View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

BUDGET

BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

Fiscal Year 

THE BUDGET DOCUMENTS
Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2000
contains the Budget Message of the President and information on
the President’s 2000 budget proposals. In addition, the Budget includes the Nation’s second comprehensive Government-wide Performance Plan.
Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2000 contains analyses that are designed to highlight specified subject areas or provide other significant presentations
of budget data that place the budget in perspective.
The Analytical Perspectives volume includes economic and accounting analyses; information on Federal receipts and collections; analyses
of Federal spending; detailed information on Federal borrowing and
debt; the Budget Enforcement Act preview report; current services
estimates; and other technical presentations. It also includes information on the budget system and concepts and a listing of the Federal
programs by agency and account.
Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government,
Fiscal Year 2000 provides data on budget receipts, outlays, surpluses or deficits, Federal debt, and Federal employment covering
an extended time period—in most cases beginning in fiscal year 1940
or earlier and ending in fiscal year 2004. These are much longer
time periods than those covered by similar tables in other budget
documents. As much as possible, the data in this volume and all
other historical data in the budget documents have been made consistent with the concepts and presentation used in the 2000 Budget,
so the data series are comparable over time.
Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2000—
Appendix contains detailed information on the various appropriations and funds that constitute the budget and is designed primarily
for the use of the Appropriations Committee. The Appendix contains
more detailed financial information on individual programs and appropriation accounts than any of the other budget documents. It
includes for each agency: the proposed text of appropriations language, budget schedules for each account, new legislative proposals,
explanations of the work to be performed and the funds needed,
and proposed general provisions applicable to the appropriations of

entire agencies or group of agencies. Information is also provided
on certain activities whose outlays are not part of the budget totals.
A Citizen’s Guide to the Federal Budget, Budget of the
United States Government, Fiscal Year 2000 provides general
information about the budget and the budget process for the general
public.
Budget System and Concepts, Fiscal Year 2000 contains an
explanation of the system and concepts used to formulate the President’s budget proposals.
Budget Information for States, Fiscal Year 2000 is an Office
of Management and Budget (OMB) publication that provides proposed
State-by-State obligations for the major Federal formula grant programs to State and local governments. The allocations are based
on the proposals in the President’s budget. The report is released
after the budget and can be obtained from the Publications Office
of the Executive Office of the President, 725 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20503; (202) 395–7332.
AUTOMATED SOURCES OF BUDGET INFORMATION
The information contained in these documents is available in
electronic format from the following sources:
CD-ROM. The CD-ROM contains all of the budget documents and
software to support reading, printing, and searching the documents.
The CD-ROM also has many of the tables in the budget in spreadsheet format.
Internet. All budget documents, including documents that are
released at a future date, will be available for downloading in several
formats from the Internet. To access documents through the World
Wide Web, use the following address:
http://www.gpo.gov/usbudget
For more information on access to the budget documents, call (202)
512–1530 in the D.C. area or toll-free (888) 293–6498.

GENERAL NOTES
1.
2.

All years referred to are fiscal years, unless otherwise noted.
Detail in this document may not add to the totals due to rounding.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON 1999
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, D.C. 20402–9328

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

I.

The Budget Message of the President .............................................................

1

II.

Charting A Course for the New Era of Surplus ............................................

11

III.

Building on Our Economic Prosperity
1.

V.

21

2.
IV.

Sustaining Growth ................................................................................
Saving Social Security ..........................................................................

35

Improving Performance through Better Management ...............................

43

Preparing For the 21st Century
3.

63

4.

Supporting Working Families ..............................................................

75

5.

Strengthening Health Care ..................................................................

85

6.

Protecting the Environment .................................................................

95

7.

Promoting Research ..............................................................................

107

8.

Enforcing the Law .................................................................................

119

9.

Building One America ..........................................................................

129

10.

Advancing United States Leadership in the World ...........................

141

11.
VI.

Investing in Education and Training ..................................................

Supporting the World’s Strongest Military Force ..............................

151

Investing in the Common Good: Program Performance in Federal
Functions
12.

Overview ................................................................................................

161

13.

National Defense ...................................................................................

167

14.

International Affairs .............................................................................

173

15.

General Science, Space, and Technology .............................................

177

16.

Energy ....................................................................................................

183

17.

Natural Resources and Environment ..................................................

189

18.

Agriculture .............................................................................................

197

19.

Commerce and Housing Credit ............................................................

205

20.

Transportation .......................................................................................

211

21.

Community and Regional Development ..............................................

219

22.

Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services ....................

225

23.

Health ....................................................................................................

237

24.

Medicare ................................................................................................

243

25.

Income Security .....................................................................................

247
i

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS—Continued
Page

26.

253

27.

Veterans Benefits and Services ...........................................................

257

28.

Administration of Justice .....................................................................

263

29.

General Government .............................................................................

269

30.

Net Interest ...........................................................................................

273

31.

Allowances .............................................................................................

275

32.

Undistributed Offsetting Receipts .......................................................

277

33.

Regulation: Costs and Benefits ............................................................

279

34.
VII.

Social Security .......................................................................................

Detailed Functional Tables ..................................................................

283

Summary Tables
2000 Budget Proposals ..................................................................................

365

Summaries by Agency ...................................................................................

383

Other Summary Tables .................................................................................

387

VIII.

List of Charts and Tables ....................................................................................

395

IX.

OMB Contributors to the 2000 Budget ............................................................

403

I.

THE BUDGET MESSAGE
OF THE PRESIDENT

1

2

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart I-1. THE BUDGET IS IN SURPLUS AFTER YEARS OF DEFICITS
SURPLUS (+) / DEFICITS (-) IN BILLIONS
2000 BUDGET

RESERVE PENDING
SOCIAL SECURITY
REFORM
1998-2004
$976 BILLION

200

0
TOTAL DEFICITS
1981-1992
$2.3 TRILLION

$74B
DEFICIT

TOTAL SAVINGS
1994-1998
$1.2 TRILLION

-200
ACTUALS
$290B
DEFICIT

-400
$388B
DEFICIT

-600

PRE-OBRA
BASELINE

-800
1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

Note: OBRA is the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993.

Table I–1.

RECEIPTS, OUTLAYS, AND SURPLUS
(In billions of dollars)

1998
Actual
Receipts .........................
Outlays ..........................
Reserve Pending Social
Security Reform ........
Surplus ..........................

Estimates
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

1,722
1,653

1,806
1,727

1,883
1,766

1,933
1,799

2,007
1,820

2,075
1,893

2,166
1,958

2,265
2,034

2,364
2,081

2,474
2,154

2,588
2,234

2,708
2,315

69
0

79
0

117
0

134
0

187
0

182
0

208
0

231
0

283
0

320
0

354
0

393
0

THE BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT
To the Congress of the United States:
The 2000 Budget, which I am submitting
to you with this message, promises the third
balanced budget in my Administration. With
this budget, our fiscal house is in order,
our spirit strong, and our resources prepare
us to meet the challenges of the next century.
This budget marks a new era of opportunity.
When I took office six years ago, I was
determined to reverse decades of fiscal decline—a time when deficits grew without
restraint, the economy suffered, and our national purpose seemed to be undermined.
For too many years, the deficit loomed over
us, a powerful reminder of the Government’s
inability to do the people’s business.
Today, Americans deserve to be proud and
confident in their ability to meet the next
set of challenges. In the past six years,
we have risen to our responsibilities and,
as a result, have built an economy of unprecedented prosperity. We have done this the
right way—by balancing fiscal discipline and
investing in our Nation.
This budget continues on the same path.
It invests in education and training so Americans can make the most of this economy’s
opportunities. It invests in health and the
environment to improve our quality of life.
It invests in our security at home and
abroad, strengthens law enforcement and provides our Armed Forces with the resources
they need to safeguard our national interests
in the next century.
This year’s budget surplus is one in many
decades of surpluses to come—if we maintain
our resolve and stay on the path that brought
us this success in the first place. The budget
forecasts that the economy will remain strong,
producing surpluses until well into the next
century.
The 21st Century promises to be a time
of promise for the American people. Our
challenge as we move forward is to maintain
our strategy of balancing fiscal discipline
with the need to make wise decisions about

our investment priorities. This strategy has
resulted in unprecedented prosperity; it is
now providing us with resources of a size
and scope that just a few years ago simply
didn’t seem possible. Now that these resources
are in our reach, it is both our challenge
and responsibility to make sure we use
them wisely.
First and foremost, in the last year of
this century, the task awaiting us is to
save Social Security. The conditions are right.
We have reserved the surplus, our economy
is prosperous, and last year’s national dialogue
has advanced the goal of forging consensus.
Acting now makes the work ahead easier,
with changes that will be far simpler than
if we wait until the problem is closer at
hand.
In my State of the Union address, I
proposed a framework for saving Social Security that will use 62 percent of the surplus
for the next 15 years to strengthen the
Trust Fund until the middle of the next
century. Part of the surplus dedicated to
Social Security would be invested in private
securities, further strengthening the Trust
Fund by drawing on the long-term strength
of the stock market, and reducing the debt
to ensure strong fiscal health. This proposal
will keep Social Security safe and strong
until 2055. In order to reach my goal of
protecting and preserving the Trust Fund
until 2075, I urge the Congress to join
me on a bipartisan basis to make choices
that, while difficult, can be achieved, and
include doing more to reduce poverty among
single elderly women.
I am committed to upholding the pledge
I made last year—that we must not drain
the surplus until we save Social Security.
It is time to fix Social Security now. And
once we have done so, we should turn
our efforts to other pressing national priorities.
We must fulfill our obligation to save and
improve Medicare—my framework would reserve 15 percent of the projected surplus
for Medicare, ensuring that the Medicare
3

4
Trust Fund is secure for 20 years. It would
establish Universal Savings Accounts, using
just over one tenth of the surplus to encourage
all Americans to save and invest so they
will have additional income in retirement.
I propose that we reserve the final portion
of the projected surplus, 11 percent, to provide
resources for other pressing national needs
that will arise in the future, including the
need to maintain the military readiness of
the Nation’s Armed Forces, education, and
other critical domestic priorities.
Charting a Course for the New Era of
Surplus
Six years ago, when my Administration
took office, we were determined to create
the conditions for the Nation to enter the
21st Century from a position of strength.
We were committed to turning the economy
around, to reining in a budget that was
out of control, and to restoring to the country
confidence and purpose.
Today, we have achieved these goals. The
budget is in balance for the first time in
a generation and surpluses are expected as
far as the eye can see. The Nation’s economy
continues to grow; this is the longest peacetime expansion in our history. There are
more than 17 million new jobs; unemployment
is at its lowest peacetime level in 41 years;
and today, more Americans own their own
homes than at any time in our history.
Americans today are safer, more prosperous,
and have more opportunity. Crime is down,
poverty is falling, and the number of people
on welfare is the lowest it has been in
25 years. By almost every measure, our
economy is vibrant and our Nation is strong.
Throughout the past six years, my Administration has been committed to creating opportunity for all Americans, demanding responsibility from all Americans and to strengthening the American community. We have made
enormous strides, with the success of our
economy creating new opportunity and with
our repair of the social fabric that had
frayed so badly in recent decades reinvigorating our sense of community. Most of all,
the prosperity and opportunity of our time
offers us a great responsibility—to take action
to ensure that Social Security is there for

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

the elderly and the disabled, while ensuring
that it not place a burden on our children.
We have met the challenge of deficit reduction; there is now every reason for us to
rise to the next challenge. For sixty years,
Social Security has been a bedrock of security
in retirement. It has saved many millions
of Americans from an old age of poverty
and dependency. It has offered help to those
who become disabled or suffer the death
of a family breadwinner. For these Americans—in fact, for all Americans—Social Security is a reflection of our deepest values
of community and the obligations we owe
to each other.
It is time this year to work together
to strengthen Social Security so that we
may uphold these obligations for years to
come. We have the rare opportunity to act
to meet these challenges—or in the words
of the old saying, to fix the roof while
the sun is shining. And at least as important,
we can engage this crucial issue from a
position of strength—with our economy prosperous and our resources available to do
the job of fixing Social Security. I urge
Americans to join together to make that
happen this year.
Building on Economic Prosperity
At the start of 1993, when my Administration took office, the Nation’s economy had
barely grown during the previous four years,
creating few jobs. Interest rates were high
due to the Government’s massive borrowing
to finance the deficit, which had reached
a record $290 billion and was headed higher.
Determined to set America on the right
path, we launched an economic strategy built
upon three elements: promoting fiscal responsibility; investing in policies that strengthen
the American people, and engaging in the
international economy. Only by pursuing all
three elements could we restore the economy
and build for the future.
My 1993 budget plan, the centerpiece of
our economic strategy, was a balanced plan
that cut hundreds of billions of dollars of
Federal spending while raising income taxes
only on the very wealthiest of Americans.
By cutting unnecessary and lower-priority

5

THE BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT

spending, we found the resources to cut
taxes for 15 million working families and
to pay for strategic investments in areas
including education and training, the environment, and other priorities meant to improve
the standard of living and quality of life
for the American people.
Six years later, we have balanced the
budget; and if we keep our resolve, the
budget will be balanced for many years
to come. We have invested in the education
and skills of our people, giving them the
tools they need to raise their children and
get good jobs in an increasingly competitive
economy. We have expanded trade, generating
record exports that create high-wage jobs
for millions of Americans.
The economy has been on an upward
trend, almost from the start of my Administration’s new economic policies. Shortly after
the release of my 1993 budget plan, interest
rates fell, and they fell even more as I
worked successfully with Congress to put
the plan into law. These lower interest rates
helped to spur the steady economic growth
and strong business investment that we have
enjoyed for the last six years. Our policies
have helped create over 17 million jobs,
while interest rates have remained low and
inflation has stayed under control.
As we move ahead, I am determined to
ensure that we continue to strike the right
balance between fiscal discipline and strategic
investments. We must not forget the discipline
that brought us this new era of surplus—
it is as important today as it was during
our drive to end the days of deficits. Yet,
we also must make sure that we balance
our discipline with the need to provide resources for the strategic investments of the
future.
Improving Performance Through Better
Management
Vice President Gore’s National Partnership
for Reinventing Government, with which we
are truly creating a Government that ‘‘works
better and costs less,’’ played a significant
role in helping restore accountability to Government, and fiscal responsibility to its operations. In streamlining Government, we have
done more than just reduce or eliminate

hundreds of Federal programs and projects.
We have cut the civilian Federal work force
by 365,000, giving us the smallest work
force in 36 years. In fact, as a share of
our total civilian employment, we have the
smallest work force since 1933.
But we have set out to do more than
just cut Government. We set out to make
Government work, to create a Government
that is more efficient and effective, and
to create a Government focused on its customers, the American people.
We have made real progress, but we still
have much work to do. We have reinvented
parts of departments and agencies, but we
are forging ahead with new efforts to improve
the quality of the service that the Government
offers its customers. My Administration has
identified 24 Priority Management Objectives,
and we will tackle some of the Government’s
biggest management challenges—meeting the
year 2000 computer challenge; modernizing
student aid delivery; and completing the
restructuring of the Internal Revenue Service.
I am determined that we will solve the
very real management challenges before us.
Preparing for the 21st Century
Education and Training: Education, in
our competitive global economy, has become
the dividing line between those who are able
to move ahead and those who lag behind. For
this reason, I have devoted a great deal of
effort to ensure that we have a world-class
system of education and training in place for
Americans of all ages. Over the last six years,
we have worked hard to ensure that every boy
and girl is prepared to learn, that our schools
focus on high standards and achievement, that
anyone who wants to go to college can get
the financial help to attend, and that those
who need another chance at education and
training or a chance to improve or learn new
skills can do so.
My budget significantly increases funds
to help children, especially in the poorest
communities, reach challenging academic
standards; and makes efforts to strengthen
accountability. It proposes investments to end
social promotion, where too many public school
students move from grade to grade without

6
having mastered the basics, by expanding
after school learning hours to give students
the tools they need to earn advancement.
The budget proposes improving school accountability by funding monetary awards to the
highest performing schools that serve lowincome students, providing resources to States
to help them identify and change the least
successful schools. It invests in programs
to help raise the educational achievement
of Hispanic students. The budget invests
in reducing class size by recruiting and
preparing thousands more teachers and building thousands more new classrooms. It increases Pell Grants and other college scholarships from the record levels already reached.
My budget also helps the disabled enter
the work force, by increasing flexibility to
allow Medicaid and Medicare coverage and
by providing tax credits to cover the extra
costs associated with working.
Families and Children: During the past
six years, we have taken many steps to help
working families, and we continue that effort
with this budget. We cut taxes for 15 million
working families, provided a tax credit to help
families raise their children, ensured that 25
million Americans a year can change jobs
without losing their health insurance, made
it easier for the self-employed and those with
pre-existing conditions to get health insurance,
provided health care coverage for up to five
million uninsured children, raised the minimum wage, and provided guaranteed time off
for workers who need to care for a newborn
or to address the health needs of a family
member.
I am determined to provide the help that
families need when it comes to finding affordable child care. I am proposing a major
effort to make child care more affordable,
accessible, and safe by expanding tax credits
for middle-income families and for businesses
to increase their child care resources, by
assisting parents who want to attend college
meet their child care needs, and by increasing
funds with which the Child Care and Development Block Grant will help more poor and
near-poor children. My budget proposes an
Early Learning Fund, which would provide
grants to communities for activities that
improve early childhood education and the
quality of child care for those under age

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

five. And it proposes increasing equity for
legal immigrants by restoring their Supplemental Security Income benefits and Food
Stamps and by expanding health coverage
to legal immigrant children.
Economic Development: Most Americans
are enjoying the fruits of our strong economy.
But while many urban and rural areas are
doing better, too many others have grown disconnected from our values of opportunity,
responsiblity and community. Working with
the State and local governments and with the
private sector, I am determined to help bring
our distressed areas back to life and to replace
despair with hope. I am proposing a New Markets Investment Strategy which will provide
tax credit and loan guarantee incentives to
stimulate billions in new private investment
in distressed rural and urban areas. It will
build a network of private investment institutions to funnel credit, equity, and technical assistance into businesses in America’s untapped
markets, and provide the expertise to targeted
small businesses that will allow them to use
investment to grow. I am also proposing to
create more Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities, which provide tax incentives and direct spending to encourage the
kind of private investment that creates jobs,
and to provide more capital for lending
through my Community Development Financial Institutions program. My budget also expands opportunities for home ownership, provides more funds to enforce the Nation’s civil
rights laws, maintains our government-to-government commitment to Native Americans,
and strengthens the partnership we have
begun with the District of Columbia.
Health Care: This past year, we continued
to improve health care for millions of Americans. Forty-seven States enrolled 2.5 million
uninsured children in the new Children’s
Health Insurance Program. By executive order,
I extended the patient protections that were
included in the Patient’s Bill of Rights, including emergency room access and the right to
see a specialist, to 85 million Americans covered by Federal health plans, including Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries and Federal
employees. Medicare beneficiaries gained access to new preventive benefits, managed care
choices, and low-income protections. My budget
gives new insurance options to hundreds of

THE BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT

thousands of Americans aged 55 to 65. I am
advocating bipartisan national legislation to
reduce tobacco use, especially among young
people. And I am proposing a Long-Term Care
initiative, including a $1,000 tax credit, to help
patients, families, and care givers cope with
the burdens of long-term care. The budget enables more Medicare recipients to receive
promising cancer treatments by participating
more easily in clinical trials. And it improves
the fiscal soundness of Medicare and Medicaid
through new management proposals, including
programs to combat waste, fraud and abuse.
International Affairs: America must maintain its role as the world’s leader by providing
resources to pursue our goals of prosperity, democracy, and security. The resources in my
budget will help us promote peace in troubled
areas, provide enhanced security for our officials working abroad, combat weapons of mass
destruction, and promote trade.
The United States continues to play a
leadership role in a comprehensive peace
in the Middle East. The Wye River Memorandum, signed in October 1998, helps establish
a path to restore positive momentum to
the peace process. My budget supports this
goal with resources for an economic and
military assistance package to help meet
priority needs arising from the Wye Memorandum.

7
against the major threats to U.S. security: regional dangers, such as cross-border aggression; the proliferation of the technology of
weapons of mass destruction; transnational
dangers, such as the spread of illegal drugs
and terrorism; and direct attacks on the U.S.
homeland from intercontinental ballistic missiles or other weapons of mass destruction.
Last year, the military and civilian leaders
of our Armed Forces expressed concern that
if we do not act to shore up our Nation’s
defenses, we would see a future decline
in our military readiness—the ability of our
forces to engage where and when necessary
to protect the national security interests
of the United States. Our military readiness
is currently razor-sharp, and I intend to
take measures to keep it that way. Therefore,
I am proposing a long-term, sustained increase
in defense spending to enhance the military’s
ability to respond to crises, build for the
future through weapons modernization programs, and take care of military personnel
and their families by enhancing the quality
of life, thereby increasing retention and recruitment.

Despite progress in making peace there
are real and growing threats to our national
security. The terrorist attack against two
U.S. embassies in East Africa last year
is a stark reminder. My budget proposes
increased funding to ensure the continued
protection of American embassies, consulates
and other facilities, and the valuable employees who work there. Our security and stability
throughout the world is also threatened by
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. The budget
supports significant increases for State Department efforts to address this need.

Science and Technology: During the last
six years, I have sought to strengthen science
and technology investments in order to serve
many of our broader goals for the Nation in
the economy, education, health care, the environment, and national defense. My budget
strengthens basic research programs, which
are the foundation of the Government’s role
in expanding scientific knowledge and spurring
innovation. Through the 21st Century Research Fund, the budget provides strong support for the Nation’s two largest funders of
civilian basic research at universities: the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. My budget provides a substantial increase for the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration’s Space Science program, including a significant cooperative endeavor with Russia.

National Security: The Armed Forces of
the United States serve as the backbone of
our national security strategy. In this postCold War era, the military’s responsibilities
have changed, but not diminished—and in
many ways have become even more complex.
The military must be in a position to guard

My budget also provides resources to launch
a bold, new Information Technology Initiative
to invest in long-term research in computing
and communications. It will accelerate development of extremely fast supercomputers to
support civilian research, enabling scientists
to develop life-savings drugs, provide earlier

8
tornado warnings, and design more fuelefficient, safer automobiles.
The Environment: The Nation does not
have to choose between a strong economy and
a clean environment. The past six years are
proof that we can have both. We have set
tough new clean air standards for soot and
smog that will prevent up to 15,000 premature
deaths a year. We have set new food and water
safety standards and have accelerated the pace
of cleanups of toxic Superfund sites. We expanded our efforts to protect tens of millions
of acres of public and private lands, including
Yellowstone National Park and Florida’s Everglades. Led by the Vice President, the Administration reached an international agreement
in Kyoto that calls for cuts in greenhouse gas
emissions. In my budget this year, I am proposing an historic interagency Lands Legacy
initiative to both preserve the Nation’s Great
Places, and advance preservation of open
spaces in every community. This initiative will
give State and local governments the tools for
orderly growth while protecting and enhancing
green spaces, clean water, wildlife habitat, and
outdoor recreation. I also propose a Livability
Initiative with a new financing mechanism,
Better America Bonds, to create more open
spaces in urban and suburban areas, protect
water quality, and clean up abandoned industrial sites. My budget continues to increase our
investments in energy-efficient technologies
and renewable energy to strengthen our economy while reducing greenhouse gases. And I
am proposing a new Clean Air Partnership
Fund to support State and local efforts to reduce both air pollution and greenhouse gases.
Law: Our anti-crime strategy is working.
For more than six years, serious crime has
fallen uninterrupted and the murder rate is
down by more than 28 percent, its lowest point
in three decades. But, because crime remains
unacceptably high, we must go further. Building on our successful community policing
(COPS) program, which in this, its final year,
places 100,000 more police on the street, my
budget launches the next step—the 21st Century Policing initiative. This initiative invests
in additional police targeted especially to crime
‘‘hot spots,’’ in crime fighting technology, and
in community based prosecutors and crime
prevention. The budget also provides funds to
prevent violence against women, and to ad-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

dress the growing law enforcement crisis on
Indian lands. To boost our efforts to control
illegal immigration, the budget provides the
resources to strengthen border enforcement in
the South and West, remove illegal aliens, and
expand our efforts to verify whether newly
hired non-citizens are eligible for jobs. To combat drug use, particularly among young people,
my budget expands programs that stress treatment and prevention, law enforcement, international assistance, and interdiction.
Entering the 21st Century
As we prepare to enter the next century,
we must keep sight of the source of our
great success. We enjoy an economy of unprecedented prosperity due, in large measure,
to our commitment to fiscal discipline. In
the past six years, we have worked together
as a Nation, facing the responsibility to
correct the mistaken deficit-driven policies
of the past. Balancing the budget has allowed
our economy to prosper and has freed our
children from a future in which mounting
deficits threatened to limit options and sap
the country’s resources.
In the course of the next century, we
will face new challenges for which we are
now fully prepared. As the result of our
fiscal policy, and the resources it has produced,
we will enter this next century from a
position of strength, confident that we have
both the purpose and ability to meet the
tasks ahead. If we keep our course, and
maintain the important balance between fiscal
discipline and investing wisely in priorities,
our position of strength promises to last
for many generations to come.
The great and immediate challenge before
us is to save Social Security. It is time
to move forward now.
We have already started the hard work
of seeking to build consensus for Social
Security’s problems. Let us finish the job
before the year ends. Let us enter the
21st Century knowing that the American
people have met one more great challenge—
that we have fulfilled the obligations we
owe to each other as Americans.

9

THE BUDGET MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT

If we can do this—and surely we can—
then we will be able to look ahead with
confidence, knowing that our strength, our

resources, and our national purpose will help
make the year 2000 the first in what promises
to be the next American Century.
WILLIAM J. CLINTON

February 1, 1999

II. CHARTING A COURSE FOR
THE NEW ERA OF SURPLUS

11

12

THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DOLLAR
FISCAL YEAR 2000 ESTIMATES
WHERE IT COMES FROM...
CORPORATE
INCOME
TAXES
10%

SOCIAL
INSURANCE
RECEIPTS
34%

OTHER
4%

EXCISE
TAXES
4%
INDIVIDUAL
INCOME
TAXES
48%

DISCRETIONARY

WHERE IT GOES...
NATIONAL
DEFENSE
15%

NON-DEFENSE
DISCRETIONARY
17%

RESERVE PENDING
SOCIAL SECURITY
REFORM
6%

SOCIAL
SECURITY
22%

OTHER
MEANS-TESTED
ENTITLEMENTS
6%
MEDICARE
11%

OTHER
MANDATORY
6%

NET
INTEREST
11%

MEDICAID
6%

Table II–1.

MANDATORY

RECEIPTS, OUTLAYS, AND SURPLUS
(Dollar amounts in billions)

1998
Actual

Estimates
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Receipts ....................... 1,721.8 1,806.3 1,883.0 1,933.3 2,007.1 2,075.0 2,165.5 2,265.3 2,364.3 2,474.0 2,588.3
Outlays ........................ 1,652.6 1,727.1 1,765.7 1,799.2 1,820.3 1,893.0 1,957.9 2,034.0 2,081.5 2,153.5 2,234.3
Reserve Pending Social Security Reform
69.2
79.3 117.3 134.1 186.7 182.0 207.6 231.3 282.8 320.5 354.0
Surplus ........................
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
On-Budget Deficit(–) ..
–29.9 –41.7 –12.2
0.2
44.4
31.4
49.8
58.2 103.3 130.7 155.9
Off-Budget Surplus ....
99.2 121.0 129.5 133.9 142.3 150.7 157.8 173.1 179.5 189.8 198.1

2009
2,707.7
2,314.7
393.1
0.0
188.3
204.7

As Percentages of GDP
Receipts .......................
Outlays ........................
Reserve Pending Social Security Reform
Surplus ........................
On-Budget Deficit(–) ..
Off-Budget Surplus ....

20.5
19.7

20.6
19.7

20.7
19.4

20.4
19.0

20.3
18.4

20.1
18.3

20.0
18.1

20.0
18.0

20.0
17.6

20.0
17.4

20.1
17.3

20.1
17.2

0.8
0.0
–0.4
1.2

0.9
0.0
–0.5
1.4

1.3
0.0
–0.1
1.4

1.4
0.0
0.0
1.4

1.9
0.0
0.4
1.4

1.8
0.0
0.3
1.5

1.9
0.0
0.5
1.5

2.0
0.0
0.5
1.5

2.4
0.0
0.9
1.5

2.6
0.0
1.1
1.5

2.7
0.0
1.2
1.5

2.9
0.0
1.4
1.5

II.

CHARTING A COURSE FOR THE NEW
ERA OF SURPLUS

‘‘Remember where we were six years ago. There were some people who were saying America was
in decline. Today, we have a new surplus. We have wages rising to the highest levels in over 20
years. We have the confidence in the country soaring. We have an unprecedented opportunity to
build for the future.’’
President Clinton
October 1998

At the close of the 20th Century, our
economic success is unparalleled. The Nation
is now enjoying the longest peacetime expansion in its history. This sustained economic
strength, coupled with the renewed and rising
confidence of the American people, has, as
the President said recently, given us ‘‘an
unprecedented opportunity to build for the
future.’’
Reflect, for a moment, on how far we
have come. When President Clinton took
office seven years ago, the Federal budget
deficit had exploded to the point that it
dominated the Government’s ability to make
policy and imposed an insidious burden on
our economy. By the close of 1992, the
$290 billion deficit—the largest in American
history—was projected to continue spiraling
upward without restraint. The economy suffered—interest rates were high and job creation stalled. Capital that should been used
for productive investments to create new
jobs, instead was used to finance the Government’s massive deficit-driven borrowing.
Now, in what seems an entirely new world,
we can look back with pride at our progress
of the past six years, and ahead with confidence as we consider the path of our
success. Today, we have lower interest rates,
a higher level of investment, and unprecedented prosperity. Our economy has added
more than 17 million new jobs. The unemployment rate is the lowest in 28 years, the
percentage of Americans on welfare is the
lowest in 29 years, and the inflation rate
is the lowest in 33 years. And today, more

Americans own their own homes than at
any time in our history.
By almost any economic measure, 1998
was a remarkable year for the United States.
But there is nothing more remarkable than
the success of the President’s deficit reduction
policy, which surpassed even the most optimistic of early predictions. The President’s policy
allowed the U.S. Government to balance its
books for the first time in a generation,
producing a budget surplus of nearly $70
billion. Ending an era of red ink, and moving
squarely into the black, the Nation can
now go forward with confidence, secure in
the knowledge that we are well prepared
to meet the challenges of the next century.
And if we keep our resolve in the 21st
Century, we can continue to produce budget
surpluses as far as the eye can see.
The President’s Agenda: The Path to
Surplus
Determined to set America on the right
path, the President began his first term
spearheading a controversial and courageous
program to revive the Nation’s economy.
His economic strategy was built upon three
elements: fiscal discipline; investing in policies
that strengthen the American people; and
engaging in the international economy.
The President’s 1993 economic plan, which
he worked with the Congress to enact, was
the centerpiece of this strategy. It cut spending, slowed the growth of entitlements, and
raised taxes on only the very wealthiest
Americans. At the same time, this plan
13

14
cut taxes for 15 million working families
and made 90 percent of small businesses
eligible for tax relief. And it began an
ongoing effort to invest in education and
training and in research to boost productivity
and, thus, promote higher living standards.
His three-pronged plan of deficit reduction,
trade expansion, and targeted investments
provided resources for people and the economy,
ensuring that key investments for the American people strengthened their prospects for
the future, while taking broader fiscal measures to put the Nation’s economic house
on the right track.
Despite critics’ predictions that this strategy
would fail, causing recession and even larger
deficits, the President’s plan built the foundation for the great prosperity that is America’s
today. In the summer of 1997, the President
and the Congress joined together in an historic
agreement to finish the job of balancing
the budget. The results of this bipartisan
action, the Balanced Budget Act (BBA), provided the final push, bringing the budget
to balance a full four years earlier than
projected. Like the President’s 1993 plan,
the BBA also provided for strategic investments in the American people.
Fiscal Discipline and Investments in a
Time of Surplus
Last year’s budget maintained fiscal discipline by reserving the surplus until we
save Social Security first—and at the same
time provided a strategy of targeted investments to help sustain economic growth. For
example, last year’s budget provided resources
for:
• the first year’s investment to reduce class
size by hiring 100,000 new teachers.
Smaller classes ensure that students receive more individual attention, a solid
foundation in the basics, and greater discipline in the classroom. In this year’s
budget, the President proposes investments in this area, ultimately to reduce
class size in the early grades to a national
average of 18 students.
• investments to protect our economic interests at home by responding to international economies in turmoil. The disrup-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

tion in financial markets last year lead
to economic dislocation in Asia, Latin
America, and the Soviet Union. This, in
turn, hurt American exporters, farmers
and ranchers, who found that markets
overseas were beginning to dry up. With
President Clinton’s leadership, Congress
approved nearly $18 billion for the International Monetary Fund, a stabilizing
force in the world economy.
• a guaranteed, record-level investment for
the next five years in the Transportation
Equity Act for the 21st Century to continue rebuilding America’s highways and
transit systems, which are essential to
continue the growth of modern commerce.
This legislation also funds programs for
highway safety, transit and other surface
transportation, while safeguarding air
quality, and helping former welfare recipients get to their jobs.
Perhaps the most important accomplishment
is what last year’s budget did not do—
it did not spend the surplus. At the start
of last year, the President called on the
Nation to ‘‘reserve every penny of any surplus
until we have taken all the necessary measures to strengthen the Social Security system
for the 21st Century.’’ As part of this plan,
the President also launched a national nonpartisan dialogue last year to spark honest
debate and build consensus about this vital
issue, leading up to the next step: resolving
the difficult issues of Social Security in
a bipartisan fashion.
The prospects for reform are strengthened
by the culmination of last year’s efforts
to create an environment for constructive
discussion, by our economy’s new recordsetting prosperity and by the fact that the
surplus has been reserved for this purpose.
Reaping the Benefits
Throughout his Administration, the President also worked with the Congress to establish and build upon significant investments
in education and training, the environment,
law enforcement and other priorities to help
raise the standard of living and quality
of life for average Americans both now and
in the future. For example, the President’s

II.

CHARTING A COURSE FOR THE NEW ERA OF SURPLUS

commitment to funding key domestic investments has:
• Advanced cutting-edge research with an
increase last year for the National Institutes of Health of $1.9 billion, for research
including intensified work on diabetes,
cancer, genetic medicine, and the development of an AIDS vaccine.
• Established the children’s health care initiative, the largest investment in health
care for children since Medicaid was created. Last year, 47 States began programs
designed to provide meaningful benefits to
as many as 2.5 million uninsured children.
• Increased Head Start’s ability to provide
greater opportunities for disadvantaged
children to participate in a program which
prepares them for grade school. Last year,
a boost in Head Start funding put 835,000
children into the program, making further
progress toward the President’s goal of
putting a million children in Head Start
by 2002.
• Invested in public schools to help States
and communities raise academic standards, strengthen accountability, connect
classrooms and schools to the information
superhighway, and promote public school
choice by opening 900 charter schools.
• Protected and restored some of the Nation’s most treasured lands, such as Yellowstone National Park, and the Everglades, provided the funds to conserve others, and accelerated toxic waste clean-ups.
• Built the COPS program to support community policing. This year COPS will
reach the goal of putting 100,000 more police on the streets of America’s communities. COPS has helped reduce violent
crime for six straight years. The 21st Century Policing Initiative, proposed in this
budget, will expand on the number of police and provide other law enforcement
tools to the community.
Streamlining Government
A key element in the Administration’s ability to expanding strategic investments, while
balancing the budget, is the reinvention of
Government—doing more with less. Efforts

15

led by Vice President Gore’s National Partnership for Reinvention have streamlined Government, reduced its work force, and focused
on performance to improve operations and
delivery of service. And these efforts, by
reducing the cost of government operations,
have improved the bottom line and contributed
to our strong economy.
Since 1993, the Administration, working
with Congress, has eliminated and reduced
hundreds of unnecessary programs and
projects. The size of Government—that is,
the actual total of Government spending—
has equaled a smaller share of GDP than
in any year of the previous two Administrations, and in 2000 will drop to 19.4 percent
of GDP, its lowest level since the early
1970s. The Administration has cut the size
of the Federal civilian work force by 365,000,
creating the smallest work force in 36 years
and, as a share of total civilian employment,
the smallest since 1933.
The Administration, however, is working
to create not just a smaller Government,
but a better one, a Government that best
provides services and benefits to its ultimate
customers—the American people. It has not
just cut the Federal work force, it has
streamlined layers of bureaucracy. It has
not just reorganized headquarters and field
offices, it has ensured that those closest
to the customers can best serve them.
For 2000, the Administration once again
is turning its efforts to the next stage
of ‘‘reinventing’’ the Federal Government. It
plans to dramatically overhaul 32 Federal
agencies to improve performance in key services, such as expediting student loan processing and speeding aid to disaster victims.
It also plans to tackle critical challenges,
such as ensuring that Government computers
can process the year 2000 date change and
making more Government services available
electronically. (For a full discussion of the
Administration’s management agenda, see Section IV, ‘‘Improving Performance Through
Better Management.’’)
Under the 1993 Government Performance
and Results Act, Cabinet departments and
agencies have prepared individual performance
plans that they will send to Congress with
the performance goals they plan to meet

16
in 2000. These plans provided the basis
for the second Goverment-wide Performance
Plan which is contained in this Budget.
In 2000, for the first time, agencies will
submit to the President and Congress annual
reports for 1999 that compare actual and
target performance levels and explain any
difference between them.
Investing in the Future to Save Social
Security
In his State of the Union address, President
Clinton proposed a framework for saving
Social Security; it builds upon our successful
fiscal discipline and the resources it has
provided to the Nation. The President’s plan
devotes some of the surplus—62 percent of
the unified budget surplus for the next 15
years—to the Social Security Trust Fund,
making more than $2.7 trillion available
and extending the life of the system through
the middle of the next century.
This plan would also tap the power of
private financial markets by setting aside
roughly one-fifth of the surplus that has
been transferred to Social Security for investment in private securities. With these additional contributions, plus the higher returns
earned by private investments, this plan
will keep Social Security safe and strong
until 2055. Then, in a bipartisan effort envisioned by the national dialogue of the last
year, the President is urging Congress to
join him to make the difficult but achievable
choices to save Social Security until 2075.
In the context of these tough choices, the
President also noted the need to made additional reforms, including reducing the poverty
rate for elderly women and other groups
on Social Security who are disproportionately
vulnerable and removing the barriers to work
that are a result of the earnings test.
It is time to fix Social Security now.
We are able to do so because the surplus
has been saved for Social Security. Last
year’s commitment still stands—not to drain
the surplus until Social Security has been
resolved; however, it is also our obligation
to look toward the future, and to plan
wisely for the time when Social Security
reform has been accomplished, and we can

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

responsibly allocate the surplus for other
National needs.
Once Social Security is on sound financial
footing, we must fulfill our obligation to
save and improve Medicare. The President’s
framework will reserve 15 percent of the
projected surplus for Medicare, ensuring that
the Medicare Trust Fund is secure for 20
years.
The President is also committed to helping
all Americans save and invest so that they
will have additional sources of income in
retirement. Dedicating just over 10 percent
of the surplus will fund new Universal Savings
Accounts to help Americans save, allowing
them to invest as they choose and receive
matching contributions.
And looking ahead to the Nation’s other
vital needs that will arise in the future,
the President’s plan will reserve 11 percent
of the projected surplus for military readiness,
education, and other critical domestic priorities.
This budget builds on the President’s efforts
to invest in the skills of the American
people. It continues his policy of helping
working families with their basic needs—
raising their children, sending them to college,
and expanding access to health care. It
also invests in education and training, the
environment, science and technology, law enforcement and other priorities to help raise
the standard of living and quality of life
of Americans.
The President is proposing major initiatives
that will continue his investments in highpriority areas—from helping working families
with their child care expenses to allowing
Americans from 55 to 65 to buy into Medicare;
from helping States and school districts recruit
and prepare thousands more teachers and
build thousands more classrooms to making
every effort to fight tobacco and its use
among young people.
Families and Children: For six years, the
President has sought to help working families
balance the demands of work and family. In
this budget he proposes a major effort to make
child care more affordable, accessible and safe,
by expanding tax credits for middle-income
families and for businesses to expand their

II.

