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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR.

BULLETIN

BUREAU OF LABOR.




No. 65-JULY, 1906.
ISSUED EVERY OTHER MONTH.

WASHINGTON:
G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O FF IC E .

1906.




CONTENTS.
Page.
Wages and hours of labor in manufacturing industries, 1890 to 1905.......................
1-170
Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1905..................................................................................... 171-316
Digest of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics:
Pennsylvania.................................................................................................................... 317-321
Rhode Island.................................................................................................................... 321, 322
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications............................................................... 323-333
Decisions o f courts affecting labor.................................................................................... 334-349
Laws of various States relating to labor, enacted since January 1, 1904.................. 350-364
Cumulative index of labor laws and decisions relating thereto................................... 365-368




m




B U L L E T IN
OF THE

BUREAU
No. 65.

OF L A B O R .

WASHINGTON.

Ju

ly

,

1906.

WAGES AND HOURS 0E LABOR IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES,
1890 TO 1905.

The present article shows the results of an investigation by the
Bureau of Labor into wages and hours of labor in 1905 in the prin­
cipal manufacturing and mechanical industries of the United States.
The article immediately following in this Bulletin shows the results
of an inquiry as to the retail prices of the principal food commodi­
ties in the same year. These investigations constitute the third of a
series relating to these subjects. The results of the first investigation
of wages and hours of labor were presented in the Nineteenth Annual
Report, and covered the years 1890 to 1903. The results of the
second were shown in Bulletin 59, and covered the year 1904.
In this article are given the average wages and hours of labor and
the number of employees in identical establishments in both 1904
and 1905, which, taken in connection with figures from the Nine­
teenth Annual Report and Bulletin 59, herein reproduced, afford an
opportunity to bring into comparison all years in the period from
1890 to 1905, inclusive. The data presented here, as ^ell as in the
preceding reports of the series, are not exhaustive for the United
States, but it is believed that they are fairly representative of the
industries investigated.
The results of this investigation show that in 1905 the average
wages per hour in the principal manufacturing and mechanical
industries of the country were 1.6 per cent higher than in 1904; that
the average hours of labor per week remained the same as in 1904,
and that 6.3 per cent more persons were employed in the establish­
ments investigated. (a) As there was no reduction in the average hours
of labor per week, the average weekly earnings per employee were
aA n explanation of these figures is given on pages 14 to 16.




1

2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1.6 per cent higher than in 1904. As there was an increase in the num­
ber of employees as well as in the weekly earnings per employee, there
was a considerable increase in the weekly earnings of all employees,
or, in other words, in the amount of the weekly pay roll. This
increase was 8 per cent in the establishments investigated.
When the figures of this article relating to wages and hours of
labor and those of the succeeding article relating to retail prices of
food are brought together, it is seen that the retail prices of food,
due weight being given to the quantity and cost of the different com­
modities consumed, were 0.6 per cent higher in 1905 than in 1904.
As the average wages per hour increased more than the rfetail prices
of food, the purchasing power of wages increased. In 1905 the pur­
chasing power of both hourly and weekly wages was 1 per cent
higher than in 1904; or, expressed in other words, an hour’s wages
in 1905 would purchase 1 per cent more food than an hour’s wages
in 1904.
The average wages per hour in 1905 were 18.9 per cent higher
than the average for the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899, inclu­
sive. The number of employees was 33.6 per cent greater, and
the average hours of labor per week were 4.1 per cent lower. The
average earnings per week in 1905 were 14 per cent higher than
the average earnings per week during the ten years from 1890 to
1899. The aggregate weekly earnings of all employees, that is, the
total amount of the pay rolls, were 52.3 per cent higher in 1905 than
the average during the ten-year period named.
The retail price of the principal articles of food, weighted according
to family consumption of the various articles, was 12.4 per cent
higher in 1905 than was the average price for the ten years from
1890 to 1899. Compared with the average for the same ten-year
period, the purchasing power of an hour’s wages in 1905 was 5.8
per cent greater, and of a week’s wages, 1.4 per cent greater, the
increase in purchasing power of weekly wages being less than the
increase in purchasing power of hourly wages because of the reduc­
tion of the hours of labor during the period.
The average wages per hour in 1905 were 21.5 per cent higher
than in 1894, the year of lowest wages during the period covered, and
weekly earnings were 16.7 per cent higher. The purchasing power
of an hour’s wages was greater in 1905 than in any other year covered
by this investigation, being 7.7 per cent greater than in 1894, the
year of lowest wages, and 1.3 per cent greater than in 1896, the
year of lowest retail prices. The purchasing power of a week’s
wages in 1905 was 3.5 per cent greater than in 1894, but 2.7 per cent
less than in 1896.
The figures above quoted, with those for other years, are presented
in the tables on pages 14,18,20, and 21. These tables show in concise



3

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

form the general conclusions of the series of reports named relating
to wages and hours of labor. The tables are accompanied by a full
explanation of the data presented therein.
The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease
in wages per hour and in hours of labor per week in 1905 as com­
pared with 1904 in the several industries covered by this report:
PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN WAGES PER HOUR AND IN HOURS OF
LABOR PER W EEK IN 1905 AS COMPARED WITH 1904, BY INDUSTRIES.
Wages per hour.
Industry.

Hours per week.

Per cent Per cent Per cent Per cent
of
of
of
of
increase. decrease. increase. decrease.

Agricultural implements__:.....................................................
Bakery, bread .T.......................................................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing..............................................
Boots and shoes....................... 7...............................................
Brick...........................................................................................
Building trades..........................................................................
Candy.........................................................................................
Carpets.......................................................................................
Carriages and wagons...............................................................
Cars, steam railroad..................................................................
Clothing, factory product.........................................................
Clothing, men’s, custom work..................................................
Cotton goods..............................................................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles...................................
Electrical apparatus and supplies............................................
Flour..........................................................................................
Foundry and machine shop......................................................
Furniture..................................................................................
Gas.............................................................................................
Glass...........................................................................................
Harness......................................................................................
Hats, fur....................................................................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............................................................
Iron and steel, bar.....................................................................
Iron and steel, Bessemer converting........................................
Iron and steel, blast furnace.....................................................
Leather.......................................................................................
Liquors, m alt.............................................................................
Lumber......................................................................................
Marble and stone work.............................................................
Paper and wood pulp................................................................
Planing m ill...............................................................................
P ottery.......................................................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job ....................................
Printing and publishing, newspaper........................................
Shipbuilding...............................................................................
Silk goods...................................... ...........................................
Slaughtering and meat packing................................................
Streets and sewers, contract work...........................................
Streets and sewers, municipal work.........................................
Tobacco, cigars..........................................................................
Woolen ana worsted goods.......................................................
All industries....................................................................

1.6
2.0
1.2
1.1
.9
1.9
1.9
3.3
2.5
1.1
2.6
4.8
.4
.5
.1
1.8
.2
5.7
.5
3.0
6.4
1.0
7.5
2.7
.1
1.8
3.0
.3
.1
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.8
.7
2.6
1.6
1.6
1.6

0.2
1.2
.3
.1

0.2

.1
.2

.1
1.1

(a)
(a)
(a)
} .2

.4

(a)
(a)
(a)

1.4
.6

.1

.3
.2
(a)

(a)

(a)
' .2
.1
1.0
.4

(<*)

(a)

(a)

.2

.1
1.9

.4

.5
.4
.1

1.0

.2
.4
.2
.3

.7
.4
(a)

.2
.1

.4
.2

.2
.6
.6

(a)

a No change.

The average wages and hours of labor are shown in Table I for
each occupation and industry investigated, by geographical divisions.
In Table IV average wages and hours of labor are shown for selected
occupations by cities, and in Table Y for selected occupations by
States. In these tables may be seen the average of the actual rates
paid and hours worked in 1904 and 1905, and for such information
the reader is referred directly to the tables. Table II shows by
percentages the relative wages and hours of labor from 1890 to




4

BULLETIK OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

1905, by occupations, while Table III summarizes such facts for the
respective industries covered. Tables II and III are fully explained,
pages 10 and 13, and with the explanation there given the move­
ment in wages and hours of labor in the several industries and occupa­
tions given can be readily traced.
That the reader may know the scope of this investigation and the
methods pursued therein an extended explanation is given. In tak­
ing up the investigation of rates of wages and hours of labor the design
was to cover thoroughly the principal distinctive occupations in the
leading manufacturing and mechanical industries in the United States
with a view to securing data that would be representative of condi­
tions and show the trend of wages and hours of labor. The office
and field force available for the prosecution of the work did not
admit of the extension of the investigation to cover transportation,
mining, agriculture; and the other great industrial groups. The
work of securing data being so great, it was also deemed advisable
to attempt to cover only those industries in which the wages paid
in the United States in one year were $10,000,000 or over as
shown by the census of 1900.
The data presented in this article were secured in all cases by per­
sonal visits of special agents of the Bureau to the several establish­
ments represented, and have been taken directly from the pay rolls
and other records in existence and available for reference. In secur­
ing the data for 1905 for this Bulletin a few of the smaller establish­
ments carried in Bulletin 59 were dropped and quite a number of
important establishments added in order to secure as good a repre­
sentation for the several industries as was obtainable.
An examination of Table I shows that all occupations usually per­
taining to the various industries are not covered. As has been
mentioned, this is in accordance with the plan adopted of securing
data for only the important and distinctive occupations which are
considered representative of each industry. This plan resulted in
a great saving of time in the collection of the data, without mate­
rially affecting their representative character. Data concerning all
occupations engaged in each industry would be desirable, but the
work necessarily has been restricted. In outlining this investiga­
tion it was recognized that a comparison of wages and hours of
labor for one year with those for another year could not be made
for establishments as a whole, owing to the changes that so often
take place in the relative number of persons employed in the sev­
eral skilled and unskilled occupations engaged therein, and that
comparisons, therefore, must be made within the limits of the occu­
pation. All occupations pertaining to an industry are not always to
be found in a single establishment; for this reason the number of
establishments for which data are reported is not the same for each



5

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905<

occupation in an industry. The following table shows the industries
covered in this article, the number of different occupations covered
for each industry, the number of establishments in each industry
from which data were secured, and the number of employees in each
industry covered by the data secured.
INDUSTRIES, NUMBER OF OCCUPATIONS, AND NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS
FROM WHICH REPORTS WERE SECURED, AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES COVERED,
1904 AND 1905.

Industry.

Number
Number of estabof occu­
1{0V
jishpations. ments.

Number of
employees.
1904.

1905.

Agricultural implements...........................................................
Bakery, bread.?........................................................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing..............................................
Boots and shoes.........................................................................
Brick...........................................................................................
Building trades..........................................................................
Candy .7 ......................................................................................
Carpets.......................................................................................
Carriages and wagons...............................................................
Cars, steam railroad..................................................................
Clothing, factory product.........................................................
Clothing, men's, custom work..................................................
Cotton goods..............................................................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles...................................
Electrical apparatus and supplies............................................
Flour..........................................................................................
Foundry and machine shop......................................................
Furniture...................................................................................
Gas......................... ...................................................................
Glass...........................................................................................
Harness......................................................................................
Hats, fur....................................................................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............................................................
Iron and steel, bar.....................................................................
Iron and steel, Bessemer converting........................................
Iron and eteel, blast furnace.....................................................
Leather.......................................................................................
Liquors, m alt.............................................................................
Lumber.......................................................................................
Marble and stone work.............................................................
Paper and wood pulp................................................................
Planing m ill...............................................................................
Pottery.......................................................................................
Printing and publishing, book and job....................................
Printing and publishing, newspaper........................................
Shipbuilding...............................................................................
Silk goods...................................................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing................................................
Streets and sewers, contract work...........................................
Streets and sewers, municipal work.........................................
Tobacco, cigars..........................................................................
Woolen ana worsted goods.......................................................

8
4
5
10
5
19
2
8
8
17
7
4
6
6
5
5
10
8
3
14
6
14
7
6
6
5
10
8
12
12
16
9
8
10
4
17
12
15
1
1
7
9

23
147
164
52
50
1,497
37
8
71
46
33
116
30
18
8
46
268
63
61
27
54
16
22
25
16
23
58
53
69
202
30
113
7
177
151
40
18
12
121
70
52
27

5,809
2,223
704
4,865
2,208
39,228
1,586
2,240
4,021
27,256
4,625
1,397
15,115
1,246
1,839
3,156
22,193
4,257
7,092
3,231
1,751
4,055
3,424
880
287
920
4,459
7,034
8,927
4,743
4,540
6,276
357
6,476
5,289
14,360
6,901
11,965
13,100
18,750
9,710
6,592

6,673
2,324
713
5,159
2,191
40,930
1,671
2,203
4,094
32,083
5,052
1,436
14,996
1,385
2,512
3,347
24,798
4,503
7,447
3,228
1,769
4,320
4,028
914
291
955
4,690
7,152
9,633
4,625
4,622
6,609
359
6,799
5,651
15,181
7,569
12,029
12,729
20,470
10,093
6,776

Total.................................................................................

349

4,121

295,087

314,009

From the above table it is seen that from 4,121 establishments
in the 42 industries, data were secured covering 349 occupations and
295,087 employees in 1904 and 314,009 employees in 1905. In 37
of the 349 occupations data were secured and are shown for both
males and females.
The work of almost every establishment fluctuates during the year
according to the demands of trade. This fluctuation affects the
number of employees and, to a less extent, the wages and hours of
labor. It was not possible for the force of the Bureau to secure
data from the pay rolls of each establishment for an entire year so




6

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

that the true average for the year might be computed; the only
thing practicable was to secure data from each establishment for
that period of the year which most nearly represented the normal
condition of the establishment during the year.
Employees are either time workers or piece workers. Time workers
are persons paid by the hour, day, week, month, or year. The
method of their payment is readily understood, and securing a state­
ment of their wages is comparatively easy. The rate per piece paid
to piece workers would convey but little information to the general
reader, as all conditions under which the work is performed must be
considered in connection with the piece rate. For this reason piece
rates are not shown, but instead are shown earnings in a definite
period of time. Data for piece workers were secured from those
establishments only in which a record was kept of time worked or
where, the time worked to earn the wages paid could be determined
approximately.
A peculiar condition is sometimes found in the work of piece
workers. The speed of a piece worker is regulated to a great extent
by the amount of work before him. If work is pressing, his speed
is high and his earnings are at their maximum. If work is slack, he
is inclined to reduce his speed, and thus his- earnings per hour are
reduced, although no change has been made in his piece rate. In
taking data from the several establishments care was exercised, as
has been stated, to copy figures from the pay roll that most nearly
represented the average or normal conditions for the year.
All wages have been reduced to earnings per hour, in order that
the data may be thoroughly and fairly comparable. The working
day is an uncertain unit, as the time actually worked may be long
or short—eight hours, nine hours, ten hours, etc.—and the week,
month, or year is a still more indefinite unit of time. Hence all
wages, however shown on the pay rolls, have been reduced to the
one definite standard—the rate per hour. The average wages per
hour shown are true averages—that is, the individual rates of wages
per hour of the several employees are added and the total divided
by the number of employees.
A statement of rates of wages is incomplete without an accom­
panying statement as to hours of labor, as both factors must be
known to determine the earnings on full time per week, month, or
year. The average hours of labor are given in this report in con­
nection with the average rates of wages. The average hours of labor
shown are true averages, computed in the same manner as the average
wages per hour.
In order to meet every possible demand that might be made upon
a statistical publication it would be necessary first to present all




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

7

data in minute detail and then summarize in as many ways as prac­
ticable. An ideal report on wages would show the data for each
individual employee, followed by a summarization showing the true
average rate, the median rate, the quartile and decile rates, the
maximum and the minimum rates, the predominant rates, etc.
Space, however, does not permit the publication in detail of the
great mass of data on which this report is based nor all the sum­
maries that with propriety might be made. The true average rate
of wages of itself is not a full and complete summary of a series of
rates, but it is believed that no other single expression or group
of expressions is as comprehensive and as satisfactory for purposes
of comparison as the true average rate when used within its proper
sphere and based on accurate data.
An average rate of wages is almost meaningless unless limited to
an occupation. For example, a statement that the average wages
of employees in a shoe factory is a certain number of cents per hour
means but little, as it includes both sexes and many occupations
with their varying degrees of skill, but a statement that the average
wages of male upper cutters in shoe factories were 27.95 cents per
hour in 1905 conveys a definite idea. Since all data presented in
this report are for well-defined occupations, it is believed that the
average rate is properly used in this respect.
The average rate of wages does not always express the facts fully
as to the individual employees, for a change in the proportionate
number of employees at different rates will make a change in the
average, although no individual person in employment has had a
change made in his rate of wages. The average rate, however, does
represent the occupation as a whole.
Another objection to the use of the true average rate is that it is
always affected, and sometimes quite materially, by the improper
inclusion or exclusion of certain rates, especially if such rates fall at
either extreme of the series of rates. It is sometimes a matter of
judgment whether or not some particular employee shall be classed
within an occupation, and especially is this true in a nonunion shop,
where the line of demarcation between the helper and the journeyman
often is not clear. The inclusion or exclusion of an extremely high
or low rate must always affect, to some extent, the true average rate,
while in a majority of cases it would not affect the median or the
predominant rate. With all of the details given, the careful reader
might accept certain rates with allowance or might possibly detect
an error. Inasmuch, however, as all of the field work for this report
was done by experienced agents of the Bureau, it is believed that
few errors exist in such work and that a true average may properly
and safely be made of the data gathered.




8

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

In preparing to secure data for 1905 copies were made of the
data for 1904. These copies were placed in the hands of the special
agents of"the Bureau, who visited the establishments and secured
1905 data, and whenever any doubt arose verified or, if necessary,
revised the data for 1904. As heretofore stated, the agents were
also instructed to secure data from a number of additional estab­
lishments, in order to secure a better representation for the several
industries and localities covered. Where data were obtained from
additional establishments, figures were taken for both 1904 and 1905.
All data for the two years, 1904 and 1905, shown in this article,
therefore, are from the same establishments, and may properly be
compared. During the course of the field work it was also found
that some of the establishments heretofore covered had gone out of
business. With some establishments added and others discontinued
it will be seen that the establishments from which data were secured
for this Bulletin differ to some extent, and in some industries to a
considerable extent, from the establishments shown in the Nineteenth
Annual Report and in Bulletin 59.
With a change in the establishments reporting, some difference
necessarily must be expected between the average hours of labor and
average wages per hour shown for the year 1904 in Bulletin 59 and in
this Bulletin. Two groups of establishments, even though a number
of establishments are common to both groups, can not be expected
to show exactly the same averages. Neither statement may be abso­
lutely exact for the occupation, yet if each group embraces a consid­
erable number of establishments the average rates found may be
accepted as representing approximately the average rate in the
occupation considered. The average based on the larger number of
establishments probably would be the more nearly representative.
To secure the exact average rate of wages and hours of labor for
the United States it would be necessary to take a complete wage
census of the United States, and, as previously stated, such a task
is so great as to be practically impossible.
To measure with exactness the movement in wages and hours of
labor it would not be proper to compare the average for one group
of establishments for 1904 with the average for a different group of
establishments for 1905, nor in practically the same establishments
if any change or substitution has been made. Comparison can be
made accurately only when the data compared are obtained from
the same establishments. As one of the principal objects of this
series of reports is to measure the trend from year to year as accu­
rately as possible, increases and decreases from year to year are com­
puted only on data taken from the same establishments.
The tabular matter of this article relating to wages and hours of
labor is set forth in five general tables, and a number of short tables



WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

9

shown in the text explaining and summarizing the general tables.
The five general tables are entitled:
T a b l e I. Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, by
occupations and geographical divisions.
T a b l e II. Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1905, by
occupations.
T a b l e III. Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1905, by
industries.
T a b l e IV. Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, in
selected occupations, by cities.
T a b l e V. Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, in
selected occupations, by States.
Table /.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, by
occupations and geographical divisions ( pp . 22 to 58). This table pre­

sents the data secured for each occupation in each industry, by
geographical divisions and for the United States. The classification
of the States into geographical divisions is as follows:
North Atlantic States:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Atlantic States:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
West Virginia.
North Central States:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.

North Central States— Concluded.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central States:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Mississippi.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western States:
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

Were the figures shown in Table I not used to measure the trend
from one year to another the decimals of the hour and of the cent
might well be dropped from the table. But while a slight difference
is not material in itself, so far as it affects a representative number, it
is very material when indicating a trend or movement upward or
downward in hours or wages. As stated before, the establishments
that reported the data for 1904 shown in this Bulletin are the same




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

as those that reported the data for 1905; hence there is opportunity
for an exact comparison between the number of employees, the hours
of labor, and the wages per hour in 1904 and in 1905, and the figures
may safely be used to indicate and measure the trend or movement
upward or downward of employees, hours, and wages in the several
occupations and localities covered.
In Table I (p. 22) the second column shows the number of estab­
lishments from which data were secured for both 1904 and 1905.
The next two columns show the number of persons employed in 1904
and 1905, respectively, in the establishments from which data were
secured. The two columns following show the average number of
hours worked per week in each of the two years in these establish­
ments, while the last two columns on the page show the average
wages per hour in each of the two years covered. The averages
shown are true arithmetical averages. They are obtained by finding
the aggregate hours worked per week by all workers and the aggre­
gate earnings per hour, and dividing these aggregates by the total
number of persons considered.
An illustration will assist in explaining the table. The figures for
bricklayers in the building trades are presented on page 25. Data
for this occupation were secured for both 1904 and 1905 from 70
establishments in the North Atlantic States. In these establish­
ments 1,923 persons were employed in 1904, and 1,782 persons in
1905, a decrease of 141 persons. The average hours of work per week
of these employees were 45.86 in 1904 and 45.74 in 1905, a reduction
of 0.12 hour per week. In 1904 the average wages per hour were
$0.5630 and in 1905 $0.5796, showing in this occupation an increase
in wages of $0.0166 per hour in the North Atlantic States. Occupa­
tions followed by the words “ not specified” include those persons
who, on account of the nature of the work done could not be otherwise
classified; for instance, a stonecutter, not specified, is one who cuts
granite, soft stone, and often marble.
Table II.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1905, by occupa­
tions (pp. 59 to 125).—In Table I actual or concrete numbers only

are shown, and such figures relate only to the two years 1904 a nd1905. No attempt has been made to join the actual numbers express­
ing employees, hours, and wages for 1905 to the actual numbers for
the period from 1890 to 1904, shown in the Nineteenth Annual Report
and in Bulletin 59. On page 8 an explanation has been given why
such a combination can not be made.
The figures presented in Table II are relative numbers or, in other
words, a series of percentages. Relative numbers serve a double
purpose. First, they present to the mind of the reader more clearly
than the actual or concrete numbers the measure of difference between




WAGES AND HOUBS OE LABOB, 1890 TO 1905.

11

the data for a series of years; and, second, by their use combinations
are made possible that are not possible with concrete numbers.
In Table II all figures for the years from 1890 to 1903 are from the
Nineteenth Annual Report and all figures for 1904 are from Bulletin
59; the figures for 1905 were obtained by computation. An illustra­
tion will best explain the method of computing relative numbers and
the method of attaching one series of data to another by use of the
relative number. Data were secured for the Nineteenth Annual
Report from 212 establishments in the United States employing
bricklayers in the building trades for each year from 1890 to 1903.
The following table shows the number of persons employed each year
and the relative numbers computed therefrom:
ACTUAL AND RELATIVE NUMBER OF BRICKLAYERS EMPLOYED IN 212 BUILDING
ESTABLISHMENTS, 1890 TO 1903.
[From the Nineteenth Annual Report. Average number for 1890-1899 =100.0.]
Year
Average 1890-1899..................................................................................................
1890.........................................................................................................................
1891........................................................................................................................
1892........................................................................................................................
1893........................................................................................................................
1894........................................................................................................................
1895........................................................................................................................
1896........................................................................................................................
1897........................................................................................................................
1898........................................................................................................................
1899........................................................................................................................
1900.........................................................................................................................
1901.........................................................................................................................
1902.........................................................................................................................
1903.........................................................................................................................

Relative
Number of number of
employees. employees.
4,355
4,422
4,892
4,967
4,535
4,055
3,841
3,998
4,010
4,150
4,675
4,576
5,142
4,781
5,062

100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2

The average number of persons employed for the ten years from
1890 to 1899 was first computed. This average number, 4,355, was
adopted as a base or standard for comparison. All comparisons
might be made with 1890 or any other year, but owing to the fact that
the conditions in any one year might have been abnormal it was
determined to take as a base for comparison, or 100.0, not any one
year, but the average for the ten years 1890 to 1899. The number of
employees in the 212 establishments in 1890 was 4,422, which was
found by computation to be 101.5 per cent of 4,355, the base number.
The relative number of employees then was 101.5 in 1890. The rela­
tive number was computed in like manner for each succeeding year.
In looking down the two columns the reader will see that the relative
numbers convey a clearer idea of the measure of change in the number
of employees from year to year in the establishments reporting than
do the actual numbers themselves.
Data for bricklayers were secured for Bulletin 59 from 229 estab­
lishments for 1903 and 1904. As these establishments differed to




12

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

some extent from those shown for the years 1890 to 1903 in the Nine­
teenth Annual Report, direct comparison can not properly be made
between the number of employees in 1904 shown in Bulletin 59 and the
number in 1903 reported from the 212 establishments in the Nine­
teenth Annual Report. For the establishments covered in Bulletin
59, however, comparison could be made between the number of per­
sons employed in the two years as shown in Table I of that report.
In the 229 establishments 4,853 bricklayers were employed in 1903
and 4,644 in 1904. The number employed in 1904 is 95.69 per cent
of the number employed in 1903. As shown in the above text table,
the relative number of employees in 1903 was 116.2 as compared with
the average number from 1890 to 1899, and, as just stated, the number
of employees in 1904 was 95.69 per cent of the number in 1903, there­
fore the relative number in 1904 in the series from 1890 to 1904 would
be 95.69 per cent of 116.2, or 111.2. It must not be understood that the
number of employees (4,644) in 1904 in the 229 establishments is
111.2 per cent of the average number (4,355) for the ten-year period,
1890 to 1899, in the 212 establishments, but that the relative figures
in the series from 1890 to 1904, calculated as above, show conditions
in the occupation generally.
In the present investigation, data were secured for bricklayers from
209 establishments for both 1904 and 1905, the greater number of which
establishments furnished the data for 1904, which were published
in Bulletin 59. The number of employees reported by these 209
establishments was 4,341 for 1904 and 4,365 for 1905. Computing
the relative number of employees for 1905 by applying the per cent
of increase in 1905 over 1904 to the relative number for 1904, the
relative number for 1905 is found to be 111.8.
A caution should be given here as to the use of relative numbers.
The difference between the relative numbers in any two years does
not represent the per cent of increase or decrease in the actual
numbers. For example, the relative number of bricklayers in the
building trades in 1890 was 101.5. The relative number in 1905 was
111.8. The difference in the relative numbers is 10.3, and this dif­
ference is 10.1 per cent of 101.5—that is, the number of bricklayers
employed, so far as can be determined from the establishments
covered, was 10.1 per cent greater in 1905 than in 1890.
In Table II the second column shows the relative number of
employees each year from 1890 to 1905; the third*, the relative hours
of work per week in each year; and the fourth, the relative wages
per hour. By referring again to the occupation of bricklayers in
the building trades, as shown on page 65, it is seen that the relative
wages per hour in this occupation increased from 98.4 in 1890 to
132.1 in 1905. If the per cent of increase is desired, it may be
obtained by computation. Thus, 33.7, the difference between 98.4




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

13

and 132.1, is 34.2 per cent of 98.4, making an increase in the wages
per hour of bricklayers between 1890 and 1905 of 34.2 per cent, as
nearly as can be determined from the establishments that have been
canvassed. Any other two years may be compared in like manner.
The few new occupations incorporated in this report can not have
relative numbers shown for them, as no data were secured for them
in the years adopted as the base period.
Table 111.—Relative wages and hours of labor, 1890 to 1905, by
industries (pp. 126 to 131).—The relative figures shown in Table II
have been summarized so as to show conditions in each industry as
a whole, and are presented in this report as Table III. This sum­
mary table shows the relative conditions in each year compared with
the ten-year period, 1890-1899. In computing the relative numbers
shown in Table III, the relative numbers for a year for all occupations
of the industry were added and the sum divided by the number of
occupations entering into the total. When both sexes were reported
in an occupation, each sex was considered a separate occupation in
this computation. A method somewhat different was pursued for
1904 and 1905 in the few industries in which occupations were added
or discontinued. This method was to compute for employees, hours,
and wages in each occupation the per cent which the figures of the
current year were of the figures for the preceding y'ear; the percent­
ages for all the occupations in the industry were then added and the
sum divided by the number of occupations. The index for the pre­
ceding year was then multiplied by this average percentage to deter­
mine the index or relative number for the year under consideration.
The table shows the trend of wages and hours of labor in the
occupations of an industry taken as a whole. The average wages
of all employees in an industry, irrespective of occupation, may differ
to some extent, possibly, from the figures here shown, because of a
change during the period in the proportionate number of employees
in the several occupations. It is presumed that the work done in
the occupations themselves has not changed materially. The table
is intended to show changes as regards the same or like employees,
rather than changes in which the establishment is considered as
the unit.
Like Table II, Table III embraces three divisions, relating to the
number of employees in the several years, the hours of work per
week, and the wages per hour! The base on which the relative num­
ber is computed is the average for the ten-year period, 1890-1899.
By reference to the table, it is seen that in 1890 the number of
employees engaged in the agricultural implement industry was 86.2
per cent of the average number employed during the ten-year period,
1890 to 1899. In each of the years thereafter a greater number was
employed than in 1890, the highest being in 1900, when 30.7 per cent
2— N o. 65— 06----- 2



14

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

more persons were employed in the occupations and establishments
covered in this industry than the average during the base period. In
1904 the number employed was 8.5 per cent more than the average
number employed during the ten-year base period, and in 1905, 23.7
per cent more. With this explanation, the other columns of the
table relating to hours per week and wages per hour will be readily
understood.
In the short table immediately following, the facts relating to the
several industries have been combined to form a general index of all
industries:
COURSE OF WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR 1890 TO 1905, W HEN WEIGHTED ACCORDING
TO AGGREGATE WAGES PAID IN EACH INDUSTRY AS REPORTED BY THE CENSUS
OF 1900.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899 =100.0.]
Employees.

Year.

Hours per week.

Wages per hour.

Per cent of
Per cent of
Per cent of
increase (+ ) or
increase (+ ) or
increase (+ ) or
decrease (—)
decrease (—)
decrease (—)
Relative in 1905 as com­ Relative in 1905 as com­ Relative in 1905 as com­
number.
number.
number.
pared with
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
year specified.

1890...............................
1891...............................
1892...............................
1893...............................
1894...............................
1895............................
1896...............................
1897...............................
1898...............................
1899...............................
1900...............................
1901...............................
1902...............................
1903...............................
1904...............................
1905...............................

94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5
125.7
133.6

+ 40.9
+ 37.3
+ 34.7
+ 34.4
+ 42.0
+ 38.6
+ 35.5
+ 32.4
+ 25.6
+19.2
+ 15.6
+ 12.2
+ 8.1
+ 5.6
+ 6.3
(®)

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6
95.9
95.9

- 4 .8
- 4 .6
- 4 .6
- 4 .4
—3.9
- 4 .2
- 3 .9
- 3 .7
- 3 .8
- 3 .3
- 2 .8
- 2 .2
- 1 .4
- .7
GO
(a)

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.9
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
116.3
117.0
118.9

+ 18.5
+ 18.5
+ 18.0
+ 17.8
+ 21.5
+ 21.0
+ 19.3
+ 19.4
+18.7
+16.6
+12.7
+10.1
+ 6.0
+ 2.2
+ 1.6
(*)

a The figures in this column give, opposite each year, the per cent of increase or decrease (indicated
by + or —) which the 1905 figures show as compared with the year specified. Thus, opposite the year
1890, under employees, appears +40.9; this shows that the increase in the number of employees in 1905
as compared with 1890 was 40.9 per cent. Opposite 1890, under hours per week, appears —4.8; this
shows that the decrease in the hours of labor per week in 1905 as compared with 1890 was 4.8 per cent.
In like manner, under wages per hour, appears +18.5; this shows that the increase in the wages per
hour in 1905 as compared with 1890 was 18.5 per cent. The figures opposite each year should be read
in like manner. Opposite the year 1905, of course, no figures can be placed.
6 No change.

The second column of the table shows the relative number of per­
sons employed in all of the establishments investigated. This column
probably does not show the full extent of the changes that have taken
place in the industries of the United States during the period covered;
it measures only the changes that have taken place in those establish­
ments investigated. No figures are available showing the decrease
in the number of employees caused by the shutting down of estab­
lishments for one or more years of the period, or by the permanent
closing of establishments. Neither are there any figures showing
the increase in the number of wageworkers caused by the opening
of new establishments during these years. The figures in this table




WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1905.

15

relating to employees are of value, however, for they show the
changes that have taken place in a large number of establishments,
and undoubtedly indicate to some extent the changes that have
taken place in the number of persons employed in all industries
throughout the country. The table shows that the lowest number
employed was in the year 1894, when employment was given to 94.1
per cent of the average number employed during the period from
1890 to 1899. So far as these establishments are concerned it is
seen that the number of employees engaged therein gradually
increased from 1894 until 1903, when 26.5 per cent more persons
were employed than the average for the ten-year base period. In
the year 1904 there was a decrease in the relative number of persons
employed from 126.5 to 125.7. In 1905, however, the number of
persons employed increased to 133.6 per cent of the average number
employed from 1890 to 1899.
The next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
number of persons employed in 1905 as compared with each of the
preceding years. Thus in 1905 there were employed 40.9 per cent
more persons than in 1890, 42.0 per cent more than in 1894, and 6.3
per cent more than in 1904.
The next section of the table relates to the hours of labor. The
relative number shown is a comparison of the hours of work per week
in each year with the average hours worked per week during the tenyear period from 1890 to 1899. In 1890 the hours of work per week
were 0.7 per cent more than the average hours worked during the
ten-year base period, while in 1905 the hours of work were but 95.9
per cent of the average for the base period, or 4.1 per cent less than
the average hours worked during the period from 1890 to 1899. The
next column shows the per cent of increase or decrease of hours per
week in 1905 when compared with each of the preceding years; thus
in 1905 the hours of work were 4.8 per cent less than in 1890, 0.7 per
cent less than in 1903, and the same as in 1904.
The third section of the table relates to the wages per hour paid in
all of the industries covered by the report. In 1890 wages per hour
were 0.3 per cent higher than the average wages per hour paid dur­
ing the ten years from 1890 to 1899. The lowest point reached was
in 1894, when wages per hour were 97.9 per cent of the average wages
for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899, or, in other words, 2.1 per
cent lower than the average for the ten-year period. From 1894 the
movement was upward for two years; in 1897 there was a slight
decline. From 1897 there was an advance each year. In 1905 the
average wages per hour were 118.9 per cent of the average for the
base period, or, in other words, 18.9 per cent higher than the aver­
age wages per hour during the ten-year period 1890 to 1899. The




16

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

caution before given is here repeated. The per cent of change
between one year and another is not the result of the subtraction of
the two relative numbers. For example: The relative wages in all
industries was 97.9 in 1894 and 118.9 in 1905; the difference between
these relative numbers is 21.0. The increase in wages, however,
from 1894 to 1905 was not 21.0 per cent. This difference, 21.0, is
21.5 per cent of 97.9, the number with which the comparison was
made, making wages per hour in 1905 21.5 per cent higher than
wages per hour in 1894. The column following the relative wages
shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the average wages per
hour in 1905 as compared with each of the preceding years. In this
column it is seen that wages per hour in 1905 were 18.5 per cent higher
than in 1890 and 1891, 18.0 per cent higher than in 1892,21.5 per cent
higher than in 1894, and 1.6 per cent higher than in 1904.
The relative numbers presented in the table on page 14 are shown
in graphic form facing page 21, to which the reader is referred. In
computing the figures for the table on page 14 each industry has
been given a weight in proportion to the amount of wages paid
therein, as shown by the United States census of 1900. This was
deemed to be the most equitable method of making allowance for the
greater or less iriipdrtdnce of the several industries. The agricultural
implement industry is an important industry, but by no means as
great as the building industry of the country; therefore allowance for
the importance of each industry was deemed necessary, and the most
satisfactory method of weighting is believed to be the weighting in
proportion to the wages paid in the several industries. In comput­
ing this weighted average the relative number or index for a year
for each industry was multiplied by the wages paid in each industry,
respectively, as shown by the United States census of 1900, expressed
in the nearest $100,000. The products were then added and the sum
divided by the total wages paid in the industries represented. When
the industry classification differed from that given by the United
States census, the wages paid were estimated from the census figures.
Street and sewer work, not reported as such by the census, was esti­
mated from the best available data—that is, the wages paid in the
District of Columbia. When two or more industries shown sepa­
rately in this report were classed as one industry by the census, the
relative numbers for the several industries were added year by year,
and the totals divided by the number of subindustries to obtain a
relative number for the general industry as shown by the census.
The following table shows the relative weight accorded to each
industry:




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

17

WEIGHT OF EACH INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO WAGES PAID.
[The weight given to each industry was determined by the wages paid, expressed in the nearest $100,000,
as shown by the United States census o f 1900.]
Industry.
Agricultural implements........................
Bakery, bread..........................................
Blacksmithing and horseshoeing............
Boots and shoes......................................
Brick........................................................
Building trades.......................................
Candy.......................................................
Carpets.....................................................
Carriages and wagons.............................
Cars, steam railroad...............................
Clothing...................................................
Cotton goods...........................................
Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles..
Electrical apparatus and supplies..........
Flour........................................................
Foundry and machine shop....................
Furniture.................................................
Gas...........................................................
Glass........................................................
Harness....................................................

Weight.
225
279
180
592
219
a 2,127
109
111
298
1,194
794
867
127

202

177
1,822
426
124
271
107

Industry.

Weight.

Hats, fur....................................
Hosiery and knit goods.............
Iron and steel.............- .............
Leather.......................................
Liquors, m alt.............................
Lumber......................................
Marble and stone work..............
Paper and wood pulp................
Planing m ill...............................
Pottery.......................................
Printing and publishing............
Shipbuilding.................. ............
Silk goods...................................
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Streets and sewers.....................
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes.
Woolen and worsted goods.......

&151
244
1,208
226
258
1,046
287
207
327
177
842
248

Total.................................

17,273

210

*395
409
448

a Includes census figures for carpentering, masonry, plumbing, painting and paper hanging, and onehalf of roofing, architectural iron, electrical construction, and tinsmithing.
& Includes census figures for wool hats.
c Estimated from wages paid in the District of Columbia.

In preparing the figures for the Nineteenth Annual Report, in
order to ascertain the difference, if any, between the results obtained
by the method adopted for the computation ,ofr^ e relative number
or index for all industries and the results secure^ by other methods,
the relative wages were computed by three other methods—first,
by giving all occupations an equal weight; second, by giving each
industry an equal weight; and, third, by giving each industry a
weight in proportion to the number of employees engaged in the
industry as shown by the census of 190CK The results obtained by
the four different methods were very nearly the same, and any one
of the three other methods might not improperly have been used.
As has been stated, several industries shown in the Nineteenth
Annual Report have not been continued in Bulletin 59 nor in this
Bulletin. In order to determine what difference there would be in
the relative numbers for all industries if computed only from the
industries retained, relative numbers for the 42 industries retained
were computed for 1890 to 1903. It was found that the relative
numbers for 1903 based on the 42 industries were practically the
same as those based on the 67 industries—the variation being not
more than one-tenth of 1 per cent for employees, for hours, or for
wages.
In studying the several tables thus far presented, the reader should
bear in mind that the wages shown are the average rates of wages per
hour and the hours shown the average number of hours worked per
week. A reduction in hours in any year, therefore, implies a reduc­
tion of weekly earnings, unless accompanied by a corresponding




18

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

increase in the rate of wages per hour. In order to show the changes
in weekly earnings that have taken place from year to year during
the period, in all industries as a whole, the following table has been
prepared:
RELATIVE W EEKLY EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE AND FOR ALL EMPLOYEES, 1890
TO 1905.
[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Weekly earnings per
employee.
Year.

1890....................................................................
1891....................................................................
1892....................................................................
1893....................................................................
1894....................................................................
1895....................................................................
1896....................................................................
1897....................................................................
1898....................................................................
1899....................................................................
1900....................................................................
1901....................................................................
1902....................................................................
1903....................................................................
1904....................... ...........................................
1905....................................................................

Weekly earnings of all
employees.

Per cent of
Per cent of
increase (+ )o r
increase (+ ) or
decrease ( —) Relative. decrease (—)
Relative. in 1905 as com­
in 1905 as com­
pared with
pared with
year specified.
year specified.
101.0
100.8
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
99.9
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.2
112.3
112.2
114.0

+ 12.9
+ 13.1
+ 12.5
+ 12.6
+ 16.7
+ 15.9
+ 14.6
+ 14.9
+14.1
+ 12.6
+ 9.5
+ 7.6
+ 4.4
+ 1.5
+ 1.6

95.7
98.1
100.5
100.6
91.9
94.9
98.1
100.1
106.3
113.4
120.3
126.1
135.0
142.1
141.0
152.3

+59.1
+ 55.2
+ 51.5
+ 51.4
+65.7
+ 60.5
+ 55.2
+ 52.1
+ 43.3
+ 34.3
+ 26.6
+ 20.8
+ 12.8
+ 7.2
+ 8.0

The first section of the table relates to the weekly earnings of the
individual employee. From this table it is seen that the weekly earn­
ings per employee in 1890 were 1.0 per cent higher than the average
weekly earnings for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899. In 1894 the
average weekly earnings were 2.3 per cent lower than the average for
the ten-year period; in 1904 they were 12.2 per cent higher, and in
1905 they were 14.0 per cent higher. The next column shows that
the weekly earnings per employee in 1905 were 12.9 per cent higher
than in 1890, 13.1 per cent higher than in 1891, 16.7 per cent higher
than in 1894, and 1.6 per cent higher than in 1904.
The second section of the table, relating to the aggregate weekly
earnings of all employees engaged in the occupations covered, is of
interest as indicating to some extent the change in the relative
amount paid out in wages by the manufacturing and mechanical
establishments of the country each year. While the figures given
show that the increase has been very great, it is believed, for reasons
previously stated, that they do not mark the extreme increase that
would be shown were the figures available for the entire number of
employees in all industries. Bearing in mind the previous statement
that this report probably does not represent fully the change in the
number of employees in the United States, the table shows that the
weekly earnings of the employees engaged in the occupations covered




WAGES AND HOUKS OF LABOK, 1890 TO 1905.

19

in the establishments reporting were, in 1890, 95.7 per cent of the
average for the ten-year period from 1890 to 1899; in the year 1891
they were 98.1 per cent; in 1894 they w'ere 91.9 per cent; in 1902 the
relative figure was 135.0; in 1903 it was 142.1; in 1904 it dropped to
141.0, while in 1905 it was 152.3.
The next column of the table, comparing the last year of the period
with each of the other years, indicates that in 1905 the aggregate
weekly earnings of all employees were 59.1 per cent more than in the
year 1890, 65.7 per cent more than in 1894, 7.2 per cent more than in
1903, and 8.0 per cent more than in 1904.
Table IV.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, in%
selected occupations, by cities (pp. 132 to 158).—In this table the
average wages and hours of labor of the most important general
occupations are shown by cities. Like Table I, it comprises three
divisions, relating to the number of employees covered, the average
hours of work per week, and the average wages per hour, respec­
tively. Cities in which data were secured from only one estab­
lishment have been omitted from this table to avoid identification,
except for the occupation of laborers on streets and sewers, employed
directly by the cities.
The first occupation shown in Table IV (p. 132) is horseshoers,
floor men. The first line relates to wages in Albany, N. Y., and shows
that in the two establishments from which data for horseshoers,
floor men, were secured 5 men were employed in 1904 and 5 in 1905,
the average hours per week were 54 in 1904 and 54 in 1905, and the
average wages per hour, $0.2778 in 1904 and $0.2778 in 1905.
Table V.—Average wages and hours of labor, 1904 and 1905, in
selected occupations, by States (pp. 158 to 17Q).—In this table the
average wages and hours of labor of certain important occupations
are shown by States. The data are not presented by cities, as in
many instances the identity of the establishments furnishing the data
might be disclosed by such classification. The form of this table is
like that of Table IV, and needs no explanation.
The article immediately following the present one in this Bulletin
is entitled “ Retail prices of food, 1890 to 1905.” That investiga­
tion covers the same period as does this investigation into wages and
hours of labor, and the data have been summarized, as in this article,
by the use of relative or index numbers. The base adopted for com­
puting the relative numbers is the same in each case, namely, the
average for the years 1890 to 1899.
In order that a comparative study may be made of the summary
figures of these two articles they are here presented in parallel col­
umns. The table immediately following shows the relative or index
numbers taken from the two articles, and in addition two columns




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

computed therefrom showing the relative purchasing power of wages
in the several years covered as measured by retail prices of food:
RELATIVE EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER
INGS PER EMPLOYEE AND OF ALL
PURCHASING POWER OF HOURLY
EMPLOYEE, MEASURED BY RETAIL

WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, W EEKLY EARN­
EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, AND
WAGES AND OF W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

[Relative numbers computed on basis of average for 1890-1899—100.0.]

Year.

1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897...........................
1898..........................
1899..........................
1900..........................
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903...........................
1904...........................
1905...........................

Purchasuig power
Retail
measure(d by re­
prices of
tail piices of
Weekly Weekly
food,
foodl, of—
Employ­ Hours
Wages earnings earnings weighted
ees.
per week. per hour. per em­ of all em­according
ployee. ployees. to family Hourly Weekly
consump­ wages. earnings
per em­
tion.
ployee.
94.8
97.3
99.2
99.4
94.1
96.4
98.6
100.9
*106.4
112.1
115.6
119.1
123.6
126.5
125.7
1 3 |.6

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.2
98.7
98.1
97.3
96.6
95.9
95.9

100.3
100.3
100.8
100.9
97.^
98.3
99.7
99.6
100.2
102.0
105.5
108.0
112.2
116.3
117.0
118.9

101.0
100.8
101.3
101.2
97.7
98.4
99.5
99.2
99.9
101.2
104.1
105.9
109.2
112 3
112.2
114.0

95.7
98.1
100.5
100.6
91.9
94.9
98.1
100.1
106.3
113.4
120.3
126.1
135.0
142.1
141.0
152.3

102.4
103.8
101.9
104.4
99.7
97.8
95.5
96.3
98.7
99.5
101.1
105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7
112.4

97.9
96.6
98.9
96.6
98.2
100.5
104.4
103.4
101.5
102.5
104.4
102.7
101.2
105.4
104.7
105.8

98.6
97.1
99.4
96.9
98.0
100.6
104.2
103.0
101.2
101.7
103.0
100.7
98.5
101.8
100.4
101.4

This table shows that in 1905, as compared with the average for
the ten years from. 1890 to 1899, 33.6 per cent more persons were
employed, hours of labor per week had been reduced 4.1 per cent,
wages per hour had increased 18.9 per cent, weekly earnings per em­
ployee had increased 14.0 per cent, weekly earnings of all persons
employed had increased 52.3 per cent, retail prices of food had
increased 12.4 per cent, the wages of one hour would purchase 5.8
per cent more food, and the earnings of a week would purchase 1.4
per cent more food.







W AGES
HOURS OE WORK
NUMBER OE EM PLOYEES
R E TA IL

RELATIVE

> R ELA TIV E

PRICES OE EOOD

NUMBER

OF EMPLOYEES

E/GURES
jjkVERAGE

1890

to

1905: U N ITE D S T A T E S .

FOR 1890 TO I899 = IOo 7J

2567

W O R K IN G M E N S

F A M IL IE S .
NORRIS PETERS CO., WASHINGTON, n. C

21

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,

The next table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the
several items in 1905 as compared with each preceding year:
PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN 1905, AS COMPARED WITH PRE­
VIOUS YEARS, IN EMPLOYEES, HOURS PER WEEK, WAGES PER HOUR, WEEKLY
EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE AND OF ALL EMPLOYEES, RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD,
AND PURCHASING POWER OF HOURLY WAGES AND OF W EEKLY EARNINGS PER
EMPLOYEE, MEASURED BY RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
Per cent of increase (+ ) or decrease (—) in 1905 as compared with previous
years.

Year.

Average 1890-1899...
1890..........................
1891..........................
1892..........................
1893..........................
1894..........................
1895..........................
1896..........................
1897.................... .
1898..........................
1899..........................
1900....................... ?.
1901..........................
1902..........................
1903..........................
1904...........................

Purchasi]Qg power,
Retail
measureid by re­
prices of
tail p]rices of
Weekly Weekly
food,
food , of—
Employ­ Hours
Wages earnings earnings weighted
ees.
per week. per hour. per em­ of all em­ according
Weekly
ployee. ployees. to family Hourly earnings
consump­ wages. per em­
tion.
ployee.
+33.6
+ 40.9
+ 37.3
+ 34.7
+ 34.4
+ 42.0
+ 38.6
+ 35.5
+ 32.4
+ 25.6
+19.2
+ 15.6
+ 12.2
+ 8.1
+ 5.6
+ 6.3

- 4 .1
- 4 .8
- 4 .6
- 4 .6
- 4 .4
- 3 .9
- 4 .2
- 3 .9
- 3 .7
- 3 .8
- 3 .3
- 2 .8
- 2 .2
- 1 .4
- .7

(a )

+ 18.9
+18.5
+18.5
+18.0
+ 17.8
+21.5
+21.0
+ 19.3
+ 19.4
+ 18.7
+16.6
+ 12.7
+10.1
+ 6.0
+ 2.2
+ 1.6

+ 14.0
+12.9
+13.1
+12.5
+ 12.6
+16.7
+15.9
+ 14.6
+14.9
+14.1
+ 12.6
+ 9.5
+ 7.6
+ 4.4
-f 1.5
+ 1.6-

+ 52.3
+59.1
+55.2
+ 51.5
+ 51.4
+ 65.7
+ 60.5
+55.2
+52.1
+ 43.3
+ 34.3
+ 26.6
+ 20.8
+12-$
+ 7.2
+ 8.0-

+ 12.4
+ 9.8
+ 8.3
+10.3
+ 7.7
+ 12.7
+ 14.9
+17.7
+16.7
+ 13.9
+ 13.0
+11.2
+ 6.8
+ 1.4
+ 1.9
+ .6

+ 5.8
+ 8.1
+ 9.5
+ 7.0
+ 9.5
+ 7.7
+ 5.3
+ 1,3
+ 2.3
+ 4.2
+ 3.2
+ 1.3
+ 3.0
+ 4.5
+ .4
+ 1.0

+ 1.4
+ 2.8
+ 4.4
+ 2.0
+ 4.6
+ 3.5
+ .8
- 2 .7
- 1 .6
+ .2
- .3
- 1 .6
+ .7
+ 2.9
- .4
+ 1.0

« No change.

This table shows that in 1905, as compared with 1904, the total
number of employees increased 6.3 per cent, the hours of labor
remained unchanged, wages per hour increased 1.6 per cent, weekly
earnings per employee increased 1.6 per cent, the total weekly earn­
ings of all employees increased 8.0 per cent, retail prices of food
increased 0.6 per cent, the wages of one hour would purchase 1.0
per cent more food, and the earnings per employee in a week would
purchase 1.0 per cent more food.
The accompanying graphic table shows for the 16 years, 1890 to
1905, the relative number of employees, relative hours of work per
week, relative wages per hour, and relative retail prices of food.




22

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS.

A G R IC U L T U R A L , IM P L E M E N T S .

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averagi3 wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
16
2
2

88
410
27
17

91
485
28
17

59.94
59.06
59.89
54.00

59.93
58.98
59.89
54.00

$0.2261
. 2744
.2682
.3314

$0.2387
.2811
.2954
.3200

United States...........................................

24

542

621

59.08

59.02

.2680

.2766

Fitters, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

4
13
2

232
469
28

199
555
27

59.93
58.72
59.75

59.92
58.75
59.67

.2147
.2438
.2358

.2173
.2575
.2563

United States..........................................

19

729

781

59.15

59.08

.2343

.2472

Grinders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

4
11
2

89
299
35

83
356
33

59.90
58.78
59.71

59.89
58.80
59.79

.2128
.2968
.2816

.2170
.2948
.3033.

United States..........................................

17

423

472

59.09

59.06

.2779

.2817

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western..................................................... ,

4
15
2
2

78
341
36
8

80
456
33
8

59.86
58.44
59.89
54.00

59.88
58.45
59.88
54.00

.1993
.2265
.2346
.3038

.1945
.2344
.2510
.3161

United States..........................................

23

463

577

58.72

58.67

.2239

.2309

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
14
1
2

366
945
7
29

382
1,122
7
34

59.96
58.43
60.00
54.00

59.96
57.68
60.00
54.00

.2344
.2634
.2500
.3146

.2150
.2675
.2607
.3034

United States............ .............................

21

1,347

1,545

58.76

58.17

.2565

.2553

Molders, iron, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
13
2
2

314
1,177
50
20

305
1,479
43
13

59.91
58.37
59.84
54.00

59.91
58.34
59.81
54.00

.2401
.2606
.2575
.3583

.2397
.2480
.3127
.3718

United States...........................................

21

1,561

1,840

58.67

58.60

.2576

.2490

Painters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
16
2
2

54
547
32
4

62
624
32
6

59.93
58.71
59.91
54.00

59.92
58.36
59.91
54.00

.2357
.2382
.2984
.3234

.2350
.2441
.3211
.3063

United States...........................................

23

637

724

58.84

58.53

.2415

.2472

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
16
1
1

17
85
3
2

16
90
4
3

59.76
58.54
60.00
54.00

59.75
58.48
60.00
54.00

.2620
.2915
.2583
.3473

.2596
.2901
.2688
.3704

United States...........................................

22

107

113

58.69

58.59

.2869

.2871

BAKERY, BREAD.
Bakers, first hands, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

32
15
35
16
10

95
30
129
37
14

104
27
129
39
14

61.33
60.90
59.22
65.24
59.86

60.27
60.56
58.12
63.97
59.86

$0.2718
.2623
.2827
.2497
.3908

$0.2757
.2690
.2894
.2596
.3932

United States...........................................

108

305

313

60.80

59.85

.2782

.2840




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

28

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIONS— Continued.

B A K E R Y , B R E A D —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Bakers, second hands, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

32
16
35
15
10

169
73
198
45
21

165
67
199
53
20

60.43
60.95
58.43
66.64
60.29

59.59
60.58
58.15
65.04
59.90

$0.2256
.2045
.2391
.1967
.3064

$0.2315
.2066
.2371
.2034
.3122

United States..........................................

108

506

504

60.27

59.74

.2286

.2306

Bakers, third hands, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central............... .............................
Western.......................................................

24
10
22
10
3

143
32
175
39
4

152
36
183
39
4

61.62
61.50
57.58
65.26
57.00

60.07
60.00
57.32
64.87
57.00

.1745
.1772
.2302
.1396
.2011

.1829
.1915
.2341
.1426
.2094

United States..........................................

69

393

414

60.12

59.27

.1964

.2027

Bakers, not specified, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

17
4
11
3
7

644
52
206
31
86

670
59
215
33
116

63.45
60.00
57.28
73.16
60.00

62.89
60.00
57.08
70.21
60.00

.2448
.2760
.2438
.1836
.3046

.2469
.2785
.2445
.1947
.3046

United States..........................................

42

1,019

1,093

62.03

61.51

.2494

.2527

B B A C K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
3
9
3
7

30
10
23
9
24

34
8
23
8
24

55.90
58.20
59.39
58.89
54.17

56.00
57.75
59.39
58.88
54.17

$0.2759
.2583
.2584
.2717
.3330

$0.2823
.2479
.2569
.2739
.3242

United States..........................................

33

96

97

56.82

56.73

.2838

.2831

Horseshoers, fitters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

23
1
9
3
5

48
3
12
3
8

48
3
12
3
9

53.88
60.00
56.67
55.00
53.75

53.25
60.00
56.67
55.00
53.67

.3410
.2583
.3405
.3658
.4026

.3555
.2667
.3426
.3658
.4112

4
1

74

75

54.61

54.19

.3452

.3570

Horseshoers, floor men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

42
17
42
18
15

109
41
108
34
24

114
38
112
35
27

53.93
56.15
54.91
55.76
53.42

53.73
55.87
54.62
54.74
53.44

.3043
.2510
.3133
.2582
.3903

.3126
.2580
.3201
.2655
.3864

United States..........................................

United States..........................................

134

316

326

54.71

54.37

.3020

.3099

Horseshoers, forgemen, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

23
16
35
15
11

53
29
70
26
17

53
27
70
25
16

54.21
55.69
55.10
56.50
53.24

54.21
55.56
54.81
55.24
53.25

.3533
.2829
.3590
.3117
.4349

.3597
.2902
.3626
.3207
.4373

United States..........................................

100

195

191

54.97

54.68

.3465

.3523

Horseshoers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

2
6
4
2

3
7
9
4

3
7
10
4

52.00
58.00
56.22
53.25

52.00
58.00
56.50
53.25

.2917
.3101
.2694
.4229

.2917
.3101
.2628
.4229

United States..........................................

14

23

24

55.70

55.83

.3114

.3069




24

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.

BOOTS A N D SH O ES.

Occupation and geographical division.

Closers-on, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

Average
hours
per week.

Num­
ber of
establioV
i
iisnments.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

1904.

30
14

148
112

145
96

56.83
57.63

56.81
57.55

$0.1828
.1605

$0.1891
.1614

Number of
employees.

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

44 |i

260

241

57.17

57.10

.1732

.1780

Cutters, outsole, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

22
13

100
88

107
89

57.43
57.94

57.15
58.16

.2488
.2540

.2579
.2466

United States...........................................

United States..........................................

35

188

196

57.67

57.61

.2513

.2528

Cutters, upper, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.......................:....................

30
15

1,012
572

1,076
586

56.35
58.19

56.08
57.60

.2759
.2658

.2822
.2745

United States..........................................

45

1,584

1,662

57.01

56.61

.2722

.2795

Edge trimmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

30
15

239
112

253
124

56.11
58.05

56.05
57.89

.3740
.3370

.3758
.3562

United States..........................................

45

351

377

56.73

56.65

.3622

.3694

Goodyear stitchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central............. i _________ ............

25
15

154
103

175
117

55.21
57.91

55.49
58.01

.4060
.3891

.4082
.3634

40

257

292

56.30

56.50

.3993

.3902

Heel trimmers, male:
North Atlantic.................. .........................
North Central.............................................

United States..................................... .

29
15

83
50

85
53

56.12
57.66

56.42
57.83

.3754
.3828

.4059
.3591

United States...........................................

44

133

138

56.70

56.96

.3782

.3879

Lasters, machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

29
15

493
273

537
301

57.05
56.92

57.05
56.99

.2786
.3179

.3010
.2944

United States..........................................

44

766

838

57.00

57.03

.2926

.2986

McKay stitchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

23
8

67
27

75
26

56.66
58.78

56.36
58.65

.2902
.3169

.2869
.3151

United States...........................................

31

94

101

57.27

56.95

.2979

.2942

Treers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

20
13

363
113

409
130

55.91
57.36

55.89
57.42

.2509
.2416

.2572
.2443

United States...........................................

33

476

539

56.25

56.26

.2487

.2541

Vampers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

14
5

101
19

126
21

54.71
58.11

55.09
57.10

.2967
.3305

.2957
.2723

United States...........................................

19

120

147

55.25

55.37

.3020

.2924

Vampers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

30
15

388
248

396
232

56.24
57.40

56.42
57.38

.2179
.2015

.2257
.2114

United States.................................... :...

45

636

628

56.70

56.77

.2115

.2204




25

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

B R IC K .

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabiisnments. 1904. 1905.

Averag e wages
perl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Brick-machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

15
8
15
4
4

78
81
75
58
6

81
80
73
58
5

54.77
59.11
56.16
59.67
53.00

55.85
59.10
56.05
59.67
51.60

$0.2042
.1540
.2228
.1453
.2979

$0.1960
.1559
.2250
.1441
.3025

United States..........................................

46

298

297

57.22

57.45

.1856

.1840

Kiln burners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
9
16
5
4

51
105
89
44
12

53
108
91
43
12

81.41
81.26
83.53
77.00
84.00

81.06
81.40
83.54
77.12
84.00

.1729
.1285
.2045
.1383
.2431

.1721
.1323
.2039
.1421
.2431

United States..........................................

48

301

307

81.44

81.48

.1645

.1661

Kiln setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
7
15
4
4

37
41
77
14
8

37
46
77
14
8

54.65
53.71
55.40
58.71
44.63

55.30
54.39
55.40
58.71
44.63

.2381
.2245
.2819
.2203
.3879

.2329
.2356
.2790
.2215
.3902

United States..........................................

44

177

182

54.63

54.91

.2593

.2591

1
[

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

15
9
14
5
4

258
309
225
230
61

257
304
237
204
56

57.95
58.50
55.28
59.65
57.25

58.46
58.44
55.24
59.53
57.00

.1662
.1276
.2038
.1266
.2386

.1628
.1359
.2050
.1368
.2417

United States..........................................

47

1,083

1,058

57.88

57.86

.1586

.1637

Offbearers, male:
North A tlantic............................. .............
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
6
16
3
4

89
50
173
18
19

79
52
180
18
18

55.82
51.72
54.62
58.44
52.11

56.05
52.04
54.83
58.44
51.67

.1728
.1570
.2108
.1176
.2693

.1720
.1627
.2129
.1236
.2704

United States..........................................

40

349

347

54.57

54.71

.1918

.1944

B U IL D IN G T R A D E S.
Bricklayers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

70
30
62
27
20

1,923
566
1,236
343
273

1,782
577
1,344
403
259

45.86
49.38
46.90
49.41
44.84

45.74
49.08
46.80
49.34
44.96

$0.5630
.5414
.5672
.5616
.7047

$0.5796
.5682
.5945
.5868
.7203

United States..........................................

209

4,341

4,365

46.83

46.79

.5702

.5917

Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

67
32
63
30
21

2,734
954
1,773
688
520

2,649
927
1,869
770
437

47.52
49.88
48.46
52.48
46.44

47.31
49.58
48.79
53.09
46.29

.3781
.3213
.3724
.2947
.4696

.3932
. 3395
.3817
.3015
.4764

United States................................. .........

213

6,669

6,652

48.54

48.64

.3670

.3773

Cornice maker#, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

25
11
31
11
8

348
103
279
104
55

366
118
330
113
57

46.80
49.23
47.92
49.37
46.76

47.04
48.81
47.92
49.43
45.95

.4155
.3632
.4080
.3626
.5294

.4314
.3761
.4118
.3711
.5327

United States...........................................

86

889

984

47.73

47.76

.4080

.4172




26

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.
B U I I j D L N ’G

Occupation and geographical division.

T R A D E S — Continued.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Gas fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

18
7
29
10
13

67
30
100
26
34

70
35
100
34
27

46.54
48.70
46.45
48.69
46.24

46.54
48.60
46.37
47.91
46.30

$0.4391
.3603
.4886
.4387
.6015

$0.4594
.3785
.4808
.4511
..6004

United States...........................................

77

257

266

46.93

46.90

.4706

.4701

Hod carriers, male: (o)
North Atlantic..................................... ......
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

83
33
81
23
35

2,063
482
1,383
256
325

2,027
487
1,476
346
312

46.11
48. 77
47.54
50.45
45.05

46.10
48.78
47.50
50.72
45.21

.2971
.2362
.2868
.2117
.4172

.2973
.2355
.3001
.2130
.4152

United States...........................................

255

4,509

4,648

47.00

47.11

.2912

.2933

Inside wiremen, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

26
16
32
12
8

444
216
331
108
102

480
205
472
101
113

46.76
51.79
48.54
52.33
48.00

46.59
51.09
47.59
53.17
48.00

.4163
.3136
.3871
.3371
.4461

.4165
.3330
.4326
.3014
.4357

United States...........................................

94

1,201

1,371

48.76

48.20

.3852

.4027

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic...........................................
North Central................... 1‘. .....................
South Central....................... .....................
Western.......................................................

55
33
59
26
19

2,026
1,337
2,222
435
208

2,170
1,763
2,375
545
164

55.91
57.15
52.58
55.94
49.26

54.88
57.11
53.17
55.46
49.17

.1717
.1360
.2296
.1504
.2748

.1772
.1446
.2279
.1516
.2846

United States...........................................

192

6,228

7,017

54.77

54.77

.1866

.1867

Lathers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

14
11
24
10
8

180
60
233
48
133

185
75
217
58
107

44.58
50.40
47.75
47.71
45.38

44. 54
48.80
47.58
47.45
45.79

.4424
.3126
.4299
.3879
.5768

.4756
.3663
.4377
.4143
.5658

United States...........................................

67

654

642

46.63

46.54

.4494

.4595

Painters, male:
North Atlantic..................................... ......
South Atlantic............................................
North Central 1............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

65
30
62
24
25

1,636
553
1,348
334
370

1,603
535
1,410
388
368

47.62
49.35
47.41
50.64
47.21

47.65
49.28
47.58
50.06
47.25

.3593
.3160
.3707
.3018
.4380

.3614
.3434
.3712
.3124
.4343

United States...........................................

206

4,241

4,304

47.98

48.01

.3596

.3642

Paper hangers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

35
17
35
12
17

270
154
254
81
109

293
162
282
96
124

48.77
50.22
49.19
49.43
47.52

48.42
49.22
48.98
49.27
47.58

.3789
.3466
. 3715
.3477
.4763

.4072
.3845
.3815
.3689
.4721

United States...........................................

116

868

957

49.06

48.70

.3 m

.4004

Plasterers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

47
25
51
23
18

698
277
613
118
141

828
314
618
155
154

45.64
50.05
46.41
49.34
45.45

45.14
49.58
46 47
49.38
45.50

.5338
.4538
. 5541
.*4872
.6897

.5712
.4961
.5612
.5141
.6822

United States...........................................

164

1,847

2,069

46.78

46.56

.5375

.5608

a Includes men who mix mortar and wait on bricklayers, plasterers, and stone masons, whether or
not a hod is used.




27

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS—Continued.

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
per tlour.

1904.

1905.

1904. *

1905.

Plumbers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

69
28
61
28
21

584
238
489
200
195

618
253
565
204
173

47.27
49.23
46.89
48.40
46.23

47.02
49.12
46.93
48.11
46.18

$0.4510
.4166
.4969
.4791
.6058

$0.4719
.4298
.5028
.4950
.6080

United States..........................................

207

1,706

1,813

47.44

47.32

.4804

.4912

Roofers, gravel and tar, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

22
8
23
9
10

293
48
263
133
84

303
44
284
133
96

49.95
55.38
51.15
56.03
48.86

50.21
55.36
52.13
55.94
48.13

.2842
.2209
.3542
.1668
.3741

.2810
.2247
.3398
.1736
.3818

United States..........................................

72

821

860

51.52

51.76

.2931

.2922

Roofers, slate and tile, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

26
11
21
9
4

128
59
90
49
11

125
64
86
47
11

49.41
50.64
48.54
48.98
48.00

49.65
50.14
48.76
48.51
48.00

.3748
.3765
.4289
.3654
.4955

.3729
.3917
.4098
.3820
.5455

United States..........................................

71

337

333

49.28

49.30

.3921

.3930

Roofers, tin, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

40
23
35
15
5

346
157
297
109
27

331
169
299
118
32

47.25
50.33
49.79
49.81
47.89

47.23
50.31
49.87
49.13
46.88

.3882
.3141
.3329
.3378
.4968

.3927
.3358
.3435
.3533
.5039

United States..........................................

118

936

949

48.89

48.83

.3555

.3659

Steam fitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

37
10
43
8
14

325
57
315
45
47

318
71
355
61
50

47.59
49.47
47.60
48.00
45.60

47.53
49.65
47.74
47.87
45.88

.4365
.4071
.4733
.4567
.6162

.4431
.4072
.4776
.4728
.6220

United States..........................................

112

789

855

47.64

47.72

.4609

.4670

Stone masons, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

41
9
33
6
13

345
94
234
33
169

351
89
262
36
130

48.62
51.51
47.71
52.39
44.47

48.02
51.78
47.83
51.06
44.65

.4428
.•4608
.5321
.4082
.5853

.4572
.4555
.5227
.4210
.5897

United States..........................................

102

875

868

48.03

47.97

.4948

.4951

Stone setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

15
13
18
8
3

65
62
57
21
24

71
74
65
26
10

46.43
49.16
47.56
49.29
45.50

46.85,
48.49
47.43
49.46
45.20

.5312
.5126
.5127
.4921
.5469

.5248
.5627
.5231
.5025
.5688

United States...........................................

57

229

246

47.62

47.70

.5196

.5352

Structural iron workers, male: (<*)
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

19
6
22
5
7

895
115
645
74
102

703
92
753
67
116

46.94
52.12
52.31
57.27
52.12

45.67
50.74
52.32
55.33
51.74

.4919
.3871
.4078
.2362
.3814

.5165
.4169
.3959
.2732
.3805'

United States...........................................

59

1,831

1,731

49.86

49.61

.4392

.4402




a Work both on buildings and bridges.

28

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB,

T able I . — A V E B A G E W AG ES A N D HOUBS OF LA B O B , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G BAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

CANDY.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Candy makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

13
3
12
5
4

231
59
363
17
17

246
60
382
18
16

56.91
59.75
59.92
56.82
54.24

56.92
59.73
59.95
57.00
54.06

$0.2390
.2250
.2274
.2688
.3322

$0.2439
.2377
.2286
.2745
.3681

United States..........................................

37

687

722

58.68

58.69

.2347

.2388

Dippers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
3
11
5
4

307
31
507
15
39

324
33
531
22
39

54.48
59.81
59.52
59.20
54.33

54.37
59.76
59.13
59.45
54.36

.1068
.0857
.0905
.0738
.1408

.1164
.0902
.0887
.0711
.1370

United States..........................................

33

899

949

57.58

57.34

.0978

.0998

80.1361

C A RPETS.
Burlers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic................................... .......
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic........................................
Spoolers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Twisters, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, Brussels and Wilton, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, Brussels and Wilton, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
Weavers, ingrain, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, ingrain, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
Winders, female:
North A tlantic...........................................

8

181

174

58.91

58.86

80.1275

6

213

208

58.56

58.57

.1515

.1541

8

89

84

58.69

58.73

.2651

.2710

8

129

133

58.64

58.62

.1158

.1181

7

156

156

58.48

58. 47

.1095

.1094

3

364

382

58.33

58.31

.2682

.2895

2

167

171

58.00

58.00

.1663

.1640

5

158

153

57.99

58.31

.1829

.1858

6

474

437

58.76

58.89

.1395

.1519

7

309

305

58.14

58.29

.1160

.1200

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

24
8
28
6

188
32
318
27

177
30
340
31

56.77
59.50
58.43
59.56

55.59
59.53
58.35
57.87

80.2796
.2219
.2557
.2345

$0.2902
.2277
.2608
.2492

United States..........................................

66

565

578

57.99

57.54

.2607

.2675

Body makers, carriage, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

14
2
19
2

178
7
183
21

218
6
205
27

58.73
60.00
58 26
60.00

54.93
60.00
58.29
60.00

.2638
.2667
.2404
.1747

.2969
.2611
.2457
.1789

Umted States..........................................

37

389

456

58.60

56.81

.2481

.2664

Body makers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

9
3
6

72
10
80

76
11
69

57. 44
58.80
58.64

56.58
58.5558.48

.2832
.2377
.2102

.2966
.2433
.2095

United States..........................................

18

162

156

58.12

57 56

.2444

.2543




29v

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS O F L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS— Continued.
C A R R IA G E S A N D

Occupation and geographical division.

W A G O N S — Concluded.
Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

1904.

1905.

1904.

Average wages
per 1lour.
1905.

Ironers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

10
4
14
2

161
23
147
22

172
26
144
23

58.10
58.87
58.20
58.91

55.03
58.77
58.22
54.00

$0.2317
.1722
.2095
.2039

$0.248ST
.1748
.2082'
.2012

United States..........................................

30

353

365

58.24

56.49

.2169

.2246-

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
2
17
2

55
11
371
42

62
9
387
38

59.18 58.79
59.82 59.78
57.68 57.79
60.00 ; 55.58

.2260
.2180
.1892
.1664

. 2275*
.2397
.1900
.1710-

58.11

United States.........................................

29

479

496

57.78

.1921

.1941

Painters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................. .............
South Central.............................................

26
8
29
6

408
53
967
59

414 56.91 55.66
51 1 50.58 | 59.57
1
925 ! 58.17 58.41
60 59.80 i1 58.20

.2441
.2049
.2381
.2216

.2533
. 1978i,
.2379
.2292

United States..........................................

69

1,487

1,450

57.94

57.66

.2379

.2405’

Trimmers, carriage, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic........................................ ..
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

23
7
26
4

155
23
247
17

161
23
230
18

57.55
60.00
58.41
60.00

56.22
60.00
58.60
60.00

.2550
.2157
.2579
.2777

.2706
.2060
.2662
.2577

United States..........................................

60

442

432

58.25

57.85

-.2555

.2643

Woodworkers, male: (a)
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

12
4
10
5

48
7
62
27

51
7
69
34

56.42
59.14
58.58
59.56

56.24
59.14
58.74
55. 76

.2621
.2074
.2101
.1968

.2613
. 2145.1993
.1921

United States..........................................

31

144

161

58.07

57.34

.2248

.2181.

56.26
58.17
55.89
59.83
54.00

56.03
56.67
55.52
59.83
54.00

$0.3437
.2683
.3076
.2915
.3397

$0.3146
. 2728
.2935*
.3017
.3446

C A R S, ST E A M R A IL R O A D .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

6
6
22
7
4

241
158
473
156
211

295
165
554
158
161 |

United States..........................................

45

1,239

1,333

56.43

56.10

.3131

. 3028;

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
4
17
6
3

168
98
383
160
176

166
116
392
173
197

55.45
59.89
56.16
60.13
54 00

55.78
57.07
55.14
59.83
54.00

.2962
.2534
.3222
.2943
.3677

. 3238
.2565.3238
.3010
.3677

United States..........................................

33

985

1,044

56.67

56.02

.3145

.3216'

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

2
6

15
146

14
168

53.40
54. 74

52.14
54.48

.2398
.3406

.2328
.2929

United States..........................................

8

11
0

182 •54.61

54.30

.3312

.2888

a Work with hand tools and are often called wheelwrights.
2— N o. 65— 06----- 3




30

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.
O A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D — Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabVV
io i
nsnments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag<qwages
per tlour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Cabinetmakers, male:
North Atlantic ..........................................
South A tlantic............ ..............................
North Central............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.................................. ...................

3
4
11
2
1

216
72
911
31
22

215
91
531
31
22

54.51
56.42
54.68
60.00
54.00

54.26
55.00
54.94
60.00
54.00

10.3701
.2532
.3273
.2609
.3216

$0.3236
.2448
.2983
.2658
.3170

United States..........................................

21

1,252

890

54.87

54.94

.3287

.2983

Carpenters, male:
North A tlantic.. .......................................
South A t l a n t i c ................................... .
North Central.............................................
South Central.................................. ..........
Western.......................................................

6
7
22
7
4

767
462
2,521
545
320

898
594
3,400
757
305

55.69
57.11
55.97
60.15
54.00

55.03
57.16
55.94
59.51
54.00

.2449
.2306
.2661
.2264
.2713

.2580
. 2219
.2743
.2177
.2723

United States..........................................

46

4,615

5,954

56.40

56.28

.2547

.2593

Car repairers, male:
North A tlantic........................ ...................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

2
1
11
4

233
218
1,021
506

233
165
1,210
530

53.42
60.00
56.17
59.65

53.39
60.00
56.53
59.65

.2231
.2216
.2064
.2246

.2248
. 2216
. 2046
.2247

United S ta t e s ..............................

18

1,978

2,138

57.16

57.23

.2147

.2131

Coppersmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central........................ ...................
South Central.............................................

3
2
9
4

13
4
17
16

16
4
13
13

54.54
59.50
55.88
59.56

54.63
59.50
55.85
55.85

.3247
.2725
.2962
.3080

.3232
.3205
.2936
.3196

United States.........................................

18

50

46

57.00

55.74

.3055

.3136

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central................... .........................
South Central.............................................
W estern.............................................. ......

6
6
19
7
4

1,405
601
2,831
1,798
713

1,929
1,233
4,538
1,741
624

55.52
58.36
54.97
60.85
54.00

55.72
56.05
55.14
60.30
54.00

.1406
.1354
.1584
.1403
.1931

.1390
. 1436
.1629
.1429
.1913

7,348 10,065

56.70

56.18

.1521

.1542

United States................. .........................

42

Machine woodworkers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern......................................................

6
6
19
7
2

158
121
559
83
6

149
126
628
88
7

55.58
55.69
55.82
59.86
51.00

54.87
55.92
56.19
59.16
51.43

.2403
.2493
.2377
.2345
.3308

.2418
.2511
.2351
.2363
. 3236

United States..........................................

40

927

998

56.09

56.19

.2400

.2389

Machinists, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..........................................
Western.......................................................

6
7
21
7
4

875
590
2,058
504
554

1,038
694
2,259
541
675

55.62
58.94
55.38
60.00
54.00

55.46
56.81
54.27
59.03
54.00

.3044
.2644
.3105
.3115
.3518

.3094
.2738
.3087
.3111
.3526

United States..........................................

45

4,581

5,207

56.23

55.31

.3085

.3101

Holders, brass, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

11
3

86
16

91
17

54.30
59.81

54.38
58.12

.3100
.2913

.3154
.2982

United States..........................................

14

102

108

55.17

54.97

. 3071

.3127

Holders, iron, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

3
2
4
4

125
74
176
83

133
86
153
79

60.00
58.30
57.22
59.92

60.00
56.40
57.29
58.61

.3231
.2675
.3054
.2744

.3438
.2816
.2994
.2851

United States...........................................

13

458

451

58.64

58.15

.2985

.3066




31

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I _ A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
_
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.
CARS, STEAM

Occupation and geographical division.

R A I L R O A D — Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Painters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic.................... ......................
North Central.............................................
South Central............................................
W estern.......................................................

6
7
22
6
4

302
208
871
160
95

420
222
969
134
108

55.21
57.82
55.44
59.90
54.00

54.01
56.88
55.79
59.22
54.00

$0.2861
.2300
.2518
.2352
.2832

$0.3091
.2306
.2500
.2366
.2844

United States..........................................

45

1,696

1,853

56.02

55.66

.2567

.2621

Pattern makers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............ ..............................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
5
16
6
3

43
31
62
18
19

48
29
74
19
15

56.60
57.97
56.11
59.94
54.00

56.35
.2842
56.93 . . 2726
.3004
56.34
59.32
.3051
54.00
.3600

.2932
.2855
.2996
.3213
.3640

United States..........................................

35

173

185

56.73

56.55

.2984

.3032

Pipe fitters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
5
17
5
3

121
76
209
45
104

138
83
242
55
116

55.23
59.08
55.13
59.82
54.00

54.91
56.55
55.80
59.44
54.00

.2861
.2286
.2968
.2651
.2850

.2794
.2452
.2754
.2675
.2976

United States..........................................

36

555

634

55.86

55.69

.2804

.2757

Tinsmiths, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic................................ ..........
North Central.............................................
South Central.......................... ..................
Western.......................................................

5
6
21
6
3

71
108
345
77
75

71
102
315
72
59

54.41
58.45
55.33
59.94
54.00

53.90
56. 87
55.36
59.43
54.00

.2958
.2365
.2790
.2672
.3165

.2920
.2482
.2774
.2701
.3150

United S ta te s .........................................

41

676

619

56.11

55.79

.2768

.2770

Upholsterers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
7
15
5
3

84
34
304
10
28

86
70
177
14
29

51.71
57.50
54.82
59.90
54.00

51.36
55.29
55.69
58.14
54.00

.3064
.2491
.3164
.2756
.2959

.3179
.2622
.2749
.2789
.2988

United States..........................................

33

460

376

54.51

54.59

.3075

.2844

C D O T H X N 'G , F A C T O R Y

PRODUCT.

Buttonhole makers, machine, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

4
3
3

6
11
6

6
11
6

55.17
56.64
55.33

55.17
56.64
55.33

$0.2635
.2529
.2216

$0.2538
.2453
.2216

United States..........................................

10

23

23

55.91

55.91

.2475

.2413

Buttonhole makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

3
3
6
2

17
24
22
15

20
23
28
17

55.65
53.75
55.82
54.80

55.80
53.74
55.79
53.88

.1197
.1073
.1452
.0967

.1143
.1177
.1445
.1179

United States..........................................

14

78

88

54.95

54.89

1187

.1255

Cutters, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

13
2
10

450
78
166

474
83
183

51.76
53.37
49.92

52.51
53.57
50.09

.3557
. 3035
.3982

.3482
.3026
.3926

United States..........................................

25

694

740

51.50

52.03

.3600

.3541




32

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I , —AVERAGE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1904 AND 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y P R O D U C T —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages*
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1804.

1905.

Cutters, machine, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

8
3
8
2

15
49
147
6

14
51
167
5

50.20
53.92
48.39
54.33

50.14
53.92
48.34
53.80

$0.4530
.3502
.4518
.1861

$0.4454
.3496
.4277
.2059

United States..........................................

21

217

237

49.93

49.76

.4216

.4073

Examiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................ *
South Atlantic............................................I
North Central..................................:......... 1

7
4
7

66
20
49

57
22
50

52.23
55.20
50.69

51.21
55.27
50.76

.2834
.2460
.3112

.2930
.2473
.3074

United States.......................................... 1

18

135

129

52.11

51.73

' .2880

.2908

Examiners, female:
North Atlantic............................................1
1
North Central............................................. 1
South Central.............................................

2
4
2

9
15
8

9
24
11

52.67
56.20
54.13

53.33
55.92
53.82

.1412
.1198
.1040

.1254
.1196
.0999

United States.......................................... '

8

32

44

54.69

54.86

.1219

.1158

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................ '
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central............................................. 1

10
4
10
2

254
203
264
49

286
224
279
48

55.51
58.05
54.38
55.88

55.45
57.63
54.41
54.42

.1079
.0968
.1165
.0676

.1139
.1000
.1206
.0814

United States.......................................... '

26

770

837

55.82

55.63

.1054

.1105

i
Pressers, male:
North Atlantic............................................ 1
South Atlantic............................................ 1
North Central............................................. 1
South Central.............................................

13
4
10
2

320
89
173
13

362
88
183
11

54.31
58.67
54.25
56.85

54.43
58.78
54.23
54.45

.1988
.2038
.2701
.1854

.2008
.2001
.2614
.1802

United States..........................................

29

595

644

55.00

54.97

.2200

.2176

Pressers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3
2

9
2

11
2

52,22
58.00

53.09
58.00

.1470
.1026

.1573
.1179

United States..........................................

5

11

13

53.27

53.85

.1389

.1512

Sewing-machine operators, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

12
4
6
2

476
128
43
10

551
140
60
8

55.15
58.78
54.74
56.40

55.26
58.72
54.47
54.13

.2029
.2572
.2800
.1719

.2084
.2362
.2848
.1767

United States..........................................

24

657

759

55.85

55.82

.2180

.2193

Sewing-machine operators, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.................................. .........
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
3
10
2

467
223
538
185

511
214
618
195

54.09
55.87
55.09
54.86

54.14
55.84
54.79
53.92

.1260
.1121
.1470
.1027

.1327
.1162
.1509
.1149

United States..........................................

26

1,413

1,538

54.85

54.61

.1288

.1354

C L O T H IN G , M E N ’S, C U ST O M W O R K .
Bushelmen. male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

28
19
32
17
15

97
42
104
28
25

102
47
106
29
26

56.97
58.93
58.30
59.14
56.12

57.13
58.72
58.24
59.07
56.15

$0.2479
.2416
.2526
.3032
.3309

$0.2532
.2433
.2560
.3072
.3345

United S ta tes,.........................................

111

296

310 1 57.85

57.85

.2609

.2645




33

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,

Table I . —AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1904 AND 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

C D O T H IN G , M E N ’S, C U ST O M W O R K —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.
$0.1495
.1216
.1314
.1094

Bushelmen, female:
North Atlantic........................ ,..................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

4
5
2
2

8
14
3
5

8
12
4
5

57.75
57.64
57.33
57.60

57.75
57.75
57.00
57.60

|

1905.
10.1500
.1184
.1384
.1094

United States..........................................

13

30

29

57.63

57.62

.1280 i

. 1283

Coat makers, male:
North Atlantic.......\ ..................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern......................................................

9
10
23
10
9

45
80
311
57
66

46
77
328
67
82

68.00
60.15
58.63
59.68
55.73

67.22
60.16
58.66
59.45
55.40

.2614
.3308
.3035
.3605
.3727

.2662
.3271
.3099
.3552
.4037

United States..........................................

