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56th C ongress,

2d Session,

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES J D o c . No, 315,
l
Part 1.

BULLETIN

OF TH E

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

No. 32—JANUARY, 1901.




ISSUED E V E R Y OTHER M ONTH,

W A SH IN G TO N :
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1 90 1 .

EDITOR,

CARROLL D. W R IG H T ,
COMMISSIONER.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS,

G. W . W . H AN G E R ,
CHAS. H . Y E R R IL L , STEPH EN D. FESSENDEN.




CONTENTS.
Page.

Accidents to labor as regulated by law in the United States, by W . F. W il­
loughby, of the Department of Labor........................................................................... 1-28
Prices of commodities and rates of wages inM anila........................................................29-42
The Negroes of Sandy Spring, M d .: A social study, by William Taylor
Thom, Ph. D ............................................. ........................................................................43-102
The British W orkm en’ s Compensation Act and its operation, by A. Maurice
Low ............................................................................................................. "...................... 103-132
Digest of recent reports of State bureaus of labor statistics:
K a n sas.............................................................................................................................. 133-135
Maryland.......................................................................................................................... 135,136
M ichigan.......................................................................................................................... 136-139
O h io .................................................................................................................................. 139,140
Tennessee.......................................................................................................................... 140,141
Fourteenth annual report of the board of arbitration and conciliation of Massa­
chusetts ....................................................................................................................................
141
Digest of recent foreign statistical publications.......................................................... 142-150
Decisions of courts affecting labor................................................................................... 151-162
Laws of various States relating to laborenacted since January 1, 1896............. 163-172




hi




BULLETIN
OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
No. 32.

WASHINGTON.

January,

1901.

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LAW IN THE UNITED
STATES. ($)
B Y W . F . W IL L O U G H B Y .

The problem of the prevention of accidents is to a certain extent a
different one for different industries. For the purposes of State regu­
lation, however, industries are divided into the four classes of (1)
railways, (2) mines and quarries, (3) factories and workshops, and (1)
building and construction work. It is the purpose of the present
paper to consider each of these classes in turn and show for each, first,
the extent to which laws have been enacted making it obligatory upon
employers to take certain precautions against accidents; secondly, the
extent to which the laws have introduced the requirement that acci­
dents shall be reported to a State officer, and a basis thus laid for the
collection of statistics of accidents, and, finally, the extent to which
such statistics of value have actually been obtained. Covering as it
does the legislation of the Federal Government and 45 States, irre­
spective of the Territories, it is evident that this report must to a
certain extent be summary in character.
RAILW AY S.
Prior to the creation by the Federal Government of the Interstate
Commerce Commission in 1887 the legal regulation of railways was a
dut}^ resting upon the individual States. Practically all of the States
have enacted laws regarding railway transportation within their bound­
aries, and probably the majority of them have created the office of
commissioner of railways to supervise the execution of such laws.
a An amplification of a report on behalf of the Department of Labor submitted to
the Congres International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sodales, Paris, 1900.




1

2

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

As regards the prevention of accidents, this legislation has taken the
form of making it obligatory upon railway corporations to equip their
cars and locomotives with devices which render their operation by the
employees safer, and to take certain other precautions to prevent
accidents.
Though there are a large number of operations in connection with
the running of trains that present elements of danger, the laws of the
States relate only to the few which are the most important. These
are in relation to the coupling and uncoupling of cars, the system of
braking, the blocking of frogs, switches, and guard rails, the erection
of warning posts to indicate that a bridge or other superstructure is
near, and the insuring that such structure is of sufficient height above
the railway track. The dangers which it is desired to lessen or remove
are those resulting from the necessity for employees to go between
the cars in coupling and uncoupling them and to run along the tops
while the train is in motion in order to set the brakes, the risk of
being struck by bridges or other obstacles over the road, and the dan­
ger of getting their feet caught between the rails where they are close
together or form an angle.
Although the subject of deaths and mutilations occurring in coup­
ling and uncoupling cars had been repeated^ discussed by the State
railroad commissioners in their reports, and railroads had been urged
to move more vigorously toward adopting automatic couplers, the first
legislative action was not taken until 1882. (a) In that year Connecticut
passed a law providing that automatic couplers as approved by the
State railroad commissioner, and of such a character that it should
not be necessary for the employees to go between the cars for the pur­
pose of coupling them, should be placed on all new cars built or
purchased for use on railroads of the State. A statute nearly identical
in its provisions was enacted by Massachusetts in 1884. In that year
also the legislature of New York passed a law that after July 1, 1886,
only automatic couplers should be placed on new freight cars built or
purchased for use in the State. A statute quite similar was passed by
Michigan in 1885. In 1886 Massachusetts supplemented its legislation
already'mentioned by a law providing that before January 1,1887, all
frogs, switches, and guard rails, with the exception of guard rails on
bridges, should be adjusted, filled, or blocked in a manner satisfactory
to the railroad commissioners, so as to prevent the feet of employees
being caught therein.
It is unnecessary to follow the history of this legislation in the
succeeding years. The need for legislative action had been demona Third Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commission, 1889. This
report gives the result of an investigation of the action taken by State legislatures
to prevent accidents to railway employees, and contains a valuable consideration of
the subject and the condition of affairs at that date.




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

3

strated, and the example of the States that have been mentioned was
quickly followed by most of the States having a well-developed sys­
tem of steam railways. At the present time the following 21 States
have upon their statute books more or less comprehensive legislation
on this subject: Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Loui­
siana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Mis­
souri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin.
The statutes of these States, though differing from each other as
regards the comprehensiveness of their provisions, are all of the same
general character and relate almost exclusively to the points that have
been mentioned. To reproduce them in full would result only in
unnecessary duplication and detail. Their scope and character may
be fully seen from the following summary:
Colorado, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
Missouri, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin
require all frogs, switches, and guard rails to be securely blocked or
guarded in such a way that persons can not get their feet caught in
them.
Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi,
Nebraska, New York, and Ohio make it obligatory upon railway
companies to equip certain classes or all of their cars with automatic
couplers of such a character that the coupling is accomplished by con­
tact, or at least in such a way that it is not necessary for the employees
to go between the cars. These provisions vary considerably in char­
acter in the different States, some requiring all cars, both passenger
and freight, to be so equipped, while others require only freight cars.
In some this requirement relates only to new cars and in others to ail
cars, a time limit being fixed within which the change from the old to
the new system must be made. It is unnecessary to bring out these
differences more definitely, as the Federal Government has, as will be
seen, fully covered this point in its law which relates to all the States.
Iowa, Kentuck}^, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, and
Rhode Island have enacted laws regarding the equipment of locomo­
tives and cars with some system of a power brake that can be operated
from the locomotive. Here again the provisions are dissimilar in the
different States. The New York law is the most comprehensive. It
requires that all locomotives and passenger cars shall be equipped with
a power brake, operated from the locomotive, and that freight cars
shall be so equipped at the rate of 10 per cent of their number each
year, and that by the year 1903 all cars must be so equipped. This
feature is also covered by the Federal law, and the State legislation is
therefore of but secondary importance.
Kentucky, Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, Rhode Island, and
Vermont require bridges or other superstructures over railways to be




4

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

of a certain height above the tracks, to prevent trainmen from being
knocked off the cars by them; and Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan,
New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, and Virginia require that a
warning post, indicating the proximity to a bridge or other super­
structure, be placed wherever required.
Massachusetts and Michigan appear to be the only States that have
made provision for special railroad inspection, with the duty of seeing
that the provisions regarding safety devices are complied with, though
probably in all cases the State railroad commissioner can act ill this
capacity.
There are one or two other provisions contained in the State laws
that may be mentioned. Massachusetts requires all cars to be pro­
vided with secure “ grab irons” or hand holds at the ends or sides of
the cars, in order to make the getting on and off of cars more safe;
Vermont requires that the ladders leading to the roofs of cars be either
inside the cars or at the ends and not on the side of the cars, and Ohio
requires that special precautions be taken to render secure all telegraph,
telephone, or other wires crossing a railway track, and that they be
located at a sufficient height above the track so as not to be a source of
danger to the trainmen.
In concluding this summary of State laws it should be said that it
would be extremely misleading to suppose that the precautions above
described to prevent accidents are only taken when they have been
required by law. It is probable that with the exception of the pro­
visions regarding power brakes and automatic couplers such precau­
tions are largely taken. The roads would do so, if for no other reason,
because it is probable that their failure so to do would be held by the
courts such negligence as to render them liable for damages in the case
of any accidents that might have been avoided had these precautions
been taken.
It soon became evident that if dependence were placed entirely upon
the States to enact legislation requiring the introduction of safety
appliances general action would be long delayed, and confusion would
result from the diversity of legislative action. By the Constitution the
Federal Government is given the power to regulate interstate com­
merce. The first exercise of this power, as regards railway transporta­
tion, was the creation, February 4, 1887, of the Interstate Commerce
Commission. The act creating this body made no mention of safety
appliances or the protection of employees in any way. The newly
created commission, however, immediately urged such legislation, and
in consequence of its recommendation there was passed by Congress the
law of March 2, 1893. The importance of this law, relating as it does
to the whole United States, warrants its reproduction in full. The law
constitutes chapter 196 of the acts of 1892-93 and is as follows:
S ection 1. From and after the first day of January, eighteen hun­
dred and ninety-eight, it shall be unlawful for any common carrier



ACCIDENTS TO LABOR ^AS REGULATED BY L A W .

5

engaged in interstate commerce by railroad to use on its line any loco­
motive engine in moving interstate traffic not equipped with a power
driving-wheel brake and appliances for operating the train brake sys­
tem, or to run any train in' such traffic after said date that has not a
sufficient number of cars in it so equipped with power or train brakes
that the engineer on the locomotive drawing such train can control its
speed without requiring brakemen to use the common hand brake for
that purpose.
S ec . 2. On and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred
and ninety-eight, it shall be unlawful for any such common carrier to
haul or permit to be hauled or used on its line any car used in moving
interstate traffic not equipped with couplers coupling automatically by
impact, and which can be uncoupled without the necessity of men
going between the ends of the cars.
S ec . 3. When any person, firm, company, or corporation engaged
in interstate commerce by railroad shall have equipped a sufficient
number of its cars so as to comply with the provisions of section one
of this act, it may lawfully refuse to receive from connecting lines of
road or shippers any cars not equipped sufficiently, in accordance with
the first section of this act, with such power or train brakes as will
work and readily interchange with the brakes in use on its owT cars,
n
as required by this act.
Sec . 4. From and after the first day of July, eighteen hundred and
ninety-five, until otherwise ordered by the Interstate Commerce Com­
mission, it shall be unlawful for any railroad company to use any car
in interstate commerce that is not provided with secure grab irons or
hand holds in the ends and sides of each car for greater security to
men in coupling and uncoupling cars.
S ec . 5. Within ninety days from the passage of this act the Ameri­
can Railway Association is authorized hereby to designate to the
Interstate Commerce Commission the standard height of drawbars for
freight cars, measured perpendicular from the level of the tops of the
rails to the centers of the drawbars, for each of the several gauges of
railroads in use in the United States, and shall fix a maximum varia­
tion from such standard height to be allowed between the drawbars of
empty and loaded cars. Upon their determination being certified to
the Interstate Commerce Commission, said commission shall at once
give notice of the standard fixed upon to all common carriers, owners,
or lessees engaged in interstate commerce in the United States by
such means as the commission may deem proper. But should said
association fail to determine a standard as above provided, it shall be
the duty of the Interstate Commerce Commission to do so, before
July first, eighteen hundred and ninety-four, and immediately to give
notice thereof as aforesaid. And after July first, eighteen hundred
and ninety-five, no cars, either loaded or unloaded, shall be used in
interstate traffic which do not comply with the standard above pro­
vided for.
S ec . 6. Any such common carrier using any locomotive engine,
running any train, or hauling or permitting to be hauled or used on
its line any car in violation of any of the provisions of this act, shall
be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each and every such
violation, to be recovered in a suit or suits to be brought by the
United States district attorney in the district court of the United
States having jurisdiction in the locality where such violation shall
have been committed, and it shall be the duty of such district attorney



6

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

to bring such suits upon duly verified information being lodged with
him of such violation having occurred. And it shall also be the duty
o f the Interstate Commerce Commission to lodge with the proper dis­
trict attorneys information of any such violations as may come to its
knowledge: Provided, That nothing in this act contained shall apply
to trains composed of four-wheel cars or to locomotives used in haul­
ing such trains.
S ec . 7. The Interstate Commerce Commission may from time to
time upon full hearing and for good cause extend the period within
which any common carrier shall comply with the provisions of this act.
S ec . 8. Any .employee of any sucli common carrier who may be
injured by any locomotive, car, or train in use contrary to the pro­
visions of this act shall not be deemed thereby to have assumed the
risk thereby occasioned, although continuing in the employment of
such carrier after the unlawful use of such locomotive, car, or train
had been brought to his knowledge.

This law, it will be seen, made it obligatory upon all railroads
engaged in interstate commerce, which include practically all the rail­
roads of the country, to equip their locomotives and cars of every de­
scription with approved automatic couplers, and a sufficient number of
them with power brakes to insure that trains could be controlled from
the locomotive without the use of hand brakes, and to provide all cars
with secure hand holds or grab irons in the ends and sides for the
greater security of the men in coupling and uncoupling. These provi­
sions applied to existing as well as to future acquisitions of rolling
stock, and required that the complete change should be accomplished by
January 1,1898, unless the Interstate Commerce Commission, in virtue
of the discretionary power given to it, granted an extension of the time.
Such extension has, in fact, been granted to a number of roads, and in
consequence the complete equipment of cars with automatic couplers
and power brakes is not yet accomplished. The rapidity with which
these appliances have been introduced since 1892 is shown in the fol­
lowing statement taken from the report of the Interstate Commerce
Commission for the year ending June 80, 1899:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CARS AND LOCOMOTIVES EQUIPPED W ITH POWER BRAKES
AND AUTOMATIC COUPLERS, YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1892 TO 1899.

Year ending June 30—

Fitted with power
brakes.
Total cars
and loco­
motives. Number. Per cent
of total.

1,248,228
1,308,734
1,313,570
1,306,260
1895
................................................................................ 1,333,599
1897..................................................................................... 1,333,466
1898..................................................................................... 1,362,408
1899 ................................................................................... 1,412,619




256,869
299,027
330,992
362,498
448,854
525,286
641,262
808,074

20.59
22.85
25.20
27.75
33.66
39.39
47.07
57.20

Fitted with auto­
matic couplers.
Number.
244,334
322,238
357,621
408,856
545,583
678,725
909,574
1,137,719

Per cent
of total.
19.57
24.62
27.23
31.30
40.91
50.90
66.76
80.54

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LA W .

7

From the above table it appears that on June 30,1899, out of a total
equipment of 1,412,619 cars and locomotives, the number fitted with
power or train brakes was 808,074, or 57.20 per cent, and the number
fitted with some form of automatic coupler was 1,137,719, or 80.54 per
cent. This shows an increase during the year in train brakes of
166,812 and in automatic couplers of 228,145. The increase in equip­
ment (cars and locomotives) during the year was 50,211.
Of the
number of locomotives and cars assigned to the passenger service,
practically all are fitted with the power or train brake. Thus out of
a total of 9,894 passenger locomotives, 9,798 are fitted with train
brakes, and out of a total of 33,850 passenger cars, 33,393 are fitted
with train brakes. With the exception of locomotives the showing is
nearly as satisfactory in the case of automatic couplers. Of the 9,894
passenger locomotives, 6,128 are fitted with automatic couplers, and of
the 33,850 cars, 32,891 are so fitted. The corresponding statement for
freight equipment is as follows: Out of a total of 20,728 freight loco­
motives, 19,926 are fitted with train brakes and 9,300 with automatic
couplers. Out of 1,295,510 freight cars, 730,670 are fitted with train
brakes and 1,067,338 with automatic couplers.
STATISTICS OF ACCIDENTS.

In no other department of industry in the United States are equally
complete and accurate statistics of accidents to emploj'ees available as
in that of railway transportation. Beginning with the year 1889 the
Interstate Commerce Commission has published in its annual report
on statistics of railways returns of all accidents occurring to railway
employees in the United States. At the Milan congress in relation to
accidents to labor, in 1894, the author, on behalf of the Department of
Labor, presented a paper giving a summary of these statistics for the
years 1889 to 1893. In the present report it will, therefore, only be
necessary to reproduce these tables with the addition of the data for
the later years.
There are first given two tables showing for each year of the period
1889 to 1899, inclusive, in the one case the total number of railway
employees and the number killed and injured, and in the other the pro­
portion between the total number of employees and the number killed
and injured. .The information is given separately for the three impor­
tant groups of employees engaged in operating trains, namely, train­
men; switchmen, flagmen, and watchmen, or those whose work is
directly on the tracks; and other employees. In this latter group are
included office employees as well as workingmen proper. It is to the
first two groups that interest, therefore, mainly attaches.




8

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

TOTAL

R AILW AY EMPLOYEES AND NUMBER KILLED AND INJURED IN THE UNITED
STATES. YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1899.
Employees killed and injured.

Year ending June
30—

Total rail­
way em­
ployees.

Trainmen.

Switchmen,
flagmen, and
watchmen.

Other
employees.

Total.

Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured.
1889................................
1890................................
1891................................
1892................................
1893........'.......................
1894................................
1895................................
1896................................
1897................................
1898................................
1899...............................

704,743
749,301
784,285
821,415
873,602
779,608
785,034
826,620
823,476
874,558
928,924

1,179
1,459
1,533
1,503
1,567
1,029
1,017
1,073
976
1,141
1,155

11,301
13,172
15,421
16,521
18,877 ■
13,102
14,748
15,936
13,795
15,645
16,663

229
234
301
294
307
216
248
210
201
242
273

2,155
2,307
3,019
3,254
3,304
2,321
2,933
2,751
2,423
2,677
2,992

564
758
826
757
853
578
546
578
516
575
782

6,572
6,917
7,700
8,492
9,548
7,999
8,015
11,282
11,449
13,439
15,268

1,972
2,451
2,660
2,554
2,727
1,823
1,811
1,861
1,693
1,958
2,210

20,028
22,396
26,140
28,267
31,729
23,422
25,696
29,969
27,667
31,761
34,923

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES FOR EACH ONE KILLED OR INJURED BY R AILW AY ACCIDENTS
IN THE UNITED STATES, YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1899.
Switchmen,
flagmen, and
watchmen.

Trainmen.
Year ending June 30—

Other
employees.

All employees.

Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured. Killed. Injured.
1889....................................................
1890....................................................
1891....................................................
1892....................................................
1893....................................................
1894....................................................
1895....................................................
1896....................................................
1897...................................................
1898............................*......................
1899....................................................

117
105
104
113
115
156
155
152
165
150
155

12
12
10
10
10
12
11
10
12
11
11

144
161
134
146
150
200
174
211
218
195
178

15
16
13
13
14
19
15
16
18
18
16

946
737
707
805
760
997
1,070
1,072
1,198
1,142
897

81
81
76
72
68
72
73
55
54
49
46

357
306
295
322
320
428
433
444
486
447
420

35
33
30
29
28
33
31
28
30
28
27

The movement of accidents, as shown by these tables, must, on the
whole, be considered fairly satisfactory. In the Milan paper it was
necessary to call attention to the fact that no tendency toward a
diminution in the number or proportional frequency of accidents could
be traced. In the six years that have since elapsed, however, a nota­
ble improvement has taken place. This change, it will be seen, is
coincident with the going into effect of the Federal law requiring rail­
roads to equip their rolling stock with safety appliances.
The change for the better can best be traced in the record of deaths
due to accidents, as there is no variation possible in the practice of
reporting fatalities. The year 1889 should be disregarded in making
comparisons, as the system of reporting accidents had just been inaugu­
rated,'and it is probable that complete returns were not obtained.
During the years 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893 the total number of
employees killed each year was 2,451, 2,660, 2,554, and 2,727. In
1894 the number killed dropped to 1,823, and since then has never
equaled the number in any one of the four years just mentioned.
The increase in fatalities in 1898 and 1899 was due to exceptional causes
and is no evidence that the tendency toward a reduction in the fre­
quency of accidents is being arrested. In those years there was a



9

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LAW .

large increase in the amount of railway traffic. This necessitated
working the employees harder, bringing into the service a large num­
ber of new men unskilled in railroading and thus more liable to acci­
dents, and the increased use of inferior equipment, which but for the
demand would have been put out of service.
A more emphatic showing of the extent to which railroad work has
been made more secure as the result of wise legislation and the greater
care of the railroad managers is that given by the second table. While
1 for each 105 trainmen employed was killed during the year 1890,
only 1 for each 165 was killed in 1897, and 1 for each 155 in 1899.
Among switchmen, flagmen, and watchmen the improvement was from
1 for each 161 in 1890 to 1 for each 218 in 1897, and 1 for each 178 in
1899. For all employees the change was from 1 for each 306 in 1890
to 1 for each 486 in 1897, and 1 for each 420 in 1899.
The most important information concerning accidents, next to their
number, is that of the causes responsible for their occurrence. These
are brought out in the two tables that follow:
RAILW AY EMPLOYEES KILLED IN THE UNITED STATES, BY CAUSES, YEARS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1899.
Causes.

i

1889. 1890.

Coupling and uncoupling:
Trainm en................................. ! («)
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen.............................. (a)
Other employees.................... ! (a)
T otal.......................................
Falling from trains and engines:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
T
Other employees....................

265

T otal.......................................




310

i

1896.

1897.

1898.

189

157

147

182

180

7

90
12

58
14

58
9

90
7

74
6

181

i
109 | 63

1899.

415

378

433 | 251

291

229

214

279

260

i
1
507
344 ! 343

i

14

456

467

485

32
73

55
76

45
81

561

598

611

644

81

72

75

66

44

3
5

3
3

1
4

3
4

4
2

89

78

80

73

(a) 1 197

230

3
35

5
68

9
56

8
50

167

! 235
1

303

286

(a)

121

168 ; 115

(a)
(a)
(a)

(a)

!

(a)
(a)

(a) !
(a) 1

T otal.......................................

253

1894. 1895.

300 | 369

65 |

Other train accidents:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees....................

288

i

115
10

T otal.......................................

T otal.......................................

1893.

111
16

Collisions:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................

Derailments:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees....................

1892.

75
29

T o ta l....................................... ; 493
Overhead obstructions:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees....................

1891.

(a)
(a) 1
125

2
27
150

373

325

356

337

49
60

42
57

32
51

50
67

62

439 | 452

472

408

473

459

42

57

35

46

39

1
9

2
4

5
2

3
2

3
3

52

63

42

51

45

101

104

146

126

142

155

5
39

3
27

2
30

7
31

9
29 |
!

11
21

247

145

134

178

164

180 1

187

50
87 j

221 | 189

42
53

50 |

130

90

116

95

6
24

6
17

4
14

1
15

8
14

206 j 145

153

108

132

6
32

C
O

124 ' 120

125

4
11

4
9

3
19

117

139

133

147

(a)

69

i
40 ;

59

90

63

32

37

29

42

35

(a)
(a)

16
61

2
15 !

4
21

9 i
26 !

3
19

3
7

3
13

5
12

2
9

4

57

84

125 |

85

42

53

46

53

45

189 i 146

a Not reported.

6

10

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

RAILW AY EMPLOYEES KILLED IN THE UNITED STATES, BY CAUSES, YEARS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1S99—Concluded.
Causes.
At highway crossings:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................

1889. 1890.

T otal.......................................

1893.

1894.

1895. 1896. 1897.

1898.

1899.

2

4

1

1

9
7

11
4

10
10

13
9

is i
4 i[

32

16

17

24

23

21

25

34

27

30

34

22

21 '

17
67

14
69

14
52

17
45

15
43

6
S3

4
29 |
I

117

93

9
2

8
6
1

92

61

54

83

(a)

5

3

5

4

(a)
(a)

13
4

11
6

10
11

13
15

24

22

20

26

(a
)
(a
)
(a
)
7
0

35

32

15
48

17
78

98

127

109

!

T otal.......................................
At stations:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................

1891. 1892.

10
9

1 1
9
24

|

i
I

(a
)
(a
)
(a
)

230

233

265

237

179

159

170

167

231

260

75
476

91
532

87
483

95
571

72
385

73
367

70
393

71
358

64
419

100
605

T otal.......................................

539

781

856

835

903

636

599

633

596

714 |

O
x
00

Other causes:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................

Total k ille d .......................... 1,972 2,451 |2,660 2,554 2,727 1,823 1,811 jl, 861 jl, 693

965

| 2,210

R AILW A Y EMPLOYEES INJURED IN THE UNITED STATES, BY CAUSES, YEARS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1899.
Causes.

1889.

Coupling and uncoupling:
Trainmen.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................

(a
)
(a
)
(a
)

T otal.......................................
Falling from trains and engines:
Trainmen..................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T o ta l.......................................
Overhead obstructions:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T otal.......................................
Collisions:
Trainmen..................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T otal.......................................
Derailments:
Trainmen..................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T otal.......................................
Other train accidents:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T o ta l.......................................




1890.

i
1891. |1892.

1S93.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1893.

1899.

6,073 7, I ds!. 7,766 8,753 5,539 6,077 6,457 4,698 5,290 5,055
1
1,528 2,0441 2,252 2,290 1,492 1,826 1,686 1,325 1,486 1,533
241
2321 301
234
314
260
212
177
234
209

6, 757 7,842 9,43110,319 11,277 7,240 8,137 8,457 6,283 6 ,9S8 6,765
1
!
1
1,838 2,494 2,540j 2,984 2,203 2,543 3,115 2,726 ; 2,979 3,053
!
1
274
363
357j 359
377
300:
342
321
330
213
392
541
| 521
540
312I 3971 362
391
453
475

(a
)
(a
)
(a
)

2,011 2,363| 3,1911 3,244 8,780 2,889 3,297 3,898 3,627, 3,859 3,970
!
3131

(a
)
(a
)
(

«

)

(a
)
(a
)
|
W \

1

o<
o>

398

353

294

304

307

335

349

25
30>

25
22

36
12

31
23

27
22

33
21

15
53

37
25

49
28

412,

400

444

407

343

358

375

397

426

866! 1,189 1,103 1,260

688

742

789

754

829 1,113

22
146

25
181 :

45

37
221

33
156

36
206

181
14
345

296

.J
o57

55
306

46
209

43
188

820 1,034 1,550! 1,358 1,491

*

221

70
185

894, 1,008 1,047

943 | 1,071 1 1,368

572

686;

612

704

502

548

518

573

538

600

30
121

47
186]

34
189

36
127

30
116

38
115

36
105

41
95

33
161

45
140

655!

723

919j

835

867

648

701

659

709

732

785

!
(a) ;

574

268'

314

515

382

374

405

372

422'

468

(a
)

11*
40

12
52

28
107

18
70

0

(a)

60 !
197

51

28
58

28
62

26
4‘>

31
79

1,016 j

831

319!

378

650

470

43 i

486

462

490

578

(a)
(a)

j

(a)

|

a Not reported.

i

11

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

R AILW AY EMPLOYEES INJURED IN THE UNITED STATES, BY CAUSES, YEARS ENDING
JUNE 30, 1889 TO 1899—Concluded.
i

Causes.
At highway crossings:
Trainm en.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees....................
T otal.......................................
At stations:
Trainmen.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees.....................
T otal.......................................
Other causes:
Trainmen.................................
Switchmen, flagmen, and
watchmen..............................
Other employees....................
T otal.......................................

1889. 1890. 1891.

1892.

1893.

1894. 1895. 1896.

1897. 1898. . 1899.
j

(«)

20

15

12

12

11

12

91

6

8

5

(a)
(a)

7
7

19
16

19
18

15
16

12
23

18
27

20

20
7!

32;

12
21

34

50

49

43

46

57

160

33

48

38

(a)

298

|
450

409

404

3731

542

!
548 ,

672i

612

(a)
(a)

43
899

79
898

78
908

45
809

5|
91
668!

i

45

699

1

49 !
i

499

i

8

;

!

88;
745

si !

848

86
115
778 ; 1,197 1,412
62

1

740 1,427 1,395 ' 1,258 1,100 1,330i 1,471 1,388 1,957 2,139
i

(a)

2,618 2,807 3,412 3,849 3,051 3,659 3,715 3,811 4,572i 5,408

(a)
{a)

542
521
500
580! 760
380
386
446!
490
439
5,480 5,595 6,431 ! 7,580 6,317 6,209! 9,218 9,49411,067 12,686

1

7,729 8,484 8,841 10,28911,919 9,748 10,38913,433 13,847 16,219 18,854

Total injured........................ 20,028122,896 26,140 28,267.31,72923,422:25,696129,969 27,667181,76J 34,923
1
1
: i
1
1 1
a Not reported.

From the first of these tables it will be seen that, though the number
of employees was nearly 180,000 greater in 1899 than in 1890, the
number of deaths due to accidents in coupling and uncoupling was 109
less in the later year, those caused by falling from trains 102 less, and
those from overhead obstructions 44 less. These are the classes of
accidents that the Federal law concerning safety appliances was intended
to remove, and no more effective vindication for its enactment can be
give a than the figures that have been reproduced.
No attempt has been made to analyze the statistics of nonfatal acci­
dents, because not only is there less certainty regarding the uniformity
with which they have been returned, but no attempt has been made by
the statistician of the commission to classify them according to their
severity, or in such a way as to show how many of them have resulted
in permanent and temporary total incapacity for labor and permanent
and temporary partial incapacity.
COAL MINING.
The conditions under which coal-mining operations must be con­
ducted are so peculiar and offer such unusual dangers that most coun­
tries have found it desirable to enact special laws regulating the
manner in which this industry shall be prosecuted. In the United
States coal is mined in only a portion of the States. It will be found
that of the 45 States and 3 organized Territories, 20, or nearly onehalf, do not possess any special laws relating to coal mining. Of the
remaining States and Territories a number in which there is but little
mining done have only a few scattering laws relating to particular



12

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

features of mining. Disregarding these, there remain 23 States—
Alabama, California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky,
Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Mexico,
New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Ten­
nessee, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming—that have
elaborated a more or less detailed code of mining regulations.
An examination of the laws of these States shows that a very gen­
eral agreement has been reached by the different legislatures in regard
to the character of the regulations that should be provided. The laws
of all are strikingly similar. The same provisions and the same
phraseology are found repeated in the statutes of State after State.
The differences that exist are mainly in the extent to which regulation
is attempted and the efficiency of the system that is provided for its
enforcement. It is quite feasible, therefore, to study the legislation
of the States as a whole.
If these mining codes are examined analytically it will be seen that
their purposes may be grouped in six distinct classes: (1) The formu­
lation of a set of rules and regulations setting forth more or less
specifically the manner in which the mining operations must be con­
ducted in order that accidents may be prevented; (2) the insuring that
competent men will be employed to fill responsible positions, which is
largely done through a system of State examinations and the granting
of certificates of competency; (3) the requirement that all fatal and
serious accidents must be reported and investigated; (I) the regulation
of the employment of women and children, and in rare cases male
adults; (5) the protection of the rights of miners through regulating
the manner of weighing or measuring the quantity of coal mined and
the frequency and character of wage payment, and (6) the provision
of an inspection service for the purpose of insuring that the laws
relating to mining are duly enforced.
Of these classes the first three relate directly to the prevention of
accidents, and the last is more concerned with that subject than any
other. The greater part of the mining laws, in fact, is devoted to
this subject. It is manifestly impracticable to attempt here to describe
separately the exact character of the legislation of each State; fortu­
nately even the desirability of doing so does not exist, the same provi­
sions being found, with but little variation, in the laws of the different
States. It is, of course, understood that the laws of some States are
much more comprehensive than those of others. Following is a recapit­
ulation of the essential provisions of the mining laws of all the States.
The laws of a few, notably Pennsylvania, cover all of the points here
enumerated, while others merely include the most important.
The mining code of an American State in its most developed form
therefore provides (1) that every owner, operator, or superintendent
of a coal mine employing over a certain number of persons, usually 10,




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LA W .

13

shall cause to be prepared an accurate map or plan of such mine on a.
scale of 100 or 200 feet to the inch, showing all the workings of the
mine; that this map shall be revised at least once in six months in
order to show new workings; that when a mine is abandoned a final
accurate map must be made of it, and that copies of these maps must
be furnished to the mine inspector and other copies be kept where
they can be readily inspected at the mines; (2) that in mines where 20*
(sometimes 10) persons are employed there must be at least two escape­
ment openings to the surface from each seam, separated from each
other by natural strata of a certain thickness, 100 or 150 feet; (3) that
mines must be so ventilated by artificial means that there will be fur­
nished a minimum of 100 cubic feet of air per minute for each person
employed; (!) that doors used to direct or control ventilation be so
hung that they will close automatically, and that doorkeepers be pro­
vided for the more important passages; (5) that an adequate supply o f
timber for props be constantly available; (6) that suitable means be
provided for raising or lowering workingmen in mines, and to secure
this that the cage used for this purpose have a top or bonnet of metal
to protect the passengers from falling objects; that more than one cable
be used; that the cage be equipped with a safety catch, and that the cable
drum be provided with flanges and a brake; (7) that all passageways
through which cars pass have shelter holes in the sides not less than 15
or 30 feet apart, into which workingmen may retreat to avoid passing cars;
(8) that the mines he kept well drained; (9) that there be a metal speaking
tube or other means of vocal communication between the bottom and top
of all shafts; (10) that a certain code of signals, usualty as specified by
the act, be employed to regulate the movement of the cages up and
down the shafts; (11) that only authorized persons be allowed to ride
on loaded cars and cages; (12) that no coal be hoisted while men are
ascending or descending the shafts; (13) that ail machinery be properly
guarded; (1!) that abandoned passages be closed; (15) that shaft open­
ings be fenced; (16) that steam boilers be inspected at certain intervals
of time; (17) that only a certain quality of vegetable or animal oil be
used for lighting; (18) that precautions be taken to prevent injury to
workingmen from falling coal or rock; (19) that blasting operations
be properly regulated; (20) that copies of mining rules be conspicu­
ously posted; (21) that especial precautions be taken in mines generat­
ing fire damp; (22) that such mines be examined every morning with.
a safety lamp before miners go to work; (23) that ail safety lamps be
owned by mine owners, and (21) that bore holes of a certain depth be
kept in advance of the workings of all passages where old workings
are approached.
The foregoing are the points embraced, in whole or in part, in the
mining laws of the important coal-producing States. Rules, however,
7996—No. 32—01------ 2




14

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

can never replace the personal element. The best of rules are of but lit­
tle avail unless competent men can be secured to supervise their applica­
tion. The most significant and important feature of the whole system
of coal-mine regulation, therefore, is that by which a number of the
States have sought, through a system of examinations, to insure that
those persons in charge of the actual operations of mining shall be
competent men. The positions thus specially provided for are those
o f mine foreman or boss, fire boss, and occasionally that of hoisting
engineer.
The majority of the mining States, including California, Colorado,
Kansas, Maryland, New Mexico, Tennessee, and West Virginia, sim­
ply provide that the underground operations shall be in charge of a
competent superintendent or mine boss, whose special duties are to see
that a proper amount of ventilation is provided, that the walls and
roofs are properly timbered, etc., and that in the case of all mines
generating fire damp there shall be employed a “ fire boss,” with the
duty of examining all working places for gas every morning before
the miners go to work.
The more important mining States, such as Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Indiana, Alabama, Montana, and Wyoming, however, have gone much
further than this. They have treated the positions of “ mine boss”
and “ fire boss ” as of such responsibility that no one should be allowed
to fill them until duly certified by the State to possess the required
knowledge and experience. These positions have therefore been put
into the category of licensed occupations, and permission to follow
them is only granted after a satisfactory examination has been passed
before a State examining board. Penns}dvania requires all anthracite
miners, and Illinois and Indiana all hoisting engineers, to pass a satis­
factory examination before they can be employed in their occupations.
Finally, it should be stated that most of the States have recognized
the necessity for the appointment of inspectors to enforce their mining
laws. In the majority of these, where coal mining is of but little
importance, provision has been made for but a single inspector. In
North Carolina and Tennessee the inspector is the commissioner of the
bureau of labor. In Maine, New' Jersey, and New York the offices of
inspector of factories and of mines are combined. The United States
statutes provide that an inspector of mines shall be appointed for each
Territory producing 1,000 or more tons of coal yearly. Colorado,
Indiana, Montana, and West Virginia each have 2 inspectors of mines.
Alabama and Iowa each have 3, and Washington provides an inspector
for each district which shall contain not less than 10 nor more than 60
coal mines. Illinois has 7 inspectors, Ohio 1 chief and 7 assistant
inspectors, and Pennsylvania 1 chief and 18 assistant inspectors.




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LA W .

15

STATISTICS OF ACCIDENTS.

Turning now to a consideration of statistics of accidents, an exami­
nation of the laws shows that most of the States with mining laws
recognize the desirability of having accidents reported to the mine
inspectors of the State. Were the provisions of the laws regarding
this point at all adequate in scope, or so framed that the same infor­
mation would be obtained in all the States, a fairly broad basis would
be laid for the accumulation of a valuable body of data concerning
accidents in mines. Unfortunately this is not the case. For the most
part the laws do little more than declare in the most general terms
that accidents shall be reported, without indicating in any way how
severe the accident must be in order to be reported, or what informa­
tion regarding it must be given. The whole matter is thus left to the
discretion of the mine inspectors, and little effort is made to secure a
uniform practice in returning accidents in the different States.
In spite of this inadequate legislation, the mining inspectors have
generally made commendable efforts to obtain complete statistics of
mine accidents in their States. In most of the States but little infor­
mation has been obtained further than the bare number of persons
killed and injured and the relation that this bears to the total number
of mine employees. In several States, however, notably Pennsylva­
nia, Illinois, and Ohio, detailed information concerning mine accidents
for a long series of years that is of great value is available.
As these three States produce considerably more than half of all the
bituminous coal mined in the United States—96,900,987 tons out of a
total of 165,208,025 tons in 1898—and one of them, Pennsylvania, prac­
tically all of the anthracite coal, it is evident that a study of mine acci­
dents in them will afford information fairly representative of condi­
tions generally. In the pages immediately following it is proposed,
therefore, to give a record of accidents in mines, their causes, etc., for
these three States for as many years as the record is available. Follow­
ing this, advantage will be taken of the excellent study of fatal accidents
in coal mines, made by Mr. Frederick L. Hoffman, statistician of the
Prudential Insurance Company, of Newark, N. J., to reproduce tables
showing the mortality rate of mine employees from accidents in a large
number of States and in Canada for a period of years, (a) No effort
is made to comment uporrother than fatal accidents, except in the tables
showing causes of accidents, as the lack of definiteness as to what con­
stitutes an accident sufficiently serious to cause it to be reported makes
a “ Fatal accidents in coal mining in the United States and Canada,” by Frederick
L. Hoffman, in The Mineral Industry; its Statistics, Technology, and Trade, Yol. V I,
1897, edited by Richard P. Rothwell. The Scientific Publishing Company, New York
and London, 1898.
This study has been continued for later years by Mr. Hoffman and the results
published in the Engineering and Mining Journal.




16

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

it impossible to obtain any information of value concerning the fre­
quency of such accidents.
There are first given four tables, showing the number of coal-mine
employees, number of tons of coal mined, number of fatal accidents,
and relative frequency of these accidents, as compared with the total
number of employees and tons mined in each of the States. Pennsylva­
nia, Illinois, and Ohio for as many years as accurate records are availa­
ble. In the case of Pennsylvania the record has been given separately
for anthracite and bituminous coal mining, as the conditions regarding
frequency of accidents are quite dissimilar in the two branches.
EMPLOYEES, TONS MINED, AND FATAL ACCIDENTS TO MINE EMPLOYEES, ANTHRACITE
COAL MINES OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1870 TO 1898.

Year.

Employ­
ees..

Tons
mined.

1870.............................................................
1871.............................................................
1872.............................................................
1873.............................................................
1874.............................................................
1875.............................................................
1876.............................................................
1877.............................................................
1878.............................................................
1879.............................................................
1880.............................................................
1881.............................................................
1882.............................................................
1883.............................................................
1884.............................................................
1885.............................................................
1886.............................................................
1887.............................................................
1888.............................................................
1889................................................ ...........
1890.............................................................
1891.............................................................
1892.............................................................
1893.............................................................
1894.............................................................
1895............... .............................................
1896.............................................................
1897.............................................................
1898.............................................................

35,600
37,488
44,745
48,199
53,402
69,966
70,474
66,842
63,964
68,847
73,373
76,031
83,242
91,411
101,078
100,534
103,034
106,574
117,290
119,007
109,166
123,345
129,797
138,002
139,655
143,610
149,670
149,557
142,420

12,653,575
13,868,087
13,899,976
18,751,358
17,794,857
20,895,220
19,611,071
22,077,869
18,661,577
27.711.250
24,843,476
30,210,018
30,867,301
33,200,608
32,561,390
33,520,941
34,064,543
37.137.251
41,638,426
39,015,835
40,080,355
44,320,967
45,738,373
47,179,563
45,506,179
51,207,000
48,074,330
46,947,354
47,145,174

Employ­
ees per Tons mined
Fatal ac­
each em­ per each
cidents.
employee
ployee
killed.
killed.
211
210
166
224
231
238
228
194
187
262
202
273
293
323
332
356
279
316
364
384
378
427
396
445
439
422
502
424
411

169
179
270
215
231
294
309
345
342
263
363
279
284
283
304
282
369
337
322
310
289
289
328
310
318
340
298
353
347

59,970
66,039
83,735
83,711
77,034
87.795
86,013
113,803
99.795
105,768
122,988
110.659
105,349
102,788
98,076
94,160
122,095
117,523
114,391
101,604
106,033
103,796
115,501
106,021
103.659
121,344
95,766
110,725
114,708

Fatal ac­
cidents
per each
1,000 em­
ployees.
5.93
5.60
3.71
4.65
4.33
3.40
8.24
2.90
2.92
3.81
2.75
3.59
3.52
3.53
3.28
3.54
2.71
2.97
3.10
3.23
3.46
8.46
8.05
3.22
8.14
2.91
3.35
2.84
2.89

EMPLOYEES, TONS MINED, AND FATAL ACCIDENTS TO MINE EMPLOYEES, BITUMINOUS
COAL MINES OF PENNSYLVANIA, 1884 TO 1898.

Year.

1884.............................................................
1885.............................................................
1886.............................................................
1887.............................................................
1888.............................................................
1889.............................................................
1890.................................................. ..........
1891.............................................................
1892.............................................................
1893.............................................................
1894.............................................................
1895.............................................................
1896.............................................................
1897.............................................................
1898.............................................................




Employ­
ees.

39,994
44,145
51,846
57,774
61,564
55,600
66,851
74,166
78,784
79,834
86,177
84,904
83,796
86,483
87,802

Tons
mined.

20,553,090
24,030,919
28,607,173
33,902,030
33,832,285
34,625,449
40,740,521
41,831,456
46,225,552
43,422,498
39,800,210
51,813,112
50,273,656
54,674,272
64,247,635

Employ­
1Fatal ac­
ees per Tons mined cidents
Fatal ac­ each em­ per each
per each
cidents.
employee 1,000 em­
ployee
killed.
killed.
ployees.
105
72
81
103
89
105
146
236
133
131
124
155
179
149
198

381
613
640
561
692
530
458
314
592
609
695
548
468
580
443

195,744
333,763
353,175
329,146
380,138
329,766
279,045
177,252
347,561
331,469
320,969
334,278
280*858
366,941
324,483

2.63
1.63
1.56
1.78
1.45
1.89
2.18
3.18
1.69
1.64
1.44
1.83
2.14
1.72
2.26

ACCIDENTS TO LABOB AS BEGULATED BY L A W .

17

EMPLOYEES, TONS MINED, AND FATAL ACCIDENTS TO MINE EMPLOYEES, BITUMINOUS
COAL MINES OF ILLINOIS, 1883 TO 1898.

Year.

1883.............................................................
1884.............................................................
1885.............................................................
1886.............................................................
1887.............................................................
1888.......................................................
1889.............................................................
1890.............................................................
1891.............................................................
1892....................................................: ___
1893............. ..............................................
1894.............................................................
1895.............................................................
1896.............................................................
1897.............................................................
1898.............................................................

Employ­
ees.

Tons
mined.

23,939 12,123,456
25,575 12,208,075
25,446 11,834,459
25,846 11,175,241
26,804 12,423,066
29,410- 14,328,181
30,076 14.017.298
28,574 15,274,727
32,951 15,660,698
33,632 17,062,276
35,390 19,949,564
32,635 17,113,576
31,962 17,735,864
33,054 19,786,626
33,788 20,072,758
35,026 18.599.299

Employ­ Tons mined
ees per
Fatal ac­ each em­ per each
employee
cidents.
ployee
killed.
killed.
a 134
46
39
52
41
55
42
53
60
57
69
72
75
77
69
75

179
556
652
497
654
535
716
539
549
590
513
453
426
429
490
467

Fatal ac­
cidents
per each
1,000 em­
ployees.

90,474
265,393
303,448
214,908
303,002
260,512
333,745
288,202
261,012
299,338
289,124
237,689
236,478
256,969
290,910
247,991

5.60
1.80
1.53
2.01
1.53
1.87
1.10
1.85
1.82
1.69
1.95
2.21
2.35
2.33
2.04
2.14

a Of these 69 were drowned in the flooding of a mine and 10 were killed in an explosion.
EMPLOYEES, TONS MINED, AND FATAL ACCIDENTS TO MINE EMPLOYEES, BITUMINOUS
COAL MINES OF OHIO, 1884 TO 1897.

Year.

1884.............................................................
1885.............................................................
1886.............................................................
1887.............................................................
1888 .........................................................
1889.............................................................
1890.............................................................
1891.............................................................
1892.............................................................
1893.............................................................
1894............................................................
1895.............................................................
1896.............................................................
1897.............................................................

Employ­
ees.

20,101
19,704
20,437
22,237
21,801
23,295
22,192
23.997
26,972
28,810
31,493
28.998
28,446
28,785

Tons
mined.

7,650,062
7,816,179
8,435,211
10,301,708
10,910,946
10,907,385
11,788,859
13,050,187
14,599,908
14,828,097
11,910,219
13,683,879
12,912,608
12,448,822

Employ­
ees per Tons mined
Fatal ac­ each em­ per each
cidents.
employee
ployee
killed.
killed.
26
51
43
36
29
33
42
44
42
32
45
52
41
40

773
386
475
618
752
706
528
545
642
900
700
558
694
720

294,233
153,258
196,168
286,159
376,240
330,527
280,687
296,595
347,617
463,378
264,672
263,152
314,942
311,221

Fatal ac­
cidents
per each
1,000 em­
ployees.
1.29
2.59
2.10
1.62
1.33
1.42
1.89
1.83
1.56
1.11
1.43
1.79
1.44
1.39

An examination of these tables brings out a number of points that
are worthy of comment. The first is the much greater frequency of
accidents in anthracite than in bituminous coal mining. In the former
the prevalent rate is over 3 per 1,000, while in the latter it is only in
exceptional cases that the rate exceeds 2 per 1,000. Comparing the
returns for bituminous mines in the three States, no radical difference
can be detected, except that within recent years the rate seems to be
higher in Illinois. Ohio makes the best showing as regards the mor­
tality rate, whether expressed in terms of tons of coal mined or in
number of employees. The third and most significant point is that
no appreciable tendencjrtoward a diminution in the relative frequency
of accidents can be traced during the periods covered by the tables.
It is interesting now to turn to the tables prepared by Mr. Hoffman,
to which reference has been made above. Mr. Hoffman has prepared
a large number of tables for the different States, but the general
results are summarized in the two that follow, taken from the Engi­
neering and Mining Journal for November 21, 1900.



18

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

FATAL ACCIDENTS IN COAL MINES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, 1890 TO 2899.
Locality.
Colorado.........................................
Illinois............................................
In d ian a..........................................
Indian Territory..........................
I o w a ................................................
Kansas............................................
K entucky.......................................
M aryland.......................................
Missouri..........................................
New Mexico...................................
Ohio..................................................
Pennsylvania (anthracite) (a).
Pennsylvania (bituminous) (a).
Tennessee.......................................
U ta h ................................................
Washington...................................
West Virginia................. .............
British Columbia..........................
Nova Scotia...................................
T otal.....................................

1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894.

1895. 1896. 1897. 1898.

16
53
5

30
60
5

34
57
19

46
69
22

19
72

13
8
11
8
10

19
13
16
6
18

24
8
6
20

29
15
12
5
21

13
19
26
10
7
19

42
378
146

44
427
237
22.

42
396
133
14

36
15
128

55
36
6
9

3
425
131
11
2
9
72
16
2

45
439
124
14
1
50
59
4
13

701 1,076

859

919

934 1,020 1,091

4
7

23
75
23
6
20
10
8
9
13
28
52
420
155
40
1
35
83
IQ
9

68
77
28
12
22
12
6
6
16
7
41
502
179
22
3
8
65
9
8

35
69
16
22
21
6
12
5
8
7
40
424
149
10
3
7
62
6
7

24
75
22
17
26
17
6
4
9
7
52
411
199
19
3
9
90
7
7

1899. Total.
41
84
16
25
20
16
7
5
14
15
57
461
258
20
42
89
11
19

336
691
156
95
213
123
96
61
148
64
447
4,283
1,711
172
13
215
592
88
209
!

909 1,004 1,200

9,713

FATAL ACCIDENTS IN COAL MINES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, PER EACH
1,000 EMPLOYEES, 1890 TO 1899.
Locality.

1890. 1891. 1892.

1893.

1894.

1895.

1896.

Colorado......................................... 2.27 4.40 4.49 6.31 3.06 3.05 10.07
I
Illinois............................................. 1.85 1.82 1.69 1.95 2.21 2.35 | 2.33
.76
.72 2.50 2.96
2.92 1 3.94
In d ian a..........................................
Indian Territory..........................
3.95 1.64 i 3.26
I o w a ................................................ 1.31 2.08 2.58 | 2.77 1.85 1.82 2.62
i
K a n s a s ..................................._............ 1.77 2.08
1.52 2.58 1.11 1.36
K entucky....................................... 1.50 2.49 1.04 1.41 1.25 1.02
.79
M aryland........... .......................... 2.08 1.54 1.52 1.23 1.69 2.30 1.58
Missouri........................................... 1.67 2.62 2.48 2.70 2.49 1.84 2.41
16.88 4.87
New Mexico.....................*............
Ohio.................................................. 1.89 1.83 1.56 1.11 1.43 1.79 1.44
Pennsylvania (anthracite) (a). 3.21 3.47 3.05 3.08 3.14 2.92 3.35
Pennsylvania (bituminous)(a). 2.18 3.21 1.69 1.60 1.44 , 1.83 2.14
4.32 2.84 2.21 2.53 7.81 3.37
Tennessee.....................................
3.47 1.49 1.49 4.35
U ta h ................................................
18.58 3.18 14.79 12.38 2.98
Washington................................... •
3.16 2.76 4.20 2.98 3.97 2.68
West Virginia................................
British Columbia.......................... i. 78 4.45 2.24 5.12 1.25 3.42 3.27
.34 2.41 1.55 j 1.33
Nova Scotia................................... 1.31 22.28 1.55
T otal.....................................

2.43

3.30

2.51 | 2.46

2.47

2.63 j 2.78

1897. 1898.
4.99
2.04
2.00
6.34
2.45
.71
1.55
1.17
1.22
5.13
1.39
2.84
1.72
1.58
4.17
2.48
2.89
2.49
1.35

1899. Total.

3.23 5.60
2.14 2.27
2.63 2.07
4.82 6.24
3.38 2 49
1.95 1.57
.67
.83
.89 1.08
1.22 1.80
3.71 7.98
1.77 2.03
2.89 3.28
2.38 2.82
2.43 2.60
4.38
2.70 28.00
3.86 3.55
2.46 2.91
1.56 3.39

2.31 | 2.54

a The figures here given differ slightly in some cases from those in the preceding tables.
for this difference is not known.

2.99

4.73
2.07
2.32
4.39
2.30
1.62
1.22
1.49
2.06
7.78
1.61
3.12
2.08
3.18
2.53
9.62
3.36
3.00
3.78
2.64

The reason

These two tables show that 2.61 per 1,000 employees may be taken
as a fairly approximate rate of mortality from accidents to coal miners
in the United States. This rate is considerably higher than that of the
State of Ohio, which is but 1.61 per 1,000 employees. The rate for
Illinois is 2.07 per 1,000 employees, while that for Pennsylvania bitu­
minous mines is 2.08 per 1,000 employees. It is significant that the
rate is lower in the important than in the unimportant coal-mining
States. This may be due to the fact that coal is probably found in the
latter States under conditions where its mining is more difficult; but
the fact that the former States have well-organized and efficient sys­
tems of mine inspection must also be given due weight.
It is a matter o f interest to note that coal mining is a less dangerous
industry than that of railway transportation. While in the latter 1
switchman, flagman, etc., out of every 195 and 1 trainman out of
every 150 were killed during the year 1898, in coal mines the proportion



19

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

was only 1 out of every 817 employees in anthracite mines and 1 out of
every 118 in bituminous coal mines in Pennsylvania, 1 out of every 167
in Illinois mines, and 1 out of every 720 (year 1897) in Ohio mines.
It is to be regretted that the returns of accidents are not made, or
at least are not published, more in detail according to occupations,
or at least separately for the two classes of employees above and
employees below ground.
There are a number of collateral questions relating to accidents
which are of more or less value. Of these much the most important
is that regarding the causes to which the accidents are due. As would
be expected, a uniform system of tabulating such data is not followed
by the different States. It is possible, however, to group the causes
into a few main classes, so as. to bring the information given in the
Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ohio reports to substantially the same
basis. This has been done in the three tables that follow. In this
classification the group “ in shafts” includes all accidents through
falling down shafts, accidents to cages, etc. The group “ cars”
includes accidents on railway cars on the surface, as well as coal cars
in the coal veins and passages, though almost all of the accidents
occurring are in connection with the latter. The group “ other”
includes not only “ miscellaneous,” but “ not reported” causes. In
the tables accidents to bituminous coal-mine employees in Pennsylvania
are for the period 1895 to 1898, in Illinois for the period 1891 to 1898,
and in Ohio for the period 1891 to 1897.
ACCIDENTS TO BITUMINOUS COAL-MINE EMPLOYEES IN PENNSYLVANIA, BY CAUSES,
1895 TO 1898.
Causes.

1895. 1890. 1897. 189$. Total.

Per
cent.

FATAL.

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc...........
Blasting, powder explosions, etc . . .
In shafts................................................
Cars ( a ) ..................................................
Fire damp and gas..............................
O ther.....................................................

25
18
17

Ill
3
1
22
2
10

131
5
1
39
12
12

459
18
3
116
37
52

67.0
2.6
.5
16.9
5.4
7.6

6157

Total

103
5
1
30
5
13

114
5

179

149

6200

685

100.0

242
13

213
14

274
21

99
20
36

963
62
2
452
58
149

57.1
3.7

114
18
32

234
14
2
119
13
44

26.8
3.5
8.8

459 |1,686

100.0

NONFATAL.

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc...............
Blasting, powder explosions, e tc ........
In shafts....................................................
Cars (a) .....................................................
Fire damp and gas.................................
O ther.........................................................
Total

419

382 | 426

345
18
1
144
23
45

327
19

576

120
7
37

A L L A C C ID E N T S .

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc...................
Blasting, powder explosions, e tc ...........
In shafts........................................................
Cars (a) .........................................................
Fire damp and gas.....................................
O ther.............................................................
Total

a Including machinery, etc.
6 These figures differ slightly from those in the table on page 10.
not known.




.1

124
38
53

345
17
3
141
15
54

405
26
1
159
19
49

I
i 1,422
'
80
5
, 568
j
95
j 201-

60.0
3.4
.2
23.9
4.0
8.5

561

575

659 •2,371

100.0

The reason for this difference is

20

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
ACCIDENTS TO COAL-MINE EMPLOYEES IN ILLINOIS, BY CAUSES, 1894 TO 1898.
Causes.

1

Per
cent.

1894.

1895.

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc...........................................
In shafts.......................................................................................
Cars..............................................................................................
Fire damp and ga s...................................................................
Other___ .......... r . ........................................................................

43
13
8

39
12
9
6
5
4

42
9
11
8
2
5

46
11
5
2
2
3

44
11
6
3
7
4

214
51
44
27
16
16

58.2
13.9
12.0
7.3
4.3
4.3

T otal.................................................................................

72

75

77

69

75 |

368

100.0

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc...........................................
In shafts.......................................................................................
Cars..............................................................................................
Fire damp and g a s...................................................................
Other............................................................................................

297
26
26
91
8
73

349
48
18
101
9
80

395
30
20
137
10
72

317
31
20
89
14
47

257
15
13
84
7
62

1,615
150
97
502
48
334

58.8
5.5
3.5
18.3
1.7
12.2

T o ta l.................................................................................

521

605 | 664

518

438 I 2,746

100.0

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc...........................................
In shafts........................................................................ .............
C ars..............................................................................................
Fire damp and g a s...................................................................
Other.............................................................................................

340
34
39
99
8
73

388
60
27
107
14
84

437
» 39
; 31
! 145
12
1 77

363
42
25
91
16
50

301 1,829
26
201
19
141
87
529
14
64
66 i 350

58.7
6.5
4.5
17.0
2.1
11.2

T o ta l.................................................................................

593

680 : 741

587

513

3,114

100.0

1896. 1897.

1898. Total.

FATAL.

8

NONFATAL.

i
!
'
,

A L L A C C ID E N T S .

ACCIDENTS TO COAL-MINE EMPLOYEES IN OHIO, BY CAUSES, 1894 TO 1897.
Causes.

1894.

1895. ' 1896.
i

Per
cent.

1897. Total.

FATAL.

4

I ll
20
8
19
2
18

62.4
11.2
4.5
10.7
1.1
10.1

40

178

100.0

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc.............................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc........................................................
Tn sh a fts..............................................................................................................
Cars.............................................................................................................
Fire damp and gas.................................................................................
O th er.........................................................................................................

26
5
5
2
1
6

29
10
2
7
4

5
1
4

Total................................................................................................

45

52

41

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc.............................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc........................................................
In shafts..................................... ..............................................................
Cars.............................................................................................................
Fire damp and gas.................................................................................
O ther..........................................................................................................

114
16
4
60
4
14

125
20
2
62
1
9

139
20
3
71
6
23

119
18
2
67
5
26

497
74
11
260 ;
16
72 j;

Total................................................................................................

212

219

262

237

930

28
3

28
2
1
5

N ONFATAL.

A L L ACCIDENTS.

j|

53.4
8.0
1.2
28.0
1.7
7.7
100.0

i

Fall of coal, rock, timber, etc.............................................................
Blasting, powder explosions, etc........................................................
In shafts....................................................................................................
Cars.......................................................................... , ................................
Fire damp and gas.................................................................................
O ther.........................................................................................................

140
21
9
62
5
20

154
30
4
69
1
13

167
23
3
76
7
27

147
20
3
72
5
30

Total................................................................................................

