culinary purposes.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
$0.06
.06
.06
.06

$0.06
.06
.06
.06

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.06
.06
.06
.06

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.0600

$0.06
.06
.06

SUGAR: 89° fair refining.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.44 cents per pound;
quotations from Willett & Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$0.0323 M a y ...
.0323
.0323
.0317
.0317
.0314 June...
.0311
.0311
.0323*
.0323* July....
.0330
.0342
.0342
.0345* A u g ....
.0348*
.0342
.0336
.0342




$0.0336
.0342
.0345
.0342

Sept___

.0339 Oct.......
.0336
.0342
.0342
.0342 Nov.......
.0342
.0342
.0345
.0348*
.0355 Dec.......
.0358
.0361
.0361
Average.

$0.0367 Jan___
.0370
.0371
.0373*
.0373*
.0373* F e b ....
.0377
.0380
.0380
.0380 M ar....
.0395
.0392
.0386
.0383
.0381*
.0367
.0352
.0352
$0.03499

$0.0352
.0361
.0358
.0358
.0367
.0361
.0370
.0386
.0389
.0386
.0386
.0386
.0386

455

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

T a ble

I—W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909,
.
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F O O D , E T C . — Continued.
SUGAR: 96° centrifugal.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.95 cents per pound;
quotations from Willett & Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

Price.

Month.

$0.0373 M a y ...
.0373
.0373
.0367
.0367
.0364 Ju ne...
.0364
.0364
.0373*
.0373* July....
.0380
.0392
.0392
.0398* A u g ....
.0395*
.0392
.0386
.0392

1910.

Price.
$0.0386
.0392
.0395
.0392

Month.
Sept___

.0389 Oct.......
.0386
.0392
.0392
.0392 Nov.......
.0392
.0392
.0395
.0398*
.0405 Dec.......
.0408
.0411
.0411
Average.

Price.

Month.

$0.0417 Jan___
.0420
.0421
.0423*
.0423*
.0423* F e b ....
.0427“
.0430
.0430
.0430 M ar....
.0445
.0442
.0436
.0433
.0431*
.0417
.0402
.0402

Price.
$0.0402
.0417
.0408
.0408
.0417
.0411
.0420
.0436
.0439
.0436
.0436
.0436
.0436

$0.03999

SUGAR: Granulated, In barrels.
[Price per pound, in New York, on Thursday of each week, including import duty of 1.95 cents per pound;
quotations from Willett and Gray’s Weekly Statistical Sugar Trade Journal.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$0.0450
.0445
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0430
.0445
.0445
.0455
.0470
.0470
.0480
.0480
.0480
.0480
.0490




M ay....

$0.0490
.0475
.0470
.0480

Sept___

Ju ne...

.0480
.0460
.0470
.0475
.0470
.0465
.0470
.0470
.0480
.0480
.0480
.0480
.0490

Oct.......

July....

A u g ....

Nov.......

$0.0490
.0490
.0500
.0485
.0485
.0485
.0490
.0490
.0490
.0495
.0500
.0500
.0500

Dec.......

.0500
.0500
.0500
.0480
.0480

Average.

$0.04758

Jan___

$0.0480
.0490
.0490
.0490

F e b ....

.0490
.0490
.0490
.0500
.0510
.0520
.0520
.0520
.0510

Mar___

456

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

F O O D , E T C . —Continued.
TALLOW.
[Price per pound, in New Y ork, on Tuesday of each week; quotations furnished by the statistician of the
New York Produce Exchange.]

[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$0.23-$0.25
.18- .19
.18- .19
.23- .24

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.24-$0.26
.24- .26
.24- .26
.23- .25

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.23-$0.25
.23- .25
.23- .25
.23- .25

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.2329

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.23-$0.25
.23- .25
.23- .25

VEGETABLES, FRESH: Cabbage.
[Price per ton, in New York, each week; quotations from the Producers’ Price Current.]
Jan

Feb.

Mar.

M ay....
$25.00-135.00
30.00- 40.00
30.00- 37.00
33.00- 37.00
32.00- 36.00 J u n e...
30.00- 35.00
32.00- 37.00
45.0055.00
40.00- 45.00
40.00- 45.00
40.00
40.00

Apr.




Sept___

Jan___

Oct,

(a )
a
a
a

F e b ....

July....

Nov.

Aug----

Dec.

Average.
a No quotation for week.

$12.00-$15.00
12.00- 15.00
9.00- 12.00 Mar___
11.00- 13.00
11.00- 13.00
11.0013.00
10.0012.0014.0015.0020. 00-

12.00
16.00
17.00
20.00
22.00

$26.1739

$24.00-128.00
28.00- 30.00
28.00- 30.00
26.00- 28.00
25.0025.0025.0025.00-

28.00
28.00
80.00
80.00

25.0025.0020.0015.00-

30.00
30.00
27.00
25.00

457

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910.—Continued.
F O O D , E T C . —Concluded.
VEGETABLES, FRESH: Onions.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.
Month.

Price.
(a)
(«)
(®)
$1.00-11.50

Price.

Month.

$2.50-$4.50
3.00- 5.50
3.00- 5.50
3.00-5.50

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.75-$2.25
2.00- 2.25
(°)
(«)

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

(a)
(a)
(a)

$3.0893

VEGETABLES, FRESH: Potatoes, white, good to fancy.
[Price per bushel, in Chicago, weekly range; quotations furnished by the secretary of the Chicago Board of
Trade.]
Jan........

Feb.......

$0.60-$0.77
.60- .77
.63- .78
.65- .79
.65- .79
.65- .82
.74- .93
.78- .93
.78- .95

M ay....

June...

Mar.......

.80.80.80.80-

.93
.92
.90
.92

July....

Apr.......

.85.931.001.00-

.97
1.08
1.10
1.10

A u g ....

$0.90-$l. 07
.90- 1.20
.75- 1.50
.70- 1.40
.80- 1.45
.75- 1.40
.50- 1.45
.40- 1.10
.20- .90
.15.15.60.50.50.50.40.38.45-

.78
1.25
.95
.80
.95
.66
.57
.53
.58

Sept___

Oct.......

Nov.......

Dec.......

$0.45-$0.65
.55- .65
.45- .65
.42- .56
.42.35.35.45.36.25.20.15.15-

.55
.53
.53
.55
.48
.48
.50
.50
.50

.20.25.25.30-

Jan___

$0.35-$0.50
.40- .50
.40- .54
.43- .54
.40- .53
.30- .48
.33- .43
.30- .43
.30- .43

.50
.58
.48
.50

Average.

F e b ....

M ar....

.30.30.25.20-

.40
.40
.37
.35

$0.6858

VINEGAR: Cider, Monarch, in barrels.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants Review.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.18
.18
.18
.18

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.18
.18
.18
.18

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.18
.18
.18
.18

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.18
.18
.16

Average.

$0.1800

$0.19* Jan___
.19 F e b ....
.19 M ar....
.19*

$0.19*
.20
.20

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H IN G .
BAGS: 2-bushei, Amoskeag.
[Price per bag on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.18*
.18*
.18*
.18*

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....




$0.18*
.18*
.18*
.19*

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

a No quotation for month.

$0.1883

458
Table

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I— H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
. W
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
BLANKETS: All wool, 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

Month.

Price.

$1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Average.

$1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

Price.

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

Price.

$1.0000

$1.10
1.10
1.10

BLANKETS: Cotton, 10-4, 2 pounds to the pair, 54 by 74.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
$0.50
.50
.50
.50

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.50
.50
.50
.50

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$0.50
.50
.50
.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.55
.55
.55

$0.5000

$1.25 Jan___
1.25 F e b ....
1.22* M ar....
1.22*

$1.20
1.17*
1.17*

BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s brogans, split.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.20
1.15
1.12*
1.12*

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.15
1.20
1.25
1.25

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
Average.

$1.2000

BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s vici calf shoes, Blucher bal., vici calf top, single sole.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
$2.85
2.85
2.95
2.95

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$2.95
2.95
2.95
2.95

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$2.95
2.95
3.05
3.05

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.9500

$3.05
3.05
3.05

BOOTS AND SHOES: Men’s vici kid shoes, Goodyear welt.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.60
2.60
2.60
2.60




M ay. . .
June...
July....
A u g ....

$2.60
2.60
2.60
2.60

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.60
2.60
2.60
2.60

Average.

$2.6000

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.60
2.60
2.60

459

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.
T able

I — W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
.
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
BOOTS AND SHOES: Women’s solid grain shoes, leather, polish or polka.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.
$1.02*
1.02J
1.02|
1.02|

Month.
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
$1.02§
1.05
1.05
1.05

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

Average.

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.0896

$1.05
1.05
1.05

BROADCLOTHS: First quality, black, 54-inch, made from XXX wool.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.98
1.98
1.98
1.98

M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.98
1.98
2.06
2.06

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.06
2.06
2.06
2.06

Average.

Jan.......
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.0200

$2.06
2.06
2.06

CALICO: American standard prints, 64 by 64, 7 yards to the pound.
[Price per yard-on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.0475
.0499
.0499
.0499

M ay....
Ju ne...
July . . .
A u g ....

$0.0499
.0451
.0451
.0475

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0475
.0475
.0475
.0523

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.0523
.0523
.0570

$0.0483

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.2000
1.2000
1.2000

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.5280
.5280
.5280

CARPETS: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.1760
1.1760
1.1760
1.1760

M ay. . .
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov....
Dec.......

$1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000

Average.

$1.1920

CARPETS: Ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....




$0.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280

Average.

$0.5280

460
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I— W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
*
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
CARPETS: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Price.

$2.1840
2.1840
2.1840
2.1840

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

COTTON FLANNELS:

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

Month.

Month.

Price.

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

$2.2160

$0.07$ Jan___
.07$ F e b ....
.07$ M ar....
.07$

$0.09
.09
.09

yards to the pound.

[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.07*
.07$
.07$
.07$

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.07$
.07$
.07$
.07$

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.0754

COTTON FLANNELS: 3$ yards to the pound.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.06$
.06$
.06$
.06$

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.06$
. 06$
.06$
.06$

S e p t....
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
Average.

$0.06$ J a n ....
.06$ F e b ....
.06$ Mar___
.06$
$0.0633

COTTON THREAD: 6-cord, 200-yard spools, J. & P. Coats.
[Price per spool, freight paid, on the first of each month.]
$0.0392
.0392
.0392
.0392

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.0392
.0392
.0392
.0392

S e p t....
Oct.......
N ov.
Dec.......

$0.0392
.0392
.0392
.0392

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

Jan.. . .
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.0392

$0.0392
.0392
.0392

COTTON YARNS: Carded, white, m ule-spun, northern, cones, 10/1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.17$
.17$
.17$
.17$




M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.18
.19$
.20
.20$

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.20$ Jan----.21$ F e b ....
.23 Mar___
.23
$0.1967

$0.23$
.23
.22

461

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.
T able

I— H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
. W
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N O —Continued.
COTTON YARNS: Carded, white, m ule-spun, northern, cones, 22/1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.J
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
«0.20*
.20*
.20*
.20*

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

10.21 Sept___
.21* Oct........
Nov.......
.23* Dec.......

Month.

$0.24 Jan___
.25* F e b ....
.26* M ar....
.25

Average.

Price.
$0.26
.25*
.25

$0.2260

DENIMS: Amoskeag.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0. I lf
.11|
.11|
.11|

$0.11|
.11|
.11|
.13

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.13 Jan___
.13* F e b ....
.14 Mar___
.14*

$0.15
.15
.15

$0.1252

DRILLINGS: Brown, Pepperell.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.07
.07
.07
.07

$0.07*
.07*
.07*
.07*

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.07* Jan___
.07| F e b ....
.08 Mar___
.08*
$0.0738

DRILLINGS: 30-inch, Stark A.
[Average monthly price per yard.]
$0.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750

May .. .
June...
July .. .
Aug—

$0.0778
.0778
.0800
.0800

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0800
.0825
.0825
.0825

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.0825
.0825
.0825

$0.0786

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.4687
.4687
.4687

FLANNELS: White, 4-4, Ballard Vale No. 3.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.4557
.4557
.4557
.4557

M ay . . .
June...
J u ly . . .
A u g ....




$0.4557
.4557
.4557
.4634

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
D ec.......

$0.4634
.4634
.4634
.4687

Average.

$0.4594

462
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I— W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
.
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
GINGHAMS: Amoskeag.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$0.05*
.05*
.05*
.05*

May ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

Price.
$0.05*
.05*
.05*
.06*

Month.
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
D ec.......
Average.

Price.

Month.

$0.06* Jan___
.06* F e b ....
.06* M a r....
.07

Price.
$0.07
.07
.07

$0.0588

GINGHAMS: Lancaster.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.05*
.05f
.05|
.05*

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.05*
.05*
.05*
.06

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
D ec.......
Average.

$0.06 Jan___
.06 F e b ....
.06* M a r....
.06*

$0.06*
.06*
.06*

$0.0596

HORSE BLANKETS: All wool, 6 pounds each.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0,725
.725
.725
.725

$0,725
.725
.725
.725

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0,725
.725
.725
.725

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.7250

$0,775
.775
.775

HOSIERY: Men’s cotton half hose, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, single
.thread, carded yarn.
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.80
.80
.80
.80

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.80 Sept___
.80 Oct.......
.80 N ov.......
.82* Dec.......
Average.

$0.82* Jan___
.82* F e b ....
.82* Mar___
.82*

$0.82*
.82*
.82*

$0.8104

HOSIERY: Women’s cotton hose, high-spliced heel, double sole, full-fashioned, combed
peeler yam .
[Price per dozen pairs maintained throughout the year.]
Year.
1909 ..............................
1910 (January to March)




Price.
$1.77*
1.77*

463

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
H O S IE R Y : W o m e n ’ s c o tto n hose, seam less, fa st bla ck, 2 6 -o u n ce, 176 needles, single thread,
carded yarn.
[Price per dozen pairs on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan.......
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

10.80
.80
.80
.80

M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A ug....

1910.

Price.
$0.80
.80
.80
.82|

Month.

Price.

Month.

$0.82$ Jan___
.82* F e b ....
.82* M ar....
.82*

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

Price.
$0.8*
.82*

$0.8104

L E A T H E R : C h rom e calf, glazed finish, B grade.
[Price per square foot on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan.......
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.21-$0.22
.21- .24
.21- .25
.20- .25

M a y .. .
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.20-$0.25
.20- .26
.20- .26
.20- .27

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.20-$0.27
.20- .27
.20- .29
.20- .29

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.2313

$0.20-$0.29
.20- .29
.18- .27

L E A T H E R : H arness, o a k , packers* hides, heavy N o. 1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.36-$0.38
.36- .38
.36- .38
.36- .38

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.36-$0.38
.37- .39
.37- .39
.38- .40

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.......

$0.38-$0.40
.38- .40
.39- .40
.39- .40

Average.

$0.3808

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.39-$0.40
.39- .40
.39- .40

L E A T H E R : Sole, h e m lo ck , B u en os Aires an d M o n ta n a , m iddle weights, first quality.
[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.25-$0.26
.25- .26
.25- .26
.25- .26

$0.25-$0.26
.25- .26
.25- .26
.25- .26

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.25-$0.26
.25- .26
.25- .26
.25- .26

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

•

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.25-$0.26
.25- .26
.25- .26

$0.2550

L E A T H E R : Sole, o a k , scoured ba ck s, heavy N o. 1.
[Price per pound on the first of each month in the general market; quotations from the Shoe and Leather
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.39-10.40
.41
.41
.41




M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.40
$0.41- .42
.41- .42
.41- .42

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.41-$0.42
.41- .42
.42- .43
.42- .43

Average.

$0.4125

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.42-$0.43
.42- .43
.43- .44

464
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I.— H O LESALE
W

PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
LINEN SHOE THREAD: 10s, Barbour.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

M ay....
June...
_
July_
A u g ....

$0.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

$0.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

Price.

$0.8930

$0.8930
.8930
.8930

OVERCOATINGS: Covert d oth , all wool, double and twist, 14-ounce.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$2,025
2.025
2.025
2.025

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$2,025
2.025
2.025
2.025

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2,025
2.025
2.025
2.025

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2,025
2.025
2.025

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.92*

$2.0250

OVERCOATINGS: Kersey, standard, 28-ounce.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75




$1.75
1.80
1.80
1.80

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.80
1.80
1.80
1.90

Average.

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.7875

PRINT CLOTHS: 28-inch, 64 by 64.
[Average weekly price per yard.]

.

1 9J
2

465

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

Table I .—W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
SHEETINGS: Bleached, 9-4, Atlantic.
[Average monthly price per yard.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

May___
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.2007
.2068
.2062
.2062

1910.

Price.
$0.2062
.2068
.2071
.2092

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.2203
.2143
.2256

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.28
.28
.28

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.34
.34
.34

$0,071 J a n ....
.071 F e b ....
.08 M ar....
.081

$0,081
.081
.081

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.1980
.2062
.2164
.2173

Average.

$0.2073

SHEETINGS: Bleached, 10-4, Pepperell.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.23
.24
.24
.24

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.24
.24
.25
.25

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.26
.27
.28
.28

Average.

$0.2517

SHEETINGS: Bleached, 10-4, W amsutta S. T.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.28
.28
.28
.28

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.28
.28
.28
.28

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.28
.28
32
.32

Average.

$0.2867

SHEETINGS: Brown, 4-4, Indian Head.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.07f
.07|
.07*
.07*

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.071
.071
.071
.071

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.0752

SHEETINGS: Brown, 4-4, Lawrence L. L., 4 yards to the pound.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.05

M ay....
Ju ne...
.051 July....
.051 A u g ....




$0,051
.051
.05|
.05|

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.05f Jan.. . .
.061 F e b ....
.061 M a r....
.06f
$0.0561

$°.06|

.'o f
e

466

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
SHEETINGS: Brown, 4-4, Pepperell R.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$0.06*
.06*
.06|
.06*

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
10.06*
.06*
,06|
.06f

Month.
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

Price.

Month.

$0.07 Jan___
.07* F e b ....
.07! Mar___
.07!

Price.
$0.07f
.07f
.07!

$0.0688

SHIRTINGS: Bleached, 4-4, Fruit of the Loom.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.08! M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

!oI!

$0.08! Sept___
.08! Oct.......
Nov.......
!09J Dec.......
Average.

$0.09* Jan___
.091 F e b ....
.10 Mar___
.10

$0.10
.10
.10

$0.0908

SHIRTINGS: Bleached, 4-4, Lonsdale.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.08*
.08*
.08*
.08*

M ay....
Ju ne...
July___
A u g ....

$0.08*
.08*
.08*
.09

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.09 Jan___
.09 F e b ....
.09* Mar___
.09*

$0.09!
.09!
.09!

$0.0879

SHIRTINGS: Bleached, 4-4, W amsutta <®>
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.10* M ay....
.101 Ju ne...
.101 Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0,101
.101
.101
.101

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.10! Jan___
.10! F e b ....
.11! Mar___
.11!

$0.11!
.11!
.11!

$0.1058

SHIRTINGS: Bleached, 4-4, WUliamsville A l.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.08*
.08*
.08*
.08*

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....




$0.08*
.08*
.08!
.08!

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.08! Jan___
.09 F e b ....
.091 M a r....
.09*
$0.0875

$0.10
.10
.09

467

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

T a ble I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OP COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
SILK: Raw, Italian, classical.
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the American Silk
Journal.]
1909.

1910.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.4055-$4.4550
4.4065- 4.4550
4.4550- 4.5045
4.2570- 4.3065

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$4.3560-14.4055
4.3065- 4.3560
4.4055- 4.4550
4.3808- 4.4550

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$4.5293-14.5540
4.4798- 4.5045
4.2075- 4.2570
4.0590- 4.1085

Average.

$4.3777

Month.

Price.

Jan___ $4.2075-$4.2570
F e b .... 3.9600- 4.0590
Mar___ 3.8115- 3.9105

SILK: Raw, Japan, Kansai No. 1.
[Net cash price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the American Silk
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.0740-$4.1225
4.1710- 4.2195
4.2195- 4.2680
4.1710- 4.2195

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$3.7830-$3.8315
3.7345- 3.7830
3.8315- 3.8800
3.6375- 3.6860

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$3.6375-$3.6860
3.6375- 3.6860
3.4920- 3.5405
3.3950- 3.4435

Average.

$3.8396

Jan___ $3.4920-13.5405
F e b .... 3.4435- 3.4920
Mar___ 3.2980- 3.3465

SUITINGS: Clay worsted diagonal, 12-ounce, W ashington Mills.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475

M ay....
June...
July....
Aug—

$1.1475
1.1475
1.3275
1.3275

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.3275
1.3275
1.3275
1.3275

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.2375

$1.3050
1.3050
1.3050

SUITINGS: Clay worsted diagonal, 16-ounce, W ashington Mills.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.3500
1.3500
1.6200
1.6200

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.6200
1.6200
1.6200
1.6200

Average.

$1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.4850

$1.5075
1.5075
1.5075

SUITINGS: Indigo blue, all wool, 54-inch, 14-ounce, Middlesex standard.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

43431—No. 87— 10-----7




Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750

Average.

$1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750

$1.5750

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.6650
1.6650
1.6650

468

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRIC ES OP COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Continued.
SUITINGS: Serge, W ashington Mills 6700.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.

Price.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

1610.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.9675
.9675
1.1700
1.1700

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
D ec.......

$1.1700
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

Average.

$0.9675
.9675
.9675
.9675

Month.

Price.

Jan___
Feb___
M a r....

$1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

$1.0688

$0,121 Jan___
.121 F e b ....
.121 Mar___
.121

$0.14
.14
.14

TICKINGS: Amoskeag A. C. A.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M a y .. .
June...
J u ly.. .
A u g ....

$0,111
•111
•111
.111

$0,111
.111
•I lf
.121

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
D ec.......
Average.

$0.1181

TROUSERINGS: Fancy worsted, 18 to 19 ounces, all worsted warp and filling, wool and
worsted back.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$2.5875
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

$2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.4844

$2.4750
2.5875
2.5875

UNDERWEAR: Shirts and Drawers, white, all wool, full-fashioned, 18-gauge.
[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]
$27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb . . . .
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$27.0000

$27.00
27.00
27.00

UNDERWEAR: Shirts and Drawers, white, merino, full-fashioned, 60 per cent wool, 40 per
cent cotton, 24-gauge.
[Price per dozen garments on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00




M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

Average.

$18.0000

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$18.00
18.00
18.00

469

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N Q —Continued.
WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Cashmere, all wool, 8-9 twill, 35-lnch, Atlantic Mills.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.
10.3381
.3381
.3381
.3381

Month.
M ay .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
$0.3381
.3381
.3577
.3577

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577

Average.

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.3773
.3773
.3773

$0.3479

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Cashmere, cotton warp, 9-twill, 4-4, Atlantic Mills F.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$0.2205
.2205
.2254
.2254

$0.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.2230

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.2303
.2303
.2303

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Cashmere, cotton warp, 36-inch, Hamilton.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$0.1862
.1862
.1862
.1862

$0.1862
.1911
.1911
.1911

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.1911
.1911
.1911
.1911

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.1911
.1911
.1911

$0.1891

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Panam a cloth, all wool, 54-inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
$0.6983
.6893
.6983
.6983

M ay....
June...
July....
Aug—

$0.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.6983
.7215
.7215
.7215

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.7215
.7215
.7215

$0.7041

WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Poplar cloth, cotton warp and worsted filling, 36-inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900




M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.1900
.1900
.1900
.2000

Average.

$0.1908

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.2000
.2000
.2000

470

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

C L O T H S A N D C L O T H I N G —Concluded.
WOMEN’S DRESS GOODS: Sicilian cloth, cotton warp, 50-inch.
[Price per yard on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

10.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259

May___
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.3259
.3491
.3491
.3491

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.3317

$0.3491
.3491
.3491

WOOL: Ohio, fine fleece (X and XX grade), scoured.
[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the first
of each month.]
$0.7224
.7234
.7234
.7447

M ay....
Ju ne...
July—
Aug—

$0.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.7447
.7447
.7447
.7234

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.7376

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.7234
.7021
.7021

WOOL: Ohio, m edium fleece (one-fourth and three-eighths grade), scoured.
[Price per pound, in the eastern markets (Baltimore, Boston, New York, and Philadelphia), on the first of
each month.]
$0.5139
.5139
.5278
.5417

M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.5556
.5556
.5556
.5417

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.5417
.5556
.5556
.5556

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.5556
.5556
.5417

$0.5429

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.30
1.30
1.27}

WORSTED YARNS: 2-40s, Australian fine.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
$1.25
1.25
1.27}
1.30

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$1.30 S e p t....
1.32} Oct........
1.33 N ov.......
1.35 Dec.......

$1.35
1.35
1.30
1.30

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.3067

WORSTED YARNS: 2-32s, crossbred stock, white, in skein.
[Price per pound on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.82
.84
.85
.87




M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.90
.95
.97
.98

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.98
.98
.98
.96

Average.

$0.9233

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.92}
.92}
.92}

471

W HOLESALE PBICES, 1890 XO M AR C H , 1910.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

FU EL A N D L IG H T IN G .
CANDLES: Adamantine, 6s, 14-ounce.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$0.07*
.07*
.07*
.07*

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.07*
.07*
.07*
.07*

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.07*
.07*
.07*
.07*

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

$0.0725

Jan......
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.07*
.07*
.07*

COAL: Anthracite, broken.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$4.2016
4.2014
4.2000
4.2000

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000

Average.

$4.2003

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$4.2000
4.2000
4.2000

COAL: Anthracite, chestnut.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
$4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4486

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$4.5407
4.6347
4.7376
4.8494

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$4.9266
4.9500
4.9500
4.9495

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.8198

Jan......
F e b ....
Mar___

$4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

COAL: Anthracite, egg.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
$4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4474

M ay....
Ju ne...
July—
A u g ....

$4.5455
4.6436
4.7228
4.8220

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$4.9031
4.8418
4.7685
4.8792

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$4.7853

$4.9186
4.9500
4.9500

COAL: Anthracite, stove.
[Average monthly selling price per ton, at tidewater, New York Harbor.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.9500
4.9486
4.9500
4.4500

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....




$4.5456
4.6293
4.7390
4.8303

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$4.9423
4.9500
4.9500
4.9498

Average.

$4.8196

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

472

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

F U E L A N D L I G H T I N G —Continued.
COAL: Bitum inous, Georges Creek.
[Price per ton, at the mine, on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
F e b .....
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$1.35
1.35
1.35
1.40

_
May_
Ju ne...
July—
A u g ....

1910.
Month.

Price.
$1.40
1.35
1.40
1.40

Price.

Month.

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$1.35
1.35
1.45
1.40

Average.

Price.

$1.3792

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$1.40
1.40
1.40

COAL: Bitum inous, Georges Creek.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. New York Harbor, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.97
3.02
3.02
3.05

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$3.02
3.15
3.19
2.95

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.95
3.11
3.00
3.19

Average.

$3.0517

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$3.11
3.10
3.00

COAL: Bitum inous, Pittsburg (Youghiogheny), lum p.
[Price per bushel, on Tuesday of each week, Cincinnati, afloat; quotations furnished by the superintendent
of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce.]
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

$0.08£ M ay....
.08*
.08*
.08|
.08* June...
.08*
.08|
.08*

.08
.08
.08

Sept___

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

Nov.......

Dec.......

.08
Average.

Jan___

.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

Oct.......

00
©

.08| July....
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08 A u g ....
.08
.08
.08

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

Mar___

F e b ....

$0.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08
.08

$0.0809

COKE: Connellsville, furnace.
[Contract price per ton, f. o. b. at the ovens, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.90-12.00
1.60- 1.65
1.50- 1.85
1.60- 1.85

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....




$1.60-$l. 65
1.50- 1.65
1.60- 1.75
1.70

S e p t ....
Get.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.00
$2.80- 2.90
2.75- 2.90
2.70-2.90

Average.

$2.0021

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$2.60-$2.65
2.40- 2.60
2.50- 2.60

473

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.
T able

I — HO LESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
. W
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

F U E L A N D L I G H T I N G —Concluded.
MATCHES: Parlor, domestic.
[Price per gross of boxes (200s), in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants'
Review.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

Price.

$1.5000

$1.50
1.50
1.50

PETROLEUM: Crude, Pennsylvania.
[Price per barrel, at the wells, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil City Derrick.]
$1.78
1.78
1.78
1.78

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.78
1.68
1.63
1.58

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$1.58
1.58
1.53
1.48

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$1.43
1.40
1.40

$1.6633

PETROLEUM: Refined, in barrels, cargo lots, for export.
[Price per gallon, New York loading, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
May—
June...
July....
Aug—

$0.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850

$0.0850
.0850
.0840
.0825

S e p t....
Oct.......
N ov......
D ec.......

$0.0825
.0825
.0805
.0805

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.0790
.0790
.0790

$0.0835

PETROLEUM: Refined, 150° fire test, water white, in barrels, packages included (jobbing
lots).
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.13*
.13|
.12*
.12*

$0.12*
.12*
.12*
.11*

Sept----Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

$0.11* Jan___
.I l f F e b ....
.I l f M a r....
.I l f

$0.11f
.I l f
•H f

$0.1225

M E T A L S A N D IM P L E M E N T S .
AUGERS: Extra, 1-inch.
[Price per auger, in New York, on the first of each month.|
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0,420
.368
.368
.368




M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0,368
.368
.368
.368

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
D ec.......

$0,368
.368
.368
.368

Average.

$0.3723

Jan___
Feb___
Mar___

$0,330
.330
.330

474
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I — H O LESALE PR IC E S OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909
. W
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
AXES: M. C. O., Yankee, pattern handled.
[Price per ax, in New York, on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.
$0,680
.680
.680
.680

$0,680
.660
.660
.660

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.. ..
Dec.......

$0,660
.660
.660
.660

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M a y ...
June...
July....
A u g ....

Price.

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.6683

$0,625
.625
.625

BAR IRON: Best refined, from store.
[Average monthly price per pound, in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron
and Steel Association.]
$0.0174
.0173
.0162
.0162

M ay .. .
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.0162
.0167
.0167
.0176

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0181
.0191
.0196
.0196

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.0176

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.0196
.0196
.0196

BAR IRON: Com m on to best refined, from mill.
[Price per pound, on the first of each month, f. o. b. Pittsburg; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$0.0142
Jan........
.0142
Feb.......
Mar.......
.0140
Apr....... $0.0130- .0135

$0.0130
May. . .
June... $0.0130- .0135
.0145
J u ly ...
.0145
A u g ....

Sept___
$0.0150
Oct....... $0.0155- .0165
Nov....... .0160- .0165
Dec....... .0170- .0175
Average.

Jan___
$0.0170
F e b ....
.0170
Mar___ $0.0165- .0170

$0.0146

BARB WIRE: Galvanized.
[Average monthly price per hundred pounds, in Chicago; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$2.58
2.58
2.58
2.58

M a y .. .
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$2.08
2.18
2.18
2.28

Sept----Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.28
2.28
2.38
2.33

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.3592

$2.33
2.33
2.33

BUTTS: Loose pin, wrought steel, 3& by 3£ inch.
[Price per pair, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0,090
.090
.090
.090




M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0,090
.090
.090
.090

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0,098
.098
.098
.098

Average.

$0.0927

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0,100
.100
.100

475

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,
T able

I — HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y ,
. W

1909,

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
C H IS E L S : Extra, sock et firm er, 1 -in ch .
[Price per chisel, in New York, on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

10.328
.328
.328
.328

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0,328
.328
.328
.328

Average.

tO. 375
.328
.328
.328

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.3319

$0,250
.250
.250

C O P P E R : In g o t, electrolytic.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$0.1262*
Jan........ $0.1425-$0.1437* M ay....
.1312*
.1337* Ju ne...
Feb.......
Mar....... .1275- .1287* Ju ly.... $0.1300- .1312*
.1300
Apr....... .1250- .1262* A u g ....

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.1325 Jan___
.1300 F e b ....
.1287* Mar___
.1325

Average.

$0.1311

$0.1375
.1362*
.1337*

C O P PE R : Sheet, hot-rolled (base sizes).
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$0.19
.19
.19
.19

M ay .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.19
.17
.17
.17

Sept___
Oct........
N o v ....
Dec.......

$0.17
.17
.17
.18

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.1792

$0.18
.18
.19

C O P PE R W IR E : Bare, N o. 8, B. an d S . gau ge a n d heavier (base sizes).
[Price per pound, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0. 15|
•15*
•14*
. 14*

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0. 14*
. 14f
.15
.15

Sept___
Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec.......
Average.

$0.15 Jan___
. 14* F e b ....
. 14* Mar___
. 15*

$0.15
.15
. 14*

$0.1483

D O O R K N O B S : Steel, bronze-plated.
[Price per pair, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.40
.40
.40
.40

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....




$0.40
.40
.40
.40

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.......

$0.40
.40
.40
.40

Average.

$0.4000

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.40
.40
.40

476

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a ble I . — W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
FILES: 8-inch mill bastard, Nicholson.
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

10.94
.94
.94
.94

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

10.93
.93
.93
.93

Sept......
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.93
.93
.93
.93

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

Price.

$0.9333

$0.93
.93
.93

HAMMERS: Maydole No. 1£.
[Price per hammer, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$0,466
.466
.466
.466

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0,466
.466
.466
.466

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0,466
.466
.466
.466

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.4660

$0,466
.466
.466

LEAD: Pig, desilverized.
[Price per pound, in New York, from store, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $0.0420-$0.0422* M ay.... $0.0420-$0.0425
.0420 Ju ne...
.0435
Feb.......
Mar.......
.0400 July.... .0435- .0440
Apr....... .0410- .0415 A u g .... .0432*- .0435

Sept___ $0.0440-$0.0445
Oct.......
.0437*- .0440
Nov.......
.0440
Dec.......
.0440
Average.

J a n .... $0.0470-$0.0475
F e b .... .0470- .0472*
M ar....
.0465

$0.0429

LEAD PIPE.
[Price per 100 pounds, f. o. b. New York, on first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.70
4.70
4.51
4.66

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$4.75
4.90
4.90
4.90

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$4.90
4.90
4.90
5.13

Average.

$4.8208

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$5.23
5.46
5.46

LOCKS: Com m on mortise, knob lock, 3*-inch.
[Price per lock, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0,166
.166
.166
.166




M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0,166
.166
.166
.150

S e p t....
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$0,150
.150
.150
.150

Average.

$0.1593

J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....

$0,150
.150
.150

477

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,
T able

I— W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
.
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S — Continued.
NAILS: Cut, 8-penny, fence and com m on.

[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from base
prices published in the Iron Age.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

M ay....
Ju ne...
J u ly....
Aug___

$1.75-11.90
1.75- 1.90
1.80- 1.90
1.85- 1.90

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
D ec.......

$1.85
$1.90- 1.95
1.90- 1.95
1.90

Average.

$1.85
1.85
1.90
$1.80- 1.90

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.8688

$1.95
1.90
1.95

NAILS: Wire, 8-penny, fence and com m on.
[Price per 100-pound keg, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations computed from base
prices published in the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.05
2.05
2.05
2.05

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.70
1.80
1.80
1.90

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.9167

$1.95
1.95
1.95

PIG IRON: Bessemer.
[Average monthly price per ton in Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and Steel
Association.]
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$15.84
16.02
16.40
17.02

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$18.05
19.52
19.90
19.90

Average.

$17.34
16.77
16.34
15.80

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$17.4083

$19.90
19.34
18.60

828

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

PIG IRON: Foundry No. 1.
[Average monthly price per ton in Philadelphia; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and
Steel Association.]
$17.75
17.50
16.87
16.70

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$16.56
16.94
17.05
17.56

S e p t....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$18.55
19.19
19.50
19.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$17.8058

$19.50
19.19
18.50

PIG IRON: Foundry No. 2 , northern.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Pittsburg, on the first of each month, quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.

$16.40
$15.90- 16.15
15.90
14.90- 15.15




May.
June,
July.
Aug.

$14.90-$15.15
15.40- 15.65
15.90- 16.15
16.15

Sept___
O ct..
N ov..
D ec..

$16.40-$16.65
17.90- 18.15
18.15- 18.40
17.90- 18.15

Average.

$16.4104

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$17.90
17.90
17.15

478

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
PIG IRON: Gray forge, southern, coke.
[Price per ton, f. o. b. Cincinnati, on the first of each month, quotations from the Iron Age.]
1909.

1910.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$14.75-S15.25
14.75
13.75- 14.25
13.25- 13.75

M ay....
June...
July_
_
A u g ....

$13.75-$14.00
13.25- 13.50
14.00- 14.25
15.00- 15.25

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$14.75-$15.25
16.75- 17.25
17.00
16.50

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

Average.

$14.9375

Price.
$16.50-$16.75
16.00
15.75

PLANES: Bailey No. 5, jack plane.
[Price per plane, in New York, on the first of each month.]
$1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
D ec.......

$1.53
1.53
1.53
1.53

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.5300

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$1.
1.
1.

QUICKSILVER.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.63
.63
.62
.62

M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.62
.62
.60
.60

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.60
.63
.69
.72

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.6317

$0.72
.69
.69

SAWS: Crosscut, Disston No. 2 , 6-foot.
[Price per saw to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

Average.

$1.6038

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

SAWS: Hand, Disston No. 7, 136-inch.
[Price per dozen to small jobbers, f. o. b. Philadelphia, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95




M ay. . .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$12.95
12.95
12.95
12.95

Average.

$12.9500

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$12.95
12.95
12.95

479

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T able I — W HOLESALE PRIC ES OP COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
SHOVELS: Ames No. 2 , cast steel, D handle, square point, hack strap, black.
[Price per dozen on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.

Price.
$7.62
7.62
7.62
7.62

Month.

Price.
$7.62
7.62
7.62
7.62

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$7.62
7.62
7.62
7.62

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

1910.
Month.

Price.

$7.6200

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$7.62
7.62
7.84

SILVER: Bar, fine.
[Average monthly price per ounce, in New York; quotations furnished by the Director of the Mint.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.52365
.52083
.51092
.52057

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.53530
.53543
.51668
.51745

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.52067
.51591
.51317
.52908

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.52164

$0.53080
.52229
.52105

SPELTER: Western.
[Price per pound, In New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........ $0.0520-$0.0525
Feb....... .0510- .0515
Mar.......
.0480
.0482*
Apr.......

M ay.... $0.0525-$0.0575
.0520
June...
.0535
July....
.0560
A u g ....

$0.0585
S e p t....
Oct........ $0.0590- .0600
Nov.......
.0630
Dec.......
.0640
Average.

Jan.. . . $0.0625-$0.0630
F e b ....
.0612*
M a r....
.0575

$0.0551

STEEL BILLETS.
[Average monthly price per ton, at mills at Pittsburg; quotations from the Bulletin o f the American Iron
and Steel Association.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$25.00
25.00
23.00
23.00

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$23.00
23.00
23.40
24.12

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$25.00
26.25
27.12
27.50

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$24.6158

$27.50
27.50
27.50

STEEL RAILS.
[Price per ton, at mills in Pennsylvania; quotations from the Bulletin of the American Iron and Steel
Association.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00




M ay....
Ju ne...
J u ly....
A u g ....

$28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$28.00
28.00
28.00
28.00

Average.

$28.0000

J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....

$28.00
28.00
28.00

480

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I — HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
. W

T able

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T A L S A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Continued.
STEEL SHEETS: Black, No. 27, box annealed, one pass through cold rolls.
[Price per pound, in Pittsburg, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Price.

$0.0240
.0240
.0225
.0215

M ay....
June...
July_
_
A u g ....

$0.0215
.0215
.0215
.0215

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0215
.0225
.0225
.0235

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.0223

$0.0235
.0235
.0235

TIN: Pig.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
$0.2912*
.2790
.2862*
.2925

M ay.... $0.2910-$0.2915
.2900
Ju ne...
.2900
July....
.2950
A u g ....

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.3025
.3050
.3040
.3225

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.2958

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.3315
.3250
.3287*

TIN PLATES: Domestic, Bessemer, coke, 14 by 20 inch.
[Price per 100 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
M ay....
Ju ne...
July—
A u g ....

$3.64
3.64
3.64
3.64

$3.89
3.89
3.89
3.64

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$3.64
3.74
3.75
3.84

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$3.7367

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$3.84
3.84
3.84

TROWELS: M. C. O., brick, lOJ-inch.
[Price per trowel, in New York, on the first of each month.)
$0.34
.34
.34
.34

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.34
.34
.34
.34

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.34
.34
.34
.34

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.3400

J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.34
.34
.34

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$4.60
4.60
4.60

VISES: Solid box, 50-pound.
[Price per vise, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$4.60
4.60
4.60
4.60

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....




$4.60
4.60
4.60
4.60

S e p t....
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$4.60
4.60
4.60
4.60

Average.

$4.6000

481

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.
T able

I — HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
. W
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

M E T AILS A N D I M P L E M E N T S —Concluded.
WOOD SCREWS: 1-inch, No. 10, flat head.
[Price per gross, in New York, on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

10.100
.100
.108
.108

Price.

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

10.135
.135
.135
.135

Average.

10.108
.108
.108
.108

Month.

Price.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.1157

10.135
.150
.150

ZINC: Sheet, ordinary numbers and sizes, packed in 600-pound casks.
[Price per hundred pounds, f. o. b. La Salle, 111., on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$6.21
6.34
6.34
6.78

M a y .. .
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g....

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$6.90
7.12
7.36
7.36

Average.

$6.44
6.44
6.21
6.21

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$6.6425

$7.36
6.95
7.13

L U M B E R A N D B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S .
BRICK: Com m on domestic building.
[Price per thousand, on dock in New York, from the first to the last of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
Ju ne...
July—
Aug—

$7.75-$7.25
7.00- 6.50
6.00- 5.50
5.00- 5.50

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$6.00-$5.50
5.25- 5.75
5.75- 6.25
5.50- 7.00

Average.

$6.50-$7.00
7.50- 7.00
6.50
7.25- 7.50

$6.3854

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$7.00-$6.50
6.75- 7.00
5.75- 6.25

CARBONATE OF LEAD: American, in oil.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637

Average.

$0.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.0637

$0.0686
.0686
.0686

CEMENT: Portland, domestic.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45




May___
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$1.33
1.33
1.33
1.43

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.43
1.43
1.43
1.43

Average.

$1.4117

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.43
1.43
1.43

482

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . — W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

L U M B E R A N D B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S —Continued.
CEMENT: Rosendale.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

Month.

Price.

$0.95
.95
.95
.95

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$0.95
.95
.95
.95

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.95
.95
.95
.95

Price.

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

Price.

$0.9500

$0.95
.95
.95

DOORS: Western white pine, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, If inches thick, 5-panel,
No. 1, O. G.
[Price per door, f. o. b. Chicago, on the first of each month.]
$1.74
1.74
1.74
1.81

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.81
1.81
1.81
1.81

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
D ec.......

$1.81
1.74
1.74
1.74

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.7750

$1.81
1.81
1.81

HEMLOCK: Base sizes.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
$20.00
20.50
20.50
20.50

M a y ...
June...
Ju ly.. .
A u g ....

$20.50
20.50
20.50
20.50

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$20.50
21.00
21.00
21.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$20.5833

$21.00
21.00
21.00

LIME: Rockport, com m on.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.02-$1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$1.02-$1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.02-$1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.0450

$1.02-$1.07
1.02- 1.07
1.02- 1.07

LINSEED OIL: Raw, city, in barrels.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.50
.55
.56
.56




M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.56
.59
.61
.61

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.57
.57
.63
.65

Average.

$0.5800

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.76
.77
.77

483

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910.

T a ble I __ W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

L U M B E R A N D B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S —Continued.
MAPLE: Hard, 1-inch, firsts and seconds, 6 inches and up wide.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
1909.

1910.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$30.00-132.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$30.00-132.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$30.00-$32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

Jan___
Feb___
Mar___

Average.

$31.0000

Price.
$30.00-$32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

OAK: White, plain, 1-inch, 6 inches and up wide.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$45.00-$48.00
45.00- 48.00
45.00- 48.00
47.50- 50.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$50.00-$52.00
50.00- 52.00
50.00- 52.00
52.00- 54.00

Average.

$47.00-$48.00
45.00- 48.00
45.00- 48.00
45.00- 48.00

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$52.00-$54.00
52.00- 54.00
54.00- 56.00

$48.4167

OAK: White, quartered, clear and good seconds, 6 inches and up wide, 10 to 16 feet long.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$80.00-$84.00
80.00- 84.00
80.00- 84.00
80.00- 84.00

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$85.00-$86.00
85.00- 86.00
85.00- 86.00
85.00- 86.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$85.00-$86.00
85.00- 86.00
85.00- 86.00
85.00- 86.00

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$84.3333

$85.00-$86.00
86.00- 90.00
86.00- 90.00

OXIDE OF ZINC: American, extra dry.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.05* M ay....
Ju ne...
‘ 054 Ju ly....
A u g ....
.0

$0.05* Sept___
Oct........
*051 Nov.......
.05* Dec.......
Average.

$0.05* Jan----.05* F e b ....
.05| M ar....
.05*

10.

$0.0517

PINE: White, hoards, No. 2 ham , 1-inch, 10 inches wide, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
$36.00-$36.50
36.50- 37.50
36.50- 37.50
36.50- 37.50

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

43431—No. 8 7 -1 0 -----8




$36.50-$37.50
36.50- 37.50
36.50- 37.50
36.50- 37.50

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$36.50-$37.50
36.50- 37.50
37.50- 38.50
37.50- 38.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$37.1042

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—

$37.50-$38.50
37.50- 38.50
37.50- 38.50

484

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

L U M B E R A N D B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S —Continued.
PINE: White, boards, uppers, 1-inch, 8 inches and up wide, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
1909.

1910.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$92.50-193.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$92.50-$93.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50

Average.

Month.

$93.0417

$92.50-S94.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50
92.50- 93.50

Price.

PINE: Yellow, flooring, B, heart face, rift sawn, 1 inch thick,

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

Price.
$93.50-$97.50
93.50- 97.50
93.50- 97.50

inches wide (counted 3 inches).

[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$45.00-$46.00
45.00- 46.00
45.00- 46.00
45.00- 46.00

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$45.00-$46.00
45.00- 46.00
45.00- 46.00
45.00- 46.00

Average.

Jan........ $43.00-$44.00
Feb.......
47.00- 48.00
Mar....... > 47.00- 48.00
Apr.......
47.00- 48.00

$45.8333

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$45.00-$46.00
46.00- 47.00
46.00- 47.00

PINE: Yellow, siding, long leaf, boards, heart face, 1-inch and li-in c h .
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$32.00-$33.00
32.00- 33.00
32.00- 33.00
32.00- 33.00

$32.00-$33.00
32.00- 33.00
35.00- 36.00
36.00- 37.00

Sept___
O ct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$36.00-$37.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

Average.

M ay....
Ju ne...
July_
_
A u g .:..

$33.0417

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$30.00-$32.00
30.00- 32.00
30.00- 32.00

PLATE GLASS: Polished, glazing, area 3 to 5 square feet.
[Price per square foot, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.20
.20
.20
.18

$0.18
.18
.18
.18

S e p t ....
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.22
.22
.24
.24

Average.

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$0.2017

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.24
.25
.25

PLATE GLASS: Polished, glazing, area 5 to 10 square feet.
[Price per square foot, f. o. b. New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.30
.30
.30
.26




M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$0.26
.26
.26
.26

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.28
.28
.30
.32

Average.

$0.2817

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.32
.35
.35

485

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T able I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
L U M B E R A N D B T J I L D I N O M A T E R I A L S — Continued.
POPLAR: Yellow, 1-inch, 8 inches and up wide, firsts and seconds, rough.
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
1909.
Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$57.00-160.00
55.00- 58.00
55.00- 58.00
55.00- 58.00

M a y ...
June...
J u ly'...
A u g ....

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

$55.00-$58.00 Sept___
55.0058.00
Oct.......
55.00- 58.00 N o v ___
57.00- 59.00 Dec.......

$58.00-$60.00
58.00- 60.00
58.00- 60.00
58.00- 60.00

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

Average.

$57.6250

Price.
$58.00-$60.00
58.00- 60.00
58.00- 60.00

PUTTY: Bulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay. . .
June...
Ju ly . . .
A u g ....

$0.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120

Average.

$0.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.0120

$0.0120
.0115
.0115

ROSIN: Com m on to good, strained.
[Price per barrel, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$3.25-13.30
3.30-3.35
3.00- 3.35
3.25- 3.30

M ay. . .
June...
Ju ly . . .
Aug—

$3.30
3.25
3.00
3.25

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$3.50
4.25
$4.20- 4.25
4.15- 4.20

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$3.5000

$4.15-$4.25
4.40
4.55

SHINGLES: Cypress, all heart, 5 and 6 Inches wide, 16 inches long.
[Price per M, f. o. b. mills, on the first of each month.]
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$3.35
3.35
3.20
3.20

$3.20
3.10
3.10
3.10

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$3.25
3.35
3.50
3.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$3.2667

$3.60
3.85
3.85

SHINGLES: Red cedar, clears, random width, 16 inches long.
[Average monthly price at mills in Washington.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.05
2.05
1.95
1.85

M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....




$1.90
1.95
2.00
2.20

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.15
1.95
1.95
2.05

Average.

$2.0042

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.05
2.10
2.15

486

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

L U M B E R A N D B U I L D I N G M A T E R I A L S —Concluded.
SPRUCE: 6 to 9 inch, cargoes*
[Price per M feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Lumber Trade
Journal.]
1909.

1910.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Month.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$22.00-$25.00
22.00- 25.00
25.00- 28.00
25.00- 28.00

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$25.00-128.00
25.00- 28.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

Average.

$25.2500

Price.
$24.00-$26.00
24.00- 26.00
24.00- 26.00

TAR.
[Price per barrel, in Wilmington, N. C., on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal
of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$1.75
1.50
1.20
1.50

M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.50
1.50
1.60
1.50

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$2.00
1.80
1.80
% 00

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.6375

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$2.00
2.00
2.00

TURPENTINE: Spirits of, in m achine barrels*
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of Com­
merce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.41*
.45
.42*
.40*

M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.40 -$0.40| Sept___
Oct.......
.46 - .*46* N ov___
.51*- .52 Dec.......
Average.

$0.59* Jan___
.62 F e b ....
$0.60- .60* M a r....
.57

$0.59-$0.59*
.63- .63*
.63

$0.4908

WINDOW GLASS: American, single, firsts, 25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches).
[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.56
2.40
2.40
2.24

M ay.. .
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$2.24
2.24
2.24
2.24

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.......

$2.24
2.24
2.40
2.40

Average.

$2.3200

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.88
2.88
2.88

WINDOW GLASS: American, single, thirds, 25-inch bracket (6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches).
[Price per 50 square feet, in New York, on the first of each month, quotations from the Oil, Paint, and
Drug Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.0400
1.9125
1.9125
1.7850




M a y ...
June...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
D ec.......

$1.7850
1.7850
1.9125
1.9125

Average.

$1.8488

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$2.2950
2.2950
2.2950

487

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

D R U G S A N D C H E M IC A L S .
ALCOHOL: Grain.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.
$2.59
2.63
2.63
2.63

Month.

Price.

M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$2.65
2.60
2.60
2.60

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$2.63
2.63
2.61
2.61

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

Price.

$2.6175

$2.61
2.61
2.61

ALCOHOL: Wood, refined, 95 per cent.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
M a y .. .
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.50
.50
.50
.50

$0.50
.50
.50
.50

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.50
.50
.50
.50

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.5000

$0.50
.50
.50

ALUM: Lump.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
$0.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

M ay.. .
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

$0.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.0175

$0.0175
.0175
.0175

BRIMSTONE: Crude, seconds.
[Price per ton, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug Reporter.]
$22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00

M ay .. .
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00-

S e p t....
Oct........
N o v .. . .
Dec.......

$22.00
22.00
22.00
22.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$22.00
22.00
22.00

$22.0000

GLYCERIN: Refined, chemically pure, in hulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.16*
.16
.151
.15i

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....




$0.14f
.15f
.17*
.18

Sept___
Oct........
N ov___
Dec.......
Average.

$0.18* Jan___
.18* F e b ....
.18| M ar....
.19
$0.1700

$0.19*
.19|
.20

488

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I . —W H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.
D R U G S A N D C H E M I C A L S — Concluded.
MURIATIC ACID: 30°.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

10.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

10.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

10.0135
.0135
.0130
.0130

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

10.0134

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

10.0130
.0130
.0130

OPIUM: Natural, in cases.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

14.35
4.37|
4.35
4.40

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

14.25
4.25
4.20
4.00

Sept----Oct........
N ov ___
Dec.......

$4.40
5.00
5.75
6.00

Average.

$4.6104

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$5.75
5.65
5.45

QUININES American, in 100-ounce tins.
[Price per ounce, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
$0.15
.14
.14
.14

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.14
.14
.14
.14

Sept___
Oct........
N o v .__
Dec.......

$0.14
.14
.14
.14

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.1408

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.14
.14
.14

SULPHURIC ACID: 66°.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

M ay....
Jan___
July_
_
A u g ....

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

S e p t....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.01
.01
.01
.01

Average.

$0.0100

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.01
.01
.01

H O U S E F U R N IS H IN G G O O D S .
EARTHENWARE: Plates, cream-colored, 7-inch.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.43
.43
.43
.43

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....




$0.43
.43
.43
.43

S e p t ....
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.43
.43
.43
.43

Average.

$0.4300

J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.43
.43
.43

489

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T a ble I . — W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.
H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S —Continued.
EARTHENWARE: Plates, white granite, 7-inch.
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
10.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g....

1910.

Price.

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

Average.

$0.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

Price.

$0.4586

$0.4586
.4586
.4586

EARTHENWARE: Teacups and saucers, white granite, with handles.
[Price per gross (6 dozen cups, and 6 dozen saucers), f. o. b. Trenton, N. J., on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

M a y ...
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$3.3869

$3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

FURNITURE: Bedroom sets, 3 pieces, iron bedstead, hard-wood dresser and washstand.
[Price per set, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A p r.......

$10.75
10.75
10.75
10.75

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$10.75
10.75
10.75
10.75

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$10.75
10.75
11.50
11.50

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$10.8750

$11.50
11.50
11.50

FURNITURE: Chairs, bedroom, maple, cane seat.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$9.00
9.00
9.00
9.00

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g ....

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$9.00
9.00
9.00
9.00

Average.

$9.00
9.00
9.00
9.00

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$9.00
9.00
9.00

$9.0000

FURNITURE: Chairs, kitchen, com m on spindle.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$6.00
6.00
5.50
5.50




M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$5.50
5.50
5.50
5.50

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$5.50
5.50
5.50
5.50

Average.

$5.5833

J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___

$5.50
5.50
5.50

490

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T a b l e I . — W HOLESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,

TO M ARCH, 1910— Continued.

H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S —Continued.
F U R N IT U R E : Tables, kitch en , 3£-foot.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month.]
1910.

1909.
Month.

Month.

Price.

Price.

Month.

Price.

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

Sept___
Oct.......
N ov.......
Dec.......

$18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.

$18.0000

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$18.00
19.50
19.50

G L A S S W A R E : Nappies, 4 -in ch .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.12
.12
.12
.12

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.12
.12
.12
.12

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.11
.11
.11
.11

Average.

$0.1170

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.11
.11
.11

G L A S S W A R E : Pitchers, o n e -h a lf gallon, c o m m o n .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.05
1.05
1.05
1.05

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.05
1.00
1.00
1.00

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.00
.90
.90
.90

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.9960

$0.80
.80
.80

G L A S S W A R E : T u m blers, table, on e-th ird p in t, c o m m o n .
[Price per dozen, f. o. b. factory, on the f.rst of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.15
.15
.15
.15

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.15
.12
.12
.12

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.13
.13
.12
.12

Average.

$0.1342

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.12
.12
.12

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.75
.75
.75

TA BLE C U T L E R Y : Carvers, stag handles.
[Price per pair on the first of each month.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.75
.75
.75
.75




M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.75
.75
.75
.75

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.75
.75
.75
. .75

Average.

$0.7500

491

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

Table I.— W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910—Continued.

H O U S E F U R N I S H I N G G O O D S —Concluded.
TABLE CUTLERY: Knives and forks, cocobolo handles, metal bolsters.
[Price per gross on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.

Month.

$5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
$5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00

Average.

Month.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

Price.

$5.0000

$5.00
5.00
5.00

WOODENWARE: Palls, oak-grained, 3-hoop, wire ear.
[Price per dozen, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan.......
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$2.10
1.90
1.90
1.90

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90

Average.

$1.90
1.90
1.90
1.90

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$1.9167

$1.90
1.90
1.90

WOODENWARE: Tubs, oak-grained, 3 in nest.
[Price per nest of 3, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan.......
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65

Average.

$1.65
1.65
1.65
1.65

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.6500

$1.65
1.65
1.65

M I S CEL.LANEOTJS.
COTTON-SEED MEAL.
[Price per ton of 2,000 pounds, in New York, on the first of each month.]
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

$28.85
29.10
29.60
31.10

$31.85
33.85
33.85
33.85

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$33.85
30.60
33.10
34.85

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$36.40
36.40
36.00

$32.0375

COTTON-SEED OIL: Sum m er yellow, prime.
[Price per gallon, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.3975
.4200
.4125
.4038




May_
_
June...
July....
A u g ....

$0.4225
.4313
.4263
.4050

Sept----Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.4388
.4588
.5288
.5338

Average.

$0.4399

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.5625
.5213
.5538

492

BU LLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a ble I . —W HO LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A RY. 1909,
TO M ARCH, 1910—Continued.

M I S C E L L A N E O U S —Continued.
JUTE: Raw, M-double triangle, shipm ent, m edium grade.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Price.
$0.03$
.03
.03|
.03|

Month.
M ay....
June...
July....
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
10.03$
.03
.03$
.03$

Month.
Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......
Average.

Price.

Month.

10.03$ Jan___
.03f F e b ....
.03$ M ar....
.03$

Price.
$0.03$
.03$
•03$

$0.0318

MALT: Western made.
[Price per bushel, in New York, on the last of each month; quotations from the Brewers' Journal.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.73-$0.77
.74- .80
.74- .80
.75- .80

M a y ...
Ju ne...
J u ly . . .
A u g ....

$0.82-$0.86
.86- .89
.78- .82
.78- .82

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.73-$0.78
.70- .76
.70- .78
.80- .87

Average.

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.7867

$0.84-$0.91
.82- .89
.81- .86

PAPER: News, wood.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month: quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........ $0.0205-$0.0250
Feb....... .0205- .0250
Mar....... .0200- .0250
A pr....... .0185- .0210

M a y ... $0.0185-$0.0210
Ju ne... .0185- .0210
Ju ly . . . .0185- .0210
A u g .... .0185- .0210

Sept___ $0.0185-$0.0210
Oct.......
.0185- .0210
Nov....... .0185- .0210
Dec....... .0190- .0200
Average.

Jan___ $0.0190-$0.0200
F e b ....
.0190- .0200
M a r....
.0185- .0200

$0.0205

PAPER: Wrapping, manila, No. 1, jute.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
A pr.......

$0.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475




M ay. . .
Ju ne...
Ju ly. . .
A u g ....

$0.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475

Average.

$0.0475

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$0.0475
.0475
.0475

493

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a ble I . —W HOLESALE PRICES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909,
TO MARCH, 1910— Continued.

M I S C E L L A N E O U S —Continued.
PROOF SPIRITS.
[jPrice per gallon, including tax, in Peoria, III., on Tuesday of each week; quotations from the Peoria
Herald Transcript.]
1910.

1909.
Month.
Jan........

Feb.......

Mar.......

Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$1.37
1.35
1 35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35

M ay....

Ju ne...

Ju ly....

A u g ....

Month.

Price.
$1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37

Month.

Price.
$1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.37
1.35
1.35

Oct.......

N ov.......

Dec.......

Average.

Jan___

1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35

Sept___

M a r....

F e b ....

Price.
$1.35
1.35
1,35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.35

$1.3575

ROPE: Manila, base sizes.
[Price per pound, f. o.b. New York or factory, on the first of each month; quotations from the Iron Age.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.08f-$0.09
.081- .081
.081- .081
.081- -081

M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
Aug—

w; i f

i

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.081-$0.081 Jan___
.08 - .081 F e b ....
.08 - .081 M ar....
.08 - .081

Average.

$0.08-$0.081
.08
.08

$0.0841

RUBBER: Para Island, new.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the New York Journal of
Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.]
$1,151
$1.15- 1.16
1.21- 1.22
1.18- 1.19

M ay....
Ju ne...
July_
_
Aug—

$1.23-$l. 231
1.33- 1.34
1.42- 1.44
1.84r- 1.85

Sept___
Oct.......
Nov.......
Dec.......

$1.70-$1.72
1.97- 2.00
1.79- 1.83
1.70- 1.73

Average.

Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$1.4810

Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

$1.68-$l.71
1.79
1.99- 2.00

SOAP: Castile, mottled, pure.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Oil, Paint, and Drug
Reporter.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0,071
.071
.11
.11




M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly ...
A u g ....

$0.11
.11
.11
.11

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.11
.11
.11
.11

Average.

$0.1042

Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

$0.11
.11
.11

494
T able

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

I — H O LESALE PRIC ES OF COMMODITIES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909,
. W
TO MARCH, 1910— Concluded.

M I S C E L L A N E O U S — Concluded.
STARCH: Laundry, 40-pound boxes, in bulk.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; c uotation from the Merchants’ Review.]
1909.
Month.
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

Month.

Price.
$0.04
.04*
.04*
.04*

M a y .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

1910.

Price.
$0.04*
.04*
.04*
.04*

Month.

Price.

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.04
.04
.04
.04

Average.

Month.
Jan—
F e b ....
M a r....

Price.

$0.0429

$0.04
.04
.04

TOBACCO: Plug, Climax.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.47
.47
.47
.47

M ay.. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.47
.47
.47
.47

Sept___
Oct........
Nov.......
Dec.......

$0.47
.47
.47
.47

Average.

Jan----F e b ....
Mar___

$0.47

$0.47
.47
.47

TOBACCO: Sm oking, granulated, Sea* of North Carolina.
[Price per pound, in New York, on the first of each month; quotations from the Merchants’ Review.]
Jan........
Feb.......
Mar.......
Apr.......

$0.60
.60
.60
.60




M ay .. .
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....

$0.60
.60
.60
.60

Sept___
Oct........
N ov.......
Dec.......

$0.60
.60
.60
.60

Average.

$0.60

Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....

$0.60
.60
.60

495

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899).

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.

Year or month.

Barley: by
sample.

Cattle: steers, Cattle: steers,
choice to extra. good to choice.

Com: cash.

Cotton: upland,
middling.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
bushel. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. bushel. price. pound. price.
100.0
111.6
134.5
112.2
103.3
113.2
94.8
65.7
71.2
95.9
97.6
106.2
129.8
139.4
121.2
116.9
107.0
112.8
169.0
161.8
148.7

$5.3203
4.8697
5.8851
5.0909
5.5211
5.1591
5.4849
4.5957
5.2255
5.3779
5.9928
5.7827
6.1217
7.4721
5.5678
5.9562
5.9678
6.1298
6.5442
6.8163
7.3394

100.0
91.5
110.6
95.7
103.8
97.0
103.1
86.4
98.2
101.1
112.6
108.7
115.1
140.4
104.7
112.0
112.2
115.2
123.0
128.1
138.0

$4.7347
4.1375
5.0976
4.4995
4.8394
4.5245
4.9344
4.2712
4.7736
4.8846
5.3851
5.3938
5.5901
6.5572
5.0615
5.1923
5.2192
5.3572
5.8120
5.9976
6.4529

100.0
87.4
107.7
95.0
102.2
95.6
104.2
90.2
100.8
103.2
113.7
113.9
118.1
138.5
106.9
109.7
110.2
113.1
122.8
126.7
136.3

$0.3804
.3950
.5744
.4500
.3964
.4326
.3955
.2580
.2546
.3144
.3333
.3811
.4969
.5968
.4606
.5046
.5010
.4632
.5280
.6843
.6677

.6400
.6469
.6694
.6590
.7233
.7994
.7200
.6463
.6375
.6280
.6469
.6850

141.2
142.7
147.6
145.3
159.5
176.3
158.8
142.5
140.6
138.5
142.7
151.1

6.8750
6.7250
6.9550
6.7625
7.0550
6.9500
6.9313
7.3300
7.7688
8.1625
8.3400
8.1375

129.2
126.4
130.7
127.1
132.6
130.6
130.3
137.8
146.0
153.4
156.8
153.0

6.0688
5.9688
6.3350
6.1125
6.5850
6.5063
6.3125
6.4850
6.7500
6.8875
6.7375
6.5875

128.2
126.1
133.8
129.1
139.1
137.4
133.3
137.0
142.6
145.5
142.3
139.1

.7269
.7125
.6931

160.3
157.1
152.9

7.5050
7.5250
8.1900

141.1
141.4
153.9

6.3050
6.5250
7.4200

133.2
137.8
156.7

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.4534
.5062
1890...........................
.6098
1891...........................
1892...........................
.5085
1893...........................
.4685
1894...........................
.5134
1895...........................
.4300
1896...........................
.2977
.3226
1897...........................
1898...........................
.4348
1899...........................
.4425
1900...........................
.4815
.5884
1901...........................
1902...........................
.6321
.5494
1903...........................
.5300
1904...........................
.4850
1905...........................
.5116
1906...........................
.7663
1907...........................
.7336
1908...........................
.6740
1909...........................

100.0 $0.07762
103.8
.11089
151.0
.08603
118.3
.07686
104.2
.08319
.07002
113.7
104.0
.07298
.07918
67.8
.07153
66.9
.05972
82.6
87.6
.06578
100.2
.09609
130.6
.08627
.08932
156.9
121.1
.11235
132.6
.12100
131.7
.09553
121.8
.11025
138.8
.11879
179.9
.10463
175.5
.12107

100.0
142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.0
134.8
156.0

.5913
.6294
.6603
.6910
.7488
.7435
.7091
.6795
.6757
.6069
.6265
.6410

155.4
165.5
173.6
181.7
196.8
195.5
186.4
178.6
177.6
159.5
164.7
168.5

.09613
.09850
.09780
.10513
.11313
.11520
.12800
.12760
.13038
.13900
.14790
.15300

123.8
126.9
126.0
135.4
145.7
148.4
164.9
164.4
168.0
179.1
190.5
197.1

.6506
.6453
.6245

171.0
169.6
164.2

.14850
.14700
.15040

191.3
189.4
193.8

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




496

BULLETIN OP TH E BUBEAU OP LABOB,

T able I . A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OP
I—
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.

Year or month.

Hides: green,
Flaxseed: No. 1. Hay: timothy, salted, packers’ ,
No. 1.
heavy native
steers.

Hogs: heavy. ] Hogs: light.

Average Rela> Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton.
bushel. price.
price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.1132
1.3967
1890...........................
1891........................... 1.0805
1892...........................
1.0179
1893...........................
1.0875
1894........................... 1.3533
1895........................... 1.2449
.8119
1896...........................
.8696
1897...........................
1.1115
1898...........................
1899........................... 1.1578
1900...........................
1.6223
1901...........................
1.6227
1902...........................
1.5027
1903...........................
1.0471
1904...........................
1.1088
1905...........................
1.1979
1906...........................
1.1027
1907...........................
1.1808
1908...........................
1.2019
1909...........................
1.5652

100.0 $10.4304
9.9952
125.5
97.1 12.2861
91.4 11.8375
97.7 11.2067
121.6 10.4183
111.8 11.3844
72.9 10.3269
8.4423
78.1
99.8
8.3317
104.0 10.0745
145.7 11.5673
145.8 12.8255
135.0 12.6154
94.1 12.4279
99.6 11.7308
107.6 11.2596
99.1 12.9615
106.1 16.9387
108.0 12.3365
140.6 13.4567

100.0
95.8
117.8
113.5
107.4
99.9
109.1
99.0
80.9
79.9
96.6
110.9
123.0
120.9
119.2
112.5
107.9
124.3
162.4
118.3
129.0

$0.0937
.0933
.0951
.0870
.0749
.0641
.1028
.0811
.0996
.1151
.1235
.1194
.1237
.1338
.1169
.1166
.1430
.1543
.1455
.1336
.1647

100.0
99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8

$4.4123
3.9534
4.4229
5.1550
6.5486
4.9719
4.2781
3.3579
3.5906
3.8053
4.0394
5.0815
5.9580
6.9704
6.0572
5.1550
5.2913
6.2351
6.0795
5.7986
7.5721

100.0
89.6
100.2
116.8
148.4
112.7
97.0
76.1
81.4
86.2
91.5
115.2
135.0
158.0
137.3
116.8
119.9
141.3
137.8
131.4
171.6

$4.4206
3.9260
4.3404
5.0675
6.5752
4.9327
4.2533
3.5591
3.7223
3.7587
4.0709
5.1135
5.9177
6.7353
6.0541
5.1481
5.3213
6.3274
6.2163
5.6346
7.3611

100.0
88.8
98.2
114.6
148.7
111.6
96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6
127.5
166.5

1.5100
1.5550
1.6650
1.6325
1.6050
1.6000
1.6000
1.4050
1.3800
1.3700
1.6800
1.7800

135.6
139.7
149.6
146.6
144.2
143.7
143.7
126.2
124.0
123.1
150.9
159.9

11.6875
11.7500
11.7500
12.8125
13.7500
14.0000
13.5625
14.4000
13.2500
13.4375
14.0500
16.9375

112.1
112.7
112.7
122.8
131.8
134.2
130.0
138.1
127.0
128.8
134.7
162.4

.1588
.1588
.1475
.1400
.1588
.1675
.1688
.1700
.1688
.1800
.1800
.1775

169.5
169.5
157.4
149.4
169.5
178.8
180.1
181.4
180.1
192.1
192.1
189.4

6.2625
6.5188
6.7900
7.2938
7.3725
7.9188
8.0150
7.8000
8.2750
7.9688
8.1350
8.5625

141.9
147.7
153.9
165.3
167.1
179.5
181.7
176.8
187.5
180.6
184.4
194.1

6.0313
6.3875
6.6025
7.0656
7.1125
7.5375
7.8125
7.8575
8.1563
7.6688
7.8500
8.2563

136.4
144.5
149.4
159.8
160.9
170.5
176.7
177.7
184.5
173.5
177.6
186.8

1.9900
2.0900
2.1450

178.8
187.7
192.7

17.5000
17.5625
17.0500

167.8
168.4
163.5

.1775
.1650
.1425

189.4
176.1
152.1

8.5950
9.2333
10.6150

194.8
209.3
240.6

8.3750
9.0250
10.4050

189.5
204.2
235.4

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




497

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.

Year or month.

Hops: New
York State,
choice.

Horses: draft, Mules: 16 hands,
medium to
good to choice.
good.

Oats: cash.

Poultry: live,
fowls.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive p n ce je r tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. head. price.
price. bushel. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1771
.2621
1890 ~ '
..............
.2640
1891...........................
1892 ......................
.2505
.2271
1893 ..........................
.1515
1894 ..........................
.0940
1895 ......................
.0877
1896 ........................
.1160
1897...........................
.1621
1898...........................
.1563
1899
. .................
.1483
1900 ..........................
.1719
1901...........................
1902
..............
.2375
.2825
1903...........................
.3475
1904 ..........................
.2673
1905
.....................
.1629
1906 ........................
.1738
1907...........................
.1188
1908...........................
.2008
1909...........................

100.0
148.0
149.1
141.4
128.2
85.5
53.1
49.5
65<5
91.5
88.3
83.7
97.1
134.1
159.5
196.2
150.9
92.0
98.1
67.1
113.4

$196.18
203.17

.1250
.1300
.1400
.1400
.1350
.1350
.1600
.1850
.1900
.3400
.3800
.3500

70.6
73.4
79.1
79.1
76.2
76.2
90.3
104.5
107.3
192.0
214.6
197.6

190.00
195.63
197.00
195.00
194.38
205.75
212.50
208.13
209.25
206.25
208.75
212.50

.3400
.3400
.3300

192.0
192.0
186.3

219.38
221.88
230.50

W

$189.13
209.76

(«)
W

$0.2688
.3106
.3873
.3042
.2827
.3110
.2373
.1801
.1825
.2470
.2452
.2271
.3179
.3960
.3541
.3649
.2990
.3282
.4501
.5095
.4810

100.0
115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115.7
88.3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
118.3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4
189.5
178.9

$0.1327
.1597

(«)
(«)

.4954
.5194
.5375
.5474
.5886
.5735
.4981
.3970
.4008
.3919
.3928
.4352

184.3
193.2
200.0
203.6
219.0
213.4
185.3
147.7
149.1
145.8
146.1
161.9

.1460
.1563
.1750
.1644
.1725
.1569
.1630
.1631
.1700
.1530
.1500
.1475

(<
*)
(«)

.4697
.4739
.4474

174.7
176.3
166.4

.1650
.1863
.1819

(a)

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

(a )
VY
(a \
VY
(a )
ia )
VY
VY
fa )
fa )
VY
(a )

191.88
197.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50
212.50

fa )
?a )
fa )
(a )
(a )

212.50
212.50
212.50

(a)
(a)

fa )

(a)
(a)
fa )
fa )

(a)
(a)

(a )
fa )
fa )
(a )
(a )
(a )
fa )
fa )
fa )
(a )

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

fa )
VY
(a )

(a )

« No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




(a )
(a )

498

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M O N THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Farm products.

Year or month.

Rye: No. 2,
cash.

Sheep: weth­
ers. good to
fancy.

Sheep: weth­
ers, plain to
choice.

Tobacco: Bur­
ley, dark red,
good leaf.

Wheat: cash.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive
tive price per tive
bushel. price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. P100eibsy price. bushel. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.5288
1890..7.1...................
.5447
.8334
1891...........................
1892...........................
.6754
.4899
1893...........................
1894...........................
.4660
.4825
1895...........................
.3517
1896...........................
.3962
1897...........................
.4958
1898...........................
.5521
1899...........................
1900...........................
.5177
.5328
1901...........................
1902...........................
.5418
.5156
1903...........................
.7056
1904...........................
1905...........................
.7113
1906...........................
.6107
.7688
1907...........................
.7825
1908...........................
.7826
1909...........................

100.0
103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4
148.0
148.0

<*$3.7580
a 4.5284
a 4.5106
a 4.7798
a 3.8781
<*2.6957
0 2.9495
o2.9322
o 3.4971
o 3.9250
o3.8837
o 4.1236
03.3519
o 3.7817
a3 .7101
o 4.1457
0 5.0529
o 4.9481
a4.8962
4.9505
5.4303

olOO.O
«120.5
ol20.0
ol27.2
ol03.2
o71.7
«78.5
o78.0
«93.1
ol04.4
«103.3
ol09.7
o89.2
alOO.6
o98.7
olio. 3
ol34.5
ol31.7
«130.3
cll2.3
C123.2

&$3.9541
5 4.6644
&
4.5719
6 4.8695
&4.1255
b 2.9808
&3.0943
6 3.1411
b 3.7692
b 4.1625
6 4.1615
6 4.5207
6 3.7442
6 4.1784
6 3.8769
6 4.2608
65.0798
65.2793
6 4.8835
4.8115
5.27C7

6100.0
6118.0
6115.6
6123.2
6104.3
6 75.4
6 78.3
6 79.4
6 95.3
6105.3
6105.2
6114.3
6 94.7
6105.7
6 98.0
6107.8
6128.5
6133.5
6123.5
<*109.6 $15.0625
<*120.1 17.5980

.7644
.7682
.8010
.8350
.8600
.8770
.8075
.7075
.7172
.7344
.7438
.7763

144.6
145.3
151.5
157.9
162.6
165.8
152.7
133.8
135.6
138.9
140.7
146.8

5.4688
5.3875
5.9000
5.9875
6.4800
5.6188
5.0813
4.9550
4.9563
4.6938
4.8938
5.4700

cl24.1
<5122.2
<5133.8
<5135.8
<5147.0
<5127.5
<5115.3
<5112.4
<5112.4
<5106.5
<5111.0
<5124.1

5.3500
5.3375
5.8600
5.9188
6.5050
5.5438
4.8313
4.6450
4.8313
4.4813
4.3875
5.2600

<*121.9 18.2500
<*121.6 18.1875
<*133.5 17.5000
<*134.8 17.5000
<*148.2 17.5000
<*126.3 17.5000
<*110.0 17.5000
<*105.8 17.5000
<*110.0 17.5000
<*102.1 17.5000
<*99.9 17.5000
<*119.8 17.5000

.8022
.8094
.7910

151.7
153.1
149.6

6.0100 <5136.4
7.1667 <5162.6
8.3750 <5190.0

$0.7510
.8933
.9618
.7876
.6770
.5587
.6000
.6413
.7949
.8849
.7109
.7040
.7187
.7414
.7895
1.0390
1.0104
.7931
.9073
.9899
1.1997

100.0
118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8
131.8
159.7

(«)

1.0757
1.1475
1.1988
1.3252
1.3925
1.3910
1.2672
1.0817
1.0702
1.1207
1.1355
1.1886

143.2
152.8
159.6
176.5
185.4
185.2
168.7
144.0
142.5
149.2
151.2
158.3

(e \
(*)
( e)

1.1895
1.1995
1.1870

158.4
159.7
158.1

(*)
M

1909.
January.....................
February..................
M arch......................
A p r il........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

(«)
(V
(V

( e\
(e \
\ ej

1910.
January....................
February.................
March.......................

5.8350 <*133.0 15.9375
7.0250 <*160.1 .15.5000
8.2750 <*188.6 15.5000

a Sheep: native.
6 Sheep: western.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $5.7461.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $5.4206.
*
« No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




499

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

I f . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Beans: medium, Bread: crack­
ers, oyster.
choice.

Bread: crack­
ers, soda.

Bread: loaf
(Washington
market).

Bread: loaf,
homemade
(New York
market).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
bushel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound.® price. pound.® price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.6699
1890........................... 2.0292
1891........................... 2.2531
1892...........................
1.8698
1893...........................
1.9906
1894...........................
1.8469
1895........................... 1.7896
1896........................... 1.1740
1897...........................
1.0448
1898........................... 1.2479
1899........................... 1.4531
1900........................... 2.0969
2.1927
1901...........................
1902...........................
1.9198
1903........................... 2.2625
2.0104
1904...........................
1905........................... 2.1500
1.9000
1906...........................
1907...........................
1.7771
1908........................... 2.3198
2.4500
1909...........................

100.0 b$0.0673 5100.0
121.5
b.0700 5104.0
134.9
&.0700 5104.0
112.0
b.0688 5102.2
119.2
b.0650 5 96.6
110.6
b.0650 5 96.6
107.2
&.0654 5 97.2
70.3
&.0650 5 96.6
b. 0592 5 88.0
62.6
b. 0733 5108.9
74.7
b. 0713 5105.9
87.0
125.6
b.0750 5111.4
131.3
b.0800 6118.9
115.0
b.0800 6118.9
135.5
b.0758 6112.6
120.4
b. 0775 6115.2
b.0892 6132.5
128.8
5.0900 6133.7
113.8
106.4
b.0900 5133.7
138.9
.0650 C133.7
146.7
.0651 cl34.5

$0.0718
.0800
.0800
.0763
.0750
.0725
.0675
.0658
.0592
.0758
.0663
.0675
.0700
.0700
.0646
.0658
.0683
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0654

100.0
111.4
111.4
106.3
104.5
101.0
94.0
91.6
82.5
105.6
92.3
94.0
97.5
97.5
90.0
91.6
95.1
90.5
90.5
90.5
91.1

$0.0354
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0333
.0363
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0363
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0377

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.1
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
106.5

$0.0317
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0287
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0320
.0350
.0376
.0376
.0376
.0400
.0400

100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
90.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
110.4
118.6
118.6
118.6
126.2
126.2

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March....................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

2.2750
2.2875
2.3500
2.4625
2.5625
2.7250
2.7625
2.6750
2.4250
2.3000
2.3125
2.2625

136.2
137.0
140.7
147.5
153.5
163.2
165.4
160.2
145.2
137.7
138.5
135.5

.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0700

C133.7
C133.7
C133.7
cl33.7
*133.7
*133.7
*133.7
*133.7
cl33.7
cl33.7
*133.7
C144.0

.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0700

90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
97.5

.0356
.0356
.0356
.0356
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388
.0388

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6

.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400

126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

2.2750
2.3750
2.3375

136.2
142.2
140.0

.0700 *144.0
.0700 *144.0
.0700 C144.0

.0700
.0700
.0700

97.5
97.5
97.5

.0388
.0388
.0388

109.6
109.6
109.6

.0400
.0400
.0400

126.2
126.2
126.2

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

®Weight before baking,
b Bread: crackers, butter.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907,10.0650.

43431— No. 87— 10----- 9




500

BULLETIN

OF

THE BUBEAU

OF

LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. Fora more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
1
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Butter: cream­ Butter: cream­
Bread: loaf,
Vienna (New ery, Elgin (El­ ery, exxra (New
gin market).
York market).
York market).

Butter: dairy,
New York
State.

Canned goods:
corn, Republic
No. 2.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound.** price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. dozen price.
cans.
100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
90.6
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
105.1
113.6
113.6
113.6
117.3
118.5

$0.2170
.2238
.2501
.2528
.2581
.2194
.2064
.1793
.1837
.1886
.2075
.2178
.2114
.2413
.2302
.2178
.2429
.2459
.2761
.2692
.2893

100.0
103.1
115.3
116.5
118.9
101.1
95.1
82.6
84.7
86.9
95.6
100.4
97.4
111.2
106.1
100.4
111.9
113.3
127.2
124.1
133.3

$0.2242
.2276
.2586
.2612
.270L
.2288
.2137
.184L
. 189,5
. 1954
.2126
. 2245
.2163
.2480
. 2343
.2189
.2489
. 2489
.283*)
. 271L
.292*)

100.0
101.5
115.3
116.5
120.5
102.1
95.3
82.1
84.5
87.2
94.8
100.1
96.5
110.6
104.7
97.6
111.0
111.0
126.2
120.9
130.2

$0.2024
.1954
.2380
.2350
.2521
.2091
.1882
.1665
.1684
.1749
.1965
.2115
.2007
.2318
.2150
.1970
.2339
.2325
.2671
.2449
.2653

100.0
96.5
117.6
116.1
124.6
103.3
93.0
82.3
83.2
86.4
97.1
104.5
99.2
114.5
106.2
97.3
115.6
114.9
132.0
121.0
131.1

$0.9000
.9083

.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0427
.0427
.0427
.0413
.0413
.0413
.0413

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
121.3
121.3
121.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

.3125
.2975
.2940
.2750
.2520
.2575
.2600
.2710
.3000
.3025
.3120
.3450

144.0
137.1
135.5
126.7
116.1
118.7
119.8
124.9
138.2
139.4
143.8
159.0

.3169
.300)
.2930
.270)
.2669
.257?
.262?
.273?
.3013
.3063
.3 m
.3513

141.3
133.8
130.7
120.4
119.0
115.0
117.2
122.1
134.4
136.6
139.2
156.7

.2300
.2275
.2170
.2425
.2638
.2535
.2544
.2650
.2931
.3013
.3085
.3319

113.6
112.4
107.2
119.8
130.3
125.2
125.7
130.9
144.8
148.9
152.4
164.0

.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9000
.9500
.9500

(&)
(&)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

.0413
.0413
.0413

117.3
117.3
117.3

.3380
.2950
.3150

155.8
135.9
145.2

.3350
.2938
.3240

149.4
131.0
144.5

.3238
.2813
.3115

160.0
139.0
153.9

.9500
1.0000
1.0000

(b)
(b)
(b)

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0352
.0356
1890...........................
.0356
1891...........................
1892...........................
.0356
.0356
1893...........................
.0356
1894...........................
.0356
1895...........................
.0319
1896...........................
.0356
1897...........................
.0356
1898...........................
.0356
1899...........................
.0356
1900...........................
.0356
1901...........................
1902...........................
.0356
.0356
1903...........................
.0370
1904...........................
.0400
1905...........................
.0400
1906...........................
.0400
1907...........................
.0413
1908...........................
1909...........................
.0417

(b)
W )

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

(&)

(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

a Weight before baking.




6 No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.

501

WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M A R C H ; 1910,
T a ble I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Canned goods:
peas, Repub­
lic No. 2
.

Canned goods:
tomatoes.
Standard, New
Jersey, No. 3.

Cheese: New
York State,
full cream.

Coffee: Rio
No. 7.

Eggs: new-laid,
fancy, near-by.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Rela­ price per Rela­ price per |Rela­ price per Rela­ Average Rela­
tive
tive
tive
dozen price. dozen price. pound. price. pound. tive price per tive
price. dozen. price.
cans.
cans.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908........................... $1.3833
1.4000
1909...........................

$0.0987
.0958

100.0

$0.1963
.1945
.2160
.2167
.2247
.1835

100.0
99.1
110.0

93.9
60.4
48.2
46.0
62.6
49.2
44.6
42.6
59.6
63.4
61.8
50.1
47.8
59.6

.1741
.1718
.1817
*.1994
.1977
.2095
.2409
.2418
.2650
.2712
.2615
.2771
.2788
.3146

88.7
87.5
92.6
10L 6
100.7
106.7
122! 7
123! 2
135* 0
138.2
133.2
141.2
142! 0
160.3

$1.0791
.9625

(«)
(a)

.1313
.1414
.1364
.1485

133.0
143.3
138.2
150.5

1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9000
.9000
.9000

(°)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

.1419
.1444
.1540
.1575
.1288
.1305
.1356
.1455
.1525
.1569
.1650
.1694

143.8
146.3
156.0
159.6
130.5
132.2
137.4
147.4
154.5
159.0
167.2
171.6

.0706
.0769
.0819
.0819
.0831
.0813
.0744
.0750
.0731
.0731
.0831
.0856

53.8
58.6
62.4
62.4
63.3
61.9
56.7
57.2
55.7
55.7
63.3
65.2

.3600
.3575
.2320
.2275
.2444
.2520
.2813
.2900
.3175
.3588
.4420
.4225

183.4
182.1
118.2
115.9
124.5
128.4
143.3
147.7
161.7
182.8
225.2
215.2

.9000
.9000
.9000

(a)
(a>

(« )

.1719
.1725
.1725

174.2
174.8
174.8

.0869
.0869
.0881

66.2
66.2
67.1

.4388
.3338
.2570

223.5
170.0
130.9

.1126
.1217
.1019

.1058
.1076
.1060
.0929
.0908
.0968
.0822
.1075
.1128

.1011

.1212 122.8
(a)
(°)

100.0

136.6
127.3
108.9
131.2
126.0

$0.1313
.1793
.1671
.1430
.1723
.1654
.1592
.1233
.0793
.0833
.0604
.0822
.0646
.0586
.0559
.0782
.0832
.0811
.0658
.0628
.0783

97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
94.1
92.0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2

.1011

121.2

110.4
114.5

93*
5
.2002 10 ^
20

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000
1.4000

(« )

(°)
(<
*)
(a)
(a)
(« )

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

(a)

(a)

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

1.3000
1.3000
1.4000

(®)

(a)

(a)

«No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




502

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OE LABOR,

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M O N TH LY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Fish: cod, 'dry,
bank, large.

Fish: herring,
Nova Scotia
split.

Fish: mackerel,
salt large,
No. 3s.

Fish: salmon,
canned.