61

559

600

59.36

59.16

.3180

.3266

Cutters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

27
17
30
16
11

77
30
75
22
14

76
31
76
24
14

55.00
57.30
56.87
58.09
55.57

54.89
57 19
56.93
58.25
55.57

.4964
.4970
.5235
.6139
.7250

.5165
.4993
.5446
.6293
,7511

United States..........................................

.101

218

221

56.31

56.33

.5323

.5509

Pants makers, male;
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
6
20
8
7

9
20
84
16
15

9
20
80
16
16

75.78
60.00
58.69
59.75
56.00

75.78
60.00
58.88
59.75
56.25

.2427
.3168
.2582
. 3156
.3253

.2242
.3224
.2704
.3452
.3434

United S tates..........................................

45

144

141

59.78

59.91

.2787

.2916

Pants makers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
4
4
3
2

7
22
90
17
14

7
20
75
18
15

69.71
59.18
56.78
59.29
54.00

69.71
59.10
56.92
59.33
54.00

.1655
.1209
.1242
.1438
.1653

.1731
.1232
.1249
.1536
.1698

United States...........................................

16

150

135

57.76

57.90

,1317

.1360

C O T T O N G O O D S.
Carding-machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

18
9
2

349
86
7

354
94
7

59.15
66.00
64.71

59.18
66.00
64.71

$0.1130
.0735
.0756

$0.1158
.0794
.0763

United States..........................................

29

442

455

60.57

60.67

.1048

.1077

Dyers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................... ............

4
4

338
46

339
43

59.90
66.00

59.90
66.00

.1331
.0900

.1331
.0979

8

384

382

60.63

60.59

.1280

.1291

Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central ............................................

17
9
3

618
126
38

604
130
38

59.15
66.00
64.50

59.17
66.00
63.32

.2068
.1367
.1466

.2060
.1368
.1552

United States.....................................

United States..........................................

29

782

772

60.52

60.53

.1926

.1919

Spinners, frame, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................

7
4

43
78

44
72

59.02
66.00

59.45
66.00

.0841
.0584

.0885
.0744

United States..........................................

11

121

116

63.52

63.52

.0675

.0797




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

T able I .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1904 AND 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

C O T T O N G O O D S —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Spinners, frame, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

17
9
3

2,216
553
222

2,301
533
228

58.97
66.00
64.32

58.95
66.00
64.79

10.0959
.0609
.0524

$0.0992
.0736
.0528

United States..........................................

29

2,991

3,062

60.67

60.61

.0862

.0913

Spinners, mule, male:
North Atlantic............................................

13

321

316

59.45

59.43

.1866

.1907

Weavers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central..............................................

17
9
2

2,726
578
166

2,678
618
146

59.13
66.00
65.71

59.10
66.00
65.84

.1555
.1057
.0847

.1574
.1077
.0940

United States..........................................

28

3,470

3,442

60.59

60.63

.1438

.1458

Weavers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.............................................

17
9
3

5,529
680
395

5,473
642
336

59.08
66.00
64.12

59.12
66.00
64.38

.1444
.0917
.0788

.1445
.0937
.0807

United States..........................................

29

6,604

6,451

60.09

60.08

.1350

.1361

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .
Bleachers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Calendrers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Color mixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Dyers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Engravers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Printers, male:
North Atlantic............................................

14

312

394

58.92

59.05

$0.1207

$0.1212

14

210

255

58.85

59.06

.1446

.1434

9

129

139

57.91

58.88

.1282

.1313

14

418

413

59.10

59.14

.1432

.1443

8

79

83

57.92

57.70

.4472

.4499

10

98

101

58.66

58.32

.4484

.4446

E L E C T R IC A L A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L I E S .
Armature winders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
2

221
17

331
25

54.55
54.41

54.70
54.40

$0.2757
.2520

$0.2871
.2359

United States...........................................

7

238

356

54.54

54.68

.2740

.2835

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

4
1

59
10

50
34

54.83
54.00

54.68
54.00

.2924
.2390

.3101
.2376

United States...........................................

5

69

84

54.71

54.40

.2847

.2808

Incandescent lamp makers, female: (a)
North Atlantic............................................

1

459

490

55.00

55.00

.1237

.1256

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
2

886
46

1,335
70

54.31
54.11

54.23
£4.07

.2880
.2527

.2814
.2436

United States...........................................

7

932

1,405

54.30

54.22

.2863

.2795

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3

122
19

150
27

54.89
54.00

54.75
54.00

.3725
.3558

.3813
.3406

United States...........................................

4

141

177

54.77

54.63

.3702

.3751

a Includes carbon mounting, sealing in, and exhausting and sealing.




35

WAGES AND HONES OF NABOB, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

FLOUR.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Bolters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

4
2
17
4
5

14
10
95
20
11

14
10
92
18
11

68.57
72.00
55.49
72.00
68.18

68.57
72.00
55.76
72.00
68.18

$0.2457
.1111
.2692
.1479
.2421

$0.2457
. 11*7
.2o74
• 14o9
.24o9

United States...........................................

32

150

145

60.95

61.08

.2383

.2381

Laborers, male:
North. Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............. •
...............................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

8
2
26
4
5

220
35
1,004
165
63

211
36
1,052
196
61

60.93
67.89
61.26
69.31
65.52

60.97
68.00
61.35
69.92
65.31

.1786
.0883
.1777
.1022
.2302

.1810
.0923
. 1768
.1060
.2306

United States...........................................

45

1,487

1,556

62.44

62.68

.1696

.1686

Millers, male: («)
North Atlantic............. .............................
South Atlantic....................................... ....
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

9
2
26
4
5

33
6
207
17
15

33
6
214
19
15

65.76
70.00
59.03
72.00
67.60

65.76
70.00
59.29
72.00
67.60

.2677
.1551
.2712
.2219
.3411

.2689
. 1620
.2731
.2164
.3411

United States...........................................

46

278

287

61.32

61.53

.2690

.2701

Millwrights, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.................... . . .7 .... ............
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

6
2
21
4
5

19
2
84
16
6

16
2
99
16
6

57.79
66.00
61.10
59.63
65.00

57.38
66.00
60.93
59.69
65.00

.3893
.3125
.2987
.3068
.2979

.3967
.3021
.2908
.2923
.2979

United States......... ..... ...........................

38

127

139

60.68

60.63

.3134

.3036

Packers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

9
2
25
4
5

147
38
787
103
39

139
43
869
130
39

62.20
72.00
57.26
65.24
68.46

62.50
72.00
57.85
65.72
68.46

.1795
.0992
.2203
.1437
.2418

.1844
.1036
.2245
.1412
.2487

United States..........................................

45

1,114

1,220

59.54

60.06

.2045

.2076

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

65
18
58
21
17

318
61
237
39
58

339
52
260
44
56

57.72
54.97
56.61
55.77
53.98

57.54
55.23
56.67
55.84
54.73

$0.2875
.2750
.2965
.3176
.3834

$0.2926
.2798
.2999
.3289
.3817

United States...........................................

179

713

751

55.30

56.77

.2989

.3030

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic.............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

35
11
24
10
11

613
71
298
92
112

614
73
291
96
108

56.37
54.45
55.81
57.70
54.21

56.42
53.11
55.64
57.93
53.94

.2838
.2947
.2868
.3199
.3887

.2883
.2927
.3063
.3151
.3814

United States...........................................

91

1,186

1,182

56.01

55.92

.2979

.3037

Boiler riveters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

12
1
4
3

100
25
29
9

104
39
21
8

55.87
54.00
58.00
59.11

55.67
54.00
57.00
59.13

.2790
.2456
.2161
.2857

.2830
.2578
.2268
.2986

United States..........................................

20

163

172

56.14

55.62

.2630

.2712




a Includes all classes of millers.

36

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G E O G RAPH ICAL D IV IS IO N S -C on tin ued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
per tlour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Brass finishers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

15
1
9
1

266
2
199
22

280
2
218
25

54.55
54.00
54.99
54.00

54.54
54.00
55.01
54.00

$0.2658
.2500
.2605
.3011

$0.2666
.2500
.2605
.2760

United States..........................................

26

489

525

54.70

54.71

.2652

.2644

Core makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............... ............................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

56
10
35
7
11

304
28
197
12
25

388
27
255
17
28

57.00
55.00
55.32
55.42
53.88

57.23
55.07
55.47
55.35
53.86

.2527
.2210
.2382
.2524
.3551

.2454
.2254
.2401
.2725
.3614

United States..........................................

119

566

715

56.15

56.35

.2506

.2479

Core makers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

2
3

5
131

3
234

55.80
54.40

55.67
54.23

.1111
.1232

.1321
.1177

237. 54.46

54.24

.1227

.1179

United States...........................................

5

136

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western......................................................

71
20
61
23
17

2,751
886
3,368
545
284

3,140
815
3,904
549
336

57.77
55.41
56.17
56.64
54.32

57.60
55.59
56.20
56.87
54.71

.1529
.1382
.1682
. 1462
.2265

.1555
.1389
.1683
.1482
.2205

United States...........................................

192

7,834

8,744

56.61

56.63

.1600

.1617

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.......... ................................
North Central.............................................
Smith Central............................ ......... .......
Western.......................................................

72
24
70
23
17

3,343
340
2,417
304
370

3,881
324
2,627
298
409

56.50
54.71
55.35
55.45
53.98

56.95
54.73
55.33
55.68
54.61

.2706
.2749
.2736
.3164
.3590

.2715
.2751
.2748
.3207
.3590

United States..........................................

206

6,774

7,539

55.81

56.12

‘.2788

.2795

Molders, brass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western..................................'....................

28
3
14
2
1

157
5
132
3
13

151
5
123
3
10

54.76
55.20
55.03
54.00
54.00

54.95
55.20
55.24
54.00
54.00

.3087
.2767
.2745
.3148
.2931

.3048
.2822
.2555
.3148
.3175

United States...........................................

48

310

292

54.85

55.03

.2930

.2842

Molders, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................. ...............
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

63
18
53
19
16

1,541
238
1,052
130
173

1,789
213
1,242
182
211

56.66
55.64
55.78
55.45
53.94

56.50
55.48
55.90
56.35
54.25

.3032
.2851
.3054
.3162
.3970

.3028
.2835
.3039
.3140
.3931

United States...........................................

169

3,134

3,637

56.09

56.09

.3083

.3078

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

65
18
49
22
17

371
57
338
49
73

433
59
372
67
73

56.48
55.95
55.37
55.63
53.99

56.27
55.42
55.51
56.15
55.05

.3161
.3083
.3230
.3355
.3954

.3233
.3122
.3254
.3301
.3933

United States...........................................

171

888

1,004

55.77

55.84

.3258

.3290




37

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b l e I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS— Continued.

F U R N IT U R E .

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lishments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average5 wages
per htour*

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Cabinetmakers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

17
6
34
1

347
121
703
33

380
182
704
31

54.99
59.01
56.92
60.00

54.77
56.79
56.81
60.00

$0.2796
.1601
.2308
.1607

$0.2864
.2063
.2303
.1758

United States..........................................

58

1,204

1,297

56.66

56.29

.2358

.2421

Carvers, hand, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

13
2
21

82
5
140

93
12
109

49.44
50.40
54.86

49.06
49.00
56.28

.3482
.4180
.2782

.3379
.4408
.2693

United States..........................................

36

227

214

52.81

52.74

.3066

.3087

Machine woodworkers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

16
6
34
1

209
191
648
17

221
199
663
19

56.79
59.75
58.05
60.00

56.78
59.60
57.99
60.00

.2455
. 1528
.1983
.1711

.2549
.1668
.2009
.1706

United States...........................................

57

1,065

1,102

58.14

58.07

.1990

.2051

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

10
4
29
1

16
16
97
3

18
16
99
5

56.44
60.00
57.71
60.00

56.11
60.00
57.57
60.00

.2536
.1630
.2157
.1800

.2633
.1729
.2181
.1810

United States..........................................

44

132

138

57.89

57.75

.2131

.2174

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
3
29

41
17
209

45
11
220

54.63
60.00
57.75

54.40
60.00
57.82

.2691
.1456
.2027

.2794
.1583
.2059

United States..........................................

43

267

276

57.41

57.35

.2092

.2160

Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
5

6
6

6
6

53.83
58.33

53.50
58.33

.3001
.2274

.3023
.2274

U n i t e d S t a t e s ........... _..................* ....................

10

12

12

56.08

55.92

.2638

.2649

Upholsterers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

8
1
15

134
5
237

138
13
258

49.01
52.00
55.30

49.17
52.00
55.47

.3730
.3462
.2548

.3856
.3492
.2530

United States..........................................

24

376

409

53.02

53.23

.2982

.3008

Vamishers, male: («)
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

16
6
36
1

261
93
609
11

279
99
667
10

56.77
59.66
57.02
60.00

56.81
59.35
56.91
60.00

.2200
.1414
.1961
.1432

.2276
.1508
.1975
.1492

United States..........................................

59

974

1,055

57.24

57.14

.1967

.2006

G AS.
Laborers, male:(&)
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

17
10
19
7
8

1,633
438
1,697
325
543

1,524
396
2,077
351
673

59.95
62.72
61.39
61.03
52.90

60.80
63.86
61.26
61.06
54.40

$0.1672
.1426
.1672
.1416
.2621

$0.1707
.1444
. 1666
.1376
.2470

United States..........................................

61

4,636

5,021

59.99

60.39

.1742

.1749

a Includes finishers.




&At gas works and on streets.

38

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I , — A V E R A G E W A G ES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D GEO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.
G A S — Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Occupation and geographical division.

Pipe fitters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.....................................................

15 • 271
8
52
16
391
7
78
8
232

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

286
60
390
69
262

59.48
57.98
59.29
60.26
53.59

50.21
57.95
59.33
60.43
53.93

$0.2370
.2430
. 2315
.2042
.3471

$0.2346
.2452
.2196
.2056
.3450

1905.

United States..........................................

54

1,024

1,067

58.06

57.97

.2576

.2550

Stokers, male: (<*)
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

14
9
15
5
7

477
166
633
79
77

432
183
575
74
95

78.36
75.23
80.12
83.29
77.14

78.00
75.46
79.27
83.24
77.89

.2147
.1780
.1978
.1397
.2542

.2177
.1730
.2013
.1415
.2534

United States...... ....................................

50

1,432

1,359

78.98

78.47

.2009

.2031

GXjA S S .
Batch makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

18
6

51
14

51
14

58.96
58.71

59.22
58.71

$0.1881
. 1957

$0.1885
.2058

United States..........................................

24

65

65

58.91

59.11

.1897

.1922

Blowers, flint glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

10
3

457
277

428
223

49.63
50.50

49.75
50.19

.6047
.6182

.5999
.5824

United States..........................................

13

734

651

49.96

49.90

.6097

.5939

Blowers, green glass, male:
North A tlantic...........................................

5

360

332

51.09

51.02

.7102

.6710

Blowers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

126
87

147
82

41.46
43.95

41.17
44.20

.7398
.6758

.8754
.8321

229

42.48

42.25

.7137

.8599

United States.................. -......................

8

213

Cutters, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

46
27

54 50.39
28 s
60.00

49.15
60.00

.5443
. 4133

. 6404
.5175

United States..........................................

8

73

82

53.95

52.85

.4958

.5984

Flatteners, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

30
18

32
18

58.40
65.00

59.50
65.00

.5906
.4915

.7298
.5984

United States..........................................

8

48

50

G . 88
O

61.48

.5535

.6825

Gaffers, flint glass, male:
North A tlantic...........................................

6

130

113

50.32

50.44

.5353

.5348

Gatherers, flint glass, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

6
2

186
120

174
149

50.34
50.07

50.41
49.77

.3001
.3627

.3022
. 3341

United States..........................................

8

306

323

50.24

50.11

.3247

.3169

Gatherers, window glass, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

5
3

126
87

147
82

41.46
43.95

41.17
44.20

.5372
.4934

.6441
.5969

United States..........................................

8

213

229

42.48

42.25

.5193

.6272

a Includes both chargers and retort men, which are given separately in the Nineteenth Annual Report
of this Bureau.




39

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1904 AND 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.
G E A S S — Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.
$0.1707

$0.1739

1905.

Gathering boys (b it), male:
North Atlantic...........................................

5

18

17

49.94

49.88

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

18
6

393
113

449
139

59.50
60.35

59.58
59.93..

.1493
.1541

1508
.1613

United States..........................................

24

506

588

59.69

59.66

.1503

.1533

Leersmen, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

21
6

150
28

162
24

58.70
67.36

59.09
65.92

.1702
.1644

.1681
.1666

United States..........................................

27

178

186

60.06

59.97

.1693

.1679

Packers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

20
2

200
22

219
27

56.51
58.55

56.72
58.74

.1937
.1890

.1942
.1891

United States..........................................

22

222

246

56.71

56.94

.1933

.1936

Teasers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

17
6

88
23

88
29

78.61
83.39

7a 61
83.52

.1940
.1873

. 1931
.1856

United States..........................................

23

111

117

79.60

79.83

.1926

.1912

H A R N ESS.
Collar makers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

8
2
14
5
1

54
20
207
33
7

54
24
207
33
7

56.96
58.70
57.01
56.91
54.00

56.74
58.67
56.33
56.58
54.00

$0.2798
.1803
.2388
.2203
.3303

$0.2868
.1811
.2431
.2239
.3315

United States..........................................

30

321 |

325

57.03

56.54

.2421

.2457

Cutters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

11
4
23
6
5

16
22
139
46
12

15
22
149
41
11

56.75
58.77
57.99
58.13
55.42

56.53
58. 77
56.95
58.15
55.55

. 2859
.2180
.2649
.2676
.3275

.2893
.2226
.2696
.2697
.3270

United States............ .............................

49

235

238

57.87

57.24

.2657

.2691

Fitters and finishers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
1
13
2
1

66
7i
253
13
9

67
7
250
10
11

55.11
59.00
57.10
59.00
54.00

55.09
59.00
57.32
59.00
54.00

.2765
.1477
.2507
.1669
.3251

.2809
.1477
.2531
.1508
.2790

United States..........................................

26

348

345

56.75

56.87

.2523

.2542

Harness makers, male: («)
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
4
17
6
3

35
65
341
80
35

36
63
371
79
41

56.00
58.92
57.91
56.81
56.03

56.11
58.89
57.01
57.37
56.32

.2592
.1942
.2307
.2427
.3039

.2639
.1950
.2381
.2302
.2860

United States..........................................

35

556

590

57.63

57.16

.2346

.2373

Stitchers, hand, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

9
6
1

52
16
3

50
13
3

54.69
57.63
59.00

54.50
57.31
59.00

.2241
.2049
.2542

.2192
.2089
.2542

United States..........................................

16

71

66

55.54

55.26

.2211

.2187




o Do all parts of the work.

40

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . —A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D GEO G RAPH ICAL D IV IS IO N S -C on tin u ed .
H A R N E S S — Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

1904.

1905.

1904.

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

Stitchers, machine, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
3
23
6
4

4
13
159
33
11

4
13
143
33
12

53.50
58. 77
57.57
57.64
54. 45

53.50
58.77
57.07
57.79
54.42

$0.2923
.2030
.2597
.2545
.3119

$0.3062
.2030
.2570
.2556
.3141

United States..........................................

40

220

205

57.42

57.07

.2588

.2577

$0.3585

H A TS, FU R.
Blockers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Colorers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Coners, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Curlers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Feeders, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
Feeders, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
Finishers, male: .
North A tlantic...........................................
Flangers, male:
NOrth Atlantic...........................................
Fur blowers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Hardeners, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Pouncers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Sizers, male:
North A tlantic................... .•..................
Stiffeners, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Trimmers, female:
North A tlantic...........................................
Weighers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................

13

156

185

54.99

54.01

$0.3406

12

68

76

55.53

55.38

.1927

.1985

15

82

91

55.61

54.14

.2810

.2903

11

80

90

54.01

53.82

.4562

.4880

4

8

11

54.50

54.45

.0974

.0993

9

40

47

54.18

54.23

.1093

.1082

13

887

876

53.92

53.79

.3016

.3145

13

151

154

55.70

55.71

.2854

.3006

13

76

80

55.50

55.41

.1256

.1384

14

69

74

o5.13

53.97

.2934

.2985

11

166

201

54.40

54.26

.2545

.2441

13

1,049

1,141

53.85

53.65

.2867

.2828

14

46

48

53.00

52.13

.3693

.3668

14

1,149

1,215

54.48

54.36

.1294

.1411

11

28

31

53.64

53.68

.1199

.1207

H O S IE R Y A N D K N IT G O O DS.
Boarders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

14
2
4

181
36
81

214
36
81

58.50
65.92
59.78

58.70
65.92
58.49

$0.1854
.1220
.1253

$0.1913
. 1152
.1266

United States...........................................

20

298

331

59.47

59.43

.1614

.1672

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

14
1
4

667
59
170

834
39
188

58.06
66.00
59.01

57.93
66.00
59.07

.1208
.0848
.0806

.1278
.0974
.0815

United States...........................................

19

896

1,061

58.76

58.43

.1108

.1185

Knitters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

10
2
2

227
46
107

248
51
124

58.85
65.54
58.16

58.58
65.59
58.15

.1845
.1039
.2954

.1939
.1083
.2934

United States...........................................

14

380

423

59. 47

59.30

.2060

.2127

Knitters, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central............... .............................

13
4

383
232

524
230

58.48
58.63

58.45
58.57

.1199
.0932

.1330
.0980

United States...........................................

17

615

754

58.54

58.48

.1098

.1223




41

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b u s I . — AVE R A G E W AGES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D GEO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.

H O S I E R Y A N D K N I T G O O D S —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.
1904.

1905.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

Loopers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central..................... .......................

11
2
3

287
126
113

353
123
119

58.16
65.49
58.58

58.76 $0.1318
65.63
.0735
.1141
58.65-

1905.
$0.1427
.0745
.1075

United States..........................................

16

526

595

60.00

60.16

.1140

.1215

Menders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

14
2
2

290
58
82

338
65
110

58.60
65.47
58.51

58.35
65.43
58.45

.1192
.0566
.0983

.1295
.0706
.0944

United States..........................................

18

430

513

59.51

59.27

.1068

.1145

Pressers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

11
2
1

70
19
9

72
24
9

59.11
65.21
57.56

58.92
65.08
57.56

.1535
.0695
.1439

.1693
.0710
.1539

United States..........................................

14

98

105

60.15

60.21

.1363

.1455

Pressers; female:
North Atlantic............. .............................

3

26

76

57.19

57.97

.1016

.1094

Ribbers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

4
2

118
37

124
46

60.00
59.68

60.00
59.67

.1397
. 1078

.1480
.1117

United States.........................................

6

155

170

59.92

59.91

.1321

.1381

IR O N A N D ST E E D , B A R .
Catchers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
8
2

41
10
44
8

41
13
43
8

61.41
60.00
64.36
72.00

62.00
60.00
64.58
72.00

$0.2952
.2280
.5173
.2658.

$0.3153
.2531
.5299
.2527

United States.................... .....................

23

103

105

63.36

63.57

.3812

.3907

Heaters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central........................ ....................
South Central..............................................

9
2
9
2

32
10
66
8

33
11
63
8

62.50
60.00
67.76
72.00

63.52
60.00
67.83
72.00

.5030
.4303
.7165
.4761

.4989
.4609
.6698
.4719

United States..........................................

22

116

115

65.93

66.13

.6164

.5870

Heaters’ helpers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
2
9
2

32
12
74
12

33
14
71
13

65.75
60.00
67.35
72.00

66.67
60.00
67.39
72.00

.2466
.2089
.3327
.1909

.2564
.2404
.3228
.1715

United States...........................................

21

130

131

66.71

66.88

.2870

.2823

H ot straighteners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
6
2

82 !
20
106
14

81
33
109
15

61.89
60.00
65.09
72.00

62.06
60.00
64.62
72.00

.1809
.1431
.2664
.1093

.1918
.1604
.2709
.1203

United States..........................................

21

222

238

63.89

63.58

.2138

.2192

Rollers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
6
1

31
7
33
6

31
8
33
10

62.16
60.00
70.30
72.00

62.55
60.00
70.30
72.00

. 6978
.5596
1.0627
.6285

.7237
.6682
1.0887
.7886

United States..........................................

20

77

82

66.22 | 66.57

.8362.

.8731




42

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LAB O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D GEO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

I R O N A N D S T E E D , B A R —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Boughers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
2
10
2

65
14
137
16

65
21
138
19

62.43
60.00
60.69
72.00

63.17
60.00
60.90
72.00

$0.3289
.3296
.5191
.3228

$0.3536
.3547
.5236
.3472

United States...........................................

25

232

243

61.92

62.30

.4408

.4498

IR O N A N D S T E E D , B E SS E M E R C O N V E R T IN G .
Blowers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
2
5
2

18
5
10
4

18
4
11
4

60.00
73.20
64.80
78.00

60.00
75.00
65.45
78.00

$0.5229
.4089
.5693
.3146

$0.5481
.4104
.5543
.3664

United States...........................................

16

37

37

65.03

65.19

.4975

.5154

Bottom makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central..............................................

7
2
5
2

20
6
12
8

20
6
12
8

68.40
76.00
66.00
64.00

68.40
76.00
66.00
64.00

.2741
.1890
.2908
.1901

.2832
.2112
.3181
.1901

United States...........................................

16

46

46

68.00

68.00

.2527

.2667

Ladle liners, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

7
2
5
2

20
5
11
4

20
5
11
4

64.80
71.80
64.36
78.00

64.80
71.80
65.45
78.00

.3174
.2359
.3835
.2159

.3578
.2937
.3937
.2101

United States..........................................

16

40

40

66 88

67.18

.3153

.3449

Melters, male:
North A tlantic/.........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7
2
4

29
4
31

27
4
35

64.55
75.00
51.10

66.67
75.00
49.37

.4124
.3673
.4730

.4052
.4489
.5194

United States..........................................

13

64

66

58.69

58.00

.4390

.4684

Steel pourers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7
2
5

25
4
16

27
4
17

56.64
75.00
49.50

57.78
75.00
50.82

.4056
.3385
.6052

.4542
.4221
.6831

United States...........................................

14

45

48

55.73

56.75

.4706

.5326

Vessel men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

7
2
5
2

25
6
20
4

22
6
22
4

63.36
72.00
50.40
78.00

62.18
72.00
52.36
78.00

.4665
.3485
.7467
.2980

.5367
.4309
.7206
.2775

United States...........................................

16

55 |

54

60.65

60.44

.5432

.5807

IR O N A N D ST E E D , B D A ST F U R N A C E .
Cinder snappers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

9
2
7
5

91
40
64
18

101
40
58
18

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

$0.1365
.1410
.1591
.1120

$0.1449
.1481
.1708
.1144

United States...........................................

23

213

217

84.00

84.00

.1421

.1499




43

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

I R O N A N O S T E E E , B E A S T F U R N A C E —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

$0.1661
.1517
.1740
.1428

$0.1787
.1550
.1734
.1416

Hot-blast men, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic.......... ................................
North Central........... ............. ..................
South Central..............................................

9
2
7
5

51
10
33
14

58
10
36
14

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

United States..........................................

23

108

118

84.00

84.00

.1642

.1707

Keepers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

9
2
7
5

57
10
44
14

62
10
44
14

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1898
.1700
.2010
.1548

. 1989
.1840
.2095
.1578

i

United States..........................................

23

125

130

84.00

84.00

.1882

.1969

Keepers' helpers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

9
2
7
5

96
30
127
40

118
28
129
42

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

84.00
84.00
84.00
84.00

.1527
.1400
.1644
.1187

.1608
.1423
.1726
.1206

United S ta tes..........................................

23

293

317

84.00

84.00

.1518

.1586

Top fillers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

6
1
7
5

58
18
89
16

72
18
67
16

84.00
84.00
72.04
84.00

84.00
84.00
78.99
84.00

. 1436
.1350
.2120
.1422

.1514
.1350
.2002
.1463

United States..........................................

19

181

173

78.12

82.06

.1762

.1681

LEATHER.
Colorers, male:
North A tla n tic..........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western......................................................

15
2
8
2

178
26
34
2

172
25
40
2

58.85
60.00
58.65
57.00

58.70
60.00
59.70
57.00

$0.1999
.1436
.2001
.2412

$0.1947
.1450
.1961
.2412

United S ta tes.........................................

27

240

239

58.93

58.99

.1942

.1901

Fleshers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

22
11
11
5

224
57
69
16

231
64
68
16

58.77
59.95
58.25
59.06

59.18
59.95
59.00
59.06

.1952
.1496
.1942
.1807

.1820
. 1514
.1973
.1825

United States..........................................

49

366

379

58.87

59.27

.1873

.1796

Glaze rs, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.......................... ..................

15
2
3

595
72
18

600
72
30

59.12
60.00
55.39

59.08
60.00
59.80

.1793
.1796
.1571

.1784
.1823
.1539

United States..........................................

20

685

702

59.12

59.20

.1787

.1777

Glazers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

2
2
3

25
163
31

20
141
49

59.68
60.00
59.71

59.60
60.00
59.71

.1201
.1087
.1063

.1391
.1102
.0928

United States..........................................

7

219

210

59.92

59.90

.1097

.1089

Limers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

18
8
12
4
2

215
68
142
24
6

221
83
140
23
6

58.24
59.94
59.01
59. 42
57.83

58.17
59.95
59.67
59.39
57.83

.1824
.1302
.1713
. 1265
.2076

.1833
. 1381
.1706
. 1292
.2076

United States..........................................

44

455

473

58.79

58.98

.1685

.1693




44

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able 1 .— A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LAB O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIONS— Continued.

L E A T H E R —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establisnments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

56.41
60.00
59.38
59.88

$0.1983
.1458
.1739
.1433

$0.2034
.1485
.1804
.1409

58.18

.1740

.1778

Rollers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.......... ................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

9
6
4
3

61
37
16
14

63
35
16
17

55.93
60.00
59.38
59.86

1905.

United States..........................................

22

128

131

57.97

Setters out, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

16
3
10
2

189
16
133
5

200
15
120
6

58.98
59.94
58.00
57.00

58.96
59.80
59.06
57.00

.1705
.1632
.2034
.2456

.1746
.1349
.2162
.2456

--- . = = = = =

United States..........................................

31

343

341

58.62

59.00

.1841

.1888

Shavers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............ ...............................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

18
3
9
2

97
21
99
3

108
28
122
3

57.93
60.00
59.09
57.00

58.10
60.00
59.70
57.00

.3029
.1858
.2361
.2749

.3074
.1855
.2324
.2749

United States..........................................

32

220

261

58.64

59.04

.2612

.2589

Stakers, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic....... ...................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
2
4
1

326
31
55
12

365
43
48
7

59.04
60.00
56.60
57.00

59.05
60.00
59.44
57.00

.2131
.1893
.1746
.2339

.2160
.1776
.1692
.2381

United States..........................................

20

424

463

58.73

59.15

.2070

.2079

Tan-yard hands, male: (<*)
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
’ Western.......................................................

23
12
11
4
2

380
266
274
77
6

421
290
281
78
9

58.82
59.97
58.82
59.84
57.50

58.87
59.98
59.20
59.85
57.33

.1579
.1214
.1779
.1099
.2258

.1588
.1243
.1794
.1101
.2110

United States..........................................

62

1,003

1,079

59.20

59.31

.1504

.1518

Unhairers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

19
12
9
3
2

145
120
79
18
14

152
148
82
16
14

58.39
59.99
58.10
60.00
57.00

58.53
59.99
59.02
60 00
57.00

.190
.1438
.1984
.1295
.2343

.2060
.1498
.2019
.1289
.2337

United States..........................................

45

376

412

58 86

59.16

.1759

.1829

L IQ U O R S , M A L T .
Bottlers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

11
3
16
2
3

86
41
2,747
110
46

97
41
2,798
108
47

56.97
56.93
50.93
56.73
49.17

57. 34
56 93
50 47
56 89
49 15

$0.2067
.1773
.1892
.1975
.2939

$0.2082
.1773
.1919
.1965
.2959

United States..........................................

35

3,030

3,091

51.37

50 97

.1914

.1939

Cellar men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

22
3
18
4
4

298
31
413
40
76

322
32
413
40
72

57.69
55.94
49. 22
53.25
48.00

57.55
56.06
49.24
53.55
48.00

.2956
.2716
.3162
.2920
.4169

.2985
.2695
.3226
.2907
.4266

United States...........................................

51

858

879

52.48

52.63

.3152

.3189

a Handle hides at the vats and in the yards, and are called tanners in the Nineteenth Annual
Report of this Bureau.




45

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,

-

T able I . — AVER A G E W AGES AND HOURS OF LAB O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B T
OCCUPATIONS AN D GEOG RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.

L IQ U O R S , M A L T —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Occupation and geographical division.

Coopers, male:

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Western.......................................................

21
2
11
2
4

65
4
312
14
25

69
4
274
12
20

54.91
60.00
48.42
54.00
50.16

55.29
60.00
48.49
55.00
48.00

$0.3145
.2542
.3046
.3091
.4071

$0.3152.2542:
.3189*
.3025*
.4359*

United States..........................................

40

420

379

49.83

50.03

.3119

.3232-

Western.......................................................

22
3
18
4
5

566
45
469
89
56

581
41
483
91
62

59.21
59,33
58 89
61.75
58.29

58.62
58.98
57.84
62.09
58.26

.2856
.2661
.2555
.2439
.3539

.2914
.2720*
.2626.2397
.3516*

Drivers, male:
North Central.............................................
United States..........................................

52

1,225

1,258

59.23

58.56

.2735

.2789

Fermenters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
17
1
3

95
10
141
1
9

98
10
142
1
10

57.38
57.30
48.72
54.00
48.00

57.31
57.30
48.78
54.00
48.00

.3002
.3054
.3223
.2982
.4125

.3052
.3054
.3282
.2982
.4150

United States..........................................

46

256

261

52.27

52.30

.3165

.3219

Kettle men, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic....................... ....................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

22
3
18
4
4

78
7
117
11
28

79
7
118
10
26

57.23
56.14
49.80
54.55
48.00

56.96
56.14
48.94
54.00
48.00

.3010
.2993
.3241
.3248
.4216

.3073
.2993
.3282
.3322
.4332

United States..........................................

51

241

240

52.40

51.90

.3273

.3320

Malt-house men, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
11
4

74
224
39

78
218
38

64 66
49.09
48.00

64.59
49.09
48.00

.2432
.3220
.4123

.2384
.3301
.4155

United States..........................................

21

337

334

52.38

52.59

.3151

.3184

Washers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.....................................................

22
3
18
3
4

246
14
326
25
56

245
16
360
24
65

57.03
56.14
49.06
52 08
48.00

57.00
56.63
48 98
52.25
48.00

.2666
.2511
.2953
.2971
.4150

.2701
.2509
.3020
.2956
.4192

United States..........................................

50

667

710

52.17

51.94

.2939

.3004

LUM BER.
Band setters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

2
2
22
10
6

5
3
68
18
17

9
3
69
19
19

60.00
64.00
60.69
63.33
60.00

60.00
64 00
60.67
63.16
60.00

$0.2860
.2485
,2500
.2095
.2397

$0.2978
.2485
.2561
.2077
.2450

United States..........................................

42

111

119

61.07

60.99

.2434

.2496

Cant setters, gang, male:
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

8
4
2

23
4
2

23
4
2

61.04
64.50
60.00

61.04
64.50
60.00

.1967
.2114
.1750

.2029
.2114
.1750

United States..........................................

14

29

29

61.45

61.45

.1972

.2022

2—No. 65—06---- 4




46

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS O F L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.
TjI T M B E R — Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Carriage men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
7
19
13
6

4
15
59
36
27

4
18
60
37
32

58.25
62.40
60.68
64.50
60.00

58.25
62.83
60.65
64.38
60.00

$0.1995
.1299
.2008
.1652
.1956

$0.1995
.1412
.1999
.1669
.2013

United States.......................... •...............

48

141

151

61.64

61.62

.1831

.1851

Choppers and sawyers, in woods, male:
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

6
15
5
6

98
1,673
106
262

107
1,754
90
268

58.78
60.23
62.04
64.28

58.88
60.24
62.67
64.19

.1474
.1704
.1441
.2696

.1430
.1823
.1530
.2664

United States..........................................

32

2,139

2,219

60.75

60.75

.1802

.1893

Circular setters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
6
4
7
3

3
14
6
18
6

3
10
6
16
7

57.67
63.64
59.83
61.33
60.00

57.67
63.60
59.83
61.50
60.00

.2493
.1123
.2375
.1793
.2449

.2493
.1327
.2458
.1843
.2527

United States..........................................

23

47

42

61.43

61.24

.1796

.1969

Edger men, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
9
26
17
9

4
11
89
37
17

4
11
95
37
20

58.25
62.73
60.18
62.76
60.00

58.25
62.73
60.15
62.76
60.00

.2749
.1771
.2366
.2084
.3033

.2774
.1731
.2418
.2123
.3035

United States...........................................

65

158

167

60.89

60.83

.2340

.2390

Filers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central........ . ...................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

5
7
23
16
8

11
12
49
25
26

12
11
50
25
25

60.00
63.50
59.96
63.12
60.23

60.00
63.55
59.94
63.12
60.00

.3538
.3488
.4617
.4831
.4606

.3583
.3581
.4645
.5049
.4839

United States..........................................

59

123

123

61.01

60.93

.4452

.4568

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

5
9
26
16
8

122
460
2,326
1,635
1,253

141
484
2,627
1,611
1,518

59.43
62.20
60.16
63.29
60.00

59.50
62.29
60.15
63.47
60.00

.1662
.1109
.1619
.1347
.1879

.1708
.1156
.1648
.1369
.1917

United States...........................................

64

5,796

6,381

61.15

61.10

.1559

.1606

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

3
2
25
12
8

6
3
59
19
25

9
3
60
18
27

60.00
64.00
60.29
63.16
60.00

60.00
64.00
60.27
63.33
60.00

.4583
.5576
.4825
.4947
.4123

.5083
.5576
.4938
.5195
.4246

United States...........................................

50

112

117

60.81

60.75

.4696

.4845

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

2
5
6
9
3

2
6
8
18
4

2
6
8
17
7

56.50
63.00
59.88
61.67
60.00

56.50
63.00
59.88
61.76
60.00

.4156
.3080
.3266
.3318
.4856

.4156
.3080
.3188
.3425
.4775

United States...........................................

25

38

40

61.05

61.00

.3475

.3599




47

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S—Continued.

ETTMBER—Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Sawyers, gang, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
10
4
2

6
17
5
2

6
16
5
2

60.00
60.35
66.00
60.00

60.00
60.38
66.00
60.00

$0.2292
.2979
.2547
.2775

$0.2292
.2946
.2547
.3025

United States..........................................

19

30

29

61.20

61.24

.2756

.2747

Trimmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

3
7
24
15
9

7
11
129
32
24

7
11
134
35
29

59.00
63.55
60.26
63.38
60.00

59.00
63.55
60.24
63.09
60.00

.2459
.1193
.2271
.1584
.2327

.2459
.1211
.2318
.1597
.2321

United States..........................................

58

203

216

60.86

60.80

.2117

.2150

M ARBEE A N D STO NE W ORK.
Bed rubbers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

23
6
16
8
' 4

78
24
83
37
12

79
25
89
38
8

47.36
54.42
54.28
58.11
49.00

47.34
54.64
54.06
58.13
49.50

$0.3517
.1787
.2658
.1971
.3044

$0.3645
.1792
.2613
.1999
.3038

United States..........................................

57

234

239

52.32

52.39

.2766

.2785

Carvers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

25
4
10
8
5

106
12
25
15
12

100
8
25
14
11

45.36
51.33
53.28
52. 47
49.83 ,

45.42
53.00
53.28
52.64
49.09

.6171
.4613
.4040
.4330
.4346

.6185
.4294
.4047
.4296
.4624

United States...........................................

52

170

158

47.89

47.94

.5456

.5475

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

28
15
26
17
5

247
145
225
164
33

254
141
249
195
20

50.66
53.96
58.70
57.80
48.36

50.12
53.79
58.71
58.01
48.60

i .2608
.1667
.1903
.1454
.2663

.2670
.1683
.1916
.1447
.2769

United States..........................................

91

814

859

54.81

54 97

.2015

.2014

Letterers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

24
4
9
6
5

56
11
40
25
10

61
8
42
24
13

49.45
54.55
53.90
54.96
46.40

49.33
54 75
54.02
55.08
47.54

.3789
.2885
.4072
.3107
.5375

.3863
.3111
.4336
.3157
.4808

United States..........................................

48

142

148

51.85

51.73

.3790

.3925

Marble cutters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

21
11
18
15
11

158
43
83
66
28

163
56
95
67
32

46.95
52.07
53.96
56.55
48.64

46.61
52.43
53.97
56.88
48.94

.4768
.3332
.3040
.2978
.4509

.4883
.3508
.3045
.3016
.4502

United States..........................................

76

378

413

50.87

50.94

.3893

.3941

Marble polishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western......................................................

18
7
14
16
9

144
49
151
76
22

126
44
135
76
19

47.89
54.33
54.24
57.96
48.36

48.00
54 48
54 32
57.74
48.42

.2763
. 1.814
.2098
.1754
.3292

.2811
.1811
.2146
.1773
.3385

United States..........................................

64

442

400

52.53

52.72

.2284

.2307




48

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — AV E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

M A R B L E A N D S T O N E W O R K —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag &wages
p ert lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Sawyers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

16
3
26
6
3

48
6
52
23
6

59
6
55
26
6

49.56
53.83
58.17
58.17
48.00

49.25
53.83
57.55
58.38
48.00

10.3118
.1950
.2522
.1746
.3438

$0.3159
.1858
.2542
.1761
.3490

United States..........................................

53

135

152

54.47

53.95

.2617

.2658

Stonecutters, granite, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

39
16
11
7
14

573
144
70
56
205

562
129
69
53
106

47.93
48.24
53.36
51.07
47.62

48.01
48.40
53.42
52.53
47.26

.3833
.3958
.3376
.3577
.5522

.3947
.3954
.3345
.3456
.5482

United States..........................................

87

1,048

919

48.44

48.65

.4136

.4052

Stonecutters, soft stone, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.................. , .........................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

18
11
34
13
7

492
102
314
104
87

424
83
340
115
74

45.22
48.20
47.18
46.12
44.87

45.27
48.24
47.11
46.26
44.54

.5405
.4489
.4953
. 4719
.5878

.5316
.4734
.4970
.4892
.6042

United States..........................................

83

1,099

1,036

46.14

46.17

.5164

.5161

Stonecutters, not specified, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

9
2
2
2

135
12
13
32

152
15
14
18

45.50
48.00
46.46
48.00

45.68
48.00
45.71
48.00

.4957
.4792
.4543
.5508

.4954
.4767
.4690
.5417

United States..........................................

15

192

199

46.14

46.07

.5010

.4963

Stone polishers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
3
7
2
5

32
5
21
4
7

37
6
25
7
5

50.25
53.40
56.62
58.25
45.71

50.76
53.50
57.28
59.00
46.40

.2601
.1876
.2050
.1574
.3661

.2677
.1779
.1997
.1435
.3750

United States...........................................

30

69

80

52.42

53.45

.2429

.2356

Turners, male:
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

2
7
4

4
10
6

5
10
7

52.50
53.60
57.00

52.80
53.20
56.57

.3209
.3793
.2389

.3222
.3821
.2619

United States...........................................

13

20

22

54.40

54.18

.3255

.3302

P A P E R A N D WOOD P U L P .
Back tenders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

17
8

209
56

218
55

63.19
69.70

64.41
69.65

90.1770
.1471

$0.1755
.1538

United States...........................................

25

265

273

64.57

65.47

.1706

.1711

Beaters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

18
10

442
132

453
132

59.10
68.90

60.37
68.91

.1790
.1499

.1811
.1538

United States...........................................

28

574

585

61.36

62.30

.1724

.1749

Black ash burners, male:
North Atlantic............................................

3

29

29

62.07

64.55

.2058

.1945

Bleachers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

7
5

122
23

112
23

55.92
63.65

58.13
63.65

.1927
.1579

.1899
.1608

United States...........................................

12

145

135

57.14

59.07

.1872

.1849




49

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,

T able I . — AVER A G E W AGES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

j

Averag e wages
perl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Calendrers, male:
North Atlantic___
North Central.......

8
7

148
54

185
53

55.36
64.00

54.25
63.62

$0.1966
.1625

$0.2010
.1717

United S ta tes...

15

202

238

57.67

56.34

.1875

.1945

Calendrers, female:
North Atlantic---

2

29

26

55.00

55.00

.1398

.1434

Color mixers, male:
North Atlantic--North Central.......

1
1

11
7

15
8

48.00
60.00

48.00
60.00

.2371
.1829

.2313
.1836

United States—

2

18

23

52.67

52.17

.2160

.2147

Cutters, male:
North Atlantic--North Central.......

10
8

115
28

109
29

50.59
56.14

51.70
56.28

.2125
.1731

.2050
.1758

United States—

18

143

138

j

51.68

52.67

.2048

.1989

Cutters, female:
North Atlantic--North Central.......

11
9

180
47

182
49

j

54.97
59.94

55.05
59.94

.1059
.0864

.1086
.0938

United States—

20

227

231

56.00

56.09

.1019

.1055

2
1

62
10

68
10

48.58
60.00

48.53
60.00

.2280
.1800

.2264
.1790

Enamelers, male:
North Atlantic---North Central.......
United States—

3

72

78

50.17

50.00

.2214

.2204

Finishers, male:
North Atlantic___
North Central.......

15
10

138
46

133
52

60.07
59.96

60.33
59.96

.1797
.1763

.1829
.1783

United States---

25

184

185

60.04

60.23

.1788

.1816

Finishers, female:
North Atlantic___
North Central.......

6
5

66
33

68
33

57.30
59.91

56.88
59.91

.1325
.0974

.1333
.1065

United States___

11

99

101

58.17

57.87

.1208

.1245

Laborers, male:
North Atlantic---North-Central.......

18
10

1,003
276

1,093
260

60.48
59.34

60.36
60.71

.1522
.1492

.1549
.1469

United States___

28

1,279

1,353

60.23

60.43

.1516

.1534

Machine tenders, male:
North Atlantic---North Central.......

18
9

229
48

223
50

59.43
69.42

60.93
69.48

.2704
.2580

.2764
.2678

United States___

27

277

273

61*16

62.50

.2683

.2749

Press tenders, male:
North Atlantic___
North Central........

5
3

73
12

64
12

66.93
61.92

67.14
61.92

.1560
.1346

.1553
.1346

United States---

8

85

76

66.22

66.32

.1530

.1520

Pulp grinders, male:
North Atlantic___
North Central........

7
3

140
27

127
28

60.93
71.85

68.49
71.86

.1682
.1369

.1579
.1411

155 i 62.69 | 69.10

.1631

.1549

57. C
O

.1770

.1665

United States---

10

167

Rag sorters, male:
North Atlantic___

2

70

40

Rag sorters, female:
North Atlantic___
North Central........

6
5

225
58

214
60

52.39
59.38

54.17
59.40

.1041
.0932

.0985
.0989

11

283

274 | 53.82

55.31

.1019

.0986

United States




52.97

j

1
i

50

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

T ab le I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O URS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO N S— Continued.

P A P E R A N D W O O D PUEP-Uoncluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Wood cookers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
3

50
11

51
11

60.78
71.73

62.53
71.73

$0.1891
.1586

$0.1993
.1654

United States...........................................

9

61

62

62.75

6416

.1836

.1933

Wood preparers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

9
3

247
84

260
87

61.17
59.94

61.89
59.94

.1619
.1446

.1616
.1512

United States..........................................

12

331

347

60.85

61.40

.1575

.1590

P E A N I K G M IL L .
Carpenters, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

26
12
39
11
5

454
276
530
113
65

448
313
538
124
73

54.28
55.24
56.57
56.39
52.80

54.54
55.02
56.61
56.37
51.78

$0.3048
.2797
.2672
.2571
.3765

$0.3003
.2936
.2680
.2594
.3844

United States...........................................

93

1,438

1,496

55.41

55.40

.2856

.2880

Framers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
5
23

41
27
182

51
34
178

54.29
55.85
58.33

54.96
55.62
58.62

.2230
.2862
.2268

.2413
.2913
.2266

United States...........................................

33

250

263

57.40

57.52

.2326

.2378

Glaziers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
6
16
5
2

24
12
27
9
6

31
13
30
12
7

56.04
56.25
58.81
56.67
60.00

55.61
56.23
58.73
57.00
60.00

.2391
.2534
.2067
.2080
.2583

.2351
.2735
.2114
.2264
.2464

United States..........................................

40

78

93

57.41

57.22

.2280

.2326

Laborers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

25
11
33
17
5

224
359
905
762
130

248
425
970
743
150

57.27
57.13
59.30
63.63
58.06

57.39
56.81
59.37
63.68
57.04

.1672
.1132
.1514
.1381
.2077

.1685
.1203
.1550
.1391
.2082

United States...........................................

91

2,380

2,536

60.10

59.87

.1460

.1490

Machine woodworkers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

29
13
46
18
6

289
174
820
210
80

296
196
826
206
105

55.56
56.74
58.52
60.63
55.50

55.43
56.70
58.56
60.64
56.46

.2719
.2373
.2044
.1952
.3181

.2780
.2500
.2040
.2050
.2852

United States...........................................

112

1,573

1,629

57.91

57.89

.2250

.2284

Sawyers, band, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

14
8
24
9
4

20
13
49
27
5

21
17
53
27
6

56.95
56.54
59.00
63.11
52.80

56.81
56.06
59.15
63.11
52.00

.2756
.2668
.2074
.1898
.3908

.2698
.2835
.2080
.1989
.4058

United States...........................................

59

114

124

59.06

58.85

.2300

.2364

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

23
10
30
5
5

99
33
168
19
28

102
35
190
20
28

55.09
56.42
58.61
56.21
55.71

55.25
56.14
58.77
56.40
56.14

.2656
.2168
.2188
.2325
.3138

.2647
.2303
.2216
.2417
.3103

United States...........................................

73

347

375

57.03

57.24

.2404

.2418




WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

51

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D GEO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIO N S—Continued.

P L A N I N G M I L L —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabIvoVt
iisnments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Sawyers, jig, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic.............................................
North Central.............................................

6
6
11

7
6
40

6
6
40

55.57
55.83
59.73

55.83
55.83
59.70

$0.2826
.2273
.1615

$0.2880
.2291
.1622

United States...........................................

23

53

52

58.74

58.81

.1849

.1844

Sawyers, not specified, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

4
5
12

5
19
19

5
15
21

58.80
54.63
54.05

58.80
54.80
53.67

.2520
.2459
.2668

.2540
.2473
.2759

United States...........................................

21

43

41

54.86

54.71

.2559

.2627

$0.5704

POTTERY.
Dippers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Jigger men, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Kiln firemen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Kiln men, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Mold makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Pressers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Sagger makers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Setters out, male:
North Atlantic............................................

6

8

8

46.00

46.00

$0.5367

6

42

44

52.57

52.55

.4373

.4502

6

54

61

58.30

59.90

.2395

.2312

7

61

60

46.84

46.87

.3902

.3959

7

17

20

53.76

53.95

.3441

.3397

7

149

140

53.60

53.73

.4260

.4184

6

13

13

51.23

50.85

.4699

.5102

6

13

13

47.08

47.08

.4111

.4100

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , BO O K A N D JO B .
Bookbinders, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

22
16
40
17
15

178
64
460
74
67

198
61
480
77
75

53.79
54.81
53.90
53.99
52.36

53.62
54.51
53.79
53.70
52.19

$0.3387
.2870
.3091
.3116
.3624

$0.3410
.2930
.3095
.3146
.3660

United States...........................................

110

843

891

53.83

53.66

.3181

.3206

Compositors, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

47
23
46
18
18

778
202
652
171
144

833
203
652
184
149

52.24
54.30
53.96
53.95
50.06

52.10
53.86
53.91
53.34
49.42

.3450
.3027
.3268
.3225
.4079

.3531
.3061
.3338
.3308
.4184

United States...........................................

152

1,947

2,021

53.02

52.78

.3372

.3449

Compositors, female:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

9
9

86
13

85
23

53.84
54.00

53.67
54.00

.1861
.2618

.2016
.2698

United States...........................................

18

99

108

53.86

53.74

.1961

.2161

Electrotypers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

10
9
3

76
72
8

75
72
7

53.99
53.33
52.38

52.43
52.94
52.14

.3784
.3352
.4209

.3822
.3360
.4677

United States...........................................

22

156

154

53.60

52.66

.3606

.3645




52

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able

1 __ A V E R A G E

W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LAB O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IV ISIO N S-C on trau ed.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab11 o h
nsaments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Linotype operators, male:
North Atlantic..... .....................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central....... •.....................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

17
11
18
5
7

103
27
102
12
29

108
27
105
16
34

51.40
52.74
48.52
49.50
47.69

52.35
52.74
48.50
48.00
47.47

$0.4156
.3791
.4965
.4454
.5557

$0.4177
.3914
.5105
.4684
.5821

United States...........................................

58

273

290

49.98

50.18

.4584

.4710

Linotype operators, female:
North-Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

5
2

5
5

6
4

50.40
50.20

51.00
53.50

.2683
.4782

.2668
.4293

United States...........................................

7

10

10

50.30

52.00

.3733

.3318

Press feeders, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlan tic...........................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

36
18
44
16
18

357
91
494
107
87

345
100
512
107
100

53.41
54.92
53.93
53.64
50.31

53.20
54.44
53.88
53.65
49.68

.2012
.1445
.1869
.1540
.1930

.2051
.1519
.1894
.1596
.2088

53.54' 53.35

.1853

.1897

United States...........................................

132

1,136

1,164

Press feeders, female:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

11
10
10
7

126
31
87
21

128
29
74
29

53.65
54.77
53.80
54.24

54.49
53.97
53.80
54.14

.1180
.1062
.1481
.1127

.1235
.1071
.1503
.1051

United States...........................................

38

265

260

53.88

54.20

.1261

.1272

Pressmen, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

48
23
46
18
18

365
73
329
61
55

379
74
316
60
68

53.58
54.82
53.98
54.23
50.47

53.58
54.34
53.97
53.73
49.25

.3357
.2780
.3426
.2967
.3764

.3408
,2849
.3422
.3081
.3958

United States..........................................

153

883

897

53.68

53.46

.3334

.3387

Proof readers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western. .•...................................................

23
7
16
3
7

78
13
29
3
10

85
13
30
3
10

52.62
54.69
53.76
54.00
50.40

52.80
54.69
53.77
53.00
49.20

.3704
.3201
.3701
.3858
.4167

.3739
.3244
.3753
.3936
.4411

United States...........................................

56

133

141

52.93

52.93

♦ 3692

. 3748

Proof readers, female:
.North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

11
3
11
7
4

21
5
20
12
5

21
5
21
12
5

51.38
54.00
53.35
55.42
50.40

51.38
54.00
53.33
53.92
50.40

.3019
.1500
.3261
.1618
.3125

.3083
.1537
.3110
.1692
.3370

United States...........................................

36

63

64

52.90

52.63

.2717

.2733

Sewers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlanii c ............................................
North Central.............................................
South Cential..............................................
Western.......................................................

19
10
29
10
11

90
51
188
57
65

89
58
189
58
69

53.80
54.92
53.90
54.21
51.45

53.80
54.21
53.92
53.79
51.32

.1395
.1009
.1228
.1085
.1385

.1376
.1044
.1291
. 1124
. 1467

United States...........................................

79

451

463

53.68

53.53

.1241

. 1282

Stereotypers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

4
5
1

15
9
8

15
10
8

54.00
53.44
53.50

47.33
52.80
53.50

. 4333
.3112
.4147

.4694
.3298
.4147

United States...........................................

10

32

33

53.72

50.48

.3943

.4139




53

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I — A V E R A G E W AGES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Stitchers, book, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
Western.......................................................

16
4
11
6
11

44
26
70
21
24

54
32
64
24
29

53.52
54.96
53.96
53.71
49.96

53.56
54.00
53.95
53.75
49.90

10.1155
.0818
.1128
.1149
.1608

$0.1131
.0845
.1052
.1155
.1637

United States...........................................

48

185

203

53.45

53.25

.1156

.1136

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R .
Compositors, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

47
22
44
18
17

843
224
579
184
183

948
242
598
207
198

46.73
48.32
48.28
49.04
47.79

46.67
47.57
48.06
48.81
47.38

$0.4996
' .4454
.4865
.4855
.5673

$0.5079
.4585
.4961
.4965
.5964

United S tates..........................................

148

2,013

2,193

47.66

47.42

.4947

.5061

Compositors, female:
North A tlantic............................................

5

12

14

48.58

50.36

.3758

.3904

Linotype operators, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

46
22
44
18
17

744
227
582
166
196

765
249
621
197
220

46.98
44.83
48.03
46.71
46.31

46.93
44.53
47.86
47.16
46.00

.5469
.5497
.5100
.6215
.6236

.5451
.5603
.5063
.6253
.6429

United States.........................;................

147

1,915

2,052

46.95

46.84

.5503

.5534

Linotype operators, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

11
2

29
2

28
5

49.03
48.00

49.39
48.00

.3628
.4490

.3560
.4305

United States..........................................

13

31

33

48.97

49.18

.3683

.3673

Pressmen, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

47
21
43
15
17

376
71
225
39
77

361
75
246
41
88

46.32
48.45
50.36
52.41
50.51

46.68
48.72
50.54
52.20
50.33

.4500
.3467
.3752
.3833
.4085

.4589
.3470
.3860
.4032
.4134

13
4

788

811

48.38

48.72

.4120

.4187

Stereotypers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

43
19
40
14
17

228
51
16&
30
53

232
53
179
30
54

45.97
46.20
49.07
47.87
49.81

45.37
46.72
48.68
47.87
49.33

.5200
.4126
.4191
.3967
.4420

.5296
.4157
.4389
.4064
.4531

United S tates..........................................

133

530

548

47.47

47.11

.4629

.4747

United States..........................................

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
Blacksmiths, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

15
6
3
3

137
95
23
61

122
80
30
54

55.68
58.47
57.96
54.00

55.76
57.50
58.43
54.00

$0.2903
.2711
.2887
.3562

$0.2894
.2745
.2858
.3549

United States..........................................

27

316

286

56.36

56.20

.2971

.2972




54

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le

I.— V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
A
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL DIVISIO N S—Continued.
S H I P B T J I JiD IN T G — Continued.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Boiler makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
6
2
3

347
238
48
52

301
261
64
49

55.11
58.42
59.48
54.58

55.07
57.84
59.64
55.22

$0.2731
.2553
.2977
.3491

$0.2827
.2523
.2891
.3552

United States..........................................

20

685

675

56.53

56.59

.2744

.2768

Calkers, iron, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

8
2
3
2

364
26
45
137

335
37
57
64

57.03
55.38
57.20
54.00

58.34
54.75
57.16
54.00

.2697
.2342
.2915
.3165

.2701
.2274
.2991
.3101

United States..........................................

15

572

493

56.24

57.37

.2810

.2755

Calkers, wood, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

16
3
2
2

343
52
96
28

283
70
99
27

53.46
54.58
59.68
54.00

52.71
54.86
59.27
54.00

.3401
.2771
.3005
.5481

.3462
.2774
.3012
.5517

United States..........................................

23

519

479

54.76

54.46

.3377

.3384

Carpenters, male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South Atlantic.........................................i.
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

21
8
3
4

1,169
403
45
125

1,101
432
63
262

54.55
58.02
55.33
55.01

54.59
57.36
55.71
58.08

.3057
.2661
.2993
.3972

.3110
.2639
.2885
.3695

United S tates..........................................

36

1,742

1,858

55.41

55.77

.3029

.3075

Drillers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

9
4
3
2

321
70
71
53

486
96
152
118

57.66
56.11
58.18
54.00

58.58
55.80
55.80
54.00

.2293
.1774
.1810
.2779

.2256
.1731
.2209
.2444

United S tates...........................................

18

515

852

57.15

57.14

.2206

.2214

Fitters, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central........................ ....................
Western.......................................................

10
5
3
2

405
334
79
105

359
438
118
94

56.53
58.87
57.11
54.00

56.49
58.84
56.64
54.00

.2460
.2447
.2835
.3544

.2511
.2385
.2612
.3520

United S tates...........................................

20

923

1,009

57.14

57.29

.2611

.2562

Joiners, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

13
6
2
4

494
336
65
108

370
490
67
189

55.57
57.05
57.51
54.44

56.51
56.67
59.46
54.25

.2893
.2642
.3079
.3595

.2953
.2621
.3094
.3657

United S tates..........................................

25

1,003

1,116

56.07

56.38

.2897

.2935

Laborers male:
North A tlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

18
8
3
4

1,116
1,118
682
153

1,106
1,125
984
234

55.55
58.36
57.84
55.06

55.82
57.93
56.52
57.08

.1622
.1273
.1577
.2224

.1630
.1352
.1561
.2134

United States..........................................

33

3,069

3,449

57.06

56.79

.1515

.1554

Machinists, male:
North Atlantic..........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

12
6
3
3

991
752
202
430

936
623
187
539

55.97
58.72
58.70
54.07

56.63
58.43
59.10
54.07

.2616
.2667
.2806
.3493

.2662.2658
.2793
.3359

United States...........................................

24

2,375

2,285

56.73

56.72

.2807

.2836




55

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOK, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.
S H I P B T J I J L D I K G — Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Holders, iron, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

3
3
2
2

82
116
74
75

77
113
123
36

57.94
57.92
60.00
54.00

58.32
57.96
60.00
54.00

$0.2871
.2705
.2870
.3696

$0.2875
.2693
.2931
.3699

United States..........................................

10

347

349

57.52

58.35

.2993

.2921

Painters, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

12
6
2

371
290
30

280
407
58

56.13
55.74
59.00

55.68
56.29
58.66

.2706
.2357
.1881

.2712
.2354
.1844

United States..........................................

20

691

745

56.09

56.25

.2524

.2449

Pattern makers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
Western.......................................................

11
5
3
2

100
70
20
26

99
63
24
21

56.74
57.86
58.95
54.00

57.39
57.25
59.08
54.00

.3157
.2970
.3100
.4154

.3157
.2920
.3152
.4162

United S tates..........................................

21

216

207

56.98

57.20

.3211

.3186

Riggers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic. ........................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
5
2
4

243
53
15
90

286
62
15
126

57.12
55.92
54.80
54.13

57.91
56.35
54.80
54.14

.1999
.2223
.2187
.3409

.2007
.2216
.2050
.3203

United S tates..........................................

20

401

489

56.20

56.65

.2352

.2343

Riveters, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
W estern.......................................................

9
4
2
2

286
362
67
234

377
383
60
32

55.99
59.12
52.93
54.00

56.98
59.18
51.80
54.00

.2948
.2224
.3071
.3201

.3022
.2253
.3515
.2981

United S tates..........................................

17

949 |

852

56.48

57.49

.2743

.2710

Sawyers, circular, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
Western.......................................................

10
2
2

20
5
2

19
5
2

55.20
54.00
54.00

55.42
54.00
54.00

.2545
.2148
.4010

.2547
.2148
.4010

United States..........................................

14

27

26

54.89

55.04

.2580

.2583

Spar makers, male:
North A tlantic............................................

3

10

11

57.00

56.27

.2822

.2866

56.44

56.57

$0.2002

$0.1907

57.69

57.80

.0944

.0915

55.58

55.59

.1947

.1961

58.13

58.17

.2645

.2656

60.00

59.60

.2363

.2271

57.78

58.49

.1203

.1190

57.67

57.62

.0912

.0907

57.85

58.17

.0807

.0836

58.25

58.19

.2303

.2339

57.85

56.91

.2216

.2407

S IL K GO O DS.
Beamers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
6
21
16
Doublers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
10
170
208
Dyers, male:
6 1,266 1,327
North A tlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
12
North Atlantic............................................
143
143
Pickers, male: (®)
North A tlantic............................................
3
4
5
Pickers, female: (a)
11
299
310
North Atlantic...........................................
Quillers, female:
14
363
438
North A tlantic............................................
Spinners, male:
6
208
186
North Atlantic............................................
Twisters-in, male:
8
108
118
North A tlantic...........................................
Warpers, male:
5
66
North A tlantic............................................
54
a Does not include warp pickers.




56

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I .—AVERAGE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1904 AND 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS—Continued.

S I L K G O O D S —Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Warpers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, female:
North A tlantic............................................
Weavers, ribbon, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
Weavers, ribbon, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Winders, female:
North Atlantic............................................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establioV
i
lisnments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.
1904.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1905.

1904.

1905.

12

503

555

58.19

58.16

$0.1596

9

834

918

57.86

57.91

.1947

.1998

12

1,934

2,091

57.93

57.93

.1473

.1498

4

271

337

56.05

56.29

.2410

.2393

4

161

220

58.03

58.25

.1648

.1764

14

577

616

57.82

57.92

.1063

.1077

$0.1573

S L A U G H T E R IN G A N D M E A T P A C K IN G .
Back skinners, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................
Dry salters, male:
North Central.............................................
Gutters, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................
Gutters, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
Headers, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................
Headers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
JLaborers, male:
North Central.............................................
Picklers, male:
North Central.............................................
Rump skinners, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................
Scrapers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
Side skinners, cattle, male:
North Central........ ....................................
Splitters, cattle, male:
North Central............................................
Splitters, hog, male:
North Central.............................................
Stickers, cattle, male:
North Central.............................................
Stickers, hog, male:
North Central.............................................

12

33

26

54.55

54.08

$0.4348

$0.4385

14

377

459

60.00

60.00

.1879

.1806

12

30

26

54.83

55.08

.2593

.2619

14

36

35

49.06

48.29

.2977

.2810

11

33

29

54.54

54.69

.3250

.3345

15

16

16

54.44

54.44

.2706

.2691

15 10,592 10,664

60.00

60.00

.1755

.1687

14

569

513

60.00

60.00

.1878

.1792

10

23

20

56.09

56.15

.3949

.3842

13

61

63

53.89

52.94

.2264

.2236

12

75

66

54.33

54.56

.4842

.4871

13

51

44

54.69

55.36

.4747

.4693

15

35

35

53.89

53.40

.3052

.3090

11

18

17

57.17

57.00

.3139

.3132

15

16

16

54.44

54.44

.2854

.2896

STR EETS A N D SEW ERS, CONTRACT W ORK.
Laborers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................
W estern.......................................................
United S tates...........................................

36
16
41
13
14

4,748
1,086
4,438
1,502
1,326

4,651
1,100
4,187
1,348
1,443

58.89
55.46
57.74
57.99
50.76

58.46
55.02
57.52
57.88
51.64

$0.1633
.1517
.1946
.1535
.2481

$0.1670
.1597
.2004
.1560
.2463

120 13,100 12,729

57.29

57.02

.1804

.1852

STR EET S A N D SEW ER S, M U N IC IP A L W O RK .
Laborers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................
Western.......................................................
United S tates...........................................




21
10
22
9
8

8,269
2,361
7,917
1,013
910

49.93
50.42
48.92
52.09
48.00

49.73
50.15
48.99
51.94
48.00

$0.2284
.1795
.2095
.1691
.2639

$0.2246
.1824
.2099
.1706
.2620

70 18,750 20,470

49.61

49.52

.2145

.2130

7,708
1,913
7,382
943
804

57

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AND H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS AN D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Continued.

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S .

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per nour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Bunch makers, hand, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

4
2
5

62
40
25

70
61
35

54.00
51.83
49.36

54.93
52.46
50.74

$0.2290
.1874
.2559

$0.2293
.1725
.2322

United S tates..........................................

11

127

166

52.40

53.14

.2211

.2090

Bunch makers, hand, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
.3
6
2

527
116
130
157

525
144
117
149

57.39
56.39
50.77
58.93

57.37
54.88
50.60
58.59

.1694
.1096
.1945
.1009

.1670
.1322
.2115
.0984

United States..........................................

19

930

935

56.60

56.33

.1539

.1563

Bunch makers, machine, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
North Central.............................................

6
3

372
185

352
168

56.17
53.75

55.42
52.50

.1284
.1272

.1224
.1404

9j

557

520

55.37

54.48

.1280

.1282

678
1,803
386

709
2,066
353

49.21
59.79
47.48

48.95
59.88
47.35

.3249
.2917
.2981

.3375
.2884
.3185

United S tates..........................................
Cigar makers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

13
8

1
3

i

United States..........................................

34

2,867

3,128

55.63

55.99

.3004

.3030

Cigar rollers, hand, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

3
2
4

260
66
84

240
57
94

53.17
50.97
49.93

53.06
52.77
49.94

.2339
.1922
.2099

.2301
.1885
.2168

United States..........................................

9

410

391

52.15

52.27

.2222

.2208

Cigar rollers, hand, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

8
3
7

470
289
248

447
259
272

55.71
53.84
52.34

55.39
55.16
50.85

.1492
.1239
.1648

.1574
.1363
.1809

United S tates..........................................

18

1,007

978

54.35

54.07

.1458

.1584

North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

N o r t h A t l a n t i c .......................................................

7
2
1

1,048
304
300

1,160
228
273

57.66
53.84
60.00

57.46
53.64
60.00

.1448
. 1114
.0925

.1411
.1257
.0905

Cigar rollers, machine, female:

United States..........................................

10

1,652

1,661

57.38

57.36

.1292

.1307

Packers, male:
North Atlantic...........................................
South Atlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

16
7
12

115
107
48

110
96
44

48.74
59.33
48.46

48.59
59.25
48.55

.3996
.6193
.3612

.4265
.6133
.3642

United States..........................................

35

270

250

52.89

52.68

.4798

.4873

Packers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................
South Central.............................................

8
2
5
2

294
42
57
42

355
40
73
40

55.23
54.00
49.77
59.67

55.54
54.00
48.48
59.30

.1314
.1390
.1462
.1151

.1316
.1441
.1431
.1177

United States..........................................

17

435

508

54.83

54.70

.1325

.1331

Stemmers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
South A tlantic............................................
North Central.............................................

6
4
3

69
44
8

74
33
12

52.64
52.70
47.50

52.51
49.30
47.33

.1341
.1022
.1875

.1340
.1413
.1602

United States..........................................

13

121

119

52.32

51.10

.1260

.1387




58

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS A N D G EO G RAPH ICAL D IVISIO NS— Concluded.
T O B A C C O , C I G A R S — Concluded.

Occupation and geographical division.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

Stemmers, female:
North Atlantic............................................
South Atlantic..................................... .
North Central.............................................
South Central..............................................

19
9
16
2

798
214
292
30

826
249
318
44

54.82
58.86
51.60
56.27

54.59
58.51
51.28
54.59

«0.1035
.1195
.0988
.0795

$0.1037
.1140
.0988
.0786

United S tates..........................................

46

1,334

1,437

54.79

54.54

.1045

.1037

W O O L E N A N T I) W O R S T JED G O O D S .
Burlers, female:
North A tlantic............................................
Carders, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Carders, female:
North Atlantic............................................
Card strippers, male:
Nortn Atlantic...........................................
Combers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Combers, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Dyers, male:
North A tlantic............................................
Loom fixers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Spinners, frame, female:
North Atlantic...........................................
Spinners, mule, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, male:
North Atlantic............................................
Weavers, female:
North Atlantic............................................




25

666

645

58.00

58.46

$0.1011

$0.1060

24

248

241

57.80

58.63

.1158

.1176

4

23

14

59.09

60.00

.0894

.0869

13

72

74

58.49

58.31

.1291

.1305

6

120

124

59.06

58.90

.1206

.1226

5

100

124

57.40

57.04

.0957

.0920

24.

474

485

58.71

59.30

.1320

.1325

26

252

269

58.23

58.58

.2356

.2393
.1036

8

526

483

58.30

58.25

.1024

22

383

375

58.61

58.51

.1825

.1901

26

1,708

1,719

58.55

58.78

.1771

.1880

27

2,020

2,223

57.65

58.19

.1518

.1568

59

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,
T able

II. -BELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS.

[For explanation of relative figures, see page 10.]

A G R IC U L T U R A L IM P L E M E N T S .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

F I T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1904; 24, 1905.]

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 10,1904; 19,
1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
..........
1890
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
1900
..........
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
..........
1905
..........

100.0

90.5
91.3
104.0
104.8
98.4
96.0

100.8

97.6
110.3
107.1
113.5
114.3
106.3
112.7
119.5
136.9

100.0
100.8
100.8
100.8
100.8

96.4

100.8
100.8

97.5
100.8
100.4
100.5
100.4
100.4
99.2

100.0

100.0

98.4
101.3
105.6
115.4

100.0

90.9
95.4
95.8
101.7
95.2
96.5
95.3

100.2
104.7
106.2
109.6

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
111.1
88.9
88.9
100.0
100.0
88.9
77.8
100.0
122.2
111.1
111.1
. 122.2
111.1
100.0
80.0
85.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.3
96.2

100.0
92.7
90.3
98.6
100.0
100.7
102.7
121.5
93.4
96.4
103.8
102.1
129.6
135.3
134.8
144.7
152.7

G R I N D E R S , M a le .

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S . , M a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 8,1904; 17,
1905.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
23, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
..........
1890
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
.........
1899
..........
1900
..........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
..........
1904
..........
1905
..........

100.0
47.1
70.6
82.4
105.9
94.1
105.9
94.1
94.1
164.7
158.8
176.5
147.1
70.6
70.6
69.9
78.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.8
97.8

100.0
84.8
99.4
84.9
79.4
100.8
99.2
107.9
120.8
113.0
109.6
114.5
105.6
108.4
123.0
136.9
138.8

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.0
89.8
95.3
110.9
86.7
98.4
90.6
91.4
112.5
128.9
128.1
126.6
130.5
151.6
112.7
140.4

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
98.3
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.7
98.4
98.3

100.0
101.5
102.8
101.8
104.9
99.2
96.2
96.4
99.1
99.7
98.3
104.0
103.8
110.8
108.9
114.2
117.8

M O L D E R S , I R O N , M a le.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
21, 1905.]

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 21,
1905.

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.9
98.8
98.5
107.1
93.8
94.1
100.0
91.7
105.6
113.0
123.9
128.6
124.5
146.6
122.3
140.3




100.0
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
97.8
100.5
100.4
99.1
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
97.8
93.9
93.0

100.0
100.3
102.1
104.0
106.6
94.5
93.7
96.4
96.6
101.3
104.6
106.2
104.8
107.7
111.9
120.4
119.8

100.0
86.4
88.9
104.0
109.1
87.4
95.5
90.9
91.9
117.2
127.8
132.8
126.8
121.7
141.4
129.2
152.3

100.0
100.9
100.9
101.0
100.9
99.1
100.7
98.3
97.0
100.4
100.7
100.9
100.8
100.8
100.1
98.2
98.1.

100.0
102.3
103.6
106.3
107.9
96.0
93.3
98.1
94.0
96.7
101.6
109.2
108.6
119.8
120.4
121.2
117.2

60

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T ab le I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES AND H OURS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

A G R I C U L T U R A L IM P L E M E N T S —Concluded.
P A I N T E R S , M a le .

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 13,1895-1903. Data from 15
establishments 1904; 23,1905.]

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
22, 1905.]

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

100.0
100.0
Average 1890-99..
100.0
99.9
97.6
87.4
1890
.........
99.9
108.8
91.6
1891
.........
106.5
100.1
1892
.........
89.9
104.6
100.1
1893
.........
93.3
100.2
91.8
113.4
1894
.........
97.1
100.0
1895
.........
100.8
99.8
101.7
1896
........... ........... ...........99.4
97.8
98.3
99.8
1897
.........
96.3
100.1
117.6
1898
.........
103.4
100.1
99.9
1899
.........
109.6
100.0
97.5
1900
.........
107.4
100.1
1901
.........
126.9
100.2
110.2
1902
.........
126.1.
100.0
120.8
1903
.........
121.0
118.5
1904
.........
105.6
95.9
1905
..........
120.0
95.4
121.3

Year.
Average 1890-99..
.........
1890
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

Relative | Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees, week.
hour.
100.0
76.2
85.7
97.6
109.5
92.9
104.8
100.0
97.6
116.7
114.3
161.9
154.8
135.7
154.8
128.7
135.9

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
98.6
98.2
98.0

100.0
98.4
104.7
101.4
95.5
98.1

101.1

97.4
103.2

101.0

104.0
105.6
109.7

112.8

118.0
118.1

BAK ERY, BREAD.
R A K E R S , F I R S T H A N D S , M a le ,

R A K E R S , S E C O N D H A N D S , M a le .

[Data from 103 establishments 1890-1803; 114,1904;
108, 1905.]

[Data from 103 establishments 1890-1903; 114,1904;
108, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 ..................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905

100.0
95.1
94.5
96.7
97.3
99.5
100.5
101.6
102.2
104.9
107.7
308.2
114.3
117.6
119.2
126.2
129.5

100.0
100.7
100.8
100.8
100.7
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.2
98.2
96.8
96.2
95.8
94.4
94.0
92.5

100.0
99.4
99.6
99.8
98.8
98.3
99.0
99.3
100.1
101.5
104.3
107.4
109.9
112.8
116.4
118.5
121.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.4
93.3
93.6
94.8
97.6
98.8
100.9
102.4
112.4
113.3
118.5
121.5
134.8
128.5
128.5
128.0

100.0
100.0
100.1
100.3
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.7
102.6
99.3
98.4
97.0
97.2
96.6
94.2
94.0
93.2

100.0
99.0
99.6
99.8
99.1
99.0
98.9
100.0
100.4
101.0
103.1
106.7
109.1
114.1
118.2
120.8
121,9

R A K E R S , T H I R D H A N D S , M a le,

R A K E R S , N O T S P E C I F I E R , M a le .

[Data from 63 establishments 1890-1904; 69, 1905.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1804;
42, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
3894......................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
93.6
96.3
96.8
94.7
97.9
102.7
104.3
102.7
104.3
100.9
113.8
127.7
138.3
158.0
180.8
190.5




100.0
100.4
101.0
101.5
100.3
100.9
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.6
97.5
96.6
95.1
94.6
91.8
92.0
90.7

100.0
99.6
100.2
100.1
100.9
98.4
99.1
99.6
98.8
100.0
103.0
110.6
112.9
120.3
131.2
134.8
139.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.2
94.3
97.1
97.3
93.9
98.7
101.7
103.1
110.1
111.3
115.3
120.3
130.8
129.1
134.7
144.5

100.0
102.2
101.1
101.1
100.9
101.1
100.4
99.3
98.7
98.3
96.9
97.0
96.5
96.2
95.3
94.5
93.7

100.0
99.3
100.3
101.3
102.1
97.9
97.8
99.4
100.0
100.0
102.0
101.7
103.2
108.5
109.9
110.4
111.9

61

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B E A C K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

H O R S E S H O E R S , F I T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 59 establishments 1890-1903; 48, 1904;
33, 1905.]

[Data from 33 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904;
41, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
100.0
102.8
102.8
103.5
94 4
95.1
101.4
97.2
102.8
102.1
105.6
109.2
107.7
107.7
101.1
102.2

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.4
99.3
98.3
97.9
97.4
97.2

100.0
100.1
100.3
101.0
100.7
98.6
98.2
98.5
99.9
101.1
101.5
102.5
104.1
107.6
109.9
108.9
108.6

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
97.1
94.3
100.0
100.0
102.9
100.0
101.4
101.4
102.9
101.4
101.4
107.1
101.4
107.1
105.3
106.7

100.0
102.1
102.3
102.1
99.5
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.8
98.9
99.0
98.5
98.1
97.8
97.3
96.8
96.1

100.0
97.0
96.7
97.4
99.8
100.2
100.2
101.6
102.6
102.6
101.8
103.1
104.9
104.2
106.6
109.3
113.0

H O R S E S H O E R S , F L O O R MIEN, M a le .

H O R S E S H O E R S , F O R G E M E N , M a le .

[Data from 109 establishments 1890-1903; 127,1904;
134, 1905.]

[Data from 69 establishments 1890-1903; 95, 1904;
100, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
105.7
101.9
103.4
101.1
100.4
96.6
97.7
95.5
98.9
99.6
101.5
102.3
100.4
100.0
98.3
101.4

100.0
102.0
101.9
101.9
100.8
99.3
99.2
99.2
98.9
98.6
98.2
97.7
96.7
96.0
95.6
95.1
94.5

100.0
98.1
97.6
97.8
98.4
101.1
99.9
100.5
101.1
102.3
103.1
104.9
106.6
107.8
113.4
116.8
119.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
102.9
102.9
102.1
100.7
99.3
97.9
98.6
97.1
100.0
99.3
97.1
99.3
97.9
96.4
96.4
94.4

100.0
101.3
101.1
101.1
100.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3
98.9
97.9
96.9
96.6
95.5
94.9
94.7
94.2

100.0
98.6
98.5
98.5
97.9
98.3
98.8
100.1
101.2
103.0
104.8
107.9
109.8
111.6
114.8
115.8
117.7

100.1
99.9
99.3
97.7
97.5
96.4
93.7
93.9

102.1
103.3
103.9
107.6
112.0
116.2
123.4
121.6

H O R S E S H O E R S , N O T S P E C I F I E D , M a le .

[Data from 62 establishments 1890-1903; 27, 1904; 14, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
103.3
102.5
104.1
100.0
96.7
93.4
94.3
98.4

2— No. 65— 06----- 5




100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0

100.0
100.9
100.5
99.5
99.2
97.4
98.4
99.0
99.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.8
104.1
106.6
107.4
100.0
98.4
100.3
104.7

62

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

BOOTS A N D SH O ES.
C U T T E R S , O U T S O L E , M a le .

C L O S E R S -O N ^ F e m a le .

[Data lor employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 17, 1891, 1892; 18, 1893; 20, 1894;
24, 1895; 25, 1896; 26, 1897; 28,1898; 32, 1899; 33,
1900, 1901; 34, 1902, 1903. Data from 40 estab­
lishments 1904; 44,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
87.3
83.1
87.3
90.1
108.5
100.0
111.3
114.1
107.0
116.9
111.3
116.9
114.4
129.6
131.8
122.2

100.0
100.3
100.5
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.6
99.7
99.7
100.4
99.7
99.5
99.3
99.4
98.8 ,
98.9
98.8

100.0
90.7
96.8
98.3
100.4
103.6
98.4
103.3
105.2
100.1
102.9
102.4
105.5
103.4
108.4
106.1
109.0

C U T T E R S , U P P E R , JTIale.

[Data for employees from 26 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 26 estab­
lishments 1890; 27, 1891; 28, 1892; 29, 1893, 1894;
30,1895,1896; 31,1897; 32,1898,1899; 33,1900-1903.
Data from 37 establishments 1904; 35,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
88.7
94.8
97.4
98.3
87.8
93.9
104.3
117.4
107.8
113.0
114.8
121.7
125.2
140.0
133.9
139.6

100.0
100.2
101.7
100.2
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.2
98.6
98.5

100.0
102.0
99.5
99.1
100.1
96.8
100.2
98.8
101.2
101.4
100.6
102.2
100.5
103.5
106.0
109.2
109.9

E D G E T R I M M E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 22 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 25, 1892; 27, 1893; 28,
1894; 31, 1895, 1896; 32, 1897; 33, 1898; 37, 1899;
39, 1900-1903. Data from 42 establishments
1904; 45,1905.]

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
lishments 1890; 20, 1891; 21, 1892; 23, 1893; 24,
1894; 27, 1895,1896; 28, 1897; 30, 1898; 33, 1899;
34,1900; 35, 1901-1903. Data from 41 establish­
ments 1904; 45, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
76.0
82.0
94.7
95.2
96.3
99.8
105.5
113.6
118.0
119.6
129.1
142.3
136.5
144.3
154.5
162.1

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
99.8
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.7
99.7
99.8
98.4
96.6
96.9
96.2

100.0
99.9
99.4
99.8
100.4
98.0
100.0
99.1
101.0
99.7
102.8
103.3
102.6
107.4
110.8
114.2
117.3

G O O D Y E A R S T I T C H E R S , M a le .

100.0
74.2
76.4
86.5
96.6
102.2
100.0
112.4
114.6
111.2
120.2
123.6
138.2
134.8
140.4
151.2
162.4

100.0
100.8
100.8
101.0
100.8
99.8
99.5
99.7
99.9
98.5
99.2
98.2
99.2
97.3
95.8
95.7
95.6

100.0
97.797.2
99.2
105.1
99.2
103.1
99.2
100.4
99.9
99.0
105.3
105.0
110.1
114.7
116.4
118.7

H E E L T R I M M E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903- Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890; 12, 1891; 13, 1892; 14, 1893; 15,
1894; 19, 1895, 1896; 21, 1897; 22, 1898; 25, 1899;
27,1900, 1901; 29, 1902; 30, 1903. Data from 34
establishments 1904; 40,1905.]