CHARTING A COURSE FOR THE NEW ERA OF SURPLUS

child care resources, assisting parents who
want to attend college meet their child care
needs, and increasing funds with which the
Child Care and Development Block Grant can
help more poor and near-poor children. The
budget proposes an Early Learning Fund,
which would provide grants to communities for
activities that improve early childhood education and the quality of childcare for those
under age five.
Health Care: The President has worked
hard to expand health care coverage and improve the Nation’s health. The budget gives
new insurance options to hundreds of thousands of Americans aged 55 to 65 and it advocates bipartisan national legislation that would
reduce tobacco use among the young. The
President’s budget proposes initiatives to help
patients, families and caregivers cope with the
burdens of long-term care; and it helps reduce
barriers to employment for individuals with
disabilities. The budget also enables more
Medicare recipients to receive promising cancer treatments by participating more easily in
clinical trials. And it improves the fiscal
soundness of Medicare and Medicaid through
new management proposals, including programs to combat waste, fraud and abuse.
Education: The President has worked to
enhance access to, and the quality of, education and training. The budget takes the next
steps by continuing to help States and school
districts reduce class size by recruiting and
preparing thousands more teachers and building thousands more new classrooms. The
President proposes improving school accountability by funding monetary awards to the
highest performing schools that serve low-income students, providing resources to States
to help them identify and change the least successful schools, and ending social promotion
by funding additional education hours through
programs like the 21st Century Community
Learning Centers. The budget also proposes
further increases in the maximum Pell Grant
to help low-income undergraduates complete
their college education and more funding for
universal reemployment services to help train
or find jobs for all dislocated workers who need
help.

17

Environment: The Administration proposes
an historic inter-agency Lands Legacy initiative to both preserve the Nation’s Great Places
and advance preservation of open spaces in
every community. This initiative will give
State and local governments the tools for orderly growth while protecting and enhancing
green spaces, clean water, wildlife habitat, and
outdoor recreation. The Administration also
proposes a Livability Initiative with a new financing mechanism, Better America Bonds, to
further creation of open spaces in urban and
suburban areas, improve water quality, and
clean-up abandoned industrial sites. In addition, the budget would restore and rehabilitate
national parks, forests, and public lands and
facilities; expand efforts to restore and protect
the water quality of rivers and lakes; continue
efforts to double the pace of Superfund cleanups; and better protect endangered species.
International Affairs and Defense: The
President has worked to bring peace to troubled parts of the world, and has played a leadership role in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, and
most recently with the Wye River agreement
on the Middle East. The budget reinforces
America’s commitment to peace in the Middle
East by providing for an economic and military
assistance package arising from the Wye River
Memorandum. The work of diplomacy, advancing peace and United States interests, has inherent dangers, as the death toll from the terrorist attacks on two U.S. Embassies in Africa
last year reminds us. The budget proposes increased funding to ensure the continued protection of American embassies, consulates and
other facilities, and the valuable employees
who work there. It also supports significant
increases in funding for State Department programs to address the threats posed by weapons
of mass destruction. The budget also increases
programs that support US manufacturing exports and continues our long standing policy
of opening foreign markets.
The mission of our Armed Forces has
changed in this post-Cold War era, and
in many ways it is more complex. Today,
the U.S. military must guard against major
threats to the Nation’s security, including
regional dangers like cross-border aggression,

18
the proliferation of the technology of weapons
of mass destruction, transnational dangers like
the spread of drugs and terrorism, and direct
attacks on the U.S. homeland from intercontinental ballistic missiles or other weapons of
mass destruction. The U.S. Armed Forces are
well prepared to meet this mission. Military
readiness—the ability to engage where and
when necessary—is razor sharp, and the budget provides resources to make sure that it
stays that way for years to come. The budget
provides a long-term, sustained increase in defense spending to enhance the military’s ability
to respond to crises, build for the future
through programs for weapons modernization,
and take care of military personnel and their
families by enhancing the quality of life, thereby increasing retention and recruitment.
Looking Ahead
There is much to be proud of in America
today. We have not simply put our fiscal
house in order by balancing the budget;
we have left behind an era in which the
budget deficit, as the President said recently,
‘‘came to symbolize what was amiss with
the way we were dealing with changes in
the world.’’ Today we have risen to the
challenge of change—by preparing our people
through education and training to compete
in the global economy, by funding the research
that will lead to the technological tools of
the next generation, by helping working parents balance the twin demands of work
and family, and by providing investment
to our distressed communities in order to
bridge the opportunity gap.
If the deficit once loomed over us as
a symbol of what was wrong, our balanced
budget is proof that we can set it right.
Not only do we have well-deserved confidence,
we have hard-earned resources with which
to enter the next century.
Today, we have an opportunity to address
the needs of the future. We have an obligation

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

to proceed prudently. The President’s plan
proposes that most of the surplus be invested
in Social Security, thereby saving the system
for generations to come. And while the plan
honors his pledge of last year not to drain
the surplus until Social Security has been
saved, it also plans prudently for the future.
After Social Security reform is enacted, the
President proposes using additional portions
of the surplus to strengthen Medicare, to
encourage Americans to save, and to provide
resources for pressing national needs, including military readiness, education, and other
critical domestic priorities.
There is no more pressing issue facing
us as a Nation than the need to guarantee
that Social Security will be there for generations to come. And there is no better time
to act than now while the system is still
strong. This is truly an exceptional moment
in America—the economy is prosperous, the
budget is in balance, and the President’s
commitment to national dialogue has created
conditions for constructive action.
We must seize this moment and work
together now, where a solution will be much
easier to reach than waiting until the problem
is closer at hand. We should take this
rare opportunity to enact comprehensive, bipartisan Social Security reform this year—
or as the old saying goes, we should fix
the roof now while the sun is shining.
It is time, from our position of strength,
to meet this challenge. Or as the President
recently declared at the White House Conference on Social Security:
‘‘Our economy is indeed a powerful engine
of prosperity. In its wide wake it creates
something every bit as important as jobs and
growth—the opportunity to do something
meaningful for America’s future and the confidence that we can actually do it—an opportunity to save Social Security for the 21st
Century. I hope history will record that we
seized this opportunity.’’

III. BUILDING ON OUR
ECONOMIC PROSPERITY

19

1.

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Six years ago, our economy lagged behind the rest of the world, so we changed course, with a
new strategy for economic growth founded on fiscal discipline and lower interest rates. It has
worked. It has helped to produce an American economic renaissance with low inflation, low unemployment, low welfare rolls, rising wages, the highest rate of home ownership in history, the
first balanced budget since Neil Armstrong walked on the Moon, and the smallest Federal Government since John Glenn [first] orbited the Earth.
President Clinton
October 1998

President Clinton took office in 1993 committed to a policy of fiscal discipline and
economic expansion. By nearly every measure,
his policy has been a remarkable success.
But there is perhaps no better measure
of that success than the impressive turnaround
in the Federal budget deficit. At the start
of his term, the President inherited a Federal
budget deficit of $290 billion; six years later,
with the President’s strategy of fiscal discipline
while investing in people, the budget produced
a surplus of nearly $70 billion. This accomplishment resulted in the first surplus in
a generation, and the largest deficit reduction
since the years immediately after World War
II, when massive war-time deficits were wiped
out by vast contractions in defense spending
and strong peace-time growth.
Last year, the Federal Government began
to retire some of the Federal debt held
by the public, reducing the accumulated total
of deficits and the ongoing interest cost
of financing them. Again, this is a milestone;
not since 1969 did a year end with less
debt held by the public than it began.
The last budget of this century will preserve
these historic achievements.
The private sector of the economy has
been the driving force behind this economic
progress; but the President’s commitment to
fiscal restraint has helped create an environ-

ment where the private sector of the economy
can flourish. During the President’s first
year in office, financial markets responded
to the enactment of his deficit reduction
plan by reducing long-term interest rates.
Lower interest rates prompted more business
investment, leading to faster economic growth,
more job creation, and lower unemployment.
Interest rates remained near or below the
lowest levels of the preceding two decades.
The economy continued to thrive, in part
because moderate inflation accompanied rapid
growth. Indeed, price inflation has dropped
during President Clinton’s term of office.
The decline in the inflation rate, along with
the falling unemployment rate, have produced
the lowest ‘‘misery index’’ since the 1960s.
(This index combines the unemployment and
inflation rates.)
The Nation’s economic growth continues
its record-setting pace. At last year’s close,
current data indicated that the expansion
had stretched to 93 months, breaking the
record set in the 1980s for peace-time growth.
Like most private-sector projections, the Administration’s forecast anticipates that growth
will continue, which would put this economy
on track early in 2000 to surpass the twocentury record for economic expansions set
in the 1960s under Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon.

21

22

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Economic Growth and Fiscal Discipline Benefit the American People
From the very start, President Clinton’s economic program has been focused on changes that
will benefit the American people—their well-being, their economic security, and their prospects
for the future. The success of this strategy is clear:
• The economy has created more than 17 million jobs since 1993, nearly all of them in the
private sector. Most of them are in the high growth, higher-wage sectors of the economy.
• The unemployment rate is at its lowest in 29 years; the unemployment rates for African
Americans and Hispanics are the lowest in the more than quarter-century history of those
statistics.
• Work has begun to pay more, reversing a two-decade trend of declining real wages. Instead, inflation-adjusted wages have grown sharply, boosting household incomes throughout the economy. Americans at the lower end of the income scale, those in the poorest 20
percent of households, have seen their incomes (as measured in inflation-adjusted terms)
rise in the past four years, after nearly two decades of stagnation and decline.
• Four million people have left the welfare roles in the past six years. Welfare recipients account for the lowest percentage of the U.S. population in 29 years, as more Americans having learned to be self-reliant and productive have entered the work force. A strong economy and plentiful job opportunities have helped make this transformation possible.
• The number of poor people in America has declined by nearly four million from 1993 to
1997. There are 1.6 million fewer poor children in America. The poverty rate has declined
sharply as well—from 15.1 percent to 13.3 percent. And crime rates are at the lowest level
in 25 years; scholars have argued that a strong economy provides lawful opportunities that
are superior to crime, and, therefore, reduces the incidence of crime.
• A record number of Americans now own their own homes, due in large measure to conditions brought about by lower interest rates. More than seven million more families have
bought homes since 1992. And 18 million homeowners have taken advantage of the low interest rates to refinance their homes, enjoying a virtual tax cut that saves them hundreds
of dollars on their monthly mortgage payments.

Conservative Forecasts: Continued
Growth
Continuing its practice of using conservative
economic assumptions, the Administration
projects that growth will moderate somewhat
in 1999, but it will continue at an average
pace of two percent per year for the next
three years. Last year’s unemployment, the
lowest in three decades, is likely to rise
somewhat, and inflation may increase slightly
as well. Still, the Administration believes
that the economy can continue to outperform
this conservative forecast, as it has for the
past six years, if policy remains sound. The
expansion is expected to continue, which
should sustain many of the economic gains
of the last few years. Ultimately, the Administration expects the economy to return to
higher but sustainable growth early in the
next century, accompanied by low levels of
inflation and unemployment.

The longer-term economic and budget outlook is also more favorable than it has
been for many years. With prudent fiscal
policy, the budget could remain in surplus
for many decades. Still, there will be challenges that threaten budgetary stability in
the 21st Century. In less than 10 years,
the large generation of people born between
1946 and 1964—the ‘‘baby-boomers’’—will
begin to become eligible for retirement with
Social Security benefits. A confluence of additional demographic factors will compound the
retirement of the baby-boom generation to
put intense pressure on the Federal budget
through Social Security and the Federal health
programs—Medicare and Medicaid. These
demographic changes only increase the
uncertainty in all long-range economic and
budgetary forecasts. Reforms will be needed
to preserve the affected programs; and budgetary restraint will be needed to preserve
the fiscal soundness that this Administration

1.

23

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Chart 1-1. THE BUDGET IS IN SURPLUS AFTER YEARS OF DEFICITS
SURPLUS (+) / DEFICITS (-) IN BILLIONS
2000 BUDGET

RESERVE PENDING
SOCIAL SECURITY
REFORM
1998-2004
$976 BILLION

200

0

-200

TOTAL DEFICITS
1981-1992
$2.3 TRILLION

$74B
DEFICIT

TOTAL SAVINGS
1994-1998
$1.2 TRILLION

ACTUALS
$290B
DEFICIT

-400
$388B
DEFICIT

-600

PRE-OBRA
BASELINE

-800
1980

1983

1986

1989

has achieved in the past six years. These
issues are what prompted the President to
declare last year that the surplus must
be preserved until the long-term problems
of Social Security are resolved.
Budgetary Performance
Twelve years of spiraling budget deficits
before President Clinton assumed office increased the public debt by $2.3 trillion.
In dollar terms, this was the largest buildup
of Federal debt in the Nation’s history. Moreover, if President Clinton had not acted,
the buildup in debt threatened to reach
nearly $7 trillion, or nearly 70 percent of
GDP, by 2002. The President set out first
and foremost to cut the massive deficit.
To that end, the President proposed, and
Congress enacted, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of August 1993, as
a solid first step toward fiscal responsibility.
At the time, the Administration expected
OBRA to reduce the deficit significantly;
but budget improvement has far exceeded
expectations. Since OBRA was passed, total

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

deficit reduction has been more than twice
what was originally projected.
To finish the job, the President worked
with Congress to enact the historic and
bipartisan Balanced Budget Act (BBA) in
mid-1997, with the goal of reaching balance
in 2002. The policy of fiscal discipline produced
significant results much sooner than expected,
as the budget came into balance and then
surplus in 1998, four years ahead of projections. The cumulative results of OBRA and
the BBA are truly monumental. To appreciate
their scope, one need only to recall expectations at the time. The latest projections
show total deficit reduction from 1993 to
2003 reaching $4.4 trillion—a sum that exceeds the total amount borrowed from the
public by the Government from 1981 to
1992.
The Administration’s Deficit Reduction
Far Exceeded Projections: Upon OBRA’s enactment, the Administration projected that it
would reduce the accumulated deficits from
1994 to 1998 by $505 billion. Clearly, it has

24

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

exceeded that goal. In fact, last year’s surplus
combined with the reduced deficits of previous
years account for deficit reduction of $1.2 trillion since 1993—more than twice the projected
savings when OBRA was enacted (see Chart
1–1).
The Administration has begun to Reverse the Debt Buildup of the 1980s. The
Government must finance any deficit it runs
by borrowing from the public, thereby accumulating its publicly held debt. As a share of
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Federal debt
held by the public reached a post-World War
II peak of 109 percent in 1946. Because the
economy grew faster than the debt for the next
few decades, the debt gradually fell to about
25 percent of GDP in the 1970s. But the exploding deficits of the 1980s sent it back up.
In dollar terms, publicly held Federal debt
quadrupled, rising from $710 billion at the end
of 1980 to $3.0 trillion by the end of 1992.
Debt peaked at 50 percent of GDP in 1993,
but since then, thanks to the Administration’s
policy of deficit reduction, the ratio of publicly
held debt to GDP has steadily declined. The
surplus of 1998 will cut into the dollar amount
of the debt held by the public, driving down
the ratio of debt to GDP even faster.

Had this Administration done nothing, the
debt was projected by both OMB and the
Congressional Budget Office (CBO) to approach $7 trillion, or 75 percent of GDP,
by 2002. Instead, in 1998, the ratio of
publicly held debt to GDP fell about 16
percentage points below projections made before the Administration began pursuing its
concerted policy of deficit reduction (see Chart
1–2).
The On-Budget Deficit has Fallen: The
unified budget, the measure most commonly
used when tallying deficits and surpluses, includes all Government receipts and spending,
including Social Security’s contributions from
workers and their employers and Social Security benefits paid to retirees. Because contributions in recent years have been greater than
the Social Security benefits paid out, the trust
fund has accumulated a surplus. Under the
accounting method of unified budgeting, that
surplus is counted and helps to bring down
the deficit.
Still, the on-budget (non-Social Security
trust fund budget) balance has also followed
the remarkable deficit reduction trends of
the past six years (see Chart 1–3). The

Chart 1-2. DEBT HELD BY THE PUBLIC
HAS BEEN BROUGHT UNDER CONTROL
PERCENT OF GDP

80

PRE-OBRA 1993 BASELINE

70

60

50
CLINTON
ACHIEVEMENT

ACTUALS
40

2000 BUDGET
ESTIMATES

30
0
1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

2001

2004

1.

25

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Chart 1-3. THE DEFICIT HAS BEEN REDUCED,
COUNTING SOCIAL SECURITY OR NOT
SURPLUS (+) / DEFICIT (-) IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

208
187 182

UNIFIED

200

134

117
100

79

69

44

31

2002

2003

50

0

0

-22
-107

-100

-164

-103

-203
-200

-12

-30 -42

-174

-255
-290

-226
ON-BUDGET

-259

-300

-340

-300

-400
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2004

Chart 1-4. THE BUDGET WAS BALANCED BY BOTH
CUTS IN SPENDING AND INCREASES IN RECEIPTS
PERCENT OF GDP

25
24
23

OUTLAYS
AVERAGE 1980-1998: 21.9

22
21
20
19

AVERAGE 1980-1998: 18.5

18

RECEIPTS

17
0
1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

26

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

deficit has fallen from $340.5 billion (a postWorld War II record) or 5.5 percent of
GDP in 1992, to $30 billion in 1998. Thus,
although the Social Security surplus helps
reduce the overall unified budget deficit,
the on-budget deficit has fallen by $310
billion since 1992, and this improvement
accounts for 86 percent of the reduction
in the unified deficit.

but low public spending. The share of GDP
devoted to taxes is lower in the United States
than in any other leading country. And while
the United States supports a much larger defense establishment than the other G-7 countries, it is nonetheless able to hold its public
spending down to a low share of GDP.

The Government’s Claim on the Economy
has been Reduced: In the previous two Administrations, Federal spending was higher as
a share of the economy than at any point since
the end of World War II, reaching 22.5 percent
of GDP in 1992. The defense buildup in the
early part of the 1980s, higher Federal interest
payments because of increased borrowing from
the public, and large increases in the cost of
Federal health programs outpaced any efforts
to reduce spending during the two previous
Administrations. However, this trend has been
reversed under President Clinton, who, at the
same time, has been able to provide key investments in education, the environment, and
more. During the last five years, the ratio of
Federal spending to GDP has steadily declined, and in 1998 it was only 19.7 percent,
a smaller percentage of the economy than at
any time in almost a quarter century (see
Chart 1–4).

The Administration’s strategy of reducing
the deficit while investing in people unleashed
the power of the private sector. Shrinking
deficits, and now a balanced budget, have
freed capital for private investment, encouraging businesses to borrow for improvements
and expansion, and encouraging Americans
to refinance their homes or buy homes for
the first time. Fiscal responsibility has promoted business and investor confidence and
enabled the Federal Reserve to maintain
low interest rates that, in turn, have helped
maintain and strengthen the economic expansion. The surge in business investment shows
that these policies are working, and with
the budget now balanced and producing a
surplus, prospects for continued economic
progress are excellent.

Economic Growth has Spurred HigherThan-Expected Federal Receipts: A healthy
economy and a booming stock market led last
year to a surge of Federal receipts. In the past
five years, receipts have been higher and
spending lower than projected, leading to more
deficit reduction than projected. Last year’s
unexpectedly strong growth in receipts helped
bring the budget into surplus well before expected.
The United States is among World Leaders in Budgetary Performance: In the
1980s, the United States drew criticism for its
large budget deficits. Other countries blamed
U.S. deficits for driving up interest rates and
threatening global economic growth. This Administration, now embarked on an era of surplus, can point proudly to its fiscal policy as
a model. The United States is a leader among
the G-7 nations; only Canada also runs a surplus (see Chart 1–5). The reason for this outstanding U.S. performance is not high taxes,

Economic Performance

The Expansion Sets a New Record: In
December of 1998, current data indicate that
the economic expansion entered its 93rd
month, setting a new record as the longest
in peacetime. And next year, with most experts
and the Administration projecting continued
growth, the economy will set an all-time record
as the longest expansion ever measured.
The Administration’s Fiscal Policy has
Resulted
in
a
Sound
Expansion:
Unsustainable Federal deficits, in part, stimulated both of the longer post-war expansions—
the first in the 1960s, the second in the 1980s.
The economy expanded because the Government expanded, dragging the private sector
along.
In these earlier expansions, the fiscal stimulus came at different times. In the 1960s,
the deficit was quite restrained early in
the decade, but grew sharply after 1965.
In the early 1980s, the ‘‘structural deficit’’1
1
The structural deficit is the deficit that remains after accounting for cyclical changes in the economy as well as purely temporary
factors, such as the annual costs and receipts from resolving the
thrift crisis.

1.

27

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Chart 1-5. ONLY THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
HAD GENERAL GOVERNMENT SURPLUSES IN 1998
PERCENT OF GDP

2.0
1.6

2.0

0.0
-0.4
-2.0
-2.4

-2.6

-2.9

-4.0

-6.0
-6.1
CANADA

U.S.

U.K.

GERMANY

ITALY

FRANCE

JAPAN

Note: Source OECD Economic Outlook, December 1998

Chart 1-6. EQUIPMENT SPENDING HAS LED THIS EXPANSION
PERCENT CHANGE, ANNUAL AVERAGE
14

12.1

12

10

8

6

4.1

4

1.9

2

0

1981-88

1989-92

1993-98

28
soared to almost five percent of GDP. That
large deficit helped pull the economy out
of the deep recession of 1981–1982, but
the Government’s subsequent failure to curb
it held up interest rates, led to the financial
problems that marked the end of the decade,
and likely helped to bring on the recession
of 1990–1991.
In contrast, during the current expansion,
the reduction and subsequent elimination of
the deficit has permitted private investment
to propel the economy forward.
This Expansion has been Led by a
Strong Private Sector: Since the start of
1993, when President Clinton took office, the
economy has grown at an average rate of 3.3
percent per year—faster than under the two
previous Administrations. Furthermore, recent
growth has been driven by the increased demand for private goods and services. At the
same time, the Federal Government’s direct
claim on GDP (mainly defense and other discretionary spending, excluding transfer payments) has actually shrunk over the past six
years at an average rate of 2.2 percent per
year. Meanwhile, almost 93 percent of the 17.7
million jobs created during this Administration
have been in the private sector (and Federal
Government employment has shrunk by
365,000; see Section IV, ‘‘Improving Performance Through Better Management’’).
Business Investment has Led this Expansion: Since the beginning of 1993, the share
of the Nation’s GDP dedicated to real fixed
investment in business equipment has reached
record levels. Equipment investment has
grown at an annual rate of 12.1 percent, more
than three times the annual rate of growth
from 1980 through 1992 (see Chart 1–6).
Investment growth is important for two
reasons:
• Investment adds to the economy’s productive capacity, and a larger economy generates more income leading to higher average living standards. The recent burst of
investment has helped lay the economic
foundation for continued growth in the
next century.
• New equipment contains advanced technology, making workers who use the
equipment more productive. Higher pro-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

ductivity permits larger wage increases
without threatening higher inflation.
The Misery Index is at the Lowest Levels
in 30 Years: In the current expansion, both
unemployment and inflation have continued to
fall even with the expansion in its eighth year.
Last year, unemployment fell to its lowest annual average since 1969, while inflation at 2.4
percent (as measured by the core CPI, excluding the volatile food and energy prices), was
virtually unchanged from its 1997 low of 2.2
percent. In fact, core inflation has not been
lower since 1966. And the misery index—the
sum of the inflation rate and the unemployment rate—is lower than at any time since
the 1960s (see Chart 1–7).
Unemployment Rates and Interest Rates
are Both Low: Never in the recent past has
the combination of interest rates and unemployment been as low as in the past six years.
Generally, since President Clinton took office,
interest rates have remained near or below
the lowest levels of the 1970s and 1980s, with
the 10-year Treasury bond rate dropping in
October of last year to its lowest level since
1965. It is noteworthy that interest rates have
maintained their low level at a time of sustained economic growth and low unemployment, when interest rates might be expected
to rise. This dampened unemployment rate signals a robust level of demand in the economy.
Relatively low interest rates, along with robust
demand, mark the success of the Administration’s fiscal policy in the following ways: it reduces the drain on savings, thereby freeing resources for investment, while creating an environment where a prudent monetary policy
holds down inflation.
The Near-Term Economic Outlook
The Administration expects the economy
to continue to grow in 1999, while inflation
will remain low. However, growth is expected
to moderate from its recent pace of 3.7
percent per year for the past three years,
which is much faster than the economy
has been able to sustain in recent decades
without higher inflation. The Administration
projects a diminished but healthy rate of
growth, accompanied by low unemployment
and inflation.

1.

29

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Chart 1-7. THE MISERY INDEX IS AT ITS LOWEST SINCE THE 1960s
PERCENT
20

MISERY INDEX

18
16
14
12

CORE CPI, 12-MONTH
PERCENT CHANGE

10
8
6
4

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE
2
0
1960

1963

1966

1969

1972

1975

Domestic Economic Strength at a Time of
International Turmoil
Though the American economy remains
strong, last year there were some troubling
developments in the world economy. The
dislocations in financial markets that began
to spread in Thailand, Korea, Indonesia,
and elsewhere in Asia in 1997 developed
into a severe economic downturn; and Japan,
which had not fully recovered from the collapse
of the bubble economy in the early 1990s,
has fallen back into recession. The effects
spread to Russia and threatened Latin America; the decision of the Russian Government
in August to delay repayment of some of
its debt further roiled world financial markets.
Concern spread to the United States last
summer, but a combination of decisive action
by the Federal Reserve and new resources
provided to the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) helped contain the spread of the crisis.
Conditions have not returned to their status
prior to the August upheaval, and risks
remain, but in the United States, most compa-

1978

1981

1984

1987

1990

1993

1996

nies in need of credit have been able to
return to the capital markets, and stocks
have recovered their lost value.
Despite the disruptions in financial markets,
the U.S. economy slowed very little following
the economic weakness in Asia and Russia
in 1998. Growth through the first three
quarters of the year held up extremely well,
at a 3.7 percent annual rate—which exceeds
the mainstream estimate of the economy’s
potential growth rate of about 2.4 percent.
Despite a declining trade balance, strong
consumer and investment demand combined
to keep the economy healthy.
Though the economy has outperformed the
mainstream forecast for the past six years,
the Administration continues to use mainstream projections, in which the growth of
domestic demand moderates in 1999. Consumer demand has been outpacing income
growth, and cutting into personal saving.
With the saving rate now near zero, it
is likely that consumption spending will grow
more slowly in the future. Business profits,

30
which were rising strongly through 1997,
have fallen over the past four quarters.
Although profits are expected to stabilize,
the abnormally rapid growth is not projected
to return. Furthermore, business utilization
of capital is currently estimated to be below
its long-run average, suggesting less pressure
to invest in additional capacity.
Highlights of the Economic Projections
The budget relies on conservative economic
assumptions that are similar to those of
private forecasters, as well as CBO. Currently,
the consensus among these other forecasters
is that the economy is due for some moderation in growth, and over the next few quarters
the growth rate could average about 2.0
percent, as the unemployment rate retreats
somewhat from its current three-decade low.
Eventually, however, the economy should rebound and return to rates of growth nearer
to potential, estimated by mainstream forecasters at around 2.4 percent per year. The
Administration believes that if the Nation
maintains the sound economic policies of
the past six years, with budgets in surplus
for the foreseeable future, economic performance could be even better than this. Recent
experience suggests that sound policy decisions
are rewarded with superior economic performance. Under this Administration, the economy
has consistently outperformed the consensus
forecast. However, in making budget projections, experience shows that it is prudent
to follow conservative assumptions.
Real GDP: Real GDP growth is expected
to average 2.0 percent on a fourth-quarterover-fourth-quarter basis for the next three
years. It is highly unlikely that growth
will be this smooth over this period, but
the Administration believes that growth over
the next three years will average this rate.
For 2002–2007, the Administration’s estimate
of potential growth is 2.4 percent. Beginning
in 2008, the rate of growth is expected
to slow gradually as the retirement of the
baby-boomers begins to cut into the growth
in the labor supply.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Unemployment: The unemployment rate is
projected to rise gradually to 5.3 percent.
This is a mainstream estimate of the threshold
level below which inflation would be expected
to accelerate. Once the unemployment rate
reaches this level, it is expected to stabilize
there.
Inflation: After rising by 1.6 percent in
1998, the CPI is expected to pick up at
a rate of 2.3 percent in 1999, and to maintain
this rate for the rest of the projection period.
Special factors have been holding down consumer price inflation recently, including falling
prices for oil and other imported goods.
The world economic crisis has reduced prices
in world markets which has redounded to
the benefit of American consumers, and American businesses that use foreign goods and
services as inputs. The chain-weighted price
index for GDP is also expected to increase
somewhat faster than 1998’s low rate. After
rising 0.9 percent in 1998, it is projected
to increase 1.9 percent in 1999, and 2.1
percent in 2000 and thereafter.
Interest Rates: Interest rates on Treasury
debt last year fell to extremely low levels,
under five percent, due to the financial
crisis. As financial markets stabilize, and
as special factors reducing inflation dissipate,
interest rates should increase somewhat. In
the Administration projections, the 91-day
Treasury bill rate is 4.2 percent next year,
and it rises to 4.4 percent by 2002 and
thereafter. The yield on 10-year notes is
projected to rise gradually from 4.9 percent
next year to 5.4 percent in 2003 and afterwards.
The medium-term projections shown in
Table 1–1 are intended to represent average
behavior for the economy, not a precise
year-to-year forecast. In some years, growth
could be faster than assumed; in other years,
it could be slower. Similarly, inflation, unemployment, and interest rates could fluctuate
around the values assumed. But the assumptions are expected to hold on average, and
thus to provide a prudent basis for projecting
the budget.

1.

31

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Table 1–1.

ECONOMIC ASSUMPTIONS 1

(Calendar years; dollar amounts in billions)

Actual
1997 1998
Gross Domestic Product (GDP):
Levels, dollar amounts in billions:
Current dollars ..................................................
Real, chained (1992) dollars .............................
Chained price index (1992 = 100), annual
average ............................................................
Percent change, fourth quarter over fourth
quarter:
Current dollars ..................................................
Real, chained (1992) dollars .............................
Chained price index (1992 = 100) ......................
Percent change, year over year:
Current dollars ..................................................
Real, chained (1992) dollars .............................
Chained price index (1992 = 100) ......................
Incomes, billions of current dollars:
Corporate profits before tax ..............................
Wages and salaries ............................................
Other taxable income 2 ......................................
Consumer Price Index (all urban): 3
Level (1982–84 = 100), annual average ............
Percent change, fourth quarter over fourth
quarter ............................................................
Percent change, year over year ........................

Projections
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

8,111 8,497 8,833 9,199 9,582 10,004 10,456 10,930
7,270 7,539 7,717 7,872 8,029 8,208 8,404 8,606
111.6 112.7 114.4 116.8 119.3 121.8 124.4 127.0
5.6
3.8
1.7

4.5
3.5
0.9

4.0
2.0
1.9

4.2
2.0
2.1

4.1
2.0
2.1

4.5
2.4
2.1

4.5
2.4
2.1

4.5
2.4
2.1

5.9
3.9
1.9

4.8
3.7
1.0

4.0
2.4
1.5

4.1
2.0
2.1

4.2
2.0
2.1

4.4
2.2
2.1

4.5
2.4
2.1

4.5
2.4
2.1

734
721
724
739
765
787
826
867
3,890 4,146 4,349 4,526 4,701 4,892 5,106 5,331
1,717 1,763 1,815 1,863 1,921 1,980 2,051 2,126
160.6 163.1 166.7 170.6 174.5 178.5 182.6 186.8
1.9
2.3

1.6
1.6

2.3
2.2

2.3
2.3

2.3
2.3

2.3
2.3

2.3
2.3

2.3
2.3

Unemployment rate, civilian, percent:
Fourth quarter level ..........................................
Annual average ..................................................
Federal pay raises, January, percent:
Military 4 ............................................................
Civilian 5 .............................................................

4.7
5.0

4.6
4.6

4.9
4.8

5.1
5.0

5.3
5.3

5.3
5.3

5.3
5.3

5.3
5.3

3.0
3.0

2.8
2.8

3.6
3.6

4.4
4.4

3.9
3.9

3.9
3.9

3.9
3.9

3.9
3.9

Interest rates, percent:
91-day Treasury bills 6 ......................................
10-year Treasury notes .....................................

5.1
6.4

4.8
5.3

4.2
4.9

4.3
5.0

4.3
5.2

4.4
5.3

4.4
5.4

4.4
5.4

1

Based on information available as of early December 1998.
Rent, interest, dividend and proprietor’s components of personal income.
Seasonally adjusted CPI for all urban consumers. Two versions of the CPI are now published. The index
shown here is that currently used, as required by law, in calculating automatic adjustments to individual income tax brackets. Projections reflect scheduled changes in methodology.
4
Beginning with the 1999 increase, percentages apply to basic pay only; adjustments for housing and subsistence allowances will be determined by the Secretary of Defense.
5
Overall average increase, including locality pay adjustments.
6
Average rate (bank discount basis) on new issues within period.
2
3

The Near-Term Budget Outlook

The Long-Term Budget Outlook

The Administration projects that the budget
surplus first achieved in 1998 will continue
in 1999 and subsequent years. With no
change in policy, the surplus should reach
$79.3 billion dollars in 1999 and $117.3
billion dollars in 2000. All economic projections
contain uncertainty, and this is true for
budget projections as well. The further into
the future the projections go, the more uncertain they are.

For many years, it was traditional to
make budget projections for a total of five
years—the budget year and the four beyond.
In recent years, however, attention has focused
on intervals of 10 years and even longer,
especially when it is necessary to consider
longer-term issues involving the aging of
the population, like Social Security. Because
the problems with that system will not even
begin to appear until 2008, toward the close

32

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

of the current 10-year budget window, the
projections must be pushed out many decades
into the future to examine the full problem.
The unexpectedly swift success in reducing
the budget deficit since the passage of OBRA
in 1993 also bodes well for our long-run
projections. Without the changes enacted in
OBRA, the Federal deficit would have continued to spiral out of control, reaching over
30 percent of GDP shortly after 2020. Projections in the 1997 Budget estimated a budget
surplus for 2002, which was projected to
last for about 20 years. However, the current
long-run projection of the budget shows the
surplus could continue for many years to
come. Reform of Social Security is one of
the most important challenges remaining to
safeguard our hard won fiscal stability over
time. In that context, maintaining fiscal discipline and using resources for strategic investments must be balanced.

The beneficial long-term results of these
projections depend on prudent policy and
on avoiding sustained adverse economic
shocks. Permanent economic or technical
shocks could knock the projections off track.
However, ordinary business cycles should not
affect the projections over the long run.
In a typical cycle, a slowdown is preceded
and followed by more rapid growth, and
the budget regains in the rebound what
it lost in the slowdown. (For more details
on the long-run budget projections see Analytical Perspectives, Chapter 2, ‘‘Stewardship.’’)
Thanks to the policy initiatives taken by
the Clinton Administration and the BBA,
the budget provides a firm foundation to
reform Social Security and put it on a
solid long-term basis. Restoring confidence
in this vital program is a key Administration
priority. The long-term budget outlook summarized here offers the opportunity to get the
job done.