Flour: buck­
wheat.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
quintal. price. barrel. price. barrel. price. 12cans. price. 100lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $5.5849
1890............................ 5.6771
1891............................ 6.7292
7.0521
1892...........................
1893............................ 6.3802
1894............................ 5.9583
1895............................ 5.5208
4.2083
1896...........................
4.5208
1897...........................
1898...........................
4.6667
1899........................... 5.1354
1900........................... 5.3021
1901........................... 5.9896
1902........................... 5.0938
1903...........................
5.8846
1904...........................
7.2813
1905...........................
7.3958
1906............................ 7.6042
7.7396
1907...........................
1908............................ 7.3021
1909...........................
7.0208

100.0 <*$3.7763 <100.0 $14.1306 100.0
*

101.7
120.5
126.3
114.2
106.7
98.9
75.4
80.9
83.6
92.0
94.9
107.2
91.2
105.0
130.4
132.4
136.2
138.6
130.7
125.7

a3.5250 a 93.3
a 4.7068 ol24.6
a2.9375 o77.8
a 3.8125 olOl.O
a3.3958 o89.9
a 3.1563 o83.6
a 3.3542 088.8
o 3 .6354 o96.3
a 4.2083 o lll. 4
05.0313 ol33.2
05.0833 ol34.6
04.9792 al31.9
04.9063 ol29.9
o 5.7292 ol51.7
o5.4531 al44.4
a 6.0000 al58.9
o6.3438 ol 68.0
o 6.1500 ol62.9
7.0833 6160.1
7.0682 6159.8

18.2500
15.3125
13.0000
13.0000
11.0556
15.6250
13.9167
12.2292
13.6667
15.2500
13.8958
10.8182
13.7500
17.4479
14.5000
13.9167
14.7917
13.9167
11.3542
10.1875

100.0
101.8

100.0

98.5
104.7
98.5
80.4
72.1

$1.4731
1.6417
1.5000
1.4833
1.4938
1.4250
1.5042
1.5500
1.3375
1.2667
1.5292
1.7708
1.7125
1.6146
1.6208
1.7250
1.7042
1.6833
1.6679
1.9208
1.7000

70.8
70.8
70.8
67.2
67.2
67.2
70.8
74.3
74.3
76.1
77.8
77.8

1.8250
1.8250
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750

123.9
123.9
113.7
113.7
113,7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7

f
2.3500
2.3500
2.3500

i 21.0
121.0
121.0

81.4
84.9
88.5

1.6750
1.6750
1.6750

113.7
113.7
113.7

2.0000
2.0000
2.0000

102.9
102.9
102.9

129.2
108.4
92.0
92.0
78.2

110.6

98.5
86.5
96.7
107.9
98.3
76.6
97.3
123.5

102.6

111.4
100.7
101.4
96.7

102.1
105.2
90.8

86.0
103.8
120.2
116.3
109.6

110.0

117.1
115.7
114.3
113.2
130.4
115.4

$1.9428
2.0214
2.4429
1.7891
2.3679
2.4357
1.6750
1.3806
1.4656
1.5500
2.3000
2.1036
2.1063
2.2357
2.3214
2.3333
2.1893
2.2333
2.5714
3.0333
2.3583

112.7
115.0
132.4
156.1
121.4

2.4250
2.4500
2.2250
/ c\

124.8
126.1
114.5

104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4

86.2

71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5

120.1

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

7.2500
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000
7.0000

129.8
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3
125.3

7.2500
6.7500
7.2500
6.7500
6.7500
6.5000
6.5000
7.0000
(c)
7.7500
7.7500
7.5000

7.0000
7.0000
7.0000

125.3
125.3
125.3

7.5000 6169.6
7.5000 6169.6
7.5000 6169.6

6163.9
6152.6
6163.9
6152.6
6152.6
6146.9
6146.9
6158.2
6175.2
6175.2
6169.5

10.0000
10.0000
10.0000
9.5000
9.5000
9.5000

10.0000

10.5000
10.5000
10.75C0

11.0000
11.0000

f c»
f C)
f C)
f Cl
Cl

19 10.
January.....................
February..................
March.......................

11.5000

12.0000
12.5000

o Fish: herring, shore, round.
&For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $7.2083.
c No quotation for month.




503

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO MARCH, 1910.

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.J
Food, etc.

Flour: rye.

Year or month.

Average
price per
barrel.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890.............................
1891.............................
1892.............................
1893.............................
1894.............................
1895.............................
1896.............................
1897.............................
1898.............................
1899.............................
1900.............................
1901.............................
1902.............................
1903.............................
1904.............................
1905.............................
1906.............................
1907.............................
1908.............................
1909.............................

$3:3171
3.3646
4.9208
4.0167
3.0854
2.7813
3.1333
2.6833
2.8063
3.0813
3.2979
3.4250
3.3208
3.4417
3.1479
4.3479
4.4667
3.8438
4.6021
4.7375
4.4854

Rela­
tive
price.

10 .0
0

Flour: wheat,
spring patents.
Average
price per
barrel.

Rela­
tive
price.

10
0 .0

Flour: wheat,
winter straights.
Average
price per
barrel.

103.8
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7
142.8
135.2

$4.2972
5.1856
5.3053
4.3466
4.0063
3.5947
3.6434
3.7957
4.5913
4.7293
3.7740
3.8423
3.8104
3.8082
4.3303
5.3784
5.4221
4.2760
4.8755
5.4183
5.7567

125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5
126.1
134.0

$3.8450
4.6524
4.9048
4.1216
3.2832
2.7495
3.2311
3.6197
4.3606
4.1452
3.3822
3.3490
3.3085
3.4885
3.5923
4.8264
4.5428
3.6149
3.9877
4.2909
5.4510

4.2500
4.3250
4.5000
4.5000
4.7500
4.8250
4.8250
4.6250
4.3000
4.3000
*4.3000
4.3250

128.1
130.4
135.7
135.7
143.2
145.5
145.5.
139.4
129.6
129.6
129.6
130.4

5.4375
5.5938
5.6400
5.9813
6.2688
6.4400
6.0563
5.9400
5.1938
5.4688
5.4200
5.5375

126.5
130.2
131.2
139.2
145.9
149.9
140.9
138.2
120.9
127.3
126.1
128.9

4.3750
4.3750
4.4250

131.9
131.9
133.4

5.6750
5.6438
5.5950

132.1
131.3
130.2

101.4
148.3

11
2 .1

93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3

10
0 .1

120.7
123.5

11
0 .1
93.2
83.7
84.8
88.3
106.8

10
1 .1
87.8
89.4
88.7

88.6
10
0.8

Rela­
tive
price.

10
0 .0
11
2 .0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8

Fruit: apples,
evaporated, choice.
Average
price per
pound.
$0.0847
.1136

.1 0
10

141.8

.0688
.0927
.1092
.0678
.0533
.0555
.0890
.0869
.0615
.0709
.0921
.0611
.0603
.0699
.0978
.0843
.0863
.0769

4.5625
4.8813
5.3950
5.8313
6.2063
6.5800
6.0750
5.1600
4.8625
5.2375
5.2151
5.2688

118.7
127.0
140.3
151.7
161.4
171.1
158.0
134.2
126.5
136.2
135.6
137.0

.0725
.0706
.0700
.0688
.0688
.0688
.0738
.0775
.0788
.0906
.0950
.0875

5.3875
5.3938
5.3500

140.1
140.3
139.1

.0800
.0813
.0813

88.0
86.0

87.1

90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
•103.7

11
1.6

Rela­
tive
price.

10 .0
0

134.1
129.9
81.2
109.4
128.9
80.0
62.9
65.5
105.1

10
2.6

72.6
83.7
108.7
72.1
71.2
82.5
115.5
99.5
101.9
90.8

19 09.
January......................
February...... ............
March.........................
April..........................
May.......................
June.............. , ...... . . .
July............................
August.......................
September..................
October... .*...............
November..................
December...................

85.6
83.4
82.6
81.2
81.2
81.2
87.1
91.5
93.0
107.0

112.2
103.3

19 10.
January......................
February....................
March.........................




94.5
96.0
96.0

504

BULLETIN* OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I .—AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTU AL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Fruit: cur­
rants, in
barrels.

Fruit: prunes, Fruit: raisins,
California, in California, Lon­
boxes.
don le.yer.

Glucose.

Lard: prime
contract.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price.
box.
price. 100 lbs. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.0375
.0478
1890...........................
.0426
1891...........................
.0297
1892...........................
.0270
1893...........................
1894...........................
.0173
.0254
1895...........................
.0327
1896...........................
.0479
1897...........................
1898...........................
.0580
.0470
1899...........................
1900...........................
.0720
1901...........................
.0831
1902...........................
.0494
.0476
1903...........................
1904...........................
.0488
1905...........................
.0490
1906...........................
.0614
1907...........................
.0703
1908...........................
.0609
1909............................
.0603

100.0
127.5
113.6
79.2
72.0
46.1
67.7
87.2
127.7
154.7
125.3
192.0
221.6
131.7
126.9
130.1
130.7
163.7
187.5
162.4
160.8

$0.0774
.1068
.1000
.0995
.1039
.0735
.0666
.0581
.0546
.0544
.0565
.0522
.0525
.0551
.0481
.0461
.0459
.0646
.0593
.0598
.0531

100.0
138.0
129.2
128.6
134.2
95.0
86.0
75.1
70.5
70.3
73.0
67.4
67.8
71.2
62.1
59.6
59.3
83.5
76.6
77.3
68.6

.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0613
.0613
.0613

160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
163.5
163.5
163.5

.0613
.0588
.0538
.0538
.0506
.0506
.0506
.0506
.0506
.0513
.0513
.0538

79.2
76.0
69.5
69.5
65.4
65.4
65.4
65.4
65.’ 4
66.3
66.3
69.5

1.5500
1.5500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.1750
1.1750
1 1750
l! 1750
1.2250
1.2250
1.2375

103.3
103.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
78.3
78.3
78.3
78.’ 3
81.6
81.6
82.5

2.3200
2.2700
2.3700
2.4700
2.5700
2.5700
2.5700
2.4300
Z. 2300
2.3300
2.4300
2.1200

.0594
.0600
.0600

158.4
160.0
160.0

.0538
.0538
.0525

69.5
69.5
67.8

1.2375
1.2000
1.2000

82.5
80.0
80.0

2.1200
2.1700
2.1700

$1.5006 100.0 ®$1.4182
2.3604 157.3
1.8021 120.1
1.4688
97.9
1.7000 113.3
1.7625
1.1542
1.5802
76.9
1.4292
1.5492
95.2
1.0188
67.9
1.1585
1.3979
93.2
1.2190
1.3917
1.3021
92.7
1.2833
85.5
1.3558
1.5208 101.3
1.4875
96.1
1.4417
1.6458
1.6854 112.3
2.1788
1.4458
1.8396
96.3
1.4729
98.2
1.7917
1.1875
79.1
1.7742
1.6000 106.6
2.0267
1.6271 108.4
2.2608
1.8100 120.6
2.6400
1. 2698
84.6
2.4733

100.0

$0.0654
.0633
.0660
. 0771
.1030
.0773
.0653
.0469
.0441
.0552
.0556
.0690
.0885
.1059
.0877
.0731
.0745
.0887
.0920
.0908
.1169

100.0
96.8
100! 9
117*. 9

163.6
160.1
167.1
174.2
181.2
181.2
181.2
171.3
227.’ 8
164.3
171.3
149.5

.0982
.0982
.1047
.1066
.1091
.1185
.1203
.1271
.1274
.1348
.1345

150.2
150.2
160.1
163.0
166.8
181.2
1S3.9
1 Q1 %
loi. 1
194.3
194.8
206.1
205.7

149.5
153.0
153.0

.1271
.1283
.1434

194.3
196.2
219.3

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7
86.0
91.8
95.6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
125.1
142.9
159.4
186.2
174.4

1 5 7 .5

118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1
111.8
113.9
135.6
140.7
138.8
178.7

1909.
January....................
February..................
March........................
.........................
May...........................
June..........................
J u ly - -......................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

lO A A
• 1ZUO

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




o Average for 1893-1899,

505

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUA L AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Meal: corn,
fine white.

Meal: corn,
fine yellow.

Meat: bacon,
short clear
sides.

Meat: bacon,
short rib sides.

Meat: beef,
fresh, carcass,
good native
steers (Chi­
cago market).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $1.0486
1890.. r .' ................... 1.0613
1.4746
1891...........................
1892...........................
1.1921
1893...........................
1.1013
1894...........................
1.1188
1.0721
1895...........................
.8129
1896...........................
.8158
1897...........................
.8821
1898...........................
.9554
1899...........................
1900...........................
1.0115
1.1979
1901...........................
1902...........................
1.5354
1903...........................
1.2967
1904...........................
1.3396
1905...........................
1.3250
1906...........................
1.2667
1907...........................
1.3575
1908...........................
1.6146
1.6250
1909...........................

100.0
101.2
140.6
113.7
105.0
106.7
102.2
77.5
77.8
84.1
91.1
96.5
114.2
146.4
123.7
127.8
126.4
120.8
129.5
154.0
155.0

$1.0169
1.0200
1.4579
1.1608
1.0333
1.0629
1.0613
.7854
.7633
.8463
.9273
.9908
1.1875
1.5250
1.2783
1.3333
1.3250
1.2625
1.3575
1.6146
1.6104

100.0
100.3
143.4
114.2
106.5
104.5
104.4
77.2
75.1
83.2
91.2
97.4
116.8
150.0
125.7
131.1
130.3
124.2
133.5
158.8
158.4

$0.0675
.0603
.0699
.0787
.1048
.0751
.0650
.0494
.0541
.0596
.0583
.0752
.0891
.1073
.0959
.0775
.0800
.0942
.0954
.0901
.1173

100.0
89.3
103.6
116.6
155.3
111.3
96.3
73.2
80.1
88.3
86.4
111.4
132.0
159.0
142.1
114.8
118.5
139.6
141.3
133.5
173.8

$0.0656
.0586
.0681
.0764
.1010
.0736
.0632
.0479
.0522
.0594
.0558
.0732
.0869
.1046
.0938
.0757
.0783
.0920
.0919
.0870
.1134

100.0
89.3
103.8
116.5
154.0
112.2
96.3
73.0
79.6
90.5
85.1
111.6
132.5
159.5
143.0
115.4
119.4
140.2
140.1
132.6
172.9

$0.1053
.1095

(a)
(«)

1.4750
1.5250
1.5750
1.5750
1.6250
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750

140.7
145.4
150.2
150.2
155.0
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7

1.4750
1.4000
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750
1.6750

145.0
137.7
154.9
154.9
154.9
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7

.0963
.0953
.1014
.1047
.1132
.1195
.1248
.1246
.1297
.1275
.1304
.1391

142.7
141.2
150.2
155.1
167.7
177.0
184.9
184.6
192.1
188.9
193.2
206.1

.0929
.0916
.0976
.1013
.1082
.1156
.1203
.1210
.1269
.1241
.1259
.1341

141.6
139.6
148.8
154.4
164.9
176.2
183.4
184.5
193.4
189.2
191.9
204.4

.1080
.1056
.1031
.1056
.1055
.1088
.1050
.1050
.1150
.1175
.1175
.1175

(°)
(«)
w
(°)
(o)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

1.6750
1.7250
1.7250

159.7
164.5
164.5

1.6750
1.7250
1.7250

164.7
169.6
169.6

.1341
.1353
.1490

198.7
200.4
220.7

.1286
.1306
.1435

196.0
199.1
218.8

.1125
.1075
.1106

(a)
(a)
(a)

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
A pril.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




506

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR,

I I . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OP
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTU AL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Meat: beef,
fresh, native Meat: beef, salt, Meat: beef, salt,
sides (New
extra mess.
hams, western.
York market).

Meat: hams,
smoked.

Meat: mutton,
dressed.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. barrel. price. barrel. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0771
1890...........................
.0688
1891...........................
.0819
1892...........................
.0762
1893...........................
.0813
1894...........................
.0748
.0792
1895...........................
1896...........................
.0698
1897...........................
.0769
1898...........................
.0781
1899...........................
.0835
1900...........................
.0804
1901...........................
.0787
1902...........................
.0971
1903...........................
.0784
1904...........................
.0818
.0802
1905...........................
1906...........................
.0780
1907...........................
.0884
1908...........................
.0934
1909...........................
.0949

100.0
89.2
106.2
98.8
105.4
97.0
102.7
90.5
99.7
101.3
108.3
104.3
102.1
125.9
101.7
106.1
104.0
101.2
114.7
121.1
123.1

$8.0166
6.9596
8.3654
6.7966
8.1938
8.0933
8.1274
7.5096
7.6755
9.1563
9.2885
9.7538
9.3204
11.7885
9.0673
8.7689
10.0240
8.8462
9.8173
13.1837
11.0227

100.0 $18.0912
86.8 14.5409
104.4 15.5144
84.8 14.5577
102.2 17.8317
101.0 18.3558
101.4 17.3443
93.7 15.9327
95.7 22.6250
114.2 21.4880
115.9 22.7212
121.7 20.6587
116.3 20.3774
147.1 21.3413
113.1 21.2115
109.4 22.3341
125.0 21.9952
110.3 21.5625
122.5 26.0519
164.5 27.7115
137.5 25.1058

100.0
80.4
85.8
80.5
98.6
101.5
95.9
88.1
125.1
118.8
125.6
114.2
112.6
118.0
117.2
123.5
121.6
119.2
144.0
153.2
138.8

$0.0984
.0995
.0982
.1076
.1249
.1019
.0947
.0943
.0894
.0807
.0923
.1025
.1075
.1211
.1271
.1072
.1046
.1235
.1303
.1125
.1310

100.0
101.1
99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4
114.3
133.1

$0.0754
.0933
.0866
.0914
.0803
.0605
.0620
.0625
.0728
.0739
.0711
.0727
.0675
.0738
.0744
.0778
.0859
.0910
.0875
.0863
.0899

100.0
123.7
114.9
121.2
106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7
103.2
113.9
120.7
116.0
114.5
119.2

.0919
.0894
.0900
.0944
.0975
.0975
.0953
.0945
.0960
.0982
.0975
.0975

119.2
116.0
116.7
122.4
126.5
126.5
123.6
122.6
124.5
127.4
126.5
126.5

11.6000
10.7500
10.6875
10.5000
10.5000
11.0625
11.2500
11.2500
11.2500
11.2500
11.2500
10.7950

144.7
134.1
133.3
131.0
131.0
138.0
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
134.7

26.3750
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000

145.8
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2

.1065
.1125
.1138
.1163
.1260
.1345
.1375
.1380
.1425
.1480
.1469
.1469

108.2
114.3
115.7
118.2
128.0
136.7
139.7
140.2
144.8
150.4
149.3
149.3

.0794
.0819
.0895
.0963
.1125
.0960
.0919
.0855
.0831
.0813
.0860
.0956

105.3
108.6
118.7
127.7
149.2
127.3
121.9
113.4
110.2
107.8
114.1
126.8

.0960
.0947
.1068

124.5
122.8
138.5

11.6500
12.1250
14.7175

145.3
151.2
183.6

25.0000
25.0000
25.0000

138.2
138.2
138.2

.1476
.1532
.1740

150.0
155.7
176.8

.0994
.1088
.1325

131.8
144.3
175.7

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




507

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,
T a b l e I I . —A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Meat: pork,
salt, mess.

Milk: fresh.

Molasses: New
Orleans, open
kettle.

Poultry:
dressed, fowls,
western, dry
picked.

Rice: domestic,
choice.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. quart. price. gallon. price. pound. price. pound. price.
$11.6332
12.1502
11.3029
11.5252
18.3389
14.1262
11.8255
8.9399
8.9087
9.8678
9.3462
12.5072
15.6108
17.9399
16.6514
14.0288
14.4183
17.5120
17.5684
15.9736
21.3438

100.0
104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1
120.6
123.9
150.5
151.0
137.3
183.5

$0.0255
.0263
.0267
.0268
.0279
.0263
.0253
.0234
.0235
.0239
.0253
.0274
.0262
.0288
.0288
.0275
.0289
.0301
.0335
.0329
.0338

100.0
103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4
129.0
132.5

$0.3151
.3542
.2788
.3188
.3346
.3092
.3083
.3246
.2617
.3083
.3525
.4775
.3783
.3638
.3546
.3396
.3229
.3400
.4088
.3550
.3500

100.0
112.4
88.5
101.2
106.2
98.1
97.8
103.0
83.1
97.8
111.9
151.5
120.1
115.5
112.5
107.8
102.5
107.9
129.7
112.7
111.1

$0.1389
.1619

(a)
(«)

17.0000
17.3750
18.5000
18.6250
18.9688
20.9000
21.7188
22.1000
24.0000
25.3750
25.8750
25.1875

146.1
149.4
159.0
160.1
163.1
179.7
186.7
190.0
206.3
218.1
222.4
216.5

.0391
.0363
.0350
.0313
.0267
.0225
.0275
.0313
.0350
.0375
.0405
.0425

153.3
142.4
137.3
122.7
104.7
88.2
107.8
122.7
137.3
147.1
158.8
166.7

.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

.1470
.1531
.1613
.1588
.1640
.1575
.1560
.1713
.1794
.1680
.1619
.1675

(a)
(«)
(a )
(a)

January.................... 23.8438
February.................. 24.0938
March....................... 27.0250

205.0
207.1
232.3

.0412
.0400
.0375

161.6
156.9
147.1

.3700
.3700
.3700

117.4
117.4
117.4

.1700
.1800
.1863

1890 ° . 7 ................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906..........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909................... .

$0.0561
.0605
.0637
.0569
.0459
.0526
.0533
.0519
.0542
.0608
.0607
.0548
.0548
.0559
.0566
.0441
.0417
.0474
.0534
.0624
.0619

100.0
107.8
113.5
101.4
81.8
93.8
95.0
92.5
96.6
108.4
108.2
97.7
97.7
99.6
100.9
78.6
74.3
84.5
95.2
111.2
110.3

(a)
(a)

.0613
.0613
.0613
.0625
.0638
.0638
.0638
.0638
.0619
.0600
.0619
.0569

109.3
109.3
109.3
111.4
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
110.3
107.0
110.3
101.4

(a)
?a)
(a)

.0569
.0569
.0556

101.4
101.4
99.1

1909.
January....................
February.............
March..................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

(a )

(<
*)
(a)
(a)
(a)
(a )

1910.

a No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




508

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I I . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Salt: American.

Soda: bicar­
bonate of,
American.

Spices: pepper,
Singapore.

Starch: pure
com.

Sugar: 89° fair
refining.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.7044
.7921
1890...........................
1891...........................
.7865
1892...........................
.7575
1893...........................
.7019
.7192
1894...........................
1895...........................
.7019
1896...........................
.6226
.6613
1897...........................
1898...........................
.6648
1899...........................
.6365
1900........................... 1.0010
1901...........................
.8567
1902...........................
.6360
1903...........................
.6140
.7704
1904...........................
.7552
1905...........................
.7144
1906...........................
.7931
1907...........................
.7854
1908...........................
1909...........................
.8175

100.0
112.5
111.7
107.5
99.6
102.1
99.6
88.4
93.9
94.4
90.4
142.1
121.6
90.3
87.2
109.4
107.2
101.4
112.6
111.5
116.1

$0.0209
.0275
.0317
.0218
.0285
.0268
.0177
.0152
.0150
.0129
.0117
.0123
.0107
.0108
.0129
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0130
.0110
.0100

100.0
131.6
151.7
104.3
136.4
128.2
84.7
72.7
71.8
61.7
56.0
58.9
51.2
51.7
61.7
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
52.6
47.8

$0.0749
.1151
.0873
.0689
.0595
.0516
.0497
.0500
.0664
.0891
.1117
.1291
.1292
.1255
.1289
.1229
.1217
.1138
.0994
.0715
.0711

100.0
153.7
116.6
92.0
79.4
68.9
66.4
66.8
88.7
119.0
149.1
172.4
172.5
167.6
172.1
164.1
162.5
151.9
132.7
95.5
94.9

$0.0548
.0546
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0567
.0554
.0513
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0500
.0470
.0440
.0507
.0525
.0552
.0577
.0600
.0575
.0600

.8500
.8500
.8500
.7200
.7200
.7325
.7760
.8325
.8700
.8700
.8700
.8700

120.7
120.7
120.7
102.2
102.2
104.0
110.2
118.2
123.5
123.5
123.5
123.5

.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100

47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8

.0681
.0675
.0656
.0763
.0700
.0675
.0663
.0663
.0663
.0769
.0813
.0813

90.9
90.1
87.6
101.9
93.5
90.1
88.5
88.5
88.5
102.7
108.5
108.5

.8700
.8700
.8700

123.5
123.5
123.5

.0100
.0100
.0100

47.8
47.8
47.8

.0813
.0813
.0781

108.5
108.5
104.3

100.0 $0.03398
99.6
.04890
109.5
.03459
109.5
.02873
109.5
.03203
103.5
.02759
101.1
.02894
.03192
93.6
91.2
.03077
91.2
.03712
91.2
.03922
91.2
.04051
.03521
85.8
80.3
.03035
92.5
.03228
.03470
95.8
100.7
.03696
105.3
.03183
109.5
.03251
104.9
.03563
109.5
.03499

100.0
143.9
101.8
84.5
94.3
81.2
85.2
93.9
90.6
109.2
115.4
119.2
103.6
89.3
95.0
102.1
108.8
93.7
95.7
104.9
103.0

.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0600

109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

.03206
.03149
.03344
.03428
.03413
.03398
. 03439
.03588
.03710
.03776
.03883
.03671

94.3
92.7
98.4
100.9
100.4
100.0
101.2
105.6
109.2
111.1
114.3
108.0

.0600
.0600
.0600

109.5
109.5
109.5

. 03573
. 03710
.03866

105.2
109.2
113.8

1909.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................




509

W HOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M A R C H ; 1910,

I I . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Sugar: 96° cen­
trifugal.

Sugar: granu­
lated.

Tallow.

Tea: Formosa,
fine.

Vegetables,
fresh: cabbage.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
ton.
price.
Average, 1890-1899.. 80.03869
1890..T......................
.05460
.03910
1891...........................
1892...........................
.03315
1893...........................
.03680
1894...........................
.03229
1895...........................
.03253
1898...........................
.03624
1897...........................
.03564
1898...........................
.04235
.04422
1899...........................
.04572
1900...........................
1901...........................
.04040
1902...........................
.03542
1903...........................
.03720
1904...........................
.03974
1905............................ .04278
1906...........................
.03686
.03754
1907...........................
.04064
1908...........................
1909...........................
.03999

100.0 80.04727
141.1
.06168
.04714
101.1
85.7
.04354
95.1
.04836
.04111
83.5
84.1
.04155
.04532
93.7
92.1
.04497
.04974
109.5
114.3
.04924
118.2
.05332
104.4
.05048
91.5
.04455
.04641
96.1
.04772
102.7
110.6
.05250
95.3
.04515
97.0
.04651
105.0
.04940
103.4
.04758

100.0
130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2
112.8
306.8
94.2
98.2
101.0
111.2
95.5
98.4
104.5
100.7

80.0435
.0460
.0483
.0463
.0544
.0480
.0434
.0343
.0332
.0356
.0453
.0485
.0518
.0629
.0510
.0459
.0449
.0529
.0621
.0551
.0594

100.0
105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8
126.7
136.6

80.2839
.2733
.2817
.3008
.2888
.2783
.2700
.2583
.2800
.2958
.3117
.2977
.2850
.3015
.2296
.2758
.2675
.2350
.2300
.2133
.2329

.03706
.03649
.03844
.03928
.03913
.03898
.03939
.04088
.04210
.04276
.04383
.04171

95.8
94.3
99.4
101.5
101.1
100.7
101.8
105.7
108.8
110.5
113.3
107.8

.04490
.04438
.04600
.04820
.04788
.04713
.04710
.04825
.04900
.04888
.04988
.04920

95.0
93.9
97.3
102.0
101.3
99.7
99.6
102.1
103.7
103.4
105.5
104.1

.0591
.0603
.0593
.0575
.0563
.0561
.0556
.0556
.0572
.0634
.0673
.0650

135.9
138.6
136.3
132.2
129.4
129.0
127.8
127.8
131.5
145.7
154.7
149.4

.2400
.1850
.1850
.2350
.2500
.2500
.2500
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400

84.5
65.2
65.2
82.8
88.1
88.1
88.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5

33.3750
37.7500
41.2500
(*>
)
(&
)
(&
)
(&
)
(&
)
(*>
)
13.5000
11.6250
15.8000

.04088
.04210
.04366

105.7
108.8
112.8

.04875
.04925
.05160

103.1
104.2
109.2

.0678
.0684
.0708

155.9
157.2
162.8

.2400
.2400
.2400

84.5
84.5
84.5

27.7500
27.0000
24.6250

100.0
96.3
99.2
106.0
101.7
98.0
95.1
91.0
98.6
104.2
109.8
104.9
100.4
106.2
80.9
97.1
94.2
82.8
81.0
75.1 $15.4394
82.0 26.1739

(4

1909.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

(«)
(«)
(a)

*(a)*
(a)

14

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

oNo relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




6 No quotation for month.

(a )

fa)
(a)

510

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Food, etc.

Year or month.

Vegetables,
fresh: onions.

Cloths and clothing.

Vegetables,
Blankets: all
fresh: potatoes, Vinegar: cider, Bags: 2-bushel, wool, 5 pounds
Monarch.
Amoskeag.
white.
to the pair.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. bushel. price. gallon. price.
bag.
price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. S3.3995
1890........................... 4.3438
4.1250
1891...........................
1892........................... 3.6042
1893........................... 3.1875
1894........................... 3.2500
1895........................... 3.1146
1.9479
1896...........................
1897........................... 3.9271
1898........................... 3.2708
1899........................... 3.2238
1900........................... 2.4271
1901........................... 3.5000
1902........................... 3.6458
1903........................... 3.5675
1904........................... 3.5568
1905........................... 3.2392
1906........................... 3.2917
1907........................... 3.5000
1908........................... 3.5357
1909........................... 3.0893

100.0
127.8
121.3
106.0
93.8
95.6
91.6
57.3
115.5
96.2
94.8
71.4
103.0
107.2
104.9
104.6
95.3
96.8
103.0
104.0
90.9

$0.4991
.5956
.7730
.4546
.6714
.6128
.4326
.1965
.3279
.5094
.4172
.3736
.5642
.5958
.5249
.7301
.4026
.5476
.4912
.7119
.6858

100.0
119.3
154.9
91.1
134.5
122.8
86.7
39.4
65.7
102.1
83.6
74.9
113.0
119.4
105.2
146.3
80.7
109.7
98.4
142.6
137.4

*0.1478
.1558
.1800
.1642
.1500
.1500
.1450
.1300
.1300
.1325
.1400
.1350
.1325
.1408
.1300
.1325
.1458
.1700
.1725
.1842
.1800

100.0
105.4
121.8
111.1
101.5
101.5
98.1
88.0
88.0
89.6
94.7
91.3
89.6
95.3
88.0
89.6
98.6
115.0
116.7
124.6
121.8

103.0
125.0
125.0
125.0

.7030
.8225
.8588
1.0038
1.0670
.8375
.6630
.5088
.5475
.4570
.3413
.3825

140.9
164.8
172.1
201.1
213.8
167.8
132.8
101.9
109.7
91.6
68.4
76.6

.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800

121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8

.1850
.1850
.1850
.1850
.1850
.1850
.1850
.1950
.1950
.1900
.1900
.1950

.4590
.3750
- .3213

92.0
75.1
64.4

.1800
.1800
.1600

121.8
121.8
108.3

.1950
.2000
.2000

$0.1399 100.0
.1594 113.9
.1563 111.7
.1550 110.8
.1494 106.8
.1275
91.1
.1150
82.2
.1281
91.6
.1300
92.9
.1338
95.6
.1446 103.4
.1575 112.6
.1413 101.0
.1433 .102.4
.1458 104.2
.1796 128.4
.1533 109.6
.1806 129.1
.1938 138.5
.1879 134.3
.1883 134.6

$0,840
.910
.890
.900
.900
.850
.750
.750
.750
.900
.800
.900
.850
.850
.925
.925
1.000
1.025
1.000
.950
1.000

100.0
108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0
113.1
119.0

132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
135.8
135.8
139.4

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

139.4
143.0
143.0

1.100
1.100
1.100

131.0
131.0
131.0

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August..^..................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

3.5000
4.2500
4.2500
4.2500
fa )
(a )
(a )
1.2500
2.0000
2.1250
(a)

36.8
58.8
62.5

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

fa)
(a)




a No quotation for month.

511

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

I . A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
I—
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Blankets: cot­
ton, 2 pounds
to the pair.

Boots and
shoes: men’s
brogans, split.

Boots and
shoes: men’s
vici calf shoes,
Blucher bal.

Boots and
Boots and
shoes: men’s shoes: women’s
vici kid shoes,
solid grain
Goodyear welt.
shoes.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pair.
pair.
price.
pair.
price.
price.
pair.
pound. price.
price.
Average, 1890-1899... a $0,424 <*100.0 $0.9894
a. 460 <*108.5 1.0500
1890...........................
<. 460 <*108.5 1.0500
*
1891...........................
<*.430 <*101.4 1.0375
1892...........................
1.0125
a. 420 <*99.1
1893...........................
.9688
a.410 o96.7
1894...........................
.9813
<*.400 o94.3
1895...........................
.9938
o.400 o94.3
1896...........................
a.420 099.1
.9500
1897...........................
.9125
a . 420 099.1
1898...........................
.9375
a .4 2 0 o99.1
1899...........................
.9375
a . 525 ol23.8
1900...........................
.9438
a . 475 oll2.0
1901...........................
.9313
a.475 oll2.0
1902...........................
a. 500 oll7.9
.9250
1903...........................
.9250
a . 525 ol23.8
1904...........................
ol41.5
1.0042
o. 600
1905...........................
a. 600 ol41.5
1.2542
1906...........................
o. 600 ol41.5
1.2729
1907...........................
1.1354
.504 4136.1
1908...........................
1.2000
.500 4135.0
1909...........................

100.0
106.1
106.1
104.9
102.3
97.9
99.2
100.4
96.0
92.2
94.8
94.8
95.4
94.1
93.5
93.5
101.5
126.8
128.7
114.8
121.3

6$2.376
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.400
62.320
62.240
62.240
62.300
62.300
62.350
62.350
62.375
2.775
2.800
2.800
2.950

6100.0 $2.3000
2.5000
6101.0
2.5000
6101.0
2.5000
6101.0
2.5000
6101.0
6101.0
2.5000
2.2500
6101.0
2.2500
6101.0
2.0000
6101.0
2.0000
697.6
2.0000
694.3
694.3
2.0000
2.0000
696.8
2.0000
696.8
2.0000
698.9
2.0083
698.9
2.1958
6100.0
C108.0 2.3792
2.5000
d09.0
C109.0 2.5000
2.6000
C114.8

100.0 $0.8175
108.7
.8500
108.7
.8000
108.7
.7750
108.7
.7500
108.7
.7500
97.8
.8500
97.8
.8500
87.0
.8500
87.0
.8500
87.0
.8500
87.0
.9042
87.0
.8542
87.0
.8625
87.0
.8875
87.3
.9183
95.5
.9771
103.4
1.0313
108.7
1.0063
108.7
.9688
113.0
1.0396

100.0
104.0
97.9
94.8
91.7
91.7
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
110.6
104.5
105.5
108.6
112.3
119.5
126.2
123.1
118.5
127.2

1909.
January............. —
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0
4135.0

1.2000
1.1500
1.1250
1.1250
1.1500
1.2000
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2250
1.2250

121.3
116.2
113.7
113.7
116.2
121.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
123.8
123.8

2.850
2.850
2.950
2.950
2.950
2.950
2.950
2.950
2.950
2.950
3.050
3.050

clll.O
clll.O
C114.8
d l4 .8
C114.8
C114.8
d l4 .8
C114.8
C114.8
C114.8
d l8.7
C118.7

2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000

113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0

1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0250
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500
1.0500

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4

.550 4148.5
.550 4148.5
.550 4148.5

1.2000
1.1750
1.1750

121.3
118.8
118.8

3.050 C118.7
3.050 C118.7
3.050 <118.7

2.6000
2.6000
2.6000

113.0
113.0
113.0

1.0500
1.0500
1.0500

128.4
128.4
128.4

.500'
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500
.500

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Blankets: 11-4,5 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, cotton and wool filling.
6 Boots and shoes: men’s calf bal. shoes, Goodyear welt, dongola top.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416 average price for 1905, $2.57.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416 average price for 1907, $0,524.




512

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR.

I . A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
I—
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Broadcloths:
Calico: Amer­ Carpets: Brus­
first quality,
ican standard
black,54-inch, prints, 64 by 64. sels, 5-frame,
Bigelow.
X X X wool.

Carpets: in­
grain, 2-ply,
Lowell.

Carpets: Wil­
ton, 5-frame,
Bigelow.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

$1,732
1.970
1.970
1.970
1.970
1.580
1.380
1.380
1.700
1.700
1.700
1.870
1.910
1.910
1.910
1.914
1.995
2.020
2.020
2.003
2.020

100.0 <*$0.0553 olOO.O $1.0008
a . 0650 o ll7 .5
1.0320
113.7
o. 0575 ol04.0
1.1280
113.7
a. 0650 o ll7 .5
1.0320
113.7
a. 0625 o ll3 .0
.9840
113.7
a. 0550 o99.5
91.2
.9360
». 0525 o94.9
.9360
79.7
a . 0525 o94.9
.9360
79.7
98.2
.9600
a. 0500 a 90.4
98.2
1.0320
a. 0450 o81.4
98.2
a. 0483 o87.3
1.0320
1.0320
0.0525 0 94.9
108.0
a. 0500 o90.4
1.0320
110.3
o. 0500 o 90.4
1.0360
110.3
a. 0504 o91.1
1.0880
110.3
o. 0529 o95.7
1.1040
110.5
a. 0517 o93.5
115.2
1.1520
1.1800
a.0550 o99.5
116.6
.0602 *121.0
1.2480
116.6
.0519 &104.3
1.2000
115.6
.0483 6 97.1
1.1920
116.6

100.0
103.1
112.7
103.1
98.3
93.5
93.5
93.5
95.9
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.5
108.7
110.3
115.1
117.9
124.7
119.9
119.1

$0.4752
.5160
.5520
.5040
.5280
.4680
.4200
.4080
.4320
.4680
.4560
.4920
.4800
.4840
.5136
.5184
.5520
.5520
.5760
.5540
.5280

100.0
108.6
116.2
106.1
111.1
98.5
88.4
85.9
90.9
98.5
96.0
103.5
101.0
101.9
108.1
109.1
116.2
116.2
121.2
116.6
111.1

$1.8432
1.9200
2.0160
1.9200
1.9200
1.9200
1.6800
1.6800
1.7280
1.8240
1.8240
1.8720
1.8720
1.8840
2.0080
2.0400
2.1360
2.1920
2.2800
2.2160
2.2160

100.0
104.2
109.4
104.2
104.2
104.2
91.1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0
101.6
101.6
102.2
108.9
110.7
115.9
118.9
123.7
120.2
120.2

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
A pril.........................
M ay..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1.980
1.980
1.980
1.980
1.980
1.980
2.060
2.060
2.060
2.060
2.060
2.060

114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9

.0475
.0499
.0499
.0499
.0499
.0451
.0451
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0523

695.5
6100.3
6100.3
6100.3
6100.3
6 90.6
6 90.6
6 95.5
6 95.5
6 95.5
6 95.5
6105.1

1.1760
1.1760
1.1760
1.1760
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000
1.2000

117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9

.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280
.5280

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

2.1840
2.1840
2.1840
2.1840
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

118.5
118.5
118.5
118.5
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1

2.060
2.060
2.060

118.9
118.9
118.9

.0523 6105.1
.0523 6105.1
.0570 6114.6

1.2000
1.2000
1.2000

119.9
119.9
119.9

.5280
.5280
.5280

111.1
111.1
111.1

2.2320
2.2320
2.2320

121.1
121.1
121.1

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Calico: Cocheco prints.
b For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1906, $0.0495.




513

W HOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M A R C H ; 1910.

I I . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

{For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description o f the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Cotton thread:
Cotton flannels: Cotton flannels: 6-cord, 200-yard
2f yards to the 3 i yards to the spools, J. & P.
pound.
pound.
Coats.

Cotton yams:
carded, white,
mule-spun,
northern,
cones, 10/1.

Cotton yams:
carded, white,
mule-spun,
northern,
cones, 22/1.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price. spool. ( 0 price. pound. price. pound. price.
)
yard. price. yard.
$0.1608
5.1790
5.1794
5.1885
.1808
.1523
.1477
.1483
.1452
.1456
.1408
.1850
.1585
.1538
.1869
.1981
.1733
.2004
.2204
.1777
.1967

100.0
111.3
111.6
117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
98.6
95.6
116.2
123.2
107.8
124.6
137.1
110.5
122.3

$0.1969
5.2208
5.2244
6.2300
.2138
.1796
.1815
.1844
.1788
.1792
.1760
.2283
.1927
.1819
.2156
.2279
.2038
.2304
.2571
.2104
.2260

100.0
112.1
114.0
116.8
108.6
91.2
92.2
93.7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
103.5
117.0
130.6
106.9
114.8

.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4
.039200 126.4

.1750
.1750
.1750
.1750
.1800
.1950
.2000
.2050
.2050
.2150
.2300
.2300

108.8
108.8
108.8
108.8
111.9
121.3
124.4
127.5
127.5
133.7
143.0
143.0

.2050
.2050
.2050
.2050
.2100
.2150
.2250
.2350
.2400
.2525
.2650
.2500

104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
106.7
109.2
114 3
119.3
121.9
128.2
134.6
127.0

126.4
126.4
126.4

.2350
.2300
.2200

146.1
143.0
136.8

.2600
.2550
.2500

132.0
129.5
127.0

100.0
123.9
123.9
118.7
102.7
95.6
92.1
92.1
81.4
81.4
87.7
104.5
90.7
92.1
104.1
125.4
121.0
130.7
139.9
117.4
106.8

$0.0575
.0688
.0688
.0650
.0575
.0550
.0525
.0550
.0550
.0463
.0508
.0567
.0575
.0575
.0629
.0723
.0681
.0723
.0800
.0696
.0633

.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0775
.0775

106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
109.8
109.8

.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0675
.0675

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
117.4
117.4

.0900
.0900
.0900

127.5
127.5
127.5

.0750
.0750
.0750

130.4
130.4
130.4

.039200
.039200
.039200

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0706
.0875
1890.........................
.0875
1891.........................
1892.........................
.0838
.0725
1893..........................
.0675
1894.........................
.0650
1895.........................
.0650
1896..........................
.0575
1897.........................
.0575
1898..........................
.0619
1899..........................
.0738
1900..........................
.0640
1901.........................
.0650
1902.........................
.0735
1903.........................
.0885
1904..........................
.0854
1905....... .................
.0923
1906.........................
.0988
1907..........................
.0829
1908.........................
.9754
1909..........................

100.0 $0.031008 100.0
119.7
.031514 101.6
119.7
.031238 100.7
113.0
.031238 100.7
100.0
.031238 100.7
95.7
.031238 100.7
91.3
.031238 100.7
95.7
.030871
99.6
98.4
95.7
.030503
80.5
98.4
.030503
88.3
98.4
.030503
98.6
.037240 120.1
100.0
.037240 120.1
100.0
.037240 120.1
109.4
.037240 120.1
125.7
.037240 120.1
118.4
.037240 120.1
.037240 120.1
125.7
139.1
.041813 134.8
121.0
.040833 131.7
110.1
.039200 126.4

1909.
January...................
February................
March......................
April........................
May.........................
June........................
July.........................
August....................
September..............
October...................
November..............
December................
1910.
January...................
February................
March......................

a Freight paid.
6 Records destroyed.




Price estimated by person who furnished data for later years.

514

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

I . A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
I—
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Denims: Amoskeag.

Drillings:
brown, Pepperell.

Drillings: 30inch, Stark A.

Flannels:
white, 4-4, Bal­
lard Vale No. 3.

Ginghams:
Amoskeag.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
100.0
112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8
102.8
100.2
100.6
108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3
111.1
119.9

$0.0572
.0683
.0652
.0582
.0590
.0559
.0529
.0573
.0525
.0513
.0510
.0606
.0585
.0575
.0619
.0727
.0721
.0775
.0825
.0706
.0738

100.0
119.4
114.0
101.7
103.1
97.7
92.5
100.2
91.8
89.7
89.2
105.9
102.3
100.5
108.2
127.1
126.0
135.5
144.2
123.4
129.0

$0.0521
.0640
.0600
.0535
.0563
.0502
.0489
.0522
.0463
.0437
.0457
.0542
.0532
.0539
.0581
.0658
.0633
.0740
.0782
.0718
.0786

100.0
122.8
115.2
102.7
108.1
96.4
93.9
100.2
88.9
83.9
87.7
104.0
102.1
103.5
111.5
126.3
121.5
142.0
150.1
137.8
150.9

$0.3768
.4400
.4400
.4367
.4125
.3546
.3080
.3217
.3113
.3685
.3750
.4096
.3800
.3986
.4306
.4433
.4461
.4613
.4638
.4611
.4594

100.0
116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
94.1
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7
100.8
105.8
114.3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1
122.4
121.9

$0,0533
.0625
.0650
.0650
.0631
.0485
.0466
.0472
.0438
.0431
.0477
.0515
.0490
.0523
.0550
.0548
.0515
.0565
.0658
.0548
.0588

100.0.
117.3
122.0
122.0
118.4
91.0
87.4
88.6
82.2
80.9
89.5
96.6
91.9
98.1
103.2
102.8
96.6
106.0
123.5
102.8
110.3

.1175 112.5
.1175 112.5
.1175 112.5
.1175 112. 5
.1175 112.5
.1175 112.5
.1175 112.5
.1300 124.5
.1300 124.5
.1350 129.3
.1400 134.1
.1450 138.9

.0700
.0700
.0700
.0700
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0750
.0775
.0800
.0825

122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
126.7
126.7
126.7
126.7
131.1
135.5
139.9
144.2

.0750
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0778
.0778
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0825
.0825
.0825

144.0
144.0
144.0
144.0
149.3
149.3
153.6
153.6
153.6
158.3
15a 3
158.3

.4557
.4557
.4557
.4557
.4557
.4557
.4557
.4634
.4634
.4634
.4634
.4687

120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
124.4

.0550
.0550
.0550
.0550
.0550
.0550
.0550
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0625
.0700

103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
131.3

.1500
.1500
.1500

.0825
.0825
.0825

144.2
144.2
144.2

.0825
.0825
.0825

158.3
158.3
158.3

.4687
.4687
.4687

124.4
124.4
124.4

.0700
.0700
.0700

131.3
131.3
131.3

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.1044
.1175
1890...........................
.1144
1891...........................
1892...........................
.1144
.1175
1893...........................
1894...........................
.1100
.0988
1895...........................
.0988
1896...........................
.0931
1897...........................
.0897
1898...........................
1899...........................
.0896
.1073
1900...........................
.1046
1901...........................
1902...........................
.1050
.1127
1903...........................
1904...........................
.1217
1905...........................
.1083
.1233
1906...........................
.1381
1907...........................
1908...........................
.1160
1909...........................
.1252
1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
M ay..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March............. ..........




143.7
143.7
143.7

515

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,

I I . — A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Ginghaips:
Lancaster.
Year or month.

Hosiery: men’s
cotton half hose,
seamless, fast Hosiery: wom­
Horse blankets: black, 20 to 22 en’s cotton hose,
all wool, 6
pounds each. ounce, 160 nee­ combed peeler
dles, single
yarn.
thread, carded
yarn.

Hosiery: wom­
en’s cotton hose,
seamless, fast
black, 26-ounce,
176 needles,
single thread,
carded yarn.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. pound. price. 12 pairs. price. 12 pairs. price. 12 pans. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0573
1890...........................
.0692
1891...........................
.0700
1892...........................
.0700
1893...........................
.0638
1894...........................
.0504
1895...........................
.0496
1896...........................
.0500
1897...........................
.0494
1898...........................
.0488
1899...........................
.0515
1900...........................
.0550
1901...........................
.0531
1902...........................
.0575
1903...........................
.0575
1904...........................
.0556
1905...........................
.0517
1906...........................
.0592
1907...........................
.0690
1908...........................
.0573
1909...........................
.0596

100.0 c$0.9555 <*100.0 6 $1,850 100.0 c$0.9310 c 100.0
c 1.2250 <131.6
109.1 a 1.2740 <*133.3
c 1.1270 <121.1
104.7 a 1.1760 <*123.1
c l . 0780 c 1 1 5 .8
109.1 a 1.0780 <*112.8
104.7 a 1.0535 <*110.3 d 1.900 <*102.7 <1.0535 <113.2
96.0
a. 9800 <*102.6 d 1.900 <*102.7
c.9800 <105.3
92.5
a. 9065 <*94.9 d 1.875 <*101.4
<.8575 <92.1
90.8
a. 8330 <*87.2 <11.875 <*101.4
<.7840 <84.2
99.5
a.7840 <*82.1 d 1.850 <*100.0
<. 7595
< 81.6
a. 7350 «76.9 <*1.800 <*97.3 <.7105 <76.3
99.5
94.2
a. 7350 o76.9 <*1.750 <*94.6
<.7350 <78.9
118.7
a. 7840 o82.1 <*1.900 <*102.7
<. 7595 <81.6
109.9
a. 6860 o71.8. <*2.000 <*108.1
<.6615 <71.1
109.9
<. 7350 o76.9 <*1.850 <*100.0
*
<.7350 <78.9
117.8
a. 7840 o82.1 <*1.875 <*101.4
<.8085 <86.8
122.2
<.6370 <82.1 <*1.800 <*97.3
<.7595 <81.6
<. 6370 <82.1 <*1.750 <*94.6
130.9
<.7840 <84.2
135.3
<.6615 <85.3 <*1.900 <*102.7
<.7595 <81.6
130.9
< 2.025 <*109.5
*
«. 7350 <94.8
<.8330 < 89.5
126.5
95.9
.7500 /88.9
1.775
.8000 184.2
126.5
.8104 /96.1
1.775
95.9
.8104 9 85.3

100.0
120.8
122.2
122.2
111.3
88.0
86.6
87.3
86.2
85.2
89.9
96.0
92.7
100.3
100.3
97.0
90.2
103.3
120.4
100.0
104.0

$0,573
.625
.600
.625
.600
.550
.530
.520
.570
.570
.540
.680
.630
.630
.675
.700
.750
.775
.750
.725
.725

.0550
.0575
.0575
.0575
.0575
.0575
.0575
.0600
.0600
.0600
.0675
.0675

96.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
104.7
104.7
104.7
117.8
117.8

.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725
.725

126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5

.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250

/9 4 .8
/9 4 .8
/9 4 .8
/ 94.8
/ 94.8
/ 94.8
/9 4 .8
/ 97.8
/ 97.8
/9 7 .8
/ 97.8
/ 97.8

1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775
1.775

95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9

.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8000
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250
.8250

< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 84.2
7
< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7

.0675
.0675
.0675

117.8
117.8
117.8

.775
.775
.775

135.3
135.3
135.3

.8250 / 97.8
.8250 f 97.8
.8250 /9 7 .8

1.775
1.775
1.775

95.9
95.9
95.9

.8250
.8250
.8250

< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7
< 86.8
7

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Hosiery: men’s cotton half hose, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, two thread. September
price, which represents bulk of sales.
&Combed Egyptian cotton. Average for 1893-1899.
c Hosiery: women’s cotton hose, seamless, fast black, 26 to 28 ounce, 160 to 176 needles. September
price, which represents bulk of sales.
d Combed Egyptian cotton.
e Hosiery: men’s cotton half ho$e, seamless, fast black, 20 to 22 ounce, 160 needles, single thread. Sep­
tember price, which represents bulk of sales. For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and
416, September price, 1903, $0.6370.
/ For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416, average price for 1907, $0.80.
g For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416, average price for 1907, $0.85.

43431—No. 87— 10----- 10




516

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOB,

I . A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
I—
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PR IC E S (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[Forexplanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description o f the articles,
see Tdblc I>]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Leather: har­
ness, oak, pack­
ers^ hides.

Leather: sole,
hemlock.

Leather: sole, Leather: chrome
oak.
calf.

Linen shoe
thread: 10
s,
Barbour.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. sq. foot. price. pound. price.
Average, 189(1-1899... o$0.2590 olOO.O $0.1939 100.0 $0.3363
1890........................... o.2571 o99.3
.1921
99.1
.3771
1891........................... o.2579 o99.6
95.8
.1858
.3679
1892........................... a.2367 091.4
89.1
.1727
.3421
1893........................... o. 2400 o92.7
.1796
92.6
.3483
1894............................ o.2275 o87.8
. 1715 88.4
.3279
1895............................ o.2888 a lll.5
.3421
.2073 106.9
1896............................ a.2554 o98.6
.1881
97.0
.2925
1897........................... o.2433 093.9
.2033 104.8
.3079
1898............................ fl.2825 ol09.1
.2129 109.8
.3213
1899........................... a.3004 io ll 6.0 i .2254 116.2
.3358
1900............................ O.3025 0 6.8 ; .2490 128.4
II
.3606
1901...........................
o.2971 oll4.7 ; .2475 127.6
.3525
1902
..............
.3325 <114.7
.2367 122.1
.3800
1903
..............
.3313 <114.3
.2267 116.9
.3742
1904............................
.3188 cl 10.0
.2258 116.5
.3450
1905............................
.3333 <115.0
.2290 118.1
.3663
1906............................
.3713 cl28.1
.2538 130.9
.3796
1907
...............
.3738 cl29.0
.2644 136.4
.3821
1908
...............
121.1 .2508 129.3 .3800
.3508 <
1909...........................
.3808 <131.5
.2550 131.5
.4125

100.0 6$0.6545
112.1 &.6000
109.4
101.7
103.6
97.5
101.7
87.0
91.6
95.5
99.9
107.3
104.8
113.0
111.3
108.9
112.9
113.6
113.0
122.7

0.6469
6.6929
6.6450
6.6042
6.7333
6.6433
6.6156
5.6760
6.6875
6.6563
6.6281
6.6604
6.6900
6.6875
6.6969
6.7167
6.7667
.2183
.2313

102.6

6100.0 $0.8748
691.7
.8910
698.8
.8910
6105.9
.8910
.8993
698.5
692.3
.9182
6112.0
.8514
698.3
.8514
694.1
.8514
6103.3 : .8514
6105.0
.8514
6100.3
.8877
696.0
.8910
6100.9
.8910
6105.4
.8460
6105.0
.8499
6106.5
.8499
6109.5
.8930
6117.1
.8930
<*113.6
.8930
<*120.4
.8930

100.0

101.9
101.9
101.9

102.8
105.0
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
101.5
101.9
101.9
96.7
97.2
97.2

102.1
102.1
102 1
102.1

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
Julv...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

C127.7
C127.7
cl27.7
cl27.7
C127.7
C131.2
C131.2
cl34.6
C134.6
<134.6
C136.4
<136.4

.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550
.2550

131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5

.3950
.4100
.4100
.4100
.4000
.4150
.4150
.4150
.4150
.4150
.4250
.4250

117.5
121.9
121.9
121.9
118.9
123.4
123.4
123.4
123.4
123.4
126.4
126.4

.2150
.2250
.2300
.2250
.2250
.2300
.2300
.2350
.2350
.2350
.2450
.2450

<*111.9
<*117.1
<*119.7
<*117.1
<*117.1
<*119.7
<*119.7
<*122.3
<*122.3
<*122.3
<*127.5
<*127.5

.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930
.8930

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

.3950 <136.4
.3950 cl36.4
.3950 C136.4

.2550
.2550
.2550

131.5
131.5
131.5

.4250
.4250
.4350

126.4
126.4
129.3

.2450 <*127.5
.2450 <*127.5
.2250 <*117.1

.8930
.8930
.8930

m i

.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3700
.3800
.3800
.m o
.3900
.3900
.3950
.3950

m i

1910.
January.....................
February..................
March........................

« Leather: harness, oak, country middles.
6Leather: wax call, 30 to 40 pounds to the dozen, B grade.
C For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for m i , $0.3325.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.2250.




102.1
102.1

517

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M AR C H , 1910,

T able I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Overcoatings:
covert cloth,
14-ounce.

Overcoatings:
kersey, 27 to 28
ounce.

Print cloths:
64 by 04.

Sheetings:
bleached, 9-4,
Atlantic.

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
Pepperell.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price.
yard. price. yard. price.
yard. price. yard.
yard. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

<42.3286
a 2.4616
a 2.4616
o2.4616
o2.4616
o 2 .4254
0 2.3250
©2.0363
ol.9458
o2.2625
o2.4435
o2.3621
o2.2625
o2.2625
o2.1899
0 2.1899
o2.2568
o2.2568
o2.2568
o2.2568
2.0250

<*100.0 <>$1.2472
<*105.7
a105.7
<*105.7
<*105.7
<*104.2
<*99.9
<*87.4
<*83.6
1.1833
<*97.2 1.3000
1.2583
<*104.9
1.5750
<*101.4
1.5000
<*97.2
<*97.2
1.5000
1.5750
<*94.0
1.6500
<*94.0
1.8313
<*96.9
<*96.9 2.0417
1.9708
<*96.9
1.8500
o96.9
1.7875
<96.9
5

100.0 $0.02838
.03340
.02938
.03386
.03251
.02748
.02864
.02581
94.9
.02485
104.2
.02059
.02732
100.9
126.3
.03083
120.3
.02819
120.3
.03090
.032156
126.3
132.3
.033290
.031214
146.8
.036238
163.7
.047512
158.0
148.3
.033486
.035889
143.3

100.0 c$0.1836 clOO.O $0.1884
c.2241 cl22.1
117.7
.2190
c .2138 cll6 .4
103.5
.2008
119.3
c . 1996 cl08.7
.1900
c . 2052 c lll.8
114.6
.1946
c.1741 C94.8
.1742
96.8
c . 1722 c93.8
100.9
.1785
c . 1700 c92.6
.1792
90.9
87.6
c . 1604 « 87.4
.1738
.1721
72.6
c .1527 c83.2
.2021
96.3
c . 1641 c89.4
.2292
108.6
c.2043 c l l l .3
c . 1853 clOO.9
99.3
.2117
108.9
c .1917 cl04.4
.2100
c . 2124 cl15.7
113.3
.2275
c. 2355 cl28.3
.2425
117.3
110.0
c.2024 cllO.2
.2267
.2475
127.7
.2095 <*121.5
167.4
.2315 <*134.3
.2883
118.0
.2442
.2390 <*138.7
126.5
.2073 <*120.3
.2517

100.0
116.2
106.6
100.8
103.3
92.5
94.7
95.1
92.3
91.3
107.3
121.7
112.4
111.5
120.8
128.7
120.3
131.4
153.0
129.6
133.6

121.1
121.1
118.9
116.7
119.4
120.6
124.6
127.7
128.8
137.4
140.9
140.9

19 0 9 .
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

«96.9
« 96.9
«96.9
«96.9
«96.9
«96.9
«96.9
«96.9
«96.9
« 96.9
«96.9
«96.9

1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.8000
1.9000

140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
152.3

.034375
.034375
.033750
.033125
.033875
.034219
.035375
.036250
.036563
.039000
.040000
.040000

2.0250 «96.9
2.0250 « 96.9
2.0250 <5 96.9

1.9250
1.9250
1.9250

154.3
154.3
154.3

.041875 147.6
.042500 149.8
.041250 145.3

2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250
2.0250

<*116.5
<*120.0
<*119.7
<*119.7
<*119.7
<*120.0
<*120.2
<*121.4
<*114.9
<*119.7
<*125.6
<*126.1

.2300
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2400
.2500
.2500
.2600
.2700
.2800
.2800

122.1
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
132.7
132.7
138.0
143.3
148.6
148.6

.2203 <*127.8
.2143 <*124.4
.2256 <*130.9

.2800
.2800
.2800

148.6
148.6
148.6

.2007
.2068
.2062
.2062
.2062
.2068
.2071
.2092
.1980
.2062
.2164
.2173

19 1 0 .
January....................
February..................
March........................

< Overcoatings: covert cloth, light weight, staple goods.
*
6 Average for 1897-1899.
c Sheetings: bleached, 10-4, Atlantic.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905, $0.1901.
*
e For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1908, $2.0250.




518

B U LLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOB,

T able I I . — A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Sheetings:
bleached, 10-4,
Wamsutta S.T.

Sheetings:
brown, 4r-4,
Indian Head.

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Pepperell R.

Sheetings:
brown, 4-4,
Lawrence L. L.

Shirtings:
bleached. 4-4,
Fruit of the
Loom.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
yard. price. yard. price.
100.0
106.0
107.2
99.8
103.6
93.5
92.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.1
104.3
99.2
99.2
103.0
94.1
91.6
92.7
103.4
94.7
97.2

$0.0626
.0725
.0727
.0648
.0679
.0598
.0585
.0622
.0588
.0540
.0544
.0623
.0631
.0625
.0681
.0802
.0758
.0802
.0835
.0779
.0752

100.0
115.8
116.1
103.5
108.5
95.5
93.5
99.4
93.9
86.3
86.9
99.5
100.8
99.8
108.8
128.1
121.1
128.1
133.4
124.4
120.1

$0.0551
.0640
.0597
.0569
.0583
.0531
.0529
.0558
.0525
.0475
.0504
.0592
.0592
.0569
.0599
.0669
.0644
.0685
.0746
.0683
.0688

.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.2800
.3200
.3200

94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
108.5
108.5

.0775
.0750
.0750
.0750
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0750
.0800
.0825

123.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
119.8
127.8
131.8

.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0650
.0675
.0675
.0700
.0750
.0775
.0775

118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
122.5
122.5
127.0
136.1
140.7
140.7

.0500
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0525
.0538
.0563
.0575
.0625
.0650
.0663

c 98.3
cl03.2
cl03.2
C103.2
cl03.2
cl03.2
C105.7
cllO. 6
cll3.0
cl22.8
C127.7
C130.3

.0875
.0875
.0875
.0875
.0875
.0875
.0875
.0925
.0925
.0925
.1000
.1000

120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
127.1
127.1
127.1
137.4
137.4

.3400
.3400
.3400

115.3
115.3
115.3

.0850
.0850
.0850

135.8
135.8
135.8

.0775
.0775
.0775

140.7
140.7
140.7

.0663 cl30.4
.0638 cl25.4
.0625 cl22.9

.1000
.1000
.1000

137.4
137.4
137.4

Average, 1890-1899.. $0.2949
.3126
1890...........................
.3162
1891...........................
.2944
1892...........................
.3056
1893...........................
.2756
1894...........................
.2719
1895...........................
.2925
1896...........................
.2925
1897...........................
.2925
1898...........................
.2951
1899...........................
.3075
1900...........................
.2925
1901...........................
1902...........................
.2925
.3038
1903...........................
.2775
1904...........................
.2700
1905...........................
.2733
1906...........................
.3050
1907...........................
.2794
1908...........................
.2867
1909...........................

100.0 a$0.0525 olOO.O $0.0728
116.2
a. 0660 ol25.7
.0845
a. 0594 oll3 .1
108.3
.0799
a.0545 0103.8
103.3
.0808
o. 0574 0109.3
105.8
.0832
0.0521 099.2
96.4
.0727
0.0513 o97.7
96.0
.0700
o.05U o97.3
101.3
.0696
0.0452 086.I
95.3
.0641
86.2
0.0424 o80.8
.0584
0.0451 o85.9
91.5
.0644
107.4
o. 0508 o96.8
.0753
107.4
a.0494 o94.1
.0750
6.0566 692.6
103.3
.0756
6.0623 6101.9
108.7
.0767
121.4
6.0715 6117.0
.0802
6.0725 6118.6
116.9
.0748
124.3
6.0767 6125.5
.0817
135.4
6.0777 6127.1
.1117
.0519 C102.0
124.0
.0913
.0561 cllO. 3
124.9
.0908

100.0
116.1
109.8
111.0
114.3
99.9
96.2
95.6
88.0
80.2
88.5
103.4
103.0
103.8
105.4
110.2
102.7
112.2
153.4
125.4
124.7

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November.................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

a Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Stark A. A.
b Sheetings: brown, 4-4, Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing relative
price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1901, $0.0575.
cFor method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.0647.




519

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.
T a b l e I I* — A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E P RIC ES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation Mid discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Lonsdale.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
Williamsville
A l.

Shirtings:
bleached, 4-4,
W a m su tta ^ ^

Silk: raw,
Italian, clas­
sical.

Silk: raw, Ja­
pan, filatures.

Average Relar Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price.
yard. price. pound. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0727
1890 .......................
.0845
1891 .......................
.0822
1892 .......................
.0812
1893 .......................
.0832
1894 .......................
.0727
1895 .......................
.0697
1896 .......................
.0685
1897 .......................
.0633
1898 .......................
.0595
1899 .......................
.0626
1900 .......................
.0731
1901 .......................
.0738
1902 .......................
.0741
1903 .......................
.0755
1904 .......................
.0796
1905 .......................
.0739
1906 .......................
.0806
1907 .......................
.1025
.0873
1908 .......................
1909 .......................
.0879

100.0 c$0.0876 <*100.0
116.2
0.0968 ollO. 5
0.0965 ollO. 2
113.1
0.0931 ol06.3
111.7
0.0925 0105.6
114.4
0.0885 olOl.O
100.0
0.0851 o97.1
95.9
94.2
0.0885 olOl.O
87.1
a.0836 o95.4
0.0784 o89.5
81.8
0.0725 o82.8
86.1
100.6
O.0786 o89.7
101.5
O.0760 086.8
O.0766 o87.4
101.9
103.9
a. 0850 a 97.0
o. 0830 o94.7
109.5
a. 0848 o96.8
101.7
110.9
.0946 108.0
141.0
.1163 132.8
120.1
.0938 107.1
.0875
120.9
99.9

$0.0948
.1011
.1009
.0973
.0981
.0950
.0969
.0951
.0935
.0807
.0892
.0965
.0875
.0885
.0974
.0921
.0942
.1033
.1100
.1119
.1058

100.0
106.6
106.4
102.6
103.5
100.2
102.2
100.3
98.6
85.1
94.1
101.8
92.3
93.4
102.7
97.2
99.4
109.0
116.0
118.0
111.6

$4.2558
5.2238
4.1865
4.4826
5.0289
3.6816
4.0373
3.6293
3.6404
3.8768
4.7706
4.5128
3.8466
4.1085
4.5241
3.8651
4.1085
4.3249
5.5812
4.1807
4.3777

100.0
122.7
98.4
105.3
118.2
86.5
94.9
85.3
85.5
91.1
112.1
106.0
90.4
96.5
106.3
90.8
96.5
101.6
131.1
98.2
102.9

$4.0187
5.2429
4.0110
4.3266
4.5409
3.3627
3.7855
3.4072
3.4637
3.6376
4.4085
4.1690
3.5132
3.8224
4.1346
3.6416
3.9912
4.1632
5.0602
3.8902
3.8396

100.0
130.5
99.8
107.7
113.0
83.7
94.2
84.8
86.2
90.5
109.7
103.7
87.4
95.1
102.9
90.6
99.3
103.6
125.9
96.8
5.5

1909.
January.........
February___
March............
April..............
May...............
June..............
July...............
August..........
September...
October.........
Novem ber...
December___

.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0950
.0950

116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
123.8
123.8
123.8
130.7
130.7

.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0875
.0875
.0875
.0900
.0925
.0950

97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
102.7
105.6
108.4

.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1025
.1075
.1075
.1175
.1175

108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
113.4
113.4
123.9
123.9

4.4303
4.4303
4.4798
4.2818
4.3808
4.3313
4.4303
4.4179
4.5417
4.4922
4.2323
4.0838

104.1
104.1
105.3
100.6
102.9
101.8
104.1
103.8
106.7
105.6
99.4
96.0

4.0983
4.1953
4.2438
4.1953
3.8073
3.7588
3.8558
3.6618
3.6618
3.6618
3.5163
3.4193

102.0
104.4
105.6
104.4
94.7
93.5
95.9
91.1
91.1
91.1
87.5
85.1

.0975
.0975
.0975

134.1
134.1
134.1

.1000
.1000
.0900

114.2
114.2
102.7

.1175
.1175
.1175

123.9
123.9
123.9

4.2323
4.0095
3.8610

99.4
94.2
90.7

3.5163
3.4678
3.3223

87.5
86.3
82.7

1910.
January..
February
March....




<*4-4, New York Mills.

520

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M O N THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E P R IC E S,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.
(For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Suitings: clay
worsted diago­
nal, 12-ounce.

Suitings: clay Suitings: indigo
Suitings:
worsted diago­ blue, all wool, serge, Washing­
14-ounce,
nal, 16-ounce.
ton Mills 6700.
Middlesex.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Relar Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tivo price per tive price per tive
yard. price. yard. price. yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.

0 .0
10 <*$1.0068 1 0
0.0

10
0.0

132.7
147.5
142.1
135.2
150.3

.9445
.8819
.9392
1.1216
1.1468
1.3463
1.1175
1.0931
1.1288
1.1036
1.3013
1.4738
1.4025
1.3388
1.4850

$1.3230
1.5470
1.5470
1.5470
1.5084
1.4697
93.8
1.1523
87.6
1.1375
93.3
1.0465
111.4
1.1375
113.9
1.1375
133.7
1.1375
111.0 1.1849
108.6
1.3119
1 2 1.4400
1 .1
109.6
1.4438
129.3
1.5300
146.4
1.7100
139.3
1.7100
133.0
1.5750
147.5
1.5750

1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.1475
1.3275
1.3275
1.3275
1.3275
1.3275
1.3275

139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2

1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.6200
1.6200
1.6200
1.6200
1.6200
1.6200

134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9

1.3050
1.3050
1.3050

158.5
158.5
158.5

1.5075
1.5075
1.5075

149.7
149.7
149.7

Average, 1890-1899.. <*$0.8236
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
.7621
1895...........................
.7337
1896...........................
1897...........................
.7595
1898...........................
.9165
.9461
1899............................
1.0819
1900...........................
1901...........................
.9113
1902...........................
.9131
1903...........................
.9488
1904...........................
.9244
1905...........................
1.0931
1.2150
1906...........................
1.1700
1907...........................
1908............................ 1.1138
1909............................ 1.2375

92.5
89.1
92.2
111.3
114.9
131.4

1 0.6
1
110.9
115.2

11
2.2

10
0 .0

$0.1061

89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3
119.0
119.0

.9100
.9100
.6825
.6825
.6143
.6598
.7508
.8106
.8100
.8025
.7913
.7556
.7744
.9638
1.0444
1.0500
.9938
1.0688

120.9
120.9
90.7
90.7
81.6
87.7
99.8
107.7
107.6
106.6
105.1
100.4
102.9
128.1
138.8
139.5
132.0
142.0

.1175
.1150
.1181
.1084
.1006
.1019
.0975
.0894
.0923
.1084
. 1013
.1050
.1104
.1213
.1083
.1263
.1373
.1125
.1181

1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750
1.5750

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

.9675
.9675
.9675
.9675
.9675
.9675
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5

.1125
.1125
. 1125
.1125
.1125
.1125
.1175
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250

106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
110.7
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8

1.6650
1.6650
1.6650

125.9
125.9
125.9

1.1700
1.1700
1.1700

155.5
155.5
155.5

.1400
.1400
.1400

132.0
132.0
132.0

116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0

11
1 .1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0

m . 7526

.1 0
20

100.0
113.1
110.7
108.4
111.3

1 2.2
0
94.8
96.0
91.9
84.3
87.0

1 2.2
0
95.5
99.0
104.1
114.3

12
0 .1
119.0
129.4
106.0
111.3

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
M ay...........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.......... ..........
November................
December.................
19 10.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Average for 1895-1899.




&Average for 1892-1899.

521

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T able I I _ A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
_
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PR IC E S (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.
{For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Women’s dress
Underwear:
Women’s dress goods: cashUnderwear:
shirts and
Trouserings:
goods: Sicilian mere, all wool,
shirts and
fancy worsted, drawers, white, drawers, white, cloth, cotton
8-9 twin, 35merino, 60 per warp, 50-inch. inch, Atlantic
18 to 19 ounce.
all wool.
cent wool.
Mills.
Average
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ price,12 Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive
price per tive price, 12 tive
gar­
gar­
yard. price.
yard. price. ments. price. ments. price. yard. price.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896............................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

a$l. 9456

10
0 .0
<106.6
<106.6
<98.9
<87.9
<92.3
<92.3
<108.9
<106.6
<117.6
<102.2
<101.8
Q04.6
/106.2
/111. 6
/120.6
/122.3
*124.6
0124.1

$23.31
24.75
25.65
25.65
25.65
21.60
21.60
21.60
21.60
21.60
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
23.40
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

10
0 .0
10
1 .0
10
1 .0
10
1 .0

92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

6$15.57
516.65
617.55
617.55
617.55
614.85
614.40
614.40
614.40
614.85
613.50
614.85
614.85
614.85
16.20
16.20
16.20
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

<2,0734
<2.0734
<1.9238
<1.7100
<1.7955
<1.7955
<2.1197
<2.0734
<2.2871
<1.9879
<1.9800
/2.0925
/2.1244
/2.2331
1 % 4131
Z2.4469
<2.4938
2.4844

2.5875
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750
2.4750

0129.3
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7
0123.7

27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00
27.00

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00

2.4750 0123.6
2.5875 0129.3
2.5875 0129.3

27.00
27.00
27.00

115.8
115.8
115.8

18.00 0106.0
18.00 0106.0
18.00 0106.0

106.2

6100.0 c$0.0680 <100.0 <*$0.2905 <*100.0
<*.3479 <*119.8
6106.9
c.0735 c 108.1
<*.3663 <*126.1
6112.7
c.0735 c 108.1
c. 0723 C106.3
<*.3724 <*128.2
6112.7
c. 0711 c 104.0
<*.3247 <*111.8
6112.7
695.4
<*.2450 <*84.3
c.0686 cl00.9
<*.2352 <*81.0
692.5
c.0637 <93.7
<. 1960 <*67.5
*
692.5
c.0637 <93.7
<*.2389 <*82.2
c.0637 c93.7
692.5
695.4
<*.2573 <*88.6
c.0637 <193.7
<*.3208 <*110.4
c.0657 <196.6
686.7
695.4
c. 0711 <04.6
<*.3459 <*119.1
<*.3234 <*111.3
695.4
c .0711 c04.6
695.4
c.0705 <103.7
<*.3234 <*111.3
095.4
c.0690 <101.5
<. 3320 <*114.3
*
095.4
c.0764 <112.4
<*.3418 <*117.7
095.4
ft. 1150 6114.9
<. 3730 <*128.4
*
<. 3920 <*134.9
*
0106.0
ft. 1217 ft121.6
ft.1250 6124.9
<*.3920 <*134.9
0106.0
0106.0
.3491 >124.9
.3185 ft127.1
.3317 >118.7
.3479 ftl33.8
0106.0

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0

.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3259
.3491
.3491
.3491

>116.6

>116.6
>116.6
>116.6
>116.6
>124.9
>124.9
>124.9

.3381
.3381
.3381
.3381
.3381
.3381
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577
.3577

ft134.9
*134.9
ftl34.9
*134.9
*134.9
*134.9
*142.7
*142.7
*142.7
*142.7
*142.7
*142.7

.3491 >124.9
.3491 >124.9
.3491 >124.9

.3773
.3773
.3773

*150.5
*150.5
*150.5

m e. 6

>116.6
>116.6

m e. 6

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a 22 to 23 ounce. Average for 1892-1899.
&Shirts and drawers, white, merino, full-fashioned, 52 per cent wool, 48 per cent cotton, 24-gauge.
c Alpaca, cotton warp, 22-inch. Hamilton.
< Cashmere, all-wool, 10-11 twill, 38-inch, Atlantic Mills J.
*
*22 to 23 ounce.
/ 21 to 22 ounce. For average price in 1902 and method of computing'relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
g For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
ft Danish cloth, cotton warp and worsted filling, 22-inch. For method of computing relative price, see
pages 415 and 416; average price for 1904,10.1125.
i 19 to 20 ounce. For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
>For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.3491.
ft For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.3381.




522

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUKEAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I , —A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Women's dress Women's dress Women's dress
goods: poplar
Women’s dress
Wool: Ohio,
goods: cashgoods: cashcloth, cotton
mere, cotton
mere, cotton goods: Panama fine fleece (X
warp
cloth, all
and X X grade),
warp, Atlantic worsted and
warp, 36-inch,
filling,
wool, 54-inch.
scoured.
Mills F.
Hamilton.
36-inch.
Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price.
yard. price. pound. price.

Average, 1890-1899... $0.1520
.1813
1890............................
.1813
1891...........................
1892...........................
.1789
1893...........................
.1495
1894...........................
.1348
.1274
1895...........................
1896...........................
. 1270
.1372
1897...........................
.1434
1898...........................
.1593
1899...........................
.1642
1900...........................
.1585
1901...........................
1902...........................
.1642
.1679
1903...........................
1904...........................
.1740
.2017
1905...........................
.2156
1906...........................
1907............................
.2234
1908...........................
.2107
1909...........................
.2230

10 .0 “$0.0758
0

“ 100.0 6$0.0883 6100.0 o$0.5151 <100.0
“ 109.9
6.0980 6111.0
c. 5938 cll5 .3
“ 109.9
6.0980 6111.0
c. 6175 <119.9
6.0968 6109.6
“ 108.3
c. 6175 <119.9
“ 106.7
6.0937 6106.1
<. 6056 <117.6
“ 100.3
6.0907 6102.7
c. 4988 <96.8
6.0846 695.8
c. 4342 <84.3
“ 97.0
6.0821 693.0
c. 4156 <80.7
“ 93.8
6.0784 68
8.8 c. 4235 <82.2
“ 90.5
“ 90.5
8.8 c. 4552 <88.4
6.0784 68
6.0821 693.0
“93.1
c. 4889 <94.9
6.0882 699.9
“ 100.3
c. 6096 <118.3
“ 100.3
6.0907 6102.7
< 5383 <104.5
.
“99.5
6.0901 6102.0
c. 5581 <108.3
“ 97.8
6.0894 6101.2
c. 5898 <114.5
“ 106.7
6.0976 6110.5
c. 5839 <113.4
dm . 7
6.1072 6121.4
c. 6749 <131.0
“ 109.6
.1911 <124. 6
<. 6868 <133.3
“ 110.1
.1960 <127.8
c.6531 <126.8
“ 113.5
.1911 <124.6
.6983 /126.8
.7041 /127.9
“ 110.1
.1891 «123.3

119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
94.3
104.8
108.0
104.3
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0
138.6
146.7

a.0833
«. 0833
a. 0821
a . 0809
a. 0760
a. 0735
a. 0711
a. 0686
a. 0686
a . 0706
a. 0760
“ . 0760
a. 0754
a. 0741
a. 0809
.1867
.1900
.1908
.1967
.1908

.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2205
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254
.2254

145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3

.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900

.2303
.2303
.2303

151.5
151.5
151.5

.2000 “ 115.4
.2000 “ 115.4
.2000 “ 115.4

10
0.0

$0.5526
.7156
.6857
.6119
.5639
.4448
.3768
.3940
.4955
.6150
.6232
.6594
.5453
.5770
.6546
.6862
.7591
.7181
.7181
.7163
.7376

112.8

/126.8
/126.8
/126.8
/126.8
/126.8
/126.8
/126. 8
/126.8
/126.8
/131.0
/131.0
/131.0

.7234
.7234
.7234
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7447
.7234

130.9
130.9
130.9
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
130.9

.7215 /131.1
.7215 /131.1
.7215 /131.1

.7234
.7021
.7021

130.9
127.1
127.1

129.5
124.1
110.7

102.0
80.5
68.2

71.3
89.7
111.3

119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9
129.6
133.5

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

.2000

“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 109.6
“ 115.4

.1862
.1862
.1862
.1862
.1862
.1911
.1911
.1911
.1911
.1911
.1911
.1911

<121.4
<121.4
<121.4
<121.4
<121.4
<124. 6
<124.6
<124. 6
<124.6
<124.6
<124.6
<124.6

.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.6983
.7215
.7215
.7215

1910.
January....................
February...................
March........................

.1911 <124.6
.1911 <124.6
.1911 <124.6

“ Women's dress goods: cashmere, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
b Twenty-seven inch, Hamilton,
c Women's dress goods: Franklin sackings, 6-4.
“ For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1904, $0.1850.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905, $0.1862.
/ For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.6983.




523

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page^414. ^ For a more detailed description of the articles,

Cloths and clothing.

Year or month.

Fuel and lighting.

Wool: Ohio,
Worsted yarns:
medium fleece Worsted yarns: 2-32s, crossbred
( i and § grade), 2-40s, Austra­ stock, white, in
lian fine.
scoured.
skeins.

Candles: ada­
mantine, 6s,
14-ounce.

Coal: anthra­
cite, broken.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price.
ton.
price.
100.0
134.6
127.5
115.6
101.2
77.6
71.9
69.8
87.6
105.3
108.8
116.0
94.5
97.2
102.1
106.7
117.2
112.3
113.0
107.3
119.0

$1.0183
1.2263
1.2354
1.2175
1.1342
.9292
.7425
.7250
.8517
1.0308
1.0908
1.2050
1.0404
1.1229
1.1771
1.1875
1.2525
1.2933
1.2967
1.2300
1.3067

100.0
120.4
121.3
119.6
111.4
91.3
72.9
71.2
83.6
101.2
107.1
118.3
102.2
110.3
115.6
116.6
123.0
127.0
127.3
120.8
128.3

<41.0071
a 1.2500
a 1.2625
a 1.1563
a 1.0833
a. 9188
a. 7563
a. 7500
a. 8188
a 1.0042
a 1.0708
a 1.1938
al.0283
61.1392
61.2125
61.1717
61.2733
b 1.3092
61.2933
6.8017
.9233

<*100.0
«124.1
ol25.4
o ll4 .8
O107.6
o91.2
o75.1
o74.5
o81.3
o99.7
ol06.3
all8.5
ol02.1
6113.1
6120.4
6116.3
6126.4
6130.0
6128.4
6114.4
C131.8

$0.0782
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0883
.0867
.0850
.0850
.0745
.0613
.0613
.1059
.1100
.1100
.0996
.0900
.0858
.0766
.0741
.0731
.0725

100.0
102.3
102.3
102.3
112.9
110.9
108.7
108.7
95.3
78.4
78.4
135.4
140.7
140.7
127.4
115.1
109.7
98.0
94.8
93.5
92.7

$3.3669
3.4858
3.4433
3.6152
3.5628
3.4172
3.2833
3.2691
3.2465
3.2108
3.1350
3.2706
3.5508
3.7186
4.2496
4.2473
4.2134
4.2021
4.2040
4.2019
4.2003

100.0
103.5
102.3
107.4
105.8
101.5
97.5
97.1
96.4
95.4
93.1
97.1
105.5
110.4
126.2
126.1
125.1
124.8
124.9
124.8
124.8

.5139
.5139
.5278
.5417
.5556
.5556
.5556
.5417
.5417
.5556
.5556
.5556

112.6
112.6
115.6
118.7
121.7
121.7
121.7
118.7
118.7
121.7
121.7
121.7

1.2500
1.2500
1.2750
1.3000
1.3000
1.3250
1.3300
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3000
1.3000

122.8
122.8
125.2
127.7
127.7
130.1
130.6
132.6
132.6
132.6
127.7
127.7

.8200
.8400
.8500
.8700
.9000
.9500
.9700
.9800
.9800
.9800
.9800
.9600

C117.0
cll9.9
C121.3
c 124.1
C128.4
<5135.6
<5138.4
<5139.8
<5139.8
<5139.8
<5139.8
<5137.0

.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725
.0725

92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7

4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2016
4.2014
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000
4.2000

124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.8
124.8
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

.5556
.5556
.5417

121.7
121.7
118.7

1.3000
1.3000
1.2750

127.7
127.7
125.2

.9250 <5132.0
.9250 <5132.0
.9250 c 132.0

.0725
.0725
.0725

92.7
92.7
92.7

4.2000
4.2000
4.2000

124.7
124.7
124.7

Average, 1890-1899... $0.4564
.6143
1890...........................
.5820
1891...........................
.5276
1892...........................
.4620
1893...........................
.3542
1894...........................
.3280
1895...........................
.3186
1896...........................
.3999
1897...........................
.4805
1898...........................
.4966
1899...........................
.5296
1900...........................
.4315
1901...........................
.4436
1902...........................
.4658
1903...........................
.4869
1904...........................
.5348
1905...........................
.5125
1906...........................
.5158
1907...........................
.4899
1908...........................
.5429
1909...........................
19 09.
January....................
February......... ........
March.......................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Worsted yarns: 2-40s, X X X , white, in skeins.
62-40s, X X X X , white, in skeins.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.90.




524

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . —A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E P R IC E S OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E P R IC E S
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

{For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.

Year or month.

Coal: anthra­
cite, chestnut.

Coal: anthra­
cite, egg.

Coal: anthra­
cite, stove.

Coal: bitumi­
Coal: bitumi­
nous, Georges
nous, Georges
Creek (f. o. b.
Creek (at mine).
New York
Harbor).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton.
price.
ton.
ton.
price.
price.
ton.
price.
ton.
price.
100.0
93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
98.9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
124.0
134.2
134.2
134.1
135.2
134.1
134.1
134.1

$3.5936
3.6142
3.7508
3.9803
3.8520
3.3903
3.0296
3.5490
3.7986
3.5993
3.3714
3.5843
4.0565
4.3673
4.8251
4.8227
4.8246
4.8629
4.8211
4.8203
4.7853

100.0
100.6
104.4
110.8
107.2
94.3
84.3
98.8
105.7
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134.3
134.2
134.3
135.3
134.2
134.1
133.2

$3.7949
3.7108
3.8542
4.1532
4.1931
3.6003
3.1264
3.7942
4.0146
3.7978
3.7047
3.9451
4.3224
4.4627
4.8245
4.8246
4.8226
4.8615
4.8215
4.8226
4.8196

100.0
97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
94.9
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
104.0
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1
127.1
127.0

$0.8887
.8625
.9500
.9000
.9208
.8208
.7750
.9000
.8333
.9125
1.0125
1.2000
1.3375
2.1250
2.3958
1.7500
1.6000
1.5500
1.5375
1.4417
1.3792

100.0
97.1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174.4
173.0
162.2
155.2

$2.7429
2.9875
3.0313
2.9313
2.9500
2.7375
2.8125
2.6625
2.4417
2.1750
2.7000
2.9083
2.9250
4.0583
4.4375
3.1958
3.1500
3.1250
3.2375
3.0792
3.0517

100.0
108.9
110.5
106.9
107.6
99.8
102.5
97.1
89.0
79.3
98.4
106.0
106.6
148.0
161.8
116.5
114.8
113.9
118.0
112.3
111.3

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4486
4.5407
4.6347
4.7376
4.8494
4.9266
4.9500
4.9500
4.9495

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.7
126.3
128.9
131.8
134.9
137.0
137.7
137.7
137.7

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500
4.4474
4.5455
4.6436
4.7228
4.8220
4.9031
4.8418
4.7685
4.8792

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.5
129.2
131.4
134.2
136.4
134.7
132.7
135.8

4.9500
4.9486
4.9500
4.4500
4.5456
4.6293
4.7390
4.8303
4.9423
4.9500
4.9500
4.9498

130.4
130.4
130.4
117.3
119.8
122.0
124.9
127.3
130.2
130.4
130.4
130.4

1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.4000
1.4000
1.3500
1.4000
1.4000
1.3500
1.3500
1.4500
1.4000

151.9
151.9
151.9
157.5
157.5
151.9
157.5
157.5
151.9
151.9
163.2
157.5

2.9700
3.0200
3.0200
3.0500
3.0200
3.1500
3.1900
2.9500
2.9500
3.1100
3.0000
3.1900

108.3
110.1
110.1
111.2
110.1
114.8
116.3
107.6
107.6
113.4
109.4
116.3

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

137.7
137.7
137.7

4.9186
4.9500
4.9500

136.9
137.7
137.7

4.9500
4.9500
4.9500

130.4
130.4
130.4

1.4000
1.4000
1.4000

157.5
157.5
157.5

3.1100
3.1000
3.0000

113.4
113.0
109.4

Average, 1890-1899.. $3.5953
3.3533
1890...........................
1891...........................
3.4758
1892........................... 3.9443
1893...........................
4.1673
1894...........................
3.5416
2.9793
1895...........................
1896...........................
3.5561
1897...........................
3.7366
3.5525
1898...........................
1899...........................
3.6458
1900...........................
3.9166
4.3270
1901...........................
1902...........................
4.4597
1903...........................
4.8251
1904...........................
4.8250
4.8226
1905...........................
1906...........................
4.8601
1907...........................
4.8204
1908...........: ............... 4.8206
1909............................ 4.8198
1909.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




525

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

_
T able I I _ AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Fuel and lighting.

Year or month.

Coal: bitumi­
Coke: Connous, Pittsburg nellsville, fur­
(Youghiogheny).
nace.

Matches: par­
lor, domestic.

Petroleum:
crude.

Petroleum: re­
fined, for
export.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price 144 tive price per tive price per tive
boxes
ton.
price. (200s). price. barrel. price. gallon. price.
bushel. price.
100.0
103.3
122.7
116.5
117.9
98.6
93.3
89.1
88.6
87.9
82.6
117.0
117.0
122.4
143.9
132.5
124.4
122.7
128.1
132.3
125.8

$1.6983
2.0833
1.8750
1.8083
1.4792
1.0583
1.3250
1.8750
1.6167
1.6771
2.1854
2.6458
1.9625
2.6875
2.9125
1.6375
2.2875
2.6750
2.8250
1.7083
2.0021

100.0
122.7
110.4
106.5
87.1
62.3
78.0
110.4
95.2
98.8
128.7
155.8
115.6
158.2
171.5
96.4
134.7
157.5
166.3
100.6
117.9

$1.7563
1.9583
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.6667
1.6875
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.7500
1.5833
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000

100.0
111.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.9
96.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
90.1
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

$0.9102
.8680
.6697
.5564
.6399
.8389
1.3581
1.1789
.7869
.9118
1.2934
1.3521
1.2095
1.2369
1.5886
1.6270
1.3842
1.5975
1.7342
1.7800
1.6633

100.0
95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5
195.6
182.7

$0.0649
.0733
.0685
.0609
.0522
.0515
.0711
.0702
.0597
.0628
.0791
.0854
.0749
.0734
.0860
.0826
.0722
.0762
.0824
.0869
.0835

100.0
112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5
127.3
111.2
117.4
127.0
133.9
128.7

.0850
.0850
.0810
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800
.0800

132.2
132.2
126.0
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4

1.9500
1.6250
1.6750
1.7250
1.6250
1.5750
1.6750
1.7000
2.0000
2.8500
2.8250
2.8000

114.8
95.7
98.6
101.6
95.7
92.7
93.6
100.1
117.8
167.8
166.3
164.9

1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000

85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

1.7800
1.7800
1.7800
1.7800
1.7800
1.6800
1.6300
1.5800
1.5800
1.5800
1.5300
1.4800

195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
184.6
179.1
173.6
173.6
173.6
168.1
162.6

.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0850
.0840
.0825
.0825
.0825
.0805
.0805

131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
129.4
127.1
127.1
127.1
124.0
124.0

.0800
.0800
.0800

124.4
124.4
124.4

2.6250
2.5000
2.5500

154.6
147.2
150.2

1.5000
1.5000
1.5000

85.4
85.4
85.4

1.4300
1.4000
1.4000

157.1
153.8
153.8

.0790
.0790
.0790

121.7
121.7
121.7

Average, 1890-1899.. 80.0643
1890...........................
.0664
.0789
1891...........................
1892...........................
.0749
.0758
1893...........................
.0634
1894...........................
.0600
1895...........................
1896...........................
.0573
1897...........................
.0570
.0565
1898...........................
.0531
1899...........................
1900............................
.0752
1901...........................
.0752
1902...........................
.0787
1903...........................
.0925
.0852
1904...........................
.0800
1905...........................
.0789
1906...........................
.0824
19 07....:...................
.0851
1908...........................
1909...........................
.0809

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October................. ..
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




526

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Fuel and light­
ing.