257

271

303

277

608 !
94
19 i
279 ,
18
90
1,108

j

54.9
8.5
1.7
25.2
1.6
8.1
100.0

FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS.
Though the great majority.of the States have enacted laws of some
kind in regard to factories and workshops, but a comparatively few
have systems of factory laws of sufficient development to warrant their
careful examination. In making a selection of the States whose fac­
tory laws are worthy of study, the best test is as to whether provision



21

ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

has been made for an inspection service. Twenty-one States answer
this requirement, but of these the laws of 13 only contain specific
provisions making* it obligatory upon factory and mill owners to take
certain precautions against accidents. Attention will therefore he
confined to the legislation of these 13 States: Connecticut, Illinois,
Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin.
It is manifestly inadvisable to attempt to reproduce in extenso the
provisions of the factory laws of these States that relate to the pre­
vention of accidents. These provisions are so interwoven in the laws
and constitute so important a part of them that such an attempt would
necessitate the reprinting of the factory laws almost in their entirety.
Little would be gained by so doing, as the laws of the different States
follow each other very closely both as to their provisions and language.
There is of course, however, a considerable difference between the
laws in respect to their scope.
Owing to this fact that the laws of the different States are framed
along identical lines, it is possible to prepare a summary presenting in
condensed form the requirements contained in the laws of each State
regarding the prevention of accidents. This is done in the following
statement, the States having provisions concerning the subjects shown
in the first column being indicated by the heavy black lines:
LAWS PERTAINING TO THE PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS IN FACTORIES.

Laws pertaining
to—

MasCon-1
New Penn­
sa- Rhode'
Indi­ Illi­ Mich­ Wis­
New
chu- Island. necti- York. Jer­ sylva­ Ohio. ana. nois. igan. con­
sey. nia.
sin.
cut.
setts.

Guarding machin­
ery ........................
Cleaning machin­
ery in motion,
by children and
w om en.................
Mechanical
belt
and
gearing
shifters.................
Communication
with engineer’s
ro o m .................... —
Guarding vats con­
taining molten
metal or hot liq­
uids ......................
Railings on stair­
ways ....................
Regulation of dan­
gerous or inju­
rious
occupa­
tions ......................
Use of explosive or
inflammable ma­
teria 1 .................
Exhaust
fans,
blowers, etc., for
removal of dust,
etc..........................
Guarding elevator
and
hoisting
ripenings
Fire escapes...........
Doors to swing out­
ward; to be un­
locked................... —
Reporting
acci­
dents ....................

--- -




Min­
Mis­
ne­ souri.
sota.

—

—
- ------

—

-

_

i
j
!
1

—

22

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The above statement shows only in the most general way the points
covered by the factory laws as regards the prevention of accidents.
In order that the detailed provisions of a typical law may be seen,
there is reproduced below the sections of the general labor law of
1897, as~amended by a law enacted in 1899, of the State of New York
relating to this matter. In this law New York codified all existing
protective labor legislation of the State. In addition to the sections
reproduced there are others relating to the provision of fire escapes,
and the ventilation, lighting, heating, etc., of the factories.
S ection 79.—Inclosure mid operation o f elevators and hoisting shafts—
inspection.—If, in the opinion of the factory inspector, it is necessary
to protect the life or limbs of factory employees, the owner, agent, or
lessee of such factory where an elevator, hoisting shaft, or wellhole
is used, shall cause, upon written notice from the factory inspector,
the same to be properly and substantially inclosed, secured or guarded,
and shall provide such proper traps or automatic doors so fastened in
or at all elevator ways, except passenger elevators inclosed on all sides,
as to form a substantial surface when closed and so constructed as to
open and close by action of the elevator in its passage either ascending
or descending. The factory inspector may inspect the cable, gearing or
other apparatus of elevators in factories and require them to be kept
in a safe condition.
No child under the age of fifteen years shall be employed or permit­
ted to have the care, custody or management of or to operate an ele­
vator in a factory, nor shall any person under the age of eighteen years
be employed or permitted to have the care, custody or management of
or to operate an elevator therein, running at a speed of over two hun­
dred feet a minute.
S ec . 80.— Stairs and doors.— Proper and substantial hand rails shall
be provided on all stairways in factories. The steps of such stairs shall
be covered with rubber, securely fastened thereon, if in the opinion
of the factory inspector the safety of employees would be promoted
thereby. The stairs shall be properly screened at the sides and bot­
tom. All doors leading in or to any such factory shall be so con­
structed as to open outwardly where practicable, and shall not be locked,
bolted or fastened during working hours.
S ec . 81.—Protection o f employees operating machinery.—The owner
or person in charge of a factory where machinery is used, shall pro­
vide, in the discretion of the factory inspector, belt shifters or other
mechanical contrivances for the purpose of throwing on or off belts on
pulleys. Whenever practicable, all machinery shall be provided with
loose pulleys. All vats, pans, saws, planers, cogs, gearing, belting,
shafting, set-screws and machinery, of every description, shall be prop­
erly guarded. No person shall remove or make ineffective any safe­
guard around or attached to machinery, vats or pans, while the same are
in use, unless for the purpose of immediately making repairs thereto,
and all such safeguards so removed shall be promptly replaced.
Exhaust fans of sufficient power shall be provided for the purpose of
carrying off dust from emery wheels, grindstones and other machinery
creating dust. If a machine or any part thereof is in a dangero.us
condition or is not properly guarded, the use thereof may be prohibited
by the factory inspector, and a notice to that effect shall be attached




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

23

thereto. Such notice shall not be removed until the machine is made
safe and the required safeguards are provided, and in the meantime
such unsafe or dangerous machinery shall not be used. When, in the
opinion of the factory inspector, it is necessary, the workrooms, halls
and stairs leading to workrooms shall be properly lighted. Such lights
to be independent of the motive power of such factory. No male per­
son under eighteen years or woman under twenty-one years of age shall
be permitted or directed to clean machinery while in motion. Children
under sixteen years of age shall not be permitted to operate or assist
in operating dangerous machines of any kind.
Turning to the subject of statistics of accidents to factoiy workers,
it will be observed that but 9 of the States—Indiana, Massachusetts,
Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Rhode Island—require factory operators to report all accidents to
their employees. An examination of the provisions of the laws by
which the reporting of accidents is required shows that but little effort
has been made to lay the basis for the collection of complete and
detailed statistics of accidents. For the most part the laws go little
further than the general requirement that fatal and serious accidents
must be reported to the factory inspector. As regards what shall be
deemed serious accidents, 3 States—Indiana, New York, and Penn­
sylvania—make no attempt at a definition, the law simpty specifying
“ all accidents and injuries.” The Minnesota law relates to accidents
which are fatal, or require the aid of a surgeon, a very inadequate
definition. Three States—Missouri, New Jerse}r, and Rhode Island—
have the same definition, viz, accidents which are fatal or prevent the
injured person from returning to work in 2 weeks. The Ohio law
embraces all accidents causing the injured person to be unable to work
for 6 days, and the Massachusetts law those causing inability to work
for I days.
In respect to the nature of the information that must be furnished
regarding each accident the same indefiniteness of language is found.
The laws of Missouri and New Jersey make no mention of the infor­
mation to be given other than that the accidents must be reported.
The Massachusetts law has the same deficiency, with the exception
that the chief inspector is required to keep a record of all accidents,
showing the name of the person injured, the place where the accident
occurred, and its cause. The Pennsylvania and Rhode Island laws
simply provide that the report must show the cause of the accident
“ as fully as possible.” The Minnesota law specifies the information
to be returned with greater particularity. The notice must show “ as
fully as possible the time and place when and where said accident or
injury occurred, the name and residence of the person or persons
killed or injured, and the place to which, if injured, the person or
persons have been removed.” The laws of Indiana and New York are
nearly identical in wording with the Minnesota law, except that there




24

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

is added the very important clause, 4 with such other information rela­
6
tive thereto as may be required by the factory inspector.” This clause
renders it possible for the factory inspector to call for all the informa­
tion that it is desirable to have concerning industrial accidents.
The Ohio law is the most carefully worded and precise of any of the
laws, both as regards the definition of accidents to be reported and
the information to be furnished. It was enacted March 21, 1888, and
was slightly amended as regards its penalty clause March 9,1898. As
the most complete of the laws, it is of interest to reproduce in full
its provisions, which are as follows:
S ection [8771]. It shall be the duty of all manufacturers of the State,
to forward by mail to the chief inspector of workshops and factories,
at Columbus, a report of each and every serious accident resulting in
bodily injury to any person which may occur in their establishment,
giving particulars of the same as fully as can be ascertained, upon
blanks which shall be furnished by the chief inspector of workshops
and factories. If death shall result to any employee from any such
accident, said report shall contain the age, name, sex and employment
of the deceased, whether married, the number of persons, if any,
deprived of support in consequence thereof, and the cause of the acci­
dent, if known. If the accident has caused bodily injury of such a
nature as to prevent the person injured from returning to his or her
employment within six or more days after the occurrence of the acci­
dent, then the report shall contain the age, name, sex and employment
of the disabled, the nature and extent of the injury received, how
caused, if known, how long continuously disabled, loss of time and
wages therefrom, and if possible the expenses thereby incurred in full.
S ec . [8772]. Any manufacturer who shall fail to comply with the
requirements of this act in each case of death by accident within seven
days thereafter, and in each case of injury by accident within thirty
days thereafter, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on con­
viction thereof before any court of competent jurisdiction, shall be
fined in any sum not less than ten dollars nor more than, fifty dollars.
The term manufacturer, as applied in section 1 [8771] and in section 2
[8772] of this act, shall be held to mean any person who, as owner,
manager, lessee, assignee, receiver, contractor, or who, as agent of any
incorporated company, makes or causes to be made or who deals in any
kind of goods or merchandise, or who owns, controls, or operates any
street railway, laundering establishment, or is engaged in the con­
struction of buildings, bridges or structures, or in loading or unload­
ing vessels, or cars, or moving heavy materials, or operating dangerous
machinery, or in the manufacture or use of explosives.
S ec . [8773]. It shall be the duty of the chief inspector of workshops
and factories, to suppty all blanks necessary to make said reports, as
required in this act, and to prosecute all violations of this act when
the same shall come to his knowledge; Provided, That the furnishing
of said blanks shall be a condition precedent to prosecution in any case.
As would be expected from what has been said regarding the inade­
quacy of the laws requiring accidents to be reported, little or no mate­
rial of real statistical value has been obtained showing either the




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY L A W .

25

prevalence, causes, or character of accidents in factories. In no case
are complete returns secured, and even if they were, but little use
could be made of the results, owing to the fact that the number of
employees to which they relate can not be obtained. Without this
information it is manifestly impossible to make any calculation of the
casualty risks in different industries or different years.
The only serious attempt that has been made to obtain accurate
statistics of accidents in factories is that of the New York bureau of
labor in 1899. Acting in cooperation with the chief factory inspector
of the State, the commissioner of labor made a special effort to obtain
as complete a record as possible of accidents to labor during the limited
period of April, May, and June, 1899, in a selected list of factories.
The result of this investigation, as far as the number and frequency of
accidents is concerned, is given in the following table:
INJURIES TO PERSONS EMPLOYED IN FACTORIES IN NEW YORK STATE, 3 MONTHS
ENDING JUNE, 1899.

Industries.-

Persons
em­
ployed.

Stone and clay products....................................... * ...........................
Metals, machinery, and apparatus..................................................
Wood.......................................................................................................
Leather, rubber, pearl, e tc ................................................................
Chemicals, oils, and explosives.....................................................
Pulp, paper, and cardboard...............................................................
Printing and allied trades................................................................
T extiles..................................................................................................
Clothing, millinery, laundering, e t c ..............................................
Food, tobacco, and liquors................................................................
Public utilities....................................................................................
Building industry..............................................................................

19,764
123,467
31,482
31,169
13,164
8,201
38,293
59,709
65,220
45,600
7,403
9,313

Number Propor­ Number
injured
of inju­
tionate
ries in 3 number to each
1,000 em­
months. in i year. ployed.
75
820
145
25
145
85
88
133
22
154
69
61

300
3,280
580
100
580
340
352
532
88
616
276
244

15.18
26.57
38.42
3.21
44.06
41.46
9.19
8.91
1.35
33.51
37.28
26..20

In introducing this table the New York commissioner hastens to
point out its limited value. The accident rate shown for many of the
industries is absurdly low. It was learned from trade unions and other
sources that accidents occurred in a considerable number of shops
which reported no accidents. The ratios shown in the last column are
very misleading if taken to represent the relative hazards in the several
industries. The chemicals, oils, and explosives and pulp, paper, and
cardboard groups of industries and public utilities are not especially
dangerous. The investigation, however, served a useful purpose in
showing how exceedingly defective the regular returns of industrial
accidents to the factory inspector were. This officer had never received
notice of as many as 1,800 accidents during an entire year for all
factory employees, while in this investigation, confessedly defective as
it was, notice was received of 1,822 accidents in a period of 3 months
from establishments employing but about half the factory workers of
the State.




26

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The scope of this investigation also comprehended information con­
cerning the nature and extent of the injuries received, the number of
days lost by the persons injured, etc. Owing to the inadequacy of
the investigation nothing will be gained by reproducing the figures
bearing upon other points.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION WORK.
An examination of the labor laws of the States as published by the
Department of Labor, in its Second Special Report and in its Bulletins,
shows that but 5 States have enacted laws the special purpose of which
is to make it obligatory upon directors of building and construction
work to take certain precautions against accidents. These are the
States of Maryland, Missouri, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.
Of these laws that of New York is much the most complete, and it is
therefore here reproduced as showing the most advanced measure
taken by any State in this direction.
S ection 18.— Scaffolding fo r use o f employees.—A person employ­
ing or directing another to perform labor of any kind in the erection,
repairing,* altering or painting of a house, building or structure shall
not furnish or erect,
cause to be furnished or erected for the per­
formance of such la'bor, scaffolding, hoists, stays, ladders or other
mechanical contrivances which are unsafe, unsuitable or improper,
and which are not so constructed, placed and operated as to give proper
protection to the life and limb of a person so employed or engaged.
Scaffolding or staging swung or suspended from an overhead support,
more than twenty feet from the ground or floor, shall have a safety
rail of wood, property bolted, secured and braced, rising at least
thirty-four inches above the floor or main portions of such scaffolding
or staging and extending along the entire length of the outside and
the ends thereof, and property attached thereto, and such scaffolding
or staging shall be so fastened as to prevent the same from swaying
from the building or structure.
S ec : 19.—Inspection o f scaffolding, ropes, Hocks, pulleys and tackles
in cities.— Whenever complaint is made to the factory inspector that
the scaffolding or the slings, hangers, blocks, pulleys, stays, braces,
ladders, irons, or ropes of an}r swinging or stationary scaffolding used
in the construction, alteration, repairing, painting, cleaning or.point­
ing of buildings within the limits of a city are unsafe or liable to prove
dangerous to the life or limb of any person, such factory inspector
shall immediately cause an inspection to be made of such scaffolding,
or the slings, hangers, blocks, pulleys, stays, braces, ladders, irons or
other parts connected therewith. If, after examination, such scaffold­
ing or any of such parts is found to be dangerous to life or limb, the
factory inspector shall prohibit the use thereof, and require the same
to be altered and reconstructed so as to avoid such danger. The fac­
tory inspector or deputy factory inspector making the examination
shall attach a certificate to the scaffolding, or the slings, hangers,
irons, ropes, or other parts thereof, examined by him, stating that be
has made such examination, and that he has found it safe or unsafe, as
the case may be. If he declares it unsafe, he shall at once, in writing,




ACCIDENTS TO LABOR AS REGULATED BY LAW .

27

notify the person responsible for its erection of the fact, and warn
him against the use thereof. Such notice may be served personally
upon the person responsible for its erection, or by conspicuously affix­
ing it to the scaffolding, or the part thereof declared to be unsafe.
After such notice has been so served or affixed, the person responsible
therefor shall immediately remove such scaffolding or part thereof and
alter or strengthen it in such manner as to render it safe, in the dis­
cretion of the officer who has examined it, or of his superiors. The
factory inspector and any of his deputies whose duty it is to examine
or test any scaffolding or part thereof, as required by this section,
shall have free access, at all reasonable hours, to any building or
premises containing them or where they may be in use. All swinging
and stationary scaffolding shall be so constructed as to bear four times
the maximum weight required to be dependent therefrom or placed
thereon, when in use, and not more than four men shall be allowed on
any swinging scaffolding at one time.
Sec . 20.— Protection o f persons employed on buildings in cities.—All
contractors and owners, when constructing buildings in cities, where
the plans and specifications require the floors to be arched between the
beams thereof, or where the floors or filling in between the floors are
of fireproof material or brickwork, shall complete the floorings or
filling in as the building progresses, to not less than within three tiers
of beams below that on which the ironwork is being erected. If the
plans and specifications of such buildings do not require filling in
between the beams of floors with brick or fireproof material all con­
tractors for carpenter work, in the course of construction, shall lay the
underflooring thereof on each story as the building progresses, to not
less than within two stories below the one to which such building has
been erected. Where double floors are not to be used, such contractor
shall keep planked over the floor two stories below the story where the
work is being performed. If the floor beams are of iron or steel, the
contractors fo r the iron or steel work of buildings in course of con­
struction or the owners of such buildings, shall thoroughly plank
over the entire tier of iron or steel beams on which the structural iron
or steel work is being erected, except such spaces as may be reasonably
required for the proper construction of such iron o„r steel work, and
for the raising or lowering of materials to be used in the construction
of such building, or such spaces as may be designated by the plans
and specifications for stairways and elevator shafts. If elevating
machines or hoisting apparatus are used within a building in the course
of construction, for the purpose of lifting materials to be used in such
construction, the contractors or owners shall cause the shafts or open­
ings in each floor to be inclosed or fenced in on all sides by a board at
least eight feet in height. If a building in course of construction is
five stories or more in height, no lumber or timber needed for such
construction shall be hoisted or lifted on the outside of such building.
The chief officer, in any city, charged with the enforcement of the
building laws of such city and the factory inspector are hereby charged
with enforcing the provisions of this section.
It will be seen from a reading of this law that the important features
covered by it are (1) the enumeration of the precautions that must be
taken to render the scaffolding, staging, ropes, pulleys, etc., safe; (2)
that it is made the duty of the factory inspector to make an inspect



28

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

tion of the scaffolding, staging, etc., used in the erection of any build­
ing whenever complaint is made to him that such appliances are unsafe,
and if such is found to be the case, to prohibit their use until they have
been made safe; (8) the requirement that, in the case of large build­
ings, the filling in of floor spaces shall be made as the building pro­
gresses, and that shaft openings shall be fenced in on all sides; and
(4) that the enforcement of this provision is intrusted to both the
officers of the city charged with the enforcement of the building laws
and the factory inspector.
The Pennsylvania law, which is very brief, provides that—
On and after the passage of this act it shall be the duty of the party
or parties having charge of the construction of an j new building here­
after erected in this Commonwealth, to have the joists or girders of
each floor above the third story covered with rough scaffold boards or
other suitable material, as the building progresses, so as to sufficiently
protect the workmen either from falling through such joints or girders,
or to protect the workmen or others who may be under or below each
floor from falling bricks, tools, mortar or other substances whereby
accidents happen, injuries occur and life and limb are endangered.
For every violation of this act a penalty, not exceeding one hundred
dollars for each floor of joists or girders left uncovered, shall be
imposed, to be collected as fines and penalties are usually collected.
The Maryland law contains much the same provisions as the New
York law, as far as the security of scaffolding, staging, etc., is con­
cerned, but leaves the enforcement of its provisions to the local police
authorities. The Ohio law makes the failure to provide safe scaffold­
ing, etc., a misdemeanor, punishable By a fine of from $25 to $200, to
be enforced as any other law regarding misdemeanors.
It would be a mistake to consider the foregoing as all the legal regu­
lations that exist for the purpose of preventing accidents in building
operations. The building regulations of the various cities, though
not directed to the prevention of accidents to employees, undoubtedly
in many cases contain provisions having this effect. The fact remains,
however, that up to the present time the States have far from taken
the steps needed to insure that builders take every possible precaution
for the security of their employees.
In no case do the laws require the systematic return of accidents
occuring to workingmen engaged in construction or building work,
unless possibly a partial return is in some cases made in connection
with accidents in factories. There is, therefore, no material available
for making a statistical study of accidents to this class of workers.




PRICES OF COMMODITIES AND RATES OF WAGES IN MANILA.

The data which have been used in the tables which constitute the
present article were collected in Manila under the supervision of Mr.
F. F. Hilder, the agent of the board of management, United States
Government exhibit of the Pan-American Exposition, who was sent to
Manila to gather material for an exhibit illustrative of the people,
industries, resources, etc., of the islands for the Pan-American Expo­
sition. In connection with the gathering of the other objects for
exhibition it was thought advisable to collect some data relating to the
prices of commodities and to the rates of wages in Manila, and perhaps,
if possible, in some of the other towns.
Schedules were drawn up and instructions were prepared calling for
the carrying out of the work according to the usual methods employed
by the Department of Labor in such work. Provision was made for
data showing retail prices of articles in common use in the homes of
workmen, distinction to be made, so far as use warranted it, between
such articles as were in use by the white population, by the natives,
and by the Chinese.
In the matter of rates of wages the instructions required, among
other things, that the data should be secured directly from the pay
rolls or other accounts of the employing establishments, that the
occupations should be reported as specifically as possible, with full
explanation if the occupation names were new to American usage, that
the exact rates paid by the employer and the whole number of persons
employed at each of such rates should be given, that where payment
was made by the month, week, piece, or otherwise than by the day, the
number of working days per month or week, or the average daily
earnings at piece work should be given, in order that wages might all
be upon a comparable day basis, and that any other explanation should
be given which might be necessary to put the data collected upon a
basis comparable with data for like occupations in the United States.
The result is a body of data in regard to matters about which inquir­
ies have been frequent and about which no information has been avail­
able hitherto. The table of prices shows the retail prices on April 1,
1900, in Manila, of about 90 articles of common use, largely articles
of food, presented so as to show which articles are in habitual use by
white workmen, by the native workmen of the islands, and by the
Chinese workmen. The table of rates of wages shows the rates of
7996— No. 32—01----- 3
29



30

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

wages paid in April and May, 1900, in Manila, for each occupation in
664 establishments covering 69 distinct industries. The whole number
of employees in these establishments, as shown in the table, is 22,155,
of which 187 are whites, 17,317 natives, and 4,651 Chinese. In this
table all the establishments following the same industry are grouped
together, then under each industry the employees are arranged by
occupations, and under each occupation the number of employees of
each nationality (white, native, or Chinese), sex, number of hours work
per day, and rate of wages are given. Under each occupation the
highest daily rate is first given, followed by the lower daily rates in
order, and by the highest and then the lower monthly rates. This
course was necessary, as it was impossible to reduce the monthly rates
to a daily basis in the absence of any exact information as to the num­
ber of days at work per month. The only information upon this point
is the statement, in a general way, that Sunday work is rather more
common than^in the United States.
It is to be regretted that occupation names are not in all cases as
specific as could be desired. The term “ workman” has been used in
many instances to cover classes of work where much more than the mere
laborer is meant. In regard to this it should be stated that industry in
Manila has not yet reached that degree of organization and consequent
specialization everywhere found in the United States, and that the
workman in many establishments is accustomed to perform any sort of
work that he may be called upon to do. In the smaller establishments
the name of the industry will of course indicate, in a general way, the
nature of the work performed by the workmen.
The prices and wages as here tabulated are in gold. In the actual
transactions here represented silver, of exactly half the value of gold,
was used, and the amounts were therefore in all cases exactly double
those here shown. In all ordinary business transactions in Manila sil­
ver, it should be stated, is still the money in use. The gold that has
come in under the new conditions does not appear to have had any
noticeable effect upon the circulating medium; ifc has practically disap­
peared.
The table of prices is first given, followed by that showing rates of
wages.
PRICES OF C ERTA IN ARTICLES IN COMMON
1, 1900.

USE IN M A N IL A , A P R IL

In common use among—
Articles.
Whites.
Beans: French, dry, per pound.................................................................
Bread: per pound.........................................................................................
Bread: biscuit, per 18-ounce tin __ 5.........................................................
Butter: per p ou n d .......................................................................................
Candy: caramel lozenge of sugar, per pou nd .....................................
Cheese: European, per pound...................................................................
Cheese: fresh Philippine, per p ound......................................................
Coffee: not roasted, per pound.................................................................
Corn; dry, per pound...................................................................................




$0.07*
.04
.25
.56
.06
.37*
.20
.20

Natives.

Chinese.

$0.06

.02±|

$0.02*

31

PRICES AND WAGES IN MANILA,

PRICES OF C ERTAIN ARTICLES IN COMMON USE IN M A N IL A , A PR IL
1, 1900— Concluded.
In common use among—
Articles.
Whites.
Eggs: fresh, per dozen........................................................
Eggs: from the provinces, per 100.................................
Fish: cod,salt, per pou n d................................................
Fish: dry, per pound.........................................................
Fish: fresh, per p ou n d .....................................................
Fish: oysters, canned, per 13-ounce c a n ......................
Fish: salmon, canned, per 23-ounce can ......................
Fruit: bananas, per dozen................................................
Fruit: oranges, per dozen..................................................
Fruit: raisins, Valencia, per pound................................
Fruit, canned: guava jelly, per 14-ounce c a n ...........
Fruit, canned: mango jelly, per 14-ounce can............
Fruit, canned: peaches, per 26-ounce c a n ...................
Fruit, dried: apples, plums, peaches, etc., per pound
Lard: per p ou nd.................................................................
Lard: pure leaf, per pound..............................................
Lard: sal ted, per p o u n d ................................................
Lentils: per pound.............................................................
Macaroni: per pound.........................................................
Meat: beef, canned corned, per 6-pound can.............
Meat: beef, dried, per pound..........................................
Meat: beef, fresh, per pound............................................
Meat: caribou, per pound..................................................
Meat: chickens, each.........................................................
Meat: ducks, each...............................................................
Meat: ham, New York, per pound.................................
Meat: ham, Spanish, per pound.......................................
Meat: hens, each .................................................................
Meat: mutton, fresh, per pound.......................................
Meat: pork, fresh, per pound...........................................
Meat: turkeys, each.............................................................
Milk: condensed, per 18-ounce c a n ..............................
Milk: fresh, per £ liter (0.53 quart).................................
Molasses: per pou n d .........................................................
Oil: cocoanut, per pound..................................................
Oil: olive, per | liter (0.79 quart)...................................
Pease: chick, per pound....................................................
Pickles: per 30-ounce bottle............................................
Rice: European, per pound.............................................
Rice: Saigon or Philippine, per pound........................
Salt: common, per pou n d ................................................
Salt: fine, per 3 pounds.....................................................
Shells: salted, per pound.................................................. .
Spices: allspice, whole, per pound.................................
Spices: mustard, per 10-ounce packet.......................... .
Spices: pepper, red, ground, per pound........................ .
Spices: pepper, whole, per pound.................................
Spices: saffron, common, per pound...............................
Starch: per pound...............................................................
Sugar: brown, first class, per pound..............................
Sugar: brown, second class, per pound........................
Sugar: brown, third class, per pound............................
Tea: first class, per pound................................................
Tea: second class, per pound..........................................
Tobacco: first class, per p ou n d.......................................
Tobacco: second class, per pound.................................
Tobacco: third class, per pound.....................................
Vegetables, canned: artichokes,per 20-ounce can
Vegetables, canned: pease, per 20-ounce c a n .............
Vegetable^ canned: peppers, per 20-ounce can.........
Vegetables, canned: tomatoes, per 20-ounce can
Vegetables,canned: other,per 20-ounce can ............. .
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage, white, per 2-pound head.
Vegetables, fresh: onions, per pound.............................
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, per pound........................ .
Vegetables, fresh: tomatoes, per pound........................
Vegetables, fresh: pot herbs, per pound...................... .
Vegetables, salted: pot herbs, per pound......................
Vermicelli: per 3 pounds..................................................
Vinegar: European, per f liter (0.79 quart)..................
Vinegar: from the Islands,per 1 liter (0.53 quart) .. .
Wine: red, ordinary, per 16 liters (16.91 quarts)......... .
Wine: red, superior, per 16 liters (16.91 quarts)...........
Candles: per pound.............................................................
Matches: European, per (small) box.............................
Matches: Japanese, per 100 (small) boxes...............
Oil: kerosene, Russian, per pound...................................
Soap: laundry, first class, per 25 pounds........................
Soap: laundry, second class, per 25 pounds..................




Natives.

Chinese.

to. 2
0

fO. 20

10,. 15,. 20
.25

10,. 15,. 20

10,. 15,. 20

.04
.05

.04
.05

1.25
. 15

.20
.01

.05
.30
. 12,

.10

to. 10

.20

.30
.25
.15
. 18s

. 15

.181

.20

.07|
. 62;

.05

*2
.* 0
.25
.25
.321
. 37;

.50

.20
.20

3.00
.25

.20

.10

*".*06
.30
A2i
.25
.06

” ’.’ oij
.15

.20
.05

.06
.0
2
.0 1
1

*’ .*25

.021
.0 1
1
*1
0*
.25

.20
.25
.10

.10
.021

.07;

.06
.05
.75

.05

.05
*25

.25
.15
.10
.20

*io*

.17;

.15

.171
.17;

.10
.06

.05
02:
.05

.

.02

*’ .*5
6'

.1 1
2

.021

2.00
3.25
. 12;

.01

.30
.05
1.25
1.00

.021
.30

.021

.05

.30
.05

1.00

1.00

32

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900.
ALCOHOL DISTILLERY (7 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
Masters..........

Forem en___
Workmen . . .

1
3
3
1
3
12
57
2
78
4
32
52
0
1

Chinese
W hite..
W hite..
N ative.
W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
Chinese
Native .
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
W h ite..

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

12
8
8
8
8
8
8
12
8
12
8
8
12
8.

Rate of
wages.
$1.00 da.a
100.00 mo.
75.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
50.00 mo.
.75day.
.50 day.
.50 day.
.37* da.
.37| daa
.25 day.
.25 day.
.25 da. a
40.00 mo.

! Em­
!
Hrs.
Occupations.' ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
ees.
day.
W orkm en...

2
2
8
4
8
39
6
10
32
49
5
15
8

W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
12
8
8
12
12
8
8
12
8
8

M.

8

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

12
12
12
12
12
12

Rate of
wages.
$30.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
22.50 mo.
22.50 mo.
20.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
10.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
7.50 mo.
7.50 mo.
6.00 mo.
4.00 mo.

ARMS REPAIRING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).

Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
1 N ative.

M.
M.

8 $2.00 day.
8
.50 day.

Workmen. . .

1 N ative.

BAKERY (12 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters.........

Workmen . . .

2
2
1
6
1
4
24

W h ite..
W hite..
W hite..
N ative.
Chinese
Native .
Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

12 ! 40.00 mo.6 W orkm en...
$
12 35.00 mo.6
12 30.00 mo .b
12 15.00 mo .b
12 15.00 mo.a
12
9.00 mo.6
12
8.00 mo.6

4
53
62
6
16
5

Chinese
Native .
N ative.
Chinese
Native .
Chinese

$8.00mo.fl
6.00mo.J
5.00 mo. 1
5.00 mo.a
4.00 mo. 1
4.00 mo.a

BARBER SHOP (43 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters..........

Workmen . . .

i
4
1
9
1
27
18

W h ite..
N ative.
Chinese
W h ite..
N ative.
N ative.
Native.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10
10
10
10
8
10
10

$1.00 day.
.50 day.
.50day.ct
30.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
.25 day.

Workmen. . .

1
1
10
13
9
4
• 87

Chinese M.
Chinese M.
W hite.. M.
W h ite.. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.

10 $0.25 dav.a
10
.12| da.a
10 15.00 mo.
10 12.50 mo.
10 9.00 mo.
8 8.00 mo.
10 7.50 mo.

BARREL FACTORY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).

Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 Chinese
4 Chinese

M.
M.

10 $1.00 day.a
10
.50 day.a

Workmen. . .

6 !Chinese
4 jChinese

M.
M.

10 j$0.25 day.a
10
.15 day.a

1 N a tiv e . M.
6 JNative. M.
3 Native. M.

8 $0.12* day.
8
.50 day.
8
.25 day.

BICYCLE REPAIRING (4 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters..........

1 W hite.J ! M.
1 W hite.. M.
2 N ative. M.

8 $2.00 day. , Apprentice..
8 1.50 day. > W orkm en...
8 1.00 day. j

BLACKSMITH AND VETERINARY (I ESTABLISHMENT).

Master............
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
8 N ative.

M.
M.

8 $40.00 mo. ! Workmen. . .
8 15.00 mo. !

a Also 3 meals and room.



4 (Native. M.

6 Also 3 meals.

8

$9.00 mo.

33

PRICES AND WAGES IN MANILA,

RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , APR IL AND M A Y , 1900— Continued.
BOOKBINDING (4 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Hrs.
Em Nation­
Occupations. pioy- ality. Sex. per
day.
ees.
Masters.........
Workmen . . .

4 Native .
7 N ative.
7 Native .

M.
M.
M.

Rate of
wages.

Em­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ Nation-1 bex> per
ality.
ees.
day.

1
8 $1.00 day. 1 W orkm en...
8
.50 day. I
1
8 i .37| day |Workwomen,
1
!

7 Native J M.
2 Native J M.
2 Native .; F.
1

Rate of
wages.

8 $0.25 day.
8
.124 day.
8
.124 day.

BItANDY STOREHOUSE (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . . .

1 W hite.. M.
4 Native . M.
2 N ative. M.

8 $50.00 mo. i Workmen. . .
8 15.00 mo.
Workman
8
9.00 mo. | (child).
!

2 N ative. M.
1 Native . M.

8
8

BREWERY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
1
1
10
80

Master...........
Foreman___
Workmen . . .

W hite.. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
Native. M.

8 $150.00 mo. j W orkm en...
8
30.00 mo. i
8
22.59 mo.!
8
15.00 mo., Workwomen

20
60
16
30

N ative. M.
Native. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. F.

8
8
8
8

10.00 mo.
8.00 mo.
5.00 mo.
5.00 mo.

CARPENTER SHOP (14 ESTABLISHMENTS),
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

1
10 i$0.50 day.a W orkm en...
10 jl5.00 mo.a
10
.124 da. a
10
.10 day.a
10
.05 day.a
10
.074 da.a

6 Chinese
1 Chinese
34 Chinese

M.
M.
M.

10
10
10

11
3
7
1
4
4

Masters.........
Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

2.00 mo.a
.424 da.a
.374 da.a

112
58
4
- 8
4
4
10
6
6
6

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
jChinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10 $0.25 day.a
10
.124 da.a
10
.10 day.a
10 11.00 mo.a
10 10.00 mo.a
10 9.00 mo.a
10 8.00 mo.a
10 6.00 mo.a
10 5.00 mo.a
10 4.00 mo.a

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
10
8
10
8

CARPENTERS, HOUSE (8 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters......... 1
j

Workmen . . . 1

3
5
31
45
34
86

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

1
8 '$1.50 day.a W orkm en...
10 1.00 day.a
8
.50 day.a
10
.50 day.a
8
.3/4 da. a,
10
.374 da. a

63
119
6
12
20

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

.25 day.a
.25 day.a
.15 day.a
.15 day.a
.124 da. a

CARRIAGE FACTORY (7 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Apprentices.

Blacksmiths.

Blacksmiths’
helpers.
Carpenters ..

1
1
2
1
1
1
12
6
6
4
6
4
6
1
4
4
2
4
4
8

Native .
W hite..
W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
Native.
N ative.
Native .
Native .
Native .
Native.
Native.
Chinese
Native .
N ative.
Native .
Native . i

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$1.00 day.
75.00 mo.
50.00 mo.
50.00 mo.
40.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
.25 day.
.124 day.
4.00 mo.
3.00 mo.
.75 day.
.624 day.
30.00 mo.
22.50 mo.
20.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
8.00 mo.
5.00 mo.
.374 day.

12
10
4
10
26
7

Native .
Native .
Native .
Native.
Native .
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8

15.00 mo.
.624 day.
.50 day. *
30.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
Workmen. . .
15.00 mo.




Carpenters..
Cloth work­
ers.

Leather
workers.

Painters___

a Also 3 meals and room.

30 N ative.
3 N ative.

M.
M.

1
8 !$9.00 mo.
8
.624 day.

2
6
2
8
2
6
3

Native .
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

.50 day.
22.50 mo.
17.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
12.50 mo.
6.00 mo.
.75 day.

2
5
1
6
1
2
8
2
6
6
4
10
4
4
14

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
Native .
Native .
N ative.
Native .
Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

.50 day.
22.50 mo.
20.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
8.00 mo.
.75 day.
.50 day.
22.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
i 8.00 mo.
7.50 mo.
6.00 mo.
5.00 mo.
7.50 mo.

34

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Continued.
CARRIAGE REPAIRING (6 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Occupations.

Masters.........
Apprentices.
Blacksmiths.
Blacksmiths’
helpers.
Carpenters ..
Carpenters’
helpers.

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.

Rate of
wages.

6
2
2
8
2

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $1.00 day.
8
.25 day.
8
.12| day.
8
.50 day.
8
.37s day.

6
18
6
4

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8

Occupations.

Cloth work­
ers.
Leather
workers.
Painters........
W orkm en. . .

.25 day.
.50 day.
.374 day.
.25 day.

Em­
Hrs.
Nation­
ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
6 N ative.

M.

6 N ative. M.
1
9 N ative. M.
4 N ative. M.
4 •Native. M.
10 iNative. M.
3 N ative. M.
2 N ative. M.

Rate of
wages.

8 $0.50 day.
8

.50 day.

8
8
8
8
8
8

.50 day.
.50 day.
.374 day.
.25 day.
.20 day.
.15 day.

1
CART FACTORY (3 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........
Workmen . . .

3
4
3
2

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.

10 $15.00 mo. a W orkm en...
\
10 11.00 mo.a.
10 10.00 mo.a
10
9.00 mo.a

4
5
4
7

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.

10 $8.00 mo. a
10 7.50 mo. a
10 6.00 mo. a
10 5.00 mo. a

M.

10 $0.25 day. a

CHOCOLATE FACTORY (7 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........
Workmen . . .

7 Chinese M.
22 Chinese M.

10 $1.00 day.a
.50 day.a
10

W orkm en...

* 29 Chinese

CIGAR AND CIGARETTE FACTORY (31 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........

Apprentices.
Box fillers. . .

Box finishers

Cigarette
makers.

1
4
8
4
2
2
3
1
3
2
1
18
370
2
86
280
8
8
36
80
268
8
6
80

W hite.. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
W hite.. M.
W h ite.. M.
W h ite.. M.
W h ite - M.
Native . M.
Native. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. F.
N ative. F.
Native . F.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. F.
N ative. M.
Native. M.
N ative. M.

8 $2.50 day.
2.00 day.
8
8
1.50 day.
8
1.00 day.
8 150.00 mo.
8 100.00 mo.
8 75.00 mo.
8 50.00 mo.
8 50.00 mo.
8 40.00 mo.
8 25.00 mo.
8
.124 da.
8
.10 day.
8
2.50 mo.
8
.374 da.
8
.25 day.
8 11.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8
.374 da.
8
.25 day.
8
.25 day.
8 11.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8
.374 da.

1,826 N ative.
88 N ative.
505 N ative.

F.
F.
F.

8
8
8

F.

8

Engineers...
Foremen___

Sorters..........
W orkm en. . .

.25 day.
7.50 mo.
.25 day.

17 N ative.

Cigarette
packers.

Cigar rollers.

M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.
F.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$0.75 day.
.624 da.
.50 day.
.50 day.
.374 da.
.374 da.
.25 day.
15.00 mo.
11.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
7.50 mo.
7.50 mo.
1.50 day.
30.00 mo.
1.50 day.
75.00 mo.
50.00 mo.
40.00 mo.
.374 da.
11.00 mo.
.50 day.
.374 da.
.25 day.
.25 day.
.20 day.
.15 day.
15.00 mo.
7.50 mo.

M.
M.
M.

8
8
8

$0.371 da.
.25 day.
.25 day.

26 N a t i v e M .
12 INative .j M.
18 jChmese M.

8
8
8

$11.00 mo.
7.60 mo.
6.00 mo.

298
52
1,220
85
202
3,873
724
20
48
8
16
12
1
1
1
4
6
1
346
12
226
142
647
334
116
8
2
46

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
W hite..
W h ite..
W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

7.50 mo.

CIGAR-BOX FACTORY (2 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........
Workmen . . .

1
1
60
82

W h ite ..
W h ite..
N ative.
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $50.00 mo.
8 45.00 mo.
8
.50 day.
8
.374 da.

W ork m en ...

22 Chinese
21 Native .
44 Chinese

COCOANUT-OIL FACTORY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 Native.
2 N ative.
15 N ative.




M.
M.
M.

8 $50.00 mo.
8 20.00 mo.
8 15.00 mo.

W orkm en. . .

a Also 3 meals and room.

PRICES AND WAGES IN MANILA,

35

RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N ILA , A PR IL AND M A Y , 1900— Continued.
COMB MAKING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Hrs.
Em­
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
day.
ees.
Master...........

1 Chinese

M.

Rate of
Wages.

10 10.50 day. a

Em­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
ees.
day.
W orkm en...

Rate of
Wages.

M.

10 $0.25 day. a

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
F.

2 Chinese

8 $15.00mo.a
8 15.00 mo.c
8 10.00 mo.a
8 9.00 mo.
8 9.00 mo.c
8 8.00 mo.
8 8.00 mo.c
8 7.50 mo.
8 7.00 mo.6
8 6.00 mo.
8 6.00 mo.a
8 6.00 mo.6
8 6.00 mo.c
8 4.00 mo.
' 8 4.00 mo.c
8 6.00 mo.
8 6.00 mo.c

CONFECTIONERY (19 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Apprentice
(child).
Scullions___

Workmen . . .

6
1
1
4
1
1
2
2
1
1

Chinese
W hite..
W hite..
W h ite..
W hite..
W hite..
Native .
Native .
N ative.
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

2
2
2
3
26
13

Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8

$0.37J da.a ; W’orkm en...
50.00 mo.a
50.00 mo. b
50.00 mo.c
40.00 mo.c
30.00 mo.c
17.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
15.00 mo.c
.10 day. a
i
4.00 mo.a
4.00 mo.c
3.00 mo.ft
3.00 mo.c
.25 day. a Workwomen
.10 day. a

4
6
4
2
8
6
1
4
4
11
4
2
37
10
2
4
6

Chinese
Native .
Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
Chinese
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

COPPER FOUNDRY (3 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen . . .

3 Chinese
17 Chinese

M.
M.

1
10 $0.50 day.d Workmen. . .
10
.25 day.di
i

9 Chinese! M.

10

1

DENTIST (4 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

1 W hite..
2 Native .
1 Native .

M.
M.
M.

8 $4.00 day. i W orkm en...
8 4.00 day. !;
8 3.00 day. !

3 N ative.
1 Native .
4 Native .

M.
M.
M.

8 ;$1.00 day.
8
.75 day.
8 ! .50 day.
i

M.
.
M.
M.
m.
M.

! 12 j$22.50 mo.
; 12 | 15.00 mo.
12 ! 11.G mo.
O
j 12 | 8.00 rao.
! 12 j 6.00 mo.
! 12
5.00 mo.
1

ELECTRIC-LIGHT PLANT (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Electrician..
Electrician,
assistant.
Engineer----Engineer, as­
sistant.

1 W hite..
1 W hite..

M.
M.

12 $150.00 mo.
12
50.00 mo.

1 W hite..
1 Native .

M.
M.

12
12

W orkm en...

100.00 mo.
40.00 mo.

8
6
10
5
22
16

Native .
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.

m

I

ESSENCE DISTILLERY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
2 jNative.

M.
M.

8 $40.00 mo.
8 15.00 mo.

W orkm en...

2 N ative.

M.

8 $7.50 mo.

FURNITURE FACTORY (16 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

1
1
2
6
3
1
2
5
4

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10
10
10
10
10
8
10
10
8

4
6
6
4

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.

10
10
10
10

a Also 3 meals and room.



$0.50 day.a Workmen . . .
25.00 mo. a
22.50 mo. a
20.00 mo. a
17.50 mo. a
15.00 mo. a
15.00 mo. a
2.00 mo. a
3.00 mo. a
2.00 mo. a
1.50 mo. a
.37i da. a
.25 day.a

1)Also 3 meals.

c Also 2 meals.

2
24
15
12
2
28
22
14
2
20
31
14
2
10

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10
10
10
10
8
10
10
10
8
10
10
10
10
10

$0.12§ da. a
15.00 mo. a
12.50 mo. a
11.00 mo. a
10.00 mo. a
10.00 mo. a
9.00 mo. a
8.00 mo. a
7.50 mo. a
7.50 mo. a
6.00 mo. a
5.00 mo. a
4.50 mo. a
4.00 mo. a

d Also meals and room.

36

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Continued.
GUITAR FACTORY (2 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
M.
M.

2 N ative.
3 N ative.

Masters.........
Workmen . . .

Rate of
wages.

Em­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex.i1per
ality.
ees.
Iday.

W orkm en...
8 $1.00 day.
.50 day. i
8

6 N ative.
7 N ative.

Rate of
wages.

M.
M.

8 $0.37| day.
8
.25 day.

M.
M.

10 $0.25 day. a
10
.15 day.a

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $20.00 mo.
8 17.50 mo.
8 15.00 mo.
8 12.50 mo.
8 11.00 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
8
9.00 mo.
8
8.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8
6.00 mo.
8
5.00 mo.

Native. M.
I
Native . M.
'Native . M.
[Native. F.
|
Native . F.
Native . F.
.Native. F.

8 $22.50 mo.
8 19.00 mo.
8 15.00 mo.
8 22.50 mo.
8 15.00 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
8 | 7.50 mo.

HANDSAW MILL (16 ESTABLISHMENTS).
16 [Chinese! M.
165 Chinese M.

Masters.........
Workmen . . .

10 $1.00day.a W orkm en...
10
.50 day. a

240 Chinese
80 Chinese

HARNESS FACTORY (11 ESTABLISHMENTS).
3
2
2
3
1
1

Apprentice
(child).
Workmen . . .

Native .
W hite..
N ative.
Native .
Native .
Native .j!

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8

2
9
9
7

Masters.........

Native. M.
Native. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.

8
8
8
8

$1.00 day.
50.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
25.00 mo.
22.50 mo.
2.00 mo.

Workmen. . .

.75 day.
.50 day.
.37! day;
.25 day.

14
10
20
29
8
4
3
16
12
16
10

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
Native .
N ative.
N ative.
Native .

HAT AND PARASOL FACTORY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
1

Master, hat
dept.
Master, para­
sol dept.
Apprentices.
Engineer___
Workmen . . .

1
16
1
4
8

!
S hite..
W
i
W hite..
|
.Native .
W h ite ..
'W hite..
W hite..

1
8 $100.00 mo.

M.
M.

8

F.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
•8
8

W orkm en...

75.00 mo. i
4.00 mo.
50.00 mo.
40.00 mo.
30.00 mo.

Workwomen

18
32
20
42
154
26
38

HAT FACTORY (7 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen . . .
j

4
2
1
4
10
7

! 18

|
1
• hite..! M.
W
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
Native. M.
N ative. M.

W orkm en...
8 $40.00 mo.
8 30.00 mo.
8 25.00 mo.
8
.50 day.
.37!day.
8
.25 day.! Workwoman
8
8 15.00 mo. |

4
2
8
2
4
1

N ative. : m .
N ative.! M.
N ative.' M.
Native . | M.
’N ative.;; m .
jN ative. F.
!

8 '$10.00 mo.
8
8.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8 1 6.00 mo.
5.00 mo.
! 4.00 mo.

8
8

•
|

HAT REPAIRING (16 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen . . .

1
15
4
29

\

N ative.
{Native.
N ative.
.Native .
i

M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $1.00 day.
. 50 day.
8
.50 day.
8
. 37! day.
8

W orkm en...
Workwomen

M.
M.
F.
F.

8 $0.25 day.
. 12! day.
8
8
. 15 day.
8
.12! day.

3 [Native . M.
17 Native.! M.
1
1

8 ‘$0.37! day.
8 j .25 day.

45
2
5
8

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .

1
HORSESHOEING (5 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters.........
W orkm en. . .

5 ;N ative.
12 {Native.
1

M.
M.

8 $1.00 day.
. 50 day.
8

W orkm en...

ICE FACTORY (2 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........
Engineers. . .
Engineers, as­
sistant.
Workmen . . .

2 W h ite..
2 W hite..
4 N ative.

M.
M.
M.

8 $100.00 mo.
62.50 mo.
8
30.00 mo.
8

10 Chinese

M.

8




W orkm en...

.25 da.

a Also 3 meals and room.

12
11
19
40

{Native.
I ative. !
N
1 ative. i
N
{Native. j

M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8

$15.00 mo.
11.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
7.50 mo.

PRICES AND WAGES IN MANILA,

37

RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A PR IL AND M A Y , 1900— Continued.
INK FACTORY (2 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Occupations.

Masters.........

Hrs.
' Nation­
, SexJ per
' s 5 ; alit- - |
v
! day.
I
:
1 W hite.. i M. i
1 Native . M. !
!

Em­
Hrs.
Rate of 1 Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
wages. ,
day.
ees.

8 $1.00 day.
8
.75 day.

Workmen. . .

Rate of
wages.

M.
M.

8 $0,374 day.
.25 day.
8

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Native .
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Native .
Native .
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $11.00 mo.
10 11.00 mo. a
8
.25 day.
8 12.50 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
10 10.00 mo. a
8 15.00 mo.
10
9.00 mo. a
8
.25 day.
8 12.50 mo.
8 11.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
7.50 mo.
8
10
7.50 mo. a
8
6.00 mo.

53 Chinese

M.

88 Chinese

M.

10 $0,374 da. a
i
10 ' .25day.a

M.
M.
M.
F.

10 $0,374 da. a
8
.25 day.
10
.25 da. a
.25 day.
8

3 N ative.
1 Native .

IRON FOUNDRY (4 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Apprentices.
Blacksmiths.
Blacksmiths’
helpers.
Engineers . . .
Filers.............
Ladlers..........

2
1
1
8
8
10
68
4
20
4
8
2
1
50
3
10

W hite..
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Native .
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

ii Native.

W h ite ..
!N ative.
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese

23
4
20
52
40
46
8
54
4
22
6
4
22
40
12
26

8 $75.00 mo. ; Ladlers........
8 50.00 mo. |
10 15.00 mo. a' Molders........
.10 day. !
8
8
3.00 mo. ;
8
.37| day.]
8 15.00 mo. 1
10 15.00 mo. a Polishers___
8 10.00 mo.
W orkm en...
10
9.00 mo. a
8
7.50 mo.
8 40.00 mo.
8 30.00 mo.
8 15.00 mo. |
10
7.50 mo. a
8
.374 d av .!

IRON WORKS (14 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Apprentices
(children).
Blacksmiths.

10 $1.00 day. a1 Blacksmiths’ ,
10 , .074 da. a.
helpers,
j
, W orkm en...,
10
.50 day.a
I
|

14 Chinese M.
2 Chinese M.
j
44 Chinese M.

1

j

LAUNDRY (8 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen . . .

1
3
4
2

W hite..
Native .
Chinese
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $1.00 day. W orkm en...
8
.50 day.
10
.50 da. a
8
.50 day. I Workwomen

.

6
10
30
30

Ichinese
iNative.
iChinese
|Native.

LITHOGRAPHING! (4 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........
Apprentices..
Apprentices
(children).
Engineers___
Foreman........
Workmen___

2
1
1
2
4

W hite .
Native .
'Native.
INative .
.Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

1
1
1
5

N ative.
iNative.
(Native .
Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8

Workmen. . .

8 $150.00 mo.
8 100.00 mo.
8
50.00 mo.
8
2.00 mo.
3.00 mo.
8
30.00 mo.
25.00 mo.
100.00 mo.
45.00 mo.

6
15
17
29
1
17
7
10
16
6

Native . 1 M.
Native .| M.
I
N ative. ! M.
Native J M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
.Native. M.
i .

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$40.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
22.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
12.50 mo.
11.00 mo.
10.00 mo.
9.00 mo.
7.50 mo.
6.00 mo.

MACHINE SHOP (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen___

1 IN a tiv e .
4 'Native .
8 iNative.

M.
M.
M.

l|

8 $1.50 day. ( W orkm en...
i
8 I .75 day.
8
.50 day.

6 Native .
4 N ative.

M.
M.

8 $0,374 dav.
8
.25 day.

M.
M.
M.

8 $0,374 day.
8 jl5.00mo.
8 jlO O mo.
.O

j

MARBLE WORKS (2 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen___

1 W hite.. M. 1
1 White..| M.
4 Native .j M. j




8 $1.50 day. j W orkm en...
8 40.00 mo.
8
.75 day.

a Also 3 meals and room.

2 N ative.
4 Native .
2 N ative.

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

38

RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Continued.
MILLINERY (3 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
Mistresses. . .
Apprentices.

1 W hite..
2 N ative.
10 Native.

F.
F.
F.

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
, Occupations. ploy­
Sex. per
ality.
day.
ees.

Rate of
wages.

10 $4.00 day.
10 2.00 day.
.10 day.
10

Workwomen

16 N ative.
12 N ative.
i
i

F.
F.

Rate of
wages.

10 $0.50 day.
10
.25 day.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT REPAIRING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 Native .
4 jNative.

M.
M.

8 $1.00 day.
. 50 day.
8

Workmen. . .

2 Native .

M.

8

M.
M.

8
8

F.

8

$0.25 day.

PAINTING PICTURES (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
2 N ative.
2 N ative.

M.
M.
M.

8 $5.00 day.
8 1.00 day.
. 50 day.
8

Workmen. . .

2 N ative.
2 N ative.

PERFUME FACTORY (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
2 N ative.

M.
M.

j

8 |$50.00mo. I Workwomen
8
.50 day.

2 N ative.

PHOTOGRAPHY (11 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters..........

Workmen . . .

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
7
5

Chinese M.
W h ite .. M.
N ative. M.
W h ite .. M.
N ative. M.
W hite.. M.
N ative. M.
W h ite .. M.
W hite.. M.
N ative. M.
Chinese M.
Chinese M.
Chinese M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
Native. M.
;N ative. M.
I

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$1.00 day.a
45.00 mo. b
45.00 mo. b
40.00 mo. b
30.00 mo.
30.00 mo. c
30.00 mo. c
30.00 mo. b
25.00 mo. c
25.00 mo. c
.75 day.a
.50 day.a
.25 day.a
30.00 mo. b
22.50 mo. b
20.00 mo. b
18.00 mo. b
17.50 mo. b
15.00 mo. c
15.00 mo. b

W orkm en...

1
2
2
2
5
2
3
2
9
3
4
4
3
5
5
1
1
1
3
1

N ative. M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
N ative. M.

8 $14.00 mo. c
8 13.00 mo. c
8 12.50 mo.
8 12.50 mo. c
8 12.50 mo. b
8 10.00 mo. c
8 10.00 mo. b
8
9.00 mo.
8
9.00 mo. c
8
9.00 mo. b
8
8.00 mo. b
8
7.50 mo. c
8
G.00 mo.
8
6.00 mo. c
8
6.00 mo. b
8
5.00 mo. c
8
5.00 mo. b
8
4.00 mo.
8
4.00 mo. c
8
4.00 mo. b

PIANO FINISHING (1 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........
Workmen . . .

2
1
1
1

W h ite..
W h ite ..
N ative.
W h ite ..

M.
M.
M.
M.

8 '$4.00 day.
8 3.00 day.
8 2.00 day.
8 1.00 day.

W orkm en. . .

5 N ative.
6 N ative.
1 Native .

M.
M.
M.

8 $0.75 day.
8
.50 day.
8
.37£ day.

PRINTING (10 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Master...........
Apprentices.
Compositors.

1
2
2
12
4
4
24
33
39
4
16
26
12
4

W h ite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

a Also 3 meals and room.



8 $30.00 mo.
.12* da.
8
. 10 day.
8
1.00 day.
8
. 75 day.
8
. 62£ da.
8
. 50 day.
8
.37* da.
8
. 25 day.
8
. 12£ da.
8
8 17.50 mo.
8 15.00 mo.
8 12.50 mo.
8 11.00 mo.

Compositors
Engineers...

W orkm en. . .

6 Also 2 meals.

22
15
3
4
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
5
5

Native . M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
W h ite .. •M.
W h ite .. M.
W h ite.. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. M.
Native . M.
Native . M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$9.00 mo.
6.00 mo.
1.00 day.
.75 day.
62.50 mo.
50.00 mo.
40.00 mo.
.37* da.
20.00 mo.
18.00 mo.
17.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
7.50 mo.

c Also 3 meals.

PRICES AND WAGES I N

MANILA,

39

RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A PR IL AND M A Y , 1900— Continued.
PRINTING AND LITHOGRAPHING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
Master...........
Apprentices.
Compositors.

Engineer___

1
14
8
.18
26
31
1

White .
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Hrs.
Em­
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
day.
ees.

Rate of
wages.

8 $150.00 mo.
8
2.00 mo.
8
22.50 mo.
8
15.00 mo.
8
10.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8
45.00 mo.

Foremen___
W orkm en...

2
2
4
7
72
26
8

Native .
N ative.
Native .
Native.
N ative.
Native.
N ative.

Rate of
wages.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $45.00 mo.
8 30.00 mo.
8 25.00 mo.
8 15.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.
8
6.00 mo.
8
4.00 mo.

M.

8 $0.37± day.

RAZOR GRINDING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master...........

1 White .

M.

Workman. . .

8 $1.00 day.

1 N ative.

SCULPTURING (I ESTABLISHMENT).
1

Master...........
Workmen . . .

1 N ative. M.
4 N ative. M.
2 N ative. M.

8 $5.00 day. i W orkm en...
8 1.00 day.
8
.75 day. j

2 N ative. M.
2 N ative. M.

8 $0.50 day.
8
.25 day.
j

SEWING-MACHINE REPAIRING (1 ESTABLISHMENT).
Master.

1 W hite..

M.

8 $2.00 day.

j !

W orkm en...

2 jNative.

M.

8 $0.50 day.

N ative. M.
N ative. M.
N ative. F.
N ative. F.
N ative. F.
N ative. F.
Native . F.

8 $9.00 mo.
8 6.00 mo.
8
.25 day.
8 7.50 mo.
8 6.00 mo.
8 5.00 mo.
8
.10 day.

i :

SHIRT FACTORY (7 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Workmen . . .

2
2
1
2
8
4
16
4

W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$1.00 day.
22.50 mo.
20.00 mo.
17.50 mo.
.50 day.
15.00 mo.
12.50 mo.
10.00 mo.

Workmen. . .
Workwomen

Workwomen
(children).

8
4
8
26
8
8
4

SHOE FACTORY (81 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

1
1
1
14
14
2
4
19

W h ite..
N ative.
Native .
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $1.50 day.
8 1.00 day.
8
.75 day.
.50 da. a
10
10 15.00 mo.a
10
.10 da.a
10 2.00 mo.a
.10 da.a
10

2
7
7
8
9
60
20

Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10
10
8
10
8
10
10

.07^ da.a
2.00 mo.a
.50 day.
.40 da.a
.37£ day.
,37£ da.a
.35 da.a

WT
orkm en...

Workwomen

4
4
47
4
4
8
40
6
18
28
14
28
2
2
1
2

Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

10 $0.30 da.a
8
.25 day.
10
.25 da.a
10
.20 da.a
10
.18£da.a
10
.12£ da.a
10 10.00 m o.a
10 9.00 mo.a
10 8.00 mo.a
10 7.50 mo.a
10 6.00 mo.a
10 5.00 mo.a
10 4.50 m o.a
10 4.00 mo.a
10 3.00 mo.a
10 3.00 mo.a

SILVERSMITHS (29 ESTABLISHMENTS).
Masters.........