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 15 estab­
lishments 1890; 17, 1891; 18, 1892; 20, 1893; 21,
1894; 25, 1895-1897; 26, 1898; 28, 1899; 29, 1900;
30, 1901-1903. Data from 39 establishments
1904; 44, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
91.7
86.1
86.1
97.2
91.7
94.4
105.6
108.3
105.6
130.6
150.0
155.6
158.3
161.1
181.1
205.8




100.0
101.3
100.6
100.5
100.7
99.5
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.8
98.7
95.1
94.4
94.6
94.9

100.0
88.6
93.9
96.5
96.4
99.6
100.9
98.6
108.4
106.6
110.4
115.6
117.3
121.7
131.0
133.2
130.2

100.0
77.1
85.7
94.3
100.0
100.0
108.6
108.6
111.4
105.7
97.1
102.9
100.0
88.6
85.7
93.8
97.3

100.0
101.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.1
97.7
97.6
96.7
96.2
95.7
96.1

100.0
91.9
90.8
97.0
104.7
102.3
103.6
101.0
102.3
105.0
101.5
104.8
105.5
106.9
115.7
122.0
125.1

63

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B O O T S ANTI) S H O E S —Concluded.
M c K A Y S T I T C H E R S , M a le .

L I S T E R S , M A C H I N E , M a le .

[Data for employees from 10 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 12, 1892; 14, 1893; 15,1894;
16, 1895; 20, 1896; 23,1897; 25, 1898; 30,1899; 31,
1900; 32,1901; 33,1902,1903. Data from 37 estab­
lishments 1904; 44, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0

59.8
67.7
77.2

86.6

102.4
117.3
126.0
120.5

100.0

138.6
148.8
134.6
126.8
148.8
171.9
188.1

100.0

100.0

100.2
100.0

101.2

99.5

99.8

97.3
98.1

100.6

96.1
101.3

100.0

103.9
97.6
103.9

100.5
100.5
98.6
100.3
98.8
99.9
98.5
97.8
98.0
98.0

101.1

100.6

103.0
106.6
114.4
120.1

125.4
128.0

[Data for employees from 14 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 14 estab­
lishments 1890; 16, 1891; 17, 1892; 19, 1893; 20,
1894-1896; 21, 1897; 23, 1898; 24, 1899; 25, 1900;
26, 1901-1903. Data from 28 establishments
1904; 31,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
77.8
80.0
104.4
104.4
102.2
111.1
117.8
104.4
102.2
100.0
97.8
106.7
97.8
86.7
86.7
93.2

100.0
101.6
101.5
100.4
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.1
98.5
98.6
96.4
98.0
96.7
96.6
96.3
95.8

100.0
95.0
94.1
99.3
104.4
100.6
104.3
98.9
101.2
102.6
99.6
99.9
99.1
100.7
103.6
103.5
102.2

T A M P E R S , M a le .

T R E E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 14, 1892; 15,1893, 1894; 16,
1895, 1896; 17, 1897-1899; 19, 1900-1903. Data
from 28 establishments 1904; 33,1905.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 establishment 1890; 2:, 1891, 1892; 4,1893,1896; 5,1894,
1895,1897,1898; 7,1899,1900; 9,1901; 11,1902; 10,
1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904; 19,
1905.]

Average 1890-99
......
1890
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0

64.2
83.2
78.8
108.0
102.9
107.3
121.9
114.6
113.1
102.9
105.1
108.8
91.2
94.2
93.6
106.0

100.0

100.1

100.7
99.4
99.0
99.7
100.9
100.3
99.9
100.3
99.7
99.6
99.8
98.2
96.0
95.9
95.9

100.0

101.4
97.4
98.8
100.4
101.4
100.9

101.6

97.9
97.7

102.6

107.9
105.5

110.0

123.4
123.3
126.0

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
150.0
226.2
277.1

100.0
95.8
101.9
102.4
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.0
100.2
100.3
99.5
100.5
100.1
99.4
93.9
96.3
96.5

100.0
112.3
97.3
92.4
95.6
89.4
90.7
101.5
111.4
103.0
106.7
110.6
106.0
114.7
127.1
124.4
120.4

V A M P E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 16 establish­
ments 1890; 18, 1891; 19,1892; 20,1893; 22,1894; 26,1895,1896; 27,1897; 29,1898; 3 3 ,1S99; 34,1900,1901;
35, 1902; 33,1903. Data from 40 establishments 1904; 45, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897............ .........

100.0
102.6
91.4
94.0
92.2
94.8
102.6
101.7
105.2




100.0
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.6
99.5

100.0
99.9
93.7
98.3
101.6
102.3
103.2
102.0
100.8

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

103.4
113.8
121.6
130.2
140.5
153.4
157.4
155.4

100.1
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.5
98.6

99.4
98.5
103.0
103.9
104.5
110.5
110.7
115.4

64

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B R IC K .
B R I C K - M A C H I N E T E N D E R S , M a le .

K I L N B U R N E R S , M a le .

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 36, 1904;
46, 1905.]

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904;
48,1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
99.2
100.8
100.0
98.4
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.2
100.8
102.4
103.2
101.6
104.0
109.5
108.0
107.6

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.9

100.0
99.9
99.6
103.0
101.7
98.4
97.8
98.6
97.3
100.6
103.2
104.6
106.6
111.3
112.9
113.5
112.5

K I L N S E T T E R S , M a le .

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.0
101.0
96.0
100.0
98.0
102.0
102.0
98.0
103.0
106.0
108.0
109.0
113.4
115.7

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
100.3
99.5
99.9
99.2
99.8
100.6
99.6
99.0
99.3
98.6
98.2
98.2

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.5
100.1
95.2
99.1
96.2
102.0
104.2
101.1
104.8
109.9
113.8
115.9
117.7
118.8

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 36, 1904;
44, 1905.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
47,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.................... .
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.0
90.1
95.0
102.0
98.0
98.0
102.0
103.0
102.0
108.9
105.9
106.9
108.9
113.9
108.6
111.7

100.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.1
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.9

100.0
99.2
99.7
104.9
99.8
99.5
97.8
97.9
96.5
101.9
102.7
102.9
101.2
106.9
107.4
107.5
107.4

100.0
93.8
97.4
99.0
102.0
103.0
101.6
98.0
98.0
100.0
107.2
104.3
105.6
120.3
119.0
122.8
120.0

100.0
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.6
99.2
98.5
98.4
98.4

100.0
104.0
102.2
102.2
100.8
99.4
97.1
98.8
98.8
97.0
99.3
102.0
103.1
109.2
112.9
111.3
114.9

100.1
100.2
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.5
99.1
99.4

95.5
97.6
101.6
106.5
111.1
114.4
113.5
115.0

O F F B E A R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 29, 1904; 40,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890....... ..............
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
101.3
97.4
105.3
98.0
96.0
99.3
100.0
98.0




100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1

100.0
101.5
104.3
104.9
106.7
101.0
98.3
95.7
94.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904..................
1905.....................

98.7
102.6
94.7
96.7
99.3
97.4
97.0
96.4

65

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B U IL D IN G TR A D E S.
B R I C K L A Y E R S , M a le ,

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 212 establishments 1890-1903; 229,1904;
209,1905.]

[Data from 227 establishments 1890-1903; 242,1904;
213,1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative 1 Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
101.5
112.3
114.1
104.1
93.1
88.2
91.8
92.1
95.3
107.3
105.1
118.1
109.8
116.2
111.2
111.8

100.0
103.2
102.4
101.2
100.1
100.8
100.0
99.9
99.1
97.9
95.5
95.6
94.3
93.6
92.7
92.1
92.0

100.0
98.4
99.5
101.0
101.1
98.6
99.5
98.9
99.4
98.7
104.8
106.5
112.0
118.0
124.7
127.3
132.1

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
104.8
110.2
114.3
97.8
89.3
88.8
95.7
95.4
95.5
108.2
112.1
117.8
122.1
116.4
108 6
108.3

100.0
102.0
101.3
100.5
100.7
100.7
100.3
99.7
99.0
98.5
97.4
94.5
92.5
90.6
90.2
89.9
90.1

100.0
98.6
99.2
102.7
99.7
97.9
97.8
99.6
100.0
101.4
103.2
110.8
115.9
123.7
130.6
129.9
133.6

C O R N IC E M A K E R S , M a le ,

G A S F I T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 55, 1904;
86,1905.]

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903; 79, 1904;
77, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
106.2
105.4
133.5
99.8
80.5
85.3
93.6
90.1
96.9
108.7
103.5
104.1
114.7
117.2
114.8
127.1

100.0
104.4
101.3
98.4
100.6
100.3
100.1
99.5
99.0
98.6
97.9
96.1
94.5
92.5
91.7
90.2
90.3

100.0
95.0
97.1
99.2
98.8
97.6
98.6
101.4
102.9
103.0
106.4
113.5
115.6
125.1
134.3
137.7
140.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.. . . t .............

100.0
99.4
100.0
105.6
93.2
96.3
90.1
100.6
100.0
106.8
110.5
108.0
109.3
114.8
114.8
114.4
118.4

100.0
103.5
102.6
100.6
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.1
97.3
96.4
95.4
92.6
90.9
89.4
89.3

100.0
95.5
96.3
98.9
.99.7
99.1
99.3
100.0
101.6
103.7
105.8
110.0
114.1
123.3
130.5
139.1
138.9

I N S I D E W I R E M E N , M a le .

H O P C A R R I E R S , M a le .

[Datafrom 250 establishments 1890-1903; 262,1904;
255,1905.]

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 56, 1904;
94,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
102.0
109.5
115.4
105.0
87.2
90.6
93.3
94.2
92.4
110.4
104.1
120.2
119.3
123.5
124.3
128.1




100.0
102.3
101.8
100.4
100.1
100.8
99.9
99.7
99.7
98.9
96.5
96.5
95.6
94.1
93.0
92.8
93.0

100.0
97.0
96.5
99.4
99.8
98.9
99.6
100.3
99.7
100.6
108.1
107.3
109.3
114.9
122.9
123.8
124.7

100.0
74.2
78.1
94.5
91.1
93.7
93.3
102.7
130.4
122.4
119.8
146.7
149.4
176.6
184.1
185.8
212.1

100.0
102.8
102.6
98.8
101.2
101.5
101.2
99.3
97.5
97.2
98.0
94.7
94.5
92.8
89.6
88.2
87.2

100.0
89.6
89.1
91.6
97.9
96.1
100.0
104.5
107.6
112.1
111.7
120.7
119.6
129.7
140.6
143.5
150.0

66

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B U I L D I N G TR A D ES-C ontinued.
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

L A T H E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 146 establishments 1890-1903; 172,1904;
192,1905.]

[Bata from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 39, 1904;
67,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
114.8
109.0
107.9
101.3
92.6
85.1
90.1
89.7
101.4
108.1
118.3
104.2
119.2
113.9
96.8
109.1

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.3
99.8
99.0
98.5
96.3
95.8
95.8
95.8

100.0
102.7
103.0
103.5
101.8
96.7
98.2
96.5
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.6
108.0
112.0
114.2
114.3
114.4

P A I N T E R S , M ale*

100.0
96.3
100.9
105.5
99.7
93.9
94.1
99.2
101.7
101.3
107.5
111.2
116.5
115.7
109.4
109.9
111.5

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.1
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.6
99.0
98.1
97.1
94.6
92.6
91.5
90.8
90.4
90.5

Average 1890-99..
.........
1890
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
85.2
81.5
108.3
91.7
90.7
110.2
105.6
99.1
119.4
109.3
121.3
121.3
135.2
114.8
135.4
132.9

100. 0
105. 4
105. 4
104. 9
104. 8
104. 7
103. 7
93. 2
93. 2
92. 3
92. 3
87. 3
87. 9
87. 7
88. 0
87. 4
87. 2

100.0
94.0
93.8
95.9
93.8
93.8
97.9
106.3
106.2
109.5
108.7
110.8
111.2
115.1
111.4
116.7
119.3

P A P E R H A N G E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 203 establishments 1890-1903; 208,1904;
206,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
97.0
98.2
99.4
101.2
99.1
98.4
99.2
100.5
102.3
104.7
110.5
114.7
119.5
124.9
127.9
129.5

P L A S T E R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 93 establishments 1890-1903; 103,1904;
116,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.1
94.9
100.6
93.5
92.1
93.5
99.8
105.7
108.5
117.8
119.2
127.9
124.2
120.4
317.1
129.1

100.0
101.4
100.9
101.0
100.8
100.4
100.5
99.8
99.0
98.4
97.9
96.1
92.8
91.4
90.2
90.3
89.6

100.0
98.5
99.3
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.5
99.5
101.1
102.9
103.7
108.4
113.4
118.8
125.7
126.8
133.5

P L U M B E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 146 establishments 1890-1903; 152,1904;
164, 1905.]

[Bata from 221 establishments 1890-1903; 232,1904;
207,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901..'..................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894................ .
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.2
106.0
110.5
102.4
92.0
92.0
97.7
94.4
97.0
108.1
111.5
105.2
120.8
112.7
110.5
123.8




100.0
103.2
101.6
100.5
100.3
100.3
99.6
99.4
100.3
98.6
96.1
94.1
93.1
91.2
90.8
90.5
90.1

100.0
98.4
99.2
102.6
100.5
97.9
98.1
99.7
97.6
99.4
106.4
109.5
114.3
123.7
131.8
133.8
139.6

100.0
99.1
100.3
103.4
99.8
94.4
94.3
98.9
99.1
104.6
106.2
110.4
118.3
117.9
115.7
117.2
124.5

100.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.3
98.9
98.7
98.2
96.6
95.4
93.0
91.9
91.3
91.1

100.0
97.4
98.1
98.7
99.9
98.8
99.7
100.4
101.2
102.3
103.6
107.1
110.6
117.6
124.5
128.3
131.2

67

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES A N D H OURS O F L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
R O O F E R S , G R A V E L A N D T A R , M a le .

R O O F E R S , S L A T E A N D T I L E , M a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904;
72,1905.]

[Data from 40 establishments 1890-1903; 41, 1904;
71,1905.]

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
82.9
89.5
92.1
136.8
76.3
90.8
101.3
100.0
110.5
122.4
105.3
109.2
94.7
97.4
118.3
123.9

100.0
100.4
100.2
101.3
98.1
100.0
101.1
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
95.9
96.2
95.8
98.6
98.2
98.7

100.0
97.1
101.0
103.6
107.6
98.0
92.5
96.5
100.9
100.1
102.9
114.5
115.9
114.4
113.1
110.6
110.3

100.0
96.6
102.5
100.1
105.2
94.9
93.7
101.0
96.7
102.3
107.6
105.5
109.1
115.0
110.3
109.8
111.3

100.0
102.0
101.2
101.1
100.4
100.7
100.3
99.6
99.0
98.3
97.4
95.6
93.8
91.4
91.4
90.7
90.6

100.0
97.0
99.1
99.1
100.0
97.8
98.8
100.1
100.4
102.5
105.2
108.7
111.9
119.7
122.2
122.9
126.5




100.0
106.9
115.2
111.1
101.4
90.2
90.1
93.5
89.8
105.2
97.1
105.5
104.6
107.7
121.1
117.7
116.8

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.2
100.6
100.9
100.4
100.3
98.6
97.4
98.0
96.4
95.2
93.2
92.0
91.4
91.3

100.0
110.3
107.7
105.9
100.7
90.4
91.5
97.8
100.4
95.9
100.7
98.2
95.6
100.4
95.2
82.5
81.5

100.0
100.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.7
100.7
99.9
98.9
99.0
97.7
95.2
94.8
91.7
91.0
91.0
91.0

100.0
101.2
99.8
100.9
100.3
97.5
98.1
98.4
98.6
101.3
103.8
109.5
112.0
118.5
128.3
130.6
130.9

[Data from 73 establishments 1890-1903; 86,1904;
112,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902............. .......
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.0
90.9
99.5
107.9
96.6
95.3
99.8
105.8
101.8
108.4
106.8
115.2
129.3
129.0
128.6
139.4

100.0
102.6
101.9
101.3
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.2
98.7
98.6
96.9
96.0
94.0
92.4
89.0
88.9
89.1

100.0
95.9
96.2
99.4
97.4
99.2
98.2
100.5
101.5
104.3
107.4
108.1
115.1
120.2
127.3
131.6
133.3

S T O N E S E T T E R S , M a le •

S T O N E M A S O N S , M a le .

[Data from 115 establishments 1890-1903; 110,1904;
102,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

S T E A M F I T T E R S , M a le .

R O O F E R S , T I N 9 M a le .

fData from 94 establishments 1890-1903; 100,1904;
118,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892............... .
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Year.

100.0
102.9
103.2
101.5
100.7
95.1
96.4
98.1
100.3
99.0
102.8
104.7
110.8
119.0
126.6
129.4
129.5

[Data from 27 establishments 1890-1903; 40, 1904;
57, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
88.1
88.1
99.1
101.8
96.3
108.3
106.4
98.2
99.1
111.9
122.9
133.9
130.3
122.9
118.5
127.3

100.0
103.9
103.4
100.1
99.7
99.2
98.8
99.4
98.9
98.4
98.2
96.3
95.4
95.4
94.8
94.8
95.0

100.0
92.3
92.9
100.2
99.9
100.8
102.0
100.8
103.0
104.3
103.9
107.5
113.1
110.9
116.2
117.9
121.4

68

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
BTJIX jDINTG T R A D E S —Concluded.
S T R U C T U R A L I R O N W O R K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 19 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 19 establish­
ments 1890-1892; 20,1893-1903. Data from 37 establishments 1904; 59,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894 . . . . . . . .
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
77.7
98.2
107.3
98.8
74.2
79.5
115.5
111.9

100.0
102.9
101.8
99.3
100.1
101.9
100-1
98.5
97.0

100.0
93.6
98.0
100.6
100.9
93.5
97.7
97.5
104.1

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903 ...................
1904.....................
1905.....................

122.1
115.5
142.2
195.5
228.2
206.6
205.5
194.3

97.8
100.5
98.0
96.7
91.6
92.2
90.6
90.1

105.3
108.8
120.4
138.4
155.9
159.8
171.4
171.8

CANDY.
C A N D Y M A K E R S , M a le .

D I P P E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904;
37,1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904;
33, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901...................... ;
1902......................
1903...................... ;
1904...................... !
1905...................... \

Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
..
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0
108.2
104.9
103.3
101.6
95.1
100.0
95.1
103.3
90.2
91.8
90.2
78.7
82.0
83.6
84.4
88.7

100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
99 9
99.9

100.0
98.2
98.1
98.8
95.7
96.2
100.8
103.7
99.3
104.6
104.8
98.7
104.9
103.4
103.4
105.6
107.4

100.0

117.1

112.8

100.0

98.6
98.6
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.5

103.0
106.7
96.3
91.5
94.5
95.1
89.0
93.9
103 0
103.7

100.6
100.6

122.6

100.4

101.8

130.7
138 0

100.7

100.8
100 8
100.8
100.8
100.6

100.2

100.0
106.3
108.5

100.8

100.7
101.3
97.0
96.2
96.8
96.4
96.6
99.2
114.0
113.5
115.2
118.7

121.1

i

C A R PETS.
B U R L E R S , F e m a le ,

D Y E R S , M a le

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904,
1905]

[Data from 6 establishments.]

Average 1890-99 .
1890 ............ . ...
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895 ....................
1896......................
1 8 9 7 ........... .
1898 ....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
97.9
95.9
90.7
111.3
75.3
103.1
112.4
95.9
105.2
107.2
112.4
117 5
119.6
123.7
134.9
129.7




100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
99.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.5
99.1
99.0

100.0
97.4
99 8
104.2
101 6
94.0
97.0
102.7
97.4
108.5
97.3
105.4
111.1
112.9
123.4
105 5
112.6

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891...J...............
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
120.4
109.7
94.6
105.4
90.3
100.5
98.4
88.7
93.0
96.2
97.3
96.8
110.8
115.6
114.5
111.8

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.9
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.0
99.0

100.0
98.4
99.3
102.0
101.3
95.9
95.9
100.7
103.3
101.5
101.5
100.9
100.9
160.2
104.8
102.8
104.6

69

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

C A R P E T S —Continued.
L O O H F I X E R S ) R a le ,

S P O O L E R S ) F e m a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904,
1905.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904,
1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
90.9
96.1
100.0
101.3
97.4
101.3
98.7
100.0
106.5
101.3
102.6
105.2
106.5
111.7
118.3
111.7

100.0
101.1
101.1
99.9
99.4
99.4
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.6
99.3
99.0
99.1

100.0
101.6
98.0
100.2
100.7
99.6
98.4
98.4
102.7
99.4
100.8
101.0
100.8
102.4
106.3
105.7
108.1

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
104.3
104.3
107.2
113.8
102.9
110.9
100.0
85.5
81.9
91.3
100.7
102.2
99.3
98.6
92.1
95.0

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.8
99.3
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.9
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
98.2
98.2

100.0
100.4
95.7
98.0
101.5
103.6
99.3
100.3
101.2
99.8
100.5
99.6
101.2
104.6
106.2
103.9
106.0

T W I S T E R S , F e m a le ,

W E A V E R S, BRUSSELS AND W IL ­
T O N , M a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 6,1904; 7,
1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896....................
1897......................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
116.1
109.7
109.7
101.6
85.5
103.2
108.1
85.5
72.6
109.7
132.3
121.0
132.3
145.2
180.3
180.3

100.0
101.2
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.6
99.1
99.4
99 6
99.7
99 3
99.5
99.2
99.5
99.7
95.5
95.5

100.0
103.3
104.4
104.6
103.4
89.9
91.7
99.9
99.5
102.2
100.9
103.5
103.3
103.5
107.2
108.5
108.4

Average 1890-99 .
1890 ...................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900 ...................
1901 ...................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0

97.6
92 9
101.4
94.8
94.8
106.9
104.8
106 4
94.1
106.4
1J0.2
119 0
127.6
143 5
151.5
159.0

100.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
100.0
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
100 1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9

100.0
99.8
97.1
98.9
97.1
93.5
102.2
102.2
102.7
102 0
104.7
106.9
108.3
116.9
322 9
121.4
131.0

W E A V E R S , B R U S S E L S A N D W I I 4T O N , F e m a le *

W E A V E R S , I N G R A I N , F e m a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2, 1904,
1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 6, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
3896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
108.1
100.0
98.6
129.7
32.4
95.9
110.8
68.9
113.5
141.9
154.1
177.0
177.0
171.6
203.2
208.1




100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0

100.0
98.7
91.2
91.6
95.9
86.8
92.4
106.7
107.1
110.3
119.2
112.4
140.7
108.6
117.0
120.6
118.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898:...................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
96.9
102.9
104.3
92.6
106.0
89.5
95.2
100.0
103.8
108.1
105.3
100.2
103.6
99.3
95.5
88.0

100.0
101.8
101.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
98.3
98.5

100.0
96.3
93.0
94.7
98.5
100.4
100.8
101.6
107.2
100.3
106.8
103 4
106.1
93.4
107.4
99.9
108.8

70

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
C A R P E T S —Concluded.
W I N D E R S ) F e m a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 7,1904, 1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890 ....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
89.8
89.4
92.8
104.2
88.6
108.9
105.9
103.4

100.0
101.4
101.4
99.9
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.7

100.0
100.5
96.9
100.4
99.6
97.9
97.9
101.2
98.4

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

104.7
111.0
113.6
117.8
124.6
128.4
133.8
132.1

99.6
99.6
99.7
99.5
99.6
98.9
96.8
97.1

102.2
105.1
107.0
103.7
104.2
106.5
106.1
109.8

C A R R IA G E S A N D W A G O N S .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

B O D Y M A K E R S , C A R R I A G E , M a le .

[Data from 98 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
66,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
101.2
101.2
104.6
115.4
99.3
104.3
85.2
88.2
100.3
100.7
102.9
111.1
107.5
112.0
109.7
112.2

100.0
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.6
98.7
99.4
99.4
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99.7
99.2
98.3
98.4
97.6

100.0
102.4
101.8
101.9
94.3
96.6
95.0
101.7
102.4
100.9
102.9
101.8
102.4
104.8
106.5
107.8
110.6

B O D Y M A K E R S , NO T S P E C IF IE D ,
M a le .

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 25, 1904;
18,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
100.0
104.2
105.0
118.3
93.3
93.3
90.8
99.2
96.7
97.5
97.5
103.3
81.7
85.0
80.6
77.6




100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.3
99.8
99.5
98.5

100.0
99.9
100.1
100.8
101.9
97.8
95.6
100.0
100.7
100.5
102.8
101.9
102.0
102.0
107.5
110.6
115.1

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903; 39, 1904;
37, 1905.]
Average. 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
86.2
95.9
95.9
97.4
116.9
93.8
91.3
101.0
100.5
118.5
116.4
137.9
139.0
139.0
152.4
178.6

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.1
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
98.7
98.7
95.7

100.0
100.1
99.7
101.2
100.1
98.6
97.8
98.5
98.5
101.5
103.8
100.5
98.4
102.6
104.4
104.6
112.3

1 R O N E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890-1896, 1898-1903; 7, 1897. Data
from 28 establishments 1904; 30,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
104.1
114.4
106.2
89.7
95.9
79.4
92.8
104.1
111.3
124.7
120.6
117.5
128.9
121.6
125.7

100.0
100.9
101.2
101.2
99.6
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
97.7
97.4
99.3
100.9
96.4
98.7
95.7

100.0
98.2
96.4
95.9
99.9
101.7
99.3
103.9
102.2
98.8
103.6
103.4
100.2
99.7
111.9
112.0
116.0

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

7l

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
C A R R I A G E S A N D W A G O N S —Concluded.

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
29, 1905.1
Year.
Average
1890___
1891:....
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0

__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
------------------------------__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

94.7
98.2
97.4
92.1
83.7

102.2

93.4
100.4
117.2
122.0
118.9
134.8
136.6
134.4
124.1
128.5

100.0

100.8
100.9

100.8

100.7
97.5
100.1
98.7.
99.7
100.8
100.1
99.0
100.0

99.8
99.6
97.1
96.6

100.0

99.0
97.7

101.1

99.3
100.7
96.4

102.6
100.1
100.7

102.2

105.1
103.3
109.1
110.7
109.9
111.0

T R I M M E R S , C A R R I A G E , M a le .

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 76, 1904;
60, 1905.]
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
.......
1892
.......
......
1893
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0
92.4
92.9
100.0
93.4
96.2
96.7
99.5
101.9
110.0
117.1
116.1
128.9
116.6
118.0
110.8
108.3

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
99.9
98.6
98.7
98.7
99.4
98.1
98.2
97.5

100.0
101.3
100.9
100.7
101.8
98.7
99.1
98.5
98.9
98.9
101.3
101.0
101.6
102.8
106.6
110.2
114.0

PAINTERS, Male.
[Data from 76 establishments 1890-1903; 95, 1904;
69,1905.]
Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
95.9
98.8
101.9
100.7
91.6
96.3
98.8
96.3
104.8
114.7
117.5
122.5
120.5
116.2
108.3
105.6

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.4
99.1
99.5
99.7
98.5
98.5
98.0

100.0
98.6
98.4
100.9
100.8'
99.7
100.3
99.7
99.4
100.8
101.4
102.5
103.5
103.5
108.2
110.9
112.1

WOODWORKERS, Male
[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 51, 1904;
31,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898-....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.6
93.6
103.7
103.7
94.5
95.4
103.7
102.8
102.8
106.4
107.3
111.9
101.8
96.3
95.7
107.0

100.0
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.1
99.4
100.3
100.4
99.4
99.4
98.8
98.8
97.4
97.0
95.8

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.2
99.4
101.2
100.5
99.4
99.0
100.2
101.6
101.2
102.3
104.7
105.0
101.9

C A R S , S T E A M R A IL R O A D .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904; 45, 1905.]

[Data from 34 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
33, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
111.5
104.7
107.9
106.8
82.1
81.4
100.6
91.3
104.6
109.6
121.3
123.4
129.6
137.5
127.6
137.3




100.0
101.9
100.8
101.5
101.1
96.6
98.1
98.8
98.1
101.1
101.8
101.9
100.9
100.7
99.9
98.4
97.8

100.0
102.3
101.0
101.6
101.8
101.1
102.2
96.1
99.4
97.0
97.5
97.9
99.2
100.4
104.4
111.5
107.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
91.5
92.2
100.9
101.6
94.0
94.7
100.2
103.0
108.7
113.9
118.3
134.9
139.7
168.0
159.3
168.8

100.0
103.7
100.9
103.3
102.6
94.8
97.2
97.2
97.4
101.5
101.4
101.8
100.2
99.8
98.5
98.5
97.4

100.0
100.4
101.8
100.8
101.3
99.1
98.7
99.1
98.7
99.4
100.5
101.9
102.7
105.5
113.4
118.3
120.7

72

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Continued.

B R A S S F I N I S H E R S , H a le .

C A B I N E T M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 9, 1904;
8, 1905.]

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 20, 1904;
21, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
87.5
84.7
94.4
106.9
83.3
87.5
125.0
98.6
138.9
91.7
102.8
101.4
109.7
201.4
194.1
219.4

100.0
100.2
99.2
100.3
100.4
99.8
99.6
.99.8
99.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
94.0
93.3
92.8

100.0
105.8
105.1
104.2
107.0
87.9
93.8
98.5
99.1
98.2
100.3
105.5
101.0
112.0
120.6
130.6
113.7

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

100.0
100.9
101.5
105.5
104.7
90.3
89.6
95.3
95.9
105.2
111.3
121.3
122.2
131.8
133.7
124.6
160.7

100.0
101.2
100.4
101.3
100.5
97.9
99.0
98.9
98.6
101.2
101.0
101.3
100.6
100.7
99.0
97.5
97.3

100.0
101.6
101.4
102.9
104.6
96.9
98.4
97.5
98.2
97.8
100.8
100.6
102.3
105.9
109.7
113.4
115.5

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

100.0
105.6
111.1
107.2
105.2
70.2
81.2
103.7
82.6
109.6
123.8
149.0
145.8
120.5
140.9
128.6
176.2




100.0
101.2
101.3
101.0
100.3
97.5
99.8
99.6
99.1
100.2
100.0
100.2
100.6
100.3
102.4
100.9
100.0

100.0
98.1
96.7
74.0
88.3
84.5
107.6
96.1
116.6
100.0
137.7
124.6
126.1
134.1
103.0
128.9
91.6

100.0
100.1
99.8
99.9
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.6
93.4
91.9
92.0

100.0
107.6
107.3
102.3
105.4
86.5
91.8
97.9
97.2
99.3
104.7
106.9
112.7
122.5
130.4
132.3
120.1

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 19, 1904;
18, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
90.9
84.8
87.9
87.9
93.9
84.8
103.0
115.2
124.2
124.2
133.3
136.4
163.6
145.5
131.6
121.1

100.0
105.6
104.1
103.7
101.7
93.4
96.6
95.5
95.7
102.1
101.7
103.0
101.6
102.8
102.3
101.9
99.6

100.0
101.4
101.3
100.6
102.9
99.8
101.4
99.2
97.4
96.2
99.5
99.4
99.0
100.4
102.5
107.5
110.3

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 41, 1904;
42, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

C O P P E R S M I T H S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 41, 1899-1903. Data from
49 establishments 1904; 46, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890,....................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 ..................
1899 ..................
1900 ..................
1901 ..................
1902 ..................
1903 ..................
1904 ..................
1905 ..................

Year.

100.0
99.7
99.2
100.7
112.3
99.9
97.2
98.1
98.5
97.2
97.5
100.5
100.3
103.1
104.4
106.3
107.8

[Data for employees from 21 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from ,21 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 22, 1899-1903. Data from
35 establishments 1904; 40,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
112.1
119.3
135.0
143.2
74.0
74.3
79.2
74.6
88.7
99.5
110.0
119.8
127.8
139.6
134.8
145.1

100.0
100.8
100.7
101.2
101.2
98.9
99.3
99.3
98.8
99.8
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
96.1
94.0
94.2

100.0
102.9
106.0
100.4
102.5
97.3
96.4
99.1
95.4
99.1
100.9
101.7
100.8
106.0
113.7
115.9
115.4

73

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Continued.
M A C H I N I S T S , M a le ,

M O L D E R S , B R A S S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 44 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 44 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 45, 1899-1903. Data from
48 establishments 1904; 45,1905.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
14, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
.........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0

94.8
94.7
99.6

100.1

90.9
94.9
101.9
99.1
108.5
115.7
118.5
118.3
124.3
133.7
138.8
157.8

100.0
102.0

100.7

102.2

101.3
95.9
99.4
98.7
98.4
100.3

101.0

101.7
101.4
101.3
99.3
98.5
96.9

100.0
100.5
100.1
100.3
100.8
100.7
99.9
99.5
99.4
98.9
100.2
100.6
102.1
104.8
110.7
115.2
115.8

100.0
113.0
106.3
111.6
97.7
86.0
83.2
101.6
85.3
100.0
115.2
124.7
113.5
125.6
122.4
108.3
106.6

100.0
100.4
100.8
100.8
100.7
96.4
100.7
101.2
96.9
101.0
101.1
101.1
100.2
100.2
99.3
97.8
97.0

100.0
105.1
103.7
104.5
108.5
99.2
99.1
92.6
96.2
95.5
95.7
97.9
98.8
101.2
106.0
110.1
113.1

100.0
101.8
99.1
105.4
97.3
88.3
92.8
99.1
91.9
112.6
114.4
117.1
127.0
125.2
126.1
126.8
135.6




100.0
101.6
100.9
101.6
101.7
98.9
97.8
97.7
97.1
101.0
101.8
101.7
101.0
101.5
98.3
97.5
97.2

100.0
97.1
102.9
107.4
102.9
79.4
82.4
86.8
100.0
114.7
119.1
132.4
147.1
155.9
158.8
151.4
160.3

100.0
101.0
101.4
101.4
101.1
94.5
101.2
100.9
96.3
101.1
101.2
101.5
101.6
101.8
95.5
94.9
94.6

100.0

105.6
106.9
98.9

101.0

104.4
93.8
94.2
96.4
97.0

101.6

99.7

102.1

109.2
117.5
121.4
123.6

[Data for employees from 35 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 35 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 36, 1899-1903. Data from
46 establishments 1904; 45,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
113.8
124.5
113.1
129.0
79.8
87.7
85.6
77.3
88.3
101.1
98.0
103.5
104.6
93.2
108.3
118.3

100.0
101.3
101.1
101.3
101.4
98.2
99.1
99.0
98.1
100.2
100.4
100.8
99.8
99.7
98.9
96.2
95.6

100.0
102.5
102.4
101.6
103.1
97.8
96.5
98.7
100.8
98.3
98.6
97.3
99.4
101.5
105.4
111.4
113.7

P I P E F I T T E R S , M a le .

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 24 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 24 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 25, 1899-1903. Data from
34 establishments 1904; 35,1905.]
Average 1§90-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898..................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

M O L D E R S , I R O N , M a le .

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 14, 1899-1903. Data from
14 establishments 1904; 13,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
101.8
102.5
101.2
103.4
100.9
99.0
95.8
97.0
100.0
98.7
100.1
102.1
102.5
108.5
110.7
112.5

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 7, 1899-1903. Data from
36 establishments 1904,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
101.9
94.4
113.0
124.1
92.6
94.4
87.0
94.4
96.3
96.3
94.4
127.8
135.2
144.4
156.4
178.7

100.0
102.5
102.7
103.3
102.5
94.5
96.7
96.3
96.4
102.1
103.0
102.9
101.4
101.4
100.5
99.3
99.0

100.0
103.6
97.0
95.7
101.7
102.5
99.5
99.2
99.6
IflM
99.9
99.1
101.2
100.1
106.5
110. i
108.5

74

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Concluded.

T I N S M I T H S * M a le .

U P H O L S T E R E R S , H a le .

[Data for employees from 34 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 34 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 35,1899-1903. Data from 44
establishments 1904; 41, 1905.]

[Data from 25 establishments 1890-1903; 34, 1904;
33,1905.}

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
94.7
102.4
93.9
99.7
96.5
92.3
94.9
95.2
117.3
113.3
116.0
127.2
129.3
127.5
129.0
118.1

100.0
102.1
101.1
101.1
100.6
97.3
98.6
98.6
98.2
101.3
101.2
102.0
100.7
100.3
97.6
96.5
95.9

100.0
98.2
97.1
102.9
101.4
97.8
99.3
101.8
102.3
96.6
102.6
103.4
103.4
112.2
119.1
121.7
121.8

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890...................
1891:....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
100.6
116.1
106.3
120.7
87.4
88.5
85.1
91.4
98.9
102.9
117.2
106.3
105.2
108.0
152.3
124.5

100.0
100.7
100.9
100.9
101.1
98.5
98.7
99.5
99.0
100.2
100.6
101.0
100.5
100.0
94.9
91.9
92.0

100.0
108.0
105.3
105.1
107.0
92.9
97.0
94.9
96.2
96.2
97.2
98.1
100.0
103.9
111.8
123.1
113.9

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y P R O D U C T .
B iT T O N H O L E M A K E R S , M A C H IN E ,
M a le .

B U T T O N H O L E M A K E R S , M A C H IN E ,
F e m a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 7,1904; 10,
1905.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 20,1904; 14,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7
66.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5
91.5

100.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
111.6
111.6
111.6
112.0
109.2

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
93.3
93.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
106.7
106.7
113.3
126.7
128.0
144.4

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
99.6
98.9
98.9
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
96.8
97.9
97.7
97.6

100.0
96.2
96.2
96.7
96.4
99.6
99.6
102.3
103.4
107.2
102.4
99.0
.99.3
99.5
104.2
106.2
112.3

C U T T E R S , H A N D , M a le .

C U T T E R S , M A C H I N E , M a le .

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 26,1904; 25,
1905.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 18,1904; 21,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
90.5
90.5
100.0
95.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.8
109.5
114.3
109.5
119.0
128.6
123.8
126.8
135.2




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.9
100.1
99.8
100.8

100.0
98.3
98.3
98.3
99.8
97.2
99.7
99.7
103.4
102.9
102.7
104.7
105.4
104.7
110.9
111.9
110.1

100.0
105.9
105.9
111.8
105.9
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
111.8
111.8
111.8
135.5
148.0

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
99.9
99.0
98.6
98.1
97.8

100.0
100.8
100.8
99.8
100.8
96.7
99.7
99.7
98.4
99.9
103.4
103.6
103.7
106.1
107.2
110.3
106.6

75

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y P R O D U C T —Concluded.
EXAMINERS, Fem ale.
[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 17, 1904;
8, 1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
.........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
..........
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
.........
1905
.........

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees.
hour.
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
99.9
99.9

100.0

99.9
100.4
100.4

105.9

88.2

88.2
111.8

88.2

88.2
111.8

123.5
141.2
182.4

211.8

201.3
276.8

100.1

100.0

99.6
99.6
99.8

100.0

99.6
98.8
97.0
97.3
97.6

100.0

98.0
98.0
94.7
98.0
99.9
100.4
100.7

102.8
102.0

105.1
103.6
107.2
87.5

86.6

89.2
84.7

PRESSERS, Male.
[Data for employees from 7 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 7, 1900-1903. Data from 29
establishments 1904, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
..........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0
107.7
107.7
111.5
100.0
111.5
115.4
88.5
88.5
92.3
88.5
103.8
115.4
107.7
103.8
111.7
120.9

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
100.3
100.2
99.6
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9
98.3
97.9
97.9

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.3
103.9
100.3
100.1
96.8
95.0
97.5
105.2
104.9
109.4
111.0
113.5
115.2
113.9

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
Male.
[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1901; 2, 1902, 1903. Data from 16
establishments 1904; 24, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0
83.3
83.3
91.7
91.7
108.3
108.3
83.3
108.3
108.3
100.0
108.3
108.3
108.3
108.3
132.7
153.3




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.5
91.5
92.0
91.6
90.6
90.6

100.0
99.3
99.3
101.9
101.9
98.6
98.6
99.3
98.6
98.6
104.1
103.5
113.0
95.3
108.4
103.7
104.3

F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 20, 1904;
26, 1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
90.5
90.5
98.4
96.8
88.9
90.5
93.7
103.2
115.9
123.8
138.1
133.3
147.6
142.9
151.5
164.7

100.0'
100.8
100.8
100.4
100.3
100.7
100.1
99.4
99.3
99.2
99.0
99.0
98.5
98.4
98.4
97.6
97.3

100.0
100.1
100.1
98.2
97.9
97.9
101.3
101.3
101.3
102.3
99.2
100.2
103.3
101.3
101.1
101.5
106.4

P R E S S E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 5,
1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890;...................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
102.6
102.6
105.1
105.1
82.1
87.2
102.6
105.1
105.1
112.8
120.5
138.5
151.3
164.1
79.6
94.1

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
98.8
99.9

100.0
102.3
102.3
103.1
103.1
86.4
90.9
100.3
103.3
103.3
105.3
108.2
109.9
105.7
104.1
135.5
147.5

S E W IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R S ,
F e m a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 27, 1904;
26, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893................... .
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.1
101.9
98.6
88.9
97.8
99.9
96.7
103.6
111.2
107.3
105.9
108.2
99.5
108.6
109.4
119.1

100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.5
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.3
99.2
98.8

100.0
97.5
99.4
101.1
98.8
96.6
97.3
99.6
99.0
105.7
105.4
103.0
104.2
108.6
111.5
119.2
125.3

76

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I .—RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

C L O T H IN G , M E N ’S, C U ST O M W O R K ,
R U S H E L M E N , m a le .

B U S H E L M E N , F e m a le .

[Data from 43 establishments 1890-1903; 67, 1904;
111, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
92.8
91.9
95.5
96.4
94.6
98.2
104.5
104.5
111.7
109.0
108.1
109.9
114.4
117.1
116.0
121.5

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.6
99.0
99.0
98.8
98.0
97.8
97.8

100.0
100.7
101.7
100.6
100.1
97.9
98.4
97.4
99.5
101.0
102.8
103.8
104.2
104.7
105.8
106.8
108.3

C O A T M A K E R S , M a le .

100.0
91.3
90.4
100.0
104.8
96.2
98.1
99.0
103.8
101.9
111.5
117.3
117.3
121.2
125.0
149.8
160.8

100.0
101.8
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
98.5
98.6
97.2
97.2
97.3
95.9
95.9
95.6

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
150.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
200.0
200.0
200.0
193.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
97.9
97.9

100.0
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
96.4
98.1
92.9
93.6
96.4
100.2
101.5
105.0
105.6
105.8

C U T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 30,1904;
61, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1895; 2, 1896, 1897; 3, 1898-1903.
D ata from 7 establishments 1904; 13,1905.]

100.0
95.0
95.7
95.1
98.4
107.2
106.8
99.9
99.5
102.4
99.9
106.3
106.8
109.2
111.8
109.6
112.6

P A N T S M A K E R S , M a le,

[Data from 34 establishments 1890-1903; 63, 1904;
101, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
102.7
100.0
100.0
101.3
94.7
94.7
101.3
100.0
102.7
104.0
102.7
106.7
109.3
112.0
118.3
119.9

100.0
100.1,
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.1
99.7
99.5
99.3
98.8
98.4
97.1
96.9
96.9

100.0
99.9
100.6
100.8
101.4
99.9
100.7
97.8
98.8
99.6
100.3
101.6
103.0
104.3
105.8
103.7
107.3

P A N T S M A K E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
45,1905.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1898; 1,1899; 2*, 1900-1903. Data
from 6 establishments 1904; 16, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.6
95.1
97.6
97.6
92.7
95.1
102.4
95.1
97.6
134.1
104.9
109.8
109.8
112.2
112.2
109.9




100.0
100.4
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
98.3
99.1
96.9
97.1
97.1
95.9
96.3
96.5

100.0
99.6
100.0
99.4
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
101.4
105.1
95.4
115.1
116.4
116.9
122.1
123.9
129.6

100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
105.9
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
111.8
117.6
117.6
129.6
116.6

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.5
101.0
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.0
96.4
101.2
101.9
101.7
98.3
98.7
98.9

100.0
103.4
101.4
103.4
105.7
97.6
96.6
99.5
103.6
101.2
87.6
108.2
109.1
109.4
115.9
112.1
115.8

77

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATION S— Continued.

C O TTO N G O O DS.
C A R D IN G -M A C H IN E T E N D E R S ,
M a le .

[Data for employees from 21 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 21 estab­
lishments 1890; 22, 1891; 23, 1892-1903. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
86.5
94.9
101.9
100.5
101.4
99.1
102.8
100.0
103.3
107.9
111.2
110.2
110.2
114.4
115.1
118.5

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.2
99.6
97.8
99.7
100.0
98.9
100.5
100.5
10Q.5
100.8
100.2
100.2
99.9
100.1

100.0
98.0
99.8
99.5
101.4
102.1
101.4
101.9
100.8
97.8
97.0
104.5
103.2
108.3
108.9
109.3
112.3

D Y E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 0 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1903. Data from 5
establishments 1904; 8,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
116.7
118.5
113.0
100.0
90.7
88.9
96.3
87.0
90.7
92.6
101.9
103.7
120.4
118.5
110.6
110.0

100.0
99.1
98.9
99.7
99.6
100.3
100.7
100.2
100.6
100.3
100.7
100.5
100.0
98.6
98.8
98.7
98.6

100.0
106.3
107.2
105.1
104.1
95.6
92.3
95.2
96.9
99.4
97.8
100.9
102.3
107.1
107.7
104.8
105.7

S P I N N E R S , F R A M E , M a le .

LOOJn F I X E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 22 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 22 estab­
lishments 1890; 23, 1891; 24, 1892-1903. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905.]

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890, 1897; 9, 1891, 1893, 1898, 1901; id,
1894, 1896, 1899, 1903; 11, 1892, 1895, 1900, 1902.
Data from 12 establishments 1904; 11,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903— ................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100*0
89.6
92.5
97.5
95.3
98.7
102.2
99.7
108.5
111.0
105.7
112.6
117.0
124.8
129.6
133.4
131.7

100.0
100.4
101.0
100.8
99.9
97.4
99.6
99.9
99.3
100.7
100.9
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.9
99.9

100.0
102.6
100.4
101.2
103.9
99.2
98.0
100.5
99.9
97.6
96.4
105.7
105.8
110.3
111.4
108.8
108.4

S P I N N E R S , F R A M E , F e m a le ,

[Data for employees from 20 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 20 estab­
lishments 1890; 21, 1891; 22, 1892-1903. Data
from 22 establishments 1904; 29,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1900,
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905,

100.0
88.8
88.7
92.3
93.9
95.4
94.4
97.0
110.9
119.9
118.4
107.8
115.2
110.5
120.0
125.6
128.6

2—N o. 65— 06----- 6




100.0
100.2
101.0
101.5
100.3
98.1
100.0
99.6
98.8
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.9
98.8

100.0
99.8
99.4
95.4
102.1
97.9
99.5
108.3
104.1
97.6
96.3
108.7
111.8
117.1
123.7
125.0
132.4

100.0
36.1
101.4
83.3
101.4
72.2
70.8
95.8
120.8
156.9
161.1
173.6
119.4
168.1
86.1
78.5
75.3

100.0
97.3
100.5
102.4
100.2
100.4
100.9
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.3
100.0
99.0
98.0
96.4
97.8
97.8

100.0
111.6
89.7
91.6
89.9
85.7
91.2
127.0
109.2
98.9.
105.8
128.5
135.8
147.3
185.9
169.7
200.4

S P I N N E R S , M U L E , M a le .

[Data from 11 establishments 189(M904; 13,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.:..................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
104.8
106.2
92.4
94.8
112.4
102.9
98 6
95.2
99.5
91.0
95.7
98 6
89.0
84.3
84.3
83.0

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.7
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
98.9
99.0
99.0
99.0

100.0
91.4
93.2
110.7
114.2
96.2
97.8
99.5
102.3
98.2
96.4
110.0
110.0
116.5
115.2
111.0
113.4

78

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
C O T T O N G O O D S —Concluded.
W E A V E R S , M a le .

W E A V E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 16 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 17 estab­
lishments 1890; 19,1891,1893,1897,1903; 20,1892,
1894-1896, 1898-1902. Data from 20 establish­
ments 1904; 28,1905.]

[Data for employees from 19 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890; 20, 1891; 21, 1892-1903. Data
from 21 establishments 1904; 29,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
80.3
80.4
84.5
98.2
95.0
98.0
100.2
117.1
120.7
125.4
124.3
116.3
121.3
117.2
109.0
108.1

100.0
99.2
100.7
101.5
99.5
99.0
99.7
99.3
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.0
100.2
99.5
98.9
98.5
98.6

100.0
113.5
103.1
99.0
107.6
98.6
96.6
102.9
95.3
91.5
92.1
105.1
104.3
110.7
118.3
115.3
116.9

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
98.7
103.7
101.6
101.4
102.7
102.7
99.6
97.2
97.6
94.9
97.0
91.7
93.0
87.5
86.1
84.1

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.8
100.2
96.6
99.8
99.6
98.6
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7

100.0
99.1
98.6
99.7
105.2
99.6
98.3
103.5
100.8
98.4
96.8
109.8
109.6
112.2
114.3
113.5
114.4

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .
B J L E A C H E R S , M a le ,

C A L E N D B E R S , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 11,1904; 14,
1905.]

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 10, 1904;
14,1905.]

Average 1890-99
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
79.6
81.5
96.3
107.4
95.4
105.6
100.0
113.0
101.9
115.7
122.2
138.9
159.3
185.2
198.9
251.2

100.0
101.4
101.4
100.7
99.6
99.3
99.6
99.6
99.0
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.5
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.9

100.0
99.8
94.6
97.7
99.7
99.2
100.2
102.5
101.6
102.7
101.7
102.9
102.2
103.3
104.2
103.7
104.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899................ ..
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.9
98.8
102.4
100.0
92.7
95.1
92.7
102.4
106.1
117.1
123.2
126.8
132.9
147.6
146.8
178.3

100.0
101.0
100.9
100.5
99.8
98.8
99.8
99.9
99.2
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.6

100.0
98.8
99.3
100.1
101.4
99.5
98.8
100.3
100.9
101.1
100.0
103.0
104.1
105.5
106.0
107.9
107.0

C O L O R M I X E R S , M a le .

B Y E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 4, 1892-1903. Data from
6 establishments 1904; 9,1905.]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
14,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
105.6
100.0
95.8
97.2
93.0
101.4
105.6
108.5
94.4
104.2
94.4
105.6
115.5
112.7
103.9
112.0




100.0
102.5
102.5
101.6
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.1
99.2
100.9

100.0
97.3
98.8
100.2
101.6
97.4
100.3
101.0
100.6
102.0
100.6
105.1
103.7
104.1
105.9
106.4
109.0

100.0
95.3
115.0
106.2
104.7
98.5
95.3
97.5
98.7
94.5
94.8
93.6
107.4
99.2
106.6
97.8
96.6

100.0
102.0
102.0
101.3
99.8
97.3
99.9
99.9
97.6
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.5
100.6

100.0
99.4
96.5
98.5
101.8
98.7
98.9
101.8
101.4
101.3
101.6
104.9
103.8
106.0
107.6
108.2
109.0

79

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

D Y E I N G , F I N I S H I N G , A N D P R I N T I N G T E X T I E E S —Concluded.
P R I N T E R S , M a le .

E N G R A V E R S , R a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 5, 1892-1903. Data from
5 establishments 1904; 8,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893 ..................
1894.....................
1895......................
1890.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899 ....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905......................

100.0
101.8
98.2
101.8
94.7
91.2
78.9
100.0
101.8
108.8
122.8
138,6
115.8
124.6
103.5
106.7
112.1

100.0
101.8
101.8 •
101.3
99.3
99.2
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.0
99.6
99.2

100-.0
99.3
98.2
99.1
96.7
98.6
99.9
100.4
101.2
103.7
102.8
103.6
106.5
105 8
1059
106.6
107.2

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 6, 1892-1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904; 10,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
107.3
100.0
94.5
98.2
85.5
96.4
954
101.8
107.3
110.9
103-6
110.9
125 5
112.7
106.7
110.0

100.0
101.7
101.7
101.1
C9.4
99.4
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.3
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.3
100.1
99.5

100.0
97.0
97.8
100.8
102.7
103.2
99.6
100.3
100.3
98<4
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.8
100.3
100.5
99.6

E E E C T R IC A E A P P A R A T U S A N D S U P P L I E S .
A R M A T U R E W I N D E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 7,1904,
1905.]
Average 1890^-99..
1890......................
1891......................
l{g)2......................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
68.3
56.1
63.4
63.4
97.6
114.6
136.6
129.3
129.3
136.6
175.6
175.6
187.8
222.0
204.0
305.1

10Q.0
100.9
100.7
100.8
100.8
101.3
101.4
98.3
98.8
98.1
98.7
99.4
94.7
94.7
94.6
94.4
94.6

100.0
98.3
100.8
99.3
98.1
94.0
95.7
108.3
102. Q
101.9
101.6
99.7
111.7
109.7
112.8
109.9
113.7

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le *

B R A S S F I N I S H E R S , M a le *

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903;
1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
50.0
56.3
56.3
62.5
62.5
75.0
143.8
156.3
118.8
200.0
181.3
206.3
256.3
262.5
203.1
247.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
92.7

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-71903;
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900....... '.............
1901............ ........
1902.....................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................




100.0
99.0
99.4
99.4
99.5
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.6
100.7
100.7
101.0
95.3
95.2
95.2
95.2
95.1

100.0
101.1
100.0
100.0
99.1
98.7
97.4
98.5
101.0
103.9
100.6
104.9
103.8
104.9
105.2
105.4
104.0

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le *

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 7.1904,
1905.]
100.0
50.4
57.8
58.5
61.5
82.2
112.6
114.8
137.8
157.0
165.9
206.7
220.7
258.5
264.4
205.6
309.9

5, 1904,

100.0
101.1
100.1
99.4
99.4
96.2
102.0
97.9
99.4
101.4
103.3
106.4
110.8
107.4
108.7
110.4
107.8

100.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
125.0
125.0
125.0
175.0
250.0
250.0
225.0
250.0
263.0
330.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.0

4, 1904,
100.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
94.0
109.7
116.0
116.4
99.3
105.0
107.2
116.3
115.6
117.1

80

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I I . —RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

FLO UR.
B O L T E R S , M a le .

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 11 establishments 1890-1903;; 21,1904;
32,1905.]

[Bata from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 31, 1904;
45, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......... ............
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897...............
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903...............
1904......................
1905...............

100.0
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
95.7
104.3
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
105.1

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.4
100.6

100.0
100.9
100.9
101.4
101.4
99.6
100.4
98.8
98.7
99.0
99.0
100.8
103.7
106.6
106.5
106.6
106.5

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
81.3
82.4
83.0
84.7
84.1
88.1
118.8
119.3
129.0
127.3
127.8
134.1
134.1
131.3
130.6
136.7

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.5
99.3
99.4
99.4
98.4
96.9
96.9
97.0
97.4

100.0
97.0
97.3
97.4
97.8
97.8
99.1
103.1
103.0
103.8
103.5
103.9
115.1
117.6
118.0
117.8
117.1

MlMiMjERS^ M a le .

M I L L W R I G H T S , M a le .

[Bata from 33 establishments 1890-1903; 39, 1904;
46,1905.]

[Bata from 18 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1904;
38, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
92.5
92.5
94.8
94.8
96.5
96.5
106.4
106.4
109.2
111.0
112.1
111.6
116.2
119.1
119.9
123.8

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.3
100.5
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
95.4
93.0
93.4
93.7

100.0
100.4
100.6
100.3
100.4
99.9
100.2
99.4
98.7
100.0
100.2
101.5
102.1
107.8
110.7
111.6
112.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.8
87.5
93.8
114.6
95.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
120.8
114.6
110.4
102.1
106.3
104.2
116.7
127.7

100.0
100.1
100.4
100.1
99.2
100.0
100.2
99.8
100.9
99.6
99.8
100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.0

100.0
100.2
99.7
100.7
101.9
99.8
98.5
98.3
98.6
101.4
100.9
102.9
103.6
105.4
106.2
107.0
103.7

98.4
97.8
97.2
97.5
97.6
98.0
96.5
97.3

103.5
105.3
107.5
113.7
114.5
114.6
114.0
115.7

P A C K E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904; 45, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.........:...........
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
88.0
88.9
90.7
90.7
91.7
89.8
102.8
107.4




100.0
101.1
99.8
100.4
101.0
101.2
101.0
100.0
99.3

100.0
98.5
102.9
101.6
96.8
96.4
94.1
99.5
101.6

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

118.5
126.9
134.3
146.3
151.9
156.5
143.9
157.6

81

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES AN D H OU RS O F LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATION &—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 166 establishments 1890-1903; 192,1904;
179,1905.]

[Data from 97 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
91, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890 ....................
1891..-.................
1892 ..................
1 8 0 3 ....................
1894
........
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898 ....................
1899 ..................
1900 ..................
1901......................
1902......................
1903..............-___
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
99.5
100.5
101.2
101.7
88.4
93.9
95.1
93.9
110.2
115.5
120.7
130.7
139.2
142.5
130.6
137.6

100.0
100f5
100.2
100.5
99.9
99.3
100.2
99.7
99.8
100.2
99.8
99.6
97.8 ‘
96.8
95.7
95.5
98.0

100.0
101.4
101.6
101.2
101.4
99.1
98.6
100.1
98.6
98.0
99.9
101.7
104.4
107.7
111.8
110.2
111.7

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
105.8
102.2
105.1
101.3
87.5
89.9
97.9
94.8
107.2
108.4
116.9
125.5
128.6
134.6
121.3
120.9

100.0
101.2
101.2
100.6
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.1
99.3
99.6
99.2
98.0
97.1
96.3
96.1
95.0
94.8

100.0
99.4
98.8
99.1
99.0
100.2
100.8
100.7
99.9
100.3
101.7
106.3
107.1
107.3
109.2
113.2
115.4

B O I L E R R I V E T E R S , M a le .

B R A S S F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

fData from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
20,1905.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903;; 26, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99 -.
1890 ....................
1891 ....................
1892
............
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904 ....................
1905......................

100.0
84.8
131.6
62.0
117.7
98.7
94.9
100 0
77.2
89.9
141.8
132.9
168. 4
102.5
149.4
130.2
137.4

100.0
101.8
101.7
99.9
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.6
99.2
99.4
95.8
98.1
97.2
93.6
92 8
92.2
91.3

100.0
107.0
92.9
108.5
93.3
94.3
99.0
96.8
102.6
96.1
109.6
94.8
101.5
115.3
113.1
119.2
122.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899........ 1...........
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903..........„.........
1904...........'.........
1905.....................

100.0
108.7
104.8
102.5
103.1
86.5
94.4
89.6
96.3
102.2
111.5
108.4
120.8
127.5
142.4
136.9
147.0

100.0
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.2
99.7
99.7
99.9
100.0
100.2
100 2
98.5
98.6
95.1
92.9
92.1
92.1

100.0
100.7
102.2
101.4
99.9
101.1
100.9
100 0
98.0
97.5
98.2
102.0
104.1
109.6
111.9
113.3
113.0

C O R E M A K E R S , M a le .

C O R E M A K E R S ; , F e m a le *

[Data for employees from 40 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 40 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 41, 1902, 1903. Data from
104 establishments 1904; 119, 1905.]

(Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892 ....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895_____ - . . ..
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
-1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
95.7
97.0
97.0
102.4
95.7
95.7
95.7
92.7
107.3
122.0
134.1
134.1
154.9
154.9
128.1
161.8




100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
99.9
100.2
100.1
99.4
99.8
99.7
99.5
98.4
97.5
95.7
94.7
95.0

100.0
100.2
100.3
100.9
99.0
97.2
98.1
100.3
101.2
101.2
101.4
102.9
107.0
106.3
113.0
116.4
115.1

100.0
142.9
85.7
71.4
57.1
85.7
85.7
71.4
100.0
114.3
171.4
157.1
114.3
185.7
185.7
165.8
288.9

100.0
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.2
98.4
98.0

100.0
83.3
102.3
109.6
116.6
105.0
105.5
107.9
97.5
96.6
75.4
88.7
93.9
86.5
97.0
100.3
96.4

82

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I I ,—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Concluded.
L A B O R E R S , M a le ,

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

[Data from 128 establishments 1890-1903; 186,1904;
192, 1905.]

[Data from 218 establishments 1890-1903; 228,1904;
206, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
102.6
100.2
103.2
98.4
81.1
93.7
97.8
94.0
109.1
119.8
126.8
135.6
143.5
154.3
145.1
162.0

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.4
100.1
100.0
99.5
99.9
100.3
99.7
97.7
97.1
96.0
95.7
95.7

100.0
99.6
101.6
102.2
101.7
98.2
98.3
99.6
99.9
99.2
99.9
102.7
104.7
107.0
111.7
113.2
114.4

Year.
Average 1890-99-.
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages'per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
97.9
100.0
99.9
104.9
80.1
90.8
95.6
93.4
m .9
125.5
130.9
141.2
-151.8
158.5
135.7
151.0

100.0
100.7
100.6
100.2
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.3
99.1
97.0
95.7
94.9
94.0
94.5

100.0
100.5
101.2
102.3
101.9
97.5
97.5
99.6
99.7
99.0
100.8
103.6
106.8
110.3
112.9
112.8
113.1

M O L D E R S , B R A S S , M a le .

M O L D E R S , IR O N , M a le .

[Data from 38 establishments 1890-1903; 52, 1904;
48,1905.]

[Data from 183 establishments 1890-1903; 179, 1904;
169, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1897
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
90.5
96.8
100.9
100.9
90.9
93.6
92.3
97.7
114.1
122.7
115.9
133.2
137.3
142.7
134.8
127.0

100.0
100.0
99.8
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.1
96.8
94.8
94.0
94.3

100.0
98.4
99.8
102.3
101.5
98.5
96.2
101.1
100.3
100.9
101.1
102.9
107.5
114.0
117.0
117.3
113.8

Average 1890-99..
1890................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
99.6
99.3
102.0
107.0
84.7
93.5
97.8
91.9
108.7
115.6
127.4
127.5
133.4
141.8
116.2
134.9

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.3
99.8
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.6
98.6
97.2
95.8
95.1
95.1

100.0
100.6
101.5
100.9
101.2
97.9
98.0
99.2
100.0
99.1
101.7
106.7
108.4
114.6
120.2
119.5
119.3

100.1
99.3
98.9
97.7
96.3
94.8
94.4
94.5

101.1
100.9
104.3
106.8
111.4
116.2
117.3
118.4

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 161 establishments 1890-1903; 178, 1904; 171, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
92.2
94.1
94.4
101.4
85.8
98.8
100.1
96.4




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.5
99.8
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5

100.0
100.3
101.0
101.0
102.1
96.6
97.7
99.9
99.5

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

114.0
122.3
124.1
120.2
126.7
132.9
120.5
136.2

83

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

F U R N IT U R E .
C A B I N E T M A K E R S , M a le .

C A R V E R S * H A N D , M a le .

[Data for employees from 50 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 50 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 51,1893-1903. Data from 55
establishments 1904; 58, 1905.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 25, 1904:
36, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903............... .
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
92.0
91.6
102.1
101.3
95.9
92.8
96.9
105.4
103.3
118.3
• 112.8
108.4
119.6
125.7
127.7
137.6

100.0
101.2
100.5
99.7
99.4
98.4
99.8
99.8
99.8
100.7
100.4
99.9
98.3
96.8
96.7
95.9
95.3

100.0
101.8
102.3
104.5
103.6
100.1
98.2
97.2
98.1
95.7
98.6
100.4
107.2
115.1
116.9
119.0
122.2

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 41 establishments 118901903. Data for hours and wages from 41 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 42,1893-1903. Data from 53
establishments 1904; 57,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893............ *........
1894......................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
99.4
99.5
98.2
96 3
93.8
97.1
102.9
104.4
102.1
105.5
112.0
118.8
115.4
115.7
124.1
128.4

100.0
101.4
101.0
100.0
300.0
98.0
99.4
99.9
99.3
100.2
100.8
100.8
101.1
100.6
100.3
99.7
99.6

100.0
100.7
101.1
101.4
99.8
98.6
98.6
99.2
100.4
99.5
101.1
102.1
103.0
108.7
112.2

111.1
114.5

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
83.3
94.9
121.8
94.9
91.0
98.7
91.0
100.0
102.6
126.9
94.9
101 3
124. 4
120.5
117.6
110.9

100.0
103.1
99.8
96.0
102.6
99.2
102.2
101.6
99.5
99.8
96.4
101.2
99.4
97.2
99.8
' 97.3
97.2

100.0
97.0
103.2
113.7
97.7
95.6
84.6
95.2
101.0
99.7
112.3
102.2
112.3
119.0
112.7
115.9
116.7

S A W Y E R S * B A N D , M a le •

[Data for employees from 25 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 25 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 26.1893-1903. Data from 32
establishments 1904; 44,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890....:.............
1891................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.4
94.4
92.6
98.1
90.7
96.3
101.9
101.9
113.0
118.5
124.1
129.6
137.0
135.2
128.9
134.8

100.0
101.4
100.3
99.5
100.5
96.3
99.3
100.8
100.0
100.0
101.9
101.3
100.8
100.8
100.7
99 6
99.4

100.0
105.2
102.6
102.7
101.2
99.1
98.8
97.7
98.4
97.1
97.5
100.5
103.7
104.4
105.8
109.5
111.7

S A W Y E R S , C I R C U L A R , M a le .

[Data for employees from 25 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 25 establishments
1890-1892; 26,1893-1903. Data from 33 establishments 1904; 43, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
3891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
90.9
90.9
91.8
92.7
92.7
99.1
109.1
106.4




100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
100.3
96.2
100.4
100.3
100.5

100.0
101.7
102.2
102.6
102.0
97.9
98.7
98 0
99.4

3898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903................ .
1904.....................
1905.....................

110.0
113 6
114.5
108.2
110.0
120.0
121.4
125.5

100.3
100.8
99.9
99.3
98.9
99.1
98. 5.
98.4

98.4
99.2
102.9
107.1
111.4
113.4
113.9
117.6

84

BULLETIN OB THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

F U R N I T U R E —Concluded.
K, M a le .

U P H O L S T E R E R S , M a le .

1890-1903 ; 8, 1904;
•]

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
24,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 .........
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 .............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 .............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.4
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.9
95.7
94.6
93.1
93.1
92.3
92.0

100.0
92.9
100.5
98.6
100.9
100.9
100.3
98.6
101.9
100.9
104 4
107.6
113.8
124.1
124.1
132.5
133.1

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
100.7
99.3
107.4
100.0
98.7
93.3
98.0
98.0
100.7
106.0
106.7
113.4
113.4
112.1
114.3
124.3

100.0
100.5
100.3
99.9
100.3
100.2
100.1
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.6
98.3
94.4
94.9
92.1
91.3
91.7

100.0
99.4
101.4
100.2
98.2
100.6
99.9
98.1
97.6
100.6
104.0
106.0
121.1
125.2
125.3
125.1
126.2

G AS.
P I P E F I T T E R S , M a le .

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 23,1904;
61,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905....................

100.0
104.3
68.6
65.7
57.1
120.0
82.9
67.1
164.3
174.3
101.4
138.6
111.4
135.7
182.9
216.2
234 1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
100.2

100.0
98.7
98.1
94.1
99.8
103.9
98.1
103.3
103.5
98.7
101.7
96.6
105.5
99.7
99.1
101.9
102.3

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 21,1904;
54, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
68.9
60.7
72.1
86.9
95.1
111.5
104.9
91.8
200.0
114.8
109.8
109.8
188.5
132.8
165.9
172.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.5
97.9
97.7

100.0
102.3
102.4
101.7
102.5
101.6
101.7
101.3
99.6
91.5
95.4
100.1
94.8
98.3
103.0
101.9
100.9

100.4
100.1
100.4
100.4
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.2

99.9
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.6
103.0
103.4
104.8

G L ASS.
B A T C H M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 14,1904; 24,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100 0
89.7
103.4
103.4
103.4
89.7
89.7
89.7
103.4




100.0
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
•98.8
98.8
98.8
100.4

100.0
98.6
98.6
98.6
99.4
101.9
101.7
101.9
99.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

103.4
110.3
103.4
103.4
106.9
100.0
102.1
102.1

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

&5

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued;
G L A S S —Continued.
B L O W E R S , F L I N T G L A S S , m a le .

B L O W E R S , G R E E N G L A S S , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 7, 1904;
13, 1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 5, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890
.....
1891
.....
1892
.....
1893
.....
1894
.....
1895
.....
1896
.....
1897
.....
1898
.....
1899
.....
1900
.....
1901
.....
1902
.....
1903
.....
1904
.....
1905
.....

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

107.1
123.6
97.3
68.9
100.4
94.7
107.6
94.2
96.9
109.3
100.9
140.9
148.0
160.4
184.5
163.6

100.0

99.8
99.7
99.9

100.2
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.1
100.0

99.7
99.6.
99.5
99.3
99.2

100.0

97.2
98.4
96.9
98.6
10516
98.9
102.3
103.4
96.5
102.3
101.4
106.1
105.5
106.8
106.0
103.3

B L O W E R S , W I N D O W G L A S S , M a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3, 1904;
8,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 ........
1891 ........
1892 ........
1893 ........
1894 ........
1895 ........
1896 ........
1897 ........
1898 .......
1899 .......
1900 .......
1901 ........
1902 .......
1903 ........
1904;..........
1905............

100.0
100.0
120.8
108.3
104.2
104.2
95.8
87.5
83.3
104.2
104.2
100.0
104.2
108.3
95.8
97.6
104.9

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.1
100.3
100.1
99.6

100.0
110.8
104.5
109.8
104.0
94.6
75.1
88.3
93.8
110.1
109.0
131.4
111.6
144.9
158.5
111.2
134.0

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.....;.
1890
1891
....
1892
.....;.
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.1...
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

61.3
109.5
73.0
59.9
65.3
76.6
115.3
134.7
135.6
168:9
195.9
175.2
173.0
191.4
231.0
213.0

100.0

101.3
99.5

100.2
101.8

99.7
99.3
99.4
99.7
101.5
97.7
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.0

100:0
101.1

98.7
106.4
99.4

100.2

97.9
99.3
96.0
94.7
106.4
117.3
125.2
118.1

120.2

132.2
124.9

C U T T E R S , W I N D O W GL^LSS, M a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 1, 1900; 2, 1901-1903. Data
from 3 establishments 1904 ; 8, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
112.5
112.5
100.0
95.5
107.3

100.0
98.8
99.5
99.5
98.8
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
98.8
101.1
102.2
100.4
100.4
98.8
99.2
97.2

100.0
110.8
106.5
107.6
101.8
103.3
80.0
91.5
91.2
100.3
106.8
100.9
114.1
119.3
123.9
96.5
116.5

99.3
99.3
101.6
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
100.3

108.3
111.9
125.0
116.4
141.9
143.9
117.8
145.3

F L A T T E N E R S , W I N D O W G L A S S , M a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3, 1904; 8, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3




100.0
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
101.6
101.6
101.6

100.0
108.1
106.4
105.4
106.8
97.1
74.2
85.9
95.9

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
104.2

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

86

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
G LiASS—Continued.
G A F F E R S ) F L I N T G L A S S , M a le .

G A T H E R E R S , F L I N T G LA SS, , M a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904; 6,
1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904; 8,
1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
112.8
110.3
115.4
118.0
94.9
92.3
89.7
89.7
92.3
89.7
92.3
100.0
110.3
112.8
114.1
99.2

100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2

100.0
97.4
99.7
98.0
98.5
99.9
101.0
101.6
101.7
101.0
101.0
101.9
103.4
105.3
105.6
106.6
106.5

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1864.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898...................
1899...................
1900...................
1901.....................
1902. :................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
125.9
125.0
96.4
92.0
83.9
92.0
92:0
92.0
100.0
103.6
134.8
146.4
161.6
208.9
182.9
193.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
99.9

100.0
96.3
97.1
97.7
98.4
101.0
99.8
100.4
102.8
102.5
103.9
104.1
105.3
109.7
114.4
112.2
109.5

G A T H E R E R S , W IN D O W GLASS,
IVX&lC*

G A T H E R I N G B O Y S ( B I T ) , M a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 3,1904; 8,
1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891............ .........
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893...................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896..................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899...................
1900.....................
1901__
1902 .............
1903..................
1904..................
1905...............

100.0
96.0
116.0
108.0
104.0
104.0
96.0
88.0
84.0
108.0
108.0
88.0
100.0
104.0
96.0
96-0
103.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5

100.0
104.9
98.3
103.3
100.6
92.7
76.8
92.0
100.7
115.3
115.4
134.0
122.5
165.1
179.0
123.3
148.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
104.9
107.3
107.3
124.4
119.5
82.9
80.5
70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7
70.7
64.6
61.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.7
100.4
100.5
100.2
101.1
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.1
100.0

100.0
99.7
99.7
99.4
99.2
99.2
98.4
98.6
101.1
101.3
103.0
102.2
102.2
102.2
102.6
109.8
111.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

92.8
92.8
93.6
97.7
98.0
109.1
107.8
110.0

L A B O R E R S ) M a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 24,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896....... .............
1897.....................

100.0
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
71.4
77.6
91.8
102.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
93.2
93.2
93.2
93.2
92.1
89.8
90.1
93.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900................
1901.....................
1902..................
1903.....................
1904..................
1905..................

161.2
161.2
175.5
114.3
108.2
108.2
104.6
121.6

87

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
G l iA S S —Concluded.
P A C K E R S , M a le .

L E E R 8 M E N , M a le ,

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
27,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
108.8
108.8
114.0
108.8
87.7
93.0
93.0
94.7
96.5
89.5
100.0
110.5
107.0
103.5
99.8
104.3

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.2
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.4
99.9
99.8
98.2
99.9
101.1
103.1
103.6
102.7

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
22,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
102.0
103.0
107.0
108.0
98.0
85.0
88.0
102.0
100.0
106.0
103.0
102.0
100.0
91.0
87.7
97.2

100.0
101.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.3
98.3
99.2
100.5
100.2
100.4
100.7
100.6
100.6
99.5
98.8
99.2

100.0
99.8
99.6
100.4
100.7
99.7
102.6
100.8
98.5
99.1
98.5
98.2
101.0
100.4
106.3
109.3
109.5

99.3
100.0
99.8
99.8
100.0
99.7
99.4
99.7

95.3
97.6
99.3
99.3
98.5
103.3
105.0
104.2

T E A S E R S , M a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 23,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
101.7
108.5
108.5
106.8
96.6
98.3
94.9
96.6

100.0
100.1
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9
99.7
99.8

100.0
103.3
101.5
101.5
102.3
100.3
100.1
99.2
98.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

89.8
100.0
96.6
96.6
100.0
94.9
88.6
93.4

H A R N ESS.
C O L L A R M A K E R S , M a le,

C U T T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 23, 1904;
30,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
3891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
92.4
91.0
92.4
95.8
93.8
102.1
109.7
108.3
109.0
103.5
115.3
111.1
115.3
111.8
113.4
114.8




100.0
100.4
100.4
100.2
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.7
99.4
99.2
98.3
97.6
96.8

100.0
100.8
100.4
101.4
100.7
100.0
98.6
99.8
99.2
99.2
100.0
102.1
107.6
109.3
115.3
117.5
119.3

[Data from 21 establishments 1890-1903; 33, 1904;
49,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.0
93.1
97.7
97.7
98.9
95.4
101.1
104.6
106.9
117.2
116.1
116.1
124.1
121.8
128.0
129.6

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.7
98.7
97.8
97.8
96.7

100.0
100.9
100.4
99.6
100.3
99.5
100.5
99.7
98.9
100.1
99.9
101.4
104.3
106.0
118.6
122.7
124.3

88

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOK.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
H A R N E S S —Concluded.
F I T T E R S A N D F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 22, 1904;
26,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
87.3
94.5
90.9
88.2
85.5
99.1
110.9
111.8
108.2
127.3
120.9
130.0
151.8
161.8
155.6
154.3

100.0
100.8
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.6
99.4
98.9
99.2
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.5
97.8
95.8
95.7
95.9

100.0
99.9
101.9
101.3
100.6
98.3
98.4
96.1
97.4
102.1
103.7
104.0
110.4
114.6
124.5
128.0
129.0

S T I T C H E R S , H A N D , M a le .

H A R N E S S M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 29, 1904;
35,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
89.8
91.6
87.4
90.2
88.8
97.2
105.1
110.7
115.3
124.7
129.3
128.4
128.4
133.0
133.0
141.1

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.5
99.0
98.2

100.0
99.1
99.6
99.8
100.7
99.2
98.7
99.5
99.9
102.1
101.4
101.9
102.2
102.7
105.9
107.4
108.6

S T I T C H E R S , M A C H I N E , M a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
16,1906.]

[Data from 20 establishments 1890-1903; 29, 1904;
40,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894........ >...........
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
90.6
90.6
96.9
103.1
103.1
100.0
93.8
96.9
112.5
125.0
134.4
153.1
162.5
159.4
146.7
136.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.2
97.6
97.1.

100.0
100.5
100.5
101.4
101.7
98.1
97.4
98.8
101.8
100.1
99.4
100.1
101.3
108.9
116.1
116.2
114:9

100.0
94.0
90.0
99.0
90.0
97.0
102.0
105.0
103.0
109.0
108.0
131.0
132.0
132.0
145.0
148.6
138.5

100.0
100.5
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
98.8
97.6
97.7
97.1

100.0
99.9
100.8
99.8
102.2
99.1
97.3
98.1
99.6
100.3
102.9
102.6
107.9
110.4
114.2
116.1
115.6

H ATS, FU R.
B L O C K E R S , M a le .

C O L O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 13, 1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 12,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................




100.0
75.0
80.8
86.5
92.3
113.5
98.1
96.2
101.9
115.4
134.6
111.5
121.2
117.3
119.2
105.7
125.3

100.0
101.8
101.6
100.7
101.5
100.9
101.0
101.5
101.5
94.5
94.9
94.7
94.6
93.2
92.1
92.2
90.6

100.0
106.4
97.9
100.3
92.9
98.8
91.9
93.4
95.5
110.0
112.8
113.6
106.9
113.2
111.2
111.8
117.7

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
112.5
95.8
129.2
133.3
79.2
79.2
79.2
87.5
104.2
87.5
112.5
116.7
129.2
141.7
158.4

100.0
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.4
99.7
,100.0
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7
99.5
92.2
90.6
90.7
. 90.5

100.0
102.7
98.1
95.8
96.4
98.9
100.6
106.3
101.4
100.8
99.0
100.4
100.6
109.6
112.1
115.5
119.0

89

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 T O -1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
H A T S , F U R — Continued.
C O N E R S , M a le .

C U R L E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 15, 1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 11,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1802 ...............................
1808
1804
1805
- ...
1806
1807 ..................................
1808
...............
1800
1000
1001
1002 .....................................
1003

1904.....................
1005

100.0
86.4
100.0
100.0
109.1
104.5
86.4
86.4
100.0
104.5
118.2
136.4
154.5
140.9
140.9
145.9
161.9

100.0
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.6
99.6
99.7
97.3
97.1
97.4
92.6
90.8
.90.7
88.3

100.0 Average 1890-99..
99.7 .1890.....................
99.5 *1891.....................
99.5 1892.....................
100.9 1893.....................
99.2 1894.....................
99.6 1895.....................
94.3 1896.....................
106.2 1897.....................
99.9 1898.....................
101.3 1899.....................
102.7 1900.....................
103.1 1901.....................
120.1 1902.....................
130.3 1903.....................
136.0 1904.....................
140.5 1905.....................

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 4, 1905.]

100.0
66.7
sa 3
83.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
66.7
133.3
83.3
183.3
200.0
216.7
200.0
200.0
13a 3
183.3

100.0
101.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.8
100.1
101.0
99.2
100.1
98.4
98.7
98.9
97.0
97.0
95.9
95.8

100.0
91.9
96.6
90.3
92.4
99.9
102.9
97.2
124.9
100.8
102.7
101.5
100.4
119.8
119.6
119.7
122.0

Average 1890-99..
1890

...............................

1893

1894

..................

1895
1896

1897

1898
1899
1900
1901

..................
.

_

...

1902 ....................
1903

...............

1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
105.8
95.7
94.2
91.7
85.2
85.9
92.8
104.3
109.4
134.7
141.5
149.5
170.0
183.4
148.1
146.3




100.0
100.4
99.3
99.8
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.1
99.6
100.2
100.5
100.2
100.5
98.5
95.7
97.9
97.7

100.0
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.1
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.3
99.4
99.4
99.1

100.0
110.9
116.8
113.0
101.5
98.4
9a 2
93.2
90.5
92.1
90.4
90.1
101.8
106.5
107.3
109.7
117.3

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1892? 1894, 1897-1903 ; 4, 1893,1895,
1896. Data from 3 establishments 1904; 9,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904............. ........
1905.....................

100.0
89.5
105.3
105.3
105.3
110.5
84.2
89.5
89.5
105.3
94.7
89.5
105.3
121.1
115.8
136.9
160.9

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.4
100.0
100.0
100.4
100.3
97.5
97.8
98.2
91.2
89.2
88.8
88.9

100.0
100.8
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.7
100.8
99.6
100.2
100.2
102.6
101.7
99.9
113.1
115.6
121.8
120.6

F L A N G E R S , M a le .

F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 5, 1904;
13, 1905.]

1891......................
1892
..........

100.0
76.2
76.2
81.0
85.7
109.5
95.2
104.8
114.3
109.5
142.9
123.8
12a 8
100.0
13a 3
147.1
165.5

F E E D E R S , F e m a le .

F E E D E R S , M a le .

Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 .........
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 .......
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.

100.0
103.2
97.6
99.1
98.4
100.7
101.3
99.8
98.0
98.7
103.4
102.9
106.4
114.6
116.8
110.8
115.5

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
13, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893....*...............
1894.....................
1 8 9 5 ..................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.9
78.6
78.6
71.4
92.9
78.6
85.7
78.6
142.9
178.6
250.0
300.0
250.0
242.9
219.2
223.6

100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.9
100.4
100.3
99.3
99.9
98.6
95.7
92.4
93.5
9a 5

100.0
124.0
101.8
109.5
91.8
113.7
88.2
97.5
92.5
89.4
91.6
90.6
91.9
108.9
95.3
.96.4
101.5

90

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T abus II.— E L A TIV E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
R
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

H A T S , F U R —Continued.
F U R B L O W E R S , M a le .

H A R D E N E R S , M a le .

[Bata from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
13, 1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 14, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1004......................
1905......................

100.0
90.0
100.0
120.0
100.0
80.0
90.0
90.0
80.0
90.0
130.0
190.0
200.0
190.0
200.0
219.0
230.5

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
98.4
98.6
98.7
91.2
89.5
89.3
89.2

100.0
103.9
96.1
96.4
100.0
95.9
101.0
101.0
100.7
96.7
108.4
107.2
106.4
119.6
131.1
141.1
155.5

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 18SO-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903..................
1904.....................
1905.....................

m o
90.5
104.8
104.8
164.8
104.8
85.7
100.0
104.8
109.5
109.5
109.5
123.8
119.0
119.0
142.8
153.2

100,0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.4
100.2
99.5
99.6
97.4
97.3
97.9
92.3
92.3
92.3
90.4

100.0
107.0
100.6
102.6
100.3
100.0
103.1
97.4
99.6
95. 3
93.7
94.5
96.7
109.0
110.0
115.6
117.0

P O E N C E R S , M a le .

S I Z E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 11, 1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 13, 1905.1

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
104.2
100.0
91.7
112.5
112.5
91.7
83.3
70.8
108.3
137.5
212.5
275.0
383.3
379.2
379.2
459.1

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.4
100.3
100,3
100.1
99.8
99.7
99.5
99.6
100.2
100.3
91.4
89.8
90.5
90.3

100.0
104.6
106.2
86.6
95.6
92.1
93.8
106.9
105.6
111.0
97.4
100.0
90.6
88.7
96.4
91.5
87.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895..................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1896.....................
1900.....................
1 9 0 1 ...................
1902.....................
1903 ................
1904 ...................
1905 ................

100.0
89.1
97.7
71.3
88.4
106.6
m o
104.3
102.6
116.8
124.4
150.5
155.4
141.9
152. 5
157.7
171.5

100.0
101.9
101. 4
101. 3
101.1
100.4
100.3
101.0
101.0
95.9
95.8
96.6
96.9
94.0
92.1
93.3
93.0

100.0
109.7
105.0
110.9
96.4
102.5
98.7
86 3
91.3
96.5
99.6
108.3
111. 1
114.1
128.1
125 8
124.1

S T I F F E N E R S , M a le .

T R IM M E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
14, 1905.]

fData from 4 establishments 1890-1903: 5, 1904;
14, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890 ................
1 8 9 1 ................
1892 ................
1893...................
1894.....................
1895 ...................
1896 ................
1867 ................
1898 ................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1 9 0 1 ...................
1902.....................
1903 ...................
1904
1905.....................