Year or month.

Petroleum: re­
fined, 150° fire
test, water
white.

Metals and implements.

Augers: extra,
1-inch.

Bar iron: com­
Bar iron: best
mon
Axes: M. C. O., fined,to best re­ refined, from
from mill
Yankee.
(Pittsburg mar­ store (Philadel­
phia market).
ket).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive
price
price
tive
tive
price
tive
price
tive
gallon. price. each. price. each. price. per lb. price. per lb. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $0.0890
.0995
.0879
.0794
.0725
.0725
.0922
.1039
.0900
.0909
.1015

1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
....................
1908---- 4
1909...........................

100.0 <*$0.1608 <100.0
*
111.8 <*.1900 <*118.2
<*.1900 «118.2
98.8
89.2
<*.1900 o ll 8.2

100.0

.0172
.0192
.0198

104.9
117.1
120.7
128.7
103.7
107.3

<2223.9
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2
<2196.2

.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6800
.6600
.6600
.6600
.6600
.6600
.6600
.6600

144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6

.0142
.0142
.0140
.0133
.0130
.0133
.0145
.0145
.0150
.0160
.0163
.0173

cl06.5
cl06.5
cl05.0
c99.8
c 97.5
c99.8
cl08.8
cl08.8
cll 2 5
.
cl 20.0
cl 22.2
cl29.7

.0174
.0173
.0162
.0162
.0162
.0167
.0167
.0176
.0181
.0191
.0196
.0196

107.3
110.4
116.5
119.5
119.5

.3300 <2175.9
.3300 <2175.9
.3300 <2175.9

.6250
.6250
.6250

133.2
133.2
133.2

.0170 cl27.5
.0170 cl27.5
.0168 cl26.0

.0196
.0196
.0196

119.5
119.5
119.5

.1350
.1350
.1225
.1225
.1225
.1225
.1225
.1175
.1175
.1175
.1175
.1175

151.7
151.7
137.6
137.6
137.6
137.6
137.6
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0

.4200
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680
.3680

.1175
.1175
.1175

132.0
132.0
132.0

.1188

101.1
102.1

$0.0164
.0205
.0190
.0187
.0170
.0134
.0144
.0140
.0131
.0128
.0207
.0196
.0184
.0213

o223.9
<2223.9
<2198.5

.1096
.1108
.1363
.1367
.1263
.1300
.1346
.1350
.1225

114.0
133.5
123.1
124.5
153.1
153.6
141.9
146.1
151.2
151.7
137.6

a. 1800
a. 1542
<*.1333
<*.1394
<*.1425
<*.1425
<*.1465
a. 2 0
00
<*.1700
<*.1800
<. 2310
*
<*.2400
<*.3067
<*.3567
<. 3600
*
.4200
.3723

81.5
81.5
103.6
116.7

100.0 $60.0145

$0.4693
.5650
.5550
.5000
.5000
.4733
.4600
.4150
.3938
.3750
.4555
.4831
.4166
.4833
.5050
.5788
.6323
.6715
.6800
.6800
.6683

olH .9
o95.9
o82.9
o86.7

088.6
088.6

o91.1
ol24.4
ol05.7
oU l .9
ol43.7
ol49.3
ol90.7

0221.8

120.4
118.3
106.5
106.5
100.9
98.0
88.4
83.9
79.9
97.1
102.9

6.0184
6.0171
6.0164
6.0150

6100.0
6126.9
6117.9
6113.1
6103.4
682.8

6.0120
686.2
6.0122 684.1
6.0110 675.9
6.0107 673.8
6.0125

103.0
107.6
123.3
134.7
143.1
144.9
144.9
142.4

6.0195
6.0215
6.0180
6.0194
6.0177
6.0148
6.0187
.0169
.0175
.0146
.0146

6134.5
6148.3
6124.1
6133.8
6122.1
6102.1
6129.0
cl 26.8
cl3l. 3
cl09.5
C109.5

88.8

125.0
115.9
114.0
103.7
81.7
87.8
85.4
79.9
78.0
126.2
119.5

112.2
129.9
.0200 122.0

.0211

.0170
.0176

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
M ay..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

106.1
105.5
98.8
98.8
98.8

101.8
101.8

19 10.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

< Augers: extra, three-fourths inch.
*
6Bar iron: best refined, from mill (Pittsburg market).
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905,10.0172.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907,10.42.




527

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,
T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BA SE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Year or month.

Barb wire:
galvanized.

Butts: loose
pin, wrought
steel, 3£ by 3£

Chisels: extra
socket firmer,
1-inch.

Copper: sheet,
Copper: ingot, hot-rolled (base
electrolytic.
sizes).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive
price
price
price per tive
tive
each.
price. pound. price. pound. price.
100 lbs. price. per pair. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $2.5261
1890............................ 3.5665
3.2189
1891...........................
2.7662
1892...........................
2.5188
1893...........................
2.1750
1894...........................
2.2458
1895...........................
1.9625
1896...........................
1.8000
1897...........................
1.8375
1898...........................
3.1696
1899...........................
3.3942
1900...........................
3.0375
1901...........................
1902........................... 2.9542
2.7375
1903...........................
2.5075
1904...........................
2.3829
1905...........................
1906........................... 2.4283
2.6342
1907...........................
2.6217
1908...........................
2.3592
1909...........................

100.0 <*$0.0316 <*100.0 $0.1894
141.2
.2100
<*.0353 <*111.7
.2100
0.0353 olH .7
127.4
o. 0306 o96.8
.2100
109.5
o. 0311 o98.4
.1933
99.7
o. 0303 o95.9
.1733
86.1
o. 0317 ol00.3
.1710
88.9
.1793
O.0329 ol04.1
77.7
.1710
a.0306 o96.8
71.3
o. 0292 o92.4
.1720
72.7
0.0292 092.4
.2038
125.5
.2417
134.4
o. 0400 ol26.6
120.2
.2300
0.0369 oll6.8
.2700
o. 0400 ol26.6
116.9
.2800
O.0400 ol26.6
108.4
.3000
o. 0400 ol26.6
99.3
.3967
94.3
o. 0400 ol26.6
.4188
96.1
o. 0400 ol26.6
.4438
o. 0400 ol26.6
104.3
.3750
.0900 cl26.6
103.8
.3319
.0927 C130.4
93.4

100.0 6$0.1234 6100.0
b . 1575 6127.6
110.9
6.1305 6105.8
110.9
b . 1154 6 93.5
110.9
b . 1093 688.6
102.1
6.0948 6 76.8
91.5
6.1075 6 87.1
90.3
6.1097 688.9
94.7
6.1132 6 91.7
90.3
6.1194 696.8
90.8
6.1767 6143.2
107.6
127.6
6.1661 6134.6
6.1687 6136.7
121.4
6.1201 6 97.3
142.6
6.1368 6110.9
147.8
6.1311 6106.2
158.4
6.1576 6127.7
209.5
221.1
6.1961 6158.9
234.3
6.2125 6172.2
.1334 <*110.5
198.0
175.2
.1311 <*108.6

$0.1659
.2275
.1900
.1600
.1500
.1425
.1425
.1425
.1463
.1400
.2175
.2067
.2088
.1783
.1917
.1800
.1992
.2375
.2792
.1792
.1792

100.0
137.1
114.5
96.4
90.4
85.9
85.9
85.9
88.2
84.4
131.1
124.6
125.9
107.5
115.6
108.5
120.1
143.2
168.3
108.0
108.0

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

2.5800
2.5800
2.5800
2.5800
2.0800
2.1800
2.1800
2.2800
2.2800
2.2800
2.3800
2.3300

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
82.3
86.3
86.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
94.2
92.2

2.3300
2.3300
2.3300

92.2
92.2
92.2

cl26.6
cl26.6
d26.6
<126.6
<126.6
<126.6
<126.6
<126.6
<137.9
<137.9
<137.9
<137.9

.3750
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280
.3280

198.0
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2

.1431
.1338
.1281
.1256
.1263
.1313
.1306
.1300
.1325
.1300
.1288
.1325

<*118.5
<*110.8
<*106.1
<*104.0
<*104.6
<*108.8
<*108.2
<*107.7
<*109.8
<*107.7
<*106.7
<*109.8

.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1700
.1800

114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
108.5

.1000 <140.7
.1000 cl40.7
.1000 cl40.7

.2500
.2500
.2500

132.0
132.0
132.0

.1375 <*113.9
.1363 <*112.9
.1338 <*110.8

.1800
.1800
.1900

108.5
108.5
114.5

.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0900
.0980
.0980
.0980
.0980

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

a Butts: loose joint, cast, 3 by 3 inch.
&Copper: ingot, lake.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.09.
d For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $0.2078.




528

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Year or month.

Copper wire:
bare.

Doorknobs:
steel, bronzeplated.

Files: 8-inch
mill bastard.

Hammers:
Maydoie No. 1J.

Lead: pig.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive
tive price per tive
price
pair.
price. dozen. price.
each.
price. pound. price.
pound. price.
100.0 $0.8527
97.8
.9100
97.8
.8917
.8717
97.8
.8667
97.8
.8300
97.8
115.1
.8133
102.1
.7775
.8050
97.8
.8250
97.8
97; 8
.9358
1.0900
106.8
1.0500
112.0
1.0500
126.9
1.0500
132.6
1.0400
144.8
213.6
1.0367
259.8
1.0217
265.2
.9975
.9542
235.7
.9333
235.7

100.0
106.7
104.6
102.2
101.6
97.3
95.4
91.2
94.4
96.8
109.7
127.8
123.1
123.1
123.1
122.0
121.6
119.8
117.0
111.9
109.5

$0.3613
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3500
.3525
.3800
.3800
.3633
.3867
.4189
.4233
.4233
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660

100.0
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
97.6
105.2
105.2
100.6
107.0
115.9
117.2
117.2
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

$0.0381
.0440
.0437
.0413
.0374
.0331
.0326
.0300
.0358
.0380
.0448
.0445
.0438
.0411
.0428
.0443
.0479
.0588
.0552
.0422
.0429

100.0
115.5
114.7
108.4
98.2
86.9
85.6
78.7
94.0
99.7
117.6
116.8
115.0
107.9
112.3
116.3
125.7
154.3
144.9
110.8
112.6

.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000
.4000

235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7

.9400
.9400
.9400
.9400
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300
.9300

110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1

.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660
.4660

129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

.0421
.0420
.0400
.0413
.0423
.0435
.0438
.0434
.0443
.0439
.0440
.0440

110.5
110.2
105.0
108.4
111.0
114.2
115.0
113.9
116.3
115.2
115.5
115.5

.4000
.4000
.4000

235.7
235.7
235.7

.9300
.9300
.9300

109.1
109.1
109.1

.4660
.4660
.4660

129.0
129.0
129.0

.0473
.0471
.0465

124.1
123.6
122.0

100.0
128.1
112.7
98.2
92.2
79.0
84.6
92.6
93.9
93.9
124.7
123.0
124.0
90.6
102.3
98.2
116.3
144.0
164.1
103.8
101.3

$0.1697
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1953
.1733
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1813
.1900
.2153
.2250
.2458
.3625
.4408
.4500
.4000
.4000

.1575
.1525
.1425
.1425
.1450
.1475
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1450
.1450
.1525

107.6
104.2
97.3
97.3
99.0
100.8
102.5
102.5
102.5
99.0
99.0
104.2

.1500
.1500
.1475

102.5
102.5
100.8

Average, 1890-1899... $0.1464
.1875
1890...........................
.1650
1891...........................
1892...........................
.1438
.1350
1893...........................
.1156
1894...........................
.1238
1895...........................
.1356
1896...........................
.1375
1897...........................
.1375
1898...........................
.1825
1899...........................
1900...........................
.1800
1901...........................
.1815
1902...........................
.1326
1903...........................
.1497
1904...........................
.1438
.1702
1905...........................
1906............................
.2108
.2402
1907...........................
1908...........................
.1519
1909...........................
.1483
1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
Mny..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




529

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,
T able I I .—AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M O N TH LY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PR IC E S,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Lead pipe.
Year or month.

Locks: com­
mon mortise.

Nails: cut, 8pennv, fence
and common.

Nails: wire, 8penny, fence
and common.

Pig iron: Bes­
semer.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
price per tive
price
each.
ton.
price. 100 lbs. price. 100 lbs. price.
price.
100 lbs. price.
A verage, 1890-1899... $4.8183
1890...........................
5.4000
5.6000
1891...........................
1892...........................
5.1833
5.0000
1893...........................
4.4333
1894...........................
4.2000
1895...........................
4.1000
1896...........................
1897...........................
4.3167
4.6000
1898...........................
5.3500
1899...........................
1900...........................
5.1208
1901...........................
5.0479
1902...........................
5.2167
1903...........................
5.1958
1904...........................
4.7950
1905...........................
5.2250
6.4208
1906...........................
6.7050
1907...........................
4.7400
1908...........................
4.8208
1909...........................

$1.8275
2.2875
1.8333
1.7583
1.6813
1.5271
1.9250
2.7125
1.3329
1.1927
2.0240
2.2500
2.1125
2.1333
2.1958
1.8188
1.8250
1.9313
2.1625
1.9500
1.8688

100.0
125.2
100.3
96.2
92.0
83.6
105.3
148.4
72.9
65.3
110.8
123.1
115.6
116.7
120.2
99.5
99.9
105.7
118.3
106.7
102.3

$2.1618
2.9646
2.4667
2.1896
1.9917
1.6521
2.1177
2.9250
1.4854
1.4375
2.3875
2.6333
2.3646
2.1042
2.0750
1.9063
1.8958
1.9583
2.1167
2.1000
1.9167

.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1660
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500

203.2 • 1.85C0
203.2
1.8500
203.2
1.9000
203.2
1.8500
203.2
1.8250
203.2
1.8250
203.2
1.8500
183.6
1.8750
183.6
1.8500
183.6
1.9250
1.9250
183.6
183.6
1.9000

101.2
101.2
104.0
101.2
99.9
99.9
101.2
102.6
101.2
105.3
105.3
104.0

2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
2.0500
1.7000
1.8000
1.8000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000

.1500
.1500
.1500

183.6
183.6
183.6

106.7
104.0
106.7

1.9500
1.9500
1.9500

100.0
112.1
116.2
107.6
103.8
92.0
87.2
•85.1
89.6
95.5
111.0
106.3
104.8
108.3
107.8
99.5
108.4
133.3
139.2
98.4
100.1

$0.0817
.0830
.0830
.0830
.0830
.0818
.0833
.0867
.0833
.0750
.0750
.0788
.0750
.0850
.0900
.1025
.1496
.1808
.2000
.1660
.1593

4.7000
4.7000
4.5100
4.6600
4.7500
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
4.9000
5.1300

97.5
97.5
93.6
96.7
98.6
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
106.5

5.2300
5.4600
5.4600

108.5
113.3
113.3

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100.1
102.0
106.1
102.0
91.8
91.8
96.5
91.8
104.0
110.2
125.5
183.1
221.3
244.8
203.2
195.0

100.0 $13.7783
137.1 18.8725
114.1 15.9500
101.3 14.3667
92.1 12.8692
76.4 11.3775
98.0 12.7167
135.3 12.1400
68.7 10.1258
66.5 10.3317
110.4 19.0333
121.8 19.4925
109.4 15.9350
97.3 20.6742
96.0 18.9758
88.2 13.7558
87.7 16.3592
90.6 19.5442
97.9 22.8417
97.1 17.0700
88.7 17.4083

100.0
137.0
115.8
104.3
93.4
82.6
92.3
88.1
73.5
75.0
138.1
141.5
115.7
150.0
137.7
99.8
118.7
141.8
165.8
123.9
126.3

94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
78.6
83.3
83.3
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9

17.3400
16.7700
16.3400
15.8000
15.8400
16.0200
16.4000
17.0200
18.0500
19.5200
19.9000
19.9000

125.9
121.7
118.6
114.7
115.0
116.3
119.0
123.5
131.0
141.7
144.4
144.4

90.2
90.2
90.2

19.9000
19.3400
18.6000

144.4
140.4
135.0

19 09.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.
January.....................
February..................
March........................




1.9500
1.9000
1.9500

530

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PR IC E S OF
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and Implements.

Year or month.

Pig iron:
foundry No. 1.

Pig iron:
foundry No. 2.

Pig iron: gray
forge, south­
ern, coke.

Planes: Bailey
No. 5, jack
plane.

Quicksilver.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive
price
tive price per tive
ton.
ton.
price.
ton.
price.
each.
price.
price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...................

$14.8042
18.4083
17.5208
15,7492
14.5167
12.6642
13.1033
12.9550
12.1008
11.6608
19.3633
19.9800
15.8683
22.1933
19.9158
15.5725
17.8850
20.9825
23.8950
17.7000
17.8058

100.0 $13.0533
124.3 17.1563
118.4 15.3958
106.4 13.7729
98.1 12.4396
85.5 10.8458
88.5 11.6750
87.5 11.7708
81.7 10.1000
78.8 10.0271
130.8 17.3500
135.0 18.5063
107.2 14.7188
149.9 21.2396
134.5 19.1417
105.2 13.6250
120.8 16.4104
141.7 19.2667
161.4 23.8688
119.6 16.2500
120.3 16.4104

100.0 $11.0892
131.4 14.5000
117.9 12.5167
105.5 11.7917
95.3 10.6354
83.1
8.9375
89.0 10.3229
90.2
9.6042
77.4
8.8021
76.8
8.7188
132.9 15.0625
141.8 15.6042
112.8 12.5521
162.7 17.6042
146.6 16.2292
104.4 11.6771
125.7 14.4896
147.6 16.5313
182.9 20.9875
124.5 14.3750
125.7 14.9375

100.0
130.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
78.6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
105.3
130.7
149.1
189.3
129.6
134.7

$1.3220
1.4200
1.4200
1.4200
1.4200
1.3783
1.2417
1.2300
1.2300
1.2300
1.2300
1.4142
1.4600
1.5100
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.7100
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300

100.0
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
104.3
93.9
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
107.0
110.4
114.2
115.7
115.7
115.7
129.3
115.7
115.7
115.7

$0.5593
.7300
.6283
.5642
.5213
.4792
.5133
.4979
.5157
.5425
.6004
.6769
.6629
.6458
.6342
.5900
.5446
.5517
.5429
.6100
.6317

100.0
130.5
112.3
100.9
93.2
85.7
91.8
89.0
92.2
97.0
107.3
121.0
118.5
115.5
113.4
105.5
97.4
98.6
97.1
109.1
112.9

19 09.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

17.7500
17.5000
16.8700
16.7000
16.5600
16.9400
17.0500
17.5600
18.5500
19.1900
19.5000
19.5000

119.9
118.2
114.0
112.8
111.9
114.4
115.2
118.6
125.3
129.6
131.7
131.7

16.4000
16.0250
15.9000
15.0250
15.0250
15.5250
16.0250
16.1500
16.5250
18.0250
18.2750
18.0250

125.6
122.8
121.8
115.1
115.1
118.9
122.8
123.7
126.6
138.1
140.0
138.1

15.0000
14.7500
14.0000
13.5000
13.8750
13.3750
14.1250
15.1250
15.0000
17.0000
17.0000
16.5000

135.3
133.0
126.2
121.7
125.1
120.6
127.4
136.4
135.3
153.3
153.3
148.8

1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1,5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300
1.5300

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

.6300
.6300
.6200
.6200
.6200
.6200
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6300
.6900
.7200

112.6
112.6
110.8
110.8
110.8
110.8
107.3
107.3
107.3
112.6
123.4
128.7

January.*................. 19.5000
February.................. 19.1900
March........................ 18.5000

131.7
129.6
125.0

17.9000
17.9000
17.1500

137.1
137.1
131.4

16.6250
16.0000
15.7500

149.9
144.3
142.0

1.5300
1.5300
1.5300

115.7
115.7
115.7

.7200
.6900
.6900

128.7
123.4
123.4

19 10.




531

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910,
T a b l e I I . —A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O P
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F Q R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Metals and implements.

Year or month.

Saws: cross­
cut, Disston
No. 2.

Saws: hand,
Disston No. 7.

Shovels: Ames
No. 2.

Silver: bar,
fine.

Spelter: west­
ern.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
each.
price. dozen. price. dozen. price. ounce. price. pound. price.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$12,780
12.400
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.600
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950

1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1-6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950
12.950

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200
7.6200

96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9

1.6038
1.6038
1.6038

100.0
100.0
100.0

12.950
12.950
12.950

101.3
101.3
101.3

7.6200
7.6200
7.8400

96.9
96.9
99.7

Average, 1890-1899.. $1.6038
1.6038
1890...........................
1.6038
1891...........................
1892........................... 1.6038
1893........................... 1.6038
1894........................... 1.6038
1895........................... 1.6038
1896........................... 1.6038
1897........................... 1.6038
1898........................... 1.6038
1899........................... 1.6038
1900........................... 1.6038
1901........................... 1.6038
1902........................... 1.6038
1903........................... 1.6038
1904........................... 1.6038
1905........................... 1.6038
1906........................... 1.6038
1907........................... 1.6038
1908........................... 1.6038
1009........................... 1.6038

100.0 $7.8658 100.0 $0.74899
112.7
7.8700 100.1 1.05329
98.6
7.8700 100.1
.99034
98.6 ' 7.8700 100.1
.87552
98.6
7.8700 100.1
.78219
98.6
7.4500
94.7
.64043
98.6
7.4500
94.7
.66268
98.6
7.8100
99.3
.68195
98.6
7.9300 100.8
.60775
98.6
7.9300 100.8
.59065
98.6
.60507
8.6075 109.4
98.6
9.1200 115.9
.62065
98.6
9.1200 115.9
.59703
98.6
9.3550 118.9
. 52816
98.6
8.0200 102.0
. 54208
98.6
97.3
. 57844
7.6533
98.6
7.6200
96.9
.61008
101.3
96.9
7.6200
.67379
101.3
.65979
7.8400 , 99.7
101.3
99.4
.53496
7.8217
101.3
7.6200
96.9
.52164

100.0
140.6
132.2
116.9
104.4
85.5
88.5
91.0
81.1
78.9
80.8
82.9
79.7
70.5
72.4
77.2
81.5
90.0
88.1
71.4
69.6

$0.0452
.0554
.0508
.0465
.0410
.0355
.0362
.0401
.0421
.0453
.0588
.0442
.0405
.0487
.0558
.0515
.0592
.0620
.0617
.0475
.0551

100.0
122.6
112.4
102.9
90.7
78.5
80.1
88.7
93.1
100.2
130.1
97.8
89.6
107.7
123.5
113.9
131.0
137.2
136.5
105.1
121.9

.52365
.52083
.51092
.52057
.53530
.53543
.51668
.51745
.52067
. 51591
. 51317
.52908

69.9
69.5
68.2
69.5
71.5
71.5
69.0
69.1
69.5
68.9
68.5
70.6

.0528
.0513
.0480
.0483
.0550
.0520
.0535
.0560
.0585
.0595
.0630
.0640

115.7
113.5
106.2
106.9
121.7
115.0
118.4
123.9
129.4
131.6
139.4
141.6

.53080
.52229
. 52105

70.9
69.7
69.6

.0828
.0613
.0575

138.9
135.6
127.2

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January............i ___
February..................
March.......................

43431— No. 87— 10----- 11




BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

532

T a b l e II* — A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES OP
COMMODITIES, 1880TO 1009; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I .]
Metals and implements.

Year or month.

Steel billets.

Steel rails.

Steel sheets:
black, No. 27.

Tin: pig.

Tinplates: do­
mestic, Besse­
mer, coke.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive priceper tive priceper tive price per tive priceper tive
ton.
price.
ton.
price. pound. price. pound. price. 100 lbs. price.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

$21.5262
30.4675
25.3292
23.6308
20.4358
16.5783
18.4842
18.8333
15.0800
15.3058
31.1167
25.0625
24.1308
30.5992
27.9117
22.1792
24.0283
27.4475
29.2533
26.3125
24.6158

100.0 $26.0654
141.5 3l. 7792
117.7 29.9167
109.8 30.0000
94.9 28.1250
77.0 24.0000
85.9 24.3333
87.5 28.0000
70.1 18.7500
71.1 17.6250
144.6 28.1250
116.4 32.2875
112.1 27.3333
142.1 28.0000
129.7 28.0000
103.0 28.0000
111.6 28.0000
127.5 28.0000
135.9 28.0000
122.2 28.0000
114.4 28.0000

100.0 o$0.0224
121.9
114.8
115.1
107.9
92.1
.0235
93.4
.0244
107.4
.0215
71.9
.0195
67.6
.0190
107.9
.0267
123.9
.0293
104.9
.0315
107.4
.0291
107.4
.0260
107.4
.0210
107.4
.0222
107.4
.0237
107.4
.0250
107.4
.0240
107.4
.0223

100.0

104.9
108.9
96.0
87.1
84.8
119.2
130.8
140.6
129.9
116.1
93.8
99.1
105.8
111.6
107.1
99.6

$0.1838
.2121
.2025
.2037
.2002
.1812
.1405
.1330
.1358
.1551
.2721
.3006
.2618
.2648
.2816
.2799
.3127
.3922
.3875
.2942
.2958

25.0000
25.0000
23.0000
23.0000
23.0000
23.0000
23.4000
24.1200
25.0000
26.2500
27.1200
27.5000

116.1
116.1
106.8
106.8
106.8
106.8
108.7
112.0
116.1
121.9
126.0
127.8

28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000
28.0000

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

.0240
.0240
.0225
.0215
.0215
.0215
.0215
.0215
.0215
.0225
.0225
.0235

107.1
107.1
100.4
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
100.4
100.4
104.9

January.................... 27.5000
February.................. 27.5000
March....................... 27.5000

127.8
127.8
127.8

28.0000
28.0000
28.0000

107.4
107.4
107.4

.0235
. 0235
.0235

104.9
104.9
104.9

100.0 m . 4148
115.5
110.3
110.9
109.0
98. 7
76.5
72.4
3.4354
74.0
3.1823
84.5
2.8500
148.2
4.1913
163.7
4.6775
142.6
4.1900
144.2
4.1233
153.4
3.9400
152.5
3.6025
170.3
3.7067
213.6
3.8608
211.1
4.0900
160.2
3.8900
161.1
3. 7367

100.0

.2913
.2790
.2863
.2925
.2913
.2900
.2900
.2950
.3025
.3050
.3040
.3225

158.7
152.0
155.9
159.3
158.7
158.0
158.0
160.7
164.8
166.1
165.6
175.7

3.8900
3.8900
3.8900
3.6400
3.6400
3.6400
3.6400
3.6400
3.6400
3. 7400
3.7500
3.8400

113.9
113.9
113.9
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
109.5
109.8
112.5

.3315
.3250
.3288

180.6
177.0
179.1

3.8400
3.8400
3.8400

112.5
112.5
112.5

100.6
93.2
83.5
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8
113.9
109.4

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
A pril.........................
M ay..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.

a Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899.




6 Average for 1896-1899.

533

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,
T able I I .—AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE P R IC E S (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

□Tor explanation, and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table IJ
Lumber
and building
materials.

Metals and implements.

Year or month.

Wood
Trowels:
Vises: solid box, 1-inch, screws:
No. 10,
M. C. O., brick,
50-pound.
fiat head.
lOHnch.

Zinc: sheet.

Brick: common
domestic.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price
tive price per tive priceper tive priceper tive
tive
price
each.
price. gross. price. 100 lbs. price.
M.
each.
price.
price.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

$3.9009
4.1400
4.1400
4.2550
4.1975
4.0567
3.7933
3.7200
3.5000
3.2800
3.9267
4.2683
5.0200
5.1300
5.1767
4.2550
4.1400
4.5208
5.7500
4.3700
4.6000

.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400
.3400

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000
4.6000

.3400
.3400
.3400

100.0
100.0
100.0

4.6000 <*155.2
4.6000 <*155.2
4.6000 «155.2

Average, 1800-1899.. $0.3400
.3400
1890...........................
.3400
1801...........................
1892...........................
.3400
.3400
1893...........................
.3400
1894...........................
.3400
1895...........................
.3400
1890..........................
.3400
1897...........................
.3400
1898...........................
.3400
1899...........................
.3400
1900...........................
.3400
1901...........................
.3400'
1902...........................
.3400
1903...........................
.3400
1904...........................
.3400
1905...........................
.3400
1900...........................
. 3400
1907...........................
.3400
1908...........................
.3400
1909...........................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

m o

100.0
106.1
106.1
109.1
107.6
104.0
97.2
95.4
89.7
84.1
100.7
109.4
128.7
131.5
132.7
109.1
106.1
115.9
147.4
<*147.4
<*155.2

$0.1510
.1970
.2000
.2100
.2100
.1558
.1117
.1033
.0859
.0918
.1452
.1820
.1045
.0952
.1093
.0945
. 1055
.1055
.1219
.1000
.1157

100.0
130.5
132.5
139.1
139.1

m

2

74.0
68.4
56.3
60.8
96.2
120.5
69.2
63.0
72.4
62.6
69.9
69.9
80.7
66.2
76.6

$5.3112 100.0
6.0542 114.0
5.7192 107.7
5.4900 103.4
4.9942
94.0
3.9500 74.4
4.5217
85.1
4.9400
93.0
4.9400 93.0
5.4983 103.5
7.0042 131.9
6.0950 114.8
5.5583 104.7
5.7308 107.9
6.0183 113.3
5.6092 105.6
6.8250 128.5
7.1725 135.0
7.4858 140.9
6.4400 121.3
6.6425 125.1

$5.5625
6.5625
5.7083
5.7708
5.8333
5.0000
5.3125
5.0625
4.9375
5.7500
5.6875
5.2500
5.7656
5.3854
5.9063
7.4948
8.1042
8.5469
6.1563
5.1042
6.3854

100.0
118.0
102.6
103.7
104.9
89.9
95.5
91.0
88.8
103.4
102.2
94.4
103.7
96.8
106.2
134.7
145.7
153.7
110.7
91.8
114.8

1909.
January...................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2 :
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2
<*155.2

.1000
.1000
.1080
.1080
.1080
.1080
.1080
.1080
.1350
.1350
.1350
.1350

66.2
66.2
71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4

6.4400
6.4400
6.2100
6.2100
6.2100
6.3400
6.3400
6.7800
6.9000
7.1200
7.3600
7.3600

121.3
121.3
116.9
116.9
116.9
119.4
119.4
127.7
129.9
134.1
138.6
138.6

6.7500
7.2500
6.5000
7.3750
7.5000
6.7500
5.7500
5.2500
5.7500
5.5000
6.0000
6.2500

121.3
130.3
116.9
132.6
134.8
121.3
103.4
94.4
103.4
98.9
107.9
112.4

.1350
.1500
.1500

89.4
99.3
99.3

7,3600
6.9500
7.1300

138.6
130.9
134.2

6.7500
6.8750
6.0000

121.3
123.6
107.9

1910.
January....................
February..................
March......................

* Price quoted by another firm. For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416;
average price for 1907, <4.37.




534

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES.
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Carbonate of
Cement: Port­
lead: American, land, domestic.
in oil.

Cement:
Rosendale.

Doors: western
white pine (Chi­
cago market).

Hemlock.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
pound. price. barrel. price. barrel. price.
door.
price. M feet. price.
Average,1890-1899... $0.0577
.0038
1890...........................
.0650
1891...........................
.0658
1892...........................
.0609
1893...........................
1894...........................
.0524
.0525
1895...........................
1896...........................
.0517
.0535
1897...........................
.0543
1898...........................
.0568
1899...........................
1900...........................
.0625
1901...........................
.0576
1902...........................
.0539
1903...........................
.0615
1904...........................
.0598
.0633
1905...........................
1906...........................
.0690
1907...........................
.0697
.0650
1908...........................
1909...........................
.0637

100.0 <*$1.9963
110.6
112.7
114.6
105.5
90.8
91.0
1.9688
2.0000
89.6
1.9667
92.7
94.1
1.9979
98.4
2.0479
2.1583
108.3
1.8896
99.8
93.4
1.9500
2.0292
106.6
1.4604
103.6
1.4271
109.7
1.5750
119.6
1.6458
120.8
1.4600
112.7
110.4
1.4117

100.0

98.6
100.2
98.5
100.1
102.6
108.1
94.7
97.7
101.6
73.2
71.5
78.9
82.4
73.1
70.7

$0.8871
1.0542
.9417
.9688
.8875
.9271
.8521
.8333
.7521
.7604
.8938
1.0167
1.0188
.8646
.8896
.8021
.8333
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500

100.0
118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
96.1
93.9
84.8
85.7
100.8
114.6
114.8
97.5
100.3
90.4
93.9
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

*>$1.0929
61.3750
61.2500
61.2500
61.2250
61.0500
6.9125
6.8375
6.8125
6.9250
61.2917
61.5900
61.8913
6 2.1208
61.7292
61.6900
o 1.8367
<1.7271
*
c l. 8842
1.7438
1.7750

6100.0
6125.8
6114.4
6114.4
6U2.1
6 96.1
6 83.5
6 76.6
6 74.3
6 84.6
6118.2
6145.5
6173.1
6194.1
6158.2
6154.6
cl 63.2
cl 53. 5
cl 67.5
<*161.3
<*164.2

$11.9625
12.5833
12.4583
12.2917
12.0000
11.7083
11.1458
11.1667
11.0000
11.7500
13.5208
16.5000.
15.0000
15.8333
16.7917
17.0000
17.8750
21.8958
22.2500
20.8750
20.5833

100.0
105.2
104! 1
102.8
100.3
97.9
93.2
93.3
92.0
98.2
113.0
137.9
125.4
132.4
140.4
142.1
149.4
183.0
186.0
174.5
172.1

<*160.9
<*160.9
,<*160.9
<*167.4
<*167.4
<*167.4
<*167.4
<*167.4
<*167.4
<*160.9
<*160.9
<*160.9

1909.
January....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637
.0637

110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4

1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.3300
1.3300
1.3300
1.4300
1.4300
1.4300
1.4300
1.4300

72.6
72.6
72.6
72.6
66.6
66.6
66.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6

.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500
.9500

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

1.7400
1.7400
1.7400
1.8100
1.8100
1.8100
1.8100
1.8100
1.8100
1.7400
1.7400
1.7400

20.0000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
20.5000
21.0000
21.0000
21.0000

167.2
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
175.5
175.5
175.5

.0686
.0686
.0686

118.9
118.9
118.9

1.4300
1.4300
1.4300

71.6
71.6
71.6

.9500
.9500
.9500

107.1
107.1
107.1

1.8100 <*167.4 21.0000
1.8100 <*167.4 21.0000
1.8100 <*167.4 21.0000

175.5
175.5
175.5

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

a Average for 1895-1899.
6 Doors: pine, unmolded, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, 11 inches thick (Buffalo market).
c Doors: western white pine, 2 feet 8 inches by 6 feet 8 inches, I f inches thick, '5 panel, No. 1, O. G.
(Buffalo market.) For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for
1904. $1.74.
<*For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $1.8108.




535

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.
T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, A N D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 4 1 4 . For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Lime: com­
mon.

Linseed oil:
raw.

Maple: hard.

Oak: white,
plain.

Oak: white,
quartered.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
barrel. price. gallon. price. M feet. price. M feet. price. M feet. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $0.8332
.9792
1890...........................
1891...........................
.9125
1892...........................
.9292
1893...........................
.9292
1894...........................
.8479
1895...........................
.7813
1896...........................
.6938
1897...........................
.7188
1898...........................
.7417
1899...........................
.7979
1900...........................
.6833
1901...........................
.7742
1902...........................
.8058
.7875
1903...........................
1904...........................
.8246
1905...........................
.8908
1906...........................
.9471
.9492
1907...........................
1.0450
1908...........................
1909...........................
1.0450

100.0
117.5
109.5
111.5
111.5
101.8
93.8
83.3
86.3
89.0
95.8
82.0
92.9
96.7
94.5
99.0
106.9
113.7
113.9
125.4
125.4

$0.4535
.6158
.4842
.4083
.4633
.5242
.5242
3683
.3275
.3925
.4267
.6292
.6350
.5933
.4167
.4158
.4675
.4050
.4342
.4375
.5800

1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450
1.0450

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4

1 0450
1.0450
1.0450

125.4
125.4
125.4

100.0 $26.5042
135.8 26.5000
106.8 26.5000
90.0 26.5000
102.2 30.5000
115.6 26.5000
115.6 26.5000
81.2 26.5000
72.2 26.5000
86.5 26.5000
94.1 26.5417
138.7 27.5000
140.0 26.7083
130.8 28.5833
91.9 31.6667
91.7 31.0000
103.1 30.5000
89.3 31.0000
95.7 32.2500
96.5 31.6250
127.9 31.0000

100.0 $37.4292
100.0 37.8750
100.0 38.0000
100.0 38.4583
100.0 38.7500
100.0 37.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.0 36.2500
100.1 38.9583
103.8 40.8333
100.8 36.7708
107.8 40.8750
119.5 44.8363
117.0 46.5000
115.1 47.3333
117.0 50.4167
121.7 55.2083
119.3 49.2917
117.0 48.4167

100.0 $53.6771
101.2 51.4583
101.5 53.5833
102.7 53.0000
103.5 53.0000
99.5 51.1250
96.8 53.2500
96.8 54.5000
96.8 53.8333
96.8 52.5000
104.1 60.5208
109.1 64.4583
98.2 59.1667
109.2 63.0833
119.8 74.7917
124.2 80.7500
126.5 80.2500
134.7 79.1667
147.5 80.0000
131.7 80.1067
129.4 84.3333

100.0
95.9
99.8
98.7
98.7
95.2
99.2
101.5
100.3
97.8
112.7
120.1
110.2
117.5
139.3
150.4
149.5
147.5
149.0
149.3
157.1

.5000
.5500
.5600
.5600
.5600
.5900
.6100
.6100
.5700
.5700
.6300
.6500

110.3
121.3
123.5
123.5
123.5
130.1
134.5
134.5
125.7
125.7
138.9
143.3

31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000

117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117,0
117.0
117.0

47.5000
46.5000
46.5000
46.5000.
46.5000
46.5000
46.5000
48.5000
51.0000
51.0000
51.0000
53.0000

126.9
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
129.6
136.3
136.3
136.3
141.6

82.0000
82.0000
82.0000
82.0000
85.5000
85.5000
85.5000
85 5000
85.5000
85.5000
85.5000
85.5000

152.8
152.8
152.8
152.8
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3

.7600
.7700
.7700

167.6
169.8
169.8

31.0000
31.0000
31.0000

117.0
117.0
117.0

53.0000
53.0000
55.0000

141.6
141.6
146.9

85.5000
88.0000
88.0000

159.3
163.9
163.9

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




536

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I * — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ON THLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Oxide of zinc.

Pine: white,
boards, No. 2
barn (New
York market).

Pine: white,
boards, uppers
(New York
market).

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average
price per tive price per tive price per
pound. price. M feet. price. M feet.
Average, 1890-1899. $0.0400
.0425
1890.. r. I.................
1891 ........................
.0419
1892
...................
.0426
.0413
1893..........................
.0373
1894..........................
.0350
1895..........................
1896.........................
.0383
.0377
1897..........................
.0396
1898..........................
.0438
1899..........................
.0451
1900..........................
.0438
1901..........................
1902..........................
.0440
.0463
1903..........................
1904..........................
.0463
1905..........................
.0465
1906..........................
.0508
1907..........................
.0538
.0513
1908..........................
1909..........................
.0517

100.0
106.3
104.8
106.5
103.3
93.3
87.5
95.8
94.3
99.0
109.5
112.8
109.5
110.0
115.8
115.8
116.3
127.0
134.5
128.3
129.3

<*$17.1104 <*100.0
<*16.7917 <*98.1
<*17.0000 <*99.4
al7.1458 <*100.2
<*18.6250 <*108.9
<*18.1667 <*106.2
<*17.2500 <*100.8
<*16.5000 a 96.4
<*15.8333 o92.5
<*15.5000 a 90.6
<*18.2917 al06.9
<*21.5000 ol25.7
<*20.8750 ol22.0
<*23.5000 al37.3
<*24.0000 al40.3
<*23.0000 ol34.4
<*24.1667 ol41.2
<*29.7500 ol73.9
37.4167 6195.7
36.3750 6190.3
37.1042 6194.1

o$46.5542
0 44.0833
o 45.0000
0 46.1417
o 48.5000
o46.4167
o46.0000
o 46.6250
o46.3333
o 46.0833
0 50.4583
o 57.5000
o 60.4167
©74.8333
o 80.0000
o 81.0000
o82.0000
a 84.7500
97.0833
96.0833
93.0417

Pine: yellow,
flooring.

Pine: yellow,
sidmg.

Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
tive price per tive price per tive
price. M feet. price. M feet. price.
<*100.0
<*94.7
<*96.7
<*98.9
<*104.2
<*99.7
o98.8
ol00.2
o99.5
o99.0
0108.4
ol23.5
ol29.8
ol60.7
o l7 l.8
ol74.0
ol76.1
ol82.0
C200.2
cl98.1 $43.9167
d91.8 45.8333

(d)
(d)

$18.4646
20.7500
19.9583
18.5000
18.5000
18.5000
16.9167
16.4167
16.4375
18.6250
20.0417
20.7083
19.6667
21.0000
21.0000
21.4167
24.9167
29.3333
30.5000
30.5000
33.0417

100.0
112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
89.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
134.9
158.9
165.2
165.2
178.9

cl 92.8
cl91.7
cl91.7
cl91.7
cl91.7
cl 91.7
cl91.7
cl91.7
cl 91.7
cl91.7
cl91.7
cl91.7

43.5000
47.5000
47.5000
47.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000
45.5000

(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d)
(d )
(d )
(d )
(d)
W

32.5000
32.5000
32.5000
32.5000
32.5000
32.5000
35.5000
36.5000
36.5000
31.0000
31.0000
31.0000

176.0
176.0
176.0
176.0
176.0
176.0
192.3
197.7
197.7
167.9
167.9
167.9

95.5000 cl96.9
95.5000 cl96.9
95.5000 cl96.9

45.5000
46.5000
46.5000

(d )
(d)
(d)

31.0000
31.0000
31.0000

167.9
167.9
167.9

19 09.
January..................
February................
March......................
April.......................
May.........................
June........................
July.........................
August....................
September..............
October...................
November..............
December................

.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0513
.0538
.0538

128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
134.5
134.5

36.2500
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
37.0000
38.0000
38.0000

.0538
.0538
.0538

134.5
134.5
134.5

38.0000 6198.8
38.0000 6198.8
38.0000 6198.8

6189.7
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6193.6
6198.8
6198.8

93.5000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000
93.0000

19 10.
January..................
February................
March.....................

< Buffalo market.
*
b For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1906, $33.25.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1906, $88.25.
d No relative price computed. For explanation, see page 414.




537

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,

T a m e I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL A N D R E L A T IV E PRICES OF
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, A N D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
fFor explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Plate glass:
polished, glaz­
ing, area 3 to 5
square feet.

Plate glass:
polished, glaz­
ing, area 5 to 10
square feet.

Poplar.

Rosin: good,
strained.

Putty.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
sq. ft. price. sq. ft. price. M feet. price. pound. price. barrel. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. «$0.3630 0100.0 *$0.5190 *100.0
&.70CO *134; 9
1890...........................
0.5300 0146.0
1891........................... 0.5200 0143.3 1 *.6900 *132.9
1892...........................
0.4200 0115.7
*.5500 *106.0
1883........................... 0.4200 0115.7
6.5500 *106.0
1894........................... 0.3300 090.9
6.4500 *86.7
1895........................... 0.3000 0 82.6
6.4800 6 92.5
1896........................... 0.34OO 093.7
6.5400 *104.0
1897........................... 0.2000 0 55.1 ! *.3200 *61.7
1898......................... 0.2700 0 74.4 : 6.4300 *82.9
1899........................... 0.3000 082.6
*.4800 *92.5
1900........................... 0.3400 0 93.7
6.5400 *104.0
1901........................... 0.3200 0 88.2
6.4900 *94.4
1902........................... 0.2575 0 70; 9
6.4113 *79.2
*.4313 *83.1
1903........................... 0.2625 0 72.3
1904........................... «. 2275 0$2.7
*.3650 *70.3
*.3729 *71.8
1905........................... 0.2408 0 66.3
1906...........................
.3300 <*77.7
.2267 C76.1
.2300 c77.2
.3400 <*80.1
1907...........................
.1733 c58 2
.2750 <*64.8
1908...........................
1909...........................
.2017 c67.7
.2817 <*66.4

$31.3667 100.0 $0.0158 ; 100.0
97.2
30.5000
.0175 110.8
30.5000
97.2
.0175 . 110.8
30.6042
97.6
.0161 101.9
33.6250 107.2
.0160 101.3
99.4
31.7500 101.2
.0157
31.0000
.0145
98.8
91.8
31.0000
.0145
98.8
91.8
.0145
30.6667
97.8
91.8
.0145
30.0000
95.6
91.8
34.9208 108.6
.0168 106.3
37.6875 120.2
.0190 120.3
36.7083 117.0
.0150
94.9
42.1042 134.2
.0192 121.5
49.6458 158.3
89.2
.0141
50.3292 160.6
.0110
69.6
48.2083 153.7
.0109
69,0
50.9583 162.5
.0119
75.3
58.0833 . 185.2
.0120
75.9
58.2917 185.8
.0120
75.9
57.6250 183.7
.0120
75.9

$1.4399
1.3844
1.4740
1.3417
1.2615
1.2510
1.5615
1.7458
1.6125
1.4208
1.3458
1.6021
1.5302
1.6125
2.2156
2.8333
3.4229
4.0146
4.3771
3.2817
3.5000

100.0
96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
304.0
227.9
243.1

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
A pril.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

.2000
.2000
.2000
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.1800
.2200
.2200
.2400
.2400

c67.2
c67.2
c$7.2
c60.5
c60.5
C60.5
c60.5
c60.5
c73.9
C73.9
C80.6
C80.6

.3000
.3000
.3000
.2600
.2600
.2600
.2600
.2600
.2800
.2800
.3000
.3200

<*70; 7
<*707
<*70.7
<*61.3
<*61.3
<*61.3
<*61.3
<*61.3
<*66.0
<*66.0
<*70.7
<*75.4

58.5000
56.5000
56.5000
56.5000
56.5000
56.5000
56.5000
58.0000
59.0000
59.0000
59.0000
59.0000

186.5
180.1
180.1
189.1
180.1
189.1
180.1
185.0
188.1
188.1
188.1
188.1

.0120
.0129
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120
.0120

75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9

3.2750
3.3250
3.1750
3.2750
3.3000
3.2500
3.0000
3.2500
3.5000
4.2500
4.2250
4.1750

227.4
230.9
220.5
227.4
229.2
225.7
208.3
225.7
243.1
295.2
293.4
290.0

.3200 <*75.4 59.0000
.3500 <*82.5 59.0000
.3500 <*82.5 59.0000

188.1
188.1
188.1

.0120
.0115
.0115

75.9
72.8
72.8

4.2000
4.4000
4.5500

291.7
305.6
316.0

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

.2400 C80.0
.2500 C83.9
.2500 C83.9

« Plate glass: polished, tusilvered, area 3 to 5 square feet.
* Plate glass: polished, unsilvered, area 5 to 10 square feet.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905, $0.1975.
< For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905, $0.3050.
*




538

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . —A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M O N THLY ACTU AL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Shingles:
cypress.

Shingles: Red
cedar, 16 inches
long.

Spruce.

Turpentine:
spirits of.

Tar.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
M.
price.
M.
price. M feet. price. barrel. price. gallon. price.
Average, 1890-1899... $2.8213
1890............................ 3.3500
3.2500
1891...........................
1892............................ 3.1500
1893...........................
3.0000
1894...........................
2.8000
1895............................ 2.6500
2.5000
1896...........................
1897............................ 2.3500
1898...........................
2.5000
1899...........................
2.6625
1900...........................
2.8500
1901...........................
2.8500
1902...........................
2.6708
1903...........................
2.5667
1904...........................
2.6000
1905...........................
2.7250
1906...........................
3.2417
1907...........................
4.2250
1908...........................
3.5375
1909...........................
3.2667

100.0
118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
88.6
83.3
88.6
94.4
101.0
101.0
94.7
91.0
92.2
96.6
114.9
149.8
125.4
115.8

<*$3.7434
a 3.8417
a 4.0000
a 3.9063
a 3.8500
a 3.7500
« 3 .7000
o 3.6125
o3.5417
o 3.5521
o3.6792
o 4 .0000
o 4.1875
63.5875
6 3.6500
63.5750
63.5000
2*2125
2.6958
2.0125
2.0042

alOO.O
ol02.6
ol06.9
ol04.4
ol02.8
O100.2
o98.8
o96.5
o94.6
o94.9
o98.3
ol06.9
a lll.9
6123.0
6125.1
6122.5
6119.9
cl57.2
cl91.5
C143.0
cl42.4

$14.3489
16.2917
14.2183
14.8542
13.7708
12.7083
14.2500
14.2500
14.0000
13.7500
15.3958
17,3750
18.0000
19.2500
19.1875
20.5000
21.4167
25.5417
24.0000
20.7917
25.2500

100.0
113.5
99.1
103.5
96.0
88.6
99.3
99.3
97.6
95.8
107.3
121.1
125.4
134.2
133.7
142.9
149.3
178.0
167.3
144.9
176.0

$1.2048
1.4750
1.5833
1.3000
1.0458
1.0917
1.1417
1.0125
1.0542
1.0979
1.2458
1.3625
1.2817
1.3250
1.6792
1.6792
1.7583
1.9583
2.3292
1.6000
1.6375

100.0
122.4
131.4
107.9
86.8
90.6
94.8
84.0
87.5
91.1
103.4
113.1
106.4
110.0
139.4
139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3
132.8
135.9

$0.3343
.4080
.3795
.3227
.3002
.2932
.2923
.2743
.2924
.3221
.4581
.4771
.3729
.4740
.5715
.5757
.6276
.6649
.6344
.4533
.4908

100.0
122.0
113.5
96.5
89.8
87.7
87.4
82.1
87.5
96.4
137.0
142.7
111.5
141.8
171.0
172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8
135.6
146.8

3.3500
3.3500
3.2000
3.2000
3.2000
3.1000
3.1000
3.1000
3.2500
3.3500
3.5000
3.5000

118.7
118.7
113.4
113.4
113.4
109.9
109.9
109.9
115.2
118.7
124.1
124.1

2.0500
2.0500
1.9500
1.8500
1.9000
1.9500
2.0000
2.2000
2.1500
1.9500
1.9500
2.0500

cl45.7
cl 45.7
cl38.6
cl31.5
C135.0
cl38.6
cl 42.1
cl56.3
cl52.8
cl38.6
cl38.6
cl45.7

23.5000
23.5000
26.5000
26.5000
26.5000
26.5000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000
25.0000

163.8
163.8
184.7
184.7
184.7
184.7
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2

1.7500
1.5000
1.2000
1.5000
1.5000
1.5000
1.6000
1.5000
2.0000
1.8000
1.8000
2.0000

145.3
124.5
99.6
124.5
124.5
124.5
132.8
124.5
166.0
149.4
149.4
166.0

.4150
.4500
.4250
.4050
.4025
.4250
.4625
.5175
.5950
.6200
.6025
.5700

124.1
134.6
127.1
121.1
120.4
127.1
138.3
154.8
178.0
185.5
180.2
170.5

3.6000
3.8500
3.8500

127.6
136.5
136.5

2.0500 C145.7
2.1000 cl49.2
2.1500 cl52.8

25.0000
25.0000
25.0000

174.2
174.2
174.2

2.0000
2.0000
2.0000

166.0
166.0
166.0

.5925
.6325
.6300

177.2
189.2
188.5

19 09.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May................ ..........
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................
19 10.
January....................
February..................
March........................

a Shingles: white pine, 18 inches long.
&Shingles: Michigan white pine, 16 inches long, X X X X . For method of computing relative price, see
pages 415 and 416; average pnce for 1901, $3.2625.
C For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1905, $1.6875.




539

WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M ARCH ; 1910,
T a b l e I I . —A V E R A G E

Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COMMODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PR IC E S:
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FOIt
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Lumber and building materials.

Year or month.

Drugs and chemicals.

Window glass: Window glass:
t
American, sin­ American, sin­
Alcohol: wood,
gle, firsts, 6 x 8 gle, thirds, 6 x 8 Alcohol: grain. refined, 95 per
to 10 x 15
to 10 x 15
cent.
inches.
inches.

Akim: lump.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
50 sq.ft. price. 50 sq.ft. price. gallon. price. gallon. price. pound. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $2.1514
1890........................... 2.2283
1891........................... 2.2125
1.9935
1892...........................
1893........................... 2.1375
1894........................... 1.9918
1895........................... 1.5988
1.8021
1896...........................
1897........................... 2.1986
2.6432
1898...........................
1899........................... 2.7081
1900........................... 2.6990
4.1282
1901...........................
3.2187
1902...........................
1903........................... 2.6400
2.8867
1904...........................
1905........................... 2.7637
1906........................... 2.9196
1907........................... 2.8133
1908........................... 2.3600
1909........................... 2.3200

100.0
103.6
102.8
92.7
99.4
92.6
74.3
83.8
102.2
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8
109.7
107.8

$1.8190
1.7858
1.7700
1.5948
1.7100
1.6326
1.3919
1.6000
1.9630
2.3428
2.3986
2.3194
3.2823
2.5649
2.1600
2.3283
2.1365
2.2563
2.2419
1.8806
1.8488

100.0
98.2
97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
88.0
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2
103.4
101.6

$2.2405
2.0717
2.2150
2.1417
2.1808
2.1521
2.3292
2.3008
2.2767
2.3250
2.4117
2.3867
2.4583
2.4057
2.3958
2.4325
2.42’7
5
2.4642
2.5229
2.6367
2.6175

100.0
92.5
98.9
95.6
97.3
96.1
104.0
102.7
101.6
103.8
107.6
106.5
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3
110.0
112.6
117.7
116.8

$0.9539
1.1375
1.1598
1.2973
1.2917
.7198
.8667
.8500
.6958
.7500
.7708
.8000
.6125
.6417
.5917
.5875
.6750
.7000
.3992
.4275
.5000

100.0
119.2
121.6
136.0
135.4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8
44.8
52.4

$0.0167
.0182
.0158
.0160
.0174
.0169
.0160
.0164
.0166
.0165
.0168
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0173
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

100.0
109.0
94.6
95.8
104.2
191.2
95.8
98.2
99.4
98.8
100.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
103.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

2.5600
2.4000
2.4000
2.2400
2.2400
2.2400
2.2400
2.2400
2.2400
2.2400
2.4000
2.4000

119.0
111.6
111.6
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
111.6
111.6

2.0400
1.9125
1.9125
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.7850
1.9125
1.9125

112.1
105.1
105.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
105.1
105.1

2.6500
2.6000
2.6000
2.6000
2.5900
2.6300
2.6300
2.6300
2.6300
2.6300
2.6100
2.6100

118.3
116.0
116.0
116.0
115.6
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
116.5
116.5

.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.3000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000

52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4

.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175
.0175

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

2.8800
2.8800
2.8800

133.9
133.9
133.9

2.2950
2.2950
2.2950

126.2
126.2
126.2

2.6100
2.6100
2.6100

116.5
116.5
116.5

.5000
.5000
.5000

52.4
52.4
52.4

.0175
.0175
.0175

104.8
104.8
104.8

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




540

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOB,

T able I I . —AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O P
COM MODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E F O ll
1890-1899)— Continued.

(For explanation and discussion of this tabie, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Drugs and chemicals.

Year or month.

Brimstone:
crude, seconds.

Glycerin:
refined.

Muriatic acid:
20°

Opium: natural, Quinine: Amer­
in cases.
ican.

Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­ Average Rela­
price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive price per tive
ton.
price. pound. price. pound. price. pound. price. ounce. price.
Average, 1890-1899.. $20.6958
1890........................... 21.1458
1891........................... 28.6042
1892........................... 24.1458
1893........................... 18.7292
1894............................ 16.5833
1895........................... 15.6250
1890........................... 17.9583
1897........................... 20.1250
1898........................... 22.9167
1899........................... 21.1250
1900........................... 21.1458
1901........................... 22.0000
1902........................... 23.4375
1903........................... 22.3333
1904............................ 21.7750
1905............................ 21.2667
1906............................ 22.1563
1907........................ .
21.4983
1908........................... 21.7917
1909........................... 22.0000

100.0
102.2
138.2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
86.8
97.2
110.7
102.1
102.2
106.3
113.2
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9
105.3
106.3

$0.1399
.1767
.1538
.1396
.1346
.1194
.1204
.1671
.1308
.1238
.1329
.1515
.1504
.1444
.1446
.1396
.1238
.1129
.1383
.1492
.1700

100.0
126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
86.1
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
1083
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
885
80.7
989
106.6
121.5

$0.0104
.0104
.0098
.0121
.0101
.0088
.0083
.0075
.0109
.0128
.0135
.0135
.0150
.0168
.0160
.0160
.0160
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0134

100.0
100.0
94.2
116.3
97.1
84.6
79.8
72.1
104.8
123.1
129.8
129.8
144.2
161.5
153.8
153.8
153.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
128 8

$2.3602
2.6208
1.9438
1.6708
2.3917
2.2854
1.8413
2.0917
2.3417
3.3417
3.0729
3.2000
3.2292
2.8313
3.0813
2.7500
3.0833
2.9500
4.9458
4.7146
4.6104

100.0

82.4
70.8
101.3
96.8
780
88.6
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
120.0
130.6
116.5
128.5
125.0
209.6
199.8
195.3

$0.2460
.3275
.2508
.2183
.2150
.2621
.2508
.2406
.1829
.2146
.2975
.3325
.3025
.2575
.2525
.2333
.2100
.1658
.1775
.1567
.1408

100.0
133.1
102.0
88.7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
104.7
102.6
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2
63.7
57.2

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
103.3

.1650
.1600
.1575
.1525
. 1475
.1575
.1750
.1800
.1825
.1850
.1875
.1900

117.9
114.4
112.6
109.0
105.4
112.6
125.1
128.7
130.5
132.2
134.0
135.8

-.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0135
.0130
.0130

129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
125.0
125.0

4.3500
4.3750
4.3500
4.4000
4.2500
4.2500
4.2000
4.0000
4.4000
5.0000
5.7500
6.0000

184.3
185.4
184.3
186.4
180.1
180.1
1780
169.5
186.4
211.8
243.6
254.2

.1500
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400
.1400

61.0
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9

106.3
106.3
106.3

.1925
.1975
.2000

137.6
141.2
143.0

.0130
.0130
.0130

125.0
125.0
125.0

5.7500
5.6500
5.4500

243.6
239.4
230.9

.1400
.1400
.1400

56.9
56.9
56.9

111.0

1909.
January.................... 22.0000
February.................. 22.0000
March....................... 22.0000
22.0000
22.0000
June.......................... 22.0000
July .......................... 22.0000
August...................... 22.0000
September................ 22.0000
October..................... 22.0000
November................ 22.0000
December................ 22.0000

1910.
January.................... 22.0000
February.................. 22.0000
March....................... 22.0000




541

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

T able I I .— A V E R A G E Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description ot the articles,
S66 T a b l e I .J

Drugs and chem­
icals.

Sulphuric acid: 66°.

House furnishing goods.

Earthenware:
plates, creamcolored.

Earthenware:
plates, white
granite.

Earthenware:
teacups and saucers,
white granite.

Year or month.
Average
price per
Average Relative Average Relative Average Relative gross (6
price per
dozen
price per
price per
price.
price.
price.
dozen.
cups and
dozen.
pound.
6 dozen
saucers).
Average, 1890-1899...
1890 .......................
1891 .......................
1892 .......................
1893 .......................
1894 .......................
1895 .......................
1896 .......................
1897 .......................
1898 .......................
1899 .......................
1900 .......................
1901 .......................
1902 .......................
1903 .......................
1904 .......................
1905 .......................
1906 .......................
1907 .......................
1908 .......................
1909 .......................

Relative
price.

$0.0089
.0088
.0081
.0095
.0085
.0073
.0070
.0070
.0095
.0113
.0120
.0120
.0125
.0130
.0127
.0129
.0124
.0100
.0100
.0102
.0100

100.0
98.9
91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
78.7
106.7
127.0
134.8
134.8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4
114.6
112.4

$0.4136
.4465
.4367
.4230
.4230
.4177
.3913
.3807
.3807
.4153
.4208
.4410
.4655
.4655
.4775
.4705
.4410
.4410
.4410
.4300
.4300

100.0
108.0
105.6
102.3
102.3
101.0
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6
104.0
104.0

$0.4479
.4888
.4786
.4644
.4644
.4566
.4162
.3991
.3991
.4515
.4607
.4841
.5096
.5096
.4988
.4943
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

100.0
109.1
106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
100.8
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

$3.4292
3.7600
3. G
817
3.5720
3.5720
3.5250
3.2374
3.0907
3.0907
3.3595
3.4026
3.5750
3.7632
3.7632
3.6832
3.6503
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

100.0
109.6
107.4
104.2
104.2
102.8
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104.3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100
.0100

112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300
.4300

104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586
.4586

102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

.0100
.0100
.0100

112.4
112.4
112.4

.4300
.4300
.4300

104.0
104.0
104.0

.4586
.4586
.4586

102.4
102.4
102.4

3.3869
3.3869
3.3869

98.8
98.8
98.8

1909.
January...
February..
March____
April........
May.........
June.........
July..........
August___
September
October...
November.
December.

1910.
January..
February
M arch...




542

BU LLETIN OP TH E BUKEAU OP LABOB,

T able I I — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRIC ES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)—Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
House furnishing goods.

Year or month.

Furniture: b e d room sets, iron
bedstead, hard­
wood dresser and
washstand.

Furniture: chairs,
bedroom, maple.

Furniture: chairs,
kitchen.

Furniture: tables,
kitchen.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
set.
dozen.
dozen.
dozen.
Average, 1890-1899...
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1993...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

Relative
price.

a $10.555
a 12.000
a 12.000
a 12.000
a 11.000
a 11.000
a 9.950
a 8.750
a 8.750
a 10.000
a 10.100
a 11.250
a 11.250
a 11.750
a 12.167
a 12.250
a 12.354
a 12.958
c 14.560
11.000
10.875

a 100.0
a 113.7
a 113.7
a 113.7
a 104.2
a 104.2
a 94.3
a 82.9
a 82.9
a 94.7
a 95.7
a 106.6
«106.6
a 111.3
o ll5 .3
o 116.1
o 117.0
ol22.8
o 137.4
6134.3
6132.8

$6,195
7.000
7.000
6.850
6.850
6.000
6.000
6.000
5.000
5.125
6.125
8.000
7.000
7.333
7.917
8.000
8.000
8.917
10.000
9.417
9.000

100.0
113.0
113.0
110.6
110.6
96.9
96.9
96.9
80.7
82.7
98.9
129.1
113.0
118.4
127.8
129.1
129.1
143.9
161.4
152.0
145.3

$3.8255
4.2000
4.2000
4.2500
4.2500
3.5000
3.5000
3.5000
3.5000
3.3130
4.0420
5.2080
4.7500
4.9167
5.0000
4.7708
4.7500
5.1250
5.7917
6.0000
5.5833

100.0
109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4
156.8
145.9

$14.435
15.000
15.000
15.000
15.000
14.250
14.250
13.800
13.800
13.800
14.450
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
15.600
16.500
18.000
18.000
18.000

100.0
103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100. r
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7
124.7
124.7

10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
10.750
11.500
11.500

6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6131.3
6140.4
6140.4

9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000
9.000

145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3

6.0000
6.0000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000

156.8
156.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8

18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000
18.000

124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

11.500
11.500
11.500

6140.4
6140.4
6140.4

9.000
9.000
9.000

145.3
145.3
145.3

5.5000
5.5000
5.5000

143.8
143.8
143.8

18.000
19.500
19.500

124.7
135.1
135.1

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Furniture: bedroom sets, ash.
&For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1907, $11.25.




543

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910,
T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OF
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PR IC E S,
JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

{For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
House furnishing goods.

Year or month.

Glassware:
nappies, 4-inch.

Glassware:
pitchers, ^-gallon,
common.

Glassware:
tumblers, £-pint,
common.

Table cutlery: carv­
ers, stag handles.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
dozen.
dozen.
dozen.
pair.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891.......... ; ...............
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898.:........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

Relative
price.

$0,112
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.100
.100
.100
.100
.100
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.140
.122
.117

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
108.9
104.5

$1.175
1.250
1.260
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.250
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.300
1.300
1.300
1.150
1.050
1.050
1.050
.963
.996

100.0
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4
82.0
84.8

$0.1775
.1800
.2000
.1900
.1900
.1900
.1850
.1800
.1700
.1600
.1300
.1800
.1800
.1850
.1767
.1600
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1325
.1342

100.0
101.4
112.7
107.0
107. X
)
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.1
73.2
101.4
101.2
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
74.6
75.6

$0.80
.80
.80
.80
.95
.80
.80
.80
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.80
.75
.75

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0
93.8
93.8

.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.120
.110
.110
.110
.110

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2

1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.050
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
.900
.900
.900

89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
76.6
76.6
76.6

.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1300
.1300
.1200
.1200

84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
67.6
67.6
67.6
73.2
73.2
67.6
67.6

.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75

93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8

.110
.110
.110

98.2
98.2
98.2

.800
.800
.800

68.1
68.1
68.1

.1200
.1200
.1200

67.6
67.6
67.6

.75
.75
.75

93.8
93.8
93.8

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




544

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTU AL AND R E L A T IV E PR IC E S OP
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRICES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E F O R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
House furnishing goods.

Year or month.

Table cutlery,
knives and forks,
cocobolo bandies.

Average
price per
gross.

Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1896...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

Wooden ware:
pails, oak-grained.

Miscellaneous.

Wooden ware:
tubs, oak-grained.

Cotton-seed meal.

Average
Average
Average
Relative price per Relative piice per Relative price per Relative
price. ton of 2,000 price.
price.
price.
dozen.
nest of 3.
pounds.

$6.0600
7.7500
7.7500
6.8500
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.5000
5.0000
5.5000
5.7500
5.7500
6.5000
6.5000
6.5000
6.6667
6.6875
6.0500
6.4833
5.4167
5.0000

100.0
127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0
89.4
82.5

$1.2988
1.5917
1.4500
1.3500
1.3125
1.2583
1.1208
1.2625
1,2417
1.1333
1.2667
L4917
1.5500
1.5500
1.5875
1.7000
1.7000
1.7000
1.9708
2.1000
1.9167

100.0
122.6
111.6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7
161.7
147.6

$1.3471
1.6500
1.5667
1.4000
1.3083
1.2875
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2500
1.2583
1.4417
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.4500
1.6000
1.6500
1.6500

100.0
122.5
116.3
103.9
97.1
95.6
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
93.4
107.0
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
118.8
122.5
122.5

$21.9625
23.3750
25.2083
23.6958
25.7042
22.5583
18.9125
19.9375
20.4375
19.0000
20.7958
25.5458
25.0208
27.1333
26.7083
26.2000
26.3583
30.3917
28.7042
29.3917
32.0373

100.0
100.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
86.1
90.8
93.1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
121.6
119.3
120.0
138.4
130.7
133.8
145.9

5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000
5.0000

82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5

2.1000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000
1.9000

161.7
146.3
143.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3

1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
L 6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500
1.6500

122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5

28.8500
29.1000
29.6000
31.1000
31.8500
33.8500
33.8500
33.8500
33.8500
30.6000
33.1000
34.8500

131.4
132.5
134.8
141.6
145.0
154.1
154.1
154.1
154.1
139.3
150.7
158.7

5.0000
5.0000
5.0000

82.5
82.5
82.5

1.9000
1.9000
1.9000

146.3
146.3
146.3

1.6500
1.6500
1.6500

122.5
122.5
122.5

36.4000
36.4000
36.0000

165.7
165.7
163.9

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
A pril.........................
May..........................
June..........................
July..........................
August.....................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................




545

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,
T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AND R E L A T IV E PRIC ES O F
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY AC TU AL AN D R E L A T IV E P R IC E S,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this tablersee page 414. Tor a more detailed description of the articles,
see Table I.]
Miscellaneous.

Year or month.

Cotton-seed oil:
summer yellow,
prime.

Jute: raw,
M-double triangle.

Malt: western
made.

Paper: news,

Average
Average
Ayerage
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
gallon.
pound.
bushel.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1961...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

Relative
price.

$0.3044
.3446
.3567
.3088
.4550
.3238
.2721
.2513
.2365
.2288
.2663
.3556
.3571
.4067
.3977
.3135
.2696
.3613
.4869
.4090
.4399

100.0
113.2
117.2
101.4
149.5
106.4
89.4
82.6
77.7
75.2
87.5
116.8
117.3
133.6
130.7
103.0
88.6
118.7
160.0
134.4
144.5

a $0.0359
a . 0388
a . 0371
a. 0475
a. 0346
a. 0345
a . 0279
a . 0319
a . 0373
a . 0332
a . 0365
a . 0435
a. 0400
<*.0438
a. 0464
a . 0444
.0398
.0539
.0486
.0370
.0318

a 100.0
e 108.1
a 103.3
a 132.3
a 98.4
a 96.1
a 77.7
<*88.9
a 103.9
<*92.5
<*101.7
<*121.2
<*111.4
<*122.0
a 129.2
ol23.7
&151.0
&204.5
5184.4
5140.4
5120.7

$0.7029
.7500
.9271
.8015
.7750
.7446
.6854
.5629
.5438
.6163
.6221
.6538
.7450
.7925
.7246
.6758
.6150
.6471
1.0346
.9325
.7867

100.0
106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
93.0
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2
132.7
111.9

$0.0299
.0382
.0340
.0340
.0318
.0323
.0308
.0275
.0271
.0219
.0209
.0281
.0226
.0242
.0253
.0267
.0242
.0219
.0249
.0248
.0205

100.0
127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4
108.0
103.0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
94.0
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3
82.9
68.6

.3975
.4200
.4125
.4038
.4225
.4313
.4263
.4050
.4388
.4588
.5288
.5338

130.6
138.0
135.5
132.7
138.8
141.7
140.0
133.0
144.2
150.7
173.7
175.4

.0325
.0300
.0338
.0313
.0313
.0300
.0313
.0313
.0325
.0338
.0325
.0313

5123.3
5113.8
5128.3
5118.8
5118.8
6113.8
5118.8
5118.8
5123. 3
5128.3
5123.3
5118.8

.7500
.7700
.7700
.7750
.8400
.8750
.8000
.8000
.7550
.7300
.7400
.8350

106.7
109.5
109.5
110.3
119.5
124.5
113.8
113.8
107.4
103.9
105.3
118.8

.0228
.0228
.0225
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0198
.0195

76.3
76.3
75.3
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
65.2

.5625
.5213
.5538

184.8
171.3
181.9

.0325
.0313
.0313

5123.4
5118.8
5118.8

.8750
.8550
.8350

124.5
121.6
118.8

.0195
.0195
.0193

65.2
65.2
64.5

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
Auril.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................

1910.
January....................
February...... ...........
March.......................

« Jute: raw.
h For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416; average price for 1904, $0.0326.




546

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES OE
COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A RY, 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AND BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Continued.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 414. For a more detailed description of the articles.
see Table I.]
Miscellaneous.
Paper: wrapping,
manila.

Year or month.

Proof spirits.

Rope: manila,
base sizes.

Rubber: Para
Island.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
pound.
gallon.
pound.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890...........................
1891...........................
1892...........................
1893...........................
1894...........................
1895...........................
1896...........................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

Relative
price.

SO 0553
.
.0575
.0575
.0558
.0579
.0584
.0586
.0588
.0588
.0459
.0438
. 0480
.0502
.0497
.0526
. 0530
.0525
.0500
.0506
.0500
.0475

100.0
104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
86.8
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5
90.4
85.9

$1.1499
1.0533
1.1052
1.0757
1.0713
1.1326
1.2109
1.2031
1.1830
1.2220
1.2421
1.2460
1.2861
1.3138
1.2809
1.2692
1.2616
1.2879
1.3133
1.3565
1.3575

100.0
91.6
96.1
93.5
93.2
98.5
105.3
104.6
102.9
106.3
108.0
108.4
111.8
114.3
111.4
110.4
109.7
112.0
114.2
118.0
118.1

a $0.0934
o.l494
0.1038
a. 1148
o. 0919
o. 0770
o. 0735
o. 0664
0.0631
0.0842
0.1094
a. 1320
a. 1092
o.l348
6.1146
6.1171
6.1195
6.1252
6.1290
.1015
.0841

o 100.0
o 160.0
a 111.1
a 122.9
a 98.4
a 82.4
a 78.7
o71.1
o67.6
o90.1
oll7.1
ol41.3
oll6 .9
ol44.3
6122.7
6125.4
6127.9
6134.0
6138.1
108.7
90.0

$0.8007
.8379
.7908
.6763
.7167
.6744
.7425
.8000
.8454
.9271
.9954
.9617
.8496
.7273
.9054
1.0875
1.2425
1.2131
1.0833
.8708
1.4810

100.0
104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84.2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
122.6
106.1
90.8
113.1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8
108.8
185.0

.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475
.0475

85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9

1.3550
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3500
1.3660
1.3700
1.3700
1.3700
1.3600
1.3500
1.3500

117.8
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
118.8
119.1
119.1
119.1
118.3
117.4
117.4

.0888
.0838
.0838
.0838
.0863
.0863
.0838
.0838
.0838
.0813
.0813
.0825

95.1
89.7
89.7
89.7
92.4
92.4
89.7
89.7
89.7
87.0
87.0
88.3

1.1550
1.1550
1.2150
1.1850
1.2325
1.3350
1.4300
1.8450
1.7100
1.9850
1.8100
1.7150

144.2
144.2
151.7
148.0
153.9
166.7
178.6
230.4
213.6
247.9
226.1
214.2

.0475
.0475
.0475

85.9
85.9
85.9

1.3500
1.3500
1.3500

117.4
117.4
117.4

.0825
.0800
.0800

88.3
85.7
85.7

1.6950
1.7900
1.9950

211.7
223.6
249.2

1909.
January....................
February..................
March.......................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July...........................
August......................
September................
October....................
November................
December.................
1910.
January....................
February..................
March.......................

a Three-eighths inch,




6 Seven-sixteenths inch.

547

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910.
T able I I . — AVERAGE

Y E A R L Y ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PR IC E S O F
COM MODITIES,1890 TO 1909; M ONTHLY ACTUAL AN D R E L A T IV E PRIC ES,
JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH, 1910, AN D BASE PRICES (A V E R A G E FO R
1890-1899)— Concluded.

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see page 411. For a more detailed description of tbe articles,
see Table 1.]
Miscellaneous.

Year or month.

Soap: castile, mot­
tled, pure.

Starch: laundry.

Tobacco: plug.

Tobacco: smoking,
granulated.

Average
Average
Average
Average
price per Relative price per Relative price per Relative price per
price.
price.
price.
pound.
pound.
pound.
pound.
Average, 1890-1899..
1890............................
1891............................
1892............................
1893............................
1894............................
1895............................
1896............................
1897...........................
1898...........................
1899...........................
1900...........................
1901...........................
1902...........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................
1906...........................
1907...........................
1908...........................
1909...........................

$0.0569
.0594
.0621
.0624
.0615
.0588
.0507
.0502
.0531
.0550
.0558
.0613
.0655
.0663
.0658
.0647
.0650
.0650
.0671
.0700
.1042

100.0
104.4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
88.2
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
116.5
115.6
113.7
114.2
114.2
117.9,
123.0
183.1

Relative
price.

10.0348
.0371
.0426
.0373
.0366
.0366
.0363
.0310
.0300
.0300
.0300
.0340
.0363
.0454
.0431
.0369
.0329
.0367
.0404
.0433
.0429

100.0
106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1
86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7
104.3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1
124.4
123.3

$0.3962
.4050
.4008
.3725
.3967
.4000
.4000
.3808
.3758
.4133
.4175
.4433
.4658
.4542
.4500
.4700
.4900
.4833
.4700
.4700
.4700

100.0
102.2
101.2
94.0
100.1
101.0
101.0
96.1
94.9
104.3
105.4
111.9
117.6
114.6
113.6
118.6
123.7
122.0
118.6
118.6
118.6

$0.5090
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5300
.5600
.5600
.5600
.5592
.5700
.5825
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000

100.0
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
104.1
110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114.4
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

1909.
January.....................
February..................
March........................
April.........................
May...........................
June..........................
July..........................
August......................
September................
October.....................
November................
December.................

.0750
.0750
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100
.1100

.131.8
131.8
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3

.0400
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0450
.0400
.0400
.0400
.0400

114.9
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9

.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700
.4700

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000
.6000

117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

.1100
.1100
.1100

193.3
193.3
193.3

.0400
.0400
.0400

114.9
114.9
114.9

.4700
.4700
.4700

118.6
118.6
118.6

.6000
.6000
.6000

117.9
117.9
117.9

1910.
January....................
February..................
March........................

43431— No. 87— 10-----12




548

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH ,
1910.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Farm products.
Grain.
Year or
month. Cotton:
upland
mid­
dling.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Flax­
seed:
No. 1.

Barley: Com:
by,
sample. cash.

Oats:
cash.

Rye:
No. 2,
cash.

Wheat:
cash.

Aver­
age.

Hides:
green,
Hay: salted, Hops:
New
timo­ packers', York
thy,
heavy
State,
No. 1. native
choice.
steers.

142.9
110.8
99.0
107.2
90.2
94.0
102.0
92.2
76.9
84.7
123.8
111.1
115.1
144.7
155.9
123.1
142.0
153.0
134.8
156.0

125.5
97.1
91.4
97.7
121.6
111.8
72.9
78.1
99.8
104.0
145.7
145.8
135.0
94.1
99.6
107.6
99.1
106.1
108.0
140.6

111.6
134.5
112.2
103.3
113.2
94.8
65.7
71.2
95.9
97.6
106.2
129.8
139.4
121.2
116.9
107.0
112.8
169.0
161.8
148.7

103.8
151.0
118.3
104.2
113.7
104.0
67.8
66.9
82.6
87.6
100.2
130.6
156.9
121.1
132.6
131.7
121.8
138.8
179.9
175.5

115.6
144.1
113.2
105.2
115.7
88.3
67.0
67.9
91.9
91.2
84.5
118.3
147.3
131.7
135.8
111.2
122.1
167.4
189.5
178.9

103.0
157.6
127.7
92.6
88.1
91.2
66.5
74.9
93.8
104.4
97.9
100.8
102.5
97.5
133.4
134.5
115.5
145.4
148.0
148.0

118.9
128.1
104.9
90.1
74.4
79.9
85.4
105.8
117.8
94.7
93.7
95.7
98.7
105.1
138.3
134.5
105.6
120.8
131.8
159.7

110.6
143.0
115.3
99.1
101.0
91.6
70.5
77.3
96.4
95.1
96.5
115.0
129.0
115.3
131.4
123.8
115.6
148.3
163.0
164.6

95.8
117.8
113.5
107.4
99.9
109.1
99.0
80.9
79.9
96.6
110.9
123.0
120.9
119.2
112.5
107.9
124.3
162.4
118.3
129.0

99.6
101.5
92.8
79.9
68.4
109.7
86.6
106.3
122.8
131.8
127.4
132.0
142.8
124.8
124.4
152.6
164.7
155.3
142.6
175.8

148.0
149.1
141.4
128.2
85.5
53.1
49.5
65.5
91.5
88.3
83.7
97.1
134.1
159.5
196.2
150.9
92.0
98.1
67.1
113.4

123.8
126.9
126.0
135.4
145.7
148.4
164.9
164.4
168.0
179.1
190.5
197.1

135.6
139.7
149.6
146.6
144.2
143.7
143.7
126.2
124.0
123.1
150.9
159.9

141.2
142.7
147.6
145.3
159.5
176.3
158.8
142.5
140.6
138.5
142.7
151.1

155.4
165.5
173.6
181.7
196.8
195.5
186.4
178.6
177.6
159.5
164.7
168.5

184.3
193.2
200.0
203.6
219.0
213.4
185.3
147.7
149.1
145.8
146.1
161.9

144.6
145.3
151.5
157.9
162.6
165.8
152.7
133.8
135.6
138.9
140.7
146.8

143.2
152.8
159.6
176.5
185.4
185.2
168.7
144.0
142.5
149.2
151.2
158.3

155.6
161.8
168.4
175.7
187.2
190.0
173.0
151.6
151.3
149.4
152.1
160.3

112.1
112.7
112.7
122.8
131.8
134.2
130.0
138.1
127.0
128.8
134.7
162.4

169.5
169.5
157.4
149.4
169.5
178.8
180.1
181.4
180.1
192.1
192.1
189.4

70.6
73.4
79.1
79.1
76.2
76.2
90.3
104.5
107.3
192.0
214.6
197.6

191.3
189.4
193.8

178.8
187.7
192.7

160.3
157.1
152.9

171.0
169.6
164.2

174.7
176.3
166.4

151.7
153.1
149.6

158.4
159.7
158.1

166.1
166.0
161.1

167.8
168.4
163.5

189.4
176.1
152.1

192.0
192.0
186.3

19 09.
Ja n .. . .
F e b ....
M ar. . . .
A pr----M ay....
June...
July___
A u g ....
Sept—
O ct----N ov ___
Dec----19 10.
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r ....




549

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910,

T a b le III,—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Farm products.
Live stock.
Year or
month.

Cattle.
Steers, Steers,
choice, good to
to extra. choice.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

91.5

110.0

95.7
103.8
97.0
103.1
86.4
98.2

101.1
112.6

87.4
107.7
95.0

102.2

95.6
104.2
90.2

100.8

103.2
113.7
113.9
118.1
138.5
106.9
109.7

Sheep.

Hogs.

Aver­ Heavy. Light.
age.

91.5
115.2
135.0
158.0
137.3
116.8
119.9
141.3
137.8
131.4
171.6

96.2
80.5
84.2
85.0
92.1
115.7
133.9
152.4
137.0
116.5
120.4
143.1
140.6
127.5
166.5

142.2
139.2
129.5
169.1

a 120
.5
a 120.0
a 127.2
«103.2
<*71.7
<*78.5
<*78.0
a 93.1
<*104.4
0103.3
0109.7
a89.2
0IOO.6
o98.7
o 110.3
ol34.5
ol31.7
ol30.3
*112.3
* 123.2

89.5
109.2
95.4
103.0
96.3
103.7
88.3
99.5

116.8
148.4
112.7
97.0
76.1
81.4

102.2

Aver­ Wethers, Wethers, Aver­
good to plain to
age.
age.
fancy. choice.

89.6

100.2

86.2

88.8

98.2
114.6
148.7

89.2
99.2
115.7
148.6

111.6 112.2
96.6
78.3
82.8
85.6
91.8
115.5
134.5
155.2
137.2
116.7

115.2
123.0
128.1
138.0

126.7
136.3

113.2
111.3
116.6
139.5
105.8
110.9
111.3
114.2
122.9
127.4
137.1

129.2
126.4
130.7
127.1
132.6
130.6
130.3
137.8
146.0
153.4
156.8
153.0

128.2
126.1
133.8
129.1
139.1
137.4
133.3
137.0
142.6
145.5
142.3
139.1

128.7
126.2
132.3
128.1
135.9
134.1
131.8
137.4
144.3
149.4
149.5
146.0

141.9
147.7
153.9
165.3
167.1
179.5
181.7
176.8
187.5
180.6
184.4
194.1

136.4
144.5
149.4
159.8
160.9
170.5
176.7
177.7
184.5
173.5
177.6
186.8

139.2
146.2
151.7
162.7
164.1
175.0
179.3
177.4
186.1
177.1
181.1
190.5

c 124.1
C122.2
*133.8
*135.8
*147.0
* 127.5
* 115.3
* 112
.4
* 112
.4
*106.5
*111.0
*124.1

141.1
141.4
153.9

133.2
137.8
156.7

137.1
139.6
155.3

194.8
209.3
240.6

189.5
204.2
235.4

192.2
206.8
238.0

* 136.4
* 162.6
*190.0

108.7
115.1
140.4
104.7

112.0
112.2

110.2
113.1
122.8

120.2

6118.0
6115.6
6123.2
6104.3
675.4
678.3
679.4
695.3
6105.3
6105.2
6114.3
694.7
6105.7
698.0
6107.8
6128.5
6133.5
6123.5
*109.6
* 120.1

119.3
117.8
125.2
103.8
73.6
78.4
78.7
94.2
104.9
104.3

112.0

Aver­
age.

Aver­
age,
farm
prod­
ucts.

110.0

99.3
108.7

121.5
111.7
107.9
95.9
93.3
78.3
85.2
96.1

112.1

118.4
94.0
92.9
81.8
92.2
97.5
103.1
112.9
114.3
132.6
113.8

100.0

129.7
129.7
111.0 1122.3
121.7 d 139.1

112.2
121.0

109.5
116.9
130.5
118.8
126.2
124.2
123.6
137.1
*133.1
*153.1

c 121
.9
* 121.6
*133.5
C134.8
*148.2
d 26.3
c 110.0
C105.8
* 110.0
c 102.1
c99.9
* 119.8

123.0 <1128.0
122.0 4129.6
133.7 d 136.9
135.4 4138.8
147.7 4144.4
126.9 4141.7
112.7 4138.7
109.1 4138.3
111.3 4142.7
104.3 4139.7
105.5 4141.1
122.0 4147.4

*138.5
«141.7
*147.5
«149.7
«156.4
*155.7
*153.3
*149.6
*151.4
*158.4
*164.3
*169.2

c 133.0
*160.1
*188.6

134.7 4149.2
161.4 4160.7
189.4 4179.8

*169.4
*175.1
*181.0

92.0
103.2
98.4
109.1
131.5
132.6
126.9

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A p r ....
M a y ....
June___
July—
A u g .,..
Sept___
Oct.......
N o v ....
D e c ___
19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....

< Sheep, native.
*
6 Sheep, western.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
4 Including horses and mules. See explanation, page 416.
* Including horses; mules; poultry: live, fowls; and leaf tobacco. See explanation, page 416.




550

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Bread.
Year or
month.

Crackers.

Beans:
medium
choice.
Oyster.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Soda.

Loaf.

Average.

Home­
Average.
Washing­
Vienna
made
ton mar­ (NewYork (NewYork Average.
ket.
market). market).

121.5
134.9
112.0
119.2
110.6
107.2
70.3
62.6
74.7
87.0
125.6
131.3
115.0
135.5
120.4
128.8
113.8
106.4
138.9
146.7

<*104.0
ol04.0
a 102.2
<*96.6
<*96.6
<*97.2
<*96.6
<*88.0
0 108.9
0 105.9
o lH .4
o 118.9
oU 8.9
oU 2.6
o ll5 .2
ol32.5
ol33.7
ol33.7
6133.7
6134.5

111.4
111.4
106.3
104.5
101.0
94.0
91.6
82.5
105.6
92.3
94.0
97.5
97.5
90.0
91.6
95.1
90.5
90.5
90.5
91.1

107.7
107.7
104.3
100.6
98.8
95.6
94.1
85.3
107.3
99.1
102.7
108.2
108.2
101.3
103.4
113.8
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.8

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.1
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
102.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
106.5

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
90.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
110.4
118.6
118.6
118.6
126.2
126.2

101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
90.6
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
105.1
113.6
113.6
113.6
117.3
118.5

100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
98.7
94.5
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
106.0
110.9
110.9
110.9
114.5
117.1

103.6
103.6
102.2
100.7
100.0
97.5
94.4
94.6
103.4
100.2
101.6
103.8
103.8
101.0
105.0
112.1
111.4
111.4
113.6
115.4

136.2
137.0
140.7
147.5
153.5
163.2
165.4
160.2
145.2
137.7
138.5
135.5

6133.7
6133.7
6 133.7
6133.7
6133.7
6 133.7
6 133.7
6 133.7
6133.7
6133.7
6133.7
6144.0

90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
90.5
97.5

112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
112.1
120.7

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6
109.6

126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2
126.2

117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
121.3
121.3
121.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
117.9
119.2
119.2
119.2
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

113.6
113.6
113.6
113.6
115.6
116.4
116.4
116.4
115.6
115.6
115.6
119.1

136.2
142.2
140.0

6144.0
6144.0
6144.0

97.5
97.5
97.5

120.7
120.7
120.7

109.6
109.6
109.6

126.2
. 126.2
126.2

117.3
117.3
117.3

117.9
117.9
117.9

119.1
119.1
119.1

1909*
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
May—
June___
July----Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
Nov......
Dec.......
19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

a Crackers, butter.