Apprentice..
Workmen . . .

2
2
22
1
2
1
7

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
W h ite ..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.




M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

$2.00 day.
1.50 day.
1.00 day.
50.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
. 25 day.
1.00 day.

Workmen ..

a Also 3 meals and room.

7
48
1
15
6
3

N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
8

$0.75 day.
. 50 day.
. 37; da.
.25 day.
22.50 mo.
15.00 mo.

40

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
RATES OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Continued.
SLIPP ER FACTORY (43 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.
Masters.........
Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

8
1
34
4
2
6
4
20
6
3
32
25
103

Rate of
wages.

• S
i
N ative. M.
8 $1.00 day.
Chinese M.
10
. 621 da.a
Chinese M.
10
. 50 da. a
. 124 day.
Native . F.
8
Chinese M.
.074 da.a
10
Chinese M.
10
. 05 da. a
10
. 10 da. a
Chinese M.
Chinese
Chinese
Native.
Native.
N ative.
Chinese

M. ! 10
M. | 10
M. | 8
M.
8
M.
8
M.
10

.07| da.a
. 05 da. a
. 75 day.
.50 day.
.37| day.
.374 da.a

1
Em­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
ees.
day.
W orkm en...

Workmen
(children).
Workwomen

Rate of
wages.

23
197
10
81
4
10
48
2

N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M ..
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $0.25 day.
10
. 25 da. a
10
. 20 da. a
10
. 15 da. a
8
. 124 day.
10
.12| da.a
10
. 10 da. a
. 10 day.
8

8
32
8
3
2

Chinese
Native .
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese

M.
F.
F.
F.
F.

10
8
10
8
10

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $0.25 day.
10
.25 day.a
10
.15 day.a
10
.124 da. a
8 15.00 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
8 7.50 mo.
8 6.00 mo.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.

8 $10.00 mo.
10 10.00 mo.a
8 7.50 mo.
8 7.50 mo.
10 7.50 m o.a
8 6.00 mo.
10 6.00 mo.a
8 5.00 mo.
8 5.00 mo.
10 5.00 mo.a
8 4.00 mo.
10 4.00 mo.a
10 3.00 mo.a
8 ; 6.00 mo.
1

M.
M.
M.

8 $15.00 mo.
8 10.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.

M.

8

M.
M.
M.

8 $15.00 mo.
8
9.00 mo.
8
7.50 mo.

. 10 da. a
. 25 day.
. 174 da.a
. 124 day.
.124 da.a

SOAP FACTORY (22 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters..........
Apprentices
(children).
Forem an___
Workmen . . .

1
20
1
2

Native. M.
Chinese M.
W hite.. M.
Chinese M.

i
8 $0.75 day.
.50 day.a
10
8 62.50 mo.
10
.10 day.a

2
1
3
74

Chinese M.
W hite.. M.
N ative. M.
Chinese M.
1

10
.074 da. a
8 ;30.00mo.
| .374 day.
8 I
.374 da. a
I

W orkm en. . .

10

4
83
15
34
4
6
5
4

N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

SODA-W ATER FACTORY (16 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters..........

Workmen . . .

2
3
2
2.
5
1
1
2
2
1
62
20
10
14
6

W hite..
W hite..
W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Native .
W hite..
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.
Native .
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
10
10
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10

$50.00 mo.
40.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
30.00 mo.
25.00 mo.
20.00 mo.a
19.00 mo.a
.75 day.
.25 day.
22.50 mo.
15.00 mo.
15.00 mo.
12.50 mo.
11.00 mo.
11.00 mo. a

W orkm en...

'
i
1
! Workwomen
i

54
6
51
10
10
36
10
8
5
8
31
16
6
15

Native.
Chinese
Native .
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.

STEAM SAWMILL (1 ESTABLISHM ENT).

Master...........
Engineer___
Workmen . . .

1 W hite..
1 N ative.
1 W hite..

M.
M.
M.

8 $75.00 mo.
8 30.00 mo.
8 30.00 mo.

W orkm en...

34 Native.
24 N ative.
37 N ative.

STEEL ENGRAVING (2 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters.

2 N a tiv e .

M.

8 J$1.00 d ay.

W orkm en...

2 jNative.

$0.50 day.

SUGAR REFINERY (1 ESTABLISHM ENT).

Master...........
Engineer----W orkm en. . .

1 W hite..
1 W hite..
2 N ative.




M.
M.
M.

W ork m en ...
8 $75.00 mo.
8 62.50 mo. !
8 30.00 mo. i

a Also 3 meals and room.

20 N ative.
10 N ative.
10 Chinese

PRICES AND WAGES IN MANILA,

41

R A T E OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Continued.
TAILOR SHOP (97 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Em­ Nation­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ ality. Sex. per
ees.
day.

Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
•
Workmen . . .

i

Em­ |NationHrs.
Rate of !
wages. | Occupations. ploy­ 1 ality. Sex. per
day.
ees. !

6
3
1
5
1
22
40
7
11
1
2
2
3
4

Chinese
W hite..
Native.
W hite..
Native.
N ative.
Native.
Native.
Native.
Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.'

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
M.
F.

10
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
10
8
8
8
8

$0.50 day. a1 W orkm en...
50.00 mo. ,
50.00 mo. .
40.00 mo. 1
30.00 mo. 1
22.50 mo.
20.00 mo. |
17.50 mo. 1
15.00 mo.
15.00 mo.a
3.00 mo.
3.00 mo. , Workwomen
2.00 mo.
.12! day.

2
1
4
4
14
16
28
2
2
8
4
12

N ative.
Native.
Chinese
N ative.
Native.
N ative.
Chinese
N ative.
W hite..
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.

F.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
10
8
8
8
10
8
8
8
8
8

3.00 mo.
2.00 mo.
2.00 mo.a
.50 day.
.37! day.
.25 day.
.25 day.a
.12! day.
22.50 mo.
22.50 mo.
■20.00 mo.
17.50 mo.

Rate of
wages.

.Native.
;N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
Native.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
Chinese
N ative.
N ative.
Chiuese
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Native.
N ative.
N ative.
Native .
N ative.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.
F.

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
(6)
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

1
$15.00 mo.
i 12.50 mo.
i 11.00 mo.
■ 10.00 mo.
i 9.00 mo.
! 8.00 mo.
! 7.50 mo.
1 7.00 mo.
j
6.00 mo.
1 5.00 mo.
1 4.00 mo.
i .25 dav.
! .25 day.
.15 day.
1 .15 da. a
.12| da.
.12! da.
.12! d. a
.10 day.
.10 day.
.07! da.
12.50 mo.
7.50 mo.
• 6.00 mo.
5.00 mo.
4.00 mo.
3.00 mo.

Native .
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
N ative.
Chinese
Native .
Chinese
Native .
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
1

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8
8
8
8
8
10
8
10
8
10
10
10

!$20.00mo.
i 15.00 mo.
1 12.50 mo.
! 10.00 mo.
! 9.00 mo.
1 9.00mo.c
8.00 mo.
7.50 mo.a
6.00 mo.
6.00 mo.fl
5.00 mo. o
4.00 mo.a

Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

10 $0.37! da.a
10
.25 day.a
10
.20 day.a
10
.15 day.«
10
.12! da.a
10
.10 day.a

4 Native .
12 Native .
3 Native .

M.
M.
M.

8 $0.37! day.
8
.25 dav.
.25 day.
8

M.
M.
M.

8 $0.25 day.
.50 day.
8
8 15.00 mo.

67
56
43
161
40
27
129
4
34
13
8
17
4
4
6
18
6
4
4
4
6
2
32
28
41
9
17

(b)

TIN SHOP (24 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters.........

Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

1
4
1
17
1
2
2
2
8

M. ! 8 $2.00 day. 1 W orkm en...
M.
8 30.00 mo. |
M.
10 15.00 mo. a.
M.
10 12.50 mo. a'
M.
10 10.00 mo. a
M.
8 4.00 mo.
M.
10 3.00 mo. a
M.
10 2.00 mo. a
M.
10 2.00 mo. a

W hite..
Native .
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese
N ative.
Chinese
Chinese
Chinese

M.
M.

11 Chinese
2 Chinese

10
10

1.50 mo. a
.75 day.

4
6
2
2
3
18
3
64
2
40
11
16

TRUNK FACTORY (20 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters.........
Apprentices.
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

2
18
3
14

Chinesej M.
!Chinese! M.
Chinese! M.
iChinese' M.
!
|
8 iChinese! M.
8 iChinese! M.
1
i

10 $1.00 day.a
.50 day.a
10
.10 day.a
10
.10 day.a
10
10
10

Workmen. . .

.07! da.a
.50 day.a

37
116
10
9
24
15

UNDERTAKERS (3 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters..........
Coachmen.. .

1
M. s
!
M.
M. I

3 [Native.
10 iNative .
8 jNative .

8 $1.50 day.
.75 day.
8
8
.50 day.

Coachmen ..
W orkm en...

WATCH MAKINO (6 ESTABLISHMENTS).

Masters..........

3
1
1
1

Native .
W hite..
W hite..
W hite..

M.
M.
M.
M.

a Also 3 meals and room.



8
8
8
8

!
$1.00 day.
;40.00 mo.
,40.00 mo. c
|30.00mo. c

Apprentice .
W orkm en...

1 N ative.
3 INative .
2 iNative .

|

b Not reported.

c Also meal.

42

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
RATES' OF W A G E S IN M A N IL A , A P R IL AN D M A Y , 1900— Concluded.
WATCH REPAIRING (22 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Em­
Hrs.
Occupations. ploy­ Nation­ Sex. per
ality.
ees.
day.

Masters.........

1
13
3
1
3
1

W hite..
Native .
Chinese
Chinese
White..
W h ite..
I

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

Hrs.
Rate of j Occupations. iflov ! NationSex. per
wages.
p£ j
j
day.

8 61.50 dav.
8 1.00 day.
8 1.00 day. a
10 1.00 day. a
8 50.00 mo.
8 40.00 mo.

W orkm en...

4
21
3
1
1
2

^Native.
1 ative.
N
Chinese
,Chinese
N ative.
N ative.

Rate of
wages.

M.
M.
M.
M.
M.
M.

8 $0.75 day.
8
.50 day.
8
.50 day. a
.50 day.a
10
8 20.00 mo.
8 |17.50mo.

W AX-CAN D LE FACTORY (7 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters..........
Apprentices
(children).
Workmen . . .

7 Chinese
4 Chinese

M.
M.

10 $0.50 day .a! Workmen. . .
10
.07£ da.a!

10 Chinese
6 Chinese

M.
M.

10 $0.15 day.a
.12£ da.a
10

39 Chinese
6 Chinese

M.
M.

10
10

Workmen
(children).

12 Chinese

M.

10

.25 day.a
.20 day.a

.10 day.a

WOOD, BONE, AND HORN ENGRAVING (4 ESTABLISHM ENTS).

Masters..........

3 Chinese
1 Chinese




M.
M.

8 $0.50 day.a
10
.50 day.a

Workmen. . .

a Also 3 meals and room.

7 Chinese
2 jChinese

M.
M.

8 $0.25 day.a
10
.25 day.a

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND: A SOCIAL STUDY.
B Y W IL L IA M

TAYLOR THOM , PH . D.

The present study was made under the direction of the United States
Commissioner of Labor as one u of a series of investigations of small
well-defined groups of Negroes (a) in various parts of the country,” as
set forth in Bulletin No. 11 of the Department of Labor, January,
1898. (J)
The Sandy Spring community lies in Montgomery County, M d., due
north of Washington City. It extends back for several miles from
the Patuxent River on the east, and lies chiefly along the somewhat
sandy ridge which constitutes the watershed between the small affluents
of the Patuxent on the east and of Rock Creek and the Eastern Branch
of the Potomac on the west and south. The nearness to the national
capital is of great economic importance to the inhabitants of the neigh­
borhood, the southern corner of which is about 8£ miles in an air line
north of the northern angle of the District of Columbia.
Here within a stone’s throw, as it were, of the seat of government
is a thriving agricultural community, among whom live still the
descendants of Negro families which have been free for a century and
a quarter. It is this exceptional fact of a long-continued free exist­
ence in the midst of surrounding slavery which seems to warrant the
special investigation of the Negroes of Sandy Spring in order to see
what are the social and economic results to them of their opportuni­
ties during several generations as freemen. The better to understand
the local conditions, a brief sketch of both county and neighborhood
is desirable.
MONTGOMERY COUNTY, (c)
Montgomery County is bounded on the south by the District of
Columbia; on the southwest by Virginia and the Potomac River, along
which is the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal; on the northwest by Fred­
erick County; on the northeast b}r Howard County, from which it is
separated by the Patuxent River, and on the southeast by Prince
a In accordance with the correct usage of the leaders of their race, the term
“ Negroes” instead of “ colored people” is used in this paper.
b See also Bulletin No. 10, May, 1897.
cCf. T. H . S. Boyd’ s History of Montgomery County, Md., second ed., Clarks­
burg, M d ., also histories of Maryland passim.




43

44

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

George County. The country is rolling, rising gradually toward the
foothills of the Blue Ridge in the northwest. The soil, thin in the
lower end of the county, improves toward the upper countxy, but
much of it seems not to have recovered from the exhausting tobacco
culture of former days.
There are valuable quarries for building stone and roofing slate in
the county, as may be seen in the Smithsonian Institution and in
Georgetown College, District of Columbia; some gold mining has
been carried on in former years and has been recently renewed;
chrome ore is found also, and there are a number of flour and grist
mills; but the main business of the county has been arid is agriculture,
and the chief products are wheat, corn, oats, hay, potatoes, and the
products of the dairy and of the poultry yard.
Montgomery County contains 267,933 acres, of which 193,937 acres
are improved and 73,996 acres, chiefly woodland, are unimproved.
The process of breaking up large tracts of land into smaller holdings
has been going on for many years, and in 1890 the census showed the
following division of the land into farms:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FARMS IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, BY SIZE, IN 1890.
Size of farms.

Number.

TTndpr 1ft acres......................................................................................................................
10 or under 20 acres.............................................................................................................
20 or under 50 acres.............................................................................................................
50 or under 100 acres..................................... .....................................................................
100 or under 500 acres.........................................................................................................
500 or under 1,000 acres....................................................................................................
1 000 acres or o v e r...............................................................................................................
Total............................................................................................................................. !
I

Per cent.

177
152
211
364
1,005
46
4

9.0
7.8
10.8
18.6
51.3
2.3
.2

1,959

100.0

The average size of farms was 137 acres.
The following table from the census of 1890 shows whether these
farms were cultivated by their owners, were rented for money, or were
rented on shares:
TENURE OF FARMS IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY IN 1890.
Size of farms.

Cultivated Rented for Rented on
by owners.
money.
shares.

Under 10 acres..............................................................................................
10 or under 20 acres.....................................................................................
20 or under 50 acres.....................................................................................
50 or under 100 acres...................................................................................
100 or under 500 acres.................................................................................
500 or under 1,000 acres...............................................................................
1 ftftft fieres or oyer.........................................................................................

167
133
186
312
803
36
4

9
17
17
35
100
5

1
2
8
17
102
5

T otal.....................................................................................................
Per cent.......................... ....................................................................

1,641
83.77

183
9.34

135
6.89

With the exception of Calvert County, which had 1,001 farms and
a percentage of 88.21, Montgomery had, in 1890, the highest percent­
age of owner cultivators of any county in the State, only 16.23 per



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

45

cent of the farms being subject to actual or constructive absenteeism.
Although this percentage was then below the average of the thickly
settled New England farms, it w fully equal to the percentage for
~as
New York and Pennsylvania farms; it was above the average for New
Jersey and Ohio farms; a little above the percentage (82.94) for the
smaller and somewhat similarly situated county of Fairfax, in V ir­
ginia, which contained 186,455 acres, 1,776 farms, and 1,473 owner
cultivators; considerably above the percentage (71.29) for Loudoun
County, Va., which also, like upper Montgomery, lies along the Poto­
mac near Washington, and contained, in 1890, 26,963 more acres and
141 less farms, or 294,896 acres, 1,818 farms, and 1,296 owner culti­
vators; and also considerably above the percentage (70.71) for Prince
Edward County, Va., in which Farmville is situated and which con­
tained 184,637 acres (83,378 improved and 101,259 unimproved), 1,096
farms, and 775 owner cultivators, (a)
Montgomery County is evidently ready for the township system o f
local self-government, and should adopt it.
These 1,959 farms, with their buildings and improvements, were
valued in 1890 at $11,634,460 and the machinery and implements for
their cultivation at $381,760.
The farms produced in 1890, on an outlay for fertilizers of $207,946r
crops as follows, estimated at $1,531,760:
Wheat..........................................
C orn ...........................................
Oats.............................................

% e ..................................
Irish potatoes.......................... .
H a y .............................................
B u tter.........................................
M ilk .............................................
Vegetables, small fruits, etc
Apples.........................................
Tobacco.......................................
W o o l...........................................
Eggs.............................................
H oney.........................................
W a x .............................................

bushels..
480,240
.. . d o . . . . 1,194,542...d o ___
50,681
45,051
.. . d o . . . .
...d o ___
160, 848___tons..
34,111
.pounds. .
6575, 041
.gallons.. 63,098, 342
..value..
$8,711
bushels..
124,440
pounds..
335,660
...d o ___
c*30,691
..dozen..
522,960
pounds..
19,850
.. . d o . . . .
152

At the same time the Montgomery County farmers and their house­
holds had the care of the following live stock and poultry:
H o r s e s ......................................................................................................................................
M u le s.........................
O x e n ...........................................................................................................................................
Milch c o w s ..............................................................................................................................

8,2 50
161
367'
8,524 *
6

a For other details of Prince Edward County, cf. Bulletin of Department of Labor.,
No. 14, January, 1898.
6 From 8,524 cows.
cFrom 9,455 sheep.

7996— N o . 32— 01-------4




46

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Other cattle
S h eep ..........
Sw in e.........
Chickens . .
Turkeys . . .
G e e s e .........
D u ck s.........

8, 250
9, 455
17, 836
211,816
14,545
2,190
9,564

These were valued at $1,249,790.
The total valuation of the real estate and the live stock at the census
of 1890 ivas $12,884,250. This does not include personal securities,
stocks and bonds, and personal property other than live stock.
The basis for the tax levy for 1898-99 was $12,443, 795, which
included real estate, private securities, and stocks and bonds of foreign
corporations—a loss of valuation as compared with 1890 of about a
million dollars. This basis yielded, at a rate of $1.00 per $100 of
valuation (except foreign stocks and bonds, on which the county rate
is 30 cents per $100), the sum of $129,385, which was increased from
other sources to $167,299. Of this amount $3,026 was disbursed for
the almshouse, $4,535 for bridges, $3,174 for elections, $3,427 for the
indigent insane, $30,000 for public schools, $4,839 for pensions, $21,633
for roads, $21,384 for State tax, and $9,334 on the construction of a
turnpike connecting the county seat with the District of Columbia, for
which $25,000 of county bonds had been sold. The county has a small
debt.
The basis for the levy of 1899-1900, at the rate of $1.02 per $100 of
valuation, was: Real estate, $10,242,150, a loss of more than a million
and a quarter as compared with 1890; private securities, $553,785;
personal property (including live stock and excluding farming imple­
ments up to $300 in value), $1,354,105, to which must be added
$330,660 of stocks and bonds of foreign corporations, on which the
rate is 30 cents per $100, making in all a total of $12,480,700. The
amount levied for the support of public schools for 1899-1900 was
$30,200.
In 1898-99 the county had 114 public schools(a) which were open
for 9 months. Of these 81 were white schools, with 100 teachers
(33 males and 67 females), 82 of the buildings, valued at $51,375, being
owned by the county, and 33 were colored schools, with 40 teachers
(9 males and 31 females), 25 of the buildings, valued at $9,615, being
owned by the county. The average yearly salary of the teachers was
$328.90. For these schools the count}r received from the State school
tax $16,181.30; from the free-school fund, $2,154.35; from State
appropriation for colored schools, $7,477.44.
The county levy, as
already stated, was $30,000, and the receipts from all sources, including
balance on hand, were $59,546.60.
a From report of State board of education, 1899, and from office of county com­
missioners.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPliING, MARYLAND.

47

The receipts of the free-book fund from all sources amounted to
$6,784.55, of which $4,599.36 was expended.
For the colored schools the receipts in 1898-99 were: From the
State, $7,477.44; from the county school board, $l,107.74;ty) from
miscellaneous sources, $3.33; a total of $8,588.51. This amount was
disbursed as follows: For teachers’ salaries, $7,513.20; for incidental
expenses, repairs, furniture, fuel, rent, insurance, and balance due
treasurer, $1,075.31.
Of the State free-book fund noted above, the sum of $1,155.34 was
appropriated for colored schools.
The cost to the county for the school year (exclusive of the free-book
fund and of the interest on the amount invested in the school buildings)'
of each Negro child was $5.74, basing the calculation on the average
attendance of 1,496.
It would be both interesting and valuable to compare the taxes paid
by the whites and by the Negroes which go to make up the amount of
this county levy for schools, $30,000. But there is no provision made
in the office of the county commissioners or of the county clerk by
which property can be identified as held by white or by Negro owners.
In consequence no record can be kept, either of the acquisition or of
the loss of property by either class of citizens, nor can any just esti­
mate be made of the absolute or relative condition and progress of the
Negroes as a whole, as shown in their economic success or failure as a
body of citizens and voters.
The same lack of distinctive record, combined with the condition of
the law on the subject previous to 1897, renders futile any attempt to
get accurately at the incumbrances on the real estate of the county,
though a competent authority estimates it, exclusive of the crop liens,
as being about $3,000,000.
Upon the agricultural history of the county, the record of its popu­
lation offers a very interesting commentaiy.
The United States census gives the following figures for the popula­
tion of the county, 1790 to 1890:
POPULATION OF MONTGOMERY COUNTY, 1790 TO 1890.
Year.
1790...............................................................................................................................
1800...............................................................................................................................
1810...............................................................................................................................
1820...............................................................................................................................
1830...............................................................................................................................
1840...............................................................................................................................
1850...............................................................................................................................
I860...............................................................................................................................
1870...............................................................................................................................
1880...............................................................................................................................
1890...............................................................................................................................

Whites.

Negroes.

11,679
8,508
9,731
9,082
12,103
8,766
9,435
11,349
13,128
15,608
17,500

6,324
6,550
8,249
7,318
7,713
6,690
6,425
6,973
7,434
9,150
9,685

a This amount is believed to be approximately the county tax paid by the Negroes.
6 Including 1 Indian.




Total.
18,003
15,058
17,980
16,400
19,816
15,456
15,860
18,322
20,562
b 24,759
27,185

48

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

It will be noted that at the censuses of 1800, 1810, and 1820 the
population did not reach the mark it had attained in 1790; that in 1830
the white population was only 424 more than it had been in 1790; that
the population was well-nigh stationary and almost at its lowest ebb
during the two decades from 1830 to 1850; and that the Negro popu­
lation was remarkably uniform during the 80 years from 1790 to 1870.
The explanation of this practically steady decline in the white popu­
lation from 1790 to 1850, as compared with the rest of the country, is
not to be found in the emigrant spirit alone. The constant stream of
emigration West and South was largely a result—the direct economic
result— of the preceding agricultural system. Beginning with the
second quarter of the eighteenth century, we have the regime of 64the
old tobacco planters, with their baronial estates and armies of slaves.
They felled the native forests and planted the virgin soil in tobacco
arid indian corn. This did very well so long as there was timber for
the ax and new land for the hoe; and these old lords of the manor
were happy. They feasted and frolicked and fox hunted and made
the most of life. Those days are known as 4the good old times.5 In
less than a century after this system of denuding and exhaustion
began there were no more forests to clear and no more new land to
till. Then succeeded the period of old fields, decaying worm fences,
and moldering homesteads. This sad condition of the county had
reached its climax about the year 1840. * * * The land would
no longer yield an increase, and they made no attempt at renovating
and improving the soil, and Montgomery lands became a synonym for
poverty. * * * The Society of Friends, in the vicinity of Sandy
Spring, who formed their settlement in the course of the decade pre­
ceding and following the middle of the eighteenth century, and who at
every period of the history of the county have done so much to pro­
mote the material development and intellectual advancement of the
county, first abandoned this distinctive system of cultivation during
the last quarter of the past century, induced thereto by the change
then made in the character of their labor.5 (a)
5
For more than half a century, then, Sandy Spring was an object
lesson, in the midst of a larger slave community, of the superiority,
both in its tendencies and in its results, of free labor owning the soil,
and was enabled to realize what Washington and Jefferson, Madison
and Franklin and James Wilson hoped to attain for the whole country
through the Constitution.
a Boyd’ s History, 107, 108. A Sandy Spring gentleman, 80 years of age, says the
frequent practice in the early part of this century was to clear off a piece of “ new
ground,” raise two crops of tobacco and one of wheat, and then turn the land out as
“ old field.”




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

49

SANDY SPRING.
As has been said already, Sandy Spring is a community—one of the
few in the United States—which for a hundred and fifty years has
remained distinctively and predominantly under the influence and con­
trol of the Society of Friends.
Some of the original grants of land remain in part in the families to
which they were patented, and will therefore be briefly mentioned.
Beginning on the east, 4 Snowden’s Manor” dates from 1715, and
4
u Snowden’s Manor Enlarged” from 1743; “ Charley Forest” from
1716, and “ Addition to Charley Forest” from 1720; “ Charles and
Benjamin” from 1718; “ Brooke Grove” from 1728, and “ George the
Third” from 1763. (a) . These old grants extended far beyond the
present limits of the Sandy Spring neighborhood, which includes
parts of all of them. (5)
The oldest house in the neighborhood, built by James Brooke at
“ Charley Forest” in 1728, was, it seems, the nucleus of the Sandy
Spring meeting, which has a recorded existence since 1753.
These early settlers were diligent farmers and hunters and indus­
trious growers of tobacco. “ The fact is mentioned that Richard Snow­
den had 24 tobacco houses standing in a row on one tract of land.” (e)
Like the rest of the colonists, wherever slavery was profitable, the
settlers were slaveholders, (d) The decisive event in the economic life
of Sandy Spring came with the freeing of the slaves. “ A little while,”
says the annalist of Sandy Spring, “ before the commencement of the
Revolutionary war, about the year 1772, 4the yearly meeting of
Friends in Baltimore,’ in the words of the ancient minutes, 4recom­
mended to the subordinate quarterly meetings to keep under the
«C f. W . H . Farquhar: Annals of Sandy Spring, Baltimore, 1884; T. H . S. Boyd:
History of Montgomery County, second ed.
b For the benefit of those who know the neighborhood and m aybe interested in
knowing the exact limits embraced in this study the following outline description is
inserted: Beginning back of Spencerville with the eastern end of Snowden’ s Manor
and the lands formerly owmed by Frederick and Robert M . Stabler; thence northerly
along the Patuxent River, excluding the Brown, Thompson, and Cissel farms, up to
and including Dr. Augustus Stabler’ s lands beyond Brighton; thence westerly along
the south side of the Brooke ville road to the Holland farm, excluding that farm,
including James B. Hallo wall’s lands, excluding the old Magruder and Walters
properties, including Charles F. Kirk’ s land and Olney, and then running south
along the east side of the Brookeville turnpike to and including the farm formerly
owned by Dr. Roger Brooke; thence, including Alban Brooke’ s lands, easterly along
the north line of the old Baltimore road (including the farm of E. L. Palmer south of
that road) to and including the lands of Dr. Francis Thomas and William Lea, and
so back to the “ manor” at the fork of the Laurel road and the Colesville turnpike.
This is the district which may be said, roughly speaking, to have been and to have
remained 1 Quaker” land under the characteristic conditions.
1
c Farquhar, Annals of Sandy Spring, X X I I I .
d The exception of the German Quakers of Pennsylvania should be noted.




50

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

weight of a concern which had arisen in the society some time ago, in
regard to members holding slaves.’ The following year a committee
reported that 4some appear concerned to discharge their slaves; divers
are convinced of the injustice of the practice, while too many make
excuses,’ etc. It is evident that great tenderness, patience, and
deliberation marked every step taken by our society in this weighty
matter. Time was afforded to all to examine the subject for them­
selves. No outside pressure was employed. Appeal was made only
to the sense o f right in the minds of those immediately concerned.
A t length the society, impressed by their own convictions, took up
4the testimony against slavery,’ and held it ever since. Under its
operation large families of slaves were discharged from compulsory
service, who became the progenitors of the useful and comparatively
prosperous 4free colored working people’ of the neighborhood.” This
emancipation took place in some instances, perhaps in the majority
of cases, by the gradual process of fixing on a definite date in the
future or on a certain age after which the individual Negroes in ques­
tion should be free, (a)
In spite of free labor, Sandy Spring, whose present fertility is due
to superior farming on a soil originally poor and thin, had to pay the
penalty of the tobacco culture. About the beginning of the second
quarter o f this century,4 for the first and last time, a small emigration
4
to the West began to exhibit itself,” and about 1835 4 a farm in the cen­
4
tral part of the neighborhood sold for $6 and one at the eastern edge
for $2.05 per acre.” Then the Sandy Spring farmers began to experi­
ment with lime, hauling the stone from 5 to 10 miles to their kilns. In
1839 Sandy Spring experimented with itself and with the 4 Morus
4
multicaulis ” (the many-stemmed or Chinese mulberry), the only valu­
able result being that the use of bone dust was introduced.
a Cf. W ill of Richard Thomas. The following is the first item in the will of Richard
Thomas, of “ Cherry Grove, ’ ’ Sandy Spring, Maryland, executed November 8, 1806,
and recorded on December 15, 1806:
“ Item. I will and bequeath all m y male slaves that are above 21 years old and
all my female slaves that are above 18 years old to be and I do hereby make them
absolutely free from and after my decease, and all those that are under those ages to
be free as they may come of age— that is, the males at the age of 21 and the females
at the age of 18 years, their ages to be ascertained by my two sons, Richard
Thomas, jr., and William Thomas.”
In accordance with this item, the executors made the following report:
“ A certificate of the births of all the young Negroes which were manumitted by
the last will and testament of Richard Thomas, late of Montgomery County, deceased,
as ascertained by us, the subscribers, agreeably to the directions of said will. Given
under our hands this 21st day of the fourth month, 1813. Richard Thomas. William
Thomas.”
This list includes the names of 36 children and 13 mothers, which would make the
total number of slaves freed under this will probably between 60 and 70.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

51

In the beginning of 1814 the Farmers’ Club was organized, (a) and
in the spring of that year one of its members (b) experimented with
Peruvian guano. Its effect upon the fortunes of the neighborhood
and of the county was prompt and great; and both county and neigh­
borhood profited greatly also from the rise in price of farm products
a few years later, caused by the Crimean war, as both did a few years
later still in consequence of the civil war between the States, 1801-1805.
In 1848 The Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Montgomery
County was organized at Sandy Spring (P. O.), Edward Stabler, presi­
dent, and R. R. Moore, secretary, and continues in successful operation,
having to-day between fourteen and fifteen millions of insurance in
force. In 1858 the Sandy Spring Lyceum Company was established,
and the hall was opened and used in February, 1859. In 1802 the
bone mill began the successful manufacture of fertilizers and is still
in operation. The Sandy Spring Horticultural Society was estab­
T
lished in 1863. In 1805 the Enterprise Farmers’ Club, of Sandy Spring,
was formed, and the school for colored children, hitherto in fitful
operation, was permanently established, (c) In 1866 Irish potatoes
were first grown on a large scale in the neighborhood, and the Sandy
Spring Branch Turnpike, begun in 1860, was incorporated with the
Brookeville and Washington Turnpike. In 1868 was organized the
Savings Institution of Sandy Spring, which now has over half a mil­
lion of deposits. In 1870 the Ashton, Colesville, and Washington
Turnpike and the Norwood branch of the Brookeville and Washington
Turnpike were both begun, and in the same year the Home Interest
Club was founded, which deals with the economics of the home
as distinguished from the farm. The Montgomery Farmers’ Club,
of Sandy Spring, was organized in 1872, and the annual farmers’
conventions at Sandy Spring began to meet under the auspices of
the three farmers’ clubs.
In 1873 the Grange was established in
Sandy Spring, and there are now two granges in the neighborhood
which hold regular meetings. In 1880 local option as to the sale of
liquor was adopted by the whole county and went into operation the
following year, and in this neighborhood the open sale of liquor
has been restrained ever since. Between 1880 and 1885 the introduc­
tion of the prepared South Carolina phosphate rock as fertilizer
became quite general. In 1894 the Enterprise Telephone Company,
a The Montgomery County Agricultural Society was organized the same year.
b Mahlon Kirk, of Woodburn. A small quantity of guano was sent him by a Bal­
timore merchant, to whom it had been brought by a Baltimore ship captain from
Peru. A spoonful each was put into some hills of corn, which were marked. The
yield was found to be about 10 to 1, as compared with the rest of the crop. The
next year George E. Brooke, Dr. Charles Farquhar, E. J. Hall, and Cooke Dickinson
imported guano in quantity into the neighborhood for the first time.
c At the “ Sharp Street” Church. Cf. infra.




52

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

of Sandy Spring, began operations and now has between 125 and 130
local subscribers and exchanges, and gives communication with other
county systems, as well as with Baltimore and Washington. During
the past 20 years dairy farming has grown very greatly and now con­
stitutes probably the largest single agricultural interest of the com­
munity, the annual export being estimated at 75,000 gallons of milk
and 30,000 gallons of cream. Small fruits are quite extensively grown,
and a good deal of huckstering and market-garden trading is carried
on. Most of the clubs mentioned in the preceding sketch have met
regularly every month since their organization, and the resulting
cooperative spirit of the neighborhood has been of immense value to
it. A number of other organizations have been passed over without
mention as not bearing so directly upon the economic condition of the
community, although they are of importance as helping to bring about
the high grade of its villagelike or semiurban type of life.
The details given, it will be readily seen, are essential to a fair
understanding of the community influences, physical and moral, under
which the Negroes have been living, some of them for three and four
generations of freedom. In a number of cases Negroes who were freed
before 1865 in other parts of the county or in the adjoining counties
moved into Sandy Spring, attracted by the good wages paid here and
by the generally" superior conditions of life for them, as compared with
the neighborhoods which they left. Since 1865 a much larger influx
o f Negroes has taken place. There has been and continues to be that
corresponding outflow of the adolescent and adult Negro population,
toward the cities particularly, which is so marked a characteristic of
Negro life in what were known in 1860 as the border States, (a) Among
those Negro families long established in the community, and even more
distinctly marked among those who have come in since 1865, is the
tendency to collect together into settlements in certain localities, just
as is observed to be the case in the cities. This tendency is perfectly
natural and therefore inevitable, whatever may be its economic
advantages or disadvantages.
It is not practicable to separate the census returns for Sandy Spring
from those for other neighborhoods of Montgomery County; but the
following extract from the Annals of Sandy Spring, written in 1871,
shows the agricultural progress of the community during two decades,
by sample, as it were:
The national census furnished some facts in regard to the agricul­
tural productions of our neighborhood which are worth recording
here. Your historian, having held the office of census taker in both
the years of 1850 and 1870, is enabled to compare the products of 9
farms at those two several periods. The estimate is given in the mon­
eyed value at present prices: Total value of productions in 1850,
a Cf. The Philadelphia Negro, by W . E. B. Du Bois, Publications of the University
of Pennsylvania, 1899.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

53

$10,865; in 1870, $36,320; average per farm in 1850, $1,151; in 1870,
$4,035; which shows an increase on the same land over 3£-fold.
No such advance has been made from 1870 to 1899, and it is doubtful
if the land, taken as a whole, would bring two-thirds as much per acre
as it did 29 years ago, notwithstanding that there has been an increase
in population. In 1870 the white population of the neighborhood
was about 425; in 1879 it was about 575. A t present it is estimated
at about 700. The Negro population has increased very great!}" since
1865. The total population may be estimated at 1,700. This popula­
tion inhabits an irregularly shaped tract of land about 5 miles across
from east to west and about 5 miles across from north to south.
Within the limits of this territory 4 physicians and 1 dentist have
their homes, and within the territory or immediately on its borders
there are 2 Friends’ meetinghouses, 2 Episcopal churches, 2 Metho­
dist Episcopal churches, and 1 Roman Catholic church among the
whites, and 2 Methodist Episcopal churches, 1 African Methodist
Episcopal, 1 Methodist Protestant, and 1 Baptist church among the
Negroes; 2 small public libraries; 1 private and 6 public white schools
and 3 public schools for Negroes; 3 public halls, one— the Lyceum—
providing lectures in the winter season; 16 country stores, some of
which include drugs, agricultural implements, and fertilizers among
their wares; 9 post-offices, 4 having four mails a day; a telegraph
office, a telephone exchange, a bank open twice a week, an insurance
office, a small printing office for handbills, etc.; 5 wheelwright and
paint shops, 8 blacksmith shops, 5 carpenter and cabinetmakers’ shops;
1 fertilizer manufactory, 2 flour and grist mills, 1 gristmill, 2 saw­
mills; 1 bakery, 2 butchers’ establishments, 2 ice-cream factories, 3
dairy establishments for exporting milk and cream; 1 carpet-weaving
establishment, 1 plumber’s establishment, 2 bicycle repair shops, 2
undertakers’ establishments; and, in addition to the various associa­
tions already mentioned, there are half a dozen or more clubs and
societies, social, semipolitical, and literary, holding regular meetings,
among them an excellent book club (an offshoot of the Home Interest
Club), having between 60 and 70 family memberships. Thirty-five
houses in the neighborhood, not far from a third of the white homes,
are supplied with water by windmills or ram or engine, and the
majority of them have hot and cold water in their bathrooms. An
excellent macadamized turnpike passes along one side of the neighbor­
hood and 3 more turnpikes traverse it, 2 of which join one of the main
stems, and these 2 main roads afford easy communication with the
District of Columbia, and with 2 electric railway lines a mile or more
before reaching the District line. The Metropolitan Branch and the
Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad are about
equally distant— 10 miles—west and east from the center of the
neighborhood. Baltimore is 25 miles to the northeast.



54

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

A very considerable number of people come out from Baltimore and
Washington to spend the summer in the neighborhood, with decided
economic and social results to its inhabitants.
The present study has followed closely (with the important excep­
tions noted on page 55) the lines and the order of the study of The
Negroes of Farmville, Virginia, by Dr. DuBois, Department of Labor
Bulletin No. 14, both because of the excellence of that plan and for the
sake of uniformity and of ease of reference in this series of studies
under the Department of Labor. Wherever practicable the tables and
statistics in the Farmville study have been used for both comparative
and absolute results. In the case of Farmville we have a small urban
community of Negroes with immediate agricultural interests and sur­
roundings. In the case of Sandy Spring we have an approximately
equal group of agricultural Negroes with semiurban surroundings and
interests. The materials for this study were collected principally
during the latter part of November and December, 1899, and some
corrections and additions were made in the early months of 1900. At
first there was considerable uneasiness exhibited by the Negroes on
hearing the questions propounded, and more, perhaps, from the fact
that they were propounded at all; but, on the whole, they answered
cheerfully, and possibly with more frankness than accuracy. Many of
the replies were evidently estimates in cases where accuracy was hoped
for. In some cases brief judicious explanations and joggings of the
memory enabled the investigator to aid in the formulation of what
seemed the correct result. In some cases subsequent investigation
showed that the questions had not been understood and corrections had
to be made. This was true of the first question. It was difficult for
the Negroes to grasp the idea of the economic family as distinguished
from the natural family, and to keep the two separate. The answers
to the ninth question were of doubtful value in many eases because
of ignorance, in many cases because of the known intermarriage of
ancestors without the corresponding knowledge of the free or slave
condition of both. The sixteenth question seemed to be difficult to
answer correctly for several reasons, among them amour propre being
conspicuous. The answers to the eighteenth, the nineteenth, and the
twentieth questions give, it is believed, rather the semblance than the
substance o f what was sought. The twenty-fifth question was practi­
cally abandoned as labor in vain.
The general result may be likened rather to a blurred photograph
than to a sharply outlined drawing; the picture is there, but it is hard
to see. Nevertheless, after making allowance for a large margin of
error, the answers seem to approach the truth nearly enough to be of
some considerable scientific value.
The following schedule of questions was prepared and used. It
differs from the schedule used for the Farmville Negro only in the



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

55

additional interrogatories which are noted, some of which were added
with the view of bringing out certain characteristics of the Negroes of
Sandy Spring:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

Number of person's in the family?
Relationship of this person to head of family?
Sex?
Age at nearest birthday?
Conjugal condition?
How many times married? (a)
Place of birth?
Length of residence in Sandy Spring?
Free or slave before 1885? How long? <a)
Length of residence in this house?
Able to read?
Able to write?
Months in school during last year?
Usual occupations?
Usual wages per day, week, or month?
Weeks unemployed during year?
Working for self? (a)
Worked at how many places during past year? (a )
Worked at how many places during past five years? (a)
Worked at same place for five years or longer? (a)
Mother of how many children (born living)?
Number of children now living?
Where are such children now?
Births during the year? (a)
Sickness during the year? How long? Cause? (a)
Deaths during the year? Number? Cause? (a)
Deaths during past five years? (a)
Defective or maimed children? (a)
Kind and size of house? (a)
Does this family own this house?
Does this family own any land or houses?
Value of such land or houses, (a)
How long has this family owned such land or houses? (a)
Rent paid here per m onth.
Church membership or attendance.

Before entering upon the discussion of the tables an explanation is
needed in order to make plain the comparisons with the Farmville
tables.
In the Farmville study (p. 8) we read: 4 About 75 servants, mostly
6
young women living in white families as servants, and having no other
town homes, were not interrogated at all, and consequently are not
accounted for in these returns,” and a note on the same page adds, in
part, 64However, they are not in all, if in a majority of, cases citizens
of Farmville, but have homes in the country.” On page 21 of the
Farmville study a note to the table for the number of families says:
44Not including 16 brickyard laborers, etc., who might be counted in
a Additional question, not used in Farmville schedule.




56

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

families, bat who have preferably been called ‘ floating,’ so as not to
disturb the economic statistics.” In order to keep to the same stand­
ard, for the sake of direct comparisons with Farmville, corresponding
omissions have been made in the Sandy Spring report. Thus there
are 65 persons—12 males and .53 females (including 3 children of tender
age)—who in domestic and farm service make their homes in the build­
ings or outbuildings of their employers. Among these there are found:
One family of 3 (a mother and 2 children), 4 families of 2 (3 couples
and 1 mother and child), and 54 families of 1, so counted. These 54
families of 1 include wives and mothers having husbands or children,
or both. They would not be so enumerated in a general census of eco­
nomic families; but this is a special study for a particular purpose;
hence they are so enumerated. Even w here 2 servants are living under
T
the roof of the same employer, they are counted as constituting 2
economic families of 1, since their real family life and their wages are
entirely divergent—unless they happen to be of the same real family.
Where, then, the Sandy Spring Negro population is compared directly
in tabular form with the Farmville Negro population, these 65 persons
are omitted, even though important economic elements—wages, for
example—are lost sight of by the omission, just as, on the other hand,
the real family application of the same wages is somewhat distorted by
the inclusion of these persons thus separately enumerated.
The tables for Sandy Spring, when reduced to the Farmville basis,
have prefatory notes showing the omissions. The figures shown for
Farmville do not in any case include the 75 servants mentioned above.
AGE, SEX, AND BIRTHPLACE OF NEGRO POPULATION.
The total number of Negroes in Sandy Spring who reported as to
age, sex, and birthplace was 960. Adding to this number 40, esti­
mated as not reporting, we obtain a total of 1,000. This does not
include a number of laborers, male and female, who live in various
settlements just beyond the edge of Sandy Spring and who constitute
a varying but considerable part of the working force of the neighbor­
hood, except, of course, in so far as such laborers were domiciled in
Sandy Spring at the time of the investigation. This approximate
number of 960 for the Negro population of Sandy Spring in 1899
includes the 65 persons in domestic and farm service already referred
to. Some of them have no other accessible homes. Some of them
have other homes in the neighborhood and return to them at regular
or irregular periods. Where a cook or a housemaid, for example,
remains habitually at the house of her employer, only returning home
occasionally, she is counted as an economic family of one. Where
farm hand, cook, and house servant return every night to their own
homes they are counted as members of their respective economic fami­
lies. This leads to somewhat arbitrary results where families are enii


THE NEGKOES OF SANDY SEEING, MABYLAND.

57

merated by size of family and annual income. But it seemed, to the
investigator still more misleading to ignore even in part this impor­
tant domestic-service element of the Sandy Spring Negro population
and of the Sandy Spring economic life. For just here is one of the
two greatest sources of race irritation, the other source being polit­
ical. One affects the women of both races more especially. The other
affects the men of the two races primarily and all the other members
thereafter.
Considering the Negroes of Sandy Spring as shown in the table fol­
lowing, we find that there are 448 males and 512 females, a proportion
of 1,143 females to every 1,000 males. If the 12 males and the 53
females be omitted, this proportion remains slight^ higher than that
for Farmville—1,053 as against 1,048 females to every 1,000 males (a)—
and is very considerably above the general proportion for the United
States—952.8 females to every 1,000 males. This excess seems to
indicate an emigration of males, but it also indicates, as shown by
name and birthplace, an immigration of females. It is of interest as
being a typical characteristic of the Negro problem of the country.
W e are accustomed to the migration of men as individuals and to the
migration of women as members of families, but it is doubtful if any
other people show such mobility on the part of its younger female
members as the Negroes of the United States. The habit seems to be
rapidly growing, and it must be of great significance for the future of
the race. (5)
The following table shows, by age periods, the number of Negroes
of each sex from whom reports were obtained:
NUMBER OF NEGROES IN SANDY SPRING FROM WHOM REPORTS WERE OBTAINED, BY
AGE PERIODS AND SEX, 1899.

Age periods.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Under 1 v e a r.............................................................................................................
1 to 4 years................................................................................................................
5 to 9 years................................................................................................................
10 to 15 years................................................ ............................................................
16 to 19 y ears............................................................................................................
20 to 29 years.............................................................................................................
30 to 39 years............................................................................................................
40 to 49 years............................................................................................................
50 to 59 years............................................................................................................
60 to 69 years............................................................................................................
70 to 79 years............................................................................................................
80 to 89 years............................................................................................................
90 to 100 years...........................................................................................................
Age unknown...........................................................................................................

9
52
74
71
38
52
42
40
28
21
9
3
1
8

17
47
78
92
33
83
52
36
25
20
9
8
2
10

26
99
152
163
71
135
94
76
53
41
18
11
3
18

T otal................................................................................................................

448

512

960

a But see note on page 8 of the Farmville study: “ The number of females in excess
would be still larger if the omitted house servants were included.’ ’ Had the Farm­
ville house servants been included the proportion of excess of females would have
been larger than that shown for Sandy Spring.
b C l The Philadelphia Negro, by W . E. B. Du Bois, Publications of the University
of Pennsylvania, 1899.




58

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

There were not many cases in which the Negroes seemed to have
special difficulty about their ages, probably not more than would be
true for an equal number of whites equally illiterate.
There are 192 males of voting age, and 410(a) children of the legal
school age (5 to 20), or 323(a) of the usual school age (5 to 15). As
nearly as can be ascertained, the reports of the place of birth show
that of the 960 Sandy Spring Negroes 595, or 62 per cent, were born
in the neighborhood: 150, or 16 per cent, were born elsewhere in
Montgomery County; and 100, or 10 per cent, are from Howard
Count}^ and other parts of the State; a total of 845, or 88 per cent,
native to Maryland. Of the remaining 115 enumerated, the birthplace
of 17 is not reported, and 98 were born in the District of Columbia,
Virginia, and States farther south, a very few (3 or 4) from the North
and W est excepted.
Two hundred and nineteen of the 224 families reported as to length
of residence in Sandy Spring. Four had been living there less than 1
year, 21 from 1 to 5 years, 16 from 5 to 10 years, 20 from 10 to 20
years, 79 from 20 to 35 years, and 79 for 35 years or longer. That is to
say, nearty three-fourths of the families have been living in the neigh­
borhood for more than 20 years; or, to look at the matter from the
other point of view, only a little more than one-fourth of the population
has come in from the outside since 1880.
Omitting from the preceding table the 65 persons chiefly in domestic
service, we get the following table, to which is added for comparison
a similar table for Farmville:
NEGROES IN SANDY SPRING AND FARMVILLE FROM WHOM REPORTS WERE OBTAINED
BY AGE PERIODS AND SEX.
[This table does not include 65 persons at Sandy Spring and 75 at Farmville, mostly women in domestic
service.]
Sandy Spring, Md., 1899.

Farmville, Va., 1897.

Age periods.
Males.
Under 1 year........... .......................................
1 to 9 years........................................................
10 to 19 years....................................................
20 to 29 years....................................................
30 to 39 years....................................................
40 to 49 years....................................................
50 to 59 years....................................................
60 to 69 years....................................................
70 to 79 years....................................................
80 to 89 years....................................................
90 to 100 years..................................................
100 vears or over............................................
Age* unknown..................................................
Total.......................... .............................

Females.

Total.

Males.

Females. | Total.
i

i
8 1
125 :
107
47
41
40
27
21
8
3
1

17
124
112
61
45
34
22
17
8
8
1

25
249
219
108
86
74
49
38
16
11
2

8

10

18

12
127
182
87
53
47
44
23
14
3
1
1
4

436

459

895

598

12!!

150
147
101
67
55
52
24
15
3

;
1
;
1

i
1
627

1

24
277
329
188

120

102
96
47
29
6
1
1

5
1,225

From this we get in turn the following table, which gives the per­
centage in different age periods of the Negroes of Sandy Spring in
a Including 8 children reported as age unknown.




59

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

comparison with the Negroes of Farmvillo, with the Negro population
of the United States, with the whole population of the United States,
and with the population of 3 foreign countries:
PER CENT IN DIFFERENT AGE PERIODS OF NEGROES IN SANDY SPRING AND IN FARMYILLE, AND OF TOTAL POPULATION IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
[The per cents for Sandy Springand for Frrmville are computed from schedule'; the others are taken
from the United States Census of 1890 and Mayo-Smith’s Statistics and Sociology.]

Age periods.

Negroes Negroes
of Sandy of FarmSpring.
ville.

Population of—
Total
Colored
popula­ popula­
tion of
tion of
the
the
United Germany. Ireland. France.
United
States, (a) States.

Under 10 years..............................
10 to 19 vears.................................
20 to 29 vears.................................
30 to 39 years.................................
40 to 49 years.................................
50 to 59 years.................................
60 to 69 years.................................
70 years or over............................

31.24
24.97
12.31
9.81
8.4 4
5.59
4.33
3.31

24.57
26.86
15.35
9.79
8.32
7.84
3.84
3.43

28.22
25.18
17.40
2J.26
7.89
4.92
2.88
2.25

24.28
21.70
18.25
13.48
9.45
6.38
3.94
2.52

24.2
20.7
16.2
12.7
10.4
7.8
5.2
2.8

20.8
23.4
16,2
10.8
9.8
8.5
6.0
4.5

17.5
17.4
16.3
13.8
12.3
10.1
7.6
5.0

T o ta l...................................

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.0

100.0

100.0

a Persons of Negro descent, Chinese, Japanese, and civilized Indians.

This table would seem to show that the emigration of the Sandy
Spring Negroes has fairly begun before the age of 20 is reached; and
that this is the case is readily explained by the easy access to Washington
and Baltimore; by the fact that Sandy Spring children are frequently
sent to those cities to school; by the influence of the a summer board­
ers;” and still more by the influence of the native whites of Sandy
Spring who have themselves migrated to the cities and who send back
for servants. This movement of the active workers extends from those
15 to those 50 years of age, beginning earlier and lasting longer as
compared with the Farmvilie population. Almost 19 per cent of the
children enumerated as under 10 years of age are given in as u grand­
children” and “ boarders,” their parents being absent, though it does
not always follow that the parents are beyond the neighborhood limits.
CONJUGAL CONDITION, BIRTHS, AND DEATHS.
The table for the conjugal condition of the Negroes of Sandy Spring
fails to show some things which are known to exist but of which no
record is to be had, notably, the cases in which informal separations of
married people have been followed by more or less formal marriages
with third and fourth persons, and those in which the birth of children
from antenuptial cohabitation has been followed hy the marriage of
the parents. More than once two widows have been seen amicably
and decently mourning by the bier of the same defunct husband.
These are matters which put the statistician in a dilemma. To men­




60

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

tion them without distinct enumeration seems to do the community
injustice; to pass them over without mention would certainly grossly
mislead any student of the social and economic conditions of the com­
munity. It is the distinct impression among the older white members
of the Sandy Spring community (some of whom have for half a century
been doing what they could to help the Negroes) that the average
moral condition of the Negroes in this neighborhood is below what it
was prior to 1865, and this opinion is shared by a number of the elderly
conservative Negroes. In this connection at least three things should
be borne in mind: The natural tendency of age to see the past in
brighter colors than the present; the fact that the conditions of Sandy
Spring life before 1860 tended to make this a picked (a) community of
Negroes, zealously aided, morally and physically, in their development
by a surrounding white community of unusual intelligence, helpful­
ness, and industry, and the fact that there are about three times as
many Negroes here now as before 1860. Whether this lowering of the
general moral standard, which is believed here to be the fact, is due
to the inability of the original Sandy Spring Negroes (i. e., those living
here before 1860) to resist the influence of the influx of outsiders pre­
sumably of a lower moral order; (5) whether it is due to less active
leadership on the part of the wr
hites; whether it is a symptom on the
part of the Negroes of a reversion toward an ancestral type, are ques­
tions which must remain unanswered satisfactorily until, at least, suf­
ficient investigation has been made to give a broader basis for inference
than now exists. Furthermore, it may then be discovered that such
a local retrogression has still stopped short of the general lower level
for the State at large.
The following table shows that of the 217 males over 15 years of
age who returned answers, 82, or 33 per cent, were single; 148, or 60
per cent, were married; 10, or 4 per cent, widowed; and the remain­
ing 7, (c) or about 3 per cent, were living separated from their wives.
There were 284 women, of whom 87, or 31 per cent, were single; 154,
or 54 per cent, were married; 35, or 12 per cent, were widows; and
8, (c) or about 3 per cent, were separated.

_________•_____________ •_______________________________________________________________________

a lt is probably a fair statement to say that in general intelligence and worth the
Sandy Spring Negroes in 1860 corresponded to the “ house-servant ” class of the
Southern Negroes. Competent observers in the South to-day think that a very small
percentage of the children and grandchildren of these old servants have retained
either their character or their manners, and none are more convinced of this than
the few survivors of that class themselves.
b One ot the older conservative Sandy Spring Negroes, in expressing the opinion
that there had been a lowering of the general standard, said that 1 a great many people
1
came in here after the war, and some went one way and some went the other.”
cFrom general information the investigator thinks that the number of separated
should be about doubled in each of these cases. It is a difficult matter.




61

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

CONJUGAL CONDITION, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS, OF NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING.
Females.

Males.
Age periods.
Single.
15 t o 19 y e a r s ................................
20 to 29 years..........................
30 to 39 years..........................
40 to 49 years..........................
50 to 59 years..........................
60 to 69 years..........................
70 to 79 years..........................
8ft t o 8 9 y e a r s

___

49
25
5
2

1

Wid­
owed.

1
3
3
2

o

Single.

1
2

26
35
37
24
16
6

Sepa­
rated.

41
35
6

1
2
1

2
1

Mar­
ried.

Wid­
owed.

Sepa­
rated.

1
1
5
5
7
7
7
2

2
2
3

35

8

3
45
43
28
18
11
2
1

1

90 years or over......................
Unknown ................................
T otal..............................

Mar­
ried.

2

2
82

10

148

7

154

9S
135
94
76
55
41
18

11
3
7

3

87

1

Total.

531

Making the necessary changes to conform to the Farmville basis, we
have the following table as a result:
CONJUGAL CONDITION, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS, OF NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING.
[This table does not include any of the C5 persons mentioned on page 56, mostly women in domestic
>
service.]

M a le s.
A g e perio d s.
S in g le .

15 to 19 y e a r s ................................
20 to 29 y e a r s ................................
30 to 39 y e a r s ................................
4ft to 4 9 y e a r s ...................................
50 to 59 y e a r s ................................

48
21
5
2

fift t o 6 9 y e a r s ..................................

70 t o 79 y e a r s ................................
8ft t o 8 9 y e a r s ................................
9ft y e a r s o r o v e r ..............................

1

24
34
37
24
16
6
2

W id ­
ow ed.

Sepa­
ra ted .

1
2
1
2
3
1

1
2
1

77

145

S in g le .

30
20
5
2

i

M ar­
ried .
3
40
39
28
16
11
2
1

2

2

U n k n o w n .......................................
T o t a l .....................................

M ar­
ried .

F e m a le s.

8

7

143

ow ed.

1
4
4
5
6
7
1

S e p a­
rated .

1
1
2
1

28

T o ta l.

81
108
86
74
49
38
16
11
2
7

3

59

. W id ­

5

472

The percentages for the males remain practically unchanged in this
table, as only 10 men are excluded from it. The case is different for
the females. A third of the single women drop out, 26 of the 28 who
disappear being between 15 and 30. Only 11 out of 154 married
women are excluded, 9 of the 11 being between 20 and 40 years of
age. Seven of the 35 widows are excluded, and, more significant still,
3 out of the 8 women living separated from their husbands. By the
exclusion of these 49 women the percentages for single and separated
women are lowered, and the percentage of the married women is
raised materially in a total of 235 women.
This table shows results so different in some particulars from those
set forth in the corresponding table for Farmville that the latter has
been reproduced for purposes of brief comparison.
7996—No. 32— 01----- 5




62

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

CONJUGAL CONDITION, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS, OF NEGROES OF FARMVILLE, V A „
1897.
Females.

Males.
Age periods.
Single.

Married.

15 to 19 years.............
20 to 29 years.............
80 to 89 years.............
40 to 49 years.............
50 to 59 years.............
60 to 69 years.............
70 to 79 years.............
80 to 89 years__
90 to 99 years.............
100 years or over___
Unknown............... __

79
55
6
3
2
1

1
147

178

Sepa­
rated.

Single.

1

Total.................

Wid­
owed.

28
46
37
30
20
12
3
1

3
7
2
1

3
1
3
4

71
44
10

1

Married.
3
51
49
30
32
9
4

Wid­
owed.

3
6
22
17
14
11
3

1
12

126

3
2
3
3
1

i

1
14

Sepa­
rated.