Chart 1-8. THE IMPROVED BUDGET OUTLOOK PROVIDES
A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY TO SAVE SOCIAL SECURITY
SURPLUS (+) / DEFICIT (-) AS A PERCENT OF GDP

10

2000 BUDGET
0

-10

PRE-OBRA
BASELINE

-20

-30
1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

1.

33

SUSTAINING GROWTH

Investing in Federal Statistics
Our democracy and economy demand that public and private leaders have unbiased, relevant,
accurate, and timely information on which to base their decisions. Data on real Gross Domestic
Product, the Consumer Price Index, and the trade deficit, for example, are critical inputs to
monetary, fiscal, trade, and regulatory policy. They also have a major impact on government
spending, budget projections, and the allocation of Federal funds. Taken together, statistics produced by the Federal Government on demographic, economic, and social conditions and trends
are essential to inform decisions that are made by virtually every organization and household.
Despite these critical uses, rapid changes in our economy and society, and funding levels that
do not enable statistical agencies to keep pace with them, can threaten the relevance and accuracy of our Nation’s key statistics. Without improvements proposed in this budget, it will become more difficult for our statistical system to mirror accurately our economy and society,
which, in turn, could undermine core government activities, such as the accurate allocation of
scarce Federal funds. Fortunately, the most serious shortcomings of our statistical infrastructure could be substantially mitigated by proposals set forth in the Administration’s budget.
These initiatives are documented in greater detail in Chapter 11 of Analytical Perspectives,
‘‘Strengthening Federal Statistics.’’

2.

SAVING SOCIAL SECURITY

‘‘For 60 years, Social Security has meant more than an ID number on a tax form, more than
even a monthly check in the mail. It reflects our deepest values, the duties we owe to our parents,
to each other, to our children and grandchildren, to those who misfortune strikes, to our ideals as
one America.’’
President Clinton
April 1998

Social Security is one of the most successful
Government programs in United States history. Since its creation more than 60 years
ago, Social Security has formed the bedrock
of retirement security for Americans. Social
Security is more than a retirement program,
though. It is a promise, a guarantee. For
millions of Americans who grow old after
a lifetime of work, who become disabled
or suffer the death of a family breadwinner,
Social Security has meant that America will
stand by them.
Right now, the future of Social Security
is uncertain. The pending retirement of 76
million baby boomers will put new financial
pressure on the Social Security system. By
early in the next century, the Social Security
trust fund will have to start drawing on
its own reserves in order to pay beneficiaries,
reversing the self-financing nature of the
system that has existed since its inception.
As this trend continues to grow, some thirty
years into the 21st Century, Social Security
will have only enough resources to cover
72 cents on the dollar of currently promised
benefits. Put simply, if no changes are made,
Social Security will eventually go broke.
In order to preserve the system that so
many Americans rely upon, the President
is urging the Nation to take measures this
year. In 1998, he has led the way with
a series of regional bipartisan forums to
build public awareness about the nature
and scope of the problem, and to build
public consensus for solutions.
This year, the Administration intends to
work with Congress on a bipartisan basis

to fix Social Security, guided by the five
principles he stated last year. The time
to act is now. First, if we take measures
today, the changes to fix Social Security
will be far simpler than if we confront
the problem after it has grown. Acting now
provides the opportunity to take advantage
of America’s strong economy and the Government’s first budget surpluses in a generation.
The future of Social Security presents a
huge challenge for America, but with serious
effort and bipartisan engagement, it is a
challenge we as a Nation are well prepared
to meet.
A Long-term Commitment to Workers and
Their Families
Nearly every American is touched by Social
Security at some point in their lives, either
as a recipient of benefits or as a relative
of a beneficiary. Social Security, officially
known as Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability
Insurance (OASDI), provides families with
comprehensive protection against loss of income due to the retirement, disability or
death of a wage earner.
While most Social Security beneficiaries
are retired workers, Social Security is more
than a retirement program. Nearly one third
of Social Security beneficiaries are disabled
workers and their families, or survivors of
deceased workers (see Table 2–1). Many beneficiaries would face a high risk of poverty
without the income protection provided by
Social Security.
35

36

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Principles for Social Security Reform
The President has announced five principles with which to evaluate proposals for correcting
Social Security’s long-range imbalance.
First, any reform should strengthen and protect Social Security for the 21st Century. The
basic program has been one of this Nation’s greatest successes, and it should not be abandoned.
Second, reform should maintain universality and fairness in the program. For half a century,
Social Security has been a progressive guarantee for citizens.
Third, Social Security must provide a benefit that people can count on. Regardless of the ups
and downs of the economy or the financial markets, Social Security must provide a solid and dependable foundation of retirement security.
Fourth, Social Security must continue to provide financial security for disabled and low-income beneficiaries. Social Security is not just a retirement program. It is also a disability insurance and life insurance program. One out of three Social Security beneficiaries is not a retiree.
Fifth, Social Security reform must preserve America’s fiscal discipline.

When President Roosevelt signed Social
Security into law, most seniors were poor.
Shortly before Roosevelt established the program, one elderly person sent a letter begging
him to end the ‘‘stark terror of penniless
old age.’’ Since then, Social Security benefits
have significantly improved the well-being
of the Nation. The poverty rate among the
elderly declined by 64 percent over the past
three decades, in large part due to Social
Security. In 1967, 29.5 percent of the Nation’s
senior citizens lived in poverty. By 1997,
that figure had dropped to 10.5 percent.
Social Security was founded on two important principles: social adequacy and individual

Table 2–1.

equity. Social adequacy means that benefits
will provide a certain standard of living
for all contributors. Individual equity means
that contributors receive benefits directly related to the amount of their contributions.
These principles still guide Social Security
today.
Social Security was originally designed to
provide a continuing source of income to
help eligible workers maintain a household
when they retired. In 1935, personal savings,
family support, and State welfare programs
were the main sources of income for those
age 65 and older who did not work.

SOCIAL SECURITY PROVIDES UNIVERSAL BENEFITS
(Thousands of OASDI Beneficiaries)
2000
Estimate

Retired workers and families:
Retired workers .........................................................................................................................................
Wives and husbands .................................................................................................................................
Children .....................................................................................................................................................

27,941
2,850
447

Survivors of deceased workers:
Children .....................................................................................................................................................
Widowed mothers and fathers with child beneficiaries in their care ...................................................
Aged widows and widowers, and dependent parents .............................................................................
Disabled widows and widowers ...............................................................................................................

1,932
214
4,822
193

Disabled workers and families:
Disabled workers .......................................................................................................................................
Wives and husbands .................................................................................................................................
Children .....................................................................................................................................................

4,939
186
1,459

Total .............................................................................................................................................................

44,983

2.

37

SAVING SOCIAL SECURITY

Before Social Security, about half of those
over 65 depended on others, primarily relatives
and friends, for all of their income. The
same was often true for people with disabilities. Today, two thirds of those over age
65 get at least half of their income from
Social Security (see Chart 2–1). Social Security
benefits account for about 40 percent of
all income that goes to the elderly population.
For an average-wage worker retiring in 1998,
Social Security replaced more than 40 per
cent of his or her pre-retirement earnings.
With Social Security, the vast majority of
those over age 65 and those with disabilities
can live relatively independent lives. Moreover,
their families no longer carry the sole responsibility of providing their financial support.
Disability Insurance (DI) provides income
security for workers and their families when
workers lose their capacity to work due
to disability. Before DI, workers often had
no such protection, although in some cases
employees whose injuries were job-related
may have received State worker’s compensa-

tion benefits. Congress enacted DI in 1956
to protect the resources, self-reliance, dignity,
and self-respect of those suffering from nonwork-related disabilities. DI protection can
be extremely valuable, especially for young
families who could not sufficiently protect
themselves against the risk of the worker’s
disability.
Social Security is especially important for
women, who make up 60 percent of all
Social Security beneficiaries, and an even
greater percentage—72 percent—of all beneficiaries over age 85. Benefits to spouses
of retirees and survivors of deceased workers
are a critical source of old-age income for
women, who are more likely to take time
out of the paid workforce to raise children
or care for aging parents.
Social Security also makes up a larger
share of retirement income for women than
it does for men. The program accounted
for 51 percent of the total income of elderly
unmarried women in 1996, including widows.
It provided 39 percent of the income of

Chart 2-1. SHARE OF OASI BENEFICIARIES WHO RELIED ON
SOCIAL SECURITY FOR A GIVEN PORTION OF THEIR INCOME, 1996
PERCENTAGE OF BENEFICIARIES

100% OF INCOME
18%
LESS THAN 50%
OF INCOME
34%
90-99% OF INCOME
12%

50-89% OF INCOME
36%

38

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

elderly unmarried men, and 36 percent of
income of elderly married couples. Moreover,
women are more likely to rely on Social
Security for all of their retirement income
(see Table 2–2).

(see Chart 2–2). Furthermore, while the system’s financial burden will increase greatly
with the baby boomers’ retirement, the Social
Security Trustees do not expect demographic
trends to improve markedly in later periods.

Social Security plays a larger role in women’s retirement income than men’s for several
reasons. First, women live longer on average,
and the inflation-indexing of Social Security
benefits protects their buying power over
time. Second, women on average have lower
lifetime earnings than men due to the fact
that women in general take more years
out of the work force, are more likely to
work part-time, and are more likely to earn
lower wages than men, even in year-round
full-time work. Because women have lower
earnings, the progressive nature of the Social
Security benefit formula enhances the role
of these benefits in women’s retirement income. Finally, women are less likely than
men to retire with private pensions, and
their pensions are smaller than those received
by men, again due to lower lifetime earnings.
While the differences between men’s and
women’s work patterns and earnings are
expected to shrink in next few decades,
they are not expected to disappear entirely.

Two demographic factors are especially important. Baby boomers and subsequent generations are having fewer children and are
expected to live longer than previous generations. In 1957, women had an average of
3.7 children, compared to 2.02 today. In
1935, life expectancy was 63 years for females,
60 for males. By contrast, baby boomers
on average have a much longer life expectancy—73 years for females and 67 for males.
The life expectancy for people born in 2000
is 80 years for females, 74 years for males.
The longer people live, the longer they will
collect Social Security. The longer that people
spend in retirement, the larger the pool
of retirees who need to be supported at
any one time, and the fewer there are
working who can contribute to provide that
support.

Program Trends
Growth in Retirement Benefits: Social Security is facing financial stress due to changing
demographics and its own financing structure.
The program is largely ‘‘pay-as-you-go’’—current retirement benefits are financed by current payroll contributions. Such financing
worked well in the past, when five workers
paid for every retiree. However, when the
large baby boom generation retires, eventually
only two workers will pay for every retiree

Table 2–2.

Growth in Disability Benefits: Social Security’s disability component has grown rapidly since its inception. The program provided
about $48 billion to 6.2 million disabled beneficiaries and their family members in 1998,
compared to $57 million for 150,000 disabled
workers in 1957.
What has caused the program growth?
Laws, regulations, and court decisions over
the years have expanded eligibility for benefits. Recently, more and more baby boomers
are reaching the age at which they are
increasingly prone to disabilities, and the
number of women insured has risen. As
the caseload grows, it becomes more important

SOCIAL SECURITY IS CRUCIAL TO
RETIREMENT INCOME

(Percentage of those over age 65 who relied on Social Security for their entire
income, 1996)
Social Security is
sole income source

Unmarried women ...........................................................................................
Unmarried men .................................................................................................
Married couples .................................................................................................

25%
20%
9%

2.

39

SAVING SOCIAL SECURITY

Chart 2-2. COVERED WORKERS PER SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFICIARY
WORKER/BENEFICIARY RATIO
4

3

2

1

0
1998

2003

2008

2013

2018

2023

2028

2033

to ensure that those on the rolls are all,
in fact, eligible for benefits. To maintain
DI’s integrity, the Administration proposes
to maintain support for additional continuing
disability reviews—periodic reviews of individual cases that ensure that only those eligible
continue to receive benefits.
In any given year, very few DI beneficiaries
return to work. Many are just too severely
disabled to work. Others, however, could
work and want to work, but they face
significant obstacles to doing so. To address
this problem, the budget includes a comprehensive package of proposals to help disabled beneficiaries enter or re-enter the work
force (see Chapter 3, ‘‘Investing in Education
and Training’’).
The Long-range Challenge
Social Security is designed to be selffinanced; its most important revenue source
is the payroll tax. Current economic and
demographic forecasts indicate, however, that
revenues will fall short of expenditures in

2038

2043

2048

2053

2058

2063

2068

2073

the next century unless corrective action
is taken. The combined OASI and DI trust
funds are not in balance over the next
75 years—the period over which the Social
Security Trustees have traditionally measured
Social Security’s well-being. The projected
financial shortfall is largely due to the demographic trends discussed above. In their 1998
report, the Trustees estimated that starting
in 2013, annual tax revenues coming into
the trust funds will fall short of benefit
payments.
For many years, annual tax revenues going
into the combined trust funds have exceeded
benefit outlays, a situation projected to continue through 2012. The excess revenues
are invested in special interest-bearing Treasury securities. These securities, like regular
Treasury securities, are backed by the full
faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
The trust funds are credited with the amount
of principal as well as the interest paid
on the securities. However, with no changes
to current law, beginning in 2013, the program

40
will use interest income from these trust
fund reserves to help pay benefits. Starting
in 2021, payroll tax and interest income
will no longer be sufficient. The program
will need to spend the principal held in
reserve in order to meet benefit obligations.
The Trustees forecast that the reserves will
run out in 2032. At that point, annual
payroll tax revenue will be sufficient to
pay about 72 percent of benefits promised
under current law.
The long-range fiscal health of the trust
fund is determined by economic as well
as demographic factors. Such things as productivity improvements contribute to economic
growth, which in turn bolsters revenues coming into the trust funds as workers enjoy
low unemployment rates and higher real
wages. However, even under optimistic assumptions about future productivity improvements and real wage growth, the demographic
forecasts indicate that there simply will not

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

be enough workers in the labor force to
cover the expected retirement costs of the
baby boom and subsequent generations.
The President believes it is critical to
address this financing shortfall now, for several reasons. First, addressing the issue now
expands the number of options available
for dealing with the problem. Second, there
is time to engage in careful deliberation
and develop a well-thought-out plan that
protects vulnerable populations. Third, the
healthy American economy and existence of
a budget surplus provides a rare opportunity
to tackle the problem from a position of
strength. Finally, making decisions now will
allow individuals sufficient time to adjust
their retirement planning, if necessary. Guided
by the principles he described last year,
the President believes the Administration
and Congress can fulfill America’s long-standing promise to future generations.

2.

SAVING SOCIAL SECURITY

The President’s Framework to Save Social Security
In his State of the Union address, the President unveiled his proposal to save Social
Security by using some of the projected budget surplus to strengthen the system and
by investing a portion of the surplus in equities to raise the rate of return. These actions will substantially improve the program’s fiscal position, strengthening it until
mid-century. It will require tough choices and a bipartisan approach to fix Social Security, and to reach the President’s overall goal of saving the Trust Fund at least until
2075. During this year, the President will work with the Congress to restore the system to fiscal health, and to address his other priorities including protections for the elderly at high risk of poverty.
Devote 62 percent of the budget surplus for the next 15 years to Social Security: The Administration proposes to set aside 62 percent of the projected unified
budget surplus of the next 15 years for Social Security. This amounts to more than
$2.7 trillion in additional resources available to meet future Social Security benefit obligations.
Increase returns through private investment: The Administration proposes
tapping the power of private financial markets to increase the resources to pay for future Social Security benefits. Roughly one-fifth of the unified budget surplus set aside
for Social Security would be invested in corporate equities or other private financial
instruments. Because only about one-fifth of the surplus set aside for Social Security
would be invested in equities, the share of the stock market held by the Trust Fund
would be limited. A mechanism to insulate investment decisions from political considerations would be developed. Under this plan, most of the surplus funds set aside for
Social Security would continue to be invested in special Treasury securities.
Provide additional fiscal reforms: The proposals described above will extend the
life of the Social Security Trust Fund until 2055—but do not achieve the President’s
goal of saving Social Security for 75 years. The President has called for a bipartisan
effort with all to make the difficult, but sensible and achievable choices to save the
system through 2075.
Reduce elderly poverty: Although Social Security has made great strides in reducing poverty in the past 30 years, some groups among the elderly still face high poverty rates. Elderly widows, for example, experience a poverty rate of 18 percent, nearly
eight percentage points higher than the general population of the same age group. The
President will work to see that Social Security protections for elderly women and other
especially vulnerable beneficiaries are improved.
Encourage work: Social Security’s rules discourage retired individuals from working because benefits are reduced when a retiree’s earnings exceed a certain level. In
1996, the President and the Congress raised that level of earnings—so that by the
year 2002, retirees could earn as much as $30,000 before their benefits would be affected. The President believes that an overall Social Security solvency agreement
should remove the barriers to work that are a result of the earnings test.
Pay down the debt: This program will continue the Administration’s policy of fiscal responsibility, through which, for the first time in 29 years, the Federal Government last year actually reduced the amount of debt that it must finance with the public. The contributions to the Social Security Trust Fund will further reduce the level of
publicly-held debt by two-thirds, to the lowest percentage of GDP since 1917. This will
add to the Nation’s savings and help our economy continue to grow.

41

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE
THROUGH BETTER
MANAGEMENT

43

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH
BETTER MANAGEMENT

We made a decision that was profoundly important, that the way Government works matters,
that we could not maintain the confidence of the American people and we could not have ideas
that delivered unless the Government was functioning in a sensible, modern, and prudent way.
President Clinton
December 1998

On September 30, 1998, President Clinton
announced that the Federal budget had
reached balance and produced a surplus for
the first time in a generation. Without this
Administration’s early and firm commitment
to streamlining and reinventing Government,
it would not have been possible to eliminate
the deficit. ‘‘After all,’’ Vice President Gore
has said, ‘‘it is our progress in reinventing
and downsizing Government, while improving
it, that has enabled us to balance the budget,
cut taxes for families, and invest properly
in key priorities for the future.’’
Reinventing Government—the goals of improving the quality of services that Americans
rightfully expect, while reducing the size
of the Government that delivers them—seems
an almost contradictory notion. How to do
more with less? The answer is that the
Government must meet the needs of the
American people by improving its management
and the performance of programs—much as
U.S. business has done in the face of competitive pressure over the last quarter century.
From the start, Vice President Gore, working
with the departments, agencies, inter-agency
working groups, and worker representatives,
and drawing on the expertise of the private
sector, has led an unprecedented effort to
make the Federal Government more efficient
and effective while also reducing its size.
From 1993-1998, the Administration has
cut the Federal civilian work force by 365,000
full-time equivalent employees (FTEs). Based
on the number of Federal employees on
the payroll, the work force is the smallest
it has been since the Kennedy Administration.

Working with Federal employees, the Administration has eliminated wasteful spending and
cut numerous outdated Government programs.
These efforts have saved the American people
more than $136 billion. Today, we have
a smaller, more efficient Government that
provides the services the American people
have come to count on: protecting the environment; improving our schools; and providing
retirement benefits to seniors, to name only
a few. To recognize the Federal employees
who help the Government operate more efficiently and better serve the American people,
the President proposes a 4.4 percent pay
raise, the largest increase since 1981, for
civilian employees and military members.
The Clinton-Gore Administration relies on
several key strategies to achieve its reinvention goals. Key among them are the National
Partnership for Reinventing Government
(NPR),
Priority
Management
Objectives
(PMOs), and inter-agency management groups.
Founded at the start of the Administration,
the NPR (then the National Performance
Review) has empowered Federal employees
and managers and they have responded by
improving services and cutting costs. It counts
among its many successes the Food and
Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) streamlined
drug approval process, the Defense Department’s (DOD’s) reduction of many military
specification buying standards, and the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) improved safety procedures. NPR will concentrate on fostering customer-oriented, results-driven organizations that focus on performance.
45

46
PMOs focus the Administration’s efforts
to meet some of the Government’s biggest
management challenges. They are specific
management initiatives covering a wide range
of concerns, ranging from meeting the year
2000 computer challenge to implementing
the restructuring of the Internal Revenue
Service (IRS). The Administration also engages
inter-agency groups (discussed later in this
Section) to marshal resources across the Government to address concerns important to
Americans.
Six years out, there is measurable success,
more to be done, and a determination to
realize the President’s vision of a Government
that functions in a ‘‘modern, sensible, and
prudent way.’’
Internet addresses in this Section refer
the reader to websites where work is described
in greater detail.
NPR: Changing the Government
NPR has consistently pursued initiatives
to build a Government that works better,
costs less, and gets the results that matter
to the American people. NPR efforts have
led to operational improvements in agencies
that affect everyday American life, such as
better customer service at the Social Security
Administration (SSA), and improvement in
delivery of services, including the provision
of water, food, and shelter to disaster victims
by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
In the coming year, NPR will focus on
the following four major initiatives designed
to improve Government services to all Americans:
(1) Working to deliver results Americans
care about: In 1998, the NPR launched an
effort with 32 agencies to increase their
focus on customers and achieve results that
matter to Americans. These High Impact
Agencies (HIAs) interact directly with the
public. The HIAs have defined specific commitments to improve service delivery and agency

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

operations. Table IV–1 includes examples of
the specific commitments made by many
of the HIAs. This focus on customers will
build on the agencies’ strategic and annual
performance plans discussed in Section VI.
Additional information on the HIAs’ efforts
is available on the NPR website, www.npr.gov.
(2) Developing customer and employee satisfaction measures that will supplement agency
program results: A key initiative in improving
Government performance, the Government
Performance and Results Act (GPRA), was
enacted by Congress in 1993. This Act increases the accountability of Government agencies by requiring them to define measurable
performance goals and report on their achievements.
In 1999 and 2000, the Administration intends to reinforce GPRA efforts by increasing
the use of customer satisfaction goals in
annual plans of selected agencies. For agency
programs dealing directly with the public,
customer satisfaction is a key measure. The
Administration will also conduct the second
annual employee satisfaction survey for Federal workers and use the data to monitor
progress in bringing the benefits of reinvention
to all Federal workers. Employee satisfaction
also affects agency performance—satisfied employees mean better Government services,
products, and benefits to the public.
(3) Improving American life in ways that
no one Government program could accomplish
alone: The Administration will pilot test strategies to provide seamless service delivery
in areas of greatest concern to Americans,
effectively creating a system of one-stop shopping for important Government services. People interested in help finding jobs or in
improving public health in their community
should be able to obtain that help swiftly
and easily. The Administration is committed
to using partnership approaches among Federal, State, and local programs to achieve
the outcomes most Americans expect from
their government.

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

Table IV–1.

STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE HIGH IMPACT AGENCY GOALS

Between now and January 1, 2001, agencies with great impact on Americans will:
I.

Partner to get results that Americans care about that no agency can achieve alone. For
example:
• In partnership with the airline industry, three Federal agencies (the Animal and
Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Customs, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)) will obtain advance information on 80 percent of international air passengers to expedite the overall flow of passengers with no loss in enforcement.
• The Food and Drug Administration will work closely with industry, health care providers, and the consumer to ensure that 75 percent of all consumers receiving new
drug prescriptions will be given useful and readable information about their product.
• The Food Safety and Inspection Service will collaborate closely with other public
health agencies that are members of the President’s Food Safety Council to reduce
food-borne illnesses by 25 percent, between 1997 and 2000. As a first step, they will
work together in 1999 to develop a common approach and coordinate budgetary resources.

II.

Create electronic access and processing in government. For example:
• The number of States issuing food stamps by electronic benefit transfer will increase
from 22 in 1997 to 42 in 2000.
• An electronic trademark application will be placed on the Patent and Trademark Office’s website. Trademark customers will be able to file applications and related papers electronically.
• By October 2000, the Department of Education will enable three million students
and families to submit their Federal student aid applications electronically. This
doubles the current annual number.

III.

Manage with a set of measures that balance customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and business results. For example:
• The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) shows continuing improvement in patient satisfaction with the care they receive. In 1995, 60 percent of patients rated
their care as very good or excellent. That number rose to 75 percent in 1998. The
goal for 1999 is 79 percent. The 2000 goal is 83 percent and the 2003 goal is 95 percent.
• By 2001, the VHA will expand its adherence to clinical guidelines to cover 95 percent
of common diseases among veterans compared to 76 percent in 1997.
• The Federal Emergency Management Agency will increase individual customer satisfaction with the assistance application process from 84 percent in 1995 to at least 90
percent in 2000.

Note: Information on specific HIAs is available on agency websites.

47

48

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

One example of such partnerships is the
establishment this year by Executive Order
of a Food Safety Council, committed to reducing the incidence of food-borne illnesses. To
improve the well-being of children, the Federal
Government will also enter into 10 partnerships with State and local governments to
devise new ways, under current law, to
increase flexibility in the use of Federal
program dollars and to redirect administrative
savings for services and results. Successful
partnerships will demonstrate measurable improvements in the lives of children. This
performance partnership initiative has four
components: 1) establishment of a resultsdriven accountability system, working with
the Federal Interagency Forum on Child
and Family Statistics, that will focus on
key indicators of child well-being, such as
immunization coverage, infant and child mortality, high school graduation rates, teen
birthrates, youth crime rates, and child health
insurance coverage; 2) identification of ways
to consolidate planning and reporting for
programs with related goals and greater

flexibility in administering grant funds; 3)
development of recommendations for new
ways, within current law, through which
administrative savings from discretionary
grant programs might be pooled to establish
a local Child Well-Being Investment Fund
for innovations and priority programs; and
4) sharing of lessons learned through a
‘‘how-to’’ manual detailing strategies to reduce
administrative costs and allow local flexibility.
(4) Allowing Americans to do business with
the Government electronically: In 1997, the
Administration announced the Access America
initiatives to enable Americans to do business
with the Government electronically. Recently,
Vice President Gore launched Access America
for Students, which pilots the integrated,
computerized delivery of Government services
to postsecondary students. This program will
include services such as student loan applications and renewals, online address changes,
veterans’ educational benefits, campus admissions and services, and electronic income
tax filing. Access America for Students will

Chart IV-1. ACTUAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYMENT IN THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH,
1962 - 1998
(Excluding Postal Service)
EMPLOYEES IN MILLIONS
2.4

2.3

2.2

2.1

2

1.9

1.8
0
1.7

1962

1965

1968

Note: Data is end-of-year count.

1971

1974

1977

1980

1983

1986

1989

1992

1995

1998

IV.

49

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

Chart IV-2. CIVILIAN FTE CHANGES
ON A PERCENT BASIS, 1993 - 2000
CABINET DEPARTMENTS AND SELECTED INDEPENDENT AGENCIES
PERCENT

-60
-40
-20
0
20

FTEs
(in thousands)

40
60

1993
1,880

Cabinet
Depts.
All Other
Agencies
Exec.
Branch
Total

80
100
120

2000
1,600

Reduction
-280

Percent
Reduction
-14.9

275

217

-59

-21.4

2,155

1,817

-338

-15.7

140

Commerce

Justice

EPA

SSA

HHS

Labor

Education

Smithsonian

Transportation

Interior

Treasury

Corps of Engrs.

Veterans Affairs

Agriculture

Exec. Branch Avg

State

Energy

HUD

All Other

TVA

DOD--Military

GSA

NASA

OPM

160

Notes: The Executive Branch total excludes Postal Service. The 1993 base, which is the starting point for calculating the 272,900 FTE reduction required by the Federal Workforce
Restructuring Act, is 2.2 million. The Department of Commerce includes 64,000 temporary hires for decenial census.

be carefully constructed to ensure the privacy
and security of all users. Other Access America
programs are planned for users of other
Government services (e.g., senior citizens).
Additional information on Access America
is available at www.gits.gov.
Streamlining the Government
Two fundamental changes in the Federal
work force have combined to create a leaner,
more efficient Government. First, the Administration has cut the overall size of the Government by 16 percent. Second, the Administration has given Federal employees the authority
to propose and carry out significant improvements in agency programs. These changes
have led to the elimination of many internal
rules, establishment of customer service standards, creation of agency reinvention labs,
and improved labor-management relations.
The Administration’s accomplishments in
downsizing Government are unprecedented
since the demobilization after World War
II. As Chart IV–1 shows, this is the smallest

Federal work force in 36 years. The savings
have been used to help pay for a variety
of initiatives authorized by the 1994 crime
bill, including the successful effort to put
100,000 new local police officers on the streets.
Almost all of the 14 Cabinet Departments
and large independent agencies are cutting
their work forces. For example, the General
Services Administration (GSA) is reducing
FTEs by 31 percent by streamlining its
lines of business. The Justice Department’s
growth reflects the Administration’s expanded
war on crime and drugs. The decennial
census is temporarily increasing the size
of the Commerce Department’s payroll (see
Chart IV–2).
Reducing the size of Government is just
one measure of success. Acquiring and retaining the right mix of people with the best
combination of skills is a challenge to all
employers, and the Government is no exception. Streamlining organizations is never easy,
but a partnership with Federal employee
unions has made change possible. As agencies

50
continue reinventing themselves to be more
effective and responsive to America’s needs,
they will require management tools to restructure their work forces and achieve greater
efficiencies. The Administration will support
agencies if they need—as in the case of
DOD, the Department of Energy (DOE), and
the IRS—separate authority to restructure
their work force with voluntary separation
incentives. The Administration will also seek
renewal of the authority to offer voluntary
separation incentives to support downsizing
efforts in those areas where cost/benefit analysis indicates that it would be beneficial.
Creating Powerful Incentives to Manage
for Results
A new tool—the Performance-Based Organization (PBO)—was developed to help the
Government operate more efficiently. Proposed
by the Administration, and enacted by the
Congress, the first PBO was mandated to
improve the efficiency and delivery of student
financial assistance.
PBOs encourage a group of Government
executives in an organization to bear responsibility for its level of performance. These
executives commit to meet tough annual
performance goals, and if successful, they
can receive substantial bonuses. To help them
meet these goals, executives can exercise
greater flexibility in hiring, compensation,
and procurement. During the 106th Congress,
the Administration will develop legislation
to establish additional PBOs, including the
FAA Air Traffic Services, the Seafood Inspection Service, the Patent and Trademark Office,
the Rural Telephone Bank, the Defense Commissary Agency, the National Technical Information Service, the St. Lawrence Seaway
Development Corporation, Federal Lands
Highway, and the U.S. Mint.
Tackling Government’s Biggest
Management Challenges
To create a clear set of priorities for
management efforts, the Administration has
selected 24 key issues, listed in Table IV–2,
to be PMOs. These were chosen as areas
in need of real change, and will receive
ongoing attention from the Administration.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

There are six new initiatives while 18
continue from last year’s budget. PMOs are
coordinated by OMB with assistance from
the NPR and inter-agency working groups.
This assures that objectives receive senior
management attention. Periodic reporting and
review of these objectives provide an opportunity for corrective action as necessary
throughout the year.
Strengthening Government-Wide Management
1. Manage the year 2000 (Y2K) computer
problem: There is no more immediate management challenge facing governments and industries world-wide than the impending shift
of dates from the year 1999 to the year
2000. A year ago, 27 percent of the Federal
Government’s mission-critical systems were
Y2K compliant. At the end of 1998, more
than double that number—61 percent—met
that standard. The Administration has set
March 31, 1999, as the deadline for all
mission-critical systems to be Y2K ready.
Under the direction of the President’s Council on Year 2000 Conversion, agencies are
reaching out to private sector organizations,
State and local governments, and international
institutions. External Y2K activities have been
organized to focus on key sectors, including
energy, telecommunications, and financial institutions. In December 1998, the U.S. Government helped organize a United Nations conference of Y2K coordinators from over 100
countries.
The Administration also recognizes a critical
need for industry to share its Y2K experiences
and solutions with each other and with
the public. Accordingly, the Administration
proposed and the Congress enacted the Year
2000 Information Disclosure Act, which encourages companies to share information about
possible Y2K solutions.
In 1999, agencies will focus primarily on
testing their systems and their interactions
with other systems, and will develop contingency and continuity of operations plans.
In 2000, agencies will focus on assuring
that Federal programs continue to deliver
uninterrupted service to the public.

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

Table IV–2.

51

PRIORITY MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

STRENGTHENING GOVERNMENT-WIDE MANAGEMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Manage the year 2000 (Y2K) computer problem
Use results to improve program management
Improve financial management information
Protect critical information infrastructure
Strengthen statistical programs
Implement acquisition reforms
Implement electronic Government initiatives

IMPROVING STEWARDSHIP OF ASSETS
8.
9.

Better manage financial portfolios
Better manage real property

IMPROVING PROGRAM OPERATIONS AND INTEGRITY
10.
11.

Verify that the right person is getting the right benefit
Use competition to improve operations

IMPROVING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Modernize student aid delivery
Improve DOE contract management
Strengthen the HCFA’s management capacity
Implement HUD reform
Resolve disputes over Indian trust funds
Implement FAA management reform
Implement IRS reforms
Streamline SSA’s disability claims system
Revolutionize DOD business affairs
Improve management of the decennial census
Manage risks in building the International Space Station
Improve security at diplomatic facilities around the world
Reengineer the naturalization process and reduce the citizenship application backlog

2. Use results to improve program management: GPRA makes Government agencies more
accountable by focusing managers and policy
makers on agency performance. GPRA can
fundamentally change how the Government
carries out its programs and makes funding
decisions. The Act requires Federal agencies
to periodically develop long-range strategic
plans and annually prepare performance plans
and performance reports. The annual plans
set specific performance targets for an agency’s
programs and activities. The combination of
GPRA plans and reports introduces an unprecedented degree of managerial and institutional
accountability for accomplishing program

goals. Key to achieving success is making
the plans useful to the Congress, the President, and agency management.
In 2000, agencies will submit to the Congress and the President the first of their
annual reports on program performance. These
reports, covering 1999, will compare actual
performance to the performance target levels
in the annual plans for that year, and
provide an explanation for any goal not
met. With these reports, the first cycle of
GPRA implementation will be complete.
During 2000, agencies will also be revising
and updating strategic plans for submission

52

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

to the Congress and OMB by September
2000. All GPRA plans and reports are publicly
available, and can often be found on individual
agency websites.
Budgeting for Results is an effort to display
and budget for all the resources used by
Federal programs in a way that allows the
costs to be systematically compared with
the benefits provided. Although all costs are
reflected somewhere in the budget, these
costs are not all associated with the individual
programs that use the resources. Some costs
may be paid by other components within
the Government. Thus, some of the basic
information necessary for effective decision
making is not readily available. In the coming
year, efforts will continue toward making
Budgeting for Results a reality.
3. Improve financial management information: In March 1998, for the first time
in the history of the United States, the
Government issued audited financial statements presenting the results of its operations.
While the audit disclosed financial system
weaknesses and problems in fundamental
record-keeping in a number of areas, the
Government’s efforts to provide a full accounting is unprecedented. Bringing problems to
light will force improvements. Improvement
has already begun as illustrated by Table
IV–3, which presents the anticipated results
of audits of the financial statements of the
24 largest Federal agencies in 1998. These
show that the Administration has already
made substantial progress in improving financial management. Recognizing more must be
done, the President directed agencies to resolve systems and record-keeping problems
during 1999—with the goal being an unqualified report on the Government’s 1999 financial

Table IV–3.

statements, which will be issued in March
2000.
4. Protect critical information infrastructure:
Last year, Presidential Decision Directive 63,
Protecting America’s Critical Infrastructures,
launched a program to counter risks to
the increasingly interconnected national infrastructures, such as telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, transportation, and
essential Government services. These infrastructures are particularly vulnerable to disruptions—whether deliberate or accidental—
to the computer systems that support them.
The goal for 2000 is increased security for
Government systems. The Federal Government
should be a model of infrastructure protection,
linking security measures to business risks
and agency mission.
The goal for 2003 is a reliable and secure
private information system infrastructure. The
Administration will work with private industry, which owns the vast majority of the
Nation’s infrastructure, to meet common protection goals. Care will be taken to preserve
privacy, and regulation will be used only
if there is a material failure of the market
to protect the health, safety, or well being
of the American people.
5. Strengthen statistical programs: The Government spends more than $3 billion each
year to produce statistical measures of our
economy and society that help decision makers
in the public and private sectors. These
data are used for everything from spotting
important trends in public health to projecting
the impact of future demographic shifts on
the Social Security system. In 1998, to improve
access to, and the quality of, Government
statistical data, the Administration: 1) sponsored a bill to permit limited sharing of

CFO Agency Financial Statement Performance Goals

Financial Statements

Audits Completed ................................................
Agencies with Unqualified Opinion ...................
Agencies with Unqualified and Timely Opinion

1997
Actual
23
11
8

Estimate
1998

1999

2000

24
14
12

24
20
20

24
23
23

IV.

53

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

confidential data among selected agencies solely for statistical use with appropriate safeguards; 2) doubled (to 28) the number of
Federal agencies whose data series are indexed
on www.fedstats.gov; and 3) published innovative inter-agency thematic reports based on
federally-collected statistics, including America’s Children: Key National Indicators of
Well-Being, and Changing America: Indicators
of Social and Economic Well-Being by Race
and Hispanic Origin. In 1999, the Administration will continue to seek passage of legislation
for statistical data sharing, and continue
work on the American Community Survey
to provide comparable demographic, economic,
and housing data for small geographic areas.
In 2000, the Administration will begin implementing the newly revised 1998 Standard
Occupational Classification.
6. Implement acquisition reforms: The Federal Government is the Nation’s largest buyer
of goods and services, purchasing almost
$200 billion annually. In the past six years,
the Congress and the Administration have

initiated numerous acquisition reforms to
maximize the taxpayer’s buying power. Contractors are increasingly being held responsible
for results and measured on their performance
when competing for future work. Agencies
are buying commercial products and services
rather than costly Government-unique solutions. The buying process continues to be
streamlined, paperwork reduced, and results
measured. In 1999, the Government will
have 60 percent of Government purchases
below $2,500 made by credit card—bypassing
more paper intensive and time consuming
procurement processes. By 2000, this rate
will increase to 80 percent (see Chart IV–3).
By 2000, over $23 billion in services contracts
will be converted to Performance-Based Service Contracting (PBSC). Pilot programs demonstrated price reductions averaging 15 percent in nominal dollars, and agency satisfaction with contractor performance rose by
18 percent. Also by 2000, all major agencies
will have systems which record contractors
performance. This information will be a key

Chart IV-3. FEDERAL PURCHASE CARD PROGRAM GROWTH
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS

20

18.0

15
12.0

10

8.0

5.1

5

2.9
Less
than
100 million

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.8

1991

1992

1993

1994

1.6

0
1989

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

Note: The average annual growth in the Federal Purchase Card Program is over 75 percent since its inception in 1989.