&For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.

551

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T a b l e III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Fish.

Butter.
Year or
month. Cream­ Cream­
ery,
ery,
extra Dairy,
New
Elgin (New
York
(Elgin York
State.
mar­
mar­
ket).
ket).
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Eggs:
Cheese:
newNew
York Coffee: laid,
Bio
State, No. 7. fancy,
Aver­
near­
full
age. cream.
by.

Cod,
dry,
bank,
large.

Her­
ring.

Mack­
erel, Salmon,
Aver­
salt,
large canned. age.
No. 3s.

103.1
115.3
116.5
118.9
101.1
95.1
82.6
84.7
86.9
95.6
100.4
97.4
111.2
106.1
100.4
111.9
113.3
127.2
124.1
133.3

101.5
115.3
116.5
120.5
102.1
95.3
82.1
84.5
87.2
94.8
100.1
96.5
110.6
104.7
97.6
111.0
111.0
126.2
120.9
130.2

96.5
117.6
116.1
124.6
103.3
93.0
82.3
83.2
86.4
97.1
104.5
99.2
114.5
106.2
97.3
115.6
114.9
132.0
121.0
131.1

100.4
116.1
116.4
121.3
102.2
94.5
82.3
84.1
86.8
95.8
101.7
97.7
112.1
105.7
98.4
112.8
113.1
128.5
122.1
131.7

97.1
102.4
107.2
109.0
107.4
94.1
92.0
98.1
83.3
108.9
114.3
102.4
114.1
123.3
103.2
122.8
133.0
143.3
138.2
150.5

136.6
127.3
108.9
131.2
126.0
121.2
93.9
60.4
48.2
46.0
62.6
49.2
44.6
42.6
59.6
63.4
61.8
50.1
47.8
59.6,

99.1
110.0
110.4
114.5
93.5
102.0
88.7
87.5
92.6
101.6
100.7
106.7
122.7
123.2
135.0
138.2
133.2
141.2
142.0
160.3

101.7
120.5
126.3
114.2
106.7
98.9
75.4
80.9
83.6
92.0
94.9
107.2
91.2
105.0
130.4
132.4
136.2
138.6
130.7
125.7

93.3
124.6
77.8
101.0
89.9
83.6
88.8
96.3
111.4
133.2
134.6
131.9
129.9
151.7
144.4
158.9
168.0
162.9
160.1
159.8

129.2
108.4
92.0
92.0
78.2
110.6
98.5
86.5
96.7
107.9
98.3
76.6
97.3
123.5
102.6
98.5
104.7
98.5
80.4
72.1

111.4
101.8
100.7
101.4
96.7
102.1
105.2
90.8
86.0
103.8
120.2
116.3
109.6
110.0
117.1
115.7
114.3
113.2
130.4
115.4

108.9
113.8
99.2
102.2
92.9
98.8
92.0
88.6
94.4
109.2
112.0
108.0
107.0
122.6
123.6
126.4
130.8
128.3
124.9
116.8

144.0
137.1
135.5
126.7
116.1
118.7
119.8
124.9
138.2
139.4
143.8
159.0

141.3
133.8
130.7
120.4
119.0
115.0
117.2
122.1
134.4
136.6
139.2
156.7

113.6
112.4
107.2
119.8
130.3
125.2
125.7
130.9
144.8
148.9
152.4
164.0

133.0
127.8
124.5
122.4
122.0
119.8
121.0
126.1
139.3
141.8
145.3
160.1

143.8
146.3
156.0
159.6
130.5
132.2
137.4
147.4
154.5
159.0
167.2
171.6

53.8
58.6
62.4
62.4
63.3
61.9
56.7
57.2
55.7
55.7
63.3
65.2

183.4
182.1
118.2
115.9
124.5
128.4
143.3
147.7
161.7
182.8
225.2
215.2

129.8 163.9
125.3 152.6
125.3 163.9
125.3 152.6
125.3 152.6
125.3 146.9
125.3 146.9
125.3 158.2
125.3 al58.2
125.3 175.2
125.3 175.2
125.3 169.5

70.8
70.8
70.8
67.2
67.2
67.2
70.8
74.3
74.3
76.1
77.8
77.8

123.9
123.9
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7

120.1
116.9
116.6
113.0
113.0
111.9
113.3
116.9
116.9
120.9
121.6
120.5

155.8
135.9
145.2

149.4
131.0
144.5

160.0
139.0
153.9

155.2
135.5
148.1

174.2
174.8
174.8

66.2
66.2
67.1

223.5
170.0
130.9

125.3
125.3
125.3

169.6
169.6
169.6

81.4
84.9
88.5

113.7
113.7
113.7

121.8
123.3
124.7

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
May_
_
June...
July_
_
Aug___
S ept...
O c t ....
N ov___
D ec___

1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar—




a Nominal price.

552

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III. Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
—
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH,
1910— Continued.
fFor explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.1
Food, etc.
Flour.

Fruit.

Year or
month.
Wheat.
Buckwheat.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

104.0
125.7
92.1
121.9
125.4

86.2

71.1
75.4
79.8
118.4
108.3
108.4
115.1
119.5

Rye.

Spring
patents.

101.4
148.3

120.7
123.5

93.0
83.8
94.5
80.9
84.6
92.9
99.4
103.3

93.2
83.7
84.8
88.3
106.8

121.1

100.1

101.1

110.1
87.8
89.4
88.7

103.9
94.9
131.1
134.7
115.9
138.7
142.8
135.2

88.6
100.8

121.0
121.0
121.0

128.1
130.4
135.7
135.7
143.2
145.5
145.5
139.4
129.6
129.6
129.6
130.4

102.9
102.9
102.9

131.9
131.9
133.4

120.1
112.7
115.0
132.4
156.1
121.4

125.2
126.2
99.5
113.5
126.1
134.0

Winter
straights.

121.0
127.6
107.2
85.4
71.5
84.0
94.1
113.4
107.8

88.0
87.1
86.0

90.7
93.4
125.5
118.1
94.0
103.7

Average.
Average.

120.9
125.6
104.2
89.3
77.6
84.4
91.2

110.1

109.0
87.9
88.3
87.4
89.7
97.1
125.4

122.2

Apples,
evaporated,
choice.

111.8
131.3
105.4
98.4
91.1
87.4
83.6
95.1
97.7
98.4
97.0
95.8
99.6

102.2
125.5
122.9
106.1

«134.1
ol45.1
o81.7
o 104.0
ol25.7
o86.7
06I.8
o 58.7
o91.2
ollO. 5
o79.3
o81.7
ol03.6
o 78.0

068.0

a 75.1
o 109.4
olU .7
101.9
90.8

141.8

111.6

96.8
108.6
118.8
138.6

126.5
130.2
131.2
139.2
145.9
149.9
140.9
138.2
120.9
127.3
126.1
128.9

118.7
127.0
140.3
151.7
161.4
171.1
158.0
134.2
126.5
136.2
135.6
137.0

128.9
136.5
146.3
154.6
161.7
150.5
136.5
124.3
132.5
131.6
133.7

126.3
130.5
133.6
139.1
145.6
150.1
143.8
134.5
125.2
130.3
129.8
131.1

85.6
83.4
82.6
81.2
81.2
81.2
87.1
91.5
93.0
107.0

132.1
131.3
130.2

140.1
140.3
139.1

136.8
136.5
135.4

129.2
129.1
128.9

94.5
96.0
96.0

122.1
134.2
136.1

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A p r ....
May—
June___
July—
Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec___

124.8
126.1
114.5
b 114.5
6114.5
b 114.5
b 114.5
b 114.5
b 114.5

122.8

112.2
103.3

1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....

a Average for apples, evaporated, choice; and apples, sun-dried. See explanation, page 403.
6Nominal price.




55a

W HOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARC H ,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Food, etc.
Meal: corn.

Fruit.

Year or
month.

Raisins,
Currants, Prunes, California, Average.
in barrels. California, London
in boxes.
layer.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

127.5
113.6
79.2
72.0
46.1
67.7
87.2
127.7
154.7
125.3
192.0
221.6
131.7
126.9
130.1
130.7
163.7
187.5
162.4
160.8

138.0
129.2
128.6
134.2
95.0
86.0
75.1
70.5
70.3
73.0
67.4
67.8
71.2
62.1
59.6
59.3
83.5
76.6
77.3
68.6

157.3
120.1
97.9
113.3
76.9
95.2
67.9
93.2
92.7
85.5
101.3
96.1
112.3
96.3
98.2
79.1
106.6
108.4
120.6
84.6

*138.2
*130.6
*93.8
*105.5
*93.9
*84.5
*70.7
*81.7
*100.0
*101.0
*103.9
*109.8
*104.5
*88.3
*96.0
*83.8
*117.9
*119.2
119.5
103.7

160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
160.0
163.5
163.5
163.5

79.2
76.0
69.5
69.5
65.4
65.4
65.4
65.4
65.4
66.3
66.3
69.5

103.3
103.3
83.3
83.3
83.3
78.3
78.3
78.3
78.3
81.6
81.6
82.5

158.4
160.0
160.0

69.5
69.5
67.8

82.5
80.0
80.0

Glu­
cose^*)

Lard:
prime
contract.

Fine
white.

Fine
yellow.

Average.

124.3
111.4
109.2
81.7
86.0
91.8
95.6
104.9
116.0
153.6
129.7
126.3
125.1
142.9
159.4
186.2
174.4

96.8
100.9
117.9
157.5
118.2
99.8
71.7
67.4
84.4
85.0
105.5
135.3
161.9
134.1
111.8
113.9
135.6
140.7
138.8
178.7

101.2
140.6
113.7
105.0
106.7
102.2
77.5
77.8
84.1
91.1
96.5
114.2
146.4
123.7
127.8
126.4
120.8
129.5
154.0
155.0

100.3
143.4
114.2
106.5
104.5
104.4
77.2
75.1
83.2
91.2
97.4
116.8
150.0
125.7
131.1
130.3
124.2
133.5
158.8
158.4

100.8
142.0
114.0
105.8
105.6
103.3
77.4
76.5
83.7
91.2
97.0
115.5
148.2
124.7
129.5
128.4
122.5
131.5
156.4
156.7

110.7
108.8
101.2
100.8
99.2
97.9
99.7
100.9
101.4
107.3
108.8
107.7

163.6
160.1
167.1
174.2
181.2
181.2
181.2
171.3
227.8
164.3
171.3
149.5

150.2
150.2
160.1
163.0
166.8
181.2
183.9
184.4
194.3
194.8
206.1
205.7

140.7
145.4
150.2
150.2
155.0
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7
159.7

145.0
137.7
154.9
154.9
154.9
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7
164.7

142.9
141.7
152.6
152.6
155.0
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2
162.2

104.0
104.0
103.3

149.5
153.0
153.0

194.3
196.2
219.3

159.7
164.5
164.5

164.7
169.6
169.6

162.3
167.1
167.1

19 09.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
May___
June___
July—
Aug—
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.




* Including apples, sun dried. See explanation, page 403.

554

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I I . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,

AN D M ON THLY R E L A T IV E PRIC ES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH,
19i0— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Food, etc.
Meat.
Beef.

Year or
month.
Fresh,
native
sides
(New
York
mar­
ket).
89.2
1890....
1891.... 106.2
1892....
98.8
1893.... 105.4
1894....
97.0
1895.... 102.7
90.5
1896....
1897....
99.7
1898.... 101.3
1899.... 108.3
1900.... 104.3
1901.... 102.1
1902.... 125.9
1903.... 101.7
1904.... 106.1
1905.... 104.0
1906.... 101.2
1907___
114.7
1908.... 0129.5
1909.... ol23.1

Salt,
extra
mess.

Pork.

Salt,
hams,
west*
era.

86.8

104.4
84.4

102.2
101.0

101.4
93.7
95.7
114.2
115.9
121.7
116.3
147.1
113.1
109.4
125.0
110.3
122.5
164.5
137.5

80.4
85.8
80.5
98.6
101.5
95.9

Aver­
age.

119.2
144.0
153.2
138.8

127.1
a 148.2
a 140.7

89.3
103.6
116.6
155.3
111.3
96.3
73.2
80.1
88.3
86.4
111.4
132.0
159.0
142.1
114.8
118.5
139.6
141.3
133.5
173.8

88.1

125.1
118.8
125.6
114.2

112.6

118.0
117.2
123.5

121.6

85.5
98.8

Bacon, Bacon,
short short rib Hams, Salt,
clear
sides. smoked. mess.
sides.

88.0
102.1
99.8
100.0

90.8
106.8
111.4
116.6
113.4
110.3
130.3
110.7
113.0
116.9

110.2

89.3
103.8
116.5
154.0

101.1

132.5
159.5
143.0
115.4
119.4
140.2
140.1
132.6
172.9

99.8
109.3
126.9
103.6
96.2
95.8
90.9
82.0
93.8
104.2
109.2
123.1
129.2
108.9
106.3
125.5
132.4
114.3
133.1

112.2
96.3
73.0
79.6
90.5
85.1

111.6

104.4
97.2
99.1
157.6
121.4
101.7
76.8
76.6
84.8
80.3
107.5
134.2
154.2
143.1

Aver­
age.

96.0

Mutton,
dressed.

101.1

123.7
114.9

Aver­
age.

95.5

102.0

121.2

112.1

123.9
150.5
151.0
137.3
183.5

97.6
79.7
81.8
86.4
86.4
108.7
127.0
149.0
139.4
114.9
117.0
139.0
141.2
129.3
165.1

106.5
80.2
82.2
82.9
96.6
98.0
94.3
96.4
89.5
97.9
98.7
103.2
113.9
120.7
11G.0
114.5
119.2

103.4
125.8
103.5
96.6
84.3
93.0
97.2
98.7
108.9
116.1
135.6
123.5
112.7
116.6
125.9
132.8
ol37.4
ol51.8

o 136.0
ol34.7
ol39.1
ol42.8
ol50.5
o 154.0
ol55.5
ol54.8
ol60.4
o 162.0
ol63.8
ol67.3

120.6

110.4
148.5

1909.
o ll9 .2
o 116.0
o ll6 .7
ol22.4
ol26.5
ol26.5
ol23.6
o l 22.6
ol24.5
ol27.4
al26.5
ol26.5

144.7
134.1
133.3
131.0
131.0
138.0
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
134.7

145.8
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2
138.2

ol42.3
ol36.3
ol35.4
ol37.5
ol38.7
ol41.5
ol39.8
ol39.5
ol43.6
ol45.3
ol45.1
ol43.8

142.7
141.2
150.2
155.1
167.7
177.0
184.9
184.6
192.1
188.9
193.2
206.1

141.6
139.6
148.8
154.4
164.9
176.2
183.4
184.5
193.4
189.2
191.9
204.4

108.2
114.3
115.7
118.2
128.0
136.7
139.7
140.2
144.8
150.4
149.3
149.3

146.1
149.4
159.0
160.1
163.1
179.7
186.7
190.0
206.3
218.1
222.4
216.5

134.1
135.7
142.8
146.3
155.4
166.8
172.9
174.0
183.2
185.7
188.1
192.9

105.3
108.6
118.7
127.7
149.2
127.3
121.9
113.4

Jan....... ol24.5
F e b .... o l 22.8
M a r .... ol38.5

145.3
151.2
183.6

138.2
138.2
138.2

ol43.9
ol43.4
ol57.1

198.7
200.4
220.7

196.0
199.1
218.8

150.0
155.7
176.8

205.0
207.1
232.3

186.6
190.0
211.7

131.8
144.3
175.7

Ian___
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
M a y ....
June___
July—
Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec___

110.2
107.8
114.1
126.8

1910.
ol63.9

0I66.8
ol86.7

o Including beef: fresh, carcass, good native steers (Chicago market). See explanation, page 416.




555

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO MARCH, 1910.

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Food, etc.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Molasses:
New Or­
Milk: fresh. leans, open
kettle.
103.1
104.7
105.1
109.4
103.1
99.2
91.8
92.2
93.7
99.2
107.5
102.7
112.9
112.9
107.8
113.3
118.0
131.4
129.0
132.5

112.4
88.5
101.2
106.2
98.1
97.8
103.0
83.1
97.8
111.9
151.5
120.1
115.5
112.5
107.8
102.5
107.9
129.7
112.7

Rice:
domestic,
choice.

Salt: Ameri­ Soda: bicar­
bonate of,
can.
American.

Spices:
pepper,
Singapore.

Starch: pure
com.

107.8
113.5
101.4
81.8
93.8
95.0
92.5
96.6
108.4
108.2
97.7
97.7
99.6
100.9
78.6
74.3
84.5
95.2
111.2
110.3

oU2.2
0109.9
ol07.7
0102.6
0101.9
o96.3
o90.7
o93.5
o93.7
o91.7
oll7.6
0110.3
0 95.7
o94.6
109.4
107.2
101.4
112.6
111.5
116.1

131.6
151.7
104.3
136.4
128.2
84.7
72.7
71.8
67.7
56.0
58.9
51.2
51.7
61.7
62.2
62.2
62.2
62.2
52.6
47.8

6150.0
6128.7
6107.6
692.8
680.7
679.1
6 75.0
683.2
695.9
6107.8
6116.3
6113.4
6107.3
6119.4
6107.2
6101.2
696.0
682.5
95.5
94.9

9.6
109.5
109.5
109.5
103.5
101.1
93.6
91.2
91.2
91.2
91.2
85.8
80.3
92.5
95.8
100.7
105.3
109.5
104.9
109.5

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

109.3
109.3
109.3
111.4
113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
110.3
107.0
110.3
101.4

120.7
120.7
120.7
102.2
102.2
104.0
110.2
118.2
123.5
123.5
123.5
123.5

47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8
47.8

90.9
90.1
87.6
101.9
93.5
90.1
88.5
88.5
88.5
102.7
108.5
108.5

109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5
109.5

117.4
117.4
117.4

101.4
101.4
99.1

123.5
123.5
123.5

47.8
47.8
47.8

108.5
108.5
104.3

109.5
109.5
109.5

111.1

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
May—
June___
J u ly ....
Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

153.3
142.4
137.3
122.7
104.7
88.2
107.8
122.7
137.3
147.1
158.8
166.7

111.1
111.1

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.1

111.1

1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....

161.6
156.9
147.1

a Average for salt, American; and salt, Ashton's. See explanation, page 403.
6 Average for nutmegs, and pepper, Singapore. See explanation, page 403.




556

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I I . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Food, etc.
Sugar.

Year or
month.

Vegetables, fresh.

89® fair 96®cen­ Granu­ Aver­
refin­
trifu­ lated.
age.
ing.
gal.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Tal­
low.

Tea:
For­
mosa,
fine.

Pota­
Onions. toes,
white.

Aver­
age.

Vineelder,
Mon­
arch.

AvertZ

i,

etc.

143.9
101.8
84.5
94.3
81.2
85.2
93.9
90.6
109.2
115.4
119.2
103.6
89.3
95.0
102.1
108.8
93.7
95.7
104.9
103.0

141.1
101.1
85.7
95.1
83.5
84.1
93.7
92.1
109.5
114.3
118.2
104.4
91.5
96.1
102.7
110.6
95.3
97.0
105.0
103.4

130.5
99.7
92.1
102.3
87.0
87.9
95.9
95.1
105.2
104.2
112.8
106.8
94.2
98.2
101.0
111.2
95.5
98.4
104.5
100.7

138.5
100.9
87.4
97.2
83.9
85.7
94.5
92.6
108.0
111.3
116.7
104.9
91.7
96.4
101.9
110.2
94.8
97.0
104.8
102.3

105.7
111.0
106.4
125.1
110.3
99.8
78.9
76.3
81.8
104.1
111.5
119.1
144.6
117.2
105.5
103.2
119.3
142.8
126.7
136.6

96.3
99.2
106.0
101.7
98.0
95.1
91.0
98.6
104.2
109.8
104.9
100.4
106.2
80.9
97.1
94.2
82.8
81.0
75.1
82.0

127.8
121.3
106.0
93.8
95.6
91.6
57.3
115.5
96.2
94.8
71.4
103.0
107.2
104.9
104.6
95.3
96.8
103.0
104.0
90.9

119.3
154.9
91.1
134.5
122.8
86.7
39.4
65.7
102.1
83.6
74.9
113.0
119.4
105.2
146.3
80.7
109.7
98.4
142.6
137.4

123.6
138.1
98.6
114.2
109.2
89.2
48.4
90.6
99.2
89.2
73.2
108.0
113.3
105.1
125.5
88.0
103.3
100.7
*124.8
*146.9

105.4
121.8
111.1
101.5
101.5
98.1
88.0
88.0
89.6
94.7
91.3
89.6
95.3
88.0
89.6
98.6
115.0
116.7
124.6
121.8

o ll2 .4
oll5 .7
ol03.6
o 110.2
o99.8
o94.6
o83.8
o87.7
o94.4
o98.3
0104.2
0105.9
o lH .3
o 107.1
6107.2
6108.7
6112.6
6117.8
*120.6
*124.7

94.3
92.7
98.4
100.9
100.4
100.0
101.2
105.6
109.2
111.1
114.3
108.0

95.8
94.3
99.4
101.5
101.1
100.7
101.8
105.7
108.8
110.5
113.3
107.8

95.0
93.9
97.3
102.0
101.3
99.7
99.6
102.1
103.7
103.4
105.5
104.1

95.0
93.6
98.4
101.5
101.0
100.1
100.9
104.4
107.2
108.3
111.0
106.6

135.9
138.6
136.3
132.2
129.4
129.0
127.8
127.8
131.5
145.7
154.7
149.4

84.5
65.2
65.2
82.8
88.1
88.1
88.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5

103.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
*125.0
*125.0
*125.0
36.8
58.8
62.5
*62.5
*62.5

140.9
164.8
172.1
201.1
213.8
167.8
132.8
101.9
109.7
91.6
68.4
76.6

C172.2
*199.8
C2U.3
*219.8
*223.5
C210.1
*199.9
*155.6
*166.7
*88.1
*76.3
*89.9

121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8
121.8

*122.6
*122.9
*123.8
*125.1
*126.5
*126.5
*126.7
*125.1
*128.0
*125.4
*127.4
*129.0

105.2
109.2
113.8

105.7
108.8
112.8

103.1
104.2
109.2

104.6
107.4
111.9

155.9
157.2
162.8

84.5
84.5
84.5

*62.5
*62.5
*62.5

92.0
75.1
64.4

c 118.4
clll.O
*102.7

121.8
121.8
108.3

*129.1
*128.2
*130.9

1909.
Jan.......
Feb___
Mar___
A pr___
May___
June___
July—
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
Feb......
Mar......

« Including apples, sun-dried; salt, Ashton’s; and nutmegs. See explanation, page 403.
6 Including apples, sun-dried; and nutmegs. See explanation, page 403.
* Including cabbage. See explanation, page 416.
* Including canned corn; canned peas; canned tomatoes; beef: fresh, carcass, good native steers (Chicago
market); poultry: dressed, fowls; and cabbage. See explanation, page 416.
« Nominal price.




557

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910.

III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clotfling.
B o o ts a n d shoes.

B lank ets.
Y e a r or
m o n th .

1 8 9 0 .. ..
1 8 9 1 .. ..
1 8 9 2 ....
1 8 9 3 .. ..
1 8 9 4 ....
1 8 9 5 .. ..
1 8 9 6 ....
1 8 9 7 ....
1 8 9 8 ....
1 8 9 9 ....
1 9 0 0 ....
1 9 0 1 ....
1 9 0 2 .. ..
1 9 0 3 .. ..
1 9 0 4 .. ..
1 9 0 5 .. ..
1 9 0 6 .. ..
1 9 0 7 .. ..
1 9 0 8 ....
1 9 0 9 .. ..

A vera ge.

M en 's
brogans,
split.

M en 's vic i
ca lf shoes,
B lu ch er
bal.

M en 's
v ic i k id
shoes,
G ood­
year
w elt.

a 108.5
a 108.5
a 101.4
o 9 9 .1
o 9 6 .7
a 9 4 .3
a 9 4 .3
a 9 9 .1
o 9 9 .1
o 9 9 .1
a l2 3 .8
o 112.0
o 112.0
o ll7 .9
o l2 3 .8
o l 4 1 .5
a l4 1 .5
a l 4 1 .5
e 136.1
e 135.0

6107.6
6106.8
6104.3
6103.5
6 95.9
6 9 0 .6
6 91.7
6 98.1
6102.7
6 98.8
6117.7
6106.4
6106.4
6114.1
6117.4
6129.0
6131.3
6130.3
124.6
127.4

106.1
106.1
104.9
102.3
97.9
99.2
100.4
96.0
92.2
94.8
94.8
95.4
94.1
93.5
93.5
101.5
126.8
128.7
114.8
121.3

c 101.0
c 101.0
c 101.0
c 101.0
c 101.0
c 101.0
e 101.0
c 101.0
C97.6
<>94.3
C94.3
c 9 6 .8
c9 6 .8
c 9 8 .9
c 9 8 .9
c 100.0
«1 0 8 .0
«1 0 9 .0
«1 0 9.0
«1 1 4 .8

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
97.8
97.8
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.0
87.3
95.5
103.4
108.7
108.7
113.0

104.0
97.9
94.8
91.7
91.7
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
110.6
104.5
105.5
108.6
112.3
119.5
126.2
123.1
118.5
127.2

d 104.8
<1103.5
d 102.7
d 100.9
<*99.4
<*98.7
<*99.6
<*97.2
<*96.3
<*96.8
<*99.4
<*99.2
<*98.9
<*100.2
<*101.1
<*107.4
<*121.8
<*125.9
121.3
128.1

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

«1 3 5 .0
«1 3 5 .0
«1 3 5.0
e 135.0
«1 3 5.0
«1 3 5 .0
e 135.0
«1 3 5 .0
«1 3 5 .0
«1 3 5.0
«1 3 5 .0
e 135.0

127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4

121.3
116.2
113.7
113.7
116.2
121.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
126.3
123.8
123.8

«
«
«1 1 4 .8
« 114.8
«1 1 4 .8
«1 1 4 .8
«1 1 4 .8
« 114.8
«1 1 4.8
«1 1 4.8
«1 1 8.7
« 118.7

113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0
113.0

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4
128.4

126.5
125.2
125.6
125.6
126.3
128.4
129.7
129.7
129.7
129.7
130.2
130.2

131.0
131.0
131.0

«1 4 8 .5
«1 4 8 .5
«1 4 8.5

140.1
140.1
140.1

121.3
118.8
118.8

«1 1 8.7
«1 1 8 .7
«1 1 8.7

113.0
113.0
113.0

128.4
128.4
128.4

129.5
128.8
128.8

2-bushel,
A ll w o o l,
A m os5 poun ds
keag.
t o th e
pair.

C o tto n ,
2 poun ds
t o th e
pair.

113.9
.111.7
110.8
106.8
91.1
82.2
91.6
92.9
95.6
103.4
112.6
101.0
102.4
104.2
128.4
109.6
129.1
138.5
134.3
134.6

108.3
106.0
107.1
107.1
101.2
89.3
89.3
89.3
107.1
95.2
107.1
101.2
101.2
110.1
110.1
119.0
122.0
119.0
113.1
119.0

132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
132.2
139.4
139.4
135.8
135.8
139.4

139.4
143.0
143.0

W o m e n 's
solid
A ve ra g e .
grain
shoes.

1909.
J an .........
F e b ....
M a r____
A p r ____
M ay—
J u n e___
J u ly ___
A u g -----S e p t___
O c t ........
N o v ___
D e c ........

11
1 .0
11
1 .0

1910.
Jan.........
F e b ....
M a r____

a Blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, cotton waip, cotton and wool filling.
&
Including blankets: 11-4, cotton waip, all wool filling. See explanation, page 403.
c Men’s calf bal. hoes, Goodyear welt, aongola top.
d Including men's split boots, russet-bound top. See explanation, page 403.
« For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.




558

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 4X6 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.

Year or
month.

Broad­
cloths:
first
54-inch,
XXX
wool.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894___
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901___
1902___
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Carpets.
Calico:
American
standard
prints,
64 by 64.

Brussels,
5-frame,
Bigelow.

Ingrain,

&

113.7
113.7
113.7
113.7
91.2
79.7
79.7
98.2
98.2
98.2
108.0
110.3
110.3
110.3
110.5
115.2
116.6
116.6
115.6
116.6

o ll7 .5
o 104.0
o ll7 .5
o 113.0
099.5
o94.9
094.9
090.4
081.4
087.3
o94.9
o90.4
o90.4
091.1
095.7
093.5
099.5
6121.0
6104.3
697.1

103.1
112.7
103.1
98.3
93.5
93.5
93.5
95.9
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.5
108.7
110.3
115.1
117.9
124.7
119.9
119.1

114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9
118.9

695.5
6100.3
6100.3
6100.3
6100.3
690.6
690.6
695.5
695.5
695.5
695.5
6105.1

117.5
117.5
117.5
117.5
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9
119.9

11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1

118.9
118.9
118.9

6114.6

6105.1
6105.1

119.9
119.9
119.9

11
1 .1
11
1 .1
11
1 .1

108.6
116.2
106.1

11
1 .1

98.5
88.4
85.9
90.9
98.5
96.0
103.5

10 .0
1

101.9
108.1
109.1
116.2
116.2

11
2 .2
116.6
11
1 .1

Cotton flannels.

Wilton,
5-frame, Average.
Bigelow.

104.2
109.4
104.2
104.2
104.2
91.1
91.1
93.8
99.0
99.0

10
1.6
11
0 .6
10 .2
2

108.9
110.7
115.9
118.9
123.7

105.3

12
1 .8

104.5
104.5
98.7
91.0
90.2
93.5

10
0 .2

99.4
102.7
101.9
102.5
108.6

110.0

2 yards
f

3* yards
to the
pound.

123.9
123.9
118.7
102.7
95.6
92.1
92.1
81.4
81.4
87.7
104.5
90.7
92.1
104.1
125.4

119.7
119.7
113.0

to the
pound.

1 1.0
2

10 .0
0
95.7
91.3
95.7
95.7
80.5
88.3
98.6

10
0 .0
10
0 .0

Average.

12 .8
1
12
1.8

115.9
101.4
95.7
91.7
93.9

88.6
81.0
88.0
101.6

109.4
125.7
118.4
125.7
139.1

12
1.0
10
1 .1

95.4
96.1
106.8
125.6
119.7
128.2
139.5
119.2
108.4

115.7
117.7
123.2
118.9
116.8

130.7
139.9
117.4
106.8

118.5
118.5
118.5
118.5

11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3

106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
106.2
109.8
109.8

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
117.4
117.4

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
113.5
113.5

12
1.1
11
2 .1
11
2 .1

117.3
117.3
117.3

127.5
127.5
127.5

130.4
130.4
130.4

128.9
128.9
128.9

12 .2
0
12 .2
0

1909.
Jan.......
F eb___
Mar___
A p r ... .
M a y ....
June___
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

a Calico: Cocheco prints.
6 For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.




559

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH, 1910.

T a b l e I I I . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,

AN D M ON THLY R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM JA N U A R Y, 1909, TO MARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899*. 100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Drillings.

Cotton yarns.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907___
1908....
1909....

Cotton
thread:
6
-cord,
20
0 -yard
spools,
J. & P .
Coats.

10
1.6

Denims:
Carded,
Carded,
Amoswhite,
white,
keag.
mulemuleAverage.
spun,
spun,
northern, northern,
cones, 10/1. cones, 22/1.
111.3

11 .6
1

12
1 .1

134.8
131.7
126.4

117.2
112.4
94.7
91.9
92.2
90.3
90.5
87.6
115.0
98.6
95.6
116.2
123.2
107.8
124.6
137.1
110.5
122.3

114.0
116.8
108.6
91.2
92.2
93.7
90.8
91.0
89.4
115.9
97.9
92.4
109.5
115.7
103.5
117.0
130.6
106.9
114.8

126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4
126.4

108.8
108.8
108.8
108.8
111.9
121.3
124.4
127.5
127.5
133.7
143.0
143.0

104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
106.7
109.2
114.3
119.3
121.9
128.2
134.6
127.0

126.4
126.4
126.4

146.1
143.0
136.8

132.0
129.5
127.0

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
98.4

10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1
10
2 .1

111.7

1 2.8
1

117.0
110.5
93.0
92.1
93.0
90.6
90.8
88.5
115.5
98.3
94.0
112.9
119.5
105.7

112.5
109.6
109.6
112.5
105.4
94.6
94.6
89.2
85.9
85.8

Brown,
Pepperell.

119.4
114.0
101.7
103.1
97.7
92.5

100.2

Flannels:
white,
4-4, Bal­
lard
30-inch,
Vale
Stark A. Average. No. 3.

122.8
115.2
102.7
108.1
96.4
93.9

100.2
90.4
86.8

12
0 .1

10
2.2
12
0 .0

10
0.8

109.9
126.7
123.8
138.8
147.2
130.6
139.7

105.8
114.3
117.6
118.4
122.4
123.1
122.4
121.9

133.0
133.0
133.0
133.0
137.8
137.8
139.8.
139.8
142.1
146.7
149.0
151.3

120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
120.9
123.0
123.0
123.0
123.0
124.4

151.4
151.4
151.4

124.4
124.4
124.4

119.9

103.5
111.5
126.3
121.5
142.0
150.1
137.8
150.9

106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
109.4
115.3
119.4
123.5
124.8
131.1
138.9
135.1

112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
112.5
124.5
124.5
129.3
134.1
138.9

122.4
122.4
122.4
122.4
126.7
126.7
126.7
126.7
131.1
135.5
139.9
144.2

144.0
144.0
144.0
144.0
149.3
149.3
153.6
153.6
* 153.6
158.3
158.3
158.3

139.1
136.2
131.9

143.7
143.7
143.7

144.2
144.2
144.2

158.3
158.3
158.3

120.8
133.9
108.8
118.6

108.0
116.6
103.7
118.1
132.3

11
1 .1

105.6
97.1
93.2

116.8
116.8
115.9
109.5
94.1
81.7
85.4
82.6
97.8
99.5
108.7

10
0.2

91.8
89.7
89.2
105.9
102.3
100.5
108.2
127.1
126.0
135.5
144.2
123.4
129.0

102.8
10
0.2
10
0.6

11
2 .1
114.6
1 2.2
0

88.9
83.9
87.7
104.0

88.5
105.0

19 09.
Jan.......
Feb___
Mar___
A pr___
May—
June___
July___
Aug___
S ep t....
Oct.......
Nov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....




560

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH,
1910— Continued.
[Fo* explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Ginghams.
Year or
month.
Amoskeag.

1890. . . .
1891. . . .
1892___
1893. . . .
1894. . . .
1895. . . .
1896. . . .
1897. . . .
1898. . . .
1899. . . .
1900. . . .
1901. . . .
1902. . . .
1903. . . .
1904. . . .
1905. . . .
1906. . . .
1907. . . .
1908. . . .
1909. . . .

117.3

122.0
122.0
118.4
91.0
87.4

88.6

82.2
80.9
89.5
96.6
91.9
98.1
103.2

102.8
96.6
106.0
123.5

102.8

Lan­
caster.

120.8
12
2 .2
12
2.2
111.3
88.0
86.6
87.3
86.2
85.2
89.9
96.0
92.7
100.3
100.3
97.0
90.2
103.3
120.4

100.0

Average.

119.1

12
2 .1
12
2 .1
114.9
89.5
87.0

88.0

84.2
83.1
89.7
96.3
92.3
99.2

101.8
99.9
93.4
104.7

122.0

101.5
107.2

Hosiery.
Horse
blankets:
Women’s
all wool, Men’s cotton
Women’s
6pounds half hose, cotton hose, cotton hose,
combed
each.
seamless,
seamless,
fast black. peeler yarn.(«) fast black.
109.1
104.7
109.1
104.7
96.0
92.5
90.8
99.5
99.5
94.2
118.7
109.9
109.9
117.8

133.3
123.1

112.8
110.3
102.6

131.6

11
2 .1

100.0

115.8
113.2
105.3
92.1
84.2
81.6
76.3
78.9
81.6
71.1
78.9

101.4
97.3
94.6
102.7
109.5
95.9
95.9

81.6
84.2
81.6
89.5
84.2
85.3

io 2.7
102.7
101.4
101.4

Average.

&129.7
5122.8
5117.4
5109.4
5100.8
5 94 .4
690 .5
6 86 .7
6 83 .4
6 82.5
687 .3
6 85.9
6 85 .2
690.1
6 89.2
687.5
6 89.7
697.4
89.5
92.3

130.9
135.3
130.9
126.5
126.5

94.9
87.2
82.1
76.9
76.9
82.1
71.8
76.9
82.1
82.1
82.1
85.3
94.8
88.9
96.1

94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8

95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9
95.9

86.8
86.8
86.8
86.8
86.8

91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
93.4
93.4
93.4
93.4
93.4

97.8
97.8
97.8

95.9
95.9
95.9

86.8
86.8
86.8

93.4
93.4
93.4

12
2.2

110.3

104.0

103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
117.3
117.3
117.3
117.3
131.3

96.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
104.7
104.7
104.7
117.8
117.8

117.7
124.6

126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5
126.5

131.3
131.3
131.3

117.8
117.8
117.8

124.5
124.5
124.5

135.3
135.3
135.3

100.0

97.3
94.6
102.7
108.1

86.8

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
June...
Ju ly....
A u g ....
S ep t...
O c t ....
Nov___
Dec___

99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9

1 1.0
1
111.0
111.0

84.2
84.2
84.2
84.2
84.2
84.2
84.2

1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

a Average for 1893-1899=100.0.
&Including men’s cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles. See explanation, page 403.




561

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

T able I I I .— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1690-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Leather.

Year or
Harness,
oak.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Sole,
hem­
lock.

Sole,
oak.

Chrome
calf.

Aver­
age.

Overcoatings.
Linen
shoe
thread:
Covert
10s, Bar­ cloth, 14 Kersey, Aver­
27 to 28
bour.
ounce. ounce.(o) age.

99.3
99.6
91.4
92.7
87.8
111.5
98.6
93.9
109.1
116.0
116.8
114.7
114.7
114.3
110.0
115.0
128.1
129.0
121.1
131.5

99.1
95.8
89.1
92.6
88.4
106.9
97.0
104.8
109.8
116.2
128.4
127.6
122.1
116.9
116.5
118.1
130.9
136.4
129.3
131.5

112.1
109.4
101.7
103.6
97.5
101.7
87.0
91.6
95.5
99.9
107.3
104.8
113.0
111.3
102.6
108.9
112.9
113.6
113.0
122.7

&91.7
698.8
6105.9
698.5
692.3
6112.0
698.3
694.1
6103.3
6105.0
6100.3
696.0
6100.9
6105.4
6105.0
6106.5
6109.5
6117.1
9 113.6
?120.4

100.6
100.9
97.0
96.9
91.5
108.0
95.2
96.1
104.4
109.3
113.2
110.8
112.7
112.0
108.5
112.1
120.4
124.0
119.4
126.8

d03.3
c97.6
c98.0
clOO.2
C102.5
c98.6
c98.6
c99.6
<101.0
c 101.0
<103.1
<103.3
<103.3
<97.5
<100.5
<100.5
<102.9
<104.7
102.1
102.1

<*105.7
<*105.7
<*105.7
<*105.7
<*104.2
<*99.9
<*87.4
<*83.6
<*97.2
<*104.9
<*101.4
<*97.2
<*97.2
<*94.0
<*94.0
<*96.9
<*96.9
<*96.9
<*96.9
096.9

127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
131.2
131.2
134.6
134.6
134.6
136.4
136.4

131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5
131.5

117.5
121.9
121.9
121.9
118.9
123.4
123.4
123.4
123.4
123.4
126.4
126.4

fill. 9
9 117.1
9 119.7
9 117.1
9 117.1
9 119.7
9 119.7
0122.3
0122.3
0122.3
0127.5
0127.5

122.3
124.8
125.5
124.8
124.0
126.7
126.7
128.3
128.3
128.3
130.9
130.9

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1

136.4
136.4
136.4

131.5
131.5
131.5

126.4
126.4
129.3

0127.5
0127.5
0117.1

130.8
130.8
128.9

102.1
102.1
102.1

Print
cloths:
64 by 64.

94.9
104.2
100.9
126.3
120.3
120.3
126.3
132.3
146.8
163.7
158.0
148.3
143.3

*111.2
<110.9
<111.2
<109.0
<97.4
<91.2
<87.3
<89.0
<97.4
<99.2
<112.9
<102.4
<102.7
<106.7
<106.9
<113.4
/120.0
/118.7
*111.7
109.8

117.7
103.5
119.3
114.6
96.8
100.9
90.9
87.6
72.6
96.3
108.6
99.3
108.9
113.3
117.3
110.0
127.7
167.4
118.0
126.5

096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9
096.9

140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
140.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
144.3
152.3

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
113.2

121.1
121.1
118.9
116.7
119.4
120.6
124.6
127.7
128.8
137.4
140.9
140.9

096.9
096.9
0 96.9

154.3
154.3
154.3

114.0
114.0
114.0

147.6
149.8
145.3

19 09.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr—
M ay....
J u n e...
July....
A u g ....
S ep t.. .
O c t ....
Nov___
Dec___
1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

a Average for 1897-1899=100.0.
&Wax calf, 30 to 40 pounds to the dozen, B grade.
c Average for linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour; and linen thread: 3-card, 200-yard spools, Barbour. See
explanation, page 403.
a Covert cloth, light weight, staple goods.
« Including beaver, Moscow, all wool, black; chinchilla, B-rough, all wool; and chinchilla, cotton warp,
C. C. grade. See explanation, page 403.
f Including chinchilla, B-rough; and chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade. See explanation, page 403.
9 For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
* Including chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade. See explanation, page 403.




562

BULLETIN OF TH E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e III— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Sheetings.
Year or
month.

Bleached.

9-4, At­
lantic.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907...,
1908....
1909....

10-4,
Peel f rP

10-4,
Warnsutta
S. T.

Brown.

Aver­
age.

4-4, In­
dian
Head.

4-4, Pep­ 4-4, Law­
rence
pered R.
L. L.

Aver­
age.

Aver­
age.

a 122.1
a 116.4
a 108.7
a 111.8
0 94.8
o93.8
o92.6
o87.4
o83.2
o89.4
o lH .3
ol00.9
o 104.4
o ll5 .7
ol28.3
o 110.2
*121.5
*134.3
*138.7
*120.3

116.2
106.6
100.8
103.3
92.5
94.7
95.1
92.3
91.3
107.3
121.7
112.4
111.5
120.8
128.7
120.3
131.4
153.0
129.6
133.6

106.0
107.2
99.8
103.6
93.5
92.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.1
104.3
99.2
99.2
103.0
94.1
91.6
92.7
103.4
94.7'
97.2

114.8
110.1
103.1
106.2
93.6
93.6
95.6
93.0
91.2
98.9
112.4
104.2
105.0
113.2
117.0
107.4
115.2
130.2
121.3
118.2

115.8
116.1
103.5
108.5
95.5
93.5
99.4
93.9
86.3
86.9
99.5
100.8
99.8
108.8
128.1
121.1
128.1
133.4
124.4
120.1

116.2
108.3
103.3
105.8
96.4
96.0
101.3
95.3
86.2
91.5
107.4
107.4
103.3
108.7
121.4
116.9
124.3
135.4
124.0
124.9

6125.7
6113.1
6103.8
6109.3
699.2
6 97.7
6 97.3
6 86.1
680.8
685.9
696.8
6 94.1
<*92.6
<*101.9
<*117.0
<*118.6
<*125.5
d 1 2 7 .1
*102.0
*110.3

*119.7
oll3.9
*104.3
c 108.9
097.6
c95.3
c98.7
c91.0
c83.4
*87.2
c 101.0
clOO.l
c98.8
c 108.6
c 124.1
c 118.1
cl27.9
o 133.7
118.1
120.2

cll7.6
c ll2 .3
*103.8
cl07.7
c95.9
*94.6
c97.4
c91.8
*86.7
*92.2
cl05.9
clOl.8
c 101.4
cllO. 6
c 121.1
c ll3 .5
o 122.4
*132.2
120.0
119.6

*116.5
*120.0
*119.7
*119.7
*119.7
*120.0
*120.2
*121.4
*114.9
*119.7
*125.6
*126.1

122.1
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
127.4
132.7
132.7
138.0
143.3
148.6
148.6

94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
94.9
108.5
108.5

112.6
115.2
115.1
115.1
115.1
115.2
116.9
117.3
117.1
120.1
129.3
129.4

123.8
119.8
119.8
119.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
119.8
127.8
131.8

118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
118.0
122.5
122.5
127.0
136.1
140.7
140.7

*98.3
*103.2
*103.2
*103.2
*103.2.
*103.2
*105.7
*110.6
*113.0
*122.8
*127.7
*130.3

114.6
115.2
115.2
115.2
113.9
113.9
116.4
118.3
120.6
128.5
134.4
136.7

113.9
115.5
115.5
115.5
114.8
114.9
117.0
118.1
119.2
124.7
132.2
133.5

*127.8
*124.4
*130.9

148.6
148.6
148.6

115.3
115.3
115.3

132.4
131.3
133.4

135.8
135.8
135.8

140.7
140.7
140.7

*130.4
*125.4
*122.9

137.8
136.0
135.1

135.5
134.1
134.7

19 09.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r ... .
May—
June___
July—
Aug—
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
D ec___
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....

a 10-4, Atlantic.
6 4-4, Stark A. A.
c Including 4-4, Atlantic A. See explanation, page 403.
< 4-4, Massachusetts Mills, Flying Horse brand. For method of computing relative price, see pages 415
*
and 416.
« For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.




563

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARCH , 1910.

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion oi this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Shirtings: bleached.

Year or
month.

Silk: raw.

4-4, Fruit
of the
Loom.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

4-4, Lons­
dale.

4-4, Wil­
liamsville,
A l.

4-4, Wamsutta
<o>
XX.

116.1
109.8
111.0
114.3
99.9
96.2
95.6

116.2
113.1
111.7
114.4

a 110
.5
a 110.2
a 106.3
a 105.6
« 101.0
a 97.1
a 101.0
o95.4
a89.5
o82.8
o89.7

106.6
106.4

88.0

80.2
88.5
103.4
103.0
103.8
105.4
110.2
102.7
112.2
153.4
125.4
124.7

100.0
95.9
94.2
87.1
81.8

86.1
100.6
101.5
101.9
103.9
109.5
101.7
110.9
141.0
120.1
120.9

Average.

086.8

101.8

o87.4
o97.0
o94.7
o96.8
108.0
132.8
107.1
99.9

92.3
93.4
102.7
97.2
99.4
109.0
116.0
118.0
111.6

5112.9
5110.2
5107.4
6110.2
699.9
697.6
697.9
692.0
683.8
687.8
6100.4
698.9
698.8
6103.2
6104.7
6101.2
6111.1
6137.4
120.0
116.4

102.6
103.5
100.2
102.2
100.3
98.6
85.1
94.1

Italian,
classical.

122.7
98.4
105.3
118.2
86.5
94.9
85.3
85.5
91.1

Japan,
filatures.

Average.

130.5
99.8
107.7
113.0
83.7
94.2
84.8

112.1

106.0
90.4
96.5
106.3
90.8
96.5
101.6
131.1
98.2
102.9

90.5
109.7
103.7
8r.4
95.1
102.9
90.6
99.3
103.6
125.9
96.8
95.5

126.6
99.1
106.5
115.6
85.1
94.6
85.1
85.9
90.8
110.9
104.9
88.9
95.8
104.6
90.7
97.9
102.6
128.5
97.5
99.2

86.2

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
A p r ....
M ay....
Ju ne...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....
S ep t...
Oct___
Nov___
Dec___

120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
120.2
127.1
127.1
127.1
137.4
137.4

116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
116.9
123.8
123.8
123.8
130.7
130.7

97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
102.7
105.6
108.4

108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
113.4
113.4
123.9
123.9

112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
112.6
113.4
116.8
118.1
118.9
126.6
127.4

104.1
104.1
105.3
100.6
102.9
101.8
104.1
103.8
106.7
105.6
99.4
96.0

102.0
104.4
105.6
104.4
94.7
93.5
95.9
91.1
91.1
91.1
87.5
85.1

103.0
104.2
105.4
102.5
98.8
97.6
100.0
97.4
98.8
98.3
93.4
90.5

137.4
137.4
137.4

134.1
134.1
134.1

114.2
114.2
102.7

123.9
123.9
123.9

129.9
129.9
126.6

99.4
94.2
90.7

87.5
86.3
82.7

93.4
90.2
86.7

1910.
Jan___
Feb___
Mar___

<>4-4, New York Mills.

43431—No. 87—10----- 13




i Including 4-4, Hope. See explanation, page 403.

564

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Suitings.

Year or
month.

Clay
Clay
Indigo blue,
worsted
worsted
all wool,
diagonal,
diagonal,
14-ounce,
12-ounce.(o) 16-ounce, (o) Middlesex.
1890___
1891___
1892___
1893___
1894___
1895___
1896___
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Serge,
Washing­
ton Mills
6700.(6)

Trouserings,
fancy
worsted.(6)

Average.

Tickings:
Amoskeag
A. C. A.

92.5
89.1
92.2
111.3
114.9
131.4
110.6
110.9
115.2
112.2
132.7
147.5
142.1
135.2
150.3

93.8
87.6
93.3
111.4
113.9
133.7
111.0
108.6
112.1
109.6
129.3
146.4
139.3
133.0
147.5

116.9
116.9
116.9
114.0
111.1
87.1
86.0
79.1
86.0
86.0
86.0
89.6
99.2
108.8
109.1
115.6
129.3
129.3
119.0
119.0

120.9
120.9
90.7
90.7
81.6
87.7
99.8
107.7
107.6
106.6
105.1
100.4
102.9
128.1
138.8
139.5
132.0
142.0

106.6
106.6
98.9
87.9
92.3
92.3
108.9
106.6
117.6
102.2
101.8
104.6
106.2
111.6
120.6
122.3
127.6
124.1

c 113.1
c U3.1
c 113.4
c 112.7
c98.3
c89.2
087.8
c88.7
C103.4
0106.1
0115.8
0104.9
cl05.8
c 109.0
0109.0
0122.7
0134.8
0133.1
0124.6
135.1

113.1
110.7
108.4
111.3
102.2
94.8
96.0
91.9
84.3
87.0
102.2
95,5
99.0
104.1
114.3
102.1
119.0
129.4
106.0
111.3

139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
139.3
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2
161.2

134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
134.1
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9
160.9

119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0
119.0

128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
128.6
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5
155.5

129.3
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7
123.7

128.9
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
127.7
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2
142.2

106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
106.0
110.7
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8
117.8

158.5
158.5
158.5

149.7
149.7
149.7

125.9
125.9
125.9

155.5
155.5
155.5

123.6
129.3
129.3

141.0
142.2
142.2

132.0
132.0
132.0

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
May—
June___
J u ly ....
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Bee.......
19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

a Average for 1895-1899= 100.0. c Including indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce. See explanation, page 403.
6 Average for 1892-1899=100.0.




565

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Women's dress goods.

Underwear
Year or
Shirts
month. Shirts
and
and
drawers,
draw­
white,
ers,
white, merino,
60 per
aU
cent
wool.
wool.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1896....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Cashmere, all
wool,
Aver­ 8-9 twill,
age.
35-inch,
Atlantic
Mills.

CashCashmere,
mere,
cotton cotton
warp,
warp,
9-twfil, 36-inch,
4-4, At­ Hamil­
lantic
ton.
Mills F.

Panama
cloth,
all wool,
54-inch.

Poplar
cloth,
cotton
warp
and
worsted
filling,
36-incn.

Sicilian
cloth,
cotton
warp,
50-inch.

Aver­
age.

106.2
110.0
110.0
110.0
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

<*106.9
<*112.7
a 112.7
<*112.7
a 95.4
<*92.5
< 92.5
*
<*92.5
a 95.4
a 86.7
o95.4
a95.4
o95.4
195.4
0 95.4
095.4
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0

106.6
111.4
111.4
111.4
94.1
92.6
92.6
92.6
94.1
93.6
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
97.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

6119.8
6126.1
6128.2
6111.8
684.3
681.0
6 67.5
6 82.2
688.6
6110.4
6119.1
6111.3
6111.3
6114.3
6117.7
6128.4
6134.9
6134.9
0127.1
0138.8

119.3
119.3
117.7
98.4
88.7
83.8
83.6
90.3
94.3
104.8
108.0
104.3
108.0
110.5
114.5
132.7
141.8
147.0
138.6
146.7

c 111.0
c 111.0
cl09.6
c 106.1
C102.7
c 95.8
c93.0
c88.8
c88.8
c93.0
c99.9
c 102.7
c 102.0
c 101.2
cllO. 5
c 121.4
0124.6
0127.8
0124.6
0123.3

d
d
d
d

115.3
119.9
119.9
117.6
<<96.8
<*84.3
<<80.7
<<82.2
<<88.4
<<94.9
<<118.3
<<104.5
<<108.3
<<114.5
<<113.4
<<131.0
<<133.3
d 126.8
0126.8
0127.9

«109.9
«109.9
«108.3
«106.7
«100.3
<97.0
<93.8
<90.5
<90.5
<93.1
<100.3
<100.3
<•99.5
<97.8
<106.7
0107.7
0109.6
0110.1
0113.5
0110.1

/108.1
/108.1
/106.3
/104.6
/100.9
/ 93.7
/93.7
/ 93.7
/ 93.7
/96.6
/104.6
/104.6
/103.7
/101.5
/112.4
*114.9
*121.6
*124.9
0124.9
0118.7

113.9
115.7
115.0
107.5
95.6
89.3
85.4
88.0
90.7
98.8
108.4
104.6
105.5
106.6
112.5
122.7
127.6
128.6
126.3
127.8

115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8
115.8

0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0IO6.O
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0
0106.0

110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9
110.9

0134.9
0134.9
0134.9
0134.9
0134.9
0134.9
0142.7
0142.7
0142.7
0142.7
0142.7
0142.7

145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
145.1
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3
148.3

0121.4
0121.4
0121.4
0121.4
0121.4
0124.6
0124.6
0124.6
0124.6
0124.6
0124.6
0124.6

0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0126.8
0131.0
0131.0
0131.0

0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0109.6
0115.4

0116.6
0116.6
0116.6
0II6.6
0116.6
0116.6
0116.6
0116.6
0116.6
0124.9
0124.9
0124.9

125.9
125.9
125.9
125.9
125.9
126.5
128.2
128.2
128.2
130.3
130.3
131.4

115.8
115.8
115.8

0106.0
0106.0
0106.0

110.9
110.9
110.9

0150.5
0150.5
0150.5

151.5
151.5
151.5

0124.6
0124.6
0124.6

0131.1
0131.1
0131.1

0115.4
0115.4
0115.4

0124.9
0124.9
0124.9

133.2
133.2
133.2

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
Aug—
S e p t...
Oct___
Nov___
Dec___
19 10.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

< 52 per cent wool.
*
b Women's dress goods: cashmere, all wool, 10-11 twill, 38-inch, Atlantic Mills J.
c 27-inch.
d Women's dress goods: Franklin sackings, 6-4.
<Women's dress goods: cashmere, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
/ Women's dress goods: Alpaca, cotton warp, 22-inch, Hamilton.
g For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
h Danish cloth, cotton warp and filling. For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.




566

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cloths and clothing.
Wool.

Worsted yams.

Year or
month.
Ohio, fine
Ohio, medi­
fleece (X and um fleece (I
X X grade), * and | grade),
scoured.
scoured.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

129.5
124.1
110.7

102.0
80.5
68.2
71.3
89.7
111.3

112.8

119.3
98.7
104.4
118.5
124.2
137.4
129.9
129.9
129.6
133.5

Average.

134.6
127.5
115.6

132.1
125.8
113.2

77.6
71.9
69.8
87.6
105.3
108.8
116.0
94.5
97.2

79.1
70.1
70.6
88.7
108.3

101.2

102.1

101.6

110.8
117.7
96.6

100.8

110.3
115.5
127.3

106.7
117.2
112.3
113.0
107.3
119.0

121.5
118.3
126.5

112.6
112.6

121.8
121.8

121.1

2-40s, Aus­
tralian fine.

120.4
121.3
119.6
111.4
91.3
72.9
71.2
83.6

101.2
107.1
118.3

102.2

110.3
115.6
116.6
123.0
127.0
127.3

120.8

128.3

2-32s, cross­
bred stock,
white, in
skeins.

Average.

ol24.1
ol25.4
oll4 .8
o 107.6
o91.2
o75.1
o74.5
o81.3
o99.7
0106.3
o 118.5
o 102.1
c 113.1
cl20.4
c 116.3
c 126.4
c 130.0
<128.4
«114.4
«131.8

122.3
123.4
117.2
109.5
91.3
74.0
72.9
82.5
100.5
106.7
118.4

«117.0

102.2

111.7
118.0
116.5
124.7
128.5
127.9
117.6
130.2

Average,
cloths and
clothing.

M13.5
5111.3
5109.0
5107.2
596.1
5 92.7
5 91.3
5 91.1
5 93.4
596.7
5106.8
5101.0
5102.0
5 106.6
5109.8
5112.0
a 120.0
a 126.7
/116.9
119.6

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
May—
June___
J u ly ....
A ug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......

122.8
122.8

130.9
130.9
130.9
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
134.8
130.9

115.6
118.7
121.7
121.7
121.7
118.7
118.7
121.7
121.7
121.7

123.5
126.9
128.6
128.6
128.6
126.9
126.9
128.6
128.6
126.8

125.2
127.7
127.7
130.1
130.6
132.6
132.6
132.6
127.7
127.7

e 124.1
el28.4
«135.6
6138.4
6139.8
6139.8
6139.8
6139.8
6137.0

119.9
121.4
123.3
126.0
128.2
133.0
134.7
136.4
136.4
136.4
134.0
132.6

130.9
127.1
127.1

121.7
121.7
118.7

126.8
124.9
123.3

127.7
127.7
125.2

6132.0
6132.0
6132.0

130.0
130.0
128.7

6119.9
e 121
.3

116.1
116.5
116.7
116.7
117.0
117.5
119.5

121.0
121.3
122.6
124.5
125.2

1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

127.2
126.9
126.3

a 2-40, X X X , white, in skeins.
5 Including blankets: 11-4, 6 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, all wool filling; men’s split boots, russet
bound top; men’s cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles; linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools, Barbour;
overcoatings: beaver, Moscow, all wool, black; overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough, ail wool; overcoatings:
chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade; shawls; sheetings: brown 4-4, Atlantic A; shirtings: bleached, 4-4
Hope; suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce. See explanation, page 403.
C2-40, X X X X , white, in skeins.
d Including blankets: 11-4, 5 pounds to the pair, cotton warp, all wool filling; men’ s split boots, russet
bound top; men’s cotton half hose, seamless, 84 needles; linen thread: 3-cord, 200-yard spools, Barbour;
overcoatings: chinchilla, B-rough, all wool; overcoatings: chinchilla, cotton warp, C. C. grade; shawls;
sheetings: brown, 4-4, Atlantic A ; shirtings: bleached, 4-4, Hope; suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 16-ounce.
See explanation, page 403.
« For method of computing relative price, see pages 416 and 416.
/ Including overcoatings: chinchila, cotton warp, G. C. grade. See explanation, page 416.




567

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,

T a b le III.— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N TH L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH ,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899== 100.0.]
Fuel and lighting.
Coal.

Year or Candles:
ada­
month.
man­
tine,
6s, 14-oz.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Anthracite.

Bituminous.
Georges Pitts­
Georges Creek
burg
Aver­ . Creek (f. o. b. (Yough- Aver­
age.
(at
New
age.
iomine).
York
Harbor). gheny).

Aver­
age.

Bro­
ken.

Chest­
nut.

Egg.

Stove.

102.3
102.3
102.3
112.9
110.9
108.7
108.7
95.3
78.4
78.4
135.4
140.7
140.7
127.4
115.1
109.7
98.0
94.8
93.5
92.7

103.5
102.3
107.4
105.8
101.5
97.5
97.1
96.4
95.4
93.1
97.1
105.5
110.4
126.2
126.1
125.1
124.8
124.9
124.8
124.8

93.3
96.7
109.7
115.9
98.5
82.9
98.9
103.9
98.8
101.4
108.9
120.4
124.0
134.2
134.2
134.1
135.2
134.1
134.1
134.1

100.6
104.4
110.8
107.2
94.3
84.3
98.8
105.7
100.2
93.8
99.7
112.9
121.5
134.3
134.2
134.3
135.3
134.2
134.1
133.2

97.8
101.6
109.4
110.5
94.9
82.4
100.0
105.8
100.1
97.6
104.0
113.9
117.6
127.1
127.1
127.1
128.1
127.1
127.1
127.0

98.8
101.3
109.3
109.9
97.3
86.8
98.7
103.0
98.6
96.5
102.4
113.2
118.4
130.5
130.4
130.2
130.9
130.1
130.1
129.8

97.1
106.9
101.3
103.6
92.4
87.2
101.3
93.8
102.7
113.9
135.0
150.5
239.1
269.6
196.9
180.0
174.4
173.0
162.2
155.2

108.9
110.5
106.9
107.6
99.8
102.5
97.1
89.0
79.3
98.4
106.0
106.6
148.0
161.8
116.5
114.8
113.9
118.0
112.3
111.3

103.3
122.7
116.5
117.9
98.6
93.3
89.1
88.6
87.9
82.6
117.0
117.0
122.4
143.9
132.5
124.4
122.7
128.1
132.3
125.8

103.1
113.4
108.2
109.7
96.9
94.3
95.8
90.5
90.0
98.3
119.3
124.7
169.8
191.8
148.6
139.7
137.0
139.7
136.1
131.5

100.6
106.4
108.9
109.8
97.1
90.0
97.5
97.6
94.9
97.3
109.7
118.1
140.4
156.7
138.2
134.3
133.5
134.2
132.7
130.6

92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7
92.7

124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.8
124.8
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.7
126.3
128.9
131.8
134.9
137.0
137.7
137.7
137.7

137.7
137.7
137.7
123.8
126.5
129.2
131.4
134.2
136.4
134.7
132.7
135.8

130.4
130.4
130.4
117.3
119.8
122.0
124.9
127.3
130.2
130.4
130.4
130.4

132.7
132.7
132.7
122.5
124.5
126.3
128.3
130.3
132.2
132.0
131.5
132.2

151.9
151.9
151.9
157.5
157.5
151.9
157.5
157.5
151.9
151.9
163.2
157.5

108.3
110.1
110.1
111.2
110.1
114.8
116.3
107.6
107.6
113.4
109.4
116.3

132.2
132.2
126.0
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4
124.4

131.6
132.3
130.2
131.6
131.2
131.5
133.7
130.2
128.6
131.0
132.5
133.7

132.3
132.6
131.7
126.4
127.4
128.6
130.7
130.4
130.8
131.6
132.0
132.9

92.7
92.7
92.7

124.7
124.7
124.7

137.7
137.7
137.7

136.9
137.7
137.7

130.4
130.4
130.4

132.5
132.7
132.7

157.5
157.5
157.5

113.4
113.0
109.4

124.4
124.4
124.4

132.5
132.4
130.9

132.6
132.6
132.0

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A p r ___
May—
June....
July----Aug----Sept___
O c t ....
N o v ....
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r....




568

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR,

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1809=100.0.3
Fuel and lighting.
Petroleum.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Coke:
Connellsville,
furnace.

Matches:
parlor.
domestic.

Refined.
Crude.

150° fire
For export. test, water
white.

Average.

Average,
fuel and
lighting.

Average.

122.7
110.4
106.5
87.1
62.3
78.0
110.4
95.2
98.8
128.7
155.8
115.6
158.2
171.5
96.4
134.7
157.5
166.3
100.6
117.9

111.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
94.9
96.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
90.1
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

95.4
73.6
61.1
70.3
92.2
149.2
129.5
86.5
100.2
142.1
148.5
132.9
135.9
174.5
178.8
152.1
175.5
190.5
195.6
182.7

112.9
105.5
93.8
80.4
79.4
109.6
108.2
92.0
96.8
121.9
131.6
115.4
113.1
132.5
127.3
111.2
117.4
127.0
133.9
128.7

111.8
98.8
89.2
81.5
81.5
103.6
116.7
101.1
102.1
114.0
133.5
123.1
124.5
153.1
153.6
141.9
146.1
151.2
151.7
137.6

112.4
102.2
81.4
81.0
80.5
106.6
112.5
96.6
99.5
118.0
132.6
119.3
118.8
142.8
140.5
126.6
131.8
139.1
143.1
133.7

106.7
92.6
91.5
77.4
84.4
120.8
118.1
93.2
99.7
126.0
137.9
123.8
124.5
153.4
153.2
135.1
146.3
156.2
160.6
150.0

104.7
102.7
101.1
100.0
92.4
98.1
104.3
96.4
95.4
105.0
120.9
119.5
134.3
149.3
132.6
128.8
131.9
135.0
130.8
129.3

114.8
95.7
98.6
101.6
95.7
92.7
98.6
100.1
117.8
167.8
166.3
164.9

85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4
85.4

195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
195.6
184.6
179.1
173.6
173.6
173.6
168.1
162.6

131.0
131.0
131.0
131.0
181.0
131.0
129.4
127.1
127.1
127.1
124.0
124.0

151.7
151.7
137.6
137.6
137.6
137.6
137.6
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0
132.0

141.5
141.5
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.9
134.1
130.2
130.2
130.2
128.6
128 6

159.4
159.4
154.5
154.5
154.5
151.5
149.3
144.9
144.9
144.9
142.2
14U 7

131.7
130.0
128.9
126.3
126.2
126.0
127.3
126.5
128.5
133.9
133.5
133.5

154.6
147.2
150.2

85.4
85.4
85.4

157.1
153.8
153.8

121.7
121.7
121.7

132.0
132.0
132.0

127.4
127.4
127.4

138.3
137.4
137.4

131.1
13fi 3
130.3

1909*
J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....
Apr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
Aug—
S e p t...
O c t ....
Nov___
D e c ....
19 1 0 .
J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....




569

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

T a b le III.—E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Bar iron.

Builders' hardware.

Year or
month.
From mill From store
(Pittsburg (Philadel­
phia
market).
market).
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Average.

Barb wire:
galvanized.
Butts.

Doorknobs: Locks:
steel,
common
bronze
mortise.
plated.

Average.

126.9
117.9
113.1
103.4
82.8
86.2
84.1
75.9
73.8
134.5
148.3
124.1
133.8
122.1
102.1
129.0
126.8
131.3
109.5
109.5

125.0
115.9
114.0
103.7
81.7
87.8
85.4
79.9
78.0
126.2
119.5
112.2
129.9
122.0
104.9
117.1
120.7
128.7
103.7
107.3

126.0
116.9
113.6
103.6
82.3
87.0
848
77.9
75.9
130.4
133.9
118.2
131.9
122.1
103.5
123.1
123.8
130.0
106.6
108.5

141.2
127.4
109.5
99.7
86.1
88.9
77.7
71.3
72.7
125.5
134 4
120.2
116.9
108.4
99.3
94.3
96.1
1043
103.8
93.4

111.7
111.7
96.8
98.4
95.9
100.3
104.1
96.8
92.4
92.4
126.6
116.8
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
130.4

97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
97.8
115.1
102.1
97.8
97.8
97.8
106.8
112.0
126.9
132.6
144.8
213.6
259.8
265.2
235.7
235.7

101.6
101.6
101.6
101.6
100.1
102.0
106.1
102.0
91.8
91.8
96.5
91.8
1040
110.2
125.5
183.1
221.3
244 8
203.2
195.0

103,7
103.7
98.7
99.3
97.9
105.8
104.1
98.9
94 0
94.0
110.0
106.9
119.2
123.1
132.3
174.4
202.6
212.2
192.3
191.6

106.5
106.5
105.0
99.8
97.5
99.8
108.8
108.8
112.5
120.0
122.2
129.7

106.1
105.5
98.8
98.8
98.8
101.8
101.8
107.3
110.4
116.5
119.5
119.5

106.4
106.1
101.9
99.4
98.3
100.9
105.3
108.1
111.5
118.3
121.0
124.6

102.1
102.1
102.1
102.1
82.3
86.3
86.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
942
92.2

126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
126.6
137.9
137.9
137.9
137.9

235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7
235.7

203.2
203.2
203.2
203.2
203.2
203.2
203.2
183.6
183.6
183.6
183.6
183.6

192.3
192.3
192.3
192.3
192.3
192.3
192.3
186.1
191.8
191.8
191.8
191.8

127.5
127.5
126.0

119.5
119.5
119.5

123.6
123.6
122.8

92.2
92.2
92.2

140.7
140.7
140.7

235.7
235.7
235.7

183.6
183.6
183.6

192.9
192.9
192.9

1909.
J a n ....
F e b ....
M a r....
Apr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
Aug—
S ep t...
O c t ....
Nov___
D e c ,...

1910.
J a n ....
F e b ....
M ar....




570

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I I .— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Copper.

Year or
month.
Ingot.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904___
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909___

Sheet,
hot-rolled
(base
sizes).

Nails.

Wire,
bare.

Average.

Lead:
pig*

Lead
pipe.

Cut,
Wire,
8-penny, 8-penny,
fence and fence and
common. common.

Aver­
age.

127.6
105.8
93.5
88.6
76.8
87.1
88.9
91.7
96.8
143.2
134.6
136.7
97.3
110.9
106.2
127.7
158.9
172.2
110.5
108.6

137! 1
114.5
96.4
90.4
85.9
85.9
85.9
88.2
84.4
131.1
124.6
125.9
107.5
115.6
108.5
120.1
143.2
168.3
108.0
108.0

128.1
112.7
98.2
92.2
79.0
84.6
92.6
93.9
93.9
124.7
123.0
124.0
90.6
102.3
98.2
116.3
144.0
164.1
103.8
101.3

130.9
111.0
96.0
90.4
80.6
85.9
89.1
91.3
91.7
133.0
127.4
128.9
98.5
109.6
104.3
121.4
148.7
168.2
107.4
105.9

115.5
114.7
108.4
98.2
86.9
85.6
78.7
94.0
99.7
117.6
116.8
115.0
107.9
112.3
116.3
125.7
154.3
144.9
110.8
112.6

112.1
116.2
107.6
103.8
92.0
87.2
85.1
89.6
95.5
111.0
106.3
104.8
108.3
107,8
99.5
108.4
133.3
139.2
98.4
100.1

125.2
100.3
96.2
92.0
83.6
105.3
148.4
72.9
65.3
110.8
123.1
115.6
116.7
120.2
99.5
99.9
105.7
118.3
106.7
102.3

137.1
114.1
101.3
92.1
76.4
98.0
135.3
68.7
66.5
110.4
121.8
109.4
97.3
96.0
88.2
87.7
90.6
97.9
97.1
88.7

131.2
107.2
98.8
92.1
80.0
101.7
141.9
70.8
65.9
110.6
122.5
112.5
107.0
108.1
93.9
93.8
98.2
108.1
102.4
95.8

118.5
110.8
106.1
104.0
104.6
108.8
108.2
107.7
109.8
107.7
106.7
109.8

114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
114.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
102.5
108.5

107.6
104.2
97.3
97.3
99.0
100.8
102.5
102.5
102.5
99.0
99.0
104.2

113.5
109.8
105.9
105.3
106.0
104.0
104.4
104.2
104.9
103.0
102.7
107.5

110.5
110.2
105.0
108.4
111.0
114.2
115.0
113.9
116.3
115.2
115.5
115.5

97.5
97.5
93.6
96.7
98.6
101.7
101.7
noi.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
106.5

101.2
101.2
104.0
101.2
99.9
99.9
101.2
102.6
101.2
105.3
105.3
104.0

94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
78.6
83.3
83.3
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9
87.9

98.6
98.6
99.9
98.6
89.4
91.8
92.5
95.6
94.9
96.9
96.9
96.2

113.9
112.9
110.8

108.5
108.5
114.5

102.5
102.5
100.8

108.2
107.9
108.6

124.1
123.6
122.0

108.5
113.3
113.3

106.7
104.0
106.7

90.2
90.2
90.2

98.7
97.4
98.7

1909.
Jan.......
Feb___
M a r ....
Apr___
May---June_
_
J u ly ....
A u g ....
S ep t....
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec......
19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___




571

WHOLESALE PRICES; 1890 TO M ARCH ; 1910,

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.
Pig iron.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Gray
forge,
south­
ern,
coke.

Aver­
age.

Quick­
silver.

Silver:
bar,
fine.

Spelter:
western.

Steel
billets.

Foundry
No. 1.

Foundry
No. 2.

137.0
115.8
104.3
93.4
82.6
92.3
88.1
73.5
75.0
138.1
141.5
115.7
150.0
137.7
99.8
118.7
141.8
165.8
123.9
126.3

124.3
118.4
106.4
98.1
85.5
88.5
87.5
81.7
78.8
130.8
135.0
107.2
149.9
134.5
105.2
120.8
141.7
161.4
119.6
120.3

131.4
117.9
105.5
95.3
83.1
89.4
90.2
77.4
76.8
132.9
141.8
112.8
162.7
146.6
104.4
125.7
147.6
182.9
124.5
125.7

130.8
112.9
106.3
95.9
80.6
93.1
86.6
79.4
78.6
135.8
140.7
113.2
158.8
146.4
105.3
130.7
149.1
189.3
129.6
134.7

130.9
116.3
105.6
95.7
83.0
90.8
88.1
78.0
77.3
134.4
139.8
112.2
155.4
141.3
103.7
124.0
145.1
174.9
124.8
127.1

130.5
112.3
100.9
93.2
85.7
91.8
89.0
92.2
97.0
107.3
121.0
118.5
115.5
113.4
105.5
97.4
98.6
97.1
109.1
112.9

140.6
132.2
116.9
104.4
85.5
88.5
91.0
81.1
78.9
80.8
82.9
79.7
70.5
72.4
77.2
81.5
90.0
88.1
71.4
69.6

122.6
112.4
102.9
90.7
78.5
80.1
88.7
93.1
100.2
130.1
97.8
89.6
107.7
123.5
113.9
131.0
137.2
136.5
105.1
121.9

141.5
117.7
109.8
94.9
77.0
85.9
87.5
70.1
71.1
144.6
116.4
112.1
142.1
129.7
103.0
111.6
127.5
135.9
122.2
114.4

125.9
121.7
118.6
114.7
115.0
116.3
119.0
123.5
131.0
141.7
144.4
144.4

119.9
118.2
114.0
112.8
111.9
114.4
115.2
118.6
125.3
129.6
131.7
131.7

125.6
122.8
121.8
115.1
115.1
118.9
122.8
123.7
126.6
138.1
140.0
138.1

135.3
133.0
126.2
121.7
125.1
120.6
127.4
136.4
135.3
153.3
153.3
148.8

127.0
124.3
120.5
116.5
117.1
118.0
121.5
125.9
130.0
141.0
142.7
141.2

112.6
112.6
110.8
110.8
110.8
110.8
107.3
107.3
107.3
112.6
123.4
128.7

69.9
69.5
68.2
69.5
71.5
71.5
69.0
69.1
69.5
68.9
68.5
70.6

115.7
113.5
106.2
106.9
121.7
115.0
118.4
123.9
129.4
131.6
139.4
141.6

116.1
116.1
106.8
106.8
106.8
106.8
108.7
112.0
116.1
121.9
126.0
127.8

144.4
140.4
135.0

131.7
129.6
125.0

137.1
137.1
131.4

149.9
144.3
142.0

141.2
138.3
133.8

128.7
123.4
123.4

70.9
69.7
69.6

138.9
135.6
127.2

127.8
127.8
127.8

Besse­
mer.

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
M a y ....
June___
July—
Aug----Sept—
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....




572

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le III.— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARC H ,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Metals and implements.

Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906.:..
1907....
1908....
1909....

Steel
rails.

Steel
sheets:
black,
No. 27.
(«)

Tin:
Pig-

Tools.
Tin
plates:
domes­
tic, Bes­
Chisels:
semer,
Axes:
extra, Files: 8- Ham­
Augers, M.C.O., socket inch mill mers:
coke,
extra. Yankee. firmer, bastard. Maydole
14b^20.
No. 1J.
1-inch.

Planes:
Bailey
No. 5,
jack
plane.

108.9
96.0
87.1
84.8
119.2
130.8
140.6
129.9
116.1
93.8
99.1
105.8
111.6
107.1
99.6

115.5
110.3
110.9
109.0
98.7
76.5
72.4
74.0
84.5
148.2
163.7
142.6
144.2
153.4
152.5
170.3
213.6
211.1
160.2
161.1

cl04.6
c ll6 .4
cll5 .7
c 117.1
C106.7
C84.4
«*91.8
<*89.2
<*85.4
122.7
137.0
122.7
120.7
115.4
105.5
108.5
113.1
119.8
113.9
109.4

118.2
118.2
118.2
111.9
95.9
82.9
86.7
88.6
88.6
91.1
124.4
105.7
111.9
143.7
149.3
190.7
221.8
223.9
223.9
198.5

120.4
118.3
106.5
106.5
100.9
98.0
88.4
83.9
70.9
97.1
102.9
88.8
103.0
107.6
123.3
134.7
143.1
144.9
144.9
142.4

110.9
110.9
110.9
102.1
91.5
90.3
94.7
90.3
90.8
107.6
127.6
121.4
142.6
147.8
158.4
209.5
221.1
234.3
198.0
175.2

106.7
104.6
102.2
101.6
97.3
95.4
91.2
94.4
96.8
109.7
127.8
123.1
123.1
123.1
122.0
121.6
119.8
117.0
111.9
109.5

96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
97.6
105.2
105.2
100.6
107.0
115.9
117.2
117.2
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
104.3
93.9
93.0
93.0
93.0
93.0
107.0
110.4
114.2
115.7
115.7
115.7
129.3
115.7
115.7
115.7

107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

107.1
107.1
100.4
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
96.0
100.4
100.4
104.9

158.7
152.0
155.9
159.3
158.7
158.0
158.0
160.7
164.8
166.1
165.6
175.7

113.9
113.9
113.9
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
106.6
109.5
109.8
112.5

223.9
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2
196.2

144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
144.9
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6
140.6

198.0
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2
173.2

110.2
110.2
110.2
110.2
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1
109.1

129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0
129.0

115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7
115.7

107.4
107.4
107.4

104.9
104.9
104.9

180.6
177.0
179.1

112.5
112.5
112.5

175.9
175.9
175.9

133.2
133.2
133.2

132.0
132.0
132.0

109.1
109.1
109.1

129.0
129.0
129.0

115.7
115.7
115.7

121.9
114.8
115.1
107.9
92.1
93.4
107.4
71.9
67.6
107.9
123.9
104.9
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4
107.4

i64.9

19 09.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....
A pr___
M a y ...
June...
July....
Aug—
S e p t...
O ct----N ov___
D ec—
19 10.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

a Average for the period July, 1894, to December, 1899=100.0.
6 Average for 1896-1899=100.0.
c Imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 b y 20. Average for 1890-1898=100.0.
d Average for domestic, Bessemer, coke, 14 by 20; and imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 by 20. See ex­
planation, page 403.




573

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910.

III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH,
1910— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1890=100.0.}
Metals and implements.
Tools.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Wood
screws:
1-inch,
Trowels:
No. 10,
Shovels: M. C. O., Vises:
flat
Cross­
Ames
Hand,
brick. solid box, Average. head.
cut,
No. 2 lOJ-inch. 50-pound.
.
Disston Disston Average.
No. 7.
No. 2
.

Average,

Saws.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

112.7
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.6
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

106.4
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

101.3
101.3
101.3

97.3
96.9
96.9
99.7
99.4
96.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.1
106.1
109.1
107.6
104.0
97.2
95.4
89.7
84.1
100.7
109.4
128.7
131.5
132.7
109.1
106.1
115.9
147.4
147.4
155.2

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7

96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9
96.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2
155.2

100.7
100.7
100.7

96.9
96.9
99.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

155.2
155.2
155.2

94.7
94.7
99.3

100.8
100.8

109.4
115.9
115.9
118.9

102.0

107.2
105.6
104.5
103.0
98.6
95.3
95.7
95.0
93.9
101.3

Zinc:
sheet.

metals
and
imple­
ments.

114.0
107.7
103.4
94.0
74.4
85.1
93.0
93.0
103.5
131.9
114.8
104.7
107.9
113.3
105.6
128.5
135.0
140.9
121.3
125.1

oll9 .2
o U l .2
0 106.7
o 100.0
o 90.7
o92.7
o 93.0
o86.7

110.7
110.7
110.7
110.7
110.7
110.7
110.7

121.3
121.3
116.9
116.9
116.9
119.4
119.4
127.7
129.9
134.1
138.6
138.6

126.1
124.4

71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
71.5
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4

106.8
106.8
107.1

89.4
99.3
99.3

138.6
130.9
134.2

129.8
129.3
128.9

111.8
110.0

114.6
118.2
118.4
127.5
134.4
115.7
113.6

130.5
132.5
139.1
139.1
103.2
74.0
68.4
56.3
60.8
96.2
120.5
69.2
63.0
72.4
62.6
69.9
69.9
80.7

66.2

111.1

76.6

113.7

66.2
66.2

086.6
114.4
120.7
111.5
117.9
117.2
109.6

122.6

135.5
143.2
125.4
124.8

1909.
Jan----F e b ....
M a r....
Apr___
M a y ...
June...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....
S ep t...
O c t ....
N ov . . .
D ec___

111.1
111.1
111.1
111.0

122.6
121.8
121.3
121.6
122.3
123.5
125.8
128.1
129.3
130.6

1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....

a Including tin plates: imported, Bessemer, coke, I. C., 14 x 20. See explanation, page 403.




574

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le I I I . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
AN D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894......
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Brick:
common
domestic.

Cement.
Carbonate
of lead:
American, Portland,
in oil.
domestic.(a) Rosendale.

118.0
102.6
103.7
104.9
89.9
95.5
91.0
88.8
103.4
102.2
94.4
103.7
96.8
106.2
134.7
145.7
153.7
110.7
91.8
114.8

110.6
112.7
114.0
105.5
90.8
91.0
89.6
92.7
94.1
98.4
108.3
99.8
93.4
106.6
103.6
109.7
119.6
120.8
112.7
110.4

121.3
130.3
116.9
132.6
134.8
121.3
103.4
94.4
103.4
98.9
107.9
112.4

121.3
123.6
107.9

Doors:
pine.

Lime:
common.

Linseed
oil: raw.

Average.

98.6
100.2
98.5
100.1
102.6
108.1
94.7
97.7
101.6
73.2
71.5
78.9
82.4
73.1
70.7

118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
96.1
93.9
84.8
85.7
100.8
114.6
114.8
97.5
100.3
90.4
93.9
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

118.8
106.2
109.2
100.0
104.5
97.4
97.1
91.7
92.9
101.7
111.4
104.8
97.6
101.0
81.8
82.7
93.0
94.8
89.5
88.0

125.8
114.4
114.4
112.1
96.1
83.5
76.6
74.3
84.6
118.2
145.5
173.1
194.1
158.2
154.6
163.2
153.5
167.5
161.3
164.2

117.5
109.5
111.5
111.5
101.8
93.8
83.3
86.3
89.0
95.8
82.0
92.9
96.7
94.5
99.0
106.9
113.7
113.9
125.4
125.4

135.8
106.8
90.0
102.2
115.6
115.6
81.2
72.2
86.5
94.1
138.7
140.0
130.8
91.9
91.7
103.1
89.3
95.7
96.5
127.9

110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4
110.4

72.6
72.6
72.6
72.6
66.6
66.6
66.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6
71.6

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1

89.2
89.2
89.2
89.2
85.5
85.5
85.5
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6
88.6

160.9
160.9
160.9
167.4
167.4
167.4
167.4
167.4
167.4
160.9
160.9
160.9

125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4
125.4

110.3
121.3
123.5
123.5
123.5
130.1
134.5
134.5
125.7
125.7
138.9
143.3

118.9
118.9
118.9

71.6
71.6
71.6

107.1
107.1
107.1

88.6
88.6
88.6

167.4
167.4
167.4

125.4
125.4
125.4

167.6
169.8
169.8

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
Ju ly....
A u g ....
S ep t...
Oct___
N ov_
_
Dec___
1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___




aAverage for 1895-1899=100.0.

575

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910.

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH ,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Lumber.
Year or
month.
Hem­
lock.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897___
1898---1899---1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Pine.

Oak: white.

105.2
104.1
102.8
100.3
97.9
93.2
93.3
92.0
98.2
113.0
137.9
125.4
132.4
140.4
142.1
149.4
183.0
186.0
174.5
172.1

Maple:
hard.

White, boards.
Plain.

Quar­
tered.

Aver­
age.

No. 2
bam.

Uppers.

Aver­
age.

Yellow, Average.
siding.

100.1
103.8
100.8
107.8
119.5
117.0
115.1
117.0
121.7
119.3
117.0

101.2
101.5
102.7
103.5
99.5
96.8
96.8
96.8
96.8
104.1
109.1
98.2
109.2
119.8
124.2
126.5
134.7
147.5
131.7
129.4

95.9
99.8
98.7
98.7
95.2
99.2
101.5
100.3
97.8
112.7
120.1
110.2
117.5
139.3
150.4
149.5
147.5
149.0
149.3
157.1

98.6
100.7
100.7
101.1
97.4
98.0
99.2
98.6
97.3
108.4
114.6
104.2
113.4
129.6
137.3
138.0
141.1
148.3
140.5
142.9

98.1
99.4
100.2
108.9
106.2
100.8
96.4
92.5
90.6
106.9
125.7
122.0
137.3
140.3
134.4
141.2
173.9
195.7
190.3
194.1

94.7
96.7
98.9
104.2
99.7
98.8
100.2
99.5
99.0
108.4
123.5
129.8
160.7
171.8
174.0
176.1
182.0
200.2
198.1
191.8

96.4
98.1
99.6
106.6
103.0
99.8
98.3
96.0
94.8
107.7
124.6
125.9
149.0
156.1
154.2
158.7
178.0
198.0
194.2
193.1

112.4
108.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
91.6
88.9
89.0
100.9
108.5
112.2
106.5
113.7
113.7
116.0
134.9
158.9
165.2
0 171.8
ol82.7

101.7
101.4
99.8
104.4
102.0
97.1
95.2
93.7
96.8
107.9
120.5
119.4
137.2
141.9
141.5
150.7
171.6
187.0
5189.0
6 194.4

167.2
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
171.4
175.5
175.5
175.5

117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0
117.0

126.9
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
124.2
129.6
136.3
136.3
136.3
141.6

152.8
152.8
152.8
152.8
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3
159.3

139.6
138.1
138.1
138.1
141.2
141.2
141.2
144.0
147.6
147.6
147.6
150.5

189.7
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
193.6
198.8
198.8

192.8
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7
191.7

191.3
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
192.8
195.4
195.4

ol76.6
ol84.4
ol84.4
al84.4
o 180.5
0 180.5
o 189.0
ol91.8
ol91.8
ol76.3
ol76.3
o 176.3

6 190.2
6 195.3
6 195.3
6 195.3
6 193.1
b 193.1
6197.8
6199.3
6 199.3
6190.8
6192.1
6192.1

175.5
175.5
175.5

117.0
117.0
117.0

141.6
141.6
146.9

159.3
163.9
163.9

150.7
152.8
155.7

198.8
198.8
198.8

196.9
196.9
196.9

198.0
198.0
198.0

0176.4
ol78.4
0 178.4

6193.5
6 194.6
6194.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

loo.o

1909.
Jan___
F e b ....
M a r....
A pr___
M ay. . .
June...
July. . .
A u g ....
S e p t...
Oct----Nov___
Dec___

1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___

o A v e rse for siding and flooring. See explanation, page 416.
£ Including pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 416.
>




576

BU LLETIN OF T H E BUBEAU OF LABOR,

III— Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909.
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRIC ES FRO M J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH
1910— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion ot this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=. 100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.
Lumber.

Year or
month.
Poplar.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Spruce.

Plate glass: polished.

Average.

Oxide of
zinc.
Area 3 to Area 5 to
5 square 10 square Average.
feet.
feet.

Putty.

Rosin:
good,
strained.