178

76

12

In Farmville the number of single men between 20 and 30 was not
far from double the number of men of the same age who were or had
been married, 64 and 36 per cent in a total of 86; whereas in Sandy
Spring, within the same age limit, 4 more men out of a total of 46 were
or had been married than were single. The pendulum swings from the
64 per cent mark on one side in Farmville to about the 54 per cent mark
on the other in Sandy Spring. Of the women of the same age, 57 out of
101, or 56 per cent, were or had been married in Farmville, and 42 out
of 62, or 68 per cent, had been married in Sandy Spring. When we
pass to the next age periods we find that the record does not vary so
greatly as to give ground for distinctive inferences. In Farmville out
of 53 men between 30 and 40, 47, or 89 per cent, had been married; in
Sandy Spring out of 41 men 36, or 88 per cent, also had been married;
and of 67 women in Farmville 57, or 85 per cent, had been married, and
in Sandy Spring 40 out of 45, or 89 per cent, had been married. The
next age period—which takes us back to slavery times—gives about
the same results for each group. Out of 46 men in Farmville between
40 and 50, 43, or 93 per cent, had been married; and in Sandy Spring
out of 40 men, 38, or 95 per cent, had been married. Of 55 women in
Farmville, all had been married; and in Sandy Spring of 34 women, all
had been married. Like the period from 40 to 50, the following periods
do not seem to present any particularly significant differences in the
two localities. There were 3 old bachelors and no old maids in Farm­
ville, and 2 old maids and 1 old bachelor in Sandy Spring; all the others
had been married.
Recurring, then, to the period of the twenties, we must ask ourselves
with regard to the men whether Farmville, as compared with Sandy
Spring, shows anything more than the usual excess of city over coun­
try communities in the number of young unmarried men—assuming
that the general opinion in that regard is correct—and whether Sandy
Spring is not a much better standard of comparison with foreign
countries than Farmville, both, of course, being inadequate, either
separately or conjointly, as bases for extensive generalization. The
number of single women seems to be large in both communities, con­



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND,

63

sidering the race conditions, marriage is apparently being postponed,
and the two evils—illicit sexual intercourse and restricted influence of
family life—are present in pernicious activity.
In the following table the conjugal condition of the Negroes of Sandy
Spring is compared with that of the Negroes of Farmville and of the
populations of various foreign countries. The table includes persons
of 15 years of age or over:
CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING. OF FARMVILLE, AND OF THE
POPULATIONS OF VARIOUS FOREIGN COUNTRIES, BY SEX.
[The per cents for Sandy Spring and for Farmville are computed from schedules; those for foreign
countries are taken from Mayo-Smith’s Statistics and Sociology. The figures for divorced are not
shown for the foreign countries. This table does not include any of the 65 persons at Sandy Spring
and 75 at Farmville, mentioned on pages 55 and 56, mostly women in domestic service.]
Per cent of males 15 years of
age or over.

Civil division.

Single.
Sandy Spring..............................................
Farmville......................................................
France...........................................................
Germany.......................................................
Great Britain..............................................
Hungary........................................................
Ireland.........................................................
Ita ly ...............................................................

32.5
41.9
36.0
40.9
39.5
31.5
49.3
40.9

a Also 2.9 per cent separated.
6 Also 2.1 per cent separated.

Married. Widowed.
61.2
50.7
56.5
53.7
54.9
63.7
44.8
53.1

a 3.4
c4.0
7.5
5.3
5.6
4.7
5.9
6.0

Per cent of females 15 years of
age or over.
Single.

Married. Widowed.

25.1
32.1
30.0
36.5
37.3
22.0
43.5
33.2

60.9
45.4
55.3
50.8
50.9
62.8
42.1
53.2

611.9
d l9 .4
14.7
12.4
11.8
15.0
14.4
13.6

cAlso 3.4 per cent separated.
d Also 3.1 per cent separated.

In the following table the conjugal condition of the Negro population
of Sandy Spring is compared with that of the Negroes of Farmville and
with that of the entire population of the United States. Only persons
of 20 years of age or over are considered:
CONJUGAL CONDITION OF THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, OF FARMVILLE, AND OF THE
POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, BY SEX.
[The per cents for Sandy Spring and for Farmville are computed from schedules; those for the United
States are taken from the United States census of 1890. This table does not include any of the 65 per­
sons at Sandy Spring and 75 at Farmville, mentioned on pages 55 and 56, mostly women in domestic
service.]
Per cent of males 20 years of age or over. Per cent of females 20 years of age or over.
Civil division.

Wid­
owed.

Single.

Married.

15.35
25.00

76.72
65.44

4.23
5.15

Divorced.

Wid­
owed.

Single.

Married.

a 3.70
a 4.41

14.36
17.30

69.31
55.03

13.86
23.90

a 2.47
a 3.77

Divorced.

Sandy Spring...........
Farmville...................
United States:
Native whites,
native parents.
Native whites,
foreign
par­
ents ...................
Foreign whites..
Negroes...............

28.54

66.08

4.74

6.64

18.75

67.88

12.79

6.58

48.82
28.06
25.01

48.65
65.93
69.02

2.25
5.51
5.40

6.28
6.50
6.57

34.83
15.39
15.71

58.76
68.05
65.02

6.02
16.21
18.41

6.39
6.35
6.86

Total United
States...........

30.95

63.83

4.65

6.57

19.92

66.35

13.19

6.54

a Separated.

6 Including unknown.

The contrast between the reports from Farmville and from Sandy
Spring as to unmarried males would seem to render it doubtful how
far any valid argument for postponement of marriage largely for
economic reasons could be based upon the Farmville figures. The



64

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

excess of single males between 15 and 30 would certainly seem to show
a number of unmarried immigrants in Farmville. Had the enumera­
tion included the female house servants of the town, a like excess of
single females between 15 and 30 would have similarly shown a num­
ber of female immigrants.
In like manner the low percentage of unmarried males in Sandy
Spring seems to point to the fact—for fact it is— of the emigration of
young single men from Sandy Spring and also to indicate that the men
are disposed to marry early; for if the young unmarried immigrants
in Sandy Spring were deducted, the percentage of men between 20
and 30 who were married would rise from 45 to about 65. On the
whole, however, the conclusion of the Farmville investigator seems to
be true—that marriage is being postponed for some reason. But it is
not easy to decide whether this is “ largely for economic reasons,” in
the sense of economic foresight, or for a reason almost opposed to this
view, namely, the ease and cheapness of transportation and the result­
ing temptation to be on the move. The sensible remark of the writer
of the Farmville report is apt for citation here: “ It is not intended in
this or similar cases to push comparisons too far.”
The State law affecting vital statistics is so recent that it is not
yet practicable to get accurate information as to births and deaths.
The vital statistics of Sandy Spring as shown in the schedules are very
unusual if true, and are evidently not true. The number of births
reported for the year 1899 was 32, the number of deaths 11, and the
number of deaths during the past five years 82. These figures seem
too unsatisfactory for serious consideration. It may be said in gen­
eral that the health of the Negro population of Sandy Spring seems
fairly good, due allowance being made for the tendencies, inherited or
acquired, toward tuberculous, syphilitic, and scrofulous troubles.
Pneumonia is very fatal to them. This is the conservative medical
opinion of the neighborhood.
The number of defective children under 20 was reported as 16, a
little over 3 per cent of the entire population under 20. Only 1
inmate of the insane asylum was reported.
The illegitimate children 10 years of age and under are estimated,
after careful inquiry, as numbering not less than 53. The total num­
ber of children of 10 years and under is reported as being 309. This
would give an illegitimate birth rate of between 17 and 18 per cent.
This percentage is almost certainly below the actual condition. It is
very difficult to estimate the proportion of this illegitimacy that is due
apparently to the expectation or promise of subsequent marriage.
Several such cases are known to the investigator.
No facts came to the surface during the investigation which indicated
an actual miscegenation in progress between the two races.
As to the proportion of mixed blood in the whole Negro population



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

65

of the neighborhood, it may be guessed at as being from one-third to
two-thirds, though the varying complexions of the natives of Africa
themselves must be taken into consideration.
SCHOOLS AND ILLITERACY.
The Sandy Spring Negro children have easy access to 3 schools, of
which 2 are within the borders of the community and 1 is a few hun­
dred yards beyond its limits. The buildings are fairly good for their
purposes, are owned by the county, and are valued at $1,650. There
were in 1898-99 five teachers for the 3 schools—a male teacher and a
female assistant for one, a female teacher and a female assistant for
another, and a female teacher for the third school. Two of these
schools are considered as successful by those most interested, and the
teachers are regarded as fairly well equipped. The school term for
1898-99 was 9 months. The teachers’ salaries average about $25 a
month, and the salaries of the assistants about $20. The total enroll­
ment of these schools for 1898-99 was 391 and the total average attend­
ance was 221—about one-seventh of the average attendance for the
county. O f this total enrollment the number of children belonging
within Sandy Spring, as reported on the schedules, is 210.
According to these answers, of the 323 (a) children in Sandy Spring
between 5 and 15 years of age, inclusive, 209, or almost 65 per cent,
attended school at some time during the year; and of the 110 (a) chil­
dren between 5 and 20, 210, or 59 per cent, were in school at some
time during the year.
The following table shows the school attendance by age and sex:
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE BY AGE AND SEX.
Males.
Age.

Females.

Popula­
In school. Popula­ In school.
tion.
tion.

5 y e a r s ................................
6 y e a r s ................................
7 y e a r s ................................
8 y e a r s ................................
9 y e a r s ................................
10 y e a r s ..............................
11 y e a r s ..............................
12 y e a r s ..............................
13 y e a r s ..............................
14 y e a r s ..............................
15 y e a r s ..............................
A g e u n k n o w n . *.........

14
10
19
13
18
12
10
21
9
9
10
2

2
2
12
8
10
10
9
17
8
7
7
2

19
11
17
14
17
19
11
23
16
12
11
6

1
5
10
10
11
15
10
21
14
11
7

T o t a l.......................
16
17
18
19
20

147

94

176

115

y e a r s ..............................
y e a r s ..............................
y e a r s ..............................
y e a r s ..............................
y e a r s ..............................

7
10
10
11
4

6
7
2
2

11
7
9
6
12

7
4
2

T o t a l.......................

42

17

45

14

189

111

221

129

G rand t o t a l . .

a Including 8 children reported as age unknown.




1

66

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Making the proper exclusions for comparison with Farmville we get
the totals (up to 15 inclusive) for males, 146 and 93; for females, 170
and 111; and the totals (16 to 20 inclusive) for males, 40 and 17; for
females, 34 and 12.
Here, again, we have a contrast between the Sandy Spring and the
Farmville Negro populations. In Farmville more boys than girls up to
15 (inclusive) attend school, and from 16 to 20 more girls than boys in
the proportion of about 3 to 2; whereas in Sandy Spring more gii’ls
than boys up to 15 (inclusive) attend school, and from 16 to 20 more
boys than girls actually, though about the same number proportionally.
This would seem to require for Sandy Spring a reversal of the state­
ment made for Farmville: “ As compared with the boys a larger pro­
portion of the girls receive some training above that of the common
grades,” but for the well-founded doubt whether the statement would
even then be true. O f 40 boys between 16 and 20 (inclusive), 17—about
three-sevenths— went to school during the winter season of 1898-99
when the farm work was in abeyance, and during the same period, of
34 girls of the same age, 12—somewhat less than three-sevenths—went
to school. O f the girls between 16 and 20 omitted here for the sake
o f this comparison, some went into domestic service in the neighbor­
hood, probably taking the places of their elder sisters who, in turn,
may have gone to the cities for the same season.
The table for length of school attendance shows a smaller percentage
as compared with Farmville for the full school term, the percentage
being 52 for Farmville and 43 for Sandy Spring; but the longer term
for Sandy Spring should be taken into consideration. At the end of
6 months—the full Farmville term—the attendance was still 75 per cent
for the Sandy Spring schools. The agricultural, as compared with the
town life, doubtless accounts for the percentages for the Sandy Spring
schools. In the late spring and early fall many children under 15 get
some work to do and leave school to do it.
LENGTH OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF CHILDREN FROM 5 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE, BY SEX.
[This table does not include 1 male and 4 females, who were employed as servants.]

School attendance.
Under 3 m on th s.................................................................................
3 months..................................................................................................
6 months..................................................................................................
() m o n t h s _______________

____

T o t a l _________




____________________ ______ ______ ____________

Males.

Females.

Total.
12
39
66

Per cent.

4
16
30
43

23
36
44

87

19.12
32.35
42.65

93

111

204

100.00

8

5 .8 8

THE NEGROES OF SANDY

SPRING, MARYLAND.

67

The following table shows the length of school attendance of young
persons from 16 to 20 years of age:
LENGTH OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF YOUNG PERSONS FROM 16 TO 20 YEARS OF AGE,
BY SEX.
[This table does not include 2 females, who were employed as servants.]
Males.

School attendance.

Females.

Total.

Per cent.

9 months..................................................................................................

5
9
3

4
4
4

9
13
7

31.03
44.83
24.14

Total..............................................................................................

17

12

29

100.00

3 months..................................................................................................
6 m on th s............................................................................................................

Colored school No. 1, {a) district 8, is the continuation as a public
school of the school that, with varying fortunes, has been in existence
for many years in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church
(near Sandy Spring post-office), the dominant religious organization of
the Negro population. This school, in the heart of the neighborhood,
is attended almost exclusively by Sandy Spring children, and includes
among its pupils probably one-half of all the children who were
reported as being at school last year. The attendance is reported on
the teacher’s roll book as 99, a discrepancy of 5 as compared with the
report of the county secretary, but as these 5 were in school less than
ten days each they may be disregarded. Of the 94 pupils, 9 or 9.6 per
cent were in attendance for one term or less, 19 or 20.2 per cent were
in attendance for two terms or less, 28 or 29.8 per cent for three terms
or less, and 38 or 40.4 per cent attended for all or part of all four
terms.
In the following table the expenditures for these schools are given.
The schoolhouses are valued at $1,650, approximately one-sixth of the
value of the colored school property owned by the county, and they
received $1,316.47, approximately one-seventh of the total county
expenditure for colored schools, including the part of the State fund
for free books alloted to the colored schools of this county:
EXPENDITURE FOR SANDY SPRING SCHOOLS, 1898.

School.

Value of
Free
build­ Teachers’ books.
salaries.
ings.

Fuel.

Inciden­
tal ex­ Repairs. Furni­
ture.
penses.

Insur­
ance.

Total.

School 1, district 8.
School 4, district 8.
School 3, district 5.

$700
300
650

$397.80
217.00
401.80

$63.76
10.80
21.06

$21.00
12.50
14.50

$1.31
4.32
5.12

$76.03
55.55

$8.32

$2.45
1.05
2.10

$562.35
309.54
444.58

T otal.............

1,650

1,016.60

95.62

48.00

10.75

131.58

8.32

5.60

1,316.47

The whole expenditure of $1,316.47 for 221 pupils seems very mea­
ger, being a fraction of a cent above $5.95 per pupil. Of the 221
a In the following discussion of schools and expenditures no omissions for compari­
son are made.




68

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

pupils in attendance, it is a fair estimate that 180 belong within Sandy
Spring, which would make the proportion of the total expenditure
properly belonging to Sandy Spring $1,072. The Sandy Spring School
(No. 1, district 8) received $562.35, and on the basis of an average
attendance of 94 each pupil of this school cost $5.98. The cost per
pupil for the county at large was $16.10, and the cost per pupil of
all the Negro pupils was $5.74.
The following table shows the degree of illiteracy by sex and age
periods:
LITERATES AND ILLITERATES, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS.
Able to
read and
write.

Sex and age periods.

10 t o 2 0 years . . .
21 to 30 years
31 to 40 years
41 years or over.
Age unknown. .

Able to Illiterate.
Not
read.
reported.

94
40
35
36
2
j

10 to 20 years
21 to 30 years
31 to 40 years___
41 years or over.
Age unknown..

207

19 |

!

Total males.

6
1
3
8
1

120
61
48
44
4

Total females.

4
2
4
9

Total.

10
10
8
48
2

2

78 |

9

313

10
6
3
42
1 !
;

3
1
3
5

137
70
55
98
10

12

370

5

7
8

249
121
101
194
18

21

683

277

19 |

62

214
101
83
80
6

10
3
7
17
1

20
16
11
90
3

484

38

140

4
3

112
51
46
96
8

BOTH SEXES.

10 to 20 years
21 to 30 years . . .
31 to 40 years . . .
41 years or over.
Age unknown..
Total both sexes.

i

1

i

O f the 683 people reported in this table, 70.9 per cent could read
and write; 5.5 per cent could read but not write; 20.5 per cent reported
themselves as wholly illiterate, and 3.1 per cent are not reported.
Making the omissions for comparison with Farmville, we get the
following table:
LITERATES AND ILLITERATES, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS.
[This table does not include 10 males and 52 females employed as servants.]

Sex and age periods.

Able to
Able to Illiterate.
Not
read and
reported.
read.
write.

Total.

MALES.

10 to 2u years......................................................................
21 to SO yp.fl.rs . .... ......................_............................................
31 to 4-0 ypa r s .............................................................................
41 years or over.................................................................
Age unknow n....................................................................
Total m a le s.............................................................




91
36
34
36

6
1
3

10
10

8

46

2

1

2

4
3

19

76

9

199

2

8

109
47
45
94
8

303

69

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.
LITERATES AND ILLITERATES, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS—Concluded.

Sex and age periods.

Able to
read and
write.

Able to Illiterate.
Not
read.
reported.

Total.

FEM ALES.

10 to 20 years......................................................................
21 to 30 years......................................................................
31 t o 40 y e a r s ....................................... _ ..................................................
41 years or oyer..................................................................
Age unknown....................................................................

102
47
41
41
4

4
1
4
8

9
5
2
37
1

3
1
3
5

118
54
47
89
10

Total females...........................................................

235

17

54

12

318

10 to 20 years......................................................................
21 to 30 years......................................................................
31 to 40 years......................................................................
41 years or over..................................................................
Age unknown....................................................................

193
83
75
77
6

10
2
7
16
1

19
15
10
83
3

5
1
7
8

227
101
92
183
18

Total both sexes......................................................

434

36

130

2!

621

B O T H S E X E S .*

The table of illiteracy presents some strong contrasts to the report
for Farmville. Of the 621 people reported, 69.9 per cent could read
and write, 5.8 per cent could read but not write, and 20.9 per cent
reported themselves as wholly illiterate, (a) as compared with 42.5 per
cent, 17.5 per cent, and 40 per cent, respectively, for Farmville. The
illiteracy of the youth from 10 to 20 years of age is 8.4 per cent, as
against 23 per cent for Farmville. Following the division made for
Farmville of the population “ into four classes—those reared in slavery,
those reared in time of war and reconstruction, those reared since
1867, and present youth,” instead of being able to u trace the steps of
advance by the decreasing amount of illiteracy,” we get the varying
result of an increasing amount of illiteracv as we come from war time
(40 to 31 years) through the next decade (30 to 21 years), 10.9 per cent
as against 14.9 per cent, followed by a decrease in illiteracy, 8.4 per
cent, for the present generation, though this rate is only 2.5 per cent
less than the rate for those reared between 1860*and 1870. The expla­
nation of this variation is probably as follows: Just about one-half of
those reporting between 31 and 40, inclusive, are natives of Sandy
Spring; of the other half, one-fifth report themselves as of free origin,
and of the remaining four-fifths, a large proportion came into Sandy
Spring as children. The increasing illiteracy of the next decade
seems to come with the increase of immigration. The decrease of
illiteracy of the following decade is doubtless due to the public schools.
In Farmville, of those 41 years of age or over, about 1 in 4 was
literate; in Sandy Spring, a little more than 1 in 2. O f those in this
class native to Sandy Spring, about 3 in 5 could read and write; of the
immigrants, about 4 in 9 could read and write. Of the Sandy Spring
natives, more men than women were illiterate; among the immigrants,
more women than men. It would seem to be true of the younger
a The remaining 3.4 per cent is of those not reported.




70

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

generations of Sandy Spring, as of Farmville, that the excess of illit­
eracy has already shifted from the women to the men, there being
8.1 per cent of females who are illiterate as against 12.8 per cent of
males for those between 30 and 10 years of age, and 7.6 per cent of
females as against 9.2 per cent of males for those between 20 and 10.
There is profound significance in this fact, particularly for mothers.
It is believed that for a considerable proportion of those reported in
this table the ability to read was extremely limited and the ability to
write consisted in making a crude signature.
It must be borne in mind that these statistics of illiteracy are
derived entirely from the statements of those directly interested and
have not been verified by any test.
OCCUPATIONS AND W AGES.
The occupations in Sandy Spring are those characteristic of a pro­
gressive agricultural community near enough to a large city to export
thither much of its own products. ^ In addition to milk and cream,
many tons of hay are hauled to Washington, many crates of straw­
berries, many bushels of apples, loads of chickens and eggs and spring
vegetables, and during the winter season of 1898-99 one enterprising
dairyman exported thousands of pounds of homemade sausage. The
statement of these exports suggests the occupations which are to be
added to the usual routine of work in a district devoted chiefly to the
cultivation of wheat and corn. During the winters, also, there is a
good deal of woodcutting.
In the following enumeration of occupations several of the subdi­
visions of laborers into ditchers, fencers, wood choppers, gardeners,
and so on, have been ignored, as none of these occupations are suffi­
ciently distinctive of the lives of those practicing them to take such
persons out of the class of day laborers.
The total Negro population above 10 years of age may be divided,
according to the usual classification, into the following occupations:
Professional (a) (including 5 monthly nurses), 12; domestic (including
housewives), 228; commercial, 6; agricultural, 190; industrial, 25; not
engaged in gainful occupations, 174; not reported, 49.
Following the other classification used in the Farmville report (but
without omitting any of the Sandy Spring Negroes), we have those
working on their own account, (a) 38; laboring class, 249; house
service (including housewives), 125; day service, 49; at home, unoccu­
pied, and dependent, 174; not reported, 49.
a One person is enumerated twice in this classification.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

71

The following table shows the occupations, by sex and age periods:
OCCUPATIONS, BY SEX AND AGE PERIODS.
10 to 15 16 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 years A g e u n ­
years.
yea rs.
years.
years. or ove r. k n o w n .

O ccu p atio n s.

T o ta l.

MALES.

1
4

B a r b e r s ....................................................................................
B la c k s m ith s ........................................................................
B r ic k la y e r s a n d sto n e m a s o n s ................................
C a r p e n t e r s ...........................................................................
C le r g y m e n ..........................................................................
C o a c K m e n .............................................................................
D o m e stic s e r v a n ts ...........................................................

3

1

1

26

3

14

1
2
1
2
a2

1
1

2
1
1
21
5

33
1
1
6

5
2

1
6
2
2
«2
3
3
3
105
20
2
65
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
19
7
64

94

8

313

13
13
16
5

1
2

2
2
24
13
1
33
1
1

F a r m la b o r e r s ....................................................................
F a r m e r s .................................................................................
H u c k s t e r s .............................................................................
L a b o r e r s.................................................................................
M a il c a r r ie r s ......................................................................
M a il c o n tr a c to r s....................._ ........................................
M e r c h a n ts ( g r o c e r s )......................................................
M i l l e r s ....................................................................................
S h o e m a k e r s a n d r e p a ir e r s .......................................
S h in g le m a k e r s ..................................................................
T e a c h e r s ...............................................................................
W a it e r s ....................................................................................
N o t r e p o r te d ........................................................................
A t h o m e .................................................................................
A t s c h o o l ...............................................................................

10
2
54

3
1
8

T o ta l m a le s .............................................................

70

52

46

43 i

3

13

4

20
3

5
3
21
16

3
9
13
12

4
2
9
7
1

16

25

1

18

68
114

57
100

9

1

i
1
3
1
1
1

!

FEM ALES.

D a y w o r k e r s........................................................................
D a y w o rk e rs a n d h o u s e w i v e s ................................
D o m e stic s e r v a n ts ...........................................................
H o u s e w i v e s .........................................................................
N u rses ( m o n t h l v j ...........................................................
Seam stresses a n d h o u s e w i v e s ................................
T e a c h e r s ...............................................................................
W a s h e r w o m e n a n d h o u s e w iv e s ...........................
N o t r e p o r t e d ......................................................................
A t h o m e .................................................................................
A t s c h o o l ...............................................................................
T o ta l f e m a le s .........................................................
T o ta l m a le s a n d f e m a l e s ..............................

12
3
67
89
159

1

2
1
5

10
18

370
683

3

6

12
56
108

24
25
72
49
5
7
4
51
30
23
80

90
184

a One counted also among farmers.

In the following table the Negroes of Sandy Spring are compared
with the Negroes of Farmville and with the population of the United
States as regards the percentage engaged in certain classes of gainful oc­
cupations. The table is taken in part from the Farmville study and the
omissions necessary for comparison are made in the Sandy Spring lists.
PER CENT OF NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, OF FARMVILLE, AND OF TOTAL POPULA­
TION OF THE UNITED STATES AT WORK, ENGAGED IN EACH CLASS OF GAINFUL
OCCUPATIONS.
[The figures for Sandy Spring and for Farmville are from schedules; those for the United States are
from the census of 1890. This table does not include any of the 65 persons at Sandy Spring and 75 at
Farmville mentioned on pages 55 and 56, mostly women in domestic service.]
Negroes of Sandy Spring.
Classes of occupations.
Males.

Females.

Agriculture......................................................
Professional service.......................................
Domestic and personal service...................
Trade and transportation............................
Manufactures and mechanical industries.

181
a3
6
6
18

9
169

Total........................................................

213

Total.




Percent.

Per cent Per cent
in Farm­ in United
States.
ville.

7

181
11
175
6
25

45.48
2.76
43.97
1.51
6.28

2.30
3.38
47.31
7.22
39.79

39.65
4.15
19.18
14.63
22.39

185

398

100.00

100.00

100.00

a One counted among farmers.

72

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

A brief discussion of these various occupations is of interest.
T he P rofessions. —There are no Negro doctors in the neighbor­

hood, but the training gained by long experience probably entitles
the monthly nurses (a) to rank as professionals in their semimedical
ministrations. One of the two preachers of the neighborhood has a
small church and receives a very small salary, about $50 a year; he is
an unlearned man, and his chief business, farming, has caused him to
be enumerated among the agriculturists. The other preacher is a man
of some education and of great fluency of speech. He has charge of
3 churches, 2 of them within the neighborhood, and is active in the
discharge of his duties. Some of the members of his largest congre­
gation describe him as having 6 done a great work ” since he took
6
charge of the church. He is a zealous advocate of the temperance
cause, and gives, so far as the investigator knows, a good example in
his private and family life to those under his charge. His salary is
$600 a year and a house and lot.
Of the 5 teachers enumerated 4 are women. One of them is prin­
cipal of the largest and the central school and receives the same salary
($220) as her husband, who is principal of another school and is also
active in politics, being a member of the county committee of his
party. One of the other women is principal of the third school. The
two others are assistants, and their salaries are about $180 a y ear of 9
months.
T he E ntrepreneurs . —That 4 the individual undertaker of busi­
6
ness enterprise is a new figure among Negroes ” is, broadly speaking,
true, particularly as applied to commercial life. But it must be borne
in mind that the Negro manager or foreman was a familiar figure in
the plantation life of the South in antebellum days; that the planta­
tions trained their own blacksmiths, wheelwrights, painters, and car­
penters; that the Negro barber has long been almost as familiar as his
own red, white, and blue sign pole, and that the Negro cook and res­
taurant keeper had for generations been frequent, even before the
days of the old-time frequenters of W ormley’s Hotel in Washington
or of old Tom Griffin’s in Richmond. One of the disastrous effects of
freedom upon the Negroes has been that so many of the older ones
have failed to pass on to their sons the industrial training which they
had themselves received, and which would have been of great value to
the younger generation.
The business of barbering is only one of the employments of the
Sandy Spring operator, who has no regular shop and who does per­
haps more work as a calciminer and whitewasher than as a barber.
a One of them, dead at about 91 years of age since this report was begun, has
nursed a large part of the white community and was highly respected by them. It
is believed that she was the last surviving Negro in this community who had been
sold on the block.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

73

Of the 6 blacksmiths, 2 own their own shops. One of these, now
well along in life, is somewhat out of the track of trade, and he and
his son, having but little work to do in the shop, devote themseh^es
largely to his little farm. The other owner has a business of about
$500 a year, and has bought land and built himself a nice home. One
rents his shop and gets a moderate trade, about $25 a month. The
remaining 2 are assistants in different shops—one in his brother’s shop,
where he receives small wages, eked out by other occupations while
work is slack, the other in the leading shop of the neighborhood, where
he is constantly employed at about the average wages of a good farm
hand. To the observer it appears that the supply of blacksmith shops
is greater than the local demand.
Two hucksters take their market wagons to Washington regularly,
buying and selling as they go, and importing articles from the city on
their own account or on commission. One also farms in a small way.
They are both property holders. There is a mail contractor who has
secured a short cross-country route, and he has in his employ a regular
mail carrier. The mail carrier has owned his home for 20 years.
Of the 3 shoemakers one, wha is also a whitewasher and a common
carrier as opportunity offers, is a free-born native of Sandy Spring
and owns his home. The other two are immigrants and renters.
They make indifferent wages. All three were born before 1860.
There is only one Negro merchant in Sandy Spring. He is a young,
unmarried native of free parents, is not a property holder, and he
pays about $5 a month rent for his store. This store was built and
stocked several years ago by a company composed of Negroes who
had, it seems, the right of credits to the extent of their holdings in
the shares of the company (or had some such agreement among them­
selves). In consequence the company was soon self-consumed. The
store was then bought in by several members of the company and
rented to the present occupant. The business is very small, and is in
immediate competition with several merchants of shrewdness and
experience, perfectly acquainted with the mercantile needs and possi­
bilities of the community and already in possession of the confidence
and habitual trade of all classes. Under such circumstances consider­
able business capacity as well as sufficient capital would seem to be
necessary to insure the successful issue of this mercantile venture, and
at the present writing nothing more definite is obtainable than that
this entrepreneur is making about the “ usual wages,” that is, from
$11 to $15 per month.
There are 7 seamstresses among the women, who report themselves
as making from $4 to $12 a month. They are all housewives also.
One of them is still occasionally employed in white families, and
leaves her own house for that purpose; otherwise they work in their
homes. They are all under 40 years of age, and 4 of the 7 were born



74

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

beyond the limits of Sandy Spring. With the exception of monthly
nursing and teaching this is the only employment reported by the
women that is not directly connected with the management of domestic
affairs. The picking of small fruits in their brief season should also
be excepted.
The most important entrepreneurs are found naturally among the
farming class. Thirty-one families own lots of from 2 to 4 acres of
land; 9 own from 5 to 9 acres; and some 12 own farms of from 10 to
26 acres. In most of these last-mentioned cases the land is of poor
quality and was bought at a low rate years ago. Some of the owners,
however, are making a good deal more than a mere living. A ll of
these men own one or more horses; indeed a large proportion, possibly
two-thirds, of the actual Sandy Spring Negro families own a horse and
one or more vehicles. More important still is the small group (5 or 6)
of renting farmers who are working some of the average-sized farms
(125 to 250 acres) of the neighborhood, either on shares or for a mone}r
rent. The largest operator among them pays a money rent of $200 a
year. He owns a large road wagon and a four-horse team and does a
good deal of heavy hauling. He employs 2 farm hands regularly and
owns and milks about 25 cows, selling the milk in the neighborhood
for export. He is 37 years old, can read and write, is a native of
Sandy Spring, freeborn in the third generation, has good credit, is of
excellent character, and is considered by his neighbors of both races
as a man of very sound judgment. A farmer’s income and expenditure
are difficult to estimate without accurate bookkeeping. It is likely
that this man’s receipts are not far from $1,000 a year.
F arm L aborers. —In addition to the farmers already spoken of,
there are 105 farm laborers of various kinds. They have subdivisions
of very considerable practical consequence in their work, and yet are
hardly so distinguished as to make their differentiation a matter of
consequence for this study. The milker, for example, would hardly
be put to do the work of the teamster, and yet the same man could and
would do the work of both, or turn ditcher, or plowman, or wood
chopper, as occasion might require. The wages of the farm laborer
vary from the $3 or $4 a month received by a boy to $18 a month
for a man doing work of considerable responsibility. The most
common rate o f wages for the “ farm hand” is $12 a month and house
free of rent. Sometimes there are additional allowances, as firewood;
or an increase to $14 or $15 in money is given and house rent is
charged.
The decided tendency is to reduce everything to the money
standard, and to recognize the hard fact of the actual relation of
employer and employee without any o f the old-time kindly condescen­
sion or the more recent political toadyism on the part o f the whites.
In other words, the economic principle is more and more prevailing



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

75

in rural Sandy Spring as in urban Farmville, and as it must do through
the length and breadth of the country. Up to the present time, the
relation between farmer and regular farm hand has been and is fairly
satisfactory. The farmers themselves are intelligent men, active man­
agers, and hard workers; they are much of the time (all day long at
certain seasons) in the fields with the men, directing and working,
thus keeping them up to the standard.
The number of farm laborers is greatly increased during the gath­
ering of the small crops, when women and children go into the straw­
berry fields, where they make from 50 cents to $1.25 a day, and during
the harvesting and threshing of the larger crops, when gangs of
men and older boys go around with the -road engines and threshing
machines, the wages being from $0.75 to $1 a day and board.
T rades and I ndustries . —O f the 2 stone masons reporting, one, a
man in the fifties, was born a slave in an adjoining county. The other,
36 years old, is a native of Sandy Spring and is free in the second
generation. They report wages at from $2 to $2.50 per day and no
time unemployed during the year—a remarkable record if to be taken
literally. The elder man has owned his home for 20 years. The
2 carpenters are both freeborn men; one, over 60 years of age and
free in the third generation, is a native of Montgomery County; the
other, over 50, is the son of a Sandy Spring freedman, from whom he
learned his trade. They reported wages of $1.25 per day, with con­
siderable time unemployed. They have owned their homes for 45
and 5 years, respectively. These men find most o f their work beyond
the limits of this neighborhood. The 3 engine drivers enumerated
report wages of from $12 a month to $1 a day. One of these, over
40 years of age, born a slave in an adjoining county, has had charge
of the boiler and engine in a steam flour mill in the neighborhood for
13 years. He is not a property holder and has rented his present
home for 11 years. The second, over 50 years of age, born a slave
in Montgomery County, is blacksmith as well as engine driver, and
has charge from time to time of the traction engines owned in the
neighborhood. He has owned his home for 12 years. The third, 38
years of age, a native of Sandy Spring, freeborn in the second gener­
ation, manages a traction engine from time to time. He has owned
his home for 13 }^ears. The report from two of these men that they
have no time unemployed can not refer to their occupations as mechanics.
The shingle maker, who is reported here rather than among the com­
mon laborers, is over 60, was born a slave in Montgomery County, does
not report either his wages or his unemployed time, does not own any
property, and rents his home. The miller has charge of a small grist
and saw mill, driven by water power, when he is not otherwise occu­
pied as a farm hand. He is 75 years old, freeborn in the second gen­
eration, a native of Montgomery County, is not a property owner,



76

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

receives the usual farm wages, and has his house rent free. It is to
be noted that only 2 of these 9 men were born since 1860; not one since
1865. ‘W ith the exception of a youth who is learning the black­
smith’s trade, (a) there is not, so far as could be learned, a single reg­
ular apprentice under 21 years of age learning any of the trades or
industries among the young Negroes of Sandy Spring.
C l e r i c a l W o r k . —Beyond a little bookkeeping done by the former
or present teachers, there is no clerical work done by the Negroes of
Sandy Spring, so far as the investigator has ascertained.
C o m m o n L a b o r e r s . —The 65 common laborers do almost anything
that comes to hand about the yards, gardens, barnyards, and farms of
the neighborhood.. They earn from 40 to 75 cents or a dollar a day,
with or without board, as the case may be. Some of the men classed
as “ day hands” have a horse and vehicle and are trying to build up
trade as carriers. The thrifty and industrious ones probably get along
about as well as the average farm hand, except for the painful element
of uncertainty, and this uncertainty is much relieved in the case of
most of them by the work done by their wives as cooks, seamstresses,
or washers.
D o m e s t i c S e r v i c e . —Three men and 72 women appear on the sched­
ules as engaged in domestic service, and there is much domestic work
done by the common-laborer class in addition. The wages range from
“ victuals and clothes” and lodging (in two cases) to $10 a month. The
usual wages for a young nurse girl is from $1.50 to $4 a month, gener­
ally $3; for a housemaid, from $4 to $7, generally $6; for a cook,
from $6 to $10, generally $7 or $8. In the summer, when boarders
are taken, these wages rise considerably. It is noteworthy that these
wages are 50 per cent higher than the wages for like service in Farmville. In the cases of many of the girls and younger women domestic
service here is a conscious training under the excellent management of
the thrifty and energetic Sandy Spring housekeepers for the larger
wages and more exciting life of the cities, and there is in consequence
a perennial emigration of such servants to Washington, Baltimore, and
the cities farther north. Another consequence is the dissatisfaction
of the Sandy Spring employers at seeing themselves lose the fruits of
their training and obliged to put up with much incompetent or
untrained service. In addition to much incompetence, there are also
much carelessness and impudence on the part of the younger servants,
and a degree of restlessness not known until recent years and very
disconcerting to the plans and reasonable expectations of the house­
keepers. Shortness of temper on both sides naturally results. So far
f rom despising the household work, as the Farmville dames are said to
do, thus setting a bad example to their servants, the Sandy Spring
a H e was omitted, by some mischance, in the enumeration.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

77

housewives can, as a rule, do everything about a house, and they train
their daughters up in the same excellent way. The effect upon the
domestic servants is that many of them develop into rapid workers
under the eye of the mistress of the household; but, in spite of the
example given them, they do not seem, in any large proportion at
least, to learn to honor the work they have chosen to the extent of
doing it from a sense o f duty, promptly and thoroughly, nor to refrain
from the very human desire to do something else more agreeable and
less confining. The wages they receive are not poor, other things
being considered, as wages go in this country. But, whether in high
or low estate, work in which one takes neither interest nor pride is a
bore and is generally shirked unless done from a sense of duty. Hence
it comes to pass that a poll of the Sandy Spring white homes at any
given time would show several in which the servant or servants, in the
presence of illness in the family or of guests expected or already
arrived, had left without notice or were about to leave without reason
and without any immediate prospect on the part of the mistresses of
the households of the unexpected vacancies being filled. Doubtless
there is often fault on both sides, and what has been said must not be
taken in too sweeping a sense. The disgust that results from this state
of affairs is intensified by the element of race. Perhaps this should
not be so, but, human nature not being very logical, the fact remains
that it is so.
There is a small group of women, several of them originally slaves,
most of them born and trained before 1865, who are as shining jewels
in the housekeepers’ eyes; but only a few of them go into regular
monthly domestic service, and their wages by the day are at the rate
of about $25 a month. They are in constant demand.
The number of illegitimate children signalizes another source of deep
irritation between servants and mistresses in homes so chastely ordered
as are those of Sandy Spring.
Much more might be said on this vexed and vexing subject, but fur­
ther discussion would probably have much the effect of a railing at
the imperfections of human nature as exemplified in the Sandy Spring
house servants, the shortcomings of their employers not now being
under discussion. From what has been said it may easily be seen that
there exists a very dissatisfied state of mind on the part of the women
of the two races with one another. And, as has already been noted,
domestic service is, economically speaking, one of the two sources of
the growing race alienation, the other being political—the one affect­
ing primarily the women, the other affecting primarily the men.
There is in Sandy Spring very little of domestic service among
the Negroes themselves. In a very few families there are children,
orphans or relatives, who make some return for board and lodging
7996— No. 32—01-----6



78

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

and the opportunity, of schooling by doing chores, and in some fami­
lies older girls or young women have their homes and look after house
and children while the mothers are at work as breadwinners. Occa­
sional domestic help is paid for as any other service would be, unless
rendered out of neighborly regard* But whatever may be true of
Farmville, it would be fanciful to speak of any system of domestic
work among the Negroes of Sandy Spring as being “ like that in New
England or in parts of Germany to-day.”
Among those classed as “ domestic” in the summary of classifica­
tions are 49 housewives who do not, as a rule, go out from their homes
to work.
D a y S e r v i c e . —Twenty-four single women and 76 housewives go
out for day work or take family washing into their homes. In the
majority of these cases the service is periodical, one worker often hav­
ing two or more places at which she regularly does the washing or
helps in the house cleaning. The usual rate is 50 cents a day; for
special work, 75 cents a day—board being given in both cases. Those
who take in washing at home make from $4 to $9 a month of 4 weeks.
In the summer season some of these women make from $3 to $5 a
week washing for the summer boarders.
T h e U n e m p l o y e d . —During the winter some of the farmers employ
fewer hands than they do in the growing and harvesting months, and
many housekeepers also employ fewer domestic servants in the winter
than in the summer. This change in the demand for labor throws a
certain number of workers of both sexes out of employment for the
time being. Among the younger males some go to school for a few
months. Some of the women go to the cities for the winter and return
to the neighborhood in the late spring or early summer. But the
demand for good workers is, on the whole, very constant, and there
are very few of either sex who can not get work if they desire it. It
is perhaps too strong a statement to say that there are regular and
recognized loafers among the Negro men, but there are those who
work as little as may be and for as short a time at any one place as is
possible. The same thing is true of some of the women, particularly
of some of the younger ones.
O f the criminal aspects of the Sandy Spring Negroes it is difficult
to speak with any exactness, except to say that there is not much
overt crime. There is believed to be a good deal of drinking and
gambling. Some pilfering goes on. A number of the younger men
get fair wages, have few expenses, and do not acquire property. Some
of the younger women are unmarried mothers without employment
and wear “ g ood ” clothes. But it is manifestly unjust to impute
criminal intent to things which may not in themselves have passed




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

79

from weakness to wickedness, (a) The neighborhood is not free from
the shadow of graver offenses against law. In 1899 1 Negro youth
was sent to the house of correction for assault; 2 men are serving a
term in the penitentiary for implication in a murder committed some
years ago; 1 is a fugitive as the result of attempted burglary, and 2
ex-convicts are in or belong in the neighborhood.
MOVEMENT OF LABOR.
No omissions for comparison have been made in the discussion under
this head. In the four following tables an attempt is made to show
the movement of labor, as it may be called, and they are based upon
the eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, and tenth (5) questions. The
tables must be taken with many grains of allowance. The answers to
the tenth question were facts of easy memory, and ordinarily the
personal equation did not enter into them to any disturbing degree.
But when the three other questions were reached, they were found to
involve a sudden and often condemnatory appeal to the bar of con­
science as well as of memory. In many instances the twentieth ques­
tion was an added exasperation to the other two, and in many it was.
the source of comfortable self-gratulation. There was probably no
intention of deliberate deception, but there was certainly a good deal
of dodging the issue.
The few persons engaged in the professions and in trade and mechan­
ical occupations have been omitted from consideration.
The first great class consists of those engaged in agriculture in some
way. They were asked to state the number of places at which they
had worked during the current year, whether one, two, or three or
more; the number of places at which they had worked during the past
5 years, and whether in the past they had worked anywhere for as
much as or more than 5 years consecutively. Strictly speaking, per­
haps, many of the answers to the last question should be excluded as
not pertaining entirely to the Sandy Spring community; but they are
a One young mother of a large family expressed her determination to keep her
girls at home for their training instead of letting them go out into domestic service.
Another mother of an older generation, commenting on this statement, said that all
mothers felt the same way, but that to carry out this feeling was not possible for
people in their situation and that the younger mother would change after a while.
The older woman intimated plainly that a strong reason for the feeling was their
fear for their daughters when away from home and home restraint. The concubin­
age they fear is not, however, the concubinage apparently meant in the Farmville
report (p. 21), but concubinage from their own race. See also this report, pp. 64
and 65.
bSee Schedule, p. 55.




80

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

given as of significance for the general aim of the questions, the
movement of labor as shown in Sandy Spring laborers.
O f the 190 agricultural laborers, 112 reported themselves as having
worked at only one place during the year; 14 as having worked at twx>
places; 22 as having worked at three or more places (“ several” )— 148
in all, and 42 were not reported. Sixty-four reported that they had
worked at one place during the past 5 years, 27 at two places, and 40
at three or more places—131 in all. Thirty-one reported that they
had worked at the same place for as much as 5 years consecutively, in
the past and 55 that they had worked at the same place for more than
5 years— 86 in all.
The following table distributes these statistics by two general age
periods among the farmers working for themselves, the farm hands,
and the common laborers:
OCCUPATIONS BY LENGTH OF LOCAL SERVICE OF MALE AGRICULTURAL LABORERS.

Places worked at during cur­
rent year.

Places worked at
during past 5
years.

Worked at
same place
for 5 years
or over.

Occupations and ages.
Three Not
re­
or
port­
more. ed.

To­
tal.

1
2

One. Two.

6
14

3
11

1
1

One. Two.

Fanners:
10 to 40 y e a r s ......................................................
41 years or over.....................................
Farm hands:
10 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over.....................................
Common laborers:
10 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over...................................

56
20

5
1

10
3

10

81
24

25
14

13
4

7
12

4
4

5
4

16
13

32
33

3
8

Total................................. .................

112

14

22

42

190

64

5
12

Three
Five Over
or
5
more. years. years.

2
1

3
11

25
4

13
5

20
15

5
3

5
6

3
7

2
4

27

40

31

55

In the 112 reporting as having been at but one place during the year
are included 17 out of 20 farmers on their own account, or 85 per cent,
as was to be expected; 76 out of 105 farm hands, or 72 per cent, and
19 out of 65 common laborers, or 29 per cent. Five farm hands under
41 and only one farm hand over 41 had worked at two places. Eight
common laborers reported as working at two places. This probably
means, as in the case of the answers of the 19 laborers already cited,
that they had two places for regular labor in addition to many other
jobs. One of these men, for example, has been for years doing a part
of the gardening at the same place.
Thirteen farm hands, 10 under 41 and 3 41 or over, and 9 common
laborers report as working at 3 or more places during the year. O f
the 42 not reporting 3 are farmers on their own account. One of
these, over 41, had just moved to his present location, and the farmer




THE NEGROES OE SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

81

under 41 was just about to take charge of one of the well-known farms
in the neighborhood. Only 10 farm hands, all under 41, out of 105
failed to report. Most of them are youths or young men not yet set­
tled. The larger proportion of those not reporting, 29 out of 42, are
day-laborers, and most of these are quite young or quite old.
The element of time enters largely into the constitution of the next
block of this table. Of the 20 farmers 16 report. Fourteen of them
have been at the same place for 5 years and 2 report having changed
places once during that time. Of the 105 farm laborers 85 report.
Thirty-nine of these have been at the same place for 5 years, 17 have
been at 2 places, and 29 have worked at 3 or more places within that
time. O f the 65 common laborers 30 report. Of these, 11 have
worked at the same place (among others) during 5 years, 8 have worked
at 2 (regular) places, and 11 have worked at 3 or more places.
Age is a still more important factor in the next group, in which
some of the periods may have been served outside of Sandy Spring.
Seventeen of 20 farmers report. Three of these worked at the same
place for as much as 5 years, and 14 remained at the same place longer
than that. Fifty-three of 105 farm laborers report. Of these, 18
worked at the same place for as much as 5 years and 35 worked at the
same place for more than 5 years. One of these men has been on the
same farm with the same farmer for 31 years, and another one has
been on another farm with father and son for 33 years. Such facts
speak well for farmer and farm hand. O f *65 day laborers 16 report.
Of these, 10 worked at the same place for 5 years and 6 worked at the
same place for more than 5 years.
This table makes a good showing for the agricultural labor of the
community.
The next two tables deal with the domestic and personal labor of
the women, the very few Negro men engaged in the work being omitted,
as are also the women teachers, nurses, and seamstresses.
Of the 221 women reporting 109 have been at the same place during
the year, 22 have been at 2 places, 26 have been in 3 or more places—
157 in all, and 64 do not report.
Twenty-nine report that they have worked at 1 place during the
past 5 years, 22 that they worked at 2 places, and 40 that they were at
3 or more places during that time; 91 in all.
Eleven report that they have worked for as much as 5 years at the
same place, and 18 that they have worked more than 5 years at the
same place.




82

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Distributing this enumeration by two age periods and by classifica­
tions we get the following table:
OCCUPATIONS BY LENGTH OF LOCAL SERVICE OF FEMALES IN DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL
SERVICE.

Places worked at during cur­
rent year.

Places worked at Worked at
same place
during past 5
for 5 years
years.
or over.

Occupations and ages.
One. Two.

Housewives:
18 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over...................................
Day workers:
Under 40 years.....................................
Day workers and housewives:
10 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over...................................
Washerwomen and housewives:
10 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over..................................
Domestic servants:
10 to 40 years.........................................
41 years or over...................................
Total....................................................

Three Not
re­
or
more. port­
ed.

31
18

To­
tal.

One. Two.

Three
Five Over
or
5
more. years. years.

31
18
2

22

24

2
3

13
12

4
3

2

1

3
5

4
8

7
3

5
3

10
11

26
25

2
3

4
3

6
4

2

1
4

29
8

9
2

6
2

15
1

59
13

13
4

11
2

18
4

4
1

4
4

109

22

26

64

221

29

22

40

11

18

8
3

3
5

4

2
3

In the 109 reporting as having been at but one place during the year
are included 19 housewives, who worked only for their families.
Deducting this number, we have 60 reporting for one place during the
year. O f these 60 women there were 11 out of 25 day workers and
housewives, or 44 per cent; 12 out of 51 washerwomen and housewives,
or about 21 per cent, and 37 out of 72 domestic servants, or 51 per
cent.
One day worker and housewife, 10 washerwomen and housewives, and
11 domestic servants report as working at 2 places during the year.
Two day workers out of 21, 8 day workers and housewives, 8 washer­
women and housewives, and 8 domestics report as working at 3 or
more places. O f the 61 not reporting, 22 are day workers, young
unmarried women; 5 are day workers and housewives, 21 are washer­
women and housewives, and 16 are domestic servants.
For the 5-year period we have reports from 17 of the 25 day work­
ers and housewives. Seven of these were at 1 place during the past
5 years, 2 were at 2 places, and 8 were at 3 or more places. O f 51
washerwomen and housewives, 5 were at 1 place during the past 5
years, 7 were at 2 places, and 10 were at 3 or more places. O f 72
domestic servants, 17 were at 1 place during the past 5 years, 13
were at 2 places, and 22 were at 3 or more places. Not a single day
worker is reported for this period.
For the third group, in which age enters so materially, 1 of the 25
day workers and housewives report that they have worked at the same
place for as much as 5 years, and 5 report that they have worked at



83

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

the same place for more than 5 years. Of the 51 washerwomen, 2
report that they have worked at the same place for 5 years, and 5 that
they have done likewise for a longer period. Of the 72 domestic serv­
ants, 5 report that they have worked at the same place for 5 years,
and 8 for more than 5 years.
At the risk of being wearisome, and in order to make this matter
still clearer, as its importance demands, the 49 housewives remaining
at home are omitted, and the remaining 172 women are distributed by
age periods and classification in the following table. It is fair to bear
in mind that the withdrawal from the report of the housewives, a num­
ber of whom were married within a few years, naturally reduces the
possible numbers for the second and third blocks of the table. But
the table aims to give the facts of domestic service as they now exist,
not as they were. This further elaboration gives us the following
table, in which is set forth the movement of the largest single group
in the Sandy Spring domestic service, the^cooks:
OCCUPATIONS BY LENGTH OF LOCAL SERVICE AND AGE PERIODS OF FEMALES IN
DOMESTIC AND PERSONAL SERVICE.

Places worked at during cur­
rent year.

Places worked at Worked at
during past 5
same place 5
years.
years or over.

Occupations and ages.
One. Two.

Day workers:
Under 40 years............................
Day workers and housewives:
10 to 20 years................................
21 to 30 years................................
31 to 40 years................................
41 years or over..........................
Washerwomen and housewives:
10 to 20 years................................
21 to 30 years................................
31 to 40 years................................
41 years or over..........................
Domestics—housemaids:
10 to 20 years................................
21 to 30 years................................
31 to 40 years...............................
41 years or over..........................
Domestics—cooks:
10 to 20 years................................
21 to 30 years................................
31 to 40 years................................
41 years or over..........................
Total...........................................

Three Not re­ To­
or
port­
tal.
more.
ed.

2

22

One. Two.

Three
Five Over 5
or
more. years. years.

24

1
7
3

1

1
2
5

1
1
3

3
10
12

4
3

1
1
2
8

5
2
3

6
3

3
7
11

1
9
16
25

1
1
3

3
1
2
1

3

1

6
10
7
7

2
3
1
2

60

22

4
2

11
2
1

2
1
1
1

1
3
1
2

5
2
2
1

14
18
11
12

1
5
3
3

26

64

172

29

2
1
3
3
2
1
1

2
1
5
3
3
4

4
1
1

2
3

1
4

1
1

2
1

3
4
2

5
8
3
4

1
1
1

1
3
3

22

40

11

18

In looking at this table we see that if we consider only women under
31 years old, only 23 worked at but one place during the year, that 13
changed places at least once, that 8 changed places two or more times,
and that 39 did not report at all.
If we compare the distinctively domestic group in this table with the
farm hands, we find that out of 59 house servants under 41, 29, or 49
per cent, remained at the same place during the year, as against 69 per
cent of farm hands under 41, and out of 13 domestics over 41, 8, or 62




84

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

per cent, were at one place only, as against 83 per cent of farm hands
over 41. Eleven domestics changed places once, as against 6 farm
hands; 8 domestics as against 13 farm hands changed places more than
once, and 16 domestics as against 10 farm hands did not report.
More particularly still, we learn that during the year, of 43 cooks
under 41, 23, or 53 per cent, stayed at one place, as against 69 per cent
of farm hands under 41, and that of 12 cooks over 41, 7, or 58 per cent,
remained at one place, as against a percentage of 83 for farm hands of
like age. Six cooks under 41 and 2 over that age out of 55 changed
places once, as against 5 farm hands under 41 and 1 over that age out
of 105; 7 cooks out of 55, as against 13 farm hands out of 105 changed
places more than once—about the same proportion, and 10 cooks out
of 55, as against 10 farm hands out of 105 did not report.
For the 5-year period 12 out of 55 cooks remained at one place, as
against 39 out of 105 farm hands; 9 cooks and 17 farm hands had
worked at two places during that time, and 20 cooks out of 55, as
against 29 farm hands out of 105, had worked at three or more places.
Three cooks out of 55 reported having worked as long as 5 years at
the same place, and 7 cooks reported a longer period, as compared with
18 farm hands out of 105 reporting a 5-year period and 35 a longer
period— 18 per cent of the cooks having worked at the same place for
5 or more years, as compared with 50 per cent of the farm hands,
almost 3 to 1 in favor of the farm hands.
Attention was called in the beginning of the discussion of these
tables to the need for caution in accepting the results, and later on to
the probable difference of result had the present married housewives
given in their records as cooks and housemaids. But making these
allowances, the disparity between the male and female Negro workers
of Sandy Spring in the matter of permanence of place, and presumably
of steadiness of purpose, is very striking. It is true that the men are
becoming more and more unwilling for their wives to go out to work,
as is shown in the case of the 49 housewives, and probably also in the
case of a number of day workers and housewives who would otherwise
be house servants instead of workers by the day; and it is true also
that some of the mothers, perhaps many of them, are unwilling for
their daughters to go into domestic service, as has been mentioned.
But this explanation does not reach very far, and the fact remains of
the exceeding restlessness of the Negro women, particularly of the
younger ones, and of the resultant constant friction with the women
of the white race.
What of the future of a recently barbarous race, whose younger
women seem so little disposed to steady employment and to home
staying and home making, if, as is thought, the home is the true unit
o f civilized society ? It is difficult to foretell the future, and the inves­




THE NEOROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

85

tigator will only add that the future of the Negro race would seem to
be more in danger from a certain general looseness of the younger
generations of the women than from lawlessness of the younger gen­
erations of the men.
As further illustrative of this subject, the following table, compiled
from answers to the tenth question, is appended:
L E N G T H O F P R E S E N T R E S ID E N C E , B Y F A M I L I E S .

Length of residence.

Under 1 m onth...............................................................
Under 2 months...............................................................
2 to 4 m onths...................................................................
4 to 6 m onths...................................................................
6 to 8 m onths...................................................................
8 to 12 months..................................................................
1 to 2 years........................................................................
2 years...............................................................................
3 years...............................................................................
4 years...............................................................................
5 to 10 years......................................................................
10 to 20 years....................................................................
20 years or over...............................................................
Not reported....................................................................
Total ......................................................................

Tenure
Owners. Renters. ' Farm Domes­ not re­
j tenants. tics. ported.
1 I
1
1
1
1
3
3
7

7
10
30

2

7 ,
1

10
5

3 ,
19
2 !

1
2
2
5

15
1 |
4
8
5

1

54 i
!

2
10
9
4

44

1

0
57

5

4
6
8
3
5

2

4
8

4
G3

3
3
5
3
3

Total.

2
1 |
G j

23
39
13
14
38
17
35
13
224

This table is composed of economic families. As was to be expected
in this community, the column of owners shows that about half of the
families have lived in their present homes for 2 0 years or more; as
a matter of fact, a number of families have been living in the same
house for two generations or more, (a) The column for farm tenants
does not at all show the real length of service of the farm hands, some
of whom have become owners while remaining farm hands.. The
column for domestics differs greatly from the others. More than half
the domestics are enumerated before the two-37
ear limit is reached.
Nine are reported as having remained at one place for 2 years, 4 for
3 37ears, none for 4 years, 4 for between 5 and 10 years, none for
between 1 0 and 2 0 years. Of the 3 reported for over 2 0 years, 2 are
practically pensioners. One of them, a woman ovei* 92 (the oldest
Negro reported), has been in the home of her present employer for 27
years; the other, a mental wreck of 70, has been cared for b}r his
present employer for 35 years. This brief histoiy of these two old
Negroes is in strong contrast to the economic history set forth by the
figures of the upper part of this same column. *
ECONOMICS OF THE FAM ILY.
In the enumeration of the families the attempt has been made to
carry out the schedule suggested and partly carried out for the
a In a number of cases it is the wife who is the real owner, by purchase or inher­
itance. This fact did not appear during the early part of the investigation.




86

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Farmville Negro families according to three conceptions of the word
44family,” viz:
1. The possible family, i. e., the parents and all children ever born
to them living.
2. The real family, i. e., the parents and all children living at
present.
3. The economic family, i. e., all persons, related and unrelated,
living in one house under conditions of family life.
There have been some practical difficulties in the way of an alto­
gether pleasing realization of getting and keeping the a possible”
families straight—as, for example, when it was found that the heads
o f a real family had been married two or three times. Another diffi­
culty was of a nature exactly opposite. When small boarding mem­
bers of a family were traced to their real maternal source the discovery
was sometimes made that the possible family did not have now and
had never had visible heads enough. In cases of second marriage the
children of the first wife born living were not always known and given;
and also where the wife and mother was dead the number of children
born living was sometimes not given. The same difficulties affect in
some degree the statistics for the real families. The figures for both
are given in the hope that some real profit may result.
The writer does not venture upon the interesting subject of the ratio
of increase of the Negro population from the statistics here presented,
except to say that it would naturally seem that the figures for the real
families should show most truly the real condition for any given town
or country neighborhood, as for the country at large. In the same
way the economic family should certainly show the economic condi­
tion, approximately. If the people are living under normal conditions
the real family and the economic family should approximate closely.
I f the conditions are abnormal, or if the set of people in question are
changing their manner of life, then the real family and the economic
family should, by their lack of approximation, show the divergence
from the normal standard. The facts for the Sandy Spring families
are given, as well as they could be ascertained, in the following table.
The large number of economic families of one member is the result
of including the immigrant house servants and those house servants
not really identified at the present time with their own families; and
it may be that this list should be diminished by about 14 of these lastmentioned persons. The investigator had to make the choice of sta­
tistical evils.
The resulting average of persons per economic family seems to be
too low, though that the average would probably not be high is indi­
cated by the number of absentees. The Sandy Spring families report
185 children absent from the neighborhood. These children range in
age from infants to middle-aged men and women.