1999

2000

54
determinant to better manage contracts and
successfully select contractors.
7. Implement electronic Government initiatives: As discussed in the Vice President’s
1997 Access America Report, today’s most
important infrastructure improvement needed
to promote electronic access to Government
services is the ability to authenticate users
over open networks like the Internet. The
Government Paperwork Elimination Act of
1998 promotes Federal agency use of electronic
signatures to verify identities and integrity
of information and establishes the legal validity of electronic documents. In 1999, the
Administration will work with the private
sector to develop guidelines for implementing
the Act. In 2000, the Administration will
issue those guidelines, incorporating lessons
from the Access America projects. Additional
mission performance improvements from specific information systems investments are discussed in Chapter 22 of Analytical Perspectives.
Improving Stewardship of Assets
8. Better manage financial portfolios: The
Federal Government currently underwrites
more than $1 trillion in loans, primarily
to students, homebuyers, and small businesses. The Government must better serve
these customers and protect its interest in
obtaining efficient and timely repayment.
Using electronic commerce and the Internet,
the Government will test streamlined processes for student loan applications and electronic drawdown to those who qualify. Privacy
will be protected though the use of electronic
signatures. The Government will also begin
sharing information electronically to better
manage its single-family home loans, and
if successful, will apply the same model
to other lending programs. By 2000, the
Debt Collection Improvement Act, which requires agencies to refer debt over 180 days
delinquent to the Treasury Department for
collection, will be fully implemented with
the help of a Government-wide offset program,
private collection agencies, and asset sales.
9. Better manage real property: The Government owns billions of dollars worth of real
property, including office buildings, hospitals,

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

laboratories, and military bases. The Administration will pursue a number of initiatives,
and where necessary, will submit legislation
to:
• continue DOD’s successful housing privatization program that augments each Federal dollar with two or more private sector
dollars to construct and manage housing,
thereby enabling the department to improve the quality of military family housing three times faster than would otherwise be possible;
• allow the Department of Veteran Affairs
(VA) to sell unneeded property and keep
the proceeds to improve direct care and
services to veterans, with a share of the
proceeds being used to provide assistance
grants to local homeless populations; and
• amend the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 to improve
real property management, including allowing agencies to exchange or sell
unneeded property and retain a share of
the sales proceeds for other property investments.
Improving Program Operations and Integrity
10. Verify that the right person is getting
the right benefit: It is important to ensure
that beneficiaries get the benefits to which
they are entitled and that errors in providing
benefits are minimized. Agencies can shorten
application review times and strengthen program integrity by sharing information among
Government programs. For instance, in 2000,
HUD will begin verifying tenant-reported income against other Federal income data.
This will help ensure that housing assistance
goes to those entitled to these benefits. Also
in 2000, the Department of Education will
propose legislation to permit the use of
income information in the National Directory
of New Hires to verify income reported on
student loan applications and to identify
income received by student loan defaulters.
This could lead to an estimated savings
of over $450 million.
In 1999, the Administration will support
improved Federal and State program information sharing to minimize erroneous payments

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

at benefit determination; to eliminate unnecessary burdens on applicants by coordinating
information collection and verification; to protect individual privacy; and to enable customers to use secure and convenient electronic
application processes.
11. Use competition to improve operations:
Competition has become a cornerstone of
the business strategy for DOD. DOD will
compete over 200,000 positions (in accordance
with OMB Circular A–76 procedures), including more than 100,000 positions between
2000 and 2005. Savings will result from:
1) reengineering work that stays in-house;
and 2) contracting out, which has shown
savings of 30 to 40 percent. Other agencies
are identifying potential commercial activities,
which will provide a basis for implementing
the Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act
of 1998 (FAIR). Inventories are due to OMB
by June 30, 1999, under the Act.
Improving Program Implementation
12. Modernize student aid delivery: Each
year, nearly nine million students receive
a total of $50 billion in aid through six
major Federal student financial assistance
programs. These programs are separately authorized—with unique features—and have
evolved information and other management
systems that are not always consistent with
one another. To improve and streamline the
management of these programs, the Higher
Education Amendments of 1998 authorized
the Government’s first ever Performance
Based Organization (PBO). During 1999, this
PBO will work with a broadly representative
group of lenders, students, and program intermediaries to develop a five-year performance
plan to modernize student aid delivery. The
goals will include:
• improving service to students and other
participants in the student aid process;
• reducing costs of administering the programs;
• integrating and improving program information and delivery systems; and
• developing open, common, and integrated
delivery and information systems.

55

13. Improve DOE contract management:
More than 90 percent of DOE’s budget is
spent through contractors who are responsible
for the operation, management, and safety
of DOE facilities. Making more effective use
of Performance Based Service Contracts
(PBSC) and competition would improve DOE’s
mission attainment and could potentially save
up to $1 billion. In 1999, DOE will focus
on PBSC conversions for two management
and operating contracts and 10 service contracts to increase work accomplished and
lower costs. Also, DOE will compete four
of the eight major expiring contracts.
14. Strengthen Health Care Financing Administration’s (HCFA’s) management capacity:
HCFA is responsible for the stewardship
of many of the most important social programs
run by the Federal Government, including
Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children’s Health
Insurance Program (CHIP). HCFA faces the
formidable challenge of modernizing its administrative infrastructure, meeting pressing statutory deadlines for program change from
the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) and the
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and perhaps most important,
the need to be highly responsive to its
customers.
HCFA has begun the process of management
change through its recent reorganization. However, further reform is needed. HCFA, HHS,
and OMB have together begun the development of a reform initiative that will increase
HCFA’s flexibility to operate as a customer
centered prudent purchaser of health care
while also increasing accountability. This initiative has five components: 1) management
flexibilities (e.g., evaluation of personnel needs
and flexibilities); 2) increased accountability
to constituencies (e.g., regular reports to
the Congress and the Administration, creation
of an outside advisory board); 3) program
flexibilities (e.g., new authorities and greater
use of existing authorities to pay for services
at market rates, enter into selective contracts,
and engage in competitive bidding); 4) structural reforms (e.g., re-engineering the relationship between HCFA’s central and regional
offices and between HCFA and HHS; contracting out functions); and 5) contractor reform
(e.g., promoting competition in Medicare
claims processings, introducing contract terms

56
that allow more flexibility for the Federal
Government).
HCFA’s core functions—modernizing Medicare, detecting fraud and abuse, providing
beneficiary and provider education, implementing legislative changes, processing claims,
providing increased beneficiary choices, and
managing Federal and State Medicaid and
CHIP programs—are vital and continue to
expand. To meet these expanding programmatic challenges, as well as the challenges of continuous management reform, it
is critical to move toward a stable source
of funding for HCFA. As HCFA and HHS
move down the road toward achieving fundamental reform and begin to accomplish
some of the basic objectives noted above
(e.g., contractor reform), the Administration
will review legislative proposals to increase
the stability of HCFA’s funding.
15. Implement HUD reform: HUD’s comprehensive reforms are geared toward producing improvements in agency operations—so
that all tenants can live in safe and wellmanaged housing. These reforms include: clarifying the mission of each employee; cleaning
up the data in existing management and
financial systems; integrating these disparate
management and financial systems where
possible; and enhancing accountability in HUD
programs. For instance, by 2000, HUD will
initiate an independent, on-going assessment
of all public housing and Section 8 projects.
Projects that fail to meet reasonable private
sector benchmarks for safety and financial
integrity will be referred to a newly established HUD Enforcement Center for intensive
oversight and technical assistance. If a
project’s safety and financial status do not
improve, new management will be installed,
or Federal assistance to the project will
end. By 2000, HUD will also begin periodic
customer and employee satisfaction surveys.
The results of these surveys will be used
to monitor progress in implementing meaningful HUD reform.
16. Resolve disputes over Indian trust funds:
The Department of the Interior (DOI) is
responsible for managing nearly $3 billion
in trusts the Federal Government holds for
the Indian Tribes and individual Native Americans. In 1998, DOI verified over half of

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

all individual trust accounts, and conversion
of these accounts to a commercial accounting
system will be completed by the end of
1999. The Administration will also re-introduce legislation to settle disputed tribal trust
balances that resulted from decades of mismanagement,
and
consolidate
highly
fractionated ownership of Indian lands. In
2000, DOI will:
• develop and negotiate settlement offers
with Tribes whose accounts lack full documentation, and develop formula-driven
settlement payments for Tribes that accept
these offers;
• double the number of pilot projects to consolidate ownership of fractionated lands;
and
• complete verification of the remaining onethird of all trust asset account data and
finalize the conversion to the new commercial trust asset management system.
17. Implement FAA management reform:
The safety of the flying public depends on
the FAA—its air traffic controllers, technology,
and preparation for future challenges. FAA
has begun an 18-month pilot project to link
pay increases for some staff to the achievement of their performance targets. In 1999,
FAA will evaluate the overall impact of
the first three years of its personnel reform.
FAA will also continue to develop its cost
accounting system to allow more businesslike operations and management improvements. By early 2000, FAA will complete
replacement of en route air traffic controller
workstations and begin purchasing modernized
airport terminal radar. FAA will continue
to develop promising free flight technologies
to improve air traffic control efficiency and
effectiveness.
18. Implement IRS reforms: The IRS is
modernizing its organization and its information technology to better serve over 200
million taxpayers and enhance its productivity
by encouraging quality work. Major portions
of the IRS’ modernization plans were mandated by the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998. The
new focus is captured by the IRS’ revised
mission statement: Provide America’s taxpayers top quality service by helping them

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

understand and meet their tax responsibilities
and by applying the tax law with integrity
and fairness to all. The basic outline of
the new structure was completed in August
1998. The IRS Commissioner expects to announce the final design and implementation
plans on April 15, 1999. The new organization
and system improvements will be implemented
over the following two and a half years.
At the same time, IRS is modernizing its
information technology to better support its
new organization. In December 1998, IRS
awarded a prime contract for information
technology modernization. This is a longterm partnership between IRS and private
industry to deliver the modernized financial
and information systems needed to support
IRS’ new customer oriented organization.
19. Streamline SSA’s disability claims system: SSA has undertaken a multi-year redesign project to improve service delivery for
the millions of individuals filing for, or appealing decisions on, disability claims. SSA is
providing all its adjudicators with uniform
training, instructions which clarify complex
policy areas, and an improved quality assurance process. Initial results indicate that
these changes are helping SSA make more
accurate disability determinations earlier in
the claims process. SSA is also pilot testing
modifications designed to streamline the disability applications process and increase claimant interaction with SSA at both the initial
claim and hearing levels. Implementation of
pilot modifications that prove successful will
begin in 1999 and 2000.
20. Revolutionize DOD business affairs: DOD
is changing the way it does business. Just
as industry was forced to change to be
competitive, so too must DOD upgrade its
business operations to effectively support future national security strategy. DOD will
adopt better business processes, pursue commercial alternatives, consolidate redundant
functions, and streamline organizations to
reduce overhead and apply resultant savings
to fund modernization and quality of life
programs. For example:
• DOD has devolved day-to-day program
management functions from the Office of
the Secretary of Defense to the military
departments and defense agencies so that

57

it could concentrate on policy and oversight responsibilities.
• DOD competitive sourcing initiatives will
produce savings of over $6 billion from
1998 to 2003, with annual recurring savings thereafter of more than $2 billion.
• DOD will also improve the work environment, and benefit the lives of Department
personnel, by establishing a career transition office for military personnel, establishing a Chancellor for Education and
Professional Development, reengineering
travel procedures, and streamlining the
shipment of household goods.
21. Improve management of the decennial
census: The goal of the decennial census
is to conduct the most accurate census in
U.S. history. The Census Bureau’s plan will
implement strategies to conduct a thorough
and complete census. Specifically, management
improvements include: user-friendly forms; a
telephone questionnaire assistance program;
language assistance; and using state-of-the
art statistical sampling techniques. In 1999,
preparations include developing the master
address list, printing the questionnaires, and
opening local census offices. In 2000, the
census becomes operational. Activities will
include hiring 300,000 temporary field staff,
staffing the local census offices, and conducting
non-response follow up and integrated coverage measurement.
22. Manage risks in building the International Space Station: The United States
has the lead role in the international effort
to build the International Space Station.
The cost of U.S. participation has escalated
because of technical difficulties, new work
requirements, performance shortfalls, and Russian delays and shortfalls. In 1999, the
program will continue to address cost and
schedule performance problems in its key
contracts, strengthen contract management
and cost controls, and further reduce risks
from potential Russian shortfalls. In 2000,
the program begins a transition from development activities to orbital operations and research, seeking to take advantage of commercial practices, products, and services. The
first two components of the space station
were launched successfully in November and
December of 1998. Additional 1999 launches

58
will prepare the orbital platform for the
first permanent crew in January of 2000.
Assembly will continue through 2004.
23. Improve security at diplomatic facilities
around the world: The State Department
received $1.4 billion in 1999 emergency funds
to implement a broad program of security
enhancements in response to terrorist bombings in Kenya and Tanzania and related
threats directed at U.S. diplomatic and consular facilities overseas. Achieving global upgrades and maintaining that readiness at
the Department’s overseas posts poses a significant management challenge. Follow-on efforts will include significant investments in
overseas facilities to ensure continued protection of U.S. Government employees working
overseas. Long-range capital planning, including a review of future security requirements
by a panel of experts and careful use of
resources, will ensure that these investments
meet cost, schedule, and performance goals
of the program.
24. Reengineer the naturalization process
and reduce the citizenship application backlog:
The Immigration and Naturalization Service
(INS) is redesigning its naturalization process
to ensure service and benefits are provided
with complete integrity and in a timely
manner. At the same time, INS is addressing
a backlog of 1.8 million pending applications
for citizenship.
INS is committed to completing the naturalization process reengineering in 2000 and
reducing the citizenship backlog—which currently requires applicants to wait upwards
of 20 months to naturalize—to a 12-month
wait-time in 1999 and a six to nine month
wait-time by the end of 2000.
Using Inter-agency Groups to Improve
Performance
To achieve the Administration’s goal of
making fundamental change in the operation
of Government, inter-agency groups have been
extensively used to lead crosscutting efforts.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

These groups draw together operational, financial, procurement, integrity, labor relations,
and systems technology experts from across
the Government. They establish Governmentwide goals in their areas of expertise, and
they marshal the resources within individual
agencies to meet those goals. Several of
these groups were established for the first
time by this Administration, including the
President’s Management Council and the National Partnership Council. Other interagency
groups are described in Table IV–4.
The President’s Management Council (PMC):
The PMC consists of the Chief Operating
Officers of all Federal departments and the
largest agencies. The PMC provides leadership
for the most important Government-wide reforms. Council priorities include: streamlining
agencies without unnecessarily disrupting the
work force; identifying criteria and recommending methods for agency restructuring;
identifying performance measures to support
electronic commerce and performance-based
service contracting; facilitating development
of customer service standards; supporting
labor-management partnerships; and leading
GPRA implementation.
The National Partnership Council (NPC):
President Clinton established the NPC in
October 1993 to enlist the Federal labor
unions as allies in reinvention and to shift
Federal labor relations from adversarial litigation to cooperative problem solving. Members
of the NPC include: representatives of Federal
employee unions and Federal managers and
supervisors; the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service; the Federal Labor Relations
Authority; the Office of Personnel Management; OMB; DOD; and the Department of
Labor. In 2000, NPC will continue developing
methods to evaluate partnerships and their
effect on agency productivity and service.
The results of this research will guide individual agencies in evaluating and promoting
their efforts. More information on the NPC
can be found on its website: www.opm.gov/
npc.

IV.

IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BETTER MANAGEMENT

59

Table IV–4. MAJOR INTER-AGENCY GROUPS
Council Name/Membership

Council Priorities/Recent Activities

Chief Financial Officers (CFO)
Council: The CFOs and Deputy
CFOs of the 24 largest Federal
agencies and senior officials from
OMB and Treasury.
http://www.financenet.gov

• 1998 activities included interagency projects on GPRA implementation, electronic commerce, grants management, and
human resources development.
• Upcoming priorities include: achieving an unqualified opinion on
the Government-wide consolidated financial statements; improving financial management systems; addressing GPRA implementation issues; improving management of receivables; modernizing payments and business methods; and improving the administration of Federal assistance programs.

Chief
Information
Officers
(CIO) Council: The CIOs and
Deputy CIOs for 28 major Federal agencies, two CIOs from
small Federal agencies, and representatives from OMB and two
information technology boards.
http://cio.gov

• The Council develops recommendations for information technology management policy; identifies opportunities to share information resources; and supports the Federal Government’s development of an information technology workforce.
• Priorities for the coming year include: defining an inter-operable
Federal information technology architecture; ensuring information security practices that protect Government services; leading
the Federal year 2000 conversion effort; establishing sound capital planning and investment practices; improving the information technology skills of the Federal work force; and building relationships through outreach programs with Federal organizations, the Congress, industry, and the public.

President’s Council on Integrity
and Efficiency (PCIE): The 27
Presidentially-appointed Inspectors General (IGs), the Vice Chair
of the agency-appointed IG council, and other key integrity officials.
http://www.ignet.gov

• Priorities include mounting collaborative efforts to address integrity, economy, and effectiveness issues that transcend individual agencies. Recent efforts included a review of the controls
of the Federal Electronics Benefits Transfer System and agency
progress in debt collection. Current efforts include a project on
non-tax delinquent debt.
• Another priority is increasing the professionalism and effectiveness of IG personnel across the Government by setting standards for OIG work; maintaining professional training for OIG
staff; and assisting OIGs as they confront new professional challenges such as GPRA implementation.

Electronic Processes Initiatives
Committee (EPIC): Senior policy officials from DOD, GSA,
Treasury, and OMB.
http://policyworks.gov/org/main/
me/epic/

• The PMC established EPIC to further the use of electronic commerce technologies and processes within the Government.
• Its goals are to: facilitate electronic commerce and implementation of the Paperwork Elimination Act through the use of digital
signatures to authenticate users and transactions; support integrated, commercially-based electronic buying and paying systems in the Government; improve citizen access to Government
information and services through technology; improve financial
management and reporting to assure taxpayers that Government resources are efficiently utilized; and foster the use of current technology, such as ‘‘smart cards’’, to improve business and
administrative processes in the Government.

60

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table IV–4. MAJOR INTER-AGENCY GROUPS—Continued
Council Name/Membership

Council Priorities/Recent Activities

Federal Credit Policy Working
Group: Representatives from the
major credit and debt collection
agencies and OMB.
http://www.financenet.gov/
financenet/fed/fcpwg

• Provides advice and assistance to OMB, Treasury, and Justice in
formulating and implementing Government-wide credit policy.
• Upcoming priorities are to: use the Internet for loan application
processing and portfolio status reporting; share data among
agencies to validate application and specially collected data; do
asset valuation and sale of loans delinquent over one year; implement revised write-off policies and procedures; and develop
common portfolio performance measures.

Procurement Executives Council: Senior procurement executives from major Federal agencies.

• An inter-agency forum for improving the Federal acquisition system.
• Its priorities are improving the Federal acquisition work force;
offering easier access to Government business to all segments of
the private sector; promoting electronic commerce; and reducing
government unique requirements.

Inter-agency Alternative Dispute
Resolution
Working
Group (ADR): The Attorney
General, representatives of the
heads of all Cabinet Departments, and others with significant interest in Federal dispute
resolution.
http://www.financenet.gov/
financenet/fed/iadrwg

• President Clinton established the ADR in May 1998 to assist
Government agencies in making greater use of consensual methods for resolving disputes, including mediation, neutral evaluation, arbitration, and other processes.
• The Attorney General has called upon experts throughout the
Government to help other agencies establish new ADR programs
in four areas: contracts and procurement; workplace disputes
brought by Federal employees; claims arising from civil enforcement initiated by Government agencies; and monetary claims by
citizens against the Government. A goal for 1999 is to assist
each participating agency in establishing at least one new ADR
program.

Joint Financial Management
Improvement
Program
(JFMIP): A joint effort of GAO,
OMB, Treasury, and OPM, with a
rotating representative from another agency.
http://www.financenet.gov/
financenet/fed/jfmip/

• During 1998, JFMIP issued draft revised system requirements
for Federal financial, human resource, and payroll systems; completed plans to redesign the testing and qualification process for
commercial off-the-shelf accounting system software for Federal
agencies; and issued guidance on core competencies in financial
management.
• In 2000, JFMIP will publish new financial system testing and
qualifying processes and update other financial systems requirements.

V.

PREPARING FOR THE 21st
CENTURY

61

3.

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND
TRAINING

We must redouble our efforts to make sure every American child, regardless of race, ethnicity,
or income, has access to the finest public elementary and secondary schools in the world. This is
the fair and right thing to do, because we live in an information age in which education is everything. If we believe in the value that every American should share in the bounty of prosperity,
then every American deserves a first-class education.
President Clinton
September 1998

A century ago, as the economy was shifting
from agriculture to manufacturing, the way
that Americans lived and worked changed
dramatically. Today, the economy has shifted
once again—this time from manufacturing
to information and technology. These changes
have been, in many ways, the engine of
our economic growth. Yet Americans who
have not had access to education and training
to prepare them for this new economy risk
being left behind.

cation and training, or who need to improve
or learn new skills during their working
lives, get those opportunities; and ensure
that States and communities receiving Federal
funds can use them more flexibly with fewer
regulations and less paperwork.

For the past six years, the President has
worked hard to ensure that all Americans
have the tools they need for the 21st Century.
Education and training have been the cornerstone of the Administration’s efforts. After
World War II, American workers could enjoy
basic economic security with just a high
school diploma. But in the late 20th Century,
the workplace demands workers with the
analytical skills to reason and adapt quickly,
especially to innovations in technology. The
need for highly educated workers will continue
to increase, making the quality of our educational system in the next century the
key to the success of our people, our economy,
and our Nation.

In order to strengthen elementary and
secondary school education, the Administration
proposed, and worked with Congress to enact,
new laws in 1994 that have built the foundation for a fundamental restructuring of K–12
education programs. These efforts include:
Goals 2000, which helps States and school
districts set and meet challenging educational
standards; the Improving America’s Schools
Act, which focuses on student achievement,
helps students reach challenging standards,
and expands public school choice through
charter schools initiatives; and the Schoolto-Work Opportunities Act, which financed
the first efforts toward State-wide systems
to link high school students more effectively
to high-skill careers and postsecondary education. In 1998, the President proposed an
inititive on class size which took an important
first step toward adding 100,000 new teachers
to the classroom by 2005.

The Clinton Administration has launched
new initiatives and built on existing programs
to: provide children in the early grades
with the attention and instruction they need
to acquire fundamental skills; enable all students to reach their full potential; make
available resources to pay for postsecondary
education to all who need them; ensure
that those who need another chance at edu-

Expanding access to, and preparing students
for, postsecondary education is a central part
of the President’s education agenda. The
Administration has: increased the maximum
Pell Grant award to $3,125 in 1999, up
36 percent from $2,300 when President Clinton took office; established the Direct Student
Loan program, which reduced costs and increased efficiency in the $41 billion loan
63

64
programs and which offered income-contingent
repayment options to students; made higher
education more affordable through the proposal and enactment of the Hope Scholarship
and Lifetime Learning tax credits; and helped
students in high poverty schools prepare
for and attend college through the GEARUP program.
To improve and expand job training and
employment services, the Administration has
more than doubled the resources devoted
to assisting dislocated workers. In addition,
the Administration proposed, and worked with
the Congress to pass, the Workforce Investment Act, to streamline the job training
system, empower people with individual training accounts, enhance accountability, and increase customer information and choice. The
Administration also proposed and obtained
funding for the Youth Opportunity Grants
program to provide intensive, comprehensive
education and training services to raise significantly the employment rate of young people
in high poverty areas.
The budget builds upon this record. It
includes: $1.4 billion for the second annual
installment of support to States and school
districts to hire new teachers in the early
grades; $22 billion in school construction
and modernization bonds, financed through
tax credits to investors; $600 million for
after-school and summer programs, increasing
funding three-fold; a $320 million increase
for Title I—Education for the Disadvantaged
to support increased accountability for educational achievement; and other increases
for serving dislocated workers and enhancing
one-stop career centers. The budget includes
resources to enhance public school choice,
advance the Hispanic Education Agenda, and
improve adult education.
A central part of the President’s efforts
to increase accountability is the focus on
ending social promotion, the practice of promoting students from grade to grade without
regard to whether they have mastered the
skills and met academic standards required
to succeed at the next grade level. The
budget provides $600 million for 21st Century
Community Learning Centers, tripling funding
for after-school and summer school programs,
to end social promotion the right way—

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

by giving students the tools they need to
succeed.
Elementary and Secondary Education
The budget increases support for key Education Department programs to help all children in school, especially those in highpoverty areas, achieve at higher levels (see
Table 3–1). Early in 1999, the Administration
will transmit to Congress its reform proposal
for the reauthorization of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act. That proposal
will focus on improving accountability to
raise the educational achievement of all students, especially those in low-income communities. The budget includes the proposals
below that will prepare the way for these
broader reforms. (For information on Head
Start, see Chapter 4, ‘‘Supporting Working
Families.’’)
Performance Accountability: All children
deserve to attend high quality public schools.
When schools fail to help children reach
rigorous standards of academic achievement,
they must be held accountable for their
performance. The budget includes $200 million
in Title I to hold States and school districts
more
accountable
for
raising
student
achievement. States will use funds to fix their
lowest performing schools through a variety
of approaches including bringing in new
management and teachers. Funds will also be
used to ensure that students receive extra
educational help while the school is being reformed. The increase described below for new
funds for after-school and summer school activities is an integral part of this initiative.
21st Century Community Learning Centers/After-School and Summer School Programs: The budget proposes to triple this program to $600 million, as part of a comprehensive approach to fix failing schools and help
end social promotion the way successful
schools do it—without harming the children.
School districts will have a competitive advantage for these new funds if they combine
before- and after-school, as well as summer
school programs, with other resources that
support State and school commitments to high
standards, more qualified teachers, smaller
classes and accept accountability for increasing

3.

65

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Table 3–1. THE BUDGET INCREASES RESOURCES FOR SELECTED EDUCATION
AND TRAINING PROGRAMS BY $5 BILLION, OR 10.9 PERCENT OVER 1999, AND
BY A TOTAL INCREASE OVER 1993 OF 101 PERCENT
(Dollar amounts in millions)
Dollar Percent
1993
1999
2000
Change: Change:
Actual Estimate Proposed 1999 to 1993 to
2000
2000
TAX EXPENDITURES:
Hope Scholarships Credit ................................................................................
Lifetime Learning Credit .................................................................................
Student Loan Interest Deduction ...................................................................
School Construction .........................................................................................
Work Opportunity Tax Credit (Targeted Jobs Tax Credit in 1993) .............
Welfare/Jobs Tax Credit ..................................................................................
Total, tax expenditures ............................................................................
MANDATORY OUTLAYS:
Welfare-to-Work Grants ..................................................................................
Early Learning Fund (see Chapter 4) ............................................................
DISCRETIONARY BUDGET AUTHORITY:
Pre-School: Head Start (see Chapter 4) ......................................................
Elementary and Secondary Education:
Class Size Reduction ....................................................................................
America Reads/Reading Excellence .............................................................
Goals 2000 .....................................................................................................
Education Technology (Education Department grant programs) .............
Title I - Education for the Disadvantaged/Accountability .........................
Special Education .........................................................................................
Bilingual and Immigrant Education ...........................................................
Safe and Drug Free Schools Communities .................................................
Charter Schools .............................................................................................
Troops to Teachers .......................................................................................
Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration ..........................................
21st Century Community Learning Centers ..............................................
Postsecondary Education:
Pell Grants ....................................................................................................
Pell Grant maximum award (non-add, in dollars) ................................
College Work-Study ......................................................................................
Other Campus-based Aid .............................................................................
College Completion Challenge Grant ..........................................................
Teacher Quality Enhancement ....................................................................
GEAR-UP ......................................................................................................
Preparing for College Campaign .................................................................
Work Force Development:
Learning Anytime, Anywhere Partnerships (Education and Labor Departments) .................................................................................................
Right Track Partnerships ............................................................................
Job Corps .......................................................................................................
Youth Opportunity Grants/Rewarding Achievement in Youth .................
Vocational Education ....................................................................................
Adult Education ............................................................................................
Veterans Employment Services and Training ............................................
Dislocated Worker Training .........................................................................
Employment Service and One-Stop Centers ..............................................
Total, budget authority ........................................................................
TOTAL RESOURCES FOR SELECTED PROGRAMS (tax expenditures;
receipts; mandatory outlays; and budget authority)

............
4,015
............
2,510
............
245
............ ...............
160
358
............
38
160

4,855
2,655
283
146
446
54

+840
+145
+38
+146
+88
+16

NA
NA
NA
NA
+179%
NA

7,140

8,426

............
872
............ ...............

1,597
372

+725
+372

NA
NA

5,267

+607

+90%

2,776

4,660

+1,260 +5,116%

............
1,200
............
260
............
491
23
698
6,709
8,371
2,966
5,334
213
380
582
566
............
100
............ ...............
............
145
............
200

1,400
+200
NA
286
+26
NA
491 ..............
NA
801
+103 +3,383%
8,744
+373
+30%
5,450
+116
+84%
415
+35
+95%
591
+25
+2%
130
+30
NA
18
+18
NA
175
+30
NA
600
+400
NA

6,372
7,704
2,300
3,125
617
870
764
749
............ ...............
............
75
............
120
............
7

7,463
3,250
934
761
35
115
240
15

–241
+125
+64
+12
+35
+40
+120
+8

17%
+41%
+51%
–*
NA
NA
NA
NA

............
20
............ ...............
966
1,309
............
250
1,170
1,154
305
385
167
167
517
1,406
895
968

30
+10
100
+100
1,347
+38
250 ..............
1,163
+9
575
+190
169
+2
1,596
+190
1,048
+80

NA
NA
+39%
NA
–1%
+89%
+1%
+209%
+17%

25,042

37,589

40,209

+2,620

+61%

25,202

45,601

50,604

+4,977

+101%

STUDENT LOANS (face value of loans issued):
Direct loans ....................................................................................................... ............
Guaranteed Loans ............................................................................................ 16,089
Consolidated Loans ..........................................................................................
1,540

11,363
20,921
7,525

12,078
22,243
6,840

+715
+1,322
–685

NA
+38%
+344%

17,629

39,809

41,161

+1,352

+133%

23,977

33,467

34,711

+1,244

+45%

6,019

6,986

7,285

+299

+21%

Total, student loans ..................................................................................
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION:
Discretionary Program Level ..........................................................................
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......................................................................
NA = Not applicable.
* Less than 0.5 percent.

66

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

student achievement. The program will reach
7,500 schools in 2000.

their students learn English and meet
challenging academic standards.

New, Qualified Teachers and Smaller
Class Sizes: Soaring school enrollments have
overwhelmed school capacity, causing severe
teacher shortages and classroom overcrowding,
which hinder the ability of students to learn.
The budget provides $1.4 billion as the second
installment of the President’s plan to help
schools recruit, hire, and train 100,000 new
teachers by 2005 and reduce class size in the
early grades. Research shows that reducing
class size to 15–18 students in the early grades
improves student achievement, particularly
among low-income and minority students in
inner cities. The budget also proposes a new
initiative to recruit and train 1,000 new Indian
teachers to serve in school districts with high
concentrations of Indian children.

New Classrooms: A third of all schools
across the country, with 14 million students,
have one or more buildings that need extensive
repair, according to the General Accounting
Office. School districts also face the cost of upgrading schools to accommodate computers
and modern technology, and of constructing
new classrooms and schools to meet expected
record enrollment levels over the next decade.
To help States and school districts meet this
need, the budget proposes $22 billion in school
construction and modernization bonds, and
$2.4 billion in additonal Qualified Zone Academy bonds financed through tax credits to investors, currently valued at $3.7 billion over
five years and $8.9 billion over 10 years. The
President also proposes $10 million for Schools
as Centers of Community, a new initiative to
promote broad community involvement in the
planning and design of new schools.

Recruitment, Preparation, and Training
of High-Quality Teachers: Children in all
communities should have highly-qualified and
effective teachers.
• Teacher quality enhancement: The budget
provides $115 million to help improve the
quality of teacher preparation programs at
colleges and universities and address
shortages of well-prepared teachers, particularly in urban and rural schools. The
budget will fund approximately 16 partnerships of exemplary teaching colleges
and universities, urban and rural schools,
and subsidiary colleges and universities
with teaching programs. It also will fund
up to 7,000 scholarships to help recruit
teachers to teach in high priority areas.
• Eisenhower professional development: The
budget proposes $335 million to help
States provide high-quality, professional
development for teachers and administrators.
• Troops-to-Teachers: The budget proposes
$18 million to recruit and train retiring
military personnel and other to mid-career
professionals to serve as new teachers in
public schools.
• Bilingual education: The budget includes
an increase of $25 million, for a total of
$75 million, for the bilingual education
professional development program to give
6,000 teachers the skills they need to help

Indian reservations have some of the most
critical needs for school construction assistance. Within the new school construction
initiative, $400 million in bonding authority
will be provided for Bureau of Indian Affairs
schools. For those schools serving the poorest
Tribes who would have difficulty issuing
such bonds, the budget proposes $30 million
for the Interior Department to pay the principal of about $75 million in bonds.
Education Technology: In February 1996,
the President challenged the public and private sectors to work together to ensure that
all children are technologically literate by the
dawn of the 21st Century, and that schools
take full advantage of the benefits of technology to raise student achievement. Achieving
this goal will require progress in four areas:
connecting every classroom to the Internet;
expanding access to multimedia computers;
increasing the availability of high-quality
educational software and content; and
ensuring that teachers can teach effectively
using technology.
The most significant program that advances
these goals is the Technology Literacy Challenge Fund. In 1997, the President committed
to providing States $2 billion by 2002 through
this Fund to support the education technology
goals. Through 1999, $1.05 billion has been

3.

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

provided. The budget includes $450 million
for the Fund.
Other technology programs include:
• Technology Innovation Challenge Grants,
which provides $110 million for competitive grants to develop innovative education
technology applications;
• Technology Training for Teachers, which
provides $75 million to help ensure that
new teachers know how to use technology
effectively;
• Computing Technology Centers, which
provides $65 million, an increase of $55
million over 1999, to establish computer
centers in low-income communities for
those who cannot afford home computers;
• Middle School Teacher Training Initiative,
which provides $30 million to train technology leaders in all middle schools; and
the
• Software Development Initiative, which
provides $5 million for a competition open
to students in partnership with others to
develop high quality software and
websites.
E-Rate: The education rate, or E-rate, was
created under the Telecommunications Act of
1996 to provide discounts for schools and libraries to buy high-speed Internet access, internal wiring, and telecommunications services. Over the first 18 months of the program,
$1.9 billion has been provided to start connecting up to 47,000 schools and libraries and
more than 30 million children to the Internet.
In 2000, $1.3 billion will be made available.
America Reads/Reading Excellence: Two
years ago, the President launched the America
Reads Challenge, a multi-faceted effort to help
States and communities ensure that all children can read well and independently by the
end of third grade. This budget builds upon
last year’s commitment of $260 million, by proposing an investment of $286 million to continue this program in 2000. The funds help
train reading tutors and coordinate afterschool, weekend, and summer reading programs linked to in-school instruction; help
train teachers to teach reading; and help parents help children prepare to learn to read.
In addition, more than 1,000 colleges have

67
pledged to use federally-financed work-study
positions for tutoring programs.
Public School Choice: Choice in education
has become one of the most hotly debated education issues in the last decade. The Administration firmly supports expanding school choice
through its Charter Schools, Magnet Schools,
and Satellite Work-Site Schools initiatives.
These efforts strengthen the public education
system by giving it the support it needs to
fulfill its mission of providing equal educational opportunities for all while still providing children their choice of schools that best
meet their needs. The budget supports the expansion of public school choice in three ways:
• Charter Schools: Through public charter
schools, parents, teachers, and communities create innovative schools to raise
student achievement, while States free
these schools from unnecessary rules and
regulations. The budget proposes $130
million for charter schools, a $30 million
increase over 1999, to fund start-up costs
for approximately 2,200 schools, continuing progress toward the President’s goal
of 3,000 charter schools by 2002.
• Magnet Schools: Magnet schools offer a
special curriculum to encourage students
of different racial backgrounds to attend
previously racially isolated schools. The
budget proposes a $10 million increase, to
a total of $114 million, to fund inter-district magnet programs where, for example,
an urban school district with high concentrations of minority and poor students
can partner with neighboring suburban
districts to form a specialized (e.g., math
or art) curriculum which students of both
districts attend.
• Satellite Work-Site Schools: These schools
generally operate as public-private partnerships between large employers and
school districts, with employers providing
facilities on site for the schools. Experience
shows that these schools can: (1) be more
racially diverse than other schools because
worksites are more diverse than residential neighborhoods; (2) save the school districts the cost of new facilities; (3) increase
parental involvement in the schools; and
(4) provide safe and enriching after-school
programs. The budget proposes $10 mil-

68

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

lion for a demonstration project to support
the planning and implementation of approximately 100 work-site elementary
schools.
Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities: Since 1993, this program has provided $3.7 billion to help 97 percent of all
school districts implement anti-drug and antiviolence programs. The budget proposes $591
million, including $90 million in competitive
grants for projects that use proven program
designs in high-need areas and $50 million for
the Administration-proposed, newly established School Drug Prevention Coordinators
program to ensure that at least half of all middle schools have a director of drug and violence
prevention programs to link school-based programs to community-based programs. This program also provides $12 million to fund SERV,
the Administration’s initiative to support efforts in the Departments of Education, Justice,
and Health and Human Services to respond
to serious incidents of school violence.
Special Education: The budget proposes
$5.4 billion to support State and local education for children with disabilities, an increase of $116 million over 1999. The increase
is targeted toward improving educational results for children with disabilities through
early intervention. The new resources support:
a $50 million initiative to help schools implement research-based practices for how best to
serve children with disabilities in the primary
grades; an increase of $28 million to preschool
grants, for a total of $402 million; and an increase of $20 million for grants to infants and
families, for a total of $390 million.
Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration: This program funds competitive
grants to schools to implement research-based
school improvement models. The budget includes $150 million for such grants in highpoverty schools, an increase of $30 million over
1999, and $25 million for such grants in other
schools. Nearly 3,500 schools will receive
grants.
Advanced Placement and Other Courses:
To ensure greater preparation for college, the
budget proposes $20 million primarily to help
schools provide advanced placement and other
higher level courses to high-poverty schools
that do not currently offer them.