97.2
97.2
97.6
107.2
101.2
98.8
98.8
97.8
95.6
108.5
120.2
117.0
134.2
158.3
160.5
153.7
162.5
185.2
185.8
183.7

113.5
99.1
103.5
96.0
88.6
99.3
99.3
97.6
95.8
107.3
121.1
125.4
134.2
133.7
142.9
149.3
178.0
167.3
144.9
176.0

102.0
100.7
100.5
102.1
98.7
97.6
97.2
96.2
97.2
107.7
119.3
115.0
127.4
137.4
140.2
144.0
159.7
168.6
<*164.0
a 169.2

106.3
104.8
106.5
103.3
93.3
87.5
95.8
94.3
99.0
109.5
112.8
109.5
110.0
115,8
115.8
116.3
127.0
134.5
128.3
129.3

146.0
143.3
115.7
115.7
90.9
82.6
93.7
55.1
74.4
82.6
93.7
88.2
70.9
72.3
62.7
66.3
76.1
77.2
58.2
67.7

134.9
132.9
106.0
106.0
86.7
92.5
104.0
61.7
82.9
92.5
104.0
94.4
79.2
83.1
70.3
71.8
77.7
80.1
64.8
66.4

140.5
138.1
110.9
110.9
88.8
87.6
98.9
58.4
78.7
87.6
98.9
91.3
75. t
77.7
66.5
69.1
76.9
78.7
61.5
67.3

110.8
110.8
101.9
101.3
99.4
91.8
91.8
91.8
91.8
106.3
120.3
94.9
121.5
89.2
69.6
69.0
75.3
75.9
75.9
75.9

96.1
102.4
93.2
87.6
86.9
108.4
121.2
112.0
98.7
93.5
111.3
106.3
112.0
153.9
196.8
237.7
278.8
304.0
227.9
243.1

186.5
180.1
180.1
180.1
180.1
180.1
180.1
185.0
188.1
188.1
188.1
188.1

163.8
163.8
184.7
184.7
184.7
184.7
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2
174.2

a 165.4
a 166.6
<*169.0
a 169.0
<*169.0
a 169.0
a 169.4
a 171.0
a 172.1
<*169.6
a 170.0
a 170.7

128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
128.3
134.5
134.5

67.2
67.2
67.2
60.5
60.5
60.5
60.5
60.5
73.9
73.9
80.6
80.6

70.7
70.7
70.7
61.3
61.3
61.3
61.3
61.3
66.0
66.0
70.7
75.4

69.0
69.0
69.0
61.0
61.0
61.0
61.0
61.0
70.3
70.3
76.1
78.4

75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9
75.9

227.4
230.9
220.5
227.4
229.2
225.7
208.3
225.7
243.1
295.2
293.4
290.0

188.1
188.1
188.1

174.2
174.2
174.2

a 171.3
a 172.2
<*172.9

134.5
134.5
134.5

80.6
83.9
83.9

75.4
82.5
82.5

78.3
83.5
83.5

75.9
72.8
72.8

291.7
305.6
316.0

19 09.
Jan.......
F eb___
M a r ....
Apr___
May---June___
J u ly ....
Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

aIncluding pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 416.




577

W H O L E S A L E PR IC E S, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

T able I I I . — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lumber and building materials.

Cypress.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902___
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Window glass: American,
single.

Shingles.

Year or
month.

Red cedar,
16 inches Average.
long.

Tar.

Turpen­
tine:
spirits of.

Firsts,
6 by 8 to
10 by 15
inches.

Average,
lumber
and
building
Thirds,
6 by 8 to Average.
mate­
10 by 15
rials.
inches.

118.7
115.2
111.7
106.3
99.2
93.9
88.6
83.3
88.6
94.4
101.0
101.0
94.7
91.0
92.2
96.6
114.9
149.8
125.4
115.8

®102.6
a 106.9
a 104.4
a 102.8
<*100.2
<*98.8
»96.5
a 94.6
0 94.9
o98.3
0106.9
o lH .9
6123.0
6125.1
6122.5
6119.9
c 157.2
o191.5
c 143.0
cl42.4

110.7
111.1
108.1
104.6
99.7
96.4
92.6
89.0
91.8
96.4
104.0
106.5
108.9
108.1
107.4
108.3
136.1
170.7
135.2
129.8

122.4
131.4
107.9
86.8
90.6
94.8
84.0
87.5
91.1
103.4
113.1
106.4
110.0
139.4
139.4
145.9
162.5
193.3
132.8
135.9

122.0
113.5
96.5
89.8
87.7
87.4
82.1
87.5
96.4
137.0
142.7
111.5
141.8
171.0
172.2
187.7
198.9
189.8
135.6
146.8

103.6
102.8
92.7
99.4
92.6
74.3
83.8
102.2
122.9
125.9
125.5
191.9
149.6
122.7
134.2
128.5
135.7
130.8
109.7
107.8

98.2
97.3
87.7
94.0
89.8
76.5
88.0
107.9
128.8
131.9
127.5
180.4
141.0
118.7
128.0
117.5
124.0
123.2
103.4
101.6

100.9
100.1
90.2
96.7
91.2
75.4
85.9
105.1
125.9
128.9
126.5
186.2
145.3
120.7
131.1
123.0
129.9
127.0
106.5
104.7

111.8
108.4
102.8
101.9
96.3
94.1
93.4
90.4
95.8
105.8
115.7
116.7
118.8
121.4
122.7
127.7
140.1
146.9
d 133.1
d 138.4

118.7
118.7
113.4
113.4
113.4
109.9
109.9
109.9
115.2
118.7
124.1
124.1

0145.7
cl45.7
0138.6
c 131.5
o 135.0
cl38.6
c 142.1
ol56.3
ol52.8
ol38.6
cl38.6
cl45.7

132.9
132.9
126.7
123.3
125.0
124.7
126.4
133.1
134.3
129.5
132.4
135.7

145.3
124.5
99.6
124.5
124.5
124.5
132.8
124.5
166.0
149.4
149.4
166.0

124.1
134.6
127.1
121.1
120.4
127.1
138.3
154.8
178.0
185.5
180.2
170.5

119.0
111.6
111.6
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
104.1
111.6
111.6

112.1
105.1
105.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
105.1
105.1

115.5
108.3
108.3
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
108.3
108.3

d 137.4
d 137.8
d 136.1

127.6
136.5
136.5

0145.7
ol49.2
ol52.8

137.9
144.5
146.1

166.0
166.0
166.0

177.2
189.2
188.5

133.9
133.9
133.9

126.2
126.2
126.2

130.0
130.0
130.0

<*149.3
<*151.5
<*151.3

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A pr___
May—
June___
July—
A u g ....
Sept___
Oct.......
N ov ___
Dec.......

< 135.8
*

d 135.7

<*135.5

d 135.3

<*136.8
<*141.3
<*140.6
<*143.5
<*145.0

19 10.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

« Shingles: white pine, 18 inches long.
6 Shingles: Michigan white pine, 16 inches long, X X X X . For method of computing relative price, see
pages 415 and 416.
c For method of computing relative price, see pages 415 and 416.
<Including pine: yellow, flooring. See explanation, page 416.
*




578

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U B E A U OP LABOB.

T a b l e I I I . —Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,

AND M ONTHLY R E L A T IV E PRIC ES FROM JA N U A RY, 1909, TO M ARCH
1910—Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Drugs and chemicals.
Year or
Alcohol:
month. Alcohol: wood,
grain. refined,
95 per
cent.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Alum:
lump.

Brim­ GlycerOpium:
Muriatic natural, Quinine:
stone:
Ameri­
acid:
crude, refined.
in
20°.
can.
seconds.
cases.

Sul­
phuric
acid:
66°.

Average,
drugs
and
chemi­
cals.

92.5
98.9
95.6
97.3
96.1
104.0
102.7
101.6
103.8
107.6
106.5
109.7
107.4
106.9
108.6
108.3
110.0
112.6
117.7
116.8

119.2
121.6
136.0
135.4
75.5
90.9
89.1
72.9
78.6
80.8
83.9
64.2
67.3
62.0
61.6
70.8
73.4
41.8
44.8
52.4

109.0
94.6
95.8
104.2
101.2
95.8
98.2
99.4
98.8
100.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
103.6
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

102.2
138.2
116.7
90.5
80.1
75.5
86.8
97.2
110.7
102.1
102.2
106.3
113.2
107.9
105.2
102.8
107.1
103.9
105.3
106.3

126.3
109.9
99.8
96.2
85.3
86.1
119.4
93.5
88.5
95.0
108.3
107.5
103.2
103.4
99.8
88.5
80.7
98.9
106.6
121.5

100.0
94.2
116.3
97.1
84.6
79.8
72.1
104.8
123.1
129.8
129.8
144.2
161.5
153.8
153.8
153.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
128.8

111.0
82.4
70.8
101.3
96.8
78.0
88.6
99.2
141.6
130.2
135.6
136.8
120.0
130.6
116.5
128.5
125.0
209.6
199.8
195.3

133.1
102.0
88.7
87.4
106.5
102.0
97.8
74.3
87.2
120.9
135.2
123.0
104.7
102.6
94.8
85.4
67.4
72.2
63.7
57.2

98.9
91.0
106.7
95.5
82.0
78.7
78.7
106.7
127.0
134.8
134.8
140.4
146.1
142.7
144.9
139.3
112.4
112.4
114.6
112.4

110.2
103.6
102.9
100.5
89.8
87.9
92.6
94.4
106.6
111.3
115.7
115.2
114.2
112.6
110.0
109.1
101.2
109.6
110.4
112.4

118.3
116.0
116.0
116.0
115.6
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
116,5
116.5

52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
54.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4
52.4

104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8

106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3

117.9
114.4
112.6
109.0
105.4
112.6
125.1
128.7
130.5
132.2
134.0
135.8

129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
129.8
125.0
125.0

184.3
185.4
184.3
186.4
180.1
180.1
178.0
169.5
186.4
211.8
243.6
254.2

61.0
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
66.9
56.9
56.9
56.9
56.9

112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4
112.4

112.2
110.9
110.6
110.3
109.5
110 5
111.8
111.7
112.9
114.7
116.3
117.2

116.5
116,5
116.5

52.4
52.4
52.4

104.8
104.8
104.8

106.3
106.3
106.3

137.6
141.2
143.0

125.0
125.0
125.0

243.6
239.4
230.9

56.9
56.9
56.9

112.4
112.4
112.4

116.7
116.8
116.4

1909.
Jan----F e b ....
M ar....
Apr___
M ay....
June...
July....
Aug—
S ep t...
Oct___
Nov___
D ec___
1910.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___




579

WHOLESALE PRICES, 1890 TO M ARC H , 1910,

T a b l e III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910— Continued.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
House furnishing goods.
Earthenware.

Furniture.

Year or
month.
Plates,
creamcolored.
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Plates,
white
granite.

Teacups
Chairs,
and sau­
Bedroom bedroom, Chairs,
cers, white Average.
sets.
maple. kitchen.
granite.

Tables,
kitchen.

Aver­
age.

108.0
105.6
102.3
102.3
101.0
94.6
92.0
92.0
100.4
101.7
106.6
112.5
112.5
115.4
113.8
106.6
106.6
106.6
104.0
104.0

109.1
106.9
103.7
103.7
101.9
92.9
89.1
89.1
100.8
102.9
108.1
113.8
113.8
111.4
110.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

109.6
107.4
104.2
104.2
102.8
94.4
90.1
90.1
98.0
99.2
104.3
109.7
109.7
107.4
106.4
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

108.9
106.6
103.4
103.4
101.9
94.0
90.4
90.4
99.7
101.3
106.3
112.0
112.0
111.4
110.2
102.6
102.6
102.6
101.7
101.7

113.7
113.7
113.7
104.2
104.2
94.3
82.9
82.9
94.7
95.7
106.6
106.6
111.3
115.3
116.1
117.0
122.8
137.4
134.3
132.8

113.0
113.0
110.6
110.6
96.9
96.9
96.9
80.7
82.7
98.9
129.1
113.0
118.4
127.8
129.1
129.1
143.9
161.4
152.0
145.3

109.8
109.8
111.1
111.1
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
86.6
105.7
136.1
124.2
128.5
130.7
124.7
124.2
134.0
151.4
156.8
145.9

103.9
103.9
103.9
103.9
98.7
98.7
95.6
95.6
95.6
100.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
108.1
114.3
124.7
124.7
124.7

110.1
110.1
109.8
107.5
97.8
95.4
91.7
87.7
89.9
100.1
120.0
113.0
116.6
120.5
119.5
119.6
128.8
143.7
142.1
137.7

104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
104.0

102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4
102.4

98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8
98.8

101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7

131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
131.3
140.4
140.4

145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3
145.3

156.8
156.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
143.8

124/7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7
124.7

139.7
139.7
136.8
136.8
136.8
136.8
136.8
136.8
136.8
136.8
139.2
139.2

104.0
104.0
104.0

102.4
102.4
102.4

98.8
98.8
98.8

101.7
101.7
101.7

140.4
140.4
140.4

145.3
145.3
145.3

143.8
143.8
143.8

124.7
135.1
135.1

139.2
142.0
142.0

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....
A p r ....
M a y ....
June___
July—
Aug—
Sept.. . .
Oct.......
N ov___
D e c ... .
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___

43431—No. 87—10---- 14




580

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U B E A U OF LABOR.

III.— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COM M ODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
Y
A N D M O N T H L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM J A N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH)
1910— Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 4X to 430. Average price for 1390-1899=100.0.]
6
House furnishing goods.
Glassware.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903___
1904....
1905___
1906___
1907....
1908....
1909....

Pitch­
Nap­
ers,
pies, ^-gallon,
4-inch.
com­
mon.

Tum­
blers,
£-pint,
com­
mon.

Table cutlery.

Woodenware.

Knives
and
Aver­ Carvers,
Aver­ Pails, Tubs, Aver­
stag
oak­
oak­
forks,
age. handies. cocobolo age. grained. grained. age.
handles.

Average>
house
fur­
nishing
goods.

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
89.3
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
108.9
104.5

106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
106.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
110.6
110.6
110.6
97.9
89.4
89.4
89.4
82.0
84.8

101.4
112.7
107.0
107.0
107.0
104.2
101.4
95.8
90.1
73.2
101.4
101.4
104.2
99.5
90.1
84.5
84.5
84.5
74.6
75.6

105.0
108.7
106.8
106.8
106.8
105.9
99.0
90.1
88.2
82.5
91.9
112.3
113.3
111.7
104.3
99.6
99.6
99.6
88.7
88.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
118.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
100.0
93.8
93.8

127.9
127.9
113.0
90.8
90.8
90.8
90.8
82.5
90.8
94.9
94.9
107.3
107.3
107.3
110.0
110.4
99.8
107.0
89.4
82.5

114.0
114.0
106.5
104.8
95.4
95.4
95.4
88.2
92.3
94.4
94.4
100.6
100.6
100.6
101.9
102.1
96.8
103.5
91.8
88.3

122.6
111.6
103.9
101.1
96.9
86.3
97.2
95.6
87.3
97.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
122.2
130.9
130.9
130.9
151.7
161.7
147.6

122.5
116.3
103.9
97.1
95.6
92.8
92.8
92.8
92.8
93.4
107.0
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
107.6
118.8
122.5
122.5

122.6
114.0
103.9
99.1
96.3
89.6
95.0
94.2
90.1
95.5
111.0
113.5
113.5
114.9
119.3
119.3
119.3
135.3
141.9
135.7

111.1
110.2
106.5
104.9
100.1
96.5
94.0
89.8
92.0
95.1
106.1
110.9
112.2
113.0
111.7
109.1
111.0
118.5
114.0
111.7

107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2

89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
89.4
85.1
85.1
85.1
85.1
76.6
76.6
76.6

84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
84.5
67.6
67.6
67.6
73.2
73.2
67.6
67.6

94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8
86.6
86.6
86.6
86.4
83.3
81.1
81.1

93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8
93.8

82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5
82.5

88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3
88.3

161.7
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3
146.3

122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5
122.5

141.9
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1
135.1

114.5
113.7
113.1
113.1
113.1
110.8
110.8
110.8
110.7
109.9
109.8
109.8

98.2
98.2
98.2

68.1
68.1
68.1

78.2
67.6
67.6 . 78.2
78.2
67.6

93.8
93.8
93.8

82.5
82.5
82.5

88.3
88.3
88.3

146.3
146.3
146.3

122.5
122.5
122.5

135.1
135.1
135.1

109.1
109.7
109.7

1909.
Jan.......
F e b ....
Mar___
A pr___
May—
June___
July—
Aug----Sept___
Oct.......
N ov___
Dec.......
1910.
Jan.......
F e b ....
M a r ....




581

W H O L E S A L E P R IC E S, 1890 TO M A R C H , 1910,

I I— E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES O F COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
I. Y
AND M ON THLY R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO MARCH,
1910—Continued.

T able

[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.J
Miscellaneous.
Yearor
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Cotton­
seed meal.

Cotton­
seed oil:
summer
yellow,
prime.

Paper.
Jute: raw.

Malt:
western
made.

News.

Wrapping, Average.
mamla.

Proof.
spirits.

106.4
114.8
107.9
117.0
102.7
86.1
90.8
93.1
86.5
94.7
116.3
113.9
123.5
121.6
119.3
120.0
138.4
130.7
133.8
145.9

113.2
117.2
101.4
149.5
106.4
89.4
82.6
77.7
75.2
87.5
116.8
117.3
133.6
130.7
103.0
88.6
118.7
160.0
134.4
144.5

108.1
103.3
132.3
96.4
96.1
77.7
88.9
103.9
92.5
101.7
121.2
111.4
122.0
129.2
123.7
151.0
204.5
184.4
140.4
120.7

106.7
131.9
114.0
110.3
105.9
97.5
80.1
77.4
87.7
88.5
93.0
106.0
112.7
103.1
96.1
87.5
92.1
147.2
132.7
111.9

127.8
113.7
113.7
106.4
108.0
103.0
92.0
90.6
73.2
69.9
94.0
75.6
80.9
84.6
89.3
80.9
73.2
83.3
82.9
68.6

104.0
104.0
100.9
104.7
105.6
106.0
106.3
106.3
83.0
79.2
86.8
90.8
89.9
95.1
95.8
94.9
90.4
91.5
90.4
85.9

115.9
108.9
107.3
105.6
106.8
104.5
99.2
98.5
78.1
74.6
90.4
83.2
85.4
89.9
92.6
87.9
81.8
87.4
86.7
77.0

91.6
96.1
93.5
93.2
98.5
105.3
104.6
102.9
106.3
108.0
168.4
111.8
114.3
111.4
110.4
109.7
112.0
114.2
118.0
118.1

131.4
132.5
134.8
141.6
145.0
154.1
154.1
154.1
154.1
139.3
150.7
158.7

130.6
138.0
135.5
132.7
138.8
141.7
140.0
133.0
144.2
150.7
173.7
175.4

123.3
113.8
128.3
118.8
118.8
113.8
118.8
118.8
123.3
128.3
123.3
118.8

106.7
109.5
109.5
110.3
119.5
124.5
113.8
113.8
107.4
103.9
105.3
118.8

76.3
76.3
75.3
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
66.2
65.2

85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9
85.9

81.0
81.0
80.5
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.8
75.3

117.8
117.4
117.4
117.4
117.4
118.8
119.1
119.1
119.1
118.3
117.4
117.4

165.7
165.7
163.9

184.8
171.3
181.9

123.4
118.8
118.8

124.5
121.6
118.8

65.2
65.2
64.5

85.9
85.9
85.9

75.1
75.1
74.8

117.4
117.4
117.4

19 09.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M a y ...
Ju n e...
J u ly .. .
A u g ....
S ep t...
Oct___
Nov___
Dec___
19 10.
J a n ....
F e b ....
Mar___




582

B U L L E T IN OP T H E B U R E A U OP LABOR,

Table I I I — Y E A R L Y R E L A T IV E PRICES OF COMMODITIES, 1890 TO 1909,
AN D M O N TH LY R E L A T IV E PRICES FROM JA N U A R Y , 1909, TO M ARCH,
1910—Concluded.
[For explanation and discussion of this table, see pages 416 to 430. Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]
Miscellaneous.
Year or
month.

1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....
1909....

Tobacco.
Rope: manila.

Rubber:
Para
Island.

160.0

Soap: castile, mot­
tled, pure.

Starch:
laundry.
Plug.

Smoking,
granulated. Average.

Average,
miscella­
neous.

122.9
98.4
82.4
78.7
71.1
67.6
90.1
117.1
141.3
116.9
144.3
122.7
125.4
127.9
134.0
138.1
108.7
90.0

104.6
98.8
84.5
89.5
84.2
92.7
99.9
105.6
115.8
124.3
122.6
106.1
90.8
113.1
135.8
155.2
151.5
132.8
108.8
185.0

104.4
109.1
109.7
108.1
103.3
89.1
88.2
93.3
96.7
98.1
107.7
115.1
116.5
115.6
113.7
114.2
114.2
117.9
123.0
183.1

106.6
122.4
107.2
105.2
105.2
104.3
89.1
86.2
86.2
86.2
97.7
104.3
130.5
123.9
106.0
94.5
105.5
116.1
124.4
123.3

102.2
101.2
94.0
100.1
101.0
101.0
96.1
94.9
104.3
105.4
111.9
117.6
114.6
113.6
118.6
123.7
122.0
118.6
118.6
118.6

98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
98.2
104.1
110.0
110.0
110.0
109.9
112.0
114.4
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

111.0

113.8
112.3
112.8
116.5
120.8
120.0
118.3
118.3
118.3

110.3
109.4
106.2
105.9
99.8
94.5
91.4
92 1
92.4
97.7
109.8
107.4
114.1
113.6
111.7
112.8
121.1
127.1
119.9
125.9

95.1
89.7
89.7
89.7
92.4
92.4
89.7
89.7
89.7
87.0
87.0
88.3

144.2
144.2
151.7
148.0
153.9
166.7
178.6
230.4
213.6
247.9
226.1
214.2

131.8
131.8
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3
193.3

114.9
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
129.3
114.9
114.9
114.9
114.9

118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6
118.6

117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9
117.9

118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3
118.3

117.1
117.9
124.0
122.3
124.4
126.4
126.7
130.6
128.7
130.8
131.1
131.4

88.3
85.7
85.7

211.7
223.6
249.2

193.3
193.3
193.3

114.9
114.9
114.9

118.6
118.6
118.6

117.9
117.9
117.9

118.3
118.3
118.3

131.8
130.6
132.2

11
1 .1

100.2
99.7
96.1
99.2
99.6
99.6
97.2
96.6
104.2
107.7

19 09.
Jan___
F e b ....
Mar___
Apr___
M ay....
Ju ne...
July....
A u g....
Sept....
Oct___
Nov___
Dec___
19 10.
Jan___
F e b ....
M ar....




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS
IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING
FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
B Y ETHELBERT STEWART.

The purpose of this article is to present as concisely as possible the
union rates of wages and union hours of labor for organized house
carpenters throughout the English-speaking countries of the world
during the first quarter of 1910. The sources of information are
(1) the monthly report of the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and
Joiners, and (2) the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of
America. From the latter source are derived the rates for the various
States of the United States and its island possessions and for a number
of places in Canada. From the Amalgamated Society, which is an
English organization, come the rates for England and Wales, Ireland,
Scotland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and partially for
Canada.
Both organizations have local unions or branches in Canada and
in the United States. Where both exist, the rates for the two
unions correspond. The rates for the Amalgamated Society are
those given in the report to members for April, 1910, and represent
the rates for March. The rates for the United States are current
March rates.
Only one report is given for a city or town regardless of the number
of local unions or branches such city may contain; hence the number
of entries here can not be taken even as an index of the number of
unions. To illustrate, the single entry of “ London and district”
covers the facts for 76 different local branches with a combined
membership of 5,043 persons; the “ Liverpool district” comprises
16 local branches with 1,280 members; so, too, in Chicago, New
York, and many other cities, the rate is for a considerable number
of local unions and a •
correspondingly large number of persons.
Being union rates, they may, with reason, be considered the highest
prevailing rates with lowest prevailing working hours in the local­
ities named. The hours per week here reported are those for the
summer months. In winter in a few localities in Great Britain the
hours are slightly less, the hourly rate remaining the same. It will
be noted that throughout Great Britain a shorter day on Saturday
is practically universal regardless of the length of the regular full
day, or the working day from Monday to Friday. To accomplish




583

584

B U L L E T IN OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

this Saturday half holiday, the British workman will work long and
unusual hours for five days.
It should be remembered that the “ two break system” is still
quite common in Great Britain outside the largest cities. This system
involves an arrangement of hours entirely unknown in this country.
B y “ two breaks” is meant two stoppages for meals during the work­
ing day, one for breakfast and one for the noon meal. Under the
“ two break” system a man begins work at 6 a. m., works until 8.30,
when he takes thirty minutes for breakfast; beginning his labors at 9
and working until 1 o ’clock p. m., or six and one-half hours as a
“ forenoon’s ” work. His midday meal hour is a full hour, from 1 to
2 p. m. Beginning work again at 2, he works until 6 p. m., or four
hours, having put in ten and one-half hours of labor, or if he quits
at 5 o ’clock, which is more usual, he has put in nine and one-half
hours, or if at 5.30, he has put in ten hours. It is the “ two breaks”
and the long “ forenoons” that disturb the comparison of hours
with those of the United States.
The tables which follow will, it is believed, be sufficiently clear in
themselves; the arrangement is by States and cities alphabetically;
the hours of labor for a full day, that is from Monday to Friday, are
given in the first column, and the hours for a full week in the second;
where the hours given in the second are less than six times the first,
the difference results from shorter hours on Saturday. The hourly
rate is followed by a column showing rate or earnings for a full week’s
work.
Wages of carpenters are so thoroughly controlled by local condi­
tions that no summaries can be made. It will be understood that
while the organizations above named are international in character,
the rates and hours are controlled entirely by local unions; that is,
no effort is made to secure uniform hours or rates over a given terri­
tory beyond that of the local union.
W AGES AND HOURS OF LABO R OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

UNITED STATES.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Alabama:
Bessemer................
Birmingham..........
Demopolis..............
Florence.................
Mobile....................
Montgomery..........
Selma.....................
Sheffield.................
West Blocton........
Wood lawn.............
Wylam...................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

8
8
9
9
9
10
9
9
9
8
8




48
48
54
54
54
60
54
54
54
48
48

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

$0.40 $19.20
.40 19.20
.27| 15.00
.28 15.12
.35 18.90
.30 18.00
.334 18.00
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.40 19.20
.40 19.20

Alaska:
Nome.....................
Arizona:
Bisbee....................
Clifton....................
Douglas..................
Globe......................
Prescott.................
Tucson...................
Arkansas:
'* Argenta..................
Clarksville..............

10

60

8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
48
48
48

$1.00 $60.00
.564
.50
.50
.561
.50
•561

8
8

48
48

.33| 16.20
.37* 18.00

27.00
24.00
24.00
27.00
24.00
27.00

585

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF LABOR OF U N I O N C A R P E N T E R S.

W AGES AND HOURS OF LABO R OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES-Continued.

UNITED STATES—Continued.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Arkansas—Concluded.
Fayetteville...........
Fort Smith..........
T ftrtman _
T
Hope......................
Hot Springs.........
Little R ock............
Midland.................

9

8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8

9
9

8

9
California:

Davis.....................

Fresno___ .............
Gilroy
Half Moon B ay—
T an ford
T
Hollister.................
Lakfvport..............
Lindsay.................
Lodi......................
Los Angeles and
distriot-. .
Los Gatos__
Martinez................
Marysville..............
Menlo Park...........
Monrovia ..
Monterey................
Morgan Hill...........
Mountain View___
Oakland.................
Oroville..................
Pacific Grove.........
Palo Alto...............
Petaluma...............
Redlands................
Redondo................
Richmond..............
Riverside...............
Roseville................
Sacramento............
Salinas...................
San Bernardino_
_
San Diego..............
San Francisco and
district................
San Jose.................
San Luis Obispo...
San Mateo..............
San Pedro..............
San Rafael.............
Santa Ana..............
Santa Barbara.......
Santa Cruz.............
Santa Monica........
Santa Rosa............
Sausalito................
Sunnyvale.............
Stockton................
Vallejo...................
Visalia....................
Watsonville...........
Willits....................




8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

54
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
54
54
48
54

|0.364 $19.68
.37| 18.00
.37} 18.00
.27f 15.00
.40 19.20
.31} 15.00
.45 21.60
.35 16.80
.31} 15.00
•?(Ji 16.20
18. 0
0
.I ? ! 18.00
18.90
.35'

48
48
48
48
44
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48

,43|
.50
.50
.431
.62}
.« T
.444
.50
.43|
.50
.43|
.50
.374

48
44
48
48
44
48
48
48
44
44
48
48
44
48
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
44

.50
.50
.564
.43|
.50
,43|
.50
.45
.564
.624
.50
.50
.624
. 434
•43f
. 434
!624
.43f
.50
.50
.50
.431
.43|

44
44
48
44
48
44
48
48
44
48
48
44
44
44
48
48
48
48

!43f

.624
.60
.374
.624
.50
.624
.374
.461
.50
.50
.50
.624
.564
.50
.50
.50

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

21.00
22.00
21.00

24.00

27.50
24.00
24.00
24.00

21.00
21.00
24.00

24.00
18.00

21.00
21.00
24.00

22.00
21.00
22.00
21.00
27.00

24.00
21.60
24.75
27.50
24.00
24.00
27.50
21.00
21.00
21.00
30.00
21.00
24.00
22.00
24.00
21.00
21.00
27.50
26.40
18.00
27.50
24.00
27.50
18.00
22.50
22.00
24.00
24.00
27.50
24.75
22.00
27.00
21.00
24.00
24.00

Colorado:
Boulder..................
Canon City............
Colorado City........
Colorado Springs..
Cripple Creek.........
Denver...................
Fort Collins...........
Golden...................
Grand Junction...
Lafayette...............
La Junta................
Las Animas...........
Leadville................
Littleton................
Loveland................
Ouray.....................
Pueblo...................
Rocky Ford..........
Salida.....................
Silverton................
Trinidad................
Connecticut:
Branford................
Bridgeport.............
Bristol....................
Danbury................
Danielson...............
Derby.....................
Fairfield.................
Greenwich.............
Hartford................
Meriden.................
Middletown...........
New Britain..........
New Canaan..........
New Haven...........
New London.........
New Milford..........
Norwalk................
Norwich.................
Putnam.................
Ridgefield..............
South Manchester.
Stamford................
Thompson ville___
Torrington.............
Unionville.............
Wallingford...........
Waterbury............
Willimantic...........
Delaware:
Wilmington...........
District of Columbia:
Washington...........
Florida:
Apalachicola..........
Arcadia..................
Bradentown...........
Carrabella..............
Clear Water...........
Daytona.................
De Land................
Eustis.....................
Femandina............
Gainesville.............
Greensboro............
Jacksonville...........
Key West..............
Kissimmee............
Lakeland..............
Miami.....................
Mulberry...............

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
44
44
48
44
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
48
48

$0.50 $24.00
.431 21.00
.50 22.00
.50 22.00
.50 24.00
.60 26.40
.45 21.60
.50 24.00
.50 24.00
.43f 21.00
.50 24.00
.43f 21.00
.50 24.00
.50 24.00
.43| 21.00
.50 24.00
.50 22.00
.431 21.00
.50 24.00
.56} 27.00
.50 24.00

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9

48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
44
48
48
44
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
54

.37}
. 4o|
.37}
.374
.25'

18.00
19.36
18.00
18.00
13.50
18.00
16.50
.47 22.56
.44 19.36
.37} 18.00
.37} 1&00
.41 18.04
16.50
*4oI 19.50
; 344 16.50
127 15.00
I
.37} m o o
.37} 18.00
.28} 13.50
21.00
*.35 16.80
.37} m o o
.37} m o o
.34} 16.50
.31} 13.75
.35 16.80
.37* 18.00
.27} 15.00

8

48

.40

19.20

8

48

.50

24.00

9
9
8
10
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
10

54
54
48
60
*48
48
48
48
48
54
54
48
48
48
48
48
60

.38§
.25
.34|
.25
.31}
.37}
.25
.31}
.31}

21.00
13.50
16.50
15.00
15.00
18.00
13.50
15.00
15.00
16.50
13.50
15.00
18.00
13.50
12.00
21.00
15.00

.*25*
.31}
.37}
.25
.25
.43}
.25

586

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR,

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABO R OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.

UNITED STATES-Continued.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Florida—Concluded.
Ocala......................
Orlando.................
Palatka..................
Pensacola...............
Sanford..................
St. Augustine........
St. Petersburg.......
Sarasota....... 7........
Tampa...................
Titusville...............
Wauchula..............
West Palm Beach.
Georgia:
Athens...................
Atlanta..................
Augusta.................
Brunswick.............
Douglas..................
Macon.....................
Rom e.....................
Savannah..............
Thomas ville..........
Waycrosse..............
Hawaiian Islands:
Honolulu................
Idaho:
Boise......................
Caldwell.................
Coeur d’Alene.......
Lewiston................
Moscow..................
Mountain Home...
Nampa...................
Pocatello................
St. Maries..............
Sandpoint..............
Twin Falls.............
Wallace..................
Weiser....................
Illinois:
Aledo.....................
A lton.....................
Auburn..................
Aurora...................
Batavia..................
Beardstown...........
Beckemeyer..........
Belleville...............
Benton...................
Bloomington.........
Breese.....................
Cairo......................
Canton...................
Carbondale............
Carlyle...................
Carriers Mills.........
Carterville..............
Centralia................
Champaign............
Charleston..............
Cherry....................
Chester...................
Chicago..................
Chicago Heights...
Coal City................
Coffeen...................
Collinsville............
Coulterville............
Danville.................
Decatur.................
De Kalb.................
Depue....................
De Soto..................
Dixon.....................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

10
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
9
9

8
9
9

10
9
9
9
9

8

9
9

8
8
8
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
8

10
8
10
8
8
9
8
8
9
8
8




8
8
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
8
9

60
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
54
54
48

Full
week.

$0.25 $15.00
.34| 16.50
.311 15.00
.311 15.00
.35 16.80
.371 18.00
.371 18.00
.271 15.00
.41 19.68
16.50
.27* 15.00
.43§ 21.00

54
54
60
54
54
54
54
48
54
54

.27*
.30
.25
.33$

.27* 15.00
10.50
. 3lf 15.00
.271 15.00
.275 15.00

44

.50

22.00

48
48
48
48
54
54
48
48
48
54
48
48
48

.45
:S t
.50
.50
.40
.40
.431
.50
.50
.471
.50
.621
.45

21.60

60
48
60
48
48
54
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
54
44
44
54
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
48
54

.25
.45
.30
.40
.40
.30
.371
.50
.35
.371
.35
.34#
.35
.371
.27
.275
.30
.40
.35
.35
.30
.30
.621
.621
.30

15.00
16.20
15.00
18.00

12.00

21.00

24.00
24.00
21.60
21.60

21.00

24.00
24.00
25.50
24.00
30.00
21.60

15.00
19.20
18.00
19.20
19.20
16.20
18.00
24.00
18.90
18.00
16.80
16.50
16.80
18.00
14.58
15.00
16.20
19.20
18.90
18.90
16.20
16.20
27.50
27.50
16.20
15.00
22.50
.40 19.20
.40 19.20
.40 21.60
.35 18.90
.331 18.00
.35 16.80
.30 16.20

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Illinois—Concluded.
Dnquoin................
East St. Louis.......
E dwardsville.........
Effingham.............
Eldorado................
Elgin......................
Evanston...............
Ewing.....................
Flora......................
Freeburg...............
Freeport.................
Galena....................
Galesburg..............
Geneseo..................
Gillespie.................
Girard....................
Granite City..........
Granville................
Greenup.................
Harrisburg.............
Havana..................
Herrin....................
Hillsboro................
Hoppeston.............
Jacksonville...........
Jerseyville..............
Johnson City.........
Joliet......................
Kankakee..............
Kewanee................
Lake Forest...........
La Salle.................
Lewiston................
Lincoln...................
Litchfield...............
Marion...................
Marissa...................
Marseilles....
Mascoutah.............
Mattoon.................
Mendnta...............
Metropolis..............
Moline....................
Monmonth.............
Morris.....................
M o u n d s___
Mount Carmel
Mount Olive..........
Mount Vernon ..
Murphy sboro___
New Athens..........
New Baden...........
Nokomis................
North Chicago.. .
Odin.......................
O’ Fallon................
Oglesby..................
Ottawa...................
Pana.......................
Pekin.....................
Peoria.....................
Percy ..................
Pern
..............
Pinckneyville........
P o n tia c ___ _
Princeton ..
Q u in cy .................
Raleigh..................
Rantoni...............
Reeves...................
Rochelle.................
Rockford___
Rock Island...........
St. Charles.............

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
9
9
9
9

8
8
8
9
8
9
10
8
9
8
9

9
9

8
9
8
8
9
8

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
8
10
9
10
8
8
8

48
44
48
54
48
48
44
54
54
54
54
48
48
54
48
54
48
54
60
48
54
48
54
54
48
54
48
48
54
48
44
48
48
54
48
48
48
54
54
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
54
48
54
48
54
54
54
44
48
48
48
54
54
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
54
48
60
54
60
48
48
48

$0.42* $20.40
.60 26.40
.40 19.20
.27| 15.00
•34| 16.50
.40 19.20
.60 26.40
.27| 15.00
.30 16.20
.33$ 18.00
. 33 18.00
I
.30 14.40
.37$ 18.00
.30 16.20
.45 21.60
.35 18.90
.50 24.00
.37 19.98
.25 15.00
.40 19.20
.35 18.90
.37$ 18.00
.35 18.90
.35 18.90
0
.37$ 18 0
.271 15.00
.37$ 18.00
.45 21.60
.30 16.20
.37$ 18.00
.62* 27.50
.40* 19.20
.30 14.40
.33$ 18.00
.37$ 18.00
.37$ 18.00
.40 19.20
.33* 18.00
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.27* 15 0
! 0
. 37 is! 0
I
0
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.33$ 18.00
.30 16.20
.40 19.20
.30 16.20
40 19! 2
0
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.35 18.90
.60 26.40
.35 16.80
.37$ 18.00
.38 18.24
.33$ 18.00
.35 18.90
.35 16.80
.45 21.60
.35 16.80
.40 19.20
.33$ 18.00
.35 18.90
.31* 16.80
.35 18.90
.25 12.00
.27* 16.50
.33$ 18.00
.30 18.00
.35 16.80
.37$ 18.00
.40 19.20

587

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF U N IO N CARPENTERS.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
U N IT E D

S T A T E S — Continued.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Illinois—Concluded.
Salem..................
Sandoval............
Savanna..............
Seatonville.........
Shelbyville.........
Sparta.................
Springfield.........
Spring V a lle y ...
Streator..............
Sycamore...............
Tamaroa................
Taylorville.............
Toluca....................
Urbana...................
Virden...................
Waukegan.............
West Frankfort....
Wheaton................
Willisville..............
Wilmington...........
Witt.......................
Indiana:
Alexandria............
Anderson...............
Bedford..................
Bicknell.................
B loom in gton ...;..
Boonville...............
Brazil.....................
Carlisle...................
Columbus..............
Crawfordsville.......
Crown Point..........
East Chicago.
Elkhart........
Elwood........
Evansville...
Farmersburg.
Fort Wayne.
Frankfort....
Hammond.......
Huntingburg..
Kokomo..........
Indianapolis...
Indian Harbor.
Jasonville........
Jeffersonville..
Lafayette.........
Laporte...........
Lewis..............
Linton.............
Logansport___
Madison...........
Marion............
Mishawaka___
Mount Vernon.
Muncie............
New Albany...
Oakland City..
Petersburg___
Princeton........
Richmond.......
Rochester........
Shelburn.........
South B e n d ...
Sullivan..........
Tell City..........
Terre Haute...
Tipton.............
Tolleston.........
Valparaiso.......

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

8
8
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
8
9
9

48
48
54
54
54
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
54
54
48
48
54
54
48
54
54

8
8
9
8
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
8
9
9
9
8
10
8
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
8
10

48
48
54
48
54
48
48
54
54
54
54
54
44
54
48
48
54
54
54
44
60
44
54
54
48
44
54
54
54
54
54
48
54
54
48
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
48
54
44
60




80.35 816.80
.40 19.20
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
. 33 18.00
*
.37* 18.00
.40 19.20
.40 19.20
.40 19.20
.35 18.90
.33* 18.00
.40 21.60
.33* 18.00
.41* 22.50
.35 16.80
.56* 27.00
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.35 16.80
.40 21.60
.40 21.60
.33f
.35
.33*
.40
.30
.35
.37*
.30
.27*
.30
.35
.33*
.50
.27*
.35
.40
.30
.35
.30
.55
.25
.50
.25
.33*
.40
.60
.35
.30*
.35
.33*
.30
.37*
.30
.25
.35
.33*
.30
.38
.31*
.25
.35
.33*
.30
.27*
.37*
.35
.33*
.25
.35
.30
.50
.35

full Full
Full
ay. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

16.20
16.80
18.00
19.20
16.20
16.80
18.00
16.20
15.00
16.20
18.90
18.00
22.00
15.00
16.80
19.20
16.20
18.90
16.20
24.20
15.00
24.00
13.50
18.00
19.20
26.40
18.90
16.50
18.90
18.00
16.20
18.00
16.20
13.50
16.80
18.00
16.20
20.52
15.00
13.50
18.90
18.00
16.20
15.00
18.00
ia90
18.00
13.50
16.80
16.20
22.00
1&00

Indiana—Concluded.
Vincennes...........
Wabash..............
Warsaw..............
Washington.......
Whiting..............
Winslow.............
Iowa:
Boone.................
Burlington.........
Cedar R apids....
Centerville..........
Clinton................
Council B luffs...
Creston...............
Davenport..........
Des Moines.........
Dubuque............
Grinnell..............
Iowa City...........
Marion................
Marshalltown....
Muscatine...........
Mystic.................
Oelwein..............
Oskaloosa...........
Ottumwa............
Sioux City..........
Waterloo............
Kansas:
Argentine...........
Arkansas C ity ...
Atchison.............
Caney.................
Chanute..............
Coffeyville...........
Dodge City.........
Emporia.............
Eureka...............
Fort Scott...........
Frontenac...........
Girard.................
Horton................
Hutchinson........
Independence...
Iola......................
Kansas City.......
Lawrence............
Leavenworth___
Manhattan.........
Neodesha............
Parsons...............
Pittsburg............
Pratt...................
Topeka................
West Mineral___
Wichita..............
Kentucky:
Ashland..............
Beaver Dam.......
Catlettsburg.......
Central City.......
Cloverport..........
Covington...........
Dayton...............
Erlanger..............
Ferguson............
Frankfort............
Greenville...........
Hartford.............
Henderson..........
Hopkinsville......
Latonia...............
Lexington...........
Louisville...........

9
9
9
9
8
9

54
54
54
54
44
54

9
8
8
9
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
8
9
10
9
8
9
9

54
48
48
54
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
48
54
60
54
48
54
54

.305
! 32*
. 40*
.27*
.37*
.37*
.27*
.37*
.40
.40
•34|
.27*
.30
.33*
.31*
.27*
.30
.35
.37*
.33*
.33*

16.50
15.60
19.50
15.00
18.00
18.00
15.00
18.00
19.20
19.20
16.50
15.00
16.20
18.00
15.00
15.00
18.00
18.90
18.00
18.00
18.00

8
9
9
8
8
8
9
8
9
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8

48
54
54
48
48
48
54
48
54
54
48
48
54
54
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48

.45
.30*
.30
.37*
.31*
.40
.37#
.37*
.27*
.27#
.37*
.31*
.30
•28§
.37*
.31*
.45
.31*
.42*
.33|
.341
.35
.37*
. 38s
.35
.31*
.37*

21.60
16.50
16.20
18.00
15.00
19.20
20.22
18.00
15.00
15.00
18.00
15.00
16.20
15.60
18.00
15.00
21.60
15.00
20.40
16.20
16.50
16.80
18.00
21.00
16.80
15.00
18.00

9
10
9
9
9
8
8
8
10
9
9
9
8
9
8
10
8

54
60
54
54
54
44
44
44
60
54
54
54
48
54
44
60
48

.30
.25
.30
.27#
.27*
.45
.45
.37*
.25
.27*
.27#
.25
.35
.22*
.45
.20
.37*

16.20
15.00
16.20
15.00
15.00
19.80
19.80
16.50
15.00
15.00
15.00
13.50
16.80
12.00
19.80
12.00
18.00

10.35 $18.90
.33* 18.00
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.50 22.00
.22* 12.00

588

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
U N I T E D S T A T E S — Continued.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Kentucky—Concluded.
Ludlow..................
Madisonville..........
Mayfield.................
Newport................
Owensboro............
Paducah.................
Somerset................
Louisiana:
Alexandria............
Algiers...................
Baton Rouge.........
Jennings.................
Monroe...................
New Orleans.........
Shreveport............
Maine:
Augusta.................
Bangor...................
Bar Harbor...........
Bath......................
Biddeford..............
Lewiston...............
Lisbon Falls..........
Madison.................
Millinockett...........
Portland................ /
l
Skowhegan............
Waterville.............
Maryland:
Annapolis..............
Baltimore..............
Cumberland..........
Frostburg..............
Hagerstown...........
Massachusetts:
Adams...................
Amesbury.............
Andover................
Arlington..............
Attleboro...............
Beverly.................
Boston...................
Braintree...............
Brockton...............
Brookline..............
Cambridge.............
Canton...................
Chelsea..................
Chicopee................
Clinton..................
Cohassett............. .
Concord.................
Danvers.................
Dedham................
Dorchester............
Easthampton........
Everett..................
Fall River.............
Fitchburg..............
Foxboro................
Franklin................
Gardner.................
Gloucester.............
Great Barrington..
Haverhill...............
Hingham...............
Holyoke.................
Hudson.................
Hull.......................
Hyde Park............
Lawrence..............
Lee.........................
Lenox....................

Full
week.

8
9
9
8
9
8
10

48
54
54
44
54
48
60

9
8
9
9
9
8
8

54
48
54
54
54
48
48

*33*
.45
.30
.44*
.45
.45
.45

18.00
21.60
16.20
24.00
24.30
21.60
21.60

8
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
8
9
8

48
54
48
48
48
48
48
54
54
54
48
54
48

.31*
.275
.37*
.34|
. 34§
*34|
.31*
.25
.36*
.33*
•34|
.27*
.31*

15.00
15.00
18.00
16.50
16.50
16.50
15.00
13.50
19.50
18.00
16.50
15.00
15.00

8
8
9
9
9

48
48
54
54
54

.37*
. 43|
.27*
.27*
.25

18.00
21.00
15.00
15.00
13.50

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
48
48
44
44
48
48
44
44
48
44
48
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
44
48
44
48
60
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
48

.37*
.31*
.37*
.41
.37*
.41
.47*
.41
.41
.47*
.47*
.41
.47*
.37*
.37*
.41
.37*
.37*
.43*
.47*
34|
.43*
.37*
.37*
.35
.25
.31*
.35
.37*
.37*
.41
.37*
.37*
.41
.47*
.37*
.37*
.37*

18.00
15.00
18.00
19.68
18.00
18.04
21.01
19.68
19.68
21.01
21.01
19.68
21.01
18.00
18.00
19.68
18.00
18.00
21.00
21.01
16.50
19.25
18.00
16.50
16.80
15.00
15.00
16.80
18.00
18.00
19.68
18.00
18.00
19.68
21.01
18.00
1&00
18.00




10.45 $21.60
.25 13.50
.27$ 15.00
.45 19.80
.30 16.20
.37* 18.00
.25 15.00

Pull Full
Full
ay. week. Hour. week.
Massachusetts—Conc’d,
Leominster............
Lowell....................
Lynn......................
Manchester............
Mansfield...............
Marblehead............
Marlboro................
Maynard................
Medford.................
Melrose...................
Methuen................
Milford...................
Milton....................
Nahant...................
Natick...................
Needham...............
New Bedford.........
Newburyport........
Newton..................
Newton Center___
North Adam s..
Northampton____
North Attleboro...
Northeaston..........
Norwood.............. .
Pittsfield...............
Plymouth............ .
Quincy................. .
Revere...................
Ridgewater......... .
Salem................... .
Saugus...................
Somerville.............
Southbridge..........
South Framing­
ham................... .
Springfield........... .
Stoneham..............
Stoughton............ .
Taunton............... .
Wakefield............ .
Walpole.................
Waltham...............
Ware......................
Westboro...............
Westfield...............
Whitman...............
Williamstown. . . . .
Winchester............
Winthrop..............
Woburn.................
Worcester..............
Michigan:
Alpena................. .
Ann Arbor............
Battle Creek..........
Bay C ity ............. .
Benton Harbor___
Big Rapids............
Boyne................... .
Cadillac.................
Charlevoix.............
Cheboygan........... .
Detroit................. .
Escanaba...............
Flint......................
Gladstone..............
Grand Rapids.......
Harbor Springs....
Hillsdale................
Houghton............ .
Jackson................ .
Kalamazoo............

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
44
48
48
44
44
48
44
48
48
48
44
44
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
48
44
48
44
48
48
48

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

44
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48

.41
.43*
.41
.41
.35
.37*
.41
.43*
.29*
.37*
.37*
.37*
.37*
.41
.47*
.41
.41

18.04
21.00
19.68
19.68
16.80
18.00
19.68
21.00
15.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
19.68
21.01
19.68
19.68

9
9
9
10
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
8

54
54
54
60
44
54
54
54
54
54
60
48
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
48
48

.30
.30
.33*
.30
.40
.27*
.33*
.28
.30
.35
.30
.40
.35
.30
.35
.30
.33*
.27*
.40
.31*
.35

16.20
16.20
18.00
18.00
17.60
15.00
18.00
15.12
16.20
18.90
18.00
19.20
18.90
16.20
18.90
16.20
18.00
15.00
21.60
15.00
16.80

$0.37* $18.00
.35 16.80
.41 19.68
.41 19.68
.37* 18.00
.47* 21.01
.37* 18.00
.31* 15.00
. 43* 19.25
.41 19.68
.37* 18.00
.35 15.40
.43* 19.25
.41 19.68
. 43* 19.25
.43* 21.00
.37* 18.00
.35 16.80
.47 20.68
.47 20.68
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.41 19.68
.41 18.04
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.41 19.68
.47* 21.01
.37* 18.00
.41 18.04
.41 19.68
.43* 21.00
.37* 18.00

589

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF U N IO N CARPENTERS.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
U N I T E D S T A T E S — Continued.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

10
10
8
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
8

60
60
48
48
54
54
54
48
54
54
48

.25
.35
.45
.50
.32|
.40
.35
.45
.35
.40
.31*

9

54
54
54
54
54
54
54

.25
.25
.27*
.30
.33*

13.50
13.50
15.00
16.20
18.00
:3 | 18.00
.35 18.90

54
60
54
54
54
54
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
60
60
54
48
54
48
54
54
54
54
48

.27* 15.00
.22* 13.50
.30 16.20
16.50
15.00
.27* 15.00
.27* 15.00
.40 19.20
.40 19.20
.45 21.60
.45 21.60
.35 18.90
.35 16.80
.30 18.00
.30 18.00
.30 16.20
.40 19.20
.27* 15.00
.27* 18.00
.27* 15.00
.30 16.20
.30 16.20
.27* 15.00
.40 19.20

8

44
54

.60 26.40
.33* 18.00

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48
48

.68*
.50
.62*
.75
.56*
.62*
.50
.50
.56*
.62*
.50
.62*
.50

9

9
9
9
9
9

9
10
9
9
9
9
9

8

8
8
8
9
8
10
10
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9
8




9

9
8
8
8
8

15.00
21.00
21.60
24.00
17.52
21.60
18.90
21.60
18.90
21.60
15.00

33.00
24.00
30.00
36.00
27.00
30.00
24.00
24.00
27.00
30.00
24.00
30.00
24.00

Nebraska:
Beatrice...........
Fairbury.........
Fremont..........
Grand Island..
Holdrege.........
Kearney..........
Lincoln...........
McCook...........
Nebraska City.
Omaha............
South Omaha..
Nevada:
Blair................
Ely
Manhattan.
R aw h ide...
Reno..........
R h y olite...
i'onoi
New Hampshire:
Berlin...........
Dover...........
H a n over.....
Lebanon___
Manchester..
Portsmouth.,
Rochester...
New Jersey:
Asbury Park.
Atlantic City
Atlantic Highlands
Bayonne........
Beunar..........
Bernardsville.
Bergenfield...
Caldwell.........
Camden.........
Cai
Dover.
East Orange.........
East Rutherford..
Elizabeth.............
Fort Lee...............
Hackensack.........
Haddonfield.........
Hoboken..............
Irvington..............
Jersey City...........
Kearney...............
Keyport................
Lakewood............
Long Branch.......
Madison................
Millville...............
Montclair..............
Morristown..........
Newark................
New Brunswick..
Orange.................
Passaic.................
Paterson...............
Peapack................
Perth Am boy.
PhiUipsburg...
Plainfield........
Pleasantville..
Princeton.......
Rahway..........
Ramsey...........
Red Bank.......
Ridgeway.......

8

54
54
60
60
54
54
48
54
54
44
44

10.35
.33*
.30
.35
.27*
.33*
.37*
.27*
.35
.45
.40

18.
21.
15.
18.
18.
18.
19.
19.
17.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48
48

.75
.75
.87*
1.00
1.00
.50
1.00
.50
.75

36.
36.
42.
48.
48.
24.
48.
24.
36.

9

54
48
54
54
48
48
48

.33*
.32
.30*
.30*
.31*

18.
15.
16.
16.
15.
16.
■ M 15.

48
44
48
44
48
44
44
44
44
48
44
49*
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
48
44
44
44
48
48
44
48
48
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
44
48
54
44
44
44
44
44
48
44

.43*
.45
.37*
.50
.37*
.41
.41
.41
.42*
.40
.45
.37*
.47*
.41
.47*
.45
.45
.37*
.50
.50
.50
.50
.37*
.31*
.37*
.45
.37*
.45
.45
.50
.44
.47*
.45
.47*
.41
.45
.42
.33*
.43*
.43
.45*
.41
.41
.34*
.45

9
9
10
10
9
9

8

9
9

8

8

9
9
8

8

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

iO.

19.
18.
22
18.
18.

.

18.
19.
19.
18.
20.

19.
16.
22.
24.
22
22
16.
15.
18.
19.
18.

..

88888888888

54
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
49*

G u l f p o r t .......................

Hattiesburg...........
Jackson..................
Laurel....................
McComb................
Missouri:
Aurora...................
California...............
Cape Girardeau. . .
Chaffee...................
Charleston.............
Chillicothe.............
Farmington...........
Hannibal.. . . . . __
Jefferson City........
Joplin.....................
Kansas City...........
Lexington..............
Marceline...............
Marshall.................
Maryville
....
Mexico.............. .
Moberly.................
Neosho...................
Novinger................
Poplar Bluff..........
Rich H ill...............
Sedalia...................
Sikeston.................
St. Joseph..............
St. Louis and dis­
trict.....................
Springfield. . . . . . . .
Montana:
Anaconda.... ..........
Billings..................
Boulder..................
Butte.....................
Great Falls............
Helena............
Kalispel.................
Livingston.............
Miles City..............
Missoula.................
Red Lodge.............
Roundup...............
Whitefish...............

80.30 816.20
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.32* 15.60
.30 16.20
.30 16.20
.30 16.20
.37* 18.00
.36 19.44
.30 16.20
.30* 16.50
.35 17.33

9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
9

888888888

Michigan—Concluded.
Ludington..............
Marquette..............
Mount Clemens___
Munising................
Muskegon..............
Owosso...................
Pontiac...................
Port Huron............
Saginaw.................
Sault Ste. M arie...
South Haven. - Traverse City........
Wyandotte............
Minnesota:
Austin....................
Brainerd................
Duluth...................
Minneapolis. . ____
Red W ing..............
Rochester...............
St. Cloud................
St. Paul.................
Stillwater...............
Two Harbors.........
W inona.................
Mississippi:
Brookhaven...........
Corinth..................

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

8888288

Full Full
day. week. Hour.

SSS2§8& SSSgSS8Sg8gS8gS 8888S8Sgg2£8SggS2S2888S8

State and city.

.

21

19.
22.
19.

20.

.

19.

20

18.
19.

20.

18.
19.
18.
20
18.
18.
16.
19.

.

590

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
U N IT E D

S T A T E S — Continued.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

New Jersey—Conc’d.
Roselle...................
Salem.....................
Sayreville..............
Somerville.............
Springfield.............
Summit.................
Trenton.................
Union Hill.............
Vineland................
Westfield................
West Hoboken___
Westwood..............
Wildwood..............
W oodbury.............
New Mexico:
Albuquerque.........
Clovis.....................
Estancia................
Las Vegas..............
Roswell..................
Santa F e................
Tucumcari.............
New York:
Addison.................
Albany...................
Albion....................
Alexandria B a y .. .
Amsterdam............
Auburn..................
Baldwinsville........
Ballston Spa..........
Bath.......................
Binghamton..........
Buffalo...................
Canandaigua.........
Clayton..................
Cohoes....................
Cold Springs..........
College Point.........
Corinth...................
Corning..................
Cortland.................
Dansville...............
Dobbs Ferry.........
Dunkirk.................
Elmira...................
Far Rockaway___
Fishkill..................
Fort Edward.........
Freeport, L. I .......
Fulton...................
Genoa.....................
Glens Cove............
Glens Falls............
Gloversville...........
Great Neck............
Hastings.................
Herkimer...............
Hornell...................
Hudson..................
Hion.......................
Irvington...............
Islip........................
Ithaca.....................
Johnstown.............
Kingston...............
Lancaster..............
Lindenhurst..........
Little Falls............
Mamaroneck..........
Mechanicsville.......
Middletown...........
Millbrook...............
Millerton................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Full
week.

8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9

44
54
48
48
44
44
44
44
48
44
44
48
48
54

8
9
9
8
8
9
9

48
54
54
48
48
54
54

.50
.38|
.35
.45
.50
.33$
.33$

24.00
21.00
19.20
21.60
24.00
18.00
18.00

10
8
9
9
8
8
9
8
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
9
8
9
10
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
9
9

60
48
54
54
48
48
54
48
54
48
48
54
54
44
48
44
54
48
54
60
44
54
48
44
48
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
44
48
54
54
48
44
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
44
54
48
54
54

.25
.37$
.33$
.33$
.43|
.37$
.35
.31$
•27|
.37$
.40
.30
.27$
.40
.34|
.50
.28$
.27$
.33$
.25
.46$
.27$
.31$
.50
.37$
.33$
.37$
.31$
.37$
.43|
.33$
.37$
.50
.46$
.37$
.35
.33$
.34$

15.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
21.00
18.00
18.90
15.00
15.00
18.00
19.20
16.20
15.00
17.60
16.50
22.00
15.30
15.00
18.00
15.00
20.62
15.00
15.00
22.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
15.00
18.00
21.00
18.00
18.00
22.00
20.63
18.00
18.90
18.00
10.50
20.63
21.00
15.00
18.00
18.00
18.90
18.00
15.00
21.12
18.00
18.00
18.00
16.50




10.45 $19.80
.33$ 18.00
.37$ 18.00
.37$ 18.00
.41 18.04
.45 19.80
.50 22.00
.50 22.00
.37$ 18.00
.43f 19.25
.50 22.00
.31$ 15.00
.37$ 18.00
.33$ 18.00

!43|
.31$
.37$
.37$
.35
.37$
.31$
.48
.33$
.37$
.33$
.30$

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
New York—Conc’ d.
Mount Kisco..........
Mount Morris........
Mount Vernon.......
Newark..................
Newburgh..............
New Rochelle........
NewY ork City, etc.
Niagara Falls.........
North Tonawanda.
Nyack....................
Ogdensburg...........
Olean......................
Oneida...................
Ossining.................
Oswego...................
Patchogue..............
Peekskill................
Penn Y an..............
Perry......................
Plattsburg..............
Port Chester..........
Port Jefferson.........
Port Jervis.............
Port Washington..
Poughkeepsie........
Richfield Springs..
Rochester..............
R om e.....................
R y e ........................
Sandy Hill.............
Saratoga Springs..
Sayville..................
Schenectady..........
Seneca Falls...........
Silver Springs.......
St. Johnsvilfe.........
Skaneateles............
Suffem...................
Syracuse................
Tarry town.............
Ticonderoga...........
T roy.......................
Tupper Lake.........
Tuxedo..................
Utica......................
W aldon..................
Warwick................
Watertown............
Wellesville.............
White Plains.........
W hitesboro...........
Woodside...............
Yonkers.................
North Carolina:
Asheville...............
Canton...................
Charlotte................
Durham.................
Elizabeth City.......
Greensboro............
Hendersonville___
Hickory.................
Raleigh..................
Washington...........
Waynesville...........
Wilmington...........
Winston-Salem___
North Dakota:
Bismarck...............
Devils Lake...........
Egeland.................
Fargo.....................
Grand Forks.........
Valley City............

8
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
9
10
10
9
8
8
8
9
8
10
8
8
9
9
8
9
8
8
8
8

48
54
44
54
48
44
44
48
48
48
54
54
54
48
48
48
48
54
48
54
44
48
48
44
48
54
44
48
48
54
48
48
44
54
60
60
54
44
48
44
54
44
60
44
48
54
54
48
54
48
48
44
44

9
9
10
10
9
9
9
10
8
9
9
10
10

54
54
60
60
54
54
54
60
48
54
54
60
60

.27$
.27$
.22$
.20
.22$
.22$
.25
.15
.21$

10
9
9
10
10
10

60
54
54
60
60
60

.40
.40
.35
.30
.30
.35

$0.43f $21.00
.27$ 15.00
.47 20.68
.27$ 15.00
.40 19.20
.50 22.00
.62$ 27.50
.40 19.20
.35 16.80
.40$ 19,44
.27$ 15.00
.30$ 16.50
.33$ 18.00
. 46$ 22.50
.37$ 18.00
.37$ 18.00
.45 21.60
.30$ 16.50
.31$ 15.00
.27$ 15.00
.47 20.68
.37$ 18.00
.34$ 16.50
.50 22.00
.43$ 21.00
.30 16.20
.40$ 17.88
.31$ 15.00
.47 20.68
.33$ 18.00
.31$ 15.00
. 43$ 21.00
.45 19.80
.30 16.20
.25 15.00
.25 15.00
.33$ 18.00
.41 18.04
.40 19.20
.46$ 20.63
.27$ 15.00
.40 17.60
.25 15.00
.41 18.04
.40$ 19.50
.27$ 15.00
.27$ 15.00
.35 16.80
.27$ 15.00
.47 22.56
.37$ 18.00
.50 22.00
.50 22.00
15.00
15.00
13.50
12.00
12.00
12.00
13.50
9.00
10.50
12.00
^27$ 15.00
.25 15.00
.17$ 10.50
24.00
21.60
18.90
18.00
18.00
21.00

591

W A G E S A N D H O U R S OF LABOR OF U N IO N C AR PE N TE R S.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
UNITED STATES—Continued.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Ohio:
Akron.....................
Alliance.................
Ashtabula..............
Athens...................
Bamsville..............
Bellaire...................
Bridgeport.............
Bucyrus.................
Byesville................
Cambridge.............
Canton...................
Cheviot...................
Chillicothe..............
Cincinnati..............
Cleveland (« ).........
College Hill............
Columbus..............
Conneaut................
Coshocton..............
Crooksville.............
Dayton...................
Demi......................
East Liverpool___
East Palestine.......
Elyria___
Findlay..
Fostoria..
Fremont.
Galion___
Ironton.................
Jackson..................
Kent.......................
Lisbon....................
Lockland................
Lorain....................
Madisonville..........
Mansfield...............
Marietta.................
Marion...................
Martins Ferry.......
Massillon...............
Middletown...........
Mount Vernon.......
Newark..................
New Philadelphia.
Niles.......................
Oxford...................
Painesville.............
Piqua.....................
Portsmouth...........
Rayland................
Salem.....................
Salineville..............
Sandusky..............
Springfield.............
Steubenville...........
Tiffin......................
Toledo....................
Uhrichsville...........
Van Wert..............
Warren..................
Wellston................
Wellsville..............
Willoughby...........
Youngstown.
Zanesville...
Oklahoma:
Alderson___
Anadarko...
Ardmore___

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
9
9
10
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
10
9
10
8
8
9
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
10
8
9
8
9
9
8
8

54
54
54
54
54
48
48
54
54
54
54
44
54
48
48
44
48
54
54
54
54
44
48
54
54
54
54
54
60
54
54
54
54
50
54
44
54
44
54
54
60
48
54
54
54
54
54
44
60
54
60
48
48
54
48
54
54
48
54
48
54
60
48
54
48
54
54
48
48

$0.30 $16.20
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.33* 18.00
.30 16.20
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.30 16.20
.30 16.20
.33* 18.00
.27* 15.00
.45 19.80
.27* 15.00
.45 21.60
.45 21.60
.45 19.80
.40 19.20
.35 18.90
•30f 16.50
.33* 18.00
.33* 18.00
.45 19.80
.43f 21.00
.33* 18.00
.40 21.60
.30 16.20
.25 13.50
.30* 16.50
.35 21.00
.25 13.50
.30 16.20
.33* 18.00
.25 13.50
.30 15.00
.27* 15.00
.45 19.80
.40 21.60
.45 19.80
.27* 15.00
.30* 16.50
.28 16.80
.37* 18.00
.30* 16.50
.30 16.20
.33* 18.00
.35 18.90
.30 16.20
.37* 16.50
.30 18.00
.40 21.60
.25 15.00
.31* 15.00
19.50
^33* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.33* 18.00
.30 16.20
.40* 19.50
.25 13.50
.37* 18.00
.30 16.20
.25 15.00
.37* 18.00
.27* 15.00
.43| 21.00
.40 21.60
•27* 15.00
.40* 19.50
.37* 18.00

8
8
8

48
48
48

.31* 15.00
.35 16.80
.40 19.20

Oklahoma—Conc’d.
Bartlesville............
Blackwell..............
Bokoshe.................
Chandler................
Cherokee................
Chickasha..............
Cordell...................
El Reno.................
Enid.......................
Erick......................
Howe.....................
Hugo......................
Krefes.....................
Lawton..................
McAlester..............
Muskogee..............
Nowata..................
Oklahoma..............
Okmulgee..............
Pauls Valley..........
Pawhuska..............
Poteau...................
Sallisaw.................
Sapulpa..................
Shawnee................
Sulphur.................
Tulsa......................
Wilburton.............
Woodward.............
Oregon:
Astoria...................
Baker City.............
Klamath Falls.......
Marshfield..............
Medford.................
North Bend...........
Pendleton..............
Portland................
Salem.....................
The Dalles.............
Panama (Canal Zone):
Pedro Miguel.........
Pennsylvania:
Allentown.............
Altoona..................
Amber...................
Ambridge..............
Ardmore................
Ashland.................
Bangor...................
Bellefonte..............
Berwick.................
Berwyn..................
Bethlehem.............
Bloomsburg...........
Blossburg..............
Bradford................
Bristol....................
Brownsville...........
Butler....................
Carbondale............
Chambersburg.......
Charleroi................
Chester...................
Clearfield...............
Clifton H eights....
Coatesville.............
Columbia...............
Connellsville..........
Danville.................
Donora...................
Downingtown.......
Dubois...................

a Ship carpenters, 60 hours a week, at 35 cents an hour.




8
9
8
9
8
8
9
8
8
9
9
9

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9

10
8
8
8
8
8
10
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9

10
9
8
8
9
9
9
9

8
9
9
9

8
8
8
9
8
10
8
8
9
8
9
9
9
9
8
9
9

48
54
48
54
48
48
54
48
48
54
54
54
48
48
48
48
48
44
48
48
54
54
60
44
48
48
48
48
60

$0.37* $18.00
.33* 18.00
.30 14.40
.33* 18.00
.39* 18.90
.40 19.20
.27* 15.00
.37* 18.00
.40 19.20

48
48
48
48
48
48
54
48
48
48

21.00
21.00
21.00
*4 J 21.00
. 3
.37* 18.00
21.00
*38$ 21.00

*2
?|
.30
.34|
.40
.45
.35
.37*
.50
.37*
.31*
.|7|
.27$
.39|
.40
.37*
.45
.37*
.25

12.00

15.00
16.20
16.50
19.20
21.60
16.80
18.00

22.00
18.00
15.00

20.22

18.00
16.50
17.33
19.20
18.00
21.60
18.00
15.00

.43*
.431

iso® 24.00
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00

48

.65

31.20

54
60
54
48
44
54
54
54
49*
44
54
54
54
48
48
48
54
48
60
48
48
54
44
49*
54
54
54
48
54
54

.35
,-30
.30*
.50
.45

18.90
18.00
16.50
24.00
19.80
15.00
16.50
14.58
16.50
19.80
13.50
15.12
14.10
18.00
18.00
18.00

.2 7
.33*
.45
.25
.28
137*
.37*
.37|

21.00
*311 16.50
.*0 12.00
2

18.00
19.20
15.12
19.80
16.83
16.20
16.50
15.12
18.00
15.00
:5 S 16.50

.37*
.40
.28
.45
.34
.30
•30*
.28
.37*

592

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES-Continued.
U N IT E D

S T A T E S — Continued.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Pennsylvania—Cont’d.
Easton...................
Elwood City..........
Erie........................
Falls Creek............
Forest.....................
Forty Fort.............
Franklin................
Freeland................
Germantown.........
Girardville.............
Greenville..............
Harrisburg.............
Hazleton................
Jeannette...............
Jenkintown............
Jermyn...................
Kane......................
Kittanning............
Lancaster...............
Lansford................
Latrobe..................
Lebanon................
Mahanoy...............
Mead ville...............
Media.....................
McAdoo.................
Midland.................
Milford...................
Monongahela.. .
Mount Carmel..
Monaca..............
Muncy..............
Nanti coke.........
New Brighton..
New castle.......
New Kensington..
McKees R ocks..
Norristown.......
North W ales....
Oil City............
Peckville..........
Philadelphia.........
Pittsburg and dis­
trict ....................
Pittston.................
Plymouth.
Pottstown,
Potts ville.
Punxsutawney___
lie
Ridgeway___
Ringtown . . .
Sayre.............
Scranton........
Shamokin___
Sharon...........
Shenandoah..
Stroudsburg..
Sunbury........
Tamaqua___
Taylor...........
Titusville___
Uniontown...
Warren..........
Washington..
Waynesboro.
Waynesburg.,
Weissport___
Westchester..
Wilkes-Barre.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

9
8
9
9
8
8
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
8
9
8
8
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
8
8

54
48
54
54
48
48
54
54
44
54
54
54
54
54
44
48
54
54
44
54
54
54
54
54
48
54
48
54
48
48
54
54
54
48
48
48
48
48
m
49*
54
48
44

8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
(°)
9
8
9
8
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
10
9
10
9
8

48
48
48
49*
54
54
54
54
54
(a)
54
48
54
48
54
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
48
60
54
60
49*
48

a Not reported.




Full
week.

$0.36 $19.40
•40| 19.50
.35 18.90
.30§ 16.50
. 34§ 16.50
.32* 15.60
.33* 18.00
.30 16.20
.47* 20.90
.30 16.20
«30§ 16.50
. 32* 17.52
.34 18.36
.38| 21.00
.45 19.80
.33* 15.96
.37* 20.22
.33* 18.00
.37* 16.34
.30 16.20
.35 18.90
.28* 15.24
.33 17.82
.33* 18.00
.40 19.20
.33* 18.00
.43f 21.00
.27* 15.00
.37* 18.00
.37* 18.00
.30* 16.50
19.50
15.00
15.60
19.50
19.50
22.50
’.50® 24.00
.32* 16.06
.28 13.86
.33* 18.00
.31* 15.12
.47* 20.90
.50
.32*
.32*
.25
.30*
.30
.30
.30*
.30*
(«)
.25
.37*
.27*
.42*
.25
.31*
.27*
.30
.37*
.30*
.33*
.33*
.40*
.23
.22*
.25
.36
.32*

24.00
15.60
15.60
12.38
16.50
16.20
16.20
16.50
16.50
15.00
13.50
18.00
15.00
20.40
13.50
16.80
15.00
16.20
18.00
16.50
18.00
18.00
19.50
13.80
12.00
15.00
17.82
15.60

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Pennsylvania—Conc’d .
Williamsport.........
Wilmerding...........
Y ork......................
Porto Rico:
Arroyo....................
Carolina.................
Fajardo..................
Gurabo...................
Humacao...............
Juncos....................
Ri<TMedras...........
San Juan................
San Lorenzo..........
Toa Baja................
Vega Baja..............
Yauco.....................
Rhode Island:
Central Falls.........
Newport................
Pascoag..................
Pawtucket.............
Providence............
Warren..................
Westerly................
Woonsocket...........
South Carolina:
Charleston (& ).......
Columbia...............
Gaffney..................
Laurens.................
Newberry..............
Spartanburg..........
Walterboro............
South Dakota:
Englewood............
Dead wood.............
Lead.......................
Sioux Falls............
Yankton................
Tennessee:
Chattanooga..........
Dyersburg.............
Jackson..................
Johnson City.........
Martin....................
Memphis......... .
Nashville................
Texas:
Abilene..................
Amarillo................
Austin....................
Beaumont.............
Beeville.................
Big Springs...........
Bridgeport.............
Cameron................
Childress................
Corpus Christi.......
Corsicana................
Dalhart..................
Dallas....................
Denison.................
Denton..................
El Paso..................
Fort Worth...........
Galveston..............
Georgetown...........
Greenville..............
Houston.................
Jacksonville...........
Longview..............

8
8
9

48
48
54

9
9
10
12
10
H
10
8
9
(0)9
9
10

54
54
60
66
60
66
60
48
54
(«)
54
54
60

.22*
(«)
.19*
.16*
.15

7.50
9.00
9.00
8.25
9.00
6.00
7.50
9.00
12.00
9.00
10.50
9.00
9.00

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

44
44
48
44
44
48
48
48

.41
.41
.31*
.41
.41
.35
.31*
.31*

18.04
18.04
15.00
18.04
18.04
16.80
15.00
15.00

9
9
10
10
10
10
10

54
54
60
60
60
60
60

■ M
.25
.20
.20
.17*
.17*

15.00
16.50
15.00
12.00
12.00
10.50
10.50

8
8
8
10
10

44
48
48
60
60

.50
.56*
.56*
.30
.30

22.00
27.00
27.00
18.00
18.00

8
9
9
10
9
8
9

48
54
54
60
54
44
54

.35
.33*
.27*
.25
.33*
.45
.30

16.80
18.00
15.00
15.00
18.00
19.80
16.20

54
9
8
48
8
48
8
48
8
48
8
48
8
48
54
9
54
9
8
48
8
48
8
48
8 > 48
8
48
8
48
54
9
48
8
8
48
54
9
9
54
44
8
9
54
8
48

.27*
.431
.40
.45
.37*
.40
.33*
.30
.27*
.34f
.43*
.45
.45
.43*
.31*
.45
.45
.40
.40
.33*
.50
.22*
•31*

15.00
21.00
19.20
21.60
18.00
19.20
16.20
16.20
15.00
16.50
21.00
21.60
21.60
21.00
15.00
24.30
21.60
19.20
21.60
18.00
22.00
12.00
15.00

$0.25 $12.00
.50 24.00
.25 13.50
.131
.16*
.15
.12*
.15

6 Ship carpenters, 33* cents an hour, $18 a week; full week, 54 hours.

593

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF U N IO N CARPENTERS.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
U N I T E D S T A T E S — Concluded.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Texas—Concluded.
McKinney.............
Marshall.................
Mineral Wells........
Mount Pleasant...
Nacogdoches.........
Palacios.................
Plainview..............
Port Arthur...........
Quanah..................
Rockport................
San Angelo............
San Antonio..........
San Marcos............
Sherman................
Stamford...............
Taylor....................
Teague...................
Temple...................
Terrell....................
Thurber.................
Tyler......................
Vernon...................
Victoria..................
Waco......................
Weatherford..........
Wichita Falls........
Utah:
Eureka...................
Ogden.....................
Salt Lake City.......
Vermont:
Burlington.............
Hardwick..............
Montpelier.............
Northfield..............
Rutland.................
St. Johnsbury........
Williamstown.......
Virginia:
Alexandria............
Fredericksburg___
Hampton...............
Lynchburg............
Newport News___
Norfolk..................
Portsmouth...........
Richmond..............
Roanoke................
Staunton................
Washington:
Aberdeen...............
Bellingham............
Centralia................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Full
week.

8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
8
9
9
9
8
9
8
8
9
8
9
8
8
8
9
9
8
8
9

48
48
48
48
54
54
54
54
48
54
54
54
48
54
48
48
54
48
54
48
48
48
54
54
48
48
54

$0.37* $18.00
.37* 18.00
.43| 21.00
.374 18.00
•271 15.00
.334 18.00
.33* 18.00
.40 21.60
.45 21.60
.30$ 16.50
.25 13.50
.22$ 12.00
.43f 21.00
.30$ 16.50
.45 21.60
.374 18.00
.27$ 15.00
.28$ 13.50
.30$ 16.50
.37$ 18.00
.41* 19.80
.31* 15.00
.334 18.00
.25 13.50
.40 19.20
.31* 15.00
.33$ 18.00

8
8
8

48
48
44

.50 24.00
.50 24.00
.56* 24.75

9
9
8
9
9
9
9

54
54
48
54
54
54
54

.30$
.33
.33$
.27
.33$
.27$
.33

16.50
18.00
16.20
15.00
18.00
15.00
18.00

8
9
8
9
8
8
8
8
9

48
54
48
54
48
48
48
44
54
60

.37*
.27$
.43|
.27$
.34|
.38
.34|
.34|
.25
.25

18.00
15.00
21.00
15.00
16.50
18.24
16.50
15.12
13.50
15.00

8
8
9

48
48
54

.45 21.60
.43| 21.00
.38$ 21.00

10




Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Washington—Conc’d.
Everett..................
Georgetown...........
Hoquiam................
Kennewick............
North Y a k im a ....
Olym pia...............
Pasco.....................
Prosser...................
Pullman................
Seattle....................
Spokane.................
Tacoma..................
Walla Walla..........
West Virginia:
Charleston..............
Chester...................
Clarksburg.............
Elkins....................
Fairmont...............
Grafton..................
Huntington...........
Keyser...................
Morgantown..........
Piedmont..............
Point Pleasant___
Wheeling and dis­
trict....................
Wisconsin:
Beloit.....................
Eau Claire..............
Grand Rapids.......
Green Bay.............
Janesville...............
Kenosha.................
La Crosse...............
Lake Geneva.........
Madison.................
Manitowoc.............
Marinette...............
Menominee............
Milwaukee.............
Oconomowoc.........
Oshkosh.................
R a c in e ...:............
Rhinelander..........
Sheboygan............
Superior.................
Watertown............
Waukesha..............
Wyoming:
Cheyenne...............
Rock Springs........
Sheridan................

8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8
9
8
8
8
8

48
44
48
54
48
48
48
48
54
44
44
44
48

8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9

48
48
48
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

.37$
.43}
.31*
.33$
.33$
.27$
.33$
.27$
.30
.27$
.33$

8

48

.38f 18.60

9
9
10
10
9
8
8
8
8
9
9
10
8
9
9
8
9
8
8
9
9

54
54
60
60
54
44
48
48
48
54
54
60
44
54
54
48
54
48
48
54
54

.30
.30$
.30
.30
.35
.50
.35
.37$
.31*
.30
.35
.25
.45
.28
.30
.42$
.33$
.35
.45
.30
.35

16.20
16.50
18.00
18.00
18.90
22.00
16.80
18.00
15.00
16.20
18.90
15.00
19.80
15.12
16.20
20.40
18.00
16.80
21.60
16.20
18.90

8
8
8

48
48
48

.50
.50
.50

24.00
24.00
24.00

$0.50 $24.00
.62$ 27.50
.45 21.60
.40 21.60
.50 24.00
.43* 21:00
.43 21.00
.43 21.00
.38$ 21.00
.62 27.50
.56 24.75
.50 22.00
.50 24.00
18.00
21.00
15.00
18.00
18.00
15.00
18.00
15.00
16.20
15.00
18.00

594

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OP LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES-Continued.

CANADA.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
Province and city.

Province and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Alberta:
Calgary..................
Edmonton.............
Lethbridge............
MacLeod................
Medicine Hat.........
Strathcona.............
British Columbia:
Femie.....................
Greenwood............
Hosmer..................
Nelson....................
New Westminster.
Phoenix.................
Vancouver............
Vernon...................
Victoria.................
Manitoba:
Brandon.................
St. Boniface...........
Winnipeg..............
New Brunswick:
St. John.................
Nova Scotia:
Bridgetown............
Glace Bay..............
Sydney... ; ............
Ontario:
Barrie.....................
Belleville................
Berlin.....................
Brantford..............
Brockville..............
Fort William.........
Galt........................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Full
week.

9
8
9
10
9
9

54
48
54
60
49*
54

$0.41 $22.14
.42 20.16
.45 24.30
.40 24.00
.40 19.80
.33 18.00

8
9
9
8
8
9
8
9
8

48
54
54
48
44
54
44
54
44

.50
.44|
. 444
.50
.43|
. 444
.50
.40
.50

24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
19.25
24.00
22.00
21.60
22.00

10
0
9

58
54
53

.35
.35
.45

20.30
18.90
23.35

9

54

.27* 15.00

9
9
9

54
54
54

*.25

12.00
12.00
13.50

10
9
9
10
9
10
10

60
54
54
55
54
60
55

.20
.27*
.25
.30
.30
.35
.25

12.00
15.00
13.50
16.50
16.20
21.00
13.75

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Ontario—Concluded.
Hamilton...............
Ingersoll.................
Kenora...................
Kingston................
London..................
Niagara Falls.........
North B ay.............
Ottawa...................
Peterboro..............
Port Arthur..........
Port Colbome........
St. Catherines.......
St. Francis.............
Sarnia.....................
Sault Ste. Marie.. .
Toronto district.. .
Welland.................
Saskatchewan:
Indian Head..........
Regina...................
Quebec:
Fraserville..............
L ’ Ange Gardien. . .
Montreal district..
Quebec...................
Ste. Anne De Belle­
vue ....................
St. Hyacinthe.......
St. Jean..................
Sherbrooke............
Sorel.......................
Three Rivers.........
Valleyfield.............

8
10
10
8
9
9
10
9
9
10
9
10
10
9
9
8
9

44
60
60
48
49*
54
60
50
54
60
54
50
60
54
54
44
54

10
10

60
60

10
10
9
10

60
60
54
60

9
10
10
10
10
10
10

54
60
60
60
60
60
60

$0.40 $17.60
.25 15.00
.35 21.00
.31* 15.00
.28 13.86
.35 18.90
.25 15.00
.30 15.00
.27j 15.00
.37j 22.50
.25 13.50
.35 17.50
.30 18.00
.25 13.50
.33* 18.00
.33 14.52
.27* 14.85
.30
.35

18.00
21.00

.20
22*
.25
.30
.20

12.00
13.50
13.50
16.20
12.00

.30

16.20

.

..25* 12.00
22 13.50
15.00
.20

.17

. 22*
.20

10.20
13.50
12.00

ENGLAND AND WALES.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

City and district.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Aberavon...................
Aberdare.....................
Abergavenny..............
Abertillery..................
Abingdon...................
Accrington.................
Adlington...................
Aldershot....................
Alfreton......................
Alnwick......................
Amble.........................
Ambleside..................
Amfield Plain............
A rnold.......................
Ascot and Iminghill...
Ashford.......................
Ashton district...........
Atherton and Tyldesley ............................
Bacup.........................
Banbury.....................
Barnesley...................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Full
week.

9
9
9*
9
9*
10
10
9*

53* $0.1571 $8.40
54 .1622
8.76
54 .1419
7.66
54 .1622
8.76
56* .1419
8.02
48 .1825
8.76
54* .1723
9.39
55* .1622
9.00
. 1520 8.13
53* / . 1622
\
8.68
50
.1622
8.11
50
.1723
8.62
54
.1369
7.39
50
.1825 9.13
54
.1723
9.30
56* .1723
9.73
e/il / . 1825 10.31
Uvj
\ . 1926 10.88
53* .1825
9.76

8*
9*
10
9

48*
54
56*
49*

9*
9*
9*
9*
10
8*
9*
10
Qi

.1926
.1825
.1419
.1723

9.34
9.86
8.02
8.53

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Barnstaple...................
Barrow..........................
Basingstoke..................
Bath.............................
Bedford........................
Beeston.........................
Belvedere.....................
Beverly.........................
Bexhill on Sea..............
Bexley Heath..............
Biddeford.....................
Birkenhead district («).
Birmingham district...
Birtley..........................
Bishop Auckland........
Blackburn....................
Blackpool.....................
Bolton district.............
Boston..........................
Bournemouth district.
Bradford district..........
Brecon..........................
Bridgend......................
Bridgnorth...................

a Ship carpenters, 53 hours per week, at $1.46 per day.




10
9*
10
10
10
9*
9*
9*
10
10
10
8*
9
9
9
9
9
9
9*
10
9
9*
9*
10

56 $0.1217 $6.82
54
.1774
9.58
56* .1520
8.59
56
.1520
8.51
56* .1520
8.59
54
.1723
9.30
54
.1926 10.40
.1622
53
8.60
56* .1622
9.16
56* .1926 10.88
56* .1217
6.88
46* .2028
9.43
.1926
9.82
51
.1825
9.13
50
.1622
8.11
50
49
.1825
8.49
49* .1774
8.78
49* .1926
9.53
54
.1318
7.12
56* .1662
9.16
49* .1723
8.53
8.21
54
.1520
.1622
8.76
54
56* .1318
7.45

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF U N IO N CARPENTERS.

595

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.
ENGLAND AND WALES—Continued.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

City and district.
Full Full Hour.
day. week.
Bridgewater.................
Bridlington..................
Brighouse.....................
Brighton.......................
Bristol district ( « ) ........
Bromsgrove..................
Burnley district _____
Burslem, potteries dis­
trict ...........................
B arton-on-Tr^n t . -. Bury.............................
Buxton.........................
Cambridge....................
CannockT......................
Canterbury...................
Cardiff (6).....................
Castleford.....................
Caterham......................
Cheadle.........................
Cheltenham..................
Chepstow.....................
Chester..........................
Chesterfield..................
Chester-le-Street.........
Charley.........................
Church Stretton...........
Cirencester....................
Clacton-on-Sea.............
Clevedon.......................
Coalville.......................
Colchester.....................
Colwyn Bay.................
Congleton.....................
Consett..........................
Coventry......................
Cowes (isle of W ight)..
Crawley........................
Crewe............................
Cromer..........................
Darlaston.....................
Darlington....................
Dartford.......................
Dartmouth...................
Darwen.........................
Dawlish........................
Derby...........................
Dewsbury.....................
Doncaster.....................
Dorking........................
Douglas (Isle of Man)..
Dover............................
Duffield........................
Droitwich.....................
Dudley..........................
Durham........................
Earlestown...................
Eastbourne..................
East Dereham..............
East Grinstead............
Ebbw Vale...................
Egham..........................
Ellesmere Port.............
Epsom..........................
Erith.............................
Evesham......................
Exeter..........................
Falmouth and Penryn.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

10
4

10
9
10

104
10
9

58 $0.1318
554 .1520
494 .1622
564 .1622
.1825
58
564 .1419
.1723
51

Full
week.
$7.64
8.44
8.03
9.16
10.59
8.02
8.79

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Fleetwood....................
Folkstone.....................
Frinton and W alton...
Frodsham.....................
Frome...........................
Gainsborough..............
Glossop.........................
Gloucester....................
Godaiming...................
Goole.............................
Gorleston......................
Gosport.........................
Grantham.....................
Gravesend....................
Grays............................
Great Yarmouth.........
Grimsby.......................
Guildford......................
Halifax.........................
Harrogate.....................
Hartlepool and Tees
district ( c ) ................
Haslemere....................
Haslingden...................
Hastings.......................
Havant.........................
Haverhill......................
Hebden Bridge............
Hereford.......................
Hertford and Ware—
Hexham.......................
Heywood......................
Hinckley......................
Hitehin.........................
Horwich.......................
Hucknail Torkard.......
Huddersfield................
Hull district ( d ) ...........
Ilkeston........................
Ilkley............................
Ipswich........................
Keighley......................
Kettering.....................
Kidderminster............
Knowle.........................
Knutsford....................
Lancaster.....................
Langley........................
Leamington.................
Ledbury.......................
Leeds district...............
Leek.............................
Leicester district..........
Leigh............................
Letchworth..................
Ley land........................
Lichfield.......................
Lincoln.........................
Littleborough..............
Liverpool district («) ..
Llandudno...................
Llanelly........................
London district...........
Lony Eaton.................
Loughborough.............
Louth...........................
Lowestoft.....................