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
100.0
140.0
140.0
120.0
120.0
120.0
60.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
114.8




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.1
99.4
99.4
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.9
96.6
94.9
94.9
93.3

100.0
91.4
85.8
92.8
94.1
101.7
103.9
108.1
106.7
108.3
107.3
113.0
124.7
104.1
120.8
122.6
121.8

100.0
63.9
78.7
71.0
90.3
114.2
93.5
98.7
116.1
123.2
151.6
165.2
165.8
151.6
146.5
150.2
158.8

100.0
101.1
101.5
101.0
99.6
99.4
96.6
98.7
99.4
99.9
99.8
100.0
100.1
96.2
93.8
94.4
94.2 *

100.0
108.0
105.0
105.9
102.2
97.3
89.7
97.5
97.5
97.4
99.6
103.9
98.3
100.1
98.4
104.2
113.0

91

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

H A T S , F U R —Concluded.
W E I G H E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1904; 11, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
83.3
116.7
100.0
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.3
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4

100.0
102.5
102.0
98.3
99.8
95.8
98.3
100.9
9& 3

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

116.7
116.7
116.7
150.0
166.7
166.7
166.7
184.6

100.4
96.8
96.8
96.7
91.2
88.7
89.4
89.5

99.8
104.0
106.2
106.1
112.7
114.5
113.7
114.5

H O S IE R Y A N D K N IT G O O BS.
F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le .

B O A R D E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6,1902,1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904; 20,1905.]
Average 1890-99. 1890......................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
98.7
103.9
105.3
119.7
76.3
107.9
9a 4
84.2
109.2
106.6
111.8
105.3
118.4
102.6
114.8
127.5

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
99.7
98.2
99.4
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.6
99.2
99.2
98.2
98.4
98.3

100.0
107.9
100.3
90.3
106.8
91.5
110.8
99.9
99.0
99.3
94.2
91.9
116.2
107.8
125.4
123.5
127.9

K N I T T E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6, 1902, 1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904; 19, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899........ ............
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
76.0
91.8
137.2
100.5
79.1
98.5
105.1
99.5
109.2
101.0
121.9
115.8
114.8
122.4
97.0
114.9

100.0
101.3
101.3
101.3
101.0
91.3
101.1
100.8
100.8
100.6
100.6
98.1
97.8
98.1
96.0
96.7
96.2

100.0
106.6
113.2
105.2
97.4
92.4
93.4
100.9
98.8
100.7
92.3
99.3
103.4
na7
121.3
119.7
12a 0

K N I T T E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 4, 1902, 1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904; 14, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897, 1902, 1903; 5,
1898-1901. Data from 9 establishments 1904; 17,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
47.7
59.1
84.1
75.0
56.8
81.8
115.9
138.6
177.3
165.9
181.8
220.5
202.3
193.2
154.0
171.4




100.0
102.8
102.8
102.8
100.5
91.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.8
99.8
98.7
98.7
98.7
97.4
97.6
97.3

100.0
107.7
118.6
99.8
ua4
110.0
112.2
90.4
81.8
85.4
80.7
90.9
92.3
95.7
123.9
115.4
119.2

100.0
82.1
109.7
107.6
124.8
90.0
97.9
96.6
86.6
98.3
105.5
106.2
100.3
109.7
121.4
99.0
121.4

100.0
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.5
95.7
100.4
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.3
99.6
99.3
98.6
98.2
98.1

100.0
104.9
104.8
99.0
97.4
101.1
104.6
98.5
98.7
96.2
94.5
91.5
103.1
112.4
116.6
111.4
124.1

92

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
H O S I E R Y A N D K N I T G O O D S —Concluded.
L O O P E R S , F e m ale *

M E N D E R S , F e m a le .

[Data lor employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for* hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1893; 5,1894-1902; 6,1903. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 16, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1901; 6, 1902, 1903. Data from 6
establishments 1904; 18, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

Average 1890-99..
100.0
100.0
.........
1890
94.8
101.9
139.7
102.0
1891
..........
1892
..........
143.1
102.0
1893
..........
132.8
101.6
.........
1894
70.7
91.5
1895
..........
75.9
101.3
1896
.................. :................. 99.9
69.0
1897
..........
82.8
99.9
1898
.........
87.9
99.9
96.6
1899.
99.9
1900.
115.5
98.3
1901.
87.9
1902.
82.8
98.2
1903.
96.6
98.2
1904.
93.8
1905.
106.1
98.4

100.0

99.8
103.3

100.0

104.2
95.9
106.7
117.4
91.0
93.3
88.5
80.7
94.3
92.9
106.1
93.3
99.4

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........

100.0
101.8
101.8
101.8
99.5
95.9
99.4
99.7
100.1
100.2
99.8
99.2
98.8
99.0

127.9
152.6

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
85.5
95.2
166.3
109.6
110.8
89.2
74.7
68.7
120.5
84.3
106.0
116.9
120.5

98.6
98.2

110.8

100.0

108.9
105.5
99.6

100.8

92.4
113.4
97.8
95.8
93.8
104.1
92.3

112.2

110.5
106.1
113.7

P R E S S E R S , M a le .

P R E S S E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890,1891,1902,1903; 4,1892-1901. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 14,1905.]

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
94.1
76.5
117.6
117.6
111.8
94.1
105.9
100.0
94.1
105.9
111.8
94.1
117.6
141.2
207.6
222.4

100.0
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.8
92.3
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.'7
98.3
97.4
99.0
99.3
99.5
99.6

100.0
107.4
105.2
92.6
98.9
94.6
94.4
100*9
100.8
103.9
101.4
106.6
103.6
107.1
116.2
112.9
120.5

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
45.0
25.0
130.0
160.0
55.0
155.0
85.0
80.0
115.0
125.0
135.0
250.0
135.0
135.0
125.0
365.4

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
97.2
98.5

100.0
110.8
102.3
101.5
99.8
109.6
91.4
105.4
97.9
88.8
92.9
107.1
104.0
110.3
100.9
122.3
131.7

90.0
80.0
97.5
95.0
90.0
107.5
110.9
121.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

96.4
114.4
110.1
112.8
120.9
119.0
117.3
122.6

R I B B E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1 8 9 4 ....1 .............
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
107.5
102.5
112.5
107.5
102.5
97.5
92.5
97.5




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.5
112.3
103.1
103.4
91.8
98.8
87.2
92.0

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

93

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,
Table

I I , —RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
IR O N A N D ST E E L , B A R .
H E A T E R S , M a le .

C A T C H E R S , M a le ,

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 17 establish­
ments 1904; 23, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.................... .
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
93.8
93.8
96.9
112.5
103.1
109.4
87.5
96.9
100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
112.5
118.8
106.6
108.7

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.4
100.8
101.3
100.0
100.8
97.8
97.6
96.2
97.0
96.9
98.4
98.3
97.0
97.3

100.0
116.1
104.8
99.8
91.8
87.4
87.8
101.7
98.4
94.0
118.4
121.2
120.7
137.4
144.7
131.4
134.7

H E A T E R S ’ H E L P E R S , M a le ,

100.0
100.0
105.7
103.8
107.5
103.8
96.2
92.5
96.2
96.2
98.1
101.9
86.8
90.6
92.5
83.5
84.1

100.0
103.9
102.4
102.6
102.5
100.3
100.9
100.1
96.1
96.0
’95.3
98.3
101.1
101.0
100.7
100.9
101.2

100.0
118.2
101.7
99.1
96.6
90.9
93.5
96.2
94.9
96.9
111.8
119.0
116.6
127.8
135.8
127.0
124.9

R O L L E R S , M a le .

100.0
103.4
93.1
96.6
117.2
103.4
103.4
93.1
96.6
96.6
100.0
113.8
103.4
110.3
113.8
101.8
108.4

2— 65—
No.
06----7



100.0
101.5
101.3
101.6
100.0
101.1
100.5
100.9
97.7
97.7
97.6
98.6
99.0
99.0
98.9
98.9
99.4

Average 1890r99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
95.9
100.0
98.6
100.0
91.8
104.1
93.9
106.1
100.0
102.0
110.2
93.9
95.9
108.2
105.6
104.7

100.0
103.3
101.8
102.2
101.7
101.8
101.0
101.3
95.7
96.0
95.1
96.3
99.7
99.9
99.2
98.7
99.0

100.0
116.9
106.5
98.0
92.1
94.2
88.0
95.4
97.6
98.5
112.6
119.7
109.8
116.9
121.1
111.3
106.0

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890; 12,1891-1899; 13,1900-1903. Data
from 16 establishments 1904; 21, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
101.5
97.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
98.5
103.0
111.9
111.9
113.4
114.9
105.0
112.6

100.0
102.8
101.4
101.5
101.5
101.8
101.0
101.2
98.1
95.4
95.4
96.1
96.2
96.6
95.5
94.3
93.8

100.0
102.0
102.6
96.9
98.9
87.1
103.7
108.2
91.7
96.2
112.9
110.7
120.0
140.3
136.1
120.4
123.4

R O V G H E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1899;
15,1900-1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904;
20,1905.].
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891___*..............
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees.
week.
hour.

Year.

H O T S T R A I G H T E N E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data tor hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 13,1891-1893,1896-1898;
14, 1899; 15, 1900-1903. Data from 18 establish­
ments 1904; 21, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 19 establish­
ments 1904; 22, 1905.]

100.0
102.8
105.1
99.6
92.6
89.0
89.7
98.8
106.0
102.0
114.5
119.5
124.0
134.0
136.8
129.5
135.2

[Data for employees from 12 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 14,1891-1893,1896-1898;
15, 1899; 16, 1900-1903. Data from 20 establish­
ments 1904; 25, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892..................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
101.8
96.5
93.0
96.5
101.8
108.8
96.5
94.7
107.0
103.5
112.3
105.3
101.8
107.0
98.6
103.3

100.0
101.9
101.3
101.5
101.6
101.3
100.9
101.5
97.3
96.8
95.9
97.3
97.6
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.9

100.0
105.6
108.9
106.5
102.2
92.0
87.5
95.6
99.5
90.0
112.1
119.3
126.1
140.6
144.4
134.2
136.9

94

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
IR O N A N D S T E E B , B E S S E M E R C O N V E R T IN G .
BOTTOM

B L O W E R S ) M a le .

(Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9,1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 16,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890 ....................
1891 ....................
1892
................
1893 ....................
1894 ....................
................
1895
1896....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902............... .
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
125.0
141.3
141.3

100.0
104.3
97.3
101.6
99.2
99.3
99.9
99.9
99.6
99.6
99.6
88.5
90.4
90.4
89.5
82.2
82.4

100.0
85.3
101.3
92.4
98.1
97.7
102.0
108.3
101.1
104.0
110.8
121.4
129.6
134.7
144.4
133.1
137.9

L A B L E L I N E R S ) M a le .

100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
106.7
100.0
106.7
113.3
113.3
113.3
120.0
106.7
106.7

100.0
91.5
101.1
100.7
97.6
103.4
103.4
103.4
98.0
102.9
98.0
93.8
95.1
95.1
99.8
97.7
98.1

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. ! week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
88.9
88.9

100.0
103.7
99.8
101.6
100.7
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.7
94.0
94.9
94.9
99.7
98.8
98.8

100.0
126.0
117.7
120.3
105.8
98.6
100.4
95.2
78.2
79.8
78.0
90.2
105.5
115.4
122.2
101.7
107.3

M E L T E R S ) M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data«for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 16, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.....................

M A K E R S ) M a le .

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891-1893, 1897-1900; 6, 18941896; 8,1901-1903. Data from 10 establishments
1904; 16,1905.]

100.0
122.4
111.4
117.7
113.7
92.4
95.1
89.5
86.4
81.2
90.0
101.0
108.4
116.4
127.6
106.8
116.8

S T E E L P O U R E R S ) M a le .

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 6, 1891, 1894-1896; 7, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 8, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 13, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904____ ______
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
121.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
150.0
121.4
121.4
121.4
148.7
153.4

100.0
93.9
95.1
104.9
101.5
100.1
100.1
100.1
101.4
101.4
101.4
92.7
105.4
105.4
105.4
93.4
92.3

100.0
117.4
121.6
112.8
102.5
93.2
94.1
85.4
87.0
92.4
93.8
106.8
97.4
109.7
122.3
98.2
104.8

^ V E S S E L M E N , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 14,1905.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7, 1891, 1894-1896; 8, 1892, 1893,
1897-1900; 9, 1901-1903. Data from 10 establish­
ments 1904; 16, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1C01......................
1902......................
K 03......................
K 04......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
94.1
94.1
94.1
117.6
117.6
117.6
117.6
114.1
121.7




100.0
96.1
97.7
101.2
97.8
97.7
97.7
103.1
102.9
102.9
102.9
85.8
87.7
87.7
87.7
86.5
88.1

100.0
112.0
123.1
118.2
106.8
94.9
94.4
81.7
86.6
88.0
94.3
109.0
122.2
133.6
137.8
121.2
137.2

100.0
107.1
107.1
107.1
107.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
99.7
97.9

100.0
100.1
97.7
100.7
98.2
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.4
92.7
93.9
93.9
93.9
87.8
87.5

100.0
116.9
120.1
112.6
106.3
100.0
98.0
94.8
78.3
83.3
89.6
108.7
115.7
126.0
136.3
127.1
135.9

95

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
IR O N A N D

STEER, B EA ST FU R N A C E .
1EOT B L A S T M E N , M a le .

C I N D E R S N A P P E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 1890- [Data far employees from 17 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
1903. Data for hours and wages from 18 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 17, 1894, 1895.
• Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905.]
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per svages per
hohr.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0
103.8
100.0
102.5
97.5
96.9
100.6
99.4
98.1
99.4
im '6
101.9
107.5
97.5
98.1
98.6
100.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.6
98.6

100.0
102.6
102.7
105.7
102.9
90.8
98.3
102.5
93.4
95.3
106.1
109.9
112.9
113.0
116.9
114; 2
120.5

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
97.0
98.5
104.5
101.5
98.5
97.0
101.5
98.5
101.5
101.5
104.5
106.1
112.1
113.6
116.7
127.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
104.0
104.1
105.8
104.2
92.5
94.8
99.1
96.3
96.4
102.9
109.0
109.1
113.8
118.0
114.0
118.5

K E E P E R S ’ H E L P E R S , M a le .

K E E P E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1893, 1896-1903; 18, 1894, 1895.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 23, 1905.]

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
......
1897
.......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
.......
1905
......

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
I960.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.7
95.1
106.1
98.8
100.0
100.0
96.3
96.3
104.9
106.1
104.9
109.8
114.6
113.4
114.4
119.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

106.3
108.5
108.8
106.5
92.5
97.3
99.0
91.2
91.1
98.7
103.6
104.1
108.9

111.8

105.4
110.3

100.0
89.7
89.7
108.1
99.1
99.6
98.2
98.7
99.6
105.8
109.4
107.6
113.9
114.8
107.2
103.0
111.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
105.1
107.1
108.3
106.9
88.6
98.6
100.9
90.9
92.2
101.4
105.3
105.6
109.8
113.4
106.0
110.7

TOP FILLERS, M ale.
[Data for employees from 16 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 17 establish­
ments 1890-1893,1896-1903; 16, 1894, 1895. Data from 19 establishments 1904,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894....................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
87.5
92.3
109.5
101.8
104.2
105.4
98.8
98.8




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
103.8
103.9
106.8
105.4
92.5
93.7
99.1
95.1

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

101.2
103.0
101.8
95.2
82.1
76.2
68.2
65.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.2
104.2

94.7
105.1
108.7
108.6
110.3
112.0
108.2
103.2

96

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table I I . —RELATIVE. WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

EEATHER.
COI a
OREJR S, M a le *

F L E S H E R S , H a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 23, 1904;
27, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892...............
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
.
1903.................... 1904......................
1905......................

100.0
94.3
91.5
111.3
74.5
118.9
110.4
81.1
88.7
101.9
126.4
119.8
104.7
95.3
104.7
94.7
94.3

100.0
100.1
100.0
99.7'
100.2
'99.9'
99.9
*100.1
100.1
100.1'
99.9
100.0
99.7
' 99.5
99.6
100.0
ioo.i

100.0
95.4
97.1
98.2
99.7
98.4
99.2
102.9
105.4
102.4
101.2
103.6
105.6
109.0
110.6
111.0
108.7

G L A Z E R S , M a le *

[Data for employees from 31 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 31 estab­
lishments 1890,1891; 32,1892-1903. Data from 38
establishments 1904; 49, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. •week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905...................

100.0
103.8
98.9
106.0
98.9
98.4
103.3
94.5
93.4
94.5
109.9
106.6
104.9
111.5
122.0
109.1
113.0

100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.7
99.4
100.1

100.0
105.8
104.6
104.4
103.8
97.2
95.7
98.2
96.1
97.2
97. a
101.0
102.4
103.4
105.3
107.5
103.1

G L A Z E R S ) F e m a le *

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1894-1903; 9, 1892, 1893.
Data from 18 establishments 1904; 20, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890, 1891; 2, 1892-1894; 3, 1895-1903.
Data from 6 establishments 1904; 7, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
58.7
77.8
86.8
74 6
103.2
101.1
128.6
126.5
110.1
134 4
142.3
133.3
127.5
171.4
160.9
164.9

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.2

100.0
97.8
96.4
98.4
91.3
96.0
106.2
100.9
101.1
105.6
106.5
105.1
114.5
117.5
130.1
125.5
124 8

L I M E R S , M a le ,

100.0
17.1
46.3
48.8
12.2
24 4
85.4
68.3
109.8
363.4
231.7
261.0
212.2
168.3
241.5
405.8
389.1

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
101.1
98.5
94 6
92.5
98.1
97.8
106.4
108.9
97.5
104 4
107.2
116.5
126.6
125.1
133.6
132.6

R O L L E R S , M a le *

[Data for employees from 29 establishments 18901903: Data for hours and wages from 29 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 30, 1892-1903. Data from
. 38 establishments 1904; 44, 1905.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904»
22, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892.................... _
1893.................... J
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 ..................
1899 ..................
1900 ..................
1901 ..................
1902 ..................
1903 ..................
1904 ..................
1905 ..................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
91.9
95.7
102.7
87.1
94.6
98.4
96.2
105.9
103.8
123.1
120.4
125.8
133.9
148.4
145.2
150.9




100.0
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.6
100.3
99.6
99.9

100.0
105.5
103.5
104 3
102.8
98.4
97.9
96.1
95.5
95.8
99.9
101.9
101.4
105.1
106.4
106.1
106.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
105.3
110.5
121.1
121.1
121.1
121.1
123.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
95.5
95.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6
99.6
101.1
99.6
99.6
99.6
101.1
100.2
103.5
106.1
106.1
113.6
116.1

97

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
L E A T H E R —Concluded.

S E T T E R S O U T , M a le .

S H A V E R ^ ITIale.

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 28, 1904;
31,1905.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903 ; 24, 1904;
32,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per vages pei
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898 ....................
1899.....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903... ................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
84.0
91.8
117.2
66 8
116.4
106.7
63.4
118 3
107.5
127.2
124 3
131.0
122 0
114 9
103.3
102 7

100 0
100.2100 1
100.0
100.5
99 9
100.0
100.1
99 8
99.9
99.4
99 5
99 6
99.6
99 6
99.2
99.8

100.0

103 6
103.0
98 6
107.8
96 5
96 5
99.9
96.9
95.4
101.9
101.5
103.0
102.7
105.5
108.3
111.1

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893 ....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900 ...................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
95.6
115.6
114.4
96 7
97.8
94 4
78.9
87.8
111.1
104 4
112.2
113 3
97.8
108 9
115 2
136.7

100.0
100.4
100.5
100.4
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.2
100.3
100.4
100 2
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.3
101.0
101.7

100.0
112.2
114.0
111.9
115.0
101.0
97.2
89.0
86.5
84.7
88.2
87.5
89.4
92.3
94.3
96.9
96.0

S T A K E R S , M a le .

TAN Y A R D H A N D S , m a le .

[Data from 8 establishments 1890-1903; 17. 1904;
20 1905.J

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904:
52,1905. J

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898 .................
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0

69 5
89 2
112 6
106 6
104 2
111. 4
89 8
96.4
107.2
114.4
86.2
123.4
77.8
83.8
83.5
91.2

100 0
100 i
99 9
99 9
99 9
100 0
100 0
100 0
100 1
100 2
100 0
100.1
100.1
100.2
100 3
100.0
100.7

100 0
92.1
100 8
105 3
105 0
102 1
102 4
100 0
96 0
94.9
101.6
71.6
76 5
74 1
73.4
75.1
75.4

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894...*...............
1895.....................
1896........ .............
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904....................
1905.....................

100 0
91.7
92 6
101 8
102 5
97 7
98 6
92 8
98 0
111.3
112.4
108.8
114 0
109 0
113.7
125.5
135 0

100 0
99.5
99.2
99.4
99.6
99.7
100 0
100 2
100 6
101.1
100 5
100 5
100 5
100.5
100.3
99.8
100.0

100.0
103 5
105.1
105.3
103 8
98.2
96.6
97.0
97.8
95.5
97.0
100 2
101.0
104.5
107.1
108.2
109 2

100.8
100.8
100.7
100.8
100 7
99 8
99.9
100.4

97.2
96.0
99.1
101.2
105.6
105.8
104.1
108.2

U N H A I R E R S , JTIale.

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 30,1904; 45 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................

100.0
91.6
89.4
95.5
103.4
95.0
94.4
102.2
106.7




100.0
99 5
99.6
99.4
99.4
99.6
100.2
99.9
100.8

100.0
105.6
104.4
104.4
102 0
95 6
96.6
98.4
99.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903....................
1904.....................
1905....................

112.3
108.9
114.5
124.0
129.1
126 8
108.7
119.1

98

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I I , —RELATIVE

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

L IQ U O R S , M A L T .
B O T T L E R S , M a le .

C E L L A R R E N , M a le .

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 40, 1904;
35, 1905.]

[Data from 47 establishments 1880-1903; 57, 1904;
51, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
95.0
90.4
96.0
99.8
100.7
87.2
100.5
103.2
105.4
121.6
321.1
187.8
208.6
243.6
244.6
249.5

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.1
100.1
92.8
93.2
91.2
91.6
90.6
89.9

100.0
98.3
102.7
99.5
98.2
100.6
101.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.9
117.9
115.8
124.4
127.3
131.3
133.0

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890..........*.........
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.2
96.6
101.0
101.0
98.2
98.4
99.1
104.2
102.1
101.5
105.2
104.2
106.4
109.2
114.2
117.0

100.0
100.6
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.1
99.8
99.2
98.9
97.4
95.4
92.4
90.2
89.4
89.7

100.0
96.5
97.9
98.2
99.7
100.3
100.5
101.3
101.3
101.9
102.4
104.7
107.6
113.6
117.0
118.7
120.1

C O O P E R S , M a le .

D R I V E R S , M a le .

[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903; 41, 1904;
40,1905.]

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 58, 1904;
52, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1900.
1902.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

00.0
69.6
70.6
75.9
110.2
114.9
116.8
108.3
119.1
103.3
110.9
94.7
102.0
103.0
106.6
103.4
93.3

100.0
101.1
100.6
101.0
101.5
101.5
101.3
97.2
101.1
97.2
97.5
98.2
91.8
85.9
85.7
85.3
85.6

100.0
99.0
100.2
98.6
98.1
99.4
100.2
100.1
99.8
102.7
101.6
107.4
115.1
125.7
126.8
127.4
132.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
89.4
93.6
94.9
99.1
96.4
101.9
105.0
107.1
105.0
108.0
108.5
112.4
113.6
117.4
120.7
123.9

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
100.0
100.1
100.1.
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.2
98.1
97.2
96.9
98.3
97.2

100.0
99.0
99.9
99.3
100.0
100.3
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.5
102.3
104.3
107.0
107.5
107.2
109.3

F E R M E N T E R S , M a le .

K E T T L E M E N , M a le .

[Data from 32 establishments 1890-1903; 45, 1904;
46, 1905.]

[Data from 43 establishments 1890-1903; 56, 1904;
51, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
86.6
94.9
92.4
105.1
107.6
107.0
100.6
101.9
101.3
103.8
108.3
105.7
110.2
117.2
120.6
123.0




100.0
102.2
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.9
99.4
98.6
98.6
96.2
93.6
90.2
88.8
88.4
88.5

100.0
97.9
96.3
98.2
99.1
99.4
100.3
100.5
101.4
103.4
103.4
106.8
110.3
116.2
119.7
121.7
123.8

100.0
96.6
96.6
100.6
100.6
103.4
101.7
99.4
99.4
102.'9
100.6
105.7
104.6
108.6
114.9
114.4
113.9

100.0
101.2
100.5
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.0
99.3
98.9
98.9
97.7
95.7
90.8
88.9
88.3
87.5

100.0
96.0
97.6
97.8
97.9
98.9
100.4
101.0
102.6
103.8
103.8
105.1
108.6
115.4
119.2
122.1
123.9

99

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
L I Q U O R S , M A L T —Concluded.
r H OUSE M EN.

W A S H E R S , M a le .

ablishments-1890-1903, 1905; 25,
1904.]
Tear.
Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
-107.9
99.0
95.4
97.4
107.3
99.7
102.3
97.7
94.1
99.0
103.6
105.0
92.1
95.7
101.5
100.6

100.0
100.0
99.9
101.0
100.7
100.8
100.9
100.8
99.9
98.2
97.9
92.9
91.8
90.2
88.6
88.3
88.7

100.0
98.0
99.5
96.6
98.7
98.2
98.7
100.1
101.8
103.7
104.7
111.4
114.3
117.5
120.7
122.3
123.6

[Data from 46 establishments 1890-1903; 56, 1904;
50, 1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897............. .
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
100.0
101.6
103.3
112.6
107.7
103.1
94.2
92.0
94.6
90.6
87.9
101.7
102.5
104 3
98.1
104.4

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.5
100.7
100.6
100.3
100.2
99.8
98.7
98.4
96.6
93.7
90.3
88.6
88.9
88.5

100.0
96.5
96.6
98.1
98.5
98.7
99.8
101.1
101.4
104.1
105.0
108.0
113.2
120.5
124.4
126.6
129.4

LUM BER.
R A N D S E T T E R S , M a le .

C A N T S E T T E R S , G A N G , M a le .

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1904;
42, 1905.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
101.8
98.2
96.5
101.8
96.5
98.2
103.5
105.3
103.5
100.0
114.0
103.5
100.7
108.0

100.0
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
100.0
99.7
99.6
100.0
100.1
100.0
98. A
99.1
99.5
98.0
97.9

100.0
102.5
102.8
103.7
101.4
96.2
94.7
96.6
98.5
99.7
103.9
104.5
104.5
113.9
115.5
115.0
117.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.2
103.2
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
90.3
87.1
90.2
90.2

100.0
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
97.8
95.8
96.1
96.1

100.0
101.3
101.4
101.6
101.5
101.4
99.6
95.4
95.4
99.2
103.4
104.3
104.7
106.7
113.1
113.7
116.6

C A R R I A G E M E N , M a le .

C H O P P E R S A N D S A W Y E R S IN
W O O D S , M a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 30, 1904;
48, 1905.]

[Data from 16 establishments 1890-1903; 24, 1904;
32,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904...............
1905......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0 •
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
96.6
103.4




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.5
97.3
97.3
97.8
97.8

100.0
98.5
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.5
97.3
98.8
99.1
100.4
107.8
107.1
112.3
117.9
122.8
121.8
123.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
98.2
100.6
100.8
95.0
95.9
97.0
97.5
103.1
103.3
108.1
114.8
115.1
121.4
135.2
183.2
190.1

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
100.0
99.8
99.6
100.2
100.0
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.4
99.4

100.0
98.6
97.8
99.3
95.9
94.7
98.5
98.3
101.0
106.5
109.4
109.5
113.2
115.7
116.3
109.9
115. A

100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
L U M B E R —Continued.
C I R C U L A R S E T T E R S , M a le .

E A G E R M E N , M a le .

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 19, 1904;
23, 1905.]

[Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 43, 1904;
65,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 ............ .
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
89.3
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
92.9
96.4
107.1
114.3
125.0
125.0
132.1
146.4
146.4
136.2
121.7

100.0
101.0
100.4
100.4
98.6
98.6
100.4
100.6
100.2
100.0
99.7
98.8
98.7
98.0
98.0
98.1
97.8

100.0
105.7
102.8
103.3
102.5
98.7
97.8
97.7
95.8
98.2
97.5
100.9
101.5
101.4
106.7
115.1
126.2

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.1..................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.2
96.2
96.2
100.0
92.3
94.2
98.1
105.8
107.7
111.5
119.2
125.0
128.8
132.7
132.7
140.3

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.3
100.4
100.3
100.0
99.8
99.5
99.2
98.9
98.4
98.7
98.2
98.1

100.0
104.8
104.9
106.1
104.4
97.7
94.6
97.6
95.5
96.2
98.3
102.9
105.8
105.9
110.2
110.5
112.9

F I L E R S , M ale*

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 37, 1904;
59, 1905.]

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 42, 1904;
64, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894.....................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
#5.9
97.3
98.6
97.3
98.6
95.9
94.5
102.7
106.8
105.5
105.5
113.7
124.7
124.7
120.3
120.3

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.5
99.4
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.5
98.8
98.4
98.7
98.6

100.0
100.6
101.2
100.1
102.0
97.6
96.4
98.9
98.8
100.4
104.1
107.0
108.2
108.2
112.8
114.8
117.8

100.0
93.3
98.5
94.9
95.5
10J.3
101.0
97.3
100.7
108.4
109.1
120.1
129.6
136.7
140.7
146.1
160.8

100.0
100.3
100.1
100.3
100.1
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
99.4
99.5
99.1
98.8
97.5
96.8
97.0
96.9

100.0
104.8
104.4
103.3
102.8
98.1
95.6
96.7
94.8
97.9
101.2
102.3
105.8
110.6
113.1
113.2
116.6

S A W Y E R S , B A N D , M ale*

S A W Y E R S , C I R C U L A R , M a le .

[Data from 24 establishments 1890-1903; 30, 1904;
50,1905.]

[Data from 17 estabUshments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
25, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.,..................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
98.1
96.2
96.2
94.2
98.1
101.9
98.1
98.1
109.6
111.5
121.2
121.2
128.8
128.8
125.1
130.7




100.0
100.3
99.9
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
#8.7
98.0
97; 9

100.0
101.0
101.9
101.5
102.5
97.8
99.8
98.6
99.5
98.6
101.0
105.0
107.7
114.8
122.0
119.9
123.7

100.0
92.0
92.0
88.0
88.0
88.0
92.0
100.0
108.0
116.0
124.0
132.0
132.0
140.0
140.0
115.3
121.4

100.0
101.0
100.6
100.8
98.6
98.6
100.6
100.5
100.1
99.7
99.4
98.6
98.2
96.9
96.9
97.8
97.7

100.0

104.9
105.4
102.8
102.9
101.2
100.0
99.5
95.0
94.9
93.7
96.3
99.6
103.5
107,2
113.0
118.0

101

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
L U M B E R —Concluded.
S A W Y E R S , G A N G , M a le .

T R I M M E R S , m a le .

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
19, 1905.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 36, 1904;
58, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
96.3
96.3
96.3
100.0 ‘
100.0
107.4
107.4
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.7
107.3
103.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.5
99.5
98.8
99.1
98.7
98.8

100.0
97.7
97.7
98.5
98.3
93.5
95.2
95.5
107.0
106.7
110.0
113.6
115.4
119.3
122.1
120.1
119.7

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
1890...................
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895.
.......
1896.
.......
1897....................
1898...................
1899....................
1900...................
1901....................
1902...................
1 9 0 3 ................
1904...................
1905....................

100.0

73.4
78.1
87.5
85.9
79.7
79.7

100.0

132.8
131.3
145.3
•154.7
165.6
151.6
156.3
174.1
185.2

100.0

100.4
100.3

100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1

99.9
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
99.7
100.7
99.8
99.7

100.0
113.7
108.9
106.1
107.2
97.2
97.4
90.5
88.9
94.5
95.5
98.9
99.2
96.2
98.1
104.4
106.0

M A R BE E A N D STO N E W ORK.
B E D R U B B E R S , m a le .

C A R V E R S , M a le .

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 50, 1904;
57, 1905.]

[Data from 28 establishments 1890-1903; 39,1904;
52,1905.]

Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904,-...................
1905.....................

100.0
104.8
101.4
104.8
107.6
92.4
100.0
90.3
98.6
99.3
97.2
97.9
111.0
117.9
113.8
110.5
112.9

100.0
101.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.2
100.6
99.4
99.8
99.9
96.7
96.9
95.1
94.0
90.6
89.9
90.0

100.0
96.8
99.1
97.8
98.9
99.5
97.7
102.0
100.2
99.4
108.5
108.8
117.6
124.6
125.6
126.1
127.0

ablishments 1890-1903; 62, 1904;
91, 1905.]
100.0
105.9
103.0
109.4
104.5
94.1
94.1
97.0
99.5
98.5
94.1
85.6
106.9
107.9
95.0
101.8
107.4




100.0
103.0
102.1
101.6
101.2
99.7
99.9
99.9
98.9
99.1
94.6
100.4
99.6
98.9
99.1
99.5
99.8

100.0
100.1
101.2
98.5
99.2
102.8
102.7
101.2
99.5
100.0
94.7
94.1
93.8
92.7
93.0
92.9
93.0

100.0
99.2
95.4
99.8
99.2
96.3
93.0
103.8
103.7
102.4
107.3
108.0
116.1
125.0
124.8
123.9
124.3

L E T T E R E R S , M a le *

B O R E R S , M a le *

Average 1890-99.
1890 ................
1891 ................
1892 ................
1893 ................
1894 ................
1895 ................
1896 ................
1897 ................
1898 ................
1899 ................
1900 ................
1901 ................
1902 ................
1903...................
1904 ................
1905 ................

100.0
95.8
89.2
93.3
95.0
114.2
100.8
99.2
85.8
95.0
127.5
139.2
138.3
121.7
104.2
100.1
93.0

100.0
99.9
96.6
100.4
102.9
100.1
99.4
99.7
102.1
102.1
96.5
99.4
105.1
108.6
112.4
111.9
111.8

[Data from 42 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
48,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905............. .

100.0
97.4
98.7
96.1
100.0
94.7
101.3
94.7
101.3
103.9
105.3
106.6
111.8
113.2
110.5
112.7
117.5

100.0
101.3
100.4
99.3
99.4
100.4
100.3
100.0
100.2
99.5
99.3
96.5
96.0
95.4
91.6
91.1
90.9

100.0
97.6
98.0
99.0
97.8
99.1
99.5
102.0
101.9
102.3
102.7
106.1
108.8
112.8
118.0
121.7
126.0

102

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO

1905,

BY

OCCUPATION S— Continued.

M A B B I iE A N I > S T O N E W O R K —Continued.
M A R B L E C U T T E R S , M a le .

M A R B L E P O L I S H E R S , M a le .

[Data from 58 establishments 1890-1903; 71, 1904;
76, 1905.]

[Data from 29 establishments 1890-1903; 48, 1904;
64,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.

100.0
100.0
100.0
Average 1890-99
102.7
95.8
106.3
1890
......
101.9
109.2
100.1
1891
.......
100.3
99.6
98.8
1892
.......
99.7
96.6
99.7
1893
.......
95.8
88.3
100.9
1894
.......
95.8
100.6
89.5
1895
.......
100.9
93.2
100.4
1896
.......
101.8
95.4
99.9
1897
.......
101.3
99.9
98.1
1898
.......
106.7
96.1
124.8
1899
......
108.8
95.4
129.9
1900
......
115.5
95.2
130.2
1901
......
123.3
128.2
95.0
1902
......
129.6
133.6
93.0
1903
.................. .................. ..................
121.1
97.4
1904
......
95.0
122.6
106.4
95.1
1905
......

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902................
1903................
1904................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
99.2
105.7
108.4
99.6
103.8
101.5
85.6
89.4
93.2
111.8
117.1
119.4
120.2
120.5
113.8
103.0

’

100.0
102.3
101.5
100.5
100.5
100.7
100.8
99.3
99.1
99.5
95.8
96.2
95.8
96.5
93.8
93.5
93.8

100.0
97.5
96.7
99.8
100.0
93.8
93.1
101.3
102.0
103.0
112.7
112.2
118.4
122.9
128.2
125.8
127.1

S A W Y E R S , M a le .

S T O N E C U T T E R S , G R A N I T E , iM a le .

[Data from 35 establishments 1890-1903; 50, 1904;
53, 1905.]

[Data from 72 establishments 1890-1903; 83, 1904;
87,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
..........
1893
..........
1894
..........
1895
..........
1896
..........
1897
..........
1898
.........
1899
..........
1900
.........
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
..........
1905
..........

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905................

100.0
97.8
97.8
98.9
97.8
98.9
100.0
101.1
103.3
103.3
103.3
105.5
109.9
105.5
108.8
107.2
120.7

100.0

101.7

101.6

101.7
100.8
100.7
101.1
98.7
98.2
98.0
97.4
96.8
95.3
95.8
95.6
94.5
93.6

100.0

95.6
96.1
95.4
97.2
98.2
96.5
104.2
104.9
105.3
106.9
108.4
113.4
111.4
115.5

120.2
122.1

100.0
121.0
113.5
113.8
100.4
91.0
88.4
91.5
87.5
90.1
103.0
116.3
109.9
110.5
116.1
109.8
96.3

100.0
100.0
99.7
100.0
100.8
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.5
100.6
98.1
95.2
94.8
94.2
92.3
92.2
92.6

100.0
102:8
104.8
103.4
99.7
99.0
99.5
99.0
97.1
95.6
99.1
108.1
106.6
108.5
116.5
119.1
116.7

S T O N E C U T T E R S , S O F T S T O N E , M a le,

S T O N E C U T T E R S , N O T S P E C IF IE D ,
M a le *

[Data from 49 establishments 1890-1903; 64, 1904;
83, 1905.]

[Data from 30 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99.
........
1890
1891
........
1892
........
1893
........
1894
........
1895
........
1896
........
1897
........
1898
........
1899
........
1900
........
1901
........
1902
........
1903
........
1904
........
1905
........

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891................
1892................
1893................
1894................
1895................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0

110.3
109.4
105.1
103.3
91.4
91.3
98.8
87.2
115.9
87.4
85.8
88.3
96.3
92.3
100.3
94.6




100.0

103.1
100.5
100.3
101.2
100.8
100.2
99.7
98.4
97.7
98.1
98.5
97.2
96.9
95.7
95.7
95.8

100.0

100.5
104.2
103.9
100.5
97.2
96.2
97.0
98.7
101.9
99.9
100.4
102.5
108.6
116.2
117.2
117.1

100.0
108.9
100.2
114.7
109.6
94.2
92.3
94.4
90.9
83.7
112.1
99.8
128.7
131.7
117.5
97.0
100.5

100.0
103.4
101.8
101.9
100.7
98.7
100.6
99.3
97.9
98.9
96.8
95.8
94.4
94.1
93.9
93.4
93.3

100.0
99.7
101.4
101.8
102.5
102.5
98.1
99.6
99.9
96.7
97.8
98.7
104.1
107.7
112.3
113.1
112.0

103

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
l ' a b l e I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905,
OCCUPATION S— Continued.

BT

M A R B E E A N D S T O K E W O R K —Concluded.
S T O N E P O L I S H E R S , M a le .

T U R N E R S , M a le .

[Data from 22 establishments 1890-1903; 26, 1904;
30, 1905.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
13,1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.................... :
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
98.0
102.0
98.0
110.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
104.0
102.0
98.0
100.0
110.0
118.0
114.0
119.4
138.4

100.0
101.5
100.3
99.8
100.9
101.0
100.5
98.1
98.7
99.4
99.7
97.3
97.0
94.4
93.3
93.4
95.2

100.0
100.3
100.9
103.3
97.7
93.8
95.5
100.7
105.7
102.4
99.5
95.7
97.0
101.2
106.5
105.8
102.6

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
89.5
105.3
100.0
110.5
100.0
126.3
121.1
121.1
82.3
90.5

100.0
101.1
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
98.9
99.2
99.4
99.0
99.4
98.4
98.6
95.5
95.3
94.9

100.0
96.5
98.3
98.3
100.6
100.6
99.5
102.1
101.0
101.9
100.9
104.1
102.9
107.9
118.1
120.8
122.5

P A P E R A KJ> W O O D P U L P .
B AC K . T E N D E R S , M a le.

B E A T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 11 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
25,1905.]

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 18, 1904;
28,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......... ..........
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
85.4
94.8
91.7
100.0
93.8
101.0
102.1
106.3
117.7
108.3
119.8
117.7
120.8
121.9
123.4
127.1

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.0
100.4
100.4
100.8
101.2
96.0
95.0
94.5
92.6
93.0
90.6
91.9

100.0
97.1
97.4
98.1
97.6
98.9
99.9
98.5
101.8
101.9
109.1
110.0
110.2
111.7
120.2
125.1
125.5

B L A C K A S H B U R N E R S , M a le.

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
111.8
76.5
100.0
88.2
111.8
111.8
105.9
147.1
88.2
70.6
129.4
64.7
64.7*
94.1
111.7
111.7




100.0
101.3
102.3
101.6
101.9
101.3
101.3
101.5
100.8
101.9
86.0
83.0
86.6
86.6
84.4
83.6
86.9

100.0
90.6
99.7
95.3
95.5
97.1
94.2
102.0
102.5
100.1
122.9
113.0
121.0
121.0
135.7
136.7
129.2

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.9
102.6
101.6
99.5
97.9
95.2
100.5
100.5
98.4
104.8
107.9
108.5
112.2
120.1
134.5
137.1

100.0
100.5
100.3
100.4
100.9
100.6
100.6
99.5
100.6
100.5
96.2
95.8
92.2
90.7
89.2
86.7
88.0

100.0
95.4
98.9
98.6
98.5
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.4
99.8
107.5
108.7
114.1
116.8
123.2
126.1
127.9

B L E A C H E R S , M a le .

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 12,
1905.J
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

m o
119.1
122.1
129.4
111.8
104.4
86.8
92.6
75.0
72.1
79.4
86.8
86.8
91.2
89.7
101.7
94. 7

100.0
99.1
99.3
99.3
100.0
99.4
100.5
101.1
103.6
103.9
93.7
101.6
101.6
94.5
94.8
94.3
97.5

100.0
96.0
96.9
98.8
98.6
98.1
101.1
100.1
100.5
99.9
109.9
106.6
106.4
108.6
110.4
111. 0
109.6

104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 189Q TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued,
P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P —Continued.

C A L E N D R E R S , M a le .

C A L E N D R E R S y F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 7 establishments 1904; 15, 1905.]

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1904; 2,1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892;....................
1893......................
1894:....................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number o f .hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
80.0
92.7
100.0
110.9
100.0
100.0
92.7
89.1
120.0
114.5
140.0
169.1
172.7
190.9
201.0
236.8

100.0
102.4
101.7
101.3
99.9
101.3
101.3
101.7
102.2
100.8
87.5
87.1
85.5
84.5
85.1
86.0
84.0

100.0

94.2
93.2
92.7
98.9
97.2

102.6

103.3
101.9
98.7
117.0
117.7
122.5
122.9
127.6
127.9
132.7

C O L O R M I X E R S , M a le ,

100.0
83.3
83.3
83.3
66.7
83.3
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
133.3
150.0
150.0
133.3
150.0
216.7
276.9

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.7
97.2
102.7
102.0
101.5
101.5
101.5
85.5
84.8
84.8
85.5
84.8
84.8
84.0

100.0
90.2
90.4
92.5
96.8
99.4
99.7
105.0
105.0
105.0
115.8
113.2
114.8
113.7
123.6
121.1
120.4

T E R S , F e m a le .

100.0
107.6
127.2
96.7
103.3
88.0
98.7
98.9
97.8
92.4
89.1
93.5
97.8
106.5
110.9
111.8
113.8




100.0
102.7
101.7
101.8
99.2
100.3
99.6
99.5
99.6
99.9
95.9
95.3
94.5
94.6
93.9
94.2
94.4

100.0

105.3
105.3
126.3
126.3
84.2
105.3

100.0

94.7
94.7
68.4
78.9
78.9
84.2

100.0

131.6
118.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

100.0

96.0
107.3
102.3
109.7
93.6
91.0
108.4
95.9
94.4
1Q1.1
105.9

94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8

99.3
97.7
104.5
107.2

100.0

101.0

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 5, 1893. Data
from 10 establishments 1904; 18,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
74.6
78.0
84.7
96.6
113.6
113.6
110.2
108.5
111.9
113.6
116.9
130.5
132.2
154.2
137.9
133.1

100.0
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.5
101.7
101.7
101.7
101.7
85.4
85.0
84.9
84.9
84.4
81.5
83.1

100.0
99.8
100.8
100.4
96.2
98.1
96.8
96.6
97.4
97.6
116.4
116.7
115.0
118.2
122.9
131.8
128.0

E N A M E L E R S , M a le .

iblishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
20,1905.]
Average 1890-1
1890 ...........
1891 ...........
1892 ...........
1893 ...........
1894 ...........
1895 ...........
1896 ...........
1897 ...........
1898 ...........
1899 ...........
1900 ...........
1901 ...........
1902 ...........
1903 ...........
1904 ...........
1905 ...........

Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897
.......
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901...:.............
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......

C U T T E R S , M a le *

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 1, 1893. Data
from 1 establishment 1904; 2, 1905.]
Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1930..................
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
99.2
99.0
99.2
101.9
98.8
99.2
99.1
99.4
99.6
105.0
104.2
105.0
102.0
109.0
110.8
114.7

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 3,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896...:...............
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
55.6
77.8
80.6
116.7
122.2
105.6
122.2
113.9
105.6
88.9
86.1
94.4
138.9
152.8
175.0
189.6

100.0
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
82.8
82.8
82.7
82.3
82.3
82.5
82.2

100.0
95.2
96.3
95.6
98.2
96.4
97.2
97.2
97.2
100.1
126.8
128.9
134.8
135.3
142.1
141.5
140.9

105

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
P A P E R JlN D W O O D P U L P —Continued.

F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 14 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
25, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 1890~
1903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 4, 1893. Data
from 6 establishments 1904; 11,1905.]

Relative Relative | Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
.........
1890
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0
84.4
87.5
90.6
101.6
100.0
93.8
95.3
112.5
114.1
115.6
128.1
128.1
125.0
150.0
152.8
153.6

1Q0.0
100.5
100.4
100.2
99.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.3
99.1
98.1
98.6
98.9

100.0
100.2

101.9
100.5
103.7

101.6

100.9
99.8
97.3
96.7
97.4
98.2
98.8
101.4
105.8
105.3
107.0

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Year.
Average 1890-99..
.........
1890
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
87.5
112.5
130.0
122.5
77.5
92.5
95.0
92.5
97.5
90.0
107.5
105.0
90.0
107.5
93.6
95.5

100.0
100.5
100.2
100.1
99.6
100.2
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.0
97.4
96.9
97.6
97.1

100.0
93.9
105.2
103.0
105.0
94.8
99.6
103.9
98.5
94.5

101.2

103.4

100.6

105.0
107.4
129.3
133.3

M A C H I N E T E N D E R S , M a le *

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
28, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 15 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 16 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 15, 1893. Data
from 17 establishments 1904; 27,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
113.6
109.0
98.9
100.0
96.6
103.4
90.4
93.8
84.7
108.5
102.3
134.5
118.1
127.1
134.5
142.3

100.0
98.4
98.9
100.5
100.8
100.3
101.4
102.1
101.5
102.3
93.8
96.1
91.7
96.6
96.2
96.1
96.4

100.0
97.9
98.7
98.8
97.5
97.8
99.5
99.2
99.9
98.7
112.2
111.0
115.5
109.1
118.5
118.1
119.5

100.0
89.9
97.7
97.7
104.7
97.7
101.6
102.3
100.0
101.6
106.2
118.6
124.0
124.8
133.3
141.4
139.4

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.0
99.6
99.9
100.2
100.3
100.8
101.0
97.0
97.9
91.3
88.9
87.9
84.7
86.6

100.0
.97.1
99.5
100.0
100.4
99.7
99.3
98.. 6
99.5
100.0
105.7
104.1
111.6
113.4
116.6
120.1
123.1

P U L P G R I N D E R S , M a le .

P R E S S T E N D E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1893; 4, 1894-1903. Data from 3
establishments 1904; 8, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1894-1903; 3, 1893. Data
from 5 establishments 1904; 10,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
91.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
91.7
100.0
108.3
108.3
125.0
100.0
90.0
80.5




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.2

100.0
97.9
97.9
97.9
96.5
101.5
101.6
101.6
101.6
101.5
101.6
104.0
106.2
106.2
132.1
132.9
132.0

100.0
93.5
93.5
93.5
103.2
103.2
96.8
103.2
96.8
96.8
103.2
103.2
103.2
103.2
93.5
114.9
106.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
83.7
92.3

100.0
99.8
99.8
99.8
96.4
99.9
100.3
101.1
101.1
101.1
100.7
100.7
101.5
101.5
115.4
127.8
121.4

106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
P A P E R ANTI) W O O L * P U E P —Concluded.

R A G S O R T E R S , H a le .

R A O S O R T E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 2 establishments.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 7,1904; 11,
190$.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903............ ........
1904......................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
102.0
90.0
110.0
104.0
92.0
98.0
104.0
118.0
98.0
88.0
114.0
88.0
110.0
134.0
159.4
91.1

100.0
98.6
99.5
98.1
98.9
99.8
99.8
100.2
98.5
103.3
103.3
102.3
96.2
103.5
103.2
102.9
112.5

100.0
94.5
97.4
99.8
101.1
103.1
102.4
99.2
101.9
98.0
102.3
101.2
103.1
101.0
103.8
103.5
97.4

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.2
108.3
109.6
112.8
90.4
104.5
108.3
86.5
86.5
100.6
117.9
92.3
87.2
111.5
127.8
123.7

100.0
101.2
99.9
101.0
99.5
98.6
99.3
98.9
100.1
101.0
100.5
100.5
102.6
101.1
101.6
101.8
104.6

100.0
97.6
100.2
99.8
99.5
102.3
101.5
100.3
99.2
101.4
97.6
99.8
100.1
96.7
97.6
103.5
100.1

W O O ® P R E P A R E R S , M a le .

H O O D C O O K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1893; 2, 1894-1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904; 9,1905.]

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1892, 1901-1903; 3, 1893; 5, 18941900. Data from 7 establishments 1904; 12,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890..1................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903*.....................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
75.0
68.8
56.3
43.8
25.0
100.0
m o
175.0
187.5
137.5
162.5
m o
m o
118.8
129.9
132.0

100.0
97.5
97.5
97.5
97.5
110.5
104.0
104.0
101.8
101.6
88.4
87.2
85.8
85.8
87.3
84.0
85.9

100.0
95.3
94 7
96.3
99.8
97.7
99.7
99.6
96.2
99.2
119.3
122.3
121.4
119.3
131.1
135.2
142.3

100.0
63.2
63.2
73.7
100.0
94.7
105.3
131.6
121.1
136.8
131.6
126.3
126.3
126.3
110.5
124 8
130.8

100.0
99.3
99.3
100.3
100.8
100.6
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.4
98.5
98.2
96.7
96.7
95.3
93.6
94.4

100.0
101.4
100.6
100.4
103.1
97.7
98.4
98.7
98.8
98.7
102.0
103.8
114 2
118.1
133.6
134.3
135.6

P L A N T IN G M IL L .
C A R P E N T E R 'S , M a le .

F R A M E R S , M a le .

[Data from 65 establishments 1890-1903; 96, 1904;
93, 1905.]

[Data from 26 establishments 1890-1903; 35, 1904;
33, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.............. .
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896..................
1897................ .
1808.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1991.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

m o
94.7
94 3
100.3
98.7
92.1
92.7
104.7
101.7
103.4
116,9
122.5
129.9
132.8
135.9
138.4
1440




100.0
101.9
101.1
101.3
100,2
100.1
99.8
98.0
99.1
99.4
99.0
98.4
98.2
97.0
96.5
96.3
96.3

m o
98.7
100.0
99.2
100.2
96.7
98.0
100.8
101.1
102.3
102.8
106.7
108.0
113.6
119.3
122.4
123.4

100.0
87.2
91.0
96.3
95.2
89.9
105.9
102.7
105.9
HD. 6
113.3
111.2
119.1
115.4
123.4
126.9
133.5

100.0
100.5
m o
10Q.0
99.8
100.5
99.8
100.2
100.2
m o
98 9
99.2
98.6
97.9
97.9
98 0
98 2

100.0
100.3
101.5
103.0
102.3
981
97.0
95.9
97.6
100.2
104.0
105.2
108 6
111.3
114 2
113.7
116.2

107

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
P L A N IN G

M I L L —Continued.
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

G L A Z I E R S , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 34, 1904;
40,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99.1
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
81.8
81.8
81.8
81.8
90.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
136.4
145.5
181.8
200.0
254.5
240.9
287.2

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
100.0
98.3
98.3
98.6
99.1
98.4
98.1

100.0
95.7
99.0
100.5
104.7
102.8
97.7
96.8
100.7
99.8
102.4
106.7
105.7
103.1
107.0
111.0
113.2

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 80, 1904;
91,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
85.9
89.8
88.7
87.1
93.8
102.0
105.1
103.5
107.0
135.9
110.2
134.4
127.7
115.6
121.4
129.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.8
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.9
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.4
100.0

100.0
102.4
105.3
101.5
98.3
94.1
95.9
96.5
96.0
101.5
108.5
102.8
110.8
110.8
113.3
110.4
112.7

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

S A W Y E R S , B A N D , M a le .

[Data from 92 establishments 1890-1903; 110, 1904;
112,1905.]

[Data from 31 establishments 1890-1903; 53, 1904;
59,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896..................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
97.3
97.4
98.4
97.9
96.0
97.8
99.8
101.9
105.8
107.3
111.4
113.7
120.8
122.2
128.6
133.2

100.0
101.2
100.6
100.6
100.1
100.4
99.6
99.4
99.7
99.2
99.0
98.9
98.7
97.3
96.7
96.7
96.7

100.0
98.4
99.2
99.7
99.6
97.4
98.8
99.7
101.0
102.0
104.0
106.6
108.7
113.0
116.3
115.7
117.4

100.0
95.9
95.9
98.0
95.9
95.9
95.9
102.0
104.1
106.1
106.1
110.2
112.2
116.3
122.4
128.7
140.0

100.0
101.7
100.2
100.0
100.2
101.5
98.4
99.8
99.6
99.5
99.2
100.5
100.5
99.7
99.5
98.9
98.5

100.0
100.7
101.5
100.9
100.0
97.6
99.3
98.6
99.9
100.6
101.2
102.1
103.6
106.6
110.4
112.0
115.1

S A W Y E R S , C I R C U L A R , M a le .

S A W Y E R S , J I G , M a le .

[Data from 45 establishments 1890-1903; 65, 1904;
73, 1905.]

[Data from 19 establishments 1890-1903; 27, 1904;
23,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .....................
1905 .................

100.0
92.1
93.8
93.3
93.8
98.3
98.3
101'. 7
102.8
111.8
116.3
120.8
128.7
131.5
137.1
134.1
144.9




100.0
100.8
100.4
100.4
100.1
100.5
99.5
99.1
99.9
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.0
98.3
98.0
98.4

100.0
100.2
100.5
100.4
101.2
98.8
98.8
98.1
98.5
99.7
103.6
105.0
108.5
110.8
114.1
114.1
114.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
m o
103.8
103.8
103.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
103.8
107.7
107.7
103.8
107.7
111.0
108.9

100.0
102.6
100.2
100.2
100.0
102.3
96.9
99.8
99.4
99.4
98.9
101.4
101.6
100.4
99.8
99.0
99.1

100.0
98.2
100.4
100.1
99.5
97.3
101.0
98.3
99.7
100.9
104.5
103.7
106.1
107.9
110.0
112.5
112.2

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
P H A N IN G M IH L —Concluded.
S A W Y E R S , N O T S P E C I F I E D , M a le .

[Data from 17 establishments 1890-1903; 22,1904; 21,1 05.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1837......................

100.0
96.7
96.7
103.3
100.0
93.3
96.7
96.7
100.0

100.0
101.3
100.9
101.1
100.3
100.6
100.4
98.7
99.5

100.0
99.0
99.5
101.5
100.8
96.2
97.4
100.7
100.8

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

96.7
103.3
100.0
100.0
103.3
100.0
105.1
100.2

98.6
98.4
97.6
96.3
93.6
93.9
92.7
92.4

101.0
103.2
105.3
110.9
120.2
117.9
121.2
124.4

PO TTERY.
D I P P E R S , M a le .

J I G G E R M E N , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
6, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890;....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
80.0

100.0
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
99.7
99.7
104.2
104.2
104.2
99.7
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9
101.9

100.0
95.1
95.1
96.3
106.2
103.7
97.4
88.9
104.9
104.9
107.4
101.1
109.6
109.6
113.5
116.5
123.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
121.4
114.3
78.6
100.0
85.7
92.9
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
107.1
85.7
89.8

100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.4
99.6
100.7
99.9
100.4
100.1
100.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
96.1
97.2
97.2

100.0
100.7
101.2
97.8
104.7
99.0
93. G
97.1
92.2
102.1
111.6
101.9
108.8
110.9
113.2
118.8
122.3

K I L N F I R E M E N , M a le .

K I L N M E N , M a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904;
6,1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
113.0




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
102.7

100.0
91.5
91.5
101.0
101.0
101.0
95.3
95.3
114.2
114.2
95.3
95.3
95.3
104.7
110.4
112.3
108.4

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898........ :...........
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.2
104.5
102.3
102.3
102.3
100.0
88.6
97.7
95.5
106.8
.113.6
102.3
104.5
102.3
99.5
97.9

100.0
99.8
99 2
99.3
99.3
99.3
99.4
101.3
100.6
100.8
101.1
100.7
101.4
101.3
100.9
100.7
100.8

100.0
101.3
104.2
103.8
104.0
101.5
102.2
94.0
96.2
95.6
97.3
98.7
95.7
98.6
98.4
99.6
101.1

109

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b le I I . — R E L A T IV E ^ A G E S AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

P O T T E R Y —Concluded.
M O L D M A K E R S , M a le

P R E S S E R S , M a le *

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7, 1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1904; 7, 1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893....................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
216.6
254.8

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.3
99.5
99.5
98.9
98.9
98.9
98.9
97.6
100.6
101.0

100.0
99.7
99.3
99.1
94.1
97.8
97.5
97.3
96.0
114.1
105.0
101.2
104.2
105.5
114.3
103.3
102.0

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894..................'..
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900..,................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
97.0
110.4
94.8
100.7
92.6
88.1
91.1
108.9
111.1
108.1
103.7
104.4
92.6
105.2
97.0
91.1

100.0
99.5
99.6
99.9
99.8
100.1
100.1
100.2
99.9
100.1
100.6
100.5
100.3
100.9
100.2
99.8

100.0

100.0
101.7
105.6
103.0
110.7
94.9
87.9
92.7
99.9
'101.2
102.4
94.4
102.1
99.5
103.6
116.4
114.3

S E T T E R S - O U T , M a le*

S A G G E R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1893.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1 8 9 3 ...................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
63.7
83.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
98.3
99.3
99.3
99.3
98.0
98.0
97.3

100.0
99.7
99.6
99.4
98.0
99.1
97.4
97.6
96.6
107.6
105.0
105.2
103.5
106.5
107.6
108.4
117.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.8
98.8
98.8

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.3
100.9
99.5
99.5
99.1
99.5
£9.4
100.1
100.4
100.2
101.3
100.7
101.5
101.2

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , BO OK A N D JO B .
B O O K B I N D E R S , M a le .

C O M P O S IT O R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 32 establishments 18901903. D ata for hours and wages from 32 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 33, 1895-1903. Data from
55 establishments 1904; 110,1905.]

[Data from 85 establishments 1890-1903 ; 96, 1904;
152, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
87.6
89.1
92.2
95.3
93.0
91.5
99.6
112.0
117.8
121.7
129.1
131.8
134.1
136.8 1
141.9
150.0

2— N o. 65— 06----- 8




100.0
101.1
101.0
100.8
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.4
99.5
98.8
97.2
96.2
95.6
94.8
94.5
94.2
93.9

100.0
96.1
96.2
98.1
100.0
99.3
99.5
100.2
102.5
103.3
104.8
104.9
108.9
111.1
111.9
115.0
115.9

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.9
93.1
94.4
95.3
97.5
99.6
99.4
105.9
107.9
113.6
122.2
120.8
116.7
120.0
118.3
122.8

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.9
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.5
96.9
94.6
93.7
92.4
92.4
91.5
91.1

100.0
97.7
98.8
98.9
99.6
100.3
99.9
99.4
100.3
101.0
104.3
107.3
109.6
113.7
115.7
119.6
122.3

110

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Continued.
E L E C T R O T Y P E R S , M a le .

C O M P O S IT O R S , F e m a le .

[Bata for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890,1891,1893-1896,1898,1899; 6,1892,
1897; 4,1900; 3, 1901-1903. Data from 6 estab­
lishments 1904; 18, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895*....................
1896............... .
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
100.0
100.0
96.0
104.0
100.0
96.0
108.0
116.0
100.0
96.0
100.0
112.0
112.0
124.0
127.9
139.5

100.0
103.3
103.6
100.4
99.8
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.7
99.4
98.8
99.2
96.2
96.2
96.2
92.0
91.8

100.0
100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
100.3
100.4
100.4
98.9
98.6
95.3
95.5
94.2
94.0
93.6
93.3

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
97.4
97.4
94.7
92.1
97.4
100.0
100.0
110.5
107.9
105.3
97.4
100.0
105.3
102.6
105.8
104.4

100.0
100.3
100.3
100.4
100.1
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.7
99.7
97.1
97.2
96.4
96.4
96.4
95.5
93.8

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.6
101.4
100.2
98.8
99.1
99.0
99.8
99.7
100.1
106.4
105.1
105.2
108.2
109.4

P R E S S F E E D E R S , F e m a le .

{Data from 23 establishments 1890-1903; 65, 1904;
132,1905.]
100.0
84.1
85.0
89.0
93.1
92.3
102.0
104.5
109.8
117.9
122.4
130.5
124.8
136.6
134.1
136.6
140.0

Year.

100.0 Average 1890-99..
95.0 1890.....................
94.9 1891.....................
98.9 1892.....................
101.2 1893.....................
100.2 1894.....................
105.0 • 1895.....................
101.4 1896.....................
102.7 1897.....................
99.2 1898.....................
101.5 1899.....................
107.8 1900................ .
109.2 1901.....................
109.2 1902.....................
116.0 1903.....................
122.1 1904.....................
134.6 1905.....................

P R E S S F E E D E R S , M a le .

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905.....................

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
22, 1905.]

100.0
97.9
100.0
99.0
98.5
100.1
101.1
99.2
99.2
101.6
103.5
119.8
120.1
121.5
124.8
126.7
129.7

P R E S S M E N , M a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890-1897,1900, 1901; 6, 1898,1899,1902,
1903. Data from 19 establishments 1904; 38,
1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
94.1
94.1
88.2
97.1
91.2
91.2
91.2
102.9
102.9
147.1
129.4
132.4
126.5
117.6
140.1
137.5

100.0
100.6
100.6
100 6
100.6
100.6
100.5
100.6
100.6
98.6
96.6
92.2
92.2
92.1
91.8
91.8
92.3

100.0
99.3
99 3
100.0
98.5
98.3
97.5
99.9
99.6
102.5
105.3
108.9
111.5
114.4
116.9
127.7
128.8

P R O O F R E A R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 64 establishments 1890-1903; 87, 1904;
153, 1905.]

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 13 estab­
lishments 1890,1891; 12, 1892-1894, 1902, 1903; 11,
1895-1901. Data from 33 establishments 1904;
56,1905.]

Average 1890-99. 1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................
1898............... .
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
90.6
93.0
94.0
95.8
95.3
96.9
101.6
105.0
112.5
115.7
117.8
120.1
118.8
120.6
126.5
128.5




100.0
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
99.6
97.3
95.5
93.9
92.8
92.8
92.4
92.0

100.0
97.8
99.0
99.4
98.9
99.3
99.6
99.5
100.8
101.0
104.7
107.3
111.1
112.5
114.7
117.0
118.9

100.0
103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
96.4
92.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
114.3
121.4
125.0
132.1
152.8
162.0

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.1
94.8
92.3
92.4
88.5
88.3
87.9
87.9

100.0
100.6
101.1
98.9
100.0
99.4
100.8
99.9
100.1
101.0
98.1
107.3
109.4
119.2
121.3
119.5
121.3

Ill

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Concluded.
P R O O F R E A .IM E R S , F6Hiftl6(

S E R V E R S ) R O O K , F e m a le *

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891; 7, 1892-1894, 1902, 1903; 8,
1895-1901. Data from 15 establishments 1904; 36,
1905.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 38, 1904;
79, 1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
110.0
140.0
100.0
110.0
100.0
110.0
80.0
120.0
80.0
90.0
100.0
100.0
110.0
110.0
118.2
120.1

100.0
101.4
102.2
99.7
100.5
99.7
100.3
99.2
100.9
99.1
97.1
94.4
93.1
93.1
93.1
92.5
92.0

100.0
100.8
107.6
106.3
101.1
99.6
92.9
99.3
88.8
97.5
106.1
116.2
107.9
115.7
115.7
118.2
118.9

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890...:...............
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893 ...................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1 9 0 5 ....,.............

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
111. 9
92.9
100.0
78.6
85.7
90.5
100.0
102.4
114.3
121.4
119.0
150.0
126.2
150.0
160.4
164.7

100.0
100.7
100.4
100.7
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.9
99.1
98.9
96.8
96.8
95.4
95.2
94.3
94.0

100.0
91.2
99.2
99.3
102.5
101.0
100.3
104.0
101.1
102.0
99.5
102.5
95.9
102.0
98.5
100.9
104.2

S T E R E O T Y P E R S , M a le .

S T I T C H E R S , B O O K , F e m a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 10,
1905.]

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903; 21, 1904;
48, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.1
107.1
114.7
118.3

100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
10Q.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
94.8
94.1
94.1
90.7
90.7
90.5
85.0

100.0
99.4
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
105.4
105.1
106.0
112.6
114.2
113.4
119.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
95.7
1*3.6
110.6
97.9
91.5
93.6
93.6
100.0
112.8
106.4
144.7
151.1
168.1
163.8
156.3
171.5

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.8
98.0
93.3
92.3
92.2
91.6
91.6
91.3

100.0
97.2
98.3
91.3
100.8
98.5
98.8
101.8
97.2
105.6
110.3
124.3
131.9
134.0
137.8
137.2
134.8

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R .
C O M P O S IT O R S , F e m a le .

C O M P O S IT O R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 91 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 91 estab­
lishments 1890; 92,1891,1892; 93, 1893; 94, 1894;
95, 1895-1903. Data from 135 establishments
1904; 148,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
131.4
133.3
130.1
115.6
91.9
79.7
76.9
80.8
78.2
82.2
84.4
83.5
83.1
87.9
92.4
100.7




100.0
101.2
100.2
100.1
101.1
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.9
99.1
97.6
97.3
95.9
95.1
94.8
93.9
93.4

100.0
101.0
101.5
101.9
99.8
96.4
97.2
98.9
99.6
99.9
103.7
103.4
107.9
110.5
113.4
115.6
118.3

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 estab­
lishments 1890, 1891, 1894, 1895; 8, 1892, 1893; 6,
1896-1898, 1901, 1903; 5, 1899, 1900, 1902. D ata
from 7 establishments 1904; 5,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1805.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905................ :..

100.0
132.4
129.4
150.0
132.4
111.8
76.5
82.4
73.5
58.8
44.1
38.2
44.1
44.1
41.2
32.0
37.3

100.0
98.1
99.9
99.8
101.2
100.7
101.4
102.2
102.4
99.0
95.4
94.6
95.4
95.1
90.9
91.7
95.1

100.0
110.1
97.5
104.7
95.3
93.4
86.6
91.5
93.7
108.4
119.0
118.6
111.5
118.4
128.4
121.5
126.2

112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , N E W S P A P E R —Concluded.
P R E S S IH E N , M a le .

L I N O T Y P E O P E R A T O R S , M a le .

[Data for hours and wages from 1 establishment
1890; 5,1891; 16,1892; 32,1893; 54,1894; 69,1895;
80, 1896; 88, 1897; 94, 1898; 99, 1899; 100, 1900;
102,1901; 103,1902; 104,1903; 135,1904; 147,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895 ..................
1896............;.......
1897 ..................
1898.....................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
(a )
(a )

(a)

(a)
(a )
(a )
(a )
(a )
(a )
(a )
(a )
(a)
(a )
(a)
(a )
(a )

(«)

100.0
100.1
98.6
101.4
102.5
100.6
99.4
99.2
99.3
99.5
99.5
99.4
99.9
99.4
99.6
99.4
99.2

100.0
110.8
106.2
91.9
97.5
99.9
99.4
99.1
98.7
98.2
98.2
99.6
99.6
101.0
104.0
105.9
106.5

[Data for employees from 106 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 106 estab­
lishments 1890; 107, 1891-1894; 108, 1895-1903.
Data from 135 establishments 1904; 143,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
86.6
88.5
92.5
94.7
95.5
95.3
105.9
107.3
114.5
119.0
123.2
127.9
133.8
138.5
148.4
152.7

100.0
101.1
101.0
100.9
101.0
100.5
100.1
99.6
98.8
98.7
98.2
97.8
97.5
97.3
97.1
96.3
97. Q

100.0
97.9
97.7
97.6
98.3
98.9
99.5
101.5
101.8
102.9
104.2
104.9
106.1
109.1
112.6
114.5
116.4

S T E R E O T Y P E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 76 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 76 establish­
ments 1890; 77,1891-1893; 78,1894,1895; 79,1896-1903. Data from 109 establishments 1904; 133,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................

100.0
84.4
84.7
90.7
97.0
97.3
99.7
109.6
109.6

100.0
100.3
100.6
100.7
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.0
99.4

100.0
95.3
95.3
98.1
99.3
98.6
99.0
101.8
102.3

1808.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

111.6
115.0
115.0
119.3
122.6
122.9
129.0
133.4

99.0
98.6
98.7
98.4
98.5
98.5
97.2
96.5

104.6
105.5
104.9
106.5
107.3
108.4
111.5
114.3

S H IP B U IL D IN G .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

B O I L E R R A K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 estab­
lishments 1890; 12, 1891-1895; 13, 1896-1898; 14,
1890-1903. Data from 17 establishments 1904;
27,1905.]

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 7,1891-1893,1896-1898;
8,1899-1903. Data from 12 establishments 1904;
20,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
65.5
74.8
84 0
81.5
99.2
137.8
96.6
100.8
140.3
121.8
116.8
122.7
142.0
131.1
110.1
99.7

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.9
100.0
100.2
99.4
99.5
99.9
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.2
98.9
96.5
96.2

100.0
97.0
100.2
99.7
99.3
96.8
97.8
104 7
104.0
99.4
101.0
101.1
100.6
103.8
105.6
109.4
109.4

100.0
55.3
44.7
62.4
90.1
95.7
107.1
90.1
87.9
209.9
153.9
207.1
175.9
185.8
172.3
175.3
172.7

100.0
.99.9
100.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.7
99.7
100.1
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.3
98.2
98.3

100.0
98.2
98.6
100.6
99.2
95.3
100.0
104 4
101.8
100.5
101.5
99.6
101.5
102.6
101.8
103.0
103.9

a No relative numbers shown, as reports were secured from but one establishment employing linotype
operators as early as 1890.




113

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1905,
T ab le

II.— E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OUBS OF L A B O B , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
B
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.

S H IP B IJ IIjD IlN O —Continued.
C A L K E R S , I R O N , M a le,

C A L K E R S , W O O D , M a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1895; 5, 1891-1894, 1896-1898; 6,
1899-1902; 7,1903. Data from 7 establishments
1904; 15,1905.1

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903; 15,1904; 23,
1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees: week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890
.........
1891
.........
1892
.........
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
.........
1898
.........
1899
.........
1900
.........
1901
.........
1902
.........
1903
.........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0

85.3
179.4
76.5
55.9
52.9
117.6

100.0

126.5
152.9

120.6

182.4

200.0

155.9
164.0
141.4

100.0
100.5
101.3
100.3
99.3
98.7
98.8
100.6
99.6
100.6
100.3
99.9
96.1
94.3
97.7
93.4
95.3

100.0
92.3
84.7
93.7
103.0
100.3
103.5
107.0
103.1
109.6
102.9
108.1
109.4
124.2
147.8
148.1
145.2

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

100.0
Average 1890-99..
100.0
.........
1890
92.3
100.4
1891
.........
92.3
100.6
1892
.........
100.2
89.5
1893
.........
111.2
100.0
1894
.........
83.2
99.9
1895
.................. ;................. 99.6
92.3
1896
.........
91.6
100.0
1897
.........
101.4
99.7
1898
.........
125.2
99.7
121.7
1899
.........
99.9
1900
.........
123.1
99.7
1901
.........
155.2
99.8
1902
.........
155.9
99.6
1903
.........
165.0
93.7
1904
.........
146.7
92.9
1905
.........
135.4
92.4

99.2
98.8
99.3
98.4
98.3
98.5
100.3
103.8
104.0
fb5.6
110.1
108.4
109.6
115.5
115.7

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

D R I L L E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 18 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 19 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 20,1893,1896-1898;
21, 1899-1903. Data from 24 establishments
1904; 36,1905.]

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890,1895; 3,1891, i892,1894,1896-1898;
4, 1893, 1899-1903. Data from 9 establishments
1904; 18, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
83.4
93.9
85.4
84.2
82.7
99.7
97.6
106.2
119.1
147.3
144.2
145.3
140.0
153.4
151.2
161.3

100.0
101.1
100.4
99.9
99.8
99.7
99.8
100.1
99.8
99.5
100.0
99.8
98.5
97.8
96.9
96.2
96.8

100.0
98.6
99.8
98.9
99.8
100.6
100.3
99.0
100.5
100.5
102.1
104.4
105.9
109.4
110.1
110.6
112.3

F I T T E R S , M a le .

100.0
60.5
95.3
90.7
89.1
141.9
107.0
103.9
87.6
86.8
133.3
217.8
191.5
165.1
162.0
143.2
156.5




100.0
99 0
100.2
100.1
99.8
100.2
100.7
100.6
99.9
99.9
99.6
100.4
98.6
99.6
99.5
98.7
99.0

100.0
113.3
66.7
100.0
86.7
53.3
66.7
80.0
153.3
93.3
180.0
133.3
140.0
146.7
173.3
146.9
243.0

100.0
100.9
99.3
99.0
99.0
98.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
100.9
69.9
98.6
95.1
94.5
91,9
91.7
91.7

100.0
96.6
92.3
94.8
95.0
85.6
93.2
105.7
107.1
114.7
114.7
110.6
110.8
125.6
122.1
125.3
125.8

J O I N E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 7,1891-1895; 8,1896,1897; 9,1898;
10, 1899-1903. Data from 11 establishments
1904; 20,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
96.7
92.8
98.3
99.3
92.4
99.4
102.1
105.5
109.4
104.2
100.4
103.5
105.7
107.0
105.7
103.7

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 12 estab­
lishments 1890-1892,1894,1895; 13,1893,1896-1898;
14,1899-1903. Data from 16 establishments 1904;
25, 1905. ]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
87.9
68.6
96.5
91.6
97.1
210.7
95.1
46.7
93.4
111.0
147.8
144.4
149.9
135.4
139.5
155.2

100.0
101.1
99.4
99.9
99.7
100.3
101.9
99.9
97.4
100.4
100.1
101.1
100.3
100.0
98.8
97.6
98.1

100.0
96.3
99.5
99.2
100.9
99.1
95.9
100.8
106.8
103.3
98.3
101.2
101.4
102.7
106.2
108.2
109.6

114

BULLETIN- OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
SH IP B U IX iD IN T G —Continued.

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1894; 4,1895-1903. Data from 17
establishments 1904; 33,1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895............... .
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
205.6
72.2
84.7
69.4
73.6
70.8
63.9
79.2
104.2
169.4
287.5
248.6
234.7
194.4
236.3
265.6

100.0
101.5
98.1
99.1
98.1
98.4
99.9
101.3
101.4
100.7
101.4
101.2
101.6
98.9
98.9
98.5
98.0

.

100.0
84.7
103.8
97.3
102.0
103.8
106.1
101.5
100.4
100.4
100.1
99.8
100.5
108.3
110.6
109.8
112.6

H O L D E R S , I K O N , M a le .

1900.
1901.
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.

100.0
96.2
98.1
98.1
84.6
73.1
94.2
111.5
98.1
115.4
123.1
109.6
117.3
126.9
121.2
102.1
102.7

100.0
100.2
101.0
100.6
100.5
99.7
99.8
99.8
99. .3
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.6
98.2
98.1
96.6
98.0

100.0
105.4
95.2
97.0
98.8
95.9
99.6
97.2
103.3
102.3
105.0
107.5
110.2
112.5
115.6
122.0
119.1

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le ,

100.0
60.5
81.6
82.9
84.2
101.3
114.5
127.6
100.0
110.5
135.5
130.3
125.0
142.1
143.4
163.7
156.9




100.0
99.9
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.2
100.0
100.1
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.9
99.1
98.4
97.3
96.4
96.8

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
66.6
67.0
97.6
90.7
89.7
104.0
104.2
104.4
109.9
165.8
135.6
193.8
230.2
200.2
229.4
22b. 7

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.5
100.0
99.9
99.6
98.8
98.3
96.4
96.4

100.0
96.8
97.7
97.9
97.5
96.2
100.1
103.4
103.4
104.3
102.5
105.8
105.1
108.2
110.1
112.2
113.4

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890; 11, 1891-1894, 1899-1903; 10, 18951898. Data from 14 establishments 1904; 20,
1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
78.4
78.4
85.1
112.5
102.4
154.8
97.1
83.7
101.0
108.7
132.2
130.8
134.1
131.7
142.5
153.6

100.0
103.1
102.4
102.4
102.8
102.7
99.9
97.6
94.8
96.7
97.6
98.9
98.4
97.0
97.8
95.8
96.1

100.0
95.1
93.8
95.0
99.3
98.3
105.6
105.7
105.6
102.7
99.0
101.5
101.5
103.3
102.6
108.9
105.7

R I C K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1899-1903. Data
from 13 establishments 1904; 21,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890; 4,1891-1898; 5,1899-1901; 6,1902,
1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904; 10,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 ..................
1891 ..................
1892 ..................
1893 ..................
1894 ..................
1895 ..................
1896 ..................
1897 ..................
1898 ..................

[Data for employees from 8 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 8 estab­
lishments 1890; 9,1891-1898; 10,1890-1903. Data
from 15 establishments 1904; 24,1905.]

100.0
102.9
97.8
97.7
97.9
95.3
100.6
99.8
102.7
100.8
104.4
107.0
109.6
112.1
114.3
117.9
117.0

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890; 8,1891-1898; 9,1899-1903. Data
from 14 establishments 1904; 20,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894
...............
1895 ....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898 ....................
1899.....................
1900 ...................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903 ....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
79.0
70.0
100.0
119.0
115.0
110.0
71.0
54.0
94.0
184.0
244.0
98.0
242.0
228.0
185.5
226.2

100.0
99.7
98.1
98.9
100.3
100.7
100.8
100.4
99.6
100.1
101.4
102.0
99.9
102.0
101.9
99.9
100.7

100.0
112.1

106.0
101.4
95.0
86.9
92.9

102.1

108.3
104.2
91.0

99.5
94.9
99.3

102.6
102.2

115

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
B H IP B U IX iD IN G —Concluded.

R I V E T E R S , M a le .

S A W f E B S , C I R C U L A R , M a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890,1894,1895; 5,1891-1893,1896-1898;
6,1899-1903. Data from 9 establishments 1904;
17,1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 10, 1904;
14,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
-hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893....................
1894 .... ............
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
58.0
137.7
155.1
15.9
14.5
11.6
23.2
27.5
247.8
301.4
211.6
331.9
281.2
315.9
389.6
349.8

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.5
98.4
98.5
99.9
100.1
99.9
100.7
100.2
100.2
99.7
98.9
99.0
96.6
98.3

100.0
81.9
84.3
92.5
94.2
85.2
128.1
107.2
118.1
103.8
104.7
103.7
94.3
107.2
107.1
106.2
104.9

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1 8 9 0 ....J ...........
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0
77.8
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.9
100.0
100.0
111.1
96.3
92.7

100.0
103.8
103.7
103.1
103.7
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
93.6
93.6
93.3
92.9
93.2

100.0
93.6
96.7
96.0
96.7
103.1
103.1
101.7
103.1
103.1
103.1
101.7
108.1
110.6
107.1
106. 5
106.6

100.0
100.0
104.3
108.7
104.3
91.3
78.3
86.1

99.4
99.9
100.1
99.8
99.6
94.4
94.4
93.2

101.6
100.9
97.3
100.2
100.3
97.4
100.2
101.8

S P A R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 3 establishments.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897.....................

100.0
108.7
104.3
104.3
113.0
87.0
91.3
91.3
87.0

100.0
100.7
98.8
99.6
100.0
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.2

100.0
109.4
109.2
106.1
101.5
92.6
92.3'
93.0
93.4

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903 ...................
1904.....................
1905.....................

SULK G O O D S .
R E A M E R S , M a le .

D O U R L E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 2 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 3, 1897-1903. Data from 3
establishments 1904; 6,1905.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1904; 10, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900...............w...
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
100.0
75.0
225.0
75.0
150.0
100.0
125.0
107.1
140.6




100.0
104.0
104.0
104.0
98.2
98.2
97.5
98.2
98.5
99.9
97.4
99.9
98.2
99.1
98.6
98.3
98.5

100.0
104.5
99.8
102.1
102.1
102.1
99.8
102.1
93.0
88.0
106.6
93.2
100.6
100.2
101.3
104.5
99.5

100.0
77.1
78.3
98.8
114.5
108.4
92.8
101.2
106.0
112.0
107.2
100.0
100.0
89.2
90.4
88.0
107.7

100.0
102.8
102.8
102.2
98.7
98.3
98.7
98.7
99.3
99.1
99.4
99.3
98.9
99.0
98.0
97.5
97.7

100.0
107.0
98.6
99.6
98.4
101.8
102.5
102.0
95.5
97.9
96.2
97.0
106.9
114.3
123.4
130.2
126.2

116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR;

Table I I __ RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
S I L K G O O D S —Continued.
D Y E R S , M a le .

LO O A I F I X E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6, 1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 6,1904; 12,
1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902......................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
73.1
92.3
101.9
87.5
85.6
97.1
98.1
131.7
119.2
117.3
109.6
137.5
384.6
351.9
464.6
487.0

100.0
103.1
103.1
103.1
103.1
98.7
98.2
97.9
96.9
97.9
97.8
98.1
97.4
94.8
94.8
94.8
94.8

100.0
97.2
96.1
95.1
92.6
100.9
102.0
103.1
106.6
102.3
104.0
103.8
105.2
102.2
103.1
103.4
104.1

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99.
.......
1890
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
.......
1895
.......
1896
.......
1897J..................
1898
.......
1899
.......
1900
.......
1901
.......
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......

100.0

69.6
73.9
87.0
82.6
95.7
117.4
108.7
126.1
130.4
126.1
152.2
143.5
143.5
139.1
128.9
128.9

100.0

104.4
104.5

101.6

98.6
98.4
98.2
98.6
98.4
98.4
98.7
98.5
98.6
98.6
98.6
98.2
98.3

100.0

94.7
93.8
96.4
99.0
97.7
103.7

101.0

104.2
105.1
104.3
106.2
105.3
103.0
103.3
104.0
104.4

P I C K E R S , M a le .

P I C K E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2, 1904; 3,
1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 5,1904; 11,
1905.]

Average 1890-99
1890 ..............
1891 ..............
1892 ..............
1893 ..............
1894 ..............
1895 ..............
1896 ..............
1897 ..............
1898 ..............
1899 ..............
1900 ..............
1901 ..............
1902 ..............
1903 ..............
1904 ..............
1905 ..............

100.0
66.7
133.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
133.3
68.7
85.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
101.0
100.3

100.0 Average 1890-99..
109.7 1890.....................
111.7 1891.....................
98.6 1892.....................
84.2 1893.....................
96.8 1894.....................
104.2 1895.....................
82.3 1896.....................
94.2 •1897.....................
110.6 1898.....................
107.7 1899.....................
111.4 1900.....................
107.3 1901.....................
111.5 1902................
119.4 | 1903.....................
117.4 1904.....................
112.8 1905.....................