Education Coordinator for Empowerment Zones: The 10 Education Regional Offices will each have a designated Empowerment Zones (EZ) coordinator to augment the
existing Department of Education Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Community Task
Force. The Coordinators will help EZs by fostering communication with educational institutions, facilitating access to Education technical
assistance and program evaluation resources,
providing technical assistance to EZ schools
applying for competitive grants, and coordinating education reform efforts among EZs.
Investing in the Special Needs of Hispanic
Americans
Raising the educational achievement of Hispanic Americans continues to require special
attention. Their high school dropout rate,
for example, is unacceptably high: in 1996,
29 percent of Hispanics aged 16 to 24 were
high school dropouts, compared to seven percent of non-Hispanic whites and 13 percent
of non-Hispanic blacks. Hispanic now receive
32 percent of services under Title I, more
than any other minority group. For the
second year in a row, the budget targets
new funding to programs that are part of
the Administration’s Hispanic Education Agenda. The funding increases include:
• $100 million for a new Right Track
Partnership initiative to help keep young
people from dropping out of school, with
special emphasis on the needs of limitedEnglish proficient youth. (See discussion
under ‘‘Work Force Development,’’ later in
this chapter.)
• $35 million, for a total of $415 million,
for Bilingual and Immigrant Education.
During the ESEA reauthorization, the Administration will look at ways to strengthen the Bilingual Education program to
help limited-English proficient students
become proficient in English as rapidly as
possible, and prepare them to meet high
standards in academic subjects.
• $14 million, for a total of $42 million, for
assistance for colleges and universities
that serve large numbers of Hispanic students;

3.

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

• $9 million, for a total of $22 million, for
the High School Equivalency Program for
migrants and the College Assistance Migrant Program;
• $190 million, for a total of $575 million,
for Adult Education, including $70 million
to expand services and improve English
as a second language and civics programs;
• $25 million, for a total of $380 million,
for Title I-Migrant Education, which provides additional educational assistance to
migrant children;
• $10 million for a Labor Department program to provide training and education assistance to migrant youth, including literacy assistance, worker safety training,
English language assistance, and dropout
prevention activities;
• $30 million, for a total of $630 million,
for the TRIO programs that work with disadvantaged high school and college students to encourage them to complete high
school and attend, and graduate from, college;
• $30 million, for a total of $150 million,
for Comprehensive School Reform demonstrations in high-poverty schools, providing grants for research-proven reform
efforts to schools that have low achievement and high dropout rates; and
• A portion of the Head Start expansion dollars will be used to boost participation by
underepresented groups, particularly in
areas with recent influxes of immigrants
and limited-English proficient children, including seasonal farmworkers.
Postsecondary Education and Training
High school is the first stepping stone
to a good job. However, those with more
years of schooling consistently earn more
over their working careers than those with
only a high school degree. Meeting the cost
of higher education can be difficult for many
families, but Federal support through Pell
Grants, work-study, student loans, Hope Scholarship and Lifetime Learning tax credits,
other tax benefits, and other programs now
make college affordable for every American.

69
The budget proposes even more to help
young people go to and stay in college.
College Preparation and Attendance:
The budget proposes to double funding for
GEAR-UP, the early intervention program
based on the President’s High Hopes proposal,
from $120 million to $240 million in 2000.
GEAR-UP provides funds for States and local
partnerships to help students in high-poverty
schools prepare for and attend college. The
budget also provides $15 million for a Nationwide information campaign on the importance
of higher education, the steps necessary to enroll in college, and the availability of Federal
resources.
Hope Scholarship and Lifetime Learning Tax Credits: The President proposed and
obtained major tax relief for the rising costs
of higher education. With Hope Scholarships,
students in the first two years of college or
other eligible postsecondary training can get
a tax credit of up to $1,500 for tuition and
fees each year. In 1999, an estimated 5.5 million students will receive $4.5 billion in Hope
Scholarship tax credits. Under the Lifetime
Learning tax credit, students beyond the first
two years of college, or those taking classes
part-time to improve or upgrade their job
skills, will receive a 20-percent tax credit for
the first $5,000 of tuition and fees each year
through 2002, and a 20-percent credit for the
first $10,000 thereafter. In 1999, an estimated
7.2 million students will receive approximately
$2.5 billion in Lifetime Learning tax credits.
Pell Grants: The President proposes to
raise the maximum Pell Grant award by $125,
to $3,250—the highest ever—to reach nearly
four million low-income undergraduates.
Work-Study: In 1996, the President committed to expanding the Work-Study program to
one million students by the year 2000 to give
more students the opportunity to work their
way through college. In this budget, the Administration reaches the goal of one million
students by providing $934 million, a $64 million increase over the 1999 level.
College Completion Challenge Grants:
The budget proposes $35 million for an initiative to help disadvantaged undergraduates
succeed in school and complete their studies.
Institutions of higher education that show they

70
have already invested their own resources in
persistence programs for at-risk students, but
still experience a gap between the dropout
rates of disadvantaged students and other students, may apply for competitive grants.
Grants may be used to strengthen support
services, provide larger grant awards, and/or
offer an intensive summer program, for students at risk of dropping out of college.
Student Loans: An estimated 6.2 million
people will borrow $41 billion through the Federal student loan programs in 2000. In the
Higher Education Amendments of 1998, the
President’s proposal to significantly lower interest rates for borrowers on student loans was
adopted, easing the burden of repayment for
new borrowers and borrowers who consolidate.
The budget also proposes net savings of $4.5
billion over five years from excess profits of
banks, guaranty agencies and secondary markets, and through improved debt collection.
(See also chapter 22, ‘‘Education, Training,
Employment, and Social Services,’’ for a discussion of student aid management issues.)
In 1993, the Adminsitration proposed and
obtained authority to offer students the opportunity to consolidate multiple student loans
into one direct loan with lower payments,
much less paperwork, and more efficient
servicing. The Administration has continued
to improve the quality of servicing for these
loans and, in 1998, obtained a still lower
interest rate for students who consolidate.
The budget proposes to extend this authority
for lower rates through 2000.
Learning Anytime, Anywhere Partnerships: The budget includes $30 million ($20
million in the Education Department and $10
million in the Labor Department) for the second year of this program to enhance and promote learning opportunities outside the usual
classroom settings, via computers and other
technology, for all adult learners.
D.C. Resident Tuition Support: The budget proposes up to $17 million for D.C. Resident
Tuition Support, a new initiative that would
enable eligible District of Columbia residents
to attend public institutions of higher education in Maryland and Virginia at in-State
tuition. Under the initiative, the Federal Government would provide funds to reimburse
these institutions for the difference between

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

in-State and out-of-State tuition for students
who are District residents.
Adult Literacy: The 1990 Census found
that over 44 million adults did not have a
high school degree or General Educational Development (GED) credential, without which it
is increasingly difficult to obtain a good job.
Illiteracy is a serious bar to employment and
to obtaining citizenship for many legal immigrants. Throughout his tenure, the President
has sought to improve the education and skills
of the Nation’s low-literate population. The
budget proposes an increase for Adult Education of $190 million, or nearly 50 percent,
for a total of $575 million. The increase will
help recent immigrants learn English and give
them instruction in civics to help prepare for
citizenship, as well as support innovative uses
of technology in adult education, and preparation for passing the GED examination. In addition, the budget includes a new tax credit for
employers who provide certain workplace literacy programs to eligible adults.
Work Force Development
Many who lose jobs and need new jobs
or new skills to get those jobs, adults who
are seeking jobs for the first time, or adults
who want new skills to advance or change
their careers, need a broad array of financial
and program supports—especially as workers
strive to succeed in the fast-changing new
economy.
Reemployment Services for All Who Need
Them: In 2000, the President proposes a
major step toward the goals of: providing all
dislocated workers who want and need assistance the resources to train for or find new
jobs; expanding and raising the quality of the
employment services now available to all job
seekers and enhancing them for individuals receiving Unemployment Insurance; and ensuring that One-Stop Career Centers are available
to all, either in person or electronically. The
budget includes increases totaling $368 million
as a first step towards achieving this goal.
• Dislocated Worker Training: The budget
proposes $1.6 billion, an increase of $190
million—over three times the amount
available when the President took office—
to provide readjustment services, job
search assistance, training, and related

3.

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

services to help dislocated workers find
new jobs as quickly as possible. Among
the workers assisted by the program, and
the proposed increase, are those displaced
by trade and related causes.
• Reemployment Services: The budget proposes an increase of $53 million, for a total
of $849 million, for grants to the State
Employment Service system. The increase
is targeted to expanding services to help
workers receiving Unemployment Insurance benefits obtain the help they need
in finding new jobs. In addition, $10 million is proposed for the new America’s Agricultural Labor Network, an information
system that helps growers to find workers
and workers to find employment opportunities that meet their needs.
• One-Stop Career Centers: The budget includes $65 million for new methods of providing employment and related information through America’s Labor Market Information System and the One-Stop system recently expanded in the Workforce
Investment Act. Activities include a ‘‘talking’’ America’s Job Bank for the blind, mobile service centers for sparsely populated
areas, and a 1–800 service for easier access to information to upgrade skills. Also
included is $50 million to help the disabled
return to work (see Work Incentive Assistance Grants discussion later in this chapter).
Welfare-To-Work: To help reach the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
program’s employment goal for the severely
disadvantaged
welfare
recipients,
the
Administration sought, and Congress provided
to the Labor Department, a total of $3 billion
in 1998 and 1999. The budget provides $1 billion for 2000 to continue the effort and provide
non-custodial parents of children on welfare
the work and employment services they need
to help support their children.
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA): The
budget proposes consolidating, reforming, and
extending the TAA and NAFTA-Transitional
Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA) programs for workers who lose jobs due to trade
policies. It would expand eligibility for TAA
benefits to cover workers who lose jobs when
plants or production shifts abroad; raise the

71
statutory cap on training expenses; and add
a contingency provision to ensure that the Federal Government has sufficient funds to finance any unexpected increase in benefit costs
for eligible workers. The budget proposes to
increase funding for the TAA programs by
$151 million in 2000 to a total of $465 million.
Unemployment Insurance (UI): These programs are the major source of temporary
income
support
for
laid-off
workers.
Experienced workers who lose their jobs
generally are eligible for up to 26 weeks of
unemployment benefits at an average benefit
of $210 a week. An estimated 8.3 million people will draw benefits in 2000.
A recent dialogue involving the States,
employers, workers, and the Federal Government identified a number of possible system
improvements. The budget includes several
initial system changes as evidence of the
Administration’s commitment to program reforms and its desire to work with stakeholders
and the Congress to develop a broader legislative proposal for the future. That proposal
should be developed within the overarching
goal of budget neutrality and should be
based on the following principles: 1) expanding
coverage and eligibility for benefits, 2) streamlining filing and reducing tax burden where
possible, 3) emphasizing reemployment, 4)
combating fraud and abuse, and 5) improving
administration.
Youth Programs: The budget provides specialized support to help disadvantaged youth
prepare for college and careers.
• Youth Opportunity Grants: Youth Opportunity Grants address the special problems of out-of-school youth, especially in
inner-cities and other areas where jobless
rates can top 50 percent. The budget includes $250 million for the second year
of competitive grants. Included in the
funding is $20 million for Rewarding
Achievement in Youth—a new initiative to
provide comprehensive employment training, counseling and education services to
over 9,000 academically high-achieving,
low-income youth. Encouraging school
completion, this program will provide students who excel academically extended
summer employment opportunities and

72

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

the opportunity to earn an end of the summer bonus.
• Job Corps: The Job Corps provides intensive, vocational skills training, integrated
with academic and social education, and
support services to severely disadvantaged
young people in a structured residential
setting. The budget proposes $1.3 billion,
an increase of $38 million over the 1999
level.
• Youth Activity Formula Grants: Recognizing that the traditional division of youth
formula funding between the summer and
year-round programs constrained the ability to construct comprehensive youth
training programs, the WIA consolidated
the funding streams of these two programs
into a single formula grant. Funded at $1
billion, this program will continue to provide essential job opportunities to roughly
578,000 urban and rural disadvantaged
youth through year-round training and
summer jobs.
• Right-Track Partnerships: The budget includes $100 million for a new competitive
grant in the Department of Labor designed
to prevent youth from dropping out of
school, and to encourage those who have
already dropped out to complete their high
school education. Strong partnerships will
be formed between the private sector, the
schools, and community-based organizations to tailor services to local needs. Special emphasis will be placed on the needs
of limited-English proficient youth.
• School-to-Work: Funded and administered
jointly by the Education and Labor Departments, this initiative has made over
$1.7 billion available since 1995 to build
comprehensive systems that link Federal,
State, and local activities to help young
people move from high school to careers
or postsecondary training and education.
The budget proposes $110 million to complete the scheduled final year of Federal
funding.

Encouraging Work for People with
Disabilities
To advance the ability of people with
disabilities to have full opportunity to participate in, contribute to, and reap the benefits
of a growing economy, this budget provides
a new package of work incentives, and builds
upon current programs for people with disabilities.
The Work Incentives Improvement Act:
The budget includes a comprehensive package
of work incentives modeled after legislation developed by Senators Jeffords and Kennedy in
1998. The package forms the centerpiece of the
President’s initiative to provide economic opportunities to people with disabilities.
• Health Insurance Protections for Working
Disabled: Many people with disabilities
want to work, but working can end their
access to critical services provided by Medicaid or Medicare. Others incur prohibitive
costs associated with work, such as extra
personal assistance and assistive technology. The budget improves access to
health care for people with disabilities who
work by allowing States to expand Medicaid coverage to additional categories of
workers with disabilities. States offering
new coverage options would receive grants
to develop systems that support people
with disabilities who return to work, and
to build the capacity of States and communities to provide home- and communitybased services. The budget also allows Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) recipients who return to work to retain
Medicare Part A coverage indefinitely, as
long as they remain disabled.
• Ticket-to-Work: The budget includes a new
program to encourage new partnerships to
help DI and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disabled beneficiaries re-enter
the workforce. Currently, most beneficiaries who could benefit from employment-related services are referred to State
Vocational Rehabilitation agencies. Under
the proposal, beneficiaries can choose from
a variety of participating public or private
employment-related
service
providers,
which would then be reimbursed with a
share of the DI and SSI benefits saved
once these individuals leave the rolls.

3.

73

INVESTING IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

• DI Benefit Offset Demonstration: The
budget includes a demonstration project
that reduces an individual’s DI benefits by
$1 for each $2 earned above a specified
level. Under current law, a DI beneficiary
in the extended period of eligibility who
earns more than the ‘‘substantial gainful
activity’’ level, currently $500 a month,
does not receive a cash benefit.
• Work Incentive Assistance Grants: Competitive grants (totaling $50 million a
year) would be awarded to partnerships
of organizations in every State, including
organizations of people with disabilities, to
help One-Stop Career Centers and Workforce Investment Boards provide a range
of high-quality services to people with disabilities working or returning to work.
Such services include benefits planning
and assistance and providing information
on services and work incentives (e.g.,
availability of transportation services in
the local area) available in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors.
Tax Credit for Workers with Disabilities:
The budget proposes a $1,000 tax credit for
workers with disabilities or their spouses.
Workers with disabilities usually have extra
costs associated with working—special transportation or personal assistance to get to and
from work, for example. This credit helps compensate for these costs.
In addition, the largest non-benefit proposals
for improving the education and employment
of people with disabilities are $5.4 billion
for Special Education, described earlier in
this chapter, and $2.3 billion for Vocational
Rehabilitation. Other enhancements include
a combined increase of $4.5 million for the
President’s Committee on the Employment
of People with Disabilities, the Task Force
on Employment of Adults with Disabilities,
the National Council on Disability, the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, and
Gallaudet University. The set aside for children with disabilities in Head Start increases
from $590 million in 1999 to $667 million.
The Department of Justice’s Disability Rights
Section funding increases by 26 percent, for
a total of $14 million.

International and Domestic Child Labor
and International Labor Standards
Activities
Continuing the Administration’s commitment to improving the working conditions
of children at home and abroad, the budget
proposes $16 million in additional funding
to address this issue. In addition, the budget
proposes $40 million for a new initiative
targeted at raising international labor standards to enhance economic stability abroad.
International Child Labor Activities: The
budget continues to provide $30 million for the
Labor Department to enable the International
Labor Organization’s International Programme
to Eliminate Child Labor to expand its work
into more countries and industries. The fiveyear initiative, which began in 1999, provides
a $150 million investment which will help reduce the incidence of exploitative and abusive
child labor. The budget proposes $10 million
for a new School Works program for the U.S.
Agency for International Development to assist
developing countries with high levels of abusive child labor to enroll and retain these children in basic education, as part of comprehensive strategies to eliminate child labor. The
budget also proposes $2 million over the 1999
level to enable the Customs Service to enforce
the law banning the import of goods made
with forced or bonded child labor.
International Labor Standards Activities: The budget proposes $25 million to help
the International Labor Organization create a
multilateral technical assistance program to
help developing countries implement core labor
standards and build their own social safety
nets, and $10 million for the Labor Department to provide technical assistance on these
same issues in support of important U.S. bilateral relationships. In addition, the budget provides $5 million for the Economic Support
Fund to establish a grant program to promote
innovative approaches to eliminating overseas
sweatshops.
Domestic Child Labor Activities: The
budget continues $9 million for the Labor Department, including $4 million to help eliminate domestic violations of child labor laws,
particularly in the agriculture sector, and $5
million for demonstration programs to provide
alternatives to field work for migrant youth.

74
In addition, the budget proposes $4 million for
the Department of Labor to increase its current enforcement and compliance assistance ef-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

forts in the agriculture and garment industries
which are focused on increasing compliance
with labor standards, including child labor.

4.

SUPPORTING WORKING FAMILIES

More and more parents of young children are in the workplace, either because they’re single
parent households, or because both parents have to work to make ends meet, or because both parents choose to work and they ought to have that choice.
But there is no more important responsibility . . . than making sure every American can balance
the dual responsibilities succeeding as parents and succeeding at work. There is no more significant challenge.
President Clinton
January 1998

In the final year of this century, the
fruits of the President’s hard work on the
economy are evident throughout the Nation,
with higher wages, lower interest rates, and
unemployment at almost record lows. For
much of the country, this wave of prosperity
has provided new opportunity. There have
been benefits for many, for the college graduate starting a career, as well as the longterm welfare recipient taking a first job.
But we still have more work to do to
ensure that this economic boom provides
equal advantages to all. And for working
parents, many of whom have benefitted from
the opportunities of this growing economy,
there are also strains as they try to balance
the twin demands of work and family. The
President remains committed to helping working families, as well as those who are lowincome and at-risk of falling into dependency,
so that they too can enter the next century
with justified optimism.
The Administration will continue efforts
to address the needs of these Americans—
to build a foundation that encourages and
supports work and responsibility. The President believes that a central challenge we
face at the dawn of the 21st Century is
to help the growing number of working
parents with young children meet their responsibilities and succeed both at work and
at home.
The Administration has already taken significant steps in this direction, with a major
expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit,
a new child credit, a boost in the minimum

wage, expansions of Head Start, after school
programs and child care centers, and significantly increased participation in the Special
Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women,
Infants and Children (WIC). In 1996, the
President signed the historic Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation
Act (PRWORA), reforming the Nation’s welfare
system into one that requires and rewards
work and responsibility, provides increased
flexibility to States to administer work-focused
welfare programs, expands funds for child
care, and strengthens child support enforcement provisions. Meanwhile, the economy
has created almost 18 million new jobs in
the past six years, increasing the number
of working families, and providing new opportunities for those leaving welfare.
By proposing and working to enact the
Family and Medical Leave Act, the Health
Insurance Portability and Accountability Act,
and the Children’s Health Insurance Program
(CHIP), this Administration has enabled parents to respond to illness in the family
without running the risk of job loss, to
change jobs without forfeiting their health
insurance, and to secure health insurance
for their children when they could not otherwise afford it.
But there are still key areas in which
working families need more help, especially
in finding safe and affordable child care.
Last year, the President proposed a major
child care initiative, with new grants and
tax credits for working families. His agenda
was clear: to ensure that low- and middle75

76
income parents could afford to purchase child
care, and to ensure that their children entered
school ready to learn. Regrettably, despite
the need for these measures, Congress only
took action on a small part of this proposal.
Because the President remains committed
to helping parents meet the twin demands
of work and family, he will propose a comparable Child Care Initiative for 2000.
In addition, the President will propose
measures to help groups of low-income and
at-risk individuals—homeless and runaway
youth, older foster care children, legal immigrants, families moving from welfare to work,
and battered women and their children. The
budget will assist over 100,000 runaways
and foster care youth in their efforts to
become self-sufficient, expand and strengthen
the network of battered women’s shelters,
strengthen early intervention by the educational system for disabled children, provide
employment assistance to non-custodial parents of children on welfare, and support
an array of critical services to thousands
of low-income families through the Social
Services Block Grant.
Expanding Child Care
In 1999, the Administration obtained $173
million to help States improve the quality
of child care, $10 million for child care
research, and an increase of $160 million
for the Education Department’s after-school/
summer school program. The budget proposes
a full range of further increases and new
policies to increase spending and tax incentives by $3.6 billion over 1999 (see Table
4–1).
The Child Care Initiative
More Affordable Child Care: The President proposes to make child care more affordable by expanding the Child and Dependent
Care Tax Credit for middle-income families
with child care costs and for parents who stay
home with their young children, providing tax
credits for businesses to expand their child
care resources, assisting parents who want to
attend college meet their child care needs, and
increasing funds with which the Child Care
and Development Fund can help more poor
and near-poor children.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit
(DCTC): The DCTC Credit helps around 5.5
million families cover their child care costs
each year. The budget proposes to expand
the credit so that it offers more help for
families with incomes below $59,000. The
budget also proposes further expansion of
this tax credit to help parents stay home
to raise a young child. These two proposals
would provide tax credits worth $6.3 billion
over five years.
Tax credits for private employers: To make
child care services more widely available,
the budget proposes $500 million in tax
credits over five years for private employers
that expand or operate child care facilities,
train child care workers, contract with a
child care facility to provide child care services
to employees, or provide child care resource
and referral services to employees.
Child Care and Development Fund: Federal
child care funding has risen by 80 percent
under this Administration, providing child
care services for 1.25 million children from
low-income working families or whose parents
are moving from welfare to work. The budget
would increase funds for the Child Care
and Development Fund by $1.2 billion, to
a total of $4.5 billion in 2000, and by
$7.5 billion over the next five years, enabling
the program to provide child care subsidies
for 500,000 more poor and near-poor children
in 2000. These new funds, combined with
the child care funds provided in welfare
reform beginning in 1997, will enable the
program to serve 2.4 million children by
2004, an increase of over one million since
1997.
College campus-based child care: To help
increase low-income parents’ access to higher
education, the budget includes $5 million
for the new Child Care Access Means Parents
in School program to establish and support
child care services on college campuses. States
may also use a share of the Child Care
and Development Fund for this purpose.
Exclusion of employer contributions for child
care expenses: Under current law, parents
can exclude up to $5,000 of employer-provided
child care expenses from their taxable income
and Social Security earnings. The exclusion

4.

77

SUPPORTING WORKING FAMILIES

Table 4–1. THE BUDGET SUPPORTS A $3.6 BILLION INCREASE IN
RESOURCES FOR CHILD CARE, 27 PERCENT OVER 1999
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
Dollar
1999
2000
Change:
Estimate Proposed 1999 to
2000

Spending:
Discretionary and Mandatory Budget Authority:
Child Care, including $183 million increase for quality
activities and research 1 .................................................
3,167
Child Care Supplement .................................................... ..............
Head Start .........................................................................
4,660
Early Learning Fund ........................................................ ..............
21st Century Community Learning Centers ..................
200
Special Education .............................................................
5,334
College Campus-Based Child Care .................................. ..............
Child Care Apprenticeship Program ...............................
4
Developmental Disabilities Special Projects, State Support Systems ...................................................................
4
Total Spending ...................................................................

3,550
1,155
5,267
600
600
5,450
5
5

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

+383
+1,155
+607
+600
+400
+116
+5
+1

+12%
NA
+13%
NA
+200%
+2%
NA
+25%

4 ..............

*

13,369

16,636

+3,267

+24%

New Tax Expenditures:
Expansion of Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit, Including Assistance to Stay-At-Home Parents 2 ................ ..............
Tax Credits to Private Employers ........................................ ..............

338
40

+338
+40

NA
NA

Total Tax Expenditures ..................................................... ..............

378

+378

NA

17,014

+3,645

+27%

Total ...............................................................................

13,369

NA = Not applicable.
* Less than 0.5 percent
1
Includes discretionary Child Care and Development Block Grant and mandatory Child Care Entitlement
to States.
2
Includes elimination of household maintenance test.

will provide nearly $8 billion in benefits
over five years.
Helping meet the cost of raising a child:
The Child Credit, which the President proposed and Congress enacted as part of the
1997 Taxpayer Relief Act, helps working
parents raise their children by providing
$500 per child for all children under age
17. The credit, which will provide nearly
$93 billion in tax benefits over the next
five years, will help 26 million families with
over 40 million children.
New Emphasis on Early Learning: The
budget provides new funds to improve the safety and well-being of young children, including

the new Early Learning Fund that grew out
of the White House Conference on Early Childhood Development and Learning and continued
expansion of the highly successful Head Start
program.
Early Learning Fund: The Early Learning
Fund responds to the scientific research presented at the White House Conference on
Early Child Development and Learning in
April 1997, indicating that a child’s experiences in the first three years of life profoundly
affect his or her brain development. The
budget proposes $3 billion over five years
for the Fund, which would provide grants
to communities for activities that improve
early childhood education and the quality

78

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

and safety of child care for children under
five years old. For example, the money can
fund innovative efforts to meet the developmental needs of children, with a focus on
language development, emergent literacy, and
other child development activities aimed at
improving readiness for school. Resources
could also fund parent education in child
development, home visits, and efforts to help
child care centers become accredited and
reduce child-to-staff ratios in child care.

to help fix failing schools and help end social
promotion the way successful schools do it—
without harming the children. Under the
President’s proposal, school districts with comprehensive policies in place to end social promotion will receive priority in the grant-making process. After-school and summer school
programs are a critical tool in ending social
promotion because they give students who are
not on track an opportunity to get extra help
so they can meet promotion standards.

Head Start: Head Start, one of the President’s highest priorities, is America’s premier
early childhood development program. It supports working families by helping parents
get involved in their children’s educational
lives and providing services to the entire
family. Since 1993, the President has worked
with Congress to increase annual Head Start
funding by 68 percent. In 1999, Head Start
will serve 835,000 low-income children, including up to 38,000 children under age three
in the Early Head Start component that
the President launched in 1995. The budget
proposes to expand Head Start funding by
$607 million in 2000 and add 35,000 Head
Start pre-school slots and 7,000 Early Head
Start slots. The Administration intends to
increase participation by underrepresented
groups in specifically targeted areas with
recent influxes of immigrants and limited
English proficient children, including seasonal
farmworkers. The proposed increase invests
in program quality improvement measures
and makes further progress toward the President’s goal of enrolling a million children
in Head Start by 2002, including doubling
the number of infants and toddlers in Early
Head Start.

Safety and Quality in Child Care: The
President and Congress worked together to
pass legislation to improve the safety of children by making it easier for States to conduct
background checks on child care workers and
to provide new funds for child care quality activities in 2000.

School-Age Care and Improved Educational Achievement: The President proposed, and Congress agreed in 1999, to expand
21st Century Community Learning Centers to
enable 1,700 schools to open their doors before
and after the traditional school day and in
the summer. Instead of returning to empty
houses, or playing on unsafe streets, a quarter
of a million children will participate in safe,
drug-free programs that combine learning, enrichment, and recreational activities. The
budget proposes to triple funding for this program to $600 million, reaching nearly 7,500
schools, as part of a comprehensive approach

National crime prevention and privacy compact: Congress recently passed legislation,
based on a proposal from the White House
Conference on Child Care, to help build
a new electronic information sharing partnership among Federal and State law enforcement. This legislation makes background
checks on child care providers (and other
non-criminal justice checks) more efficient
and accurate by eliminating some of the
barriers that have made it difficult for States
to share information about the criminal backgrounds of job seekers.
Increasing investments in child care quality:
In response to the President’s request, Congress provided an increase for 2000 of $173
million for child care quality activities, in
addition to the nearly $132 million that
will already be available for these activities
in 2000. States invest these dollars in improving child care quality through activities such
as resource and referral for parents, scholarships and training for child care providers,
monitoring and inspection of providers, networks for family day care providers, and
linkages with Head Start, to name a few.
Services for Families of Children with
Disabilities: Children with disabilities and
their families face a broad range of obstacles
to achieving educational success. Ensuring
that the educational needs of the youngest
children with disabilities are fully met is critical to the Administration. (For a discussion
of the Administration’s work incentives initia-

4.

SUPPORTING WORKING FAMILIES

tive for disabled individuals, see Chapter 3,
‘‘Investing in Education and Training.’’)
Special Education: The budget proposes
$5.4 billion for special education, including
an increase over last year’s budget of $116
million targeted toward improving educational
results for children with disabilities through
early intervention. These new funds provide
a $50 million initiative to help schools implement research-based practices to serve children with disabilities in the primary grades.
The budget also provides increases of $28
million for Preschool Grants and $20 million
to the Infants and Families program.
Families of Children with Disabilities: The
budget continues a $4 million program proposed last year by the President and funded
by Congress to help the families of children
with disabilities. This program provides grants
to States to expand and modify their Statewide support systems to help these families
address such problems as inadequate child
care options, missed job training and job
opportunities, the loss of medical assistance,
and teen pregnancy.
Research on Childhood Development
and Child Care: Research on child care, and
dissemination of its findings, is critical to support State and local policy makers in their decision-making about child care and to help parents learn how to evaluate and where to find
quality child care. At the President’s request,
Congress has already provided $10 million for
a new Research and Evaluation Fund in 2000,
which will provide consumer education, parent
hotlines, and research activities to expand our
knowledge of good policies and practices, including the types of child care settings, parent
activities, and provider training that most benefit the early development of children.
Promoting Self-Sufficiency
Supporting Children Leaving Foster
Care: An estimated 20,000 children leave foster care each year having reached the age of
18 without being adopted or finding another
permanent relationship. These youth are troubled. Studies that examined former foster
youth two to four years after leaving care
found that only half had completed high
school, less than half were employed and only
about 40 percent had held a job for one year

79
or more. One-fourth had been homeless at
least one night, 60 percent of the females had
given birth, and fewer than one-in-five were
completely self-supporting.
The budget provides a four-part program
to support children leaving the foster care
system:
• Independent living. This program provides
services to assist current and former foster
children ages 16 to 21 who are making
the transition to independence by earning
a high school degree or participating in
vocational or other training. The budget
provides $105 million, a 50-percent increase over the 1999 level, which has been
unchanged since 1992.
• Comprehensive residential transition assistance. The budget provides a new
capped mandatory program of competitive
grants for States to support living expenses of youth in these programs who
otherwise lose such support at age 18 or
under other circumstances. The new program is funded in 2000 at $5 million, increasing to $20 million by 2003.
• Transitional living grants. This program
provides shelter and services to homeless
youth ages 16 to 21. The budget increases
funding to $20 million, an increase of $5
million over 1999.
• Medicaid coverage. Medicaid coverage for
children receiving foster care assistance
generally ends at age 18. The lack of
health insurance limits their ability to
make a successful transition out of foster
care. The budget gives States the option
of covering these children up to age 21.
Curtailing Violence Against Women:
Since 1993, funding for services to victims of
domestic and sexual violence has grown by
nearly $400 million and the passage of the
Violence Against Women Act of 1995 expanded
the Government’s role in supporting services
and providing scientific knowledge to prevent
and treat violence against women. The budget
proposes an increase of $26 million to further
strengthen and increase the availability of battered women’s shelters and counseling services, increase culturally appropriate services in
under-served populations, and expand resources for research and prevention activities

80
aimed at changing the social norms that allow
this violence to occur. These new funds will
allow programs addressing violence against
women to serve an additional 40,000 women,
children, and perpetrators.
Restoring Equity in Benefits for Legal
Immigrants
The President believes that legal immigrants
should have the same opportunity, and bear
the same responsibility, as other members
of society. Upon signing the 1996 welfare
law, he pledged to work toward reversing
the harsh, unnecessary cuts in benefits to
legal immigrants that were unrelated to the
goal of moving people from welfare to work.
As part of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act
(BBA), the President worked with Congress
to restore Medicaid and Supplemental Security
Income (SSI) to hundreds of thousands of
disabled and elderly legal immigrants. The
next year, the Noncitizens’ Benefit Clarification and Other Technical Amendments Act
restored eligibility to additional legal immigrants. In response to the Administration’s
request, last year’s Agricultural Research Bill
restored food stamp benefits to 225,000 elderly,
disabled, and other needy immigrants, including 70,000 children who lawfully resided
in the United States as of August 22, 1996.
As a result of the 1996 law, however,
many legal immigrants, including disabled
individuals and families with children, are
not eligible for health and disability benefits.
The budget provides $1.1 billion over five
years to let States provide health care to
legal immigrant children, to restore SSI eligibility to legal immigrants with disabilities,
and to restore Food Stamp eligibility to
certain aged immigrants. The SSI and related
Medicaid benefits in the budget that apply
to immigrants who entered the country after
August 1996, and became disabled thereafter,
would only start after five years of residence.
Health Care: As described in Chapter 5,
the budget would let States provide health coverage to legal immigrant children and pregnant women under Medicaid and, in the case
of children, CHIP. Currently, States can provide health coverage to legal immigrants who
entered the country before the welfare law was
enacted. But, immigrants who entered after

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

the law was enacted cannot get benefits for
five years. Under these proposals, States could
provide health coverage to those children and
pregnant women through Medicaid or through
CHIP.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI): The
budget would provide approximately $925 million over five years to restore SSI and related
Medicaid to legal immigrants who entered the
country after August 22, 1996, lived in the
United States for more than five years and
became disabled after entry. Currently, only
legal immigrants who entered the country before August 22, 1996 can be found eligible for
SSI disability benefits.
Food Stamps: The budget provides $60 million over five years to ensure that legal immigrants in the United States as of August 22,
1996, are eligible for food stamp benefits once
they reach age 65.
Continuing Support for Working Families
The Child Care Initiative, the restoration
of benefits to legal immigrants, and expanded
efforts to assist low-income families, at-risk
youth and victims of domestic or sexual
violence in attaining self-sufficiency, all build
on a strong base of support for at-risk
and working families, a priority area in
which the President’s work with Congress
has achieved significant results in the past
five years. That support includes a broad
array of tax incentives to encourage and
support work as well as legislation to, among
other things, enable workers to care for
a newborn and fulfill other family responsibilities; raise the minimum wage; reduce welfare
caseloads by nearly four million, enable workers to retain their health insurance; and
provide health insurance to up to five million
uninsured children. (For the broader discussion of the health care expansions, see Chapter
5, ‘‘Strengthening Health Care.’’)
Support Through the Tax System: Over
the last five years, the Administration has
worked with Congress to expand the number
and size of tax incentives to encourage work
and support working families (see Table 4–2).
Tax incentives for work: The budget proposes
to extend, through June 30, 2000, the Welfareto-Work Tax Credit, which the President

4.

81

SUPPORTING WORKING FAMILIES

and Congress created as part of the Taxpayer
Relief Act of 1997. It focuses on those who
most need help—long-term welfare recipients—by letting employers claim a tax credit
on the first $10,000 a year of wages that
they pay, for up to two years, for workers
they hire who were long-term welfare recipients. The credit is 35 percent on the first
year’s wages, rising to 50 percent on the
second year’s wages. In addition, the budget
would extend through June 30, 2000, the
Work Opportunity Tax Credit, which provides
a credit of 40 percent on the first $6,000
of wages paid to members of eight more
target groups.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): The
Federal Government is committed to helping
those who work to meet the cost of raising
their children. The EITC helps to meet
this goal by supplementing the earnings of
working families. In his 1993 economic program, the President proposed and Congress
enacted legislation to substantially expand
the credit, helping 15 million low-income
working families. The Administration remains
committed to ensuring that this program
is managed fairly and accurately. The Administration is currently implementing a series

Table 4–2.

of EITC error-reduction initiatives, including
the provisions enacted in the Taxpayer Relief
Act of 1997. The EITC will provide $167
billion of tax benefits over the next five
years to low-income working families.
Helping Families Move from Welfare to
Work: The President has led successful efforts
to remove obstacles that have hindered families trying to make a successful transition from
welfare to self-sufficiency.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
(TANF): The President signed the Personal
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996, and States
have refocused their welfare systems to support work. Welfare caseloads have fallen
by over four million since President Clinton
signed the welfare reform law, and by well
over 40 percent since he took office. Recent
data from the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey show large increases in the
rate of employment both for individuals on
welfare and those leaving welfare. The Administration is proposing to replace the current
TANF contingency fund with one that could
more effectively respond to State needs in
the event of an economic downturn.