94
10
10
94
10
94
9
10
10
10
10
10
94
10
10
10
94
10
9
9

8.96
9.30
10.30
8. £8
9.16
8.44
8.02
9.86
P
8.11
8.51
10
10.13
10.
7.88
10
9.16
10
9
8.13
94
10
9.39
94
9.08
10
94
10
9.13
9
10
7.12
94
10
9.39
94
9
9.16
10
10
6.30
10
10
9.73
10
9
8.02
10
9.08
10
94
9.16
104
10
8.28
n
10
7.52
94
9.13
94
9
9.63
94
9
10.13
10
8.31
10
94
10
8.59
10
9
7.66
9
4
10
8.37
10
9
9.16
10
10
4
8.62
9
10
10.40
94
104
7.38
10
9
9.44
94
9
6.88
10
9.65
10
94
10
8.03
9
104
8.96
9
9
9.73
10
10
7.25
94
9.16
10
94
6.82
10
84
8.59
10
10
9.03
?
9.13
9
4
9.95
9
4
10
9.16
7.18
10
4
9
4
9
4
8.59
10
8.76
94
9.65
10
9
4
9.39
9
4
94
9
10.69
10
10.40
94
94
10
8.97
104
10
8.13
94
10
5.10
10*
a Ship carpenters, 54 hours per week, at $1.5817 per day.
6 Ship carpenters, 53 hours per week, at $1,581? per day.
c ship carpenters, 53 hours per week, at $1.48 per day.
d Ship carpenters, 58 hours per week, at $0.1723 per hour.
« Ship carpenters, 53 hours per week, at $1.70 per day.
9

94

94
9*
10
10
10

52
54
534
494

.1723
.1723
.1926
.1673
.1622
554 .1520
564 .1419
.1825
54
.1622
50
56 .1520
.1825
554 .1419
.1622
534 .1520
544 .1723
56 .1622
.1825
50
.1318
54
.1723
564 .1622
564 .1115
564 .1723
564 .1419
.1622
56
564 .1622
544 .1520
.1419
53
.1825
50 / .1926
\
554 .1825
564 .1470
564 .1520
.1419
54
.1419
59
564 .1622
.1723
50
54
.1926
.1318
56
.1926
49
564 .1217
.1723
56
494 .1622
52
.1723
564 .1723
55
.1318
564 .1622
.1217
56
564 .1520
.1673
54
.1825
50
544 .1825
564 .1622
.1217
59
564 .1520
.1622
54
.1723
56
.1723
544
554 .1926
54
.1926
59
.1520
534 .1520
.0911
56

43431—No. 87—10----- 15



54 $0.1673
564 .1622
564 .1723
544 .1520
.1115
56
54
.1520
494 .1723
564 .1622
564 .1622
554 .1520
564 .1520
554 .1520
53
.1520
564 .1825
564 .1825
56| .1520
.1622
53
564 .1622
494 .1673
494 .1723

$9.03
9.16
9.73
8.28
6.24
8.21
8.53
9.16
9.16
8.44
8.59
8.44
8.06
10.31
10.31
8.59
8.60
9.16
8.28
8.53

.1876
.1622
.1622
.1622
.1419
.1016
.1622
.1419
.1622
.1825
.1825
.1520
. 1419
.1520
.1825
.1723
.1723
.1825
.1622
.1622
.1622
.1622
.1520
.1622
.1622
.1622
.1723
.1723
.1622
.1419
.1825
.1571
.1825
.1926
.1520
.1622
.1622
.1520
.1622
.1622
.1723
.2028
.1520
.1622
.2129
.1723
.1622
.1419
.1419

9.38
9.00
8.76
9.16
8.02
5.74
8.27
8.02
9.16
9.13
9.76
8.97
8.02
8.59
9.49
9.30
8.53
9.67
9.00
8.03
9.16
8.03
8.89
9.16
9.57
8.84
8.53
9.30
9.16
8.37
9.03
8.33
9.67
9.34
8.59
9.16
8.76
8.28
8.84
8.60
9.22
9.53
8.36
8.76
10.65
9.30
9.00
7.95
8.02

50
554
54
564
564
564
51
564
564
50
534
59
/
564 \
52
54
494
53
554
494
564
494
584
564
59
544
494
54
564
59
494
53
53
484
/
664 \
54
/
544 \
53
534
47
55
54
50
54
554
56
564

596

BU LLETIN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR.

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF UNION CARPENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Continued.

ENGLAND AND WALES-Continued.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

City and district.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.

Ludlow.........................
Luton...........................
Lydney.........................
L y n n /..........................
Man^lftsfiftld..................
Maidenhead.................
Maidstone.....................
Maiton..........................
Malvern........................
Manchester district___
Mansfield......................
Margate........................
MArarat. DrAyton______
Market Harboro..........
Marple..........................
Mattock Bridge............
Melton Mowbray.........
Merther TydviL..........
Mexborough.................
Middleton"...................
Middlewich...................
Milford Haven.............
Monmouth...................
Morecambe...................
Morley..........................
Morpeth........................
Mossley.........................
Nantwich.....................
Neath...........................
Newark.........................
Tyne district ( « ) .........
Newmarket..................
Newport (Monmouth­
shire)..........................
N e w p o r t (Isle of
W ight)......................
Newport (Shropshire).
Newton A bbott...........
Normanton...................
Northhampton............
Northwich....................
Norwich........................
Nottingham district...
Nemeaton.....................
Oldham district...........
Ormskirk......................
Oswestry......................
Otley.............................
Oxford..........................
Paignton.......................
Pandy...........................
Pembroke.....................
Pembroke, dock...........
Penrith.........................
Penzance......................
Peterborough...............
Plymouth district.......
Pontefract.....................
Pontypool.....................
Pontypridd..................
Portsmouth..................
Preston.........................
Pudsey..........................
Queensbury.................
Radcliffe Bridge...........
Ramsbottom................
Ramsey (Isle of Man)..
Ramsgate.....................
Rawtenstall.................

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

10
10
9*
10
9*
10
10
9*
10
9
10
10
10
10
9*

10
9
*
9
9*

10
10
10
9
9
9

9
4
M

10
9
10
n

56* SO 1318 $7.45
.
9.16
56* .1622
.1419
54
7.66
8.02
.1419
54 .1622 8.84
1
9.16
56* .1622
9.56
55* .1723
.1419
7.66
54
9.16
56* .1622
9.53
49* .1926
.1622
8.92
55
.1825 10.31
.1419
7.88
.1520
8.59
9.39
.1723
.1622
8.84
8.02
.1419
53
.1622
8.60
8.53
49* .1723
54
9.86
.1825
8.09
.1419
57
.1166
6.53
56
.1419
8.02
8.03
49* .1622
.1622
8.03
8.62
50* .1723
9.22
53* .1723
7.18
.1318
s ? .1723
9.30
9.00
55* .1622
.1926
9.63
50
8.02
56* .1419
54

10 56*
10 56
10 56*
10 56
53
91
9 54*
!
10 56
9
51*
10 56*
9 51
10 55
10 56*
54
94
9
!
55!
10
9 54
4
9 54
!

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

.1723

9.30

.1318
.1419
.1318
.1520
.1723
.1723
.1622
.1825
.1622
.1926
.1622
.1419
.1419
.1622
.1318
.1520
.1217
.1217
.1520
.1065
.1419
.1622
.1419
.1622
.1622
.1622
.1876
.1622
.1673
.1926
.1622
.1014
.1723
.1622

7.45
7.95
7.45
8.51
9.13
9.39
9.08
9.40
9.16
9.82
8.92

8.02
7.66
8.68

7.31
8.21
6.57
6.57
7.98
5.96
8.02
8.60
7.80
8.76
8.76
9.00
9.29
8.03
8.28
9.44
8.76
5.58
9.73
8.76

Reigate.
Retford.
R hyl.............................
Rishton........................
Rochdale......................
Rochester and Chat­
ham district..............
Rotherham .................
R ugby..........................
R uncorn......................
Ryde (Isle of W igh t)..
St. Albans.....................
St. Anns-on-the-Sea. . .
o if . U O W 1 1 B ...

Salisbury___
Sandbach___
Scarborough.
Scunthorpe...
Selby............ .
Sevenoaks___
Sheerness...
Sheffield.......
Shifnal.........
Shildon.........
Shrewsbury..
Skipton.........................
Sleaford........................
Southampton district^)
Southbend...................
Southport.....................
Sowerby Bridge............
Spennymoor................
Spen valley.................
Stafford........................
Stevenage....................
Stockport......................
Stone.............................
Stourbridge district___
Stratford-upon-Avon..
Stroud...........................
Sunderland (<*)............
Sutton Coldfield..........
Sutton-in-Ashfield.......
Swansea........................
Swindon.......................
Tamworth....................
Tarporley.....................
Taunton........................
Tavistock.....................
Tewkesbury.................
Thetford........................
Todmorden...................
Tunbridge.....................
Torquay.......................
Trowbridge.................
Truro............................
Tunbridge Wells..........
Ulverston.....................
Uxbridge......................
Wakefield.....................
Walsall..........................
Waltham H oly Cross..
Warrington..................
Warwick......................

10
10
10
10
10
8*
8*

$9.56
8.59
9.73
7.88
7.80
8.36
8.76
8.85

10
55* .1723
9.56
49* .1723
9
8.53
.1622
10
9.16
.1825
9*
9.95
10
.1318
7.45
.1723
10
9.73
9
49* .1723
8.53
.1876
8*
9.10
10
56* .1318
7.45
54
.1318
7.12
9*
52
.1622
9
8.43
.1520
<)
*
(*)
10
55* .1622
9.66
10
56* .1723
9.73
10
56* .1622
9.16
9
49* .1825
9.03
10
56* .1419
8.02
.1622
9
50
8.11
10
56* .1622
9.16
/ .1419
7.66
54 \ .1520
9*
8.21
54* .1419 7.73
9*
54
.1419
7.66
9*
53
.1622
8.60
9*
56* .1825 10.31
10
49* .1825
9
9.03
49* .1520 7.52
9
53
.1520
8.06
9*
49* .1520
7.52
9
56* .1622
10
9.16
56* .1419
8.02
10
54* .1825
9.95
9*
55* .1622
10
9.00
10
56* .1622
9.16
56* .1419
8.02
10
56* .1217
10
6.88
9
50
.1926
9.63
10
56* .1825 10.31
54
8.21
.1520
9*
53
.1723
9.13
9*
56
.1318
7.38
10
55* .1673
9.29
10
54* .1419
7.73
9*
8.02
10
56* .1419
53* .1217
6.51
9*
56* .1520
8.59
10
54
.1217
6.57
9*
.1622
9
51
8.27
10
56* .1622
9.16
8.44
10
.1520
10
7.00
57* .1217
.1014
10
56
5.68
10
56* .1723
9.73
.1622
8.84
9*
10
56* .1926 10.88
8.03
9
49* .1622
9.56
55* .1723
10
10
56* .1825 10.31
9.29
49* .1876
9
9.16
10
56* .1622

54
9*
52*
9*
56
10
56*
10
53
9*
55
10
9* 54
54
9*
10
9
49*
9
49*
9
49*
9
54
9*
55
10
56*
10
54
9*
< Ship carpenters, 64 hours per week, at $1.50 per day.
*
6 Not reported.
c Ship carpenters, 54 hours per week, at $0.1622 per hour.
* Ship carpenters, 53 hours per week, at $1.46 per day.




55* $0.1723
56* .1520
56* .1723
55* .1419
.1419
55 / .1520
\
48
.1825
48* .1825

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR OF U NIO N CARPENTERS.

597

W A G E S A N D H O U R S O F L A B O R O F U N IO N C A R P E N T E R S IN T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D
I N E N G L I S H -S P E A K I N G F O R E I G N C O U N T R IE S — Continued.
E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S — Concluded.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Watford...................... .
Wednesbury................
Wellingborough..........
Wellington
(Shrop­
shire) .........................
Wellington (Somerset).
West Bromwich..........
W estgate-on-Sea..........
Westhoughton.............
Weston-super-Mare—
Weybridge...................
Weymouth................. .
Whitburn....................
W hitby........................
Whitehaven.................
Widnes.........................
Wigan..........................

10
10
10

56* $0.1825 $10.31
56* .1622
9.16
56* .1622
9.16

10
10
9
10
9*
10
10
10*
9
9
9*
10
9

56*
56
51
55*
54*
56*
56*
58*
50
49*
54
55
49*

.1520
.1217
.1723
.1825
.1723
.1520
.1723
.1318
.1926
.1571
.1419
.1825
.1825

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.

8.59
6.82
8.79
10.13
9.39
8.59
9.73
7.71
9.63
7.78
7.66
10.04
9.03

Willenhall.
Wilmslow.
W indsor...
Winsford..
W isbech...
Wivenhoe.
Wokinj
Wolvei
Wolverton
Worcester..
Workington.
W orksop...
W orthing...
Wrexham..
Y e a d o n .....
Yeovil........
York...........

10
9*
10
10
10
9*
10

10*
10
9*
9
10*
9*

56* $0.1673
54* .1622
56* .1622
55* .1520
56* .1318
54
.1318
56* .1622
54
.1825
54
.1825
54
.1419
54
.1723
55* .1520
56* .1520
54* .1520
49* .1622
59
.1217
53
.1723

$9.45
8.84
9.16
8.44
7.45
7.12
9.16
9.86
9.86
7.66
9.30
8.44
8.59
8.28
8.03
7.18
9.13

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
9

51 $0.1723
51
.1723
51
.1825
.1622
51
51
.1571
.1622
51
51
.1520
51
.1825
51
.1571
.1622
51
51
.1723
.1622
51
51
.1825
57
.1571
50
.1723

18.79
8.79
9.31
8.27
8.01
8.27
7.75
9.31
8.01
8.27
8.79
8.27
9.31
8.95
8.62

9*
10
9*
10
10*
10
10
9*
9*
10
10
9*
9*
9*
9*

54 $0.1622
57
.1419
54* .1571
56* .1419
59* .1065
56
.1318
.1622
57
54* .1345
54
.1419
57
.1217
56
.1345
54
.1470
54
.1622
53| .1520
54
.1345

$8.76
8.09
8.48
8.02
6.34
7.38
9.25
7.29
,7.66
6.94
7.53
7.94
8.76
8.17
7.26

9*

SCOTLAND*
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Q /
V
l
9
9
9

51 $0.1622 $8.27
51
.1825
9.31
50
.1419
7.10
.1622
51
8.27
51
.1774
9.05
51
.1723
8.79
51
7.24
.1419
51
.1723
8.79
50 l •1Q C / 9.13
O)
r iom \ 9.31
51
51
.1520
7.75
50
.1825
9.13
.1622
51
8.27

9
9

Aberdeen......................
Airdrie..........................
Annan..........................
Arbroath......................
A yr...............................
Barrhead......................
Brechin........................
Boughty.......................
Clyde d istrict^ ).........
Dumfries......................
Dundee.........................
Dunfermline................
Edinburgh and Leith
district (<*).................
Glasgow district..........

51
50

.1825
.1825

9.31
9.13

Grangemouth...............
Hamilton......................
Helensburgh.................
Inverkeithing...............
Inverness......................
Irvine............................
Johnstone.....................
Kilmarnock..................
Kinghorn.....................
Kirkcaldy.....................
Motherwell...................
Perth............................
Prestwick.....................
Saltcoats..*...................
Troon............................

IRELAND*
Armagh.....................
Ballymena................
Banbridge.................
Bangor......................
Belfast and district..
Carrichfergus.............
Charleville.................
Coleraine...................
Cork...........................
Curragh Camp..........
Drogheda..................
Dublin district..........
Dundalk....................
Fermoy.....................
Holy W ood................

10
10*
10
9*
9*
10
9*
9*
9*
10
10*
01

10
9*
9*

57 $0.1268 $7.23
59f .1217
7.27
56
.1193
6.68
54
8.76
.1622
54
.1723
9.30
56
.1318
7.38
54
7.26
.1345
54
.1167
6.30
54
.1547
8.35
57
.1622
9.25
60
.1318
7.91
8.76
KA / .1622
Dr
\ . 1723 9.30
7.21
58* .1233
7.26
54
.1345
9.30
54
.1723

Howth..........................
Limerick.......................
Lisburn.........................
Londonderry................
Longford.......................
Lurgan..........................
Newbridge....................
Newry...........................
Newtown A rd s...........
Omagh..........................
Portadown...................
Queenstown.................
Sligo..............................
Tralee...........................
Waterford.....................

a Ship carpenters, 54 hours per week, at 50.1622 per hour.




598

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR,

WAGES AND HOURS OF LA BO R OF UNION C ARPEN TERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND
IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING FOREIGN COUNTRIES—Concluded.

SOUTH AFRICA.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
Colony and city.

Colony and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
Cape Colony:
Cape T o w n _
_

Kimberley.............
Port Elizabeth___
Simons T o w n .......
Somerset W est___
Natal:
Durban..................
Pietermaritzburg..

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

8
9
8
10
8
8
8

48 $0.4055 $19.46
.4867 24.82
51
.4258 20.44
48
55
.2839 15.61
.4461 21.41
48
48
48

.3852
.3953

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.

Full
week.
Orange River Colony:
Bloemfontein........
Transvaal:
Johannesburg and
Witwatersrand
district (« ) ..........
Pretoria..................

18.49
18.97

8

48 $0.5475 $26.28

8
8

48
48

.6084
.6084

29.20
29.20

AUSTRALIA.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
State and city.

State and city.
Full Full
day. week. Hour.
New South Wales:
Bathurst................
Broken H ill...........
Newcastle..............
Sydney district. . .
Queensland:
B r i s b a n e ...................
Bundaberg............
Charters Towers...
Maryborough.........
Rockhampton
South Australia:
Adelaide................
Norwood................
Port Adelaide.......

Full
week.

8
8
8
8

48 $0.3041 $14.60
.3600 17.28
48
.3041 14.60
48
.3041 14.60
48

8
8
8
8
8

44
48
47
48
48

.3041
.3041
.4055
.3041
.3041

13.38
14.6C
19.06
14.60
14.60

8
8
8

48
48
48

.3041
.3041
.3041

14.60
14.60
14.60

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Tasmania:
Hobart...................
Launceston............
Victoria:
Ballarat.................
Bendigo.................
Geelong..................
M e l b o u r n e dis­
trict (b) ................
West Australia:
Boulder City.........
Fremantle..............
Kalgoorlie....... .
Perth................

8
8

48 $0.2433 $11.68
48
.2433 11.68

8
8
8

48
48
48

.2737
.3244
.2737

13.14
15.57
13.14

8

48

.3244

15.57

8
8
8
8

48
’ 48
48
48

.4562
.3500
.4562
.3500

21.90
16.80
21.90
16.80

NEW ZEALAND.
Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

Hours per— Rates of wages
per—
City and district.

Full Full
day. week. Hour.
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

Auckland.....................
Christchurch................
Dunedin.......................
Gisborne.......................
Gore..............................
Greymouth..................
Hastings.......................
Invercargill.................
Marton..........................

Full
week.

44 $0.3244 $14.27
.3244 14.27
44
.3244 14.27
44
.3041 14.29
47
.3041 14.60
48
.3244 15.57
48
45
.3244 14.60
.3041 14.60
48
.3041 14.60
48

Full Full
Full
day. week. Hour. week.
Napier..........................
Nelson..........................
Pahiatua.......................
Palmerston, north.......
Rotorua.......................
Timaru.........................
Wanganui.....................
Wellington district___

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

a Carpenters in mines, 14.87 per day.
ft Ship carpenters, 44 hours per week, at 80.3345 per hour.




45 $0.3244 $14.60
44
.3041 13.38
47
.3041 14.29
47
.3041 14.29
47
.3244 15.25
44
.3244 14.27
45
.3244 14.60
45
.3244 14.60

PRICES OF W HEAT, BREAD, ETC., IN MILAN, ITALY,
1801 TO 1908.
Supplemental to the Statistical Data for the Community of Milan
for the year 1908, there has recently been published a special sta­
tistical report on prices. (a) This report gives the prices in the Milan
market for wheat from 1700 to 1908, and for bread, wine, beef, pork,
butter, and rice from 1801 to 1908. The cost is also given of making
bread; that is, the difference is shown between the cost of a kilogram
of wheat and of a kilogram of bread.
These prices were obtained from compilations of market prices from
the records of the city accounting office. The report does not state
whether the prices are wholesale or retail, but since the quotations for
wheat and rice are given by the quintal (220.46 pounds) and those
for wine are given by the hectoliter (26.417 gallons), they may be
considered as wholesale. The prices of bread, beef, pork, and but­
ter are quoted by the kilogram (2.2 pounds). For the present pur­
pose the quotations have been converted into American money at
the rate of 19.3 cents per lira, using the standards in common use,
viz, for wheat, the bushel; for bread, beef, pork, and butter, the
pound; for rice, 100 pounds; and for wine, the gallon.
The first section of the report contains the average annual prices
obtained from the market records. The second section contains the
average prices for five-year periods from 1801 to 1905 and for each
of the years 1906 to 1908. From these prices index figures have been
computed, showing their course through the various periods, using
the average of the five-year period 1801 to 1805 as the base or 100.
Since figures of so remote a period as 1801 to 1805 might be con­
sidered as of little value when used as a base, other index figures have
been computed in a similar manner, using the period 1861 to 1865 as
a base or 100.
In discussing the first section the reader is reminded that all the
elements are not present for a complete comparison of present day
conditions with those of earlier times. For example, it is stated, no
one would be willing to believe that life was easier for the consumer in
1723 than in 1908, wholly because the price of wheat was only 48
cents per bushel at the earlier date and $1.54 per bushel at the latter
date, nor that life was easier in 1801 because beef cost 7J cents and
o Statistica dei Prezzi del frumento, del pane, del vino, delle cam i, del burro e del
riso in Milano. Milan, 1909.




599

600

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OP LABOR.

pork 10$ cents, while in 1908 the price of beef was 14$ and of pork 20$
cents per pound.
It may be assumed, independently of all considerations concerning
the different value of money, that the population could easily find
itself in great need during the eighteenth century, when the price of
wheat would increase 30 or 40 per cent from one year to the next, and
sometimes doubled in two or three years. Wheat, in 1732, cost 58
cents; in 1734 it had increased to $1.25; again in 1791 the price was
90 cents, and in 1795 it reached $1.49. The causes which influenced
the variations were not only the deficiency of the crop, but war,
epidemic, and the difficulty of transportation. The insufficient
understanding of economic laws not only reduced production, but
also interfered with the formation of reserves, so that the country
passed precipitately from a low price to a very high one, which would
suddenly press very heavily upon the population.
In recent times, on the other hand, prices vary more gradually, so
that two or three years of short crops must occur before the prices
rise excessively through an exhaustion of surpluses formed in the
preceding years. The most stormy period was that from 1799 to
the end of the Napoleonic empire. In 1799 wheat was $1.59; in
1800, $2.42; in 1801, $2.72; in 1802, $2.06; in 1815, $2.23; then in
1816 and 1817 there was dearth and pestilence (1816, price $2.56;
1817, price $2.28). Never until then or since then were prices as high
as in these years.
The relative prices for the five-year periods make it easier to review
the general tendency of prices throughout the different periods.
The period 1861 to 1865 was taken as a starting point, and the price
during that period for all the given articles of consumption was taken
as 100. The average prices for the successive periods are signified
as 105, 110, or 90, 95, according to whether they increase 5 or 10 per
cent or decrease 10 or 5 per cent in comparison with the price of 1861
to 1865. It may be noticed that the price of butter and of meats,
with the exception of a few slight changes, has had a constant
tendency to increase. This is especially true in the price of pork,
which in two five-year periods rose to 146, and after having declined
to 131 has continually risen to 169 in 1908. For beef we have the
price of 137, a little later it comes down to 126, and subsequently
rises to 145. The price of butter in 1876 to 1880 reaches 142, declines
to 114, only to rise to 150 in 1908.
The changes in the price of rice are not so noticeable. It fluctu­
ates about 100, sometimes rising to 110, declining a little under 100,
and then rising to 114, the highest average price for the five-year
period 1896 to 1900.
The price of wine presents very strong fluctuations. After oscil­
lating between 90 and 100 (1866 to 1870) it rises to 136 (1886 to



PRICES IN M IL A N , ITAL Y, 1801 TO 1908.

001

1890), because vineyards were devastated by the phylloxera, and
then descends to below 100, rises again to 108 in 1906, and falls to 80
in 1907 and 1908 because of the abundance of the harvest.
Most interesting are the comparisons for wheat and bread. The
variations in their prices present on the whole a nearly parallel
course; but occasionally we observe deviations. In the five-year
period 1871 to 1875 the prices rise rapidly and proportionately,
almost in the same degree. Thus we find the price of wheat to be
133.2 and that of bread 130.8, with that of bread being 2.4 per
cent the lower. But later the first declines rapidly to 98.7, then to
90.1, and to 86.3, while the corresponding price of bread is respec­
tively 108.9, 106.5 and 103.5, so that we have a difference of 10, 16,
and 17 in favor of the higher cost of bread. But in the quinquennial
period 1901 to 1905 the difference declines very much (wheat stand­
ing at 97.5, bread at 102), and again in 1908 we find that the price
of bread is only 109.4 while that of wheat rises to 111.
This difference in prices is not surprising when we consider that
the price of bread, besides reflecting the variations due to the higher
cost of labor and to the higher or lower cost of various materials
used in transforming flour into bread, represents also the differences
in the transformation of wheat into flour depending upon the tech­
nical standard of that industry, the application (in 1868) and the
abolition (in 1884) of the grinding tax and the consumption tax
upon cereal products (abolished in Milan in 1898). A cause not to
be neglected, which also accounts for the difference in the prices of
wheat as compared with those of bread, may be found in the fact
that since 1898 the determination of the selling price of bread
devolves upon the municipal authorities, which not seldom, in years
of excessive rise in the price of grain, enter into agreement with
the bakers not to increase the price of bread, proportionately com­
pensating them for it, either in money or by conceding the right not
to reduce the price of bread later.
The proportional variations in the successive five-year periods, as
presented in the second table on page 605, are shown in the accom­
panying diagram, the average of the prices for the five-year period
1801 to 1805 being taken as 100. The variations of the lines show an
increasing divergence; but it is necessary to state that the quin­
quennial period taken for a basis is not normal for bread and wheat,
because it includes the period of the wars of the consulate and of the
Italian Kingdom. As has already been stated, the price of wheat
in 1801 rose to $2.72, a most exceptional price, which has never been
reached since.
Among the periods nearer the present may be observed the one of
1871 to 1875 in which, more than in any successive period, we may



602

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

find a contemporaneous increase in prices.
as follows:

In fact, we have prices

AV E R AG E AND MAXIMUM Y E A R L Y PRICES, 1871 TO 1875.
Wheat
Bread
Beef
Pork
Wine
Butter Rice (100
(bushel). (pound). (gallon). (pound). (pound). (pound). pounds).
Average, 1871-1875......................
Maximum, 1871-1875..................

$1.85
2.11

$0,046
.051

$0,410
.575

$0,135
.153

$0.178
.200

$0.241
.269

$3.72
3.94

Later we see higher prices for various articles, but they do not
occur simultaneously. Since 1874 wheat and bread have never
exceeded the price of that year. .
It was the wish of the office compiling the data to obtain other
factors which would serve to make the statistics more complete, as
for instance, to include the price of cattle in order to show its
relation to the price of meat. But such data were available
only for relatively recent times. It would have been still better to
have been able to give the data concerning wages, at least for a few
of the main wage-working classes; but only incomplete data of little
significance could have been obtained. For example, in the building
trades, the daily wage of a bricklayer in 1887 was 50 cents; in 1901,
69 cents; and in 1907, 83 cents. The daily wage of a bricklayer’s
helper in 1887 was 23 cents; in 1901, 29 cents; and in 1907, 39 cents.
In the printing trade, comparing the piece wages of compositors
working on the most ordinary sized type for 1,000 ems, the rate in
1892 was 16.6 cents; in 1901, 18.5 cents; and in 1907, 22.4 cents.
In the same trade, the daily wage was in the beginning of 1880,
65 cents; later in the same year, 69 cents; in 1901, 83 cents; and in
1907, $1.
A baker’s average wage, including the cost of subsistence, was:
In 1865, 34 cents; in 1884, 65 cents; and in 1901 to 1908, 77 cents
per day. In 1908, when the Sunday rest was granted and night work
abolished, in consequence of which the number of workmen was
increased, the daily wage was returned to 65 cents; it is necessary to
add, however, that this was only nominally the rate at the end of
1889.
R E LA T IV E WAGES OF B R ICKLAYERS, B R IC K LA Y E R S' H ELPERS, PRINTERS, AND
BAKERS.

Year.

1865.................................................................
1880.................................................................
1884.................................................................
1887.................................................................
1892.................................................................
1901.................................................................
1907.................................................................




Brick­
layers.

Brick­
layers'
helpers.

Printers.
Bakers.
Piecework. Time work.
100.00
100.00

100.00
138.45
165.38

193.10

100.00
128.20
170.94

100.00
111.63
134.88

128.95
155.22

229.88
229.88

RELATIVE PRICES OF WHEAT, BREAD, WINE, BEEF. PORK, BUTTER, AND RICE
IN MILAN, ITALY, AT QUINQUENNIAL PERIODS, 1801 TO 1908.

--------------------




B read ---------------------

W in e

B e e f _________________ P o r K .................. .

B u t t e r _____________
R ic e ,__________
T H c N O R F iiS P E T E R S C O ., W A S H / N C T O N , O . C.

603

PRICES IN M IL A N , ITALY, 1801 TO 1908.

The tables follow, those presenting the averages for the single years
first and those presenting the figures for five-year periods later.
AVE R AG E Y E A R L Y PRICES OP W H EAT, 1700 TO 1800.

Year.

1700.........
1701.........
1702.........
1703.........
1704.........
1705.........
1706.........
1707.........
1708.........
1709.........
1710.........
1711.........
1712.........
1713.........
1714.........
1715.........
1716.........
1717.........
1718.........
1719.........
1720.........

Aver­
age
price
per
bushel.
$0.65
.78
.88
.78
.73
.78
.92
1.02
1.05
1.23
1.07
.81
.75
.81
.86
.78
.77
.77
.77
.69
.60

Year.

1721.........
1722.........
1723.........
1724.........
1725.........
1726.........
1727.........
1728.........
1729.........
1730.........
1731.........
1732.........
1733.........
1734.........
1735.........
1736.........
1737.........
1738.........
1739.........
1740.........

Aver­
age
price
per
bushel.
$0.61
.54
.48
.42
.51
.63
.64
.66
.70
.65
.59
.58
.81
1.25
1.17
.91
.67
.61
.67
.80

Year.

Average
price
per
bushel.

1741.........
1742.........
1743.........
1744.........
1745.........
1746.........
1747.........
1748.........
1749.........
1750.........
1751.........
1752.........
1753.........
1754.........
1755.........
1756.........
1757.........
1758.........
1759.........
1760.........

$0.81
.84
.•84
.81
.79
.98
1.04
1.14
.91
.90
.97
1.03
.86
.77
.81
.91
.90
.80
.82
.80

AverYear.

1761.........
1762.........
1763.........
1764.........
1765.........
1766.........
1767.........
1768.........
1769.........
1770.........
1771.........
1772.........
1773.........
1774.........
1775.........
1776.........
1777.........
1778.........
1779.........
1780.........

$0.73
.63
.64
.81
.91
1.00
1.09
1.00
.89
.91
1.04
1.13
1.36
1.35
1.31
.91
1.07
1.33
1.17
.94

Average
price
per
bushel.

Year.

fee
per
bushel.

1781.........
1782.........
1783.........
1784.........
1785.........
1786.........
1787.........
1788.........
1789.........
1790.........
1791.........
1792.........
1793.........
1794.........
1795.........
1796.........
1797.........
1798.........
1799.........
1800.........

$0.96
1.21
1.30
1.25
1.13
1.08
1.48
1.16
1.07
1.13
.90
1.05
1.40
1.42
1.49
1.40
1.38
1.38
1.59
2.42

AVE R AG E Y E A R L Y PRICES OF W H EAT, B R E A D , W INE, B E E F, P O R K , BU TTE R , AND
RICE, 1801 TO 1908.

Year.

1801....
1802....
1803....
1804....
1805....
1806....
1807....
1808....
1809....
1810....
1811....
1812....
1813....
1814....
1815....
1816....
1817....
1818....
1819....
1820....
1821....
1822....
1823....
1824....
1825....
1826....
1827....
1828....
1829....
1830....
1831....
1832....
1833....
1834....
1835....
1836....
1837....
1838....
1839....

Wheat
bulhel).
$2.72
2.06
1.79
1.70
1.77
1.64
1.19
1.02
.99
1.42
2.03
1.82
1.38
1.45
2.11
2.56
2.28
1.30
1.08
1.12
1.21
1.07
1.00
.92
.85
.95
1.33
1.36
1.41
1.31
1.42
1.37
1.37
1.19
1.02
1.30
1.45
1.36
1.43

Bread
Wine (per
Bread (per
gallon).
pound). making.(o)

$0,052
.036
.032
.032
.035
.032
.025
.022
.022
.032
.039
.032
.028
.032
.046
.053
.050
.025
.028
.030
.027
.027
.024
.024
.025
.025
.032
.032
.032
.032
.034
.032
.032
.029
.025
.031
.032
.032
.034

$0,006
.002
.003
.004
.005
.004
.005
.005
.005
.008
.004
.001
.005
.007
.011
.011
.012
.004
.010
.011
.007
.010
.006
.008
.011
.009
.010
.010
.009
.010
.011
.010
.009
.009
.009
.009
.007
.010
.011

$0,418
.256
.170
.132
.168
.183
.234
.194
.185
.298
.384
.341
.272
.320
.382
.348
.330
.315
.192
.242
.251
.266
.270
.216
.232
.240
.208
.252
.228
.135
.151
.143
.141
.154
.209
.192
.192
.214
.214

Beef (per
pound).

Pork (per
pound).

$0,075
.078
.074
.074
.074
.070
.072
.072
.072
.075
.075
.080
.082
.081
.082
.078
.078
.068
.082
.072
.075
.073
.067
.067
.067
.061
.065
.065
.084
.068
.067
.072
.068
.067
.075
.081
.079
.079
.080

$0,104
.095
.100
.100
.092
.088
.068
.068
.068
.067
.074
.100
.095
.081
.094
.104
.116
.119
.119
.116
.116
.116
.116
.104
.100
.095
.088
.097
.109
.117
.118
.114
.095
.095
.095
.095
.109
.109
.121

Butter
(P“
pound).
$0,145
.155
.147
.138
.130
.130
.130
.145
.137
.151
.134
.179
.131
.130
.124
.119
.147
.122
.136
.133
.144
.146
.137
.132
.125
.125
.130
.135
.138
.168
.160
.158
.157
.176
.166
.162
.159
.162
.181

a Difference between price of 1 pound of wheat and 1 pound of bread.




Rice (per
100
pounds).
$4.68
3.48
2.97
3.03
3.09
3.13
2.37
2.38
2.36
3.17
4.46
3.89
3.47
3.68
4.84
5.36
5.38
3.11
2.73
2.59
2.83
2.81
3.16
2.96
2.94
2.97
3.55
3.64
3.51
3.41
3.35
3.56
3.56
3.45
3.11
3.54
2.56
3.55
3.58

604

BU LLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

AV E R AG E Y E A R L Y PRICES OF W H E A T, B R E A D , W IN E, BE E F, POR K, B U TTE R , AND
RICE, 1801 TO 1908—Concluded.

Year.

Wheat
bushel).

1840....
1841....
1842....
1843....
1844....
1845....
1846....
1847....
1848....
1849....
1850....
1851....
1852....
1853....
1854....
1855....
1856....
1857....
1858....
1859....
I860....
1861....
1862....
1863....
1864....
1865....
1866....
1867....
1868....
I860....
1870....
1871....
1872....
1873....
1874....
1875....
1876....
1877....
1878....
1879....
1880....
1881....
1882....
1883....
1884....
1885....
1886....
1887....
1888....
1889....
1890....
1891....
1892....
1893....
1894....
1895....
1896....
1897....
1898....
1899....
1900....
1901....
1902....
1903....
1904....
1905....
1906....
1907....
1908....

$1.44
1.37
1.32
1.36
1.34
1.22
1.42
1.83
1.61
1.49
1.17
1.22
1.31
1.61
2.01
1.73
1.86
1.67
1.20
1.30
1.42
1.56
1.54
1.37
1.30
1.16
1.39
1.67
1.79
1.38
1.49
1.69
1.93
2.02
2.11
1.49
1.57
1.78
1.69
1.66
1.76
1.55
1.48
1.37
1.24
1.20
1.20
1.22
1.25
1.30
1.28
1.38
1.35
1.13
.99
1.15
1.24
1.37
1.46
1.33
1.34
1.40
1.36
1.29
1.30
1.40
1.36
1.37
1.54

Bread (per
pound).

$0,034
.032
.032
.032
.030
.030
.032
.042
.039
.034
.029
.025
.031
.037
.044
.039
.042
.039
.030
.032
.034
.039
.037
.035
.034
.032
.036
.040
.044
.039
.039
.043
.047
.049
.051
.039
.043
.046
.046
.045
.046
.041
.040
.039
.036
.036
.036
.037
.037
.039
.039
.041
.038
.035
.034
.034
.036
.039
.038
.035
.035
.037
.036
.035
.035
.037
.038
.038
.039




Bread
making.

$0,011
.010
.010
.009
.008
.010
.009
.011
.011
.010
.010
.008
.009
.010

.011

.011

.011
.011

.010
.010

.011

.012

.011

.012
.012
.012
.013
.012
.014
.016
.015
.015
.015
.016
.016
.015
.018
.018
.018
.017
.017
.015
.016
.016
.015
.016
.016
.017
.016
.018
.018
.018
.015
.017
.018
.015
.015
.016
.013
.013
.012
.013
.013
.013
.013
.013
.015
.015
.013

Wine (per
gallon).

$0,214
.214
.214
.214
.214
.214
.214
.214
.217
.227
.225
.236
.289
.337
.617
.673
.626
.418
.339
.462
.452
.444
.508
.413
.413
.350
.339
.462
.420
.357
.349
.318
.267
.568
.575
.320
.338
.453
.477
.470
.439
.437
.415
.375
.431
.466
.590
.618
.649
.539
.507
.476
.475
.458
.328
.347
.372
.396
.402
.368
.402
.340
.343
.402
.402
.479
.460
.340
.340

Beef (per
pound).

$0,082
.081
.081
.082
.079
.083
.081
.081
.080
.083
.086
.085
.086
.086
.087
.087
.088
.088
.088
.085
.088
.096
.093
.104
.100
.101
.101
.104
.109

.111

.115
.116
.125
.153
.149
.132
.132
.132
.135
.135
.134
.130
.118
.118
.125
.131
.130
.123
.123
.123
.128
.131
.131
.131
.131
.140
.149
.140
.140
.135
.131
.131
.158
.151
.140
.119
.123
.136
.144

Pork (per
pound).
$0,121
.121
.121
.121
.121
.121
.122
.122
.129
.124
.123
.112
.109
.115
.137
.140
.131
.131
.124
.116
.125
.116
.123
.119
.125
.125
.119
.131
.151
.166
.155
.156
.166
.199
.200
.168
.166
.178
.185
.178
.185
.189
.166
.179
.172
.179
.178
.179
.166
.166
.166
.166
.166
.166
.166
.166
.166
.158
.158
.158
.158
.153
.169
.165
.158
.175
.179
.206
.206

Butter
(P“
pound).
$0,183
.175
.177
.173
.172
.169
.182
.173
.160
.176
.173
.155
.166
.172
.177
.185
.188
.188
.189
.190
.184
.178
.190
.183
.179
.175
.175
.168
.200
.210
.214
.212
.245
.241
.239
.269
.258
.253
.249
.250
.273
.253
.235
.241
.216
.212
.205
.209
.196
.214
.207
.206
.221
.217
.196
.196
.202
.191
.210
.214
.218
.242
.211
.199
.206
.220
.214
.228
.271

pounds).
$3.80
3.26
2.86
3.51
3.68
3.79
4.07
4.41
3.57
3.51
3.26
3.15
3.56
3.69
4.45
3.89
3.81
3.63
3.27
3.39
3.26
3.34
3.22
3.07
3.29
3.26
3.55
3.72
3.66
3.30
2.82
3.34
3.86
3.87
3.94
3.58
3.66
3.65
3.53
3.51
3.48
3.05
2.99
3.10
3.39
3.03
3.04
3.21
3.44
3.74
3.56
3.92
3.63
3.37
3.35
.3.37
3.64
.4.29
3.73
3.50
3.35
3.32
3.49
3.57
3.43
3.43
3.48
3.46
3.61

605

PRICES IN M IL A N , ITA L Y, 1801 TO 1908.

A V E R AG E Y E A R L Y PRICES OF W H E A T, B R E A D , W INE, BEEF, PO R K , B U T TE R , AND
RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL PERIO D, 1801 TO 1905, AND FOR 1906 TO 1908.

pound).

Butter
(per
pound).

Rice
(per 100
pounds).

$0,229
.219
.340
.285
.247

$0,074
.072
.081
.075
.070

$0,098
.072
.088
.115
.110

$0,143
.138
.140
.131
.137

$3.45
2.68
4.07
3.83
2.94

.030
.030
.033
.031
.035

.212
.160
.205
.214
.219

.068
.070
.080
.081
.082

.101
.103
.111
.121
.123

.139
.164
.170
.173
.173

3.42
3.41
3.40
3.42
3.76

1.55
1.49
1.39
1.55
1.85

.035
.035
.035
.040
.046

.430
.459
.426
.385
.410

.086
.088
.099
.108
.135

.123
.126
.122
.144
.178

.171
.188
.181
.193
.241

3.75
3.47
3.23
3.41
3.72

1876-1880......................................
1881-1885......................................
1886-1890......................................
1891-1895......................................
1896-1900......................................

1.69
1.37
1.25
1.20
1.35

.045
.038
.037
.036
.036

.435
.425
.580
.417
.388

.134
.124
.125
.133
.139

.179
.177
.171
.166
.159

.256
.231
.207
.207
.207

3.56
3.11
3.40
3.53
3.70

1901-1905......... ...........................
1906..............................................
1907..............................................
1908..............................................

1.35
1.36
1.37
1.54

.036
.038
.038
.*39

.393
.460
.340
.340

.140
.123
.136
.144

.164
.179
.206
.206

.215
.214
.228
.271

3.45
3.48
3.46
3.61

pound).

1801-1805......................................
1806-1810......................................
1811-1815......................................
1816-1820......................................
1821-1825......................................

$2.01
1.16
1.76
1.67
1.01

$0,037
.026
.035
.037
.025

1826-1830......................................
1831-1835......................................
1836-1840......................................
1841-1845......................................
1846-1850......................................

1.27
1.27
1.39
1.32
1.50

1851-1855......................................
1856-1860......................................
1861-1865......................................
1866-1870......................................
1871-1875......................................

Bread

(Per

Wine

Beef

Pork

pound).

Wheat
(per
bushel).

Quinquennial period.

(P<*

A

<P<*

A V E R AG E Y E A R L Y R E LA TIV E PRICES OF W H EAT, B R E A D , W INE, BEEF, PO R K ,
B U T TE R , AND RIC E FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL P E R IO D , 1801 TO 1905, AND F O R
1906 TO 1908.
(Average price for 1801-1805=100.0.1
Quinquennial period.

Wheat.

Bread.

Wine.

Beef.

Pork.

Butter.

Rice.

1801-1805......................................
1806-1810......................................
1811-1815......................................
1816-1820......................................
1821-1825......................................

100.00
62.26
87.52
82.98
50.20

100.00
70.89
94.36
100.00
68.07

100.00
95.49
148.42
124,68
107.92

100.00
96.46
108.23
101.17
94.11

100.00
73.21
90.18
116.96
112.50

100.00
96.93
98.16
92.02
95.70

100.00
77.71
117.90
111. 13
85.29

1826-1830......................................
1831-1835......................................
1836-1840......................................
1841-1845......................................
1846-1850......................................

63.25
63.42
69.43
65.84
74.81

81.69
81.69
87.32
83.10
94.36

92.81
69.75
89.65
93.51
95.85

91.76
94.11
107.05
109.41
110.58

102.68
105.36
113.39
123.21
125.89

97.54
114.72
119.02
121.47
121.47

99.06
98.75
98.65
99.16
109.08

1851-1855......................................
1856-1860.....................................
1861-1865......................................
1866-1870......................................
1871-1875......................................

76.91
74.23
69.02
76.95
91.96

94.36
94.36
94.36
106.10
123.47

188.02
200.60
185.94
168.34
178.98

115.29
117.64
132.93
144.70
181.16

125.00
128.57
124.11
147.32
181.25

119,63
131.90
127.00
135.58
168.71

108.60
100.63
93.76
98.88
107.73

1876-1880......................................
1881-1885......................................
1886-1890......................................
1891-1895......................................
1896-1900......................................

84.22
68.11
62.19
59.59
67.22

121.59
102.82
100.47
97.65
97.65

191.15
185.56
253.62
182.17
169.46

180.00
167.05
168.23
178.81
187.05

182.14
180.35
174.11
169.64
162.50

179.75
161.96
144.78
145.40
145.40

103.24
90.16
98.50
102.26
107.28

1901-1905......................................
1906..............................................
1907..............................................
1908..............................................

67.31
67.67
67.95
76.63

96.24
100.94
100.94
103.29

171.79
200.98
148.51
148.51

188.22
164.70
182.34
192.93

166.96
183.03
209.82
209.82

150.92
150.31
159.51
190.18

99.92
100.94
100.17
104.56




606

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

AVERAG E, MAXIMUM, AND MINIMUM Y E A R L Y PRICES OF W HEAT, B R E A D , WINE
AND FOR
Wheat (per bushel).

Bread (per pound).

Wine (per gallon).

Quinquennial period.

Aver­
age
yearly
price.

Maxi­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Mini­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Aver­
age
yearly
price.

Maxi­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Mini­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Aver­
age
yearly
price.

Maxi­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Mini­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

1861-1865................................
1866-1870................................
1871-1875................................
1876-1880................................
1881-1885................................

$1.39
1.55
1.85
1.69
1.37

$1.56
1.79
2.11
1.78
1.55

$1.16
1.38
1.49
1.57
1.20

$0,035
.039
.046
.046
.039

$0,039
.044
.051
.046
.041

$0,032
.036
.039
.043
.036

$0,426
.385
.410
.435
.425

$0,508
.462
.575
.477
.466

$0,350
.339
.267
.338
.375

1886-1890................................
1891-1895................................
1896-1900................................
1901-1905................................

1.25
1.20
1.35
1.35

1.30
1.38
1.46
1.40

1.20
.99
1.24
1.29

.038
.037
.037
.036

.039
.041
.039
.037

.036
.034
.035
.035

.580
.417
.388
.393

.649
.476
.402
.479

.507
.328
.368
.340

1906.........................................
1907.........................................
1908.........................................

1.36
1.37
1.54

A V E R AG E, MAXIMUM, AND

.038
.038
.039
MINIMUM

YEARLY

.460
.340
.340
R E LA T IV E

PRICES OF W H E A T,
PERIO D, 1861 TO 1905'

[Average price for 1861-1865=100.0.]
Bread.

Wheat.

Quinquennial period.

Wine.

Maxi­ Mini­
Maxi­ Mini­
Aver­ mum of mum of Aver­ mum of mum of Aver­ Maxi­ Mini­
age
age mum of mum of
age
yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly
aver­
aver­
aver­ price.
aver­ price.
aver­
aver­
price.
ages.
ages.
ages.
ages.
ages.
ages.

1861-1865................................
1866-1870................................
1871-1875................................
1870-1880................................
1881-1885................................

100.00
111.47
133.24
122.00
98.67

112.64
129.16
152.52
128.13
111.92

83.79
99.77
107.57
113.36
86.44

100.00
112.44
130.84
128.85
108.95

109.45
124.37
144.27
133.08
116.91

89.65
101.99
113.18
123.13
101.99

100.00
90.54
96.25
102.29
99.79

119.37
108.46
135.17
111.98
109.47

82.20
79.73
62.69
79.43
88.02

1886-1890................................
1891-1895................................
1890-1900................................
1901-1905................................

90.07
86.33
97.39
97.50

93.83
99.69
105.60
101.29

86.37
71.15
89.77
93.26

106.46
103.48
103.48
101.99

111.94
116.91
109.45
104.47

101.99
97.01
99.50
99.50

136.39
97.97
91.13
92.38

152.56
111. 95
94.46
112.65

119.07
77.05
86.42
79.79

1906......................................... 97.95
1907......................................... 98.44
1908......................................... 111.02




106.96
106.96
109.45

108.09
79.87
79.87

607

PRICES IK M IL A N , ITAL Y, 1801 TO 1908.

BEEF, PORK, BU TTE R , AND RICE FOR EACH QUINQUENNIAL PERIO D, 1861 TO 1905,
1906 TO 1908.
Beef (per pound).

Pork (per pound).

Butter (per pound).

Rice (per 100 pounds).

Average
yearly
price.

Maximum
Of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Minimum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Average
yearly
price.

Maximum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Minimum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Aver­
age
yearly
price.

Maxi­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Mini­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

Aver­
age
yearly
price.

Maxi­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

10.099
.108
.135
.134
.124

IC.104
.115
.153
.135
.131

10.093
.101
.116
.132
.118

80.122
.144
.178
.179
.177

$0,125
.166
.200
.185
.189

$0,116
.119
.156
.166
.186

$0,181
.193
.241
.256
.231

$0,190
.214
.269
.273
.253

$0,175
.168
.212
.249
.212

$3.23
3.41
3.74
3.56
3.11

$3.34
3.72
3.94
3.66
3.39

$3.07
2.82
3.34
3.48
2.99

.125
.133
.139
.140

.130
.140
.149
.158

.123
.131
.131
.119

.171
.166
.159
.164

.179
.166
.166
.175

.166
.166
.158
.153

.207
.207
.207
.215

.214
.221
.218
.242

.196
.196
.191
.199

3.40
3.53
3.70
3.45

3.74
3.92
4.29
3.57

3.04
3.35
3.35
3.32

.123
.136
.144

.214
.228
.271

.179
.206
.206

B R E A D , W IN E, B E E F, POR K, B U TTE R , AND
AND FOR 1906 TO 1908.

Mini­
mum
of
yearly
aver­
ages.

3.48
3.46
3.61

RICE FOR

EACH

QUINQUENNIAL

[Average price for 1861-1865=100.0.]
Pork.

Beef.

Butter.

Rice.

Maxi­ Mini­
Aver­ mum of mum of
age
yearly yearly
yearly
aver­
aver­
price.
ages.
ages.

Maxi­ Mini­
Maxi­ Mini­
Aver­ mum of mum of Aver­ mum of mum of
age
age
yearly yearly yearly yearly yearly
yearly
aver­
aver­
aver­
aver­
price.
price.
ages.
ages.
ages.
ages.

100.00
109.22
136.88
135.28
126.06

105.51
116.13
155.14
136.52
132.98

93.97
101.95
117.91
133.86
119.68

100.00
118.70
146.19
146.47
145.61

102.88
136.69
164.75
151.80
155.39

95.68
97.84
128.06
136.69
136.69

100.00
106.86
133.17
141.78
127.85

104.93
118.47
148.45
150.87
139.74

96.71
92.84
117.02
137.33
117.02

100.00
105.45
114.92
110.11
96.17

103.16
115.06
121.87
113.00
104.72

94.83
87.23
103.18
107.48
92.28

126.77
134.75
140.78
141.84

132.09
141.84
150.71
159.57

124.11
132.98
132.98
120.57

140.57
136.69
130.93
134.53

146.76
136.69
136.69
143.88

136.69
136.69
129.50
125.90

113.92
114.89
114.41
118.95

117.99
121.85
120.40
133.94

108.31
108.31
105.41
109.76

105.04
109.05
114.42
106.56

115.62
121.30
132.64
110.27

94.04
103.48
103.53
102.62

124.11
137.41
145.39




147.48
169.06
169.06

118.47
125.72
149.90

Maxi­ Mini­
Aver­ mum of mum of
age
yearly yearly
yearly
aver­
aver­
price.
ages.
ages.

107.65
106.84
111.51

COST OF LIVING OF THE WORKING CLASSES IN THE PRIN­
CIPAL INDUSTRIAL TOWNS OF BELGIUM.
SCOPE OF THE IN VESTIGATION.

Under the above title is presented the results of an investigation
undertaken by the British Board of Trade in the 15 principal industrial
towns of Belgium, in order to obtain, in regard to the condition of the
working classes therein, information comparable with that given for
the principal industrial towns of the United Kingdom, of Germany,
and of France in the three reports previously published on the “ Cost
of Living of the Working Classes. ” (a) The investigation has refer­
ence primarily to the rents of working-class dwellings, to the prices
usually paid by the working classes for food and fuel, and to wages
and hours of labor. It was conducted so far as practicable on lines
identical with the inquiries for the towns of the United Kingdom, of
Germany, and of France, and although the statistical material relates
in the main to the month of June, 1908, it is believed to be comparable
with that collected in the other countries for October, 1905.
In order to arrive at some estimate of the standard of living prevalent
among the Belgian industrial classes over 1,850 budgets, showing the
expenditure for food by working-class families in a normal week and
representative of numerous occupations and of all grades of workingclass incomes, were obtained from the various towns investigated.
These towns contain an aggregate of about 1,680,000 inhabitants.
Any exact statistical comparison of cost of living in Belgium with
cost of living in England is not a simple matter. Even when all the
difficulties of maintaining the same standard of investigation through­
out have been successfully overcome there remains a difficulty arising
from the difference in natural tastes and mode of life. This is illus­
trated by the statement that—
An English workman, with an average family, who should go to
Belgium and endeavor to maintain there his accustomed mode of
living, would find his expenditure on housing, food and fuel slightly
diminished. But at the same time, so far as can be judged from the
trades selected for international comparison, he would find his wages
reduced by about one-third, in spite of much longer hours.
As a basis of comparison for the Belgian towns among themselves
the levels of rents, prices, and wages in Brussels have been taken as
standards and index numbers calculated for each of these items in
every town, so as to afford an indication of the relative levels of the
< See Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, N o. 77, July, 1908, pp. 336 to 354; Bulletin
*
No. 78, September, 1908, pp. 523 to 548, and Bulletin N o. 83, July, 1909, pp. 66 to 87.




609

COST OF LIVING IN BELGIUM.

towns. The index numbers for rents and prices in each town have
also been combined in a single index number, in order to determine
the relative level for each town of the cost of living of the working
classes, so far as it consists of expenditure for housing and food, and
for this purpose, because the expenditure for food is much greater
than that for rent, prices have been given a weight of 5 and rents a
weight of 1 in the construction of the combined index number. The
comparison of the rates of wages has been confined mainly to occu­
pations in certain standard industries, as the building trades, en­
gineering (mechanical), and printing, which are found to a greater
or less extent in all the towns. The general result of the comparison
is that for skilled men in the building trades the weekly wages of the
Belgian workman appear to average about 59 per cent of those of the
English artisan, and for skilled men in the engineering trades the
Belgian wages average 66 per cent of the English.
The type of dwelling found in the Belgian towns investigated pre­
sents on the whole great uniformity, and approximates somewhat
closely to that which prevails in the English industrial towns. The
small house occupied by one or two families predominates, while
tenement houses play only a very small part, and even where they
exist, are rarely of large size.
RENTS OF W ORKING-CLASS DW ELLINGS.
BELGIUM.

In order to ascertain the rents paid for the kind of dwellings usually
occupied by the Belgian working classes, information was obtained
from various sources, but the bulk of the rent returns were collected
directly from the tenants themselves. In each town several houses
were visited by the investigators, in order that some account might
be given of the general character and standard of housing accommo­
dations.
From rent quotations obtained for about 32,000 working-class
dwellings the following table has been constructed to show the pre­
dominant range of weekly rents for dwellings of various sizes in the
Belgian towns. The rents do not include any elements of local taxa­
tion or, as a rule, any charge for water.
PREDOMINANT RANGE OF W E E K L Y RENTS IN TOWNS OF BELGIUM.

Number of rooms per dwelling.

Number
of towns
to which
relate.

Two rooms..............................................
Three rooms............................................
Four rooms..............................................




12
11
12

Number of towns in which the
mean rent is—
Predominant
range of weekly Within the Below the
Above the
rents.
limits of the limits of the limits of the
predomi­
predomi­
predomi­
nant range. nant range. nant range.
SO 43-10.55
.
.53- .60
.65- .85

6
6
8

3
3
2

3

a
a

610

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

In the table following is shown the predominant range of weekly
rents for dwellings of one, two, three, or four rooms in each of the 15
towns investigated:
PREDOMINANT RANGE OF W E E K L Y RENTS IN 15 SPECIFIED TOWNS OF BELGIUM.
Predominant range of weekly rents for—
Town.
One room.
Antwerp...................................................
Bruges......................................................
Brussels....................................................
Charleroi...................................................
Courtrai....................................................
Ghent.......................................................
La Louvfere.............................................
Liege.........................................................
Louvain....................................................
Malines.....................................................
P&turages.................................................
Seraing......................................................
Toum ay..................................................
Turnhout.................................................
Verviers....................................................

10.39-10.59

Two rooms.
$0.63-10.93
.41- .49
.59- .89
,45- .63

Three rooms.
$0.77-11.07
.47- .63
.59- .77
.53- .63

.32- .45

.22- .32

.55.39.32.28.41.37.26.37-

.71
.55
.45
.34
.49
.59
.37
.49

.77.55.41.37.45-

.89
.71
.55
.43
.63

.37- .49
.45- .67

Four rooms.
$0.89-$l. 18
.55- .77
.71.51.69.81-

.99
.81
.73
.89

.67.49.42.55.89-

.81
.71
.55
.81
.99

.57- .89

In the following table index numbers are given showing the relative
rent level in each of the towns canvassed as compared with Brussels.
The means of the predominant rents for each class of dwellings, as
shown in the table on p. 609, were taken as a base and the ratios of the
mean predominant rents for the corresponding classes in the various
towns as compared with this base were calculated. The average of
the ratios for the various types of houses in each town gave an index
number for the town as compared with the level for the Belgian
towns as a whole. The index number for Brussels, computed in the
same way, was then taken as the base (or 100) and the index number
for the other towns adjusted accordingly.
R E LA T IV E R E N T L E VE L OF SPECIFIED BELGIAN TOWNS AS COMPARED W ITH
BRUSSELS.

Town.

Brussels.............................
Antwerp............................
Liege..................................
La Louvfere......................
Charleroi............................




Index
num­
ber.
100
99
88
75
74

Town.

Toum ay..........................
Louvain..........................
Ghent..............................
Verviers...........................
Seraing............................

Index
num­
ber.
74
65
63
61
59

Town.

Bruges.............................
Courtrai...................
Malines............................
Turnhout........................
P&turages........................

Index
num­
ber.
59
58
52
44
43

611

COST OF LIVING IN BELGIUM.
BELGIUM AND GREAT BRITAIN CO M PARED.

A comparison of the predominant range of weekly rents in England
and Wales with the predominant range in Belgium for dwellings of
two, three, and four rooms is presented in the table following:
PREDOMINANT RANGE OF W E E K L Y RENTS IN ENGLAND AND W ALES AND IN
BELGIUM COMPARED.
Predominant range of weekly
rents in—

Number of rooms per dwelling.

Two rooms..................................................................................
Three rooms...............................................................................
Four rooms.................................................................................

England and
Wales, exclud­
ing London.

$0.73-10.85
.91- 1.10
1.10- 1.34

Belgium.

$0.43-10.55
.53- .69
.65- .85

Ratio of
mean pre­
dominant
rent in
Belgium to
that in
England
and Wales,
taken as
100.
62
61
62

From the above table it will be seen that the rents paid by the
Belgian tenant are only from 61 to 62 per cent of the corresponding
rents in England and Wales. If the mean of the index numbers in
the last column might be taken as representing roughly the rent level
in Belgium as compared with that in England, we should find the
Belgian rent level to be in the ratio of 62 to 100. A comparison on
these lines is, however, liable to be somewhat misleading, for the
reason that rents of two, three, and four room dwellings were not
obtained from all the towns investigated in each case. It is neces­
sary, therefore, to adopt some more exact method of comparison less
open to possible bias. This has been done by reworking all the rent
index numbers for the Belgian towns to the basis used for Great
Britain, viz, comparing the mean predominant rents of the types of
tenements shown for each town in Belgium with the mean predomi­
nant rents shown for tenements of the same size in the middle zone of
London, and using as the index number in each case the average of
the percentages so obtained. The resulting index numbers for the
towns investigated, shown in the table below, are accordingly directly
comparable with the index numbers for the English towns shown
in the report for the United Kingdom, with those shown for the
German towns in the report for the German Empire, and with those
shown for the French towns in the report for France.
43431—No. 87— 10-----16




612

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR.

R E LA T IV E RE N T L E V E L OF SPECIFIED BELGIAN TOWNS AS COMPARED W ITH THE
MIDDLE ZONE OF LONDON AS THE BASE.
[Index number for middle zone of London=100.]

Town.

Brussels.............................
Antwerp............................
Liege..................................
La Louvifere......................
Tournay...........................

Index
num­
ber.
51
50
44
39
38

Town.

Index
num­
ber.

Charleroi..........................
L ou v ain .........................
Ghent..............................
Venders..........................
Seraing............................

38
33
32
31
30

Town.

Bruges.............................
Courtrai..........................
Malines............................
Tum hout........................
Faturages........................

Index
num­
ber.
30
30
27
22
22

The lowness of the Belgian rents is indicated by the fact that,
while the rents in half the English towns investigated lie within a
central range of 50 to 59 per cent of London rents, only 2 of the
Belgian towns investigated show index numbers higher than 49,
and 9 show numbers lower than 35.
The ratio of the arithmetic mean of the index numbers for Belgium
to that for England is 61 to 100; and this ratio, or the index num­
ber 61, is taken as representing approximately the rent level in
Belgium as compared with the rent level in England. The corre­
sponding index number for the German Empire was 101, and for
France 80, so that the Belgian rents are lower than the German and
French, as well as the English.
It is estimated that approximately 18 per cent of the rent paid
by the British workman goes for local taxation. This makes the
Belgian rents bear to English rents the ratio of 61 to 82, which is
equivalent to 74 to 100.
R E TA IL PRICES.
BELG IU M .

Information as to the prices commonly paid by the Belgian work­
ing classes for food commodities, for fuel, and for paraffin oil, was
obtained from a large number of shopkeepers in each of the towns
investigated and also from cooperative societies where these existed.
It must be remembered that the prices shown are not necessarily
the minimum prices at which the commodities could be obtained,
but simply the prices which the working classes did in fact usually
pay in the month of June, 1908; and where a range of prices is given
it is because they appear to be of equal popularity. The differences
between one town and another, accordingly, represent often not
so much difference in the cost of identical commodities as variations
in local tastes, and sometimes in local standards of comfort.
The following table presents the predominant range of retail
prices commonly paid by the working classes for certain commod­
ities for Belgium as a whole:



613

COST OF LIVING IN BELGIUM.

PREDOMINANT RA N G E OF R E T A IL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN TOWNS OF BELGIUM ,
JUNE, 1908.
Number of towns in which the
mean predominant price is—
Commodity,

Coffee..............
Sugar, loaf___
Bacon, salted.
Eggs................
Cheese, Dutch
Butter............
Margarine___
Potatoes.........
Flour, w h eat..
Bread, w h ite..
Milk................
Beef................
Mutton...........
Veal................
Pork................
Coal................
Paraffin oil_
_

Unit.

1 p ound...
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
1 dozen .. .
1 pound...
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
7 pounds..
...d o ..........
4 pounds..
1 quart___
1 pound...
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
1 cw t........
1 gallon...

Num­
ber of Predominant
retail Within
Below
Above
towns range ofJune,
prices,
the limits the limits the limits
in­
of the
1908.
of the
of the
cluded.
predom­ predom­ predom­
inant
inant
inant
range.
range.
range.
15
15
14
15
14
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
14
15
15

10.13 -S0.17J
.0 5 b .063
.1 4 - .173
.2 1 - .243
.153b .19
.2 5 b .273
.1 5 b .17i
.0 5 - .06
.1 9 - .20*
.0 8 b -10|
.04*
.1 2 - .14
.1 3 - .15
.1 7 - .21
.1 5 - .19*
.2 5 - .30
.1 3 b -15

15
13
12
8
13
10
11
15
10
15
13

1

1

3

4
1

2

2

3
3

1

2

3

2
2
2

11

11
13
13
10
13

2
2
2

1
3
1

2

1

In the following table is shown the predominant range of retail
prices of the principal commodities in 8 towns of Belgium, selected
as to certain geographical districts:
PREDOM INANT RANGE OF R E T A IL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN 8 SELECTED TOWNS
OF BELGIUM, JUNE, 1908.
Commodity.
Coffee...................................................
Sugar, loaf............................................
Bacon, salted.......................................
Eggs.....................................................
Cheese, Dutch.....................................
Butter..................................................
Margarine............................................
Potatoes...............................................
Flour, wheat.......................................
Bread, white.......................................
Milk......................................................
Coal......................................................
Paraffin oil...........................................
Beef:
Ribs...............................................
Brisket..........................................
Silverside.......................................
Shin, with bone............................
Steak..............................................
Rump steak..................................
Thick flank...................................
Mutton:
Leg.................................................
Shoulder........................................
Breast............................................
Neck, best end..............................
Chops.............................................
Veal:
Hind quarter................................
Shoulder, with bone.....................
Ribs...............................................
Chops.............................................
Leg.................................................
Pork: g
L e g ................................................
Foreloin.........................................
Belly..............................................
Chops.............................................




Unit.

Antwerp.

Bruges.

1 pound.. $0.15b» 0.17* 10.13 -10.15*
...d o ........
.06 .0 5 - .06
...d o ........
.17*
.15 b ! it *
1 d ozen ..
.18
.2 2 b
1 pound..
.14 .1 5 b -17*
O
...d o . . . .
.24 - .26*
.2 6 b *O I
. 15b ll7*
...d o ........
.17*
7 pounds.
.0 5 - .06
.05
. ..d o ........
.19 - .25
.19
4 pounds.
.08*
.0 8 b *09
i04*
1 q u art..
.28 - .32
1 cw t. . . .
.40
1 gallon. .
.13 - .14
.1 4 - .15*
.14
.10*
.17*
.07
.22*

Brussels.

Charleroi.

0.13 -10.14 $0.13 -$0.17*
.0 5 b .06* .06
.14
.1 4 - .17*
.2 2 b .24*
•22b
•15b !21* .17*
.2 6 b -28*
.2 6 b
.14 - !l7* .1 6 b -17*
.06
.06
.19
.19
.09*
.09*
.04*
.04*
.34*
.1 9 - .25
.14
.13 - .14

1 pound..
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........

.0 5 -

...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........

.19*
.12 - .14
.08*- .10*
.17*
.17b .22*

.17*
.13 - .17*
.10 b .13
.15 b .19*
.17*- .19*

.0 8 b

...d o ........
...d o ........
. .do........
__do.........
...d o ........

.15 b .19*
.15*.17 b *22*

.17 b
.15 b

.19 b

:!*

.21*
.19*
.19*
.21*
.21*- .22*

...d o ........
...d o ........
. . .do........

.17b
•17b
.15b
.17*-

.21*
.21*
.17*
.21*

.15*
.14*- .17*
.12 - .14
.1 2
.17*

.09 b
.2 1 b

.22*

.17*
.12
.22*
.08*
.22*
.25
.22*

.17*
-12
-23
.10*
.2 1 b -23
.23 - .25
.21*

.1 0 b
.1 9 b

.19 b

.17*
.12
.12
.17*
.21*

.19 b
.1 4 .1 0 b
.1 7 b
.1 9 b

.19 b
.15 b
.19 b
.19 b
.19 b

.23
.19*
.21*
.23
.21*

.2 3 -

.25
.21*
.21*
.23
.19*- .25

.17 b
.17 b
.12 .19 b

.19*
.19*
.17*
.21*

.1 7 b -19*
.1 7 b .21*
.15*- .17*
.21*

-21*
.15*
-12
-21*
-21*

614

B U L L E T IN OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

PREDOMINANT RAN GE OF R E T A IL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN
OF BELGIUM, JUNE, 1908—Concluded.
Commodity.
Coffee...................................................
Sugar, loaf............................................
Bacon, salted.......................................
E ggs./..................................................
Cfieiese, Dutch.....................................
Butterl.................................................
Margarine.............................................
Potatoes...............................................
Flour, wheat.......................................
Bread, white.......................................
Milk......................................................
Coal......................................................
Paraffin oil...........................................
Beef:
Ribs...............................................
Brisket..........................................
Silverside.......................................
Shin, with bone............................
Steak..............................................
Rump steak..................................
Thick flank...................................
Mutton;
Leg.................................................
Shoulder........................................
Breast............................................
Neck, best end..............................
Ohops __________ _____________
Veal:
Hind quarter................................
Shoulder, with bone.....................
Ribs...............................................
Chops............................................
Leg.................................................
Pork: g
Leg.................................................
Foreloin.........................................
Belly..............................................
Chops.............................................

Unit.

Courtrai.

Ghent.

8 SELECTED TOWNS
Liege.

Paturages.

. -SO. 191
1 p ound.. SO.12 -SO. 14 $0,154-10.195 $0.13 -$0.14 SO
. ..d o ........
.06
.0 5 - .06
.054 .06 - .07
...d o ........
.13 - .14
.1 4 - .174
.1 5 - .164
.174
1 dozen..
.21
.18 - .225
2. 2 4 .244 . 2 4 .244
21 pound..
.174
.175- .194
.154 .14 - .214
.25 - .2 4
.264 .25 - .284
...d o ........
. 25 - . 26|
...d o ........
.171
. 13 - . 164
. 14 - . 174 .12 - .164
.06
.06
.0 5 - .06
7 pounds.
.0 ?
.. .do........
.19 - . 224
.17 - .19
.1 7 - .184 .19 . 09 - .10
.08 - .09
.08 - .094
4 pounds.
! o94
.044
.045
.044
1 quart...
1 cwt.......
.28 - .30
.28
.30
.174- .2 0
. 12 - .14
1 gallon..
.13 - .14
. 13 - .14
.14
1 pound..
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
.. .do........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........
...d o ........

.155

.104
.23 -

.154
.12
.23
.25

.204
.15
.12

•175-

.175-

.225

.174
.194

.214
.214

. 215 .23
•2
l|- .25

.174
.4
.14
.174

...d o ........
. . .do........
. . .do........
...d o ........

. 10 4
.« * -

.174
.12
.175
-10|

. 14 - . 154
.104- .114
.084-

.104

lost
.155- .174

.104

.23

.174
.174

.174- .19|

.214

.174- .194
.1 4 - .154
. 10 - .12
4
.174
.174- .194

.194
.1 4 - .154
. 12 - .13
.174- .215
. 194- . 23

.214
.154
.104- .14
.214

.174- .195
.174
.174
.175
.175- .194

.194- .23
.174
.174- .214
.194- .23
.224- .25

.23 -

•15i- : \ l \
. 12- .154
.155- .174

.194.174. 12 .174-

.214
.194
. 154
.214

.214
.25

■M

.194.191- .24
.2
l|- .25
.174-

.214

.214
Il4*
.214- .23

In order to obtain an indication of the level of prices for each town
as compared with other towns, index numbers have been constructed,
the level of prices in Brussels being taken as the base (100). In the
construction of the index numbers, in order to allow for the varying
importance of the prices of different articles, as judged by the normal
weekly expenditure of a working-class family, recourse was had to
“ weighting.” For this purpose average quantities estimated from
1,859 family budgets giving weekly cost and quantity of certain
articles of food consumed by workmen’s families in Belgian towns,
in 1908-9, were utilized.
In the following table these 1,859 families have been grouped
according to the aggregate weekly income of the family (not of the
principal wage-earner only); also there is shown for each group the
average family income and the average number of children at home
for a representative week in 1908-9:
NUM BER AND AV E R AG E INCOME OF U RBAN W ORKM EN’S FAMILIES REPO RTIN G
IN EACH CLASSIFIED INCOME GROUP AND AVERAG E NUMBER OF CHILDREN LIV­
ING A T HOME, FOR A RE PR E SE N TA TIV E W E E K , 1908-9.

Classified weekly income.

Under $4.87...................................................
$4.87 and under $6.08....................................
$6.08 and under $7.30....................................
$7.30 and under $8.52....................................
$ 8 .8 2 and under $9.73....................................
$9,73 and over...............................................




Total
Average weekly family in­
Number
average
come from—
of fami­
weekly
lies re­
family
porting. Husband. Wife.
Children. income.
315
500
362
247
152
283

$3.78
4.73
5.16
5.44
5.72
6.24

$0.32
.47
.71
.82
.67
.62

$0.12
.27
.81
1.54
2.62
5.82

$4.22
5.47

6.68
7.80
9.01

12.68

Average
number
of chil­
dren at
home.
2.16
2.32
2.52
2.96
3.27
3.94

COST OF L IV IN G I N

615

B E L G IU M ,

With regard to the statistics of families with the higher ranges of
income, it must be remembered that the amount of the family income
is often due to the supplementary earnings of the wife or of children
living at home, rather than to the high earnings of the head of the
family. This is particularly the case where the income amounts
to $9.73 or more per week. As will be seen from the table, the
average number of children living at home was, in the families of
this class, higher than the average number for all the families from
which budgets were obtained.
The tables following give the average expenditures for food of the
1,859 workmen’s families to which the returns relate and the quanti­
ties consumed by them of the various articles of food in a representa­
tive week in 1908-9. All children living at home, irrespective of age,
have been included, but returns in which lodgers appeared have been
excluded.
A V E RAG E COST OF FOOD CONSUMED B Y U RBAN W ORKM EN’S FAMILIES REPO RTING
IN EACH CLASSIFIED INCOME GROUP, FOR A REPR E SE N TA TIV E W E E K , 1908-9.
Average cost for families reporting weekly incomes of—
Items.

Under
$4.87.

$4.87 and $6.08 and $7.30 and $8.52 and $9.73 and
under
under
under
under
over.
$8.52.
$7.30.
$9.73.
$6.08.

.076
.046
.091
.101
.345
.005
.051
.132
.030
.117
.035
.041
.046
.193

$0,689
.015
.015
.036
.238
.010
.030
.030
.076
.330
.036
.036
.142
.061
.005
.010
.081
.086
.107
.101
.451
.010
.101
.157
.051
.152
.041
.061
.091
.289

$0,761
.020
.030
.051
.253
.015
.036
.030
.101
.401
.046
.046
.172
.081
.015
.030
.096
.107
.122
.091
.563
.015
.142
.172
.066
.162
.041
.071
.137
.375

$0,902
.025
.025
.051
.279
.020
.046
.035
.101
.492
.071
.046
.188
.086
.015
.035
.101
.117
.147
.112
.644
.015
.157
.188
.071
.177
.046
.071
.147
.431

$0.989
.030
.025
.051
.314
.020
.051
.041
.127
.563
.091
.051
.223
.086
.020
.046
.137
.137
.162
.091
.750
.015
.177
.183
.091
.203
.046
.081
.183
.532

$1.141
.035
.030
.071
.345
.035
.061
.051
.157
.811
.132
.066
.314
.081
.030
.066
.147
.193
.203
.122
1.034
.030
.309
.243
.132
.264
.056
.101
.228
.735

Total (except wine and beer)..........
Wine and beer..............................................

2.788
.056

3.538
.096

4.248
.122

4.841
.147

' 5.516
.177

7.223
.289

Total....................................................

2.844

3.634

4.370

4.988

5.693

Bread.............................................................
Macaroni........................................................
Flour.............................................................
Meal...............................................................
Potatoes........................................................
Salad.............................................................
Haricots........................................................
Peas...............................................................
Other vegetables..........................................
Beef................................................................
Veal...............................................................
Mutton..........................................................
Pork..............................................................
Horseflesh......................................................
Poultry..........................................................
Rabbits..........................................................
Fish...............................................................
Charcuterie...................................................
Bacon............................................................
Lard, suet, and dripping.............................
Butter ana substitutes................................
Olive oil........................................................
Eggs...............................................................
Milk...............................................................
Cheese............................................................
Coffee.............................................................
Chicory..........................................................
Sugar.............................................................
Other items...................................................
Meals away from home................................

$0.629
.010
.010
.030
.228
.005
.025
.020
.056
.269
.020
.020
.096
.061




*

7.512

616

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

AVERAGE QUANTITY OF FOOD CONSUMED BY URBAN WORKMEN'S FAMILIES
REPORTING IN EACH CLASSIFIED INCOME GROUP, FOR A REPRESENTATIVE
WEEK, 1908-9.
Average quantity consumed by families reporting weekly
incomes of—
Items.
Under
$4.87.

Bread................................. ...........pounds..
Macaroni............................ ................d o ....
Flour.................................. ................d o ....
Meal................................... ............... do___
Potatoes.............................
Haricots............................. ............... d o ....
Peas.................................... ............... d o ....
Beef.................................... ............... do___
Veal.................................... ............... do___
Mutton............................... ............... d o ....
Pork...................................
Horseflesh.......................... ............... do___
Poultry.............................. ................d o ....
Rabbits.............................. ................do___
Fish.................................... ................do___
Charcuterie........................ ................d o ....
Bacon................................. ............... do___
Lard, suet, and dripping.. ...............d o ....
Butter ana substitutes. . . ................do___
Olive oil............................. ............... do___
.......... number..
................pints..
Cheese................................ ...........pounds..
Coffee................................. ............... d o ....
Chicory.............................. ................d o ....
Sugar.................................. ................d o ....

27.26
.17
.31
.77
28.99
.64
.57
1.79
.11
.13
.61
.60
1.13
.32
.58
.66
1.35
.03
2.70
6.20
.24
.74
.94
.67

$4.87 and $6.08 and $7.30 and $8.52 and $9.73 and
under
under
under
under
over.
$8.52.
$9.73.
$7.30.
$6.08.
29.57
.26
.55
1.00
29.69
.87
.73
2.11
.20
.23
.87
.57
.02
.09
1.20
.47
.69
.66
1.76
.07
5.00
7.29
.36
.96
.97
.96

32.28
.34
.90
1.20
30.93
.98
.81
2.53
.27
.30
1.01
.76
.09
.22
1.30
.58
.78
.63
2.19
.09
6.90
7.83
.48
1.02
1.00
1.17

37.82
.38
.76
1.11
34.14
1.22
.97
3.11
.38
.30
1.13
.84
.09
.24
1.46
.66
.95
.75
2.49
.10
7.60
8.69
.55
1.14
1.08
1.18

41.18
.49
.86
1.23
37.75
1.37
1.01
3.46
.47
.36
1.34
.79
.11
.29
1.81
.71
1.03
.62
2.85
.12
8.30
8.36
.62
1.25
1.13
1.33

48.12
.58
1.02
1.66
42.36
1.48
1.52
4.92
.68
.44
1.87
.79
.19
.40
2.17
1.06
1.28
.81
3.96
.23
14.40
11.11
.88
1.57
1.31
1.68

The proportion of the weekly income spent on food and rent by
the families of Belgian urban workmen is brought out in the state­
ment following:
PR O PO RTION OF W E E K L Y INCOME SPENT ON FOOD B Y URBAN W ORKMEN'S
FAMILIES.
Percentage of income spent on food by families reporting
weekly incomes of—
Items.

All food (excluding wine and beer)............
Meat and fish................................................
Rent...............................................................

Under
$4.87.
66.1
16.1
13.2

$4.87 and $6.08 and $7.30 and $8.52 and $9.73 and
under
under
under
under
over.
$8.52.
$7.30.
$9.73.
$6.08.
64.8
16.3
12.4

63.6
16.7
11.6

62.1
16.6
11.2

61.2
16.8
10.5

57.0
16.1
8.6

From the average quantity of food consumed weekly by workmen's
families, on the basis of 1,859 family budgets, and from information
obtained from other sources, the following are the quantities assumed
to be consumed by a Belgian working-class family in a normal week:
Coffee................. ............... pound..
Sugar..................
Bacon................. .................. do___
Eggs................................. number..
Cheese............... ................ pound..
Butter............... ...................do___
Potatoes............. ................... do___
Flour................. ...................do___



i
i
i

7
i
2 i

33
1

Bread.................
Milk................... ................ quarts..
Beef..................................pounds..
Mutton............. .................... do___
Yeal................... ...................do___
Pork.................. ...................d o ....
Coal................... .................... ewt..

34*

4
2*
i
i
1
n

COST OF L IV IN G I N

617

B E L G IU M .

The predominant prices in each town, as ascertained for the various
articles, are weighted in accordance with the above quantities, the
total expenditure so obtained being expressed as a percentage of the
corresponding total as compiled from prices in Brussels. The fol­
lowing table shows in descending order the price index numbers thus
constructed for the various towns:
R E LA T IV E L E V E L OF FOOD PRICES IN SPECIFIED BELGIAN TOWNS AS COMPARED
W ITH BRUSSELS.
Index
num­
ber.

Town.

Brussels___
Verviers___
Toum ay___
Charleroi___
La Louvi&re

100
100
99
97
96

Town.

Liege...............................
Seraing............................
Antwerp.........................
Louvain..........................
P Murages........................

Index
num­
ber.
96
96
95
94
94

Town.

Ghent..............................
Tumhout........................
Courtrai..........................
Malines...........................
Bruges.............................

Index
num­
ber.
94
92
92
92
89

It is seen from the foregoing that one of the 15 towns has an index
number equally as high as that of Brussels. The total difference
between the highest and lowest towns is 11 points, as contrasted with
57 points in the case of rents.
RENTS AND PRICES COMBINED.

The presentation following gives the index numbers for each of the
15 specified towns in Belgium for that portion of the cost of living
which is due to expenditure on food and on housing accommodation.
Since the amount which has to be expended on food is considerably
greater than that which has to be spent on rent, a weight of 5 has
been given to prices and a weight of 1 to rent:
R E LA T IV E L E V E L OF RE N T AND FOOD PRICES COMBINED IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF
BELGIUM AS COMPARED W ITH BRUSSELS.
Index
num­
ber.

Town.

Brussels.............................
Antwerp............................
Toum ay............................
Liege..................................
Verviers.............................

100
96
95
95
94

Town.

Charleroi.........................
La Louvifcre...................
Seraing............................
Louvain..........................
Ghent..............................

Index
num­
ber.
93
93
90
89
89

Town.

Courtrai__
P Murages........................
Malines__
Tum hout.......
Bmges.............................

Index
num­
ber.
86
86
85
84
84

BELGIUM AND GREAT BRITAIN COMPARED.

The difficulties in the way of any complete comparison of the
relative prices ruling for similar commodities in Belgium and in
England, as far as they affect the expenditure of the working classes
of the two countries, are sufficiently obvious from what has been
said respecting the diversity of national habits and tastes. Disre­
garding such differences the predominant prices paid by the working



618

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U K E A U OF LABOB.

classes of the two countries for commodities quoted in both are
shown in the following table. It should be noted that in this and
the other tables which follow the prices for England and Wales are
exclusive of London prices, while those for Belgium relate to all the
Belgium towns investigated, including Brussels. No explanation for
this is given in the original report.
PREDOM IN AN T RAN GE OF R E T A IL PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN TOWNS OF ENGLAND
AND W ALES AND OF BELGIUM COMPARED.
Predominant retail prices.

1 pound...
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
...d o ..........
7 pounds..
...d o .........
4 pounds..
1 quart___
Beef................................................................. 1 pound...

Sugar...............................................................
Bacon..............................................................
Cheese.............................................................
Butter.............................................................
Potatoes..........................................................
Flour, wheat..................................................
Bread, white..................................................
Miiv................................................................

10.04
10 .14- .18*
.14
/
0.24*- .26*
\
b . 28*
.05 - .07
.1 6 - .20*
.09 - .11
.0 6 - .08
/
c .1 5 - .17 \
\ o. 10 - . 12
c .1 5 - .18*
Mutton............................................................ ___ d o........ /
1 o .0 8 - .10 >
Pork................................................................ ___ do........
.1 5 - .17
Coal...........................l .................................... 1 cw t........
.19*- .24*
Paraffin oil...................................................... 1 gallon...
.1 4 - .16
o Foreign or colonial.

b Danish.

.12 -

.14

150
98
121
98
92
107
95
64
96

.13 .1 5 .25 .13*-

.15
.19*
.30
.15

110
106
126
95

8

Unit.

jp s s

Commodity.

Ratio of mean
predominant
price in Bel­
gium to mean
England and
predominant
Belgium, in­
Wales, exclud­ cluding Brus­ price in Eng­
ing London,
land and Wales,
October, 1905. sels, June, 1908. taken as 100.

c British or home killed.

In the United Kingdom report the price levels of different towns
were compared by the amount required to purchase the groceries,
meat, and coal in an approximate average workman’s budget. In
order to furnish a similar comparison in the present case the following
table is given showing relatively how much the average British work­
man would have to pay if he went to live in Belgium and purchase
the same kinds of food in the same quantities as he had previously
used in England. The table shows that his expenditure would be
increased in the ratio of 100 to 102. In both the German and French
reports it was found to increase in the ratio of 100 to 118. If the
cost of coal be left out of consideration, however, the ratio would be
only 100 to 99.




COST OF L IV IN G I N

619

B E L G IU M ,

COST OF THE A V E R AG E BRITISH W ORKM AN'S W E E K L Y BUDGET (EXCLUDING CER­
TAIN ARTICLES FOR WHICH COM PARATIVE PRICES CAN NOT BE CITED) A T THE
PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID B Y THE W OR KIN G CLASSES OF ENGLAND AND W ALES
AND OF BELGIUM.
Predominant prices in—
Article.

Quantity in
average
British
budget.

England and Wales, ex­
cluding London
(October, 1905).

$0,041 per pound.............
Sugar....................
Bacon................... l| pounds.. $0,142 to $0,183 per
pound.
Cheese.................. fp ou n d ___ $0,142 per pound.............
Butter................... 2 pounds... $0,269 per pound.............
Potatoes............... 17 pounds.. $0,051 to $0,071 per 7
pounds.
Flour, wheat........ 10 pounds.. $0,162 to $0,203 per 7
pounds.
Bread, white........ 22 pounds.. $0,091 to $0,112 per 4
pounds.
Milk...................... 5 quarts___ $0,061 to $0,081 per quart.
Beef...................... 4f pounds., $0,137 per pound.............
Mutton................. i f pounds.. $0,129 per pound.............
Pork..................... f pound___ $0,152 to $0,172 per
pound.
Coal...................... 2 cwt.......... $0,193 to $0,243 per cw t...

Belgium, including Brus­
sels (June, 1908).

Cost of quantity in
British budget in—
England
and
Wales.

Bel­
gium.

$0,056 to $0,066 per pound.
$0,142 to $0,177 per pound.

$0,218
.243

$0,324
.238

$0,157 to $0,188 per pound.
$0,253 to $0,274 per pound.
$0,051 to $0,061 per 7
pounds.
$0,188 to $0,203 per 7
pounds.
$0,086 to $0,107 per 4
pounds.
$0,046 per quart................
$0,122 to $0,142 per pound.
$0,132 to $0,152 per pound.
$0,152 to $0,193 per pound.

.107
.537
.147

.129
.527
.137

.258

.279

$0,248 to $0,299 per c w t . . .

.558

.530

.355
.618
.193
.081

.228
.593
.213
.086

.436

.548

Total...........

3.751

3.832

Index number.. . .

100

102

On the other hand, the Belgian workman going to live in England
would not reduce his expenditures for food in the same ratio, for his
purchases as shown in the following table are entirely different in
quantity from the British workman’s. The table shows that his
expenditure would be decreased in the ratio of 100 to 98. If the cost
of coal is not included the ratio is only 100 to 95.
COST OF THE A V E R AG E BELGIAN W ORKM AN'S W E E K L Y BUDGET (EXCLUDING
CERTAIN ARTICLES FOR WHICH COM PARATIVE PRICES CAN NOT BE CITED) A T
THE PREDOMINANT PRICES PAID B Y THE W ORKING CLASSES OF ENGLAND
AND W ALES AND OF BELGIUM.

Predominant prices in—
Article.

Bacon...........
Cheese..........
Butter..........
Potatoes.......
Flour, wheat,
Bread, white,
Milk..............
Beef..............
Mutton.........
Pork.............

Quantity in
average
Belgian
budget.

England and Wales, ex­
cluding London (Oc­
tober, 1905).

1 pound___ 10.041 per pound............
l pound___ $0,142 to $0,183 per
pound.
£ pound___ $0,142 per pound.............
21 pounds.. $0,269 per pound.............
33 pounds.. $0,051 to $0,071 per 7
pounds.
f pound___ $0,162 to $0,203 per 7
pounds.
34f pounds. $0,091 to $0,112 per 4
pounds.
4 quarts___ $0,061 to $0,081 per quart.
2f pounds.. $0,137 per pound.............
i pound___ $0,129 per pound............
1 pound___ $0,152 to $0,172 per
pound.
1$ cwt........ $0,193 to $0,243 per cw t...

Cost of quantity in
Belgian budget
in—

Belgium, including ; Brus- England Belgium,
and
sels (June, 190
Wales.
$0,056 to $0,066 per pound.
$0,142 to $0,177 per pound.