87

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.
NUMBER OF SANDY SPRING NEGRO FAMILIES, BY SIZE.

The possible family.

The real family.

Size of family.

The economic
family.

Families. Persons. Families. Persons. Families. Persons.
1 member.........................................................
2 members.......................................................
3 members.......................................................
4 m embers.......................................................
5 members........................................................
6 members........................................................
7 members.......................................................
8 members........................................................
9 members.......................................................
10 members........................................................
11 members........................................................
12 members........................................................
13 members.......................................................
14 members.......................................................
15 members.......................................................
16 m e m b ers........................................................
17 m e m b ers.......................................................
18m e m b ers................. ......................._............
20 members........................................................

9
23
19
22
10
14
15
16
11
12
15
7
12
8
4
4
2
1
1

9
46
57
88
50
84
105
128
99
120
165
84
156
112
60
64
34
18
20

19
22
29
17
20
18
16
20
11
11
10
6
1
1
2

19
44
87
68
100
108
112
160
99
110
110
72
13
14
30

63
23
21
17
23
26
14
9
15
5
5
1
1
1

63
46
63
68
115
156
98
72
135
50
55
12
13
14

Total...............................................*.........
A verage..................................................

205

1,499
7.31

203

1,146
5.65

224

960
4.29

In the next table due omissions have been made to conform to the
Farmville standard for purposes of comparison. The 65 persons
omitted from the list of economic families constitute 54 families of 1
member, 4 families of 2 members, 1 family of 3 members, 59 fami­
lies in all. It is not practicable to make the same clear omissions for
either the real families or the possible families. In these families the
excluded house servants belong, just as they would were they in Bal­
timore or .New York, and were counted as absent members, unless by
the exclusion of the single member or the two members, as the case
may be, the whole family is put beyond the pale of Sandy Spring.
Thus two childless couples and several single women having one child
outside of Sandy Spring disappear from the table entirely by their
omission from the economic list; but quite a large number belong in
some way to Sandy Spring real family life after exclusion from the
economic list, and must be included in the table.
NUMBER OF SANDY SPRING NEGRO FAMILIES, BY SIZE.
[The economic families shown in this table do not include 65 persons, mostly women in domestic
service. The figures for the possible and the real families are explained in the text preceding the table.]
l
The possible family. j The real family.
Size of family.

The economic
family.

Families. Persons. Families. Persons. Families. Persons.
1 member.........................................................
2 m embers.......................................................
3 members........................................................
4 members........................................................
5 members........................................................
6 members........................................................
7 members........................................................
8 members........................................................
9 members........................................................
10 m embers........................................................
11 members........................................................




8
14
14
20
9
13
14
15
11
12
15

8
28
42
80
45
78
98
120
99
120
165

7
17
24
17
20
18
16
20
11
11
10

7
34
72
68
100
108
112
160
99
110
110

9
19
20
17
23
26
14
9
15
5
5

9
38
60
68
115
156
98
72
135
50
55

88

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.
NUMBER OF SANDY SPRING NEGRO FAMILIES, BY SIZE—Concluded.

The possible family, j The real family.
Size of family.

The economic
family.

Families. Persons. Families. Persons. Families. Persons.
12 members..................................... .................
13 members......................................................
14 m embers........................................................
15 members........................................................
16 m embers........................................................
17 members.......................................................
18 members........................................................
20 m embers___ .*...............................................

7
12
8
4
4
2
1
1

84
156
112
60
64
34
18
20

6
1
1
2

72
13
14
30

1
1
1

12
13
14

Total ........................................................
Average....................................................

184

1,431
7.78

181

1,109
6.13

165

895
5.42

The number of economic families of 2, 3, 4, and 5 persons is in
marked contrast with the Farmville report, which is reproduced below.
NUMBER OF FARMVILLE NEGRO FAMILIES, BY SIZE.

The possible family.

The real family.

Size of family.

The economic
family.

Families. Persons. Families. Persons. Families. Persons.
1 m em ber.......................... ............................
2 m em bers......................................................
3 m em bers......................................................
4 m em bers......................................................
5 m em bers......................................................
6 m em bers................. t ..................................
7 m em bers......................................................
8 m em bers......................................................
9 m em bers......................................................
10 m em bers......................................................
11 m em bers......................................................
12 m em bers......................................................
13 m em bers......................................................
14 m em bers......................................................
15 m em bers......................................................
16 m em bers......................................................
17 m em bers......................................................
21 m em bers......................................................
25 mem bers......................................................
Total........................................................
Average..................................................

1
2
1
1
1

2
6
4
5
6

1
4
1
3

io
44
12
39

1
1

15
16

1
1

205
10.79

84
117
192
165
150
112
152
99
70
55

2
1

1,253
5.03

262

a 1,209
4.61

17

249

13
104
102
192
155
156
133
128
99
50
77

26
14

1

13
52
34
48
31
26
19
16
11
5
7

21
25

19

42
39
48
33
25
16
19
11
7
5

a Not including 16 brickyard laborers, etc., who might be counted in families, but who have prefer­
ably been called “ floating,’ ’ so as not to disturb the economic statistics.

Out of 165 economic families Sandy Spring has 79, or 48 per cent, of
from 2 to 5 members; while the Farmville report shows 165 out of 262,
or 63 per cent. Just as there are fewer of the smaller families, so
there are more, relatively, of the larger economic families in Sandy
Spring than in Farmville— 37 economic families of between 8 and 14
persons, inclusive, in Sandy Spring, as against 39 in Farmville; and
there are more, absolutely, of the larger real families— 62 in Sandy
Spring of between 8 and 15 persons, as against 46 in Farmville of
between 8 and 17 persons. The average number of members for both
economic and real families is higher in Sandy Spring than in Farm­
ville, probably the effect of rural as opposed to urban conditions of life.




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

89

The following table gives the percentages of Negro families, by size,
for Sandy Spring and Farmville, and of families for the country at large:
PER CENT OF NEGRO FAMILIES OF SANDY SPRING AND OF FARMVILLE AND OF TOTAL
FAMILIES OF THE UNITED STATES AND OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC STATES IN EACH
GROUP, BY SIZE OF FAMILY.
[The figures for Sandy Spring and for Farmville are from schedules; those for the United States are
from the census of 1890.]

Size of family.

1 m em ber..............................................................................................
2 to 6 members.....................................................................................
7 to 10 members...................................................................................
1 1 members or over.............................................................................

Negroes Negroes
of Sandy of Farm­
Spring.
ville.

United
States.

4.96
72.90
19.47
2.67

3.63
73.33
20.97
2.07

5.45
63.64
26.06
4.85

North
Atlantic
States.
8.23
78.05
17.00
1.72

As compared with Farmville and the North Atlantic States, this
table does not indicate that Negro families are diminishing in size in so
far as Sandy Spring is concerned. The basis for inference is very small.
There is another tabulation possible for these families that gives a
very different result from that set forth in the preceding table.
If we revert to the original table for Sandy Spring Negro families,
by size (p. 87), and if we assume that the “ 75 servants, mostly young
women,” and the “ 16 brickyard laborers” are to be added to the
similar Farmville table, instead of being excluded from it, we shall get
percentages that would be disconcerting if we attempted to compare
them with the percentages for a part or the whole of the United States.
The table would then read as follows:
PER CENT OF FAMILIES OF SANDY SPRING AND FARMVILLE, BY SIZE.

Size of family.

1 member......................................................................................................................................
2 to 6 mem bers........................................................................................................................
7 to 10 members ..........................................................................................................................
11 members or Over....................................................................................................................

Negroes Negroes
of Sandy of Farm­
Spring.
ville.
28.12
49.11
19.20
3.57

29.46
54.11
14.45
1.98

In this table we are dealing with 960 persons and 63 families of one
member and a total of 224 families for Sandy Spring, and with 1,300
persons and 101 families of one member and a total of 353 families
for Farmville. In this table, also, the excess of large families for
Sandy Spring is to be noted.
There is doubtless good ground for a difference of opinion as to
whether these individual domestic-servant families should be included
in an enumeration like this or be excluded from it. The present inves­
tigator does not see that he is at liberty to go behind the existent facts
of the community life as he finds them in the case of the Sandy Spring
neighborhood. These individual domestic-servant Negro families are




90

BULLETIN OE THE DEPAETMENT OF LABOE.

here living and working as individuals and not in any other way.
Many of them are supporting families of one, two, or more children,
either in Sandy Spring or elsewhere. W hy should they not be enu­
merated as members of the economic life in which they are found and
to which they contribute? The children supported are counted as
members of the economic families with whom they may happen to live,
and children and mothers are counted together as members of the real
families they constitute. Furthermore, Sandy Spring, like Farmville,
is to some extent a point of concentration for population, a semiurban
way station on the disrupting march of the Negroes from rural to
urban life—from the country to Philadelphia, New York, Chicago.
This movement affects particularly the domestic-service phase of Negro
life. It seems to the writer that this movement should be emphasized
wherever its effects become marked and characteristic, for it is a normal
part of the Negro problem of the country.
In this connection it is pertinent to remember that employment
agencies in the large Northern cities advertise for a thousand colored
cooks or housemaids at a time, and that these advertisements are
answered in .person by hundreds and thousands of young Negro
women, who are consequently distributed as members of the economic
life of those cities. Are they to be omitted in a study of the Negro
population of those cities ? (a) The very fact of their emigration and
distribution shows a progressive disruption of Negro family life on a
great scale. It may, indeed, be fairly doubted whether our former
system of slavery—after the slaves had once reached this country—
ever could have produced among the Negroes so great a dislocation
in so short a time as is now voluntarily going on. This fact is of deep
interest for the future of the Negro race, and it is of deep interest also
as suggesting what would have been, under economic pressure, the
probable fate of Negro slavery several generations ago had the New
England States not “ logrolled” and voted with South Carolina and
Georgia in the convention of 1787 to postpone the prohibition of the
slave trade until 1808, instead of uniting with Virginia and North
Carolina to stop it at once. That vote fastened the system of slavery
upon the country.
The houses occupied by the Negro families of Sandy Spring contain
from 2 to 9 rooms, the greater number having 4 or 5 rooms. The
following table shows the distribution of the families in these dwellings:
aCf. The Philadelphia Negro, by W . E. B. DuBois, Publications of the University
of Pennsylvania, 1899, pp. 427-509.




TH E NEGROES

OF SA N D Y

91

SPRING , M A R Y L A N D .

FAMILIES, BY SIZE OF FAMILY, AND NUMBER OF ROOMS TO A DWELLING.
Families occupying dwellings of—
Size of family.

Rooms Total.
4
6
I 7
1 8
2
3
5
9
*
not re­
rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms, rooms. rooms. rooms. ported.

1 member................................
2 members..............................
3 members..............................
4 members..............................
5 members..............................
6 members..............................
7 members..............................
8 members..............................
9 m embers..............................
10 members............................
11 members..............................
12 members.............................
13 members ..........................
14 m embers..............................

5
3
1
1
2
3
1
1
1

Total families...............
R oom s............................

18
36

3
8
9
5
11
14
7
3
10
4
3

2
1
1
1
3
2
2

1 ......... J ............ !______
2
3
3
3
2 1
6
1
1
1
3 1
1
2
3 j ....
1
2
|
...........
1
1
1 i
1
1
I
1
1
1
1

1
1

9
19
20
17
23
26
14
9
15
5
5
1
1
1

1
2
1
3
i
1

i

jL

........... !............

1

J

12
36

78
312

20
100

18
108

3
21

3
24

3
27

10

165
a 664

a Not including rooms occupied by 10 families not reported.

Nearly all the two-room houses and a large proportion of the three,
four, and five room houses are log buildings, in many cases with
frame work in addition. Probably the majority of the four-room
houses are frame buildings. The houses are, on the whole, good; the
rooms are of fair size; many of the rooms are carpeted and adorned
with prints and pictures on the walls, and they are usually heated by
stoves, in some cases coal being the fuel. Some of the houses are
overcrowded. Nearly all have gardens attached.
One hundred and sixty-five families live in these houses, the other
59 economic families being provided for in the buildings of the whites.
Of these 165 families 10.9 per cent occupy two-room homes; 7.3 per
cent, three-room homes; 47.3 per cent, four-room homes; 12.1 per
cent, five-room homes; 10.9 per cent, six-room homes; 5.4 per cent,
homes of seven, eight, or nine rooms, and 6.1 per cent are not
reported. There was an average of those reported of about 1.26 per­
sons to a room and of 4 rooms to a family. About 164 separate
houses are occupied by Negroes.
O f these 165 families, 63, or 38.2 per cent, own their homes; 54, or
32.7 per cent, rent the houses they occupy; 44, or 26.7 per cent, are
farm hands, occupying their houses free of money rent as an incident
to their position as farm hands, and the tenure of 4 families was not
reported. The following table shows the number of families owning,
renting, or occupjdng as farm hands.
FAMILIES OWNING AND RENTING HOMES, BY NUMBER OF ROOMS TO A DWELLING.
Families occupying dwellings o f Tenure.

4
| 5
6
rooms, rooms. rooms, rooms. rooms. rooms, rooms.

Owners........................
Renters........................
Farm hands...............
Tenure not reported.
Total fam ilies.




Rooms Fami­
not re- lies.
ported.
63
54
44
4

18

12

78

20

18

165

BULLETIN OE THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

92

Nine of the 54 tenants rent from Negroes and 45 from the whites.
A number of both renters and farm hands own land.
The table following gives the rents paid by the 54 families. If the
farm hands are rated as paying practically $2 a month for their houses
then the total annual rent charge would be about $2,500, about onehalf the rent charge for Farmville.
RENTS PAID BY TYPICAL FAMILIES, BY NUMBER OF ROOMS TO A DWELLING.
Families occupying dwellings of—
Monthly rent.

Total Annual
rent
Rooms fami­
4
| 5
6
! 7
9
2
8
3
not re­ lies.
paid.
rooms. rooms. rooms, rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. rooms. ported.
!
i

1
1

SO 50............................
.
1.00............................
1.50............................
2.00............................
2.50............................
3.00............................
3.50............................
4.25................. ..........
4.50............................
5.001..........................
Rent not reported..

i

2
4
10
8
2

3
4
2

............1
............
1
1
2

1
1
1

1

1
1
1
1
3

1
1
i

7

T otal...............
Average an­
nual re n t...

8

2

28

1

2
1

1

4

1
3
8
19
12
2
1
1
1
2
4

$6.00
36.00
144.00
456.00
360.00
72.00
42.00
51.00
54.00
120.00
a 90.00

54 1,431.00

1
26.50

!
a Estimated.

The table of number of families, by size of family and annual income,
which follows, must be regarded as an approximation. It was not dif­
ficult to get at the annual earnings of farm hands, as a rule; but for
other men and for the greater number of the women, the result given
is necessarily an estimate, and the investigator is inclined to think the
estimate too low.
NUMBER OF FAMILIES, BY SIZE OF FAM ILY AND ANNUAL INCOME.
[This table does not include 59 families composed chiefly of women in domestic servf :e.]
Families of—
Annual income.

Total
10
fami­
2
5*
9
4
6
7
8
1
3
mem­
mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ mem­ bers or lies.
ber.
bers. bers. | bers. bers. bers. bers. bers. bers.
over.

or l e s s ......................
$50 to $75....................
$75 to $100...................
$100 to $150.................
$150 to $200 .................
$200 to $250 .................
$250 to $350 .................
$350 to $450 .................
$450 to $600 .................

1

$50

$600 t o $750
$750 o r o y e r
N o t rep orted

1
6
2




i

2
6
4
3
3

2
1
6
6
1
1

1

...............

Total fam ilies.

1

2 1
3
4
7
1
2

3
6
6
2
3
1
2

1
4
8
8
2
2

1
1
4
4
3
1
1

2
4
1

1
3
7
1
1

1

3
2
4
3
1
2

9

15

13

1
9

19

1
2
6
22
40
38
30
14
5
6
1

20

17

23

26

14

165

93

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

One family is not reported for Sandy Spring and 9 families for
Farmville. Of 164 Sandy Spring families, 9, or 5.5 per cent, made
incomes not exceeding $100, as against 27 families out of 253, or 10.7
per cent, in Farmville. In Sandy Spring 100 families, or 61 per cent,
made between $100 and $250; in Farmville, 88 families, or 34.8 per
cent. In Sandy Spring 55 families, or 33.5 per cent, made between
$250 and $750; in Farmville, 132 families, or 52.2 per cent. It must
be remembered that a great many of these Sandy Spring families have
gardens and fowls, that many own a horse, and that the farmers
among them have cows and all the usual farm supplies for their family
needs.
O f the 59 families left out of consideration in this table, 38, com­
posed of the mothers, daughters, and brothers of the Sandy Spring
Negroes, receive for their domestic and other service an aggregate of
about $3,462 of wages per annum. This money goes almost wholly
into the general annual receipts of the Sandy Spring Negro population,
and is expended for their benefit. Probably $1,500 more per annum
is earned, and goes chiefly out of Sandy Spring. This amount of
nearly $5,000 is too important to be ignored in this study.
The table of prices for Farmville is said by the merchants of the
neighborhood to represent very well the average of Sandy Spring
prices, and is reproduced with the addition of the important item of
molasses, and with the caution that bituminous coal is practically not
used by Sandy Spring Negroes.
PRICES OF COMMODITIES IN SANDY SPRING AND IN FARMVILLE.

Article.
F o o d , e tc .:
F r esh p o r k ....................
P o r k s t e a k ...................
B e e f s t e a k .....................
H am and bacon —
C h i c k e n s .......................
H e n s ................................
T u r k e y s .........................
W h e a t f l o u r ................
W h e a t f l o u r ................
C o m m e a l .....................
R i c e ..................................
C a b b a g e .........................
P o ta t o e s .........................
G re e n c o r n ...................
T o m a t o e s .......................
P e a s ..................................
B e a n s ..............................
C a n n e d g o o d s ............
T e a ....................................
C o f f e e ..............................
S u g a r ................................
L a r d ..................................

Unit.

Price.

$0.06
Pound..
Pound.. $0.08 to .10
Pound..
.08 to .10
Pound..
.08 to .30
Each . . .
.12i to .15
Each . . .
.20 to .25
Pound..
.07 to .10
.35
12-pound
bag.
Barrel.. 4.00 to 4.50
Peck . . .
.11 to .12
.05 to .06
Pound..
H ead. . .
.01 to .06
.50 to .60
Bushel .
Ear........
.01
.05
Gallon..
.05
Quart...
.05
Quart...
.08 to .10
Can —
Pound..
.40
Pound..
.15 to .18
Pound..
.05 to .06
Pound..
.07 to .08

7996— N o . 32— 01-------7




Article.
Food, etc.—Concluded.
Molasses...................
B utter......................
S a lt......... .................
Herrings...................
E gg s..........................
Apples......................
Apples, dried..........
Watermelons..........
Pepper......................
M ilk ..........................
Buttermilk.............
Soap..........................
Starch......................
Fuel and lighting:
Wood, uncut...........
Wood, cut.................
Coal, bituminous ..
Coal, anthracite . . .
Kerosene o i l ...........
Clothing:
Men’s suits...............
Boys’ suits...............
Women’s dresses. . .

Unit.

Price.

Gallon.. $0.25 to $0.40
Pound..
.121 to
.25
Pound..
.01
Each . . .
.01
Dozen ..
. 10 to
. 12
Peck . . .
.05 to
.25
Pound..
.06
Each . . .
.01 to
.20
Pound..
.15
Quart ..
.06
Gallon..
.10
Cake . . .
.05
Pound..
.05
Cord___
Cord___
T o n ___
Ton . . . .
Gallon..
Each . . .
Each . . .
Each . . .

2.00
2.50
4.50
7.50
.15
7.00
2.00
3.00

to 12.00
to 5.00
to 8.00

94

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The following budgets of family expenditure are furnished by the
three leading merchants of the neighborhood, all of whom were shown
the Farmville budgets as an explanation of what was wanted. The
first is an estimate drawn from the merchants’ books as follows:
ESTIMATED ANNUAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OP FARM HAND’ S FAMILY OF 5
PERSONS.

Income.
Items.

T otal.......................... ................. .........

Amount.

888
1 3S3
1

Man: 12 months’ labor, at $12.....................
Woman: 52 weeks’ washing, at $1...........
Boy: 6 months’ labor, at 83................. .

Expenditure.

214.00

Items.

Amount.

Food per week, at 11.70 for 52 w eeks...
Fuel and lighting: 7 cords of wood, at
83, 821; oil, at 10 cents a week for 52
weeks, 85.20...............................................
Clothing........................................................
Rent................. ..... ........................ ............. .
Miscellaneous..............................................
Doctor and m edicine.................................
Surplus...........................................................

888.40

T otal......................................................

214.00

26.20
50.00
18.60
10.00
10.00
11.40

The surplus would only show if there were no loss of time from
sickness or accident.
The second budget is an analysis of one year’s dealings for a family
of 6 persons. This is furnished by a dealer who is also an employer.
ESTIMATED ANNUAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF FAM ILY OF 6 PERSONS.
Expenditure.

Income.
Items.

Amount.

Items.

Wages, 12 months, at 815............................

8180.00

148 pounds sugar, at 6 cen ts.....................
5f barrels flour, at 8 4 .................................
12 cords wood, at 82.50................................
12 months rent, at 8 3 .................................
94 gallons molasses, at 40 cents...............
Clothing.........................................................
Miscellaneous articles................................

88.88
21.50
30.00
36.00
3.80
25.00
54.82

T otal......................................................

180.00

T o ta l....................................................

180.00

Amount.

This analysis takes no account of the earnings of any other member
of the family.
The third budget is a transcript from the accounts of a family in the
store of an employer for January, 1899. The family reports itself as
consisting of 9 members; but 2 of the sons are at work, one as a farm
hand at $10 per month, the other as a laborer for $8 per month for 8
months, and they are not counted in this budget, as they do not board
at home, and it is not known how much of their wages goes into the
family purse.




TH E

NEGROES

OF BAN DY

95

SPRING, M A R YLAN D *

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF FAMILY OF 7 PERSONS FOR JANUARY, 1899.
Income.
Items.
Head of family: Farm hand, at $15 per
month...........................................................
Housewife: House servant, at $10 per
month...........................................................

Expenditure.
Amount.

$15.00
10.00

Items.

Amount.

Food: Bacon, 17 pounds, $1.70; beef,
25 cents; bread, 50 cents; flour, $1.06;
meal, 14 cents; sugar, 24 cents; lard,
36 cents; salt, 10 cents; sirup, 7 cents;
yeast powder, 15 cents; dates, 8 cents;
dried apples, 28 cents; ginger, 8 cents;
cakes, 5 cents.............................................
Fuel and lighting: Wood, $2.50; oil, 28
cents...........................................................
Clothing: 2 pairs gum shoes, $1.25; boy’s
pants, 25 cents; leggins, 75 cents;
buttons, 5 cents.........................................
Rent.................................................................
Miscellaneous: Pitcher, 50 cents; soap,
10 cents; matches, 2 cents.....................

$5.06
2.78
2.30
2.50
.62

Surplus...........................................................
T otal.....................................................

25.00

13.26
11.74

T otal....................................................

25.00

Carried out for the year this budget would result as follows:
ESTIMATED ANNUAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF FAMILY OF 7 PERSONS.
Income.

Expenditure.

Items.

Amount.

Items.

12 months, at $25.............................................

$300.00

Food: 12 months, at $5.06................. .
Fuel and lighting: 12 months, at $2.78..
Clothing: 12 months, at $2.30............. .
Rent: 12 months, at $2.50..........................
Miscellaneous: 12 months, at 62 cents..
Surplus: 12 months, at $11.74...................

$60.72
33.36
27.60
30.00
7.44
140.88

T otal......................................................

300.00

T otal....................................................

300.00

Amount.

This family owns property which is assessed at $350.
The following items will help to the understanding of the food
expenditure of the Negro population. One butcher sold to one family
of 2 persons meat to the amount of $16.18; to another family of 3 to
the amount of $24.84; to a family of 5 to the amount of $19.17; and
to a family of 7 to the amount of $17.59, during the course of the
year—or nearly 7 cents a day for meat for the famity of 3 persons.
There are 3 other butchers dealing in the neighborhood. All of these
families are property holders, although one of them is not assessed.
The aggregate assessment of the others is $865.
The writer has not learned of any cases of actual destitution among
the Sandy Spring Negroes.
No omissions from the original Sandy Spring table of population
have been made in the ensuing discussion of the Negro property
holders.
The following list of property holders is not, it will be observed,
quite coincident with the list of included taxpayers. In several
instances several persons have interests in the same piece of property.
There are in this list 18 families holding property valued by them­




96

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

selves at $6,275 that are not assessed at all. The law exempts farm
implements up to the value of $300. Much other personal property
doubtless also escapes the assessor. The value put upon their hold­
ings by the owners has been added to the list, because in many cases
it suggests better than the assessment the true earning power of the
property, and also because of its psychological value.
A S S E S S E D V A L U A T I O N O F R E A L E S T A T E O W N E D B Y N E G R O E S IN S A N D Y S P R IN G I N 1898-99.

Assessed valuation.
Property
owner num­ Acres. Real­ Per­
ber.
sonal­ Total.
ty.
ty.
1 ......................
2 ......................
3 ......................
4 ......................
5 ......................
6 .....................
7 ......................
8 ......................
9
.................
1 0 .....................
.........
11
1 2 .....................
1 3 .....................
14
.............
15 ...................
1 6 .....................
1 7 .....................
18 ...................
1 9 ...................
20
2 1 .....................

aS

2 2 .........................

12

£
6

4
26
16
4
12
20
2
2

1!

26

.................

28

29

.

30

31
32

$85
70
65
30

35

1
n 1
........... |
2
4

1,005
405
150
235
235
550
275

3 7 .....................
3 8 .....................
39
........
4 0 .....................
41
42
43
44
45

1,205
470
150
285
280
665
290

50
45
115
15

100
100
100
295
100

55

i

275
195
155 |
200 !

!

ioo

I

1
0

325
195
165

35 |
20

235
120

50

(*>)
5

i

20
1
12k
3
3

3
9
2
2

Aft
4 0 .....................

4 7 .....................

135
175

200
65

i

............

33
34
35
36

$555
285
380
365
240
245
255

35
55

100
100
100
240
100

2

23

24
...........
2 5 .....................
27

1

$470
215
315
335
240
210
200
100
175

15
A
13

290
440
840
315
100
165
220

125
35
105
65
70
1

100 1
210
180 j

3

45
50
140
25

415
475
945
380
100
235
220
145
260
140
205

Val­
ued
by
own­
er.

Assessed valuation.
Property
owner num­
ber.

$250 48.....................
200 49.....................
350 50.....................
500 51.....................
650 52.....................
500 53.....................
500 54.....................
600 55.....................
500 56.....................
200 '5 7 .....................
a 300 58.....................
250 59.....................
1,500 60.....................
900 61....................
450 62.....................
200 63.....................
1,100 64.....................
750 65.....................
250 66..-.................
1,000
67.....................
200 68.....................
246 69....................
80 70.....................
200 71.....................
600 72....................
75 73.....................
250 74.....................
200 75.....................
200 76.....................
100 7 7 .....................
150 7 8 .........................
100 79.....................
(6)
80.....................
600 81.....................
1,500
82.....................
1,000
83.....................
700 84.....................
800 85.....................
150 86.....................
90 87.....................
700 8 8 .....................
250 89.....................
100 90.....................
500 91.....................
500 92.....................
700
T o ta l...
350

Acres. Real­ Per­
sonal­ Total.
ty.
ty.
15
11
4
(c)
V 10
2
3
2§
21
16
3
4
3
2
20
4

10

$365
415

$110
50

$475
465

150
330
250
200

70
115
80

220
445
330
200

395
100

110

505
100

120
150
140
100
100
380
390
175
480
300

35
50

70
45
50

120
185
140
150
100
380
390
245
525
850

i
4
4
i

20
u
3

225
350
265
460
390
360
215

25

275
395
345
515
420
360
240

35

260

50
45
80
55

30

d ll*

225

100
290
250
100

40
200
200
300
500
800
350
400
400
500
700
600
1,000

3,075 21,590

42,666

2
5

5
5
5
2
4
4
7£

$900
500
500
(c)
800
1,000
150
700
100
2,000
100
250
700
200
200
150
100
150
100
1,000
250
1,500
600
60
200
500
600
1,000
150
100
125
dlOO

1

6s
15

Valued
by
own­
er.

195
380
300
210
170
100
290
200
100

448||l8,515

90
45
65

25

50

195
470
345
275
195

1
a I n c lu d in g in te r e st o f p ro p e rty o w n e r n u m b e r
5 I n c lu d e d in figu res s h o w n fo r p r o p e r ty o w n e r
c I n c lu d e d in figu res s h o w n fo r p r o p e r ty o w n e r
d I n c lu d in g in te r e st o f p r o p e r ty o w n e r n u m b e r

51.
n u m b e r 79.
n u m b e r 11.
33.

This table shows an assessment of $3,075 of personal property and
of $18,515 of real estate, a total of $21,590. The number of acres
reported is 448£. This realty alone is valued by its owners at $42,666,
a sum more than double the assessed valuation. The total number of
taxpayers in this list is 74. (a)
a Several lots of land are owned by Negroes living outside of Sandy Spring who are
probably assessed, but who are not reported.



THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

97

In addition to the personal property in their homes and on their
farms, including cows, horses, vehicles, and a large number of bicycles,
there are, among the Sandy Spring Negroes, 135 individual depositors
in the savings bank, with an aggregate sum to their credit of more
than $15,881; of this amount 11 depositors own $11,976 and 121
depositors own $3,905. These bank deposits added to the owners5val­
uation of realty and to the assessed personalty gives a total of $61,622.
If this amount be approximately near the fact, the property owned
by the Sandy Spring Negroes approaches more nearly in value that
owned by the Farmville Negroes than might be expected.
Twenty-three of the 92 realty owners, or 25 per cent, report that
they have owned their land for a period not longer than 5 years.
This seems to indicate a rapid rate of acquisition. It does not show
acquisition by inheritance, nor how long since payment began.
As well as the investigator could learn, there is a great deal of bor­
rowing and lending, of note giving and indorsing among both prop­
erty holders and nonproperty holders, so much so as to make it likely
that some who have homes would lose them if called upon to make good
their obligations thoughtlessly undertaken for the benefit of others.
The following table is an analysis of the list of property holders,
with a view to discovering, if practicable, whether the fact of two or
more generations of freedom has seemed to influence the Negroes of
Sandy Spring in the matter of property getting and property keep­
ing—the economic basis of civilization.
SANDY SPRING NEGROES OWNING REAL ESTATE.
Living in Sandy
Spring.
Age.

Born in Sandy Spring, free or freed before
1865:
35 to 55 years................................................ .
55 to 75 years____
75 years or over.

Sex.

Under 20 to
35
20
35
years One.
years. years. or over

55 to 75 years____
75 years or over..

39

55 to 75 years___
75 years or over.

Total



18

12

15

M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.

Total.
Slaves in 1865:
35 to 55 years.

Two. Three. Four.

M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.

Total.
Born out of Sandy Spring, free or freed be­
fore 1865:
35 to 55 years................................................

Generations free.

M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.

12

17

98

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,
S A N D Y S P R I N G N E G R O E S O W N I N G R E A L E S T A T E — C o n c lu d e d .
L iv in g in S a n d y
S p rin g .
Age.

B o r n sin c e 1865 in S a n d y S p r i n g . . . . ............

Sex.

U nder
20
yea rs.

M.
F.

20 to
35
85
yea rs
yea rs. or o v e r

O ne.

T w o . T h r e e . F o u r.

3
1

M.
F.

1

4

T o t a l...........................................................................
B o r n s in c e 1865 o u t o f S a n d y S p r in g .................

G e n e r a tio n s free.

2

1

1
3

2

3

1

1

Conjugal condition.
Age.

Born in Sandy Spring, free or freed before
1865:
35 to 55 years.............................................. ..
55 to 75 years..................................................
75 years or over............... ....................

Sex.

M.
F.
M.
F.

2

75 vears or o v e r........................ .

M.

1
1

13

Total.............................................................
Slaves in 1865:
35 to 55 years.................................................

19
3
4
4
2
3

2
2
4

1

35

17

4
2
6
1
2
1

1

16

10

1

1
1

2
1

F.

2

17

M.
F.
M.
F.

5

years or over............................................

M.

3

1

13

55 to 75 years..................................... ............
75

1

Having
Having
grand­
children. children.

1

23

7
1
7

M.
F.

1
4
2
3
3

2

M.

17

Sepa­
rated.

2

F.

55 to 75 y e a rs....................................

Mar­ Wid­
ried. owed.

4

M.
F.

Total.............................................................
Bom out of Sandy Spring, free or freed be­
fore 1865:
,
35 to 55 years.......................... ......................

Sin­
gle.

1

3

4

T o t a l ...........................................................................

1

Born since 1865 in Sandy Spring....................

19
F.

Total.............................................................
Born since 1865 out of Sandy Spring..............

M.
F.

Total.............................................................

1
6

1
1

9

5

5
2

4
1

1

16

2

2

3
1

1
2

4

iq

2

1
3

i

2

4

M.

2
3

1

F.

Total.............................................................

4

3

Since preparing this table the writer has received information showing
that he should have assigned at least one generation more of freedom
to several of the property holders. Several of those marked as of the
first generation should be assigned to the second; still more of those
assigned to the second should be in the third, and so on.
The last slave sold in Sandy Spring was a boy who was sold in 1857.
By the will of a head of a family who died in 1853, some 10 or 12 slaves
were left to the heirs, to be set free upon attaining a certain age.
Several o f the heirs freed their slaves at once, and bought from their




THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND.

99

coheirs and freed the others in the fall of 1853, except this boy, who
belonged to one of the younger members of the family. Upon set­
tling up the estate of this younger member, who had died in the mean­
time, this Negro boy was bought from the estate at public auction for
the purpose of being set free by those who had already in the same
way set the others free. He was bought and freed in 1857.
The percentage of heads of families now in Sandy Spring who were
freed in other parts of the State before 1865 is large—about 37.8—
nearly 4 in 10 of the free families. This fact throws a strong light
upon the rapidity with which slavery was being destroyed by economic
forces in Maryland, as it was in Virginia, when the gradual process of
emancipation was stopped by the antislavery agitation.
Three of the 4 born in Sandy Spring were of free parents; 3 of the
4 born outside of Sandy Spring were of slave parents.
Of the 92 property holders 84 are over 35 years of age; of these, 62
were freeborn or freed before 1865; 23 of them are immigrants, and 39
are natives of Sandy Spring—about 42 per cent of the whole number.
O f these 39, again, a careful estimate shows that a third have inherited
their homes or have acquired them by the gift or the aid of their free
parents. I f this estimated proportion be right, the number of elderly
freeborn natives of Sandy Spring acquiring their homes is 26, approxi­
mately the same as that of the freeborn immigrants and o f those who
were slaves in 1865. Of the 8 younger home getters 4 were born of
parents free before 1865 and 4 of parents who were slaves in 1865.
The other side of the question may be briefly stated without the for­
mality of tabulation. Twenty-four native Sandy Spring Negroes, free
before 1865, are not property holders—about the same number as of
those natives who have themselves acquired their homes; 15 immi­
grants, free before 1865, are without homes—about three-fifths of the
number of their class who have gotten homes; and 29 former slaves
are without property, as against 22 who are owners. Of the popula­
tion born since 1865, 30 natives of Sandy Spring and 15 immigrants
have not acquired property, as against 4 of each class who have—a
large excess of percentage against natives.
Recurring to the older generation, of a total of 101 of those freeborn
before 1865, 62, or 61.4 per cent, own property; of a total of 51 of
those who were slaves in 1865, 22, or 43.1 per cent, own property.
If we deduct, as suggested, a third of the native freeborn Negroes of
Sandy Spring owning their homes, then of 88 free in 1865, 49, or 55.7
per cent, have acquired property, as compared with 43.1 per cent of
slaves in 1865. Does or does not this excess of 12.6 per cent consti­
tute an argument in favor of the superior home-making power of the
freeborn and free-descended Negroes ? Or, in view of the equal
division of property holders between free-descended and slavedescended in the younger generation, and of the 30 nonproperty­



100

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

holding Sandy Spring Negroes, heads of families, as against 15 like
outsiders who also do not hold property, is not the Scotch verdict of
“ not proven” the sound conclusion in this case? A suspension of
judgment seems, to the writer at least, the wise mental attitude.
GROUP LIFE.
From an economic point of view, the general conclusion drawn from
the investigation of this group would appear to be favorable. The
Sandy Spring Negroes seem to be acquiring and holding property,
and the agricultural element of labor among them gives a good account
of itself. Beyond these statements, enough has been said incidentally
during the course of this paper to make any extended remarks on the
life of the Sandy Spring Negroes as a whole unnecessary. Several of
the inferential conclusions arrived at for Sandy Spring would not, if
elaborated, be found to coincide with the very interesting discussion
of the group life for Farmville, to which the attention of the reader
is particularly invited.
One hundred and forty-five males and 207 females over 18 years of
age report themselves as members of some church.
The Methodist denomination is the strong one among the Negroes of
Sandy Spring and of Maryland, as might be expected from the his­
tory of that church, and the leading religious organization among
them is what is known as the Sharp Street Church, (a) which has about
500 members. The description of the chief Farmville Negro church
as an organization is, in the main, the description of the Sandy Spring
church. The meetings are frequent, various, and numerously attended.
“ The unifying and directing force is, however, religious exercises of
some sort.” The most marked exercise is the series of revival meet­
ings which begins about September and is continued sometimes night
after night, sometimes two or three nights a week, for months.
This church is the natural center for other organizations, social,
political, and economic. O f the last class, the beneficial societies,
several are almost a full generation old. The controlling idea in the
case of most of them is to provide for burial and sometimes for help
during sickness for their members. The dues are paid in quarterly,
and periodically a division of the funds accumulated in excess of a
certain amount takes place. The names of these societies are so.
characteristic that they are given, pretty much in the order of their
organization: Young Men’s Beneficial Society, of Sandy Spring
(1871-72); Female Beneficial Society, of Sandy Spring; United Bene­
ficial Society, of Sandy Spring; United Sons and Daughters o f Wesley
Society Number 6, of Sandy Spring; Little Gleaners o f Sharp Street;




a Named after a church in Baltimore.

THE NEGROES OF SANDY SPRING, MARYLAND,

101

Sisters’ Mutual Aid Society. These all belong in the congregation of
Sharp Street Church, and they have $1,834 to their credit in the sav­
ings bank. Two other societies—Golden Link of Sisters and Brothers,
of Oakwood, and Golden Beneficial Society, of Good Hope—belong,
respectively, to the two other churches on the same circuit with Sharp
Street, and the Beneficial Society of the Rising Star belongs to the
congregation of the Baptist Church of the neighborhood. Their
deposited funds amount, all told, to $3,265. The large majority of
members are Sandy Spring Negroes. These societies are managed by
committees, and are said to be well managed. This system is of great
interest, both in itself and because of the curious resemblance it bears
to the origin of the mediaeval guilds.
One of the concluding remarks in the Farmville report is as follows:
Finally, it remains to be noted that the whole group life of Farm­
ville Negroes is pervaded by a peculiar hopefulness on the part of the
people themselves. No one of them doubts in the least but that one
day black people will have all rights they are now striving for, and
that the Negro will be recognized among the earth’s great peoples.
Perhaps this simple faith is, of all products of emancipation, the one of
the greatest social and economic value.
Many of the Sandy Spring Negroes have been free for several genera­
tions, but the observation of the investigator does not warrant for them
a similar statement. On the contrary, the light-hearted hopefulness
or the absence of care which so agreeably characterized the race a
couple of generations ago is largely gone. The struggle for existence
in the midst of economically competitive and socially antagonistic sur­
roundings has had its saddening—perhaps its hardening—effect upon
these people. The talk of some of the older ones among them with
the investigator showed a decided dissatisfaction with the general
frame of mind of the younger generations of their race and a vague
feeling of disquiet for the present and the future. The younger gen­
erations are not on as good terms with the whites as their elders, and
they know it and show it. These two conditions of mind—or, rather,
these two aspects of the same condition of mind—constitute a general
condition certainly not to be described as one of “ peculiar hopeful­
ness,” and this general condition seems to the writer a distinctive and
definite fact, just as true of the Negroes of Sandy Spring as that their
percentage of illiteracy is less than the percentage of illiteracy for the
Negroes of Farmville. Whence this difference of reported impression
for Farmville and for Sandy Spring? Is it that the contact of the two
races is less close and is freer from irritation in Farmville than in
Sandy Spring? Or is this important matter reducible, after all, to the
comparatively unimportant matter of the personal equation of the
investigators? Was the Farmville hopefulness due in part to the
strong and hope-inspiring stimulus of personal contact with a highly




102

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

educated member of their own race in the person of the investigator,
and is the Sandy Spring apparent lack of buoyancy due in part to the
fact that the investigator is a member of the dominant race ? This, too,
“ can only be determined by further study.” The truth is what we
want, and this divergence of impression emphasizes very strongly how
much this whole subject, so vital to the well-being of the people of
this country, needs comprehensive, systematic, and dispassionate
examination.




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT AND ITS
OPERATION.
B Y A . M A U R IC E L O W .

The Workmen’s Compensation Act, (a) which received the royal
assent August 6, 1897, and came into operation July 1,1898, marks an
advanced step in social legislation in Great Britain. It was regarded
by the workingmen not as a finality, but simply as the first stage. It
was resisted by the employers because it was feared that it would be a
heavy drain on their profits and encourage more drastic legislation in
the near future.
That the act was considered as tentative and not as the last word in
legislation is shown from the fact that it was made to apply to certain
classes of labor only and brought within its scope rather less than 50
per cent of the wage-workers of the United Kingdom. These figures
are not official, because no official data can be obtained. So far as the
writer has been able to ascertain, after carefully weighing the different
calculations made by men whose opinions are of value, the benefits of
the act applied to about 6,000,000 men and excluded some 7,000,000.
Since then, by the amendment adopted at the last (1900) session extend­
ing the act to agricultural laborers, (ft) the balance has been turned in
the other direction.
During the two years in which the law has been in operation it has
not satisfied all of the sanguine hopes of its promoters, nor has it been
attended by the dire consequences predicted. But it must be added
that the law has not as yet had to stand the supreme test of all eco­
nomic laws, a falling market, without which no proper verdict as to
the value of any theory can be reached. During the brief period the
law has been in force there has been a demand greater than the output
for nearly all forms of manufactured articles, and labor has found
steady and remunerative employment at constantly increasing* wages.
In some trades there has been a scarcity of labor, especially since the
outbreak of hostilities in South Africa, which seriously affected the
labor market by the withdrawal of men from gainful operations to
join the colors. This fact can not be too strongly emphasized. Both
employers and employees agree that the real merits and defects of the
«6 0 and 61 Viet., chap. 37.
b Law of July 30,1900, the provisions of which enter into force July 1,1901.
103




104

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

law, its advantages and disadvantages, can only be determined when
there is a time of stress, when capital can not find a productive return,
and when labor can not find employment and the wage scale declines.
AN ALYSIS OF THE L A W .
The act in extenso will be found at the end of the article, but as
frequent reference is made to it, the principal sections are here
summarized:
If an injury is caused to a workman by an accident arising out of
and in the course of his employment, his employer shall be liable for
its compensation in accordance with the first schedule, the more impor­
tant provisions of which follow:
Where death results from the injury if the workman leaves depend­
ents wholly dependent upon his earnings, the compensation shall equal
his earnings in the employment of the same employer during the 3
years preceding the injury, or the sum of £150 ($729.98), whichever is
the larger, but must not exceed £800 ($1,459.95). If the employment
has been less than 3 years, the amount of earnings shall be deemed to
be 156 times the average weekly earnings during the period of actual
employment.
I f the workman leaves dependents only in part dependent upon his
earnings, the compensation may be determined by agreement or arbi­
tration under this act, but must not exceed the amount payable under
the foregoing provision.
If no dependents are left, the reasonable expenses of medical attend­
ance and burial are to be paid, not exceeding £10 ($48.67).
Where total or partial incapacity for work results from the injury
a weekly payment must be made during incapacity after the second
week, not exceeding 50 per cent o f the workman’s average weekly
earnings during the previous 12 months, if he has been so long
employed, but if not, then for any less period spent in the employment
of the same employer, such payment not to exceed £1 ($4.87).
No employer shall be liable for an injury which does not disable the
workman for a period of at least 2 weeks from earning full wages, or
for an injury due to the serious or willful misconduct of the workman.
In fixing the weekly payment the difference between the average
weekly earnings before and after the accident must be considered, as
well as any payment not wages received from the employer during
the incapacity.
Where a workman has given notice of an accident he shall, if required
by the employer, be examined by a medical practitioner provided by
the employer, and if he refuses or obstructs the examination his right
to compensation shall be suspended until the examination takes place.
Payment shall, in case of death, be made to the legal personal rep­



•THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

105

resentative of the workman, or, if he has none, to his dependents. If
he leaves no dependents, payment is made to the person to whom the
expenses are due.
Any question as to who is a dependent, or as to the amount paya­
ble to each dependent, shall, in default of agreement, be settled by
arbitration.
The sum allotted as compensation to a dependent may be invested
or otherwise applied for his benefit, as agreed or as ordered by the
committee or other arbitrator.
Any workman receiving weekly payments under this act shall, if
required by the employer or by any person by whom the employer is
entitled to be indemnified, from time to time be examined by a med­
ical practitioner provided by tliQ employer or such other person; but
if the workman objects to such examination or is dissatisfied with the
certificate, he may be examined by one of the medical practitioners
appointed for the purposes of this act, as mentioned in the second
schedule, and the certificate of that practitioner shall be conclusive
evidence of the workman’s condition. If he refuses to take the exami­
nation, or in any way obstructs it, his right to the weekly payments
shall be suspended until the examination has taken place.
Any weekly payment may be reviewed at the request either of the
employer or of the workman, and the amount of payment shall, in
default of agreement, be settled by arbitration.
Where a weekly payment has been continued for not less than 6
months, the liability therefor may, on the application of the em­
ployer, be redeemed by the payment of a lump sum.
A weekly payment shall not be assigned, charged, or attached, and
shall not pass to any other person by operation of law; nor shall any
claim be set off against the same.
The act shall not affect the civil liability of the employer. A work­
man may, at his option, claim compensation under the act or seek the
same remedy that was open to him before its passage; but the employer
shall not be liable under more than one act.
If the question of liability is not settled by agreement, provision is
made for arbitration.
Nothing in the act shall affect any proceeding for a fine under the
factories and mines acts, but if the fine has been applied for the benefit
of the person injured, that amount shall be taken into account in esti­
mating the compensation.
Proceedings for recovery of compensation for an injury shall not be
maintainable unless notice of the accident has been given as soon as
practicable and before the workman has voluntarily left the employ­
ment in which he was injured, and unless the claim for compensation
has been made within six months from the occurrence of the accident
causing the injury, or, in case of death, within six months from the



106

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

time of death. Defect or inaccuracy in the notice shall not be a bai
to the maintenance of the proceedings, if it is found in the proceed­
ings for settling the claim that the employer is not prejudiced in his
defense by the defect or inaccuracy, or that the defect or inaccuracy
was occasioned by mistake or other reasonable cause.
Notice in respect of an injury shall give the name and address of the
person injured, and shall state in ordinary language the cause of the
injury and the date at which it was sustained, and shall be served on
the employer.
If the registrar of friendly societies, after taking steps to ascertain
the views of the employer and the workmen, certifies that any scheme
of compensation, benefit, or insurance is on the whole not less favor­
able to the general body of workmen and their dependents than the
provisions of the act, the employer may, until the certificate is revoked,
contract with any workman that the provisions of the scheme shall be
substituted for the provisions of the act, and in that case he shall be
liable only in accordance with the scheme.
No scheme shall be certified which contains an obligation upon the
workmen to join the scheme as a condition of their hiring.
If complaint is made to the registrar of friendly societies on behalf
of the workmen that the provisions of any scheme are no longer on
the whole so favorable to the general body of workmen of an employer
and their dependents as the provisions of the act, or that the provisions
of the scheme are being violated, or that the scheme is not being fairly
administered, or that satisfactory reasons exist for revoking the cer­
tificate, the registrar shall examine into the complaint, and, if satisfied
that good cause exists for it, shall, unless the cause is removed, revoke
the certificate.
A contractor shall be liable for injury caused to a workman in the
employment of a subcontractor.
Where an employer insures his liability for accident and becomes
bankrupt with unsatisfied claims against him by his workmen, they
shall have a first charge upon the insurance money for the amounts
due them.
The act applies only to employment on, in, or about a railway,
factory, mine, quarry, or engineering work, and to employment on,
in, or about any building which exceeds 30 feet in height, and is either
being constructed or repaired by means of scaffolding, or is being
demolished, or on which machinery driven by steam, water, or other
mechanical power is being used for the purpose of its construction,
repair, or demolition.
A careful examination of the act will show that it aims to accom­
plish three things: (1) To provide a method of compensation for acci­
dents not due to the employee’s negligence, unlike the attempts here­




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

107

tofore made to enforce the employer's liability, and at the same time
differing from the German scheme of compulsory insurance; (2) to
make the original “ undertaker” liable for the acts of a subcontractor;
(3) to abolish—by inference only, but with all the practical result of
direct enactment—the doctrine o f “ common employment.” While
conferring these benefits, the law restricts the employee from recov­
ering compensation if the injury was due to his serious and willful
misconduct; and where he was entitled to compensation under the act
it does not prohibit him from seeking his remedy under existing law if
he so elects.
In pursuing the present investigation the endeavor has been to
ascertain the general working and application of the law, its influence
upon production and profits, whether it has been of any advantage to
labor, and whether it has had any effect in improving the relations
between capital and labor.
GENERAL W O RK ING AND APPLICATION OF THE L A W .
In view of the line of inquiry adopted, it has seemed to the writer
that it is valuable and instructive to show how the proposed legislation
was regarded before it came into being, and how far the predictions
then made have been verified.
CONTRACTING OUT.

Attention must be called to the constant fear expressed by labor
that the “ contacting out” clause would cause the workingmen serious
injury, because it substituted for the personal and human responsibility
of the individual employer the impersonal and mechanical liability of
a corporation whose only interest would be to escape payment as fre­
quently as possible. But experience has shown that, while in many
respects the act is defective and has given rise to litigation, which was
the very thing its authors claimed it would abolish, the authority given
to employers and employees to agree on a mutually satisfactory arrange­
ment has worked admirably. In fact, as pointed out by Mr. Brabrook,
the chief registrar of friendly societies, whose sanction is necessary
before any scheme becomes operative, the term “ contracting out” is
a misnomer. The arrangement made between masters and men is not
a contraction out of the scope of the law, but is, rather, bringing both
parties more narrowly within its provisions.
This provision of the act is worthy of the careful consideration of
observers of economic legislation, because both sides to the agreements
regard them as a decided step in harmonizing the relations between
capital and labor, and also because they have been found to give
general satisfaction and to minimize litigation.




108

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

In his annual report for the year ending December 31, 1898, after
the law had been in operation only 6 months, the chief registrar of
friendly societies said:
It may be said without hesitation that the result of the first 6
months’ working of the contracting-out section has been to show on
the part of the employers who have applied for certificates to schemes
a desire to meet their workmen in the most handsome manner, and on
the part of the workmen an excellent feeling of fairness and good will.
This is marked by the circumstance that in some cases where employ­
ers and workmen had unanimously consented to conditions which the
registrar did not think justified him in granting the certificate under
the act the employers have at once adopted the modifications suggested
to them.
Further experience fortified the favorable opinion which the chief
registrar had formed. In his last annual report (for the year ending
December 31,1899), after the law had been in operation for 18 months,
he wrote:
In the aggregate the 32 schemes certified in 1898 and in operation
on the 30th June, 1899, had at that date been adopted by 100,397 work­
men, who had contributed £30,220 [$147,065.63]. The employers had
contributed £40,676 [$197,949.75]. The payments on death had been
£7,867 [$38,284.76]; during incapacity, £31,197 [$151,820.20], and for
other benefits, £5,327 [$25,923.85]. The funds had increased during
the year by £24,436 [$118,917.79]. The number of deaths resulting
from injury was 102, and in 74 of these dependents were left, to nearly
all of whom pensions were awarded in addition to the sums payable on
death. The number of cases of incapacity from injury was 14,165.
The average duration of incapacity was 3 weeks 2 days, and the aver­
age weekly allowance 13s. [$3.16]. Taking into account (a) the other
benefits, (b) the payments during the first two weeks of incapacity,
(< the subsequent paj^ments in excess of those provided by the act,
?)
and (d) the increase of funds, it would appear that in the aggregate
the workmen derive from these schemes benefits considerably exceed­
ing the amount of their contributions. The circumstance that the
common interest of the employer and the workmen in the success of a
scheme is in favor of that vigilance which would tend to diminish the
number and the severity of accidents and the fact that there has been
an absence of litigation in the settlement of claims are also justly to be
considered as advantages offered by the schemes.
The chief registrar gives in detail the operations of the various
schemes. The largest of these is the Great Eastern Railway Accident
Fund. The total number of workmen in the employment of the Great
Eastern Railway June 30,1899, was 27,668, and the number who had
contracted out under the scheme was 27,139. It is stated in a footnote
that the majority of the 529 who had not joined the scheme at that time
have since done so.
Scheme No. 18, entitled, The London, Brighton and South Coast
Railway Company Railway Servants’ Insurance Against Accidents, has
been selected for description here as typical of all the schemes. The




109

THE BRITISH WORKMEN S COMPENSATION ACT.

employees of this railway company numbered 13,506 on June 30,1899,
and 11,233 (a) had contracted out under the scheme. The following
statements show the receipts and disbursements of this scheme and sta­
tistics of cases in which death and incapacity benefits were paid for the
year ending June 30,1899:
RECEIPTS.

Amount on hand at beginning of year..........................................................................................
Contributions of employers....................................................................................... $12,000. 79
Contributions of workmen.......................................................................................... 13,232.01
Other receipts...........................................................................................................................................
Total........................................................................................................................

25,232. 80

EXPENDITURES.

Death benefits.................................................................................................................
9,061.42
Incapacity benefits......................................................................................................... 15,996.19
Other benefits.................................................................................................. .................
175.19
Expenses of management ( b ) ...........................................................................................................
Amount on hand at end of year......................................................................................................
Total........................................................................................................................

25,232. 80

DEATH AND INCAPACITY BENEFITS PAID UNDER SCHEME NO. 18 FOR THE YEAR ENDING
JUNE 30, 1899.
Cases where incapacity resulted from
injury.
Classified duration of incapacity.
Number of
cases.

Duration of inca­
pacity.
—

—

Weeks.
2 weeks or less.................................................................................
Over 2 weeks and not over 4 .......................................................
Over 4 weeks and not over 6 .......................................................
Over 6 weeks and not over 8 .......................................................
Over 8 weeks and not over 10.....................................................
Over 10 weeks and not over 13....................................................
Over 13 weeks and not over 26....................................................
Over 26 weeks...................................................................................

410
310
102
60
31
19
22
6

551
903
496
428
277
217
381
182

Total........................................................................................

960

Amount
paid.

Days.
4

3,439

5
3
3
2
4
3

$2,501.38
4,160.86
2,355.39
1,975.80
1,265.29
1,051.16
1,771.41
914.90
15,996.19

Cases where death resulted from injury.
Class of cases as regards dependents.

Where dependents are left—
Where no dependents are left
Total...................................

i Number and relation of
dependents.
Num­ !
ber of
cases. Wid­ Chil­ Par­ Oth­
ows. dren. ents. ers.
9
1

1
0

5

15

Amount
paid.

14

5

$8,209.78
851.64

14

5

9,061.42

During the short time the act has been in existence it has given rise
to much litigation, all of which, with but very few exceptions, has
been initiated by the workingmen. In fact, the statement can be made
a To these should be added 1,069 workmen who contracted out and have left the
service, died, etc., during the period from September 1, 1898, to June 30,1899.
b Borne by railway company.

7996—No. 32—01------8



110

BULLETIN OF THE

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

with propriety that the dissatisfaction with the act comes from the
workingmen. The employers, as was ascertained from personal inter­
views, if not convinced as to any benefits which have come to them as
a result of the law, have at least adjusted themselves to the new condi­
tions, and finding, as was frankly admitted, that it has not thus far
proved disastrous, have not felt any inclination to evade its obligations.
The workingmen, on the other hand, regard the act as crude in many
respects; as defeating, through its interpretation by the courts, the
spirit of its framers, and as withdrawing from its benefits, owing to
the construction put upon a phrase, a class of labor which the law
intended to protect. Some of these defects the Government practi­
cally agreed to correct at the last session, but the war in South Africa
and other important questions so fully occupied the attention of Par­
liament that domestic legislation suffered.
The exemption from liability on the part of the employer for injury
which does not disable the workman for a period of at least 2 weeks
from earning full wages (section 1), taken in connection with the word­
ing of subclause b of section 1 of the first schedule, providing for esti­
mating the “ average” earnings after the second week, are the two
clauses of the act which have caused the greatest dissatisfaction among
the workingmen and given rise to the most litigation.
The court of appeal has held, on cases coming up from the county
courts, that a workman who has been employed for less than 2 weeks
by the same employer is not entitled to compensation under the provi­
sions of the act, this opinion being based on the phraseology of section 1.
On March 5, 1900, the court of appeal handed down a decision
(Lysons v. Andrew Knowles & Sons, Limited), a synopsis of which is
published in the Labor Gazette (April, 1900), the official publication
of the Board of Trade, as follows:
The compensation provided by the act where total or partial inca­
pacity for work results from the injury is 4 a weekly payment during
4
the incapacity after the second week not exceeding 50 per cent of the
workman’s average weekly earnings during the previous 12 months, if
he has been so long employed, but if not, then for any less period dur­
ing which he has been in the employment of the same employer, such
weekly payment not to exceed £1 [$4.87].” A workman went to work
for a colliery company on July 18, 1899, at a wage of 6s. [$1.46] for
each day on which he should be employed. On July 19 there was a
holiday at the pit, but on the 20th this man went in to do another
day’s work and suffered an injury by accident. The colliery week
ended on the evening of the 19th. On the 21st he was paid 6s. [$1.46]
for his work on the 18th; and on the 28th he received the same sum
for his work on the 20th. He claimed compensation from the compan}^; and the county court judge, taking as a basis the fact that the
workman had earned 12s. [$2.92] within seven days, awarded him a
weekly payment of 6s. [$1.46]—one-half of that amount. The com­
pany appealed, and the court of appeal allowed the appeal, holding
that, in order to recover compensation for injury under the act, a man



THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

I ll

must have been for at least 2 weeks in the employment of the employer
in whose service he has been injured. If he had not, it was impossible
to give any meaning to the words 64average weekly earnings.” .
Five days later the same court handed down another decision in
which the doctrine was again affirmed that a workman could not
recover for injuries unless he had been continuously employed by the
same master for 2 weeks. In this case (Bebbington v. The Waverley
Coal Company, Limited) compensation was claimed by a workman who
had been at work for a colliery company for 8, or at most 5, days
when the accident occurred; and the county court judge made an
award m his favor. This decision the higher court reversed on the
same grounds as those in the Lysons case.
A month later the court once more reaffirmed its original position
that no liability attached to the employer unless there was a 64basis
for the calculatipn of average weekly earnings.” The following ac­
count of the decision in the case of Stuart v. Nixon and Bruce, court
of appeal, April 6, is taken from the Labor Gazette of May, 1900:
The widow of a stevedore’s laborer, who had been killed by accident
arising out of and in the course of his employment, claimed compen­
sation from his employers. The deceased workman had been employed
by these employers for 5 days continuously at daily#wages; on the
fifth day he met with this accident. The county court judge held that
the widow was not entitled to compensation, because her husband had
not been in the employment of these employers for at least 2 weeks,
and refused to make an award in her favor. The widow appealed,
contending that she was entitled to the minimum compensation of
£150 [$729.98]. The court of appeal dismissed the appeal, holding
that the act ought to be construed upon the basis that workmen who
were not in the employment of the same employer for at least 2 weeks
did not come within the purview of the act. , It might not be neces­
sary that the workman should have been employed every day during
those 2 weeks, but the employment must be such as to form the basis
for the calculation of average weekly earnings.
CASUAL LABOR.