THE BUDGET INCLUDES $286 BILLION OVER FIVE YEARS IN SUPPORT
FOR FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN THROUGH THE TAX SYSTEM 1
(In millions of dollars)
1998
Actual

Tax Expenditures
Existing Law:
Earned Income Tax Credit 2, 3 ......................
Child Tax Credit 2 ........................................
Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit ......
Exclusion of Employer Contributions for
Child Care Expenses .................................
Proposed Legislation:
Expand Child and Dependent Care Tax
Credit, Including Assistance to Stay-AtHome Parents 4 ..........................................
Tax Credits for Private Employers ..............
Simplify Foster Care Definition under
EITC ...........................................................

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

28,928 30,734 31,222 32,172 33,258 34,374 35,576
3,525 19,155 19,253 18,926 18,643 18,198 17,580
2,485 2,455 2,425 2,395 2,365 2,340 2,310
1,325

Total
1999–2004

166,602
92,600
11,835

1,385

1,445

1,510

1,575

1,645

1,715

7,890

............ ............
............ ............

338
40

1,585
84

1,425
114

1,471
131

1,503
140

6,322
509

............ ............

–2

–42

–44

–46

–47

–181

Total ........................................................... 36,263 53,729 54,721 56,630 57,336 58,113 57,777 285,577
1

Does not include interaction effects between provisions.
Includes tax expenditures and effect on outlays.
3
Excludes credit for workers who do not live with children.
3
Includes elimination of household maintenance test.
2

82
Welfare-to-Work (WtW) Grants: Because of
the President’s leadership, the 1997 Balanced
Budget Act included $3 billion requested
by the President for a new Welfare-to-Work
grants program. WtW provides grants to
States and local communities to help longterm, hard-to-employ welfare recipients, and
certain non-custodial parents, secure lasting,
unsubsidized employment. Funds are used
for job creation, job placement, job retention,
and other post-employment support services.
The budget proposes $1 billion more for
this program in 2000.
Welfare-to-Work Transportation: One of the
biggest barriers facing people who move from
welfare to work—in cities and in rural areas—
is finding transportation to get to jobs, training
programs and child care centers. The President’s leadership on this issue helped secure
funding through 2003 to assist States and
localities in developing flexible transportation
alternatives, such as van services, for welfare
recipients and other low income workers.
The budget proposes $150 million for this
program in 2000.
Welfare-to-Work Housing Vouchers: In his
1999 budget, the President proposed $283
million for 50,000 new housing vouchers for
welfare recipients who need housing assistance
to get or keep a job, and Congress approved
full funding for this new initiative. Families
will use these housing vouchers to move
closer to a new job, to reduce a long commute,
or to secure more stable housing to eliminate
emergencies that keep them from getting
to work every day on time. The budget
proposes $144 million for an additional 25,000
vouchers, bringing the total number of welfareto-work vouchers to 75,000 in 2000.
Individual Development Accounts: Since
1992, President Clinton has supported the
creation of Individual Development Accounts
(IDAs) to empower individuals to save for
a first home, post-secondary education, or
to start a new business. The President signed
into law last year legislation providing $10
million to get the program off the ground.
The budget provides $20 million for IDAs.
Social Services Block Grant: The President’s
Budget proposes to fund the Social Services
Block Grant (SSBG) at its fully authorized
level of $2,380 million, increasing funding

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

levels by $471 million over last year. SSBG
provides funding to States to support a
wide range of programs including child protection and child welfare, child care, and services
focused on the needs of the elderly and
the disabled. The inherent flexibility of this
grant permits States to target funds to meet
the specific needs in their communities. The
Administration will work with the States
to improve reporting and accountability for
services provided with these funds.
Continued Nutrition Assistance for Infants and Children: The Administration has
continued to target resources to infants and
children. The Special Supplemental Nutrition
Program for Women, Infants and Children
(WIC), for example, reached nearly 7.4 million
persons each month in 1998 and the budget
proposes $4.1 billion to serve 7.5 million people
through 2000, fulfilling the President’s goal of
full participation in WIC. (See Chapter 5,
Strengthening Health Care, for more information on WIC.)
Increasing
Parental
Responsibility
Through Child Support Enforcement: The
President’s campaign to ensure that parents
support their children is working. In 1997, the
number of paternities established rose to nearly 1.3 million, and child support collections
have gone up 80 percent since the President
took office, to an estimated $14.4 billion in
1998. In 1998, net Federal costs for child support enforcement were $1.2 billion.
The budget will build on this success
by helping Federal authorities investigate
child support cases and prosecute more parents who fail to meet their responsibilities.
The budget provides $34 million over five
years to fund an eightfold increase in U.S.
Attorney legal support staff dedicated to
child support, and additional funds in 2000
to support the Department of Health and
Human Services’ establishment of regional
task forces to investigate and refer cases
for prosecution. To improve the child support
program’s effectiveness and cost efficiency,
the budget also conforms the match-rate
for paternity testing with the lower administrative match-rate; repeals the guarantee to
States of their 1995 level of collections;
and starting in 2001, requires States to
review support orders for families receiving

4.

SUPPORTING WORKING FAMILIES

TANF every three years. Net Federal savings
of these proposals total $409 million over
five years.
Shortly after the Administration concludes
on-going consultations with stakeholders in
April 1999, it will submit a proposal to
Congress and work on a bipartisan basis
to enact child support financing legislation
based on the following five principles: 1)
maximize collections and support for all families in the program, including the hardest
to serve; 2) maximize paternity establishment,
financial and medical support establishment,
collections on current support and on arrears,
and cost efficiency; 3) give priority to increasing payments to families, while ensuring
Federal budget cost neutrality; 4) create incentives for adequate State and local investment
of staff and resources needed for improved
program performance; and 5) promote national
standards and ease of interstate case processing, while maintaining State flexibility.
Better Benefits in the Workplace: The
President has led successful efforts to ensure
a living wage for all American workers while
expanding their ability to care for their families and protect their health care benefits.
Family and Medical Leave (FMLA): In
early 1993, the President proposed, and Congress enacted, the Family and Medical Leave
Act, which allows workers to take up to
12 weeks of job-protected, unpaid leave to
care for a newborn or adopted child, attend
to their own serious health needs, or care
for a seriously ill parent, child, or spouse—
making it less likely that employees will
have to choose between work and family.
The budget proposes expanding FMLA to
reach workers in firms with over 25 employees,
expanding coverage to 10 million more workers. In addition, the budget proposes providing
resources to the Department of Labor to
research: (1) the impact this law has had
on the American family; and (2) how to

83
make leave accessible and affordable for more
of America’s working families.
Ensuring equal pay: The budget proposes
a $14 million equal pay initiative to focus
additional resources to provide employers with
the necessary tools to assess and improve
their pay policies and to educate the public
on the importance of this issue as well
as their rights and responsibilities. (See Chapter 9, ‘‘Building One America’’, for additional
information on this initiative.)
Minimum wage: In 1996, the President
successfully sought a minimum wage increase
that gave a big financial boost to fulltime, full-year minimum wage workers, raising
the pay of each by approximately $1,800
a year. In February 1998, the President
proposed to further raise the minimum wage
to $6.15 an hour by the year 2000. Increasing
the minimum wage by one dollar in two
equal steps simply restores the real value
of the minimum wage to what it was in
1981. This increase will help ensure that
as costs continue to increase parents who
work hard and play by the rules can bring
up their children out of poverty. The President
remains strongly committed to increasing the
minimum wage and will work with Congress
to ensure the enactment of this vital increase.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Working with Congress, the President in 1996 obtained landmark legislation,
known as HIPAA, which provides important
health insurance protections for an estimated
25 million Americans who move from one
job to another each year, as well as those
who are self-employed or who have preexisting medical conditions. HIPAA reformed
the private insurance market to ensure that
workers have portable health benefits and
insurers are less able to deny coverage due
to pre-existing conditions. Combined with the
Taxpayer Relief Act, HIPAA also made it
easier for self-employed persons to get health
insurance.

5.

STRENGTHENING HEALTH CARE

Nothing is more critical to the securities of our families, the strength of our communities.
Health is something we take for granted until we or our loved ones don’t have it anymore.
President Clinton
August 1998

Today, the health of the American people
is better than ever. Last year, infant mortality
reached an all-time low and the average
life span for Americans reached an all-time
high. Major progress was made toward preventing and controlling diseases. For the
first time in 20 years, cancer death rates
declined, and AIDS dropped out of the top
10 causes of death. Not only were immunizations at record high levels, but the large,
historical disparities for immunizing children
of different races were curbed. These gains
were matched by the slowest growth in
health care spending in almost 40 years.
These improvements reflect the extraordinary commitment of President Clinton to
making health care more affordable, accessible,
and effective. Even without the passage of
any significant health care legislation last
year, the Administration took significant steps
toward this goal. Medicare beneficiaries gained
access to new preventive benefits, managed
care choices, and low-income protections. The
no-tolerance approach toward Medicare fraud
was stepped up, yielding hundreds of millions
of dollars in savings. While the President’s
Patients’ Bill of Rights, with its strong and
enforceable measures, did not become law
last year, the President took executive action
to extend patient protections to the 85 million
Americans covered by Federal health plans,
including Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries
and Federal employees. He also took immediate actions to improve the quality of care
in nursing homes. The President also worked
with States to expand health coverage to
the 43 million uninsured Americans. All but
three States started enrolling over 2.5 million
uninsured children in the new Children’s
Health Insurance Program (CHIP); over 10
Federal agencies have joined with the private

sector to help enroll the millions of uninsured
children eligible for Medicaid, as well as
CHIP; and the President authorized a new
regulation that provides States the option
to cover two-parent families in Medicaid.
The budget builds on these accomplishments
with initiatives that include:
• Responding to the need for assistance with
long-term care: The budget includes: a $6
billion initiative that includes a tax credit
to compensate for the cost of long-term
care services; a new National Family Caregivers Program; a national campaign educating Medicare beneficiaries about longterm care options; and a proposal to provide the authority to allow the Federal
Government to offer private long-term care
insurance to its employees at group rates.
It also includes a new investment to
strengthen nursing home quality; an innovative housing initiative to create and integrate assisted living facilities and Medicaid home and community-based long-term
care; and a new Medicaid option that
equalizes eligibility for people with longterm care needs in community settings.
• Improving access to health insurance: The
budget provides more than $4 billion over
five years for: expanding new health insurance options for people ages 55 to 65;
increasing access to insurance for small
businesses through purchasing coalitions;
extending Medicare and Medicaid to
workers
with
disabilities;
restoring
Medicaid eligibility to legal immigrants
affected by welfare reform; extending
Medicaid eligibility to foster children up
to age 21; improving the transitional
Medicaid for people moving from welfare
to work; and providing States with
85

86

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

additional funds for
insurance outreach.

children’s

health

• Safeguarding and improving public health:
In order to protect and advance public
health, the budget supports: a stringent
tobacco control policy; a new $1 billion program over five years that funds local communities to integrate traditional safety net
providers (e.g., public hospitals and clinics)
into networks that help the uninsured;
and important initiatives to address coverage of cancer clinical trials, the challenges of AIDS, bioterrorism, asthma,
mental health, and racial disparities in
health status.
• Improving fiscal soundness of Medicare
and Medicaid: The budget proposes aggressive efforts to reduce Medicare fraud,
waste and abuse, and to improve the management of Medicare and Medicaid.
Long-Term Care
The need for long-term care will surely
be one of the great challenges as the baby
boom generation ages. Unlike acute care,
long-term care is rarely paid for by private
insurance or Medicare, requiring out-of-pocket
expenditures. It also takes a financial and
emotional toll on family and friends on whom
the burden of unpaid care often falls. The
budget proposes a multi-faceted initiative,
as follows:
Tax Credit for Long-Term Care: This tax
credit will help people with chronic illness or
the families with whom they live. People with
significant long-term care needs or their care
givers would receive a $1,000 tax credit beginning in 2000. Approximately two million people would benefit, at a cost of $5.5 billion.
National Family Care Givers Program:
This program is designed to assist approximately 250,000 families caring for elderly relatives who are chronically ill or disabled. The
budget invests $125 million to support a care
giver support system in all States that provides information, education, counseling, and
respite services directly to care-giving families.
National Long-Term Care Information
Campaign: This campaign will help Medicare
beneficiaries and their families better understand their long-term care options. Information

for Medicare beneficiaries would include an explanation of long-term care coverage under the
Medicare and Medicaid programs, private longterm care insurance, and other consumer information.
Private Long-Term Care Insurance for
Federal Employees: This proposal will make
group long-term care insurance available to
Federal employees, annuitants, and their families. Employees would pay the full cost of insurance premiums, which, at group rates, are
expected to be 10 to 15 percent lower than
the individual rates otherwise available.
Medicaid Initiatives to Encourage Expansion of Home and Community-Based
Long-Term Care Options: This initiative
gives States the option of expanding Medicaid
eligibility for people with incomes up to 300
percent of the Supplementary Security Income
(SSI) level who need nursing home care but
choose to live in the community, extending its
reach from only those at this income level who
live in nursing homes. Competitive capital
grants will also be provided for the conversion
of Section 202 elderly housing projects to assisted living facilities. Grants are available
when States agree to provide new Medicaid
home and community based services in the facility.
Nursing Home Quality Initiative: On
July 21, 1998, the President announced an initiative to strengthen nursing home enforcement tools and Federal oversight of nursing
home quality and safety standards. As part
of this initiative, the Administration will work
with the States to improve their nursing home
inspection systems, crack down on nursing
homes that repeatedly violate safety rules, and
require nursing homes to conduct criminal
background checks on all new employees.
Improving Access to Health Care
Coverage
The President is committed to expanding
access to health care, particularly to vulnerable groups such as children, the near-elderly
who are not yet eligible for Medicare benefits,
older displaced workers, and immigrants.

5.

STRENGTHENING HEALTH CARE

Health Insurance Options for People
Aged 55 to 65: People between the ages of
55 and 65 often face special problems of access
and affordability. Because of job and family
transitions, fewer people in this age group
have access to employer-based health insurance. And when they seek to purchase insurance on their own, many find the cost prohibitive, or coverage unavailable because private
companies refuse to sell insurance to age
groups with greater health risks.
The budget includes the Daschle-MoynihanKennedy proposal that will help an estimated
300,000 members of this vulnerable population
by either allowing them to pay for coverage
through the Medicare system, or guaranteeing
access to a private insurance plan.
• Allowing Americans between 62 and 65 to
buy Medicare coverage: This policy will
give older Americans the security of knowing that they have an affordable, high
quality health insurance option. Because
this proposal is self-financing, it protects
the integrity of the Medicare Trust Funds.
• Expanding health insurance options for
displaced workers: The budget also offers
the option of a Medicare ‘‘buy-in’’ to workers between the ages of 55 and 62 who
have lost company-sponsored health care
coverage because their hours were scaled
back, or their employer relocated or
stopped operations.
• Protecting retirees whose employer-based
health benefits have been abolished: This
proposal targets ‘‘broken promise’’ retirees
between the ages of 55 and 65. Employers
who have canceled the insurance of these
retirees would be required to guarantee
access to health insurance, by providing
these retirees the option to ‘‘buy in’’ to
the company sponsored plan at a fair
price.
Small Business Health Purchasing Coalitions: Fewer small businesses offer health
insurance because of higher administrative
costs and premiums relative to large businesses. As a result, nearly half of uninsured
workers are in firms with fewer than 25 employees. This $44 million initiative would provide a tax credit to small businesses who join
voluntary coalitions to provide insurance cov-

87
erage, establish a tax incentive to encourage
foundations to fund the start-up costs of coalitions, and provide technical assistance through
the Office of Personnel Management.
Flexibility to Cover People With Disabilities: Building on a provision of the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA), this proposal will
give States broad flexibility to set higher income and resource standards in Medicaid to
encourage people with disabilities to return to
work. In addition, Medicaid will allow States
that adopt the more generous income and resource standards to cover individuals who no
longer meet SSI and Social Security Disabled
Insurance (SSDI) disability criteria because of
medical improvement. States offering new options would receive grants to develop support
systems that help people with disabilities who
return to work. The budget also creates a
capped demonstration program allowing States
to offer health coverage to individuals who
meet an expanded definition of disability set
by the States. This is intended to allow people
with disabilities to retain health coverage
while they work, potentially preventing illness
and impoverishment. In addition, the budget
would allow people with disabilities who leave
SSDI to retain Medicare coverage. This provision ensures that, regardless of whether States
have taken advantage of the Medicaid option,
people who leave SSDI have access to affordable health coverage.
Medicaid eligibiligy for legal immigrants: The budget would restore Medicaid
benefits to three vulnerable groups of legal immigrants: children; pregnant women; and disabled immigrants whose eligibility for SSI
would also be restored. As the President has
pledged, and has achieved for other groups so
affected, this would reverse an inequity enacted in welfare reform.
• Children: States would have the option to
provide Medicaid and CHIP coverage to
qualified legal immigrant children who entered the United States after the enactment of welfare reform.
• Pregnant Women: States would have the
option to provide Medicaid coverage to
qualified legal immigrants who become
pregnant and who entered the United
States after enactment of welfare reform.
Such coverage would help reduce the num-

88

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

ber of high-risk pregnancies, ensure
healthier children, and lower the cost of
emergency Medicaid deliveries.
• SSI Recipients: The budget provides funding for Medicaid benefits to immigrants
who became eligible for the program as
a result of SSI restorations proposed in
the budget.
Other Medicaid Improvements: The budget supports a number of important initiatives
to expand Medicaid and CHIP coverage, including:
• Children’s Health Insurance Outreach:
This initiative, designed to inform eligible
children and their families about the
CHIP program and Medicaid, will provide
States with flexibility to develop innovative and effective outreach approaches.
• Transitional Medicaid simplification: The
budget proposes to simplify and improve
transitional Medicaid programs to help the
working poor, whose income makes them
ineligible for the traditional Medicaid program. By eliminating burdensome reporting requirements and giving States an incentive to serve more working families,
this proposal would help beneficiaries retain temporary health insurance through
Medicaid until they can secure private insurance.
• Foster Care Medicaid benefits: The budget
would give States the choice to extend
Medicaid eligibility to children up to age
21 who were eligible for Foster Care assistance at age 18. Continued access to
medical, mental health, and rehabilitative
care beyond age 18 is critical to ensuring
that these youth can successfully make the
transition from foster care to independent
living.
• Aid for the territories: The budget proposes
$144 million in increased funding under
CHIP for Puerto Rico and the other four
territories, fulfilling the President’s promise to provide more equitable funding for
children’s health care in the insular areas.
Renewing Commitment to Public Health
This budget affirms the Administration’s
commitment to improving public health, with

renewed emphasis on measures to combat
smoking, especially among young people. The
budget also increases access to powerful AIDS
therapies, enhances food safety, promotes
childhood immunization, improves reporting
of public health threats, and reduces infant
mortality.
Stopping Youth Smoking: Every day,
3,000 children become smokers—1,000 have
their lives shortened because of it. Almost 90
percent of adult smokers began smoking by
age 18 and today, 4.5 million children aged
12 to 17—37 percent of all high school students—smoke cigarettes. Tobacco is linked to
over 400,000 deaths a year from cancer, respiratory illness, heart disease and other problems. To end this public health crisis, we must
have a focused public health effort to reduce
youth smoking. The 1998 State tobacco settlement was an important step in the right direction, but more must be done to protect our
children and hold the tobacco industry accountable. The Administration believes additional steps must be taken at the national
level to reduce youth smoking:
• Raise the price of cigarettes, so fewer young
people start to smoke: Public health experts agree that the single most effective
way to cut youth smoking is to raise the
price of cigarettes. Last year, the President called for an increase of $1.10 per
pack (in constant dollars) to help cut youth
smoking in half within five years. This
year, we build on the increases already
agreed to between the tobacco companies
and the States and those already legislated by the Congress. As a result, we can
reach the target with a legislated increase
of half this amount.
The funds that result from this policy will
offset tobacco-related Federal health care
costs. Each year, the Federal Government
spends billions of dollars treating tobaccorelated diseases for our Armed Forces, veterans, and Federal employees. It is fitting
that the tobacco industry reimburse U.S.
taxpayers for these costs, just as it has
already agreed to do for the States.
• Reaffirm the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) full authority to keep cigarettes out of the hands of children: The
Administration will again support legisla-

5.

STRENGTHENING HEALTH CARE

tion that confirms the FDA’s authority to
regulate tobacco products in order to halt
advertising targeted at children, and to
curb minors’ access to tobacco products.
While the State settlement limits tobacco
advertising, it still allows certain marketing practices targeted at children, including newspaper and magazine advertising
and retail signs near schools. Moreover,
only by reaffirming FDA’s authority can
Congress ensure that America’s children
are protected from the next generation of
tobacco industry marketing. We should
take this matter out of the courts and ensure that the FDA—the Nation’s leading
health consumer protection agency, providing oversight over food, drugs, and medical
devices—has full authority to protect our
children from tobacco.
• Support critical public health efforts to
prevent youth smoking: To help support tobacco prevention programs in States and
local communities, the Administration’s
budget will double the funding for the
FDA’s tobacco enforcement budget to $68
million and increase funding for the Centers for Disease Control’s tobacco control
efforts by one-third, from $74 to $101 million. In addition, the Administration will
continue to support measures that hold
the tobacco industry accountable for reducing youth smoking.
• Protect farmers and farming communities:
The Administration remains committed to
protecting tobacco farmers and their communities, and is monitoring closely ongoing efforts by State, farmer, and industry representatives to provide funding and
purchase commitments to tobacco farmers.
The Administration will work with all parties, as needed, to ensure the financial
well-being of tobacco farmers, their families, and their communities.
Since U.S. taxpayers paid a substantial
portion of the Medicaid costs that were
the basis for much of the State settlement
with the tobacco companies, Federal law
requires that the Federal Government recoup
its share. However, the Administration will
work with the States and the Congress
to enact tobacco legislation that, among other
things, resolves these Federal claims in ex-

89
change for a commitment by the States
to use tobacco money to support shared
national and State priorities which reduce
youth smoking, promote public health and
children’s programs, and assist affected rural
communities.
In addition to these Medicaid costs, tobaccorelated health problems have cost Medicare
and other Federal programs billions of dollars
each year. To recover these losses, the Department of Justice intends to bring suit against
the tobacco industry, and the budget contains
$20 million to pay for necessary legal costs.
The Administration will propose that recoveries will be used to enhance the security
of Medicare for future generations.
Safeguarding and Improving Public
Health: The budget includes numerous policies to improve the health and health systems
in the United States. These include:
• Reinforcing the Nation’s safety-net: A new
public health initiative will strengthen the
health care safety-net for uninsured and
other at-risk individuals. The initiative,
which makes use of competitive grants, is
designed to encourage local public officials
and others to work closely with providers
to improve coordination of the delivery of
services, to establish accountability in the
system for assuring adequate patient care,
and to increase the number of services delivered, improving the quality of care and
expanding access for the uninsured.
• Increasing biomedical research: Biomedical
research is a foundation for combating disease and providing new technologies, from
the eradication of smallpox to the disappearance of polio in the Western Hemisphere to prevalence of cardiac pacemakers and organ transplants that help
restore normal lives. In last year’s budget,
the President made a commitment to increasing the National Institutes of Health
(NIH) budget by nearly 50 percent over
five years. Last year, NIH received an historic $2 billion increase, putting us ahead
of schedule in meeting the President’s
commitment to expanding biomedical research. This year, with an investment of
$15.9 billion in NIH, the budget renews
that commitment to biomedical research.

90
• Establishing Medicare cancer clinical trial
demonstration: The budget gives more
Americans access to these cutting-edge
cancer treatments and encourages higher
participation in clinical trials by establishing a three-year, $750 million demonstration program. Medicare beneficiaries who
participate in certain cancer clinical trials
will be covered for the patient care costs
for those trials. Funding priority will be
given to trials that would most assist the
Health Care Financing Administration
(HCFA) in making future coverage policy
decisions for cancer-related treatments
and to substantive trials designed to address specific research questions. Although
HCFA would run the demonstration, it
would not draw upon Medicare’s trust
funds.
• Ensuring access to powerful AIDS therapies and improving quality of care through
Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Grants:
The budget proposes a $100 million increase in Ryan White treatment grants to
help States provide AIDS treatment, especially the powerful ‘‘combination therapy’’
AIDS drugs through the AIDS Drug Assistance Program. In total, the budget proposes $1.5 billion in Federal spending for
activities authorized by the Ryan White
CARE Act, a seven-percent increase over
1999 levels and a 291-percent increase
over comparable 1993 levels.
• Helping to reduce racial disparities in
health status: Despite improvements in the
Nation’s overall health, continuing disparities remain in the burden of death and
illness that certain minority groups experience. For example, the infant mortality
rate for African-Americans is more than
twice that of Caucasians. American Indian
and Alaska Natives are about three times
as likely to die from diabetes as other
Americans. To address these and other
disparities, the budget includes $135 million for health education, prevention, and
treatment services for minority populations. The budget also proposes to provide an additional $50 million to address
HIV and AIDS issues in minority communities.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• Providing quality health care to Native
Americans: The budget proposes a fourpronged funding strategy for the Indian
Health Service (IHS), which includes: 1)
increased resources; 2) a coordinated effort
to ensure that HHS health grants provide
assistance to Native Americans; 3) review
of reimbursements from Medicaid and
Medicare; and 4) increased vigilance to ensure that Federal funds are used properly.
The budget proposes a $170 million increase for IHS. This eight-percent increase
will allow IHS to finance an additional
34,000
breast
cancer
screening
mammographies for Native American
women between ages 50 and 69, create
44 new dental unit teams to provide an
additional 25,000 dental visits, reduce incidence of complications related to chronic
diseases such as diabetes and enable approximately 130 new community-based
public health nurses to provide outreach
activities, including home visitations, wellchild examinations, immunizations, prenatal care, health fairs, follow-up visits,
and missed clinical appointments. The
budget also supports the continuation of
the construction of two health care facilities (Fort Defiance and Parker Health
Clinic). From 1998 to 2000, IHS expects
to collect an additional $82 million in reimbursements due to Medicaid and Medicare collection rate increases.
• Increasing Federal support for improving
the mental health of all Americans: The
budget provides a $5 million, 19-percent,
increase for the Projects for Assistance in
Transition from Homelessness (PATH)
program, which provides much-needed
supportive services to persons with a mental illness who are homeless. In addition
to increasing funding for this vulnerable
population, the budget provides a $70 million, or 24-percent, increase for the Mental
Health Block Grant, which provides integral support to States for services for people with mental illness.
• Expanding anti-substance abuse activities:
The budget includes an $85 million increase for anti-substance abuse activities.
These new funds continue the Administration’s commitment to expand substance

5.

STRENGTHENING HEALTH CARE

abuse treatment for hundreds of thousands of high-risk youth, families moving
from welfare-to-work, and other underserved Americans. To help communities
address gaps in substance abuse treatment for emerging areas of need, the
budget proposes $110 million for Treatment Targeted Capacity Expansion grants.
This proposed funding level is double the
1999 funding level and, with additional
funding for the Substance Abuse Block
Grant, will provide treatment for another
21,000 individuals.
• Improving asthma treatment for low-income children: The budget proposes $50
million in demonstration grants to States
test innovative asthma disease management techniques for children enrolled in
Medicaid to help these children receive the
most appropriate care, and keep their
asthma in check. To judge the success of
the project in improving asthmatic children’s quality of life, participating States
will measure the program’s success in
averting asthma-related crises—such as
decreased emergency room visits and hospital stays. To complement these efforts,
the budget provides $23 million for the
Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA)
childhood asthma initiative for education
and outreach, research, and expansion of
EPA’s outdoor pollution air monitoring
network.

91
2) expand inspection coverage of facilities
under their jurisdiction (e.g., registered
blood banks); and 3) improve the quality
of information on injuries and product defects associated with FDA-regulated products.
• Improving public health’s response to bioterrorism threats: The budget proposes a
$71 million, or 45-percent, increase for
medical and public health response and
preparedness related to potential terrorist
use of biological and chemical weapons. At
this level, HHS will expand research and
development activities on potential biological and chemical terrorist agents, including research on smallpox and anthrax vaccines and therapeutics and expedited regulatory review to facilitate these activities.
This increase will improve public health
surveillance of these threats and expand
epidemiological and laboratory capacities
to address such incidents, at the national,
State and local levels. The proposed increase would also support 25 new local
health care response systems (Metropolitan Medical Response Systems). These
funds will be in addition to investments
in the Departments of Defense and Justice.

• Creating superior public health surveillance: The budget proposes $64 million to
begin development and implementation of
a new National Electronic Disease Surveillance Initiative at the Centers for Disease
Control (CDC). A standardized national
system to collect and analyze epidemiological information on the occurrence of communicable diseases is a critical missing
link in the Nation’s public health infrastructure, and will help address problems
such as the emergence of the drug-resistant bacteria—so called superbugs—as well
as food safety and bioterrorism.

• Enhancing food safety: The budget increases funding by $72 million, or 24 percent, over the 1999 level for the Administration’s inter-agency food safety initiative.
The additional funds would increase the
frequency of inspections of high-risk domestic establishments, double inspections
and evaluations of foreign food establishments, improve science-based inspections
of meat and poultry plants, and expand
food safety research, risk assessment, education and surveillance activities. In 1998,
the President established the Council on
Food Safety to develop a comprehensive
strategy for Federal food safety activities,
including coordinating research efforts and
budget submissions among the various
food safety agencies.

• Supporting a strong FDA: The budget proposes an increase of 17 percent, or $190
million, over the 1999 level for FDA to:
1) ensure the timely review of important
drugs, medical devices, and food additives;

• Promoting childhood immunizations: The
budget proposes $1.1 billion for the Childhood Immunizations Initiative, including
the Vaccines for Children program and
CDC’s discretionary immunization pro-

92

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

gram. As a result of the Administration’s
Childhood Immunization Initiative, the
Nation exceeded its childhood vaccination
goals for 1997, with 90 percent or more
of America’s toddlers receiving each basic
childhood vaccine. The incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases among children,
such as diphtheria, tetanus, measles, and
polio, are at all-time lows. The budget also
includes $83 million to eradicate polio—
preventable
through
immunization
throughout the world.
• Promoting full participation in the Women,
Infants, and Children (WIC) program: Last
year, WIC reached over 7.4 million lowincome women, infants, and children, providing nutrition assistance, nutrition education and counseling, and health and immunization referrals. WIC also provides
prenatal care, which reduces premature
birth and infant death. Due in large part
to expansion during this Administration,
participation has grown by 30 percent, and
the program now helps half of America’s
infants. The budget proposes $4.1 billion
to serve 7.5 million people through 2000
and fulfills the President’s goal of full participation, making sure that all who are
eligible take part in WIC.
• Ensuring continued educational excellence
in the Nation’s children’s hospitals: The
budget proposes $40 million to support
graduate medical education at free-standing children’s hospitals. Children’s hospitals play an essential role in the education of the Nation’s physicians, training
25 percent of all pediatricians and over
half of many pediatric subspecialties.
• Enhancing family planning: Publicly subsidized family planning services help
women prevent over a million unintended
pregnancies each year. The budget provides a $25 million increase, to $240 million, to support over 4,400 family planning
clinics, which make up a national network
providing these services to low-income
women. The budget also includes $50 million in mandatory funding for States to
conduct abstinence education projects to
help reduce unintended pregnancies.
• Providing contraceptive coverage in the
Federal Employees Health Benefits Pro-

gram (FEHBP): The budget continues the
policy of providing the health care coverage necessary for Federal employees, annuitants, and their families to reduce unwanted pregnancies and the need for abortions. The budget proposes to continue the
requirement, enacted in the 1999 Omnibus
Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, that health
plans in FEHBP offer the full range of
contraceptive options.
• Improving health care quality: The budget
proposes a $35 million, or 21-percent, increase for the health care quality activities
of the Agency for Health Care Policy and
Research to enhance knowledge about how
best to measure and improve the outcomes
and quality of medical services and expand
information on new priority health issues
(e.g., vulnerable populations, the impact of
managed care, pharmaceuticals research
and other activities).
• Caring for veterans: Continuing its commitment to veterans programs, the Administration proposes $18.1 billion, including
an expected $749 million in medical care
collections, for the Department of Veterans
Affairs health system. This funding will
support such initiatives as testing and
treating Hepatitis C, smoking cessation,
and emergency care for high-priority veterans.
Improving the Fiscal Integrity of
Medicare and Medicaid
The budget proposes improvements to Medicare and Medicaid to improve the efficacy
and strength of these programs.
Strengthening Medicare Program Integrity: The budget includes several policies that
would reduce Medicare fraud, abuse, and overpayment. Since 1993, the Administration’s efforts to combat fraud and abuse in Medicare
have increased prosecutions for health care
fraud by over 60 percent, increased convictions
by 40 percent, and saved billions of dollars
in health care claims. The budget proposes efforts to strengthen our commitment to eliminate fraud and abuse, ensure that Medicare
payments to hospitals and other providers are
reasonable, and promote competitive pricing.
In addition, the budget will expand the Cen-

5.

STRENGTHENING HEALTH CARE

ters of Excellence program, eliminate overpayments that facilities receive for drugs used to
treat anemia, reform outpatient mental health
benefits, and require insurance companies to
provide information that will ensure that private insurers pay claims for which they are
legally responsible.
Maintaining Fiscal Responsibility in
Medicaid Administrative Cost Allocation:
The budget treats shared Medicaid and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
administrative costs similar to the way the Agricultural Research Act of 1998 addressed common Food Stamp and TANF costs. The budget
proposes a State-by-State approach that gives
States flexibility in the use of TANF block
grant funds.
Improving Medicare Managed Care: In
1998, 99 managed care plans chose not to
renew their Medicare contracts, leaving about
50,000 beneficiaries without a managed care
option. While these decisions affected less than
one percent of Medicare managed care enrollees, they caused severe difficulty for many of
these beneficiaries. The budget includes a set
of proposals designed to ensure that sufficient
options remain available to Medicare beneficiaries. First, the budget would help both el-

93
derly and disabled beneficiaries whose plans
leave the program by providing earlier notification and broadening their access to Medigap
coverage. The budget also proposes to reduce
administrative burden on health plans by easing various reporting requirements; to extend
plan coverage proposal deadlines and streamline other rules; and to stabilize plan revenue
by phasing-in payment adjustments for enrollees’ health status.
Strengthening HCFA Management Capacity: HCFA faces the formidable challenge
of modernizing a massive administrative infrastructure, meeting pressing statutory deadlines for program change, and, perhaps most
importantly, by being highly responsive to its
customers. The budget outlines a continuing
management reform process that will increase
HCFA’s flexibility to adapt to the changing
health care market while also increasing accountability. This process includes: 1) management flexibilities; 2) increased accountability;
3) program flexibilities; 4) structural reforms;
and 5) contractor reform. In addition, the Administration will explore ways to stabilize
HCFA’s funding sources. (See Section IV, ‘‘Improving Performance through Better Management,’’ for details on these management reforms.)

6.