$0,041
.122

$0,061
.122

$0,157 to $0,188 per pound
$0,253 to $0,274 per pound.
$0,051
to $0,061 per 7
pounds.
$0,188
to $0,203 per 7
pounds.
$0,086
to $0,107 per 4
pounds.
$0,046 per quart................
$0,122 to $0,142 per pound.
$0,132 to $0,152 per pound.
$0,152 to $0,193 per pound.

.071
.603
.289

.086
.593
.264

.020

.020

.875

.831

.284
.375
.030
.162

.183
.362
.036
.172

.289

.365

T ota l....

3.161

3.095

Index number.

100

98

Coal..............




$0,248 to $0,299 per c w t. ..

620

B U L L E T IN OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

The differences in the amounts consumed and the sums spent for
the chief commodities by workmen’s families receiving certain speci­
fied weekly incomes are brought out in the two following statements:
RATIOS OF THE QUANTITIES OF CERTAIN A RTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED B Y W ORK­
MEN’S FAMILIES IN BELGIUM, RECEIVING SPECIFIED W E E K L Y INCOMES, TO THE
QUANTITIES OF THE SAME ARTICLES CONSUMED B Y W ORKM EN’S FAMILIES IN
GREAT B R ITAIN W ITH CORRESPONDING INCOMES.
[Quantities in Great Britain=100.]
Families receiving weekly incomes
of—
Item.

$6.08 and
under
$7.30.

Bread and flour.......................................................................................
Meat and fish..........................................................................................
Eggs.........................................................................................................
Milk, fresh...............................................................................................
Cheese......................................................................................................
Butter, oils, and fats..............................................................................
Potatoes...................................................................................................
Sugar........................................................................................................

I ll
104
79
101
69
118
195
25

$7.30 and
under
$8.52.
131
106
67
88
70
125
212
25

$8.52 and
under
$9.73.
140
112
69
81
81
125
238
26

RATIOS OF THE AMOUNTS SPENT ON CERTAIN ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED B Y
W ORKM EN ’S FAMILIES IN BELGIUM, RECEIVING SPECIFIED W E E K L Y INCOMES,
TO THE AMOUNTS SPENT ON THE SAME ARTICLES B Y W ORKM EN’S FAMILIES IN
GREAT BR ITA IN W ITH CORRESPONDING INCOMES.
[Expenditure in Great Britain=100.]
Families receiving weekly incomes
of—
Item.
$6.08 and
under
$7.30.
Vegetables and fruit...............................................................................
Farinaceous foods (other than bread and flour)..................................
Tea, coflee, cocoa, etc.............................................................................

129
70
69

$7.30 and
under
$8.52.
100
63
68

$8.52 and
under
$9.73.
100
70
70

RATES OF W AG ES.
BELGIUM.

An inquiry was made into the rates of wages prevailing in June,
1908, in the various towns canvassed. In order to facilitate com­
parison, three industries were selected which were represented with
few exceptions in all the towns, and in which the standard rates of
wages could be ascertained with accuracy. These industries were
the building, engineering, and printing trades; and the rates in Brus­
sels were again taken as the base for the index numbers. The rates
referred to are in all cases weekly rates. The following table shows
the predominant range of weekly wages for each of the occupations
in the selected standard industries in towns of Belgium:



COST OF L IV IN G I N

621

B E L G IU M ,

■PREDOMINANT RANGE OF W E E K L Y W AGES IN CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS IN BELGIUM,
JUNE, 1908.
Number of towns in which the mean
Num­ Predominant wage for the given occupation was—
ber of range of weekly
towns wages, June,
in­
Within the Below the Above the
1908.
cluded.
predomi­
predomi­
predomi­
nant range. nant range. nant range.

Industry and occupation.

BUILDING TRADES.

Bricklayers and masons...............................
Stonecutters...................................................
Carpenters......................................................
Joiners............................................................
Plumbers........................................................
Plasterers.......................................................
Painters..........................................................
Laborers.........................................................

15
11

15
15
14
14
15
15

$5.05-15.84
5.70- 6.43
4.91- 6.14
4.97- 5.70
4.91- 5.70
5.01-5.96
4.56- 5.25
3.65-4.38

9
7
9
9

3

2

3
3

10

3

2

3
3
3
3
3
3

1
2

9
9
9

3
3

ENGINEERING TRADES.

Molders...........................................................
Fitters............................................................
Turners..........................................................
Smiths............................................................
Pattern makers..............................................
Laborers.........................................................

13
14

4.99- 6.33
4.81- 5.56
4.99- 5.92
4.89-5.96
4.77- 5.84
3.14- 3.95

13

4.68-5.56

10

14
14
11

6
8

2

2

3

3

10

1
1
2
2

1
1
2
2

9

2

2

12

9
9

PRINTING TRADE.

Compositors...................................................

In the following table is shown the predominant rate of weekly
wages for skilled men for each of the specified occupations in the
budding, engineering, and printing trades in 6 towns of Belgium,
selected as to certain geographical districts:
RATES OF W E E K L Y W AGES IN 6 SELECTED TOWNS OF BELGIUM, JUNE, 1908.
Industry and occupation.

Antwerp.

Bruges.

Brussels.

Charleroi.

Ghent.

Liege.

BUILDING TRADES.

Bricklayers and masons..........
Stonecutters..............................
Carpenters.................................
Joiners.......................................
Plumbers..................................
Plasterers..................................
Painters.....................................

$5.70 $3.99-14.85 $5.78-46.71 $5.17-45.74 $5.33-45.88 $4.74-45.35
/<*4.89- 5 60\
5.70
6.43- 6.71 6.12-' 7.36 Y65.39- 6.73j 5 1 3 - 5 78
5.70 3.99- 4.85 6.16- 6.98 6.75- 7.36
5.27- 5.52 5.13- 5.78
5.70 3.99- 4.85 5.78-7.06 5.52- 6.12
5 27- 5.52 4.89- 5 78
5.70
5.78- 6.71 6.12- 7.36
4.62- 5.60 4.66- 5.84
5.70
5.78- 6.71 5.17- 5.74
5.60- 6.31 4.52- 5.78
4.74- 5 47 4.50- 5.78
5.70 3.99- 4.85 5.13- 6.04 4.30- 4.91

ENGINEERING TRADES.

Molders......................................
Fitters.......................................
Turners......................................
Smiths.......................................
Pattern makers........................

5.25
5.84
5.25
5.84

5.60
4.36
4.99
4.99
4.99

4.95-5.74
5.33- 6.51
5.45- 6.45
6.10- 6.77

4.99

4.58- 5.15

6.43

4.664.894.895.09-

6.20
5.64
5.64
5.66

4.874.664.915.074.66-

5.25
5.03
5.25
6.43
4.87

5.84- 7.02
4.97-6.43
5 25-6.43

4.91

5.84

5 56- 6.12

PRINTING TRADE.

Compositors..............................

a Blue stone.




5.25- 5.84

&White stone.

622

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

In the table following index numbers are given comparing (with
Brussels as the base, 100) the weekly rates of wages of workmen
in the four specified industries in the different towns of Belgium, the
towns being arranged in geographical groups:
R E L A T IV E L E V E L OF W E E K L Y W AGES IN SPECIFIED TOWNS OF BELGIUM AS COMPA RE D W IT H BRUSSELS.
Engineering.

Building.
Geographical group.

Skilled
men.

Laborers. Skilled
men.

Printing
(compos­
Laborers. itors).

100
92

100
96

100
96

100
93

100
78

72
83
87
80
81
76
79

67
79
91
91
76
76
79

81
95
84
82
71
86
84

78
86
90
84
74
91
85

76
63
76

94
95
84
98
81
85

Brussels...........................................................................
A ntwerp.........................................................................
Other Flemish towns:
Bruges......................................................................
Courtrai....................................................................
Ghent.......................-•
...............................................
Louvain....................................................................
Malines.....................................................................
Touraay..................................................................
Tumhout.................................................................
Walloon towns:
Charleroi...................................................................
La Louvi6re.............................................................
Liege.........................................................................
P&turages.................................................................
Seraing.....................................................................
Venders....................................................................

94
100
84
95
91
89

94
111
99

101
109
105

98
91

106
105

86
85
91
82

RELATION OF RATES OF WAGES TO RENTS

72
74
64

77

AND PRICES.

The presentation which follows shows for each of the geographical
groups the mean index numbers for rent and prices and rent and
prices combined, together with the mean index numbers for the
weekly rates of wages of skilled men in the building, engineering,
and printing industries. Brussels has been taken as the base (100)
in each case. In the construction of the index numbers for rent
and prices combined, prices have been given a weight of 5 and rent
a weight of 1.
R E LA T IV E L E V E L OF RE N T AND PRICES, OF REN T AND PRICES COMBINED, AND OF
W E E K L Y WAGES OF SKILLED MEN IN 2 GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF BELGIUM, AS
COMPARED W IT H BRUSSELS.
Mean index numbers.

Geographical group.

Num­
ber of
towns
in­
cluded.

Rent and prices.

Rent.

Brussels.....................................................
Antwerp....................................................
Other Flemish towns...............................
Walloon towns.........................................

1
7
6

Prices.

100
99
59
67

100
95
93
97

Wages (skilled men).

Rent
and
Engi­
prices Building. neering.
com­
bined.
100
96
87
92

100
92
80
90

100
96
83
99

Printing.

100
78
71
84

If the mean of the wages index numbers in each group for the three
industries (building, engineering, and printing) be taken, and the




COST OF L IV IN G I N

623

B E L G IU M ,

means so obtained divided by the index numbers for rent and prices
combined, a comparison of the average level of “ real” wages in the
selected occupations may be made, viz, the money wages expressed
in terms of their purchasing capacity (as shown in the index numbers
of rent aud prices combined). The results are shown in the table
which follows:
AV E R AG E L E V E L OF “ R E A L ” W AGES AND L E V E L OF RE N T AND PRICES COMBINED
IN TW O GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF BELGIUM, AS COMPARED W ITH BRUSSELS.
[Index number for Brussels=100.J
Mean index numbers.

Geographical group.

Number
of towns Rent and
included. prices
com­
bined.

Brussels............................................................................................
Antwerp...........................................................................................
Other Flemish towns......................................................................
Walloon towns.................................................................................

1
7
6

Wages of
skilled Approxi­
men in
mate
building, relative
engineer­ level of
ing, and “ real”
printing wages.
trades.

100
96
87
92

100
89
78
91

100
93
90
99

BELGIUM AND GREAT BRITAIN COMPARED.

The predominant rates of weekly wages paid in the building, engi­
neering, and printing trades of Belgium (industries which were found
in all the towns investigated) are here brought into contrast with the
rates of weekly wages paid in similar trades in Great Britain:
RATES OF W AGES IN ENGLAND AN D W ALES AN D IN BELGIUM COMPARED, OCTOBER,
1905.
Predominant range
weekly wages.

Industry and occupation.

of Ratio of mean
predominant
wage in
Belgium to
mean pre­
England and
dominant
Wales,
Belgium,
wage in Eng­
excluding
June 1,1908.
land and
London, Oc­
Wales,
tober, 1905.
taken as 100.

BUILDING TRADES.

Bricklayers....................................................................................
Masons...........................................................................................
Carpenters.....................................................................................
Joiners............................................................................................
Plumbers.......................................................................................
Plasterers.......................................................................................
Painters.........................................................................................
Laborers........................................................................................

39.12-39.85 } 35.05-35.84
9.04- 9.57
8.80- 9.57
4.91- 6.14
8.80- 9.57
4.97- 5.70
8.60- 9.67
4.91- 5.70
8.88-10.14
5.01- 5.96
7.66- 9.12
4.50- 5.25
5.72- 6.57
3.65- 4.38

58
60
58
58
58
58
65

ENGINEERING TRADES.

Fitters............................................................................................
Turners..........................................................................................
Smiths...........................................................................................
Pattern makers.............................................................................
Laborers........................................................................................

7.797.797.798.274.38-

8.76
8.76
8.76
9.25
5.35

4.814.994.894.773.14-

5. 56
5.92
5.96
5.84
3.95

63
66
66
61
73

4.64- 5.56

69

PRINTING TRADES.

Compositors...................................................................................
Arithmetic mean of ratios for all trades............................




6.81- 8.03

63

fi24

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

In the case of the building trades the weekly wages given are, for
both countries, the wages for a full working week in summer. In the
engineering and the printing trades, the English wages are the stand­
ard time rates recognized by the unions concerned. The Belgium
rates, on the other hand, are in most cases based on returns of actual
earnings, and it is consequently doubtful how far the two sets of
*etums are strictly comparable. The standard time rates being often
exceeded by actual earnings on piecework, it is probable that the Bel­
gium rates appear somewhat too high relatively to the English.
For skilled men in the building trades the Belgium wages are from
58 to 60 per cent of the English; for skilled men in the engineering
trades from 61 to 66 per cent of the English; and for compositors in
the printing trade about 69 per cent of the English. The arithmetic
mean of the ratios for all trades shown in the table indicates that the
mean predominant wage in Belgium is approximately 63 per cent of
that in England and Wales. The corresponding figure for Germany
was 83 per cent and for France 75 per cent.
HOURS OF LABOR.

In the table following is presented for the building, the engineering,
and the printing trades a comparison of the average usual hours of
labor per week in England and Wales, with corresponding data for
Belgium.
A V E R A G E USUAL HOURS OF L A BO R P E R W E E K IN ENGLAND AND W ALES A N D IN
BELGIUM , COMPARED.
Average usual hours of
labor per week in—
Industry and occupation

England and
Wales
(1905).

Belgium
(1908).

Ratio of aver­
age hours of
labor in
Belgium
to those in
England
and wales,
taken as 100.

BUILDING TRADES.

Bricklayers and masons...............................................................
Carpenters......................................................................................
Joiners............................................................................................
Plumbers.......................................................................................
Plasterers.......................................................................................
Painters.........................................................................................
Laborers........................................................................................

52*
53
53
53*
53
53*
52*

67*
67*
67*
67*
67*
68*
67*

129
127
127
126
127
128
129

53
53
53
53
53

60*
60*
60*
60*
60*

114
114
114
114
114

52*

59f

114

ENGINEERING TRADES.

Fitters............................................................................................
Turners........................................................................................
Smiths............................................................................................
Pattern makers..............................................................................
Laborers.........................................................................................
PRINTING TRADE.

Compositors...................................................................................
Arithmetic mean of ratios for all trades............................




121

COST OF L IV IN G I N

B E L G IU M .

625

It will be seen from the foregoing that the hours of labor in Bel­
gium are from 14 to 29 per cent higher than in England; or on the
average of the above trades, hours of labor in Belgium exceed those
in England by about 21 per cent.
SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS.

A summary of the conclusions derived from the investigation
follows:
B en ts .— Net rents of working-class dwellings in Belgium (not in­
cluding payments on account of local taxation) are to gross rents of
working-class dwellings in England (including all local taxation) as
61 to 100.
Net rents of working-class dwellings in Belgium are to the net rents
of working-class dwellings in England (excluding that portion of
English rents which represents local taxation) as 74 to 100.
Retail prices .— The cost of the average British workingman’s
weekly purchases of certain standard articles of food and fuel (for
an average family) at the prices ruling in Belgium in October, 1905,
was to the cost of the same articles at English prices at the same
date, approximately as 99 to 100.
If the expenditure on rent be combined with that on food and
fuel (the expenditure on the latter items being taken at four times
the former) the results are:
The expenditure of the average British workingman (with an
average family) on certain standard articles of food and fuel, and
on rent, at the prices and rents ruling in Belgium in October, 1905,
would be to his expenditure on the same items, together with local
taxation at the prices and rents ruling in England, as 91 to 100.
Or, excluding that portion of English rents which represents pay­
ments on account of local taxation, as 94 to 100.
It appears, therefore, that an English workman in Belgium, living
as far as possible as he had been accustomed to live m England,
would find his expenditure on rent (exclusive of local taxation), food,
and fuel reduced by about 6 per cent.
Wages and hours o f labor.— The weekly money wages of the work­
ing classes in Belgium towns, in certain widely distributed trades
selected for comparison, are to those of the same classes in England
as 63 to 100.
The average usual working hours per week of the working classes
in Belgian towns, in the trades selected for comparison, are to those
of the same classes in England as 121 to 100.
Hence the hourly rates of money wages for the working classes in
Belgian towns, in the trades selected for comparison, are to those of
the same classes in English towns approximately as 52 to 100.
From the data available it does not appear that the result of the
investigation would have been appreciably different if all the data
could have been brought down to the autumn of 1908.




EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LABOR IN BRITISH BUILDING
AND WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES.
The third of the series of reports in which the results of a general
inquiry into earnings and hours of labor in all trades in the United
Kingdom are to be dealt with, has recently been published under the
title, “ Report of an Inquiry by the Board of Trade into the Earnings
and Hours of Labor of Work People of the United Kingdom: III—
Building and Woodworking Trades in 1906.” This report is identical
in plan with the two reports previously published on earnings and
hours of labor in the textile and the clothing industries. (a) The
object of this inquiry is to ascertain the amount actually earned by
all classes of workpeople in a selected week, industry by industry,
occupation by occupation, and district by district, and to obtain
means of estimating their annual earnings.
GENERAL SUM M ARY.

As shown by the census of 1901, these industries provide employ­
ment for approximately 1,250,000 workpeople. These employees
are almost exclusively males, and include a large proportion of
skilled workmen, many of whom have served an apprenticeship of
from three to seven years.
Returns were received from employees covering 180,000 workpeo­
ple, or about 14 per cent of the estimated number employed. This
proportion is less than was obtained in the textile and clothing trades.
However, a small number of returns from a given town is considered
fairly representative of local conditions, since in nearly every town
of importance rates of wages and hours of labor have either been
fixed by agreement or are well recognized.
The average earnings of men who worked full time in the several
industries in a selected week of 1906, and the per cent of men whose
earnings fell within each specified wage group, are shown in the fol­
lowing table:
a See Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 83, July, 1909, pp. 88 to 103, and Bulle­
tin No. 86, January, 1910, pp. 192 to 206.
626




E A R N IN G S A N D H O U R S I N

627

B R IT IS H B U IL D IN G IN D U S T R Y .

AVERAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN ONE W E E K OF 1906, IN EACH B U ILD ­
ING AND W OODW ORKIN G INDUSTRY, AND PER CENT OF MEN WHOSE E A R N .
INGS W E R E IN EACH SPECIFIED W AGE GROUP.

1
Aver­
age
earn­
ings.

Industry.

Per cent of men working full time whose earn­
ings were—

Under
$4.87.

$4.87
and
under
$7.30.

$7.30
and
under
$9.73.

$9.73 $12.17
and
and
under under
$12.17. $14.60.

$14.60
and
over.

Building..............................................................
Construction of harbors, etc..............................
Saw milling, etc.................................................
Cabinetmaking, e t c ...........................................

$8.03
7.75
6.65
8.03

14.3
4.7

1.0

33.1
60.3
50.7
31.2

45.1
21.2
25.9
45.2

15.2
8.5
7.3
14.4

1.6
3.3
1.2
2.9

1.0
5.7
.6
1.6

Total..........................................................

7.79

5.7

37.1

40.8

13.4

1.8

1.2

4.0

Particulars were obtained for each industry as to the total amount
paid in wages in 1906 by the firms making returns, and the total
amount paid in wages and the total number of persons receiving
wages in one week in each month. From these data the following
table was computed, showing the average annual earnings per head
in the building and woodworking industries for the year 1906:
Building........................................................................................................................... $330.92
Construction of harbors, etc......................................................................................... 313.89
Saw milling, e tc............................................................................................................. 270.09
Cabinetmaking, e t c ...................................................................................................... 301. 72

These figures can only be regarded as approximate, especially in
the building trades and the construction of harbors, docks, etc.,
owing to great variation in the number of employees at different
seasons of the year and the constant shifting of workpeople from
one employer to another.
The number of workpeople reported in each industry whose hours
of labor for a full week were in each specified group and the average
number of hours constituting a full week in each industry are shown
in the following table:
NUMBER OF W O R K PE O PLE R E PO RT E D AS W ORKIN G EACH SPECIFIED NUMBER
OF HOURS PE R W E E K , AND A VERAG E HOURS IN A FU LL W E E K , B Y INDUSTRIES,
1906.
Number of workpeople whose hours of labor for a full week were—

Industry.

Un­
der
48.

48 and 50 and 52 and 54 and 56 and
under under under under under
52.
54.
56.
58.
50.

58
and
un­
der
60.

Building....................................
Construction of harbors, docks,
etc..........................................
Saw milling, machine joinery,
etc..........................................
Cabinetmaking, e t c .................

398

12,049

32,806

8,387

17,134

510

602

52.9

3

209

659

391

1,412

7,796

156

130

107

55.8

97
187

1,200
1,213

3,057
7,533

3,676
5,056

9,336
4,859

5,851 2,364
2,289 1,745

484
322

47
15

54.4
53.1

Total................................

685

14,671

44,055

17,510

32,741

34,650 7,051 1,446

771

53.4

43431—No. 87— 10------17




18,714 2,786

60.

Average
hours
Over in a
full
60. week.

628

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

BUREAU

OF LABOR.

BUILDING TR AD ES.

The number of males engaged in house building and allied occupa­
tions in the United Kingdom in 1901 was 1,123,418, of whom 123,941
were in Scotland and 54,293 in Ireland. These numbers include not
only employees but also employers and those working on their own
account. These latter classes formed nearly 11 per cent of the total.
Returns were received in the present investigation from employers
covering 118,552 workpeople. Of this number 101,786, or nearly 86
per cent were men 20 years of age and over.
In the following table is given an analysis of the returns for each
district showing for all towns, for towns with a population of less
than 100,000, and for towns of 100,000 and over, the hours constituting
a full week, and the average earnings of men working full time in one
week of the summer of 1906:
A V E RAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE BUILDING TRAD ES IN ONE W E E K
OF THE SUMMER OF 1906, AND HOURS CONSTITUTING A FULL W E E K , B Y DIS­
TRICTS.
Average full-time earnings of
men in—
District.

London..........................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland................
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland, Lanca­
shire, and Cheshire)..................................
North and West Midland counties.............
Rest of England and Wales........................
Scotland........................................................
Ireland..........................................................
United Kingdom................................

Average number of hours in a
full week in—

Towns of Towns of
less than 100,000
100,000 popula­
popula­ tion and
over.
tion.

Towns of Towns of
less than 100,000
100,000 popula­
tion and
over.

All
towns.

"asr

All
towns.

98.03

99.41
8.39

99.41
8.16

5 i.i

50.9
50.2

50.9
50.7

7.77
7.40
7.26
7.91
6.04

8.44
8.68
8.01
8.54
7.30

8.05
7.75
7.36
8.21
6.75

51.7
55.2
56.1
51.7
55.4

50.3
54.5
55.6
51.4
53.3

51.1
55.0
56.0
51.6
54.0

7.64

8.72

8.03

53.9

51.5

52.9

From the above it is seen that the average hourly earnings were
about $0.15, being $0.17 in the large and $0.14 in the smaller towns.
The following table shows the average full-time earnings of skilled
men in one week of the summer of 1906, and the per cent whose earn­
ings fall in each specified class:
A V E R A G E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF SKILLED MEN IN THE BUILDING TRADES IN
ONE W E E K OF THE SUMMER OF 1906, AND PER CENT WHOSE EARNINGS W E R E
W ITH IN CERTAIN SPECIFIED W AGE GROUPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS.

Occupation.

Average
full-time
earnings.

Per cent of men working full time whose earnings
were—
Under
97.30.

97.30 and 98.52 and 99.73 and
under
under
under
98.52.
99.73.
910.95.

910.95
and
over.

Bricklayers....................................................
Masons...........................................................
Carpenters and joiners.................................
Slaters...........................................................
Plumbers......................................................
Plasterers......................................................
Painters and decorators...............................

99.25
8.94
8.82
8.88
8.82
9.33
8.42

9.2
6.8
12.9
8.5
7.8
5.5
12.6

14.8
15.5
19.6
21.1
25.0
17.6
30.7

39.6
64.3
43.5
59.9
53.0
38.3
48.6

28.0
11.3
21.7
7.0
9.5
26.3
7.1

8.4
2.1
2.3
3.5
4.7
12.3
1.0

Total...................................................

8.84

10.5

21.3

47.6

16.7

3.6




E A R N IN G S A N D H O U R S I N

B R IT IS H B U IL D IN G IN D U S T R Y .

629

Of the workmen included in the above table, 15.8 per cent were
bricklayers, 12.2 per cent were masons, 31.3 per cent were carpenters,
2.5 per cent were slaters, 8.2 per cent were plumbers, 5.5 per cent were
plasterers, and 24.5 per cent were painters and decorators.
In the following tables are shown the average full-time earnings,
and the average number of hours employed in one week of the summer
of 1906, of the workmen in each occupation, by districts:
A VERAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS AND HOURS OF SKILLED MEN IN THE BUILDING
TRADES IN ONE W E E K OF THE SUMMER OF 1906, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND DISTRICTS.
Average full-time earnings of
men in—
Occupation and district.

Average number of hours in a
full week in—

Towns of Towns of
less than 100,000
100,000
popula­
tion and
over.

Towns of Towns of
less than 100,000
100,000
popula­
tion and
over.

sa s -

Bricklayers:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland),
Lancashire, and Cheshire.................
North and West Midland counties___
Rest of England and Wales.................
Scotland................... , ...........................
Ireland...................................................

All
towns.

P
25S*

All
towns.

$9.21

$10.81
9.65

$10.81
9.33

50.8

50.7
50.3

50.7
50.6

9.55
8.74
8.19
9.67
7.97

9.85
10.02
9.25
9.92
9.14

9.67
9.04
8.35
9.77
8.66

52.6
55.3
56.4
51.7
55.4

50.8
54.6
55.5
51.0
54.0

51.9
55.1
56.3
51.4
54.6

8.66

10.20

9.25

54.8

51.7

53.6

8.74

10.52
9.31

10.52
8.88

50.3

50.7
48.8

50.7
49.9

9.06
8.72
8.23
8.70
7.58

9.33
9.47
9.37
9.08

9.17
8.86
8.37
8.86
7.73

50.0
53.9
55.4
51.3
55.8

49.5
52.7
55.3
51.0

49.9
53.9
55.4
51.2
55.5

United Kingdom...............................
Carpenters and joiners:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland),
Lancashire, and Cheshire..................
North and West Midland counties. . . .
Rest of England and Wales.................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland...................................................

8.66

9.43

8.94

52.2

50.9

51.8

8.60

10.65
9.63

10.65
8.92

51.2

50.6
50.1

50.6
50.7

8.76
8.39
7.95
8.09
7.73

9.29
9.67
9.17
9.31
8.72

8.98
8.76
8.09
8.58
8.17

51.5
55.2
56.1
51.8
55.4

49.7
52.9
55.8
51.0
54.0

50.8
54.4
56.1
51.5
54.6

United Kingdom...............................
Slaters:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lan­
cashire, and Cheshire.........................
North and West Midland counties___
Rest of England and Wales.................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland....................................................

8.25

9.73

8.82

53.9

51.1

52.8

9.17

10.77
9.61

10.77
9.25

50.4

52.7
50.0

52.7
50.3

8.54
8.80
7.73
8.46

8.94
9.37

8.68
8.96
7.81
8.80
8.46

51.6
55.1
55.1
52.0

49.8
54.5

50.7
54.9
55.1
51.6
54.5

United Kingdom...............................
Plumbers:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lan­
cashire, and Cheshire.........................
North and West Midland counties. . . .
Rest of England and Wales..................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland....................................................

8.54

9.37

8.88

52.3

51.1

51.8

8.80

10.73
9.10

10.73
8.86

52.5

51.0
52.9

51.0
52.7

8.56
8.50
8.37
8.25
7.48

9.10
9.51
8.52
9.21
9.10

8.86
8.78
8.39
8.70
8.39

51.4
54.8
56.1
51.2
54.8

49.7
54.1
55.1
50.9
53.8

50.5
54.6
55.9
51.0
54.2

United Kingdom...............................

8.39

9.33

8.82

53.2

51.1

52.2

United Kingdom...............................
Masons:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland),
Lancashire, and Cheshire..................
North and West Midland counties.. . .
Rest of England and Wales.................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland...................................................




9.23

51.0

630

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

AV E R AG E FULL-TIM E EARNINGS AND HOURS OF SKILLED MEN IN TH E BUILDING
TRAD ES IN ONE W E E K OF TH E SUMMER OF 1906, B Y OCCUPATIONS AND DIS­
TRICTS—Concluded.
Average full-time earnings of
men in—
Occupation and district.

Average number of hours in a
full week in—

Towns of Towns of
less than 1 0 0
0 ,0 0
1 0 0 popula­
0 ,0 0
tion and
over.

Town, of Towns of
0 ,0 0
less than 1 0 0
1 0 0 popula­
0 ,0 0
popula­ tion and
tion.
over.

p332*

Plasterers:
London...................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lan­
cashire, and Cheshire........................
North and West Midland counties----Rest of England and Wales.................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland.................. ................................
United Kingdom...............................
Painters and decorators:
London....
.....................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.........
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lan­
cashire, and Cheshire........................
North and West Midland counties. . .
Rest of England and Wales..................
Scotland.................................................
Ireland....................................................
United Kingdom................................

All
towns.

18.64

$11.03
9.73

$11.03
9.02

9.00
9.17
8.64
8.90
8.25

9.57
10.18
8.90
9.63
9.21

9.31
9.35

8.82

All
towns.

51.3

50.4
50.0

50.4
50.8

8.68

9.23
8.94

51.4
55.9
55.8
51.9
55.9

50.0
54.2
55.6
51.0
53.9

50.7
55.3
55.7
51.4
54.6

9.87

9.33

53.6

51.3

52.4

8.35

8.96
8.74

8.96
8.44

52.2

51.6
50.0

51.6
51.6

8.37
7.66
7.56
9.00
7.69

8.84
9.12
7.97
9.23
8.31

8.58

7.62
9.14
8.15

52.0
55.6
56.4
52.1
53.8

51.0
56.1
55.7
51.0
51.1

51.5
55.8
56.3
51.3
51.7

8.01

8.90

8.42

54.7

52.0

53.3

8.11

The earnings and hours shown in the above table are for one full
week in summer. The hours of labor in winter being shorter, the
earnings would be correspondingly less. The average number of hours
constituting a full week’s work in winter and the average duration of
the winter period in each occupation is shown in the table following:
A V E R AG E HOURS CONSTITUTING A FU LL W EE K 'S W O R K IN W IN TE R AND DURATION
OF W IN TE R PERIO D, B Y OCCUPATIONS.
Average number of hours in a Average number of weeks in
full week in winter in—
winter period in—
Occupation.

Bricklayers...................................................
Masons..........................................................
Carpenters and joiners.................................
Slaters...........................................................
Plumbers......................................................
Plasterers......................................................
Painters and decorators...............................

Towns of Towns of
less than 1 0 0
0 ,0 0
1 0 0 popula­
0 ,0 0
popula- tion and
over.
47.1
45.3
47.7
44.9
47.6
46.4
45.1

45.0
44.7
45.1
44.9
46.0
45.2
43.7

All
towns.

46.3
45.1
46.7
44.9
46.9
45.8
44.4

Towns of Towns of
less than 1 0 0
0 ,0 0
1 0 0 popula­
0 ,0 0
tion and
over.
14.3
13.8
14.1
14.2
14.6
14.5
15.7

13.7
13.9
13.8
14.1
14.4
14.0
16.1

All
towns.

14.1
13.8
14.0
14.1
14.5
14.2
15.9

The proportion of laborers reported was approximately six laborers
to every five bricklayers, and two laborers to every three skilled men
in the case of masons and plasterers, respectively. The average full­
time earnings and hours during one week of the summer of 1906 for



E A R N IN G S A N D H O U R S I N

B R IT IS H B U IL D IN G IN D U S T R Y .

631

each class of laborers and the per cent whose earnings were in each
specified group are shown in the following table:
A VERAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS AND HOURS OF LA BO RE R S IN THE BUILDING
TRAD ES IN ONE W E E K OF THE SUMMER OF 1906, AND PER CENT WHOSE E ARN ­
INGS W E R E W ITHIN CERTAIN SPECIFIED W AGE GROUPS, B Y OCCUPATIONS.
Per cent of men working full time whose
earnings were—
Average
full-time Average
earnings. hours.

Occupation.

Bricklayers’ laborers....................................
Masons’ laborers...........................................
Plumbers’ mates..........................................
Plasterers’ laborers.......................................
Painters’ laborers.........................................
Excavators....................................................
Builders’ laborers.........................................

$5.92
5.78
5.82

Total....................................................

Under
$4.87.

13.4
9.6
15.7
5.5

5.90

53.7
51.9
52.6
52.1
52.9
53.3
52.5

5.94

52.9

6.02
6.41
6.10

$4.87 and $6.08 and $7.30 and
under
under
over.
$7.30.
$6.08.

2.7
14.6

38.4
57.3
40.0
41.3
25.7
37.2
41.2

42.1
28.9
40.9
44.5
46.0
52.2
39.3

11.0

41.8

40.6

8.2

6.1

4.2
3.4
8.7

20.1
7.9
4.9

6.6

The change during the twenty years, 1886 to 1906, in the rates o f
wages paid in the building trades is indicated by the annual index
number published by the Board of Trade to have been an increase
of approximately 18 per cent.
The average number of days per year on which building operations
were, as a rule, suspended for holidays was 9.5 in the towns of 100,000
population and over and 8.6 in the smaller towns.
CONSTRUCTION OF H A R B O R S, D OCKS, E TC .

Of the 10,914 workpeople for whom returns were received in the
construction of harbors, docks, roads, sewers, railways, waterworks,
etc., 6,378 were excavators and laborers.
In the following table is shown the average full-time earnings of
men in the principal occupations engaged in this work in an ordinary
week of the summer of 1906, and the average hours worked by them
per week during the summer and the winter seasons.
A V E R AG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF H ARBORS,
DOCKS, ETC., IN ONE W EE K OF THE SUMMER OF 1906, AND AV E R AG E HOURS
W O R K E D IN ONE W EEK OF THE SUMMER AND THE W INTER SEASONS.

Occupation.

Foremen and gangers........................................................................................
Bricklayers.........................................................................................................
Masons...............................................................................................................
Carpenters..........................................................................................................
Other mechanics................................................................................................
Bricklayers’ laborers.........................................................................................
Masons’ laborers...............................................................................................
Other mechanics’ laborers................................................................................
Excavators and laborers...................................................................................
Locomotive engineers.......................................................................................
Stationary engineers.........................................................................................
Firemen and stokers.........................................................................................




Average number of
Average hours m one week.
full-time
earnings.
Summer. Winter.
$11.25
10.34
9.29
8.92
8.15
6.51
6.27
5.98

6.02

9.35
8.58
5.96

56.0
51.8
55.3
55.6
56.5
51.7
55.6
56.1
55.7
57.9
57.8
57.3

51.0
46.8
48.1
50.3
52.3
46.8
49.9
51.1
49.8
53.5
54.8
53.0

632

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR,

S A W M IL L IN G , M ACH IN E J O IN E R Y , E TC .

The establishments included in this group are those engaged in
saw milling, machine joinery and wood box and packing case making.
Men formed 74 per cent of the 26,790 employees for whom returns
were received; apprentices, lads and boys, formed 22 per cent, and
women and girls only 4 per cent.
In the following table is shown the average earnings of the men,
lads and boys, women and girls, and of all employees who worked
full time in each district:
A V E R AG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EM PLOYEES IN TH E SAW M ILLING AND MACHINE
JOIN ERY IN DU STRY IN TH E LAST W E E K OF SEPTEM BER, 1906, B Y DISTRICTS.
Average full-time earnings of—
District.
Men.

Lads
and
boys.

Women.

Girls.

All em­
ployees.

London...........................................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.................................
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lancashire, and
Cheshire.......................................................................
North and West Midland counties...............................
Rest of England and Wales..........................................
Scotland..........................................................................
Ireland............................................................................

18.15

7.02

$2.60
2.19

$3.04

$1.70

$6.31
5.74

6.87
6.57
6.45
6.43
4.56

2.43
2.27
2.27
2.35
1.85

2.98
3.20

2.13
1.95

2.74

1.83

5.35
5.23
5.60
5.37
3.89

United Kingdom.................................................

6.65

2.35

3.02

2.03

5.43

In the following table is shown the average full-time earnings in one
week of the summer of 1906 of the men in these industries, and their
percentage distribution in wage groups in accordance with their
earnings:
A V E R AG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE SAW M ILLING AND MACHINE JOIN­
E R Y IN DU STRY IN TH E LAST W E E K OF SEPTEM BER, 1906, AND THE PE R CENT
WHOSE EARNINGS W E R E W ITH IN CERTAIN SPECIFIED W AGE GROUPS, B Y OCCU­
PATIONS.
Per cent of men working full time whose
earnings were—
Occupation.

Average
full-time
earnings.

Under
$4.87.

$4.87 and $7.30 and $9.73 and
under
under ' over.
$7.30.
$9.73.

Mill sawyers....................................................................
W ood cutting machinists..............................................
Carpenters and joiners...................................................
Box and packing case makers......................................
Carters (one horse)........................................................
General laborers.............................................................

$6.55
7.62
8.50
6.75
5.31
5.09

8.6

3.7
.3
11.3
20.3
31.8

57.5
38.4
17.6
43.7
79.3
67.2

30.5
43.9
61.8
41.4
.4

3.4
14.0
20.3
3.6

Total......................................................................

6.65

14.3

50.7

25.9

9.1




1.0

E A R N IN G S A N D H O U R S I N

B R IT IS H B U IL D IN G IN D U S T R Y .

633

C A B IN E T M A K IN G IN D U S T R Y .

The number of people included in the returns from establishments
engaged in cabinetmaking, chair making, etc., was 24,215. Of this
number 69.7 per cent were men, 19.8 per cent were apprentices, lads
and boys, 7.8 per cent were women, and 2.7 per cent were girls.
The following table shows the average earnings in the last week of
September, 1906, of those employees who worked full time:
AVERAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CABINETM AKING INDUS­
T R Y IN THE LAST W E E K OF SEPTEM BER, 1906, BY DISTRICTS.
Average full-time earnings of—
District.
Men.

London...........................................................................
Northern counties and Cleveland.................................
Yorkshire (excluding Cleveland), Lancashire, and
Cheshire.......................................................................
North and West Midland counties...............................
Rest of England and Wales..........................................
Scotland..........................................................................
Ireland............................................................................

18.94
8.96
7.87
7.82
7.16
7.73
6.63

United Kingdom.................................................

8.03

Ladsand Women.
boys.

Girls.

All em­
ployees.

32.82

33.65

31.97
1.05

37.30
5.86

2.09

3.18
3.06
2.78
3.22
2.82

1.22

1.78
1.85
1.74

1.46
1.16
1.46
1.07

5.82
5.70
5.35
5.33
4.74

2.09

3.18

1.50

5.94

1.93

2.21

2.86

The principal classes of skilled men in this industry are cabinet­
makers, French polishers, and upholsterers, comprising together
nearly one-half of the number of men employed.
The average earnings of men in these occupations in the last week
of September, 1906, and the per cent whose earnings were within
certain specified wage groups are shown in the following table:
A V ERAG E FULL-TIME EARNINGS OF MEN IN THE CABINETM AKING INDUSTRY IN
THE LAST W E E K OF SEPTEM BER, 1906, AND THE PE R CENT WHOSE EARNINGS
W ER E W ITH IN CERTAIN SPECIFIED W AGE GROUPS, B Y OCCUPATION.
Per cent of men working full time whose
earnings were—
Occupation.

Average
Kind of full-time
work. earnings.

/Time___
Cabinetmakers.............................................. /Piece___
/Time___
French polishers........................................... /Piece___
/Tim e___
Upholsterers................................................. \Piece___




38.37
8.19

81
.1
8.07
8.46
8.64

Under
34.87.

0.1
.2
.8
2.3
.2
.7

34.87 and 37.30 and 39.73 and
under
under
over.
39.73.
37.30.

2 .1
2
28.2
22.3
33.9
23.4
20.4

59.5
52.2
66.4
43.1
57.5
52.7

18.3
19.4
10.5
20.7
18.9
26.2

RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR
STATISTICS.
OHIO.

Thirty-second A nnual Report o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics o f the
State o f Ohio , fo r the Y ea r 1908.

W. T. Lewis, Commissioner.

536 pp.
This report consists of four parts, in which are presented the fol­
lowing subjects: Laws governing the bureau, laws to license and
regulate private employment agencies, and recent court decisions, 16
pages; manufactures, 468 pages; coal mining, 16 pages; free public
employment offices, 20 pages; chronology of labor bureaus, 3 pages.
M a n u f a c t u r e s .— Tables are given for 1907, showing, by indus­
tries, for each of the five principal cities, the remaining cities and
villages, and totals for the State, the number of establishments
reported, capital invested, value of goods manufactured, amount
paid for rent, taxes, and insurance, total amount paid in wages,
number and monthly pay of salaried employees, number of male
and of female wage-earners, number employed, by occupations, and
average number of days worked, average daily wages, average
yearly earnings, and average hours of daily labor. Other tables
show, by industries, the number in each occupation affected by a
change of wages during the year.
The 9,949 establishments from which returns were received for
1907 reported an invested capital of $517,469,878 and goods produced
or manufactured to the value of $1,105,664,569. Wages paid 370,225
males and 68,485 females, or a total of 438,710 wage-earners, aggre­
gated $237,169,762, and salaries aggregating $46,834,618 were paid
to 41,060 persons employed as superintendents, office help, etc.
During the year 98,106 employees received an average increase in
wages of 8.4 per cent, and 8,501 employees suffered an average
reduction in wages of 9.5 per cent.
The number of establishments reporting in 1907 was 612 more
than in 1906, the value of manufactured products was $97,129,420.19
more than that of 1906, and the amount paid in wages during the
year was increased by $18,130,330.58. The aggregate invested
capital exceeded that reported for 1906 by $22,910,423, and the
salaries paid superintendents, office help, etc., showed an increase
of $2,593,942.
634




635

REPORTS OF STATE B U R E A U S OF LABOR-----O H IO .

C o a l M i n i n g . — Tables are given, by counties, showing number
of mines reporting, average number of employees, capital invested,
value of production, wages and salaries paid, average daily wages,
average yearly earnings, average days worked, average hours of
daily labor, number in each occupation affected by a change of wages
during the year, etc. The following comparative table presents a
summary of mining statistics for the years 1906 and 1907:
STATISTICS OF COAL MINING, 1906 AND 1907.

1906.

Items.

Increase ( + ) or
decrease ( —).

1907.

Number of mines reporting................................................
574
594
44,654
Number of employees.........................................................
42,080
Number of salaried employees...........................................
953
939
Invested capital.................................................................. $35,761,855.00 $37,258,360.00
Value of product................................................................. $26,864,427.70 $33,533,667.45
Amount paid for rent, taxes, and insurance....................
$611,116.79
$614,478.81
Amount paid in wages....................................................... $19,467,843.63 $24,319,225.60
$989,840.76
$997,819.68
Amount paid in salaries.....................................................
22
0
171
Average days worked per employee..................................
$2.61
$2.64
Average daily wages per employee...................................
Average yearly earnings per employee.............................
$446.31
$533.28
8
8
Average hours of daily work..............................................
40,634
Number affected by advance in wages.............................
459
9.8
Average per cent advance in wages..................................
5.7

+
20
+
2,574
14
+$1,496,505.00
+$6,669,239.75
+
$3,362.02
+$4,851,381.97
+
$7,978.92
+
31
+
$0.03
+
$86.97
+

40,175
4.1

F r e e P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t O f f i c e s .— In addition to a text
report and an itemized statement of the expenses of each of the five
offices for the year ending October 29, 1908, tables are given showing^
by years, the results of the operations of each office from date of
organization, and for each week of the period November 1, 1907, to
October 29, 1908.
The following table shows the operations of the five free public
employment offices of the State for the period November 1, 1907, to
October 29, 1908:
OPERATIONS OF F R EE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, NOVEM BER 1, 1907, TO OCTO­
B ER 21, 1908.
Situations wanted.

Help wanted.

Positions secured.

City.
Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Cleveland......................................................
Columbus......................................................
Cincinnati.....................................................
Dayton..........................................................
Toledo...........................................................

2,627
1,329
1,878
2,417
3,658

2,486
1.806
2,228
3,141
1,923

1,767
1,323
985
1,503
1,525

2,400
2,213
1,471
4,198
1,773

1,750
1,074
979
1,473
1,316

2,007
1,703
1,436
2,922
1,306

Total....................................................

11,909

11,584

7,103

12,055

6,592

9r374

Since the organization in 1890 of the five free public employment
offices there has been a total of 487,883 applications for situations
wanted, 455,368 applications for help wanted, and 309,242 positions
secured. Of applications for situations 61.3 per cent were filled, and
of applications for help 67.9 per cent were filled.



636

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

The expenses of the five offices for the year ending October 29,
1908 (excluding salaries), were $2,312.98, of which the expenses of
the Cleveland office were $504.53, the Columbus office $351.73, the
Cincinnati office $502.00, the Dayton office $489.20, and the Toledo
office $465.52.
OKLAHOMA.

F irst Annual Report o f the Department o f Labor fo r the State o f OJclarhoma , 1908.

Charles L. Dougherty, Commissioner.

196 pp.

The following subjects are presented in this report: Labor organiza­
tions, 28 pages; statistics of wage-earners, 80 pages; manufacturing
and industrial concerns, 7 pages; surplus products, 5 pages; factory
inspection, 38 pages; free public employment office, 14 pages; and
report of board of arbitration and conciliation, 10 pages.
L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s .— Tables are presented showing for 197 of
the 303 labor organizations in the State a combined membership of
13,177, working an average of 9.1 hours per day, for an average wage
of $2.81. Accidents to members resulted fatally in 37 cases out of
the 414 reported. Of the 23 strikes engaged in during the year, 22
were reported as having been successful. Strikes caused an aggregate
loss of 94,907 working days, entailing a loss in wages of $264,997.
W a g e - E a r n e r s .— Reports are reproduced from workmen in various
occupations showing for each the age, conjugal condition, days
employed, hours worked per day, rate of wages, total earnings during
year, number of dependents, expenditures for food, fuel, etc., and
value of home when owned.
M a n u f a c t u r i n g .— The returns received show 591 establishments,
in 37 industries, with an invested capital of $10,464,127, using material
and supplies valued at $5,985,362, producing goods valued at
$9,677,594, and giving employment to 4,135 workpeople, to whom
$2,152,526 was paid in wages. It is stated that the returns cover
only about one-fourth of the establishments in the State.
F r e e P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t O f f i c e .— During the four months and
twenty days prior to the making of its first report this office received
applications for employment from 639 males and 82 females and
requests for the help of 697 males and 192 females. Positions were
secured for 420 males and 82 females.
Second A nnual Report o f the Comm issioner o f Labor fo r the State o f
Oklahoma, 1 9 0 9 . Charles L. Dougherty, Commissioner. 402 pp.

In this report the following subjects are presented: Labor organiza­
tions, 27 pages; statistics of wage-earners, 52 pages; manufacturing
and industrial concerns, 80 pages; surplus products, 48 pages;
factory inspection, 78 pages; free public employment offices, 14



REPORTS OF STATE B U R E A U S OF LABOR-----O K L A H O M A .

637

pages; report of board of arbitration and conciliation, 4 pages;
enforcement of labor laws, 17 pages; and labor laws of the State, 60
pages.
L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s .— An aggregate membership of 12,324 was
reported by 175 of the 325 labor organizations in the State. The
earnings of men employed in the building trades averaged $3.86 per
day and their working day averaged 8 hours in length, while railway
employees received $2.46 for an average workday of 9.4 hours and
the employees in other industries received an average of $2.58 for
8.8 hours. Of the 97 accidents reported, 6 resulted fatally.
W a g e - E a r n e r s .— As in the first report, returns are published in
detail from workmen in various occupations, showing working con­
ditions and cost of living. The number of persons reporting in any
specific trade or industry is, however, too small to be considered
representative.
M a n u f a c t u r i n g .— The 1,167 establishments reporting had an
invested capital of $16,819,517, used raw materials and supplies to
the value of $19,797,575, paid $607,726 for taxes, rent, and insurance,
and produced goods valued at $30,077,460. Employment was fur­
nished to 13,273 workpeople, to whom $5,063,756 was paid in wages.
F r e e P u b l i c E m p l o y m e n t O f f i c e s .— During the twelve months
ending June 30, 1909, this bureau received applications for employ­
ment from 3,452 persons, for 3,250 of whom positions were secured.
During the same period requests were received from employers for
the help of 4,089 persons.




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR[Except in cases of special interest, the decisions here presented are restricted to
those rendered b y the federal courts and the higher courts of the States and Terri­
tories. Only material portions of such decisions are reproduced, introductory and
explanatory matter being given in the words of the editor.]
DECISIONS UNDER STATUTE L A W .
Contracts
T

ender—

of

E m ploym ent— D

is c h a r g e —

P aym ent

of

W

ages—

P e n a l t y — N e w E m p l o y m e n t — S t L ou is, Iron Mountain

and Southern Railroad Com pany v. B ryant et a t , Suprem e Court o f
Arkansas, 122 Southwestern Reporter, page 9 9 6 .— W. M. Bryant and

others were employees of the railroad company named and had been
discharged from its service without being paid the wages due. Act
No. 210, Acts of 1905, amending section 6649 of Kirby’s Digest, re­
quires railroad companies to forward the wages due employees at
their discharge, or other termination of employment, to a designated
local office of the road within seven days from the date of a request
so to do, and on the failure of the company to pay, a penalty accrues
for such failure. This penalty consists in the continuance of the
wages from the date of discharge or refusal of further employment
until payment is made. The plaintiffs made demand in due form,
and on failure of the company to pay recovered judgment for wages
and penalty in the court of a justice of the peace. The company
appealed, and on December 18, 1907, a little more than a month
after the discharge of the men, it tendered wages and interest to
each of the workmen, and also costs of the court to that date. This
tender was refused because the penalty was not included, and the case
proceeded to trial. On May 14, 1908, a verdict was rendered under
instructions from the court for the penalty from November 5, when
employment ceased, to the date of the verdict. From this judgment
an appeal was taken to the supreme court of the State, which reversed
the court below on the ground that the tender of payment on Decem­
ber 18,1907, while not sufficient to relieve the company from liability
for the penalty to that date, had the effect to stop the further running
of such penalty. On this point Judge Frauenthal, speaking for the
court, said:
The statute provides that “ as a penalty for such nonpayment the
wages of such servant or employee shall continue * * * at the
same rate until paid.” The payment here referred to clearly only
refers to the payment of the wages, and not to any penalty; and so,
638




DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

639

if that which is done which is equivalent to a payment, to wit, a
tender of the amount of wages, then all is done that is required by
the statute to stop the further running of the penalty. The accept­
ance of the wages would not be a payment of the penalty which had
accrued to the date of such payment; and, as is held in the case of
St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Ry. Co. v. Pickett, 70 Ark. 226,
67 S. W. 870, after the payment of the wages, suit can be brought for
the amount of the penalty which had been accrued. But this question
is ruled upon and settled in the case of St. L., I. M. & S. R. Co. v.
Paul, 64 Ark. 83, 40 S. W. 705, 37 L. R. A. 504, 62 Am. St. Rep. 154,
wherein Mr. Justice Battle says in regard to this statute: “ To enforce
the performance of this duty, exemplary or punitive damages are
imposed upon them for the failure to do so; that is, the liability to
pay the wages at the contract rate until the wages earned on the day
of the discharge or refusal to longer employ are paid. They are not
necessarily more unreasonable than, or as much so as, those allowed
by the Iowa statute. The railroad company can stop them by the
payment or tender of payment of the amount due the employee for
wages actually earned. N o other amount need be tendered for that
purpose.” We are therefore of the opinion that the amount of the
penalty ceased to run on the 18th day of December, 1907, when the
defendant tendered to the plantiffs the full amount of their wages,
with interest; and that it did not also have to tender the amount of
the penalty which had accrued to that day to stop the continuance
of the accumulation of the penalty. The plaintiffs, upon said tender
being made or upon the acceptance of that amount for the wages
only, had still the right to recover the amount of the penalty which
haa accrued to that date and now have that right; but not to recover
any further amount for penalty.
The company sought to defend by the claim that it had offered the
men work of another kind and at another point on the railroad, so
that while the wage debt was properly due, no penalty should be
allowed. The court below refused to allow evidence on this point to
go to the jury, and this the company offered as error. This subject
was disposed of by Judge Frauenthal as follows:
It is urged by the defendant that the plaintiffs could not recover
a n y penalty herein in event there was at the time of the discharge of
plaintiffs offered to them employment by defendant of any kind and
at any point. We think that the object and purpose of the statute
was to secure to the employee the prompt payment of his wages, or a
continuance of his employment, so that he would have a livelihood
and a means of maintenance. To secure that object, it would be
necessary to give him that employment in which he was competent
to perform the duties thereof and at a place where he could reasonably
be in order to perform those duties of such employment. The
employee by earning his wages shows under the contract of employ­
ment that he was competent and able to perform the duties or the
employment in which the wages were earned; and, therefore, we are
of the opinion that the “ further employment” meant by the statute
is employment of the same class ana kind and in the same locality in
which his wages were earned under the contract of employment.
Otherwise the railroad company might offer to the servant employ­
ment, the duties of which he might be incompetent to perform, or at a




640

B U L L E T IN

OP T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

point so remote or inconvenient to the servant that he could not
reasonably accept it; and thus the railroad company could escape
the penalty named in this statute. W e are therefore of the opinion
that the court did not err in refusing to permit the defendant to
prove that it had offered to plaintiffs employment generally or at
another place generally. It could only show that it offered further
to employ them in the same kind of work and in the same locality.
For the error of the court in charging the jury that the plaintiffs
could recover penalties accruing after the tender of the amount of
wages made on December 18, 1907, the judgment is reversed, and this
cause is remanded for a new trial.

E

m ployers’

p a n ie s —

L

ia b il it y —

Co n tracts W

Ca r r ie r s — E

a iv in g

R

ig h t o f

m ployees of

A

c t io n f o r

E

xpress

Com ­

I n j u r ie s — L

aw

G o v e r n i n g — Weir v. Rountree, United States Circuit Court o f A ppeals ,

Eighth Circuit, 173 Federal Reporter, page 7 7 6 .— H.‘ R. Rountree was
employed by the Adams Express Company as a messenger, his duties
requiring him to be in and upon and to travel on the cars and con­
veyances of certain railroad companies. It was a part of the contract
between the railroad and the express companies that the latter would
indemnify and hold harmless the railroads for any injury sustained by
an employee of the express companies while in, on, or about the cars or
premises of the railroad companies, whether caused by the negligence
of the railroad employees or otherwise. The express company in
turn secured from Rountree an agreement not to hold it liable for any
such accident or injury, fatal or otherwise. Rountree was killed, as
alleged, by the gross negligence of the employees of the St. Louis and
San Francisco Railroad Company while on its train serving as express
messenger, and also, as the bill alleged, as baggage master for the
railroad company. His widow thereupon sued the railroad company
for $10,000 damages, and the express company brought its suit in
equity asking that she be restrained from prosecuting such suit,
and offering the contract of waiver in support of its suit. The
circuit court of the United States for the western district of Missouri
denied the request for the injunctive order, whereupon the company
appealed; the appeal resulted in the action of the circuit court being
affirmed.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Munger, who
spoke in part as follows:
One reason why plaintiff is not entitled to the relief asked is that
the injury and death, occurred in the State of Kansas, and the rights
of the widow are to be measured according to the laws of that State.
W e need not stop to inquire whether or not the contract in question
was valid according to the laws of Nebraska, where executed, as the
widow is not basing her action upon such contract, but upon the
statute law of Kansas. Whether such contract is available as a
defense to her action we think determinable according to the laws of
Kansas.




DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

641

Judge Munger then introduced a citation from Chicago, Milwaukee,
etc., R. R. Co. v . Solan, 169 U. S. 133, 18 Sup. Ct. 289, 42 L. Ed. 688,
as follows:
“ A carrier exercising his calling within a particular State, although
engaged in business or interstate commerce is answerable according
to the law of the State for acts of nonfeasance or of misfeasance com­
mitted within its limits. * * * The rule prescribed for the con­
struction of railroads, and for their management and operation,
designed to protect persons and property otherwise endangered by
their use, are strictly within the scope of the local law.
“ W e can see no difference in the application of the principle based
upon the manner in which the State requires this degree of care and
responsibility whether enacted into a statute or resulting from the
rules of law enforced in the state courts. The State has the right to
promote the welfare and safety of those within its jurisdiction by
requiring common carriers to be responsible to the full measure of
the loss resulting from their negligence, a contract to the contrary
notwithstanding.77

Continuing he said:
Martin v. Pittsburg & Lake Erie Ry. Co., 203 U. S. 284, 27 Sup. Ct.
100, 51 L. Ed. 184, was a case in which a postal clerk was injured by
reason of the derailment of a train in Pennsylvania. The statute in
that case provided:
“ When any person shall sustain personal injury or loss of life while
lawfully engaged or employed on or about the roads, works, depots,
and premises of a railroad company, or in or about any tram or car
therein or thereon, of which company such person is not an employee,
the right of action and recovery in all such cases against the com­
pany shall be such only as would exist if such person were an employee,
provided that this section shall not apply to passengers.”
. It was held that it was a local question, for the State to determine,
whether or not the postal clerk was a passenger, and as to the validity
of a statute of that character.
Sections 5857 and 5858, Gen. St. Kan. 1901, are as follows:
“ S e c . 5857. That railroads in this State shall be liable for all
damages done to persons and property, when done in consequence
of any neglect on the part of the railroad companies.
“ S e c . 5858. Every railroad company organized or doing business
in this State shall be liable for all damages done to any employee of
such company in consequence of any negligence of its agents, or by
any mismanagement of its engineers or other employees to any person
sustaining such damage.”
The supreme court of that State, construing these sections, have
held that a railroad company could not contract in advance for the
waiver and release of the statutory liability imposed upon every
railroad company organized or doing business in that State, and that
a contract in contravention of this statute was void. Kansas Pac.
Ry. Co. v. Peavey, 29 Kan. 169, 44 Am. Rep. 630; Chicago, Rock
Island & Pac. Ry. Co. v. Martin, 59 Kan. 437, 53 Pac. 461. In the
latter case it was said:
“ It is an action instituted by his widow, as administratrix, under
section 418, Gen. St. 1897, for the benefit of herself and the children



642

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

of the deceased. It is to recover their damages resulting from the
death of the husband and father. It is to recover for the injury to
them, rather than to the deceased. Against their rights the deceased
had no authority to contract. The cause of action for which the
plaintiff sues never accrued to him. It could only accrue as a result
of his death. His stipulation, even if binding on himself, is no defense
against the statutory right of the plaintiff.’ ’
Again, it is apparent from the facts that it was not contemplated
that the contract of employment between Rountree and the express
company should be wholly performed within the State of Nebraska,
where the contract of employment was entered into, but that the
service to be rendered was to be in different States. For that reason
we think the law of the place of performance, and where the cause
of action accrues, should govern. (Stone v. U. P. R. R. Co., 32
Utah 185, 89 Pac. 715.) To illustrate: Suppose a railroad company
operating a line of road in two or more States should employ A. to
render service for it as a brakeman, the contract of employment
being made in a State in which A. could recover from the railroad
company for an injury caused by the negligence of a fellow-servant,
and he should sustain an injury in a State in which recovery could
not be had because of the negligence of a fellow-servant. W e do not
think that it could be successfully contended in such case that,
because the contract was made in the State in which the recovery
could be had, it would operate to give him a cause of action in the
State where the injury took place, contrary to the laws of such State;
and the converse of the rule must also be true.
For the foregoing reasons, plaintiff is not entitled to the relief
prayed, and the decree is affirmed.

E
of

m ployers’

L

ia b il it y —

E

m ploym ent of

St a t u t e — I n j u r y — P r o x im a t e

Ch il d r e n

Cau se— W

a iv e r

in
of

V

io l a t io n

Law

by

I n s p e c t o r — Stehle v. Jaeger Autom atic Machine Com pany, Suprem e

Court o f P ennsylvania , 74 Atlantic Reporter, page 2 1 5 .— This case was
before the supreme court of the State for the second time on an appeal
from the court of common pleas of Philadelphia County. On the first
appeal the judgment of the court below in favor of the defendant
company was reversed because proper weight had not been given to
the act of May 2, 1905 (P. L. 352), prohibiting the employment of
children under 14 years of age. The case having been sent back to the
lower court, judgment was awarded the plaintiff, George Stehle,
senior, in behalf of the injured child, his son, but the father’s action
for damages was decided adversely. Both parties appealed; the
company because it claimed that even if it had employed the child
contrary to statute, such employment was not the proximate cause of
the injury; and the father, because of exceptions to a construction
by the court as to the company’s right to rely on the advice of a
factory inspector with reference to the employment of his minor son.




D ECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

643

The company's contention was denied, the judgment in behalf of the
son being affirmed, while the contention of the father was upheld, and
the judgment as against him was reversed with orders for a new trial.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Stewart, who used
in part the following language:
When this case was before us in 220 Pa. 617, 69 Atl. 1116 [Bulletin
No. 78, p. 677], the judgment was reversed because the court below in
its instructions had failed to give effect to act May 2,1905 (P. L. 352),
regulating the employment of children in industrial establishments.
The second section of this act in express terms makes it unlawful to
employ any child under 14 years of age in any “ establishment” as
denned in the act. It was not disputed then, nor is it now, that the
plaintiff was under 14 years of age, and that the place where he was
employed, and where he received his injuries, was such an establish­
ment as the act contemplates. In the opinion delivered by our
Brother Elkin it was held that, if the plaintiff's injury “ resulted by
reason of the employment prohibited by law, there can and should
be a recovery in the case. '' On the second trial the court was asked
to instruct specifically in accordance with the view here expressed.
The plaintiff's twelfth point was as follows: “ If the jury find from the
evidence that the injuries to the boy, George Stehle, resulted by
reason of his employment, prohibited by law, there can and should be
a recovery in this case, and the verdict should be for the plaintiff."
The point was affirmed without qualification. It is now insisted that
the trial judge should have qualified it, by explaining to the jury that
the mere employment of the plaintiff could not be regarded as the
cause of the mjury received, if the boy was in no way engaged in the
duties of his employment at the time, or if the injury was sustained in
consequence o f the boy's own inadvertence. The plaintiff was
injured in attempting to clean a pipe in which there was a rapidly
revolving wheel. By means of this pipe and wheel the loose materials
which resulted from the mechanical operation in the polishing room
were carried by force of suction without the building. Plaintiff
inserted his hand in a hole in the intake pipe some 10 inches from the
wheel; the suction drew it against the wheel, and both hand and arm
were lacerated and broken in consequence. The effort on the part of
the defense was to show that, not only cleaning the pipe through this
hole was no part of plaintiff's duty, but that he had been specially
warned not to attempt it, and much evidence was offered and admitted
on this branch of the case. Let it be that these were the established
and admitted facts. That they would be conclusive against an
adult's right of recovery is unquestioned, but we are not dealing here
with the case of an adult. When a child has been employed in viola­
tion of law and is injured in the place where he is employed, to allow
the employer to escape liability because the injury resulted from the
imprudence or negligence of the child would be to defeat the purpose
of the law and render it absolutely futile. So it is never a question
of risk of employment or of contributory negligence. The fact of
plaintiff's employment in an industrial establishment was in itself
sufficient evidence to warrant an inference of the defendant's negli­
gence, regardless of the nature and character of the work assigned him.
43431—No. 87—10----- 18



644

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

With defendant’s negligence established but one question remained:
Was this negligence of the defendant the proximate cause of the
plaintiff’s injury? It was, if incidental to the employment in a
way that showed causal connection. Clearly the accident would
not have happened but for plaintiff’s illegal employment. If it
happened immediately and directly because the boy aid something
in a negligent manner which he was not ordered to do, such circum­
stance can not be considered the proximate cause, since it was the
danger of just such occurrences through indiscretion that moved the
legislature to forbid the employment of children, and the defendant
was bound to have respect to this danger, and not set the law at
defiance. If the negligent act of the defendant in employing the
plaintiff induced or offered opportunity for the subsequent act of
the latter, and if his act was of a character common to youthful indis­
cretion, not only would causal connection be shown, but the law
would refer the injury to the original wrong as its natural and probable
cause, notwithstanding the intervening agency between that wrong
and the injury.
The father, George Stehle, was plaintiff, also, in his own right.
The result in his case was a verdict for the defendant. The record
discloses no facts or circumstances peculiar to the father which can
justify this conflicting finding. The evidence was the same in both
cases, and the same law applies to each. It follows that if the son
was entitled to recover upon the law and the evidence, so too was
the father. We make no attempt to explain the surprising result.
There was manifest error in the charge of the court which might
well have operated to the common prejudice of the plaintiffs, but it
afforded no ground for discriminating between them. It appeared
in evidence that the minor had been in defendant’s employ prior to
May 2, 1905, and had so continued until October of that year, when
he was laid off. He resumed his employment in November, and
continued working until injured. Defendant’s superintendent was
permitted, against objection, to testify that after the passage of the
act of May 2, 1905, defendant’ s establishment was visited by a
deputy factory inspector, who, upon being informed that this minor,
then in defendant’s employ, was under 14 years of age, advised the
superintendent that, inasmuch as the boy had been employed prior
to the passage of the act, he was not within its terms, and that this
officer approved of his employment. This evidence was offered
and admitted as tending to excuse the employment of the minor.
Kespecting this feature of the case the learned judge charges as
follows: “ So when he [the boy] returned in November, doubtless
these employers remembered their conversation with the inspector
that this certificate of employment, received by them prior to the
passage of the act, was sufficient to warrant their employing it.
Therefore the question here for you to decide, notwithstanding the
fact of the employment under the age of 14 years is prima facie
negligence, [is] whether these employers did everything that a reason­
ably cautious person would have done under the circumstances, in
order to comply with the law, and if you believe that they behaved
as reasonably cautious persons in taking the advice and following
the instructions, if you think it was given by the inspector— if you
believe that that is what a reasonably cautious person would have
done— then it is not negligence, and they are entitled to recover.



645

DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

That is my view of the law.” This instruction, which is assigned
for error, went wide of the true mark. It is elementary that every
man is presumed to know the statute law and to construe it aright;
and, when one violates it through ignorance, he must abide the
consequence. He may not aver m a court of justice that he has
mistaken the law; this being a plea which no court of justice is at
liberty to receive. Neither factory inspector, nor anybody else,
could absolve the defendant from his statutory liability, which in
this case was to refuse employment to the boy. It is never a ques­
tion for a jury whether one violating a positive statute exercised
reasonable care and caution in so doing. This assignment of error
is sustained, and the judgment for the defendant is reversed with a
venire de novo.
E m ployers’ L
sh ops—

ia b il it y —

N o t ic e

of

I n s p e c t io n

of

F a c t o r ie s

I n j u r y — E v i d e n c e — Berger

v.

and

W

ork­

Metropolitan

P ress Printing Com pany , Suprem e Court o f Washington , 104 Pacific
Reporter , page 6 1 7 .— William Berger sued the company named under

the provisions of the factory inspection law, chapter 84, Acts of 1905.
The court below held that the notice given by Berger did not meet
the requirements of the statute, and that no case was made out at
common law, and dismissed the suit. On Berger’s appeal, this judg­
ment was reversed on both points.
Berger was a press feeder in the employment of the company
named, and on August 6, 1907, was ordered to return after a day’s
work and assist in some emergency work. A belt came off a motor and
he was requested to assist in replacing it, and while doing so his arm
was caught and torn off at the elbow. The statute required notice
“ of the time, place, and cause of injury” to be given the employer, in
accordance with which requirement the following was sent:
S e a t t l e , U. S. A., Sept. 9 , 190 7 .
I was employed by the Metropolitan Press Printing Company on
August 6, 1907. On that date at about 6.30 p. m. Dwight Carter and
I came in to work. The machinery was not running, and Carter
started the motor. The belt slipped off and Carter shut off the power,
and we were trying to put belt on. The motor was still running, and
I got my hand caught in between the belt and motor pulley. The
belt was in good shape and broke after my hand got caught.
[Signed.]
W m. B erger.
Witnesses:
J. A. M o o r e .
J. B . D a b n e y .

From the opinion of the court, which was delivered by Judge
Dunbar, the following is quoted as showing the grounds of the
reversal of the judgment of the court below:
We will first notice the assignment of error in regard to the suf­
ficiency of the notice. The question of the sufficiency of notices of
this character has been under consideration by this court very many



646

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

times, and, without again citing the particular cases decided, the
announcement has uniformly been to the effect that the object of
such notice was to give the defendant an opportunity to investigate
and examine the place where the accident is alleged to have occurred,
so that it might intelligently prepare for its defense, or compromise
or settle the claim, if that was thought best, and that, when this was
done, the object of the law was met, and its provisions complied
with. It is not presumed that the notice is a technical requirement,
such as a bill of particulars which may be called for in the trial of the
action; nor is it, we think, fair to presume that the law hedged this
notice in with so many restrictions and technical requirements that
a working man of ordinary education and ability would be compelled
to employ a skilled attorney to prepare the notice which this law
requires; nor that the notice which is a sine qua non and which can
not be amended must be construed more strictly than a technical
pleading which is presumed to be prepared by a technical lawyer, and
which may be amended at any time in the interest of justice. Such
is not the voice of authority or reason.
We also think that the court exceeded its proper jurisdiction and
impinged upon the province of the jury when this nonsuit was
granted. There was testimony to the effect that this was a very
defective belt; that it was old and made of different pieces; that it
curled up at the edges, and was running on crooked pulleys which
tended to throw it off; that the defendant was aware of the defective
condition of this belt, and that the plaintiff was not; that he was not
engaged in his regular employment, or the employment in which he
had had experience, when this accident occurred. This testimony
was offered by men of experience who were seemingly disinterested
witnesses, and we think there was sufficient testimony in regard to
the negligence of the defendant to pass to the consideration of the

juryE m ployers’

L

ia b il it y —

C e r t if ie d F o r e m e n — F

M in e

ellow

R

e g u l a t io n s —

N e g l ig e n c e

of

- S e r v i c e — Golden v. M t . Jessup Coal

Company, Suprem e Court o f Pennsylvania, 78 Atlantic Reporter, page
1 10 3.— Joseph Golden was injured while in the employment of the

company above named while riding on a car in the company’s mine
by coming in contact with a timber which was placed dangerously
near the track. On the trial the jury brought in a verdict in favor
of the injured employee, but the court of common pleas of Lacka­
wanna County gave judgment for the defendant company notwith­
standing the verdict. The plaintiff thereupon appealed, the appeal
resulting in the judgment of the court below being affirmed.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Stewart, and is
as follows:
This case differs from Durkin v. Kingston Coal Company, 171 Pa.
193, 33 Atl. 237, 29 L. R. A. 808, 50 Am. St. Rep. 801 [Bulletin No. 2,
p. 207], in minor and immaterial circumstances only. The controlling
feature in the case is that the plaintiff’s injury resulted from the car
on which he was riding, while engaged in work, coming in contact with



D E CISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

647

a prop which had been erected to support the roof of the mine. This
prop had been put in place some two or three weeks before the acci­
dent by a mine foreman, who was duly certified as such under the
law. The evidence shows that the body of the cars ordinarily used
extended beyond the track at either side some 12 or 14 inches, while
the distance of the prop from the nearest rail was at most not more
than 18 inches. This evidence might well warrant the inference of
negligence in maintaining the prop where it allowed a clearance of
no more than 3 or 4 inches.
Here we have the proximate cause of the accident; but where did
the responsibility rest? The accident occurred before the passage
of the employer’s liability act of June 10,1907 (P. L. 523). In Durkin
v. Coal Company [supra], a case which has never been questioned,
but has repeatedly been recognized as sound in principle, it was held
that, inasmuch as by the act of June 2, 1891 (P. L. 176), the State
requires the employment by the operator of mines of a certified fore­
man, and invests such foreman with the power to compel compliance
with his directions, so far as they relate to the safety of the employees
in the mine, an employer can not be held liable for the mistakes or
incompetency of the State’s representative. And, further, it is there
held, following the doctrine o f the earlier cases, notably Waddell v.
Simoson, 112 Pa. 567, 4 Atl. 725, that a mine foreman is a fellowservant with the other mine employees of the same master engaged in
a common business and that the employer is not liable for injuries
caused by the negligence of the foreman. These principles apply here.
There was evidence in the case that the car on which plaintiff was
riding was an old car, and swayed somewhat from side to side, and it
is argued that but for this circumstance the accident would not have
happened. But it nowhere appears that the car was defective in any
of its parts, that it was any different from those generally employed,
or that it was in any way unfit or insecure for the ordinary use to
which it was put. However, the fact that it swayed may have con­
tributed to the accident, it was not the proximate cause. That is to
be found in the placing of the prop so close to the track as not to
allow sufficient clearance for cars ordinarily employed. A commonlaw duty rests upon the employer to provide a safe place for his
employees in which to work; but if he has provided a safe place,
which has been made unsafe by the act of the mine foreman, whose
authority may not be questioned, and whose direction must be com­
plied with under penalty, he has met the full measure of his duty,
and he is not to be charged with civil responsibility for a condition
which he did not bring about, and which he could not control.
The case called for judgment non obstante, and the judgment is
affirmed.
E
L

m ployers’

aw

L

ia b il it y —

— St a t e S t a t u t e s

t r in e o f

as

R

a il r o a d

A

C o m p a n ie s — F e l l o w -S e r v a n t

f f e c t in g

I n t e r s t a t e T r a f f ic — D

oc­

C o m p a r a t i v e N e g l i g e n c e — C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y — M issouri

Pacific R ailw ay Company v. Castle, United States Circuit Court o f
Eighth Circuit, 172 Federal Reporter, page 8 4 1 .— Ozro
Castle had obtained a.judgm ent against the company named in
a suit for damages for injuries received while in its service. Certain

A ppeals,




648

B U L L E T IN OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

evidence offered by the company was objected to by the plaintiff's
attorney; this objection was sustained by the court, which was
claimed by the company to be error, and on this ground the case was
before the circuit court of appeals, which reversed the court below
and granted a new trial. The point of interest, however, is the ruling
of the court as to the application of the Nebraska statute of 1907
(ch. 48) to interstate commerce, and the validity of the section enact­
ing the doctrine of comparative negligence. The law in full is to be
found in Bulletin No. 74, p. 72. The court overruled the contentions
of the company on both the points named above. The language of
Judge Garland, who delivered the opinion, is given in part below.
After reciting the first section of the law, abrogating the defense of
fellow-service, the court said:
It is contended that said section does not include a railway com­
pany engaged in interstate commerce in the State of Nebraska, but the
language of the section clearly includes all railroads operated in the
State. It is also contended that the section above quoted is inop­
erative so far as employees of the defendant engaged in interstate
commerce are concerned by reason of the act of Congress approved
June 11, 1906 (act June 11, 1906, ch. 3073, 34 Stat. 232 [U. S. Comp.
St. Supp. 1907, p. 891]). As this last named act was declared to be
unconstitutional in Employer's Liability Cases, 207 U. S. 463, 28 Sup.
Ct. 141 [Bulletin No. 74, p. 216], it must be considered as never hav­
ing existed for any purpose. Therefore Congress had not legislated
upon the subject contained in section 1 of the Nebraska law above
quoted at the time that plaintiff received his injuries. In the absence
of legislation by Congress, it was competent for the State to legislate.
(Chicago, Milwaukee, etc., By. Co. v. Solan, 169 U. S. 133, 18 Sup.
Ct. 289, 42 L. Ed. 688.)
It is further contended that section 2, c. 48, p. 192, Laws Neb. 1907,
is repugnant to article 14 of the amendments to the Constitution of
the United States, in that it abridges the privileges and immunities
of a citizen of the United States, deprives the defendant company of
its property without due process of law, and denies to it the equal pro­
tection of the laws. The section referred to reads as follows:
“ S e c . 2 . That in all actions hereafter brought against any railway
company to recover damages for personal injuries to any employee or
when such injuries have resulted in his death, the fact that such
employee may have been guilty of contributory negligence shall not
bar a recovery when his contributory negligence was slight and that
of the employer was gross in comparison, but damages shall be
diminished by the jury in proportion to the amount of negligence
attributable to such employee. All questions of negligence and con­
tributory negligence shall be for the jury. ”
Conceding but not deciding that said section would be binding
upon the federal courts sitting in Nebraska, it has no such effect as is
claimed b y defendant. In view of the history of trial by jury and
the distribution of governmental powers by the constitution of
Nebraska, we can not presume for a moment that the legislature had
reference to any questions except those of fact, when it used the lan­
guage: “ All questions of negligence and contributory negligence shall



DECISION'S OE COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

649

be for the jury. ” As thus interpreted the language quoted is simply
declaratory of existing law. (Kiley v. Chicago, M. & St. P. Ry. Co.
(Wis. 1909), 119 N. W. 309.)
It is only when in the opinion of the court there is no question of
negligence or contributory negligence as a matter of fact that cases are
taken from the jury, under existing practice. In so far as the statute
creates the rule of comparative negligence, it in nowise tends to
destroy any of the constitutional rights of defendant. The rule of
comparative negligence was adopted by some courts of their own
motion, and not until it was demonstrated that the rule is imprac­
ticable in cases tried to a jury was it discarded, as in theory it is a
just rule and is continually enforced by the courts of admiralty, where
the trained minds of judges are able to compare the faults of vessels
in collision. It is not a question here, however, whether the rule
ought to be adopted, but whether the legislature of Nebraska had the
power so to do. Of this we have no question. If the legislature has
the power to take away the defense that the injury sued for was
committed by fellow-servants, it certainly has the right to modify
the rule that any negligence of a plaintiff directly contributing to his
injury will defeat his recovery. [Cases cited.]
As the statute only acts prospectively, defendant can not say that
it takes away any vested right. The importance of the question as to
whether section 2, above quoted, is binding upon the federal courts
sitting in Nebraska, so far as the rule of comparative negligence is
concerned, is largely minimized by section 2 of the act of Congress
approved April 22, 1908 (act April 22, 1908, ch. 149, 35 Stat., 65),
which establishes practically the same rule.

E

m ployers7

ants—

L

ia b il it y —

C o n s t r u c t io n

of

R

a il r o a d

C o m p a n ie s — F e l l o w -S e r v ­

S t a t u t e — M eyers v. San Pedro , L os Angeles

and Salt LaJce Railroad Company, Suprem e Court o f Utah, 104 Pacific
Reporter , page 7 3 6 .— Lena Meyers sued to recover damages for the

death of her husband, who was conductor of the first section of a train
of the company above named, and met his death, as was alleged, by
the negligent operation of the road, resulting in a rear-end collision
between his and a following section, causing the death of Meyer and
two brakemen. From a judgment for the plaintiff the company
appealed, securing a reversal on account of the improper admission of
certain evidence. The company also complained because of the
ruling of the lower court that members of the crews of the two sections
were not fellow-servants, but in this respect the supreme court upheld
the court below. The statute (R. S., sec. 1343) is as follows:
“ All persons who are engaged in the service of such employer, and
who, while so engaged, are in the same grade of service and are work­
ing together at the same time and place and to a common purpose,
neither of such persons being intrusted by such employer with any
superintendence or control over his fellow-employees, are fellow-serv­
ants with each other; provided, that nothing herein contained shall
be so construed as to make the employees of such employer fellow


650

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

servants with other employees engaged in other departments of
service of such employer. Employees who do not come within the
provisions of this section shall not be conisdered fellow-servants.”
The construction placed on this section by Judge Straup, who spoke
for the court, is shown in the following extracts from his opinion:
It is made to appear that the two sections of the train were run
and operated as two distinct and independent trains, and that the
defendant regarded and treated them as being subject to the rules
applicable to the running and operation of separate trains. The
question then arises: Are the members of train crews of separate
trains fellow-servants within the meaning of the statute ? We think
they are not. They are not in such case “ working together at the
same time and place and to a common purpose.” Such has been the
holding of the courts of Texas, the State from which the Utah statute
was borrowed. (Patterson v. Houston & T. C. R. Co. (Tex. Civ. App.),
40 S. W . 442; Gulf, C. & S. F. Ry. Co. v. Warner, 89 Tex. 475,
35 S. W . 364; [etc.].) In these and other cases from that court it is,
in effect, held that under the statute, to be fellow-servants the two
servants must have a present corresponding relation with the labor
or duty then being performed, and tnat they must be directly coop­
erating with each other in the accomplishment of an immediate end
or purpose as distinguished from a remote or ulterior end or purpose.
We think no error was committed in the charge complained of, nor
in other rulings involving the question of fellow-service.

E
R

m ploym ent

epeated

of

C h il d r e n — V

O ffe n se s— St a y

of

io l a t io n

of

Statu te— A

ppeal—

P r o c e e d i n g s — P r o h i b i t i o n — State

v. R ose, Suprem e Court o f Louisiana, 5 0 Southern Reporter, page 5 2 0 .—

Lew Rose was convicted in a juvenile court of the unlawful employ­
ment of a child on the stage of his theater, and appealed. The
statute (act No. 301, Acts of 1908) forbids such employment for
children under 14 years of age, and the child in this case was under
10. The facts in the case in which Rose was convicted were not in
question in the present case, the latter involving Rose’s application
for a writ of prohibition to prevent the judge of the juvenile court
and the district attorney from bringing him to trial for different
subsequent violations of the same law, committed pending his appeal.
This application was dismissed, for the reasons set forth in the fol­
lowing portion of the opinion of the court, which was delivered by
Judge Provosty:
W e proceed to consider the reasons assigned by the relator in his
petition why the prohibition should issue, and to dispose of them in
regular order.
First. That pending the appeal on the first charge against him all
proceedings against him upon charges for violations of the same
statute should be stayed. This contention can hardly be serious.
If it were well founded, a defendant could not be prosecuted for
larceny pending his appeal on a previous conviction for larceny,



D ECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

651

although the subsequent prosecutions were for offenses distinct and
separate in point of time and place.
Second. That the decision of the juvenile court holding that the
affidavit charges a crime under the child-labor statute is erroneous.
The answer is that the proper mode of correcting such error, if error
there be, is by appeal.
Third. That if the prosecution of these other cases is proceeded
with in the juvenile court, that court will be trying questions involved
in the appeal pending in this court, which questions this court alone
has jurisdiction to try. The answer is that, if the same legal ques­
tions happen to be involved in several separate cases against the
same defendant, the pendency of an appeal in one of the cases does
not deprive the trial court of jurisdiction of the other cases. More­
over, no plea to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court appears to have
been filed, which is a prerequisite to an application for prohibition.
Fourth. That to try the other cases will oe placing relator in jeop­
ardy twice for the same offense. That question is one for the trial
court to decide, subject to review, if need be, on appeal.
Fifth. That the violation of said statute involves no moral turpi­
tude, but, on the contrary, is good for the children. Here, again, is
a question to be passed on, if ever, by the trial court, subject to
review on appeal.
Sixth. This objection has reference to the manner of conducting
relator’s theater. The same thing may be said with regard to it
which has been said with reference to the fifth reason.
Seventh. That the charges in these other cases are made for alleged
violations of the same statute as in the case on appeal, and that there­
fore the alleged violations charged in these other cases are but a con­
tinuance of the offense prosecuted in the first case, although the chil­
dren therein alleged to have been employed are not the same, and
did not appear on the same dates, nor on the stage of the same
theater. Here, again, is a matter to be decided by the trial court,
suWect to appeal, if need be, to this court.
Eighth. That to try and punish relator every time he violates said
statute would be to try ana punish him for one continuing offense,
and would be cruel and unusual punishment. Here, again, is a ques­
tion to be decided by the trial court, subject, if need be, to appeal to
this court.
Ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth are repetitions of eighth.
Relator in his brief says that by his demurrer and his motion in
arrest of judgment in the case pending on appeal he challenged the
jurisdiction of the juvenile court. Granting, for the argument, that
his said pleas in that case had the effect of challenging the jurisdic­
tion of the juvenile court in that case, the said pleas can be operative
only in the case in which they were filed, and can not afford any basis
for a prohibition in these other cases, in which no plea to the juris­
diction has been filed.

E x a m in a t io n
a l it y

of

and

L ic e n s in g

Sta tu te — E q u al P

of

E

l e c t r ic ia n s —

r o t e c t io n

of

Co n s t it u t io n ­

L a w s — State v. Gantz,

Supreme Court o f L o u is ia n a 5 0 Southern Reporter, page 5 2 4 -— A

statute of Louisiana (act No. 178, Acts of 1908), provided for the



652

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E

B U R E A U OF LABOR.

examination and licensing of master electricians in the State of
Louisiana, the operation of the statute being restricted to cities
having 50,000 population and oyer. (See Bulletin No. 81, p. 451, for
the law in full.) This restriction made the law applicable to the
city of New Orleans and no other. Provisions for the examination,
the payment of fees for the granting and renewal of licenses, the
definition of the status of master electricians, and a prohibition upon
engaging in service without a license, are features of the law. Light­
ing and electric railway companies, and the department of police and
public buildings of the city of New Orleans, were exempted from
the provisions of the act, in so far as the maintenance and installa­
tion of their “ equipment pole-line services” and meters are concerned.
George Gantz was charged with a violation of the law by working
as a master electrician without a license, and demurred on the ground
that the law was unconstitutional on account of the discriminatory
provisions contained therein. The demurrer was sustained, and
the State appealed, the supreme court affirming the judgment of
the court below, and holding the act unconstitutional in its entirety.
The grounds on which this conclusion was reached appear in the
following extracts from the opinion of the court, which was delivered
by Judge Breaux. Having stated the facts in the case, the court said:
The judge of the district court, in a carefully prepared opinion,
declared the act unconstitutional on the ground, substantially, that
it denied electricians equal privileges.
The exemption is the cause of the trouble, and has given ground
for the vigorous attack made by the defendant. The plaintiff, in
argument, in brief, and at bar, in the first place called attention to
the restricted character of the exemption, in answer to the position
of defendant that it was really a general exemption in favor of the
Electric Railways Company and the department of police and public
buildings. We take it that the pole-lme service and the matter of
meters, mentioned in the statute, includes a large part of the work
to be done. There is no necessity of deciding with precision the
extent of each—the exempted work and that which is not exempted.
We will mention, however, it is common knowledge that nearly all
the accidents are traced to defective line service. The light goes
out, or the power fails, or is not properly regulated, nearly always,
because of defects in this particular work.
It is scarcely to be presumed that the exemption would have been
inserted in the statute unless it was intended that it should amount
to something. It was not inserted as a mere compliment or mild
attention to the intended exemptees. Furthermore, we note that
the express terms of the act exempt “ unimportant work,” as made
very evident by the following: “ But no work other than minor
electric repairs for the maintenance of established plants shall be
performed by other than master electrician or under nis direction.”
This provision in regard to minor electric repair work already excluded
the companies and the police department named, if the work is of
no importance. They could have their unimportant work done
under that clause; but that was not the only purpose of the exemp­




DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

653

tion. Evidently the work of the intended exemptees, taken as a
whole, is important. It is provided for in another section than that
provided above, and it is a special exemption, with some meaning
and scope. It gives the parties broad privileges.
The right to work can not be restrained without reason. Con­
stituted authorities have been careful not to sanction unreasonable
interference with the right. Here not only there is no good reason,
but there is discrimination. W hy should the companies and the
department before named have the right to employ unlicensed,
untrained, and even ignorant electricians if they choose, while the
average owner or employer, who does not come within the exemption,
must employ only a licensed electrician? To extend the inquiry
further on the same line: W hy should an electrician who has no
license be able to find employment with these companies and depart­
ments, while if another electrician equally as competent is called
upon by another owner or employer he must produce a license or
lose the opportunity to work and earn a livelihood ?
Class legislation, discriminating against some and favoring others,
is prohibited. (Barber v. Connolly, 113 U. S. 27, 5 Sup. Ct. 357,
28 L. Ed. 923.) And it follows equally prohibited is legislation per­
mitting a company or a department of public works to employ one
class of artisans, and denying to this class and to others in similar
situations, to work for other owners and employers. In general terms
the contention is urged by the State that the discrimination is proper,
because it is legislation to carry out a public purpose for the public
safety. This does not satisfactorily appear, is our answer. The
public safety under the act cited is not the better safeguarded. The
only purpose of the exemption from all appearances is to permit a
few to employ less qualified electricians, while others are denied that
right, or to permit a few to do as they please, as relates to the quali­
fications of electricians they employ. We have weighed the author­
ities and have arrived at the conclusion that they sustain defendant’s
contention of unlawful discrimination.
W e will now discuss whether the illegal exemption, because illegally
discriminative, vitiates the whole statute. It does evidently. It is a
criminal statute, as it defines a crime. By striking out the exemption
as unconstitutional, it leaves subject to criminal prosecution those
the legislature expressly intended should be exempt. As to them, it
would be making that a crime which was never intended should be.
The exemption renders it impossible to enforce the legislative will.
The statute must be considered as a whole, and the intention as bear­
ing on all its clauses. The character of the intention, its indivisible
nature, affects the whole statute. It can not be enforced. The
statute, we infer, was adopted in accordance with a plan. According
to it, there is exemption which is far-reaching. Our decision extends
to and renders inoperative the other parts of the statute, which are
intimately and inseparably connected with the plan of legislation.