100.0
48.4
61.3
71.0
67.7
83.9
103.2
106.5
135.5
145.2
167.7
154.8
177.4
190.3
161.3
137.3
142.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.5
101.7

100.0
84.9
108.6
119.8
108.2
97.9
100.9
80.2
93.2
101.5
104.8
107.2
107.1
103.9
123.2
121.9
120.6

^ F I L L E R S , F e m a le .

S P I N N E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7, 1897-1903. Data from 8
establishments 1904; 14, 1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1904; 6,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 ........
1891 .......
1892 .......
1893 .......
1894 .......
1895 .......
1896 .......
1897 ........
1898 .......
1899 .......
1900 ........
1901 .......
1902 .......
1903 ........
1904 .......
1905 ........

100.0
81.3
71.4
83.5
86.8
87.9
141.8
85.7
111.0
118.7
127.5
115.4
133.0
127.5
126.4
103.7
125.1




100.0
104.0
103.4
101.9
98.4
98.1
97.9
98.5
99.3
99.0
99.4
99.8
99.4
99.3
98.7
98.9
98.8

100.0
103.1
99.5
94.8
104.7
96.3
97.4
109.8
99.2
99.2
95.6
95.9
96.4
97.6
107.9
107.7
107.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
52.9
70.6
92.9
122.4
89.4
112.9
94.1
105.9
129.4
123.5
151.8
143.5
183.5
195.3
190.1
212.6

100.0
102.7
102.7
100.1
99.2
99.5
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.6
99.8
99.9
99.8
99.8
97.7
98.2

100.0
103.2
93.9
99.9
98.5
95.9
99.7
103.4
104.4
99.7
101.5
97.2
105.3
103.3
105.3
109.5
113.4

117

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 .TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
S IX iK G O O D S —Continued.
T W I S T E R S - I N , M a le .

W A R P E R S , M a le *

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 4, 1904; 8,
1905;]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1904; 5,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per tvages pei
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895.,...............
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
....
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0

66.7
50.0
83.3
91.7
79.2
50.0
225.0
158.3
83.3
100.0
83.3
145.8
145.8
87.5
76.3
83.4

100.0

106.2
106.2
108.2
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.3
97.2

100.0

98.2

100.2

100.5
97.7
104.2
104.8
98.9
102.3
95.2
98.0

102.6

87.4

100.2

103.4
100.3
101.9

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
86.1
91.7
97.2
75.0
116.7
133.3
88.9
122.2
111.1
77.8
83.3
102.8
122.2
113.9
75.0
61.4

100.0
105.3
105.4
102.9
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
98.1
96.5

100.0
93.1
90.6
97.9
100.4
93.8
110.1
96.8
110.5
105.0
101.7
111.6
116.3
122.8
112.4
124.3
135.0

W E A V E R S , M a le .

W A R P E R S , F e m a le *

[Data for employees from 5 establishments 1890- [Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab1903. Data for hours and wages from 5 estab­
lishments 1890; 4, 1891-1896; 5, 1897-1903. Data
lishments 1890-1896; 6, 1897-1903. Date from 6
from 6 establishments 1904 ; 9,1905.]
establishments 1904; 12,1905.]
Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
18 96

1897
1898
1899
1900
1 9 01

1902
1903
1904
1905

...

......
......
......
......

...

......
......
......
......

100.0

90.2
100.9

101.8

83.0

86.6

100.0

101.8

113.4
118.8
102.7
105.4
105.4
114.3
117.0
113.2
124.9

100.0

103.1
103.1
103.1
98.4
97.8
98.6
98.4
98.6
99.3
99.3

100.1
100.2

99.9

100.0
99.4
99.4

100.0

96.1

88.6

97.6
103.8
104.3
105.6
111.0
105.7
90.8
96.5
90.0
88.3
94.4
90.9
97.4
96.0

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
139.6
81.1
97.6
84.9
92.9
102.8
77.4
100.9
110.4
110.8
87.3
83.5
76.4
61.3
46.8
51.5

100.0
102.9
103.7
101.1
98.2
98.2
98.3
98.1
99.3
100.1
100.2
100.2
100.6
100.9
100.3
100.1
100.2

100.0
95.6
98.0
102.6
105.8
101.2
97.3
111.2
97.9
95.5
94.6
98.9
90.8
97.4
94.3
101.4
104.1

W E A V E R S , F e m a le *

W E A V E R S , R I B B O N , M a le .

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1896; 7, 1897-1903. Data from 7
establishments 1904; 12, 1905.]

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1904; 4,1905.]

Average 1890-99
1890
......
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896... *...........
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0
76.9
60.6
79.4
79.2
92.1
102.7
96.2
118.1
153.8
141.2
139.8
170.1
187.1
190.3
178.3
192.8




100.0
100.8
102.0
100.6
98.7
99.0
98.7
100.2
100.1
99.9
100.0
100.1
99.2
99.4
99.7
99.4
99.4

100.0 Average 1890-99..
95.6 1890.....................
89.9 1891.....................
100.6 1892.....................
105.2 1893.....................
111.0 1894.....................
101.0 1895.....................
113.3 1896.....................
96.1 1897.....................
94.5 1898.....................
92.8 1899.....................
96.1 1900.....................
94.0 1901.....................
100.5 1902.....................
99.0 | 1903.....................
92.8 . 1904.....................
94.4 1905.....................

100.0
104.2
80.5
95.8
89.8
129.7
122.0
78.8
100.0
129.7
67.8
98.3
56.8
49.2
82.2
92.4
114.9

100.0
105.0
104.0
105.3
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
94.4
94.8

100.0
116.5
98.4
98.7
107.1
90.2
100.1
102.1
88.7
99.1
99.0
93.0
83.4
82.8
86.8
86.9
86. a

118

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

BULK G O O D S —Concluded.
W E A V E R S , R I B B O N , F e m a le .

W I N D E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours a n i wages from 1 estab­
lishment 1890-1899; 2, 1900-1903. Data from 2
establishments 1904; 4, 1905.]

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1904; 14,1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.......... ..........
1902..................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
135.6
101.7
101.7
76.3
76.3
93.2
118.6
84.7
93.2
110.2
118.6
67.8
161.0
122.0
112.9
154.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
92.2
92.6

100.0
99.3
102.0
100.2
101.4
100.2
95.6
99.7
97.7
104.0
100.0
95.2
95.4
84.6
89.7
83.3
89.2

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
95.3
82.8
96.9
102.7
93.0
105.9
95.7
103.1
114.5
108.6
107.8
109.4
110.5
113.3
110.2
117.6

100.0
103.0
103.1
102.2
98.4
98.7
98.7
99.0
99.0
98.8
99.1
99.3
99.1
99.2
99.3
98.9
99.1

100.0
95.9
84.3
92.8
98.4
106.8
106.2
103.2
101.4
107.4
103.3
105.3
109.1
111.2
115.3
115.2
116.7

SX iA U G H T E R IN G A N D M E A T P A C K IN G .
B A C K S K I N N E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

D R Y S A L T E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8,1904; 12,
1905.]

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13,1904: 14,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890
..........
1891
..........
1892
...
1893
.........
1894
.........
1895
.........
1896
.........
1897
..........
1898
..........
1899
..........
1900 ....................
1901
..........
1902
..........
1903
..........
1904
.........
1905
.........

100.0
80.0
80.0
80.0
100.0
100.0
J06.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
106.7
120.0
120.0
129.6
102.1

100.0
98.0
98.0
98.0
101.5
101.5
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
97.2
97.2
97.2
96.4

100.0
102.9
102.9
104.7
104.3
96.1
96.1
96.1
96.1
97.8
102.9
109.8
109.8
114.8
125.4
329.0
130.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
66.3
66.3
68.6
73.8
90.7
108.1
119.8
140.1
147.1
116.9
129.1
125.6
129.7
144.8
131.7
160.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.5
99.5

100.0
105.4
104.5
105.1
104.2
97.2
95.2
95.1
93.9
97.7
301.9
99.1
100.5
106.1
111.5
112.8
108.4

G E T T E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

G U T T E R S , H O G , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 9,1904; 12,
1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 12,1904; 14,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 ............... .
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 ............ .
1905 .................

100.0
81.3
81.3
81.3
100.0
100.0
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
106.3
125.0
118.8
114.4
99.2




100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
101.4
101.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
98.0
97.2
97.2
97.6

100.0
102.8
102.8
105.4
105.1
93.6
97.6
97.6
97.6
98.9
98.9
104.3
107.0
112.3
119.9
122.2
123.4

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
3904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
107.7
107.7
107.7
115.4
115.4
115.4
140.1
136.2

100.0
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
99.9
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.8
100.2
100.2
100.4
98.8

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
98.6
100.3
99.4
98.1
98.1
99.3
84.3
79.6

119

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
S L A U G H T E R I N G A N D M E A T P A C K I N G —Continued.
H E A D E R S ) C A T T L E , M a le .

H E A D E R S , H O G , M a le .

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 9,1904; 11,
1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
19G1.....................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
105.9
105.9
105.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
100.0
100.0
94.1
111.8
111.8
111.8
98.2

100.0
101.4
101.4
101.4
100.7
100.7
99.1
99.1
99.1
98.2
99.1
99.1
98.2
95.9
95.9
95.9
96.2

100.0
97.8
97.8
97.8
102.0
97.9
101.0
98.5
101.6
105.7
99.8
107.8
107.3
113.8
123.1
126.6
130.3

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904:
15, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899:...................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
114.3
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7
85.7

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
103.0
101.4
101.4
101.4
101.4

100.0
97.0
97.0
97.0
107.6
107.6
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
96.2
99.4
99.4
97.8
106.6
107.3
106.7

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

P 1 C K L E R S , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
15, 1905.]

[Data from 7 establishments 1890-1903; 12, 1904;
14, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
ig03.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
85.1
87.3
90.7
88.9
99.7
101.3
101.3
108.3
111.6
125.7
130.4
137.4
144.3
143.0
131.2
132.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
105.1
105.0
105.1
105.6
95.4
94.9
94.5
94.9
98.0
101.5
98.0
97.2
101.5
107.8
108.9
104.7

100.0
60.8
69.0
70.7
74.6
88.7
104.8
115.5
136.1
147.0
132. 4
136.6
150.7
153.8
159.4
148.9
134.2

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
104.0
103.3
103. 4
103. 4
96; 2
95.1
95.5
96.8
99.8
102.2
100.5
100.8
107.9
114.0
114.7
109.4

R U M P S K I N N E R S , C A T T L E , M a le *

S C R A P E R S , H O G , M a le •

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 6, 1904;
10,1905.]

[Data from 5 establishments1 1890-1903; 12, 1904:
13, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
66.7
66.7
66.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
116.7
116.7
116.7
116.7
100.0
111.8
97.2




100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.1

100.0
102.9
102.9
102.9
100.3
95.0
95.0
95 0
95.0
100.3
110.8
110.8
110.8
118.7
129.3
136.0
132.3

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
84.2
57.9
57.9
57 9
57.9
60.0
62.0

100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
96.0
100.8
100.8
99 9
99.9
100.0
98.2

100.0
104.4
104.4
104.4
104. 4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
80.9
81.9
101.8
96.6
96.6
95.8
96.6
95.4

BULLETIN 6F THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

120
T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

S L A U G H T E R IN G

A N D M E A T P A C K I N G —Concluded.

S I D E S K I N N E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

S P L I T T E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904;
12,1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 9, 1904;
13,1905.]

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

87.8
87.8
87.8
102.4
102.4
104.9
104.9
104.9
104.9
107.3
107.3
109.8
119.5
114.6
111.0

97.7

100.0

98.3
98.3
98.3

101.0
101.0

100.7
100.7
100.7
100.7
100.4
100.4
100.1

99.0
98.2
98.2
98.6

100.0

104.3
104.3
106.9
106.9
95.1
95.1
95.1
95.1
96.7
100.5^
106.9
106.9
111.3
116.4
118.8
119.5

S P L I T T E R S , H O G , M a le .

100.0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
114.3
114 3
114 3
121 4
121.4
121 4
121.4
121.4

100.0
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100 1
100.1
100.1
99.4
99 4
99.4
100 2
99.6
99 6
99 6
98 7

Average 1890-99.
1890
.......
1891
.......
1892
.......
1893
.......
1894
..... .
1895
..... .
1896
..... .
1897
..... .
1898
.......
1899
..... .
1900
..... .
1901
..... .
1902
.......
1903
.......
1904
.......
1905
.......

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.
100.0

91.3
91.3
91.3

100.0
100.0

108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
108.7
121.7
126.1
123.2
106.3

100.0

98.7
98.7
98.7
100.4
100.4

100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6
100.6

99.2
98.8
98.8
100.0

100.0

104.6
104.6
106.9
106.9
95.0
95.0
95.0
95.0
96.9

100.2

106.9
106.9
111.3
116.3
118.5
117.1

S T I C K E R S , C A T T L E , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13, 1904;
15, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

Year.

100.0
98.4
98.4
98.4
99.0
99 0
100 9
100 9
100.9
101.2
102.9
102 9
102.0
102 0
109 4
110.1
111.5

[Data from 5 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904;
11,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890........... . ..
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100 0
100.0
100 0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100 0
111.1
103 7
97.9

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100.9
100 9
100.6

100.0

103.6
103.6
103.6
103.6
97.4
97 4
97.4
97.4
97.4
98.5
101.5
101.5
108.7
115 3
119 3
119.0

S T I C K E R S , H O G , M a le .

[Data from 6 establishments 1890-1903; 13,1904, 15,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................

100 0
100 0
100 0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0




100 0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100 0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0

99 5
99 5
99. 5
97,9
97.9
99. 5
99.5

101.1

1898.....................
1899..................
1900 ................
1901.....................
1902 .............
1903 . . . .
1904...................
1905...............

100.0
100.0
100,0
100.0
100.0
100 0
100 0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.4
98. 4
98. 4
98.4

101.1

104.2
104.2
104! 2
105.8
113* 7
113* 7
115*4

121

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABO&, 1890 TO 1905.
Table

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

STR EETS A N D SEW ER S, CONTRACT W ORK.
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Data from 36 establishments 1890-1903; 70, 1904; 120, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................

100.0
102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6

100.0
101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100.6
99.7
97.4

100.0
95.7
98.1
98.2
95.9
97.0
98.5
102.9
103.7

Year.
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9
104.2
101.3

97.5
99.0
98.8
96. 5
95.2
95.1
95.1
94.7

105.2
104.9
107.1
114.9
120.2
124.3
125.3
128.6

ST R E E T S A N O SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O R K .
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 47 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 47 establish­
ments 1890-1893; 48, 1894-1903. Data from 58 establishments 1904 ; 70, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................

100.0
85.8
86.2
94.6
98.8
115.1
106.1
98.4
104.3

100.0
101.1
100.6
100.9
101.5
100.7
100.0
100.6
100.1

100.0
99.8
99.5
98.3
98.1
100.9
99.7
98.1
98.7

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

102.3
108.2
106.6
112 0
99.4
93.5
100.1
109.3

98.7
95.7
93.3
92.6
92.7
91.8
91.1
90.9

100.9
105.8
110.3
110.6
111.0
111.8
113.8
113.0

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S .
BUNCH P R A K E R S , H A N D , M a le .

B U N C H M A K E R S , H A N D , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 2 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 1,1896-1903. Data from 4
establishments 1904; 11,1905.]

[Data for employees from 6 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 6 estab­
lishments 1890-1895; 7, 1896-1903. Data from 12
establishments 1904; 19,1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890 .................
1891 .................
1892 .................
1893 .................
1894 .................
1895 .................
1896 .................
1897 .................
1898 .................
1899 .................
1900 .................
1901 .................
1902 .................
1903 .................
1904 .................
1905 .................

100.0
74.4
81.4
65.1
81.4
102.3
86.0
88.4
120.9
127.9
160.5
27.9
90.7
102.3
134.9
134.9
176.3




100.0
99.5
98.3
93.3
96.3
96.5
96.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
104.8
100.6
102.0

100.0
98.9
92 5
84.2
112.2
101.9
97.3
100.5
113.5
100 4
98.5
100.1
107.2
101.7
117.1
121.8
115.1

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
89.6
90.4
84.3
91.2
101.2
94.8
92.8
117.3
108.8
128.9
60.6
90.4
97.2
110.0
105.3
105.9

100.0
100.0
100.2
99.4
100.9
101.3
101.2
99.1
98.8
99.0
99.9
93.3
97.0
99.3
100.2
98.7
98.2

•

100.0
97.1
100.1
98.1
99.4
99.9
98.0
100.8
107.8
101.7
97.3
91.9
104.3
101.2
125.3
135.7
137.8

122

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

T able I I . — B E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U BS OF L A B O B , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Continued.
T O B A C C O , C I G A B S — Continued.
B U N C H M A K E R S , M A C H I N E , F e m a le .

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904; 9,
1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891.......
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
74.8
80.0
87.4
78.5
92.6
134.8
95.6
140.0
100.0
112.6
134.8
148.9
163.0
170.4
180.4
168.4

100.0
100.7
100.7
100.8
100.7
100.8
100.8
98.9
99.3
98.5
98.9
99.1
99.1
99.3
99.3
99.3
97.7

100.0
101.8
102.0
103.6
101.1
95.0
95.8
96.8
95.8
104.0
104.4
108.6
105.2
113.4
113.7
116.3
116.5

C I G A R R O L L E R S , H A N D , M a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 7 establishments 1890*1895; 5, 1896, 1897; 4, 1898-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904; 9,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895___
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0 93.0
95.0
88.9
94.5
96.5
99.0
95.5
111.6
111.1
117.1
71.9
86.9
91.0
91.5
94.9
90.5

100.0
99.1
98.9
97.3
98.8
99.7
99.3
100.7
102.0
101.8
102.3
96.4
99.0
99.4
99.8
97.9
98.1

100.0
101.2
98.4
96.9
102.3
99.2
100.1
100.1
98.9
100.5
102.2
102.9
113.4
117.4
113.3
114.4
113.7

C IG A R R O L L E R S , M A C H IN E ,
F e m a le *

[Data from 2 establishments 1890-1903; 7,,1904; 10,
1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901......................
1902.....................
2903 ....................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
54.1
54.1
78.7
64.7
93.3
138.3
128.9
124.9
141.3
122.2
151.4
166.7
204.3
204 9
177.4
178.4




100.0
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.4
99.6
99.2
99.4
99.2
99.5
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.0
99.0

100.0
104.5
105.5
104.3
107.7
109.2
96.4
92.0
94.8
91.9
93.8
107.5
129.5
123.0
129.2
136.4
138.0

C I G A R M A K E R S , M a le .

[Data from 9 establishments 1890-1903 ; 22, 1904;
34, 1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
83.6
101.6
105.8
145.4
120.6
110.6
90.3
69.7
70.6
102.5
136.6
174.3
125.7
127.3
146.6
159.9

100.0
97.9
96.4
99.3
100.8
99.5
98.9
102.7
98.7
101.4
104.3
105.1
106.4
104.8
105.4
106.6
107.3

100.0
102.8
108.2
105.9
101.2
100.5
99.0
94.0
96.8
92.4
99.2
99.7
105.1
105.9
107.9
111.2
112.2

C I G A R R O L L E R S , HANJD, F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 4 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 establishments 1890-1895; 6, 1896, 1897; 7, 1898-1903.
Data from 16 establishments 1904; 18,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
87.8
89.6
77.1
91.4
105.4
97.3
88.1
122.9
116.1
125.3
48.8
74.4
82.4
87.2
98.7
95.9

100.0
101.0
101.0
100.7
100.8
101.2
101.2
97.8
98.6
98.7
98.9
93.6
95.8
97.0
97.6
96.9
96.4

100.0
99.7
99.7
101.3
97.6
99.0
105.3
97.6
98.7
98.6
102.8
89.1
105.8
111.6
116.7
110.4
119.9

P A C K E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 11 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 11 establishments 1890-1892; 12, 1893-1898; 11, 1899-1903.
Data from 22 establishments 1904; 35,1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
74.4
75.2
95.3
87.6
103.1
102.3
93.8
117.8
121.7
131.8
72.9
76.7
94.6
83.7
80.6
74.6

100.0
100.3
100.2
100.6
100.5
100.4
100.5
99.2
99.6
99.3
99.4
99.6
98.9
99.9
100.8
100.5
100.1

100.0
91.8
100.9
99.3
98.4
98.7
100.1
103.1
100.9
102.2
104.7
104.6
108.0
103.1
114.2
118.1
119.9

128

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

Table I I . —RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.
T O B A C C O , C I G A R S —Concluded.
S T E A M E R S , M a le .

P A C K E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 3 estab­
lishments 1890-1899; 4,1900-1903. Data from 13
establishments 1904; 17, 1905.]
Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
100.0
61.5
92.3
107.7
130.8
115.4
115.4
61.5
100.0
92.3
84.6
115.4
100.0
138.5
123.1
123.8
144.6

100.0
101.7
99.7
99.2
98.6
99.0
99.0
101.7
99.4
99.7
102.1
106.6
106.7
106.1
107.0
106.2
105.9

100.0
109.1
107.7
109.1
96.6
89.3
88.2
102.1
96.4
102.0
99.6
80.1
116.8
103.5
86.0
93.8
94.2

[Data for employees from 3 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890-1897, 1899; 3, 1898, 1900-1903.
Data from 5 establishments 1904; 13,1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
52.1
75.5
109.6
144.7
104.3
124.5
120.2
56.4
91.5
121.3
114.9
60.6
72.3
73.4
48.3
47.5

100.0
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
100.1
97.3
95.0

100.0
106.6
103.0
95.5
89.4
95.8
91.9
94.2
109.4
108.9
105.8
118.7
121.8
112.3
141.8
126.2
138.9

S T E M M E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 13 establishments 1890-1903. Data for hours and wages from 14 establish­
ments 1890, 1894-1896, 1898-1903; 13, 1891-1893,1897. Data from 33 establishments 1904; 46, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897....... ;............

100.0
91.0
102.5
93.4
94.8
104.3
106.1
92.1
100.2

100.0
100.9
99.8
100.2
98.5
99.9
99.3
99.9
99.8

100.0
90.2
88.6
97.3
94.4
100.7
97.2
103.0
112.9

1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904...;...............
1905.....................

103.6
112.0
97.3
98.2
105.0
100.9
107.8
116.1

100.7
101.0
99.8
99.3
100.0
101.0
101.4
100.9

109.8
105.8
105.5
120.0
117.0
120.4
125.1
124.1

W O O D E N A N D W O R ST E D G O O DS.
C A R D E R S , M a le .

[B d R L E R S , F e m a le .

[Data from 10 establishments 1890-1903, 13, 1904;
25, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892......................
1893.....................
1894 ....................
1895......................
1896.....................
1897......................
1808......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901.....................
1902. ..................
1903......................
1904......................
1905.....................

100.0
100 0
107.0
108.0
104.3
78.6
94.1
89.3
100.5
108.0
112.3
120.9
155.6
164.2
175.4
184.9
179.1




100.0
103.1
103.1
102.8
99.5
92,8
101.7
101.6
92.4
101.7
101.2
101.4
101.5
100.1
99.6
98.1
98.9

100.0
93.3
93.7
97.5
100 5
99.2
99.6
107.9
100.4
102.9
105.5
111.3
108.3
113.3
119.4
118.7
124.4

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 14, 1904;
24, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................jI
1893..................... !
1
1894.....................
1895.....................!!
1896..................... i
1897.....................
1898.....................
1
1899..................... 1
1900.....................
1901.....................1
1902.....................1
1903.....................
1904.....................
1 9 05...................

100.0
97.4
103.1
110.8
95.4
99.0
106.2
103.1
102.1
94.4
88.2
99.0
115.9
115.4
135.9
125.5
122.0

100.0
101.9
101.8
101.8
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
91.8
100.4
100.3
100.2
100.3
99.9
99.5
98.6
100.0

100.0
99.1
99.6
101.7
103.4
98.5
97.7
98.1
101.7
99.8
100.0
110.9
106.2
106.7
109.4
115.0
116.8

124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able

I I .—

RELATIVE WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905, BY
OCCUPATIONS—Continued.

W O O L E N A N D W O R S T E D GOODS-ContinuwL
C A R D E R S , F e m a le .

C A R D S T R I P P E R S , M a le .

[Data for employees from 1 establishment 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 4 estab­
lishments 1890, 1901; 2, 1892, 1895, 1897; 1, 1893;
3, 1891, 1894, 1896, 1899, 1900, 1902, 1903; 5, 1898.
Data from 4 establishments 1904,1905.]

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 8, 1904; 13,
1905.]

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
Average 1890-99
......
1890
1891
......
1892
......
1893
......
1894
......
1895
......
1896
......
1897
......
1898
......
1899
......
1900
......
1901
......
1902
......
1903
......
1904
......
1905
......

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

71.0
43.2

100.0

100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
96.3
100.5

100.2

100.5
99.9
100.5
100.5
100.4
100.5
100.5
99.4
100.9

100.0

104.1
104.6

101.1

79.1
97.6
103.5
100.3
96.0
108.1
105.5
107.0

112.8

108.9
111.9
127.2
123.6

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
92.3
100.0
69.2
76.9
92.3
107.7
100.0
115.4
123.1
100.0
107.7
107.7
84.6
69.2
70.6
72.6

.

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
98.4
98.1

100.0
92.4
99.3
103.3
99.5
99.0
96.5
104.0
100.2
98.9
106.7
111.4
112.2
116.6
117.6
120.5
121.8

C O M B E R S , M a le .

C O M B E R S, F e m a le .

[Data from 1 establishment 1890-1903; 2, 1904; 6,
1905.]

[Data from 4 establishments 1890-1903; 5,1904,
1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904......................
1905.....................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
33.3
122.2
100.0
77.8
77.8
100.0
100.0
155.6
155.6
122.2
144.4
122.2
188.9
244.4
366.6
378.8

100.0
102.4
102.4
102.4
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.0
99.6
99.3

100.0
95.7
98.9
95.7
99.5
107.2
94.0
104.6
95.4
95.9
113.3
106.6
107.9
103.8
102.1
93.3
94.8

100.0
76.4
96.4
116.4
129.1
85.5
89.1
98.2
101.8
109.1
100.0
109.1
116.4
110.9
116.4
126.5
156.9

100.0
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.4
99.9
100.0
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8
99.9
99.8
98.3
98.4
98.0
97.4

100.0
98.3
98.8
98.5
101.3
93.4
96.3
103.1
102.9
104.0
103.3
110.3
111.1
112.6
110.4
105.8
101.7

D Y E R S , M a le .

L O O M F I X E R S , M a le .

[Data from 13 establishments 1890-1903; 15, 1904;
24, 1905.]

[Data from 15 establishments 1890-1903; 16, 1904;
26, 1905.]

Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
93.8
90.7
107.3
100.0
97.9
106.7
98.4
107.8
100.5
94.3
95.9
101.6
105.7
106.7
107.9
110.4




100.0
99.5
99.6
99.5
98.4
101.8
101.4
100.4
97.8
100.7
100.8
100.5
100.6
99.1
99.6
98.9
99.9

100.0
100.2
101.5
100.7
103.1
95.5
96.5
98.5
99.4
101.4
102.6
109.3
106.8
108.4
108.2
108.9
109.3

100.0
100.0
96.7
101.3
96.1
90.1
93.4
98.7
103.3*
111.2
106.6
117.8
111.8
115.1
114.5
112.5
120.1

100.0
100.5
100.4
100.3
99.9
97.1
100.4
100.4
100.4
100.2
100.4
100.3
100.3
99.1
99.0
98.2
98.8

100.0
98.3
98.2
100.2
102.0
96.4
96.7
101.2
102.0
102.0
102.8
112.5
112.2
114.0
115.9
112.7
114.5

125

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
OCCUPATIONS— Concluded.

W O O D E N A N D W O R S T E D GOODS-Ooncluded.
S P I N N E R S , F R A M E , F e m a le .

S P I N N E R S , M U L E , M a le *

[Data from 3 establishments 1890-1903; 4,1904; 8,
1905.]
Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890......................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894......................
1895......................
1896......................
1897......................
1898......................
1899......................
1900......................
1901......................
1902......................
1903......................
1904......................
1905......................

100.0
73.7
81.8
118.7
100.0
106.7
105.7
94.3
107.2
118.7
94.7
110.5
119.1
146.9
173.7
142.6
130.9

100.0
100.9
100.9
100.9
99.6
99.8
99.8
99.7
99.6
99.5
99.3
99.2
99.4
97.7
98.0
98.0
97.9

100.0
96.7
97.6
98.4
103.5
94.2
95.1
101.1
102.5
104.4
106.5
118.0
115.4
122.8
123.2
120.2
121.6

W E A V E R S , M ale*

100.0
92.1
98.8
103.9
93.6
80.9
96.7
103.0
113.6
115.7
101.1
138.4
142.8
139.3
171.7
162.2
163.2

2— N o. 65— 06----- 9




100.0
100.6
100.6
100.6
99.5
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.7
99.8
99.8
99.6
99.6
98.7
98.4
98.1
98.5

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
99.3
104.8
97.9
90.4
84.9
105.5
102.7
102.1
110.3
101.4
107.5
105.5
139.0
150.0
148.9
145.8

100.0
102.7
102.7
102.6
99.2
90.4
101.6
101.6
94.6
101.6
102.9
101.8
101.7
100.9
100.4
98.8
98.6

100.0
96.6
95.5
93.9
101.5
98.1
96.2
103.7
104.2
111.1
99.0
115.6
114.3
114.0
124.8
125.9
131.1

W E A V E R S , F e m a le .

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890-1900; 11. 1901-1903. Data from
17 establishments 1904; 26, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891......................
1892......................
1893......................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903......................
1904.'....................
1905.....................

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 9 estab­
lishments 1890-1892; 10, 1893-1896; 11, 1897-1903.
Data from 14 establishments 1904; 22, 1905.]

100.0
101.6
102.2
103.8
109.7
92.8
94.9
94.7
98.0
101.1
100.9
111.7
113.6
120.4
124.7
116.6
123.8

[Data for employees from 9 establishments 18901903. Data for hours and wages from 10 estab­
lishments 1890-1895,1901-1903; 9,1896-1900. Data
from 17 establishments 1904; 27, 1905.]
Average 1890-99..
1890.....................
1891.....................
1892.....................
1893.....................
1894.....................
1895.....................
1896.....................
1897.....................
1898.....................
1899.....................
1900.....................
1901.....................
1902.....................
1903.....................
1904.....................
1905.....................

100.0
106.4
112.7
96.1
107.2
100.5
92.9
93.5
92.5
105.2
93.4
105.0
107.0
106.4
108.2
106.5
117.2

100.0
101.0
101.0
101.0
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.7
99.4
99.4
99.4
99.4
98.2
98.2
97.1
98.0

100.0
100.4
99.1
100.8
106.7
94.3
93.8
96.7
100.7
104.6
102.4
109.8
112.5
112.5
115.9
113.4
117.1

126
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

III___R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
IN D U STRIES.
1Average 1890-1899=100.0. For explanation of relative figures, see page 13.]

CANDY.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.

112.7
108.9
103.2
104.2
95.7
95.8
94.8
99.2




99.3
99.3
100.0
100.0
99.9
100.3
100.3
100.3

102.3
103.3
99.8
98.2
98.8
98.9
100.0
98.1

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

89.6
92.9
96.6
91.2
91.9
103.1
107.6
113.4

100.4
100.4
100.4
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.3
100.1

100.5
100.7
99.0
109.5
108.5
109.3
112.2
114.3

127

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I I ___R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
IN D U STRIES—U ontinued.
[Average 1890-1899= 100.0.]
CARRIAGES AND WAGONS.

CARPETS.
Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
hour.
week.
ployees.

Year.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

104.2
100.5
100.6
105.5
87.0
101.8
102.6
93.1
96.9
106.4
111.5
115.2
119.4
122.5
129.9
128.1

101.2
101.2
100.4
99.5
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.7
99.6
99.6
99.3
98.3
98.4

99.6
97.9
100.0
99.8
95.3
97.2
101.9
101.8
103.0
103.7
104.1
108.1
105.4
111.3
108.1
111.7

CARS, STEAM RAILROAD.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
3897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1 9 0 0 ....................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1 9 0 3 ../.................
1904.......................
1905.......................

101.0
102.2
103.9
107.3
85.8
88.6
96.6
94.5
107.3
111.9
118.7
123.8
128.9
136.5
137.6
145.1

101.6
101.1
101.6
101.2
97.1
98.9
98.8
98.0
100.8
101.1
101.4
100.6
100.6
98.1
96.8
96.2

96.4
95.3
97.9
99.0
95.4
96.7
102.2
111.8
113.6
112.7
116.8
125.9
128.7
130.7
337.7
137.0

100.5
300.1
100.2
100.3
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.2
99.4
98.9
98.9
99.0
98.9
97.1
97.3
97.3

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

95.5
98.6
102.9
103.4
95.7
97.2
92.8
97.8
104.6
111.0
112.7
121.4
115.2
116.2
112.9
117.9

100.4
100.6
100.4
100.1
99.5
100.0
99.7
99.8
100.3
99.2
99.2
99.5
99.7
98.4
98.3
96.9

100.0
99.4
100.4
99.7
99.2
98.1
100.7
100.2
100.1
102.3
102.2
101.6
103.4
107.6
108.9
111.6

CLOTHING, FACTORY PRODUCT.
102.9
102.4
101.5
104.0
97.8
97.8
97.6
98.2
98.0
99.8
100.7
101.7
105.7
111.5
116.2
114.9

CLOTHING, MEN’S* CUSTOM WORK.
1890.....................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
3897.......................
3898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905....... ...............

Relative Relative Relative
number hours per wages per
of em­
week.
hour.
ployees.

Year.

100.3
100.4
100.4
101.5
101.0
100.9
98.4
100.2
100.4
96.6
105.2
106.6
107.7
111.1
110.3
113.2

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895......................
1896.......................
1897......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

94.8
95.6
99.6
99.0
97.0
97.7
97.1
99.6
102.5
105.9
112.2
114.9
121.7
126.9
129.4
143.7

100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.7
99.8
99.0
98.0
97.6
97.3
96.9
96.9

99.5
99.7
99.6
100.0
97.2
98.7
99.9
100.4
101.9
103.2
103.0
106.7
103.1
105.9
110.0
111.2

COTTON GOODS.
1890.......................
1891......................
1892.......................
1893......................
1894........ 7...........
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.....................
1898................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

87.7
98.3
95.8
98.2
96.1
94.9
98.8
104.6
112.5
112.1
115.5
109.0
117.2
107.2
305.3
104.9

99.9
100.7
101.2
99.9
98.6
100.0
99.5
99.4
100.3
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.2
99.0
99.1
99.1

102.8
98.9
100.3
103.6
96.9
96.9
104.9
101.2
97.4
97.3
109.2
110.4
116.2
123.2
119.7
125.5

99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.6
99.9
100.1

101.5
101.2
103.3
103.5
104.3
105.0
105.6
106.0

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

97.3
98.9
99.5
100.4
92.7
95.5
98.7
104.4




101.7
101.7
101.1
99.5
98.9
99.5
99.5
98.9

98.6
97.5
99.4
100.7
99.4
99.6
101.1
101.0

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

102.2
110.9
112.6
117.6
126.2
128.1
126.8
:143.4

128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b l e I I I . — R E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y

IN D U STRIES— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]

H A R N E S S '.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................

91.0
91.8
94.1
94.2
94.5
99.3
104.3
105.9




100.4
100.4
100.2
100.1
100.0
99.8
99.7
99.8

100.2
100.6
100.6
101.0
99.0
98.5
98.7
99.5

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

110.2
117.6
124.5
128 5
135.7
138.8
137.6
135.8

99.9
99.7
99.8
99.5
99.0
98.0
97.6
97.0

100.7
101.2
102.0
105.6
108.7
115.8
118.0
118.6

129

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T a b l e I I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES AND H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO

1905, B Y

IN D U STR IE S— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]
HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS.

H ATS, FUR*

Year.
1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897................. .
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.
86.2
94.0
90.9
100.0
103.2
90.1
94.5
101.0
109.5
132.1
147.0
160.9
164.6
168.6
166.9
186.5

100.7
100.5
100.5
100.2
100.2
100.1
100.2
100.0
99.4
98.3
98.5
98.7
94.2
92.6
92.9
92.3

104.4
100.5
100.0
97.5
99.6
97.8
98.8
100.6
99.8
100.9
102.4
103.0
110.3
113.8
115.7
119.2

99.4
98.4
98.3
105.9
100.2
103.7
93.9
97.7
99.7
101.6
108.9
100.7
104.1
109.2
100.2
103.6

102.7
101.6
101.8
101.4
101.3
100.7
101.0
97.1
96.6
95.9
97.3
98.4
98.8
98.4
97.9
98.1

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

110.3
104.9
100.0
95.7
90.1
91.7
99.3
98.0
96.3
113.7
118.2
119.7
132.8
136.5
125.6
126.9

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892............. *........
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

94.1
95.1
106.1
99.7
99.8
100.2
98.9
98.3
102.6
104.1
104.1
106.5
104.2
101.7
100.2
104.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.6
100.6

101.5
101.5
101.5
100.3
95.0
100.2
100.0
100.1
100.0
100.0
98.9
98.7
98.9
98.4
98.3
98.3

106.1
107.3
99.0
102.5
97.7
102.9
99.8
94.7
95.5
94.7
98.0
102.4
108.7
115.5
113.5
120.8

J04.4
105.3
107.1
105.2
91.4
96.5
100.1
93.4
93.9
102.8
107.3
108.1
111.2
114.4
109.6
112.6

99.5
104.8
101.2
102.3
100.0
100.0
99.0
100.1
99.0
100.1
118.7
113.9
113.9
115.0
116.6
118.3

98.3
98.1
101.8
99.2
100.1
100.2
101.1
100.2
101.0
100.2
91.3
94.6
94.6
96.0
91.1
91.2

113.3
115.9
112.3
105.5
96.1
97.3
92.5
86.3
88.1
92.8
106.2
113.1
122.6
131.8
114.7
123.3

81.7
89.9
99.7
83.9
95.5
100.9
90.5
102.9
129.4
127.1
127.9
128.0
117.6
132.5
143.0
147.3

99.9
99.9
99.8
99.9
99.9
100.0
100.0
100.2
100.3
100.1
100.1
100.2
100.1
100.1
99.5
99.9

102.1
102.5
102.3
102.1
98.3
98.8
98.9
98.5
96.9
99.6
98.1
101.4
104.5
106.3
108.2
108.3

101.1
104.5
104.4
115.4
118.1
126.1
127.2
128.2

98.7
98.8
96.4
94.2
91.0
89.9
89.7
89.5

102.5
102.7
108.0
111.2
117.5
120.3
122.2
124.4

LEATHER.

IR O N A N D S T E E U , B L A S T F U R N A C E .

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

81.3
89.3
122.6
116.4
83.7
99.8
93.1
93.1
111.3
107.9
120.8
131.8
121.2
125.6
125.6
167.0

IRON AND STEEL, BESSEM ER CONVERTING.

IR O N A N D S T E E L , B A R .

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905......................

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

Year.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

L IQ U O R S , M A L T .
1890
1891

.............................
.............................

1 8 9 2 ^ ....................
1893

............................

1894.......................
1895

.............................

1896.......................
1897.......................

92.8
92.9
94.9
103.2
104.5
102.0
101.2
103.1




100.8
100.3
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.4
99.8
99.9

97.7
98.8
98.3
98.8
99.5
100.2
100.5
101.1

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

130
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB,

III.— E L A T IV E W AG ES AN D H OUBS OF LA B O B , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
B
IN D U STB IE S— Continued.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.1

1890.......................
1891.......................
•1892........................
1893........................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896........................
1897........................

105.4
107.2
116.2
107.4
94.7
88.7
97.0
96.3




100.2
100.1
100.6
101.3
100.5
100.4
100.2
100.0

103.D
99.6
98.8
98.0
97.4
96.3
98.-6
99.2

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

91.6
92.1
89.1
90.3
96.7
95.5
92.0
99.0

99.1
97.9
97.6
97.4
97.1
96.2
95.7
96.2

102.8
106.1
106.3
106.3
109.3
113.4
114.1
116.1

131

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I I I . — R E L A T IV E W AGES AN D H OU RS OF LA B O R , 1890 TO 1905, B Y
IN D U STRIES— Concluded.
[Average 1890-1899=100.0.]
S IL K GOODS.

S H IP B U IL D IN G .

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
hour.
employees. week.

Year.
1890
1891
1892
189.1
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905

....................
...................
................
................
. ...
....................
....................
....................
....................
....................
................
................
.............................
.............................
.

. . .

86.7
89.7
93.0
87.0
86.0
101.3
91.2
89.3
122.2
147.6
156.2
159.5
169.5
163.9
164.7
171.7

100.8
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.7
100.0
99.9
99.3
99.7
99.8
99.9
98.8
98.2
97.4
96.0
96.4

97.5
97r2
97.9
98.7
95.6
101.0
102.0
104.0
103.8
102.3
102.6
104.2
108.2
110.3
112.5
112.3

S L A U G H T E R IN G A N D H E A T P A C K IN G .

89.3
90.0
90.5
96.9
99.7
101.8
103.3
106.5
108.9
107.5
107.2
109.1
114.9
115.3
115.0
108.7

1890,
1891
1892,
1893,
1894,
1895,
1896,
1897,
1898,
1899
1900,
1901,
1902.
1903.
1904.
1905.
STS£ETS

102.2
102.1
102.7
103.4
97.9
97.8
97.6
98.0
98.0
100.2
103.6
103.3
107.1
113.6
114.6
113.5

A N D S E W E R S , M U N IC I­
PAL W ORK.

1890 .....................
..................
1891
1892
................
1893

99.5
99.5
99.5
100.2
100.2
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.2
100.0
100.3
100.3
99.3
99.2
99.2
99.0

............................

1894
................
1895.......................
1896
1897 ......................
1898.......................
1899
................
1900.......................
1901
................
1902.......................
1903 .....................
1904 .....................
1905.......................

85.8
86.2
94.6
98.8
115.1
106.1
98. 4
104.3
102.3
108.2
106.6
112.0
99.4
93.5
100.1
109.3

101.1
100.6
100.9
101.5
100.7
100.0
100.6
100.1
98.7
95.7
93.3
92.6
92.7
91.8
91.1
90.9

99.8
99.5
98.3
98.1
100.9
99.7
98.1
98.7
100.9
105.8
110.3
110.6
111.0
111.8
113.8
113.0

Year.

Relative Relative Relative
number of hours per wages per
employees. week.
hour.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901....,................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

85.2
83.2
91.5
88.7
93.3
104.7
103.2
113.6
117.4
121.7
113.5
122.5
144.9
138.1
130.8
145.7

103.0
103.0
102.1
99.0
98.6
98.6
98.8
98.9
99.1
99.0
99.3
99.1
99.0
98.8
97.9
98.0

99.7
97.1
99.8
100.5
100.1
101.9
101.3
99.4
99.7
100.4
100.3
99.9
101.9
104.9
106.3
107.0

S T R E E T S AND S E W E R S . CONTRACT
WORK.

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892.......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

102.3
121.7
112.3
109.7
107.3
91.1
98.9
85.6
81.4
89.6
99.4
100.1
100.8
103.9
104.2
101.3

101.2
101.4
101.3
101.0
101.0
100.6
99.7
97.4
97.5
99.0
98.8
96.5
95.2
95.1
95.1
94.7

95.7
98.1
98.2
95.9
97.0
98.5
102.9
103.7
105.2
104.9
107.1
114.9
120.2
124.3
125.3
128.6

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S .

1890.......................
1891.......................
1892......................
1893.......................
1894.......................
1895.......................
1896.......................
1897.......................
1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

76.0
85.2
90.3
100.5
103.5
109.9
95.2
107.4
107.7
119.9
93.9
106.1
116.0
118.8
118.1
123.5

100.1
99.6
99.2
99.7
99.9
99.8
100.4
100.0
100.3
101.0
99.8
100.6
100.9
101.4
100.4
100.1

100.3
100.6
99.6
100.0
99.0
97.2
98.6
102.4
101.1
101.3
100.8
112.5
110.0
116.9
119.0
120.9

109.7
100.0
109.4
112.1
1.21. 3
134.1
138.3
137.7

100.2
100.3
100.1
100.2
99.3
99.3
98.4
98.8

102.5
103.7
110.4
110.6
113.5
115.2
116.4
118.3

W O O L E N A N D W O R S T E D GOODS.

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.

91.8
103.5
104.3
96.2
90.8
100.5
97.2
106.5




101.0
101.0
101.0
99.6
98.2
100.3
100.2
98.1

98.1
99.1
99.6
101.5
97.2
96.8
100.9
100.2

1898.......................
1899.......................
1900.......................
1901.......................
1902.......................
1903.......................
1904.......................
1905.......................

132
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S.

B Io A C K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G .
H O R S E S H O E R S , F L O O R M E N , M a le .

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston, Mass........................ ............................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Duluth, Minn....................................................
Fall River, Mass................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« ).........................................
Norfolk, V a.......................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a ^.................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1904.

2
2
2
4
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
4
2
3
6
2
4
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

5
4
5
13
3
2
5
10
8
4
4
3
4
3
3
2
5
3
3
5
4
7
3
7
8
0
5
18
6
13
8
3
3
6
4
39
2
2
4
7
3
6
2
5
8
3
5

Number of
employees.
1905.

Average
hours per
week.
1904.

5 54.00
5 60.00
5 53.80
13 53.00
5 53.67
2 53.00
4 60.00
11 53.00
8 53.00
4 54.75
4 53.50
3 54.00
4 53.75
3 59.00
3 60.00
2 58.50
5 58.00
3 54.00
3 59.00
5 .53.00
4 54.00
7 53.00
3 57.33
7 59.00
9 57.00
7 53.83
5 53.00
18 54.67
6 53.00
13 52.08
10 54.25
3 53.00
3 53.00
4 59.33
4 54.00
42 53.00
2 59.00
2 54.00
4 60.00
8 53.00
4 54.00
0 53.67
3 54.00
5 53.00
8 53.00
2 60.00
5 54.00

1905.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

1905.

54.00 $0.2778
60.00
.2313
53.80
.3346
53.00
.3121
53.80
.2795
53.00
.4528
60.00
.1700
53.00
.3679
53.00
.3396
54.75
.3022
53.50
.3934
54.00
.2778
53.75
.2791
59.00
.2542
60.00
.2667
58.50
.2133
53.00
.2845
54.00
.2037
59.00
.2712
53.00
.2830
54.00
.2500
53.00
.3396
57.33
.2621
59.00
.2542
54.00
. 1773
53.71
.2787
53.00
.2830
53.00
.3457
53.00
.2594
52.08
.3171
55.00
.3521
53.00
.3585
53.00
.2736
59.25
.1913
54.00
.2570
53.00
.3367
59.00
.2797
54.00
.2804
60.00
.1563
53.00
.4528
54.00
.3518
53.67
.2888
.3472
54.00
53.00
.3358
53.00
.3325
.2444
60.00
54.00
.2778

$0.2778
.2483
.3346
.3121
.3067
.4528
.1625
.3799
. 3467
.3022
.3934
.2778
.2791
.2542
.2750
.2133
.3396
.2222
.2712
.2830
.2500
.3396
.2621
.2712
.2099
.2793
.2830
.3868
.2641
.3171
.3426
.3585
.2736
.1776
.2639
.3369
.2797
.2804
.1563
.4528
.3333
.3077
.3426
.3358
.3325
.2417
.2778

54.00
53.75
53.80
53.00
60.00
53.00
53.00
53.33
53.75
59.00
53.00
54.00
59.00
53.00
57.75
59.00
54.00
53.00
53.00

$0.3333
.3607
.3625
.5094
.2000
.4324
.3962
.3937
.3488
.3051
.3467
.3333
.3079
.3962
.2896
.3051
.3000
.4316
.3137

H O R S E S H O E R S , F O R G E It tE N , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ...........
Birmingham, A la ...
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C.......
Chicago, 111...............
Cincinnati, Ohio.......
Denver, Colo............
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Louisville, K y..........
Memphis, Tenn........
Milwaukee, W is.......
Minneapolis, M inn..
Montgomery, A la ...
New York, N. Y. (a)
Norfolk, V a..............




4
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
4
3
2

4
4
4
2
3
7
8
3
4
2
4
3
3
6
4
3
6
8
6

a Greater New York.

4
4
5
2
3
6
8
3
4
2
4
3
3
6
4
3
5
8
8

54.00
53.75
53.75
53.00
60.00
53.00
53.00
53.33
53.75
59.00
58.00
54.00
59.00
53.00
57.75
59.00
58.00
53.00
53.00

$0.3333
.3907
.3349
.5094
.1889
.4245
.3962
.3937
.3349
.3d51
.3168
.3148
.3079
.3962
.2896
.3051
.2685
.4316
.3050

133

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OU RS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C IT IE S -C on tin u ed .

B L A C 5K S M IT H IN G A N D H O R S E S H O E IN G —Concluded.
H O R S E S H O E R S , F O R 6 E M E N , M a le —Concluded.

Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabments.

Locality.

Number of
employees.
1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

1904.

2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

6
2
3
2
15
2
4
7
3
4
5
2
3
3

6
2
3
2
16
2
4
6
3
4
5
2
2
3

53.00
53.00
59.67
54.00
53.00
54.00
60.00
53.00
53.33
54.00
53.00
53.00
60.00
54.00

53.00
53.00
59.67
54.00
53.00
54.00
60.00
53.00
53.33
54.00
53.00
53.00
60.00
54.00

«0.3396
.3962
.2192
.2871
.3887
.3364
.2125
.4771
.3375
.3056
.4075
.3585
.2611
.3241

10.3396
.3962
.2303
.3010
.3891
.3364
.2125
.4905
.3752
.3056
.4075
. 3727
.2584
.3241

48.00
57.37
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.50
54.00
45.13
45.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
47.60
48.39
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
51.00
44.00
48.00
49.76
48.00
54.00
53.57
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00
55.25
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.50
54.00
45.16
45.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
45.87
44.00
46.77
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
49.08
48.00
54.00
53.56
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

JO 5000
.
.4041
.3386
.6402
.4909
.5368
.5000
.7500
.3434
.6000
.6000
.5000
.6722
.6406
.5625
.5000
.5000
.4063
.5000
.5000
.7500
.6000
.4967
.5500
.6250
.5625
.6250
.6000
.5000
.4458
.6250
.5118
.5363
.5403
.4155
.4723
.5750
.4733
.6250
.6500
.5718
.6250
.5558
.6000
.6000
.4383
.6875
.4500
.5210

JO 5000
.
.4450
.3371
.6598
.4974
.5500
.5000
.7500
.3422
.6296
.6173
.5500
.7000
.6406
.5656
.5500
.5000
.4500
.5000
.5767
.7500
.6000
.5000
.5818
.6250
.6250
.7500
.6000
.5000
.4676
.6875
.5500
.5387
.5513
.4567
.4980
.6000
.5084
.6250
.7000
.6319
.6250
.6250
.6000
.6500
.4384
.6951
.4500
.5743

Average wages
per hour.

lio V i

Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1905.

B U IL D IN G T R A D E S.
B R I C K L A Y E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y .........................
Atlanta, Ga.......................... .
Augusta, Ga......................... .
Baltimore, Md...................... .
Birmingham, A la................. .
Boston, Mass.........................
Buffalo, N. Y .........................
Butte, Mont.......................... .
Charleston, S. C.....................
Chicago, 111................ .
Cincinnati, Ohio.....................
Cleveland, Ohio.................... .
Dallas, Tex.............................
Denver, Colo......................... .
Des Moines, Iow a................. .
Detroit, Mich.........................
Dubuque, Iow a......................
Fall River, Mass....................
Grand Rapids, Mich..............
Hartford, Conn......................
Houston, Tex.........................
Indianapolis, Ind................. .
Jacksonville, F la.................. .
Jersey City, N. J ....................
Kansas City, Mo....................
Little Rock, Ark.................. .
Los Angeles, Cal................... .
Louisville, K y........................
Lynn, Mass............................
Manchester, N. H ................. .
Memphis, Tenn..................... .
Milwaukee, W is.....................
Minneapolis, Minn.................
Mobile, A la.............................
Montgomery, A la..................
Nashville, Tenn.................... .
Newark, N. J .........................
New Haven, Conn..................
New Orleans, L a....................
New York, N. Y. ( a ) .............
Norfolk, V a ............................
Omaha, Nebr.........................
Peoria, 111...................
Philadelphia, P a....................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa.
Portland, Me..........................
Portland, Oreg..................... .
Providence, R. I ................... .
Racine, W is.......................... .




2
3
2
3
3
7
3
2
3
4
4
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
5
3
3
2
3
2
3
9
2
2
3
7
2
2
2
2
2

17
49
30
164
11
186
80
16
21
354
77
89
27
16
58
86
21
15
25
23
10
53
38
47
27
19
19
59
23
24
22
34
51
18
58
47
162
50
58
473
27
16
56
340
36
45
28
32
31

a Greater New York.

15
40
31
123
19
73
82
16
25
345
97
92
46
16
40
56
12
18
25
30
18
62
37
55
26
20
19
55
20
23
29
38
106
20
75
50
148
38
53
364
27
42
59
391
40
41
33
27
34

134
T

able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
I V .—

A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OU RS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S—Continued.

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
B R I C K L A Y E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Richmond, V a .............................. ...................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo................................. ...................
St. Paul, M i n n .................................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash ...................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la ........................................................
Terre Haute, Ind..................................... '........
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

4
3
3
4
3
2
4
3
2
2
2

2
2
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2

69
96
71
40
46
14
111
53
11
10
27
15
20
67
23
10
46
64
34
47
50
40

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

87’
121
79
67
49
18
97
52
11
10
29
10
17
81
17
10
60
98
32
46
60
46

48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
51.60
48.00
44.00
48.00.
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
51.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

10.5377
.5000
.6577
.5450
.6440
.6750
.7500
.5000
.6875
.5400
.5167
.6875
. 5975
.5366
.5478
.6250
.5185
.5625
.5625
.5000
.5150
.5000

90
81
46
98
46
177
203
57
75
153
215
83
30
32
91
239
20
21
55
46
28
14
94
152
50
30
42
51
94
39
76
25
65
145
36
146
234
264
48
70
455
109
27
71

48.00
59.79
54.26
48.00
49.96
48.09
48.00
45.93
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
49.79
48.00
44.00
48.00
50.67
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
50.82
57.22
54.66
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00

48.00 $0.3065
$0.3242
55.68
.2431
.2429
54.26
.2201
.2087
48.00
.3738
.4133
49.30
.3212
.3658
48.14
.3742
.3832
48.00
.3750
.3750
.6250
45.89
.6250
54.00
.2140
.2144
44.00
.5000
.5000
48.00
.3794
.4039
48.00
.4000
.4216
48.00
.3750
.3750
44.00
.4500
.4500
48.00
. 3939
.3887
48.00
.3417
.3412
48. O
ff
.3180
.3514
48.00
.3750
.3774
48.00
.3155
.3131
54.00
.3268
.3196
.2695
54.00
.2758
48.00
.3504
.3527
52.85
.3601
.3399
48.00
.2973
.3008
44.00
.4688
.4100
48.00
.4000
.4000
51.14
.3185 ' .3168
48:00
.4375
.4375
54.00
.2970
.3000
48.00
.3750
.3750
.2495
54.00
.2683
44.00
.4000
.4000
48.00
.3198
.3152
48.00
.3728
.3727
.2906
53.17
.2813
.2445
.2286
58.32
54.28
.2853
.2689
44.00
.4500
.4099
.3750
48.00
.3750
49.43
.3556
.3579
.5302
.5423
44.00
.3358
.3570
48.00
.4000
44.00
.3969
.4000
.4028
48.00

$0.6075
.5300
.7016
.5769
.6926
.7000
.7500
.5000
.6875
.5350
.5586
.6875
.6250
.5500
.5471
.6250
. 5000
.6250
.5625
.5000
.5267
.5000

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ...........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Augusta, Ga............
Baltimore, Md.........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N.Y............
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C.......
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio......
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex..............
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Io w a ...
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Duluth, Minn...........
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich,
Harrisburg, P a........
Houston, T ex..........
Indianapolis, I n d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___
Kansas City, Mo___
Little Rock, Ark___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y ..........
Lynn, Mass..............
Manchester, N. H . . .
Memphis, Tenn........
Milwaukee, W is.......
Minneapolis, Minn..
Mobile, A la..............
Nashville, Tenn.......
Newark, N. J ...........
New Haven, Conn...
New Orleans, L a___
New York, N. Y .(a).
Norfolk, V a..............
Omaha, Nebr...........
Peoria, 111.................




2
3
3
4
4
5
3
3
3
3
4
3
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
3
4
2
2
2
4
10
2
2
4

83
68
46
106
46
316
190
54
74
90
191
72
31
32
107
309
35
22
52
41
30
19
67
256
35
25
45
79
80
37
57
27
54
109
34
110
209
331
40
56
310
74
40
90

a Greater New York.

135

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1005, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C IT IE S -C on tm u ed .

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
€ A B P £ N T £ R $ , M aie^C oncluded.

Locality.

Philadelphia, P a ...................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa
Portland, Me.........................
Portland, =Oreg.....................
Providence, R. I ...................
Racine, W is..........................
Richmond, V a....... , ............
Rochester, N. Y .........., .......
Bt. Louis, Mo........................
St. Paul, Minn ....................
Salt Lake City, U tah........
San Antonio, Tex.................
San Francisco, Cal................
ScEanton, P a....................... ,
Sioux Falls, S. D ak..............
Springfield, 111.......................
Syracuse, N. Y ......................
Tacoma, W ash.......... ...........
Tampa, F la ,.........................
Terre Haute, In d .................
Toledo, Ohio......... ...............
Trenton, N. J ......... .............
Washington, D. C................
Wheeling, W. V a ..................
Wilkes-Barre, P a..................
Williamsport, P a.................
Wilmington, D
e
l
.
Worcester, Mass...................

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments, 1904. 1905.
6
3
2
3
2
4
4
2
3
3
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
3
3
2

244
182
103
124
35
89
48
22
86
90
57
31
83
60
29
46
24
28
123
89
57
32
73
42
83
40
44
270

260
93
90
72
26
99
53
32
53
163
54
33
85
57
28
43
19
43
115
96
52
37
100
58
73
45
40
313

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages,
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

46.36
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.19
48.00
44.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
50.50
48.00
48.00
51.71
59.16
44.00
48.00
47.43
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.22

46.37
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
53.45
51.06
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.26
48.00
44.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
49.89
48.00
48.00
50.56
58.62
44.00
48.00
47.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

10.4000
.4382
.2659
.4226
.3316
.3435
.2836
.3449
.5233
.3694
.4113
.3145
.5000
.3019
.2716
.4000
.2917
.4500
.3750
. 3107
.2877
.4100
.4375
.3689
.3348
.280©
.3500
.3119

©0.4000
.4375
.2695
.4167
.3577
.3813
.3025
.3750
.5500
.3732
.4095
,3012
.5044
.3446
.2598
.4000
.3461
.4500
.3750
.3281
.2957
.4100
.5000
.3723
.3106
.2860
.3500
.3131

48.00
59.11
48.00
46.98
48.00
46.29
54.00
44.00
44.85
48.00
51.91
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
52.00
53.56
52.17
48.00
47.00
48.22
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.47
48.00
50.52
45.08
48.00
54.09
54.00
55.88
44.00
48.00
53.00
44.00

48.00
58.09
48.00
46.71
48.00
46.29
54.00
44.00
45.00
48.00
52.50
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
51.53
53.47
50.71
45.78
47.04
48.00
44.00
46.33
48.00
48.00
48.40
48.00
48.00
44.67
48.00
53.30
53.33
54.87
44.00
48.00
52.39
44.00

$0.2320
.1026
.3212
.3042
.1960
.5826
.1111
.3190
.3563
.2466
.2104
.2583
.3496
.2222
.2435
.2611
.2540
.1921
.1939
.2573
.3000
.2772
.1867
, 3493
.3000
.2313
.3912
.2512
.3026
.2146
.2554
.2690
.2322
.1667
.1537
.3000
.2514
. 1794
.3591

$0.2223
.1085
.3229
.3108
.1968
.5826
* 1111
.
.3398
.3553
.2479
.2092
.2589
.3485
.2222
.2464
.2560
.2646
.1952
.2008
.2603
.3472
.2848
.1875
.3496
.3000
.2387
.3965
.2587
.3063
.2233
.2833
.2821
.2421
.1690
.1579
.3200
.2751
.1884
.3627

1905.

HOD CARRIERS, Male.
Albany, N. Y ..............
Atlanta, Ga.................
Baltimore, Md.............
Boston, Mass...............
Buffalo, N. Y ..............
Butte, Mont................
Charleston, S. C..........
Chicago, 111...................
Cincinnati, Ohio..........
Cleveland, Ohio. . . . . . . .
Dallas, Tex...............
Davenport, Iow a.. . __
Denver, Colo...............
Des Moines, Iow a.......
Detroit, Mich......... .
Dubuque, Io w a .. . . _
_
Evansville, Ind...........
Fall River, M ass.. . . . .
Grand Rapids, M ich...
Harrisburg, P a............
Hartford, Conn. . . . . . .
Indianapolis, I n d . .
Jacksonville, F la.........
Jersey City, N. J .........
Kansas City, M o.. . . . .
Little Rook, Ark.........
Los Angeles, Cal.........
Louisville, K y.............
Lynn, Mass.................
Manchester, N. H ----Memphis, Term............
Milwaukee, W is___ ___
Minneapolis, Minn.
Mobile, A la............. .
Nashville, Tenn___ . . .
Newark, N. J ...............
New Haven, Conn.......
New Orleans, L a .. . . . .

New York, N. Y.




2
2
4
8
5
3
2
5
4
4
2
2
8
2
6
3
2
2
3
3
2
4
3
4
3
3
3
4
2
2
4
4
7
2
2
3
2
3
11
o Greater New

25
9
104
137
161
28
18
297
68
87
23
15
48
38
183
20
15
12
55
12
26
72
68
74
34
25
27
55
34
31
37
42
67
16
32
193
65
36
700
York.

53
11
72
133
174
28
19
296
89
117
40
14
46
22
120
12
19
17
45
14
27
70
60
86
36
33
32
50
30
24
48
46
137
18
69
169
71
41
582

136

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D

1905, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S^-C ontinued.
B U IL D IN G

T R A D E S — Continued.

H O D C A R R I E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish
lis n ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Norfolk, V a .......................................................
Oakland, Cal.....................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111.................................. .......................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and-Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Me.-...................................................
Portland, Oreg. . ...............................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a ......................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo:...................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
San-Francisco, Cal............................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la ......................................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a ...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ’.............................................
Williamsport, P a..............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

5
2
2
4
9
2
3
5
3
2
2
6
2
8
5
4
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
pert Lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

36
12
13
79
126
27
66
33
34
51
17
137
163
152
41
84
22
61
29
21
14
32
7
30
63
33
12
33
59
36
43
7
27
8

48.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.70
48.19
48.00
48.00
51.24
49.40
48.00
44.00
44.88
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
56.37
48.00
54.00
44.67
48.00
48.00
51.24
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
52.29
48.00
51.69

48.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00.
49.00
48.18
48.00
48.00
51.24
49.14
48.00
44.00
44.88
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
56.57
48.00
51.38
45.71
48.00
48.00
51.27
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
52.29
48.00
49.50

$0.2362
.5000
.2904
.2795
.3133
.3227
.2520
.3815
.2199
.2625
.2643
.1845
.2390
.4058
.3788
.4375
.1967
.2073
.3719
.2267
.2740
.1969
.3438
.1858
.2805
.2719
.2406
.3500
.2791
.2925
.2749
.2589
.2770
.2316

$0.2500
.5000
.2942
.2906
.3123
.3111
.2471
.3830
.2206
.2711
.2643
.2004
.2390
.4291
.3918
.4375
.1989
.2090
.3556
.2283
.2768
.2125
.3929
.1863
.2962
.2745
.2396
.3500
.2813
.2944
.2750
.2589
.2836
.2735

19
31
431
412
122
126
255 . 334
94 ' 139
382
383
172
150
14
14
25
22
817
780
104
159
67
84
11
17
16
18
183
161
158
180
70
65
41
39
15
33
156
116
157
461
79
100
27
31
48
55
27
26
27
38
41
40
41
45
56
40
52
63
57
39
100
134
40
55
45
52

49.74
59.25
54.00
57.27
58.47
56.28
52.43
46.00
54.00
46.40
54.92
52.84
48.00
51.78
50.13
56.96
59.24
54.00
56.80
59.92
55.80
59.00
48.00
59.50
48.00
55.85
54.00
58.10
55.93
60.00
54.74
56.70
48.00
50.40

53.32
58.77
54.00
56.91
56.81
54.63
52.04
46.00
54.00
46.59
56.15
52.43
48.00
51.50
49.86
57.93
59.23
54.00
58.55
59.86
58.41
57.75
48.00
59.45
48.00
55.05
52.50
54.00
55.35
60.00
55.85
57.00
48.00
49.38

$0.1793
.1031
.0898
.1788
.1250
.1663
.1772
.3839
.1167
.2924
.1861
.2123
.2188
.2168
.2303
.1800
.2065
.1766
.1907
.1750
.1355
.1780
.2188
.1972
.2488
.1605
.1982
.1553
.1616
.1758
.1993
.1054
.2656
.2056

$0.1631
.1202
.1015
.1752
. 1324
.1745
.1802
.3839
.1162
.2914
.1895
.2130
.2188
.2370
.2327
.1796
.2069
. 1741
.1848
.1750
.1382
.1867
.2188
.1742
.2560
.1597
.2109
.1667
.1731
.1872
.1923
.1183
.2768
.2096

34
13
13
64
111
22
60
31
36
40
17
107
134
124
41
111
17
64
20
19
13
44
6
33
55
37
10
17
43
40
44
7
26
13

1905.

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ...........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Augusta, Ga........... .
Baltimore, Md.........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C.......
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio......
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex..............
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Io w a ...
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___
Kansas City, Mo___
Little Rock, Ark___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y .........
Lynn, Mass..............
Manchester, N. H .. .
Memphis, Tenn........
Milwaukee, W is___
Minneapolis, Minn..
Montgomery, A la ...
New Haven, Conn...
New Orleans, L a___




2
4
2
7
4
5
2
3
2
4
5
4
2
2
4
4
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
2
3
4
2
4

137

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T able I V — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS O F LA B O R , 1904 AN D

1905, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S— Continued.

B U I L D I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
L A B O R E R S , M a to —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish
iisnments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

New York, N. Y .(o )..........................................
Norfolk, V a.......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City,'Utah........................................
San Antonio, Tex.............................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Seattle, Wash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................
Toledo, Ohio............................ '........................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................
Worcester, Mass...............................................

4
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
4
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
4
2
4
3
3
2

90
22
42
49
439
46
96
205
54
112
23
18
75
46
19
14
38
107
9
27
55
32
70
15
30
115

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

130
50
65
51
473
28
105
205
42
232
20
22
94
18
31
21
40
66
10
47
81
28
68
15
41
130

53.71
51.82
47.05
57.06
57.56
52.96
55.00
59.71
48.00
58.29
44.65
48.00
59.20
46.96
60.00
48.00
54.00
59.89
48.00
58.89
48.00
53.88
57.00
52.80
56.00
54.00

50.46
51.60
47.63
55.29
56.45
52.71
53.14
59.71
48.00
59.56
44.30
48.00
59.55
46.89
60.00
48.00
52.50
59.64
48.00
57.19
48.00
53.79
56.38
52.80
53.27
54.00

$0.1876
.1452
.2500
.1750
.1562
.2838
.1828
.1494
.2307
.1972
.2978
.1875
.1522
.2595
.1868
.2991
.1684
.1793
.1989
; 1531
.2068
.1913
.1584
.1720
.1634
.1944

$0.2070
.1628
.2500
.1750
.1589
.2852
.1851
.1502
.2310
.2020
.3063
.1875
.1517
.2726
.1847
.3066
.1771
.1860
.2188
.1578
.2018
.1891
.1615
.1720
.1649
.1944

53
20
137
19
194
152
22
36
226
83
96
31
23
69
125
32
40
27
23
98
84
50
36
20
54
72
52
38
15
103
116
20
41
85
24
95
198
21
58
22

48.00
54.52
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
58.29
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.13
54.00
45.45
46.53

48.00
54.75
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.14
51.43
45.24
47.64

$0.3098
.2422
.3125
.3533
.3503
.3750
.5625
.1977
.4500
.3750
.3750
.3387
.4374
.3750
.3271
.3386
.3511
.3058
.2475
.3500
.3189
.3921
.3833
.3125
.4203
.2788
.3500
.2279
.3750
.2983
.3765
.2654
.2143
.3617
.3125
.3125
.4553
.2778
.4375
.3908

$0.3094
.2489
.3750
.3645
.3515
.3750
.5625
.1977
.4500
.3750
.3846
.3500
.4374
.3750
.3304
.3414
.3750
.3044
.2464
.3500
.3181
.3918
.3861
.3125
.4103
.3034
.3500
.2266
.3833
.2985
.3765
.2615
.2500
.3790
.3125
.3125
.4599
.3087
.4375
.3955

1905.

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ...........
Atlanta, Ga.............
Baltimore, Md.........
Birmingham, Aia__
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C.......
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio.......
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Balias, Tex..............
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Io w a ...
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Duluth, Minn..........
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Indianapolis, Ind. . .
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___
Kansas City, Mo___
Little Rock, Ark___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y ..........
Lynn, Mass..............
Manchester, N. H . . .
Memphis, Tenn........
Milwaukee W is.......
Minneapolis, M inn..
Montgomery, A la ...
Nashville, Tenn.......
Newark, N. J ...........
New Haven, Conn...
New Orleans, La___
New York, N. Y .(<*).
Norfolk, V a . . . ........
Oakland, Cal.......... .
Omaha, Nebr...........




2
2
3
2
8
4
2
4
4
4
3
2
3
2
4
2
2
2

2

4

6

57
23
128
15
190
162
24
38
257
86
78
26
33
55
116
34
45
28
22

87

102

2
2
2
4
3
2
2
2
3
4
3

47
39
19
49
68
47
39
15
106
98
20

3
2
4
7
3
2
2

81
25
87
204
21
55
19

2

21

a Greater New York,

138

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I V . — AV E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S—Continued.

B U L L B I N G T R A D E S —Continued.
P A I N T E R S , M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of jemployees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Peoria, H i....................... . .................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa........................
Portland, Me..................................... ................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a ..............^ ....................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
5
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
4
2
4
2
2
2
6
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2

33
314
34
35
33
89
21
22
30
36
78
47
21
32
94
14
40
17
23
21
50
11
20
36
64
52
32
73
66

36
265
38
44
42
82
20
18
36
45
83
44
21
30
95
14
28
19
20
25
62
22
22
40
67
54
37
64
68

Average
hours per
week.
1904.

1905.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

48.00 48.00 $0.3536
48.00 48.00
.3750
48.00 48.00
.4250
.2452
54.00 54.00
48.00 •48.00
.3750
46.52 46.39
.3216
48.00 48.00
.2902
54.00 54.00
.2500
54.00 54.00
.2509
48.00 48.00
.3011
44.00 44.00
.4500
48.00 48.00
.3468
48.00 48.00
.4375
48.00 48.00
.3105
47.79 47.75
.4375
48.00 48.00
.3304
48.00 48.00
.4375
58.76 58.53
.3093
48.00 48.00
.3438
48.00 48.00
.4420
53.28 53.03
.3020
48.00 48.00
.3040
48.00 48,00
.3500
.3785
44.00 44.00
48.00 48.00
.4000
48.00 48.00
.4000
48.00 48.00
.3070
48.00 48.Q0
.3142
.3062
48.00 48.00

1905.
$0.3533
.3750
.4250
.2475
.3747
.3336
.3125
.2500
.2534
.3292
.4554
.3636
.4375
.3260
.4375
.3304
.4420
.3151
.3750
.4400
.3102
.3040
.3409
.3781
.4347
.4000
.3039
.3531
.3100

P L A S T E R E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ...........
Atlanta, Ga............
Baltimore, Md....... .
Birmingham, Ala ..
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C.......
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex............. .
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Io w a ...
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Jersey City, N. J ___
Kansas City, M o___
Little Rock, Ark___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y ..........
Lynn, Mass..............
Manchester, N . H . .
Memphis, Tenn........
Milwaukee, W is.......
Minneapolis, Minn..
Montgomery, A la. . .
Nashville, Tenn.......
New Orleans, L a___
New York, N .Y .(a ).
Norfolk, V a.............
Omaha, N ebr,.........
Peoria, 111...............




2
2
3
4
.2
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
3
2
2
4
3
2
2

9
33
41
11
91
14
9
16
117
86
40
7
22
23
50
13
8
11
42
20
25
16
8
12
17
11
9
14
18
25
16
18
12
192
15
9
25

a Greater New York.

9
31
76
11
94
17
9
12
124
57
33
13
20
22
41
15
6
8
30
22
21
20
14
16
18
14
8
18
21
40
26
21
18
293
16
12
32

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.89
54.00
44.00
44.50
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
45.93
49.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
52.00
46.86
48.00
51.00
54.00
57.00
48.00
44.00
48,00
44.00
48.00

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.89
54.00
44.00
44.51
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
46.54
48.00
48.00
48.00
46.27
48.00
44.00
45.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
51.75
45.78
48.00
50.40
54.00
56.86
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00

$0.4667
.3495
.5442
.4636
.5000
.5000
.8750
.3604
.5625
.6250
.5000
.6250
.6250
.5000
.5000
.5000
.4063
.5000
.5095
.4824
.5663
.6250
.5000
.6250
.5500
.5000
.3719
.6250
.4500
.5400
.3781
..2986
.4000
.6803
.5375
.5500
.5625

$0.5000
.4000
.5987
,4841
.5019
.5000
.8750
.3685
.5847
.6250
.5625
.6250
.6250
.5000
.5092
.5000
.4500
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5670
.6250
.6036
.6250
.6000
.5000
.3698
.6250
.4500
.5344
.4216
.3000
.4500
.6875
.5645
.5500
.5625

139

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le

IV.— E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
AV
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S^-C ontinued.

BUIIiDENTG T K A D E j
S—Continued.
P L A S T E R E R S , M file —Concluded.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Philadelphia, P a............................... ...............
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a..................... ......
Portland, Me....................... .......................... t.
Portland, Oreg..................... .... ............. ........
Providence, R. I ........................... ..................
Richmond, V a .................................................
St. Louis, Mo......... ..........................................
St. Paul, Minn..................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal.........................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D a k ..........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio.....................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa...............................................
Wilmington, Del................. .............................
Worcester, Mass................................................

3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2

98
26
29
12
13
39
42
15
14
10
35
37
18
11
19
11
17
21
11
27
73
10
23
22
19

Average
hours per
week.
1904.

1905.

Averag<b wages
per 1lour.
1904.

1905.

150 44.00
29 48.00
25 52.14
13 48.00
14 44.31
36 54.00
46 44.00
15 48.00
14 48.00
11 48.00
26 44.00
25 48.00
35 44.00
12 60.00
8 48.00
15 48.00
22 50.12
30 48.00
10 48.00
20 44.00
78 48.00
12 47.50
26 48.00
23 48.00
19 48.00

44.00 $0.5000
48.00
.5250
48.00 : .4040
48.00
.6250
.5145
44.29
.2767
54.00
.7500
44.00
48.00
.5558
.6518
48.00
48.00
.6250
.7500
44.00
48.00
.4000
.6875
44.00
60.00
.3909
48.00
.5000
.6250
48.00
.4824
50.18
.5000
48.00
48.00
.5000
44.00
.5074
.5625
48.00
47.42
.4422
.3815
48.00
,4000
48.00
.4605
48.00

$0.5625
.5250
.4375
.6250
.5149
.2921
.7500
.5400
.6518
.6250
.7500
. 4240
.6875
.3917
.5000
.6250
.4818
.5000
.5000
.5000
.5625
.4429
.4255
.4500
.5000

15 48.00
19 53.13
71 48.00
27 47.76
31 48.00
10 48.00
13 44.00
17 54.00
141 44.00
32 48.00
54 48.00
21 48.00
16 48.00
16 44.00
16 48.00
29 48.00
10 48.00
19 46.12
13 54.00
20 48.00
17 47.00
9 48.00
15 44.00
18 48.00
13 48.00
22 48.00
17 48.00
12 48.00
10 52.67
21 48.00
40 45.74
28 48.00
15 48.00
17 49.29
15 54.92
17 48.00
8 48.00
46 48.00
198 44.12’
22 48.00
14 48.00

48.00 $0. 4375
.3967
53.11
.4039
48.00
47.74
.5026
.4561
48.00
.4375
48.00
.8125
44.00
.3366
54.00
.5625
44.00
.5000
48.00
.5000
48.00
.5417
48.00
.4399
48.00
.5313
44. G
O
.4375
48.00
.4243
48.00
.4375
48.00
.5559
46.00
.3611
54.00
.3985
48.00
.4750
47.00
.5000
48.00
44.00
.4375
.5625
48.00
.5000
48.00
.5625
48.00
.4375
48.00
.4375
48.00
.2923
48.00
.4509
48.00
.4375
46.00
.5060
48.00
.4808
48.00
49.06
.4881
. 3487
50.07
.4375
48.00
.3828
48.00
.4896
48.00
.5597
44.12
48.00
.3802
.5000
48.00

$0.4375
. 3924
.4080
.5656
.4563
.4375
.8125
.3333
.5625
.5000
.5000
.5417
.4258
.5313
.. 4375
.4537
.4375
.5553
.3611
.4300
.4750
.5000
.4833
.5625
.5048
.5625
.4375
,4375
.3131
.4375
.5000
.4665
.5000
.4902
.4045
.5000
.3828
.5000
.5917
.4546
.5000

P L U M B E B S , M a le .

2
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
23
3
23
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
3
67
Baltimore, Md......... ;........................................
2
Birmingham, A la..............................................
33
5
37
Boston, Mass................................ .......... ........
2
12
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
2
Butte, Mont..................................... ................
13
3
17
Charleston, S. C.................................................
4
117
Chicago, 111........................................................
4
27
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
3
34
Cleveland, O hio................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
3
15
3
13
Davenport, Iow a...............................................
2
19
Denver, Colo......................................................
15
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
2
4
26
Detroit, Mich. . . ..............................................
2
16
Dubuque, Io w a .................................................
17
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
3
2
13
Fall River, Mass................................................
14
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
2
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
16
3
2
7
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
4
15
Jersey City, N. J ................................................
2
Kansas City, Mo................................................
18
2
13
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
2
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
21
16
3
Louisville, K y ..................................................
12
3
Lynn, Mass......................... .............................
2
Manchester, N. H .......................... ..................
9
2
28
Memphis, Tenn...............‘ .................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
4
39
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
3
21
13
2
Mobile, A la........................................................
14
2
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
13
3
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
2
13
Newark, N. J .......................... .........................
2
New Haven, Conn.............................................
8
. 6
42
New Orleans, L a....... ..................... ................
11
170
New York, N. Y .(a)..........................................
Norfolk, V a .......................................................
3
18
2
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
13
a Greater New York.




140

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T ab le I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OU RS O F L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C IT IE S —Continued.
B U ID D IN G

T R A D E S — Concluded.

P L U M B E R S , M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabH i
oV
jisnments. 1904. 1905.

Locality,

Peoria, 111...........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg ap'd Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland^ Me....... ~ ...... . ..................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Reading, P a .......................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. D ak...........................................
Springfield, 111...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la ........................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
6
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
5
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2

8
68
• 19
7
14
25
7
18
12
32
27
11
10
8
63
12
27
11
10
15
10
13
12
9
11
11
11
37
20
11
18
15

C L O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y

10
84
20
7
10
25
7
20
13
29
27
12
10
7
55
12
23
11
7
17
10
13
12
9
13
11
9
38
24
12
20
17

Average
hours per
week.

Average3 wages
per l lour.

1904.

1905,

1904,

48.00
47.76
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
47.52
48.00
44.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
53.50
44.00
51.27
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

48.00
47.71
48.00
54.00
48.00
46.56
44.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
47.53
48.00
44.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
53.50
44.00
51.69
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0. 4813
. 4375
.4967
.3016
.5625
.4404
.4375
.2974
.3750
.3503
.6250
.5227
.5753
.4609
.6316
.4037
.6250
.3409
.4688
.3750
.5625
.5000
.4000
.4479
.3758
.4096
.3750
.5000
.4375
.3381
.3641
.4375

$0.4813
.4375
.5000
.3016
.5625
.4375
.4375
.2964
.3630
.3492
.6250
.5208
.5753
.4464
.6316
. 4037
.6250
.3364
.4688
.4375
.5625
.5625
.4000
.4688
.3727
.4096
.3750
.5000
.4688
.3308
.3714
.4688

1905.

PRODUCT.

C U T T E R S ) H A N D , M a le .

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................

2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2

78
22
25
67
32
6
169
109
119
25

83
24
21
76
33
11
169
117
137
24

53.37
52.50
51.00
48.00
48.00
57.17
50.20
51.63
54.00
48.00

53.57
52.88
51.00
48.00
48.00
57.09
50.34
54.00
54.00
48.00

$0.3035
.3161
.3891
.4649
.3854
.3330
.4016
.3678
.2868
.4250

$0.3026
.2890
.3903
.4509
.3864
.3162
.3998
.3454
.2957
.4254

48
2
159
2
8

53.91
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

53.92
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.3590
.4183
.4607
.4167
. 4922

$0.3579
.4314
.4344
.4167
.4922

219
106
115
10
135
76

58.15
54.00
54.00
54.70
57.31
54.00

57.72
54.00
54.00
55.20
57.08
54.00

$0.0973
.1481
.0974
.1091
.0940
.1429

$0.1007
. .1546
.1026
.1149
.0997
.1526

C U T T E R S , M A C H I N E , M a le *

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio.................................................
New York, N. Y .(o)..........................................

2
2
3
2
3

46
3
139
2
8

F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le *

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New York, N. Y .(<*)..........................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................




3
2
2
2
5
2

198
99
108
10
116
60

a Greater New York.

141

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905,
T ab le

IV,—V ERA G E W AGES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS. B Y C IT IE S -C on tin u ed .
C D O T H IN G , F A C T O R Y

P R O D U C T -C o n c lu d e d .

S E W I N G - M A C H I N E : O P E R A T O R S , M a le ,

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Baltimore, Md. . 1 .............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
New York, N. Y .(a)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y ...............................................

3
2
2
5
2
2

128
27
30
229
195
22

136
36
47
273
214
26

Average
hours per
week.

Averageb wages
per 1lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

58.78
48. 44
54.00
57.05
54.00
54.00

58.86
50.58
54.00
56.99
54.00
54.00

$0.2572
.3062
.2915
.2011
.1893
.2134

$0.2373
.2648
.2897
.2020
.2047
.2269

$0.1222
.1703
.0915
.2032
.1404
.1291
.1284
.1054
.1507

$0.1136
.1716
.1013
.1953
.1482
.1470
.1210
.1193
.1604

$0.3404
.2634
.2908
.2653
.5000
.3204
.3343
.2883
.3132
.3194
.3500
.3667.2302
.2472
.2683
. 2584
.3512
.2660
.3899
.3625
.2692
.2208
.3111
.2961
.2818
.3333
.3028
.3498
.3891
.2900
.2965
.2765
.2491
.3750
.2896
.2621
.3056
.3101
.2782
.4194
.3818
.2614

$0.3184
.2676
.2821
.2745
.5000
.3334
.3332
.2895
.3116
.3194
.3286
.3667
.2315
.2528
.2850
.2635
.3558
.2614
.4025
.3714
.2671
.2294
.3156
.3085
.2804
.3704
.3195
.3575
.3887
.3067
.3235
.2768
.2499
.3958
.2948
.2611
.3195
.3219
.2814
.3944
.4035
.2717

!

1905.

S E W I N G - M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R S , F e m a le ,

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Minneapolis, Minn....................... .....................
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

75
66
19
115
43
128
48
219
86

75
58
28
118
44
200
50
235
103

59.57 1 59.25
54.55 55.10
53.37 53.46
54.00 54.00
54.00 54.00
55.68 54.38
54.38 54.46
54.00 54.00
54.00 54.00

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P ,
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le ,

Atlanta, Ga.......................... .
Baltimore, Md...................... .
Boston, Mass.........................
Buffalo, N. Y .........................
Butte, Mont...........................
Charleston, S. C.....................
Chicago, 111.............................
Cincinnati, Ohio................... .
Cleveland, Ohio.................... .
Dallas, Tex........................... .
Denver, Colo..........................
Des Moines, Iow a..................
Detroit, Mich.........................
Dubuque, Iow a......................
Evansville, Ind......................
Grand Rapids, Mich..............
Hoboken, N. J .......................
Indianapolis, Ind..................
Jersey City, N. J . ..................
Los Angeles, Cal....................
Louisville, K y...................... .
Manchester, N. H ..................
Memphis, Term......................
Milwaukee, W is.................... .
Minneapolis, Minn.................
Mobile. A la........................... .
Nashville, Tenn.....................
New Orleans, L a...................
New York, N. Y .(a ).............
Omaha, Nebr.........................
Philadelphia, P a....................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa
Portland, Me.........................
Portland, Oreg......................
Providence, R. I ....................
Richmond, V a .......................
Rochester, N. Y ................... .
St. Louis, Mo.........................
St. Paul, Minn.......................
Salt Lake City, Utah........... .
San Francisco, Cal.................
Scranton, P a ..........................