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

‘‘Every time we have taken a sensible, reasoned, but strong step to protect the environment, we
have actually increased the diversity of our economy, the breadth and width of it, and increased
jobs and strengthened the long-term economic prospects of our country. That is the lesson the
whole world has to embrace now. We can only sustain economic growth if we can improve the environment ... if we can build a balanced future together.’’
President Clinton
April 1998

From the start, it has been a guiding
principle of this Administration that the Nation does not have to choose between a
strong economy and a clean environment.
The progress of the past six years is the
proof. Today our economy is the strongest—
and our environment the cleanest—in a generation. The air is better, drinking water
safer, and polluted toxic waste sites fewer,
while our economy flourishes in ways that
even the most optimistic of forecasters could
not have projected just six years ago.
The Administration has made tremendous
progress in protecting and restoring our environment. It has protected or enhanced tens
of millions of acres of public and private
lands including: creating the Grand StaircaseEscalante National Monument in Utah, which
conserves 1.7 million acres of spectacular
red rock canyonlands and artifacts from three
cultures; protecting Yellowstone National Park
by halting the massive New World Mine
in Montana, which posed a severe environmental threat to Yellowstone’s unique landscape and wildlife resources; reaching an
historic agreement, partnering with the State
of California, to purchase the Headwaters
ancient redwood forest in northern California;
and launching an initiative to designate more
than a dozen American Heritage Rivers to
revitalize and preserve both rivers and
riverfronts, and to enhance public appreciation
of the value of our rivers.
In its efforts to make day-to-day life safer
for children and families, the Administration
has helped set tough new clean air standards
for soot and smog that will prevent up

to 15,000 premature deaths a year and
improve the lives of millions of Americans
who suffer from respiratory illnesses. The
President signed legislation to strengthen food
and water safety, so American families will
know their children have safe food to eat
and have healthy and clean tap water to
drink. The Administration has also greatly
accelerated the pace of cleaning up Superfund
hazardous waste sites, completing nearly three
times as many in the past six years as
were completed in the previous twelve. The
United States has negotiated an international
treaty, the Kyoto Protocol, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to
global warming, in an environmentally strong
and economically sound way.
As the 21st Century approaches, our continued prosperity and accompanying population
growth patterns present new challenges that
call for a new conservation ethic—one that
recognizes the intimate connection between
land and livability, and seeks to preserve
natural and open spaces in each community,
within reach of all American families and
their children.
To that end, the budget includes an interagency Lands Legacy initiative that establishes the Federal Government as a partner
with States and local communities to advance
the preservation of open spaces in every
community. Through support of voluntary
State and local efforts, the Administration
will help address sprawl, air and water
pollution, and other quality of life issues,
while preserving critical habitat and other
ecological values. To accomplish these goals,
95

96
the Administration requests full funding of
the Land and Water Conservation Fund,
which will help to preserve the next generation
of Great Places, conserve open spaces, and
support environmental protection and local
growth management in urban, suburban,
rural, and coastal areas.
As a complement to the Lands Legacy
initiative, the Administration also proposes
a separate Livability initiative to help communities maintain growth while preserving a
high quality of life. The Livability initiative
includes a new financing mechanism, Better
America Bonds, to further the creation of
open spaces in urban and suburban areas.
These bonds will provide—through tax benefits
to bondholders—additional funds to States,
Tribes, and cities for land acquisition, reforestation and other restoration, watershed protection, and brownfields cleanup.
In order to encourage private sector advances in reducing pollution, the Administration proposes a new incentive, the Clean
Air Partnership Fund, which will reward
entities making early innovative investments
in technology to reduce air pollution and
greenhouse gas emissions. To address global
warming, the Administration also is proposing
a $730 million increase for the Climate
Change Technology Initiative, including research and development spending for energy
efficiency and renewable energy, and tax
credits for the purchase of energy-efficient
cars, homes, and appliances.
The budget is designed to build on the
successes of the past and to meet the challenges of the future by responding to the
public’s devotion to the environment and
capturing the Nation’s entrepreneurial spirit.
Approaches for Environmental Success
Protecting Our National Treasures: To
protect Yellowstone National Park, one of the
crown jewels of the National Park System, the
Administration, in August 1998, acquired the
proposed New World Mine in Montana. The
Administration is working with the mine’s
former owner and other parties to complete
the cleanup of contamination at the site from
earlier mining activities. The Administration
is also working with the State of California
and others to acquire the Headwaters Forest

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

in northern California, the largest privatelyowned stand of ancient redwoods in the United
States. Other important acquisitions underway
include bison winter habitat outside of Yellowstone, property on Cumberland Island in Georgia, the Backbone Trail in Santa Monica
Mountains National Recreation Area, lands to
complete the Maine-to-Georgia Appalachian
Trail, and key Civil War battlefield sites.
Providing Safe Drinking Water: America’s drinking water is significantly safer than
five years ago, with 10 million more Americans
receiving water from utilities reporting no violations of Federal health standards. Currently,
86 percent of this country’s tap water fully
meets tough Federal standards. During 1998,
the Administration took further steps to
strengthen public health protection. In August,
the President announced that, under a new
community right-to-know rule, water systems
must give their customers regular reports on
their tap water, including where the water
comes from, whether it meets Federal standards, and what the health effects are if standards are violated.
In December, the President announced the
first new health standards issued under the
1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments,
a bipartisan effort to improve public health
protections. Those rules will protect against
cryptosporidium (a microscopic organism that
can contaminate drinking water), other disease-causing microbes, and potentially harmful
byproducts of the water treatment process.
A 1993 cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee sickened 400,000 people, hospitalized 4,000
people, and caused 50 deaths among people
with weakened immune systems.
Restoring Ocean Resources: In June 1998,
at the National Ocean Conference in Monterey,
California, the President and Vice President
launched a series of major initiatives to explore, protect, and restore America’s vital
ocean resources. These measures will provide
new scientific insight into the oceans, promote
sustainable use of fisheries and other marine
resources, open new opportunities for jobs and
economic growth, preserve national security
and freedom of the seas, and help preserve
our oceans for all time. At the conference, the
President and Vice President proposed an ad-

6.

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

ditional $224 million through 2002 to fund
these efforts, which the budget supports.
Preserving Our Rivers: In July 1998,
President Clinton designated 14 rivers as
American Heritage Rivers. This followed a
commitment in his 1997 State of the Union
address to help communities revitalize their
rivers and the banks along them—the streets,
the historic buildings, the natural habitats, the
parks—to help celebrate their history and
their heritage. American Heritage Rivers is an
umbrella initiative designed to use the Federal
Government’s many resources more effectively.
The initiative creates no new regulatory requirements. Environmental, economic, and social concerns will be addressed through plans
designed and implemented by local communities.
Restoring the Everglades: The budget supports the continued Federal, State, local, and
Tribal efforts to implement the South Florida
ecosystem restoration project, authorized in
the 1996 Water Resources Development Act.
In 1999, the Army Corps of Engineers will
complete the Central and Southern Florida
Comprehensive Review Study (the Restudy),
providing long-term direction for the Everglades effort—the most extensive ecosystem
restoration effort ever undertaken in the
United States.
The Army Corps of Engineers released
a draft of its Restudy in October 1998,
developed by a team of more than 160
people from 30 different Federal, State, Tribal,
and other entities. It proposes a comprehensive
solution that would: store water for critical
uses; manage water to improve the timing
and quantity of flows to the Everglades;
and create wetlands to filter runoff. Implementing the plan will cost an estimated
$7.8 billion over the next 20 years, with
the Federal Government and south Florida
each paying half.
Along with better water flows and water
management, the budget recognizes the need
for scientific guidance and land acquisition
to restore the Everglades’ hydrologic functions.
Key land acquisitions include tracts north
of the Everglades National Park and properties along the East Coast buffer. The budget
proposes $312 million for the Army Corps
of Engineers, Department of the Interior,

97
and other agencies—35 percent more than
Congress approved in 1999—for the Everglades effort.
Rehabilitating the Presidio: Using innovative authorities, the Presidio Trust has
begun to rehabilitate and lease hundreds of
unused buildings in the Presidio of San Francisco, once a military base and now within a
national park. The Trust will restore these
houses and offices and lease them to families
and businesses. To cut taxpayer costs, the
budget proposes that the Presidio Trust borrow
$20 million from the Treasury in 2000 to fund
these improvements, and repay the money
through future lease receipts.
Improving Park Management: Recent reforms are helping agencies manage national
parks and other Federal lands more efficiently.
Recreation fee receipts are now retained by
land management agencies, giving visitors a
chance to see how their money is being spent
and allowing agencies to address unmet needs.
As a result, revenues from fees have nearly
doubled from $93 million in 1996 to $180 million in 1998. Parks also have stronger incentives to improve concessions management, now
that they can retain concession fees and open
new contracts up for more competitive bidding.
The National Park Service is also reforming
its facility maintenance and construction programs to target funds at top priority projects
that have been selected using solid cost estimates and measurable ranking criteria.
Protecting Roadless Areas and Improving the Forest Road System: The 73 million
acres without roads in our national forests
have outstanding ecological, aesthetic, and social value. They are often the refuge of last
resort for rare species and the source areas
of municipal water supplies. The Forest Service will soon implement a moratorium on new
road construction in roadless areas to meet
public access needs in an ecologically sensitive
manner, and ensure that we protect these critical areas for future generations. At the same
time, the extensive Forest Service road system
is rapidly eroding—risking public safety and
contributing to environmental damage in some
national forests. The budget proposes $359
million, a 28-percent increase over the 1999
level, for investments in road maintenance and
reconstruction, road closures and obliteration,

98
and watershed improvements that are critically important to salmon, water quality, and
other resource management goals. In addition,
the budget reproposes a stable payment to
counties that is not linked to timber harvest
volume.
Targeting the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): This Department of Agriculture
(USDA) program enables landowners to establish long-term conservation practices on erodible and environmentally sensitive land in exchange for 10 to 15 years of rental payments.
In 1998, 18.8 million acres of the most environmentally beneficial acres bid were accepted
into the CRP, bringing total CRP enrollment
to 30.3 million acres. Within the CRP, the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
(CREP) is a new program that addresses conservation issues of State and national significance through cost-sharing and targeting of
Federal and State funds. Each CREP agreement outlines a monitoring and restoration
plan to help meet the State’s specific conservation goals. By 1999, six States (Oregon, Washington, Maryland, Illinois, Minnesota, and
New York) had signed CREP cost-sharing
agreements totaling about 500,000 acres and
$1.2 billion over several years. USDA estimates that 25 States will have CREP agreements by the end of 2000.
Empowering Citizens with Knowledge: In
the past five years, the President has empowered citizens with new knowledge about the
chemicals being released into their communities and has created new partnerships with
industry to find cleaner manufacturing processes. On Earth Day 1998, the Administration
took another bold step to defend communities’
right to know, announcing measures to make
information about dangerous chemicals more
widely available and more meaningful to families and communities. Known as the Chemical Right-to-Know Initiative, these measures
will ensure that the public has basic public
health data for industrial chemicals released
in communities, via an unprecedented voluntary partnership with industry. Companies
will voluntarily test the human health and environmental effects of the chemicals they manufacture. Testing of the 2,800 most widely used
chemicals should be completed by 2004.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Reducing Air Pollution: In September
1998, the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) finalized rules to reduce smog-causing
emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 28 percent in 22 eastern States and the District of
Columbia. EPA projects that these regional
NOx reductions will allow the vast majority
of areas in these States to meet EPA’s new
public health smog standard without having
to implement any additional costly controls.
This is a key component of the effort by EPA
and the States to protect downwind States
from smog and smog-causing emissions that
cross their borders from other States. Even
upwind, States can achieve significant clean
air benefits for their local communities. Consistent with the President’s July 1997 implementation memorandum for new smog and
fine particle standards, EPA gives States flexibility to decide how reductions are to be
achieved, and also recommends that reductions
be achieved cost-effectively. To ensure that the
reductions are as cost-effective as possible,
EPA will work with States to encourage the
development of a market-based emissions-trading system. A similar market-based trading
program already in effect has proven successful in allowing power plants to trade sulfur
dioxide credits to control acid rain.
Cleaning Up Toxic Waste Sites: EPA’s
Superfund program to clean up abandoned
hazardous waste sites has become faster, fairer, and less expensive. Of the 585 sites cleaned
up through the end of 1998, 430 sites were
cleaned up since the Administration took office
in 1993, while only 155 sites had been cleaned
up during the previous 12 years. The Administration proposes to clean up another 340 sites
within the next four years, meaning that about
two-thirds, or 925, of the Nation’s worst toxic
waste dumps would be cleaned by the end of
2002 (see Chart 6–1). EPA’s administrative reforms to the program have saved more than
$1 billion in future costs by updating cleanup
remedy decisions at more than 210 sites, while
streamlining the liability allocation process to
reach settlement with more than 18,000 small
parties at Superfund sites. The budget proposes $1.5 billion to continue progress toward
achieving the 900-site cleanup goal in 2002.

6.

99

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

Chart 6-1. MAJOR PROGRESS IN SUPERFUND CLEANUPS
CUMULATIVE COMPLETIONS
1000

925

900

840
755

800
670

700
585

600
498
500

410

400

346
278

300
217
200

155

100
0
Through
Calendar
Year
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

Redeveloping Contaminated Land: The
Brownfields National Partnership is bringing
together the resources of more than 20 Federal
agencies to clean up and redevelop former industrial sites in economically disadvantaged
areas. The initial two-year investment of $300
million is expected to leverage $5 billion to
$28 billion in private investment, help create
up to 196,000 new jobs, and help preserve existing uses in thousands of acres of undeveloped land. The brownfields tax incentive, enacted as part of the 1997 Taxpayer Relief Act,
will leverage another $4 billion in private investment by allowing businesses to deduct certain clean up costs on environmentally contaminated lands. The Administration proposes
to extend this tax incentive, which otherwise
expires at the end of 2000.
Making the Endangered Species Act
(ESA) Work: Administration reforms have improved the way the ESA works. Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) give State, local, and
Tribal governments and the private sector the
flexibility to protect endangered species and

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

conserve habitat, while allowing for development. HCPs will cover an estimated 250 species by the end of 1999. The Administration
is also providing earlier protection for at-risk
species, to prevent having to list them as endangered later on. For instance, in 1998 the
Federal Government entered into 40 Candidate Conservation Agreements with private
landowners or State and local governments.
These and other efforts allowed 11 species to
be approved for removal from the Candidate
list.
Improving Rangeland Management: Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
is reforming and improving rangeland management by implementing regional and local
standards and guidelines to establish the condition, health, and uses of lands it administers
for grazing. The new standards and guidelines
have been developed in concert with innovative
consensus-building Resource Advisory Councils
(RAC) comprising local ranchers, recreationists, and experts in land management. Almost
4,500 grazing permits on BLM lands are expir-

100
ing and will be evaluated in 1999. Those permits will be evaluated based on the new RAC
standards and guidelines, and renewed permits will use the new standards to evaluate
rangeland health and grazing capacity.
Environmental and Natural Resource
Investments
The budget proposes to boost funding for
high-priority environmental and natural resources programs by five percent, compared
to 1999 levels (see Table 6–1).
Preserving Great Places and Green
Spaces, and Promoting Smart Growth: As
we approach a new century, our Nation faces
new challenges to preserving the natural heritage and green spaces that Americans have
come to treasure. The budget proposes a new
$1 billion Lands Legacy initiative (see Chart
6–2), supported by full funding from the Land
and Water Conservation Fund’s dedicated Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) revenues,
to protect Great Places and provide the tools
for States, localities, Tribes, and land trusts
to plan for smart growth and open space preservation. This initiative provides funding for
States and other entities to conserve important
lands for recreation, open space and wildlife
habitat, plus the preservation of forests, farmland, and coastal areas.
The initiative provides $442 million for
Federal land acquisition, preserving the next
generation of Great Places, including national
parks, national forests, refuges, and coastal
areas with flexibility to use this funding
to cost share non-Federal land conservation.
It also will provide $588 million targeted
to State, local, and Tribal governments for
land conservation, resources protection, and
planning. This includes $150 million in grants
to promote open space acquisition; habitat
conservation; and protection of coastal areas,
forest lands, urban and suburban parks and
greenways, riparian areas, and wetlands. A
new $50 million program to support State
and Tribal planning for smart growth will
be coordinated with similar activities being
proposed under the Livability initiative. The
Lands Legacy proposal also provides $382
million for other programs to help private
landowners and municipalities continue development while protecting endangered species,

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

preserving farmlands and forests, and providing urban green space.
Better America Bonds: As an additional
feature of the Livability initiative, the Administration is proposing a new financing tool to
preserve green space for future generations
and provide attractive settings for economic
development, which will generate $9.5 billion
for investments by State, local and Tribal governments over five years. The budget proposes
tax credits, totaling almost $700 million over
five years, to support Better America Bonds,
which can be used to preserve green space,
create or restore urban parks, protect water
quality, and clean up brownfields. The program will be administered jointly by EPA and
the Department of the Treasury, in consultation with other agencies.
Recovering Pacific Coastal Salmon: The
budget proposes a broad interdepartmental Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Initiative to bolster and deploy existing and new Federal capabilities to assist in the conservation and recovery of at-risk Pacific salmon runs in the western States of California, Oregon, Washington,
and Alaska. This new initiative responds to
the proposed listings of these runs under the
ESA by forming lasting partnerships with
State, local, and Tribal efforts for saving Pacific salmon and their important habitats. The
initiative has four main components:
• A proposed $100 million Pacific Coastal
Salmon Recovery fund to help share the
costs of State, Tribal, and local conservation initiatives in California, Oregon,
Washington, and Alaska. The fund would
be administered through Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, with grants matched dollar-fordollar with non-Federal contributions.
• Improved coordination of Federal activities
that may affect salmon and their habitat,
to ensure that Federal agencies and activities are part of a lasting solution.
• Better access to the extensive Federal scientific capabilities to ensure a broad and
solid science foundation upon which to
construct a lasting recovery effort.

6.

101

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

Table 6–1.

HIGH-PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES PROGRAMS
(Budget authority unless otherwise noted; dollar amounts in millions)

1998
Actual

1999
Estimate

Lands Legacy Initiative (LWCF–DOI, USDA, NOAA) 1 ................................
386
459
Salmon Habitat Restoration:
Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery (NOAA) ....................................................... ................. ....................
Columbia/Snake River (Corps) ..........................................................................
108
95
Climate Change Technology Initiative (DOE, EPA, USDA, DOC, HUD):
819
1,021
Spending .............................................................................................................
(819)
(1,021)
Tax Incentives .................................................................................................... ................. ....................
Clean Water Action Plan (EPA, USDA, DOI, NOAA, Corps) ......................
1,436
1,643
Department of Transportation (DOT):
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) .............................................
Environmental Enhancements .........................................................................
Endangered Species Act (DOI/NOAA) .............................................................
Department of the Interior (DOI):.
National Park Service Operating Program .....................................................
Bureau of Land Management Operating Program .........................................
Fish and Wildlife Service Operating Program ................................................

2000
Proposed

Dollar
Change:
1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

1,030

+571

+124%

100
100
1,751
(1,368)
(383)
1,975

+100
+5
+730
(+347)
(+383)
+332

NA
+5%
+71%
(+34%)
(NA)
+20%

700
360
107

1,408
553
129

1,770
566
181

+362
+13
+52

+26%
+2%
+40%

1,246
681
595

1,286
716
661

1,390
743
724

+104
+27
+63

+8%
+4%
+10%

2,522

2,663

2,857

+194

+7%

1,514
632
577
231
1,760
200

1,595
641
645
132
1,576
174

1,652
681
570
209
1,597
300

+57
+40
–75
+77
+21
+126

+4%
+6%
–12%
+58%
+1%
+72%

Subtotal, USDA (Select programs) ............................................................
4,914
4,763
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):.
Operating Program ............................................................................................
3,330
3,491
Clean Air Partnership Fund ............................................................................. ................. ....................

5,009

+246

+5%

3,682
200

+191
+200

+5%
NA

Subtotal, All EPA (includes Superfund mandatory spending ) 3 ............
Department of Energy (DOE):
Energy Conservation and Efficiency (gross) ....................................................
Solar and Renewable Energy R&D (net) .........................................................
Federal Facilities Cleanup (Environmental Management Program) ............

Subtotal, DOI (Select programs) ...............................................................
Department of Agriculture (USDA):
Forest Service Operating Program ...................................................................
Natural Resources Conservation Service Operating Program .......................
Water/Wastewater Grants and Loans 2 ............................................................
Wetlands Reserve Program (mandatory) .........................................................
Conservation Reserve Program (mandatory) ...................................................
Environmental Quality Incentives Program (mandatory) ..............................

7,363

7,590

7,407

–183

–2%

612
272
5,862

692
336
5,830

838
399
5,939

+146
+63
+109

+21%
+19%
+2%

Subtotal, DOE (Select programs) ..............................................................
Department of Defense (DOD):
Cleanup ...............................................................................................................
Environmental Compliance/Pollution Prevention/Conservation ....................

6,746

6,858

7,176

+318

+5%

2,140
2,466

1,962
2,434

1,972
2,199

+10
–235

+1%
–10%

Subtotal, DOD (Select programs) ..............................................................
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA):
Fisheries and Protected Species .......................................................................
Ocean and Coastal Management ......................................................................
Ocean and Atmospheric Research ....................................................................

4,606

4,396

4,171

–225

–5%

319
166
263

350
178
275

395
246
270

+45
+68
–5

+13%
+38%
–2%

Subtotal, NOAA (Select programs) ...........................................................
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (DOE, NSF, others) .......
U.S. Global Change Research (NASA, DOE, NSF, DOC, USDA, others) ...
GLOBE—Global Environmental Education (NOAA, NASA, EPA, NSF) ..
Montreal Protocol (State/EPA) .........................................................................
Global Environment Facility (Treasury) ........................................................
Multilateral and Bilateral Assistance (International Programs/USAID)

748
220
1,677
12
40
48
268

803
240
1,681
10
45
193
309

911
264
1,786
13
55
143
321

+108
+24
+105
+3
+10
–50
+12

+13%
+10%
+6%
+30%
+22%
–26%
+4%

Total 4 .........................................................................................................

30,840

32,223

33,929

+1,706

+5%

NA = Not applicable.
1
Includes non-LWCF base funding for certain programs—$116 million in 1998; and $130 million in both 1999 and 2000. Excludes $699
million in one-time LWCF 1998 funding.
2
The program level (grant budget authority plus loan levels) is projected to be $1.5 billion in 2000; 12-percent higher than in 1999.
3
Includes Superfund orphan share mandatory spending of $200 million in 2000.
4
Total adjusted to eliminate double counts and climate change tax incentives.

102

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart 6-2. FULL LWCF FUNDING SUPPORTS
NEW $1 BILLION LANDS LEGACY INITIATIVE
900 MILLION

LAND AND WATER
CONSERVATION FUND
(LWCF)

FEDERAL OUTER
CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL
AND GAS REVENUE

(IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)

INTERIOR

GREAT PLACES
(California Deserts, Northern Forests, Marine
Sanctuaries, Civil War Battlefields)
GREEN SPACES
(Conservation grants and programs for open
space, forests, coasts, and habitat protection)
LWCF TOTAL

USDA

COMMERCE/
NOAA

TOTAL

295

118

15

428 1/

270

112

90

472

565

230

105

900

14

38

78

130

579

268

183

1,030

NON-LWCF BASE
TOTAL-- LANDS LEGACY

1/ Plus $14 million for Great Places in the non-LWCF base.

• Enhancement of Federal, State, Tribal,
and local coordinating capabilities to ensure close partnerships in recovery efforts,
and promote efficiencies and effectiveness
in the recovery effort.
This initiative is in addition to ongoing
Columbia and Snake River (Washington, Oregon, Idaho) salmon restoration activities,
including $100 million requested for the Army
Corps of Engineers in 2000.
Rewarding Early Pollution Reductions:
The Administration strives to implement environmental protection in a common sense, flexible, and cost-effective manner. The new Clean
Air Partnership Fund will provide the opportunity for State, local, and Tribal governments
to partner with other parties and the Federal
Government to demonstrate the most creative
ideas for cleaning the air. The Fund will enable the development of smart multi-pollutant
strategies that reduce greenhouse gases, air
toxics, soot, and smog to protect our climate
and our health. The President is proposing
$200 million in 2000 for the Fund that will

capitalize revolving funds and other financing
mechanisms to fund projects that achieve innovative and early air pollution and greenhouse
gas emission reductions.
Addressing Global Climate Change
Through Technology: The budget proposes
$1.8 billion for the second year of the Climate
Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), which is
designed to promote energy efficiency, develop
low-carbon energy sources, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Led by the Department
of Energy (DOE) and EPA, the effort also includes USDA, HUD, and the National Institute
of Standards and Technology. Of the amount
proposed, $1.4 billion is for R&D spending on
energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, and $0.4 billion is for tax credits to
stimulate the adoption of energy efficient technologies in buildings, industrial processes, vehicles, and power generation.
Implementing the Clean Water Action
Plan (CWAP): The President and Vice President announced the Clean Water Action Plan
(CWAP) last February in honor of the 25th

6.

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

anniversary of the Clean Water Act. The Action Plan focuses on three remaining challenges for restoring and protecting the Nation’s
waterways: (1) preventing polluted runoff; (2)
protecting public health; and (3) ensuring community-based watershed management.
The budget provides $2.0 billion in discretionary funding for the second year of this
multi-agency initiative, a 20-percent increase
over the 1999 level, and a $126 million,
or 72 percent, increase in mandatory funding
for USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives
Program to help farmers prevent polluted
runoff. The budget also includes increases
for the Forest Service and the Department
of the Interior (DOI) to better address water
quality problems on Federal lands; for DOI
to help States address pollution from abandoned mines; USDA to help farmers reduce
polluted runoff from animal feed lots; the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to help States and local
communities protect their coasts from the
pollution that leads to degradation; and the
Army Corps of Engineers to begin a new
riverine ecosystem initiative—Challenge 21—
to plan and implement projects that restore
watersheds while providing flood hazard mitigation for communities.
Restoring the California Bay-Delta Watershed: As part of the CWAP, the budget
proposes $75 million for California Bay-Delta
ecosystem restoration activities, the same level
provided in 1999, and the Administration proposes to extend the funding authorization for
these activities in order to secure the full $430
million authorized in 1996. The budget also
includes $20 million for non-ecosystem components of the long-term Bay Delta restoration
program. EPA anticipates that significant
funding in Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking
Water Act program grants provided to California could be used for the water quality portion
of this program.
Enhancing the Stewardship of National
Treasures: The budget provides funding for
the second year of the Facilities Restoration
Initiative (FRI). In 2000, FRI provides an increase of almost $70 million, or five percent,
for maintaining and restoring Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, as well as national parks,
forests, refuges and other public lands, which

103
are the heart of the Nation’s natural, cultural,
and historical legacy. As custodians of these
resources, Federal land management agencies
face growing demands to invest more to restore
lands and rehabilitate an aging infrastructure
of public facilities and trails. These needed investments protect wildlife habitat, maintain
historic sites, and preserve our many national
treasures like Glacier Bay National Park in
Alaska, Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, and the
Cabo Rojo Salt Flats in Puerto Rico.
Mitigating Air Quality Impacts: As another component of the Livability initiative,
the budget includes $1.8 billion, a 26-percent
increase over the 1999 level, for Transportation’s Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality
Improvement program, which supports transportation projects to reduce congestion and improve air quality. It is the principal source
of Federal funding directed to address the air
quality impacts of transportation in nonattainment and maintenance areas designated under
the Clean Air Act. Typical projects include
mass transit, high-occupancy vehicle lanes, vehicle inspection and maintenance programs,
and bicycle and pedestrian paths, the majority
of which can be used to help communities promote smart growth.
Funding the EPA Operating Program:
The budget proposes $3.7 billion, a five-percent
increase over 1999, for EPA’s operating
program, which includes most of EPA’s
research, regulatory, and enforcement programs and partnership grants, with States and
Tribes. The operating program, which has
grown 33 percent during this Administration,
represents the backbone of the Nation’s efforts
to protect public health and the environment
through sound science, standard setting, enforcement, and other means, ensuring that our
water is pure, our air clean, and our food safe.
Within the operating program, the budget
fully funds the second year of EPA’s part
of the CCTI ($216 million) and the CWAP
($630 million). The budget also provides a
$29 million increase for children’s environmental health activities, particularly relating
to asthma and developmental disorders.
Financing Water Quality Infrastructure:
The budget proposes $825 million ($50 million
over 1999) in EPA capitalization grants for
Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (SRFs),

104
which make low-interest loans to help municipalities meet the requirements of the Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments. These funds
will help ensure that Americans have a safe,
clean drinking water supply—our first line of
defense in protecting public health. By the end
of 1998, every State had successfully established a Drinking Water SRF and begun disbursing loans to its communities.
The budget also proposes $800 million
in capitalization grants to Clean Water SRFs
to help municipalities comply with the Clean
Water Act, thus helping to reduce beach
closures and to keep our waterways safe
and clean. Those levels for the two SRFs
will keep the programs on track toward
achieving the Administration’s goal of providing sufficient capital for the two SRFs to
offer $2.5 billion a year in financial assistance
to municipalities over the long run. The
Clean Water SRFs are nearing full capitalization and are on schedule for reaching that
goal in 2005.
Accelerating Endangered Species Act Efforts: The budget proposes a 40-percent increase, an additional $52 million, for a total
of $181 million, in Interior’s Fish and Wildlife
Service and Commerce’s National Marine Fisheries Service, for the endangered species program. These funds will support the Administration’s efforts to encourage private landowners to protect species, and recover salmon
in the Pacific Northwest. The Endangered Species program increases are designed to encourage cooperative partnerships between the Federal Government and States, localities, Tribes,
and private parties to recover listed species
and prevent the need to list more.
Supporting the Global Environment Facility (GEF): U.S. participation in the GEF
is a cornerstone of our foreign policy on the
environment. The GEF has become the world’s
leading institution for protecting the global environment and avoiding economic disruption
from climate change, massive extinction of valuable species, and dramatic collapse of the
oceans’ fish population. The $143 million proposal for 2000—less than last year’s appropriation of $193 million, which included payment
of United States arrears to the GEF—includes
$107.5 million for the 2000 contribution to the
GEF’s second four-year replenishment pro-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

gram, from 1999 to 2002, and $35 million for
contributions previously due. U.S. funding for
this program is crucial if the Nation hopes
to continue influencing GEF’s policies and
lending strategies.
Providing Multilateral and Bilateral
Environmental Assistance: The budget proposes $321 million for bilateral and multilateral environmental assistance. Bilateral assistance includes U.S. Agency for International
Development (USAID) activities to address
topics such as biodiversity, and implement
USAID’s five-year, $1 billion commitment to
address climate change issues in developing
countries. Multilateral assistance funds U.S.
voluntary contributions to the UN environmental system and other international organizations to address international environmental
activities.
Expanding the Federal Facilities Cleanup and Compliance: The Federal Government continues to address the huge challenge
of cleaning up Federal facilities contaminated
with radioactive or hazardous waste. DOE
faces the most complex and costly problems
from over 40 years of research, production, and
testing of nuclear weapons and reactors. By
the end of 2000, an estimated 76 of the 113
contaminated DOE sites will be cleaned up.
The budget proposes $5.9 billion for DOE’s
Environmental Management program, including $1.3 billion to clean up quickly and
return excess Federal property to beneficial
use in local communities. The budget also
proposes $228 million to continue to privatize
waste remediation at such sites as the Hanford, Washington, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and
Idaho facilities, for which DOE pays for
the delivery of treated waste that meets
approved specifications. Privatization will help
speed cleanups, reduce health risks, and
cut costs at these sites.
The Department of Defense (DOD), which
operates one of America’s most diverse and
successful environmental programs, is focusing
its efforts on reducing relative risk at its
active and closing installations. As of early
1999, it is conducting studies or cleanups
at nearly 700 military installations and 2,500
formerly-used properties. Moreover, it has
determined that 15,265 sites require no further action. DOD also is making progress

6.

PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

in its compliance and pollution prevention,
conservation, and environmental technology
programs. The budget proposes $4.2 billion
for all DOD environmental activities, an
amount that reflects a commitment to consist-

105
ent and wise stewardship of DOD lands.
The Administration is committed to making
all current and former DOD property safe
and clean.

7.

PROMOTING RESEARCH

Over the past fifty years our commitment to science has strengthened this country in countless
ways. Scientific research has created vast new industries, millions of jobs, allowed America to
produce the world’s most bountiful food supplies and remarkable tools for fighting disease. Think
of what today’s investments will yield.
President Clinton
June 1998

In the last one hundred years, science
and technology have fundamentally transformed our lives, from the ways we travel
and communicate, to the food we eat; from
the manner in which we learn, to the quality
of our health care and our ability to create
a cleaner environment. The next century
offers new fields of research and innovation
and potential solutions to some of society’s
most pressing challenges. Technological advances continue to strengthen the ties between
Americans and the rest of the world, enabling
new business endeavors, providing access to
news and information from anywhere on
the globe, and improving cultural understanding. As the forces of innovation and
globalization gain momentum, the 21st Century promises to be an era of great opportunity
for the entire world, propelled by new and
remarkable developments.
In the latter half of this century, the
Federal Government has played a critical
role in spurring and sustaining scientific
and technological advances. Among other feats,
Government-sponsored research and development put Americans on the moon, explored
the oceans, boosted agricultural productivity,
harnessed the atom, devised more effective
treatments for cancers, found the remains
of lost civilizations, tracked weather patterns
and earthquake faults, created the Internet,
and deciphered the chemistry of life. Numerous studies show technological innovation and
scientific discovery generated at least half
of the Nation’s productivity growth over the
last 50 years, created millions of high-skill,
high-wage jobs, and improved the quality
of life in America.

In the last year alone, research and development have produced numerous impressive
results, including the first photograph of
a planet outside our own solar system, the
creation of the world’s fastest supercomputer,
the identification of the gene that causes
Parkinson’s Disease, and a host of other
notable achievements.
The future holds even greater possibilities.
Scientists and engineers in many disciplines
are within reach of even more exciting advances. Building on decades of experimentation and theoretical developments, they will
be able to rely on new and sophisticated
research tools for future discoveries—supercomputers that can make trillions of calculations in a second, particle accelerators and
electron microscopes that can decipher atoms
and the nature of matter, and space telescopes
that can reach to parts of the universe
previously unexplored. In particular, computational science—supercomputer modeling of extremely complex systems such as the global
climate, the human body, and galaxies—
is emerging as a new and significant branch
of research, providing insights not likely
to occur through experimentation or theorizing
alone.
Continued leadership in science and technology is a cornerstone of the President
and the Vice President’s vision for America.
During the past six years, the Administration
has provided substantial growth for science
and technology programs. The budget
strengthens these vital investments, contributing to many broader Administration goals
for the economy, education, health care, the
environment, and national defense. The budget
107

108
also takes steps to ensure that everyone—
regardless of economic status, education, location, gender, ethnicity or race—can reap the
benefits of technological innovation.
The 2000 Budget maintains the course
established in last year’s budget, in which
the President proposed the largest increase
in history for civilian research programs,
plotting a bold course of strategic growth.
This budget proposes funding levels across
a broad range of civilian agencies consistent
with the increases projected in the 1999
Budget. The continuing centerpiece of the
Administration’s commitment to science and
technology is the 21st Century Research Fund,
which provides stability and growth for the
highest priority research programs. The budget
provides $38.1 billion for the Fund—a threepercent increase above last year. (See Table
7–1 for details on the Fund.)
This budget also reflects an effort to reestablish an optimum balance between health
care research and other scientific disciplines—
a concern voiced in recent years throughout
the science community. Substantial recent
increases to the National Institutes of Health
(NIH) have advanced the President’s commitment to increase long-term NIH funding
well ahead of schedule. The budget adds
prudently to the NIH while providing a
seven-percent boost for the National Science
Foundation (NSF), which supports a broad
range of university research in areas other
than health.
A Bold, New Information Technology
Initiative
The budget proposes a bold, new Information
Technology Initiative that will invest in longterm, fundamental research in computing and
communications, and will increase development and purchases of extremely fast supercomputers to support a broad range of civilian
research and development. Long-term information technology research will strengthen America’s leadership in an industry that accounts
for one-third of our economic growth, create
high-tech, high-wage jobs, and improve our
quality of life. This research may also lead
to breakthroughs such as: computers that
are easier to use, including by people with
disabilities; high-speed wireless networks that

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

can bring telemedicine to rural communities;
the successor to the transistor; and software
that is much more dependable and reliable.
High-speed supercomputers will allow scientists and engineers to develop life-saving
drugs more rapidly, provide earlier warnings
for tornadoes and design more fuel efficient,
safer automobiles. The initiative will also
provide for fundamental research that could
lead to major breakthroughs in the next
generation of supercomputers, networks, and
applications—research that, without Federal
support, would not otherwise be funded. Consistent with the Administration’s approach,
the initiative emphasizes the inter-dependency
of scientific disciplines—that innovation in
one field is often made possible by innovations
in other fields. And it lays the groundwork
for a flourishing of the computational sciences
in the 21st Century, and for advances that
will contribute to our health and well-being
in the future. (See Chart 7–1 for information
on computing and communications R&D.)
Science and Technology Themes
Federal investments in science and technology contribute to the Administration’s economic, educational, health, environmental, and
national security goals. The budget proposes
increases for a host of important activities.
(For total Federal R&D funding, see Table
7–2; for science and technology highlights,
see Table 7–3.)
Increasing Total Support for Science
and Technology: The budget proposes $38.1
billion for programs in the 21st Century Research Fund, $1.2 billion, or three percent,
more than in 1999, exceeding last year’s projected increases. The budget provides an increasing share for civilian R&D investments,
which now comprise 51 percent of the total—
a substantial increase from 42 percent in 1993,
in keeping with the Administration’s efforts to
place additional emphasis on civilian R&D activities.
Boosting Funding for Basic Research:
The budget proposes $18.2 billion for basic research, an increases of $727 million, or 4.2
percent, over 1999. These investments—the
highest level ever proposed for basic research—reflect the Administration’s commitment to obtaining knowledge that will provide

7.

109

PROMOTING RESEARCH

Table 7–1.

21st CENTURY RESEARCH FUND

(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1993
Actual

1998
Actual

Health and Human Services:
National Institutes of Health ...........................................

10,335

National Science Foundation .........................................

2,750

Department of Energy (DOE):
Science Programs ...............................................................
Solar and Renewable R&D ...............................................
Energy Conservation R&D ................................................

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

1999
Estimate

2000
Proposed

13,648

15,612

15,933

+2%

3,429

3,672

3,921

+7%

3,066
249
346

2,468
272
457

2,685
336
526

2,835
399
647

DOE Total .......................................................................

3,661

3,197

3,547

3,881

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA):
Space Science .....................................................................
Earth Science .....................................................................
Advanced Space Transportation .......................................
Aeronautics ........................................................................
Life and Microgravity Sciences .........................................

1,770
996
115
769
195

2,034
1,417
417
920
214

2,119
1,414
423
786
264

2,197
1,459
254
620
256

NASA Total .....................................................................

3,845

5,002

5,006

4,786

Department of Defense (DOD):
Basic Research ...................................................................
Applied Research ...............................................................

1,314
3,549

1,012
2,910

1,108
3,151

1,113
2,956

DOD Total .......................................................................

4,863

3,922

4,259

4,069

Department of Agriculture (USDA):
CSREES Research and Education 1 .................................
Economic Research Service ...............................................
Agricultural Research Service ..........................................
Forest Service Research ....................................................

433
59
661
183

430
54
745
188

476
54
809
197

+9%

475
56
837
235

–4%

–4%

USDA Total ....................................................................

1,336

1,417

1,536

1,603

Department of Commerce:
Oceanic and Atmospheric Research .................................
National Institutes of Standards and Technology 2 ........

202
364

278
565

287
540

283
635

Commerce Total .............................................................