The decisions of the court of appeal are reviewable by the House of
Lords, but the expense of an appeal is so great that it deters the ordinaiy litigant from going to the court of last resort. Representatives
of labor were, however, discussing, at the time this investigation was
made, the advisability of prosecuting the appeal, as the decisions of
the court of appeal affected adversely such a large class of labor and
in the opinion of laboring men were so entirely repugnant to the
spirit of the law that it was considered essential that no effort should
be spared to obtain a more liberal construction of the act.
What is known as 4 casual labor” in England, i. e., labor employed
4
by the piece, working for one employer to-day and another to-morrow
and paid as soon as the job is finished, which seldom exceeds more than




112

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

a couple of days and generally is a day only, principally men work­
ing in and about the docks in London and in other great ports, and
the other classes of what are known in the United States as unskilled
labor, are debarred from compensation; and this interpretation of the
law, more than any other, has caused the workingmen to regard the
act as falling far short of their expectations, defeating one of its main
objects, and making it imperative that the law should be amended so
as to correct its crudities. The size of the army of “ casual labor” is
apparently unknown, and the estimates of authorities vary so widely
and are admittedly so purely a matter of guesswork that no attempt
is made to give even approximate figures, which would be misleading.
But on one point there is agreement—that the men who live by casual
employment in the British Isles are a factor of no mean proportions
in the labor equation.
Although the court of appeal has held that there must be a basis for
the calculation of average weekly earnings, the court has awarded com­
pensation where that basis existed, even though it applied to casual
labor. In the case of Williams v. Poulson (court of appeal, November
18, 1899) the appellant, a casual dock laborer, was injured. When the
accident occurred he had been working for the stevedore for 3£ days.
The following account of the case is taken from the Labor Gazette
for December, 1899:
From March 5, 1898, to January 25, 1899, he [the appellant] had
worked for this employer in each week except 4, though sometimes on
only 1 day in each week. During the previous 12 months he had earned
from work done for this stevedore £S8 13s. 6d. [$188.21]. The ap­
plicant stated that his earnings throughout the year, from all his em­
ployers together^ were equivalent to an average of 28s. [$6.81] a week,
his rate of pay being 5s. [$1.22] a day. The county court judge took
the amount earned in the year by the applicant while working for this
stevedore as his basis, and calculated the average weekly wages of the
applicant at 15s. [$3.65], and awarded him one-half of this sum, viz,
7s. 6d. [$1.83], a week. The applicant appealed, contending that the
sum awarded him was too little; that his average weekly earnings ought
for the purposes of the act to be taken to be 28s. [$6.81] a week (his
average earnings from all employers together), or that the average
ought to be ascertained by taking as a basis the Si days during which
he had been employed immediately before the accident, and accordingly
should be reckoned at 30s. [$7.30] a week. Thus he would in the one
case be entitled to 14s. [$3.41], in the other, 15s. [$3.65], a week as
compensation. On behalf of the employers it was contended, in the
first place, that the applicant was not entitled to recover any compen­
sation at all. The act only applied where there was continuous
employment for at least 2 weeks before the accident. There was no
mode provided by the act of assessing compensation where the employ­
ment was for a shorter period than 2 weeks. In the second place, if the
act applied, the county court judge was right in awarding 7s. 6d. [$1.83] a
week. The court dismissed the appeal. The court held that the appeal
must fail unless the applicant could show that the county court judge




THE BRITISH WORKMENS COMPENSATION ACT.

113

gave him less than he was entitled to. That judge had found as a fact
that the employment of the applicant had been continuous during the
12 months preceding the accident, and that his earnings during this
period were the amount above mentioned, and having divided this
amount by the number of weeks comprised in the period, he had
awarded the applicant one-half of the sum so found. The applicant
was not entitled to more than this. It was not for the court to say
whether in point of fact there was during the period in question such
a continuous employment by the same employer as would justify the
award. The employer had not brought any appeal, and this point
could therefore not be raised in the present case.
Other similar decisions are to be found.
Considerable litigation has followed the passage of the law—litiga­
tion perhaps natural under the circumstances, because a judicial inter­
pretation was necessary to define the meaning of terms. The lords
justices of appeal have been required to interpret the phrase 4 in and
4
about a factory,” to say who is or is not a “ dependent” within the
meaning of the act, and to meet, in ever-varying form, the issue raised
as to what constitutes a average wages.”
LABGB ON BUILDINGS.

Section 7 limits the benefits of the act to employment 4 on, in, or
4
about any building which exceeds 30 feet in height, and is either being
constructed or. repaired by means of scaffolding,” and this limitation
has given rise to much litigation. It is claimed by the representatives
of labor that requiring the building to be over 30 feet before compen­
sation can be claimed is ridiculous, as serious and fatal accidents often
occur when the building is below that height; moreover, that the
rulings of county court judges are not uniform, some estimating the
30 feet from the ground to the top of the walls, while others construe
the 30 feet to mean to the tops of the roof.
A case involving a legal construction of this section was decided by
the Liverpool county court in November, 1898. The following account
of the decision is taken from the Labor Gazette for December, 1898:
A bricklayer claimed compensation from a firm of contractors for
injuries received to his eye, which had in consequence to be removed.
Plaintiff was engaged at work upon a building in the course of erec­
tion which was under 30 feet high. It was contended on behalf of the
plaintiff that the fact that mechanical power—namely, a derrick—for
the raising of beams was at work on the premises at the time brought
the building within the definition of an 4 engineering w ork” in the act.
4
The judge held that the case came within 44engineering work” and
awarded plaintiff 19s. lOd. [$4.83] a week (being 50 per cent of his
wages) from the 31st of August last and a further sum of 7s. 6d. [$1.83]
a week so long as partial incapacity continued.
The judgment of the lower court was affirmed by the court of appeal,
which held that in section 7 the words 44or on which machinery driven
by steam, water, or other mechanical power is being used” have as



114

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

their antecedent the word “ building5 simply, and not the words
5
“ building which exceeds 30 feet in height.” On the other hand, an
almost identical case in Scotland was decided in favor of the defendant.
Here the plaintiff, a laborer, was injured while demolishing a building
which did not exceed 16 feet in height, and this point was relied on
by the defense. Plaintiff asserted that the use of a steam crane ren­
dered it an u engineering work,” but the sheriff refused to accept that
construction of the act. An appeal from the sheriff’s court lies to the
court of session, but no appeal was taken.
What constitutes a “ scaffolding” is another vexed question which
the court of appeal has passed upon more than once. The widow of a
workman sued under the following circumstances: Her husband was
employed to clean and paint the outside of a house under 30 feet high,
long ladders being used. The rung of the ladder on which he stood
broke and he was thrown to the ground and killed. On one ladder
was a plank with one end tied to the rung of the ladder and the other
end resting on a window sill, but deceased was not standing on the
plank at the time of the accident. The case was referred to an arbi­
trator, who held that this ladder and plank did not constitute a scaf­
folding within the meaning of the act and made his award in favor of
the employers, but submitted the case to the county court judge, who
reversed the arbitrator and made an award in favor of the claimant.
On appeal the court of appeal reversed the award on the ground that
the ladder and plank did not constitute a scaffolding within the mean­
ing of the act. (a)
In another case a workman, while engaged in putting some stays in
a stable to strengthen it, and standing on some planks about 8 feet
from the ground, supported by trestles, fell off the planks and' was
killed. The widow claimed compensation. The height of the build­
ing was 28 feet from the ground to the parapet, and to the top of the
roof 36 feet. The county court judge awarded her compensation.
The appellate court reversed the court below, holding that while the
building exceeded 30 feet in height, it was not being “ either con­
structed or repaired by means of a scaffolding.” (5)
Commenting on these decisions, Judge Parry (c) says:
Other things that remain dark under the act are when a man’s
employment commences, how and when he is to make a claim for com­
pensation, what is a building, what is a scaffold, what is repair. In
connection with this the court of appeal have decided that painting
the outside of a house is not repairing it, and thereby jmt a large class
of men in a dangerous employment outside the provisions of the act.
Though in a more recent case the same court decides that a decorative
artist painting cupids on the ceiling of a theatre during construction
a Wood v. W alsh & Sons, court of appeal, March 18, 1899.
b Hoddinott v. Newton, Chambers & Co., Limited.
C ‘ ‘ The Workmen’ s Compensation A ct: ’ ’ The Fortnightly Review', London, July, 1900.




THE BRITISH WORKMEN S COMPENSATION ACT.

115

is within the act, the same artist repainting* the same cupids years
hence would probably come within the first decision and be outside
the act. One is, of course, not criticising the legal value of these
decisions, but only pointing out the hardship to a painter or his
employer of having to pay lawyers who are.able to understand these
cases, and being made to pay costs if the lawyers fail in the effort.
RESULTS OF THE L A W .
Before the passage of the act Mr. John Wilson, member of Parliament
for Durham, and secretary of the Durham Coal Miners’ Association,
feared that the compensation would come out of the pockets of the
workingmen. The practical operations of the act have evidently
caused him to take a rather more hopeful view. In March, 1899, he
called the attention of his association to an agreement just made with
the colliery owners relating to funeral expenses. In the case of fatal
accidents, where no dependents are left, the law provides that the
employer shall pay the funeral expenses, but no amount is stipulated.
The Durham mine owners agreed to pay £5 ($24.33) if a coffin is pro­
vided at their expense, or £6 ($29.20) when no such provision has been
made. Commenting on this agreement, Mr. Wilson says: “ This, I
hope, will stereotype a mode and facilitate a settlement in this class
of cases. As we get on we shall reach common ground in other
directions.”
In June of the same year Mr. Wilson showed that another step had
been taken in the direction of reaching common ground. It had long
been a custom that in the case of miners killed by accident their widows
should be permitted to continue to live in their houses rent free.
When the act went into effect the owners served notice that where
compensation was paid rent would be exacted, the owners claiming
that the heavy charges entailed upon them by the law would not per­
mit them to exercise their former g e n e r o s i t } ^ After some negotiation
a compromise was effected by which the employers agreed to permit
the widow of any miner killed by accident to remain in the house 2
months after his death rent free, but no compensation would be paid
until after she had vacated the house.
It has been suggested by some employers that one effect of the pas­
sage of the act has been to make men careless and encourage malinger­
ing; that the workman, appreciating that he would be compensated
for injury and loss of time, has become indifferent to his personal
safety; and that there is a certain temptation among a certain class of
men to do themselves a slight bodily injury and exaggerate its impor­
tance, which enables them to live in idleness at the expense of their
employers. How true this charge is (a charge, it is proper to state,
not generally made, but still suggested by more than one employer),
it is, of course, impossible to tell. Representatives of labor, as might
naturally be expected, deny it and point out that the love of life and



116

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

avoidance of suffering are to the average man of more weight than a
small compensation, the payment of which is not always certain. The
law provides safeguards against fraud by making the decision of the
government medical referee final in case of failure to agree on the part
o f the medical experts called by the opposing interests, and in practice
this has given general satisfaction. Officials of the Board of Trade
whose duty it is to watch the returns of industrial accidents* do not see
that the law has increased the number.
Undoubtedly one result of the passage of the act has been to make
employers, especially in the dangerous trades, more narrowly enforce
their regulations, so as to avail themselves of the u serious and willful
misconduct” clause. Mr. John Wilson points this out in his circular
to his association, January, 1899. He cites the case of Dobbin, a
wasteman, who begged a ride on a “ kibble,” which, running away,
caused fatal injuries. His employers refused compensation on the
ground that his death was due to his “ serious and willful misconduct”
(as it was not part of his duties to ride on the kibble) and did not
arise out of or was not in the course of his employment. Commenting
on the case, which had been referred to the county court judge (a) for
decision, Mr. Wilson wrote:
If this does not arise out of or is not in the course of his employ­
ment, or if such an act as this can be classed as “ serious and willful
misconduct,” the meaning of the words is much wider and more danger­
ous than the politicians who introduced the measure and some of the
lawyers who took part in the discussion contemplated. Mr. Chamberlain"said: “ It would be unfair that the workmen should be debarred from
compensation because of the breach of one, perhaps, out of a hundred
rules. Even in the rules embodied in the acts of Parliament there are
many that are not of a serious character. ” Lord Herschell said: cThere
may be a breach of the rule which could not be described as serious
and willful misconduct. If every breach of a rule for which a magis­
trate can fine is therefore serious and willful, that would be a wide
interpretation of the clause.” Mr. Asquith said: “ W illful miscon­
duct is a totally different thing from negligence.” This is one of the
portions of the act which was opposed very strongly in the House of
Commons by the miners5 representatives. To them the dangers lying
in these words were plain. Subsequent events have proved them
right. Already there have been (as it was thought there would be)
many conflicting opinions. It is therefore necessary that, if any living
lawyer can define the limits of the clause, we should have a definition
to guide our future consideration of parallel cases.
Mr. Wilson, in the same circular, mentions other accidents which
have been caused by an infraction of the rules, and adds:
I mention tnese cases not for the purpose of expressing an opinion
upon the evidence, because at the time of writing this our committee
a The judge ruled against the claim holding that “ the deceased met with his acci­
dent in the kibble, in which he was riding for his own pleasure, and not in the course
of his employment.”




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

117

have not met, and it is for them to decide what course we shall take in
relation to the cases. My aim is to draw attention to the requirements
of the law and special rules. There is no doubt but there will be
greater strictness in the application of the special rules and the law,
and wherever i person is injured, and there be a violation of these, the
“ serious and willful misconduct” portion of the act will be brought
into operation.
One of the results which might have been naturally anticipated from
the passage of the law was that it would lead the employers to be
more careful in their selection of workmen, and that they would
employ more competent men. It can not be said that this expectation
has been realized, due doubtless to the reasons already given, that
since the law came into operation manufacturing in Great Britain has
been carried on at high pressure, and in many branches of industry
there has been a scarcity rather than a surplus of labor. Whether
what was anticipated will come to pass when labor is vainly seeking
employment and the employers have more applications for work than
they are able to satisfy—i. e., on a falling labor market and a curtail­
ment of production— is a speculative inquiry not to be answered here,
and for which there is no basis on which to predict any satisfactory
result. And so long as wages advance and production is unable to
keep pace with the demand that phase of the question will not vex
either capital or labor.
But the workings of the law have affected workingmen in a way
hardly foreseen by them at the time they were demanding its passage.
According to the statements made by Mr. Thomas Burt, M. P., and
Mr. John Wilson, M. P., both of whom are competent authorities on
all matters relating to the employment of labor in and about coal mines,
since the enactment there has been a tendency among employers not to
employ men who have passed their prime.
It is asserted that one of the effects of the law is to make it more
difficult for elderly men, especially those whose bodily or mental facul­
ties are in the least impaired or dulled, to obtain employment, and that
in a time of stress men above a certain age would be the first marked
for dismissal. Mr. Thomas Burt, M. P., general secretary of the
Northumberland Miners’ Mutual Confident Association, stated that to
some extent this tendency had already been noticed. The reason, of
course, is obvious. A workman past his prime is more likely to become
injured than one younger and more alert, and as the law imposes severe
liabilities on the employer he will naturally take every precaution to
minimize his risk. How seriously this will affect labor when the scale
falls would be idle speculation at this time. That it is a real and ever­
present fear in the mind of labor can not be denied.
This tendency to discourage the employment of elderly men, or those
not in the enjoj^ment of the fullest physical vigor, is not confined solely
to colliery proprietors. According to the statements of representative



118

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

labor leaders, speaking for those trades brought under the scope of the
act, the same thing is noticeable. This has been referred to without bit­
terness, but as a fact; an unfortunate but perhaps unavoidable corollary
to the effort made to improve general conditions, which, as a general
thing, brings about “ the greatest good for the greatest number,” but
incidentally, in the process of adjustment, before its accomplishment
entails some suffering on the minority.
It is obvious, as has been pointed out to the writer, that the
employers, for their own,protection, will not willingly employ aged
and infirm men.
In this connection an effort has been made to ascertain whether the
law has had any effect in inducing employers to use better appliances
and in other ways guard their employees from death or accident by
more narrowly protecting them. It can not be said that much change
has been noticed. In England factories, mines, railways, and other
places where labor is employed are brought under the control and
supervision of the secretary of state for home affairs, whose powers
are wide, plenary, and in some directions drastic. The home secre­
tary, under the authority conferred on him by various acts of Parlia­
ment, makes regulations to safeguard the rights of both emploj^ers and
employees, and his regulations do not become a dead letter, but are
rigidly .enforced by the constant supervision and investigation of the
factory inspectors and the other officials of the Board of Trade. The
numerous prosecutions brought under these various acts and the fines
inflicted both on employer and empk^ees for violations of the regula­
tions testify to the rigid scrutiny exercised and the zealous care dis­
played to protect the employer from the malice or indifference of
the workman and the workman against the cupidity or brutality of
his master. As a matter of economy simply and without regard to
sentiment or other motives, it is cheaper for an employer to use safety
appliances and exercise all possible precautions to prevent accidents
or loss of life than it is for him to pay compensation. But the vigi­
lance of the factory inspectors would enforce that in any event, and it
is rare that the working parts of machinery are not fenced in or that
the other safeguards required by the regulations are not observed.
Their violation is apt to prove costly.
The writer has been assured by representatives of the trade unions
that in one respect at least the law meets with their approval, inasmuch
as it has caused a decrease of legal expenses, despite the litigation which
has followed its enactment, owing to so many cases being settled by
the decisions of arbitrators and through the efforts of joint committees
representing masters and men. The hope is expressed that after the
courts have defined the scope of the act and limited the interpretation
to be put on phraseology open to reasonable doubt—the more impor­
tant of which has already been referred to—both sides will be fully



THE BRITISH WORKMEN’ S COMPENSATION ACT.

119

cognizant of their rights and litigation will be as rare as it is unneces­
sary. Before the passage of the Workmen’s Compensation Act the
workman’s right of redress against his employer for injury was by an
action brought under the Employers’ Liability Act and other similar
statutes. Those laws were fruitful sources of litigation. The adoption
of schemes is also regarded as a means to remove friction. With
agreements made on both sides, the rights of both being protected and
a definite understanding existing, the not unreasonable hope is expressed
that all disputes will be settled under the terms of the covenant and
there will be no temptation to invoke the assistance of the law.
A return made by the home office giving the litigated cases for
England and Wales only under the act during the first 6 months of
its existence affords some interesting statistics. In an introductory
note attention is called to the fact that “ the Workmen’s Compensation
Act, 1897, came into force on the 1st July, 1898—that is to say, that
the right to compensation under that act accrued with regard to acci­
dents happening on and after that date; that it was only an interval
after that date that disputed cases would come before the county court
or arbitrators, and that usually^ a further delay would occur before
the case could be decided.
The return therefore, which gives the
results of cases dealt with and settled, though it nominally^ covers 6
months, really relates to a much shorter period. Indeed, it may be
doubted if, so far as regards arbitration, the normal number of cases
was reached before the end of the year.
Probably to regard the
tables as representing 3 months’ working of the act would not be very
far from the mark.”
The returns show, giving due consideration to the brief period
which they cover, that 130 cases were settled in the county courts, of
which 104 were by the judge’s award, 8 by an arbitrator’s award,
and 18 by acceptance of money paid into court. There were 48
other cases either withdrawn, settled out of court, or otherwise dis­
posed of in such a way as not to enable the officials of the court to
state definitely the results. Of the 130 cases finally settled within
the cognizance of the courts, the decisions in 101 cases were for the
plaintiff and in 29 for the defendant. In 48 cases the award was a
lump sum; in 53 cases a weekly payment. It is impossible to capital­
ize, even approximately, the value of the weekly payments.
In 38 cases compensation was awarded on account of death, the
total amount awarded being <£7,604 18s. 6d. ($37,009.37), the average
award being £200 2s. 7d. ($973.93). There were 10 cases in which
the compensation for injury consisted of a lump sum. The total
amount in these cases was £161 2s. 7d. ($784.14) and the average
£16 2s. 3d. ($78.41). Of the 53 cases of injury in which a weekly
sum was assigned, there were 16 cases of total and 37 of partial
incapacity. The average amount in the former was 11s. 4d. ($2.76) a



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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

week; in the latter 12s. lOd. ($3.12).
The compiler of the return
comments as follows in explanation of these figures:
It appears somewhat remarkable that the average payment for total
incapacity should be less than for partial incapacity. Probably the
explanation is that partial incapacity usually means temporary inca­
pacity and that in cases of temporary incapacity, even where the
employer disputes his liability, he does not object, if he pays at all,
to pay the full amount allowed under the act, i. e., half wages. On
the other hand, the cases of total incapacity include a larger propor­
tion of cases of permanent disablement in which a smaller allowance
than the maximum, under the act, is awarded.
As already stated, the Workmen’s Compensation Act will reduce
the number of cases under the Employers’ Liability Act, but the tables
afford no proper basis of comparison. It is interesting to note, how­
ever, that of the 681 cases brought in 1898 under the Employers’
Liability Act, 596 were in employments to which the Workmen’s
Compensation Act now applies and only 85 in other employments.
It may also be of interest to note that the average amount of damages
in case of death amounted to £85 6s. Id. ($415.19) under the Employ­
ers’ Liability Act, as compared with £200 2s. 7d. ($973.93) in arbi­
trations under the Workmen’s Compensation Act, and that while
solicitors’ costs under the latter act in 60 cases averaged £11 Is. Id.
($53.80), under the Employers’ Liability Act the average of 208 qases
was £22 14s. 4d. ($110.55).
The conclusion of the compiler is of so much importance that its
salient features are herewith given:
In conclusion it should again be stated that the most serious mistake
that could be made with regard to these returns is to imagine that the
cases which come before the county courts represent anj^ considerable
proportion of the cases in which compensation is claimed or paid under
the act. There is a concurrence of testimony that in the great major­
ity of cases the full compensation allowed by the act is given without
question, but unfortunately no figures can be obtained which even
approximately represent the actual payments. The home office com­
mittee, which reported in the end of 1897 on the question of the
appointment of medical referees as the result of a careful examination
of all available statistics of accidents, both official and nonofficial, and
of comparison of the German accident rates, estimated the annual num­
ber of accidents in England and Wales for which compensation would
be payable as between 120,000 and 150,000. Taking the lower figures,
this would give 30,000 as the number of cases of accident within the act
in a period of 3 months.
Even if the total number of cases for the period covered by the
return were put so low as 20,000, the number of cases carried to the
county court (178) would still be considerably less than 1 per cent of
the whole, and even of these some were taken to the court not to dis­
pute payment* but to settle the question of the person to whom the
payment should be made.
However far the figures just quoted may be from an accurate esti­
mate of the total number of cases, they may perhaps serve to show



THE BRITISH WORKMEN’ S COMPENSATION ACT.

121

that the very small number of litigated cases must not be taken as any
measure of the number of those in which compensation has been paid
under the act.
This lesson is also enforced by the returns from some of the dis­
tricts. * * * In the Stokesley and Guisborough district, with a
population of 28,000, chiefly miners, while there were no litigated
cases in the county court, there was, up to December 31, at least 80
cases in which compensation was paid without dispute (78 by agree­
ment and 2 on the award of the committee). If it could be assumed
that the same ratio of cases to population holds throughout England
and Wales, this would give, against 178 litigated cases, about 80,000
cases in which compensation was paid by agreement. This figure is
of course too high. In a district where a mining population prepon­
derates the proportion of accidents for which compensation is payable
under the act is much greater than in the country generally, but even
when full allowance is made for this difference the result is sufficiently
striking.
Not less noteworthy is the fact that in some of the largest and most
populous industrial districts, where numerous accidents must certainly
have occurred in the employments coming within the act, not a single
litigated case under the new act had, up to 31st December, been taken to
the county court and decided either by the judge or arbitrators. Thus
there was not one case from the mining districts of Durham, Consett,
and Bishop-Auckland, with a population of 312,000, nor from South
Staffordshire, with a population of 575,000, nor from Plymouth and
South Devon, with a population of 480,000, nor Cornwall, with a popu­
lation of 314,000. In Bristol, with a population of 355,000, there
was only 1 case, and only 2 in the circuit which includes Halifax,
Huddersfield, and Dewsbury, and has a population of 582,000.
In addition to the above the following statement, taken from the
Labor Gazette for August, 1900, shows the extent of litigation under
the act for the year ending December 31,1899:
Of 1,347 arbitrations in county courts in England and Wales 828
were decided by award of the judge, 98 by award of an arbitrator
appointed by the judge, and 73 by acceptance of money paid into court.
The remaining 348 cases were withdrawn, settled out of court, or oth­
erwise disposed of in such a way as not to enable the officials of the
court to state definitely the results. O f the 999 cases finally settled
within the cognizance of the courts the decision in 753 cases was for
the applicant and in 246 for the respondent.
The average amount of compensation paid in cases of death to
dependents was £173 Is. 7d. [$842.29]. The average amount of the
lump sums awarded (in lieu of weekly payments) in cases of injury
was £32 2s. 4d. [$156.30]. The average weekly allowance in cases of
injury was 10s. lid . [$2.66] in cases of total and 9s. 2d. [$2.23] in cases
of partial incapacity. The duration of these weekly payments can
not in most cases be stated.
Fifty-four cases were carried to the court of appeal in England, or
4 per cent of the cases that came before the county courts. Twentythree were appeals by work people and 31 by employers. O f the
former 5, of the latter 12, were successful.




122

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

COST TO CAPITAL AND LABOR.
The question of cost, which naturally includes the cost both to
capital and labor, is such an important one that the writer has devoted
considerable time and effort in an attempt to obtain reliable data, but
unfortunately the attempt has been without result. Prior to the
passage of the act, when it was pending in Parliament, employers and
employees raised objections, both expressing the fear that its burden
would fall on their shoulders. Thus the colliery proprietors antag­
onized the measure because they foresaw a liability created which
might easily become ruinous, while Mr. John Wilson, a member of
Parliament, and secretary of the Durham Coal Miners’ Association,
dreaded the effect it would have on wages. Writing to his association
in February, 1897, he said:
There is not a question within the probabilities of legislation which
so vitally affects our interests.
After predicting that the effect of the law would be to induce
employers to provide against loss by transferring the liability to an
insurance company which, he feared, because of the removal of respon­
sibility from the employer, would increase rather than diminish the
number of accidents, he continued:
But suppose a universal scheme of compensation for all accidents
established, and as easily as water flowing down a hill we received the
amount arranged by the State for the class of accident we had received.
Whence comes the money? The ready but incorrect answer will be,
no doubt, from the employer. It will come no more from him than
the water we drink comes from the tap or pipe it runs out of. It may
run out of the tap, but it must first come from the spring or other
source. So the money paid will come from the spring of the employ­
er’s wealth—the labor of the workman. The employers are alive to
that simple truth of political economy. In conversation with one
large employer he admitted that, and it can not be successfully con­
troverted. It may be denied, but not refuted.
That was the view of labor’s representative in Parliament. The
Government view was expressed by Mr. Chamberlain, the secretary
of state for the colonies. The legislation did not, of course, come
under the purview of his department, but belonged to the home office,
and the home secretary, Sir Matthew White Ridley, stood sponsor for
the measure in the Commons, but Mr. Chamberlain has generally been
regarded as the real creator of the law. Mr. Asquith, Sir Matthew
Ridley’s predecessor in the home office, suggested that a large share
of the burden would fall upon wages and that little benefit would
accrue to the workman. Replying to Mr. Asquith, Mr. Chamberlain
said that, admitting the correctness of the argument, “ every addition
to the cost of manufacture must come out of wages, which, I think,
will reduce the argument to an absurdity.” He contended that legis­




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’ S COMPENSATION ACT.

128

lation on the line suggested did not result in reducing wages, and cited
Germany as an example where, he said, wages, in common with those
of other countries, had been advancing.
In asking leave to introduce the bill Sir Matthew White Ridley
said:
It was shown that such a law of industrial compensation is well-nigh
common to the whole of the Continent, and is in force in most of those
countries with which we enter into any severe competition. It was
pointed out also that such a scheme providing for general compensa­
tion, if it accurately defined the liabilities of one side and the other
and if it provided a simple and inexpensive remedy, would prevent
litigation. It would prevent uncertainty, and the parties would know
what their rights wrere.
Mr. Chamberlain also said:
I believe the bill may stand very well on its merits as being a bill
for compensation alone. If you consider that under the existing
state of law something like 12 per cent only of accidents are in any
way dealt with in the shape of compensation, the House can under­
stand that a bill which is going to bring in for the first time 88 per
cent more is a measure of such importance that it may very well stand
on its own bottom.
And again, to show the extent of the act, he said:
We have provided for those who are injured by no fault of their
own, but we have gone beyond that, because we have provided for
those who have, in the technical terms of the law, contributed to the
accident from which they suffer.
In June, 1897, after the bill had passed the committee stage, Mr.
Y
vrilson, again reporting to his association, expressed the fear that the
compensation would come out of the pockets of the workingmen, and
he ridiculed the assertions of the colliery proprietors that the pro­
posed law would impose an obligation equivalent to nearly 3d. (6 cents)
per ton, or an annual'charge of £2,375,000 ($11,557,937.50).
So far as labor is concerned, it has been shown that since the law
went into effect wages have steadily advanced and employment in
almost all trades has been obtained without difficulty, which would
seem to prove that labor has not been taxed for whatever benefits it
has enjoyed under the new dispensation, and, on the contrary, has been
a direct gainer. But in regard to capital the problem is more complex.
There are no general statistics available. The report of the chief reg­
istrar of friendly societies, to which reference has been made, gives
the amounts which the operations of the act have cost capital under
the schemes which have received his approval, but these schemes are
so few comparatively and affect such a small number of workingmen
as compared to the whole that their results are valueless as throwing
light on this branch of the inquiry. Furthermore, the schemes vary
so greatly and the cost differs so much, depending upon the trade and




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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

the number of men interested, that the figures confuse rather than
enlighten. For instance, the Great Eastern Railway scheme affects
27,668 men and costs the company £10,022 ($48,772.06), or an average
cost to the company per man of about 7s. 2d. ($1.74), while the Mon­
mouthshire and South Wales Miners’ Permanent Provident Society,
with a membership of 21,271, entails an expense on the employers of
£13,030 ($63,410.50), or an average cost per man of 12s. 3d. ($2.98), or
rather more than 70 per cent higher than the Great Eastern Railway’s
expense. This difference in cost may possibly be explained on the
ground that coal mining is a more hazardous occupation than railroad­
ing, but it is not satisfactorily explained why the relative expense to
the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway is so much less than
to the Great Eastern, the conditions governing both systems being
practically identical. Under the London, Brighton and South Coast’s
scheme 13,506 employees are affected, the cost to the company being
£2,446 ($11,903.46), or 3s. 7Jd. ($0.88) per employee, as against the
Great Eastern’s 7s. 2d. ($1.74). These figures show that the schemes
do not afford an accurate basis for estimating the cost.
Inquiry among employers shows either a reluctance or inability to
enter into the expense of compensation. In some cases manufacturers
have frankly stated that they prefer not to give figures, as they con­
sider it advisable to keep the facts to themselves and not make them
public for the benefit of rivals. Employers, of course, look upon the
expense incident to the act as a necessary charge upon production, and
to be estimated accordingly in calculating cost, precisely as fire insur­
ance and other similar charges are considered. Furthermore, certain
employers have pointed out that it is difficult to estimate the cost to
them of the new legislation, because under the Employers’ Liability
Act and other general statutes they were constantly compelled to
recompense employees for injuries sustained. .It will require more
time than has yet elapsed to determine whether the employers have
gained or suffered by making the Workmen’s Compensation Act vir­
tually, although not statutorily, supersede the Employers’ Liability
Act.
Some employers underwrite their contingent liability to their
employees by paying a fixed premium to insurance companies, who
guarantee the insurer against loss, precisely as is done in other and
more familiar forms of insurance. Application has been made to the
two insurance companies doing the bulk of this business for data which
would afford a basis of calculation, but while the officers of one of the
companies very courteously gave the writer certain information, it
was not detailed enough to throw much light on the question. The
rate of premium paid this company varies from Is. to 40s. per cent.
The total amount of premiums received since the act came into force
is £40,000 ($194,660); losses paid, £16,000 ($77,864), with 1,000 cases



THE BRITISH WORKMEN’ S COMPENSATION ACT.

125

unadjusted; number of employers insured, 6,000. The manager of
the other company politely declined to give any information, on the
ground that it was a trade secret which could not be made public
without injury.
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.
While no attempt is made by the writer to theorize or assert his own
opinions, certain general conclusions may properly be drawn from the
facts developed, especially in view of the results sought to be attained
as stated on page 107. Unfortunately these results are only partial.
So far as they go they show—
1. That the law has not worked without friction, but that friction is
gradually being eliminated.
2. The effect of the law upon production and profits can not be
stated. There has certainly been no curtailment of production, but
Great Britain, in common with all the rest of the world, has enjoyed
unexampled prosperity since the law came into operation; therefore
all speculation as to the influence of the law is valueless. For the same
reason no conclusion can be reached as to the bearing of the law upon
profits. Prices have been steadily tending upward, the causes for
which are so numerous that they can not be even touched upon here;
but it would be foolish to assert that because the employer has to com­
pensate his workmen the consumer has to pay more for articles of
consumption than he did before the passage of the act. Whether the
increased cost of production, the compensation, will in a falling market
come out of the profits of the manufacturer or the wages of the laborer
or the pocket of the consumer is a problem which no one feels qualified
to answer with authority to-day.
3. That the law has improved the condition of labor is freely admitted.
It has more narrowly defined the obligations of the employer; it has
made him more vigilant to save his employee from harm, and it has
given the employee a quicker, easier, and more certain means of obtain­
ing redress when his injury has been caused by his employer’s negli­
gence or indifference.
4. That the law has improved the relations existing between capital
and labor is also admitted. The adoption of schemes which can not
be enforced at the will of the employer, but can only become opera­
tive by the consent of the workmen, has brought the two interests in
closer communion, and both sides have a common purpose in seeing
that the fund to which they jointly contribute is properly, econom­
ically, and justly administered. And the law has also tended to improve
the relations existing between capital and labor by making labor feel
that when it incurs disability in the service of capital it will be com­
pensated and not cast adrift to shift for itself because it has ceased to
increase the profits of capital.
7996— No. 32—01----- 9



126

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Following is the text of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1897, and
of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1900, which extends the benefits
of the act of 1897 to workmen in agriculture:
A

n

A

to amend the law with respect to compensation to workmen for accidental
injuries suffered in the course of their employment [6th August 1897].

ct

Be it enacted by * * * Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as
follows:
1.
— (1) If in any employment to which this act applies personal injury by accident
arising out of and in the course of the employment is caused to a workman, his
employer shall, subject as hereinafter mentioned, be liable to pay compensation in
accordance with the first schedule to this act.
(21 Provided that:—
(a) The employer shall not be liable under this act in respect of any injury which
does not disable the workman for a period of at least 2 weeks from earning full wages
at the work at which he was employed;
( b) W hen the injury was caused by the personal negligence or willful act of the
employer, or of some person for whose act or default the employer is responsible,
nothing in this act shall affect any civil liability of the employer, but in that case
the workman may, at his option, either claim compensation under this act, or take
the same proceedings as were open to him before the commencement of this act; but
the employer shall not be liable to pay compensation for injury to a workman by
accident arising out of and in the course of the employment both independently of
and also under this act, and shall not be liable to any proceedings independently of
this act, except in case of such personal negligence or willful act as aforesaid;
(c) If it is proved that the injury to a workman is attributable to the serious and
willful misconduct of that workman, any compensation claimed in respect of that
injury shall be disallowed.
(3) If any question arises in any proceedings under this act as to the liability to pay
compensation under this act (including any question as to whether the employment
is one to which this act applies), or as to the amount or duration of compensation
under this act, the question, if not settled by agreement, shall, subject to the pro­
visions of the first schedule to this act, be settled by arbitration, in accordance with
the second schedule to this act.
(4) If, within the time hereinafter in this act limited for taking proceedings, an
action is brought to recover damages independently of this act for injury caused by
any accident, and it is determined in such action that the injury is one for which the
employer is not liable in such action, but that he would have been liable to pay com­
pensation under the provisions of this act, the action shall be dismissed; but the
court in which the action is tried shall, if the plaintiff shall so choose, proceed to
assess such compensation, and shall be at liberty to deduct from such compensation
all the costs which, in its judgment, have been caused by the plaintiff bringing the
action instead of proceeding under this act.
In any proceeding under this subsection, w hen the court assesses the compensation
T
it shall give a certificate of the compensation it has awarded and the directions it has
given as to the deduction for costs, and such certificate shall have the force and effect
of an award under this act.
(5) Nothing in this act shall affect any proceeding for a fine under the enactments
relating to mines or factories, or the application of any such fine, but if any such fine,
or any part thereof, has been applied for the benefit of the person injured, the
amount so applied shall be taken into account in estimating the compensation under
this act.
2.
— (1) Proceedings for the recovery under this act of compensation for an injury
shall not be maintainable unless notice of the accident has been given as soon as
practicable after the happening thereof and before the workman has voluntarily left
the employment in which he was injured, and unless the claim for compensation
with respect to such accident has been made within 6 months from the occurrence
of the accident causing the injury, or, in case of death, within 6 months from the
time of death. Provided always that the want of or any defect or inaccuracy in such
notice shall not be a bar to the maintenance of such proceedings, if it is found in the
proceedings for settling the claim that the employer is not prejudiced in his defence
by the want, defect, or inaccuracy, or that such want, defect, or inaccuracy was
occasioned by mistake or other reasonable cause.
(2)
Notice" in respect of an injury under this act shall give the name and address
of the person injured, and shall state in ordinary language the cause of the injury




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’ S COMPENSATION ACT.

127

and the date at which it was sustained, and shall he served on the employer, or, if
there is more than one employer, upon one of such employers.
(3) The notice may be served by delivering the same to or at the residence cr
place of business of the person on whom it is to be served.
(4) The notice may also be served by post by a registered letter addressed to the
person on whom it is to be served at his last known place of residence or place of
business, and if served by post shall be deemed to have been served at the time when
the letter containing the same would have been delivered in the ordinary course of
post, and in proving the service of such notice it shall be sufficient to prove that the
notice was properly addressed and registered.
(5) Where the employer is a body of persons corporate or unincorporate, the notice
may also be served by delivering the same at, or by sending it by post in a registered
letter addressed to the employer at, the office, or, if there be more than one office,
any one of the offices of such body.
3.
— (1) If the registrar of friendly societies, after taking steps to ascertain the
views of the employer and workmen, certifies that any scheme of compensation,
benefit, or insurance for the workmen of an employer in any employment, whether
or not such scheme includes other employers and their workmen, is on the whole
not less favorable to the general body of workmen and their dependents than the
provisions of this act, the employer "may, until the certificate is revoked, contract
with any of those workmen that the provisions of the scheme shall be substituted
for the provisions of this act, and thereupon the employer shall be liable only in
accordance with the scheme, but, save as aforesaid, this act shall apply notwithstand­
ing any contract to the contrary made after the commencement of this act.
(2) The registrar may give a certificate to expire at the end of a limited period not
less than 5 years.
(3) No scheme shall be so certified which contains an obligation upon the work­
men to join the scheme as a condition of their hiring.
(4) If complaint is made to the registrar of friendly societies by or on behalf of
the workmen of any employer that the provisions of any scheme are no longer on
the whole so favorable to the general body of workmen of such employer and their
dependents as the provisions of this act, or that the provisions of such scheme are
being violated, or that the scheme is not being fairly administered, or that satisfac­
tory reasons exist for revoking the certificate, the registrar shall examine into the
complaint, and, if satisfied that good cause exists for such complaint, shall, unless
the cause of complaint is removed, revoke the certificate.
(5) W hen a certificate is revoked or expires, any moneys or securities held for the
purpose of the scheme shall be distributed as may be arranged between the employer
and workmen, or as may be determined by the registrar of friendly societies in the
event of a difference of opinion.
(6) Whenever a scheme has been certified as aforesaid, it shall be the duty of the
employer to answer all such inquiries and to furnish all such accounts in regard to
the scheme as may be made or required by the registrar of friendly societies.
(7) The chief registrar of friendly societies shall include in his annual report the
particulars of the proceedings of the registrar under this act.
4 . Where, in an employment to which this act applies, the undertakers as herein­
after defined contract with any person for the execution by or under such contractor
of any work, and the undertakers would, if such work were executed by workmen
immediately employed by them, be liable to pay compensation under this act to
those 'workmen in respect of any accident arising out of and in the course of their
employment, the undertakers shall be liable to pay to any workman employed in
the execution of the work any compensation which is payable to the workman
(whether under this act or in respect of personal negligence or willful act independ­
ently of this act) by such contractor, or would be so payable if such contractor were
an employer to whom this act applies.
Provided that the undertakers shall be entitled to be indemnified by any other
person who would have been liable independently of this section.
This section shall not apply to any contract with any person for the execution by
or under such contractor of any work which is merely ancillary or incidental to, and
is no part of, or process in, the trade or business carried on by such undertakers
respectively.
5.
— (1) Where any employer becomes liable under this act to pay compensation
in respect of any accident, and is entitled to any sum from insurers in respect of the
amount due to a workman under such liability, then in the event of the employer
becoming bankrupt, or making a composition or arrangement with his creditors, or
if the employer is a company of the company having commenced to be wound up,
such workman shall have a first charge upon the sum aforesaid for the amount so
due, and the judge of the county court may direct the insurers to pay such sum into




128

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

the Post-Office Savings Bank in the name of the registrar of such court, and order
the same to be invested or applied in accordance with the provisions of the first
schedule hereto with reference to the investment in the Post-Office Savings Bank of
any sum allotted as compensation, and those provisions shall apply accordingly.
(2)
In the application of this section to Scotland, the words “ nave a first charge
upon ” shall mean “ be preferentially entitled to.”
6 . Where the injury for which compensation is payable under this act was caused
under circumstances creating a legal liability in some person other than the employer
to pay damages in respect thereof, the workman may, at his option, proceed, either
at law against that person to recover damages, or against his employer for compen­
sation under this act, but not against both, and if compensation be paid under this
act, the employer shall be entitled to be indemnified by the said other person.
7.
— (1) This act shall apply only to employment by the undertakers as hereinafter
defined, on or in or about a railway, factory, mine, quarry, or engineering work, and
to employment by the undertakers as hereinafter defined on, in, or about any build­
ing which exceeds 30 feet in height, and is either being constructed or repaired by
means of a scaffolding, or being demolished, or on which machinery driven by steam,
water, or other mechanical power, is being used for the purpose of the construction,
repair, or demolition thereof.
(2) In this act—
“ Railway” means the railway of any railway company to which the Regulation
of Railways Act, 1873, applies, and includes a light railway made under the Light
Railways Act, 1896; and “ railway” and “ railway company” have the same mean­
ing as in the said acts of 1873 and 1896:
“ Factory” has the same meaning as in the Factory and Workshop Acts, 1878 to
1891, and also includes any dock, wharf, quay, warehouse, machinery, or plant, to
which any provision of the Factory Acts is applied by the Factory and Workshop
Act, 1895, and every laundry worked by steam, water, or other mechanical power:
“ M ine” means a mine to which the Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1887, or the
Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act, 1872, applies:
“ Quarry” means a quarry under the Quarries Act, 1894:
“ Engineering work” means any work of construction or alteration or repair of a
railroad, harbor, dock, canal, or sewer, and includes any other work for the con­
struction, alteration, or repair of which machinery driven by steam, water, or other
mechanical power is used:
“ Undertaker” in the case of a railway means the railway company; in the case of
a factory, quarry, or laundry means the occupier thereof within the meaning of the
Factory and Workshop Acts, 1878 to 1895; in the case of a mine means the owner
thereof within the meaning of the Coal Mines Regulation Act, 1887, or the Metallif­
erous Mines Regulation Act, 1872, as the case may be, and in the case of an engi­
neering work means the person undertaking the construction, alteration, or repair;
and in the case of a building means the persons undertaking the construction, repair,
or demolition:
“ Employer” includes any body of persons corporate or unincorporate and the
legal personal representative of a deceased employer:
“ W orkm an” includes every person who is engaged in an employment to which
this act applies, whether by way of manual labor or otherwise, and whether his
agreement is one of sendee or apprenticeship or otherwise, and is expressed or implied,
is oral or in writing. A n y reference to a workman who has been injured shall, where
the workman is dead, include a reference to his legal personal representative or to
his dependents, or other person to whom compensation is payable:
“ Dependents” means—
(a) in England and Ireland, such members of the workman’ s family specified in
the Fatal Accidents Act, 1846, as were wholly or in part dependent upon the earn­
ings of the workman at the time of his death; and
(b) in Scotland, such of the persons entitled according to the law of Scotland to
sue the employer for damages or solatium in respect of the death of the workman, as
w ere wholly or in part dependent upon the earnings of the workman at the time of
T
his death.
(3) A workman employed in a factory which is a shipbuilding yard shall not be
excluded from this act by reason only that the accident arose outsiae the yard in the
course of his work upon a vessel in any dock, river, or tidal water near the yard.
8.
— (1) This act shall not apply to persons in the naval or military service of the
Crown, but otherwise shall apply to any employment by or under the Crown to
which this act would apply if the employer were a private person.
(2) The treasury may, by warrant laid before Parliament, modify for the purposes
of this act their warrant made under section one of the Superannuation Act, 1887, and




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

129

notwithstanding anything in that act, or any such warrant, may frame a scheme with
a view to its being certified by the registrar of friendly societies under this act.
9. A n y contract existing at the commencement of this act whereby a workman
relinquishes any right to compensation from the employer for personal injury arising
out of and in the course of his employment, shall not, for the purposes of this act, be
deemed to continue after the time at which the workman’ s contract of service would
determine if notice of the determination thereof were given at the commencement of
this act.
10.
— (1) This act shall come into operation on the first day of July, one thousand
eight hundred and ninety-eight.
(2) This act may be cited as the Workmen’ s Compensation Act, 1897.
F ir st S c h e d u l e .
SCALE AND CONDITIONS OF COMPENSATION.

Scale.
(1) The amount of compensation under this act shall be—
(a) where death results from the injury—
(i) if the workman leaves any dependents wholly dependent upon his earnings at
the time of his death, a sum equal to his earnings in the employment of the same
employer during the 3 years next preceding the injury, or the sum of £150 [$729.98],
whichever of those sums is the larger, but not exceeding in any case £300 [$1,459.95],
provided that the amount of any weekly payments made under this act shall be
deducted from such sum, and if the period of the workman’ s e
at by the
said employer has been less than the said 3 years, then the amoi
earnings
during the said 3 years shall be deemed to be 156 times his average weekly earnings
during the period of his actual employment under the said employer;
(ii) if the workman does not leave any such dependents, but leaves any dependents
in part dependent upon his earnings at the time of his death, such sum, not exceed­
ing in any case the amount payable under the foregoing provisions, as may be agreed
upon, or, in default of agreement, may be determined, on arbitration under this act,
to be reasonable and proportionate to the injury to the said dependents; and
(iii) if he leaves no dependents, the reasonable expenses of his medical attendance
and burial, not exceeding £10 [$48.67];
( b) where total or partial incapacity for work results from the injury, a weekly pay­
ment during the incapacity after the second week not exceeding 50 per cent of his
average weekly earnings during the previous 12 months, if he has been so long
employed, but if not, then for any less period during which he has been in the
employment of the same employer, such weekly payment not to exceed £1 [$4.87].
(2) In fixing the amount of the weekly payment, regard shall be had to the differ­
ence between the amount of the average weekly earnings of the workman before the
accident and the average amount which he is able to earn after the accident, and to
any payment not being wages which he may receive from the employer in respect of
his injury during the period of his incapacity.
(3) Where a workman has given notice of an accident, he shall, if so required by
the employer, submit himself for examination by a duly qualified medical practi­
tioner provided and paid by the employer, and if he refuses to submit himself to such
examination, or in any way obstructs the same, his right to compensation, and any
proceeding under this act in relation to compensation, shall be suspended until such
examination takes place.
(4) The payment shall, in case of death, be made to the legal personal representa­
tive of the workman, or, if he has no legal personal representative, to or for the benefit
of his dependents, or, if he leaves no dependents, to the person to whom the expenses
are due; and if made to the legal personal representative shall be paid by him to or
for the benefit of the dependents or other person entitled thereto under this act.
(5) Any question as to who is a dependent, or as to the amount payable to each
dependent, shall, in default of agreement, be settled by arbitration under this act.
(6) The sum allotted as compensation to a dependent may be invested or other­
wise applied for the benefit of the person entitled thereto, as agreed, or as ordered by
the committee or other arbitrator.
(7) A ny sum which is agreed or is ordered by the committee or arbitrator to be
invested may be invested in whole or in part in the Post-Office Savings Bank by the
registrar of the county court in his name as registrar.
(8) Any sum to be so invested may be invested in the purchase of an annuity from
the national debt commissioners through the Post-Office Savings Bank, or be accepted




130

BULLETIN OE THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

by the Postmaster-General as a deposit in the name of the registrar as such, and the
provisions of any statute or regulations respecting the limits of deposits in savings
banks, and the declaration to be made by a depositor, shall not apply to such sums.
(9) JNo part of any money invested in the name of the registrar of any county
court in the Post-Office Savings Bank under this act shall be paid out, except upon
authority addressed to the Postmaster-General by the Treasury or by the judge of
the county court.
(10) A n y person deriving any benefit from any moneys invested in a post-office
savings bank under the provisions of this act may, nevertheless, open an account in
a post-office savings bank or in any other savings bank in his own name without
being liable to any penalties imposed by any statute or regulations in respect of the
opening of accounts in two savings banks, or of two accounts in the same savings
bank.
(11) Any workman receiving weekly payments under this act shall, if so required
by the employer, or by any person by whom the employer is entitled under this act
to be indemnified, from time to time submit himself for examination by a duly
qualified medical practitioner provided and paid by the employer, or such other per­
son; but if the workman objects to an examination by that medical practitioner, or
is dissatisfied by the certificate of such practitioner upon his condition when com­
municated to him, he may submit himself for examination to one of the medical
practitioners appointed for the purposes of this act, as mentioned in the second sched­
ule to this act, and the certificate of that medical practitioner as to the condition of
the workman at the time of the examination shall be given to the employer and
workman, an<? shall be conclusive evidence of that condition. If the workman
refuses to submit himself to such examination, or in any way obstructs the same,
his right to such weekly payments shall be suspended until such examination has
taken place.
(12) A n y weekly payment may be reviewed at the request either of the employer
or of the workman, and on such review may be ended, diminished or increased, sub­
ject to the maximum above provided, and the amount of payment shall, in default
of agreement, be settled by arbitration under this act.
(13) Where any weekly payment has been continued for not less than 6 months,
the liability therefor may, on the application by or on behalf of the employer, be
redeemed by the payment of a lump sum, to be settled, in default of agreement, by
arbitration under this act, and such lump sum may be ordered by the committee or
arbitrator to be invested or otherwise applied as above mentioned.
(14) A weekly payment, or a sum paid by way of redemption thereof, shall not
be capable of being assigned, charged, or attached, and shall not pass to any other
person by operation of law, nor shall any claim be set off against the same.
(15) Where a scheme certified under this act provides for payment of compensa­
tion by a friendly society, the provisions of the proviso to the first subsection of
section 8, section 16, and section 41 of the Friendly Societies Act, 1896, shall not
apply to such society in respect to such scheme.
(16) In the application of this schedule to Scotland the expression ‘ ‘ registrar of
the county court’ ’ means ‘ ‘ sheriff clerk of the county,” and “ judge of the county
court” means ‘ ‘ sheriff.”
(17) In the application of this act to Ireland the provisions of the County Officers
and Courts (Ireland) Act, 1877, with respect to money deposited in the Post-Office
Savings Bank under that act shall apply to money invested in the Post-Office Savings
Bank under this act.
Second S c h ed u le.
ARBITRATION.

The following provisions shall apply for settling any matter which under this act
is to be settled by arbitration:
(1) If any committee, representative of an employer and his workmen, exists with
power to settle matters under this act in the case of the employer and workmen, the
matter shall, unless either party objects, by notice in writing sent to the other party
before the committee meet to consider the matter, be settled by the arbitration of
such committee, or be referred by them in their discretion to arbitration as herein­
after provided.
(2) If either party so objects, or there is no such committee, or the committee so
refers the matter or fails to settle the matter within 3 months from the date of
the claim, the matter shall be settled by a single arbitrator agreed on by the parties,
or in the absence of agreement by the county court judge, according to the procedure




THE BRITISH WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT.

131

prescribed by rules of court, or if in England the Lord Chancellor so authorizes,
according to the like procedure, by a single arbitrator appointed by such county
court judge.
(3) A n y arbitrator appointed by the county court judge shall, for the purposes of
this act, have all the powers of a county court judge, and shall be paid out of moneys
to be provided by Parliament in accordance with regulations to be made by the
treasury.
(4) The Arbitration Act, 1889, shall not apply to any arbitration under this act;
but an arbitrator may, if he thinks fit, submit any question of law for the decision of
the county court judge, and the decision of the judge on any question of law, either
on such submission, or in any case where he himself settles the matter under this act,
shall be final, unless within the time and in accordance with the conditions pre­
scribed by rules of the Supreme Court either party appeals to the court of appeal;
and the county court judge, or the arbitrator' appointed by him, shall, for the pur­
pose of an arbitration under this act, have the same powers of procuring the attend­
ance of witnesses and the production of documents as if the claim for compensation
had been made by plaint in the county court.
(5) Rules of court may make provision for the appearance in any arbitration under
this act of any party by some other person.
(6) The costs of and incident to the arbitration and proceedings connected there­
with shall be in the discretion of the arbitrator. The costs, whether before an arbi­
trator or in the county court, shall not exceed the limit prescribed by rules of court,
and shall be taxed in manner prescribed by those rules.
(7) In the case of the death or refusal or inability to act of an arbitrator, a judge
of the high court at chambers may, on the application of any party, appoint a new
arbitrator.
(8) Where the amount of compensation under this act shall have been ascertained,
or any weekly payment varied, or any other matter decided, under this act, either
by a committee or by an arbitrator or by agreement, a memorandum thereof shall be
sent, in manner prescribed by rules of court, by the said committee or arbitrator, or
by any party interested, to the registrar of the county court for the district in which
any person entitled to such compensation resides, who shall, subject to such rules,
on being satisfied as to its genuineness, record such memorandum in a special regis­
ter without fee, and thereupon the said memorandum shall for all purposes be
enforceable as a county court judgment. Provided that the county court judge may
at any time rectify such register.
(9) Where any matter under this act is to be done in a county court, or by to or
beiore the judge or registrar of a county court, then, unless the contrary intention
appear, the same shall, subject to rules of court, be done in, or by to or before the
judge or registrar of, the county court of the district in which all the parties con­
cerned reside, or if they reside in different districts the district in which the accident
out of which the said matter arose occurred, without prejudice to any transfer in
manner provided by rules of court.
(10) The duty of a county court judge under this act, or of an arbitrator appointed
by him, shall, subject to rules of court, be part of the duties of the county court, and
the officers of the court shall act accordingly, and rules of court may be made both
for any purpose for which this act authorizes rules of court to be made, and also
generally for carrying into effect this act so far as it affects the county court, or an
arbitrator appointed by the judge of the county court, and proceedings in the county
court or before any such arbitrator, and such rules may, in England, be made by the
5 judges of the county courts appointed for the making of rules under section 164 of
the County Courts Act, 1888, and when allowed by the Lord Chancellor, as provided
by that section, shall have full effect without any further consent.
(11) No court fee shall be payable by any party in respect of any proceeding under
this act in the county court prior to the award.
(12) A n y sum awarded as compensation shall be paid on the receipt of the person
to whom it is payable under any agreement or award, and his solicitor or agent shall
not be entitled to recover from him, or to claim a lien on, or deduct any amount for
costs from, the said sum awarded, except such sum as may be awarded by the arbi­
trator or county court judge, on an application made by either party to determine
the amount of costs to be paid to the said solicitor or agent, such sum to be awarded
subject to taxation and to the scale of costs prescribed by rules of court.
(13) The secretary of state may appoint legally qualified medical practitioners for
the purpose of this act, and any committee, arbitrator, or judge may, subject to regu­
lations made by the secretary of state and the treasury, appoint any such practitioner
to report on any matter which seems material to any question arising in the arbitra­
tion; and the expense of any such medical practitioner shall, subject to treasury
regulations, be paid out of moneys to be provided by Parliament.




132

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

(14) In the application of this schedule to Scotland—
(a) ‘ ‘ Sheriff ’ ’ shall be substituted for “ county court judge,” “ sheriff court” for
“ county court,” “ action” for “ plaint,” “ sheriff clerk” for “ registrar of the county
court,” and “ act of sederunt” for “ rules of court” :
( b) Any award or agreement as to compensation under this act may be competently
recorded for execution in the books of council and session or sheriff court books, and
shall be enforceable in like manner as a recorded decree arbitral:
(c) Any application to the sheriff as arbitrator shall be heard, tried, and deter­
mined summarily in the manner provided by the fifty-second section of the Sheriff
Courts (Scotland) Act, 1876, save only that parties may be represented by any per­
son authorized in writing to appear for them and subject to the declaration that it
shall be competent to either party within the time and in accordance with the con­
ditions prescribed by act of sederunt to require the sheriff to state a case on any
question of law determined by him, and his decision thereon in such case may be
submitted to either division of the court of session, who may hear and determine the
same finally, and remit to the sheriff with instruction as to the judgment to be
pronounced.
(15) Paragraphs 4 and 7 of this schedule shall not apply to Scotland.
(16) In the application of this schedule to Ireland the expression “ county court
judge” shall include the recorder of any city or town.
A

n

A

ct

to extend the benefits of the Workmen’ s Compensation Act, 1897, to workmen
in agriculture [30th July, 1900].

Be it enacted by
follows:

*

*

*

Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as

1.
— (1) From and after the commencement of this act, the Workmen’ s Compensa­
tion Act, 1897, shall apply to the employment of workmen in agriculture by any
employer who habitually employs one or more workmen in such employment.
(2) Where any such employer agrees with a contractor for the execution by or
under that contractor of any work in agriculture, section four of the Workmen’ s Com­
pensation Act, 1897, shall apply in respect of any workman employed in such work as
if that employer were an undertaker within the meaning of that act.
Provided that, where the contractor provides and uses machinery driven by mechan­
ical powT for the purpose of threshing, ploughing, or other agricultural work, he,
er
and he alone, shall be liable under this act to pay compensation to any workman
employed by him on such wx>rk.
(3) Where any workman is employed by the same employer mainly in agricultural
but partly or occasionally in other w ork, this act shall apply also to the employment
r
of the workman in such other work.
The expression “ agriculture” includes horticulture, forestry, and the use of land
for any purpose of husbandry, inclusive of the keeping or breeding of live stock,
poultry, or bees, and the growth of fruit and vegetables.
2 . This act may be cited as the Workmen’ s Compensation Act, 1900, and shall be
read as one with the Workm en’ s Compensation Act, 1897, and that act and this act
may be cited together as the Workmen’s Compensation Acts, 1897 and 1900.
3 . This act shall come into operation on the first day of July, one thousand nine
hundred and one.




RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.

KANSAS.
Fifteenth Annual Report o f the Bureau o f Labor and Industry, fo r
1899. W . L. A. Johnson, Commissioner, viii, 587 pp.
The following subjects are treated in this report: Statistics of wageearners, 305 pages; labor organizations, 24 pages; the packing indus­
try, 12 pages; the creamery industry, 18 pages; the lead and zinc
industry, 3 pages; county charities, 64 pages; industrial education, 5
pages; chattel mortgages, 12 pages; factory inspection, 15 pages;
strikes, labor difficulties, and court decisions affecting labor, 46 pages;
proceedings of the State Society of Labor and Industry and State
Association of Miners, 72 pages.
Statistics of W age -E arners . —The usual investigation was made
with regard to the condition of wage-earners. Details are presented
showing earnings, cost of living, hours of labor, nativity, conjugal
condition, etc. The following table shows, by occupation groups, the
more important data presented:
STATISTICS OF WAGE-EARNERS, BY OCCUPATION GROUPS, 1899.
Average yearly Average yearly Average cost
income from
wages.
of living.
all sources.

Average
Days unem­
hours of la­ ployed during
bor per day.
year.

Occupation groups.
No.
No.
No.
No.
Hrs.
No.
Days
report­ Am ’t. report­ Am ’t. report­ Am ’t. report­ per report­ unem­
ing.
ing.
ing. day. ing. ployed
ing.
Railway trainmen...............
Other railway employees..
Building trades....................
Miscellaneous trades..........
Female wage-earners..........
All occupations..........

150 $865.58
84 607.25
236 386.75
371 500.66
117 281.66

152 $894.65
84 650.45
238 436.10
374 546.75
118 294.04

142 $806.96
78 568.43
227 408.33
336 493.64
75 261.46

126
80
243
354
101

11.1
10.2
9.4
10.5
8.8

100
47
183
208
61

70.7
27.5
94.4
51.0
71.1

958

966

858

904

10.7

599

67.5

512.34

552.38

509.43

Of 819 wage-earners making returns, 454 reported increased oppor­
tunities for employment as compared with 1898,137 reported decreased
opportunities, and 228 reported conditions about the same. Of 770
returns, 339 reported increased wages, 76 reported*decreased wages, and
355 reported no change in wages as compared with the preceding year.
Of 714 returns, 473 reported an increased cost of living as compared
with 1898, 41 reported a decreased cost, and 200 reported no change.
Returns regarding accident insurance were received from 83 wageearners. The accident insurance carried amounted to $1,895.48 per



133

134

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

person insured, costing an average of $24.24 annually, or 2.7 per cent
of the total income. Of 1,058 wage-earners reporting, 504, or 47.6
per cent, carried life insurance. Of these, 114 were insured in old-line
companies, the amount of insurance carried being $1,649.83 per person
insured, costing an average of $45.50 per year, or 6.1 per cent of the
total income. There were 430 insured in fraternal organizations, the
insurance carried amounting to $2,277.31 per person insured, at an
average cost of $24.12 per year, or 3.6 per cent of their entire income.
A comparison between organized and unorganized wage-workers
shows that 127 who were organized earned an average of $0,248 per
hour, while 133 who were unorganized earned an average of $0,181
per hour; 128 organized wage-workers were employed an average of
8.9 hours per day, while the same number of unorganized wage-workers
were employed 10.1 hours per day.
L abor O rganizations . —The following table shows the number and
membership of 98 labor organizations on December 31,1899:
NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, DECEMBER 31,1899.
Local
unions or Members.
branches.

Labor organizations.

Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America................
Amalgamated Sheet-Metal Workers’ International Association.............................
American Federation of Musicians..............................................................................* ..
American Railway U n ion ...................................................................................................
Bricklayers and Masons’ International Union...............................................................
Brotherhood of Boiler Makers and Iron Shipbuilders................................................
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers...........................................................................
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen...............................................................................
Brotherhood of Painters and Decorators of Am erica..................................................
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainm en.................................................................................
Brotherhood of Railway Trackmen of Am erica...........................................................
Building Laborers’ International Protective Union.................................................. .
Cigar Makers’ International Union...................................................................................
Coopers’ International Union of North A m erica.........................................................
Federal Labor U nion........................................................................................................... .
International Association of Machinists........................................................................ .
International Brotherhood of Blacksmiths....................................................................
International Brotherhood of Stationary Firem en.................................................... .
International Stone Masons’ Union of A m erica...........................................................
International Typographical Union.................................................................................
Journeymen Barbers’ International Union of America..............................................
Kansas State Barbers’ Association.....................................................................................
Order of Railway Conductors............................................................................................ .
Retail Clerks’ National Protective Association........................................................... .
Switchmen’s Union of North Am erica.............................................................................
Team Drivers’ International U nion.................................................................................
Teamsters’ Union....................................................................................................................
Trades and Labor Assembly................................................................................................
United Association of Journeymen Plumbers, Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters, and
Steam-Fitters’ Helpers of the United States and Canada..................................... .
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America.....................................
United Brotherhood of Leather Workers on Horse Goods........................................
United Mine Workers of Am erica................................................................................... .
Total......................................................... / .....................................................................

a Not including 1 union not reporting.

-

3
1
1
1
1
1
9
12
1
10
1
1 '
4
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
12
1
1
1
1
1

a 70
14
27
31
20
14
408
569
33
a 430
5
160
88
138
435
92
30
19
25
121
96
23
597
34
15
32
40
39

2
5
1
11

24
193
20
2,088

98

b 5,930

b Not including 2 unions not reporting.

Returns from 100 labor organizations were tabulated, but of these 4
did not report membership. The other 96 reported a total of 5,930
members on December 31, 1899. Fifty-three unions reported an
aggregate increase of 1,982 members, and 15 reported a total decrease
of 480 members during the year. Of 95 local unions reporting, 71 had



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR---- KANSAS.

135

agreements, schedules, or contracts with employers. The annual fees
charged for membership in 92 unions reporting ranged from 24 cents
to $25, the average annual fee being $5.79 per member. Ninety-one
unions reported an average of 71.3 per cent of the trade in their local­
ities as being organized. The members of 85 unions reporting were
employed an average of 10.5 months per year. The average working
day o f members of 79 unions was 9.9 hours. Of 89 unions, 62 reported
increased opportunities for employment as compared with 1898, 9
reported decreased opportunities, and 18 reported no change. Of 79
unions, 37 reported increased wages, 10 decreased wages, and 32
reported no change as compared with 1898.
T he P acking I ndustry . —Tables are given showing the character
of ownership, capital invested, assessed valuation, receipts and expend­
itures, capacity of plant, number, wages, and salaries of employees,
etc., for 11 packing plants in the State. The returns published were
largely incomplete, only a few of the items being given for all the
establishments. The 11 plants employed 8,333 persons, and paid a
total of $4,146,190.86 for salaries and wages.
T he C reamery I ndustry . —Returns for this industry were, likewise
incomplete. The tables given show for each establishment reporting
the character of ownership, capital invested, value of plant and of
product, receipts and expenditures, the number, wages, and salaries
of employees, etc.
T he L ead and Z inc I ndustry . —This part of the report contains
statistics of the output and value of the mine products and a descrip­
tive account of the lead and zinc industry of the State in 1899.
Returns from 138 plants show an output of 14,186,670 pounds of lead,
valued at $375,553.40, and 128,120,310 pounds of zinc, valued at
$2,738,431.
I ndustrial E ducation . —This chapter gives an account of the char­
acter of the manual training taught in each of 4 educational institu­
tions in the State, the number of pupils taking manual-training
courses, the cost of these courses, effects of manual training, and
other information.
S trikes . — Accounts are given of 8 strikes which occurred in the
State during the year, as follows: 1 of coal miners, 3 of coopers, 2 of
team owners and drivers, and 2 of carpenters.
M ARYLAN D.
Eighth Annual R eport o f the Rureem o f Industrial Statistics o f Maryland, fo r 1899. Jefferson D. Wade, Chief of Bureau, x, 167 pp.
The following subjects are treated in the present report: Strikes,
15 pages; seamen, 17 pages; sweat shops, 6 pages; labor laws, 1 page;
trade unions in Baltimore, 4 pages; incorporations in Baltimore, 119
pages.



136

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Strikes . — Detailed accounts are given of 11 strikes which occurred
in the State during the year.
S eam en . —This chapter consists of a report made by the local agent
at Baltimore of the Atlantic Coast Seamen’s Union, calling attention
to certain abuses in the treatment of seamen, particularly by means of
the “ crimping” system, and making suggestions for the guidance of
legislators as to the correction of these abuses. It also contains a
synopsis of the act of Congress of December 21, 1898, (a) having this
object in view.
S w eat S hops. —A brief account is given of an inspection of sweat
shops in Baltimore and of the difficulties encountered by the health
department in correcting the evils under existing legislation.
T rade U nions . —A list is given of 55 trade, unions in Baltimore, all
of which were affiliated with the Federation of Labor. Of these, 17
were organized during the year.
Corporations. —A list is given of the incorporations in the city of
Baltimore from 1870 to 1899, showing in each case the name, date of
incorporation, and amount of capital stock. This list supplements that
given in.the previous report, relating to incorporations in the rest of
the State. There were 3,616 incorporations reported in Baltimore,
with an aggregate capital stock of $795,189,200. O f these, 1,096 were
building and loan associations, under a variety of names, with a capital
stock of $422,843,500.

MICHIGAN.
Seventeenth Annual Report o f the Bureau o f Labor and Industrial
Statistics. 1900. Joseph L. Cox, Commissioner, vii, 264 pp.
The present report consists of a number of short chapters devoted
to various subjects. The following relate to labor and industrial con­
ditions: Review of industrial conditions, 3 pages; statistics of retail
trade, 6 pages; hotel statistics, 3 pages; real-estate interests, 10 pages;
labor canvass, 11 pages; organized labor, 13 pages; electric railways,
4 pages; the vehicle industry, 5 pages; the furniture industry, 17
pages; the sugar-beet industry, 5 pages; coal mines, 20 pages; labor
laws, 5 pages; labor disputes, 5 pages; papers on factory inspection,
8 pages.
I ndustrial Conditions , 1899.—A canvass of nearly 5,000 factories
of the State by the factory inspectors showed that 545 had increased
their invested capital $6,531,884 during 1899, and that 1,382 factories
employed 24,262 more persons in 1899 than in 1898, or an average
increase of 17.6 per cent per factory considered. Seventy-four per
cent of the factories reported an increase of business over 1898. The
average daily wages of all grades of employees found at work in faca For a copy of this act see Bulletin No. 24, pages 756-762.



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR---- MICHIGAN,

137

tories in 1899 were $1.39 per day in that year, as compared with $1.37
per day in 1898.
L abor C anvass . —One chapter is devoted to male and another to
female wage-earners. Special canvassers interviewed 5,399 male and
2,102 female wage-earners outside the regular factory-inspection can­
vass. Inquiries were made regarding age, nativity, social condition,
number of dependents, occupation, length of service, hours of labor,
months employed during the year, daily wages, etc. The two follow­
ing tables show for male and female employees, respectively, for
selected occupations, the average daily wages, hours of labor per day,
number of months employed during 1899, and the average number of
years engaged in present occupation:
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF MALE EMPLOYEES, BY SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

Occupations.

Bookkeepers and office clerks...........................................
Day laborers...............................................................................

Electricians........................................................................
Engineers............................................................................
Firemen...............................................................................
Millers...................................................................................
M olders...............................................................................
Printing-office employees..............................................
Railroad employees.........................................................
Salesmen and store clerks..............................................
Shipping clerks.................................................................
Teamsters............................................................................
Telegraph operators.........................................................

Number.

34
750
5
108
15
23
345
55
9
214
29
85
6

! Average
Average Average ! months
hours
daily
worked !employed
wages. per day. during
1899.
$2.22
1.27
3.12
2.12
1.62
1.79
2.55
2.00
1.99
1.52
1.77
1.33
1.49

9.4
10.6
10.0
10.5
11.3
10.5
9.9
9.7
11.7
11.5
10.0
10.2
12.0

11.6
10.7
12.0
11.1
11.8
11.6
11.2
11.7
9.3
11.7
11.5
11.3
12.0

Average
years at
present
occupa­
tion.
10.3
12.6
8.2
15.2
8.4
11.4
17.8
12.7
8.9
7.2
6.4
11.2
10.8

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR OF FEMALE EMPLOYEES, BY SELECTED OCCUPATIONS.

Occupations.

Bean sorters........................................................................
Bookbindery employees..................................................
Bookkeepers......................................................................
Cash girls...........................................................................
Cashiers...............................................................................
Domestics............................................................................
Dressmakers, seamstresses, e t c .....................................
Editors.................................................................................
Hotel employees...............................................................
Laundry employees.........................................................
Milliners..............................................................................
Office clerks........................................................................
Photographers..................................................................
Printing-office employees..............................................
Saleswomen........................................................................
Stenographers..................................................................
Store clerks........................................................................
Teachers..............................................................................
Telegraph operators........................................................

Number.

13
50
33
9
12
79
174
5
35
54
56
105
4
61
33
57
104
43
18

Average |Average
Average Average months ! years at
hours
daily
worked employed i present
during
wages. per day.
occupa1899.
1 tion.
$0.67
.81
1.23
.23
1.21
.49
.81
1.74
.67
.85
1.39
1.05
1.06
1.01
.90
1.18
.84
1.25
.58

10.0
9.6
9.8
9.7
9.8
9.8
10.0
8.4
10.5
10.0
11.0
9.6
9.5
9.3
9.6
8.6
10.0
6.8
10.0

9.5
11.2
11.5
2.7
11.1
10.6
9.9
12.0
11.0
11.0
10.0
11.5
11.5
11.0
11.3
11.5
11.2
9.0
9.5

3.2
4.1
7.0
.5
5.0
5.2
5.1
6.8
4.2
4.0
6.9
4.7
9.5
4.5
5.6
3.4
3.6
4.6
2.0

The returns for all of the 5,399 male employees canvassed in 61 cities
and villages showed the following average results: Daily wages, $1.78;
hours of labor per day, 10.2; months employed during the year, 10.9;
years engaged at present occupation, 13.5; age, 33.4. Sixty per cent



138

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

were married. The 5,399 employees had 17,321 dependents, or 3.2
per person canvassed. Twenty-seven per cent owned their homes.
Those who rented homes paid an average monthly rental of $6.88.
Fifty-five per cent of the persons canvassed reported that they were
able to save something from their earnings.
Returns for the 2,102 female employees canvassed in 25 cities and
villages showed the following average results: Daily wages, $0.81;
hours of labor per day, 9.8; months employed during the year, 10.8;
years engaged at present occupation, 3.6; age, 21.7. Thirteen per cent
were married, 83 per cent were single, and 1 per cent were widowed.
The 2,102 female employees had 2,712 dependents, or 1.3 per person
canvassed. Six per cent owned their homes.
The canvass of 1899 showed a general improvement in the condition
of wage workers over that of the preceding year.
O rganized L abor . —A brief report is given of each trade union in
the State from which returns were received, showing the name,
locality, membership, wage scales, and other information. Returns
from 99 unions showed a total membership of 8,589 persons in 1899.
Eighty-six unions reported steady employment on the part of their
members and 39 reported increased wages. The average daily wages
received by members during the year were $2.19 for time work and
$2.21 for piecework.
E lectric R ailw ays . —This investigation covered 19 roads, having
an aggregate capital stock of $11,015,000 and employing 1,692 men.
The aggregate monthly pay rolls of the roads amounted to $87,879.
A canvass of 1,021 of the employees showed the following wage rates
for an average of 10 hours of labor per day:
DAILY WAGES OF ELECTRIC-RAILWAY EMPLOYEES, 1899.

Occupations.

Superintendents........... .
Assistant superintend­
ents ................................
Foremen..........................
Engineers...................... .
Assistant engineers____
Motor inspectors...........
Conductors.....................
Motormen......................

Num­
ber
can­
vassed.

Average
years at Average
daily ■
present
occupa­ wages.
tion.

9

4.2

8
16
13
6
12
391
471

1.6
6.6
11.4
2.6
5.1
5.1
4.6

Occupations.

$2.48 , Electricians..................
1 Carpenters.....................
2.03 i Blacksmiths.................
1.83 i Firem en........................
2.25 ' Painters.........................
1.06 : Machinists....................
Trackm en.....................
1.95
1.76
Linem en.......................
1.71 1 Bam m en.......................

Num­
ber
can­
vas ed.
13
8
3
10
4
6
37
5
14

Average
years at Average
present
daily
occupa­ wages.
tion.
7.3
10.0
7.3
2.7
1.0
8.5
4.3
5.0
4.8

$2.08
1.97
1.83
1.96
1.50
1.83
1.32
1.36
1.37

Nearly all the employees received extra pay for overtime. They
averaged nearly 30 days’ work each month, and worked, on an average,
11.8 months during the year. Forty employees reported increased
wages, the increase averaging 11 per cent. Forty-seven per cent
reported that they were able to save something from their earnings.
Those who rented homes paid an average monthly rental of $7.98.
T he V ehicle I ndustry . —Fifty-five firms in 19 towns were can­
vassed. They had an aggregate capital stock of $3,672,200. The



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR---- MICHIGAN.

189

value of the output of 19 firms during 1898 was $9,208,117; the aggre­
gate weekly pay rolls amounted to $11,815, there being 1,918 persons
employed. A canvass of 2,031 employees, including apprentices,
showed the average daily wages to be $1.66. Of these employees
911 reported that they were able to save something from their earn­
ings, 127 owned their homes, and 675 who rented homes paid an aver­
age monthly rental of $6.07.
T he F urniture I ndustry . —This chapter is devoted to an historical
account of the furniture industry and a description of its present con­
dition in the State.
T he S ugar -B eet I ndustry . —A canvass of 9 beet-sugar manufacturing establishments in operation December 1,1899, showed an aggre­
gate capital stock of $2,850,000. The manufacturing plants, which
cost $3,630,000, had a capacity of 3,975 tons of beets in each 21 hours.
The factories employed 1,310 persons when running full capacity.
C oal M ines . —This chapter contains a description of the coal-mining
industry in the State and the results of a canvass of 25 mines in opera­
tion in 1899, and of 1,015 mine employees. The following averages
were obtained from the returns regarding employees: Age, 32.6;
wages per day, $1.70; daily hours of labor, 8.1; days worked per
month, 22; months employed during year, 9.3; years worked at pres­
ent occupation, 11.7. In 323 cases employees reported that they were
able to save something from their earnings.
L abor D isputes . —Brief accounts are given of 19 strikes, 1 lockout,
and several other labor disputes occurring in the State during the
year 1899.
OHIO.
Twenty-second Annual R eport o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics o f
the State o f Ohio, fo r the year 1898. John P. Jones, Commissioner.
293 pp.
The contents of the present report are as follows: Introduction, 11
pages; labor laws and court decisions, 52 pages; coal mining, 6 pages;
manufacturing, 187 pages; free public employment offices, 21 pages;
chronology of labor bureaus, 2 pages.
C oal M ining . — Comparative statistics of coal mining during 16
years are reproduced for Ohio and other leading coal-producing
States. The data collected by the bureau give the industrial and labor
conditions of the mining industry for 1897. These statistics show
that there were, in 1897, 1,126 coal mines in operation in the State,
producing 8,312,698 tons of coal mined by pick and 1,108,121 tons
mined by machine. There were 12,131 miners and 6,651 day laborers
employed. The scale rate for pick mining was $0.51 per ton from
January 1 to July 1, and $0.56 from September 11 to the close of the



140

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

year, a strike haying occurred in the interval. The pick miners worked
an average of 150 days during the year. Statistics of earnings, days
employed, and rents paid are given by counties.
M anufacturing . —As in preceding years, this subject occupies the
greater part of the report. Detailed statistical tables are given, show­
ing, by occupations, for cities and villages, the number of males and
females employed in various industries, the average daily wages, yearly
earnings, and hours of daily labor in 1897, and the average number of
days worked in 1896 and 1897. Other series of tables show, by indus­
tries, for cities, villages, and the State, the number of establishments
reported, males and females employed each month in 1897, and monthly
average for 1896 and 1897, total wages paid in 1896 and 1897, and the
number and salaries of office employees, capital invested, value of
product, and cost of material used in 1897.
Following is a brief summary of some of the figures presented: In
2,258 establishments $48,195,074.25 were paid in wages during 1897,
which was an increase of $1,324,847.51 over 1896 in the same estab­
lishments. During 1897 the total value of goods made in 2,212
establishments was $204,905,134.91, and the value of material used in
the same establishments was $109,706,958.90. In 1897, 2,153 estab­
lishments employed a monthly average of 89,537 males and 18,818
females.
E mployment O ffices . — During the period from December 17,1897,
to December 30, 1898, the free employment offices at Cincinnati,
Cleveland, Columbus, Toledo, and Dayton received applications from
employers for 4,498 males and 16,147 females. Applications for situa­
tions were made by 14,118 males and 12,891 females. Positions were
secured for 4,029 males and 13,666 females.
TENNESSEE.
N inth Annual Report o f the Bureau o f Labor, Statistics, and Mines o f
the State o f Tennessee, fo r the year ending December SI, 1899. R. A.
Shiflett, Commissioner, viii, 192 pp.
This report is mainly devoted to the mining industries. It treats of
the following subjects: Coal mining, 12 pages; coke manufacture, 9
pages; iron ore, 10 pages; copper, zinc blende, and barytes, 7 pages;
casualties, 46 pages; location and general condition of coal mines, 68
pages; the phosphate industry, 6 pages; strikes, 3 pages; labor laws,
27 pages.
Statistics of M ines and C oke M anufacture . —The statistics
relate to the coal, coke, iron, copper, zinc blende, barytes, and phos­
phate industries and show the amount produced, the location of the
establishment, number of employees, days in operation, and in some
cases the value of the products and comparative figures for a series of



REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR---- TENNESSEE.

141

years and for Tennessee and other States. Casualties in mines are
extensively treated. Following is a summary of the most important
returns presented for 1899 with respect to mining and related industries
in T e n n e s s e e :
Total number of coal mines.......................................................................................
100
Coal mines in operation................................................................................................
83
Average days in operation..........................................................................................
230
Coal produced.......................................................................................................tons. .
3, 736,134
Value of coal produced at m ine................................................................................. $3,706,617
Average value of coal per ton at mine....................................................................
$0.90
Maximum number of employees in coal mines...................................................
7,694
Coke produced.......................................................................................................tons. .
440,157
Value of coke produced at ovens...............................................................................
$864,073.
453
Maximum number of employees engaged in coke m ak in g............................
Iron ore produced................................................................................................ to n s..
667,140
Maximum number of employees in iron m in e s.................................................
1,465
Copper ore produced............................................................................................ tons. .
100,022
Maximum number of employees in copper mines.............................................
750
Zinc blende ore produced............................................................................... ton s..
3, 750
65
Maximum number of employees in zinc blende m in es..................................
Barytes ore produced......... : ............................................................................ton s..
14,000
Maximum number of employees in barytes mines.............................................
150
Phosphate rock produced................................................................................. to n s..
462,561
Maximum number of employees in phosphate mines.......................................
5,037

There were 20 fatal and 74 nonfatal accidents reported in the mines
during the year.
S trikes . — Brief accounts are given of 17 strikes which occurred in the
State during the year 1899* Of these, 11 were in coal mines and the
remaining 6 were strikes of copper and iron mine employees, brick­
layers, woodworkers, street-railway employees, printers, and theater
employees, respectively.
FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF ARBITRATION
AND CONCILIATION OF MASSACHUSETTS.

Fourteenth Annual Report o f the State Board o f Arbitration and
Conciliation o f Massachusetts, fo r the year ending December!' SI, 1899.
Charles H. Walcott, Chairman. 184 pp.
This report contains a brief account of each of the 37 cases dealt
with by the board during the year, and reproductions of laws relating
to State and local boards and other tribunals of conciliation and arbi­
tration in the United States.
7996— No. 32— 01-----10




RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.

AUSTRIA.
D ie Arbeitseinstelhmgen und Aussperrungen in Osterreich wdhrend des
Jahres 1898. Herausgegeben vom Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im
k. k. Handelsministerium. 322 pp.
In the present report on strikes and lockouts in Austria the mining
industry is included in the returns for 1898 as well as in the compara­
tive data for previous years. This causes a considerable difference
between the data presented in this report and those previously pub­
lished. The scope of the present report is otherwise the same as that
o f the reports for previous years. The data are presented in a series
of 6 tables, containing (1) strikes according to geographical distribution,
(2) strikes according to industries, (3) general summary of strikes, (1)
comparative figures for 1894 to 1898, (5) details of each individual
strike, (6) details of each strike and lockout in the mining industry
during the years 1894 to 1897. An appendix contains a brief review
of industrial conditions in 1898, a report of the Austrian trade-union
commission with tables showing contributions of trade unions in aid of
strikes, and copies of papers and documents relating to strikes and
lockouts in 1898.
The year 1898 shows a slight increase in the number of strikes,
establishments affected, and strikers involved, but a decrease in the
days lost on account of strikes when compared with the preceding
year. The following table gives the aggregate results for each of the
years 1894 to 1898:
STRIKES, BY YEARS, 1894 TO 1898.

Year.

1894.........................................................................................
1895.........................................................................................
189G.........................................................................................
1897.........................................................................................
1898........................................................................................

Strikes.

172
209
305
246
255

Per cent
Estab­
of strikers
lish­
Strikers. of total Days lost.
ments
employ­
affected.
ees.
2,542
874
1,499
851
885

67,061
28,652
66,234
38,467
39,658

69.47
59.68
65.72
59.03
59.86

795,416
300,348
899,939
368,098
323,619

There were in 1898 255 strikes, affecting 885 establishments and
involving 39,658 strikers and 5,458 other employees, who were thrown
out of employment on account of the strikes. The strikers repre142




143

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- AUSTRIA,

sented 59.86 per cent of all employees in the establishments considered.
O f the striking employees 37,316 were reemployed, and 1,343 new
employees took the places of strikers. These items are shown, by
industries, in the following table:
STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1898.
Strikers.
Estab­
lish­
Strikes.
ments.

Industries.

Total
em­
ploy­
ees.

29

Chfvmioal p r o d u c ts ...........................

.................................

10,066

7,046

70.00

356

6,956

7

47
• 119
13
151

6,988
5,764
3,414
2,047

4,491
991
2,471
1,318

64.27
17.19
72.38
64.39

166
306
125
99

4,383
862
2,414
1,119

71
141
38
111

10
28
4
19
6
5
1
1
49
6
2
1

Building trades...............................
Printing and pu blish ing.................
Commerce.........................................

32

27
26
13
28

Mining................................................
Stone, glass, china, and earthen
w are...............................................
Metals and metallic goods...........
Machinery and instruments........
Wooden and caoutchouc goods..
Leather, hides, brushes, and
feathers___ *...................................
Textiles..............................................
Paper hanging and upholstering.
Wearing apparel and millinery..
Paper..................................................
Food products.................................
Hotel and restaurant (waiters)..

Transportation

Num­
ber.

Others
New em­
Per thrown
cent of out of Strikers ployees
reem­
total
em­
after
em­
ploy­ ployed. strikes.
ploy­ ment.
ees.

15
36
6
79
77
64
]
1
223
7
13
1

635
6,657
75
1,901
2,397
3,070
25
57
22,261
356
390
148

275
3,171
31
1,354
1,537
2,414
25
49
13,961
120
280
124

43.31
47.63
41.33
71.23
64.12
78.63
100.00
85.96
62.72
33.71
71.79
83.78

34
1,434

220
2,967
19
1,293
1,337
2,237
25
14
12,950
120
276
124

43
71
8
26
173
142

885

66,251

39,658

59.86

255

Total.........................................
1

i

178
210
19
2,392
29
110
5,458

37,316

35
473
4
1,343

!

The strikes in the building trades were more numerous and extensive
than those in any other industry, involving 13,961, or 35.20 per cent,
of all the strikers reported. Next in importance with regard to the
number of strikers were the mining industry with 7,046, and the group
of stone, glass, china, and earthen ware industries with 4,491.
The following table shows, for each of the years 1894 to 1898, the
per cent of strikers and of days lost in each of the 8 groups of indus­
tries most extensively affected by strikes, and in the remaining 9
groups of industries collectively:
PER CENT OF STRIKERS AND OF DAYS LOST, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1898.
Per cent of strikers.

Per cent of days lost.

Industries.
1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

1894.

1895.

1896.

1897.

1898.

2.19

45.47

9.44 a l7 .17

28.81

0.83

33.80

3.56

16.91

34.70
12.89
.88

4.86
4.49
3.11

7.94 511.33
4.08
2.50
12.19
6.23

3.90
4.76
.20

30.93
18.20
.56

5.28
4.87
4.99

16.59
12.42
11.33

13.98
3.31
11.16

8.15
14.26
1.80
18.71
6.42

9.02
14.78
.54
8.20
9.53

3.59 c 3.22
29.31
8.00
3.95
6.09
12.98 35.20
16.52 dl0.26

35.49
5.73
.12
16.48
4.51

18.08
11.27
.38
9.50
10.25

16.82
26.11
.14
2.74
5.25

4.47
26.45
1.92
10.35
12.91

9.52
6.91
2.23
24.21
11.77

Total................................. 100.00 100.00 100.00 jioo.oo 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

100.00

Mining......................................... 34.28
Stone, glass,china, and earth­
en ware...................................
9.57
Metals and metallic goods...
4.10
Machinery and instruments..
.29
Wooden and caoutchouc
goods ....................................... 14.60
Textiles....................................... 9.42
.45
Food products..........................
Building trades........................ 22.33
4.96
Other industries......................

a Figures here apparently should be 17.77; those given, however, are according to the original.
5 Figures here apparently should be 11.32; those given, however, are according to the original.
c Figures here apparently should be 3.32; those given, however, are according to the original.
d Figures here apparently should be 9.57; those given, however, are according to the original.




144

BULLETIN OF THE DEPAETMENT OF LABOE.

O f the 39,658 strikers reported, 32,094, or 80.93 percent, were males
and 7,564, or 19.07 per cent, were females. These figures represent
58.62 per cent of all male employees and 65.76 per cent of all female
employees in the establishments considered.
The duration of strikes in 1898 is shown by 10-day periods for each
industry in the following table:
D U R A T I O N O F S T R I K E S , B Y I N D U S T R I E S , 1898.

10 d a y s 11 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 to 50
or less.
d a y s.
d a y s.
d a y s.
d a y s.

In d u str ie s.

M i n i n g ..................................................................
S to n e, gla ss, c h in a , a n d e a r th e n w are
M e ta ls a n d m e t a llic g o o d s .....................
M a c h in e r y a n d in s t r u m e n t s ................
W o o d e n a n d c a o u tc h o u c g o o d s ..........
L e a th e r , h id e s, b ru sh es, a n d fe a th e rs
T e x t ile s ................................................................
P a p e r h a n g in g a n d u p h o ls t e r in g . . .
W e a r in g a p p a r e l a n d m i lli n e r y ..........
P a p e r ....................................................................
F o o d p r o d u c t s ................................................
H o t e l a n d r e sta u ra n t ( w a it e r s ) ..........
C h e m ic a l p r o d u c ts .......................................
B u ild in g t r a d e s ..............................................
P r in tin g a n d p u b lis h in g .........................
C o m m e r c e ........................................................
T r a n sp o r ta tio n ................................................
T o t a l .........................................................

2
2
6
1
7

25
19
17
11
12
7
16
3
13
5
3
1
1
43
5
2
1
184

1
2

51 to 60 O v e r 60
d a y s.
d a y s.

T o ta l.

1

1

1
2

1
2

2
1
1

8
1
5

10

255

3
2
1

2

1

29
27
26
13
28
10
28
4
19
6
5
1
1
49
6
2
1

2
1

1

1

1
1

i

3
1

1

1

1

37

8

10

4

•
2

The strikes were nearly all of short duration. Of the 255 strikes
reported, 184, or 72.16 per cent, lasted 10 days or less, while but 10
lasted over 60 days. The longest strike reported continued for 153
days. The average duration of strikes was 11.18 days.
In the presentation of strikes by causes, the cause and not the strike
is made the unit, and the figures, therefore, show the number of times
that each cause figured aS an incentive to a strike, regardless of the
actual number of strikes. Thus, in 1898 there were 255 strikes, while
352 causes were enumerated. The following table shows the causes of
strikes by industries:
C A U S E S O F S T R I K E S , B Y I N D U S T R I E S , 1898.

In d u str ie s.

For
For
For
I For
For
A g a in s t A g a in s t
A g a in s t
ch an ge1
d is­
A g a in s t
d is­
O th e r
in ­
obnox­
. re d u c ­
d is­
in
i
o b n o x ­ ch arge
ch arge
re d u c ­
tio n
cau s­
crease
iou s
ch arge
of em ­
m e th o d
of
tio n o f
io u s
trea t­
of
of em ­
es.
of
of pay­
fo re ­
ru les.
p lo y ­
w a g e s.
h o u rs.
w ages.
m e n t.
p lo y e e s.
m en.
m e n t.
ees.

M i n i n g ...................
S to n e ,g la ss, c h i­
n a , a n d earth ­
en w a r e ............
M e ta ls a n d m e ­
t a llic g o o d s .. .
M a c h in e r y a n d
in s t r u m e n t s . .
W ooden and
c a o u tc h o u c

1

9

3

16

2

6

3

12

2

6

3

4

.............

4

14

L e a t h e r , h id e s,
b ru sh e s, a n d
f
'f.T ATS
l
T e x t i l e s ................

2
5

3
10

g o o d s ..




1

2

6

31

1

2

10

To­
ta l.

3

1

2

34

1

3

3

1

4

2

3

2

3

20

10

1

2

3

2

2

39

1
3

4

2

3
5 j

2

2
6

11
3*

3

1

34

145

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- AUSTRIA,
C A U S E S O F S T R I K E S , B Y IN D U S T R I E S , 1898— C o n c lu d e d .

In d u str ie s.

For
For
For
For
A g a in s t A g a in s t
A g a in s t
change
dis­
in ­
obnox­
re d u c ­
dis­
in
c h arge
re d u c ­
tio n
iou s
ch arge
crease
m e th o d
tio n o f
of
of
trea t­
of em ­
of
w a g es.
of pay­
fo re ­
w ages.
hou rs.
p loye es.
m e n t.
m en.
m e n t.

P a p er h a n g in g
and
u p h o l­
ste r in g ..............
W e a r in g a p p a ­
rel a n d m illi­
n e r y .....................
P a p er .....................
F o o d p r o d u c t s ..
H o te l a n d res­
ta u r a n t (w a it ­
ers) .......................
C h e m ic a l p ro d ­
u c ts .....................
B u ild in g tr a d e s.
P r in tin g
and
p u b lis h in g . . .
C o m m e r c e ............
T r a n s p o r t a t io n .
T o t a l ..........

2

2

11
3
2

6
1

4
3
1

For
d is­
A g a in s t
O th e r
o b n o x ­ ch arge
cau s­
io u s
of em ­
es.
p lo y ­
ru les.
ees.

4

1
2
1

1
1

1

1
1
2

3

1

2
1

1

3

2
1

4

3

3

1

16

2

3

ii

1
79

1

8
2
1

39

352

1
124

33

28
12
9

1

1
32

4

To­
ta l.

54

8

21

9

36

20

8

The most frequent cause of strikes in 1898 was the demand for
increased wages. Next in importance was the demand for reduced
hours of labor. O f the demands relating to wages, 21.47 per cent
were successful, 40.11 per cent were partly successful, and 38.42 per
cent were unsuccessful. Of the demands relating to hours of labor,
33.83 per cent were successful, 26.67 per cent were partly successful,
and 40 per cent were unsuccessful.
The following table shows the results of strikes in 1898, classified
according to industries:
R E S U L T S O F S T R I K E S , B Y IN D U S T R I E S , 1898.

S u cceed ed .

S u c c e e d e d p a r tly .

F a ile d .

T o ta l.

In d u str ie s.
Strikes.

M i n i n g ..............................................
S to n e, gla ss, c h in a , a n d
e a r th e n w a r e ...........................
M e ta ls a n d m e t a llic g o o d s ..
M a c h in e r y a n d in s tr u m e n ts .
W ooden
a n d c a o u tc h o u c
g o o d s ..............................................
L e a th e r , h id e s, b ru sh es, a n d
fe a th e r s .......................................
T e x t ile s .............................................
P a p e r h a n g in g a n d u p h o l­
ste rin g ...........................................
W e a r in g a p p a r e l a n d m i l­
lin e r y ...........................................
P a p e r ................................................
F o o d p r o d u c t s ..............................
H o t e l a n d re sta u ra n t ( w a it ­
ers) ..................................................
C h e m ic a l p r o d u c ts .....................
B u ild in g tr a d e s............................
P r in tin g a n d p u b lis h in g ____
C o m m e r c e .......................................
T r a n sp o r ta tio n ..............................
T o t a l .......................................




Strikers. Strikes.

Strikers. Strikes. Strikers. Strik es. Strikers.

2

58

12

3,939

15

3,049

29

7,046

10
4
1

537
119
531

10
10
5

3,442
374
1,704

7
12
7

512
498
236

27
26
13

4 ,491
991
2 ,471

7

267

8

596

13

455

28

1,318

2
8

77
832

3
10

105
995

5
10

93
1,344

10
28

275
3,171

1

16

3

15

4

31

3
2

20
129

97
45
167

19
6
5

1,354
1,537
2 ,4 1 4

5
3

1
1
49
6
2
1

25
49
13,961
120
280
124

48

255

39,658

10
2
2

1,237
1,363
2,247

6
2
3
1

25

703
26

1
28
2
1
1

49
9,908
53
220
124

16
1
1

3 ,3 5 0
41
60

3 ,3 1 5

105

102

9,987

26,356 1

146

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

Of the 255 strikes reported, 48 succeeded, 105 succeeded partly, and
102 failed. O f the strikers involved, 3,315 were successful, 26,356
were partly successful, and 9,987 failed.
DENMARK.
Arhejdslonnen i Kubenhavn med Nabokommuner i Aaret 1898.
af Kobenhavns Kommunalbestyrelse. 1900. xx, 72 pp.

Udgivet

This publication gives the results of an extensive investigation under­
taken by the statistical bureau of the city of Copenhagen regarding
the earnings of the working people in that city and in the neighboring
communes. The data relate to 104 distinct occupations, and are pre­
sented in the form of statistical tables and an analysis. The tables show
the highest, lowest, and average wages paid to journeymen, unskilled
workers, and women for time and piece work, the hours of labor per
day, and frequency of and wage rates for overtime and Sunday and
holiday labor. Comparisons are also made between wage rates in 1898
and those ascertained by a previous investigation in 1892.
GERMANY.
D ie Deutsche Volkswirthschaft am Schlitsse des 19. Jahrhunderts. A u f
Grund der Ergebnisse der Berufs- und Gewerbezahlung von 1895 und
nach anderen Quellen bearbeitet im Kaiserlichen statistischen Amt.
1900. vii, 209 pp.
The present work is a resume of the statistics contained in the 18
volumes which constitute the report of the census of occupations and
industries taken June 14, 1895. It also contains such statistics as have
appeared in subsequent publications of the Government, which sup­
plement the former. Chapters are devoted to population, agricul­
ture, manufactures, trade and commerce, and production and con­
sumption, respectively. Summaries of the more important results of
the census of occupations have been given in previous digests, {a)
GREAT BRITAIN.
F irst Annual Abstract o f Foreign Labor Statistics. 1898-99. viii,
149 pp. (Published by the Labor Department of the British Board
of Trade.)
This abstract is the first of a series to be published annually as
supplementary to the Foreign Statistical Abstracts and the Annual
Abstract of Labor Statistics of the United Kingdom.
The present volume deals with four subjects, namely: Wages, hours
of labor, trade disputes, and cooperation. Figures relative to eleven
a See Bulletin No 8, pp. 71, 72; No. 11, pp. 498-503; No. 12, pp. 624-627.



FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS---- GREAT BRITAIN.

147

leading countries of Europe and to the United States are included in
the abstract. No attempt has been made to bring the information
together in the form of comparative tables. Each country and each
source is separately considered, the figures in the tables being as far
as possible rearranged on the lines adopted in the reports relating to
the labor statistics of the United Kingdom.
In succeeding volumes of this abstract it is intended to continue and
extend the information presented in the first issue and to include
available statistics relating to other subjects, such as trade unions,
arbitration and conciliation, accidents, workingmen’s insurance, and
other matters affecting labor.
ITALY.
Statistica degli Sciopet'i avvenuti nelVIndustria e nelVAgricoltura du­
rante Vanno 1898. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Direzione Generale della Statistica. 1900. xli, 118 pp.
The present report on strikes and lockouts during the year 1898 is
the seventh of the series prepared by the bureau of statistics of the
Italian department of agriculture, industry, and commerce. It relates
to disputes in the various branches of industry, including agriculture.
There were 292 strikes reported, of which 36 were among agricul­
tural employees and 256 in the other industries. Eighteen shut-downs
were reported, of which 4 were lockouts.
Strikes . —In the summary tables presented in the report only the
256 strikes in the branches of industry other than agriculture were
considered. These involved a total of 35,705 strikers, and caused a
loss of 239,292 working days. The following table shows the number
of strikes, strikers, and days lost during each year, from 1879 to 1898,
in all industries except agriculture:
S T R IK E S ,

S T R I K E R S , A N D D A Y S L O S T O N A C C O U N T O F S T R I K E S , 1879 T O 1898.

S trik e s
for
w h ic h
T o ta l
Year.
strik es. strik ers
w ere re­
p o rte d .

S tr ik ­
ers.

32
27
44
47
73
81
89
96
69
101

4 ,011
5 ,900
8 ,272
5,8 5 4
12,900
23,967
34,166
16,951
25,027
2 8,974

1 8 7 9 ...
1 8 8 0 ...
1 8 8 1 ...
1 8 8 2 ...
1 8 8 3 ...
1 8 8 4 ...
1 8 8 5 ...
1 8 8 6 ...
1 8 8 7 ...
1 8 8 8 ...

28
26
39
45
67
81
86
96
68
99

S trik es
for
w h ic h
d a y s lost
w ere re­
p o rte d .
28
26
38
45
65
78
82
95
66
95

D ays
lost.

21,896
91,899
95,578
25,119
111,697
149,215
244,393
56,772
218,612
191,204

T o ta l
Y ear.
strik es.

1889.
1890.
1891.
1892 .
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897 .
1898.

126
139
132
119
131
109
126
210
217
256

S trik e s
for
w h ic h
strik ers
w ere re­
p o rte d .
125
133
128
117
127
104
126
210
217
256

S tr ik ­
ers.

23,322
38,402
34,733
30,184
31,628
27,595
19,307
96,051
76,570
35,705

S trik e s
for
w h ic h
d a y s lost
w ere re­
p o rte d .

D ays
lost.

123
215,880
129
167,657
123
258,059
114
216,907
122
234,323
323,261
103
126
125,968
210 1,1 5 2 ,5 0 3
217 1,113,535
256
239,292

During 1898 there were no strikes of exceptional magnitude, such
as the strike of the straw plaiters of Florence in 1896 and 1897, hence
while the number of strikes was greater the number of strikers and
of days lost was much smaller in 1898 than during the two preceding
years.



148

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The causes of strikes in 1898 and their results are shown in the two
following tables:
C A U S E S O F S T R I K E S , 1898.
Strikes.

S trik ers.

C ause or o b je c t.
N u m ber.

P er c e n t. N u m b e r . P e r c e n t.

F o r in c r e a se o f w a g e s ..........................................................................................
F o r r e d u c tio n o f h o u r s .......................................................................................
A g a in s t r e d u c tio n o f w a g e s ..............................................................................
A g a in s t in c r e a se o f h o u r s ..................................................................................
O th e r c a u se s...............................................................................................................

113
12
44
7
80

44
5
17
3
31

16,779
891
6 ,902
908
1 0,225

47
2
19
3
29

T o t a l....................................................................................................................

256

100

35,705

100

R E S U L T S O F S T R I K E S , B Y C A U S E S , 1898.
S u c c e e d e d p a r tly .

Succeeded.
S trikes.

C ause or o b je c t.

Strikes.

Strikers.

F a ile d .

Strikers.

S trikes.

N um ­
ber.

Per
c e n t.

Num ­
ber.

Per
c e n t.

Num ­
b er.

P er
c e n t.

Num ­
b er.

Per
c e n t.

30

26

4 ,1 8 5

25

37

33

5 ,5 1 3

33

46

6

50

375

42

2

17

130

15

4

14

32

1 ,518

22

10

23

2 ,0 0 4

29

3
17

43
21

340
3,046

37
30

1
18

14
23

7
3 ,576

70

27

9 ,4 6 4

27

68

27

11,230

For
in c re a se
of
w a g e s .........................
]?or r e d u c tio n o f
h o u r s ...........................
A g a in s t re d u c tio n
o f w a g e s .....................
A g a in s t in cre a se o f
h o u r s ...........................
O th e r ca u se s................
T o t a l ...................

N u m ­ Per
b er . c e n t

Strik ers.
Num ­
b er.

Per
c e n t.

41

7,081

42

33

386

43

20

45

3 ,380

49

1
35

3
45

43
56 '

561
3 ,6 0 3

62
35

3!

118

15,011

42

46

Of the 256 strikes, 157, or 61 per cent, were due to wage disputes;
19, or 8 per cent, to disputes regarding hours of labor, and 80, or 31
per cent, to other causes. Taking the number of strikers as the basis,
it is shown that of the 35,705 reported, 23,681, or 66 per cent, struck
on account of wage disputes; 1,799, or 5 per cent, on account of hours
of labor, and 10,225, or 29 per cent, for other reasons.
With regard to the results of strikes in 1898, it is shown that 27 per
cent of the strikes, involving 27 per cent of the strikers, were suc­
cessful; 27 per cent of the strikes, involving 31 per cent of the strikers,
were partly successful, and 46 per cent of the strikes, involving 42 per
cent of the strikers, were failures.
The following table gives a comparison of the proportionate results
of strikes during a period of years:
R E S U L T S O F S T R I K E S , 1879-1891 T O 1898.
P er c e n t o f strik es.
Year.

1879-1891.........................................................................
1892....................................................................................
1893....................................................................................
1894....................................................................................
1895....................................................................................
1896....................................................................................
1897....................................................................................
1898....................................................................................




P e r c e n t o f strik ers.

Su ccess­
fu l.

P a r tly
su ccess­
f u l.

F a ile d .

Su ccess­
f u l.

P a r tly
su ccess­
fu l.

16
21
28
34
32
38
33
27

43
29
38
28
31
24
27
27

41
50
34
88
37
38
40
46

25
29
29
19
33
49
23
27

47
19
44
24
40
31
45
31

F a ile d .

28
52
27
57
27
20
32
42

149

FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS— ITALY.

The percentage of strikes which failed was greater in 1898 than any
other year during the period, except 1892, and the percentage of suc­
cessful strikes was smaller than at any time except 1879-1891 and 1892.
In the following table the total strikes, strikers, and working days
lost in 1898 are given by occupations:
STRIKES, STRIKERS, AND WORKING DAYS LOST, BY OCCUPATIONS, 1898.

Strikers.
O ccu p atio n s.

Strikes.

A d u lts .
M a le s.

E m p lo y e e s in t e x t ile in d u str ie s .......................
M in e rs a n d q u a r r y m e n .........................................
M ason s a n d s to n e c u tte r s.......................................
D a y la b o r e r s ..................................................................
Potters a n d k i l n m e n ................................................
S h o e m a k e rs, tailo rs, a n d o th e rs e n g a g e d
in th e c lo th in g i n d u s t r y ..................................
M a c h in is ts ......................................................................
H a c k d riv e rs a n d tr a m w a y e m p lo y e e s ____
B a k ers a n d p a str y c o o k s .......................................
F o u n d e r s ........................................................................
C om p ositors a n d l it h o g r a p h e r s .......................
T a n n e r s .............................................................................
D vers a n d g ild e r s ......................................................
C art d r iv e r s ....................................................................
F i r e m e n ...........................................................................
C arpen ters a n d j o i n e r s .........................................
H a t t e r s .............................................................................
O th er o c c u p a t io n s ....................................................
T o t a l......................................................................

C h ild r e n
15 y ea rs
o f a g e or
F e m a le s.
un der.

79
26
25
23
15

4,121
3 ,699
2 ,207
3 ,556
785

7,715

12
9

33

67

3

1

23

321
1,221
1 ,8 1 4
1 ,317
292
173
145
93
677
649
96
66
880

150
1 ,282

256

22,112

9,571

6
5

5
5
5
5
4

3
3
3

41

1 ,449
1 ,843
170

137

113

197
13

75
47

T o ta l.

W o r k in g
d a y s lost.

13,285
5,542
2 ,4 1 8
3,556
1,035

120,666
33,300
6,755
17,319
3,870

227

593
1,281
1,814
1,319
292
273
145
97
677
649
124
216
2 ,3 8 9

13,310
11,786
2,438
13,909
1,144
836
1 ,572
3 ,503
1,998
929
772
524
4,661

4 ,022

35,705

239,292

2

28

The number of strikes in agriculture, as in the other industries,
was greater in 1898 than in the preceding year, there being 36, as
against 12 strikes in 1897. The 36 strikes involved 5,376 men, 2,576
women, and 543 children, or a total of 8,495 persons. Nine of the
strikes were successful, 13 were partty successful, and 14 failed.
L ockouts. — Eighteen cases were reported in 1898 where proprietors
closed their establishments for the purpose of accomplishing certain
objects, but of these only 4 were directed against employees and could
properly be called lockouts. The 4 lockouts affected 334 employees.
Of these lockouts 2 were successful, 1 was partly successful, and in
the other the result was not reported.
C ouncils of P rudhommes . —On December 31, 1898, there were 81
councils of prudhommes, or councils for the conciliation and arbitration
of labor disputes, instituted according to law. This was an increase
of 22 during the year. OnljT32, however, performed their functions
at the close of the year. During the year 11 cases were reported where
they had occasion to intervene in strikes.




150

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

N ORW AY.
Tctbeller vedkommende Arbeidslmininger i Aarene 1890 og 1895. Norges
offieielle Statistik. Tredie Rsekke No. 321. Udgivne af det statistiske Centralbureau. 1899. 36 pp.
The present work, which is one of a series of publications of the Nor­
wegian statistical bureau, consists of a number of tables, showing, by
occupations and localities, the wages of agricultural and other rural
laborers and of working people in cities and towns. The detailed
tables show the wages for the years 1890 and 1895, while summary
tables show average wages at 10-year periods from 1850 to 1870, and
at 5-year periods from 1870 to 1895. Tables are also given showing
the wages of railway and road laborers for each year from 1871 to
1898, and of employees in the fire and engineering departments of the
city of Christiania from 1868 to 1898.




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.
[This subject, begun in Bulletin No. 2, has been continued in successive issues.
All material parts of the decisions are reproduced in the words of the courts, indi­
cated when short by quotation marks and when long by being printed solid. In
order to save space, immaterial matter, needed simply by way of explanation, is
given in the words of the editorial reviser.]

DECISIONS UNDER STATUTORY L A W .
C onstitutionality of Statute — C ity O rdinance — H ours of
L abor— C ity o f Seattle v. Smyth et al., 60 Pacific Reporter, page

1120.—A complaint was filed in the superior court of King County,
Wash., against Sidney Smyth and others, charging them with viola­
tion of an ordinance of the city of Seattle. The defendants filed a
demurrer to the complaint, which was sustained by the court, and the
city then appealed the case to the supreme court of the State, which
rendered its decision April 6, 1900, and sustained the action of the
lower court, declaring the ordinance, which made it unlawful to require
or permit any day laborer or mechanic to work on the public works
more than eight hours in a day, to be unconstitutional. From the
opinion of the court the following is quoted:
Statutes and ordinances similar in character have been held uncon­
stitutional by many courts, and we have not been cited to a single
case wherein their constitutionality is asserted. The principle upon
which they are held to be unconstitutional is that they interfere with
the constitutional right of persons to contract with reference to com­
pensation for their services where such services are neither unlawful
nor against public policy, nor the employment such as might be unfit
for certain classes of persons—as females and infants. “ Every person
sui juris has a right to make use of his labor in any lawful employ­
ment on his own behalf, or to hire it out in the service of others.
This is one of the first and highest of civil rights.” (Cooley, Torts,
2d ed., p. 326.) The judgment of the superior court is affirmed.

E mployers ’ L iability — Constitutionality of Statute L imiting
A mount of D amages to be R ecovered — Hamman v. Central Coal

and Coke Co., 56 Southwestern R eporter,page
brought against the above-named company by
recover $10,000 damages for the death of her
in the employ of said company at date of



1091.—This action was
one Mary Hamman to
husband, a coal miner
his injury and death,
151

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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

which death was alleged to have been caused by the negligence of said
company. Action was brought under section 7074 of the Revised
Statutes of Missouri, 1889, as amended by act approved April 23,1891,
page 182, acts of Missouri of 1891. Said section as amended reads as
follow s:
For any injury to persons or property occasioned by any violation
of this article [regulating mines] or failure to comply with any of its
provisions, a right of action shall accrue to the party injured for any
direct damages sustained thereby ; and in case of loss of life by reason
o f such violation or failure as aforesaid, a right of action shall accrue
to the widow of the person so killed, his lineal heirs or adopted chil­
dren, or to any person or persons who were, before such loss of life,
dependent for support on the person or persons so killed, for a like
recovery of damages sustained by reason of such loss of life or lives:
Provided, That all suits brought under this article shall be commenced
within one year after any cause of action shall have accrued under this
article and not afterwards; And, provided fu rth er, That any person
entitled to sue under this section for loss of life or lives may recover
any sum not exceeding $10,000.
The amendment made to this section by the act of April 23, 1891,
above referred to, is contained in the last proviso of the section, which
allows one entitled to sue for damages under the section to recover
any sum not exceeding $10,000. In the circuit court of Bates County,
Mo., where the trial of the case was had, a judgment was rendered
for the plaintiff and the defendant company appealed the case to the
supreme court of the State, which rendered its decision May 8, 1900,
and affirmed the judgment of the lower court. Among the many
points raised on this appeal was the constitutionality of the amend­
ment to section 7074, above referred to, which was upheld by the
supreme court in the following language, which is quoted from the
opinion of the court as delivered by Judge Burgess in division and
approved by the court in banc:
There is no more important question presented on this appeal than
that with respect to the constitutionality of the act of 1891 (page 182,
laws of 1891) amending section 7074, Rev. Sta., 1889, which prescribes
the measure of the recovery of damages in cases of this character,
which defendant contends is class legislation, and in conflict with sec­
tion 53, art. 4, of the constitution of this State, which provides,
a that the general assembly shall not pass any local or special law
* * * granting to any * * * individual any special or exclu­
sive right, privilege or immunity,” and therefore void. The law of
which the act in question is amendatory pertains to all kinds of mines
and mining in this State, and regulates them with respect to providing
safeguards for the protection of employers [employees] while at work
in mines, and its constitutionality is not questioned; but the argument
is that the amendatory act, which entitled the widow and children of
anyone killed by the negligence of his employer while engaged at
work in a mine to recover any sum not exceeding $10,000 damages
therefor, while under the general damage act they are only entitled
to recover an amount not exceeding $5,000 in such circumstances, is



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

153

class legislation, in that it refers to widows who are entitled to recover
damages when their husbands are killed by the negligence of their
employers, while the right conferred, not the liability imposed, is the
test. “ A statute which relates to persons or things as a class is a gen­
eral law, while a statute which relates to particular persons or things
of a class is special.5 State v. Herrmann, 75 Mo., 346; Lynch v. Mur­
5
phy, 119 Mo., 163, 24 S. W ., 774. The act of 1891, in fixing the maxi­
mum amount of damages which any and all persons are entitled to
recover under its provisions for the death of a miner at $10,000,
merely places a restriction upon the amount of damages that may be
recovered upon a right of action created by the original act. It
applies alike to all persons of a certain class (that is, the widows and
other persons entitled to sue for the deaths of miners, which may be
occasioned by the negligence of the employer), and does not apply to
any particular person; is therefore a general law, and not obnoxious
to the objection urged against it. It is of common knowledge that no
class of laborers are so much exposed to danger, or who, in propor­
tion to the number engaged, meet with so many fatal disasters, as
miners; and the legislature, doubtless for that reason, in order to pro­
tect human life, and to prevent such occurrences, as far as possible,
thought that the necessity for increasing the maximum amount of
damages over that fixed by law in other cases existed, in order to stim­
ulate operators of such mines to all needful and proper precautions
for their protection. Moreover, 46class legislation is not necessarily
obnoxious to the constitution. It is a settled construction of similar
constitutional provisions that a legislative act which applies to and
embraces all persons 6who are or who may come into like situations
and circumstances5 is not partial.5 Humes v. Railway Co., 82 Mo.,
5
221. Our conclusion is that the act is not unconstitutional.

‘ E mployers 5 L iability — Construction of Statute — R ecovery
D amages thereunder by N onresident A lien — Mulhall v.

of

Fallon et al., 57 Northeastern Reporter, page 386.—Suit was brought
by a Mrs. Mulhall against one Fallon and others, defendants, to recover
damages for the death of her son who was an employee of said
defendants at the date of his death. The suit was brought under
authority of section 2 of chapter 270, acts of Massachusetts of 1887,
which reads as follows:
Where an employee is instantly killed or dies without conscious
suffering, as the result of the negligence of an employer, or of the
negligence of any person for whose negligence the employer is liable
under the provisions of this act, the widow of the deceased, or in case
there is no widow, the next of kin, provided that such next of kin were
at the time of the death of such employee dependent upon the wages of
such employee for support, may maintain an action for damages there­
for and may recover in the same manner, to the same extent, as if the
death of the deceased had not been instantaneous, or as if the deceased
had consciously suffered.
The case was heard in the superior court of Norfolk County, Mass.,
and after the hearing the defendants requested the court to take the



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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

case from the jury and direct a verdict for them. Upon the refusal of
the court to do so, and a verdict being rendered in favor of the plaintiff,
the defendants excepted to the ruling of the court and carried the
case upon these exceptions before the supreme judicial court of the
State, which rendered its decision May 31, 1900, and overruled the
exceptions.
The opinion of the court, delivered by Chief Justice Holmes, suffi­
ciently shows the gist of the exceptions and the reasons for the court’s
decision overruling them. The following is quoted therefrom:
This is an action under St., 1887, c. 270, sec. 2, for causing the death
of the plaintiff’s son. The plaintiff is an Irish woman, who, so far as
appears, never has left Ireland. In the superior court she had a ver­
dict, and the case is here on exceptions to a refusal to direct a verdict
for the defendant either on the ground that the statute conferred no
rights upon the plaintiff, or on the ground that she did not appear to
have been dependent upon the wages of her son for support. On the
question of the plaintiff’s dependence upon her son we are of opinion
that there was evidence for the jury.
W e come, then, to the more difficult question whether the plaintiff
claimed the benefit of the act. * However this may be decided, it is not
to be decided upon any theoretic possibility of Massachusetts law con­
ferring a right outside her boundary lines. It is true that legislative
power is territorial, and that no duties can be imposed by statute upon
persons who are within the limits of another State. But rights can be
offered to such persons, and if, as is usually the case, the power that
governs them makes no objection, there is nothing to hinder their
accepting what is offered. The question, then, becomes one of con­
struction [of the statute], and of construction upon a point upon which
it is probable that the legislature never thought when they passed
the act.
Under the statute the action for death without conscious suffering
takes the place of an action that would have been brought by the
employee himself if the harm had been less, and by his representative
if it had been equally great, but the death had been attended with
pain. (St., 1887, c. 270, sec. 1, cl. 3.) In the latter case there would
be no exception to the right of recovery if the next of kin were non­
resident aliens. It would be strange to read an exception into general
words when the wrong is so nearly identical, and when the different
provisions are part of one scheme. In all cases the statute has the
interest of the employees in mind. It is on their account that an
action is given to the widow or next of kin. Whether the action is to
be brought by them or by the administrator, the sum to be recovered is
to be assessed with reference to the degree of culpability of the
employer or negligent person. In other words, it is primarilv a
penalty for the protection of the life of a workman in this State. W e
can not think that workmen were intended to be less protected, if their
mothers happen to live abroad, or less protected against sudden than
against lingering death. In view of the very large amount of foreign
labor employed in this State, we can not believe that so large an excep­
tion was silently left to be read in. W e are of opinion that the supe­
rior court was right in letting the case go to the jury.




DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

155

E mployers ’ L iability — Construction of Statute — R ecovery of
D amages thereunder by N onresident A lien — Vetaloro v. Perkins

et ctl., 101 Federal Reporter, page 393.—This case was heard in the
United States circuit court for the district of Massachusetts on answer
in abatement and motion to dismiss. The court rendered its decision
April 17, 1900, and overruled the answer and denied the motion.
The facts in the case and the reasons for the decision are clearly set
forth in the opinion of the court, delivered by Circuit Judge Colt, and
the following is quoted therefrom:
This is an action brought by the widow of an employee to recover
damages for the death of her husband, under section 2 of the employ­
ers’ liability act of Massachusetts (Acts, 1887, c. 270). It is contended
that this action can not be maintained, because it appears that the
plaintiff is a citizen and resident of Italy. There is nothing in the
language of the act which limits the right of recovery to citizens or
residents of Massachusetts, and there seems to be no sound reason for
holding that nonresident aliens are excluded from the benefits conferred
by section 2. To adopt such a construction of the statute would be to
say that employers may escape liability for negligence, where an
employee is instantly killed or dies without conscious suffering, by the
employment of alien laborers. This consideration alone is sufficient to
condemn such a construction, in the absence of some express limita­
tion in the statute itself.
Section 2, under which the present suit is brought, reads as follows:
“ Where an employee is instantly killed or dies without conscious
suffering, as the result of the negligence of an employer, or of the
negligence of any person for whose negligence the employer is liable
under the provisions of this act, the widow of the deceased, or in case
there is no widow, the next of kin, provided that such next of kin
were at the time of the death of such employee dependent upon the
wages of such employee for support, may maintain an action for dam­
ages therefor and may recover in the same manner, to the same extent,
as if the death of the deceased had not been instantaneous, or as if the
deceased had consciously suffered.”
This section extends the liability of employers under the act to cases
of instant death resulting from the negligence of the employer, and
gives the widow or next of kin the right to maintain an action. In
construing the words at the close of the section, “ in the same manner,
to the same extent, as if the death of the deceased had not been
instantaneous, or as if the deceased had consciously suffered,” it was
said by the court in Ramsdell v. Railroad Co., 151 Mass., 245, 249; 23
N. E., 1104; 7 L. R. A ., 155: “ The meaning obviously is that the
right of action given in the first part of the section shall not be affected
by the fact that the deceased died instantaneously or without conscious
suffering.” The manifest purpose of section 2 is to give the widow
and next of kin of an employee the same right to bring an action in
the case of death as the employee in case he had survived would
have had under section 1. No distinction is made between citizens
and aliens in either section. The only limitation imposed is that the
next of kin, in order to maintain an action, must be dependent for
support on the wages of the employee. To exclude nonresident aliens
from the right to maintain an action under section 2 is to incorporate



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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

into the act a restriction which it does not contain. It is to refuse
compensation to a certain class of persons for a real injury recognized
by statute law. It is to relieve employers with respect to some
employees from the exercise of due care in the employment of safe
and suitable tools and machinery and competent superintendents. It
is to offer an inducement to employers to give a preference to aliens
and to discriminate against citizens. It is to hold that the legislature
of Massachusetts intended by this act to declare that employers should
not be liable for the grossest negligence which results in the instant
death of an alien employee in cases where his widow or next of kin
happen to reside in a foreign country.
1 can find no sound or just reason for holding that the legislature
intended to exclude nonresident aliens from the benefits of this section.
This whole act relating to the liability of employers is highly remedial.
It was designed to benefit all employees. It has received, and should
continue to receive, a liberal construction. It certainly should not
receive a narrow and inequitable construction, founded upon any dis­
tinction between citizens and aliens, or residents and nonresidents.
The answer in abatement is overruled, and the motion to dismiss
denied.

E mployers ’ L ia bilit y — D uty of E mployer — Construction of
S tatute — Q uestion for J ury —Deserant v. Cerillos Coal B ailroad

Co., W Supreme Court Beporteft', page 967.—This action is consolidated
of three, brought by Josephine Deserant as administratrix of the
estates, respectively, of her husband, Henri Deserant, and her sons,
Jules Deserant and Henri Deserant, jr. These actions were brought
against the above-named company for damages for the deaths of her
husband and sons by an explosion in a mine owned b}^ the defendant
company, which explosion was alleged to have been caused by the
negligence of the company. There were two trials, both by jury, in
the district court of the Territory of New Mexico. The first resulted
in a verdict and judgment for the plaintiff, Mrs. Deserant. They were
reversed by the supreme court of the Territory. The second resulted
in a verdict and judgment for the defendant company. They were
affirmed by the supreme court of the Territory. The plaintiff then
sued out a writ of error directed to the United States Supreme Court,
which after a hearing rendered its decision May 28,1900, and reversed
the decision of the supreme court of the Territory and ordered a new
trial.
The opinion of the Supreme Court was delivered by Mr. Justice
McKenna and clearly shows the facts in the case and the reasons for
the decision. It reads, in part, as follows:
The issue between the parties is as to the amount and sufficiency of
ventilation, its obstruction, the accumulation of explosive gases, their
negligent ignition, whether by a fellow-servant of plaintiff’s intestates
or by a representative of the defendant, making it liable, or whether
the explosion was of powder accidentally ignited.



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

157

The method of ventilation was by machinery causing a circulation of
air through the mine and up to the face of the working places, for the
purpose of rendering harmless or expelling the noxious gases.
It is contended by plaintiff that the machinery was insufficient for
that purpose, the employees of the defendant inefficient and negligent,
and that the air shafts had been permitted to become obstructed, whereby
gases accumulated, and stood in the mine and exploded on the 27th of
February, 1895, causing the deaths of plaintiff’s intestates.
The means o f ventilation was a fan at the entrance of the mine, which
by its revolutions exhausted the air in the mine, and outside air rushed
in and through the passages of the mine, and was directed where
desired by means of curtains called “ brattices.”
It is claimed there were defects in those appliances, whereby there
were leaks in the circulation of the air, and besides that water had
been allowed to accumulate in the fourth left air course, which so inter­
rupted the quantity of air which passed into room 8 of the fourth left
entry that the air did not go to the face of that room, but feebly
passed around the brattice at a distance of 12 or 14 feet, thus permit­
ting the accumulation of a dangerous body of gas, until it passed
beyond the danger signals, which may have been put into the room by
the fire boss, and that Donahoe, the day foreman, and Flick and Kelly,
all miners, entered the room on the day of the explosion, with naked
lamps, and ignited the gas before they saw or had an opportunity to
see the danger signal.
The conclusion which plaintiff claimed to be established by the evi­
dence is, that Flick and Kelly went with Donahoe, under whose direc­
tion they worked, into room 8 with naked lights, and that an explosion
was caused by the gas in the room coming in contact with the lights.
The defendant, on the contrary, contended that the “ explosion was
of some kind or other at or in the neighborhood of room 16 in the
fourth left entry of the mine, where the deceased were working as
coal miners.” It is claimed that the cause of the explosion is altogether
of conjecture and surmise, and that the greatest evidence or effect of
explosion and fire appeared in the neighborhood of rooms 16 and 17,
in the entry way thereabout, and that some powder cans were found
exploded, and coal dust was found coked on. some of the pillars on the
back of a car, and a car loaded with coal was moved several feet off
the track. It is hence conjectured that the explosion was caused by
some negligent or accidental ignition of powder which instantly set
fire to the coal dust, which more or less impregnated the air and the
entry ways, and of particles of gas which might be found in the
hollows and crevices; so that death would be caused by concussion, or
b}^ the after damp caused by the explosion. Or it is conjectured again
that the explosion might have been caused by some miner, while
working, suddenly striking a seam or body of gas, which was ignited
by his light, and thus ignited powder near at hand.
W e have read the evidence, and we can not concur with the supreme
court of the Territory that the trial court “ should have granted the
motion of the defendant, and instructed the jury to find the defendant
not guilty.” It was for the jury to determine from the evidence the
place of the explosion and its cause, and what, if any, negligence the
defendant was guilty of, and the evidence offered on the issues required
the submission of those questions to the jury.
7996—No. 32—01----- 11



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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

The trial court, in giving instructions to the jury, read section 3 of
the act of Congress of March 3, 1891, which is as follows:
“ That the owners or managers of every coal mine at a depth o f one
hundred feet or more shall provide an adequate amount of ventilation
of not less than fifty-five cubic feet of pure air per second, or thirtythree hundred cubic feet per minute, for every fifty men at work in
said mine and in like proportion for a greater number, which air shall
by proper appliances or machinery be forced through such mine to the
face of each and every working place so as to dilute and render harm­
less and expel therefrom the noxious or poisonous gases, and all work­
ings shall be kept clear of standing gas.”
The main charge of the court was not objected to. The objections
were to certain instructions given at the request of the defendant.
They were [in part] as follows:
“ 1. The jury are instructed that what was required of the defend­
ant in the conduct of its mining business, in caring for the miners
employed by and engaged in working its mine, was the adoption and
use o f appliances and methods reasonably sufficient for the protection
of the miners against any dangers attending the operation of its mine
that were obvious* or might with reasonable diligence have become
known; and, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is presumed
that the defendant performed its entire duty toward the miners in
that respect.”
a 6. Although the jury may believe from the evidence that gas of the
quantity mentioned in the evidence had accumulated and was allowed
to remain in room 8 for the time stated in the evidence, and believe
from the evidence that the explosion testified to originated in room 8,
and further believe from the evidence that signals o f the kind described
in the evidence warning against entry into said room were placed in
such a manner as to be observed by the deceased Flick and Kelly, and
the meaning and significance of such signal was understood by them,
and such signal was known to be in use by the miners engaged in work­
ing in said mine, and that the use o f such signal was understood by
such miners to inform them o f the presence of gas in dangerous quan­
tity; then, if the jury believe from the evidence that such explosion
was caused by Flick and Kelly entering said room with a naked light,
the defendant is entitled to, and you should render, a verdict in its
favor.”
u l l . If the jury shall believe from the evidence that the defendant
permitted fire gas to accumulate in room 8 of its mine, and that such
gas would not produce any injury until ignited, and that it was ignited
by Flick and Kelly, or either of them, by going into the said room
with a naked light (contrary to the rules and orders of the defendant),
and by such naked light the fire gas was ignited and exploded, causing
the death o f plaintiff’s intestates, such explosion and injury were
directly and immediately caused by the act o f the fellow-servants of
plaintiff’s intestates, and not by the negligence of defendant, and
defendant is not liable therefor; and a verdict should be rendered for
the defendant.”
The act of Congress makes three requirements— (1) Ventilation of
not less than 55 feet of pure air per second, or 3,300 cubic feet per
minute, for every fifty men at work, and in like proportions for a
greater number; (2) proper appliances and machinery to force the air
through the mine to the face of working places; (3) Keeping all work­



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

159

ings free from standing gas. If either of these three requirements
was neglected, to the injury of plaintiff’s intestates, the defendant
was liable.
W e think the instructions numbered 1, 6, and 11, given at the
request o f the defendant, ignored the obligations of the act of Con­
gress, and are so far inconsistent with the other instructions that they
tended to confusion and misapprehension—making the duty of the
mine owner relative, not absolute, and its test what a reasonable per­
son would do, instead of making the test and measure of duty the
command of the statute. The act of Congress does not give to mine
owners the privilege of reasoning on the sufficiency of appliances for
ventilation or leave to their judgment the amount of ventilation that
is sufficient for the protection of miners. It prescribes the amount of
ventilation to be not less than 55 cubic feet per second; it prescribes
the machinery to be adequate to force that amount of air through the
mine to the face of every working place. Nor does it allow standing
gas. It prescribes, on the contrary, that the mine shall be kept clear
of standing gas. This is an imperative duty, and the consequence of
neglecting it can not be excused because some workman may disregard
instructions. Congress has prescribed that duty, and it can not be
omitted and the lives of the miners committed to the chance that the
care or duty of someone else will counteract the neglect and disregard
of the legislative mandate.
But, aside from the statute, it is very disputable if the instructions
were correct. It is undoubtedly the master’s duty [at common law]
to furnish safe appliances and safe working places, and if the neglect
of this duty concurs with * * * the negligence of a fellow-servant,
the master has been held to be liable.
The judgment of the supreme court of the Territory is reversed,
and the case remanded, with instructions to reverse the judgment of
the district court and direct a new trial.

E mployers ’ L iability — R ailroad C ompanies— Construction of
Statute — C ontributory N egligence — Southern Railway Company

v. Harbin, 36 Southeastern Reporter, page 218,—Suit was brought by
J. D. Harbin against the Southern Railway Company to recover dam­
ages for injuries received while in its employ. Evidence was produced
upon the trial in the city court of Floyd County, Ga., which tended to
show that the plaintiff’s own negligence had contributed to cause the
accident on account of which he received his injuries; nevertheless a
judgment was rendered in his favor. The defendant company carried
the case to the supreme court of the State upon a writ of error, and
said court rendered its decision May 14, 1900, and reversed the judg­
ment of the lower court.
The opinion was delivered by Presiding Justice Lumpkin, who, in
the course of the same, used the following language:
The plaintiff predicated his action upon a statute of the State of
Alabama, now embodied in section 2590 of the Alabama Code, which,
among other things, declares that: u When a personal injury is received



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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

by a servant or employee in the service or business of the master or
employer, the master or employer is liable to answer in damages to
such servant or employee, as if he were a stranger, and not engaged in
such service or employment, in the cases following: (1) When the
injury is caused by reason of any defect in the condition of the ways,
works, machinery, or plant connected with, or used in the business of
the master or employer.’5
The case necessarily turns upon the construction which should be
placed upon the Alabama statute as applied to the facts. It therefore
seems entirely proper for us to follow the decisions which have been
rendered by the supreme court of Alabama with reference to this very
statute, and so doing leads, we think, to the conclusion that the plaintiff
was not entitled to a verdict. In the case of Wilson v. Railroad C o.,
85 Ala., 269, 4 South., 701, which was an action for personal injuries
by an employee against the •
defendant company, it was held that
66under statutory provisions, as at common law, contributory negli­
gence is a defense to such action.” In that case the court, speaking
through Judge Clopton, discussed the statute with which we are now
dealing, and distinctly held that, notwithstanding its enactment, the
plaintiff’s right of recovery was defeated by his own negligence con­
tributing to the bringing about of the injury of which he complained.
Again, in Railroad Co. v. Walters, 91 Ala., 435, 8 South., 357, the
same court ruled that, “ in an action for damages against the employer
on account of personal injuries received by plaintiff or his intestate
while in the performance of the duties of his employment (Code, sec.
2590), the defense of contributory negligence is available, as in an action
at common law.”
W e may therefore take it as established by the decisions of the
highest court of Alabama that an employee is not entitled to recover
damages for personal injuries when he negligently contributed to the
bringing about of the same. Judgment reversed.
DECISIONS UNDER COMMON L A W .
E mployers’ L iability — R ailroad

C ompanies — N egligence —

Southern Railway Co. v. Duvall, 56 Southwestern Reporter, page
988.—In this suit, brought against the above-named railway company
to recover damages for the alleged negligent killing of one Duvall
while in the employ of said company, a judgment in favor of the
plaintiff was obtained in the circuit court of Jefferson County, Ky.
The defendant then appealed the case to the court of appeals of the
State, alleging as error of the trial court its refusal to give peremptory
instructions to the jury to find a verdict for the defendant. In April,
1899, the court of appeals rendered a decision reversing the judgment
of the circuit court. The plaintiff then filed a petition for a rehearing,
and in September, 1899, the court of appeals sustained said peti­
tion, withdrew its former opinion, and affirmed the judgment of the
circuit court. The defendant company then filed a petition for a
rehearing and asked for an oral argument before the court of appeals.
The court rendered its decision May 25,1900, and denied the petition.
The opinion of the court of appeals, showing the evidence in the case,
reads, in part, as follows: K



DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.

161

The evidence in this case conduces to show that appellant had, on
or about July 27, placed a furniture car in its train which was con­
siderably higher than the cars that belonged to appellant, and which
it usually used upon its railroad tracks, and so tall that a man could not
stand upright on it and pass under a bridge over the railroad between
Jeffersontown and Tuckers. But a person could so safely pass under
said bridge on the cars belonging to appellant and in common use by
it. Decedent was a front brakeman on appellant’s train, and in the
night of July 27, 1895, was, as is alleged, killed by coming in contact
with said bridge. It can hardly be contended that placing such a car
in appellant’s train was not negligence, and we have no hesitancy in
saying that appellant was not bound to receive and transport from
another railroad such a car.
But it is earnestly contended for appellant that the decedent was
guilty of such contributory negligence as to bar the right to recover.
This contention has nothing to support it, except the fact that the
decedent must, of necessity, have known that the foreign car was
higher than the others; hence it is argued that he should not have been
on the car when the train went under the bridge. It is also suggested
that there was no necessity for him to have been upon the car at that
time. It nowhere appears that his attention had been called to the car
in question, which, in fact, had been put in the train for the first time
that evening or night, and there is nothing to show that he knew that
standing upon said car when passing under said bridge was dangerous
to his life. It is pretty evident that he was killed by coming in con­
tact with the bridge, and there is nothing to indicate that he was guilty
of any negligence by riding upon the car when passing the bridge, if
he was so riding. It would be a harsh rule, indeed, that would require
a brakeman to know the exact height of a foreign car placed in the
regular train shortly before it started on its usual trip.
It is also evident that a brakeman is not guilty of negligence by
simply remaining on the top of a car; and the evidence in this case
tends to show that a few minutes before the bridge was reached it was
necessary for him to be on top of some of the cars to adjust brakes.
The proof also tends to show that he had a right, if he so elected, after
adjusting the brakes, to go into the cab or engine, and to do so would
pass over the car in question. The evidence is ample to authorize the
jury to find that the injury was caused by the intestate coming in con­
tact with the bridge, and the question of negligence on his part was a
question of fact to be submitted to the jury. In fact, we are of opin­
ion that there was no evidence in this case from which the jury could
have found decedent guilty of contributory negligence. After this,
the third thorough and patient investigation of this case, we are sat­
isfied that the judgment appealed from ought to have been affirmed.
Petition overruled.
E mployers ’ L iability — R ailroad Companies— R atification by
E mployer of C ustomary V iolation of R ules by E mployees —

Fluhrer v. Lake Shore and Michigan Southern R y. Co., 83 Northwestern
Reporter, page lift.— Action was brought by Mary Fluhrer, adminis­
tratrix of the estate of John M. Fluhrer, against the above-named
railway company, to recover damages for the death of her intestate,
who was an employee of said company at the time of his death. There



162

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

was a judgment in her favor in the circuit court of Lenawee County,
Mich., and the defendant company brought the case upon a writ of
error before the supreme court of the State, which rendered its deci­
sion June 18, 1900, and affirmed the judgment of the lower court.
The opinion of the court by Judge Moore reads as follow s:
This case has been here once before, and is reported in 80 N. W .,
23. Upon the second trial, plaintiff recovered a verdict. The case is
brought here by the defendant by writ of error.
The counsel for defendant argue over again in their brief the ques­
tions passed upon when the case was here before. W e do not think
any further reference is necessary to that feature of the case. The
case was sent back for trial upon a single point, in relation to which
the court declared the law to be as follows: “ It is well settled that a
violation of the rules o f the company will defeat recovery. The excep­
tion to this is where the company itself has sanctioned the custom of
their employees to act in violation of the rules, and has thus virtually
abrogated tnem. This exception is based upon the theory that it would
be unjust in employers to establish rules, and then sanction their vio­
lation, and interpose such violation as a defense. Fairly construed,
the above rule is notice to brakemen not to enter between the cars,
while in motion, to uncouple them, and an agreement not to do so.
The danger in doing so is apparent. Only when this rule is violated
by brakemen so universally and notoriously that it is a fair inference
that the company sanctioned and approved the violation is the company
barred from this defense. The court instructed the jury that, if they
believed that the motion of the cars was so slow that it was not negli­
gence to pass between them to uncouple them, and that such was the
usual custom of brakemen under like circumstances, then such act would
not necessarily prevent recovery by the plaintiff. There was evidence
tending to show that it was usual and customary for brakemen to pass
between the cars, while in motion, to uncouple them. The case was
not submitted to the jury upon the theory that the company had sanc­
tioned a violation of this rule. The question was not referred to in the
instructions. * * * When the defendant had entered into the con­
tract with the deceased, in which he acknowledged a receipt of a copy
of these rules, and agreed to abide by them, it had met the plaintiff’s
case, even though it was not negligence per se to go between the cars
when in motion. The onus probandi was then cast upon the plaintiff
to show that the company sanctioned a departure from the rule by a
custom so universal and notorious that the company was presumed to
have had knowledge of it, and to have ratified it. This is an important
feature of the case, and was not, we think, by the instructions, prop­
erly submitted to the jury. Counsel for plaintiff urge that the evidence
does not show that Fluhrer ever read or saw these rules. The pro­
duction of the duplicate contract signed by him was prima facie proof
that he had received and read them. If there was a conflict of testi­
mony on this point, it should be submitted to the jury under proper
instructions.”
Upon the second trial testimony was given in relation to the custom of
the employees about going between the cars, when in motion, to couple
them.* The jury were properly instructed in accordance with the law
as stated by the court when the case was here before, and the jury
rendered a verdict in favor of plaintiff. Judgment is affirmed. The
other justices concurred.



LAWS o r VARIOUS STATES RELATING TO LABOR ENACTED SINCE
JANUARY 1, 1896.
[T h e S e c o n d S p e c ia l R e p o rt o f th e D e p a rtm e n t co n ta in s a ll la w s o f th e v a rio u s S ta te s a n d T e rri­
to rie s a n d o f th e U n ite d S ta te s r e la tin g to la b o r in fo rc e J a n u a ry 1, 1896. L a te r e n a c tm e n ts are
rep ro d u ced in su c c e ssiv e issu es o f th e B u lle tin fr o m tim e to tim e a s p u b lish e d .]

VIR G IN IA .
ACTS OF 1899-1900.
C

h apter

328.— Railroad bridges— Safety of employees.

S ection 1. W here any railroad track passes under any bridge or structure not suf­
ficiently high to admit of the safe passage of the cars upon such railroad tracks, with
the servants and employees standing at their posts of duty on said cars, the person
or persons, firm or corporation, operating said railroad and running its trains thereon,
shall erect and maintain, at proper distance on each side of such bridge or structure,
warning signals of approved design, and in general use to warn the servants and
employees, or those operating such railroads, of the approach to such bridge or
structure, and the failure to erect and maintain such danger signals shall make those
operating such railroads liable in damages for the death or injury of any employee
or servant resulting from the insufficient height of such bridge or structure, and no
contract, expressed or im plied, and no plea of, or defense based upon, the contrib­
utory negligence of the servant or employee shall relieve those operating such rail­
roads of the liability hereby imposed. The railroad commissioner is hereby author­
ized, by general or special regulations or order, to determine or approve the char­
acter and location of any danger signal which may be erected and maintained to
comply with the provisions of this act, and any and every such danger signal con­
structed and located as the railroad commissioner shall so determine and approve
shall be deemed within the meaning of this act to be an approved danger signal and
erected at the proper distance on each side of such bridge.
Sec. 2. This act shall be in force from April first, nineteen hundred.
Approved February 14, 1900.
C

h apter

806. — Licensing of labor agents, etc.

Whereas the farming and other interest of Buckingham County are being badly
crippled, and in some instances almost ruined, by the carrying off by labor agents,
and agents of railroad contractors and others, the pick of the laboring class of Buck­
ingham County, by offering inducements, which are seldom, if ever, carried out,
with the result of taking from Buckingham County the most desirable and best labor
for six or seven months of the year, and leaving them without em ploym ent for the
remainder of the year, and thereby seriously embarrassing the agriculturists and manu­
facturers of Buckingham County as before stated, and not being any benefit or gain
to the laboring m an; now, therefore,
1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of Virginia, that the board of supervisors
of Buckingham County, Virginia, are hereby authorized and empowered to place a
tax upon all labor agents, or representatives of persons, firms, or corporations, that
come into Buckingham County for the purpose of inducing the laborers to move
from the county, as before stated.
2. In no case shall the tax imposed upon such agents or representatives of persons,
firms, or corporations soliciting men to leave Buckingham County be less than one
hundred dollars per annum or more than two hundred doMars per annum, at the
discretion of the board of supervisors. Any agent or representative found in any
part of the county soliciting men to leave said county for the purpose heretofore
stated, without having in his possession license or receipt showing that license has
been paid, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and punished, on conviction,
by fine of not less than fifty nor more than one hundred dollars in each case.
3. A ll acts or parts of acts in conflict with this act are hereby repealed.
Approved March 6, 1900.




163

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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

UNITED STATES.
ACTS OF CONGRESS OF 1899-1900.
Chapter 339.— L egislation

for the

T erritory

of

H a w aii .

.

Chapter 1 — Contracts for labor.
Section 10. * * * Provided, That no suit or proceedings shall be maintained
for the specific performance of any contract heretofore or hereafter entered into for
personal labor or service, nor shall any remedy exist or be in force for breach of any
such contract, except in a civil suit or proceeding instituted solely to recover dam­
ages for such breach: Provided further, That the provisions of this section shall not
m odify or change the laws of the United States applicable to merchant seamen.
A ll contracts made since August tw elfth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, by
which persons are held for service for a definite term, are hereby declared null and
void and terminated, and no law shall be passed to enforce said contracts in any w ay;
and it shall be the duty of the Ufiited States marshal to at once notify such persons
so held of the termination of their contracts.
The act approved February tw enty-six, eighteen hundred and eighty-five, “ To
prohibit the importation and migration of foreigners and aliens under contract or
agreement to perform labor in the United States, its Territories, and the District of
Colum bia,” and the acts amendatory thereof and supplemental thereto, are hereby
extended to and made applicable to the Territory of Hawaii.
Chapter 3.— Collection of statistics by the United States Commissioner of Labor,
Section 76. * * * It shall be the duty of the U nited States Commissioner of
Labor to collect, assort, arrange, and present in annual reports statistical details
relating to all departments of labor in the Territory of Hawaii, especially in relation
to the commercial, industrial, social, educational, and sanitary condition of the labor­
ing classes, and to all such other subjects as Congress m ay, by law, direct. The said
commissioner is especially charged to ascertain, at as early a date as possible, and as
often thereafter as such information m ay be- required, the highest, lowest? and
average number of employees engaged in the various industries in the Territory,
to be classified as to nativity, sex, hours of labor, and conditions of em ploym ent,
and to report the same to Congress.
Chapter 6.— Chinese— Certificates of residence— Exclusion from the United States,
Section 101. Chinese in the Hawaiian Islands when this act takes effect m ay
within one year thereafter obtain certificates of residence as required by “ A n act to
prohibit the coming of Chinese persons into the United States,” approved M ay fifth,
eighteen hundred and ninety-tw o, as amended by an act approved November third,
eighteen hundred and ninety-three, entitled “ A n act to amend an act entitled “ A n
act to prohibit the coming of Chinese persons into the United States,’ approved M ay
fifth, eighteen hundred and ninety-tw o,” and until the expiration of said year shall
not be deemed to be unlawfully in the United States if found therein without such
certificate: Provided, however, That no Chinese laborer, whether he shall hold such
certificate or not, shall be allowed to enter any State, Territory, or District of the
United States from the Hawaiian Islands.
Approved April 30, 1900.
Chapter 786.— L egislation

for the

D istrict

of

A laska .

T itle 1.— Recording, etc,, o f mining claims, etc.
Section 15. The respective recorders shall, upon the payment of the fees for the
same prescribed by the Attorney-General, record separately, in large and well-bound
separate books, in fair hand:

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

N inth. Affidavits of annual work done on mining claim s;
Tenth. Notices of m ining location and declaratory statements;
Eleventh. Such other writings as are required or permitted by law to be recorded,
including the liens of mechanics, laborers, and others: Provided, Notices of location
of mining claims shall be filed for record within ninety days from the date of the




LABOK LAWS— UNITED STATES— ACTS OE 1899-1900.

165

discovery of the claim described in the notice, and all instruments shall be recorded
in the recording district in which the property or subject-matter affected by the
instrument is situated, and where the property or subject-matter is not situated in
any established recording district the instrument affecting the same shall be recorded
in the office of the clerk of the division of the court having supervision over the
recording division in which such property or subject-matter is situated.
Sec. 16. * * * Miners in any organized mining district may make rules and
regulations governing the recording of notices of location of mining claims, water
rights, flumes and ditches, m ill sites and affidavits of labor, not in conflict with this
act or the general laws of the United States; and nothing in this act shall be con­
strued so as to prevent the miners in any regularly organized mining district not
within any recording district established by the court from electing their own min­
ing recorder to act as such until a recorder therefor is appointed by the court: * * *
Sec. 26. The laws of the United States relating to mining claims, mineral loca­
tions, and rights incident thereto are hereby extended to the District of Alaska:
Provided, That subject only to such general limitations as may be necessary to exem pt
navigation from artificial obstructions all land and shoal water between low and
mean high tide on the shores, bays, and inlets of Bering Sea, w ithin the jurisdiction
T
of the United States, shall be subject to exploration and mining for gold and other
precious metals by citizens of the United States, or persons who have legally declared
their intentions to become such, under such reasonable rules and regulations as the
miners in organized mining districts may have heretofore made or m ay hereafter
make governing the temporary possession thereof for exploration and mining pur­
poses until otherwise provided by law : Provided further, That the rules and regula­
tions established by the miners shall not be in conflict with the m ining laws of the
United States; and no exclusive permit shall be granted by the Secretary of W ar
authorizing any person or persons, corporation or company to excavate or mine
under any of said waters below low tide, and if such exclusive permit has been
granted it is hereby revoked and declared null and void; but citizens of the United
States or persons who have legally declared their intention to become such shall
have the right to dredge and mine for gold or other precious metal in said waters,
below low tide, subject to such general rules and regulations as the Secretary of W ar
may prescribe for the preservation of order and the protection of the interests of
commerce; such rules and regulations shall not, however, deprive miners on the
beach of the right hereby given to dump tailings into or pump from the sea opposite
their claims, except where such dumping would actually obstruct navigation, and
the reservation of a roadway sixty feet wide, under the tenth section of the act of
M ay fourteenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, entitled “ An act extending the
homestead laws and providing for right of way for railroads in the district of Alaska,
and for other purposes,” shall not apply to mineral lands or town sites.
T itle 2.— Earnings of married women.
Section 28. A wife may receive the wages of her personal labor, and maintain an
action therefor in her own name and hold the same in her owT right, and she may
n
prosecute and defend all actions for the preservation and protection of her rights and
property as if unmarried.
T itle 2.— Exemption from execution, etc.
Section 272. The homestead of any fam ily, or the proceeds thereof, shall be ex­
empt from judicial sale for the satisfaction of any liability hereafter contracted or for
the satisfaction of any judgment hereafter obtained on such debt. Such homestead
must be the actual abode of and owned by such fam ily or some members thereof. It
shall not exceed two thousand five hundred dollars in value, nor exceed one hundred
and sixty acres in extent if not located in a town or city laid off into blocks or lots,
or if located in any such town or city, then it shall not exceed one-fourth of one
acre. * * * The homestead aforesaid shall be exem pt from sale or any legal
process after the death of the person entitled thereto for the collection of any debts
for which the same could not have been sold during his lifetim e.
Sec. 273. A ll other property, including franchises or rights or interests therein, of
the judgment debtor shall be liable to an execution, except as in this section pro­
vided. The following property shall be exem pt from execution if selected and re­
served by the judgm ent debtor or his agent at the time of the levy, or as soon there­
after before saie thereof as the same shall be known to him , and not otherwise:
First. The earnings of the judgment debtor, for his personal services rendered at
any tim e within sixty days next preceding the levy of execution or attachment, when




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BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR,

it appears by the debtor’s affidavit or otherwise that such earnings are necessary for
the use of his fam ily supported in whole or in part by his labor;
Second. Books, pictures, and musical instruments owned by any person, to the value
of seventy-five dollars;
Third. Necessary wearing apparel owned by any person for the use of him self or
his fam ily: Provided, W atches or jewelry exceeding m value the sum of one hundred
dollars shall not be exem pt by virtue of this subdivision;
Fourth. The tools, im plements, apparatus, team, vehicle, harness, or library neces­
sary to enable any person to carry on the trade, occupation, or profession by w hich
such person habitually earns his living to the value of five hundred dollars; also suf­
ficient quantity of food to support such team, if any, for six m onths; the word
“ team ” in this subdivision shall not be construed to include more than one yoke of
oxen, or a span of horses or mules, or two reindeers, or six dogs, as the case m ay b e;
Fifth. The following property, if owned by the head of a fam ily and in actual use
or kept for use by and for his fam ily, or when being removed from one habitation to
another on a change of residence: Ten sheep with one year’s fleece or the yarn or
cloth manufactured therefrom; two cows and five swine; household goods, furniture,
and utensils to the value of three hundred dollars; also food sufficient to support such
animals, if any, for six m onths, and provisions actually provided for fam ily use and
necessary for the support of such person and fam ily for six m onths;
Sixth. The seat or pew occupied by the head of a fam ily or his fam ily in a place of
public worship.
Seventh. A ll property of any public or municipal corporation.
Eighth. No article of property, or if the same has been sold or exchanged, then
neither the proceeds of such sale nor the articles received in exchange therefor, shall
be exem pt from execution issued on a judgment recovered for its price.
T itle 2 .— Wages preferred—In administration.
S ection 872. The charges and claims against the estate * * * shall be paid in
the following order * * * : First, funeral charges; second, taxes of whatever
nature due the United States; third, expenses of last sickness; fourth, all other taxes
of whatever nature; fifth, debts preferred by the laws of the United States; sixth ,
debts which at the death of the deceased were a lien upon his property or any right
or interest therein according to the priority of their several liens; seventh, debts due
employee [em ployees] of decedent for wages earned within the ninety days im medi­
ately preceding the death of the decedent; eighth, all other claims against the estate.
T itle 3 .— Earnings o f married women.
Section 64. A ll property, either real or personal, acquired by any married woman
during coverture by her own labor shall not be liable for the debts, contracts, or
liabilities of her husband, but shall in all respects be subject to the same exemptions
and liabilities as property owned at the time of her marriage or afterwards acquired
by gift, devise, or inheritance.
T itle 3.— Exemption from execution, etc.
Section 238. Burial lots sold by such [cem etery] association shall be for the sole
purpose of interment and shall be exem pt from taxation, execution, attachment, or
any other claim, lien, or process whatsoever if used, as intended, exclusively for
burial purposes and in no wise with a view to profit.
T itle 3 .— Liens ofmechanics} laborers, etc.
S ection 262. Every mechanic, artisan, machinist, builder, contractor, lumber
merchant, laborer, teamster, drayman, and other persons performing labor upon or
furnishing material, of any kind to be used in the construction, development, altera­
tion, or repair, either in whole or in part, of any building, wharf, bridge, flume, m ine,
tunnel, fence, machinery, or aqueduct, or any structure or superstructure, shall have
a lien upon the same for the work or labor done or material furnished at the instance
of the owner of the building or other improvement or his agent; and every contractor,
subcontractor, architect, builder, or other person having charge of the construction,
alteration, or repair, in whole or in part, of any building or other improvement as
aforesaid shall be held to be the agent of the owner for the purposes of this code.
S ec. 263. The land upon which any building or other improvement as aforesaid
shall be constructed, together with a convenient space about the same, or so much as




LABOR LAWS— -UNITED STATES-----ACTS OF 1899-1900.

167

m ay be required for the convenient use and occupation thereof (to be determined by
the judgment of the court at the time of the foreclosure of sucn lien ), and the mine
on which the labor was performed or for which the material was furnished shall also
be subject to the liens created by this code if, at the time the work was commenced
or the materials for the same had been commenced to be furnished, the land belonged
to the person who caused the building or other improvement to be constructed,
altered, or repaired; but if such person owned less than a fee-simple estate in such
land, then only his interest therein shall be subject to such lien; and in case such
interest shall be a leasehold interest, and the holder thereof shall have forfeited his
rights thereto, the purchaser of such building or improvement and leasehold term,
or so much thereof as remains unexpired at any sale under the provisions of this
code, shall be held to be the assignee of such leasehold term, and as such shall be
entitled to pay the lessor all arrears of rent or other money and costs due under the
lease, unless the lessor shall have regained possession of the land and property, or
obtained judgment for the possession thereof, prior to the commencement of the
construction, alteration, or repair of the building or other improvement thereof; in
which event the purchaser shall have the right only to remove the building or other
improvement within thirty days after he shall have purchased the same; and the
owner of the land shall receive the rent due him , payable out of the proceeds of the
sale, according to the terms of the lease, down to the time of such removal.
Sec. 264. A lien created by this code upon any parcel of land shall be preferred to
any lien, mortgage, or other incumbrance which m ay have attached to the land sub­
sequent to the time when the building or other improvement was commenced, or the
materials were commenced to be furnished and placed upon or adjacent to the land;
also to any lien, mortgage, or other incumbrance which was unrecorded at the time
when the building, structure, or other improvement w as commenced, or other mate­
r
rials for the same were commenced to be furnished and placed upon or adjacent to
the land; and all liens created by this code upon any building or other improve­
ments shall be preferred to all prior liens, mortgages, or other incumbrances upon
the land upon which the building or other improvement shall have been constructed
or situated when altered or repaired; and in enforcing such lien, such building or
other improvement m ay be sold separately from the land, and when so sold the pur­
chaser m ay remove the same, within a reasonable tim e thereafter, not to exceed
thirty days, upon the payment to the owner of the land of a reasonable rent for its
use from the date of its purchase to the time of rem oval: Provided, If such removal
be prevented by legal proceedings, the thirty days shall not begin to run until the
final determination of such proceedings in the court of first resort or the appellate
court if appeal be taken.
Sec. 265. Every building, or other improvement mentioned in section twr hun­
o
dred and sixty-two, constructed upon any lands with the knowledge of the owner
or the person having or claiming any interest therein, shall be held to have been
constructed at the instance of such owner or person having or claiming any interest
therein; and the interest owned or claimed shall be subject to any lien filed m accord­
ance with the provisions of this code, unless such owner or person having or claiming
an interest therein shall, within three days after he shall have obtained knowledge
of the construction, alteration, or repair, give notice that he will not be responsible
for the same, by posting a notice in writing to that effect in some conspicuous place
upon the land, or upon the building or other improvement situated thereon.
Sec. 266. It shall be the duty of every original contractor, within sixty days after
the completion of his contract, and of every mechanic, artisan, machinist, builder,
lumber merchant, laborer, or other person, save the original contractor, claiming
the benefit of this code, within thirty days after the completion of the alteration or
repair thereof, or after he has ceased to labor thereon from any cause, or after he
has ceased to furnish materials therefor, to file with the recorder of the precinct in
which such building or other improvement, or some part thereof, shall be situated,
a claim containing a true statement of his demand, after deducting all just credits
and offsets, with the name of the owner or reputed owner, if known, and also the
name of the person by whom he was employed or to whom he furnished the mate­
rials, and also a description of the property to be charged with the lien sufficient for
identification, which claim shall be verified by the oath of himself or of some other
person having knowledge of the facts.
Sec. 267. The recorder shall record the claim in a book kept for that purpose,
which records shall be indexed as deeds and other conveyances are required by law
to be indexed, and for which he shall receive the same fees as are allowed by law
for recording deeds and other instruments.
Sec. 268. No lien provided for in this code shall bind any building, structure, or
other improvement for a longer period than six months after the same shall have




168

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

been filed, unless suit be brought before the proper court within that tim e to enforce
the same, or, if a credit be given, then six months after the expiration of such credit;
but no lien shall be continued in force for a longer tim e than one year from the tim e
the work is completed by any agreement to give credit.
Sec. 269. A n y person who shall, at the request of the owner of any lot in the dis­
trict, grade, fill in, or otherwise improve the same or the street in front of or adjoin­
ing the same, shall have a lien upon such lot for his work done and materials fur­
nished in the grading, filling in, or otherwise improving the same; and all the pro­
visions of this code respecting the securing and enforcing the mechanic’ s lien shall
apply thereto.
Sec. 270. Actions to enforce liens created by this code shall be brought before the
district court, and the pleadings, process, practice, and other proceedings shall be
the same as in other cases. In case the proceeds of any sale under this code shall
be insufficient to paw all lien holders under it, the liens of all persons other than the
original contractor (and subcontractors) shall first be paid in full, or pro rata if the
proceeds be insufficient to pay them in fu ll; and out of the remainder, if any, the sub­
contractors shall be paid in full, or pro rata.if the remainder be insufficient to pay
them in full, and the remainder, if any, shall be paid to the original contractor; and
each claimant shall be entitled to execution for any balance due him after such
distribution, such execution to be issued by the clerk of the district court, upon
demand, after the return of the marshal or other officer making the sale showing such
balance due.
In all actions under this chapter [sections 262 to 275, inclusive] the district court
shall, upon entering judgm ent for the plaintiff, allow as a part of the costs all moneys
paid for the filing and recording of the lien, and also a reasonable amount as attor­
ney’ s fees. A ll actions to enforce any lien created by this code shall Lave preference
upon the calendar of civil actions brought before the district court and shall be tried
without unnecessary delay.
In all actions to enforce any lien created by this chapter [sections 262 to 275, inclu­
sive] all persons personally liable and all lien holders whose claims have been filed
for record under the provisions of section two hundred and sixty-six shall, and all
other persons interested in the matter in controversy or in the property sought to bo
charged with the lien m ay, be made parties; but such as are not made parties shall
not be bound by such proceedings. The proceedings upon the foreclosure of the
liens created by this code shall be, as nearly as possible, made to conform -to the
proceedings of a foreclosure of a mortgage lien upon real property.
Sec. 271. No payment by the owner of the building or structure to any original
contractor or subcontractor, made before thirty days from the completion of the
building, shall be valid for the purpose of defeating or discharging any lien created
by this chapter [sections 262 to 275, inclusive] in favor of any workman, laborer,
lumber merchant, or material 'm an, unless such payment so made by the owner of
the building or structure to such original contractor or subcontractor has been dis­
tributed among such workmen, laborers, lum ber merchants, or material men, or, if
distributed in part only, then the same shall be valid only to the extent the same has
been so distributed.
Sec. 272. A ny contractor shall be entitled to recover upon a lien filed by him only
such amount as m ay be due to him according to the terms of his contract, after
deducting all claims of other parties for work done and materials furnished as afore­
said; and in all cases where a lien shall be filed under this chapter [sections 262 to
275, inclusive] for work done or materials furnished to any contractor he shall defend
any action brought thereupon at his own expense, and during the pendency of such
action the owner m ay withhold from the contractor the amount of money for which
such lien is filed; and in case of judgment against the owner or his property upon
the liens the owner shall be entitled to deduct from any amount due or about to
become due by him to the contractor the amount of such judgment and costs; and if
the amount of such judgment and costs shall exceed the amount due by him to the
contractor, or if the owner shall have settled with the contractor in full, he shall be
entitled to recover back from the contractor any amount so paid by him , the owner,
in excess of the contract price, and for which the contractor was originally the party
liable.

Sec. 273. W henever any m echanic, artisan, m achinist, builder, lum ber m erchant,
contractor, laborer, or other person shall have furnished or procured any materials
for use in the construction, alteration, or repair o f any building or other im provem ent,
such m aterials shall n ot be subject to attachm ent, execution, or other legal process to
enforce any debt due b y the purchaser of such m aterials except a debt due for the
purchase m oney thereof, so long as in good faith the same have been or are about to
be applied to the construction, alteration, or repair of such building, structure, or
other im provem ent.




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169

Sec. 274. The words “ building or other im provem ent,” wherever the same are
used in this chapter [sections 262 to 276, inclusive], shall be held to include and
apply to any wharf, bridge, ditch, flume, tunnel, fence, machinery, aqueduct to
create hydraulic power, or for mining or other purposes, and all other structures and
superstructures, whenever the same can be made applicable thereto; and the words
“ construction, alteration, or repair,” wherever the same are used herein, shall be
held to include partial construction, and all repairs done in and upon any building or
other improvement.
Sec. 276. Nothing contained in this chapter [sections 262 to 275, inclusive] shall
affect any lien heretofore acquired, but the same may be enforced by the provisions
of this chapter; and where actions are now pending the proceedings, after this chap­
ter goes into effect, may be conducted according to this chapter.
Sec. 276. A ny person who shall make, alter, repair, or bestow labor on any article
of personal property at the request of the owner or lawful possessor thereof shall
have a lien upon such property so made, altered, or repaired, or upon which labor
has been bestowed, for his just and reasonable charges for the labor he has performed
and the material he has furnished, and such person may hold and retain possession
of the same until such just and reasonable charges shall be paid.
Sec. 277. A ny person w ho is a common carrier, or who shall, at the request of the
T
owner or lawful possessor of any personal property, carry, convey, or transport the
same from one place to another, and any person who shall safely keep or store any
grain, wares, merchandise, and personal property at the request of the owner or law­
ful possessor thereof, and any person who shall pasture or feed any horses, cattle,
hogs, sheep, or other live stock, or bestow any labor, care, or attention upon the same
at the request of the owner or lawful possessor thereof, shall have a lien upon such
property for his just and reasonable charges for the labor, care, and attention he has
oestowed and the food he has furnished, and he may retain possession of such
property until such charges be paid.
Sec. 278. If such just and reasonable charges be not paid within three months
after the care, attention, and labor shall have been performed or bestowed, or the
materials or food shall have been furnished, the person having such lien m ay pro, ceed to sell at public auction the property mentioned in the last two sections, or a
part thereof sufficient to pay such just and reasonable charges. Before selling, he
shall give notice of such sale by advertisement for three weeks in a newspaper pub­
lished in the precinct, if there be such publication, or by posting up notice of such
sale in three public places in the precinct, one of which shall be the post-office, or
adjacent thereto, for three weeks before the tim e of such sale, and the proceeds of
such sale shall be applied, first, to the discharge of such lien, and the costs of keep­
ing and selling such property, and the remainder, if any, shall be paid over to the
owner thereof: Provided, Nothing herein contained shall be construed as to authorize
any warehouseman to sell more of any w ool, wheat, oats, or other grain than suffi­
r
cient to pay charges due the warehouseman on such wool, wheat, oats, or other grain:
And provided further, If any such warehouseman shall sell, loan, or dispose of in any
manner, contrary to the provisions of this chapter [sections 276 to 295, inclusive],
without the consent of the owner thereof, any such wool, wheat, oats, or other grain,
he shall, for each and every offense, forfeit and pay to the owner of such wool,
wheat, oats, or other grain a sum equal to the market value thereof, and fifty per
centum of the market value in addition as a penalty, the market value to be the
price such article or articles bore at the tim e the owner thereof made demand on the
warehouseman for the same.
Sec. 279. The provisions of the last three sections shall not interfere with any
special agreement of the parties.
Sec. 280.' Every person performing labor upon, or who shall assist in obtaining or
securing, saw logs, spars, piles, or other tim ber shall have a lien upon the same for
the work or labor done upon or in obtaining or securing the same, w hether such
T
work or labor was done at the instance of the owner of the same or his agent. The
cook in a logging camp and any and all* others who may assist in or about a logging
camp shall be regarded as a person who assists in obtaining or securing the saw logs,
spars, piles, or other tim ber mentioned herein.
Sec. 281. Every person performing labor upon or who shall assist in manufacturing
saw logs or other timber into lumber has a lien upon such lumber while the same
remains at the yard wherein manufactured, whether such work or labor was done
at the instance of the owner of such lumber or his agent.
Sec. 282. A n y person who shall permit another to go upon his timber land and
cut thereon saw logs, spars, piles, or other timber has a lien upon such logs, spars,
piles, and tim ber for the price agreed to be paid for such privilege, or for the price
such privilege or the stumpage thereon would be reasonably worth, in case there
was no express agreement fixing the price.




BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR.

170

Sec. 283. The liens provided for in this chapter [sections 276 to 295, inclusive] are
preferred liens ahd are prior to any and a ll oth er liens, and no sale, transfer, m ort­
gage, or assignment o f any saw logs, spars, piles, or other tim ber or m anufactured
lum ber shall defeat the lien thereon as herein provided.
Sec. 284. The person rendering the service or doing the w ork or labor nam ed in
sections tw o hundred and seventy-six and tw o hundred and seventy-seven o f this
chapter is on ly entitled to the liens as provided herein for services, w ork, or labor
for the period of six m onths, or any part thereof n ext preceding the filin g of the
claim s as provided in section tw o hundred and eigh ty-six o f this title.
Sec. 285. The person granting the privilege m entioned in section tw o hundred and
eighty-tw o o f this title is on ly entitled to the lien as provided therein for saw logs,
spars, piles, and other tim ber cut during the six m onths n ext preceding th e filin g o i
the claim as provided in section tw o hundred and eighty-six.
Sec. 286. E very person, w ithin th irty days after the rendition o f the services, or
after perform ing the w ork or labor m entioned in sections tw o hundred and seventysix and tw o hundred and seventy-seven o f this title, w ho shall claim th e benefit
hereof m ust file for record w ith the recorder o f the precinct in w hich such saw logs,
spars, piles, and other tim ber was cut, or in w hich such lum ber was m anufactured, a
claim containing a statem ent o f his dem and, and th e am ount thereof, after deducting,
as near as possible, all ju st credits and offsets, w ith the name of the person b y w hom
he was em ployed, w ith a statem ent o f the term s and conditions of his contract, if any;
and in case there is n o express contract, the claim shall state w hat such service, w ork,
or labor is reasonably w orth, and shall also contain a description o f the property to
be charged w ith the lien sufficient for identification w ith reasonable certainty, w hich
claim must be verified b y the oath o f him self or som e other person for him to the
effect that the affiant believes the same to be true, w hich claim shall be substantially
in the follow in g form :
----------, claim ant, v s .----------, defendant.
claim s a lien upon (describing p roperty), being
Notice is hereby given that
abou t---------- more or less, which were (cut or mamLufactured) i n ----------precinct, D istrict of Alaska, are marked th u s---------- , and are now lying in
for labor performed upon and assistance rendered in (cutting or manufacturing logs or lum ber).
That the name of the owner, or reputed owner, i s ---------- ; th a t-----------em ployed
sa id ---------- to perform such labor and render such assistance upon the follow ing terms
and conditions (state contract, if any, or reasonable valu e); that said contract has
been faithfully performed and fully complied with on the part of sa id ---------- , who
performed labor and assisted in (cutting or manufacturing) for the period o f ---------- ;
that said labor and assistance were so performed and rendered upon said property
between t h e ---------- day o f ----------- and th e ----------- day o f ----------- , and the rendition of
said service was closed on th e ---------- day o f ----------- , and thirty days have not elapsed
since that tim e; that the amount of claimant’ s demand for said services i s --------- ; that
no part thereof has been paid (excep t---------- ) , and there is now due and remaining
unpaid thereon, after deducting all just credits and offsets, the sum o f----------, in which
amount he claims a lien upon said property.
D is t r ic t

op

A

laska,

\ Q
ij.

Precinct o f ---------- , J 1
I , ---------- , being first duly sworn, on oath say that I am the *

■named in the

foregoing cla im ; that 1 have heard the same read, know the contents thereof, and
believe the same to be true.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this *

•day of -

S e c . 287. Every person mentioned in section two hundred and eighty claim ing
the benefit thereof must file for record with the recorder of the precinct in which
such saw lo^s, spars, piles, and other tim ber were cut a claim, in substance the same
as provided in section two hundred and eighty-six, and verified as therein provided.
S e c . 288. The recorder must record every claim filed under the provisions of this
title in books kept by him for that purpose, which records must be indexed as deeds
and other conveyances are required by law to be indexed, and for which he m ay
receive the same fees as are allowed by law for recording deeds or other instruments.
S e c . 289. No lien provided for in this chapter [sections 276 to 295, inclusive] shall
bind any saw logs, spars, piles, lumber, or other tim ber for a longer period than six
m onths After the claim , as herein provided fcr, has been filed, unless an action be
commenced within that tim e to enforce the same; and no lien of any kind or char­
acter shall be had upon any lumber or logs after the same shall have been placed in




LABOR LAWS-----UNITED STATES-----ACTS OF 1899-1900.

171

any building or upon any spars or piles after the same shall have been put in use for
the purpose for which they were intended.
S e c . 290. The liens provided for in this chapter [sections 276 to 295, inclusive] shall
be enforced by an action and shall be governed by the laws regulating the proceed­
ing relating to the mode and manner of trial and the proceedings and laws to secure
property so as to hold it for the satisfaction of any lien that may be against it.
S e c . 291. A ny person who shall bring an action to enforce a lien herein provided
for, or any person having a lien as herein provided for, who shall be made a party to
any such action, has a right to demand that such lien be enforced against the whole
or any part of the saw logs, spars, piles, or other timber or manufactured lum ber upon
which he has performed labor, or which he has assisted in obtaining or securing, or
which has been cut on his tim ber land during the six months mentioned in sections
two hundred and eighty-four and two hundred and eighty-five, for all his labor upon
or for all his assistance in obtaining or securing the logs, spars, piles, or other timber,
or in manufacturing said lumber during the whole or any part of the six m onths men­
tioned in section two hundred and eighty-four, or for timber cut during the whole or
any part of the six months mentioned in section twr hundred and eighty-five.
o
S e c . 292. A n y number of persons claiming liens under this title m ay join in the
same action, and when separate actions are commenced the court may consolidate
them. The court m ay also allow, as part of the costs, the moneys paid for filing and
recording the claim, and a reasonable attorney's fee for each person claiming a lien.
S e c . 293. In such action judgment must be rendered in favor of each person hav­
ing a lien for the amount due him , and the court shall order any property subject to
the lien herein provided for to be sold by the marshal in the same manner that per­
sonal property is sold on execution, and the court shall apportion the proceeds of
such sale to the payment of each judgment pro rata, according to the amount of such
judgment.
S e c . 294. The judge of the court m ay, in vacation, upon motion, supported by affi­
davit, showing that the property is liable to loss or destruction, order any property
subject to a lien as in this title provided to be sold by the marshal as personal prop­
erty is sold on execution before the judgment is rendered, as provided in section
two hundred and ninety-three, and the proceeds of such sale must be retained by
the marshal until judgment, to be applied as in the section directed.
S e c . 295. A ny person, firm, or corporation who shall injure, impair, or destroy, or
who shall render difficult, uncertain, or impossible of identification any saw logs,
spars, piles, or other tim ber knowing the same to be subject to a lien, as herein pro­
vided, without the express consent of the person entitled to such lien, shall be liable
to the lien holder for damages to the amount secured by his lien, which sum may be
recovered by an action against such person, firm, or corporation, without bringing the
suit as provided for in section 302 of this code: Provided, In all such actions the prin­
cipal debtor shall be made a codefendant.
Approved June 6, 1900.
37.— Suspending the alien contract-labor law in connection with
the Ohio Centennial and Northwest Territory Exposition.

J o in t R e s o l u t io n N o .

The act of Congress approved February tw enty-sixth, eighteen hundred and eightyfive, prohibiting the importation of foreigners under contract to perform labor, and
the acts amendatory of these acts, shall not be construed, nor shall anything therein
operate to prevent, hinder, or in any wise restrict any foreign exhibitor, representa­
tive, or citizen of a foreign nation, or the holder of any concession or privilege from
the Ohio Centennial Company, of Toledo, from bringing into the United States,
under contract, such mechanics, artisans, agents, or other employees, natives of
foreign countries, as they or any of them may deem necessary, subject to the
approval in each case of the Secretary of the Treasury, for the purpose of making
preparations for installing or conducting their exhibits, or of preparing or installing
or conducting any business authorized or permitted under or by virtue of or pertain­
ing to any concession or privilege which may have been granted by the Ohio Centen­
nial Company in connection with the Ohio Centennial and Northwest Territory
Exposition: Provided, however, That any alien who, by virtue of this act, enters the
United States under contract to perform labor, may not remain in the United States
for more than three months after the close of the exposition, and he shall thereafter
be subject to all the processes and penalties applicable to aliens coming in violation
of the alien contract-labor law aforesaid: And provided further, That this resolution
shall not be construed as applying to the acts of Congress prohibiting the coming of
Chinese persons into the United States.
Approved June 6, 1900.




172

BULLETIN OF THE DEPARTMENT OP LABOR.

J o in t R e s o l u t io n

No. 38.— Suspending the alien contract-labor law in connection with
the Pan-American Exposition.

The act of Congress approved February tw enty-sixth, eighteen hundred and eightyfive, prohibiting the importation of foreigners under contract to perform labor, and
the acts amendatory of these acts, shall not be construed, nor shall anything therein
operate to prevent, hinder, or in any wise restrict any foreign exhibitor, representa­
tive, or citizen of a foreign nation, or the holder of any concession or privilege from
the Pan-American Exposition Company, of Buffalo, New Y ork, from bringing into
the United States, under contract, such mechanics, artisans, agents, or other em ployees,
natives of foreign countries, as they or any of them may deem necessary, subject to
approval in each case of the Secretary of the Treasury, for the purpose of making
preparations for installing or conducting their exhibits, or of preparing or installing
or conducting any business authorized or permitted under or by virtue of or pertain­
ing to any concession or privilege which m ay have been granted by the Pan-Am eri­
can Exposition Company, of Buffalo, New Y ork, in connection with such exposition:
Provided, however, That any alien who, by virtue of this act, enters the United States
under contract to perform labor, may not remain in the United States for more than
three months after the close of the exposition, and he shall thereafter be subject to
all the processes and penalties applicable to aliens coming in violation of the alien
contract-labor law aforesaid: And provided further, That this resolution shall not be
construed as applying to the acts oi Congress prohibiting the coming of Chinese per­
sons into the United States.
Approved June 6,1900.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102