3
3
5

3
27
9

2
2
5
4
3
2

3
3
25
6
17
4

2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2

5
14
3
25
5
15
20
9

4
2
3
6

7
19
6
31

2

2

2

2

2

2
2

4
7
2
6
5

8

6

8

8
6

9
31
3
18
54

2

22

2

2

2
5
3

3
3
2
4

2

4
14
13

8
7
4
25

11

a Greater New York.
2— N o. 65— 06------10




3 59.67
19 54.00
9 55.11
6 ■ 58.50
3 54.00
4 56.00
29 54.00
5 54.83
25 55.59
4 54.00
11 53.83
5 54.00
17 59.50
3 59.67
25 59.96
5 59.00
17 53.40
18 51.15
9 53.00
7 54.00
9 59. 57
17 60.00
6 56.00
37 55.32
11 55.00
6 54.00
2 57.00
13 54.00
30 53.68
3 60.00
16 56.11
63 59.33
24 59.00
4 54 00
17 57.43
12 57.08
2 52.00
9 54.00
9 59.00
5 54.00
16 54.00
9 55.00

59.67
54.00
55.11
58.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.80
55.40
54.00
56.09
54.00
59.41
59.67
59.96
59.00
53.35
51.83
53.00
56.57
59.67
60.00
56.00
55.27
55.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.70
60.00
56.19
57.81
59.00
54.00
57.47
58.25
54.00
54 00
59.00
54.00
54.00
55.00

142

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIE S— Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Continued.
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Seattle, W ash....................................................
Terre Haute, In d ..............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Troy, N. Y ........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Williamsport , P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................
Worcester, Mass...............................................

2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

6
6
4
3
6
14
4
4
4

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

54.00
54.00
54.00
59.33
51.33
60.00
56.00
54.00
57.50

54.00
54.00
59.00
59.33
51.33
60.00
56.00
54.00
57.50

$0.3724
.2663
.3028
.2718
.3033
.2886
.2631
.2575
.3288

$0.3623
.2795
.2968
.2768
.3033
.2878
.2631
.2525
.3300

54.00
54.00
59.00
56.00
54.00
54.00
56.60
59.00
50.07
53.00
58.00
59.94
54.00
54.00
53.32
56.18
57.53
56.83
54.00
55.00

51.33
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
55.80
56.81
59.00
50.12
63.00
54.00
59.97
54.00
54.00
53.29
56.20
57.82
57.67
54.00
55.00

$0.2931
.3001
.2627
.3171
.3477
.3188
.2590
.2542
.2428
.3385
.3250
.2503
.3611
.3929
.3393
.2544
.3283
.2382
.3925
.2622

$0.2824
.3019
.2676
.3069
.3485
.3055
.2560
.2500
.2676
.3244
.3571
.2493
.3596
.3929
.3435
.2580
.3244
.2311
.3887
.2689

128
56
138
29
40

54.00
56.40
53.36
55.89
55.00

54, C $0. 2776
O
56.43
.2248
53.43
.2692
55.97
.2864
55.00
.2380

$0.2740
.2252
.2735
.2808
.2343

94
332
42
102
80
12
933
61
290
59
16
200
38
28
62
77
31
328
19
16

59.84
54.00
59.76
55.97
60.00
54.00
54.11
55. 57
54.93
53.43
54.00
59.40
59.89
58.66
58. 31
57.79
56.14
54.27
60.00
60.00

59.81
54.00
59.79
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.15
56.39
54.96
55.98
54.00
59.49
59.76
58.39
58.29
57.70
55.94
54.52
60.00
60.00

$0.1135
.1566
.1033
.1753
.1490
.3333
.1793
.1552
.1693
.1825
;2111
.1541
.1849
.1591
.1259
.1720
.1894
.1528
.1193
.1809

9
5
6
3
6
16
4
4
4

1905.

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Bridgeport, Conn..............................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Fort Wayne, I n d .............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y. (<*).........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................

2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
5
3
3
2
3
2

30
35
18
6
44
4
25
12
43
40
6
32
20
14
75
61
73
6
86
30

27
32
19
6
51
10
21
12
33
38
7
37
18
14
83
51
88
3
73
37

B R A S S F I N I S H E R S , M a le .

Chicago, 111........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y. (o ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Providence, R. I ................................................

2
3
4
2
2

115
57
129
38
32

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Atlanta, Ga..............
Baltimore, Md.........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Chicago, 111..............
Cincinnati, Ohio......
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Denver, Colo............
Des Moines, Iow a. . .
Detroit, Mich...........
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Evansville, Ind.......
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Hoboken, N. J .........
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Kansas City, Mo___




3
3
2
7
2
2
5
3
4
2
2
3
2
4
2
4
2
3
2
2

95
397
58
117
105
12
900
63
165
28
18
201
83
29
70
58
28
328
19
15

a Greater New York.

$0.1080
.1556
.1000
.1662
. 1470
. 3333
1814
.1524
.1684
.1789
.2021
.1592
.1686
.1597
.1270
.1698
.1859
.1518
.1180
.1700

143

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I V .—AV E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

F O U N D I iY A N D M A C H IN E SHOP-Continued.
L A B O R E R S , M a i e —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Term.................................................
Milwaukee, W is............... ......... .......................
Minneapolis, Minn............................................
Mobile, Ala.............................-.........................
Nashville, Team....................... ........................
Newark, N. J ........................... -.......................
New Orleans, L a ..............................................
New York, N. Y. (« ).........................................
Omaha, N eb r.................. .................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa. * ........................
Portland, Me....................................................
Portland, G reg.................................................
Providence, R. I ...............................................
Richmond, V a............., ....... ............ ...............
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo......... ........... ...............................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah ........................................
San Antonio, Tex......... ....................................
San Franciseo, Cal......... ..................................
Scranton, P a ....................................................
Seattle, W ash...................................................
Syracuse, N. Y .................................................
Terre Haute, In d ......................................... ....
Toledo, Ohio.....................................................
Troy, N. Y ........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa..............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, Del..............................................
Worcester, Mass...............................................

2
2
3
2
3
6
2
2
3
2
2
4
6
2
7
5
2
2
6
3
5
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
2

22
22
71
44
112
558
110
57
42
18
127
125
61
67
450
367
20
26
310
93
69
143
52
21
40
101
192
64
39
29
10
47
47
150
75
165
80

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

39
24
66
55
114
668
244
52
42
22
129
151
64
92
502
403
11
28
438
107
102
148
97
34
21
99
184
69
60
29
25
58
42
180
77
145
87

54.55
58.91
59.65
60.00
57.11
55.47
55.00
54.00
60.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.25
6a 00
56.78
59.18
59.00
54.00
58.58
58.83
54.87
54.00
59.13
54.00
54.00
54.00
57.21
54.00
56.38
58.55
56. 40
58.17
51.30
60.00
55.80
54.00
58.36

60.00 .$0.1580
59.00
.2000
.1399
59.70
.1343
60.00
57.11
.1527
.1624
55.40
.1745
55.00
.1473
54.00
.1121
60.00
.1142
59.18
.1776
54.00
.1738
54.00
.1918
54.25
.1699
60.00
.1523
56.74
.1533
57.78
.1465
59.00
.2382
54.00
.1530
58.70
.1104
58.66
.1831
54.65
.1808
54.00
.182©
59.06
.2116
54.00
. 1625
54.00
54.00
.2298
.1414
57.20
.2320
54.00
.1627
57.00
.1517
58.55
.1604
60.00
.1662
58.05
.1703
51.33
. 1427
60.00
.1510
55.78
.1348
54 00
.1528
58.32

10.1564
.2031
.1392
.1339
.1526
.1624
.1761
.1482
.1121
.1205
.1831
.1729
. 1975
.1655
.1518
.1578
.1582
.2351
.1589
.1170
.1860
.1926
.1761
.2132
.1517
.2245
.1407
.2309
.1581
.1517
.1644
.1739
.1710
.1428
.1515
.1352
.1546

29
104
34
65
40
16
12
264
238
277
17
59
26
26
21
39
55
33
91
241
n
36
16
49
28
216
32
808
59

59.63
54.00
59.79
54.30
57.05
54.00
56.73
54.00
55.47
55.24
54.00
53.79
54.00
59.19
59.33
57.53
56.36
59.00
53.11
52.02
60.00
53.00
55.67
5400
59.52
60.00
5 4 00
55.31
55.00

59.66
54 00
59.71
5 4 00
56.40
54 00
54.00
54.00
55.32
55.13
54 00
56.53
5400
59.12
59.33
57.13
56.69
59.00
53.12
52.28
C . 00
O
53.00
60.00
56.08
59.61
60.00
54 00
55.24
55.00

$0.2921
.2032
.2939
.2861
.2650
.5000
.3058
.3022
.2458
.2418
,3118
.3057
.3083
.2744
.2289
.2401
.2599
.2508
.3227
.2826
.2909
.3284
.3185
.3367
.2524
.2072
. 32u3
.26o2
.2785

$0.2972
.2626
.2975
.2858
.2739
.5000
.3062
.2983
.2456
.2529
.3284
.2982
. 3098
.2671
.2313
.2436
.2611
.2473
.3193
.2924
.3000
3310
.3458
3388
.2496
.2077
.3203
.2680
.2830

1904.

1905.

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

Atlanta, Ga.......................... ............................
3
32
Baltimore, Md...................................................
4
116
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
2
33
Boston, Mass....................................................
5
67
Buffalo, N. Y ....................................................
2
61
Butte, Mont......................................................
2
18
Charleston, S. C.................................................
2
11
Chicago, 111........................................................
4
330
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
5
217
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
4
147
Dallas, Tex........................................................
2
16
Denver, Colo......................................................
2
42
Des Moines, Iow a............................................
2
28
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
3
16
Dubuque, Iow a................................................
3
21
Evansville, Ind.................................................
4
43
Fort Wayne, Ind...............................................
3
69
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
3
29
Hoboken, N. J ...................................................
2
64
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
3
169
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
2
11
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
2
42
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
2
18
Los Angeles vCal................................................
2
30
Louisville, K y....................................................
3
29
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
2
195
Memphis, l e n n .................................................
2
32
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
7
785
Minneanolis. Minn________________________
2
63
a Greater New York.




144

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR.

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S—Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Continued.
M A C H I N I S T S , M a l e —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Mobile, Ala........................................................
Montgomery, Ala....... .....................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Orleans, L a..............* ...............................
New York, N. Y.(a).'.........................................
Norfolk, V a.......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
Richmond, V a ...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex.............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa...............................................
Williamsport, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
2
2
4
9
2
2
6
5
2
2
6
3
3
5
3
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2

26
10
20
63
109
388
14
9
432
335
60
18
369
36
156
203
30
24
11
187
152
34
16
20
110
50
38
46
50
68
133

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

35 54.00
9 60.00
18 54.00
65 54.00
96 54.00
418 54.04
13 54.00
11 60.00
380 55.85
429 58.19
52 59.00
35 54.00
507 58.53
40 56.83
198 52.85
220 54.00
39 59.00
29 54.00
13 54.00
160 54.00
119 55.00
37 54.00
14 54.00
27 54.00
93 54.00
40 59.34
36 49.47
77 60.00
49 58.84
64 54.00
205 57.21

54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.05
54.00
60.00
55.89
58.59
59.00
54.00
58.64
57.25
54.00
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
54.00
57.56
54.00
59.35
49.56
60.00
58.84
54.00
57* 21

$0.3269
.2850
.3100
.2917
.3389
.3016
.2778
.3361
.2716
.2978
.2478
.3920
.2555
.2563
.2786
.3014
.2742
.3903
.3374
.3556
.2654
.3441
.2858
.2797
.2983
.2467
.3122
.2850
.2447
.2649
.2566

$0.3246
.2972
.3156
.2999
.3452
.3087
.2821
.3323
.2766
.2879
.2494
.3794
.2571
.2598
.2794
.3288
. 2789
.3879
.3261
.3646
.2674
.3466
.2830
.2802
.2993
.2523
.3184
.2823
.2445
.2559
.2553

59.67
54.00
59.47
54.00
60.00
53.79
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.14
54.00
53.38
59.63
54.00
59.67
57.39
60.00
54.00
54.00
53.57
60.00
57.11
59.83
60.00
54.00
55.51
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
56.52
54.00
54.00
54.00

$0.2920
.3051
.2923
'. 3012
.2907
.5000
.2799
.3335
.3293
.2726
.3333
.3920
.3013
.3408
.2348
-.2704
.2466
.3097
.3350
.2689
.2778
.3591
.2773
.2431
.3276
.3233
.3347
.3102
.3000
.3362
.2619
.3312
.3362
.2778

$0.3003
.3058
.3083
.3068
.3068
.5000
.2746
.3281
.3145
.2402
.3222
.3912
.3045
.3456
.2329
.2697
.2516
.3098
.3366
.2841
.2639
.3571
.2741
.2437
.3276
.3222
.3128
.2694
.3000
.3348
.2827
.3333
.3349
.2798

1905.

M O L D E R S , I R O N , M a le ,

Atlanta, Ga............ .
Baltimore, Md.........
Birmingham, A la ...
Boston, Mass...........
Buffalo, N. Y ...........
Butte, Mont.............
Charleston, S. C......
Chicago, 111............. .
Cincinnati, Ohio___
Cleveland, Ohio.......
Dallas, Tex..............
Denver, C o lo ...___
Detroit, Mich..*.......
Des Moines, Io w a ...
Dubuque, Iow a.......
Evansville, In d .......
Fall River, Mass___
Grand Rapids, Mich
Hoboken, N. J .........
Indianapolis, In d ...
Jacksonville, F la___
Los Angeles, Cal___
Louisville, K y.........
Manchester, N. H . ..
Memphis, Tenn.......
Milwaukee, W is___
Minneapolis, Minn..
Mobile, Ala............. .
Montgomery, A la ...
Newark, N. J ...........
New Haven, Conn..
New Orleans, L a_
_
New York, N. Y .(«)
Norfolk, Va............




3
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
3
2
3
4
2

13
63
13
123
23
15
12
144
21
54
17
24
42
37
14
25
60
30
33
88
9
18
13
35
29
210
18
6
7
89
40
27
126
11

a Greater New York.

18
60
15
123

20
14

10

142

22

78
19
47
63
31

21

23
61
33
36
83
9
27
18
41
29
315
24

10
10

117
50
39
118
14

59.69
54.00
59.46
55.18
60.00
54.00
57.00
54.00
60.00
52.33
54.00
53.58
59.31
54.00
59.64
57.60
60.00
54.00
54.00
53.43
60.00
54.00
59.85
60.00
54.00
56.02
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00

145

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le

IV.—V E R A G E W AGES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C IT IE S -U on tin u ed.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Continued.
M O L D S R S , IR O N , Male-Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Oreg............................................. ....
Providence, It. I ................................................
Richmond. V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah .......................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Seattle, W ash................. ..................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Terre Haute, In d..............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa..............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass...............................................

7
166
4
104
11
2
3 . 91
2
48
4
71
3
96
2
36
2
24
2
3
3
42
2
64
2
28
2
41
2
18
11
2
2
40
2
61
2
70

178
111
13
156
29
89
101
42
28
5
45
72
28
64
14
17
42
58
48

Average
hours per
week.

Averag e wages
per 1lour. ^

1904.

1905.

1904.

55.32
57.81
54.00
58.49
58.13
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
57.66
54.00
54.00
54.00
56.73
60.00
54.00
55.97

55.25
56.43
54.00
58.74
58.72
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
58.06
54.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
56.25

$0.3158
.3327
.3990
.3261
.2406
.3157
.3218
.3406
.3803
.3611
.3874
.2898
.4012
.3145
.2894
.2917
.2888
.2990
.3250

$0.3277
.3284
.3910
.3288
.2474
.3180
.3344
.3238
.3839
.3167
.3846
.2864
.4013
.2132
.2863
.2750
.2889
.2761
.2859

59.67
54.Q0
59.57
55.67
56.00
54.00
57.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
53.67
54.00
59.50
59.60
56.50
58.67
58.17
54.00
54.33
53.00
57.00
54.00
59.75
60.00
54.00
55.08
55.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.08
54.00
56.34
58.34
54.00
57.53
57.56
53.33
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00

59.63
54.00
59.67
54.00
56.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
57.20
54.00
59.36
59.60
56.50
58.60
58.38
54.00
54.95
53.00
60.00
56.50
59.57
60.00
54.00
55.06
55.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.07
54.00
56.32
55.93
54.00
57.64
57.29
54.00
54.00
59.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00

$0.2877
.3214
.3143
.3206
.3350
.5000
.2966
.3713
.3176
.3611
.3300
.3305
.2475
.2533
.2500
.2667
.2628
.3389
.3275
.3679
.3444
.3406
.3050
.2229
.3452
.3157
.3032
.3333
.3500
.2875
.3854
.3370
.4012
.3056
.3146
.3171
.4098
.2928
.2989
.3132
.3533
.3159
.3770
.4028
.4109
.2909

$0.3019
.3205
.3000
.3396
.3550
.5000
.3125
.3685
.3252
.3444
.3475
.3266
.2764
.2767
.2500
.2610
.2479
.3378
.3226
.3679
.3393
.3591
.2921
.2264
.3452
.3203
.3208
.3472
.3500
.2875
.4041
.3395
.4046
.3195
.3116
.3300
. 4167
.2965
.2995
.3329
.3647
.’3028
.3785
.3472
.4147
.3018

1905.

P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le .

3
9
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
21
Baltimore, Md...................................................
3
2
7
Birmingham, A la..............................................
Boston, Mass>...................................................
12
4
2
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
3
2
4
Butte, Mont......................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................
2
4
71
Chicago, 111........................................................
3
Cincinnati, Ohio................................... ............
13
3
4
2
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
2
3
6
Des Moines, Iow a.............................................
2
2
6
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
2
5
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
2
Evansville, Ind.................................................
2
2
3
Fall River, Mass................................................
2
6
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
2
5
Hartford, Conn.................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
3
18
2
5
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
2
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
2
2
13
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
4
2
Louisville, K y...................................................
7
Manchester, N. H .............................................
2
2
7
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
107
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
5
21
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
2
4
2
Mobile, A la........................................................
2
2
Montgomery, Ala.............................................
2
2
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
3
8
4
15
New Orleans, L a...............................................
52
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
5
2
2
Norfolk, V a .......................................................
38
7
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
47
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
4
2
4
Portland, Oreg..................................................
40
4
Providence, R. I ................................................
2
9
Richmond, V a...................................................
12
4
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
21
3
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
10
2
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
7
2
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
2
2
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
4
31
San Francisco, Cal............................................
16
2
Scranton. P a .....................................................
a Greater New York,




8
26
9
11
6
4
4
75
16
5
10
5
11
5
2
5
8
5
19
3
7
18
7
7
7
141
9
6
2
2
11
18
61
2
63
56
5
42
7
’ 10
19
12
8
4
23
19

146
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIE S— Continued.

F O U N D R Y A N D M A C H IN E S H O P —Concluded.
P A T T E R N M A K E R S , M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Seattle, W ash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio.................................................... *
Troy, N. Y .........................................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

7
5
3
2
2
13
5
13

3
5
3
3
3
12
5
11

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

54.00
57.00
54.00
54.00
59.50
60.00
54.00
57.54

54.00
56.00
54.00
58.00
59.33
60.00
54.00
57.45

$0.3948
.2700
.2750
.2875
.3153
.2892
.2972
.2785

10.4280
.2757
.2861
.3028
.3034
.2904
.2912
.2841

54.29
50.37
53.13
59.19
51.85
60.00
60.00
59.83
60.00
57.63
60.00
57.71
57.16
56.34

52.88
50.38
54.76
55.57
52.28
60.00
60.00
59.85
60.00
57.67
60.00
58.01
56.39
56.48

$0.2604
.3381
.2627
.2233
.2747
.2251
.2105
.1937
.1335
.2376
.1995
.2537
.2521
.2421

$0.2726
.3488
.2580
.2344
.2671
.2231
.2033
.1961
.1469
.2565
.2102
.2510
.2583
.2440

58.00
50.31
53.23
59.00
55.66
60.00
60.00
59.78
60.00
57.82
60.00
56.95
58.41
60.00

57.58
50.32
54.00
56.38
55.31
60.00
60.00
59.80
60.00
57.86
60.00
57.55
57.64
60.00

$0.2092
. 3114
.2534
.2123
.2028
.1833
.1784
.2048
.1389
.1857
.1831
.2554
.2482
.1902

$0.2164
.3496
.2529
.2278
.2082
.1843
.1785
.2074
.1525
.1909
.1801
.2523
.2558
.1901

50.05
53.50
54.00
48.29
59.00

50.05
53.35
54.00
48.40
59.00

$0.3616
.2709
.2468
.3809
.2291

$0.3685
.2719
.2568
.4008
.2280

1905.

F U R N IT U R E .
C A B I N E T M A K E R S , M a le .

V
Baltimore, Md......._.........................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iowa.................................................
Evansville, Ind.................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Milwaukee, W is...................j .................... .......
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a......................... .....................
St. Louis. Mo.............................. .....................

2
6
6
5
3
2
4
3
3
2
3
6
3
3

21
129
138
140
98
15
25
114
76
16
67
96
95
59

82
144
138
141
80
17
27
127
75
15
66
100
109
58

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, HI........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mieh.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, In d .................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y .(a)..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................

2
6
6
5
3
2
4
3
3
3
3
5
3
2

24
39
93
54
86
7
71
80
143
68
41
58
64
73

33
38
94
63
64
7
71
89
140
78
47
78
59
73

U P H O L S T E R E R S , M a le .

Boston. Mass.....................................................
Chicago . Ill........................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................1..............
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................




4
4
2
4
2

55
143
21
79
24

a Greater New York.

65
144
22
73
24

147

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I V .— A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H O U RS OF L A B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIE S— Continued.
F U R N I T U R E — Concluded.
V A B N I S H E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio..................„............................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................
Evansville, Ind.................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
High Point, N. C...............................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................

2
5
7
5
4
2
4
3
3
2
3
6
3
2

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

31
58
226
74
101
8
41
38
35
14
93
125
77
29

59.00
50.16
53.45
59.54
55.54
60.00
60.00
59.79
60.00
57.50
60.00
58.22
58.86
60.00

57.94
50.16
54.46
57.00
55.44
60.00
60.00
59.82
60.00
57.57
60.00
58.48
58.38
60.00

SO.1598
.2812
.2219
.1822
.1852
.1977
.1832
.1822
. 1305
.2007
.1631
.2088
.1922
.2016

SO 1753
.
.2953
.2166
.1898
.1836
.1959
.1822
.1883
.1386
.2057
.1643
.2121
.2080
.2061

37
115
18
10
1,625
21
7
864

55.97
60.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
54.00

56.11
54.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
53.98

SO 2426
.
.1853
.1750
.2614
.1799
.1775
.1976
.1992

$0.2411
.2122
.1750
.2614
.1862
.1714
.2064
.1974

44
16
34
24
9
184
11
150
43
20
103
45

54.47
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

54.41
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
59.60
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

SO 3026
.
.3067
.3750
.2507
.3403
.3071
.3407
.3002
.2738
.2778
.3306
.4180

SO 3017
.
.3160
.3750
.2507
. 3403
.3167
.3400
.3026
.2721
.2870
.3396
.4375

10
5
7
241
22
10
8
16

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
58.16
57.33
54.00
48.00

48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
58.40
57.60
54.00
48.00

SO 4489
.
.2778
.3750
.3024
.3078
.2743
.2778
.4182

SO 4500
.
.2778
.3810
.3172
.3082
.2752
.2870
.4388

32
57
190
65
99
8
40
38
30
12
90
109
74
29

1905.

L IQ U O R S , M A R T .
B O T T L E R S , M a le .

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................

2
3
2
2
3
2
2
2

32
108
15
10
1,465
17
6
976

C E L L A R M E N , M a le .

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y .(« ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

2
2
3
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

38
17
33
23
9
185
10
136
40
22
103
47

C O O P E R S , M a le .

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York,N. Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................




2
2
2
3
6
3
2
2

11
4
7
277
19
9
9
14

a Greater New York.

148

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR-

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITlES-^Continued.

L IQ U O R S , M A L T —Concluded.
D R I V E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y.....................................................
Chicago, 111.........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Denver, Colo.......................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N. Y .(a ) ........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Rochester, N . Y .................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

72
24
28
29
15
18
153
27
256
65
12
132
22

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

54.13'
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00"
58.22
60.95
63.88
54.00
63.64
60.00

54.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
51.08
58.34
59.85
63.14
54.00
63.54
60.00

$0.3062
.2666
.3071
.2405
.2952
.2616
.2569
.3010
.2874
.2649
.3117
.2368
.4238

$0.3086
.2719
.3067
.2387
.2952
.2584
.2813
.2997
.2924
.2658
.3120
.2364
.4098

6
4
12
3
4
65
8
40
16
6
37

54.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00

55.50
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
59.40
60.00
54.00
48.00

$0.3271
.3056
.3816
.2667
.3333
.3065
.3472
.3000
.2726
.2871
.3369

$0.3377
.3148
.3785
.2667
.3333
.3173
.3472
.3033
.2771
.2963
.3432

6
5
8
4
2
61
6
28
13
7
' 22
16

54.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
49.72
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
48.00

54.00 $0.3271
54.00
.3056
48.00
.3750
.2792
60.00
48.00
.3438
48.00
.3077
54.00
.3457
59.14
.3048
60.00
.2736
.2804
54.00
48.00
.3503
48. O
ff
.4191

$0.3271
.3167
.3750
.2792
.3438
.3176
.3457
.3107
.2834
.2897
.3504
.4375

51.00
48.00
53.00
52.97
57.43
53.50
55.33
51.27
49.76
60.00
52.80
54.00
57.67
58.89
53.20

$0.3464
.3550
.2453
.2954
.2778
.2951
.3180
.3636
.4516
.3050
.3274
.2685
.2761
.2577
.3138

74
22
27
33
15
18
160
29
272
65
13
134
26

1905.

F E R M E N T E R S , M a le .

Boston, Mass............................. .......................
Buffalo, N . Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N .Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Rochester, N . Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo....................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
2
6
3
2
2

6
4
11
2
4
64
8
36
17
6
36

K E T T L E M E N , M a le .

Boston, Mass....................................................
Buffalo, N . Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New Y o rk ,N .Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

2
2
3
2
2
3
2
6
3
2
2
2

6
5
8
4
2
58
6
28
12
7
24
17

M A R B L E A N D STOINE W O R K .
M A R B L E C U T T E R S , M a le .

Augusta, Ga.......
Boston, Mass___
Charleston, S. C ..
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio..
Dallas, Tex..........
Davenport, Iowa.
Detroit, Mich___
Jacksonville, Fla.
Little Rock, Ark.
Louisville, K y _
_
Manchester, N . H
Memphis, Tenn...
Montgomery, Ala
New Orleans, La.




2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

5
46
6
20
8
3
6
11
15
4
7
3
15
9
17

a Greater New York.

4
39
6
30
7
4
6
11
17
5
5
3
15
9
15

50.40
48.00
53.00
52.45
57.00
53.33
55.33
51.27
50.00
60.00
52.29
54.00
57.67
58.89
53.59

$0.3521
.3810
.2453
.3000
.2743
.3000
.3388
.3636
.4119
.3000
.3249
.2685
.2761
.2320
.3176

149

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T

able

IV.—V E R A G E W AGES AN D H OURS OF LAB O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

M A R B L E A N D S T O N E W O R K —Concluded.
.TIAUBLE C U T T E R S , Male-Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

New York, N . Y .(« )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Worcester, Mass...............................................

3
3
2
2
2
4
' 2

63
15
8
9
2
10
3

76
13
7
9
2
10
3

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

44.00
49.33
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

44.00
49.38
50.57
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.6250
.3472
.4410
.4722
.3438
.4625
.4383

$0.6250
.3488
.4405
.4722
.3438
.4656
.4600

48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
47.25
48.00
56.27
46.40
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
53.25
48.00

$0.4028
.3750
.3750
.3907
.5343
.4839
.4110
.3421
.3013
.4432
.4519
.4375
.5208
.3668
.3455
.3750
.5625
.5156
.4000
.4500
.2996
.3826

$0.4183
.3750
.4030
.3829
.5378
.5063
.4129
.3507
.2864
.4469
.4773
.4375
.5179
.3700
.3745
.3750
.5625
.5625
.4000
.4500
.2842
.3979

48.00
44.62
48.00
44.00
48.00
49.83
44.00
44.59
47.14
48.50
44.73
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
46.22
48.00
48.00
50.22

$0.4500
.4500
.5000
.5000
.5000
.4610
.5636
.5000
.4815
.4758
.5026
. 4500
.6000
.5000
.4000
.5773
.5877
.5000
.4250
.5625
.5125
.5000
.4287

$0.5000
.4500
.5000
.5625
.5000
.4675
.5640
.5000
.4895
.4838
.5439
. 4500
.6000
.5000
.4536
.5575
.5722
.5000
.4250
.5625
.5300
.5000
.4287

1905.

S T O N E C U T T E R S , G R A N I T E , M a le .

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Augusta, Ga......................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ........... :..................................
Quincy, Mass.....................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

3
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
3
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2

54
9
67
7
7
14
16
19
26
11
61
17
6
14
59
37
162
8
10
10
5
134

41
11
76
7
7
15
16
19
22
10
49
17
7
13
46
33
62
6
11
9
8
125

48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
47.25
48.00
55.73
46.45
44.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
52.80
48.00

S T O N E C U T T E R S , S O F T S T O N E , M a le .

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, A la..............................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Davenport, Iow a..............................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Indianapolis, in d ..............................................
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Nashville, Tenn..............................-.................
Newark, N. J .....................................................
New York, N .Y .(a )..........................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................




2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
2
2
2

55
10
56
16
32
5
14
32
27
23
39
22
7
38
15
127
137
27
10
21
12
13
9

a Greater New York.

35
13
37
16
32
6
15
34
43
24
33
24
9
33
28
88
142
26
10
18
5
15
9

48.00
44.80
48.00
44.00
48.00
50.20
44.00
44.50
47.11
48.78
44.51
48.00
44.00
48.00
48.00
44.00
44.00
44.00
48.00
45.71
48.00
48.00
50.22

150

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able I V ___A V E R A G E W AG ES AND H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

Y I jAJXING M IM A
C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber ol employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md..................................................
Boston, Mass........................... ........................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, O hio................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Lake Charles, L a...............................................
Louisville, K y ...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................. .'............................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y.(<»).........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Racine, W is................., ....................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
San Francisco, Cal...........................................
St. Louis, Mo............................................ .......
Terre Haute, Ind..............................................

2
3
2
4
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
6
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2

31
47
24
59
45
23
82
12
6
26
30
13
37
151
11
25
37
46
19
10
27
73
18

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

28
45
23
60
47
24
78
13
8
26
38
13
42
148
13
24
37
46
16
9
34
76
16

59.16
55.98
53.42
60.00
54.36
57.48
50.68
55.00
55.00
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
49.68
60.00
60.00
54.00
51.78
59.58
56.40
48.00
60.00
56.22

59.14
56.00
50.83
60.00
54.30
57.75
50.67
55.00
54.75
54.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
50.77
60.00
60.00
54.00
51.65
59.63
57.33
48.00
60.00
55.56

, $0.2257
1 .2755
.3500
.2329
.2703
.2454
.3413
.2458
.2732
.2392
.1918
; .2519
.2613
. 3518
.2432
.1779
I .2841
| .4069
1 .2293
.2022
.4421
.2736
1 .2525

$0.2319
.2798
.3596
.2336
.2737
.2505
.3456
.2442
.2806
.2523
.2008
.2519
.2579
.3361
.2538
.1808
.2843
.4079
.2438
.2019
.4467
.2734
.2438

54
27
80
30
28
16
216
20
36
155
60
23
73
63
156
12
16
108
37
8

59.64
60.00
60.00
56.14
51.16
55.00
65.25
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.77
54.07
60.00
60.00
58.20
54.00
59.83
48.00
59.75

59.54 $0.0985
60.00
.1573
60.00
.1472
56.40
.1607
51.71
.1768
55.00
.1417
65.33
.1427
54.00
.1289
60.00
.1403
60.00
.1700
60.00
.1095
54.00
.1462
54.34
.1879
60.00
.1572
60.00
.1434
58.50
.1808
54.00
.1784
59 83
.1406
48.00
.2634
59.75
.1525

$0.1034
.1639
.1487
.1618
.1729
.1481
.1428
.1275
.1492
.1740
.1225
.1621
.1826
.1606
.1440
.1799
.1840
.1414
.2475
.1617

59.31
58.00
50.67
60.00
60.00
57.13
54.29
58. 41
51.00
55.00
62.60
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00

$0.2261
.2462
.3377
.2413
.1857
.2885
.2833
.2426
.2832
.2589
.1938
..2444
.1857
.2213
.1896
.1704
.2507

1905.

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Buffalo. N. Y ....................................................
Cadillac, Mich....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Detroit Mich....................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Lake Charles, La...............................................
Louisville', K y...................................................
Milwaukee, Wis.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................

2
4
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
7
3
3
2
2
3
2
2

59
31
61
28
31
6
201
18
30
152
59
39
60
45
144
10
15
108
21
8

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

Atlanta, Ga..........
Baltimore, Md___
Boston, Mass.......
Buffalo N. Y ........
Cadillac, Mich.......
Chicago, 111...........
Cincinnati, Ohio...
Cleveland, Ohio__
Detroit, Mich.......
Indianapolis, Ind.
Lake Charles, L a ..
Louisville, K y___
Milwaukee, W is...
Minneapolis, Minn
Montgomery, Ala.
Muscatine, Iowa...
New Orleans, L a ..




2
3
2
4
2
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
2

15
45
18
25
31
22
38
21
35
12
30
24
39
48
12
57
39

a Greater New York.

16
42
15
23
35
23
41
17
32
14
30
21
42
50
12
58
39

59.33
58.09
53.39
60.00
60.00
54.00
54. 34
58.52
51.14
55.00
62.60
54.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
60.00
54.00

$0.2124
. 2431
. 3132
.2390
.1865
.2771
.2822
.2436
.3041
.2521
.1913
.2375
.1813
.2185
.1833
.1719
.2303

151

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I V . — A V E R A G E W AGES A N D HOURS OF LAB O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES—Continued.
P L A N IN G

M I L L — Concluded.

MACHINE WOODWORKERS) Male—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

New York, N. Y .(« )..........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Saginaw, Mich...................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................

8
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

72
10
109
11
19
20
58
52
126
26
8

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

52.24
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
59. 45
54.00
60.00
59.67
48.00
55.88

52.56
60.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
59. 41
54.00
60.00
59.62
48.00
55.43

$0.3080
.2125
.1537
.2902
.3822
.2132
.2519
.2635
.1448
.4628
.2689

$0.3167
.2273
.1525
.2974
.3828
.2124
. 2533
.2680
.1456
.4618
.2679

59.50
57.18
60.00
54.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
51.74
60.00
60.00
54.00
60.00
48.00

59.50
56.73
60.00
54.00
56.31
60.00
54.00
53.45
60.00
60.00
54.00
60.00
48.00

10.1598
.2174
.2306
.2733
.2843
.1871
.2525
.3074
.2000
.1643
.2542
.2587
.3984

$0.1641
.2197
.2306
.2740
.2932
.2004
.2576
.2915
.1950
.1684
.2521
.2591
.4018

79
11
115
12
21
17
59
52
127
27
7

1905.

SAW YERS, CIRCULAR, Male.
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md..................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Chicago, III........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New Orleans, L a ...............................................
New York, N. Y .(« ) ........................................
North Tonawanda, N. Y ..................................
Oshkosh, W is....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
St. Louis, Mo................................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................

P R IN T IN G A N D

2
3
3
2
2
2
2
7
3
3
2
2
2

6
11
9
10
12
12
11
23
4
23
12
23
8

6
11
9
12
13
17
11
29
5
23
11
22
7

P U B L IS H IN G , B O O K

AN D

JO B .

BOOKBINDERS, Male.
Albany, N. Y .........................
Atlanta, Ga............................
Birmingham, Ala...................
Boston, Mass.........................
Buffalo, N. Y ..........................
Butte, Mont...........................
Charleston, S. C.....................
Chicago, 111.............................
Cincinnati, Ohio.....................
Cleveland, Ohio.....................
Dallas, Tex.............................
Denver, Colo...........................
Des Moines, Iow a...................
Detroit, Mich.........................
Dubuque, Iow a......................
Indianapolis, In d...................
Little Rock, Ark....................
Los Angeles, Cal....................
Louisville, K y ........................
Minneapolis, Minn.................
New Haven, Conn..................
New Orleans. L a....................
New York, N. Y .(a )..............
Norfolk, V a ............................
Omaha, Nebr.........................
Philadelphia, P a....................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa.
Richmond, V a ........................
St. Louis, Mo.........................
St. Paul, Minn.......................
San Antonio, Tex..................
San Francisco, Cal.................
Seattle, W ash.........................




2
2
2
2
.2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

47
7
4
11
12
2
9
89
31
14
12
8
5
27
3
27
3
13
14
8
13
12
38
5
n
23
11
14
43
27
7
28
2

a Greater New York.

52
6
4
11
11
2
9
98
33
14
16
11
5
29
3
27
3
14
14
14
13
12
45
6
10
30
11
13
43
28
7
28
2

53.11
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
50.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.38
54.00
54.00
54.16
54.80
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.15
53.00
54.00
48.00

52 62
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
50.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.14
54.00
54.00
54.13
55.33
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.18
53.00
54.00
48.00

$0.3710
.2513
.3195
.3190
.2917
.6250
.2922
.3064
.2730
.2837
.3561
.3802
.3259
.2960
.2412
.3232
.3426
.3248
.2943
.3208
.2920
.2824
.3805
.2851
.3148
. 3365
.3215
.2659
.2879
.3316
.3181
.3080
.3125

$0.3908
.2639
.3426
.3190
.3072
.6250
.2922
.2998
.2823
.2837
.3390
.3902
.3259
.3005
.2412
.3241
.3519
.3287
.2877
.3262
.2963
.2793
.3735
.2837
.3259
.3093
.3064
.2785
.2811
.3363
.3288
.3690
.3125

152
T ab le

BULLETIN OE THE BUREAU OE LABOR,

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D J O B —Continued.
B O O K B I N D E R S , M a le —Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­
ber of
estabments.

Locality.

Number of
employees.
1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

1904.

2
2
2

4
3

5
3

6

6
6

11

54.00
48.00
53.50
54.00
54.00
53.83
59.00
53.00

54.00
48.00
53. 50
54.00
54.00
53.75
54.00
53.00

$0.3426
.3229
.2975
.2685
.3064
.3099
.2373
.2956

SO 3407
.
.3715
.2975
.2840
.3169
.3157
.2629
.2993

152
23
51
23
131
31
4
12
123
31
30
24
31
13
16
7
7
12
46
18
20
8
25
51
8
15
26
8
31
20
188
32
18
12
132
37
15
26
22
165
20
14
17
46
9
12
13
13
17
10
9
23
21
7
10

50.08
54.00
55.22
54.00
51.65
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
52.29
53.20
56.31
54.00
54.00
57.11
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
53.58
57.75
54.00
53.37
50.81
54.57
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.98
53.50
50.20
53.00
51.00
50.71
48.00
54.00
53.55
54.00
53.45
53.70
52.96
53.00
54.00
54.00

50.76
54.00
55.41
54.00
51.90
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
52.29
53.43
56.08
54.00
54.00
52.35
54.00
54.00
54.00
55.00
54.00
53.50
56.25
54.00
49.05
50.68
54.50
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
53.97
53.35
51.14
53.00
48.39
47.67
48.00
54.00
53.54
54.00
53.40
53.67
49.04
53.00
54.00
54.00

$0.3470
.2485
.3142
.3255
.3134
.3148
.6250
.2963
.3613
.3366
.3220
.3915
.4268
.2963
.3192
.2877
.3383
.2627
.3321
.3333
.3385
.3375
.3713
.2949
.2697
.3148
.3333
.1853
.3227
.3370
.4133
.3015
.3344
.3061
.3332
.3244
.4153
.3084
.2765
.3335
.3447
.3808
.3491
.3825
.3430
.4627
.2978
.2693
.2972
.3304
.3450
.2929
.3019
.2732
.2884

$0.3545
.2504
.3172
.3257
.3074
.3241
.6406
.3009
.3494
.3360
.3281
.3754
.4268
.2963
.3194
.2877
.3369
.2651
.3327
.3333
.3664
.3470
.3637
.2961
.2636
.3148
.3333
.2055
.3261
.3782
.4387
.3022
.3313
.3071
.3341
.3243
.4295
.3105
.2963
.3604
.3486
.3785
.3219
.4221
.3661
.4497
.3041
.2991
.3050
.3375
.3472
.3163
.3082
.2752
.3028

lioVk
u sd-

Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa..............................................

2

2
2
2
2

6

9
4
5

11
6

5
9

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

COMPOSITORS, Male.
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y ........................, ..........................
Butte, Mont.......................................................
Charleston, S. C
-.................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich....................................................
Dubuque, Iowa..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Lynn, Mass........................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
New Haven, Conn.................. ...........................
New Orleans, La...............................................
New York, N .Y .(o ) .........................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Richmond, V a....................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a .....................................................
Seattle, Wash.....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W .V a................................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................
Wilmington, Del................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
2
3
2
5
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
4
3
2
2
5
2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

121
18
59
19
126
23
4
11
122
26
27
18
35
13
17
7
5
13
45
16
27
8
21
54
6
16
26
8
34
19
193
28
17
17
110
29
9
26
28
164
22
15
8
46
7
12
12
11
17
11
10
23
19
8
7

a Greater New York.

153

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOB, 1890 TO 1905,

T able IV.—V E R A G E W AGES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y C ITIES—Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , B O O K A N D JOB-Concluded.
SEW ERS, ROOK, Fem ale.
Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabHaL
nsnments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New York, N. Y.(<*).........................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a...........................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a...............................................

2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

11
12
20
5
22
17
4
19
8
19
30
4
21
20
14
8
14
6
12
9
6
19
13
6

12
18
20
5
24
17
4
19
8
21
29
4
19
18
13
9
16
6
12
14
7
18
14
6

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905. -

52.91
55.33
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.33
53.00
51.00
54.00
54.00
53.69
53.00

53.00
54.89
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
48.00
54,00
54.00
54.00
53.25
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
54.00
53.33
53.00
51.00
54.29
54.00
53.71
53.00

$0.1446
.1146
.1162
.1111
.1931
.1404
.1435
.1689
.1053
.1218
.1140
.1667
.1843
.1060
.1361
.1192
.1164
.1465
.0998
.1765
.0941
.0907
.1268
.1053

$0.1392
.1198
.1217
.1061
.2069
.1388
.1435
.1722
.1188
.1279
.1147
.1667
.1749
.1132
.1417
.1173
.1157
.1473
.0998
.1723
.0899
.0977
.1278
.1116

P R IN T IN G A N D P U B L IS H IN G , N E W S P A P E R S .
COMPOSITORS, Male.
2
10
Albany, N. Y .....................................................
2
15
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
4
94
Baltimore, Md...................................................
2
13
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
"Boston, Mass........................ ............................
3
236
2
46
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................
2
15
Butte, Mont.......................................................
3
114
Chicago, 111........................................................
3
55
Cincinnati, Ohio............. ..................................
2
26
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
2
16
Dallas, Tex.......................................................
2
12
Denver, Colo......................................................
2
22
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
2
3
Dubuque, Iowa..................................................
2
7
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
2
4
Fall River, Mass...............................................
2
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
19
2
17
Harrisburg. P a..................................................
2
38
Indianapolis, Ind...............................................
2
6
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
2
27
Jersey City, N. J ...............................................
2
19
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
2
48
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
2
12
Louisville, K y ....................................................
2
15
Lynn, Mass........................................................
2
3
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
2
27
Milwaukee, W is..................................................
2
39
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
2
6
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
2
21
Nashville, Tenn.................................................
2
5
New Haven, Conn.............................................
2
53
New Orleans, L a...............................................
4
168
New York, N. Y .(a )..........................................
2
5
Norfolk, V a........................................................
2
16
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
2
7
Peoria, 111..........................................................
4
88
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
2
44
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
12
2
Portland, Me.....................................................
2
29
Portland, Oreg..................................................
2
19
Providence, R. I ................................................
a Greater New York.




10
17
104
17
275
48
15
117
57
24
23
13
22
4
7
4
21
17
33
11
26
17
39
14
16
6
27
37
8
21
5
56
223
7
16
7
86
42
14
41
19

50.40
49.60
50.17
54.00
42.00
48.00
45.00
49.25
48.00
48.00
48.00
47.17
48.00
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.21
54.00
48.00
45.00
48.00
51.95
52.75
48.42
47.00
50.00
48.00
45.90
48.00
48.00
50.40
48.45
48.57
48.00
48.00
56.00
48.91
47.73
49.17
48.00
49.26

50.40
48.00
50.19
51.88
42.00
48.00
45.00
49.28
48.00
48.00
48.00
47.23
48.00
51.00
48.00
48.00
48.24
54.00
48.00
44.73
48.00
51.82
52.62
48.50
47.00
50.00
48.00
45.68
48.00
48.00
50.40
48.36
48.47
48.00
48.00
56.00
49.21
47.71
49.43
48.00
49.26

$0.3627
.4037
.4369
.4192
.5745
.4525
.7022
.6070
.5247
.4960
.4865
.5664
.3711
.3072
.4171
.3125
.4084
.2516
.4583
.4167
.4344
.3262
.4599
.5138
.4050
.3009
.4213
.4628
.3333
.4643
.4217
.5804
'. 5765
.3917
.4492
.3820
.4215
.6091
.3381
.5884
.3905

$0.3627
.4265
.4400
.4313
.5743
.4519
.7022
.6091
.5253
.4878
.4920
.5647
.4018
.3088
. o iz o

.4095
.2516
.4583
.4935
.4383
.3491
.5184
.5029
.4070
.3457
.4213
.4635
.3521
.4643
.4217
.5804
.5837
.3780
.4492
.3682
.4196
.6090
.3363
.5899
.3905

154
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR

IV.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , N E W S P A P E R S —Continued.
COMPOSITORS, Male—
Concluded.

Locality.

Richmond, Va.......... .
Rochester, N. Y ........
St. Louis, Mo............
St. Paul, Minn...........
Salt Lake City, Utah.
San Antonio, Tex___
San Francisco, C al...
Scranton, P a.............
Seattle, W adi.......... .
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...
Syracuse, N. Y ..........
Tacoma, W ash......... .
Tampa, F la...............
Terre Haute, Ind......
Toledo, Ohio............ .
Topeka, Kans............
Washington, D. C_
_
Wheeling, W .V a.......
Wilmington, Del.......
Worcester, Mass........

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish. ments. 1904. 1905.
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

10
50
59
19
11
10
17
10
39
6
32
12
13
16
24
20
57
8
11
19

12
56
63
22
11
10
24
10
44
6
33
11
11
16
25
25
53
8
10
19

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

52.20
48.00
45.00
53.42
48.55
48.90
45.00
48.00
43.72
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.46
48.00
49.88
48.00
43.32
48.00
52.36
48.00

52.00
48.00
45.25
50.55
48.55
48.90
45.00
48.00
43.86
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.55
48.00
47.04
48.00
43.53
48.00
52.80
48.00

$0.3646
.3833
.5442
.4097
.5641
.4469
.6667
.4063
.6011
.3820
.4290
.5313
.2521
.3985
.3942
.4037
.5801
.4536
.2721
.4432

$0.3541
.4014
.5924
.4623
.5641
.4563
.6667
.4063
.6302
.3889
.4299
.5341
.3712
.3985
.4149
.4063
.6046
.4536
..2764
.4432

48.00
45.00
42.40
44.31
42.00
48.00
45.00
48.67
49.77
48.00
48.00
40.13
46.91
48.00
47.28
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.47
54.00
48.00
42.00
48.00
50.92
45.73
48.52
46.83
48.00
48.00
42.00
43.29
48.00
53.54
47.78
48.64
48.00
48.00
56.00
46.04
47.38
48.00
45.10
51.00
48.00
50.33
47.13
49.94
45.00

$0. 4241
.7383
.5370
.4727
.6193
.4634
.7091
.5887
.6899
.5296
.4932
.8464
.6095
.3920
.5642
.3542
.4279
.3750
.4233
.3842
.4583
.5953
.4555
.6612
.6405
.4975
.4128
.3438
.4552
.5808
.6086
.4727
.4045
.6804
.6040
.3802
.4813
.3912
.5918
.6081
.5875
.5292
.4231
.4117
.4310
.6264
.5070
.6686

$0.4236
.7280
.5389
.5000
.6201
.4555
.7091
.5781
.<6789
.5285
.5059
.8781
.6104
,4163
.5467
.3525
.4239
.3750
.4227
.4193
.4583
.6453
.4555
.5362
.7030
.4988
.4167
.3516
.4552
.5718
.6168
.4762
.4009
.6714
.6083
.3792
.4813
.3833
.5709
.6079
.5878
.5529
.4306
.4236
.4843
.6607
.5065
.6685

1905.

LINOTYPE OPERATORS, Male.
Albany, N. Y ........................
Atlanta, Ga..........................
Baltimore, Md.......................
Birmingham, Ala..................
Boston, Mass........................
Buffalo, N. Y........................
Butte, Mont..........................
Charleston, S. C ....................
Chicago, 111...........................
Cincinnati, Ohio...................
Cleveland, Ohio....................
Dallas, Tex...........................
Denver, Colo.........................
Des Moines, Iow a.................
Detroit, Mich........................
Dubuque, Iowa.....................
Duluth, Minn........................
Fall River, Mass...................
Grand Rapids, Mich.............
Harrisburg, Pa.....................
Indianapolis, Ind..................
Jacksonville, F la..................
Jersey City, N. J ...................
Little Rock, Ark..................
Los Angeles, Cal...................
Louisville, K y.......................
Lynn, Mass...........................
Manchester, N. H .................
Milwaukee, W is....................
Minneapolis, Minn................
Montgomery, Ala.................
Nashville, Tenn....................
New Haven, Conn................
New Orleans, La..................
New York, N. Y .(» ).............
Norfolk, Va...........................
Omaha, Nebr........................
Peoria, 111..............................
Philadelphia, P a ...................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa
Portland, Oreg.....................
Providence, R. I...................
Richmond, Va.......................
Rochester, N. Y ....................
St. Paul, Minn......................
Salt Lake City, Utah............
San Antonio, T ex.................
San Francisco, Cal................




2
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2

17
25
82
11
121
32
11
10
68
57
49
20
20
14
54
12
19
9
18
11
32
13
15
10
26
18
10
7
23
34
9
16
12
39
192
8
40
13
90
72
30
31
14
25
14
27
16
35

a Greater New York.

18 .48.00
24 44.64
89 42.44
13 44.73
132 42.00
35 48.00
11 45.00
12 48.70
71 49.81
57 48.00
46 48.00
24 39.90
22 47.10
15 48.00
50 47.33
13 48.00
22 48.00
10 48.00
15 48.61
12 54.00
56 48.00
17 42.92
15 48.00
12 45.60
37 45.92
21 48.50
12 46.80
8 48.00
23 48.00
36 42.00
14 43.33
21 48.00
13 53.00
45 46.36
193 48.58
10 48.00
40 48.00
14 56.00
92 46.07
63 47.42
37 48.00
31 45.29
16 51.00
30 48.00
18 53.29
24 47.22
17 50.06
37 45.00

155

WAGES AND HOURS OB' LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T able I V _ A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
_
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, BY CITIES— Continued.

P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , N E W S P A P E R S —Concluded.
LINOTYPE OPERATORS, m ale—Concluded.
Average
hours per
week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Scranton, P a .....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Tampa, F la.......................................................
Terre Haute, Ind........ ......................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1904.

1905.

1904.

10
38
6
21
14
5
11
22
12
50
18
18

48.00
44.88
48.00
48.00
48.00
49.20
48.00
49.71
48.00
43.53
48.00
48.00

48.00
43.58
48.00
48.00
48.00
49.20
48.00
40.64
48.00
43.56
48.00
48.00

$0.4213
.6122
.3959
.4311
.5375
.5611
.3944
.3955
.3959
.5851
.4583
.4769

$0.4229
.6393
.3959
.4311
.5402
.7833
.3944
.4186
.3959
.6054
.4583
.4769

2
10
19
2
51
5
2
2
30
18
9
6
7
4
14
4
2
4
4
8
2
2
6
4
9
6
3
7
68
2
10
5
35
9
3
7
13
5
6
15
6
3
12
2
12
3
2
2
7
3
7
3
4

52.00
48.00
41.65
51.00
42.00
52.80
56.00
48.50
48.00
50.12
35.60
42.00
47.43
52.00
49.00
48.00
48.00
53.00
54.00
48.00
45.50
50.50
48.00
45.50
56.33
54.00
60.67
53.00
43.66
48.00
55.20
56.00
46.40
52.33
53.00
49.33
49.00
50.40
40.80
48.00
51.50
41.33
45.00
55.00
57.00
44.00
52 00
48.50
50.14
48.00
48.00
48.00
52.00

52.00
48.00
42.32
51.00
42.00
52.80
56.00
48.50
48.00
49.00
37.33
42.00
47.43
52.00
48.86
48.00
48.00
51.00
54.00
48.00
45.50
50.50
48.00
45.50
56.33
54.00
60.67
53.00
42. 51
48.00
55.20
56.00
46.40
52.33
53.00
49.14
j
1 49.00
50.40
1 40.00
i 45.00
! 50.33
; 41.33
45.00
, 52.00
' 53.50
i 44 00
! 52 00
| 48.50
|i 46.71
I 53.33
! 51.43
1 48.00
i 52.00
1

10.4063
.4375
.4755
.3704
.6095
.4107
.5938
.2566
.4629
.3477
.6063
.3571
.4076
.3578
.3913
.3802
.3646
.3962
.2408
.4696
.4694
.3573
.3720
.3684
.3651
.2965
.3678
.3967
.6466
.2604
.3732
.2500
.4155
.3542
.2880
.4375
.4524
.2560
.4159
.4451
.3993
.5282
.5444
1.2278
.3828
.5328
.5417
.4426
. 3492
.5139
.4836
.3472
.3958

$0.4063
.4375
.4682
.3965
.6088
.4161
.5938
.2566
.5052
.3983
.5938
.3552
.4076
.3672
.3979
.3906
.3750
.3944
.2616
.4792
.4694
.4442
.4474
.3694
.3651
.2963
.3678
.3967
.6580
.2813
.3732
.2500
.4201
.3542
.3403
.4733
.5058
.2805
.4435
.4926
.3947
.5157
.5444
.2361
.3616
.5407
.5938
.4426
.3750
.5139
.4857
.3472
.3958

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

9
32
6
21
15
5
11
21
12
45
18
18

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

STEREOTYPERS, Male.
Albany, N. Y.....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala...............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y.....................................................
Butte, Mont......................................................
Charleston, S. C................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Dallas, Tex........................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iowa.............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Fall River, Mass...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Harrisburg, Pa..................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New Orleans, La..........................................
New York, N. Y .(a)..........................................
Norfolk, V a.......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I................................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
San Antonio, Tex..............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, Wash....................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, Wash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................




2
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
10
17
2
50
5
2
2
30
17
10
6
7
4
12
4
2
3
4
7
2
2
10
4
9
6
3
7
67
2
10
5
35
9
3
6
13
5
5
15
4
3
12
2
10
3
2
2
7
3
7
3
4

« Greater New York.

156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T a b l e I V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H OURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

STREETS A N D SEW ER S, CO NTRACT W ORK.
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabnsnments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Albany, N. Y .....................................................
Atlanta, Ga.......................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................
BostonT Mass.....................................................
Buffalo, N. Y.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................
Des Moines, Iow a..............................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Dubuque, Iowa..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal...............................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New York, N. Y .(o ).........................................
Norfolk, V a......„..............................................
Peoria, III..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I................................................
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, Va...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah........................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a......................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N. Y ..................................................
Tacoma, W ash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................
Trenton, N. J .....................................;..............
Washington, D. C.............................................
Wheeling, W. V a...............................................
Wilmington, Del...............................................

2
2
2
2
2
4
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
2
6
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

116
138
155
281
367
317
1,020
118
293
146
225
371
31
118
113
160
394
59
135
295
181
650
552
143
166
1,283
189
113
539
77
68
299
365
238
205
50
164
52
164
401
155
198
66
422
20
87

Average
hours per
week.
1904.

114 55.08
82 60.00
184 48.00
273 60.00
414 59.72
279 60.00
657 56.87
156 59.31
298 60.00
158 54.00
204 54.00
347 60.00
19 59.00
112 60.00
107 60.00
254 58.88
435 55.89
60 60.00
139 59.56
222 60.00
232 60.00
490 60.00
540 59.30
111 60.00
107 60.00
1,363 60.00
175 60.00
249 59.10
465 60.00
91 59.73
80 59.12
392 48.00
330 60.00
230 48.00
230 48.00
50 60.00
168 49.10
71 60.00
138 59.00
348 49.62
176 55.16
260 53.45
80 60.00
494 54.30
24 54.00
65 55.86

1905.

Average wages
per hour.
1904.

55.32 $0.1688
60.00
.1067
48.00
.1982
60.00
.1141
.2002
59.80
.1532
60.00
.2164
56.77
.1775
58.76
.1788
60.00
54.00
. 2179
.1944
54.00
60.00
.1681
.1821
59.63
60.00 ; .1939
.1750
60.00
59.22
.1745
.1949
56.03
60.00
.1818
59.57
.1530
60.00
.1953
.1444
60.00
60.00
.1513
57.64
.1580
60.00
.1262
.1651
60.00
60.00
.1555
.1572
60.00
.2172
59.33
60.00
.1568
59.65
.1808
59.13
.1369
.2127
48.00
.2200
60.00
48.00
.2500
48.00
.2866
.1500
60.00
48.00
.2506
.2000
60.00
.1657
59.00
.2557
50.19
55.23
.1635
.2022
51.00
.1500
60.00
54.46
.1631
.1944
54.00
57.42
.1480

1905
$0.1672
.1181
.1987
.1210
.1998
.1553
.2268
.1827
.1813
.2143
.1944
.1803
.1788
.2107
.1750
.1838
.1948
.1958
.1671
.1938
.1456
.1514
.1646
.1356
.1750
.1571
.1552
.2243
.1576
.1863
.1354
.2125
.2295
.2500
.2850
.1500
.2565
.2000
.1814
.2523
.1633
.2503
.1500
.1654
.1944
.1412

ST R E E T S A N D SE W E R S, M U N IC IP A L W O RK .
L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Albany, N. Y ___
Atlanta, Ga.........
Augusta, Ga.......
Baltimore, Md_
_
Birmingham, Ala.
Boston, Mass___
Buffalo, N. Y ___
Butte, Mont........
Charleston, S. C ..
Chicago, 111..........
Cincinnati, Ohio..
Cleveland, O hio..
Balias, Tex..........
Denver, Colo.......
Des Moines, Iowa
Detroit, Mich___




1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

95
50
54
401
39
390
201
60
86
803
61
862
10
72
218
492

a Greater New York.

112
51
82
360
33
692
273
62
90
881
-88
1,111
18
104
243
269

48.00
60.00
60.00
48.00
63.59
44.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
55.71
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48 00
48.00

48.00
60.00
60.00
48.00
63.64
44.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
56.09
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.2063
.1062
.1211
.2083
.0846
.2741
.1875
.3750
.1142
.1746
.2188
.2039
.1875
.2500
.2557
.2188

$0.2063
.1138
. 1155
.2083
.0871
.2736
.1875
.3750
.1156
.1724
.2188
.2192
.2188
.2500
.2536
.2188

157

WAGES AND HOUES OF LABOE, 1890 TO 1905.
T able

IV.—
AVEE A G E W AGES AN D H OUES OF LA B O E , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Continued.

STREETS

AN D

S E W E R S , M U N IC IP A L

W O R K — Concluded.

L A B O R E R S , M a le —Concluded.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Dubuque, Iow a..................................................
Duluth, Minn.....................................................
Evansville, In d.................................................
Fall River, Mass...............................................
Grand Rapids, Mich.........................................
Harrisburg, P a..................................................
Hartford, Conn............................ ....................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................. .............
Kansas City, Mo...............................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................
Louisville, K y...................................................
Lynn, Mass. I ....................................................
Manchester, N. H ..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................
Mobile, Ala........................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................
Nashville, Tenn................................................
New Haven, Conn.............................................
New York, N. Y. (a).........................................
Norfolk, V a .......................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................
Peoria, 111..........................................................
Philadelphia, P a ...............................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, Pa...........................
Portland, Me.....................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................
Providence, R. I ............................................ ..
Racine, W is.......................................................
Richmond, V a...................................................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................
Salt Lake City, U tah........................................
San Antonio, Tex.............................................
San Francisco, Cal............................................
Scranton, P a.....................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................
Sioux Falls, S. Dak...........................................
Syracuse, N . Y ..................................................
Tacoma, Wash..................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................
Toledo, Ohio.....................................................
Topeka, Kans....................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................
Washington, D. C . . . . .......... ...........................
Wheeling, W. Va...............................................
Wilkes-Barre, Pa..............................................
Wilmington, D el...............................................
Worcester, Mass................................................

1
45
1
67
1
94
1
320
1
19
1
86
1
183
1
277
1
156
1
84
1
109
1
17
1
229
1
250
1
173
1
239
1
350
1
502
1 2,168
1
38
1
30
1
160
1
158
1 2,700
1
74
1
64
1
75
1
698
1
593
1
90
1
77
1
349
1
12
1
92
1
505
1
964
1
140
1
60
1
49
1
45
1
114
1
113
1
45
1
277
1
148
1
75
1
236
1
54
1
76
1
792
1
38
1
47
1
170
1
330

46
61
99
353
25
94
167
238
140
66
116
15
229
267
202
227
367
508
2,177
42
35
170
175
2,674
86
67
45
742
653
132
67
370
16
97
421
1,330
171
62
66
48
140
125
41
268
213
83
242
60
87
1,214
43
73
198
348

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
49.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
51.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
45.33
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
56.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
60.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
49.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
54.00
60.00
54.00
54.00
50.93
54.00
48.00
48.00
45.75
48.00
54.00
48.00
60.00
54.00
56.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
48.00
60.00
48.00
54.00
48.00
48.00
48.00

$0.1549
.2500
. 1875
.2500
.1750
.1500
.2106
.2000
.1102
.3061
.2188
.1376
.2500
.1667
.2500
.1667
.1875
.2189
.2313
.1667
.0833
. 1667
.1976
.2597
.1667
.2200
.2000
.2216
.2188
.1833
.2557
.1549
.1713
.1828
.1907
.1875
.2000
.2500
.1875
.3125
.1875
.2813
.2000
.1908
.2288
.2000
.1875
.2000
. 1500
.1922
. 1944
.1875
.1901
.2353

$0.1548
.2500
. 1875
.2500
.1750
.1500
.2094
.2000
.1117
.3061
.2188
.1430
.2500
.1670
.2500
.1806
.1869
.2190
.2313
.1667
.0833
.1667
.1984
.2452
.1667
.2200
.2188
.2162
.2188
.1944
.2589
.1588
.1806
.1869
.1911
. 1875
.2000
.2500
.1875
.3125
.1875
.2813
.2000
.1902
.2298
.2000
.1875
.2000
.1500
.1947
.1944
.1875
.1875
.2352

45.75
48.00
44.00
45.19
45.67
47.66
53.42
60.00

45.70
48.00
44.00
45.37
45.78
47.85
53.41
60.00

10.4167
.3365
.2928
.3229
.3398
.3189
.2412
.29*9

10.4297
.3460
.2629
.3194
.3609
.3219
.2496
.2908

1905.

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S .
C I G A R M A K E R S , M a le .

Boston, Mass...........
Chicago, 111...............
Cleveland, Ohio........
Detroit, Mich...........
Indianapolis, I n d ...
New York, N. Y, («)
Philadelphia, P a ___
Tampa, F la..............

3
2
2
2
2
5
2
5

244
81
34
27
30
132
241
1,703

a Greater New York.
2— N o. 65— 06------11




275
78
28
35
37
143
225
1,972

158
T ab le

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

IV.—V E R A G E W A G ES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y CITIES— Concluded.

T O B A C C O , C IG A R S —Concluded.
S T E IT IM E R S , F e m a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

Locality.

Baltimore, Md...................................................
Boston, Mass.....................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................
Cleveland, Ohio.................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................
New York, N. Y. (« ).........................................
Philadelphia, P a ................................................
Pittsburg and Allegheny, P a........ ..................
Rochester, N. Y ................................................
Tampa, F la ........................................................

2
3
2
3
2
3
2
7
2
3
2
5

26
55
33
82
7
79
21
475
29
84
7
163

53
61
37
79
6
107
24
472
43
91
9
153

Average
hours per
week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

50.62
46.04
48.00
53.02
44.00
55.04
49.81
56.48
48.62
48.92
52.71
60.00

52.98
45.89
48.00
53.05
44-00
52.98
49.83
56.60
47.56
48.95
52.89
60.00

$0.0775
.1437
.1269
.1104
.1241
.0654
.0823
.1006
.0923
.1243
.0982
.1326

1905.
$0.0769
.1429
.1325
1136
.1269
.0708
.0816
.1005
.0974
.1187
0919
.1398

a Greater New York.
T ab le

V.—V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES.

A G R IC IT I/T U R A Ii IM P L E M E N T S .
M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

C a lifo rn ia .......................................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

8
357
33
61
38
48

54.00
58.66
59.89
59.83
58.59
56.88

54.00
58.61
59.88
59.84
58 53
56.83

$0.3038
. 2363
.2346
.2093
.1919
.2157

$0.3161
.2435
.2510
.2030
.2011
.2034

34
677
324
73
367

54.00
58.46
59.96
58.93
57.83

54.00
58.42
59.96
58.90
56.04

$0.3146
.2676
.2402
.1972
.2816

$0.3034
.2788
.2207
.1974
.2616

13
1,230
43
262
86
149

54.00
58.31
59.84
59.90
58.95
58.96

54.00
58.42
59.81
59.90
58.92
57.73

$0.3583
$0.3718
.2404
.2313
.2575
.3127
.2412
.2426
.3429
.3246
.3310 |j
.3302

6
470
32
62
28
104

54.00
58.75
59.91
59.93
58.76
58.27

54.00
58 71
59.91
59.92
58.61
56.64

$0.3234
.2390
.2984
.2357
.2024
.2796

2
7
2
3
3
3

8
241
36
63
37
49

Averag e wages
per l lour.

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
7
3
3
3

29
745
326
76
120

M O L D E R S , I R O N , M a le .

California..........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
W isconsin..........................................................

2
7
2
3
2
3

20
933
50
279
91
135

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Wisconsin...........................................................




2
7
2
3
3
3

4
435
32
54
33
55

$0.3063
.2453
.3211
.2350
.2108
.2589

159

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b l e V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.

B O O T S ANT'D S H O E S .
C U O S E R S -O N , F e m a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of
employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Illinois................................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massach uset t s ...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
•New York*.........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....... ............................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
3
15
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

10
14
74
22
35
29
18
32
13
13

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

55.00
58.64
55.74
54.00
58.20
59.48
54.50
59.63
58.38
59.31

55.00
58.67
55. 59
54.00
58.09
59.52
54.28
59.65
58.42
59.45

$0.1988
.1643
.2022
.1893
.1422
.1583
.1902
.1581
.1367
.1376

$0.1964
.1802
.2054
.1810
.1560
.1794
.1906
.1487
.1279
.1451

55.00
59.00
56.27
59.29
58.43
59.25
60.00
58.33
59.30

55.00
59.00
55.85
59 14
58 62
59.29
59.82
58 33
59.27

$0.2645
.2143
.2748
,2385
.2608
.2166
.2417
.2159
.2420

$0.2542
.2252
.2804
.2228
.2560
.2306
.2448
.2224
.2431

113 55.00
72 58. 77
712 55.48
64 59.52
254 58.40
129 59.34
82 55.76
115 60.00
81 58.26
40 59.70

55.00
58.76
55.03
59.50
58.40
59.34
55.59
56.57
58.25
59.73

$0.2674
.2266
.2852
.2478
.2529
.2329
.3060
.3041
.2642
.2483

$0- 2751
2487
.2910
.2517
2592
.2458
.3139
.3288
.2607
.2499

55.00
58.62
55.26
59.44
58.26
59.52
54.50
59.86
58.43
59.57

$0.4006
.2882
.3990
.2726
.3471
.2711
.4092
.2896
.3277
.2904

$0.4030
.2902
.3961
.2729
.3693
.2709
.4524
.3202
.3220
.2944

55.00
58.83
54.91
59.45
58.48
55.95
59.84
58.08
59.60

$0.5453
.3241
.4365
.2818
.3433
.3408
.3401
.2646
.3110

$0.4940
. 3199
.4405
. 2931
.3297
.3357
.3076
.2712
.3630

8
12
70
19
35
33
18
23
12
11

1905.

C U T T E R S , O U T S O U E , M a le .

Illinois....... .......................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
2
13
2
2
3
4
3
2

25
14
56
7
28
20
18
9
10

21
14
62
14
26
21
17
9
11

C U T T E R S , U P P E R , M a le .

Illinois................................................................
Maine......... ........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
15
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

128
60
677
66
220
117
84
118
74
40

E D G E T R I M M E R S , M a le .

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts. 7 . ..............................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
15
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

26
14
166
10
45
28
17
25
14
6

34
13
181
9
46
29
16
28
14
7

55.00
58.64
55.27
59.40
58.24
59.54
54.76
60.00
58.36
59.50

G O O D Y E A R S T I T C H E R S , M a le .

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................




4
3
12
2
3
6
4
3
2

27
4
118
9
48
17
15
11
4

28
6
133
11
54
19
19
12
5

55.00
58.25
54.58
59.33
58.50
56.18
60.00
58.09
59.50

160

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

T a b le V . — A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y S T A T E S -C on tin u ed .

B O O T S ANTI) S H O E S —Concluded.
L I S T E R S , M A C H I N E , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Illinois................................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
14
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

139
43
256
9
74
100
27
35
67
16

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

151
54
277
11
.76
109
26
45
71
18

55.00
58.88
55.83
58.89
58.30
59.33
54.59
60.00
58.09
59.31

55.00
58.93
55.78
59.09
58.32
59.28
54.50
59.93
58.08
59.39

$0.3251
.2244
.3317
.2697
.3217
.2106
.3082
.3056
.2002
.2909

$0.2847
.2434
.3544
.2674
.3003
.2320
.3438
.3230
.2267
.2963

53
14
324
11
42
64
10
7
14

55.00
58.69
55.00
59.40
58.60
59.66
60.00
58.00
59.67

55.00
58.64
54.98
59.36
58.57
59.69
60.00
58.00
59.71

$0.2993
.2302
.2685
.1969
.2021
.1627
.1863
.2483
.1955

$0.3019
.2468
.2774
.1935
,.2117
.1611
.1902
.2247
.2022

53
19
260
29
91
46
36
47
35
12

55.00
58.75
55.50
54.00
58.17
59.38
54.68
59.48
58.24
59.45

55.00
58.74
55.72
54.00
58.32
59.43
54.64
59.77
58.26
59.50

$0.2161
.2114
.2322
.1854
. 2210
.2084
.1873
.1743
.1593
.1741

$0.2206
.2146
.2391
.2020
.2261
.2068
.2048
.1834
.1788
.1926

54.00
54.19
59.39
60.00
56.90
57.72
55.92
56.30
56.96
60.00
59.72
56.97

54.00
53.48
58.90
56.30
55.13
57.66
54.92
56.35
57.03
60.00
59.70
59.42

$0.3443
.3651
.2765
.2515
.3110
.2555
.2425
.2566
.4111
.2521
.3303
.2770

$0.3528
.3360
.2639
.2624
.3133
.2346
.2529
.2584
.3540
.2663
.3306
.2779

54.00
55.22
59.79
60.00
55.91
55.81
55.25
59.81

54.00
54.04
56.83
56.70
54.67
56.48
55.38
59.83

$0.3833
.3374
.2907
.2446
.3378
.2527
.2907
.3592

$0.3850
.3385
.2930
.2481
.3407
.2626
.2891
.3559

1905.

T R E E R S , M a le .

Illinois................................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Ohio....................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
13
2
3
2
2
2
2

49
16
286
10
30
53
9
8
15

V A M P E R S , F e m a le .

Illinois...............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Minnesota........................................ .................
Missouri.............................................................
New Hampshire........ .......................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsyl vania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3
16
2
3
3
6
4
3
2

64
20
258
22
82
39
34
69
37
11

C A B S , S T E A M R A IL R O A D .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.............. .....................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia............................ - ...............................

3
6
4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

167
154
38
85
50
69
75
87
143
14
47
32

111
208
61
92
48
87
93
96
177
15
54
31

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

California..........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio....................................................!..............
Texas.................................................................




2
6
3
2
2
2
2
2

111
161
71
84
32
93
48
37

120
167
88
100
21
87
48
40

1

161

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T able

V . — A V E R A G E W AGES AN D H O URS OF LAB O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.

C A R S , S T E A M R A I L R O A D —Continued.
C A B I N E T M A K E R S * M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estabi ;0u
iisnments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio...................................................................

2
3
2
2
2
2

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

54.00
53.91
60.00
57.42
59.00
56.85

54.00
54.15
55.78
57.40
59.00
56.26

$0.2702
.3503
.2280
.2552
.2421
.2574

$0.2760
.3116
.2202
.2567
.2441
.2774

223
114
1,886
211
185
133
364
395
109
343
113
116
255

54.00
54.00
54.25
58.85
60.00
57.35
58.02
55.70
54.23
57.20
60.00
59.78
57.12

54.00
54.00
54.90
59.45
55.38
57.24
57.52
53.81
54.44
57.39
60.00
56.81
59.43

$0.2710
.2799
.3074
.2520
.2112
.2310
.2149
.2286
.2265
.2671
.1972
.2906
.2172

$0.2723
.2703
.2922
.2538
.2013
.2306
.2224
.2444
.2204
.2796
.1898
.2895
.2161

462
151
3,295
260
957
369
204
1,379
119
471

54.00
54.00
53.39
59.37
60.00
54.91
55.12
56.15
64.02
59.74

54. C $0.2028
O
54.00
.1453
54.31
.1654
58.94
.1430
.1394
55.91
54.29
.1433
55.47
.1437
56.46
.1376
66.38
.1115
59.75
.1426

$0.2024
.1428
.1684
.1458
.1477
.1427
.1412
.1362
.1124
.1419

54.00
53.62
58.65
57.83
59.00
56.22
57.21
56.87
60.00
59.75
56.89

54.00
54.19
59.94
57.56
59.00
53.80
57.26
56.57
60.00
57.17
59.47

$0.2703
.2716
.2346
.2212
.1970
.2236
.2035
.2520
.2000
.2691
.2211

$0.2710
.2623
.2264
.2153
.2016
.2282
.2124
.2513
.2086
.2717
.2208

390
478 54.00
22 54.00
18
875 1,082 53.63
222 59.83
195
411
510 60.00
208
233 57.02
194
206 57.30
316 55.71
299
310
271 55 45
546
677 55.71
59
73 60.00
125
130 59.81
137
134 56.23

54.00
54.00
53.04
57.27
56.04
53.45
55.46
55.62
55 71
55.55
60.00
56.50
59.53

$0.3566
.2490
.3277
.2877
.2560
.3433
.2850
.2469
.2640
.3387
.2870
.3504
.2835

$0.3575
.2600
.3216
.2909
.2694
.3444
.2839
.2532
.2573
.3396
.2880
.3527
.2844

43
695
29
19
33
150

40
373
51
15
27
106

1905.

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
O hio..................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Tennessee..........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia.............................................................

3
2
6
4
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
2

243
109
1,033
166
71
136
383
328
129
280
75
124
237

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Tennessee..........................................................
Texas.................................................................

3
2
6
4
2
3
2
2
2
2

553
154
1,675
240
323
238
246
980
174
459

M A C H I N E W O O D W O R K E R S , M a le .

Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri... ........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Tennessee..........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia.............................................................

2
5
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
2

77
260
26
23
89
46
134
67
10
24
19

84
283
35
27
86
50
170
67
11
23
19

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
Texas.................................................................
Virginia.............................................................




3
2
6
3
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2
2

162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

T able V .— A V E R A G E W A G E S A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.
CARS, STEAM

R A I L R O A D — Concluded.

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

California..........................................................
Delaware...........................................................
Illinois................................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Maryland..........................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
P
p.irnsylvfl.nia.............. ...................................
Texas............................... ........................ ........
Virginia..............................................................

1904.

1905.

1904.

83
66
428
38
89
98
111
131
222
144
43
54

54.00
54.00
53.50
59.43
60.00
57.47
58.44
54.47
56.74
57.48
59.81
56.76

54.00
54.00
54.32
58.53
56.97
57.19
57.91
51.18
56.83
57.60
57.74
59.52

$0.2870
.3001
.2828
.2344
.2093
.2318
.2075
.3126
.2201
.3044
.2784
.2107

$0.2893
.2852
.2692
.2277
.2077
.2271
.2164
.3658
.2437
.3283
.2812
.2076

54.00
53.83
59.75
60.00
57.00
59.00
57.40
59.75
55.00

54.00
54.12
59.67
55.65
56.75
59.00
57.36
55.67
59.75

$0.3152
.3464
.2152
.2185
.2293
.2380
.2443
.2875
.2220

$0.3015
.3039
.2234
.2119
.2225
.2326
.2618
.2958
.2175

64.71
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

64.71
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

$0.0756
.0776
.1130
.1204
.1073
.0805
.1186
.1192
.0675

$0.0763
.0820
.1130
.1196
.1135
.0967
.1196
.1258
.0729

65.48
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

65.48
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
58.00
66.00

$0.1415
.1370
.1981
.2191
.2084
.1518
.1613
.2037
.1299

$0.1423
.1371
.1942
.2166
.2083
.1477
.1620
.2062
.1320

65.33
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

$0.0437
.0632
.0953
.1006
.0954
.0570
.0846
.0853
.0595

$0.0462
.0731
.0941
.1055
.0966
.0720
.0872
.0983
.0746

3
3

6

4
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
2

73
49
411
28
93
88
98
114
194
141
47
49

Average wages
per hour.
1905.

U P H O L S T E R E R S , M a le .

Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Indiana...............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Minnesota........................................ .... ............
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Texas.................................................................
.........
Virginia.................................................. >

2
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

38
85
3
23
16
14
44
6
8

10
218
4
18
15
14
40
4
5

COTTOIN G O O D S .
C A R D I N G -M A C H 1 N E T E N D E R S , M a le .

A labam a............................................................
Georgia...............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina........................ .........................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................

2
5
3
6
3
2
3
2
2

7
38
33
121
64
10
19
27
38

7
41
33
120
71
10
20
26
43

L O O M F I X E R S , M a le .

Alabama......................................................... ..
G eorgia............................................................
Mfl.ine._ ................ _...........................................
Massachusetts................ .................... .............
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina..................................................
Pennsylvania................ ....................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................

2
5
3
6
3
2
2
2
2

23
52
70
179
222
22
18
83
52

23
57
68
183
225
21
18
67
52

eo.oo

S P I N N E R S , F R A M E , F e m a le .

Alabama.-............... -.......................................
Georgia..................................................-..........
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina.......... -......................................
Pennsylvania........... - .......................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................




2
5
3
6
3
2
2
2
2

139
263
196
1,003
630
73
54
138
217

175
239
245
1.096
599
66
54
116
228

65.12
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

163

WAGES AND HOURS OE LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T able

V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.
C O TTO N

G O O D S —Concluded.

S P I N N E R S , N U L E , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

3
3
2
2
2

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1905.

1904.

31
46
62
11
44

60.00
58.21
60.00
60.00
58.00

60.00
58.00
C . 00
O
60.00
58.00

SO.2010
.1992
.1908
.2283
.1965

$0.2069
.2026
.1920
.2248
.1913

146
274
197
895
908
104
61
309
240

38
48
G
3
10
45

1904.

65.71
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
68.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

65.84
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

10.0847
.1138
.1421
.1646
.1579
.1013
.1214
.1431
.1015

$0.0940
.1085
.1581
.1646
.1583
.1101
.1276
.1475
.1056

65.09
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66. C
O
60.00
58.00
66.00

64.98
66.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
66.00
60.00
58.00
66.00

$0.0776
.0941
.1331
.1489
.1518
.0929
.1248
.1368
.0773

$0.0814
.0937
.1348
.1478
.1508
.0919
.1323
.1355
.0946

1905.

W E A V E R S , M a le

Alabama............................................................
Georgia.............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina..................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................

2
5
3
6
3
2
2
2
2

166
202
266
863
896
177
49
328
199

W E A V E R S , F e m a le .

Alabama............................................................
Georgia..............................................................
Maine..................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
North Carolina.................. ..................... ........
Pennsylvania........................ ............................
Rhode Island....................................................
South Carolina..................................................

2
5
3
6
3
2
2
2
2

D Y E IN G , F IN IS H IN G , A N D

212
506
563
2,065
1,652
84
227
488
90

235
497
574
1,980
1,756
56
220
428
89

P R IN T IN G T E X T IL E S .

B L E A C H E R S , M a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsyl vania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
3
2
5

102
36
10
164

96
38
11
249

58.00
58.08
60.00
59.61

58.00
57.97
60.00
59.57

$0.1170
.1392
.1558
.1169

$0.1179
.1424
.1538
.1178

21
38
24
172

57.55
58.05
60.00
59.11

58.00
58.13
60.00
59.27

$0.1331
.1603
.1492
.1415

$0.1332
.1602
.1569
.1390

133
105
173

58.00
60.00
59.61

58.00
60.00
59.48

$0.1285
.1776
.1353

$0.1291
.1772
.1364

40
16
17
28

58.00
59.35
60.00
58.46

58.00
59.38
60.00
57.14

$0.4446
.3718
.4000
.4977

$0.4451
.3654
.4618
.4787

C A L E N D R E R S , M a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey............................. ..........................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island........................ ............................

4
3
2
5

22
37
20
131

D Y E R S , M a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

4
4
5

158
104
154

P R I N T E R S , i M a le .

Massachusetts..................................................
New Jersey.......................................................
Pennsylvania......... ..........................................
Ruode Island.....................................................




3
2
2
o

40
17
15
26

164
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y ST A T E S -O ontinu ed.

H ATS, FU R .
F I N I S H E R S , H a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

State.

New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

4
2
•5

281
195
348

Average
hours
per week.

Averag e wages
p erl lour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

278
160
376

50.27
58.59
54.97

50.31
58.53
54.97

$0.3258
.2716
.2888

$0.3470
.3025
.2880

350
202
509

50.25
57.05
55.10

50.23 $0.3028
57.97 1 .2555
54.86 | .2742

$0.3041
.2607
.2541

50.63
50.39
57.78
54.80

50.44 $0.1376
50.41
.1570
57.72 ! .1328
.1146
54.66

$0.1764
.1803
.1464
.1152

1905.

S I Z E R S , H a le .

New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

4
2
5

306
206
457

T R I M M E R S , F e m a le .

Connecticut.......................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
4
2
5

48
206
347
488

45
230
351
531

H O S IE R Y A N D K N IT G O O DS.
F I N I S H E R S , F e m a le .

New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin.....................................................

7
3
2

418
80
129

433
89
140

58.04
60.00
59.53

57.73
60.00
59.52

$0.1235
.1084
.0775

$0.1263
.1148
.0787

63
102
204
152

58.00
57.89
60.00
59.90

58.00
57.27
60.00
59.92

$0.1327
.1278
.1194
.0837

$0.1398
.1377
.1359
.0928

11
%
9
21
9
64
17
8
129
34
40

54.90
58.33
59.00
56.31
59.13
59.53
57.43
58.51
59.91
59.90

59.18
58.33
59.00
55.89
59.27
59.53
57.75
59.12
59.91
59.90

$0.2170
.2124
.1785
.1901
.1667
.1749
.2040
.2106
.1459
.1879

$0.1962
.2155
.1824
.1986
.1654
.1766
.2095
.1909
.1488
.1948

72
18
111
5
27
457

60.00
55.39
59.00
58.09
55.96
59.36

60.00
59.67
59.00
55.80
55.96
59.32

$0.1796
.1571
.1668
.1908
.1602
.1831

$0.1823
.1509
. 1670
.2365
.1777
.1805

K N I T T E R S , F e m a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
5
3
2

4
76
141
160

LEATHER.
F L E S H E B S , H a le .