E

x a m in a t io n

a l it y o f

and

L

ic e n s in g

of

P l u m b e r s — C o n s t it u t io n ­

S t a t u t e — C o n s t r u c t i o n — Bronold v. Engler, Court o f A p ­

peals o f New YorTc, 87 Northeastern Reporter , page 4 2 7 .— This case

involved the validity and effect of the statute of New York requiring



654

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

master or employing plumbers to be licensed. The law was upheld
and the true effect of a previous ruling of the court was indicated in
the opinion of the court in the case in hand, which reads in part as
follows:
The constitutionality of a statute (Laws 1892, p. 1150, ch. 602,
sec. 5) of which the present section 45 of the General Cities Law
(Laws 1900, p. 699, ch. 327) is a substantial reenactment, was upheld
by this court in People ex. rel. Nechamcus v. Warden, etc., 144
N. Y. 529, 39 N. E. 686, 27 L. R. A. 718, but subsequently an addi­
tional provision having been enacted that in the city of New York
every member of a partnership carrying on the business of employing
or master plumber must be a licensed plumber, was held unconsti­
tutional; it there appearing that the unlicensed partner took no
part in the conduct of the business except to furnish capital, keep
the books, and attend to the financial ana office departments of the
business. (Schnaier v. Navarre Hotel & I. Co., 182 N. Y . 83, 74
N. E. 591.) It is under this last decision of the court that the
plaintiffs claim to be exempt from the condemnation of the statute;
the testimony being that they employed as manager of the business
a licensed master plumber. We think there is a clear distinction
between the two cases. It is not the manager but the plaintiffs, who
are the responsible heads of the business; not he, but they, are liable
for defective work or improper plumbing. They, not he, have the
continuous power to determine what journeymen plumbers shall be
employed to do the work and how it shall be done, and he himself
might be at any time discharged.

L

abor

O r g a n iz a t io n s — U

n io n

L

abel—

U

nlaw ful

U

se—

I n­

j u n c t io n —

United Garment WorTcers o f A m erica v. D avis, Court o f
Chancery o f New Jersey, 74 Atlantic Reporter, page 8 0 6 .— The com­

plaining organization is a voluntary association by the rules of which
the employers of the members of the local organizations composing
it are authorized to use the label of the national association. In the
suit in question the organization sought to secure an injunction to
restrain one Harry L. Davis from the unlawful use of this label, his
shop not being in good standing with the affiliated union. It ap­
peared in the evidence that the defendant, Davis, was in the custom
of using another label called the “ journeymen tailors’ label,” his
right thereto not being a subject of inquiry in this case. The com­
plainant’s chief witness was one Wellman who had procured a suit
of clothes from Davis, the latter at his request having sewed into
the garments labels of the complainant association, which Wellman
himself had furnished. The evidence was so contradictory that the
court declared that it was unable to see that the testimony of any
witness, contradicted as it was, would be sufficient to entitle either
party to a decree. The right of the complainant party to protect
its trade-mark or label was sustained, however, as indicated in a



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

655

concluding sentence of the opinion of Judge Howell, who spoke for
the court, this sentence reading as follows:
There is no evidence whatever that the defendant has been guilty
of any violation of the rights of the complainant except in the case
now before the court, and this leads me to the conclusion that, while
there ought to be an injunction against Davis restraining him from
the violation of the rights of the complainant with respect to the
label, yet that this decree should be without costs, and I will so
advise.
P aym ent

of

W

ages—

T im e

Checks— R

e d e m p t io n —

Kentucky

Coal M ining Company v. M attingly , Court o f A ppeals o f Kentucky ,
118 Southwestern Reporter, page 8 5 0 .— Ben J. Mattingly had in his

hands aluminum time checks of various denominations, issued by
the company named to its miners, and sued to recover their face
value. From a judgment of the circuit court of Union County in
Mattingly’s favor the company appealed. The appeal resulted in
the judgment of the lower court being affirmed. The facts as agreed
upon for the appeal were essentially that the company paid its miners
regularly in cash as required by law, but that, for the convenience of
its employees, it issued, at their request, time checks of various
denominations, redeemable in merchandise, and in current use for
that purpose in the town of Waverly: that the company redeemed
such checks or tokens on demand, at a discount of ten per cent, such
discount being its charge for bookkeeping and profit and loss, as it
sometimes advanced checks to workmen who failed to work out the
advances, and sometimes employees would overdraw and then quit
service. Mattingly was not an employee of the company but had
acquired the checks as a speculation, and it was impossible to tell to
whom the checks had been issued. The answer of the company to
the demand for redemption at face value was, in part: “ The defend­
ant says it has no knowledge or information sufficient to form a belief
as to whether or not it ever issued the checks sued on and described
in plaintiff’s petition, or that same were ever delivered by defendant
to any employee or that they represented the true value of the labor
performed, or that plaintiff is now the owner of any of said checks or
coins for value, or that the face value of these represents two hundred
and thirty-five dollars and sixty-five cents ($235.65) or any other
sum.”
After stating the above facts, Judge Hobson, who spoke for the
court, said:
The rule is that a denial of knowledge or information sufficient to
form a belief is not good as to facts within the defendant’s knowl­
edge. The defendant is presumed to know its own checks, and it
can not require the plaintiff to prove the genuineness of a check when
it is unwilling to say the check is not genuine. For the same reason



656

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

this allegation is insufficient as to the delivery of the checks to an
employee. The checks are a promise in writing to pay, and the law
presumes they were based on an adequate consideration. The agreed
facts show that the plaintiff was the holder for value of the checks
sued on.
This brings us to the real question in the case: Has the defendant
a right to a deduction of 10 per cent from the face of the checks ?
Section 244 of the constitution is as follows: “ All wage-earners
employed in this State in factories, mines, workshops or by corpora­
tions shall be paid for their labor in lawful money. The general
assembly shall prescribe adequate penalties for violations of this
section.” Under this section the defendant may lawfully issue checks
to its miners to show what it owes them, but these checKs must at the
next bimonthly pay day be paid at their face value: otherwise, the
miners will not be paid for their labor in lawful money, but will be
scaled one-tenth of their earnings because a check was issued to them.
Section 2219, K y. St. (Russell's St., sec. 1815), provides: “ All con­
tracts and assurances made, directly or indirectly, for the loan or
forbearance of money, or other thing of value, at a greater rate than
legal interest, shall be void for the excess over the legal interest.”
The company did not lend its men any money. Its lending its credit
to them until the next bimonthly pay day in consideration of a deduc­
tion of 10 per cent from their wages was a contract the law will not
sanction or enforce. If such contracts were upheld our usury laws
would be vain and useless; for they could in this way be evaded with­
out the lender being out of his money at all.
We are therefore of opinion that the circuit court on the agreed
facts properly entered judgment for the plaintiff.
Judgment affirmed.

P r o t e c t io n
for

M

of

otorm en—

E

m ployees

on

St r e e t R

a il w a y s —

V

e s t ib u l e s

C o r p o r a t io n s — P e n a l t y * Co n s t it u t io n a l it y
—

of

Traction Company v. State, Court o f Civil
A ppea ls o f Texas, 122 Southwestern Reporter , page 6 1 5 .— The Beau­
S t a t u t e — Beaum ont

mont Traction Company was found guilty of a violation of the statute
of April 3, 1903 (ch. 112, Acts of 1903), which makes it unlawful
“ for any corporation or receiver operating a line of electric street
railway in the State of Texas” to run its cars during certain months
without a screen or vestibule to protect the motorman from the
inclemency of the weather. The penalty prescribed is a fine “ of not
less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars
for each offense.” From the judgment of the court below the com­
pany appealed on the ground of the unconstitutionality of the statute,
the objections being that it applied to corporations operating electric
railways, but left persons, firms, and associations engaged in the
same business free to operate their cars without such vestibules or
screens as the law mentioned; also on the ground that the penalty
was doubtful and uncertain, since the statute did not define what



D ECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

657

constituted an offense thereunder. On both these points the ruling
of the court of appeals was in favor of the contentions made, and the
law was declared unconstitutional, as appears from the following
extracts from the opinion of Judge Reese, who spoke for the court.
Having stated the facts in the case, the court said:
Looking to the terms of the act in question, we think it clear that
it must be limited in its application to “ corporations;” that is, to
associations of persons operating under a charter from the State, and
that, according to the plain import of the terms used, natural per­
sons, and partnerships, either the ordinary kind or composed of per­
sons associated together as joint-stock associations, ao not come
under the provisions of the act. The restrictions imposed by the act
upon the business of operating a line of electric street railway do not
apply to such business if carried on by natural persons, firms, or asso­
ciations. Such would necessarily be the construction of the act with­
out involving the doctrine of strict construction of penal statutes, but
that, under such principle, it must be so construed is beyond question.
We think it can not reasonably be questioned that the restrictions
upon the business of operating electric cars imposed by the act are
entirely proper and well within the recognized police power of the
State, and would not be subject to the constitutional objection that
any person is thereby deprived of the equal protection of the law
guaranteed by the Federal Constitution or that equity of legal rights
protected by the constitution of this State, if the act operated equally
upon all engaged in such business; but to single out corporations
engaged in such business and impose upon them, as a class, restric­
tions from which all persons or associations of persons other than cor­
porations, engaged in the same business, under the same conditions,
are exempt, is a violation of the provisions of both the fourteenth
amendment of the Federal Constitution and of article 1, section 3, of
the constitution of this State. The constitutional provisions referred
to do not require that no burdens shall be imposed upon one class of
persons that are not imposed upon all classes, but only that such bur­
dens so imposed “ shall be applied impartially to all constituents of a
class, so that the law shall operate equally and uniformly upon all
>ersons in similar circumstances.” This claim of equity before the
aw protects not only natural persons, but also artificial persons
called “ corporations,” who are regarded as persons under it.
The furtner objection is made to the act that in the matter of penal­
ties imposed the act can not be enforced on account of the doubt and
uncertainty, arising from the language of the act, as to what consti­
tutes an offense rendering appellant liable to such penalty. W e must
confess that we feel like we are groping in the dark when we endeavor
to determine what shall constitute “ each offense” for which a sepa­
rate penalty is imposed. Shall it be each trip of each car, or each
day's operation, or may the officers of the State make as many or
few offenses as they may choose, to be determined by the frequency
of suits filed for the recovery of such penalties ? Courts ought not to
be required to make a blind guess at the intention of the legislature,
which would be merely “ to allow conjectural interpretation to usurp
the place of judicial exposition.” W e are inclined to the opinion that
this objection to the act ought also to be sustained.

1




658

B U L L E T IN

St r ik e s — D
it ie s —

amage

C o n s t r u c t io n

to
of

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

P roperty — L

ia b il it y

S t a t u t e — Pittsburg,

of

M

u n ic ip a l ­

Cincinnati,

Chicago

and S t L ou is Railw ay Company v. C ity o f Chicago, Suprem e Court o f
Illinois, 89 Northeastern Reporter, page 1 02 2,— This was a case brought

by the railway company against the city of Chicago to recover dam­
ages for injury done to property during the Pullman and railway
strike of 1894. The action was based on a statute of the State
enacted in 1887 (Hurd's K. S. 190, ch. 38, secs. 256a-256g), which
gives the owners of property a right of action against a municipality
for the value of property destroyed within its limits in consequence
of any mob or riot. Action was duly brought under a change of
venue from Cook County, within which the city of Chicago is situated,
to Dupage County, where, after a trial of four months' duration, a
verdict of one hundred thousand dollars was returned and judgment
rendered in favor of the plaintiff company. On appeal to the appel­
late court this was affirmed, whereupon further appeal was taken to
the supreme court of the State. This trial resulted in the affirmation
of the findings of the lower courts.
A number of questions as to procedure and evidence were involved,
but the only point that will be here noted relates to the right of the
company to maintain action for cars and property in its possession
as a carrier but not owned absolutely by it.
On this point Judge Farmer, who delivered the opinion of the
court, spoke in part as follows:
A common carrier is a bailee of property for hire, and has such an
interest in the property that he may resort to any means for its pro­
tection to which the absolute owner could have recourse, and may
recover the full value of the property from a wrongdoer who destroys
it. “ He is, in short, for ail practical purposes, the owner of the
property for the redress of all wrongs or injuries to it whilst in his
possession." (2 Hutchinson on Carriers, sec. 779.) And this is true,
although the real owner might also have an action against the same
wrongdoer for the value of the property destroyed. Id., sec. 780.
We do not think the word “ owner," as used in the title of the act,
or the phrase, party or corporation “ whose property" has been de­
stroyed, was intended to be used in the restricted sense contended for
by appellant. The purpose of the act, as stated in its title, is to
“ indemnify" owners of property, and the first section makes the
city liable to an action “ by or in behalf of the party" whose property
is destroyed or injured. Appellee is as a common carrier for hire,
and as such is bound, when requested, to receive for transportation
over its lines cars of other common carriers, and as to such cars it
holds the same relation as to ordinary freight received by it for trans­
portation, and is held to the same measure and character of liability
to the owner of the cars as would attach with respect to any other
property received by it for carriage.
The statute under consideration expressly preserves the right of
action to the property owner against the persons composing the mob
or riot, and as against such persons we think it clear the action



DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

659

could be maintained by a common carrier in possession as bailee. It
is well known, and the legislature must have nad in mind, that mobs
and riots are usually composed of persons of no financial responsi­
bility, so that an action against them would be unavailing to recover
the value of the property destroyed. With this in view, and in view
of the fact that the law confers upon municipal authorities power to
suppress mobs and riots and to protect property, the act of 1887
made the municipality liable to the same person or corporation in
whom the right or action existed against persons composing the mob
or riot for three-fourths of the value of the property destroyed by
mobs or riots within its borders which it failed to suppress and control.
Any other construction of the act would in most, if not all, instances
of cases like the one under consideration result in affording no adequate
remedy to the person who suffers the loss. The liability of a common
carrier in possession of cars as bailee is absolute in such cases as the
one at bar, and the measure of the liability is the full value of the cars
destroyed. In such case ordinary prudence and business judgment
would lead the owner of the property to pursue its remedy against
the bailee for full value rather than to resort to two actions— one
against the city for three-fourths of the value and another against
the bailee for one-fourth. It would follow, therefore, the bailee must
in any event suffer a loss to the extent of one-fourth of the value of
the property destroyed, and, in the event of the bailor refusing to
mrsue its remedy against the city, the bailee must suffer the entire
oss if it can not maintain this action. Such construction does not
enlarge the liability of the municipality, for, whether the damages
are recovered by and paid to the bailee or the bailor, the liability is
the same, and a judgment in favor of the bailee would be a bar to a
suit by tne bailor. This construction gives effect to the purpose and
intention of the act, which was indemnity to the person injured,
whether that injury resulted to such person by reason of his being the
absolute or special owner of the property destroyed. The statute
authorizes the action “ by or in behalf of the party whose property”
was destroyed. While this action is in the name of the bailee, it is
none the less brought “ in behalf of the owner.”

J

DECISIONS UNDER COMMON LA W .
A

c c id e n t

tures—

I n s u r a n c e — C o n t r a c t s — C o n s t r u c t io n — F o r f e i­

Classes

of

O c c u p a t i o n s — Roseberry v. Am erican Benevolent

A ssociation , S t L ou is ( M issouri) Court o f A p p ea ls , 121 Southwestern
Reporter , page 7 85 .— This case was before the court on appeal from

the circuit court of K nox County, in which David J. Roseberry had
been awarded a judgment in a suit against the company named on a
policy of insurance. Roseberry was a pumpman at a railway water
station, and was so rated by the insurance company that a premium
payment of $1 per week would procure for him insurance in the
amount of $35 per month during any period of total disability
following bodily injuries caused by external, violent, accidental, and
involuntary means, and producing visible marks upon the body.
43431— No. 87—10-----19



660

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

Compensation under the contract could not extend beyond 12 cal­
endar months.
It was a part of Roseberry’s duties to attend to a gasoline engine
used to draw up cars of coal for emptying into a chute used for filling
locomotive tenders, and while carrying gasoline for filling the tank
of the engine, his trousers became saturated with oil from his knees
to his ankles. While carrying his lantern, Roseberry’s trousers
became ignited and caused severe burns, injuring the muscles as well
as the skin. Roseberry became unconscious, and on account of the
pain was kept under the influence of opiates by his physicians for
two or three weeks. Disability for 14 months ensued, and Roseberry
sought to recover on his policy, but was met with the claim that he
had forfeited his rights thereunder by failing to give notice within
10 days after the beginning.of his disability, as required by the
contract; and also that his injury was received in another occupation
than that described in his policy, in which the cost of insurance was
greater, as being more hazardous. From judgment in his favor the
company appealed, the appeal resulting in the judgment of the lower
court being affirmed. It was clear that the notice was not given
until 19 days had elapsed, instead of within 10 days, the delay being
caused by the physical and mental condition of the plaintiff, caused
by his wounds and the use of opiates. On this point, Judge Nortoni,
speaking for the court, said:
The question in respect of duties assumed by a party through his
contract, which is neither immoral nor against public policy, was
determined at an early date in the case of Paradine v. Jane, Aleyn’s
R ep, of Cases before the King’s Bench, 27. It is said in that case:
“ When the law creates a duty, and the party is disabled to perform
it, without any default in him, and he has no remedy over, the law
will excuse him. But when the party by his own contract creates
a charge or duty upon himself, he is bound to make it good, if he
may, notwithstanding anv accident by inevitable necessity, because
he might have provided against it by his contract.” The rule
obtains with equal force in our law, and has been frequently quoted
and affirmed. However this may be, in respect of msurance con­
tracts, the courts have modified the severity of the doctrine referred
to b y appropriate application of other pertinent principles which
obtam, with more or less influence, in aid o f effectuating the indemnity
vouchsafed therein. The fundamental idea in insurance is that of
indemnity. It is the prospect and hope of indemnity in the case of
peril and loss which induces the insured to part with his means and
enter into the contract on the one hand, and it is the offer and sale
of indemnity against loss which renders to the insurer the means to
support his business and accumulate profits. The cardinal rule for
the interpretation of contracts being that the intention of the parties
shall be effectuated, the courts have evolved a system of principles
from the elements of natural justice which inhere in the common
law, peculiar to insurance contracts, to the end of aiding the idea of
indemnity vouchsafed therein. Among others, it is the rule that



D ECISIO N S OP COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

661

insurance contracts shall be construed liberally in favor of the
insurance and against the insurer. This doctrine obtains, too, with
peculiar force in respect of conditions contained in such contracts
which operate thereon subsequent to the fact of loss thereunder. In
other words, the rule enjoins that such interpretation of the contract
shall be given as will effectuate, and not destroy, the indemnity,
unless the express words contained therein evince that the parties
clearly contemplated to the contrary. [Cases cited.]
Ana then, too, a rule of universal application obtains here. It is
a principle always pertinent where forfeitures are sought. Here the
principal features of the contract have been fully executed. All of
the premiums have been paid, the loss has accrued, and a forfeiture
of the plaintiffs right is sought because of his failure to perform a
condition of the policy operating thereon after the fact or the loss.
Forfeitures are not favored in the law. Therefore, in order to work
a forfeiture under a contract, it must clearly appear that the matter
was within the contemplation of the parties at the time the contract
was entered into; and, if the question be doubtful, the doubt must
be resolved against the insurer and in favor of effectuating the
indemnity vouchsafed by the policy. [Cases cited.] Now it must be
conceded that by a literal interpretation of the words of the policy
requiring notice to be given within 10 days after the accident, no
exception whatever appears therein touching a case where the
accidental injury wholly incapacitated the insured to perform the
condition. It must be conceded as well that no express words therein
require that such notice shall be given to the insurer, even though
the happening of the very contingency insured against renders notice
impossible, unless the general words suffice to that end. In such
circumstances we believe that, by attending to the principle which
directs forfeitures shall not be adjudged except in cases obviously
intended or clearly within the terms of the contract, and to the
principle directing the court to such an interpretation as will effectuate
the purpose of awarding the indemnity rather than to destroy it, the
case should be treated as one not contemplated by the parties upon
entering into the contract. In other words, it not appearing to have
been expressly provided for therein, we are of the opinion that the
language used requiring notice within 10 days did not, as a matter of
law, include a stipulation requiring compliances therewith as to notice
under the circumstances presented, and that notice given within a
reasonable time after plaintiff became conscious will be sufficient.
On the question of occupation, the court said:
As stated before/plaintiff was insured as a railroad pumpman, at
the rate of $35 per month for total disability. For this insurance
he paid a premium of $1 per week. His injuries having been received
while engaged in handling a bucket of gasoline for the purpose of
supplying the tank of the gasoline engine, it is argued that he is
entitled to recover only $25 per month therefor. This argument
predicates upon the assertion that the act of handling or working
with gasoline is classed by the company as more hazardous than the
occupation of railroad pumpman; that is, that the hazard incident
to such occupation or act is classed in the manual of the company
as “ E E ,” ana that the rate of premium, $1 a week, paid by plaintiff
under the provisions of the policy, entitled him to indemnity at the



662

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

rate of $25 per month only if injured while engaged in such an occu­
pation or temporary act. The provision of the policy touching the
matter is as follows: “ Sixth. Should the member holding this policy
be disabled, fatally or otherwise while engaged in any occupation or
act temporarily or otherwise or in the performance of any act per­
taining to any occupation or hazard classed in the manual of this
association as more hazardous than the one under which this policy
is issued indemnity shall be paid in such sums as the dues paid per
month as set forth above would purchase in said lower occupation or
hazard.” From the manual introduced in evidence, it appears that
a laborer in an oil-cloth and linoleum factory is classed as “ E E .” It
appears therefrom also that a laborer engaged about an oil well is
classed under the hazard of “ EE.” There is nothing whatever con­
tained in the manual in evidence tending to show tne classification
of a laborer, or other person for that matter, engaged in the occupation
or temporary act of handling gasoline.
It therefore appears there is no proof whatever tending to support
the defendant’s theory that at the time of his injury plaintiff was
engaged in the performance of an act pertaining to an occupation or
hazard classed in the manual of the association as more hazardous
than that of a railroad pumpman. The issue in respect of this matter
should not have been submitted to the jury at all. The court should
have instructed that, if the jury found for the plaintiff, the measure
of recovery should be at the rate of $35 per month. Therefore the
instruction, even though inaccurate, was not prejudicial.
The judgment will be affirmed.
B l a c k l is t in g — U

nlaw ful

D

is c r im in a t io n —

I n ju r y

to

P rop­

D avis v. New England R ailw ay Company, Suprem e
Judicial Court o f Massachusetts, 8 9 Northeastern Reporter, page 5 6 5 .—

erty—

R

e l ie f —

This was an action by William L. Davis against the publishing com­
pany named and others to secure an injunction against a publication
purporting to be a full and complete directory of all reputable express
companies in Boston and vicinity, but omitting the name of the
express company of which he was proprietor, and of certain other
companies which were subtenants of his. While this is not a labor
case the principle of fair and unfair lists is involved, and the decision
of the court is of interest as showing the rules of law applicable to
cases of this nature. It was averred that the publication was of a
form intended and calculated to create in the minds of the public the
belief that it contained the names of all reputable local express com­
panies doing business in the locality, and that this belief had enabled
the publishers to secure a large circulation among the business houses
and general public in Boston and vicinity for their published list.
The names of the complainant and his subtenants had been omitted
from a former publication, and the publishing company had refused
and was still refusing to add the names to the list about to be pub­
lished. No reason was assigned by the defendant company for its
failure to include the names of the rejected express companies.



D E CISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

663

There were joined with the publishers as defendants two others
who were alleged to control a majority of the general local express
companies whose names were printed in the publication, and it was
claimed that it was with the intent of securing a monopoly of this kind
of business that these joint defendants had conspired to prevent the
publication by the publisher of the names of the companies repre­
sented by the complainant. The complaint was demurred to as pre­
senting no sufficient grounds for relief, and the case was heard by the
supreme judicial court on the demurrer. For the purposes of this
hearing the demurrer admitted the truth of all the averments con­
tained in the bill of complaint. On this showing the court ruled that
the complaint set forth an injury for which the complainant was
entitled to a remedy. The opinion of the court was delivered by
Judge Knowlton, who, after stating the facts as above, said:
The ground on which the plaintiff seeks relief is not that he has a
right to compel the defendants or either of them to do anything for
his benefit, but that he has a right to have them refrain from inten­
tionally doing anything, without legal justification, to his injury.
The defendant corporation professes to give the public a full list of
all the reputable express companies doing business in Boston. While
it does not say in express words that the list is complete, that is the
meaning which the publication is intended to convey and does con­
vey. Its list is false and misleading, to the plaintiffs injury. One
purpose of the list is to show the public where they can go to get their
express business done. Another purpose is to give the express com­
panies named in the list the benefit of having their names and the
nature of their business brought before the public who have such
business to be done. The direct effect of the false statement is to
point those who want the services of an express company to other
companies and to divert them from the plaintiff. They are told, in
substance, that there is no such person as the plaintiff, and no such
company as the Northern Express Company engaged in this kind of
business. The averment of the plaintiff that he is greatly injured in
this way is no more than a statement of the natural result of publish­
ing a directory of express companies with his name and the name of
his company left out of it. An intentional act of this kind, without
excuse, is a violation of his legal rights. It is the publication of a
falsehood concerning him, the direct and natural effect of which is to
injure him in his business. The public is misled by the intentional
publication of an incorrect list. But the gist of the plaintiff’s action
is the wrong done him by intentionally turning away from him those
who otherwise would do business with him. He is entitled to a
remedy for this wrong.
It is peculiarly a case for equitable relief. The wrong is a continu­
ing, and in a sense an irreparable, one. The extent of the injury
can not be measured accurately in an attempt to assess damages.
The injury is to property, and it is not tecnnically a libel upon the
plaintiff. The rule that a court of equity will not enjoin the mere
commission of a crime does not apply. The conduct complained of
works a continuing and permanent injury to the plaintiff’s property.
Upon proof of the facts set out in the bill, the plaintiff will be entitled



664

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

to an injunction to protect him from the wrongful publication. The
defendants Kelley and Sampson are alleged, not only to have partici­
pated in the wrongs but to have instigated it. It is said that, for
their own interests, and to obtain a monopoly in certain departments
of the express business, they made false statements about the plain­
tiff to the other defendant, and threatened injury to the other defend­
ant's business, in order to induce the wrongful publication. Upon
proof of these facts and the other averments of the bill, the plaintiff is
entitled to an injunction against these defendants, to prevent them
from attempting to procure this wrongful kind of publication in the
future. He has a right to have the other defendant relieved from the
temptation to continue the wrongful publication to which their mis­
statements and threats might subject it.
Their desire to advance their own interests, in competition, is not
a justification for attempting to interfere with the plaintiffs business
by misstatements, and tlie making of a false and misleading publica­
tion. [Cases cited.]
The bill is not multifarious in seeking relief against all of these
defendants. In different ways they were all participating in the
infliction of an injury on the plaintiff and his subtenants. To a degree,
each was responsible for the commission of the wrongful act. Their
relations to the matter complained of were such that it was proper
to join them, so that the plaintiff might obtain relief at one time
against all the persons engaged in the interference with his rights of
property, in order to protect him, if possible, from a repetition of the
wrong. It is proper, too, that the defendant corporation should have
protection against a continuance of threats and false statements by the
other two defendants.
Con tract

of

E

m ploym ent—

A

c t io n

for

W

ages—

Q uantum

Rosenow
v. Wiener,
California Circuit Court o f A ppea l, F irst D istrict, 104 Pacific Reporter,
page 8 8 9 .— Ida Rosenow acted as clerk, bookkeeper and saleswoman

M

e r u it —

E

v id e n c e —

Other

E

m ploym ent—

for Louis Wiener at his request, but without an agreement as to the
rate of wages. In a suit to recover the value of her services the
defendant moved for a nonsuit, but Miss Rosenow obtained a judg­
ment, and from an order denying Wiener's motion for a new trial,
he appealed. The judgment of the lower court was affirmed, on
grounds that appear in the following extracts from the opinion of
Judge Kerrigan, who spoke for the court. Other facts appear in the
opinion, which is in part as follows:
The plaintiff testified that at the request of the defendant she
performed services for him as clerk, bookkeeper, and saleswoman
m his store for some six months, and goes at some length into detail
as to those services. She testified that there was no understanding
between them as to the amount of her compensation, but that she
had previously worked for the defendant in a similar capacity, and
thought that he would pay her what was right; that she Jiad during
her employment spoken to the defendant about her pay, and had
been put off by him because he was short of money, but that he prom­
ised to pay her later. She also gave testimony as to the value of her



665

D E CISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

services. In view of this testimony we think the motion for a non­
suit was properly denied.
On the second point, viz, that the evidence is insufficient to sus­
tain the decision of the court, appellant's principal argument is
directed to the fact that the only evidence of the value of the services
of plaintiff is her own testimony that she considered her services
were well worth $15 a week, and objects that upon this evidence the
court found that her services were worth the sum of $53.75 per month.
There is no reason why the plaintiff should not give testimony as to
the value of her services; and, if defendant was dissatisfied therewith,
he could have introduced testimony upon the same point, but he
neglected to do so, and the plaintiff's evidence stands uncontradicted.
It is easy to calculate the value of a month's service when a weekly
rate is given; and, if the court found a less amount than would have
been warranted by the uncontradicted testimony, the appellant
was not injured thereby, and cannot complain of the finding.
On the same point— the insufficiency of the evidence to sustain
the findings of the court— the appellant calls attention to some evi­
dence that the plaintiff was, during the period covered by the serv­
ices forming the basis of this action, employed by a corporation (of
which the defendant was president) in another and different capacity,
and argues that the two employments were incompatible, and ren­
dered unlikely the one now under consideration. But the evidence
discloses that the services rendered under this additional employ­
ment were performed principally during the evening, and did not
unduly interfere with her duties under her employment by the de­
fendant.
Co n t r a c t

of

E m ploym ent— B reach — R

ecovery

for

Subse­

Union Telegraph, Go., Supreme
Court o f South Carolina, 65 Southeastern Reporter, page 9 ^ . — F. L.

quent

S e r v i c e s — K ing v. Western

King had been employed by the defendant company as manager and
operator at one of its offices at a salary of $77 per month. His duties
involved the sending and receiving of telegrams, the keeping of books,
and the collection of accounts. There was a strike of the employees
of the company in August, 1907, and on the 11th of that month King
wrote, asking to be relieved at once, as “ I do not care to remain
longer." The following day entry was made in the log book, “ Sumpter
office walked out 4 p. m .," this statement being signed by King as
manager and by the other operators and messengers. King testified
that on the same day he posted on the door of the office a notice
stating that the office was closed on account of the strike. Testimony
was offered which tended to show that between the 12th and the
24th of the month no business was done at the office, though a num­
ber of people wished to send telegrams, but were unable to do so
because the office was closed. King testified that during this time
he kept the office open a portion of every day, but did not observe
office hours, and that he was engaged chiefly in collecting accounts.
When asked why he did not attend to the business he replied: “ I
considered I had tendered my resignation."




666

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

The present suit was for the purpose of recovering wages alleged to
have been earned by him from August 12 to August 24, at the rate
of pay fixed by the contract. King secured judgment in the common
pleas circuit court of Sumter County, whereupon the company
appealed and secured a reversal of the judgment of the court below.
The principal point in the opinion, which was delivered by Judge
Hydrick, is here reproduced, and shows the grounds on which the
action of the court was based:
The magistrate should also have charged the defendant's second
request. If the plaintiff quit the service of the defendant on August
the 12th, when he posted the notice, “ Closed on account of strike,"
he broke his contract, which he himself said was to serve the defend­
ant as manager and operator at $77 per month. He could not recover
for services thereafter rendered, except upon proof of a new contract,
express or implied. The request stated a correct proposition of law
applicable to the case. The action is based on contract. The allega­
tion of the complaint is that he was in the employ of the defendant
as manager and operator at a salary of $77 per month, which neces­
sarily implies a contract between the plaintiff and the defendant.
“ The word ‘salaryr may be defined generally as a fixed annual or
periodical payment for services, depending upon the time, and not
upon the amount, of services rendered." (24 Amer. & Eng. Encyclo­
paedia of Law, 1015.) The suit being upon contract, the magistrate
erred in charging the jury that, if the defendant owed the plaintiff
for any day's service, they could give him a verdict for whatever
amount they thought he was entitled to recover. Under this charge,
the plaintiff was allowed to recover on a quantum meruit when he
had sued on contract, which is contrary to the law, as announced by
this court in Birlant v. Cleckley, 48 S. C. 298, 26 S. E. 600.

Contracts
ployee—

of

E m ploym ent— D

is c h a r g e —

Com petence

of

E m­

FranJclin v. T. H . L illy Lum ber Com pany, Suprem e Court o f

West Virginia, 66 Southeastern Reporter, page 2 2 5 .—
George P. Franklin had entered into a contract with the company
named to work as buyer, inspector, and salesman of lumber for a
term of five years for a fixed sum. After a few months of service he
was discharged, and sued the company for damages caused by such
discharge. From a judgment in his favor the company appealed,
securing a reversal on account of erroneous instructions given by the
judge of the trial <court. The opinion of the appellate court was
delivered by Judge Williams, and in the course of his remarks he set
forth the law as to the presumption as to pompetence on which con­
tracts of employment rest, and the right of the employer to terminate
the contract where incompetence appears. This portion of the
opinion is reproduced herewith:
A ppeals o f

There is always an understanding or agreement implied in law that,
when one undertakes to perform services for another, he is reasonably
competent. Of course, he can not be held to the highest degree of



DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

667

skill possible; but, nevertheless, he is held to a reasonable degree of
skill; and, if the work is of such a character as involves the necessity
for skill, or judgment, such, for instance, as the grading, buying, and
selling of lumber, as in the present case, he will be held to the exercise
of such reasonable skill and judgment as would be exercised by a
reasonably careful and prudent man in the performance of the same
kind of work for himself. If the plaintiff did not, in fact, exercise
reasonable skill and prudence in the performance of his agreement, he
was guilty of a breach. It matters not whether the failure to employ
such reasonable skill and prudence was the result of his natural in­
ability, or of an intentional disregard of the interests of his employers.
The cause of his failure could make no difference, for, in either case,
the effect upon defendants would be the same, and they would have
a right to terminate the contract. W e do not undertake to say
whether or not the evidence proves such lack of competency. That
is a matter for the jury upon proper instructions as to the law by the
court. But these instructions take from the jury the consideration
of the question of plaintiffs ability to perform, with reasonable skill,
the labor he had undertaken. The words “ or matters that are
strictly beyond the control of either party to said contract” do not
comprehend the question of plantifFs skill, and do not oblige defend­
ants to retain him in their employment if he lacks reasonable skill.
In the present case the supposed skill of plaintiff would seem to be the
very reason for his employment, the inducement to the contract.
His competency, or skill, is not a matter strictly beyond his control.
If he is not reasonably competent, he is bound to acquire sufficient
knowledge and skill as will make himself reasonably competent, or
be liable to be discharged for want of it. (20 A. & E. E. L. 29; 26
Cyc. 989; Crescent Horse-Shoe, etc., Co. v. Eynon, 95 Va. 151, 27
S. E. 935; Glasgow v. Hood et al. (Tenn.), 57 S. W. 162; Bloom v.
Shoe Mfg. Co., 83 Hun 611, 31 N. Y. Supp. 517; Lyon v. Pollard,
20 Wall. 403, 22 L. Ed. 361.) The burden, however, of proving the
want of such reasonable skill rests upon defendants, when they rely
upon it as a justification of their discharging him.

Contracts

of

E

m ploym ent—

T

e r m in a t io n —

R

e d u c t io n

of

Pennington v. Thom pson Brothers Lum ­
ber Com pany, Court o f Civil A ppeals o f Texas, 122 Southwestern R e­
porter, page 9 2 8 .— W . G. Pennington had for several months been

W

ages—

N o t ic e — E

v id e n c e —

employed by the company named at the rate of $65 per month, and
sued to recover the difference between this amount and an alleged
reduced wage rate, claimed by the company to have been in effect dur­
ing the last six months of his service. From a j udgment in his favor for
a smaller amount than he claimed Pennington appealed, and secured
a reversal and orders for a new trial. The case turned on the question
of proper notice, though some evidence was admitted on trial that
was held to be error.
It appears that notice was not sent personally to the plaintiff, but
that of the 200 employees about 75 were present at a meeting at
which the announcement was made that wages would necessarily b*



668

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

reduced. On the question of what would be sufficient notice to bind
the plaintiff, Judge Fly, who spoke for the court, said:
In the absence of notice direct or indirect to appellant of the change
made in his wages, there was no termination of tne contract between
appellant and appellee. The charge [to the jury in the court below]
was accompanied by an instruction that notice of the declaration oJ
the manager should have been given to appellant, and that, if the
jury found that appellant had actual or constructural notice of the dec­
laration of termination of the contract, they should find for appellee.
There could be no constructive notice of tne change in the wages of
the employees under the facts of this case. Notice may have been
direct or indirect; that is, given by the appellee itself, or by others to
whom the notice was given, but constructive notice could have no
place in this case. The court not only bound appellant by construc­
tive notice, which must have been confusing to any jury, but also
made it incumbent on appellant to exercise diligence to ascertain that
a change in the contract had been made. No such duty rested on
him. The old contract of $65 a month prevailed until it was termi­
nated by both parties, and, in order to create an implied contract that
less wages would be given and accepted, it became necessary to show
that notice was given by appellee to appellant, directly or indirectly,
that his wages had been lowered, and, after receiving such notice, that
he had remained in the service of appellee. Only actual notice would
meet the demands of the case whether it reached appellant directly or
indirectly. If he was told by appellee’s manager or any one else
conversant with the facts that his wages, together with those of all
employees, had been lowered, and after such notice he remained in
the service of appellee, the implication would arise that he had
accepted the reduction of his wages.
In order to bind appellant by the reduction of his wages, he must
have had actual notice of the reduction of his wages, ana must have
accepted the reduction. Of course, acceptance of the reduction would
be indicated by his remaining in thex service of appellee after full
knowledge of the reduction. The notice must have oeen such as to
inform appellant that his wages had been reduced, and notice that
the wages of others had been reduced, unless his were also included
therein, would not be sufficient notice.
As to the evidence proper to be submitted to the jury the court
said:
It was not proper to ask witnesses whether every one but appellant
had accepted the cut in wages, or if there was any reason why appel­
lant should have been excepted from the reduction. These matters
were not issues in the case. The only issue was as to whether there
was a general reduction of wages and as to whether appellant accepted
the reduction. The fact that all others had accepted the cut, and
that there was no reason for excepting appellant from the general
reduction, could not affect the question or his knowledge of the re­
duction of his wages and his acceptance of the same. The court
erred in permitting the introduction of such testimony as that com­
plained of in the sixth assignment of error.
Appellee’s manager shornd not have been permitted to testify that
his company would have lost money if the wages had not been



669

D E CISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

reduced. The propriety of the reduction of the wages was not an
issue in the case, and speculations as to what might have happened
to appellee if the reduction had not been made were not made to
assist the jury in arriving at a decision as to whether the reduction
had been made and appellant had accepted it after notice of the
same. The evidence must have been harmful to appellant if it was
considered at all.
Testimony as to other mills having reduced the wages of their
employees was totally foreign to the issues in this case, and should
have been excluded. The same may be said as to the opinions of
witnesses as to why employees accepted a reduction in wages, and
the statement of appellee’s manager as to what purpose he had in
view in cutting down wages. These matters were totally foreign to
the issues in the case.
It was proper to allow testimony of the notice of the reduction of
wages given by the manager at the meeting of the employees called
by him, as a basis for snowing that appellant had received that
notice, although not present at the meeting.

E

m ployer and

petency—

E

I n j u r ie s

M inot v. Suavely,

m ployee—
to

N

T h ir d P

e g l ig e n c e o f

ersons—

L

E

m ployees—

ia b il it y o f

E

I ncom­

m ployers—

United States Circuit Court o f A ppeals, Eighth

Circuit, 172 Federal Reporter, page 212.— Elizabeth R. Snavely sued

Minot and another to recover damages for the death of her husband,
caused, as was alleged, by the incompetence of an elevator operator
employed by the defendants. Judgment was in Mrs. Snavely’s favor
in the court below, which judgment was, on appeal, reversed and a
new trial ordered on account of the improper refusal to give a
requested instruction to the jury. In his opinion reversing the judg­
ment, Judge Carland, speaking for the court, laid down the rule as
to the liability of the employer for injuries caused by the acts of the
employee, regardless of his knowledge of incompetency or the care
used in selection. This portion of the opinion follows:
A t common law a master is not liable for injuries personally suf­
fered by his servant through the ordinary risks o f the business,
including the negligence of a fellow-servant, acting as such, while
engaged in the same common employment, unless the master is
chargeable with negligence in the selection of the servant in fault, or in
retaining him after actual or constructive notice of his incompetency.
The exception above mentioned to the nonliability of the master to his
servant for the negligent acts of a fellow-servant never had any
existence as a substantive ground of liability except in favor of the
servant. It is a part of the fellow-servant rule, and is inapplicable
to any actions, except those brought by the servant against the master
for injuries received by reason of the negligence of a fellow-servant.
The master is liable to third persons for the damage caused by the
wrongful or negligent acts of his servant in the course of his employ­
ment as such, and he is liable irrespective of the care used in tne
selection of that servant or of notice of his incompetency. Not­



670

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

withstanding, however, evidence was admitted tending to show
general incompetency of the person in charge of the elevator, and the
fury were told by the court in its charge that it was the duty of
defendants to employ a reasonably safe, prudent person, in the
handling of the elevator. The liability of the defendants in the
case at bar depended wholly upon the fact as to whether the person
operating the elevator was guilty of negligence at the time Snavely
was passing from the elevator, which was the proximate cause of his
death, except, of course, as this liability might be affected by the
contributory negligence of Snavely himself. As the defendants
could not relieve themselves from liability for the negligence of the
operator of the elevator by showing that they exercised proper care
in his selection or had no notice actual or constructive of his incompe­
tency, so it was incompetent for plaintiff to attempt to fix a liability
upon the defendants by showing want of care in the selection of the
operator of the elevator or actual or constructive notice of his general
incompetency.
E

m ployer

and

E

m ployee—

N e g l ig e n c e

of

E

m ployees—

I n ju ­

m ployers—

Western Real
Estate Trustees v. Hughes, United States Circuit Court o f A ppeals,
r ie s

to

T h ir d P

ersons—

L

ia b il it y

of

E

Eighth Circuit, 172 Federal Reporter, page 2 0 6 .— The plaintiff, Hughes,

sued the company named to recover damages caused by the negligent
acts of employees of the company while engaged in excavations for
building. Judgment in Hughes' favor was rendered in the court
below, which judgment was affirmed on appeal. Among the grounds
offered by the company for a reversal were certain instructions as to
the liability of the employer for acts of his employee. The instruc­
tions were approved by the appellate court, the remarks of Judge
Yan Devanter, who spoke for the court, being on this particular point
as follows:
In deference to the earnestness with which it is urged that the
defendants' purpose was to lower the floor only to its original position,
that their servants exceeded or violated their instructions if they
attempted to lower it beyond that point, and that for such an act the
defendants were not responsible, it may be well to add that, by the
uniform course of decision in this jurisdiction, a master is responsible
for the tortious acts of his servants, done in his business and within
the scope of their employment, although he did not authorize or know
of the particular act, or even if he disapproved or forbade it. (Phila­
delphia & Reading R. Co. v. Derby, 14 How. 468, 486, 14 L.* Ed.
602; Railroad Co. v. Hanning, 15 Wall. 649, 657, 21 L. Ed. 220;
Steamboat Co. v. Brockett, 121 U. S. 637, 645, 7 Sup. Ct. 1039, 30 L.
Ed. 1049; [etc].) True, when his servants step aside from his
business or depart from the scope of their employment, for however
short a time, the relation of master and servant is suspended, and the
resultingresponsibility ceases (Chicago etc., Co. v. Bryant, 13 C. C. A.
249, 65 Fed. 969; Brown v. Illinois Central R. Co., [69 C. C. A. 444,
136 Fed. 306, 70 L. R. A. 915]; St. Louis, etc., Co. v. Harvey, 75 C. C.
A. 536, 144 Fed. 806); but servants do not depart from the scope of



DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

671

their employment within the meaning of this rule merely because, in
executing the work assigned to them, they exceed or violate their in­
structions in resjpect of its details or the manner of doing it (Phila­
delphia & Reading Railroad Co. v. Derby, supra), which is at most
what was done in the present case.
The court refused to incorporate in its charge to the jury an instruc­
tion to the effect that, although the lowering of the floor was intrusted
by the defendants to their servants, stilly if the latter attempted to
lower it beyond its original position, and in so doing exceeded or vio­
lated their instructions, the former were not responsible for any act
done in that attempt; but, as the proposed instruction was in contra­
vention of the rules of law just stated, it was properly rejected.

EM PLO YE Rs,

L

ia b il it y —

C iv il

L

aw

— F e l l o w -S e r v a n t s — D

am­

ages—

Taylor v. E . C . Palm er <& Co ., Suprem e Court o f Louisiana ,
50 Southern Reporter, page 5 2 2 .— William G. Taylor was a bookkeeper

in the employment of the company named, and was injured while
inspecting its warehouse to see if the stock in storage was safe from
damage from a storm. Such inspection was not within the usual
line of Taylor’s duties, and he was acting in accordance with a request
by telephone from his employer. While so engaged, he stepped
through an open trapdoor left unguarded by the oversight of a work­
man in the warehouse, and was injured, the room being in darkness
except for the slight light of a flickering candle.
The company appealed from the judgment awarding damages,
offering as defenses, first, that it was not guilty of negligence toward
the plaintiff, Taylor; and second, that Taylor was guilty of contribu­
tory negligence. The judgment of the lower court was affirmed,
Judge Land, speaking for the court, disposing of the defenses offered
as follows:
The defense as set forth in the answer is:
(1) That the defendant was not guilty of negligence toward the
plaintiff.
(2) That the plaintiff was guilty of contributory negligence.
1. This defense, so far as it is based on the proposition that the
plaintiff acted beyond the scope of his instructions, or without instruc­
tions, is repelled by the evidence.
The instruction as actually given was broad enough to cover all
the buildings. Plaintiff was certainly injured by the negligence of
the particular servant of defendant who was charged with the duty
of closing the hatchway every evening. Plaintiff on the occasion in
question was performing the entirely different duty of inspecting the
warehouse for the purpose of discovering leaks. It is neither pleaded
nor argued that the two were fellow-servants under the laws and
jurisprudence of the State of Louisiana. The common-law doctrine
of fellow-servants has been engrafted on the civil-law jurisprudence
of this State to the extent of recognizing “ only as fellow-servants
those persons who are engaged in a common work under a common



672

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

employment.” (Weaver v. Goulden Logging Co., 116 La. 474, 40
South. 798 [etc.].)
For the reasons stated, the defendant is clearly answerable for the
negligent omission of its other servant to close the trapdoors of the
hatchway.
2.
The question of contributory negligence was primarily for the
jury to determine under all the facts and circumstances of the case,
and their verdict was approved by the trial judge. Our examination
of the record does not impel us to reach a different conclusion. Under
the evidence the danger was not obvious.
We are asked to increase the quantum of damages, but must
decline to do so, as the amount of the award is not manifestly inade­
quate.

E
A

m ployers’

ge

of

A

as

E

ssu m ed

Common L

L

ia b il it y —

v id e n c e

aw

R

is k s

of

E

m ploym ent

of

C h il d r e n — F a c t

C a p a c it y — P r e s u m p t io n s

and

C o n t r ib u t o r y

as

to

D

of

efenses

N e g l ig e n c e — S t a t u s

at

— Ew ing v. Lanark Fuel Co., Suprem e Court o f A ppeals

o f West Virginia, 6 5 Southeastern Reporter, page 2 0 0 .— Jackson Ewing,

age 13 years and 9 months, was injured in January, 1907, while work­
ing in a coal mine of the defendant company and sued by his father,
as next friend, to recover damages for injuries received while so
employed. Judgment was given in his favor in the circuit court of
Raleigh County, and the company appealed, offering various grounds
therefor, all being overruled by the appellate court, and the judgment
of the court below affirmed.
The opinion of the court in this case, which was rendered by Judge
Williams, is quite extensive and makes numerous citations, discussing
the questions of contributory negligence and assumed risk as affected
by the age of the injured person, besides the various constructions
and rulings of the court that were offered as error. The decision
rests on common law grounds, the statute of West Virginia permitting
the employment of children of twelve years of age in coal mines, except
during the school term, when fourteen years is the minimum limit.
No reference is made to the statute as affecting the liability of the
employer in this case.
The following extracts from the opinion of the court show the principal'grounds on which its decision rested:
Plaintiff in error insists that its demurrer to the declaration should
have been sustained, but we think it sufficiently avers a cause of
action. The negligence averred is not the particular accident which
caused plaintiffs mjury, but it is the employment of plaintiff, an
infant, and negligently requiring him to perform a duty, the dangers
of which he was incapable of comprehendmg and avoiding, and failing
to instruct him how to perform the work, and to guard against the
dangers incidental thereto. These averments state a good cause of
action. The demurrer was properly overruled.



D E CISIO N S OF COUKTS A F F E C T IN G LABOB.

673

We understand the law to be this: That the right of an infant to
recover for an injury received while in the service of his master, on
account of the master's negligence in setting him to perform a dan­
gerous duty, depends upon the question whether or not the infant
assumed the risk. And in order to show that the infant did in fact
assume the risk, it is necessary to prove that he had knowledge of the
danger, and ability to avoid it. This may be done by proving that
the master instructed him, or that he gained the knowledge from
others, or from actual experience, or that his natural capacity and
the nature of the employment were such that he must be presumed
to have such knowledge. In the latter case the law charges him with
constructive knowledge of the danger. Lack of capacity is never
conclusively presumed from infancy, unless the infant is under 7
years of age. Age is only an evidential fact, tending to prove con­
structive knowledge, or lack of knowledge. If over 14, it tends to
prove capacity and knowledge; if under 14, it tends to prove the
reverse or this. It is not conclusive. Capacity may be shown not­
withstanding the inf ant is under 14 years of age, and incapacity may
be shown notwithstanding the infant may be over 14 years of age.
The presumption of capacity at 14 years, and of incapacity under
that age, are both rebuttable presumptions. [Cases cited.] It is a
mere rule of evidence, and does not affect the right of either master
or servant. It only serves to fix on one party or the other, as the
case may be, the burden of supplying the proof of such facts as will
show whether or not the risk was really assumed by the infant. If
under 14 years old, the burden of proof is on the master; if over 14,
it is on the infant. It would seem to be no hardship in either case
to discharge the burden. All infants of the same age have not the
same capacity. If they had, the presumption would necessarily be
conclusive. But it is a matter of common knowledge that all persons
are not born equal in respect to mental capacity and physical powers;
and therefore the presumption in either case may be rebutted by
other evidence.
The rule adopted by Wisconsin, Virginia, and by this court in Wil­
kinson v . Coal & Coke Co., 61 S. E. 875, is decidedly in favor of the
master, as it puts the burden of proving incapacity on the infant
after that age; and it would seem to be a wise departure from the
ancient rule, if it be a departure at all, justified by experience, and by
legislative enactments which fix upon that age as the time when an
infant is permitted to perform many important acts. It operates
to the benefit of many boys of poor families who earn their living,
many of whom are as capable as men to perform much of the labor
necessary in, and about, mines and factories. Much of the labor to
be performed in coal mines is attended with very little danger, ex­
cept from those greater calamities which affect all servants employed
in that business alike, such as explosions of gas, coal dust, etc. This
rule will encourage their employment, and is therefore favorable to
both employer and employee. It is also in harmony with the spirit
of our law which permits the employment of boys over 14 years of
age in coal mines. In most States, including West Virginia, con­
tributory negligence is a matter of defense, the burden of proving
which is on the defendant; and in the case of an infant plaintiff under
the age of 14 years, in order to charge him with contributory negli­
gence, it is just as essential to prove his capacity to comprehend the



674

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

dangers that might result from his negligent act as it is to prove his
capacity in order to establish the fact that he assumed the risk of
dangers connected with his employment. The burden of proving
capacity is upon defendant in either case.
Infants under 14 years are often chargeable with contributory
negligence, but not generally, as a matter of law deducible from the
nature of the act causing the injury, which is generally the case when
applied to an adult. There must be evidence of ability to under­
stand and to guard against the danger; and hence the negligence of
an infant under 14 is a question of fact for the jury, because it involves
capacity concerning which the jury must decide.
It is insisted, by counsel for plaintiff in error, that defendant’s
negligence is not the proximate cause of the injury. This may be
true in fact, but it is not true in law. The car rolling down the grade
and striking against plaintiff is the actual and immediate cause of
his injury. This may not have resulted from any direct omission
of duty by defendant, or by any of its servants. Hut although this
is the immediate physical cause of the injury, it does not constitute
the negligence complained of, which is the employment of the infant
plaintiff to perform a dangerous work when he was too young to
understand it and to avoid its dangers. If the evidence is not suffi­
cient to establish the fact that plaintiff, notwithstanding his infancy,
did comprehend the danger, and could have avoided the injury by the
exercise of reasonable care, his employment was negligence, and it
then becomes an immaterial question as to what agency set the car
in motion. It was a thing that was liable to happen; and the de­
fendant’s negligence in employing plaintiff is, in law, the cause of
the injury. It reaches over all intervening causes that may have
contributed to the injury, and is, in law, the primary or proximate
cause. If plaintiff lacked proper capacity, he was not guilty of con­
tributory negligence.
E

m ployers’

t ia t io n

”

of

N

L

ia b il it y —

ew

I n j u r ie s

by

F

ellow

-S e r v a n t s — ‘ ‘ I n i­

E m p l o y e e s — M edlin M illing Company v. Boutwell,

Court o f Civil Appeals o f Texas, 122 Southwestern Reporter, page 1 ^ 2 .—
This case involved the question of the liability of the employer for
injuries inflicted upon an employee during a process of so-called ini­
tiation by his fellow-workmen. Boutwell, the plaintiff in the court
below, had resisted the initiation, which had been a custom at the
mill for a considerable period, and was well known to the employers
and not interfered with by them. Damages had been awarded in
the district court of Hunt County, which judgment was on appeal
affirmed, as is shown by the following extract from the opinion of
Judge Rainey, who delivered the opinion of the court of appeals:
No corporation is invested by law with authority to commit a tort,
and to make it liable for a wrong it must have authorized the com­
mission of same, or the wrong must have been committed by an agent
while in the performance of some duty within the scope of the author­
ity vested in him. The act of whipping the appellee contrary to his
will by the servants of appellant was an assault and battery, which



675

D E CISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

was unlawful, although it may have been done to afford amusement
for the participants. It is the duty of the master to use reasonable
care for the safety of a servant while engaged in the performance of
the master’s business. Here the appellant, it seems, was doing noth­
ing to protect appellee from harm, but, on the other hand, had for a
long time permitted the old employees to “ initiate” new employees
by laying them across a barrel and applying a paddle. This custom
had continued so long with the knowledge and acquiescence of the
management that it had become a rule of the establishment, and the
assault on appellee must be considered as having been authorized by
the appellant, and, the act being authorized by the corporation, it is
liable lor the damages sustained in its performance, though the dam­
age be greater than anticipated in undertaking the wrongful act.

E

m ployers’

m ent—

L

ia b il it y —

M easu re

of

D

R

a il r o a d

am ages—

Co m pan y— R

P r o s p e c t iv e E

u les—

E

a r n in g s —

nforce­

Schaufele

v . Central o f Georgia Railw ay Com pany, Court o f A ppeals o f Georgia ,
65 Southeastern Reporter, page 7 08 .— This case was before the court of

appeals on a writ of error from the city court of Savannah. Schaufele,
the plaintiff, was hurt while coupling cars in the employment of the
railway company and sued to recover damages for the injuries
received. In the first trial the jury awarded a verdict in his favor,
with damages of $6,500. This the judge set aside as being, in his
opinion, contrary to the evidence. A second trial resulted in an
award of damages to the amount of $10,000. The defendant company
then moved for a new trial, alleging the general grounds and six
special grounds. The court rejected all the reasons offered except the
sixth special one, which was a claim that the court had erred in charg­
ing the jury as follows: “ I have charged you that you must take
into consideration all of these contingencies relating to dullness in
business, increasing age, irregularity of employment, and such mat­
ters, in determining what his average earning capacity would be. I
charge you, on the other hand, that you shall also take into considera­
tion, and give it proper weight, any evidence, if you think there be
such, tending to show a reasonable prospect of increased earnings on
the part of your plaintiff.” The defendant company assigned as
error that there was no evidence to warrant a charge of this sort, and
the court granted a new trial on this ground. To this the plaintiff
excepted, while the defendant company filed a cross bill excepting
to the court’s refusal to grant a new trial on the other grounds,
assigning such refusal as error.
The action of the lower court in granting a new trial on the grounds
that it did was reversed by the court of appeals on the evidence sub­
mitted by the plaintiff to the effect that he was working at the time
of his injury in a position inferior to that which he had attained in
43431— No. 87— 10----- 20



676

B U L L E T IN

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previous employment in railway service and from which he had been
dismissed solely on account of the fact that “ work got slack,” and
that being a young man, with the experience which he had acquired,
it was reasonable to anticipate that his earnings would increase.
Judge Powell, who delivered the opinion of the court, held that there
was sufficient evidence to go before the jury on this point, citing the
case, Georgia Southern Railway Co. v. Wright, 130 Ga. 700, 61 S. E.
720, in which the court said: “ It does not require much evidence on
the subject [of prospects of increased earnings] to authorize a charge
of the character of the one here given; but it requires some.” On
the other exceptions the court below was upheld, and the judgment
was affirmed.
Schaufele was hurt by the unexpected moving of cars while he was
between them for the purpose of moving a defective coupling pin, the
cars, as he alleged, having been stationary when he went between
them. The cross bill of exceptions filed by the company brought up
the question whether the judge below had erred in rejecting other
grounds for a new trial than that on which he granted it. These
grounds involved the effect of the violation of a known and estab­
lished rule of the company on an injured employee’s right to recovery.
On this point Judge Powell said:
While he was testifying as a witness in his own behalf, the plaintiff
on cross-examination stated, in substance, that while the company, so
far as he knew, had no written rule on the subject, and while the com­
pany’s rule book was silent on the subject, he knew it was a rule of the
company for employees not to go in between cars while in motion to
couple or uncouple them; that in his own judgment it was not safe
to do so; and that it was his information that it was generally under­
stood among the employers that it was contrary to rules to go in
between cars in motion. On this subject the court charged the jury
that the existence of rules governing the conduct of employees may be
made to appear by showing that they were written or printed in the
rule book, or were orally promulgated, or were commonly and uni­
versally understood among the employees; that if it appeared in this
case that the company had a rule forbidding employees to go between
moving cars to uncouple them, it would be valid and binding irre­
spective of whether it was printed in a book, was orally promulgated,
or was commonly understood among the employees; that, if such a
rule existed and the plaintiff violated it by going in between the cars
to uncouple them, this would constitute negligence on his part, and
would preclude a recovery on his part if the violation caused or con­
tributed to his injury; that the question whether the conduct of going
between the moving cars to uncouple them was prudent or imprudent
would not address itself to the jury if they found there was a rule of
the company forbidding it. He further charged that, without refer­
ence to any rule on the subject, if the plaintiff chose an unsafe way to
do the work when there was a safe one, he could not recover, and sub­
mitted to the jury the question of the plaintiff’s negligence in going



DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

677

between the cars in motion (in the event they should find he went
between them while they were moving) without reference to any vio­
lation of rule being involved therein.
As to the existence of the rule, we do not think it was so clearly
proved as to leave no scope for a finding of fact by the jury. The
only proof as to it was in the plaintiffs own testimony. When all
he said on this subject is taken together, his language is fairly sus­
ceptible of two constructions, either of which the jury might have
adopted. His use of the w ord “ rule” created an ambiguity, the
solution of which was for the jury. The word “ rule,” as applied
to the conduct of employees, may mean either the definite promul­
gation or command or the employer, or it may refer to the practice
generally or universally pursued, by the employees themselves. It
was within the province of the jury to infer from the testimony of
the witness that the company had no rule in the sense of a formal
mandatory regulation on the subject, but that the general practice
of the employees was not to go between cars in motion; that, as a
general rule or custom, it was understood among the employees of the
company that it was improper to do the work m this manner. This
view is emphasized by the fact that the plaintiff explained that there
was no such rule in the rule book which the company issued for the
guidance of employees, and the defendant did not offer to show that
any such rule had ever been promulgated. Now, when the courts
refer to the rule of the master, the violation of which makes the ser­
vant ipso facto negligent, they refer not to the practice of the
employees nor to the methods adopted by other prudent men in such
cases, but to the explicit express promulgated command or instruc­
tion of the master giving directions as to how the employees shall
conduct themselves in the doing of the work. The master has the
right to say expressly to the servant, “ Do my work thus;” and if
the servant disobeys such a rule he becomes in a sense a mere volun­
teer and releases his right to claim indemnity from the master if he
is hurt as a result of the violation of the rule. A rule of conduct
practiced by the employees generally would tend to establish a
standard of prudence the violation of which might be negligence so
that a disregard of it would defeat a recovery, but it is not the legal
equivalent of the master’s express law and command. We do not think
that it would be competent to prove the existence of a formal rule by
testimony that the plaintiff had information that the employees
generally understood that the employer had such a rule. General
reputation or rumor is not the proper method of proving that fact.
There is a more direct way of showing it. General reputation or
rumor is a sort of agglomerate hearsay, but it is hearsay, nevertheless.
The court properly declined to instruct the jury, as a disputeless
proposition, that there was a rule of the master on the subject.
The remaining ground of the motion for a new trial is that the
court erred in not allowing the defendant to prove that it had a rule,
which the plaintiff had admittedly violated, by introducing a docu­
ment signed by him at the time when he had previously entered the
employment of the company as a yard conductor, containing the
following question and answer: “ Do you fully understand that the
rules of the company prohibit brakemen and others from going be­
tween cars or engines under any circumstances for the purpose of



678

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

coupling or uncoupling or for the adjustment of pins, etc., when an
engme is attached to such cars or train, and do you agree to be
bound by said rules and waive any liability of the company to you
for any results of disobedience or infraction thereof?— Answer. Yes.”
Without entering into a discussion of the other reasons argued as to
admissibility of this testimony, we uphold the action of the trial
court on the following grounds: “ The plaintiff, when he was injured,
was a switchman, and not a brakeman. The rule itself was not
introduced, unless the promulgation of the rule is to be implied from
the asking and answering of the question quoted. For present pur­
poses we will, however, consider the question as disclosing the sub­
stance of the rule. To examine the language and to make a mental
application of it to the exigencies of practical train service will dis­
close the fact that to give the language a liberal construction would
be to render it subject to attack for unreasonableness. For a rail­
road company to say by invariable rule that no employee is to go
between cars to make adjustments of pins or couplings under any
circumstances while an engine is attached would be to give a direction
so impracticable of execution as to warrant the belief that the master
had made the rule without any intention that it should be obeyed.
As the court said in the case or Strong v. Iowa It. Co., 94 Iowa 380,
62 N. W. 799: “ A rule which, if obeyed, would prevent the defendant
from properly carrying on its business does not commend itself to
the courts as being made in good faith and in furtherance of any
legitimate purpose.”
But rules are usually not to be construed liberally in favor of the
master, but strictly against him. The language before us does not
in express terms refer to switchmen or yard conductors. It says that
there is a rule forbidding “ brakemen and others” to go between the
cars while the engine is attached. What “ others” is not set forth.
Since exigencies are constantly arising when some one must go in
between the cars and ascertain the trouble, even when an engme is
attached, it is plain that the expression “ and others” can not be
reasonably construed to include all persons connected with the service.
It might be reasonable for the company to provide that this duty
should not be performed by the braxeman or by certain other em­
ployees, leaving it to be performed by employees likely to do the
work more prudently. It is true that this is a very strict interpre­
tation of the language, but its very nature and relation to the subjectmatter involved are such as to demand a very strict construction.
It appearing that the plantiff was not a brakeman, and it not appear­
ing that he was one of the others to whom the rule specifically referred,
the court did not err in refusing to give the statement in the docu­
ment offered evidentiary standing to the extent demanded by the
defendant. It may be explained just here that the court did admit
the writing for another purpose, but refused to allow its introduction
for the purpose of showing a violation of the alleged rule by the
plaintiff.
Considering the case as a whole, we have reached the conclusion
that a new trial should not have been granted on any of the grounds
assigned. The trial judge erred only in holding that he had erred.




679

D ECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

E

m ployers’

L ia b il it y — K

elease—

F raud— E

v id e n c e —

M ental

Tread­
w ay v . U nion-B uffalo M ills Co., Suprem e Court o f South Caro­
lina, 66 Southeastern Reporter, page 9 8 4 • Joseph Treadway was
—
Ca p a c it y

of

I n ju red

E m ployee— B

eturn

of

B

e n e f it s —

injured while in the employment of the company named on February
19, 1907, as a consequence of which he died about four months
afterward. On May 28, the company procured an alleged release in
the following form:
T h e Sta te

of

S o u t h C a r o l in a ,

County o f Union.

In consideration of the Union-Buffalo Mills paying my doctor’s
bill and nursing, and allowing me 90 cents per working day from
the 19th day o f February, 1907, to the 19th day of April, 1907, and
in further consideration of giving me $12, I hereby release the said
company from any loss, injury, or damage received by me through
the railing of the elevator in one of its mills on the 19th day of Feb­
ruary, 1907, the said amounts being in full satisfaction of all claims
or demands whatsoever that I have or may have against the said
company arising from the injuries received by me by the afore­
mentioned accident.
Witness my hand and seal this 28th day of February, 1907.
his

Joe

Witness:

X

T readw

ay,

[ s e a l .]

mark

S. S. L i n d e r .
J. W a l t e r S a n d e r s .

W.

L . L in d e r .

Dora E. Treadway sued as administratrix to recover damages for
the death of the injured employee, alleging negligence on the part of
the company in failing to equip and maintain safe and suitable
appliances, and also in failing to warn Treadway of the defective and
unsafe condition of the elevator, by reason of which his death was
caused. Tender of payment of the amounts known to have been
received by Treadway during his life and also of the undiscovered
amounts paid on account of doctor’ s bills, nursing, etc., was offered
by the administratrix, but was refused. It was also charged that
thsrelease was “ obtained by misrepresentation, fraud, concealment,
coercion, and duress at a time when the said Joseph Treadway was
unable to understand or know what he was doing.”
On the trial in the circuit court of common pleas of Union County,
damages in the amount of $4,000 were awarded the plaintiff and a
motion for a new trial refused. The company thereupon appealed,
offering as exceptions the admission of evidence showing the poverty
of Treadway and his family at the time the release was made, the
alleged improper refusal to direct the verdict for the defendant^ since




680

B U L L E T IN

OF T H E B U R E A U OF LABOR.

there was no evidence that Treadway was of unsound mind when he
executed the release, and the alleged failure of the plaintiff to tender
a return of the amounts paid prior to Treadway’s death.
Judge Jones, speaking for the court, took up these points in order,
deciding them each adversely to the contention of the defendant
company, and affirming the judgment of the court below. Omitting
the statement of the case by the court, the opinion is as follows:
Appellants’ first exception alleges error in admitting certain
specified testimony of several named witnesses tending to show the
poverty and necessitous condition of intestate and his family at the
time or the execution of the release. The contention is that such
testimony had no relevancy to any issue before the court. While
ordinarily such testimony is not admissible in actions like this, the
situation and circumstances of the releasor became relevant when an
issue arises, as in this case, as to whether the release was fairly
obtained. (Price v. Railroad Co., 38 S. C. 212, 17 S. E., 732.)
The second exception assigns error in not directing a verdict for
defendant upon the ground that there was no evidence that intestate
was mentally unsound at the time when he signed the release and
incompetent to make the contract. While the witnesses to the
release testified that the intestate was then mentally sound, an
examination of the testimony by the plaintiff and other witnesses
was such as to raise an issue for the jury on this point. Plaintiff,
who was wife of the intestate, while not present at the exact moment
of signing, was near in the house, testified that he was mentallv
unsound at the time of the signing, and other witnesses in her behalf
testified as to such unsoundness existing recently before and recently
after the signing.
Under the third exception, it is contended that a verdict should
have been directed for defendant because the plaintiff never tendered
to defendants the amount that intestate received under the release;
the testimony being that she tendered only $54, whereas the doctor’s
and druggist’s bills paid out by defendant amounted to $153 addi­
tional. The cases oi Levister v . Railway, 56 S. C. 508, 35 S. E. 207,
and Riggs v. Association, 61 S. C. 448, 39 S. E. 614, hold that, before
action for damages, there should be a tender back of the amount
received under the release. In this case there was a tender of all
amounts received, request for a statement of amount paid out under
the release, and assurance of readiness to return all such amounts
when statement was furnished. So far as appears, the first informa­
tion given plaintiff as to the amount of the bills of the doctor and
druggist was upon the trial. It would seem that plaintiff did all that
could be required, and defendant by not giving the necessary informa­
tion demanded is not in a position to avail itself of the objection that
such money was not refunded before suit.

I nterference
duct—

w it h

E

m ploym ent—

M o t iv e — R

eason able

Con­

HusTcie v. Griffin, Suprem e Court o f New H am pshire, 7 4 Atlan­

tic Reporter, page 5 9 5 .— Hector T. Huskie was an employee of Willard

H. Griffin and applied to the superintendent of the latter’s factory



DECISIO N S OF COURTS A F F E C T IN G LABOR.

681

for an increase of wages. He was told he could leave at any time if
he could better himself, and made some inquiries for other employ­
ment. One day a note reached him stating that he could get employ­
ment at the factory of one McElwain. He showed the note to Grif­
fons superintendent, who made no objection, but went to the office
and procured Huskie’s wages for him. After Huskie’s departure,
Griffin telephoned to McElwain’s superintendent, one Trull, with
reference to Huskie’s coming. Employment was not secured, and
Huskie sued Griffin for interfering with his free employment. Trull
was called as a witness, and testified in part as follows:
“ He telephoned and said there was a man from my factory came
up to his fa c to r y with a note and hired, or was about to hire, one of
his men, right m the middle of the day, and wanted to know if I
thought that was a nice thing to do. I said it was not, and that I
would not hire the man; and when I found out about it I told our
man not to hire him. Q. That is, you instructed your agent not to
hire him?— A. Yes, sir; but after that Griffin told me I could hire
him, but I told him I didn’t want him. Q. That was a little ironical,
wasn’t it, Mr. Trull?— A. Well, during the same conversation, right
afterward, he said, ‘ You can have him if you want him, you can hire
him.’ Q. And you understood that to be a little bit ironical, didn’t
you?— A. I didn’t understand anything about it. Q. Well, you
didn’t hire him, anyhow?— A. No, sir; I didn’t hire him.”
After the above conversation, Huskie arrived at the factory and
was refused employment, whereupon he returned to Griffin’s factory.
The latter complained because Huskie had received a note in the shop,
and refused to comply with a request preferred by Huskie that Griffin
telephone to Trull and adjust matters.
When the action was brought, the trial court nonsuited Huskie’s
claim, who excepted thereto, and the case was transferred to the
supreme court, where the exception was sustained, and Huskie was
held entitled to have his case go to the jury. The case was the first
of its kind to come before the supreme court of New Hampshire, and
Judge Peaslee, speaking for the court, discussed the principles of law
and their application to the case in hand in some detail. The opinion
is as follows:
The parties to this action do not agree as to what facts the evidence
tended to prove. The defendant argues that because he asked Trull
to retain the plaintiff as an employee therefore it can not be found
that the defendant sought to cause the plaintiff’s discharge by Trull.
The plaintiff’s claim is that the request to retain him might be found
to be a mere cover, well understood by both parties to the conversa­
tion. His claim is well founded. A jury might believe that the com­
plaint made by the defendant to Trull was false, and that the defend­
ant, after he had encouraged the plaintiff to seek employment else­
where, maliciously caused the plaintiff’s discharge from such new
employment. The plaintiff’s engagement was not for any certain
period. Trull might lawfully discharge him at any time. It there­



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fore follows that cases involving recovery for procuring the breach of
a binding executory contract (Bixby v . Dunlap, 56
H. 456, 22
Am. Rep. 475; South Wales Miners’ Fed. v . Glamorgan Coal Co.
[1905], A. C. 239) are not in point here. The issue presented is that
of the existence and extent of what has come to be known as the
right to an ‘ 4
open market.” How far one may lawfully interfere to
prevent the making of contracts between third parties is a problem
which has been much discussed in other jurisdictions. It is new in
this State. Three phases of it are presented by the case at bar: (1)
When the interference is by fraud; (2) when it is without fraud or
force (actually applied or reasonably apprehended), but prompted
by a motive to injure the aggrieved party; (3) when it is unaccom­
panied by what are ordinarily considered illegal acts or motives, and
is induced solely by a desire of the defendant to promote his own
welfare.
1. It is well established that the inherent right of every man to
freely deal, or refuse to deal, with his fellow-men is not to be destroyed
or abridged by acts involving the elements of the common-law action
for -deceit. This is not denied. On this branch of the case the
defendant relies upon the proposition that the facts are not made out.
He concedes, as he plainly must concede, that the law is in favor of
the plaintiff’ s position, provided only that there is evidence to sup­
port the several necessary findings. As before stated, there was
evidence in this case which, if believed by the jury, would lead to the
conclusion that the defendant was guilty of fraud. It could be found
that the plaintiff quit the defendant’s employ in an honorable man­
ner; that the defendant, with knowledge or the facts, represented
that the plaintiff’s departure was dishonorable; that this was done
with the mtent to cause the new employer to act to the plaintiff’s
damage^ and that such damaging action resulted from this cause.
The plaintiff was entitled to go to the jury upon the issue of fraud.
2. Whether motive (when falsehood is absent) is a material element
in these cases is a question upon which the authorities are not so fully
agreed. That it is material, and that where malice, or a purpose to
do the plaintiff injury, is the moving force to the commission of the
act, a recovery may be had is the rule in many jurisdictions. (Plant
v. Woods, 176 Mass. 492, 57 N. E. 1011, 51 L. It. A. 339, 79 Am. St.
Rep. 330 [Bulletin No. 31, p. 1294]; Van Horn v. Van Horn, 56 N. J.
Law 318, 28 Atl. 669; Doremus v. Hennessy, 176 111. 608, 52 N. E.
924, 54 N. E. 524, 43 L. R. A. 797, 802, 68 Am. St. Rep. 203 [Bulletin
No. 22, p. 463]; Ertz v. Produce Exchange, 79 Minn. 140, 81 N. W.
737, 48 L. R. A. 90, 79 Am. St. Rep. 433; Bowen y. Hall, 6 Q. B. Div.
333.) The rule is well stated in a recent case in California: “ Any
injury to a lawful business, whether the result of a conspiracy or not,
is prima facie actionable, but may be defended upon the ground that
it was merely the result of a lawful effort of the defendants to promote
their own welfare. To defeat this plea of justification, the plaintiff
may offer evidence that the acts of the defendants were inspired by
express malice, and were done for the purpose of injuring the plaintiff,
and not to benefit themselves. The principle is the same which
permits proof of express malice to defeat the plea of privilege in libel,
or the defense of probable cause in actions for malicious prosecution
or false imprisonment.” (J. F. Parkinson Co. v. Trades Council, 154
Cal. 581, 98 Pac. 1027, 21 L. R. A. (N. S.) 550 [Bulletin No. 81, p.



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683

438].) The opposite view is taken by high authority. (Macauley v.
Tierney, 19 R. 1. 255, 33 Atl. 1, 37 L. R. A. 455, 61 Am. St. Rep. 770;
Bohn Mfg. Co. v. Hollis, 54 Minn. 223, 55 N. W. 1119, 21 L. R. A.
337, 40 Am. St. Rep. 319; Judge Jeremiah Smith in 20 Harv. Law
Rev. 451, et seq.)
For the reason above indicated, and others which will be given in
the discussion of the next issue in this case, it is held that a statement
of the truth, made for the sole purpose of damaging the plaintiff b y
causing a third party to refuse to further deal with the plaintiff, is
actionable if damage ensues.^ The state of mind of an offending
person may be proved in various ways. It may appear that there
was no good reason for doing the act. In that case, malice may be
inferred from the proved absence of other motive for the act done.
In case there be a sufficient justifiable motive, it may still be proved
that in fact malice was the moving force. In either case the question
is one of fact. ^ There was in the case at bar sufficient evidence to
support a finding that the defendant did what he did for the sole
purpose of depriving the plaintiff of the benefit of a contract for
employment. The question is not what the defendant now says his
purpose was. It is not even what he said his purpose was at the
time he made the complaint to Trull. Nor is his motive necessarily
to be found in a literal application of the words he used. The con­
versation as testified to was susceptible of more than one interpre­
tation. It may have meant that the defendant intended to cause the
plaintiff to be discharged as a matter of small revenge, and while the
defendant was formally protesting against the act he had intentionally
and maliciously caused. It is not, as the defendant claims, a case
of guessing. It is one of interpreting the acts and words disclosed
by the evidence in the case. Upon this issue the case should have
been submitted to the jury, under instructions that if they found the
act was done solely for the purpose of injuring the plaintiff he was
entitled to recover. If the damage was done “ for its own sake,”
liability would be made out. (Vegelahn v. Guntner, 167 Mass. 92,
44 N. E. 1077, 35 L. R. A. 722, 57 Am. St. Rep. 443, dis. op. of
Holmes, J. [Bulletin No. 9, p. 197].)
3.
Beyond the issues of fraud and malicious injury lies one which
has caused much of perplexity and conflicting adjudication. How
far advantage may or may not lawfully be gained by appeal, persua­
sion, or threat of loss of future favor— whether those not involved in
the initial contest may be dragged into it by these and kindred means—
are questions which courts, jurists, and publicists have not found it
easy to answer. Between the early view that a peaceful strike for
higher wages was inherently wicked (King v. Journeymen Tailors of
Cambridge, 8 Mod. 11; In re Journeymen Cordwainers, Yates, Sel.
Cas. I l l , 277) and the theory that all honest and peaceful means are
permissible (dis. op. Vegelahn v. Guntner, supra), there is room for
every shade of opinion. “ It will be seen that in the different courts
there is considerable variety and some conflict of opinion.” (Berry v.
Donovan, 188 Mass. 353, 74 N. E. 603, 5 L. R. A. (N. S.) 899, 108
Am. St. Rep. 499 [Bulletin No. 60, p. 702].) Cases where the act
complained of was committed by one person alone are comparatively
rare, the plain reason being that peaceful and truthful persuasion, or
promise of future favor, by a single individual is not likely to pro­
duce results of a character so grave as to induce the injured party to



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seek redress through the courts. But when the act is that of many
persons, the result has not infrequently been to drive the injured
party out of business or deprive him of an opportunity to labor at
his chosen calling. In many cases it has been decided that the
common law governing criminal conspiracies offered a sufficient
ground for holding the offenders liable civilly. (Lohse Patent Door
Co. v. Fuelle, 215 Mo. 421, 114 S. W. 997 [Bulletin No. 81, p. 434],
and authorities there reviewed.) It was soon perceived, however,
that the argument was unsound; and the theory that acts which
might lawfully be done by one or any number of persons, acting
singly, were unlawful when done by several acting by a concerted
plan was abandoned in most jurisdictions. (Boutwell v. Marr, 71 Vt.
1, 42 Atl. 607, 43 L. It. A. 803, 76 Am. St. Rep. 746 [Bulletin No. 39,
p. 501]; Toledo, etc., Ry. v. Company (C. C.) 54 Fed. 730,19 L. R. A.
387.)
Another ground taken was that there is in the concerted action of
the many a coercive element which should be placed on a par with the
use of force, or with the undue influence sometimes exercised over
Tsons not fully capable of protecting themselves. (Boutwell v.
arr, supra; Plant v. W oods [supra]; Curran v . Galen, 152 N. Y . 33,
46 N. E. 297, 37 L. R. A. 802, 57 Am. St. Rep. 496 [Bulletin No. 11,
p. 529]; Bohn Mfg. Co. v. Hollis [supra]; Casey v. Union (C. C.) 45
Fed. 135, 12 L. R. A. 193.) The reasoning by which this view has
been supported not infrequently suggests the true solution of the
difficulty. The conclusion has been reached by deciding what was
or was not reasonable conduct under the circumstances of the case.
The more recent authorities reason that, as the right to deal or not to
deal with others is inherent in the idea of Anglo-Saxon liberty, prima
facie a man can demand an open market; and, since this is so, one who
interferes with this free market must justify his acts or respond in dam­
ages. Thus far these authorities are uniform; but when they pro­
ceed to the determination of what amounts to a justification, they
differ widely. The cause is not far to seek. The rule which they
apply is that of reasonable conduct, yet they discuss and decide
each case as though it involved only a question of law. In reality,
the issue is largely one of fact, and the result is what would be
expected. Judges are men, and their decisions upon complex facts
must vary as those of juries might on the same facts. Calling one
determination an opinion and the other a verdict does not alter
human nature, nor make that uniform and certain which from its
nature must remain variable and uncertain. While these cases go
too far in what they decide as questions of law, yet the test they con­
stantly declare they are applying is the true one. The standard is
reasonable conduct under all the circumstances of the case. (Berry
v. Donovan [supra]; Macauley v. Tierney [supra]; Doremus v. Hennessy [supra].) “ What is the measure or test by which the conduct
of a combination of persons must be judged in order to determine
whether or not it is an unlawful interference with freedom of employ­
ment in the labor market, and as such injurious to an employer of
labor in respect of his *probable expectancies/ has not as yet been
clearly defined. Perhaps no better definition could be suggested
than that which may be framed by conveniently using that important
legal fictitious person who has taken such a large part in the develop­
ment of our law during the last fifty years— the reasonably prudent,

S




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685

reasonably courageous, and not unreasonably sensitive man. Pre­
cisely this same standard is employed throughout the law of nuisance
in determining what degree of annoyance * * * one must sub­
mit to.” (Jersey City Printing Co. v. Cassidy, 63 N. J. Eq. 759, 766,
53 Atl. 230, 233 [Bulletin No. 45, p. 383].) Occasionally courts have
recognized in a degree the principle that the question should be treated
as one of fact. “ The judge rightly left to the jury the question
whether, in view of all the circumstances, the interference was or was
not for a justifiable cause. If the plaintiff’s habits, or conduct, or
character nad been such as to render him an unfit associate in the
shop for ordinary workmen of good character, that would have been
a sufficient reason for interference in behalf of his shopmates. We
can conceive of other good reasons. But the evidence tended to
show that the only reason for procuring his discharge was his refusal
to join the union. The question, therefore, is whether the jury
might find that such an interference was unlawful.” (Berry v. Dono­
van [supra].)
There is no such difficulty in dealing with the question here as has
been met with elsewhere, and it is not necessary to attempt to recon­
cile the conflict which has resulted from the application of a view
which does not obtain in this jurisdiction. In this State the question
of reasonable conduct, whether in relation to tangible property or to
intangible rights, is one of fact. (Ladd v. Brick Co., 68 N. H. 185,
37 Atl. 1041, and cases cited.) ^ But while the question to be settled
is within the province of the jury, there are still legal propositions
involved in the case. It must be determined whether there is any­
thing for the jury to weigh— whether the evidence is not conclusive
one way or the other upon the issue of reasonable conduct.
At the present time no one would think of submitting to a jury the
question whether a peaceful strike for higher wages was reasonable.
They would be told, as matter of law, that such action was within the
laborers’ rights. So there may be conduct which is clearly unrea­
sonable, or not justifiable. An illustration of such conduct is pre­
sented by the second ground for recovery in this case. One may not
interfere with his neighbor’s open market or “ reasonable expec­
tancies” solely for the purpose of doing harm. It has been said, how­
ever, in several cases that a wrongful motive can not convert a legal
act into an illegal one, and many judges have thought this was the end
of the law upon the question. They seem to proceed upon a theory of
absolute right in the defendant, which is at variance with the holding
in many o f the same cases, that the defendant may be called upon to
justify his conduct. Indeed, the authorities are practically unani­
mous to the effect that the defendant is liable unless he shows a
justification. If this is true, it follows as matter of course that his
right is not absolute. It is a qualified one, and the rightfulness of its
exercise depends upon all those elements which go to make up a cause
for human action. The reasonableness of the act can not always be
satisfactorily determined until something is known of the state of the
actor’s mind. The “ justification may be found sometimes in the
circumstances under which it is done, irrespective of motive, some­
times in the motive alone, and sometimes in the circumstances and
motive combined.” (Plant v. Woods [supra].)
Since the defendant is called upon to justify— to show reasonable
cause for the interference with nis neighbor’s right— it seems to



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clearly follow that, where his only reason is his malicious wish to
injure the plaintiff, he has no justification. It is a contradiction in
terms to say that a desire to do harm for the harm’ s sake can be called
a just motive. In a late case in this State it is said of the use of
property that “ it can not be iustly contended that a purely malicious
use is a reasonable use. The question of reasonableness depends
upon all the circumstances— the advantage and profit to one of the
uses attacked, and the unavoidable injury to the other. Where the
only advantage to one is the pleasure of injuring another, there
remains no foundation upon which it can be determined that the
disturbance of the other in the lawful enjoyment of his estate is
reasonable or necessary.” (Horan v. Byrnes, 72 N. H. 93, 100, 54
Atl. 945, 948, 62 L. R. A. 602, 101 Am. St. Rep. 670.) The same
reason applies here. If the evidence had been conclusive that the
act was done solely from a malicious motive a verdict would have
been directed for the plaintiff. It is not improbable that there are
other plain cases— cases where there is nothing for the jury to pass
upon. The third issue in this case does not come within that class.
It can not be said that all reasonable men would conclude that every
reasonable man would or would not do what the defendant did, even
though he acted honestly and from a proper motive. If any one
doubts this assertion, he has but to read the cases where this and
kindred questions have been discussed and decided as those of law.
(Vegelahn v. Guntner [supra]; Berry v. Donovan [supra], and cases
there cited; L. D. Willcutt & Sons Co. v. Driscoll, 200 Mass. 110, 85
N. E. 897 [Bulletin No. 80, p. 180]; National Protective Ass’n v.
Cumming, 170 N. Y . 315, 68 N. E. 369, 58 L. R. A. 135, 88 Am. St.
Rep. 648 [Bulletin No. 42, p. 1118]; Jacobs'^. Cohen, 183 N. Y . 207,
76 N. E. 5, 2 L. R. A. (N. S.) 292, 111 Am. St. Rep. 730 [Bulletin
No. 64, p. 896]; Wilson v. Hey, 232 111. 389, 83 N. E. 928, 16 L. R. A.
(N. S.) 85, 122 Am. St. Rep. 119; Barnes v. Union, 232 111. 424, 83
N. E. 940, 14 L. R. A. (N. S.) 1018 [Bulletin No. 76, p. 1016].)
When eminent judges come to opposite conclusions upon a question,
it can hardly be said that the jurors might not reasonably do the
same.
The plaintiff was entitled to go to the jury upon all three grounds
which have been considered: (1) Fraud, (2) malicious injury, and (3)
unreasonable interference with the open market. Whether section 12,
c. 266, Pub. St., affords a basis for a claim of greater right in the
plaintiff is a question which has not been argued and is not con­
sidered.
Exception sustained. All concurred.

L abor
e n c e w it h

O r g a n iz a t io n s — I n j u n c t io n — D
Con tracts

of

E

m ploym ent—

is s o l u t io n —

Interfer­

HitcTiman Coal Company v.

Mitchell et al., United States Circuit Court, Northern District o f West Vir­
ginia, 172 Federal Reporter, page 9 6 3 .— An inj unction had been granted in

October, 1907, against John Mitchell and others, officers of the United
Mine Workers of America and of subordinate organizations belonging
thereto, to prevent their interference with the business of the com­
plainant company. Mitchell and his associates moved to procure a



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687

modification of the preliminary injunction in so far as said injunction
restrains said defendants, or any of them, from the use of argument,
reason, and persuasion, to induce the employees of the plaintiffs, or
any of them, to become members of the United Mine Workers of
America or any of its subordinate branches; in so far as it restrains
them from interfering or talking to any person or persons in the em­
ployment of the plaintiff, or about to enter the employment of the
plaintiff, for the purpose of inducing such persons to become members
of the United Mine Workers of America or any of its subordinate
branches, in a peaceable and law-abiding manner, and unaccom­
panied by intimidation, force, fraud, violence, or coercion; also in
so far as it restrains defendants from visiting the homes of plaintiff’ s
employees for the purpose of inducing them by reason, persuasion,
and argument, unaccompanied by force, fraud, intimidation, violence,
or coercion, to become members of the United Mine Workers of
America or any of its subordinate branches; in so far as it restrains
defendants from going near the premises of plaintiff for the purpose
of talking with or inducing the employees of plaintiff to become
members of the United Mine Workers of America; in so far as it
restrains from unionizing or attempting to unionize plaintiff’s mine,
if by “ unionizing” is meant action on the part of defendants to induce
the employees of plaintiff to become members of the Uni