Illinois................................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
Massachusetts.............. ....................................
Michigan............................................................
New Jersey........................ ...............................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Virginia..............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
4
3
2
5
4
2
10
6
4

10
9
15
13
54
17
7
138
34
39

G L A Z E R S , H a le ,

Delaware............................................................
Illinois.............................................. :...............
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




2
2
4
2
5
4

72
18
106
11
27
451

165

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.

T a b le V . — A V E R A G E W AGES A N D H OURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.
L E A T H E R — Concluded.
L i m E U S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois......... .....................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
Massachusetts..................................................
Michigan............................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio..................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Virginia.............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
2
3
4
3
2
4
6
2
5
4
5

6
8
29
24
70
8
10
33
4
102
21
101

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

57.83
60.00
56.21
59.42
59.00
58.50
56.20
57.94
57.00
58.02
59.81
59.94

57.83
60.00
59.46
59.39
59.00
58.29
56.20
57.57
57.00
57.87
59.81
59.92

$0.2076
.1521
.1886
.1265
.1624
.1731
.2305
.1691
.1878
.1958
.1220
.1655

SO 2076
.
.1667
.1799
.1292
.1627
.1765
.2332
.1751
.1852
.1967
.1231
.1673

57.00 57.00
60.00 60.00
55.03 59.47
59.00 59.00
59.37 59.28
58.48 58.54
56.40 56.31
59.10 •59.09
59.93 59.91

SO 2456
.
.1656
.2026
.1590
.1582
.1846
.2378
.1813
.1929

SO 2456
.
.1359
.2054
.1631
.1637
.1896
.2464
.1812
.2095

60.00
56.46
59.00
54.18
59.47

60.00
59.48
59.00
54.18
59.43

SO 1893
.
.1764
.1757
.1790
.2257

SO 1776
.
.1703
.1769
.1790
.2248

9
46
33
35
70
85
70
46
196
168
192

57.50
60.00
55.74
59.67
59.00
58.42
58.83
57.07
58.97
59.96
60.00

57.33
60.00
58.33
59.66
59.00
58.34
59.00
56.74
59.00
59.96
60.00

SO 2258
.
.1281
.1803
.1216
.1606
.1588
.1537
.1698
.1578
.1224
.1785

SO 2110
.
.1346
.1772
.1228
.1588
.1606
.1505
.1760
.1610
.1257
.1801

14
61
33
13
26
23
34
5
69
60
43

57.00
60.00
55.87
60.00
59.00
58.00
58.26
56.40
58.37
59.98
60.00

57.00
60.00
58.36
60.00
59.00
58.26
58.21
56.40
58.59
59.98
60.00

SO 2343
.
.1727
.2141
.1326
.1695
.1996
.1631
.2089
.2082
.1326
.1852

SO 2337
.
.1716
.2049
.134(1
.1695
.2076
.1634
.2089
,2401
.1342
.1980

6
17
26
23
80
7
10
28
4
103
21
103

1905.

S E T T E R S O U T , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio................................................ ..................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
2
2
4
3
5
3
4
4

5
15
34
46
51
52
25
40
72

6
13
15
52
47
54
26
47
77

S T A K E R S , M a le .

Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Massachusetts.............................................. ....
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3
4
3
5

31
52
57
22
243

43
44
66
22
266

T A N Y A R D H A N D S , M a le .

California..........................................................
Delaware...........................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Kentucky..........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................
Virginia.............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

2
2
3
3
3
5
5
3
10
6
4

6
37
43
36
63
89
60
41
168
163
180

U N H A 1 R E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Illinois...............................................................
Kentucky...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Virginia..............................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................




2
2
3
2
2
3
6
2
8
6
3

14
33
30
16
22
20
35
5
68
62
43

166

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB.

Table V . — A V E B A G E W AG ES A N D H O UBS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.

LUM BER.
C H O P P E R S A N D S A W Y E R S I N W O O D S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of
employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904
1905.

State.

Arkansas............................................................
California...........................................................
Florida...............................................................
Georgia..........................•....................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota..........................................................
Missouri.............................................................
W ashington.......................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
3
4
2
5
3
2
2
5

38
147
80
18
203
1,105
81
73
284

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

66.00
66.00
60.45
51.33
61.94
60.00
60.00
63.29
60.00

66.00
66.00
60.40
51.33
61.94
60.00
60.00
63.12
60.00

$0.1742
.2684
.1436
.1642
.1595
.1709
.1753
.2598
.1750

$0.1818
.2621
.1387
.1642
.1600
.1889
.1767
.2614
.1749

127 60.00
492 65.51
180 60.00
350 61.80
56 64.50
66 60.00
434 61.26
543 64.62
92 60.00
291 60.00
479 60.00
397 59.62
168 60.00
454 60.00
49 58.54
78 62.29
410 60.00
884 60.00
792 60.00

60.00
65.52
60.00
61.94
64.50
60.00
61.35
64.86
60.00
60.00
60.00
59.54
C . 00
O
60.00
58.57
62.31
60.00
60.00
60.00

$0.1185
.1429
.1985
.1225
.0885
.1442
.1587
.1368
.1568
.1593
.1892
.1458
.1650
.2033
.1808
.0747
. 1269
.1772
.1561

$0.1358
.1450
.1987
.1249
.0966
.1439
.1607
.1361
.1652
.1613
.1970
.1523
.1692
.2135
.1812
.0875
.1271
.1791
.1560

40
148
89
18
216
1,142
101
75
295

1905.

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Alabama.......................................... .................
Arkansas............................................................
California...........................................................
Florida...............................................................
Georgia..............................................................
Indiana..............................................................
Iow a...................................................................
Louisiana...........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Michigan............................................................
Minnesota...................., ....................................
Missouri.............................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Oregon...............................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
South Carolina..................................................
Tennessee...........................................................
W ashington.......................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
5
2
5
2
2
4
5
2
5
4
3
2
2
3
2
2
4
6

127
488
150
332
56
52
395
532
74
225
440
326
130
393
48
72
450
710
758

P A P E R A1STD W O O D P U L P .
B E A T E R S , M a le .

Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan...........................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania................................ ....................
Wisconsin................ .........................................

2
5
2
6
2
3
4

125
134
28
93
32
51
64

155
134
28
75
30
53
66

55.42
56.82
60.00
57.87
71.47
72.00
72.00

53.99
57.17
60.00
68.97
71.40
72.00
72.00

$0.2074
.1689
.1827
.1725
.1386
.1575
.1414

$0.2128
.1696
.1827
.1597
.1397
. 1569
,1484

28
22
35
31

66.79
60.00
66.62
66.75

66.79
60.00
65.31
66.19

$0.1725
.1936
.1606
.1412

10.1725
.1970
.1636
.1537

236
111
55
286
84
404
111

55.12
58.92
60.00
59.97
59.60
64.56
58.83

55.63
58.91
60.00
59.96
59.62
63.86
61.95

$0.1734
.1549
.1500
.1469
.1417
.1434
.1554

$0.1768
.1548
.1500
.1465
.1418
.1480
.1496

C A L E N D R E R S , M a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
3
3
4

28
22
29
32

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
New York........ .................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania... ............... _....................... .....
Wisconsin..........................................................




3
5
3
6
2
2
4

204
90
49
319
98
347
123

167

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le

V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES AND H OURS OF LAB O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Continued.

P A P E R A N D W O O D P U L P —Concluded.
M A C H IN E : T E N D E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of
employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Maine........................... . ....................................
Massachusetts...................................................
Michigan............................................................
New York..........................................................
Ohio...................................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

3
5
2
5
2
3
4

Average
hours
per week.

Average wages
per hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

53.71
57.16
60.00
61.00
71.67
72.00
72.00

53.45
58.63

68.75
71.57
72.00
72.00

SO 3007
.
.2115
.3250
.3312
.2191
.2631
.2555

$0.3088
.2242
.3250
.3068
.2344
.2757
.2685

53.53
60.00

54.31
60.00

$0.1066
.0870

$0.0974
.0923

54.00
54.00
55.64
57.87
54.00
54.45
53.67
57.38

54.00
54.00
55.75
56.00
54.00
54.45
53.57
58.37

$0.3504
.2580
.2680
.2515
.3028
.3303
.3413
.2837

$0.3448
.2523
.2656
.2608
.2937
.3303
.3440
.2812

54.79
54.00
56. 41
49.06
57.88

55.54
54.00
55.18
49.17
58.61

$0.3493
.2571
.2676
.3637
.2407

$0.3637
.2508
.2689
.3625
.2443

53.79
58.50

53.85
59.32

$0.3085
.2746

56
60
25
93
107

57.72
54.00
48.39
50.36
53.77

56.59
54.00
48.48
50.32
53.62

$0.2844
.2778
.3887
.3933
.3224

$0.2980
. 2778
.3895
.3887
.3251

242
145
158
48
104
227
320
261

55.35
54.00
57.57
54.55
51.95
50.74
53.73
57.99

58.41
54.00
56.26
54.40
52.44
50.72
53.68
59.00

$0.4117
.2927
.2481
.2967
.3273
.3833
.3015
.2959

$0.3715
.2756
.2487
.2935
.3232
.3794
.3033
.2962

68
76
10
35
12
33
24

69
72
10
32
14
33
24

eo.oo

1905.

K A O S O R T E R S , F e m a le .

Massachusetts...................................................
Wisconsin..........................................................

4
3

159
47

192
49

SH IPR U IR D H STG .
B L A C K S M I T H S , M a le .

California................................-.........................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
3
2
2
2
4
3

51
16
25
23
14
11
15
56

41
22
16
17
21
11
14
43

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania.......................................... . . . . . .

2
2
2
2
3

38
27
59
53
165

39
42
65
48
118

C A L K E R S , I R O N , M a le .

Nf»w York........................................................ .
Pennsylvania. . . . . . . . . ... ................................

2
3

14
220

20
269

C A L K E R S , W O O D , M a le .

Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................

3
2
3
2
7

98
47
31
112
93

C A R P E N T E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts........... .......................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




3
3
4
3
3.
3
7
3

93
90
311
47
88
258
317
160

168
T able

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES A N D HOURS OF L A B O R , 1904 A N D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y S T A T E S -C on tin u ed .
S H I P B U I X iD I N T G — Continued.
D R I L L E R S , M a le .

Average
hours
per week.

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
estab|,*0L
nsnments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Delaware............................................................
Maine. ............................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

1904.

1905.

1904.

, 42
82
20
381

54.00
55.10
53.77
59.12

54.00
55.10
53.70
59.62

30.1694
.1857
.2218
.2467

10.1570
.1817
.2286
.2345

43
55
35
37
215

54.00
55.60
54.00
53.75
57.50

54.00
55.44
54.00
53.73
57.87

30.2494
.2465
.3233
.3025
.2365

$0.2375
.2630
.3060
.3077
.2379

168
154
20
169
69
22
85
174

54.59
54.00
57.33
55.41
52.55
56.92
54.22
56.76

54.29
54.00
57.20
55.84
52.78
57.27
54.12
58.99

30.3575
.2600
.2490
.2727
.3259
.2875
.3157
.2719

30.3658
.2612
.2500
.2639
.3301
.2875
.3167
.2772

217
262
69
329
68
289
594

55.24
54.00
55.26
57.39
54.00
54.57
56.19

57.32
54.00
55.26
57.70
54.00
54.15
57.03

30.2261
.1435
.1774
.1394
.1997
.1751
.1479

30.2145
. 1422
.1804
. 1353
.2014
.1748
.1484

484 54.08
128 54.00
87 56.43
93 54.00
77 51.77
73 53.27
569 57.75

54.09
54 00
57.56
54.00
51.36
53.26
58.63

30.3460
.2766
.2704
.2796
.3203
.2729
.2517

30.3326
.2806
.2603
. 2831
.3260
.3119
.2538

67
207
12
71
84

54.00
54.46
57.50
55.33
57.90

54.00
54.66
57.50
54.87
58.10

30.2360
.2341
.2500
.2338
.2911

30.2429
.2294
.2500
.2498
.2942

126
21
23
32
39
211

54.13
54.00
55.67
54.00
53.82
58.28

54.14
54.00
55.65
54.00
53.82
59.32

30.3409
.2022
.1977
.2348
.1880
.1968

30.3203
.1929
.1942
.2425
.1881
.1968

2
3
2
3

24
82
22
213

Averag e wages
aour.
per 1
1905.

F I T T E R S , M a le .

Delaware.......................1...............................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
2
3
3

25
52
16
36
272

J O I N E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

3
2
2
3
2
2
4
3

81
107
24
76
87
26
93
264

L A B O R E R S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maine.................................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

3
3
4
3
2
7
3

131
238
125
153
64
222
610

M A C H I N I S T S , M a le .

California...........................................................
Delaware............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
2
2
2
3
3

354
112
82
93
102
82
572

P A I N T E R S , M a le .

Delaware............................................................
Maryland...........................................................
New Jersey................................ .......................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3
2
4
3

49
170
18
61
158

R I G G E R S , M a le .

California...................................... ....................
Delaware...........................................................
Maryland...........................................................
Massachusetts..................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................




4
2
2
2
3
3

90
23
18
26
33
177

169

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR, 1890 TO 1905.
T a b le

V .—A V E R A G E W AG ES AN D HOURS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES— Continued.
S H I P B U I X i D I N G — Concluded.
R I V E T E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of employees.
establishments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Delaware...........................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
3
3

20
20
75
133

Average
hours
per week.

Averag;e wages
per] hour.

1904.

1905.

1904.

1905.

18
35
93
224

54.00
54.00
53.73
57.99

54.00
54.00
53.73
59.02

$0.2755
.2940
.3122
.3037

$0.2239
.3410
.3121
.3027

82
123
39
95

60.00
55.00
57.91
58.33

60.00
55.00
58.36
58.27

$0.0988
.0905
.0703
.0835

$0.0977
.0901
.0746
.0815

15
183

55.00
58.11

55.00
58.44

$0.0949
.0725

$0.0970
.0768

108
82
30
265

60.00
55.00
56.33.
58.35

60.00
55.00
58.63
58.38

$0.1480
.2382
.2518
.1401

$0.1458
.2344
.2041
.1329

314
205
74

6 0 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .1 8

6 0 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .0 1

$ 0 .1 9 3 2
.2 1 1 7
.1 6 6 7

$ 0 .1 9 5 1
.2 0 6 9
.1 8 3 0

277
374
273
978

60.00
55.00
58.73
58.09

60.00
55.00
59.01
58.15

$0.1511
.1958
.1696
.1142

$0.1549
.1811
.1696
.1216

118
44
297

55.00
58.22
58.77

55.00
58.16
58.81

$0.1335
.1367
.0867

S IB K G O O D S.
Q C U L L E R S , F e m a le .

Connecticut.......................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania....................................................

2
4
3
4

67
92
32
81

S P I N N E R S , M a le

New Jersey........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3

15
160

W A R P E R S , F e m a le ,

Connecticut.......................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
2
3
4

115
66
12
248

W E A V E R S , M a le .

Connecticut.......................................................

N e w J e r s e y .......................................................................

New York..........................................................

2
3
2

247
171
93

W E A V E R S , F e m a le .

Connecticut.......................................................
New Jersey........... ;............................ .............
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................

2
3
3
3

277
326
289
862

W I N D E R S , F e m a le .

New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
W OODEN AN D

5
3
4

123
54
278

W ORSTED

GOODS.

B U R L E R S , F e m a le .

Connecticut.......................................................
Maine ...............................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Jersey.......................................................
New York.........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




2
3
5
2
2
5
5

22
45
152
31
119
115
169

23
63
145
26
127
100
148

60.00 60.00
60.00 60.00
56.14 58.00
56.45 56.15
57.49 57.57
60.00 60.00
58.00 58.00

$0.1460
.1074
.1050
.0857
.0846
.0984
.1066

$0.1486
.1160
.1041
.0908
.0908
.1032
.1146

170
T a b le

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

V.—V E R A G E W AG ES A N D H O URS OF LA B O R , 1904 AN D 1905, IN
A
SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, B Y STATES—Concluded.

WOORENT A N D W O R S T E D G O O D S —Concluded
C A R D E R S , M a le .

Num­ Number of
ber of
employees.
estab­
lish­
ments. 1904. 1905.

State.

Connecticut........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
3
6
2
2
3
5

15
13
115
12
16
19
55

Average
hours
per week.

Averag:e wages
iour.
per 1

1904.

1905.

1904.

16
16
109
18
15
18
46

60.00
60.00
56.46
60.00
58.25
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.11
60.00
58.80
60.00
58.00

$0.1237
.0981
.1144
.1183
.1075
.1386
.1106

$0.1244
.1056
.1145
.1229
.1151
.1366
.1105

15
70
201
8
40
40
111

60.00
60.00
56.59
60.00
58.02
60.00
61.21

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.35
60.00
61.15

$0.1324
.1380
.1291
.1350
.1335
.1539
.1237

$0.1341
.1400
.1293
.1375
.1352
.1546
.1242

60.00
60.00
56.98
60.00
57.84
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
58.23
60.00
58.00

$0.1857
.2158
.2355
.2179
.2359
.2728
.2379

$0.1857
.2212
.2377
.2179
.2420
.2764
.2414

57.22
58.00

57.38
58.00

$0.0845
.1083

20
24
113
41
46
37
72

60.00
60.00
56.98
60.00
60.00
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.09
60.00
55.65
60.00
58.00

$0.1491
.1860
.1924
.1781
.2188
.1627
.1985

$0.1589
.1968
.1941
.1847
.2228
.1563
.2050

157
156
361
42
39
132
239
593

60.00
60.00
57.45
60.00
57.64
58.65
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
56.79
59.50
60.00
58.00

$0.1854
.1548
.1583
.1435
.1740
.1705
.2000
.1922

$0.1942
.1464
.1726
.1692
.1810
.1763
.2114
.2015

27
138
936
73
109
196
156
588

60.00
60.00
56.89
60.00
55.28
57.41
60.00
58.00

60.00
60.00
58.00
60.00
55.41
57.58
60.00
58.00

$0.1714
.1585
.1451
.1556
.1465
.1348
.1792
.1596

$0.1789
.1480
.1479
.1700
.1595
.1354
.1928
.1675

1905.

D Y E R S , M a le .

Connecticut........................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
N ew H ampshire................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
3
6
2
2
4
5

15
60
193
9
43
45
109

L O O M F I X E R S , M a le .

2
3
6
2
2
5
5

Connecticut.......
Maine.................
Massachusetts..
New Hampshire.
New York........ .
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Islan d ...

14
20
82
7
19
29
79

14
20
82
7
22
32
90

S P I N N E R S , F R A M E , F e m a le .

New York..........................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................

2
2

112
141

118
103

S P I N N E R S , M U L E , M a le .

Connecticut.......
Maine.................
M assachusetts..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey........
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Islan d ...

2
2
6
2
2
2
5

23
21
121
44
47
33
63

W E A V E R S , M a le .

2
3
6
2
2
2
5
4

Connecticut.......
Maine.................
M assachusetts..
New Hampshire.
New Jersey........
New York........ .
Pennsylvania...
Rhode Isla n d ...

147
151
479
37
53
96
242
503

W E A V E R S , F e m a le .

Connecticut*. ....................................................
Maine.................................................................
Massachusetts...................................................
New Hampshire................................................
New Jersey........................................................
New York..........................................................
Pennsylvania.....................................................
Rhode Island.....................................................




2
3
6
2
2
2
5
5

23
97
911
73
106
155
147
508

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

In the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor were pub­
lished retail prices of the principal staple articles of food for the
fourteen years from 1890 to 1903. In Bulletin No. 59, the issue for
July, 1905, the prices were continued to include 1904. It is the pur­
pose of the Bureau of Labor to continue this compilation from year
to year. In the present Bulletin the prices have been continued to
include 1905.
The retail prices of food in 1905 were at the highest point during
the sixteen-year period covered by the investigation of the Bureau.
The average prices of 23 of the 30 articles included in this compila­
tion of prices were higher in 1905 than in 1904, and the price of every
article included in the compilation, excepting coffee and prunes, was
higher in 1905 than in 1896—the year of lowest prices diming the last
sixteen years.
The average prices of wheat bread, butter, cheese, chickens, corn
meal, eggs, fresh fish, salt fish, milk, mutton, and veal were higher in
1905 than in any other year of the sixteen-year period covered by
this investigation.
The advance in bacon since 1896 has been 43.5 per cent; the
advance in Irish potatoes 43.1 per cent; the advance in eggs 41.8
per cent; the advance in dry or pickled pork 31.9 per cent; the
advance in fresh pork 30 per cent; the advance in flour 29.3 per cent;
the advance in born meal 28.6 per cent. The advance in food when
each of the 30 articles is given a weight according to its consumption
in the family of the workingman, has been 0.6 per cent since 1904,
17.7 per cent since 1896, and 12.4 per cent when compared with the
average for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899.
In the Eighteenth Annual Report were included a total of 5,302
schedules or statements of prices from 814 retail merchants for the
years 1890 to 1902 and 5,293 schedules from 811 merchants for the
year 1903. The prices were secured in the principal industrial locali­
ties in 33 States, including the District of Columbia. In collecting
the prices published in Bulletin No. 59, the scope of the investigation
was enlarged and included 6,760 schedules from 1,064 firms in the
principal industrial localities in 40 States, including the District of
Columbia. The present investigation includes 6,193 schedules from
999 firms in the principal industrial localities in 39 States, including
the District of Columbia, the prices from North Carolina having
been discontinued.



171

172

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

A number of smaller cities, heretofore shown, are not included in
the present investigation, but a greater number of schedules than
heretofore have been secured in the more important cities. The 69
cities selected are so distributed that the prices fairly represent the
prices to the consumers in the principal cities in all parts of the
country. As far as possible, 1905 prices were secured from those
firms which furnished prices for previous years. If a firm which had
heretofore furnished prices to the Bureau was no longer in business,
or where additional firms were desired, or where prices could be
secured from firms more representative than those which furnished
prices for previous years, prices were secured for both 1904 and 1905,
so that in every case the 1904 and 1905 prices shown in this compila­
tion are from the same firm.
The schedules were in all cases secured by personal visits of agents
of the Bureau. The firms furnishing prices were those selling largely
to the workingman.
In this compilation prices are quoted for 30 distinct articles and
under each article prices are shown for various grades and descriptions
of that article. The articles for which retail prices are quoted in this
report, the number of schedules or statements of prices secured for
each article, and the number of cities and States in which the sched­
ules were secured, are shown in the table which follows:
ARTICLES FOR WHICH RETAIL PRICES ARE SHOWN, NUMBER OF SCHEDULES
SECURED FOR EACH ARTICLE, AND NUMBER OF CITIES AND STATES IN WHICH
THE SCHEDULES WERE SECURED IN 1904 AND 1905.
Articles.
Apples, evaporated..................
Beans, dry................................
Beef, fresh, roasts....................
Beef, fresh, steaks....................
Beef, sa lt..................................
Bread, wheat...........................
Butter........................, ............
Cheese.......................................
Chickens (full grown), dressed
Coffee........................................
Com meal............ ................
Fili^fresh.'.*!.*!!]!!” !]!;!]'.!!'.
Fish, sa lt..................................
Flour, wheat............................
Lard.........................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed...........
Molasses....................................
Mutton and lamb.....................
Pork, fresh...............................
Pork, salt, bacon.....................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.......
Pork, salt, ham........................
Potatoes, Irish........................
Prunes......................................
Rice..........................................
Sugar........................................
Tea...........................................
Veal..........................................
Vinegar....................................
Total




Cities
Total
schedules. in which
secured.

States
in which
secured.

155
159
454
456
157
225
236
173
162
181
175
229
174
175
226
177
212
179
164
223
230
165
235
223
161
172
226
168
162
159

68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
68
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
68
69

39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
39
38
39

6,193

69

39

173

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

Sixty-nine cities in which quotations of retail prices were secured
are enumerated in the following table:
CITIES IN WHICH RETAIL PRICES WERE SECURED, NUMBER OF FIRMS FROM WHICH
SECURED, AND NUMBER OF SCHEDULES OR QUOTATIONS OF PRICES SECURED.

Cities.

Number of firms Number of sched­
from which quo­ ules or quotatations of prices . tions of prices
were secured.
secured.

Brooklyn, N. Y . ................................................................................
Buffalo, N. Y .....................................................................................
Butte. Mont......................................................................................
Charleston, S. C.................................................................................
Chicago, 111........................................................................................
Cincinnati, Ohio................................................................................
Cleveland, Ohio..................T
.............................................................
Dallas, T ex........................................................................................
Denver, Colo......................................................................................
Des Moines, Iowa..............................................................................
Detroit, Mich.....................................................................................
Dubuque, Iow a.................................................................................
Dulutfi, Minn.....................................................................................
Fall River, Mass...............................................................................
Mushing, N. Y ..................................................................................
Grand Rapids, Mich..........................................................................
Indianapolis, Ind..............................................................................
Jacksonville, F la...............................................................................
Jersey City, N. J ................................................................................
Kansas City Mo................................................................................
Little Rock, Ark...............................................................................
Los Angeles, Cal................................................................................
Louisville, K y......................................................................... ........
Lynn, Mass........................................................................................
Malden, Mass.....................................................................................
Manchester, N. H ...................................... . ......................................
Memphis, Tenn..................................................................................
Milwaukee, W is.................................................................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................................................................
Montgomery, Ala..............................................................................
Nashville, Tenn.................................................................................
N e w H a v e n , C o n n ....... .....................................................................
New Orleans, L a...............................................................................
New York, N. Y. (a).........................................................................
Norfolk, V a........................................................................................
Omaha, Nebr.....................................................................................
Peoria, 111...........................................................................................
Philadelphia, P a................................................................................
Pittsburg, P a....................................................................................
Portland, Me.....................................................................................
Portland, Oreg..................................................................................
Providence, R .I........................................... .....................................
Richmond, V a...................................................................................
Rochester, N. Y ............................................. :.................................
St. Louis, Mo.....................................................................................
St. Paul, Minn...................................................................................
Salt Lake City, Utah.................................................. .....................
San Antonio, Tex........................................................ .....................
San Francisco, Cal.............................................................................
Scranton, P a ......................................................................................
Seattle, W ash....................................................................................
Sioux Falls, S, Dak...........................................................................
Syracuse, N. Y ...................................................................................
Tacoma, Wash...................................................................................
Terre Haute, Ind...............................................................................
Toledo, Ohio......................................................................................
Topeka, K ans....................................................................................
Trenton, N. J ....................................................................................
Washington, D. C..............................................................................
Wheeling, W. V a ...............................................................................
Wilkes-Barre, P a ...............................................................................
Wilmington, Del................................................................................
Worcester, Mass................................................................................

12
9
19
25
13
30
7
28
8
21
17
27
17
13
12
6
14
13
8
15
12
10
12
17
15
12
12
14
16
5
13
6
16
12
11
18
20
13
28
24
12
8
12
37
6
12
14
16
18
12
15
8
14
13
23
17
13
11
10
12
10
13
11
10
11
13
20
11
17

79
81
88
115
81
114
85
125
78
87
143
113
121
78
83
78
102
80
79
76
81
87
83
112
78
76
79
79
80
75
76
84
87
84
96
78
81
90
108
153
79
78
111
148
78
79
82
82
87
91
113
73
86
79
135
79
90
78
82
78
79
75
78
85
102
78
80
73
82

Total.........................................................................................

999

6,193

Albany, N. Y .....................................................................................
Allegheny, P a ....................................................................................
Atlanta, *Ga .......................................................................................
Baltimore, Md...................................................................................
Birmingham, Ala..............................................................................

a Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.
2— No. 65— 06------ 12




174

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*

Table I .—Retail prices of food, 1904 and 1905 (pp. 200 to 308).—!This
table shows for each of the years 1904 and 1905 the average price of
the particular article enumerated in each separate schedule or state­
ment of prices. The agents of the Bureau obtained from the retail
merchants the prevailing price for the various articles of food during
each month of the two years. The monthly prices of the various arti­
cles are not published in detail, but from these monthly prices an
average price for each year has been computed for each schedule or
separate statement of prices. The average price for the year is a
simple average, found by adding together the 12 monthly quotations
of prices for each article for the year and dividing by 12. The 30
articles are presented in alphabetical order, the prices for each article
being shown under each State, by localities in which secured.
The particular grade or description of each article is shown in con­
nection with the average prices in as much detail as possible. The
greatest care was taken to secure prices throughout the two years for
an article of uniform grade or quality, as changes in quality are, of
course, reflected in prices. A reference to Table I (page 200) shows
that the first article is “ Apples, evaporated,” and the first line shows
the average price computed from monthly statements of the price of
evaporated apples as sold by a certain retail merchant in Birming­
ham, Ala. The third column shows the average price per pound,
$0.1250, in 1904, the fourth column the average price per pound,
$0.1250, in 1905. The second line presents the average price of
evaporated apples computed from statements of monthly prices fur­
nished by a certain other retail merchant in Birmingham, Ala. The
third line shows the price of evaporated apples computed from state­
ments of monthly prices furnished an agent of the Bureau by a cer­
tain retail merchant in Montgomery, Ala.
For evaporated apples 155 statements of prices are shown. These
statements were obtained in 68 cities in 39 States. For dry beans 159
statements of prices are shown. For fresh beef (roasts) 454 state­
ments are shown. The number of statements of prices, or schedules,
shown for each of the 30 articles may be seen by reference to a pre­
ceding text table.
In some localities the weight of a loaf of bread is fixed by statute,
but in many other localities the weight of a loaf varies to some extent
with the fluctuations in the price of flour. For this reason the portion
of Table I relating to bread shows the weight of the loaf for which the
statement of prices was secured, the average price per loaf for 1904
and 1905, and the computed average price per pound (after baking)
for each of the two years. A loaf of bread is the usual unit of pur­
chase, but in comparing 1905 'and 1904 prices the price per pound
should be used in preference to the price per loaf, when the weight per
loaf has changed.



RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

175

Table II.—Relative retail prices of food, 1890 to 1905 (pp. 809 to
816).—In the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau were shown

the relative retail prices for each of the fourteen years from 1890 to
1903 for each of the 30 articles of food included in that report and
these relative prices are continued in the present compilation.
A relative price, or an index number as it is technically called, of
any article is the per cent which the price of that article at any certain
date is of the price of the same article at a date or a period which has
been selected as the base or standard.
The base selected for the compilation of retail prices is the average
price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899. This base period is the
same as was used in the presentation of wholesale prices in Bulletins
39, 45, 51, 57, and 63 of this Bureau. The average for the ten-year
period is used as the base for the reason that an average price for a
number of years more nearly represents average or normal conditions
than does the price for a. single year. The value of the relative price
is that it enables the reader to follow more readily the course of prices
of a single article or of groups of articles.
In the Eighteenth Annual Report relative prices were computed for
each of the schedules of prices. The method followed after comput­
ing the average price for each year was to determine for each schedule
the base price, which is the sum of the average prices of the ten years,
1890 to 1899, divided by 10. The relative price or index number was
then obtained for the schedule for each year in the period covered by
dividing the average price of the article shown on that schedule for
each year by the average price of the same article for the ten-year
period, 1890 to 1899. The quotient thus obtained multiplied by 100
is the per cent which the average price that year was of the base price,
and is called the index number or relative price.
In the compilation of prices for 1903 and 1904, published in Bulletin
59 and in the present compilation of prices for 1904 and 1905, sched­
ules were secured from many firms who had not before furnished
prices, and in many cases such firms had been in existence but a few
years. It was therefore necessary to follow a slightly different
method in determining the relative price or index number for 1904,
as shown in Bulletin 59, and the relative price or index number for
1905, as shown in this Bulletin. The method adopted for determin­
ing the 1904 relative price was to compute for each schedule or state­
ment of prices the average price for each year, 1903 and 1904, and
then the per cent which the average price in 1904 was of the average
price in 1903. These per cents or relative prices for all of the various
grades and descriptions of the article were added and the sum divided
by the number of schedules secured for that article. Thus for evapo­
rated apples the 33 schedules secured in the North Atlantic States
showed that the average price in 1904 was 98.48 per cent of the aver­
age price in 1903; the 18 schedules secured in the South Atlantic



176

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

States showed that the average price in 1904 was 98.14 per cent of
the average price in 1903; the 33 schedules from the North Central
States, 97.93 per cent; the 17 schedules from the South Central
States, 98.47 per cent; the 17 schedules-from the Western States,
99.32 per cent, and the total schedules, 118, showed that the average
price in 1904 was 98.39 per cent of the average price in 1903. Byreferring to Table II (page 309), it is seen that the relative price or
index number (average price for 1890 to 1899 = 100) for evaporated
apples in the North Atlantic States in 1903 was 107.5; therefore, in
1904 the relative was 98.48 per cent of 107.5, or 105.9. The relative
price for each of the geographical divisions and also for the United
States was found by the same method. The relative prices for other
articles were determined in the same way.
After collecting prices for 1904 and 1905 the relative price for
1905 was determined in the same way as was the relative price for
1904, as has just been explained. For reasons explained in the dis­
cussion of Table I the relative prices for bread are computed from
the price per pound and not from the price per loaf.
Considering the United States as a whole, the articles which show
the greatest difference between 1904 and 1905 prices are evaporated
apples, butter, cheese, mutton, and chickens. The average price of
evaporated apples in 1905 was 6.89 per cent above the average price
in 1904. The average price of butter in 1905 was 3.44 per cent above
the average price in 1904; the average price of cheese, 3.24 per cent
above; the average price of mutton, 3.23 per cent above, and the
average price of chickens, 2.38 per cent above.
The table which follows shows the per cent of advance or decline
for each of the 30 articles when the average price in 1905 is compared
with the average price in 1904.
AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES IN 1905 COMPARED WITH AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES IN 1904.
Articles lor which the average Number Per cent
price in 1905 was higher than
of
of
the average pnce in 1904.
schedules advance
secured. in price.

Articles for which the aver­ Number Per cent
age price in 1905 was lower
of
of
than the average price in schedules decline in
1904.
secured.
price.

Apples, evaporated.................
Bread, wheat..........................
Butter.....................................
Cheese......................................
Chickens (lull grown), dressed.
Coflee.......................................
Corn m eal................................
E g g s.. . ...................................
Fish, fresh...............................
Fish, sa lt.................................
Flour, wheat...........................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed..........
Molasses..................................
Mutton and lam b...................
Pork, fresh..............................
Pork, salt, bacon....................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.......
Pork, salt, ham .......................
Prunes.....................................
Rice.........................................
Sugar.......................................
Veal.........................................
Vinegar....................................

Beans, dry............................
Beef, fresh, ro a sts................
Beef, fresh stea k s................
Beef, s a lt .............................
Lard......................................
Potatoes, Irish.....................
Tea........................................




155
225
236
173
162
181
175
229
174
175
226
212
179
164
223
230
165
235
161
172
226
162
159

6.89
.56
3.44
3.24
2.38
1.97
.61
.55
1.84
1.89
.01
.64
.42
3.23
2.12
.66
.19
.10
2.24
1.02
1.98
1.91
1.44

159
454
456
157
177
223
168

0.39
.56
.40
.36
.56
.12
.06

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

177

A simple average of the per cent of advance of the prices of the 23
articles which show an advance is 1.71 per cent, while a similar
average for the 7 articles which show a decline is 0.35 per cent. All
of the more important articles of food except beef (fresh and salt)
and potatoes advanced in price; the decline in the prices of beef and
potatoes was very slight. The average price of roasts in 1905 was
0.56 per cent below the average price in 1904; of steaks 0.40 per
cent below; of salt beef 0.36 per cent below, and of potatoes 0.12
per cent below.
Relative prices are not presented for each of the schedules or state­
ments of prices, owing to the large amount of space which would be
required, and it is not believed that such presentation would mate­
rially add to the value of the report. The 39 States from which
prices were secured have been grouped. The relative prices for each
of the 30 articles are shown for each of the five geographical divisions,
and for the United States. The classification of the States into
groups is as follows:
North Atlantic States:
Connecticut.
Maine.
Massachusetts.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey.
New York.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Atlantic States:
Delaware.
District of Columbia.
Florida.
Georgia.
Maryland.
South Carolina.
Virginia.
W est Virginia.
North Central States:
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.

North Central States— Concluded.
Michigan.
Minnesota.
Missouri.
Nebraska.
Ohio.
South Dakota.
Wisconsin.
South Central States:
Alabama.
Arkansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Western States.
California.
Colorado.
Montana.
Oregon.
Utah.
Washington.

From an examination of the part of Table II which shows relative
prices for fresh beef, roasts (page 309) it is seen that meat of this
description in the North Atlantic States reached the lowest price of
the sixteen-year period in 1894, the relative price for that year being
97.9, or 2.1 per cent below the average price of the ten-year period
1890 to 1899; in the South Atlantic States the lowest relative price,
97, was in 1893; in the North Central States the lowest, 98.8, was in
1896; in the South Central States the lowest 95.3, was in 1890; in the



178

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

Western States the lowest, 95.7, was in 1893. Considering all the
schedules secured in the United States for this article the lowest
relative price was 98.3, in 1894.
In each of the five divisions of States, and also in the United States
considered as a whole, the highest relative price for this article during
the sixteen-year period was reached in 1902. In the North Atlantic
States the relative price for that year was 118.9, or 18.9 per cent
above the average price for the ten-year period 1890 to 1899; in the
South Atlantic States the relative price was 120.2; in the North
Central States, 117.2; in the South Central States, 118.5; in the
Western States, 119.9, and in the United States, 118.6.
The relative retail prices in the United States, considered as a
whole, of the 30 articles of food for the sixteen years from 1890 to 1905
are presented in the table which follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1890 TO 1905.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

1890........
1891........
1892........
1893........
1894........
1895........
1896........
1897........
1898........
1899........
1900........
1901........
1902........
1903........
1904........
1905........

Year.

1890........
1891........
1892........
1893........
1894........
1895........
1896........
1897........
1898........
1899........
1900........
1901........
1902........
1903........
1904........
1905........

Apples, Beans,
evapo­ dry.
rated.
109.0
110.3
99.3
107.0
105.8
97.4
88.6
87.8
95.4
99.5
95.2
96.8
104.4
100.8
99.2
106.0
Corn
meal.
100.0
109.7
105.2
103.1
102.2
100.8
95.0
93.7
95.0
95.1
97.4
107.1
118.8
120.7
121.5
122.2

103.3
106.2
102.4
105.0
102.8
100.5
92.7
91.5
95.9
99.7
110.0
113.9
116.8
118.1
116.8
116.3

Eggs.

100.6
106.9
106.8
108.1
96.3
99.3
92.8
91.4
96.2
101.1
99.9
105.7
119.1
125.3
130.9
131.6




Beef,
fresh,
roasts.

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.

99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8
112.2

98.8
99.4
99.3
99.6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9
113.4
112.9

Fish,
fresh.
99.3
99.6
100.1
100.1
100.4
99.8
100.2
99.8
100.5
100.2
100.4
101.4
105.0
107.3
107.9
109.9

Fish,
salt.
100.7
101.7
102.2
103.4
101.5
98.9
97.5
95.2
98.8
100.2
99.1
100.9
102.8
108.4
111.7
113.8

Beef,
salt.

97.5
98.3
99.5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108.8
108.3
107.9
Flour,
wheat.
109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2
119.9
119.9

Chick­
ens
Bread, Butter. Cheese.
(full
Coffee.
wheat.
grown),
dressed.
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.9
104.5

Lard.

98.2
99.8
103 6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7
117.3
116.6

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0
112.7

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4
107.4
110.9

Milk,
fresh, Molas­
unskim­ ses.
med.
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
106.3
107.0

104.7
101.7
101.2
100.6
100.3
99.0
98.7
97.7
97.9
98.2
102.2
101.3
102.1
103.8
104.0
104.4

101.3
104.0
103.8
104.2
98.6
98.4
97.1
94.0
96.8
101.8
100.8
103.0
113.2
118.5
120.7
123.6

105.4
105.2
103.8
104.8
103.3
101.7
99.6
94.6
91.1
90.5
91.1
90.7
89.6
89.3
91.8
93.6

III
?8

Year.

1 Pork,
1 fresh.

l

100.7
100.6
101.0
99.9
97.8
98.7
98.7
99.6
100.4
102.6
105.6
109.0
114.7
112.6
114.1
117.8

97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0
124.0
126.6

179

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOI>, 1890 TO 1905.

RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED
STATES, 1890 TO 1905—Concluded.
[Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.]

Year.

1890........
1891........
1892........
1893........
1894........
1895........
1896........
1897........
1898........
1899........
1900........
1901........
1902........
1903........
1904........
1905........

Pork,
Pork,
salt,
salt,
dry or
baeon. pickled.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9
138.8

95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8
126.0

Pork,
salt,
ham.
98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118.4
118.5

Pota­
toes, Prunes.
Irish.
109.3
116.6
95.7
112.3
102.6
91.8
77.0
93.0
105.4
96.1
93.5
116.8
117.0
114.8
121.3
110.2

116.8
116.5
113.5
115.6
100.9
94.2
86.8
84.3
86.3
85.1
83.0
82.6
83.4
80.2
79.6
81.4

Rice.

101.3
102.5
101.3
98.4
99.0
98.8
96.7
97.9
101.7
102.4
102.4
103.5
103.5
103.9
101.6
102.6

Sugar.

118.6
102.7
96.2
101.5
93.8
91.8
96.6
95.7
101.3
101.7
104.9
103.0
96.0
96.1
101.9
103.9

Tea.

100.0
100.4
100.2
100.1
98.7
98.5
98.8
98.5
100.7
104.4
105.5
106.7
107.2
106.0
105.8
105.7

Veal.

98.8
99.6
100.0
100.0
98.7
98.5
99.5
9£.9
101.2
103.7
104.9
108.8
115.2
114.9
115.5
117.7

Vinegar.

102.9
105.5
102.7
99.5
99.8
98.9
97.2
97.4
97.9
98.3
98.5
98.9
99.5
99.1
98.9
100.3

From this table it is seen that the price of fresh roasting beef in
1S90 was 99.5 per cent of the average price during the ten-year
period from 1890 to 1899. In 1891 the price was exactly the same
as the average price for the ten-year period—that is, 100.0. The
lowest point reached was in 1894, when it was 98.3 per cent of the
average price for the ten-year period. The highest point reached
was in 1902, when it stood at 118.6. In 1905 it stood at 112.2, or
12.2 per cent higher than the average price for the period from 1890
to 1899. In the use of these tables showing the relative figures it
should be borne in mind that the difference between the relative
prices in any two years is not the per cent of difference in the cost.
For example: The relative price of fresh roasting beef was 98.3 in
1894 and 112.2 in 1905. The difference between these relative prices
is 13.9; and this figure being 14.1 per cent of 98.3, the per cent of
increase in 1905 over 1894 is 14.1 per cent.
Bacon, eggs, fresh pork, dry or pickled pork, chickens, and corn
meal show a marked increase in price during the last few years. This,
however, is presented more clearly in tables on subsequent pages.
From the preceding table is drawn the one which follows. It shows
for the United States the lowest and highest yearly relative price of
each of the 30 articles of food for the sixteen years, 1890 to 1905;
also the year in which the lowest and highest yearly prices were
reached.




180

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

LOWEST AND HIGHEST YEARLY RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890 TO 1905.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Lowest.
.Article.

Year.

1897
Apples, evaporated....................................................................
Beans, d r y *...............................................................................
1897
1894
Beef, fresh, roasts....................................................... -s............
Beef, fresh^ steaks.....................................................................
1894
Beef , salt'...................................................................................
1890
Bread, wheat............................................................................. 1901,1902
B utter........................................................................................
1896
Cheese.........................................................................................
1898
Chickens (full grown), dressed..................................................
1897
Coffee..........................................................................................
1903
1897
Corn m eal..................................................................................
E ggs...........................................................................................
1897
Fish, fresh..................................................................................
1890
Fish, sa lt....................................................................................
1897
Flour, wheat..............................................................................
1894
Lard...........................................................................................
1897
Milk, fresh, unskimmed.............................................................
1899
Molasses.....................................................................................
1897
Mutton and lamb......................................................................
1894
Pork, fresh.................................................................................
1890
Pork, salt, bacon.......................................................................
1890
iPork, salt, dry or pickled..........................................................
1890
Pork, salt, ham..........................................................................
1898
1896
Potatoes, Irish..........................................................................
Prunes........................................................................................
1904
R ice............................................................................................
1896
Sugar..........................................................................................
1895
Tea............................................................................................. 1895,1897
Veal............................................................................................
1895
Vinegar......................................................................................
1896

Highest.

Relative
price.

Year.

87.8
1891
91.5
1903
98.3
1902
98.2
1902
97.5
1902
99.4
1905
92.7
1905
97.5
1905
94.0
1905
89.3
1890
93.7
1905
91.4
1905
99.3
1905
95.2
1905
88.7 1904,1905
1902
89.8
98.9
1905
97.7
1890
97.8
1905
97.0
1902
95.8
1903
1902
95.3
95.1
1903
77.0
1904
79.6
1890
96.7
1903
91.8
1890
1902
98.5
98.5
1905
97.2
1891

Relative
price.
110.3
118.1
118.6
118.5
116.0
104.5
112.7
110.9
123.6
105.4
122.2
131.6
109.9
113.8
119.9
134.3
107.0
104.7
117.8
128.3
139.8
132.5
121.3
121.3
116.8
103.9
118.6
107.2
117.7
105.5

Of the 30 articles, the lowest yearly relative price was reached by
5 in 1890, 4 in 1894, 2 in 1895, 1 in 1895 and 1897 (the price being
the same for the two years), 4 in 1896, 8 in 1897, 2 in 1898, 1 in 1899,
1 in 1901 and 1902, 1 in 1903, and 1 in 1904. The highest yearly
relative price was reached by 4 in 1890, 2 in 1891, 7 in 1902, 4 in 1903,
1 in 1904, 1 in 1904 and 1905, and 11 in 1905. Thus the highest
yearly price of the sixteen-year period was reached by four-fifths of
the 30 articles during the last four years and by practically two-fifths
of the 30 articles during the last year.
In addition to the relative prices which are shown for each of the
articles, this report also shows relative prices for the 30 articles of food
considered as a whole. The relative prices for the food group were
computed and are presented in two ways—the one being simple aver­
ages, which were found by adding the relative prices for all of the 30
articles and dividing by 30, the number of articles; the other being
weighted averages, in which the relative prices were found by giving
to the various articles their weight or relative importance, as measured
by the value of the article consumed in a year by representative work­
ingmen’s families, as shown by the family budgets secured in connec­
tion with the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau. This
weighted average will be further discussed in connection with other
tables.



184

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

The following table presents the simple averages of the relative
prices of the 30 articles of food for each year from 1890 to 1905 in
each of the five geographical divisions and in the United States con­
sidered as a whole. In the North Atlantic States, 2,664 schedules
were obtained for 1890 to 1902, 2,659 for 1903, 2,625 for 1904, and
2,083 for 1905; in the South Atlantic States 588 schedules were
obtained for 1890 to 1902, 587 for 1903, 872 for 1904, and 821 for 1905;
in the North Central States, 1,444 schedules were obtained for 1890 to
1902, 1,443 for 1903, 1,865 for 1904, and 1,827 for 1905; in the South
Central States, 325 schedules were obtained for 1890 to 1903, 680 for
1904, and 751 for 1905; and in the Western States, 281 schedules were
obtained for 1890 to 1902, 279 for 1903, 718 for 1904, and 711 for 1905,
making a total for the United States of 5,302 schedules for 1890 to
1902, 5,293 for 1903, 6,760 for 1904, and 6,193 for 1905.
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AVERAGES, BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS, 1890 TO 1905.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Year.
1890............................................................
1891............................................................
1892...........................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895...........................................................
1896............................................................
1897...........................................................
1898...........................................................
1899............................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903............................................................
1904............................................................
1905............................................................

North
South
Atlantic Atlantic
States.
States.
101.9
102.9
102.0
104.3
99.9
98.2
96.2
96.9
98.3
99.3
101.3
104 4
110.0
110.4
111.2
111.8

100.7
101.5
100.6
102.1
100.3
99.5
97.5
97.8
99.4
100.6
102.2
106.6
110.8
110.1
110.2
111.2

North
Central
States.

South
Central
States.

Western
States.

102.3
104.1
101.7
105.0
100.9
98.3
94.9
95.3
98.1
99.4
101.7
106.7
112.1
112.0
112.6
114 0

101.1
102.9
100.6
102.9
99.9
98.2
96.2
97.2
99.9
101.0
103.3
108.1
114.1
114.0
115.0
115.9

105.4
106.2
104 4
102.7
99.4
97.3
93.9
94.2
96.7
99.8
100.1
102.0
106.9
108.1
109.4
110.0

United
States.
102.1
103.4
10i.8
104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9
111.6
112.5

This table of simple averages shows that the lowest relative price
was reached in each of the five geographical divisions and in the
United States in 1896 and the highest relative price was reached in
each of the geographical divisions and in the United States in 1905.
In the North Atlantic States the relative price ranged from 96.2 to
111.8; in the South Atlantic States, from 97.5 to 111.2; in the N orth
Central States, from 94.9 to 114.0; in the South Central States, from
96.2 to 115.9; in the Western States, from 93.9 to 110.0, and in the
total for the United States, from 95.8 to 112.5. As indicated by
this table of simple averages, the price of food in the United States in
1905, as compared with each of the other years of the period, was 10.2
per cent higher than in 1890, 8.8 per cent higher than in 1891,10.5 per
cent higher than in 1892, 8.1 per cent higher than in 1893, 12.2 per
cent higher than in 1894, 14.6 per cent higher than in 1895, 17.4 per
cent higher than in 1896 (the year of lowest prices for food), 16.8 per
cent higher than in 1897, 14.2 per cent higher than in 1898, 13.0 per



182

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF UABOR.

cent higher than in 1899, 10.8 per cent higher than in 1900, 6.6 per
cent higher than in 1901,1.4 per cent higher than in 1902,, 1.4 per cent
higher than in 1903, and 0.8 per cent higher than in 1904.
The table which follows shows the articles whose price in 1905 was
higher than the average price for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899,
and also the articles whose price in 1905 was lower than the average
price for 1890 to 1899. The table follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD EN THE UNITED
.STATES, 1905 COMPARED WITH AVERAGE PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
[Average price for 1890-1899= 100.0.J
Articles for which the average price in Relative Articles for which the average price in Relative
1905 was higher than the average for price 1905.
1905 was lower than the average for price 1905.
1890-1899.
1890-1899.
Vinegar...................................................
Rice........................... .............................
Sugar.......................................................
Molasses..................................................
Bread, w heat.......................... ...............
Tea....................................................... .
Apples, evaporated................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed............. ............
Beef, sa lt.................................................
Fish, fresh...............................................
Potatoes, Irish................................. .
Cheese...................... ................ .............
Beef, fresh, roasts.... .............................
B utter_____________________________
Beef, fresh, stea k ...................................
Fish, sa lt.................................................
Beans, dry..............................................
Lard........................................................
Veal........... .............................................
Mutton and Iamb...................................
Pork, salt, ham ......................................
Flour, wheat...........................................
Corn m ea l...............................................
Chickens (full grown), dressed............ .
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.....................
Pork, fresh..............................................
E ggs........................................................
Pork, salt, baeon....................................

100.5
102.6
103.9
104.4
104 5
105.7
106.0
107.0
107.9
109.9
119.2
110.9
112.2
112.7
112.9
113.8
116.3
116.6
117.7
117.8
118.5
119.9
122.2
123.6
126.0
126.6
131.6
138.8

Coffee......................................................
Prunes.................... ...............................

93.6
81.4

This table shows that the price of each of the articles except coffee
and prunes was higher in 1905 than the average price for the ten-year
period, 1890 to 1899. Bacon was 38.8 per cent higher, eggs 31.6 per
cent higher, fresh pork 26.6 per cent higher, dry or pickled pork 26.0
per cent higher, chickens 23.6 per cent higher, corn meal 22.2 per cent
higher, flour 19.9 per cent higher, salt ham 18.5 per cent higher, etc.
The price of prunes was 18.6 per cent lower in 1905 than the average
for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899, and coffee 6.4 per cent lower.
The preceding table is summarized in the short table which follows:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF FOOD, CLASSIFIED BY
PER CENT WHICH THE 190o RETAIL PRICE IS ABOVE OR BELOW THE AVERAGE
PRICE FOR 1890-1899.
Price higher.

Number Per cent,
of
of
articles. articles.

Price lower.

Number Per cent,
of
of
articles. articles.

25 to 40 per cent......................
10 to 25 per cent......................
Less than 10 per cent..............

4
14
10

13.3
46. 7
33.4

Less than 10 per cent...........
10 to 25 per cent....................

1
I

3.3
3.3

T o t a l . . . . . . . . . . . ............

28

93.4

T otal...........................

2

6.6




183

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

From this table it is seen that iii 1905 the price of 4 of the 30 articles
of food, or 13.3 per cent, was from 25 to 40 per cent higher than the
average price for the ten-year period, 1890 to 1899; the price of 14
articles, or 46.7 per cent of the total, was from 10 to 25 per cent higher
than the average price for the ten-year period; and the price of 10
articles, or 33.4 per cent of the total, was less than 10 per cent higher
than the average price for the ten-year period. On the other hand,
the price of 1 article, or 3.3 per cent of the whole number, was less than
10 per cent (6.4 per cent) lower than the average price for the ten-year
period, and the price of 1 article, or 3.3 per cent of the whole number,
was from 10 to 25 per cent (18.6 per cent) lower than the average
price for the ten-year period.
To render easy a comparison of the prices of the last year of the sixteen-year period covered by this investigation with those of each
of the other years, the following table has been prepared, showing the
per cent of increase or decrease in the prices of 1905, compared with
the prices of each previous year of the period:
PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN RETAIL PRICES OF PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1905 COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS YEARS.
Per cent of increase or decrease in 1905 compared with—
Article.

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

- 2.8
+ 12.6
+ 12.8
+ 14.3
+10.7
+ 4.2
+ 13.6
+12.2
+ 22.0
- 11.2
+22.2
+30.8
+ 10.7
+ 13.0
+ 9.3
+ 18.7
+ 6.5
- .3
+ 17.0
+30.5
+ 44.9
+ 32.2
+20.1
+ .8
-30.3
+ 1.3
-12.4
+ 5.7
+ 19.1
- 2.5

- 3.9
+ 9.5
+ 12.2
+13.6
+ 9.8
+ 4.2
+ 5.9
+ 10.6
+ 18.8
- 11.0
+ 11.4
+23.1
+ 10.3
+ 11.9
+ 6.6
+ 16.8
+ 6.5
+ 2.7
+17.1
+28.3
+ 43.7
+27.4
+ 19.3
- 5.5
-30.1
+ .1
+ 1.2
+ 5.3
+ 18.2
- 4.9

+ 6.7
+ 13.6
+ 12.7
+13.7
+ 8.4
+ 4.2
+ 5.5
+ 9.3
+19.1
- 9.8
+ 16.2
+23.2
+ 9.8
+ 11.4
+ 14.1
+ 12.5
+ 6.4
+ 3.2
+ 16.6
+26.0
+ 40.1
+25.4
+ 16.3
+ 15.2
-28.3
+ 1.3
+ 8.0
+ 5.5
+ 17.7
- 2.3

- 0.9
+ 10.8
+13.3
+13.4
+ 7.6
+ 4.4
+ 2.5
+ 8.9
+ 18.6
-10.7
+18.5
+21.7
+ 9.8
+ 10.1
+24.8
- 1.1
+ 6.6
+ 3.8
+ 17.9
+ 18.3
+ 27.3
+ 15.9
+ 8.4
- 1.9
-2 9 .6
+ 4.3
+ 2.4
+ 5.6
+ 17.7
+ .8

+ 0.2
+ 13.1
+14.1
+ 15.0
+ 9.1
+ 4.6
+ 10.8
+ 9.2
+25.4
- 9.4
+ 19.6
+36.7
+ 9.5
+12.1
+35.2
+ 9.1
+ 6.8
+ 4.1
+20.4
+ 24.4
+34.0
+21.9
+ 16.3
+ 7.4
-19.3
+ 3.6
+ 10.8
+ 7.1
+ 19.3
+ .5

+ 8.8
+ 15.7
+ 13.8
+ 13.9
+ 8.3
+ 4.8
+ 16.2
+ 11.8
+ 25.6
- 8.0
+21.2
+32.5
+ 10.1
+ 15.1
+34.7
+ 16.5
+ 7.0
+ 5.5
+19.4
+27.0
+39.6
+ 27.0
+19.9
+ 20.0
- 1 3 .6
+ 3.8
+13.2
+ 7.3
+ 19.5
+ 1.4

+ 19.6
+ 25.5
+13.2
+13.5
+ 8.1
+ 4.6
+ 21.6
+ 13.3
+27.3
- 6.0
+ 28.6
+ 41.8
+ 9.7
+ 16.7
+ 29.3
+26.1
+ 7.1
+ 5.8
+ 19.4
+30.0
+ 43.5
+31.9
+21.4
+ 43.1
- 6.2
+ 6.1
+ 7.6
+ 7.0
+ 18.3
+ 3.2

+ 20.7
+27.1
+ 11.9
+ 12.7
+ 6.9
+ 4.5
+21.1
+ 12.0’
+ 31.5
- 1.1
+ 30.4
+ 44.0
+ 10.1
+ 19.5
+ 15.0
+29.8
+ 7.3
+ 6.9
+ 18.3
+29.7
+ 42.5
+29.5
+ 20.7
+ 18.5
- 3.4
+ 4.8
+ 8.6
+ 7.3
+17.8
+ 3.0

All food, simple averages................. + 10.2
All food, weighted according to fam­
ily consumption........................... + 9.8

+ 8.8

+ 10.5

+ 8.1

+ 12.2

+ 14.6

+ 17.4

+ 16.8

+ 8.3

+ 10.3

+ 7.7

+ 12.7

+14.9

+17.7

+16.7

Apples, evaporated..........................
Beans, dry........................................
Beef, fresh, roasts............................
Beef, fresh, steaks............................
Beef, sa lt...........................................
Bread, wheat....................................
B utter...............................................
Cheese................................................
Chickens (full-grown), dressed........
Coffee.................................................
Corn meal..........................................
Fish, fresh.........................................
Fish, sa lt..........................................
Flour, wheat....................................
Lard..................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed...................
Molasses............................................
Mutton and iam b.............................
Pork, fresh........................................
Pork, salt, bacon..............................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled................
Pork, salt, ham................................
Potatoes, Irish.................................
Prunes...............................................
Rice...................................................
Sugar.................................................
Tea....................................................
Veal...................................................
Vinegar.............................................




1897.

184

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,

PER CENT OF INCREASE (+ ) OR DECREASE ( - ) IN RETAIL PRICES OF PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1905 COMPARED WITH PREVIOUS YEARS—Concluded.
Per cent of increase or decrease in 1905 compared with—
Article.

1898.

1899.

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

Apples, evaporated..........................
Beans, dry .....................................
Beef, fresh, roasts............................
Beef, fresh, steaks............................
B eet s a l t . . .......................................
Bread, w h eat..•................................
B utter...............................................
Cheese...............................................
Chickens (full-grown), dressed........
Coffee.................................................
Corn m eal..........................................
E g g s..................................................
Fish, fresh.........................................
Fish, sa lt..........................................
Flour, wheat.....................................
Lard..................................................
Milk, fresh, unskimmed...................
Molasses............................................
Mutton and lam b.............................
Pork, fresh........................................
Pork salt, bacon..............................
Pork, salt, dry or pickled................
Pork, salt, ham ................................
Potatoes, Irish................................
Prunes...............................................
Rice...................................................
Sugar.................................................
Tea....................................................
Veal................................ x.................
Vinegar.......*.....................................

+ 11.1
+ 21.3
+ 10.3
+ 10.7
+ 5.7
+ 4.7
+ 18.5
+ 13.7
+ 27.7
+ 2.7
+ 28.6
+ 36.8
+ 9.4
+ 15.2
+ 11.6
+ 24.2
+ 7.6
+ 6.6
+ 17.3
+ 28.4
+ 38.5
+27.1
+ 24.6
+ 4.6
- 5.7
+ .9
+ 2.6
+ 5.0
+ 10.3
+ 2.5

+ 6.5
+ 16.6
+ 8.2
+ 8.7
+ 4.6
+ 4.9
+ 15.4
+ 8.3
+ 21.4
+ 3.4
+ 28.5
+ 30.2
+ 9.7
+ 13.6
+ 26.7
+20.1
+ 8.2
+ 6.3
+ 14.8
+ 24.5
+ 34.9
+ 23.8
+ 19.5
+ 14.7
- 4.3
+ .2
+ 2.2
+ 1.2
+ 13.5
+ 2.0

+11.3
+ 5.7
+ 5.4
+ 6.1
+ 4.1
+ 4.8
+ 11.1
+ 6.7
+ 22.6
+ 2.7
+ 25.5
+ 31.7
+ 9.5
+ 14.8
+ 27.1
+ 11.7
+ 7.1
+ 2.2
+ 11.6
+ 17.5
+ 26.5
+ 17.0
+ 12.5
+ 17.9
- 1.9
+ .2
- 1.0
+ .2
+ 12.2
+ 1.8

+ 9.5
+ 2.1
+ 1.4
+ 1.7
+ 1.7
+ 5.1
+ 9.2
+ 7.4
+ 20.0
+ 3.2
+14.1
+ 24.5
+ 8.4
+ 12.8
+ 27.0
- 1.3
+ 5.8
+ 3.1
+ 8.1
+ 7.4
+ 14.7
+ 7.2
+ 7.5
- 5.7
- 1.5
- .9
+ .9
- .9
+ 8.2
+ 1.4

+ 1.5.
- .4
— 5.4
— 4.7
- 7.0
+ 5.1
+ 1.1
+ 3.4
+ 9.2
+ 4.5
+ 2.9
+ 10.5
+ 4.7
+ 10.7
+ 26.3
- 1 3 .2
+ 3.6
+ 2.3
+ 2.7
- 1.3
+ 2.4
— 4.9
- .8
- 5.8
- 2.4
- .9
+ 8.2
- 1.4
+ 2.2
+ .8

+ 5.2
- 1.5
— .8
-(< 8
°
+ 4.3
+ 1.7
+ 1.4
+ 4.3
+ 4.8
+ 1.2
+ 5.0
+ 2.4
+ 5.0
+ 18.5
- 8.0
+ 1.1
+ .6
+ 4.6
- .3
— .7
- 2.3
— 2.3
- 4.0
+ 1.5
- 1.3
+ 8.1
- .3
+ 2.4
+ 1.2

<2 . 6
a
+ .7
+ .4
+ 3.2
+ 2.1
+ .7
+ .2
+ .1
- 9 .2
+ 2.3
+ 1.0
+ 2.0
- .1
+ 1.9
+ 1.4

All food, simple averages.................
All food, weighted according to fam­
ily consumption............................

+ 14.2

+ 13.0

+ 10.8 . + 6.6

+ 1.4

+ 1.4

+ .8

+ 13.9

+ 13.0

+ 11.2

+ 1.4

+ 1.9

+ .6

+ 6.8

1904.
+ 6.9
- .4
— .5
— .4
- .4
+ .6
+ 3.4
+ 3 .3
+ 2 .4
+ 2 .0
+ .6
+ .5
+ 1.9
+ 1.9

a No change.

The first line of this table shows that the 1905 price of evaporated
apples was 2.8 per cent lower than the price in 1890, 3.9 per cent
lower than the price in 1891, etc. Some idea of the high prices in
1905 can be gained from the statement that the average prices of
wheat bread, butter, cheese, chickens, corn meal, eggs, fresh fish,
salt fish, milk, mutton, and veal were higher in 1905 than in any
other year during the sixteen-year period. The average price of
wheat flour was the same in 1904 and 1905, and was higher in those
years than in any other year during the sixteen-year period.
The average price of eggs in 1905 was 30.8 per cent higher than the
price in 1890, 23.1 per cent higher than in 1891, 23.2 per cent higher
than in 1892, 21.7 per cent higher than in 1893, 36.7 per cent higher
than in 1894, 32.5 per cent higher than in 1895, 41.8 per cent higher
than in 1896, 44 per cent higher than in 1897, 36.8 per cent higher
than in 1898, etc.
The simple average of the 30 articles of food and also the average for
food weighted according to family consumption was higher in 1905
than in any other year during the period covered by this investiga­
tion. The average for food weighted, according to family consump­
tion, was, in 1905, 9.8 per cent higher than in 1890, 8.3 per cent higher




185

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905,

than in 1891, 10.3 per cent higher than in 1892, 7.7 per cent higher
than in 1893, 12.7 per cent higher than in 1894, 14.9 per cent higher
than in 1895, 17.7 per cent higher than in 1896, 16.7 per cent higher
than in 1897, 13.9 per cent higher than in 1898, 13 per cent higher
than in 1899, 11.2 per cent higher than in 1900, 6.8 per cent higher
than in 1901, 1.4 per cent higher than in 1902, 1.9 per cent higher than
in 1903, and 0.6 per cent higher than in 1904.
Certain of the articles included in this investigation are related to
each other in such a way as to make a comparison of the course of
prices of such articles very interesting. These groups of related
articles are shown in the table which follows:
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES OF CERTAIN GROUPS OF
RELATED ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
Cattle products.
Year.

Beef,
fresh,
roasts.

1890............................................................
1891...........................................................
1892............................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899............................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902..................................................... .
1903.................... :......................................
1904....... ...................................................
1905............................................... ............

Beef,
fresh,
steaks.

99.5
100.0
99.6
99.0
98.3
98.6
99.1
100.3
101.7
103.7
106.5
110.7
118.6
113.1
112.8
112.2

98.8
99.4
99.3
99.6
98.2
99.1
99.5
100.2
102.0
103.9
106.4
111.0
118.5
112.9
113.4
112.9

Dairy products.

Beef,
salt.
97.5
98.3
99 5
100.3
98.9
99.6
99.8
100.9
102.1
103.2
103.7
106.1
116.0
108.8
108.3
107.9

Milk,
fresh, un­ Butter.
skimmed.
100.5
100.5
100.6
100.4
100.2
100.0
99.9
99.7
99.4
98.9
99.9
101.1
103.3
105.8
106.3
107.0

Hog products.
Year.

1890...........................................
1891...........................................
1892...........................................
1893...........................................
1894...........................................
1895...........................................
1896...........................................
1897...........................................
1898...........................................
1899...........................................
1900...........................................
1901...........................................
1902...........................................
1903...........................................
1904...........................................
1905...........................................




Pork,
fresh.
97.0
98.7
100.5
107.0
101.8
99.7
97.4
97.6
98.6
101.7
107.7
117.9
128.3
127.0
124.0
126.6

95.3
98.9
100.5
108.7
103.4
99.2
95.5
97.3
99.1
101.8
107.7
117.5
132.5
129.0
125.8
126.0

98.8
100.3
101.5
101.8
101.6
99.2
97.9
99.0
97.5
102.4
103.9
103.3
107.3
109.4
107.4
110.9

Flour and bread.

Pork,
Pork,
Pork,
salt, ba­ salt, dry salt, ham.
or
con.
pickled.
95.8
96.6
99.1
109.0
103.6
99.4
96.7
97.4
100.2
102.9
109.7
121.0
135.6
139.8
137.9
138.8

99.2
106.4
106.8
109.9
101.7
97.0
92.7
93.1
95.1
97.7
101.4
103.2
111.5
110.8
109.0
112.7

Cheese.

98.7
99.3
101.9
109.3
101.9
98.8
97.6
98.2
95.1
99.2
105.3
110.2
119.4
121.3
118.4
118.5

Lard.

98.2
99.8
103.6
117.9
106.9
100.1
92.5
89.8
93.9
97.1
104.4
118.1
134.3
126.7
117.3
116.6

Flour,
wheat.
109.7
112.5
105.1
96.1
88.7
89.0
92.7
104.3
107.4
94.6
94.3
94.4
94.9
101.2
119.9
119.9

Bread,
wheat.
100.3
100.3
100.3
100.1
99.9
99.7
99.9
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.7
99.4
99.4
100.2
103.9
104 5

186

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

Under cattle products are shown the three articles, beef, fresh,
roasts; beef, fresh, steaks, and beef, salt. The price of each of these
three articles was higher in 1891 than in 1890; that of the two
descriptions of fresh beef was lower, and that of salt beef was higher
in 1892 than in 1891; prices of roasts were lower and of steaks and
salt beef higher in 1893 than in 1892; all three of the articles show
lower prices in 1894 than in 1893; in each year from 1895 to 1902,
inclusive, the price of each of the three articles increased; all were
lower in 1903 than in 1902; prices of roasts and salt beef were lower
and steaks higher in 1904 than in 1903; the price of each of these
three articles was lower in 1905 than in 1904.
In the group of hog products, all of the 5 articles take the same
course in each of the six years, 1891 to 1896; in 1897 all except lard
were higher than in 1896; in 1898 all except salt ham were higher
than in 1897; in each of the four years, 1899 to 1902, all of the 5 arti­
cles were higher than in the year immediately preceding; in 1903
fresh pork, dry or pickled pork, and lard were lower, while bacon and
ham were higher than in 1902; in 1904 all were lower than in 1903;
in 1905 all except lard were higher than in 1904.
In connection with this report on retail prices it is interesting to
verify the truth of the statement which has often been made, that
retail prices usually follow the wholesale but do not always vary in
the same proportion. The table which follows shows the relative
wholesale prices of food (simple averages of 53 articles from 1890 to
1892 and in 1904 and 1905, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903) and
the relative retail prices of food (simple averages of 30 articles). The
figures for wholesale prices are from Bulletin 63 of this Bureau.
RELATIVE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES, 1890
TO 1905.
[The wholesale prices are from Bulletin 63 of the Bureau of Labor and are simple averages of 53 articles
from 1890 to 1892 and in 1904 and 1905, and of 54 articles from 1893 to 1903. The retail prices are
simple averages of 30 articles. Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]

Year.

1890....................................
1891....................................
1892....................................
1893....................................
1894....................................
1895....................................
1896....................................
1897....................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.
112.4
115.7
103.6

110.2

99.8
94.6
83.8
87.7

Relative
retail
prices of
food.
102.1

103.4
101.8

104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3

Year.

1898..................................
1899..................................
1900..................................
1901..................................
1902..................................
1903..................................
1904..................................
1905..................................

Relative
wholesale
prices of
food.
94.4
98.3
104.2
105.9
111.3
107.1
107.2
108.7

Relative
retail
prices of
food.
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9

111.6

112.5

The facts presented in this table are clearly shown in the accom­
panying graphic table.
From this table it is seen that both wholesale and retail prices of
food were higher in 1891 than in 1890, the wholesale, however, show­
ing a much greater advance; both wholesale and retail prices were



RELATIVE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD
in the UNITED STATES, 1890 to 1905.




jjV£HA6£

P /tK l FOR 1190 t o ft9S~*/OoTj/

THE NORMS PETERS CO.. WASHINGTON, D. C

187

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

lower in 1892 than in 1891, the decline being much greater in whole­
sale than in retail; both were higher in 1893 than in 1892; both lower
in 1894 than in 1893; both lower in 1895 than in 1894; both lower in
1896 than in 1895, the decline in wholesale being much greater than
in retail; both were higher in each of the years from 1897 to 1902
than in the year immediately preceding; wholesale prices were lower
in 1903 than in 1902, while retail prices remained on the same level;
wholesale prices were slightly higher in 1904 than in 1903, while
retail prices made a more marked advance; both wholesale and retail
prices were higher in 1905 than in 1904.
No decided difference in the comparison is shown when articles for
which prices not quoted in both the wholesale and retail price compila­
tions are eliminated and the average prices of the 25 articles or
groups of articles of food common to both the wholesale and retail
price investigations made by this Bureau are used.
It will now be interesting to consider retail prices in connection
with certain information secured from the detailed schedules of cost
of living furnished by 2,567 workingmen’s families and published in
the Eighteenth Annual Report of this Bureau. The total number
of persons in the 2,567 families was 13,643. The table which fol­
lows shows, by geographical divisions, the total number of families
reporting expenditures in detail, average size of family and aver­
age income, average expenditure for all purposes, and average
expenditure for food per family for the year 1901:
NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILY, AVERAGE INCOME PER FAMILY,
AVERAGE EXPEND ITU RE PER FAMILY FOR ALL PURPOSES, AND AVERAGE
EXPEND ITU RE PER FAMILY FOR FOOD, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1901.

Geographical division.

Average
Average Average expendi­
income ture per
Families. size of
per
family
family. family.
for all
purposes.

North Atlantic States...............................................
South Atlantic States...............................................
North Central States................................................
South Central States................................................
Western States..........................................................

1,415
219
721

United States..................................................

Average
expendi­
ture per
family
for food

90

5.25
5.30
5.46
5.65
4.69

$834.83
762.78
842.60
715.46
891.82

$778.04
700. 62
785.95
690.11
751.46

$338.10
298.64
321.60
292.68
308.53

2,567

5.31

827.19

768.54

326.90

122

A marked difference in conditions is seen by comparing the geo­
graphical divisions. The average family income varied from $715.46
in the South Central States to $891.82 in the Western States. The
average family expenditure for all purposes was $690.11 in the South
Central States and $785.95 in the North Central States. The average
family expenditure for food was $292.68 in the South Central States
and $338.10 in the North Atlantic States.
The average expenditure for food, when compared with the average
expenditure for all purposes, does not vary materially in the five



188

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

divisions. In the North Atlantic States the average expenditure for
food was 43.46 per cent of the average expenditure for all purposes;
in the South Atlantic States, 42.63 per cent; in the North Central
States, 40.92 per cent; in the South Central States, 42.41 per cent; in
the Western States, 41.06 per cent, and in the United States, con­
sidered as a whole, 42.54 per cent.
The table which follows shows, for the 2,567 families reporting
expenditures in detail, the average amount expended per family for
each of the principal items entering into the cost of living, and also
the per cent which the amount expended for each item is of the total
family expenditure:
AVERAGE EXPEND ITU RE OF 2,567 WORKINGMEN’S FAMILIES FOR EACH OF THE
PRINCIPAL ITEMS ENTERING INTO COST OF LIVING, AND PER CENT OF AVER­
AGE TOTAL EX PEND ITU RE, 1901.
Expenditure based
on all families.
Items of expenditure.

Per cent
of total
Average. expendi­
ture.

Food..................................................- ........................................................................
R ent.............................................................................................................................
Mortgage:
Principal................................................................................................................
Interest..................................................................................................................
Fuel..............................................................................................................................
Lighting.......................................................................................................................
Clothing:
Husband................................................................................................................
W ife...................................................................................................................
Children.................................................................................................................
T axes...........................................................................................................................
Insurance:
Property................................................................................................................
Life........................................................................................................................
Organizations:
Labor.....................................................................................................................
Other.....................................................................................................................
Religious purposes......................................................................................................
Charity.........................................................................................................................
Furniture and utensils:..............................................................................................
Books and newspapers................................................................................................
Amusements and vacation..........................................................................................
Intoxicating liquors....................................................................................................
Tobacco........................................................................................................................
Sickness and death......................................................................................................
Other purposes............................................................................................................

$326.90
99. 49

42.54
12.95

«8.15
6 3.98
32.23
8.15

1.06
.52
4.19
1.06

33.73
26.03
48.08
5.79

4.39
3.39
6.26
.75

1.53
19.44

2.53

3.87
5.18
7.62
2.39
26.31
8.35
12.28
12.44
10.93
20.54
45.13

.50
.67
.99
.31
3.42
1.09
1.60
1.62
1.42
2.67
5.87

Total...................................................................................................................

768.54

100.00

.20

a Including interest paid by 13 families.
6 Not including interest paid by 13 families, included in principal.

The following table shows for each of the geographical divisions
and for the United States the average quantity per family of certain
principal articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are
based on all families from which detailed statements were secured in
each geographical division.




189

RETAIL PRICES OE FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

AVERAGE QUANTITY PER WORKINGMAN’S FAMILY OF CERTAIN PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

Unit.

Fresh beef................................
Salt beef....................................
Fresh hog products.................
Salt hog products....................
Other m eat...............................
Poultry.....................................
F ish ..........................................
E ggs.........................................
MUk..........................................
B utter......................................
Cheese.......................................
Lard.........................................
T ea...........................................
Coffee........................................
Sugar........................................
Molasses...................................
Flour and meal........................
Bread.......................................
Rice..........................................
P otatoes...................................

Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
D ozen..
Quarts..
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Pounds.
Gallons.
Pounds.
Loaves..
Pounds.
Bushels.

North
South
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States, States,
States,
States, States, States,
90
2,567
1,415
219
721
122
families. families.
families. families. families. families.
352.2
75.3
103.4
95.2
98.1
67.2
98.9
85.8
396.3
118.9
15.9
73.8
12.9
38.5
282.8
3.2
624.0
310.2

306.8
9.4
85.3

13.8

11.1

22.2

222.0

28.1
73.6
66.1

90.6
191.9

102.1

15.2
119.5
8.2

60.7
240.4
4.6
851.8
197.0
49.1

363.5
21.3
152.6
87.3

317.4
3.5
128.1
248.7

71.3
56.5
88.3
348.2
124.0
17.4
89.1
8.5
57.5
253.1
3.4
718.2
165.6

53.0
39.5
85.0

68.8

21.8

18.3

11.2

220.8

88.9
18.9
143.3
4.9
71.4
245.8
6.2

979.5
199.8
47.2
13.3

348.4
3.8
28.4
76.6
37.8
53.5
57.5
39.8
324.4
108.9
3.8
48.5
5.6
25.2
267.2
4.0
452.3
255.2
10.3
10.3

349.7
48.6
114.2
110.5
77.7
67.7
79.9
85.2
354.5
117.1
16.0
84.4
10.6

46.8
268.5
3.6
680.8
252.7
25.1
14.7

From this table it is seen that 349.7 pounds was the average quan­
tity per family of fresh beef consumed in the 2,567 families investi­
gated. In the North Atlantic States the average quantity was 352.2
pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 306.8 pounds; in the North
Central States, 363.5 pounds; in the South Central States, 317.4
pounds, and in the Western States, 348.4 pounds.
In the five divisions a great difference is seen in the consumption of
salt beef. The average quantity consumed per family in the North
Atlantic States was 75.3 pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 9.4
pounds; in the North Central States, 21.3 pounds; in the South Cen­
tral States, 3.5 pounds, and in the Western States, 3.8 pounds. The
average for the United States was 48.6 pounds.
Of the more important articles salt hog products show the greatest
variation in quantity consumed per family. The average consump­
tion of these products in the North Atlantic States was 95.2 pounds;
in the South Atlantic States, 222 pounds; in the North Central States,
87.3 pounds; in the South Central States, 248.7 pounds, and in the
Western States, 76.6 pounds. The average for the 2,567 families
investigated was 110.5 pounds.
The average quantity of sugar consumed per family varied but little
in the different localities. In the North Atlantic States it was 282.8
pounds; in the South Atlantic States, 240.4 pounds; in the North
Central States, 253.1 pounds; in the South Central States, 245.8
pounds, and in the Western States, 267.2 pounds. The average for
the 2,567 families was 268.5 pounds.
2— N o. 65— 06----- 13




190

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB.

Another table shows the average cost per family of the principal
articles of food consumed in one year. These averages are based
on all families from which detailed statements were secured in each
of the geographical divisions.
AVERAGE COST P E R WORKINGMAN'S FAMILY OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF
FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.

Article.

North
South
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States, States,
States, States, States,
States,
90
2,567
1,415
122
219
721
families. families. families. families. families. families.
$41.08
1.13
10.48
26.79
3.86
8.44
5.21
15.55
13.02
25.76
2.65
12.72
4.40
10.58
14.15

$16.06

M i& ...........................................................
B utter.......................................................
Cheese........................................................
Lard..........................................................
Tea............................................................
Coffee.........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and m ea l........................................
Bread........................................................
Rice...................................................... .
P otatoes..................................... .............
Other vegetables......................................
F ru it.........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments............
Other fo>od................................................

$54.27
8.18
12.83
12.19
12.26
10.18
10.06
18.44
24.29
29.77
2.55
8.15
6.33
9.70
16.67
1.51
16.24
15.41
1.94
13.77
16.08
15.31
4.06
17.91

9.34
2.77
9.29
20.75
15.22
3.21
19.13

8.11

1.92
13.01
22.03
17.15
4.80
26.63

9.55
3.70
11.54
16.62
11.52
4.41

T otal...............................................

338.10

298.64

321.60

Fresh beef.................................................
Salt beef....................................................
Fresh hog products..................................
Salt hog products.....................................
Other m eat............................................ . .
Poultry................................... ................
F ish ...........................................................

2.01
21.10

2.20

18.39
11.25
8.68

9.34
5.67
15.24
19.67
28.48
2.87
10.34
4.22
12.91
14.63
1.53
16.47

$37.84
.33
15.60
28.09
1.40
5.93
3.95
13.20
12.25
21.74
3.36
14.31
2.69

$54.13

.66

4.04
11.06
5.35
7.15
6.90

$50.05
5.26
14.02
13.89
9.78
9.49
8.01

11.01

21.12

20.46
31.81
.69
5.44
3.43
8.06
14.49
3.28
8.85
11.93
.91
9.84
35.41
40.53
1.49
11.61

16.79
21.32
28.76
2.62
9.35
5.30
10.74
15.76
1.69
16.76
12.44
2.05
12.93
18.85
16.52
4.12
20.40

292.68

308.53

326.90

12.22

15.70
2.93

22.68

From this table it is seen that the average cost per family of the
fresh beef consumed was $54.27 in the North Atlantic States, $41.08
in the South Atlantic States, $46.06 in the North Central States,
$37.84 in the South Central States, and $54.13 in the Western States.
The average cost for the 2,567 families investigated was $50.05. The
average cost per family of salt hog products consumed was $12.19 in
the North Atlantic States, $26.79 in the South Atlantic States, $11.25
in the North Central States, $28.09 in the South Central States, and
$11.06 in the Western States. The average for all families investi­
gated was $13.89.
The average cost of all food consumed during the year was $338.10
in the North Atlantic States, $298.64 in the South Atlantic States,
$321.60 in the North Central States, $292.68 in the South Central
States, and $308.53 in the Western States.
The average expenditure for food in the families investigated in
the North Atlantic States was 15.52 per cent above the average
expenditure in the families investigated in the South Central States.
The average expenditure for the 2,567 families in the United States
was $326.90.
From the table just shown another table has been computed,
showing the relative importance, as measured by the average family



191

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD* 1890 TO 1905.

expenditure,, of the principal articles of food consumed in one year.
For the purpose of computing the relative importance of the various
articles, the total value of food consumed is considered equal to
10,000. The table follows:
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE IN WORKINGMEN’S FAMILIES OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTI­
CLES OF FOOD CONSUMED IN 1901, BY GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS.
[Total value of food consumed^ 10,000.]

Article.

Fresh beef.................................................
Suit beef....................................................
Fresh hog products........................... Salt hog products....................................
Other m eat...............................................
Poultry.....................................................
Fish....... ....................................................
E ggs..........................................................
Butter.......................................................
Cheese............ ............. ........................ —
Lard..........................................................
Tea............................................................
Coffee.........................................................
Sugar.........................................................
Molasses....................................................
Flour and meal.........................................
Bread........................................................
Rice...........................................................
Potatoes...................................................
Other vegetables......................................
F ruit.........................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments............
Other food................................................
Total...............................................

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States, States, States,
2,567
90
122
1,415
219
721
families. families.
families. families. families. families.
1,432

530

1,.375
38
351
897
129
283
174
521
436
863
89
426
147
354
474
67
706
313
93
311
695
510
107
641

10,000

10,000

10,000

1,605
242
379
361
363
301
298
545
718
881
75
241
187
287
493
45
480
456
57
407
476
453
120

68

572
350
270
290
176
474
612

886

89
322
131
401
455
48
512
252
60
405
685
533
149
828

1,293

1,754

775
326
126
394
568
394
151
722

261
470
106
287
387
30
319
1,148
1,314
48
376

1,531
161
429
425
299
290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
577
505
126
624

10,000

10,000

10,000

11
533

960
48
203
135
451
418
743
115
489
92
417
536

100

21

131
359
173
232
224
357
663
1,031

22

176

111

This table shows that upon the basis of the reported expenditures
for food in the 2,567 families, the total value of food being represented
by 10,000, fresh beef has a value of 1,531; salt beef, 161; fresh hog
products, 429; salt hog products, 425; other meat, 299; poultry, 290;
fish, 245; eggs, 514; milk, 652; butter, 880; cheese, 80; lard, 286;
tea, 162; coffee, 328; sugar, 482; molasses, 52; flour and meal, 513;
bread, 381; rice, 63; potatoes, 395; other vegetables, 577; fruit, 505;
vinegar, pickles, and condiments, 126, and other food, 624. It
should be understood that these figures of relative importance are
based on the cost of the various articles; that is, for every $100 spent
for food, $15.31 was spent for fresh beef, $1.61 for salt beef, etc.
It is interesting to note that in the 2,567 families fresh hog products
and salt hog products have almost equal importance, and that the
two combined have almost exactly one-half the importance of fresh
beef and salt beef combined. Eggs are practically equal in impor­
tance to flour and meal. Tea has one-half the importance of coffee,
and sugar is almost equal in importance to the sum of tea and coffee.
Butter is almost equal in importance to the sum of flour and meal
and bread.



192

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR*

Marked differences in the importance of the various articles are
shown in the 5 groups of States. In the North Atlantic States fresh
beef has a relative importance of 1,605; in the South Atlantic States,
1,375; in the North Central States, 1,432; in the South Central States,
1,293, and in the Western States, 1,754. The relative importance of
salt beef is 11 in the South Central States, while in the North Atlantic
States it is 242, or 22 times its importance in the South Central States.
The importance of salt hog products is 361 in the North Atlantic
States, 897 in the South Atlantic States, 350 in the North Central
States, 960 in the South Central States, and 359 in the Western States.
The importance of sugar does not show a great difference; it is 493
in the North Atlantic States, 474 in the South Atlantic States, 455 in
the North Central States, 536 in the South Central States, and 470 in
the Western States.
By the use of this table a series of index numbers, or relative prices,
has been computed in which the principal articles of food have been
given the weight or importance shown in the preceding table, thus
. showing the course of retail prices from year to year when the various
articles are weighted according to average family consumption.
Certain groupings of the articles for which retail prices were secured
are necessary in order to bring them within the classification reported
in the family budgets.
Fresh beef is represented by the two articles—one, roasts, and the
other, steaks; salt hog products by the three articles—salt bacon, dry
or pickled pork, and salt ham; other meat by the two articles—
mutton and lamb, and veal; poultry by the single article—chickens;
fish by fresh fish and salt fish; flour and meal by wheat flour and
corn meal. However, in obtaining an average index number to be
used in weighting by relative importance, wheat flour is given twice
the importance of corn meal. It would be necessary to give wheat
flour even a greater weight as compared with corn meal but for the
fact that bread is considered separately from flour and meal. Fruit
is represented by two articles only—evaporated apples and prunes—
as it was impossible to secure complete series of prices of other descrip­
tions of fruits. Vinegar, pickles, and condiments are represented by
the single article vinegar.
This list includes all articles for which retail prices were secured
except beans. The groupings are as follows:
Salt hog products:
Fresh beef:
Pork, salt, bacon.
Boasts.
Pork, salt, dry or pickled.
Steaks.
Pork, salt, ham.
Salt beef.
Other m eat:
Fresh hog products:
Mutton and lamb.
Pork, fresh.
Veal.



193

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

Flour and meal:
Poultry:
Chickens (full grown),dressed
Flour, wheat (2).
Fish:
Corn meal (1).
Fresh.
Bread.
Rice.
Salt.
Potatoes.
Eggs.
Milk, fresh, unskimmed.
Fruit:
Butter.
Apples, evaporated.
Prunes.
Cheese.
Lard.
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments:
Tea.
Vinegar.
Coffee.
Other food:
Sugar.
The same index as for “ total
food, except meat.”
Molasses.
The figures showing the relative importance of the various articles
of food are based on the family consumption for 1901. There is no
doubt that the relative importance of articles varied slightly from
year to year, but no figures are available covering the 16 years,
therefore the relative consumption of the various articles of food is
considered the same for each of the years.
The method of computing the series of relative prices weighted
according to family consumption, for each of the geographical divi­
sions and for the United States considered as a whole, can best be
explained by illustrating the process.
The following table is for the United States for the year 1905:
TABLE ILLUSTRATING THE METHOD OP COMPUTING THE RELATIVE RETAIL
PRICE OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1905, THE VARIOUS ARTICLES BEING
W EIGHTED ACCORDING TO AVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN 2,567 WORKINGMEN'S
FAMILIES.
Relative
impor­
tance.

Relative
price.

Fresh beef..........................................................................................
Salt beef............................................................................................
Fresh hog product^..........................................................................
Salt hog products........................................................................ .
Other m eat.......................................................................................

1,531
161
429
425
299

107.9
126.6
127.8
117.8

112.6

172,390.6
17,371.9
54,311.4
54,315.0
35,222.2

Article.

Result.

Total m eat..............................................................................

2,845

117.3

333,611.1

Poultry.............................................................................................
F ish...................................................................................................
E ggs..................................................................................................
Muk...................................................................................................
Butter...............................................................................................
Cheese................................................................................................
Lard..................................................................................................
Tea............................. ......................................................................
Coffee.................................................................................................
Sugar.................................................................................................
Molasses............................................................................................
Flour and meal.................................................................................
Bread.................................................................................................
Rice...................................................................................................
Potatoes............................................................................................
F ruit..... ...........................................................................................
Vinegar, pickles, and condiments....................................................

290
245
514
652
880
80
286
162
328
482
52
513
381
63
395
505
126

12a 6

93.7
100.3

35,844.0
27,415.5
67,642.4
69,764.0
99,176.0
8,872.0
33,347.6
17,123.4
30,700.8
50,079.8
5,428.8
61,919.1
39,814.5
6,463.8
43,529.0
47,318.5
12,637.8

Total, except m eat..................................................................
Other food.........................................................................................
Meat..................................................................................................

5,954
624
2,845

110.4
110.4
117.3

657,077.0
68,889.6
333,611.1

Grand to ta l.............................................................................

9,423

112.4

1,059,577.7




111.9
131.6
107.0
112.7
110.9
116.6
105.7
93.6
103.9
104.4
120.7
104.5

102.6
110.2

194

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

The sum of the numbers indicating the relative importance of the
various kinds of meat is 2,845, the relative importance in family con­
sumption of all meat. The sum of the results which were obtained
by multiplying the relative price of each of the kinds of meat by the
number indicating its relative importance is 333,611.1. Therefore
to obtain the relative price of the group, meat, for the United States
in 1905, the sum of the results is divided by 2,845, the relative impor­
tance of the meat group. The quotient, 117.3, shows the relative
price of the meat group in 1905 when weighted according to family
consumption.
Each of the remaining 17 articles or classes of articles is taken up
in the same way as were the several kinds of meat, the relative price
for the United States in 1905 as shown in Table I I being multiplied
by the relative importance of the article, as shown in the table on
page 191. For the group of 17 articles comprised in “ total, except
meat,” the relative price, 110.4, was found in the same way as was the
relative price for all meat, the sum of the results, 657,077.0, being
divided by 5,954, the sum of the numbers indicating relative impor­
tance. One other group, designated “ other food,” remains to be
considered. As the various descriptions of meat most generally used
and also a class, “ other meat,” were included in the total meat, it is
presumed that all meat was included in that total and that the food
which in the family budgets was classed as “ other food” must be
more nearly related to the various articles considered in the group
“ total food, except meat,” and therefore “ other food” was given the
same relative price as “ total food, except meat.”
The grand total of the numbers indicating relative importance was
9,423, and the sum of the results obtained by multiplying the relative
price of each of the various articles considered by its relative impor­
tance was 1,059,577.7. The sum of the results divided by 9,423 is
112.4, the relative price of food for the United States in 1905, when
the various articles are weighted according to the reported consump­
tion in 2,567 families. The class “ other vegetables” has a relative
importance of 577, but it was impossible to collect retail prices of
articles to represent properly this class for the sixteen years, hence it
was not possible to include that class in this table, and therefore
the grand total of relative importance, 9,423, lacks 577 of making the
10,000 total importance of food indicated in the table on page 191.
That is, 94.23 per cent of the total food consumption per family is
represented in this table.
I t is interesting to see that the relative price for 1905, weighted
according to family consumption and including 94.23 per cent of the
total food consumption, differed but little from the simple average
of the 30 articles of food shown on page 181, the weighted price being
112.4 and the simple average 112.5. It should not be understood



195

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

that the 30 articles for which retail prices were secured, and which
are enumerated on page 172, comprise 94.23 per cent of the food con­
sumed, but these articles represent groups or classes which do, accord­
ing to the 2,567 family budgets, comprise 94.23 per cent of the food
consumed,
The weighted relative price for the United States for each of the
years from 1890 to 1904 was found in the same way as has been
explained for 1905.
The same method was employed in computing the weighted rela­
tive prices for each of the five geographical divisions as for the United
States. The relative importance of the various articles,, or classes
of articles, in the different geographical divisions is shown in the table
on page 191.
The table which follows shows for each of the 5 geographical divi­
sions and for the United States the relative price of food for each year
from 1890 to 1905. In the first column under each division is shown
the simple average of the relative prices of the 30 articles, and in
the second column under each division is shown the relative prices
weighted according to the average consumption of the various articles
of food in the workingmen’s families investigated in the States
included in the division. The relative prices obtained by the two
methods are presented so that the reader can make such use or com­
parison of them as he desires.
RELATIVE RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, SIMPLE AND WEIGHTED AVERAGES, BY
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS, 1890 TO 1905.
[Average price for 1890-1899=100.0.]
North Atlantic South Atlantic North Central South Central
States.
States.
States.
States.
Year.

1890.......
1891.......
1892.......
1893.......
1894.......
1895.......
1896.......
1897.......
1898.......
1899.......
1900.......
1901.......
1902.......
1903.......
1904.......
1905.......

Western
States.

United States.

Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weight- Sim­ Weightple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
ple.
101.9
102.9

102.3
103.2

104.3
99.9
98.2
96.2
96.9
98.3
99.3*
101.3
104.4

104.4
99.2
97.7
97.0
96.9
98.8
99.5

102.0

102.1

101.2

110.0

104.7
110.5

111.2
111.8

112.1

110.4

110.1

111.7

100.7
101.5

100.6
102.1

100.3
99.5
97.5
97.8
99.4

100,6

102; 2
106.6
110;8
110; 1
110;2

111.2

101. 2* 102.3
102; 1 104.1
101.1 101.7

103.2

100.0

98.7
96.8
97.1
99.3
100.5
102.4
106.9

111.8
111.2

111.9
113.0

105.0
100.9
98.3
94.9
95.3
98.1
99.4
101.7
106.7

112.1
112.0
112.6

114.0

102; 3
104; 5

101.1

105.4

102.9
99.9
98.2
96.2
97.2
99.9

101.8

100.6

98.0
94.6
95.6
98.4
98.9

100.8

106.1
111.7

111.0
112.1

113.1

102.9

100.6

101.0

103.3
108.1
114.1
114.0
115.0
115.9

102.1

103.6
100.7
103.5
100.0

98.1
96.1
97.3
98.8
99.9

101.1

106.9
113.5
113.5
115.0
115.9

105.4 . 107.7
106.2
108.7
104.4
105.2
102.7
102.9
99.4
99.3
96.7
97.3
93.2
93.9
94.2
92.7
95.2
96.7
99.8
98.5
100.1
98.1
102.0
99.9
104.4
106.9
103.7
108.1
109.4
104.9
105.7
110.0

102.1

103.4

101.8

104.1
100.3
98.2
95.8
96.3
98.5
99.6
101.5
105.5
110.9
110.9

111.6

112.5

102.4
103.8
101.9
104 4
99.7'
97.8
95.5.
96.3
98.7
99.5

101.1

105.2
110.9
110.3
111.7
U 2.4

I t is extremely interesting to compare the results under the two
methods. In the North Atlantic States there is a difference of 0.4 in
1890, 0.3 in 1891, 0.1 in 1892, 0.1 in 1893, 0.7 in 1894, 0.5 in 1895, 0.8
in 1896, nothing in 1897, 0.5 in 1898, 0.2 in 1899, 0.1 in 1900, 0.3 in
1901, 0.5 in 1902, 0.3 in 1903, 0.5 in 1904, and 0.3 in 1905. The



196

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

greatest difference in results obtained under the two methods is found
in the Western States. In the United States, considered as a whole,
there is a difference under the two methods of 0.3 in 1890, 0.4 in 1891,
0.1 in 1892, 0.3 in 1893, 0.6 in 1894, 0.4 in 1895, 0.3 in 1896, nothing
in 1897, 0.2 in 1898, 0.1 in 1899, 0.4 in 1900, 0.3 in 1901, nothing in
1902,0.6 in 1903,0.1 in 1904, and 0.1 in 1905. This shows a difference
of 0.6 in two years, of 0.4 in three years, of 0.3 in four years, of 0.2 in
one year, of 0.1 in four years, and of nothing in two years.
The following table shows the average price per pound, dozen,
quart, etc., in 1901, of various articles of food. One column shows
the average price paid by the 2,567 workingmen's families investigated
in the United States, as reported by the housewife or other member
of the family—that is, the average amount paid per family for each
article was divided by the average quantity of the article consumed.
Another column shows the average price computed from the reports
obtained from the retail merchants. The average price shown for
fresh beef in the last column, for instance, is the simple average of
the prices quoted on the 614 schedules for fresh beef; the average
for salt beef is the simple average of the prices quoted on the 121
schedules for that article, etc.
AVERAGE PRICE PER POUND, DOZEN, QUART, ETC., OF CERTAIN PRINCIPAL
ARTICLES OF FOOD, 1901.
Average price—
Article.

Unit.

Fresh beef...................................................................................................
Salt beef.......................................................................................................
Fresh hog products............................................................................... i ..
Salt hog products.......................................................................................
Other m eat........................ ........................................................................
Poultry........................................................................................................
F ish .............................................................................................................
E ggs............................................................................................................
MUk.............................................................................................................
Butter.........................................................................................................
Cheese..........................................................................................................
Lard.............................................................................................................
Tea...............................................................................................................
Coffee...........................................................................................................
Sugar...........................................................................................................
Molasses......................................................................................................
Flour and meal...........................................................................................
Bread...........................................................................................................
R ice..............................................................................................................
Potatoes......................................................................................................

Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
D ozen..
Quart...
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Pound..
Gallon..
Pound..
L o a f....
Pound..
Bushel..




a Flour, 10.0250; corn meal, 10.0230.

Com­
puted
from
2,567
family
budgets.
$0.1431
.1082
.1228
.1257
.1259
.1402
.1003
.1971
.0601
.2456
.1638
.1108
.5000
.2295
.0587
.4694
.0246
.0492
.0817
.8796

Com­
puted
from
retailprice
sched­
ules.
10.1470
.0931
.1300
.1457
.1430
.1529
.1166
.2194
.0617
.2644
.1634
.1190
.5455
.2445
.0587
.5136
(o)
.0545
.0837
.9908

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

197

The average price per pound for fresh beef reported paid by the
2,567 families was $0.1431; the simple average price from the 614
schedules for fresh beef secured from the retail merchants was $0.1470.
The average price per pound for salt beef reported in the family
budgets was $0.1082; the average from the 121 schedules for salt
beef secured from the retail merchants was $0.0931. In the family
budget salt beef included dried beef, while the prices from retail mer­
chants are for corned beef. The prices for the other articles can be
compared by referring to the table.
It will be noticed that for all articles except four—salt beef,
cheese, sugar, and flour and meal—the average price computed from
the family budgets is less than the reports of retail merchants. In
explanation of this difference, two suggestions may be offered. The
first is, that when the price of any article of food advances there is a
tendency on the part of the consumers to use some substitute for
that article. Therefore, if an article is low for six months of the year
and high for the remaining six months the greater quantity con­
sumed by the family may have been purchased during the months
when the price was low, thus producing a lower average for the year
than would the simple average of twelve monthly quotations. A
second suggestion is that prices secured from retail merchants were
usually for some standard grade or brand of article, while in some
families investigated it is no doubt true that articles of a lower grade
were purchased at times.
The table which follows shows for 20 articles of food the amount
which could have been bought for one dollar in each of the years 1890
to 1905.
The table is based on the average price reported paid by the 2,567
families in 1901, the quantities for the other years being calculated
from the relative retail prices for each of the articles. Flour and
meal were combined on the family budgets; therefore the average
price reported for these two articles by the retail merchants was
used in computing the number of pounds of each which could have
been bought for one dollar.
No detailed description of the various articles can be given except
that they were of the grade reported used by the 2,567 working­
men’s families reporting expenditures in detail.




198

b u l l e t in : o f

the

bureau

of

labor.

The table follows:
AMOUNT OF VARIOUS ARTICLES OF FOOD OF THE GRADE USED BY THE 2,567
WORKINGMEN'S FAMILIES REPORTING EXPEND ITU RES IN DETAIL, WHICH
COULD HAVE BEEN BOUGHT FOR ONE DOLLAR IN EACH YEAR FROM 1890 TO 1905.
[Based on the average price paid by the 2,567 workingmen’s families in 1901, and the course of retail
prices.]

Year..

1890.........................
1891................... .
1892....................
1893.........................
1894.........................
1895.......................
1896.........................
1897........................
1898.........................
1899.........................
1900.........................
1 9 0 1 .......................
1902.........................
1903.........................
1904.........................
1905.........................

Year,

1890.........................
1891.........................
1892.........................
1893.........................
1894.........................
1895.........................
1896.........................
1897.........................
1898.........................
1899.........................
1900.........................
1901.........................
1902.........................
1903.........................
1904.........................
1905.........................

Poul­
try
Fresh
Salt
Fresh
Salt
Fish, Eggs, Milk, Butter, Cheese,
beef,
beef, pork, pork, (chick­ pounds. dozens. quarts. pounds. pounds
pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. ens),
pounds.
7.81
7.78
7.79
7.81
7.89
7.84
7.81.
7.73
7.61
7.47
7.28
6.99
6.54

10.06
9.89
9.97
9.72
9; 85
9.56
9.77
8.97
9.43
9.91
9.84.
9.63
9.82
9.84
9.72
9.83
9.60
9.73
9.44
9.50
9.45
8.91
9.24 . 8.14
8.46
7.48
6.86 , 9.01
7.56
7.74
6.85
9.05
7.58
6.88
9.09

9.58
9.41
9.20
8.49
8.98
9.33
9.58
9.48
9.43
9.13
8.60
7.96
7.16
7.12
7.26
7.^4.

7.25
7.06
7.08
7.05
7.45
7.46
7.56
7.81
7.59
7.21
7.29
7.13
6.49

6.20

6.08
5.94

10.09

10.02

9.97
9.91
9.99
10.15
10. 20'
10.35

10.12

10.07

10.11

9.97
9.71
9.35
9.19
9.02

5.33
5.01
5.02
4,96
5.56
5.40
5.77
5.86
5.57
5.30
5.36
5.07
4.50
4.28
4.09
4.07

16.74
16.74.
16.7216.7.6
16.79
16.82
16.84
16.87
16.92*
17.01
16.84
16.64
16.29
15.90
15.83
15.72

4.23
3,95
3.93
3.82
4.13
4.33
4.53
4,51
4.42
4.30
4,144.07
3.77
3.79
3.85
3.73

6.39
6.29

6.22
6.20
6.21

6.36
6.45
6.38
6.47
6.16
6.07

6.11

5.88
5.77
5.88
5.69

Flour, Com Bread, Rice, Pota­
Lard, Tea, Coflee, Sugar, Molas­ wheat, meal,
oneses,
toes,.
pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. gallons. pounds. pounds. pound pounds. bushels
loaves.
10.86

10.69
10.29
9.05
9.98
10.65
11.53
11.88

11.36
10.98

10.21

9.03
7.94
8.42
9.09
9.15

2.13
2.13
2.13
2.13
2.16
2.17
2.16
2.17
2.12

2.04

2.02
2.00

1.99

2.01
2.02
2.02

3.75
3.76
3.81
3.77
3.83
3.89
3.97
4.18
4.34
4.37
4.34
4.36
4.41
4.43
4.31
4.22

14.80
17.09
18.24
17.29
18.71
19.12
18.17
18.34
17.33
17.26
16.73
17.04
18,28
18.26
17.22
16.89

2.06

2.12

2.13
2.14
2.15
2.18
2.19
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.11

2.13
2.11

2.08
2.07
2.07

34.42
46.57
33.56
42.45
44.27
35.93
45.17
39.29
42.57 45.56
46.20
42.43
49.02
40.73
36.20
49.70
49.02
35.16
39.92
48.97
40.04 * 47.81
40.00
43.48
39.20
39.79
37.31
38.58
31.49
38.33
38.11
31.49

20.15
20.15
20.15
20.19
20.23
20.27
20.23
20.21

20.25
20.29
20.27
20.33
20.33
20.17
19.45
19.34

12.51
12.36
12.51
12.87
12.80
12.82
13.10
12.94
12.46
12.37
12.37
12.24
12,24
12.19
12.47
12.35

1.22

1.14
1,39
1.19
1.30
1.45
1.73
1.43
1.26
1.39
1.42
1.14
1.14
1.16
1.10
1.21

From this table it is seen that for one dollar 7.81 pounds of fresh
beef (of the grade consumed by the 2,567 families investigated) could
have been bought in 1890, 7.78 pounds in 1891, 7.79 pounds in 1892,
7.81 pounds in 1893, 7.89 pounds in 1894, 7.84 pounds in 1895, 7.81
pounds in 1896, 7.73 pounds in 1897, 7.61 pounds in 1898, 7.47 pounds
in 1899, 7.28 pounds in 1900, 6.99 pounds in 1901, 6.54 pounds in
1902, 6.86 pounds in 1903, 6.85 pounds in 1904, and 6.88 pounds in
1905.
The table which follows shows by geographical divisions the aver­
age food cost per family each year from 1890 to 1905. This table is
based on the average food cost per family in 1901 as reported by the
families investigated in each geographical division, and the course of
retail prices of food as indicated by the relative prices weighted
according to family consumption in that division.



199

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.

In each of the divisions of States and in the United States as a
whole it is considered in this table that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the other years of the sixteen-year period covered
by this investigation as in 1901.
The table follows:
AVERAGE

FOOD

COST PER WORKINGMAN’S FAMILY, BY
DIVISIONS, FOR EACH YEAR, 1890 TO 1905.

GEOGRAPHICAL

[Based on the average cost per family in 1901 and the course of retail prices of food as indicated by the
relative prices weighted according to family consumption.]

Year.

1890............................................................
1891............................................................
1892............................................................
1893............................................................
1894............................................................
1895............................................................
1896............................................................
1897............................................................
1898............................................................
1899............................................................
1900............................................................
1901............................................................
1902............................................................
1903............................................................
1904............................................................
1905............................................................

South
North
South
North
Atlantic Atlantic Central Central Western United
States,
States,
States,
States, States,
States,
90
2,567
122
1,415
721
219
families. families.
families. families. families. families.
$330.35
333.26
329.70
337.13
320.34
315.50
313.23
312.91
319.05
321.31
326.80
338.10
356.83
355.54
360.70
362.00

$282.72
285.23
282.44
288.30
279.36
275.73
270.42
271.26
277.41
280.76
286.07
298.64
312.33
310.65
312.61
315.68

$310.08
316.75
308.57
319.48
304.93
297.05
286.74
289.77
298.26
299.78
305.54
321.60
338.57
336.45
339.79
342.82

$279.54
283.64
275.71
283.37
273.79
268.59
263.11
266.40
270.50
273.51
276.80
292.68
310.75
310.75
314.86
317.32

$332.61
335.72
324.90
317.80
306.68
298.65
287.84
286.29
294.01
304.21
302.97
308.53
322.43
320.27
323.97
326.44

$318.20
322.55
316.65
324.41
309.81
303.91
296.76
299.24
306.70
309.19
314.16
326.90
344.61
342.75
347.10
349.27

From this table it is seen that in the North Atlantic States the
average food cost per family (assuming that food was purchased in
the same quantity each year and that the expenditure for each of
the various articles bore the same relation to the total expenditure
for food in each of the years) was $330.35 in 1890, $333.26 in 1891,
etc. The lowest cost was $312.91 in 1897, and the highest was
$362 in 1905, a difference of $49.09.
For the United States, considered as a whole, the average cost of
food per family in 1890 was $318.20. In 1896, the year of lowest
prices, it fell to $296.76; in 1905 it reached the highest point of the
period, being $349.27, a difference between 1896 and 1905 of $52.51,
or 17.7 per cent. The changes in the cost of living, as shown by this
table, relate to food alone, representing 42.54 per cent of all family
expenditures in the 2,567 families furnishing information.
For a comparison of the relative advance of retail prices of food
and wages in the manufacturing and mechanical industries the
reader is referred to the article on “ Wages and hours of labor,”
pages 1 to 170 of this Bulletin. The increase in wages in many indus­
tries has exceeded the advance in food, but, as has been mentioned in
previous numbers of the Bulletin, the increased cost of food has
been felt by everyone, and perhaps more keenly by those on salaries,
as the general tendency is to advance employees on salaries less rap­
idly than those employed by the day or week and whose services
are contracted for at frequent intervals.



200

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOB,
T a b l e I . — B E T A IL PBIC ES O F FO O D , 1904 A N D 1905.
A PPLE S, E V A P O R A T E D , P E R POUND.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

ALABAMA.

■ Rirminghfl.Tn......................................... B e s t ..........................................................
B est............................................................
Montgomery .............._....................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Medium......................................................

$0.1250
.1250

Little Bock........................................... B est............................................................
Medium......................... ............................

.1250

.1000

.1250
.1063

Los A n g e le s ........................................ Good, loose................................................
Medium......................................................
San Francisco...................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium................................... ..................

.1000

.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1250

.1000

.1250
.1067

.1500

.1500

.1000
.1000

$0.1250
.1250
.1017

.1000

ARKANSAS.

CALIFORNIA.

COLORADO.
■ Denver..........................................................

B est............................................................
Medium.....................................................

.0800

CONNECTICUT.

New Haven........................................... High grade.................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1000
.1200

DELAWARE.

.0850

.1200

.1300

Wilmington _......................................... Medium......................................................
Medium, sold in 3-pound lots, Jan., 1904,
to June, 1905.

.0800
.0833

Washington.......................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1000

.1117
.1075

.1000
.1000

.1250

.1250
.1058
.1250

Medium.....................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1017
.1050

Chicago................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Peoria.................................................... Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
Medium......................................................

.1000

.1200

.1000

.1000

.1050
.0956

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

FLORIDA.

Jacksonville.......................................... B est............................................................
Choice.........................................................
Good..........................................................

.0800
.0800

GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................
ILLINOIS.

INDIANA.

Indianapolis.......................................... B est............................................................
Medium......................................................
Terre H aute.......................................... B est............................................................
B est............................................................

.1125

.0933

.1000

.0867

.0800

.1000

.1500
.1500

.1000

.1000

.1300

.1063
.1167
.1217
.1000
.1000

.1500
.1500

IOWA.

Des Moines............................................ B est............................................................
Medium......................................................
Dubuque............................................... B est............................................................
Medium......................................................

.1250

.1250

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000

B est............................................................
Medium......................................................

.0875
.0861

.1000

Louisville.............................................. Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.0757

.1014

.1083

.1000

KANSAS.

Topeka..................................................

.0944

KENTUCKY.
.1000

.1000

.0917

.1067
.1083

.1500
.1300

.1500
.1400

LOUISIANA.

New Orleans......................................... B est............................................................
B est............................................................
First grade.................................................

.1000
.1000

.1000

MAINE.

Portland...............................................




B est............................................................
No. 1...........................................................

201

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T able I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S O F FO O D , 1904 AN D 1905—Continued.
APPLES, EVAPORATED, P E R POUND—
Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

MARYLAND.

RaltimnrA............................................. B est.......................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
MASSACHUSETTS.

Boston.................................................. B est............................................................
Good..........................................................
Medium............... ...... .........................
Fall River............................................. B est..........................................1................
Good..........................................................
Lynn..................................................... Medium....................... .............................
Medium.................................... ................
Malden.................................................. Medium.....................................................
Medium......................................................
Worcester............................................. Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
MICHIGAN.

Detroit.................................................. B est..................................................... ......
Good, sold in 3-pound lo ts........................
Grand Rapids....................................... Good..........................................................
Medium......................................................
MINNESOTA.

Duluth..................................................

Apples, evaporated...................................
G ood.........................................................
Minneapolis........................................... Good..........................................................
Medium......................................................
St. Paul................................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Good.........T...............................................
MISSOURI.

Kansas City.......................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
St. Louis............................................... Good..........................................................
Good..........................................................
Medium......................................................

1904.

1905.

10.1000
.0826
.1000
.1200
.1200

10.1275
.0833

.1200

.1067
.1275
.1175
.1208
.1058
.1225
.1133

.0900
.1183
.1033
.1117
.0917
.0908

.1100
.1050

.0900
.0833

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0883
.1000
.1000

.,1000

.1367
.1250
.0967

.1200

.1050
.0972

.1000
.1000
.1042
.1146

.1200
.1000

.0717
.0933

.0717
.1063

.1104
.0931

.1146

.1000

.1000
.1000
.1083

.1063
.1063
.1050

B est...........................................................
B est............................................................

.1250
.1250

.1292
.1250

B est...........................................................
B est...........................................................

.1000
.1250

.1250

No. 1 ..........................................................
No. 1 ..........................................................

.1117
.0817

.1167
.1142

Jersey City............................................ B est............................................................
Good..........................................................
Trenton.........................
. __
B est...........................................................
B est............................................................
B est...........................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1000
.1000
.1300
.1200
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1200
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1000
.1200
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1200
.1000

MONTANA.

B u tte................................................
NEBRASKA.

Omaha............................................. .
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

Manchester..........................................
NEW JERSEY.

NEW YORK.

Albany..........................

................ Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
B est...........................................................
B est...........................................................
Buffalo.................................................. B est..................... •.....................................
Medium......................................................
Flushing................................................ B est...........................................................
B est............................................................
New York (a )........................................ B est.......... I...............................................
B est...........................................................
B est___:....................................................
B est...........................................................
Rochester.............................................. B est...........................................................
B est.................................. ........................
Syracuse................................................ B est...........................................................
First grade................................................
Brooklyn.......................

...........

OHIO.

Cincinnati__

..........

B est...........................................................
Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Cleveland.............................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
Apples, evaporated...................................
B est...........................................................
a Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.




.1000

.1300
.1322
.1225
.1067

.1000
.1250
.1225

.1200

.1167
.1450
.1050
.1150
.1325

.1000
.1050

.1500

.1500
.1250

.1400

.1117
.1400

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1200
.1000

202

BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LA BOB,
T a b le I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S OF FO O D , 1904 A N D 1905—Continued.
A P P L E S , E V A P O R A T E D , P E R P O U N B —Coneluded.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

OREGON.

Portland......... ...................................... Medium.................... .................. ..............
Medium......................................................

$0.0833
.0833

$0.0903
.0889

Allegheny.............................................. Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
Philadelphia......................................... B est.................... .......................................
B est............................................................
Medium......................................................
Pittsburg............................................. Apples, evaporated...................................
B est.......... ! .... ..........................................
Scranton............................................... Medium......... , ...........................................
Medium......................................................
Wilkes-Barre............ ............................ Medium............ _........................................
Medium......................................................

.1125
.1188

.1146
.1375
.1183

PENNSYLVANIA.

RHODE ISLAND.

.1200
.1000
.0900
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1250
.1000
.1000

.1000
.0800
.1075
.1208

.1200
.1000

.1250

.1133

Providence............................................ B est............................................................
B est...........................................................
G ood .,.......................................................

.1292
.1183

.1200

.1250
. 1483
.1333

Charleston............................................ Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1000
.1000

.1000

Sioux F alls........................................... B est........................ ...................................
Medium......................................................

.0903

.1000

.1104

SOUTH CAROLINA.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

TENNESSEE.

.0917

.1000
.1100

Memphis................................................ Medium......................................................
Medium.....................................................
Nashville............................................... Good..........................................................
Medium......................................................

.1167

Dallas.................................................... E xtra.........................................................
Medium......................................................
San Antonio.......................................... Good..........................................................
Medium......................................................

.1250
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1083

Salt Lake City...................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1250
.1250

.1250
.1250

Good..........................................................
Good..........................................................
Good..........................................................
Good..........................................................

.0800

.1000
>0800
.1000
.1000

Seattle........... ....................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
T a c o m a _________ _________ _____ __ Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1042
.1250
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.1000

.1250

Birmingham......................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Montgomery......................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................

$0.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1250

Little B ock........................................... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................

. 1172
.1172

.1113
.1172

TEXAS.

UTAH.

VIRGINIA.
N o r f o lk . ...............................................

R ic h m o n d _ _......................................
WASHINGTON.

WEST VIRGINIA.

Wheeling....... _...................................... Medium......................................................
Medium......................................................
WISCONSIN.

Milwaukee............................................. B est...........................................................
B est...........................................................
BEA N S, D R Y , P E R

.1000
.0833
.1000

.1042

.1104
.0833

.1000
.1167
.1250

.1000

.1292

QUART.

ALABAMA.

ARKANSAS.




.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

203

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T a b le I . — R E T A IL PR IC E S O F FO O D , 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
BEANS, DRY', P E R RITART— Continued.

State and locality.

Average price.
Description.

CALIFORNIA.
Los Angeles......... ....................... ......... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
P in t, sold by the pound............................
San Francisco............................. ......... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
P&&,'sold 4 pound s*for 25 cents.................
Pea, sold by the pound.............................
Pink, sold 6 pounds for 25 cents, Jan.,
1904, to Oct., 1905; 7 pounds for 25 cents,
Nov. and Dec., 1905.
COLORADO.
Denver.................................................. Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy', sold by the pound..........................
CONNECTICUT.
New Haven........................................... Pea.............................................................
Pea.............................................................
DELAWARE.
Wilmington...... .................................... N avy.......................................................
Pea,'small..................................................
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA*
W ashington.......................................... N avy.......... ...............................................
Pea.'...........................................................
Pea.............................................................
FLORIDA.
Jacksonville.......................................... Navy..........................................................
Navy..........................................................
Navy..........................................................
GEORGIA.
Boston.......................................................
Atlanta..............................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
ILLINOIS.
Chicago..............................................
Navy, hand picked....................................
Navy, hand picked....................................
Navy, hand picked....................................
Peoria................................................... N avy..........................................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
INDIANA.
Indianapolis.......................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Terre H aute.......................................... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold in 7-pound lo ts.......................
IOW
A.
Des Moines........................................... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Dubuque........................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
KANSAS.
Topeka.............................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
KENTUCKY.
Louisville.............................................. Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold in 6-pound lo ts.......................
LOUISIANA.
New Orleans......................................... N avy..........................................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
MAINE.
Portland............................................... Pea.............................................................
Pea.............................................................
MARYLAND,
Baltimore............................................. N avy..........................................................
Navy..........................................................
New York State, hand picked..................
MASSACHUSETTS.
B oston.................................................. Navy or pea...............................................
Navy or pea, New York State, sold by the
one-half peck.
Pea.............................................................




1904.

1905.

$0.0750
.0750
.0750
.1172
.0938
.0781

$0.0750
.0750
.0750
.1172
.0938
.0760

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.1000
.0800

.1000
.0800

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.0833
.1000

.1000
.0833
.1000

.0800
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.0938

.0800
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.0813

.0833
.1000
.0938
.0670

.0833
.1000
.0938
.0670

.0938
.0750
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0750
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0711
.0781

.0797
.0781

.0938
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000

.0917
.0967

.0800
.0800

.1000
.1000

.0867

.0783

.0800
.0883

.0800
.0817

.1067

.1000

.1000
.1000

204

BULLETIN* OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T a b le I . — R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
BEANS, BRIT, P E R QUART—Continued.
Average price.
State and locality.

Description.
■

1904.

1905.

MASSACHUSETTS—concluded.
Fall River ............................................. Pea.............................................................
Pea.............................................................
Lynn............... :.................................... Navy or pea...........................................
Navy or pea...............................................
Malden........................ . ..................... N avy or pea...............................................
N avy or pea, sold by the one-half peck...
Pea___-.....................................................
P e a ............................................................
MICHIGAN.
Detroit.................................................. N avy........................................................ ;
Navy, sold in 6-pound lo ts.......................
(Trand Rapids...................................... N avy..........................................................
Navy......................................................
MINNESOTA.
Duluth.................................................. Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy , sold by the pound..........................
Minneapolis.......................................... Navy.................. .......................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
St. Paul................................................. N avy........................................................
Pea.'...........................................................
MISSOURI.
Kansas City.......................................... Navy, sold by the p o u n d ___ _ r. „
Navy' sold by. the pound..........................
St- Bonis, ............................................. Hand picked, sold by the pound..............
Navy *........'......... .’ — .*........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
MONTANA.
B u tte..................................................... Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................

$0.0917
.0800
.0800
.0938
.0933
.0765
.0800
.0700

10.1000
.0800
.0767
.0913
.0850
.0758
.0800
.0700

.0883
.0781
.0800
.0800

.0779
.0781
.0800
.0800

.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.0800
.0792

.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.0800
.0842

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

.0813
.0938
.1031
.1063
.0844

.0938
.0938
.0938
.0938
.0797

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

N avy..........................................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

N avy........................ :...............................
P e a ...........................................................
NEW JERSEY.
Jersey City............................................ N avy..........................................................
Pea.............................................................
Trenton................................................. N avy..........................................................
Pea.............................................................
Pea.............................................................
NEW YORK.
Albany.................................................. N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Brooklyn........................... .................. Marrow......................................................
Pea.............................................................
B u ffa lo .......................................................... N avy........................................ *
.................
N avy........................................................ .
Flushing................................................ N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
New York (« )........................................ N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Pea, New York State................................
White, medium.........................................
Rochester.............................................. N avy..........................................................
N avy............................................. "..........
N avy..........................................................
Syracuse................................................ N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
OHIO.
Cincinnati.............................................. D ry.............................................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Cleveland............................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
N avy........................................ ................
Toledo................................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
a Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.

.0875
.0883

.0800
.0800

NEBRASKA.
O m a h a ..........................................................

NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Manchester................................... .......




.1000

.1000

.0800

.0825

.0800

.0800

.0817
.0800

. 1°83
. 0Q
00
.0900
.0800

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
. 1200
.0000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200

.0"83
.0800

.1000
.1000

.0800

.1133

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.O'758

.0800

.1000
.1000

.0850

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000

.1000

.0800

.0800
.0800

.0800

.0800
.0800

205

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued
BEANS, DR Y, P E R QUART —Concluded.

State and locality.

Description.

OREGON.
Portland...............................................

Average price.
1904.

1905.

Navy, sold by the pound........
Navyi sold by the pound..........................
PENNSYLVANIA.
Allegheny.............................................. N avy..................................................
N avy..........................................................
Philadelphia......................................... N avv.............................................
N avy..........................................................
Pea.............................................................
Pittsburg.............................................. N avy.......................................................
N avy..........................................................
Scranton............................................... N avy.............................................
N avy..........................................................
Wilkes-Barre........................................ N avy...........................................
N avy..........................................................
RHODE ISLAND.
Dry.................................
Providence............................................
Pea.............................................................
SOUTH CAROLINA.

10.0938
.0938

10.0938
.0938

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1200
.1000
.1000

* .1000
.0917

.1000
.0967

N avy...................................................
N avy..........................................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Sioux Falls............................................ Navy, sold by the pound.....................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
TENNESSEE.
Memphis................................................ N avy..........................................................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Nashville............................................... N avy..........................................................
Navy, sold in 6-pound lo ts.......................
TEXAS.
Dallas.................................................... Navy, sold by the pound.........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
San Antonio.......................................... Dry, sold by the pound............................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
UTAH.
Salt Lake City...................................... N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
VIRGINIA.
Norfolk.................................................. N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Richmond............................................. N avy..........................................................
N avy..........................................................
W
ASHINGTON.
Seattle....... ............................................ N avy........................................................
N avy..........................................................
Tacoma................................................. Navy, sold by the pound..........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................
WEST VIRGINIA.
Wheeling.......................................... .
N avy.........................................................
N avy........................................................ .
WISCONSIN.
Milwaukee............................................. Navy, sold by the pound.........................
Navy, sold by the pound..........................

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.1000
.0938
.1000
.0938

.1000
.0938
.1000
.0938

.1172
.1172
.0938
.0938

.1172
.1156
.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

.0800
.0800
.1000
.0800

.0800
.0800
.1000
.0800

.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938

.1000
.1000
.0938
.0938

. 080d
.0800

.0800
.0800

.0938
.0938

.0938
.0938

10.1000
.1000

«0 .1000

Charleston............................................
SOUTH DAKOTA.

B E E F, FR E SH , ROASTS, P E R POUND.

Birmingham

Montgomery

2— 65—
No.
06--- 14



. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, medium.........................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
. Chuck, good...............................................
Chuck, medium.........................................
Chuck, medium.........................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib .............................................................

.1250
.1067
.1750
.1750
.1517
.0917
.0800
.0950
.1146
.1271
.1250

.1017
.1250
.1083
.1800
.1733
.1567
.0917
.0800
.0950
.1146
.1271
.1167

206

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES O F FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , B O A S T S , F E U F O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock................................ ........... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, home dressed.................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, home dressed.....................................

$0.1000

.1000

.0800
.1500
.1250

.1000

$0.1000
.1000

.0800
.1500
.1250
.1000

CALIFORNIA.

Los Angulps ....... .................. . . . . . . . . .

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.................................. ..........................
Rib, prime.................................................
Chuck.................................................... «...
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, prime.................................................
Rib, prime.................................................

.1000
.1000

.1500
.1500
.1800

.1500
.1500
.1800

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib. medium..............................................

.0600
.0675
.0800
.1250
.2000
.1250

.0600
.0700
.0800
.1250
.2000
.1250

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, first cu t..............................................
Rib, first eu t..............................................

.1167
.1183
.1400
.1983
.1917
.2500

.1183
.1300
.13^5
.2083
.1817
.2500

Wilmington____________ __________ Chuck....................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib, best cu t..............................................
Rib, best cut..............................................

.1258
.1083
.1750
.1500

.1233
.1117
.1800
.1500

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, best................................................
Chuck, cheap grade...................................
R ib........................ ....................................
Rib, prime.................................................
Rib, prime.................................................

.1042
.1250
.1208
.1475
.1833
.1500

.1133
. 12C8
.1208
.1500
.1700
.1525

Jacksonville.......................... .... . . . . __ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, home dressed.................................
Chuck, w estern .........................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, home dressed.....................................
Rib, medium..............................................
Rib, w estern .............................................

.1000
.0925
.1000
.1000
.2000
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1500

.1000
.0867
.1000
.1000
.1900
.1783
.1250
.1250
.1500

.1000
.1000
.1250
.1250
.1867
.1604

.1000
.1000
.1250
.1333
.1867
.1625

.0633
.1025
.0867
.1063
.0917
.0992
.1350
.1313

.0600
.1050
.0842
.1000
.0867
.1083
.1267
.1383

Ran Francisco..................... .

.0800

.0867
.0817

.1700
.1500
.1800

.1700
.1500
.1800

.1000
.1000

.1250

.1000

.2000

.1000

.1000
.1000

.1250
.1000

.2000

COLORADO.

Ttanvp.r.............................

CONNECTICUT.

New Haven................................... .

DELAWARE.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Washington........................ .

FLORIDA.

GEORGIA.

Atlanta.................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
ILLINOIS.

Chicago.................................. .............. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................




207

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T able

I .—

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905-Conlinued.

BEEF, FRESH, ROASTS, PER POUND— Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1904.

1905.

Illinois—concluded.
Chuck
Chuck
Chuck
Chuck
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

Peoria

SO 0800
.
.0817
.0800
.0604

10.0800
.0750
.0800
.0542

.0900
.0900
.1117

.0983
.1092

.1000

.1000
.1000

INDIANA.

Chuck, best cut.
Chuck, best cut.
Chuck, best cut.
Rib................... .
R ib................... .
R ib................... .
Chuck, best cut.
Chuck, best cut.
Chuck, best cut.
Rib, prime.........
Short rib.......... .
Short rib, prime

Indianapolis.

Terre Haute,

.1250
.1083

.1000

.1250
.1050

.1000

.1500
.1567
.1250

.1625
.1617
.1250

. 1333
.1396
.1500

.1313
.1438
.1500

.0817

.0869
.1025
.0833
.1550
.1950
.1167
.1104
.1063
.1063
.1500
.1250
.1313

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

IOWA.

Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...
Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

Des Moines.

Dubuque,

.1000

.0725
.1525
.1900
.1146
.0933

.1000

.0944
.1500
.1250
.1313

KANSAS.

Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

.0889
.0958
.0917
.1375
.1417
.1375

Chuck,
Chuck.
Chuck,
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

.0892
.0908
.0892

.1325
.1313
.1350
.1313

.1200

.0858
.0850
.0892
.1233
.1358
.1333
.1438
.1313

Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

.1025
.0900
.0900
.0900
.1500
.1500
.1800
.1500

.1033
.0900
.0867
.0900
.1500
.1500
.1667
.1500

Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

Topeka,

.0875
.0983
.1050

.1200

.1000
.1200

Chuck......................
Chuck......................
Chuck......................
Chuck......................
R ib..........................
Rib, back cu t......... .
Rib, first cu t..........
Rib, prime, first cut,

.0942
.1325
.0900

.0917
. 1333
.0900

.1642
.1067
.1300
.1800

.1567
.1067
.1283
.1800

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1313
.1417
.1417

KENTUCKY.

Louisville,

LOUISIANA.

New Orleans,

MAINE.

Portland

.1583
.1617

.0875
.0867

.1408
.1425

MARYLAND.

Baltimore,




.1000

.1000

208

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R

P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

MASSACHUSETTS.

Boston.................................

Fall River.

Lynn.

Malden.

Worcester.

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, medium.........................................
R ib ...'.......................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, medium..........................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck................................................. .......
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, medium..........................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib .............................................................
Rib, medium.............................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib .............................................................

10.1104
.1083
. 1104
.0933
.1675
.1583
.1950
.2108
.0875
.0925
.0800
.1850
.1283
.1300
.0842
.1250
.1129
.1358
.1783
.1563
.1175

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib .............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, light, No. 1 ........................................
Rib, medium..............................................
Rib, prime, No. 3 .......................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck............................................... ........
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, first grade..........................................

.0800
.0896
.0900
.0900
.1213
.1263
.1125
.1133
.1250
.0908
.1042

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
C h u c k . ....................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, choice, best cu t.................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib .............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0800

.1375
.1500
.0883
.0800
.0883
.1500
.1333
.1438
.0900
.1025
.0800
.1333
.1658

.1354
.1725
.0817
.0883
.0883
.1600
.1313
.1396
.0900
.1117
'.0800
.1354
.1692

Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0931
.0900
.0875
.1550
.1146
.1567

.0800
.0875
.1583
.1188
.1500

.1100

.1225
.1700
.1450
.1600
.1008
.0942
.0892
.1800
.1758
.1650

MICHIGAN.

Detroit...........................

Grand Rapids

.1000

.1450
.1300
.1400

10.1067
.1133
.1138
.0900
.1708
.1567
.1917
.1950
.0892
.0867
.0750
.1725
.1300
.1250
.0850
.1233
.1300
.1283
.1775
.1617
.1167
.1113
.1217
.1650
.1313
.1600
.0992
.0908
.0808
.1658
.1692
.1617
.0800
.0933
.0842
.0917
.1133
.1379
.1104
.1117
.1250
.0908

.1021
.1000

.1400
.1300
.1400

MINNESOTA.

Duluth.............................

Minneapolis

St. Paul,

.1121
.1000
.1000

.1000

.0800
.1083
.1188

.1000

.1000

MISSOURI.

Kansas City...................




.1000

209

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
Table I .—R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
BEEF, F R E SH , ROASTS, P E R POUND—Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

M
issouri—concluded.
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, medium..........................................
Rib................................ 1...........................
Rib.............................................................
Rib, prime.................................................
Rib, prime.................................................

10.0833
.0867
.0825
.0800
.1583
.1567
.1396
.1413

10.0875
.0842
.0850
.0867
.1592
.1575
.1388
.1400

B u tte..................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.0800
.0708
.0717
.1333
.1333
.1333

.0819
- .0575
.0700
.1250
.0963
.1333

.0814
.0800
.0875
.1458
.1125
.1375

.0800
.0800
.0850
.1313

.1033
.1017
.0900
.0600

.0967
.1017
.0900
.0600

.1400
.1217

.1400
.1167

MONTANA.

NEBRASKA.

Omaha.................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

Manchester........................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, choice.............................................
Chuck, second grade..................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib......... ...................................................
Rib, prime, first cu t............................. Rib, prime, second cu t..............................
NEW JERSEY.

.1200
.2000

.1000

.1313

.1000
.2000

Jersey City............................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck....................................... ;...............
Chuck, home dressed.................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, best cut, home dressed.....................
Trenton................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib, best cu t.............................................

.1067
.1017
.1325
.1525
.1217
.1917
.1275
. 1313
.1250
.1700
.1700
.1700

.1113
.1050
.1317
.1542
.1271
.1867
. 1275
.1250

Albany.................................................. Chuck.....................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Brooklyn.............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib prime.................................................
Buffalo.................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, best................................................
Chuck, best................................................
Chuck, second grade.................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
Rib, first grade..........................................
Rib, second grade.....................................
Rib, second grade.....................................
Flushing................................................ Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................

.1450
.1250
.1250
.1825
.1800
.1800
.1225

.1450
.1250
.1275
.1825
.1800
.1800

NEW YORK.




.1200

.1650
.1650
.1567

.1200
.1000

.1200
.1200
.1000

.2000
.1000

.2000

.1283
.1817
.1508
.0883
.1092
.1133
.0950
.0867

.1200

.1533
.1533
.1317
.1288
.1067
.1083

.1000

.1900
.1925

.1300
.1800
.1517
.0967
.0900
.1025
.1133
.0900
.0842
.1183
.1642
.1517
.1300
.1196

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1750
.1900

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

210

Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905—Continued.
B E E F y F R E S H , R O A S T S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Description.

State and locality.
new

Average price.
1904

1905.

y o r k —c o n c lu d e d .

Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck, medium
R ib...................

New York («)

R ib...............................
Rib, medium...............
Rib, prime...................
Chuck..........................
Chuck...........................
Chuck...........................
R ib...............................
Rib...............................
Rib, prime cut.............
Chuck...........................
Chuck..........................
Chuck, medium............
R ib...............................
Rib, medium...............
Rib, prime, second cut

Rochester.

Syracuse,

10.1000

.1300
.1067

.1200
.1000

.1483
.1733
.2033
.1425
.1450
.1883
.0800

.1000

.0933
.1271
.1279
.1400

10.0917
.1250
.1117
.1167
.0900
.1388
.1800

.2000

.1442
.1333
.1767
.0800
.1025

.1000

.1433
.1417
.1338

.1000
.1200
.1200

.1000
.1200
.1200

Chuck, best.........
Chuck, medium. . . . . . .
Chuck, medium...........
Chuck, medium...........
R ib...........................
Rib, b e s t..; ................
Rib, medium..............
Rib, medium...............
Rib, medium...............
Chuck...........................
Chuck....................
Chuck..........................
Chuck, prime...............
R ib...............................
Rib, prime...................
Rib, prime...................
Rib, prime...................
Chuck..........................
Chuck..........................
Chuck..........................
R ib...............................
R ib...............................
R ib...............................

.1250
.0800
.0842
.0800
.1375
.1500
.1375
.1400
.1363
.1167
.1142
.0825
.1183
.1250
.1600
.1542
.1475

.1250
.0800
.0883
.0800
.1375
.1500
.1375
.1500
.1392
.1167
.1142
.0800
.1158
.1250
.1600
.1454
.1438

.1100

.1100

Chuck.
Chuck.
Chuck.
R ib ...
R ib ...
R ib ...

.0900
.0900
.0800
.1500
.1500
.1250

.0900
.0900
.0992
.1500
.1375
.1250

.1950
.1400
.1950

OHIO.

Cincinnati,

Cleveland,

Toledo

OREGON.

Portland.

PENNSYLVANIA.

Allegheny

Philadelphia,

Pittsburg.




Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
R ib...................
R ib...................
R ib...................
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck, best___
Chuck, best___
Chuck, first cut
R ib ...; .............
R ib...................
R ib...................
R ib...................
Rib, choice.......
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
o Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.

.1200

.0867
.1067

.1800
.1250

.1200

.1950
.1288
.1967

.1200

.0850
.1067

.1800
.1250

.1200

.1250

.1250

.1533
.1458
.1558
.1150
.1117

.1550
.1550
.1533

.1200

.1200

.1300

.1200

.1717
.1350
.2167
.1783
.1983
.1250
.1250
.1250

.1200

.1000

.1117

.1200
.1200
.1200

.1700
.1400

.2000

.1883
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1250

211

RETAIL PRICES OP FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905—Continued.
BEEF, FRESH, BOASTS, PER POUND—Continued.

Description.

State and locality.

Average price.
1904.

1905.

PENNSYLVANIA— c o n c lu d e d .

Scranton

Wilkes-Barre,

Rib...................
R ib...................
Rib, m edium ...
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
R ib...................
R ib...................
R ib...................
Chuck...............
Chuck...............
Chuck, first cut
Rib...................
R ib...................
R ib...................

10.1700
.1558
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500

$0.1767
.1567
.1800
.1146
.1250
.1250
.1400

.1600
.1104
.1146

.1600

.1767
.1483
.1517

.1600
.1400
.1417

Chuck...............
Chuck, medium
Rib...................
R ib...................

.1442
.0800
.2167
.1817

.1283
.0800
.2150
.1800

Chuck, home dressed.
Chuck, western........
Chuck, western........
Rib, home dressed...
Rib, western............
Rib, western............

.1000

.1000

.1000

.1000

Chuck.......................
Chuck.......................
Chuck.......................
R ib...........................
R ib...........................
R ib...........................

.0778
.0833
.0925
.1250
.1250
.1333

.0625
.0833
.0833
.1063
.1250
.1250

Chuck.................
Chuck, best........
Chuck, good cut.
R ib.....................
Rib, good cu t_
_
Rib, medium cut.
Chuck.................
Chuck.................
Chuck, best c u t..
R ib.....................
R ib.....................
Rib, best c u t ....

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

Chuck.................
Chuck.................
Chuck.................
R ib.....................
R ib.....................
Rib, prime.........
Chuck.................
Chuck.................
Chuck.................
R ib.....................
R ib.....................
R ib.....................

P ittsb u rg .....................................

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

RHODE ISLAND.

Providence...........................

SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston............................

SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux Falls.........................

TENNESSEE.

Memphis,

Nashville,

TEXAS.

Dallas.

San Antonio.

.2000

.1000

.0800
.1250
.1500
.1250

.1250
.1363
.1250
.0800
.0733
.0975
.1250
.1250
.1208

.2000

.1000
.1021
.1000

.0800

.1250
.1525
.1250

.1288
.1450
.1250
.0800
.0733
.1104
.1250
.1313
.1375
.0917

.1250
.1063
.1250
.0500
.0600
.0700
.1250
.1250

.1000

.1146
.1083
.1104
.0500
.0600
.0700
.1125
.1250
.1083

Chuck...........
Chuck...........
Chuck...........
R ib...............
Rib, medium
Rib, prim e..,

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1500
.1250
.1750

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1500
.1250
.1750

Chuck...........
Chuck...........
Chuck...........
R ib...............

.1033
.1063
.1063
.1313
.1313
.1508

.1000
.1000
.1021

UTAH.

Salt Lake City............

VIRGINIA.

Norfolk.




Rib, prime,

.1250
.1271
.1500

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR.

212

T a b l e I . — R E T A IL PRICES O F FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , ROASTS, P E R

POUNB-Concluded.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1904.

1905.

yirginia —concluded.

Richmond............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Rib, medium..............................................
Rib, medium..............................................
Rib, medium..............................................

10.1000
.1000
.1000

.1313
.1250
.1250

WASHINGTON.

10.1000
.1000
.1000

.1250
.1250
.1250

Seattle................................................... Chuck.........................................................
Chuck..................., ....................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, prime.................................................
Tacoma................................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.........................................................
R ib..................... :......................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib, prime.................................................

.0750

.0725

.0800
.1500
.1500
.1375
.0883
.0917
.1125
.1438
.1500
.1500

.0800
.1500
.1500
.1375
.0883
.091/
.1125
.1438
.1500
.1500

Wheeling............................................... Chuck............................ .*...........................
Chuck.........................................................
Chuck, best................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................
R ib.......... :.................................................

.1250
.0950
.1167
.1500
.1125
.1375

.1250
.1104
.1250
.1500
.1292
.1500

.1000

.1800

.0900
.0900
.1375
.1313
.1117
.1800

10.1500
.1500
.1500
.1750
.1800
.1788
.1250
.1167
.1250
.1500
.1417

10.1500
.1500
.1500
.1863
.1850
.1804
.1250
.1167
.1250
.1500
.1417

Round........................
Round, best cu t........
Round, home dressed
Sirloin........................
Sirloin........................
Sirloin, home dressed.

.1250
.1500
.1000
.1750
.1750
.1000

.1250
.1500
.1000
.1750
.1750

Round..............
Round..............
Round, bottom.
Round, top.......
Sirloin...............
Sirloin...............
Sirloin, medium
Round..............
Round..............
Round..............
Round..............
Sirloin...............
Sirloin...............
Sirloin...............
Sirloin...............

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1600
.1500
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1500

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1517
.1617
.1500
.1250
.1188
.1250
.1250
.1396
.1396
.1500
.1500

WEST VIRGINIA.

.1000

.1000

WISCONSIN.

Milwaukee............................................. Chuck.........................................................
Chuck.......................................... ..............
Chuck.........................................................
R ib.............................................................
Rib.............................................................
R ib.............................................................

.0933
.1396
.1400

.1100

B E E F , F R E S H , STEAK S, P E R POUND.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham

Montgomery.

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock

CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles,

San Francisco




Round
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Sirloin.
Round
Round
Round
Sirloin.
Sirloin.

.1000

213

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T

able

I .—

R E T A IL PRICES O F FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.

B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

State and locality.

Description.

Average price.
1904.

1905.

COLORADO.

Denver.................................................. Hound........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

10.1000
.1000

10.1000
.1000

.2000

.2000

.1500
.1500
.1250

.1500
.1500
.1250

CONNECTICUT.

New Haven........................................... Round.......................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1900
.2050

.2200
.2200

.2417
.2417

DELAWARE.

Wilmington..........................................

R o u n d ........................................................

.1775
.2167
.2017
.2217
.2325
.2400

.1850
.1700
.1675
.2117
.2500

.1900
.1600
.1650

" R ou n d ........................................................

.1517
.1500
.1896
.1800
.1833
.1800

.1525
.1438
. 1517
.1850
.1883
.1833

Jacksonville....................... .................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, medium........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, home dressed................................
Sirloin, medium. : .......:............................
Sirloin, w estern........................................

.1500
.1354
.1500
.1250

.1400
.1350
.1500
.1250
.1900
.1950
.1500
.1500
.1800

A tlanta.................................................

.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500
.1604
.2042

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

W ashington..........................................

Round........................................................
Round, best cu t........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best cu t.........................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

FLORIDA.

GEORGIA.

ILLINOIS.

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

Chicago.................................................

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Peoria.................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
_
Sirloin.......................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.2000

.1892
.1500
.1500
.1800

.1000
.1100

.1050
.1313
.1138
.1500
.1092
.1392
.1392
.1517
.1367

.2100

.2500

.1342
.1500
.1250
.1500
.1667

.2000

.0950

.1100

.1250
.1250
.1500
.1421
.1575

.1083
.1146
.1125
.1400
.1050
.1313
.1417
.1508
.1325
.1050
.1250
.1267
.1217
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1458
.1583

.1500
.1383
.1250
.1800
.1583
.1500

.1500
.1442
.1250
.1800
.1592
.1500

.1000

.1333
.1133

.1200

INDIANA.

Indianapolis.........................................




Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

214

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF LABOR.
T able I .— R E T A IL PRIC ES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905—Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

Indiana—concluded.
Terre H aute.......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, medium.........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
IOWA.

Des Moines........................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, second cu t.....................................
Dubuque............................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
KANSAS.

Topelra................................................... Round........................................................
Round...................... .................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
KENTUCKY.

Louisville.............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.....................................................
Sirloin........................................................
LOUISIANA.

New Orleans............................ ............ Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
MAINE.

10.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500

10.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1500

.1254
.1292
.1125
.1550
.1500
.1167
.1396
.1417
.1188
.1708
.1667
.1396

.1208
.1163
.1042
.1667
.1600
.1208
.1625
.1354
.1250
.1792
.1708
.1500

.1225
.1275
.1188
.1500
.1550
.1525

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1583
.1567

.1229
.1146
.1250
.1500
.1458
.1500

.1333
.1313
.1250
.1500
.1417
.1500

.1067

.1050
.1063
.1146
.1258
.1500

.1000

.1250
.1250
.1500

.2000

.1800
.1700

.2000

.1717
.1771

R o u n d ......................................................
Round........................................................
Round, lower cu t......................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1404
.1413

.1250
.1400

.1300
.2625
.2667

.1300
.2017
.2850

Baltimore.............................................. Round................... * ..................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1517
.1433
.1442
.1467
.1783
.1767
.1567

.1500
.*1500
.1500
.1500
.1800
.1592
.1642

.2050
.2050
.2042
.2425
.2242
.2408
.2767
.2450
.1450
.1483
.1267

.2025
.1925
.2008
.2308
.2225
.2192
.2596
.2433
.1300
.1275
.1225
.2083
.2233
.2350

P ortland................................ .

MAKYLAND.

.1000

MASSACHUSETTS.

B oston................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, medium.........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.....................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Fall River............................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, medium.........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................




.2200

.2383
.2367

.1000

215

BET AIL PBICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T a b l e I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

MASSACHUSETTS—concluded.
Lynn..................................................... Hound......... .'............................................
Round.......................................................
Round................... ....................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Malden................................................... Round........................................................
Round........„..............................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Worcester.... ....................... .......... ...... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, best...............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best c u t.........................................
MICHIGAN.
Round........................................................
D etroit............................. .
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, prime, No. 3 ..................................
O-rand "Rapids....................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, b est...............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, middle cu ts...................................
MINNESOTA.
Duluth.................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Minneapolis........................................... Round........................................................
Round...................... ’ ...............................
.
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
St. Paul................................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
MISSOURI.

$0.1550
.2158
.1625
.2308
..2692
.2775
.1917
.1917
.1508
.2442
.2425
.2467
.1867
.1558
.1900
.2767
.2550
.2750

Kansas City..................................... .... Round....... ...............................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
St. Louis..................................... .......... Round.......................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.......................................... .............
MONTANA.
B u t t e .. . . .............................................. Round.......................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin............................... *........................




.1000

$0.1580
.2158
.1667
.2350
.2642
.2433
.1867
.2025
.1558
.2533
.2608
.2308
.1917
.1550
.1867
.2750
.2533
.2800
.1000

.1525
.1425
.1250
.1146
.1250
.1308
.1450
.1467
.1600

.1225
.1075
. 1425
.1383
.1250
.1042
.1250
.1300
.1408
.1450
.1600

.1225
.1358
.1250
.1433
.1625
.1700
.1250
.1250
.1242
.1500
.1500
.1513
.1313
.1413
.1250
.1625
.1858
.1500

.1288
.1354
.1425
.1517
.1542
.1750
.1217
.1104
.1263
.1500
.1600
.1533
.1313
.1417
.1250
.1600
.1917
.1500

.1275
.1104
.1146
.1525
.1396
.1550
.1083
.1129
.1113
.1163
.1600
.1558
.1550
.1633

.1250
.1146
.1146
.1583
.1438
.1617
.1133
.1075

.1250

.1100

.1083
.1007
.1007
.1500
.1313
.1333

.1100

.1158
.1646
.1533
.1600
.1642
.1000

.0833
.1063
.1500
.1083
.1375

216

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
Table I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905—Continued.
JBEEF, F R E S H ) S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

State and locality.

Description.

Average price.
1904.

1905.

NEBRASKA.

Omaha.

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

$0.1000
.1188
.1250
.1500
.1500
.1396

$0.1104
.1104
.1083
.1500
.1500
.1500

Round........................................ ...............
Round........................................................
Round, cheap cut.......................................
Round, prime, best cu t.............................
Round \prime' second cu t......................
Sirloin' T
...................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, prime.............................................

.1500
.1833
.1250
.2083
.1633

.1500
.1833
.1250

.2833
.2917

.2833
.2800

.1417
.1883
.1883
.1833
.2108

.1425
.1983
.1867
.1817
.2117
.2225
.1600
.1650

NEW HAMPSHIRE.

Manchester.......................... .

NEW JERSEY.

Jersey City.

Trenton,

NEW YORK.

Albany,

Brooklyn.

Buffalo.

Flushing.

New York (a)




Round........................................................
Round, home dressed................................
Round, home dressed................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best cut, home dressed.................
Sirloin, best, home dressed.......................
Round.......................................................
Round, best cut.........................................
Round' second cu t....................................
Round^ top, best cu t.................................
Sirloin'.. „V................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best cu t.........................................
Round........................................................
.Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin.......................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, prime............................................
Round, prime............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........ ;..............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, b est...............................................
Round, second grade.................................
Round, second grade.................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, b est...............................................
Sirloin, second grade.................................
Sirloin, second grade.................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round,good..............................................
Round, New York State__< ....................
»
Round, prime......... ..................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin, good...............................................
Sirloin, prime.............................................
Sirloin, prime.............................................
Sirloin, second grade.................................
a Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.

.2000

.2100

.1650
.1700
.1288
.1700
.2117
.1850
.2125

.2000

.1525

.2000

.1200

.1550
.2125
.1917
.2000

.1667
.1600
.1650
.2500

.1667
.1600
.1650
.2500

.1600
.1817
.1900
.2017
.1933

.1600
.1800
.1850

.2000
.2200

.2000
.1200

.1267
.1350
.1250
.1300
.1175
.1492
.1483
.1483
.1600
.1550
.1550
.1867
.1783
.1750
.2067
.1883
.1967
.1600
.1883
.1500
.1917
.1833
.1800
.2117
.1967
.1717
.2083
.2117
.1800
.1600

.2000
.2200

.2000

.1833

.2000

.1108
.1283
.1283
.1288
.1083

.1000

.1375
.1450
.1475
.1600
.1400
.1363
.1717
.1650
.1667
.1917
.1833
.1933
.1600
.1800
.1567
.1850
.1800
.1633
.2150
.1950
.1917

.2000
.2000

.1800
.1600

217

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T able I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F , F U E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

new york—concluded.

Bound........................................................
Round....... ...............................................
Round.............................................:.........
Sirloin.........:..............................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Syracuse................................................ Round........................................................
Round, prime............................................
Round, second cu t....................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, prime, second c u t .. : ....................
OHIO.
Round, best...............................................
Round j medium........................................
Round, medium.........................................
Round, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
fflAVAlfl/nd . ........................................ Round........................................................
Round, best, lower cut..............................
Round, prime............................................
Round, prime, lower cu t...........................
Round, uppercut......................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, b est...............................................
Sirloin, first cu t.........................................
Sirloin, prime.............................................
Toledo................................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
OREGON.
Portland..
.................................. Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
PENNSYLVANIA.
Allegheny

____________

Philadelphia..........................................

Pittsburg._

.....................................

S cra n to n .............................. ..............

Wilkca-Parre ................................... _




Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin............. :.........................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round, best...............................................
R ound,top................................................
Round, top...............................1
................
Round, top, best.......................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best...............................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

| 0 .1100
.1150
.1183
.1267
.1300
.1275
.1267
.1475
. 1417
.1483
.1850
.1775

$0.1100
.1283
.1242
.1300
.1450
.1400

.1250
.1125
.1063
.1167
.1600
.1417
.1438
.1450
.1550
.1308

.1250
. 1125
.1063
.1167
.1600
.1417
.1417
.1483
.1400
.1321

.1200

.1250
.1833
.1750
.1450
.1867
.1125
.1250
.1008
.1350

.2000

.1633

.1200

.1483
.1400
.1400
.1867
.1783

.1200

.1375
.1700
.1750
.1533
.1733
.1125
.1250
.1050
.1350
.2000

.1633

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500

.1250
.1250
.1250
.1500
.1250
.1500

.1550
.1442
.1558
.1867
.1883
.1950
.1600
.1733
.1783
.1700
.1900
.2317
.2117

.1517
.1475
.1533
.1883
.1833
.1900
.1667
.1500
.1667
.1650
.1917
.2350
.2033
.2067
.2400
.2500
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1933
.1933
.1850
.1250
.1600
.1500
.1600

.2000

.2400
.2667
.1500
.1500
.1500
.1867
.2000

.1917
.1325
.1650
.1500
.1650
.2300
.2000

.1450
.1325
.1400
.2000

.1800
.1800

.2200
.2000

.1400
.1288
.1400
.2000

.1800
.1800

218

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T a b l e I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F ) F R E S H ) S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Continued.

Average price.
State and locality.

Description.

1904.

1905.

RHODE ISLAND.

Round........................................................
R o u n d .....................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin, trimmed........................................
Sirloin, trimmed........................................

$0.1917
.1817
.1950
.3283
.3308

10.1858
.1933
.1900
.3275
.3200

f!hA.rlftston............................................. R o u n d .. . . .. . . . ........................................
Round, w estern........................................
Round, western........................................
Sirloin, first choice....................................
Sirloin, w estern........................................
Sirloin, w estern........................................

.1083
.1250
.1250
.1333
.1500
.1250

.1104
.1250
.1250
.1333
.1500
.1333

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1067

R o u n d ...................................................
Round medium.........................................
Round, medium cu t..................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, good...............................................
Nashville - T
-,______________________ Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin, best cu t.......... .............................

.1250
.1492

SOUTH CAROLINA.

SOUTH DAKOTA.

Si m ix F a lls .................. .... . . . . . . . . . . . .

.1396
.1250
.1417

.1000

.1000

.1354
.1313
.1375

TENNESSEE.

.1000

.1783
.1500
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1146
.1250
.1333
.1354

.1279
.1600

.1100

.1558
.1742
.1800
.1250
.1250
.1146
.1250
.1333
.1375

TEXAS.

Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
San Antonio.......................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
■ Dallas___- -- ____________________

.1354

.1250
.0931

.1500
.1500
.1250

.1500
.1396
.1250

.1000
.1000

.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000
.1000

.1500
.1250
.1250
.1750
.1750
.1500

.1500
.1250
.1250
.1750
.1750
.1750

.1250
.1250
.1250

.1250
.1479
.1333

UTAH.

Salt Lake City...................................... Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................
VIRGINIA.

Norfolk.................................................. Round........... ............................................
Round..'.....................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Sirloin........................................................
Richmond............................... ..........
Round, choice............................................
Round, medium.........................................
Round, prime............................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin, choice............................................
Sirloin, medium.........................................

.1042
.1313
.1058
.1508
.1592
.1 3 1 3

.1250
.1050
.1250
.1667
.1500
.1313

.1000

.1250

.1000

.1500
.1500
.1275
.1250
.1083
.1250
.1667
.1500
.1250

WASHINGTON.

Seattle...................................................




Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Round........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................
Sirloin.........................................................

.1100

.1250
.1250
.1550
.1542
.1500

.1125
.1250
.1250
.1700
.1500
.1500

219

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T ab le I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
B E E F , F R E S H , S T E A K S , P E R P O U N D —Concluded.

A v era g e price.
D escrip tion .

S ta te a n d lo c a lity .

1904.

1905.

WASHINGTON—con clu d ed .
R o u n d ...............................................................
R o u n d .................................................................
R o u n d ............................ .....................'.............
S ir lo in .................................................................
S irlo in .................................................................
S i r l o i n . . . . .........................................................

$0.1146
.1 2 5 0
.1 25 0
.1500
.1 50 0
.1 80 0

$0.1250
.1 14 6
.1 2 5 0
.1 50 0
.1 50 0
.1 80 0

R o u n d . . . . . . ............................................... ..
R o u n d .................................................................
R o u n d .................................................................
S irloin .................................................................
S irlo in .................................................................
S irlo in .................................................................

.1 3 5 4
.1175
.1 2 9 2
.1737
. 1375
.1617

.1 4 1 7
.1 28 8
.1 43 8
.1 8 0 0
.1 48 3
.1 75 0

R o u n d ............................................ ................. .
R o u n d ................................................................
R o u n d ................................................................
S ir lo in .................................................................
S ir lo in .................................................................
S ir lo in .................................................................

.1 20 0
.1108
.1475
.1600
.1333
.1800

.1167
.1150
.1458
.1533
.1375
.1800

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, plate, medium..............................
Corned, brisket, good................................

$0.1250
.1250

$0.1250
.1250

Corned, brisket, medium..........................
Corned, medium........................................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Corned, plate, medium..............................
Corned, plated medium..............................
Corned, brisket, first quality....................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium........................................

.0800

.0800

.0600
.0800
.0700

.0600
.0700
.0700

Corned, brisket, medium..........................
Corned, brisket, medium..........................
Corned, rump, medium.............................

.0642
.0500
.0800

.0600
.0500
.0800

Corned, neck or flank................................
Corned, plate, medium..............................

.1000

.1000

Corned, chuck............................................
Corned, medium........................................

.1000

. 1279

.1288

Corned, plate, b e st...................................
Corned, plate, b est....................................
Corned, plate, best cu t..............................

.0975
.0800
.0800

.0950
.0883
.0933

Corned, plate, medium..............................
Corned, plate or brisket, medium............

.0800

.1000

.0800
.0900

Corned, medium........................................
Corned, medium, sold in 2-lb. cans..........

T a c o m a .................................... ...................

.1250
.1250

.1250
.1250

Corned, blade or brisket...........................
Corned, brisket..........................................
Corned, rump............................................
Comed, rump, boneless.............................
Corned, medium........................................
Comed, medium........................................
Comed, shoulder or rump, medium ........

.0633
.0567
.0800
.0800
.0800

.0575
.0550
.0800
.0800
.0800

WEST VIRGINIA.

W h e e lin g ..................... ............. .

WISCONSIN.
M ilw a u k e e ....... ..........

B E E F , SALT, P E R POUND.
ALABAMA.

Birmingham.....................
Montgomery....................

.1000

.1000

ARKANSAS.

Little Rock......................
CALIFORNIA.

Los Angeles.....................
San Francisco.......... .......
COLORADO.

Denver.............................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

CONNECTICUT.

New Haven................................

.0600

.0600

DELAWARE.

Wilmington...............................

.1000

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

Washington...............................
FLORIDA.

Jacksonville
GEORGIA.

A tlanta___
ILLINOIS.

Chicago---Peoria




.1000

.0817

.1000
.0817

220

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR,
T a b l e I . — R E T A IL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 A N D 1905— Continued.
R E E F , S A L T , P E R P O U N D —Continued.
A v era g e price.
D escrip tio n .

S ta te an d lo c a lity .

1904.

1905.

INDIANA.
C orned,
C orned,
C orned,
Corned;
C orned,

m e d iu m ..............................................
rum p , m e d iu m .................................
rum p or sh o u ld er ............................
rum p or s h o u ld er ............................
ru m p or s h o u ld e r ...........................

$ 0.0600
.1000
.1000
.1000
.1000

$0.0 60 0
.1 00 0
.1000
.1000
.1 00 0

C orned,
Corned;
Corned,
Corned;

m e d iu m ..............................................
m e d iu m ..............................................
m e d iu m ..............................................
m e d iu m ..............................................

.0833
.0 80 0
.0875
.0800

.0967
.0 80 0
.0906
.0867

C orned, secon d c u ts , m e d iu m ......................
Corned; second g r a d e .....................................

.0875
.0833

.0833
.0833

C orned, b r is k e t................................................
Corned^ b r is k e t............................................

.0600
.0 60 0

.0600
.0600

C orn ed ................................................................
C orned, p la te, fir st g r a d e ..............................
C orned, p la te , m e d iu m ..................................

.0800
.1000
.1000

.0800
.1000
.1000

C orned, b r is k e t................................................
C orned, th in rib, m e d iu m .............................

.1225
.0800

.1183
.0658

C orned, m e d iu m ..............................................
Corned; p la t e ....................................................
Corned, p la t e ....................................................

.1000
.0733
.0717

.0817
.0733
.0700

b r is k e t................................................
s tic k in g p ie c e ....................................
s tic k in g p ie c e ....................................
flan k , m e d iu m ..................................
th ick r i b ............................................
th ick e n d s ..........................................
th ick e n d s ..........................................
th ick e n d s ..........................................
th ick e n d s ..........................................
th ick r ib .............................................
th in r ib ...............................................

.1346
.0854
.0792
.0600
.1075
.1025
.1200
.1200
.1000
.1313
.0967

.1271
.0850
.0725
.0567
.0983
.1000
.1 20 0
.1 20 0
.1000
.1275
.0958

p la t e ....................................................
p la te, b on e o u t, r o lle d ...................
p la te, b on e o u t, r o lle d .......... , ___
r u m p .......................................... ........
r u m p ...................................................
r u m p ...................................................

.0600
.0800
.0 80 0
.1 25 0
.1250
.1250

.0 60 0
.0 80 0
.0800
.1250
.1275
.1250

C orned, sh ou ld er, m e d iu m ...........................
C orned, sh ou ld er, m e d iu m ...........................
C orned, sh ou ld er, m e d iu m ...........................
C orn ed ................................................................
C o rn ed ................................................................
C o rn ed ................................................................
C orned, r u m p ...................................................

.1042
.1 00 0
.1000
.1083
.1000
.0800
.1008

.1042
.1000
.1000
.0975
.1000
.0800
.1163

C orned, m e d iu m ..............................................
C orned, secon d c u t, m e d iu m ........................
C o rn ed ................................................................
C orned, fla n k ....................................................
Corned, flan k , m e d iu m ..................................

.0778
.0750
.0758
.0650
.0700

.0833
.0833
.0758

B u t t e ............................................................. C orned, m e d iu m ..............................................
C orned, m e d iu m ..............................................

.0700
.0700

.0700
.0700

Corned, m ed iu m , second c u t s ..............
C orned, m ed iu m , secon d c u t s ......................

.0 60 0
.0600

.0600
.0600

C orned, th in rib, m e d iu m .............................
C orned, th in rib, secon d g r a d e ....................

.0800
.0800

.0800
.0800

IOWA.

KANSAS.
KENTUCKY.

LOUISIANA.

MAINE.
MARYLAND.

MASSACHUSETTS.
"Rns t o n .... ............................................... .....

C orned,
C orned,
C orned,
F a ll R iv e r .................................................... C orned,
C orned,
_____ _______________________ C orned,
T.ynn
C orned,
Ms.lrlfm _ ................. ............. ................... C orned,
C orned,
W o r c e s te r .................................................... C orned,
C orned,
MICHIGAN.
Dfitroit, _ ................................................... Corned,
C orned,
C orned,
G rand R a p id s ............................................. C orned,
C orned,
C orned,
MINNESOTA.
D u lu t h ..........................................................
M in n ea p o lis.................................................
S t . P a u l........................................................
MISSOURI.
K a n s a s C ity ................................................
S t . L o u is ......................................................
MONTANA.

NEBRASKA.

O m a h a .........................................................
NEW HAMPSHIRE.

M a n c h e ster ..................................................




.0700
.0700

221

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1890 TO 1905.
T able I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905—Continued.
BEEF, SALT, PER POENJD—
Continued.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1904.

1905.

NEW JERSEY.

Corned, plate, medium.................
Corned, plate or brisket, medium
Corned, medium...........................
Corned, medium...........................

Jersey City........................

10.0 90 0
.0800
.1000
.0850

1 0.0908
.0800
.0917
.0775

Corned, rump...................................
Corned, rump or shoulder, medium
Corned, medium...............................
Corned, plate, medium....................
Corned, chuck, best cu t...................
Corned, rump...................................
Corned, plate....................................
Corned, rump...................................
Corned, brisket................................
Corned, plate...................................
Corned, plate, New York State___
Corned, brisket................................
Corned, rump...................................
Corned, plate...................................
Corned rump....................................

.1 4 0 0
.1 20 0
.1200
.0 80 0
.0800
.0967
.0767
.1200
.0800
.0800
.0717
.0458
.0700
.0600
.0 80 0

.1400
.1 20 0
.1 20 0
.0 80 0
.0 80 0
.0 9 6 7
.0 6 0 0
.1 20 0
.0 80 0
.0 80 0
.0 65 0
.0 50 0
.0 70 0
.0 60 0
.0 80 0

Corned, brisket, medium.................
Corned, rump or shoulder, medium
Corned, brisket, boneless................
Corned, navel...................................
Corned, rump............ .....................
Corned, rib......................................
Corned, shoulder..............................

.0 80 0
.0842
.1 00 0
.0 65 8
.1250
.0471
.0783

.0800
.0 90 0
.1 00 0
.0617
.1 25 0
.0471
.0767

Corned, medium.
Corned, medium.

.0 70 0
.0 80 0

.0617
.0725

Corned............................
Corned............................
Corned, brisket, boneless
Corned, plate or brisket.
Corned, rump, best........
Corned, medium.............
Corned, medium............
Corned, chuck.................
Corned, chuck or neck...
Corned, plate..................
Corned, rump.................

.1083
.1 00 0
*0800
.0 6 0 0
.1200
.1250
.1 04 2
.1 00 0
.1000
.1000
.1300

.1 10 0
.1 00 0
.0800
.0 50 0
.1 20 0
.1250
.1250
.1 00 0
.1 00 0
.1 0 0 0
.1250

Corned, plate
Corned, plate

.1000
.1200

.1150
.1 20 0

Corned, round
Corned, round

.1 00 0
.1000

.1 00 0
.1 00 0

Corned, medium.............................
Corned, second cuts, medium.......

.0833
.0 80 0

.0833
.0 8 0 0

Corned, plate, good........................
Corned, rump or brisket, good cut.
Corned, rump or brisket, medium.
Corned, brisket...............................
Corned, rump.................................

.1 00 0
.1 00 0
.1000
.0800
.1 00 0

.1 0 0 0
.0933
.1 0 0 0
.0 80 0
.1 00 0

Corned, shoulder, medium.............
Corned, brisket, medium...............
Corned, medium.............................

.1500
.1000
.1000

.1 50 0
.1 00 0
.1 00 0

Corned, brisket, boneless, medium.
Corned, brisket, boneless, medium
Corned, brisket, medium...............

.1250
.1000
.0800

.1250
.1 00 0
.0 80 0

Corned, navel.................
Corned, navel.................
Corned, brisket, medium
Corned, brisket, medium

Trenton.............................

.0 80 0
.0800
.0800
.0 80 0

.0 80 0
.0 80 0
.0 80 0
.0 80 0

NEW YORK.

Albany...............................
Brooklyn...........................
Buffalo...............................
Flushing............................
New York

( a ) ...........................

Rochester..........................
Syracuse............................
OHIO.

Cincinnati..........................
Cleveland...........................
Toledo...
OREGON.

Portland
PENNSYLVANIA.

Allegheny___
Philadelphia.
Pittsburg............................
Scranton..............................
Wilkes-Barre.......................
RHODE ISLAND.

Providence..........................
SOUTH CAROLINA.

Charleston...........................
SOUTH DAKOTA.

Sioux F alls..........................
TENNESSEE.

Memphis..............................
Nashville............................. .
TEXAS.

Dallas.................................. .
San Antonio........................
UTAH.

Salt Lake City.................... .
VIRGINIA.

Norfolk................................
Richmond............................

« Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx only.

2— No. 65— 06------15




BULLETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR,

222

T able I .—RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD, 1904 AND 1905-Continued.
JB EE F, S A L T , P E R F O U N ® —Concluded.

Average price.
Description.

State and locality.

1904.

1905.

WASHINGTON.

Corned, medium..........................
Corned, plate or chuck, medium
Corned, plate or rib, m edium ...
Corned, brisket.......................
Corned, plate or brisket.............

Tacoma...............................

$0.0800
.0500
.0600
.0742
.0800

10.0800
.0550
.0600
.0700
.0800

Corned, brisket.......................
Corned, plate..........................

.1000
.1000

.1000
.1000

Corned, medium.....................
Corned, second cuts, medium

Seattle.................................

.1050
.0600

.1325
.0600

WEST VIRGINIA.

Wheeling.............................
WISCONSIN.

Milwaukee.

BREAD, W HEAT.

State and locality.

Description,

Average price
perloaf.

Average price
per pound.

1904.

1905.

1904.

10.0500
.0500
.0500
.0313
.0313
.0357
.0357

80.0500
.0500
.0500
.0313
.0313
.0357
.0357

80.0667
.0667
.0667
.0357
.0357
.0408
.0357

80.0667
.0667
.0667
.0357
.0357
.0408
.0357

12-ounce loaf, 3 loaves sold for 10
cents.
14-ounce loaf, 6 loayes sold for 25
cents.
14-ounce loaf, Jan. to Sept,, 1904, and
April to Dec., 1905; 13-ounce loaf,
Oct., 1904, to Mar., 1905; 3 loaves
sold for 10 cents.

.0333

.0333

.0444

.0444

.0417

.0417

.0476

.0476

.0333

.0333

.0388

.0388

Los Angeles................. 1-