566

843

827

918

+11%

579

759

798

838

+5%

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
Office of Research and Development. ...............................
Climate Change Technology programs ............................

517
..............

573
90

562
109

535
216

EPA Total .......................................................................

Department of the Interior: U.S. Geological Survey

+6%

517

663

671

751

+12%

Department of Veterans Affairs: Medical Research

232

272

316

316

..............

Department of Education: Research programs .........

117

196

210

265

+26%

Department of Transportation (DOT):
Highway Research .............................................................
Aviation Research ..............................................................

310
230

288
199

338
150

661
173

DOT Total .......................................................................

540

487

488

834

+71%

21st Century Research Fund ..........................................

29,341

33,835

36,942

38,115

3%

1

Does not include funds proposed for the recently authorized Integrated Research, Education, and Extension Competitive
Grants Program, a portion of which would be used for R&D activities.
2
Does not include the Manufacturing Extension Partnership.

110

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart 7-1. COMPUTING AND COMMUNICATIONS
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
BUDGET AUTHORITY IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS

1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

0
1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Note: Includes High Performance Computing and Communications (excluding DOE's defense-related activities), the Information
Technology Initiative, and other related civilian activities.

future economic and social benefits and improve our ability to meet economic needs without adversely affecting health and the environment (see Chart 7–2).
Strengthening
University-Based
Research: University-based research is key to
America’s future. While fostering innovation
and expanding the scientific frontier, university-based research also trains the next generation of scientists and engineers. The budget
proposes $15.5 billion, an increase of $353 million over 1999.
Protecting Human Health: The budget reflects the Administration’s continued focus on
R&D to protect human health. It funds research programs at NIH that have made the
United States the world’s leader in medical
research. It also supports the development of
an AIDS vaccine, the fight against emerging
infectious diseases, research on cancer and diabetes, efforts to reduce the demand for illicit
drugs, and a food safety initiative.

Investing in Innovation to Create New
Jobs and Industries: Many of the new private-sector jobs created under this Administration have been high-tech, high-wage jobs in
industries like biotechnology and computing.
The budget maintains a strong investment in
technology to foster these high-priority, civilian
science and technology industries and jobs.
The budget continues funding for the Department of Commerce’s Advanced Technology Program and Manufacturing Extension Partnerships to help firms develop and adopt modern
technologies.
Investing in Environmental Research:
The budget supports vital research on safe and
clean food, air, and water, and on ecosystem
management, biological diversity, climate
change, natural disasters, energy efficiency,
and renewable energy. These investments provide a scientific basis for developing cost-effective environmental policies, produce the knowledge base for citizens to make wise environmental decisions, and enable better approaches
to environmental protection. The budget pro-

7.

111

PROMOTING RESEARCH

Table 7–2.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1993
Actual

Percent
Change:
1993 to
2000

2000
Proposed

37,568
13,860

37,204
15,792

35,064
15,984

–6%
+1%

–10%
+53%

8,873
6,896
2,012
1,467
793
613
649
511
253
1,055

9,753
6,483
2,528
1,561
1,091
859
472
636
587
928

9,714
7,240
2,721
1,796
1,075
891
517
669
674
974

9,771
7,465
2,934
1,718
1,162
1,230
590
645
663
1,016

+1%
+3%
+8%
–4%
+8%
+38%
+14%
–4%
–2%
+4%

+10%
+8%
+46%
+17%
+47%
+101%
–9%
+26%
+162%
–4%

Total ..................................................................

72,492

76,326

79,267

78,242

–1%

+8%

Total, without Defense development ..............

36,966

41,779

45,140

46,256

+2%

+25%

13,362
13,608
42,795
2,727

15,658
15,144
42,721
994
1,809

17,499
16,134
42,490
977
2,167

18,226
16,169
40,799
1,063
1,985

+4%
..............
–4%
+9%
–8%

+36%
+19%
–5%
NA
+12%

Total ..................................................................

72,492

76,326

79,267

78,242

–1%

+8%

Total, without Defense development ..............

36,966

41,779

45,140

46,256

+2%

+25%

11,951
9,130
7,269
1,979

14,592
10,936
8,174
656
1,398

16,341
11,603
8,363
650
1,672

17,074
11,598
8,813
748
1,528

+4%
..............
+5%
+15%
–9%

+43%
+27%
+21%
NA
+15%

30,329

35,756

38,629

39,761

+3%

+31%

1,411
4,478
35,526
748

1,066
4,208
34,547
338
411

1,158
4,531
34,127
327
495

1,152
4,571
31,986
315
457

–1%
+1%
–6%
–4%
–8%

–18%
+2%
–10%
NA
+3%

Subtotal .............................................................

42,163

40,570

40,638

38,481

–5%

–9%

Funding by R&D Share:
Defense ..............................................................
Civilian ..............................................................

42,163
30,329

40,570
35,756

40,638
38,629

38,481
39,761

–5%
+3%

–9%
+31%

Total ..................................................................
Civilian (percent) ..............................................

72,492
42%

76,326
47%

79,267
+49%

78,242
+51%

–1%

+8%

R&D Support to Universities ........................

11,674

13,693

15,124

15,477

+2%

+33%

Merit (Peer) Reviewed R&D Programs ......

NA

23,123

25,542

26,409

+3%

NA

Funding by R&D Type:
Basic Research .................................................
Applied Research ..............................................
Development .....................................................
Equipment ........................................................
Facilities ...........................................................

Funding by Civilian Theme:
Basic Research .................................................
Applied Research ..............................................
Development .....................................................
Equipment ........................................................
Facilities ...........................................................
Subtotal .............................................................
Funding by Defense Theme:
Basic Research .................................................
Applied Research ..............................................
Development .....................................................
Equipment ........................................................
Facilities ...........................................................

38,898
10,472

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

1999
Estimate

Funding by Agency:
Defense ..............................................................
Health and Human Services ...........................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration .................................................................
Energy ...............................................................
National Science Foundation ..........................
Agriculture ........................................................
Commerce .........................................................
Transportation ..................................................
Interior ..............................................................
Environmental Protection Agency ..................
Veterans Affairs ...............................................
Other .................................................................

1998
Actual

1

1

1

NA = Not Applicable.
1
Equipment and facilities data were not collected separately in 1993.

112

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 7–3.

SELECTED PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS

(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1998
Actual

1999
Estimate

2000
Proposed

Dollar
Change:
1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

National Aeronautics and Space Administration:
International Space Station ..............................................

2,441

2,305

2,483

+178

+8%

Department of Commerce:
Advanced Technology Program ........................................
National Telecom. and Info. Admin. NII Grants ............

193
20

203
18

239
20

+36
+2

+18%
+11%

Department of Transportation:
Highway Research and Deployment Initiative ...............
Intelligent Transportation System Initiative ..................

121
167

162
177

390
271

+228
+94

+141%
+53%

220
98
120
115

168
111
93
126

207
115
136
116

+39
+4
+43
–10

+23%
+4%
+46%
–8%

374
265
20
3

484
301
27
4

543
314
27
4

+59
+13
..............
..............

+12%
+4%
..............
..............

National Science and Technology Council Initiatives:
High Performance Computing and Communications:
Defense ............................................................................
Health and Human Services .........................................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ........
Energy (Civilian programs) ...........................................
Energy (Defense - Advanced Strategic Computing
Initiative) ....................................................................
National Science Foundation ........................................
Commerce .......................................................................
Environmental Protection Agency ................................
Subtotal .......................................................................

1,215

1,314

1,462

+148

+11%

Information Technology Initiative:
National Science Foundation ........................................
Defense ............................................................................
Energy .............................................................................
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ........
Commerce .......................................................................
National Institutes of Health ........................................

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

146
100
70
38
6
6

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

Subtotal .......................................................................

NA

NA

366

NA

NA

U.S. Global Change Research Program:
National Aeronautics and Space Administrati ............
Energy .............................................................................
National Science Foundation ........................................
Agriculture ......................................................................
Health and Human Services .........................................
Commerce .......................................................................
Interior ............................................................................
Environmental Protection Agency ................................
Smithsonian Institution ................................................

1,210
106
167
53
35
60
26
13
7

1,177
114
182
54
40
63
27
17
7

1,219
125
187
88
40
70
27
23
7

+42
+11
+5
+34
..............
+7
..............
+6
..............

+4%
+10%
+3%
+63%
..............
+11%
..............
+35%
..............

Subtotal .......................................................................

1,677

1,681

1,786

+105

+6%

Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles ..........

220

240

264

+24

+10%

Climate Change Techology Initiative ...........................

819

1,021

1,368

+347

+34%

Integrated Science for Ecosystem Challenges 1 .........

..............

..............

96

NA

NA

NA = Not applicable
1
Amount reflects new activities in 2000, but does not include related, ongoing activities in 2000 and prior years.

poses $96 million for Integrated Science for
Ecosystem Challenges (ISEC) to develop an environmental information infrastructure and
modeling framework to manage and preserve
the Nation’s natural resources. In 2000, ISEC

will address four priority areas: invasive species, biodiversity and species decline; harmful
algal blooms, hypoxia and eutrophication;
habitat conservation and ecosystem productivity; and information management, monitoring,

7.

113

PROMOTING RESEARCH

Chart 7-2. BASIC RESEARCH SUPPORT
BUDGET AUTHORITY IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

20

15

10

5

0
1993

1994

1995

1996

and integrated assessments. This research will
allow resource managers to predict and assess
the environmental and economic impacts of
stress on vulnerable ecosystems and will also
provide information to guide public and private
land planning, management, and acquisition.
Investing in a 21st Century Education:
Through the Education Technology Initiative,
the Government is helping to ensure that
America’s classrooms are equipped with modern computers and connected to the Internet,
that educational software becomes an integral
part of the curriculum, and that teachers are
ready to use and teach with technology. Federal science and technology investments such
as the Education Research Initiative—an Education Department and NSF partnership—also
contribute to these goals.
Investing in Research to Keep Our Nation Secure: The budget invests in defense
research to ensure that our military maintains
its technological superiority, providing $1.1 billion for basic research and $3.0 billion for applied research at the Defense Department. The

1997

1998

1999

2000

budget also supports programs that will keep
nuclear weapons out of the hands of terrorists,
use science-based techniques to ensure the
safety and reliability of our nuclear weapons
stockpiles, promote global stability by bolstering strong international science and technology
partnerships, and increase research and development on critical infrastructure protection to
improve the safety and security of the Nation’s
physical infrastructure and information and
communications systems.
Agency Highlights
NIH: The budget continues its commitment
to biomedical research that promotes innovations to improve health and prevent disease.
It provides an increase of $320 million over
the 1999 level for NIH. This funding level will
support research on diabetes, brain disorders,
cancer, genetic medicine, disease prevention
strategies, and development of an AIDS vaccine. NIH’s highest priority continues to be investigator-initiated, peer-reviewed research
project grants. In the last year, NIH research
on traumatic spinal cord injury revealed that

114
it may actually be possible to regenerate nerve
cells. More research may yield ways to repair
damaged spinal cords and eventually permit
the restoration of some degree of function to
paralyzed patients.
NSF: The budget provides $3.92 billion—
seven percent more than in 1999—for NSF,
whose broad mission is to promote science and
engineering research and education across all
fields and disciplines. In 1998, NSF-funded scientists determined that the years 1997, 1995,
and 1990 were the warmest since 1400 A.D.,
providing further evidence of recent human influence on the global climate system. The
budget provides $146 million for NSF to play
a lead role in the Administration’s information
technology initiative, focusing on long-term
computer science research and providing scientists access to world-class supercomputers.
The budget also increases funding for biocomplexity research to promote understanding
of the complex biological, physical, chemical,
and social interactions within and among the
Earth’s ecosystems.
Department of Energy (DOE): The budget
provides $2.84 billion, a six-percent increase
over 1999, for DOE’s research programs in
physics, chemistry, materials, biology, computer science, fusion, and other areas. DOE
operates large scientific user facilities to enable research in these fields, as well as fields
ranging from biomedicine to agriculture. The
budget provides for the construction of new
scientific facilities, including the Spallation
Neutron Source and the Large Hadron Collider
(in partnership with other countries), and the
development of advanced computing and networking capabilities. In the past year, DOEfunded scientists achieved many notable successes, such as discovering how genetic material replicates and developing an atom-by-atom
model of the enzyme responsible. In 2000,
DOE will operate the newly constructed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to simulate conditions that existed in the universe in the first
millionth of a second after the Big Bang. In
addition, the budget includes $543 million for
the Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative
in support of nuclear weapon stockpile stewardship.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA): The budget funds several

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

ongoing and new activities in support of
NASA’s missions, including $2.48 billion for
the International Space Station, which began
assembly in orbit in 1998 with the launch of
the first U.S. and Russian elements. The Russian economic situation has increased uncertainty about Russia’s ability to meet future
critical milestones in this international development program. While the Administration remains committed to Russia’s participation in
this multi-national partnership, the budget reflects key steps taken to help ensure the ultimate success of this complex international program. By increasing funding for the Space Station, the Administration will help to maintain
the construction schedule and enable development of backup capabilities in the event of
potential shortfalls in Russian contributions.
In addition to this ‘‘backup strategy,’’ the Administration is also concerned about Space
Station cost growth due to domestic problems,
and has established oversight of the Space Station as a Priority Management Objective, as
discussed in Section IV, ‘‘Improving Performance Through Better Management.’’ The Administration will work closely with the Congress on any future issues to enable the program’s success.
The NASA budget also includes: $2.2 billion—a four-percent increase over 1999—for
Space Science, a program that made several
significant discoveries in 1998, including the
first confirmable evidence of ice on the moon;
$1.46 billion—a three-percent increase over
1999—for Earth Science, which seeks to understand the influence of natural processes and
human activities on the global environment
and which will launch in 2000 the first
in a new series of faster, cheaper satellites,
known as Earth System Science Pathfinders;
$254 million for Advanced Space Transportation Technology, which in 1999 will initiate
development of the first in a new series
of reusable launch vehicle demonstrations,
known as Future-X; $620 million for Aeronautics Research and Technology programs,
including Aviation Safety R&D; and $1.2
billion in funds after 2000 to support new
launch vehicles to lower NASA’s launch costs.
Finally, the budget includes a $463 million,
five-year technology investment to leverage
recent successes in Space Science, like Mars

7.

PROMOTING RESEARCH

Pathfinder, and to enable robotic scientific
outposts throughout the solar system.
Department of Defense (DOD): The budget funds $1.1 billion in basic research and $3.0
billion in applied research, and $3.3 billion in
advanced technology development, providing
options for new defense strategies and laying
the groundwork for procuring next-generation
defense systems. Because of DOD’s emphasis
on the physical sciences, its research and development investments are vital to the nation’s
engineering, mathematics, and computer
science efforts. The budget supports the Dual
Use Science and Technology program and the
Commercial Operations and Support Savings
Initiative, which put commercial industry’s
technical know-how and economies of scale to
the service of national defense. The budget
proposes $118 million to conduct Advanced
Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs),
which bring technology experts and military
operators together early in technology system
development to eliminate communication barriers, improve management of development
programs, and address key warfighter challenges. Forty-four ACTDs are now under way,
and 13 have been completed. Recent DOD
technological accomplishments include development of a vaccine effective against the infectious hepatitis A virus, a vaccine recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration
and now commercially available for military
and civilian use. Similarly, DOD has demonstrated the efficacy of a genetically engineered vaccine to protect against malaria. In
addition, the Department has funded the development of a new material for body armor
that provides lighter-weight protection against
projectiles such as bullets or shrapnel.
Department of Commerce:
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): The budget provides $239
million—an 18-percent increase over 1999—
for NIST’s Advanced Technology Program to
promote unique, rigorously competitive, costshared R&D partnerships that develop technologies promising widespread economic benefits. The budget provides $396 million—a
17-percent increase over 1999—for research
and facilities at NIST’s Measurement and
Standards Laboratories. In 1998, NIST improved our understanding of what happens

115
when atoms approach each other at very
slow speeds, building on the 1997 Nobel
Prize winning work of NIST’s Dr. William
Phillips. This research is critical to both
theoretical physics and future generations
of time standards. In 2000, NIST will conduct
additional research on fundamental physical
constants, refined standards for weight and
electricity, and critical infrastructure protection.
Manufacturing Extension Partnership: The
budget proposes $100 million for this Nationwide network of 75 centers and over 325
field offices offering technical assistance to
help the Nation’s 382,000 small manufacturers
compete more effectively, leading to stronger
economic growth and job creation. This funding is matched by States and localities.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric
Research: The budget provides $283 million
for research to provide a scientific basis
for national policy decisions in areas such
as climate change, air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion, as well as research
to promote economic growth through efforts
in marine biotechnology and environmental
technologies.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration’s National Information Infrastructure Grants Program: The budget proposes $20 million—an 11-percent increase
over 1999—for grants to fund innovative
projects that demonstrate how information
technology can improve the delivery of educational, health, and other social services.
These grants are highly competitive and
have stimulated several hundred million dollars in non-Federal matching funds.
Department of Agriculture (USDA): The
budget provides $837 million for the Agricultural Research Service, $28 million more than
in 1999, and $56 million for the Economic Research Service, which together conduct a broad
range of food, farm, and environmental research programs. The budget also provides
$475 million for Research and Education Programs of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), including $200 million for the National Research
Initiative (NRI), a 68-percent increase over the
1999 level. CSREES provides grants for agri-

116
cultural, food, and environmental research,
and for higher education. NRI competitive research grants improve the quality and increase
the quantity of USDA’s farm, food, and environmental research. The budget also proposes
increases for high priority research in areas
such as nutrition, food safety, climate change,
air and water quality, food quality protection,
agricultural genomes, sustainable ecosystems,
and the Forest Service’s Forest and Rangeland
Research program. An additional $120 million
in mandatory funding will be available in 2000
under the Agricultural Research Extension
and Education Reform Act of 1998.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The budget provides $535 million for EPA’s
Office of Research and Development (ORD),
which performs the majority of EPA’s research
and provides a sound scientific and technical
foundation for environmental policy and regulatory decision-making. ORD also provides
technical support for EPA’s mission, integrates
the work of its own scientific partners, and
provides leadership in addressing emerging environmental issues, thereby assisting EPA in
protecting human health and the environment.
In the last year, EPA researchers discovered
a method to render lead-contaminated soil safe
for humans, thereby potentially decreasing the
number of children suffering from lead poisoning.
Department of the Interior’s U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): The budget provides
$838 million—a five-percent increase over
1999—for science that supports natural resource and environmental decision making. In
1998, USGS science efforts provided critical information to restore the Florida Everglades
and respond to Hurricane Bonnie and Hurricane Mitch. The budget supports research on
enhanced understanding of species habitat,
invasive species, and declines in amphibians
and coral reefs. The budget also supports research and technical assistance on the scientific needs of land managers and local landuse planners. In 2000, this information will
promote local planning and conservation efforts to protect the most valuable open spaces
and critical habitat. USGS will use its mapping, remote sensing, and natural resources
monitoring capabilities to develop new ways
to improve the availability and dissemination
of domestic natural disaster hazard and earth

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

science information, as well as to support
NASA’s Earth Observing System satellites.
Department of Veterans Affairs’ Medical
Research: The budget provides $316 million—
about a third of the Department’s overall $1
billion research program—for clinical, epidemiological, and behavioral studies across a
broad spectrum of medical research disciplines.
Among the agency’s top research priorities are
improving the translation of research results
into patient care, geriatrics (including end-oflife care and Alzheimer’s disease), and treatment of Parkinson’s disease and Persian Gulf
Veterans’ illnesses.
Department of Transportation: The budget proposes a total of $390 million for the
Highway Research and Deployment Initiative—a $228 million increase over the 1999
level. This funding will support activities such
as improving the durability of pavement and
bridges, enhancing pedestrian safety, and refining air quality analysis models. The budget
also includes $271 million for the Intelligent
Transportation System (ITS) initiative—a
package of technologies to enhance the safety
and efficiency of surface transportation infrastructure. This ITS total includes $113 million
for continued deployment of integrated ‘‘intelligent infrastructure,’’ such as interactive traffic signals, traveler information systems, and
advanced electronic motor carrier toll clearance systems in urban and rural areas and
the commercial vehicle industry.
Department of Education: The budget proposes a $45 million increase for the National
Education Research Institutes. The increase
includes $25 million for the agency’s contribution to the second year of the Education Research Initiative, a collaborative effort with
NSF. The initiative will continue to support
large-scale research focused on the best approaches to raising student achievement. Activities will focus on applying the latest research findings to the development, implementation, and evaluation of new program models
in three areas: increasing readiness for reading
and mathematics, sustaining reading and
mathematics skills in grades K-3, and improving teacher preparation. The proposed increase
for the Institutes will also support additional
research on comprehensive school reform, and
new research on English language skills acqui-

7.

PROMOTING RESEARCH

sition for children with limited English proficiency.
National Science and Technology Council
Interagency Initiatives
The National Science and Technology Council provides management oversight that will
ensure efficient and effective coordination for
key multi-agency initiatives, including:
High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information
Technology Initiative: The budget provides
$1.8 billion for these programs, including $366
million for the Information Technology Initiative, a bold, new effort focused on two, interrelated topics: 1) fundamental research that
could lead to major breakthroughs in the next
generation of supercomputers, networks and
applications—research that is too high-risk
and/or long-term for private sector funding;
and 2) development of extremely powerful
supercomputers, hundreds of times more powerful than today’s best, for applications in a
variety of civilian fields. Resulting advances
in these fields could lead, for example, to better predictions of global warming and regional
weather, as well as improved pharmaceutical
development. The continuing HPCC program
will pursue breakthroughs in high-end computing and computation, large-scale networking,
and high-confidence systems. This ongoing
work includes the Next Generation Internet
Initiative. In the last year, the program demonstrated many key components of the Next
Generation Internet, including ultra-highspeed switching devices, and various data-intensive applications ranging from medical imaging to advanced storm forecasting.
U.S. Global Change Research Program
(USGCRP): The budget proposes $1.8 billion—a six-percent increase over 1999—to observe, understand, predict, and assess the
state of the Earth and how it changes in response to natural and human-induced forces.
˜
USGCRP science was critical in the accurate
prediction of the 1997–98 El Nino event and
other resulting climate anomalies, allowing for
advanced preparations and, in some cases,
minimization of human and economic losses.
In 2000, the USGCRP will address a range
of critical unanswered scientific questions: the
origins of natural and human-caused changes;

117
the role of multiple stresses on the rate and
severity of environmental change; how climate
change may vary by region and over time
scales of decades, rather than centuries; and
the potential for abrupt and surprising
changes in the global climate. In 2000, the
program will also focus on how the terrestrial
biosphere produces and consumes carbon dioxide on a regional scale, to increase our understanding of the role of biological processes on
the Earth’s climate.
Climate Change Technology Initiative:
The budget proposes $1.8 billion for the second
year of this research and technology initiative
to promote energy efficiency, develop low-carbon energy sources, and develop and demonstrate technologies to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. Led by DOE and EPA, the effort
also includes USDA, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and NIST. Of the
amount proposed, $1.4 billion is for R&D
spending on energy efficiency and renewable
energy technologies, sequestration (storage) of
carbon, extending the useful life of existing
nuclear plants, and development of highly efficient fossil fuel technologies. The remainder,
$0.4 billion, is for tax credits to stimulate the
adoption of energy efficient technologies in
buildings, homes, industrial processes, vehicles, and power generation.
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: The budget proposes $264 million—$24
million more than in 1999—for this costshared, industry partnership, which centers on
three research goals: to develop advanced manufacturing techniques; to use new technologies
for near-term emissions improvements; and to
develop production prototype vehicles three
times more fuel-efficient than today’s cars,
with no sacrifice in comfort, performance, or
price. Federal funding focuses mainly on the
third goal. In the last year, the automobile
companies completed hybrid drivetrain prototype development and have moved further development in-house, requiring no more Federal
support for these activities. Federal funding
is now focusing on timely development of crucial components such as low-emissions directinjection engines, fuel cells, power electronics,
batteries, and lightweight materials. The program will lead to concept cars in 2000, and
production prototypes in 2004.

8.

ENFORCING THE LAW

‘‘Americans are safer today than they have been in many years. Our strategy of putting more
police on the beat and getting guns off the street is working. Americans have taken back their
neighborhoods, and shown that rising crime and deadly violence need not be tolerated. But in far
too many communities, crime remains a serious problem, and our work is far from done.’’
President Clinton
November 1998

The Administration’s sustained and aggressive efforts to fight crime have been extraordinarily successful. For more than six years,
serious crime has fallen uninterrupted. The
murder rate is down by more than 28
percent, its lowest point in three decades.
And after years of steady increases, drug
use among teens is beginning to level off,
and even decline. These successes are the
result of a simple, three-part strategy:
• putting more police on the street and promoting community policing while taking
measures to deter violent offenders and
gun violence;
• controlling alien smuggling and illegal immigration into the United States, and the
drug smuggling and other illegal activities
that can accompany it, through reliance
on stepped-up border enforcement and the
use of technology; and
• fighting drug abuse on all fronts, especially among children, by vigorously enforcing the Nation’s drug laws and developing prevention programs which give
children an alternative to crime and drugs
and a chance for a positive future.
A cornerstone of the Administration’s crimefighting strategy, Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), went into force at
the start of the President’s first term. With
expanded resources for enforcement, and reliance on neighborhood involvement, COPS
has brought stability and security to many
once-dangerous neighborhoods. COPS has encouraged citizens to work with officers and
other authorities in the criminal justice system
to combat and prevent crime in their neighbor-

hoods. And it has put more officers on
the beat. COPS will achieve its goal of
putting 100,000 officers on the beat in 1999—
ahead of schedule and under budget—making
all communities that much safer.
The next step in the President’s anticrime strategy is the new 21st Century
Policing Initiative. It continues the Administration’s commitment to keep the number
of officers on the beat at an all-time high,
by helping communities hire, redeploy, and
retain police officers. It also builds on the
COPS program in two key ways. First, it
provides significant new funds to give law
enforcement access to the latest crime-fighting
and crime-solving technologies—improved police communications, crime mapping, laptop
computers, crime lab improvements, and more.
Second, the initiative makes an unprecedented
commitment to engage the entire community
in the hard work of preventing and fighting
crime—by funding new community-based prosecutors, and partnerships with probation and
parole officers, school officials, and faithbased organizations.
The budget also builds on the Administration’s efforts to combat gun crime. On the
legislative front, the Administration has won
difficult victories in passing some of the
toughest gun laws ever—including the Brady
Law, the ban on assault weapons, and the
Youth Handgun Safety Act. To build on
these achievements and to further enhance
law enforcement’s ability to curb the use
of guns in our society, the budget proposes
a plan to address gun crime by enhancing
and better coordinating the enforcement of
Federal firearms laws. It also devotes signifi119

120

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• Crime fighting technology: $350 million
will be used to help State and local law
enforcement agencies improve police communications, crime mapping, laptop computers, and crime lab improvements.

cant resources for Federal, State, and local
gun tracing, investigation, and prosecution.
Fighting Crime
The budget proposes $26.4 billion to control
crime (see Chart 8–1). Of the total, $4.5
billion would go for programs authorized
in the 1994 Crime Act. While enhancing
Federal anti-crime capabilities, the budget
seeks to empower States and communities,
which play the central role in controlling
crime, particularly violent crime.

• Community based prosecutors: $200 million will be used to hire new communitybased prosecutors and develop communitybased prosecution programs. These prosecutors will interact directly with the community. Prosecutors are increasingly being
asked to designate attorneys to work in
neighborhoods that disperately need help,
in order to help solve local crime problems,
and to focus on methods of crime prevention.

21st Century Policing Initiative: The
$1.275 billion initiative (see Chart 8–2) includes the following:
• More police on the streets: $600 million will
be used to hire and redeploy more law
enforcement officers, with an effort to target new police officers to crime ‘‘hot spots.’’
A portion of the funds will also be used
to help economically-distressed communities retain new police hires, and for
other programs to train, educate, and recruit law enforcement officers.

• Community crime prevention: $125 million
to engage the entire community in preventing and fighting crime. These funds
could be used to: work with probation and
parole officers in supervising released offenders; work with local school officials in
adopting community-wide plans to prevent
school violence; involve faith-based organi-

Chart 8-1. DISCRETIONARY ANTI-CRIME BUDGET HISTORY
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS

30
22.9

25
18.3
14.6
15
14.6

26.4
4.5

5.5

20.7
20

26.2
5.8

24.8

4.7
4.1

2.4
15.9

1996

19.3

16.6

1995

21.9
20.4

18.2

10
5
0
1993

CRIME TRUST FUND

1997

1998

1999

2000

GENERAL APPROPRIATIONS

8.

121

ENFORCING THE LAW

Chart 8-2. 21st CENTURY POLICING INITIATIVE
BUILDS ON COPS PROGRAM
IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS

2.000

21st CENTURY POLICING
INITIATIVE

1.500

1.000

COMMUNITY ORIENTED
POLICING SERVICES (COPS)
PROGRAM

0.500

0.000
1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

zations in juvenile crime prevention; and
establish citizens’ police academies that
teach neighborhood residents problemsolving skills.
• Narrowband Communications: In addition,
the Justice and Treasury Departments
will be able to upgrade the Federal wireless communication systems’ efficiency, security, and compatibility with the radio
systems of State and local public safety
agencies. This communications network
will ensure that the Nation’s public safety
workers can communicate with each other
securely, swiftly and effectively.
Firearms Enforcement: The Administration supports hiring more Federal prosecutors
and agents for an intensified effort to keep
guns out of the hands of criminals, reduce
youth violence, and make America’s streets
safer. As part of this effort, the Justice Department, working with the States and the Treasury Department, is now conducting computerized background checks on all firearms purchases. In its first four weeks, the new Na-

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

tional Instant Check System has reviewed
779,170 prospective gun sales to make sure
only law-abiding citizens take home new guns.
Federal gun checks kept 7,900 felons, fugitives,
stalkers, and other criminals from purchasing
new firearms—an average of 290 illegal gun
sales blocked every day.
The Administration proposes $5 million
to increase firearms prosecutions based on
focused Federal-local law enforcement efforts
to incarcerate and deter armed violent criminals, violent youth offenders, and illegal gun
traffickers. To support these prosecutions,
the Administration also proposes $23.8 million
and 160 additional Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,
and Firearms (ATF) agents to investigate
and arrest violent criminals and gun traffickers, which will extend the Youth Crime
Gun Interdiction Initiative from 27 to 37
cities and support investigations of illegal
activity associated with gun shows and illegal
attempts to purchase firearms.

122

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Law Enforcement on Indian Lands:
Homicide and violent crime rates on Indian
lands are rising, even as crime rates in the
rest of the country fall. The Administration
proposes $164 million for the second year of
this joint Justice and Interior Departments initiative which provides anti-crime grants to Indian jurisdictions. The money is used to increase the number of fully trained and
equipped police officers in Indian country and
to improve the quality of detention facilities
on Indian lands.

youth crime rates peak. The budget provides
$13 million for gang reduction programs, including Treasury funded local gang education
efforts designed to educate youth about the
dangers of gang involvement.

Violence Against Women: Violence against
women is a continuing problem. Studies show
that law enforcement intervention often breaks
the cycle of domestic violence, preventing subsequent incidents. The budget proposes $456
million to maintain efforts to combat genderbased crime. Funding for these programs will
also enable States to further expand outreach
to previously under-served rural, Indian, and
other minority populations.

Crime in Public Housing: This budget proposes $310 million to support anti-drug and
anti-crime activities in public housing, including Operation Safe Home, and a new Youth
Anti-Drug Diversion initiative. The Office of
Public Housing and the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Inspector General jointly administer Operation Safe Home,
which brings together residents, managers,
and various Federal and local law enforcement
agencies to rid public housing communities of
crime. The Youth Anti-Drug Diversion program provides funding in support of anti-drug
and anti-crime activities among youths living
in public and assisted housing, including mentoring and after-school programs focused on
employment training and job placement.

Juveniles: The budget proposes $194 million for programs to fight juvenile crime and
$95 million to support more local community
prevention programs such as mentoring, truancy prevention, and gang intervention. To
prevent young people from becoming involved
in the juvenile justice system, the budget expands programs that provide supervised afternoon and evening activities for youth. The
budget provides an additional $6 million in
2000 to the Departments of Health and
Human Services and Justice to investigate and
prosecute the most egregious child support violators.
Certainty of Punishment: The budget proposes $35 million for grants to States, local
governments, and Indian Tribes to develop and
implement innovative punishment alternatives
to incarceration and probation for young offenders. The program aims to ensure certain
punishment, to strengthen accountability and
responsibility, to foster reduced recidivism, and
to promote assistance for victims.
Gangs: The Administration intends to crack
down on violent youth gangs and to keep guns
out of the hands of criminals and away from
children. It has launched a tough Anti-Gang
and Youth Violence Strategy to help communities hire more prosecutors and probation officers, and to keep schools open later when

Safe Streets Task Forces: The budget proposes $108 million to continue the Safe Streets
program, which blends the efforts of the FBI
and other Federal law enforcement agencies
with those of State and local police departments to investigate street crime and violence.

State Criminal Alien Assistance: The
budget proposes $500 million to reimburse
State and local governments for the cost of
incarcerating criminal illegal aliens.
Terrorism: Acts of domestic terrorism have
resulted in deaths and injuries to American
citizens, while terrorism overseas, as shown
by the recent bombings in east Africa, has
taken an even heavier toll. The Administration
has sought more Federal resources to ensure
the safety and security of the public and the
Government from these violent and devastating criminal acts. The budget provides $8.5
billion to combat terrorism, of which $5 billion
would support the Defense Department’s
(DOD) terrorism-related and force protection
efforts. While much of the proposed funding
continues, current terrorism-related programs
in physical protection and law enforcement activities, the budget also provides increases in
the following high-priority areas:

8.

123

ENFORCING THE LAW

• Weapons of mass destruction: The budget
proposes fully funding the second year of
the Administration’s 1999 chemical/biological weapons initiative, including: $174 million for the Justice Department to improve
the capability of State and local governments to prepare for and respond to weapons of mass destruction; more than $100
million for DOD domestic preparedness
and response capabilities; $35 million for
the Department of Energy’s emergency response capabilities for nuclear terrorist
events; and $17 million for the Department of Health and Human Services’ Metropolitan Medical Strike Teams, which
handle the medical response to an incident
involving biological or chemical weapons
of mass destruction.
• Critical infrastructure protection/cyber
crime: The budget proposes over $1.4 billion for critical infrastructure protection
across the Government. These funds support a national effort to assure the security of our increasingly vulnerable and
interconnected infrastructures, such as
telecommunications, banking and finance,
energy, transportation, and essential government services. Of the total, $46 million
enhances the investigative and prosecutorial efforts of the FBI, the U.S. Attorneys, and the Justice Department’s Criminal Division. The budget also supports
critical infrastructure-related research and
development programs in DOD and other
agencies. In aggregate, the 2000 request
exceeds 1999 enacted levels by more than
$400 million.

erated by smuggling, trade fraud, export
violations, and a range of other illegal activities. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network also provides money laundering case support to local, State, and
Federal agencies.
Meeting the Challenges of Immigration
The United States is a Nation of immigrants. While we welcome legal immigrants
to our Nation, the United States is also
a Nation of laws and it is imperative to
take serious measures to bar illegal immigrants from making their way across America’s
borders. Illegal immigration can threaten public safety when it is accompanied by organized
drug, alien smuggling and gang activities
that increase disorder in our communities.
The Administration has done more to control
illegal immigration than any Administration
before it. Working through the Immigration
and Naturalization Service (INS), the Administration has reversed decades of neglect along
the Southwest border with an aggressive
border control strategy. Since 1993, this strategy has added nearly 5,000 new Border
Patrol agents—more than double the 1993
levels—fully equipped with state-of-the-art
technology, border barriers and infrastructure
to gain control and return the rule of law
to the border. However, we must do more.
The budget continues to fund this bipartisan
effort to gain control and effectively manage
our Nation’s borders. (See Table 8–1 for
INS funding by program.)

• Aviation security: The budget provides
$100 million to the Federal Aviation Administration for airport explosives detection equipment in support of recommendations of the White House Commission on
Aviation Safety and Security.

While the Administration takes steps to
curb illegal immigration, which is a threat
to our society, it must also be responsive
to those who seek to immigrate to this
country by legal means, those who come
here to work hard and play by the rules,
and who may also fear persecution in their
homeland.

• Financial crime: The Treasury Department is developing a national strategy for
combating money laundering and related
financial crime. This strategy relies on the
efforts of a number of Treasury bureaus,
including the U.S. Customs Service and
the Internal Revenue Service, which identify, disrupt, and dismantle criminal organizations that launder the proceeds gen-

The Administration is reengineering the
naturalization process which, since 1995, has
seen a dramatic upsurge in demand for
naturalization. Due to this unprecedented
flood of applications, the Nation welcomed
over a million new citizens in 1997, and
473,152 citizens in 1998. There is currently
a backlog of over 1.8 million applicants
waiting for the receipt of the most important

124

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 8–1.

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE
FUNDING BY PROGRAM
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1998
Actual

1999
Estimate

2000
Proposed

Dollar
Change:
1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

Appropriated Funds:
Border Patrol .................................................
Investigations and intelligence ....................
Land border inspections ...............................
Detention and deportation ...........................
Program support and construction ..............

875
271
168
413
614

917
293
172
474
704

1,044
324
189
577
802

+127
+31
+17
+103
+98

+14%
+10%
+10%
+22%
+14%

Subtotal, Appropriated Funds ..................

2,342

2,560

2,935

+376

+15%

Fee Collections and Reimbursements:
Citizenship and benefits ...............................
Air/sea inspections and support ...................
Immigration support .....................................

719
412
203

636
486
184

689
518
127

+53
+32
–57

+8%
+7%
–31%

Subtotal, Fee Collections and Reimbursements ......................................................

1,333

1,306

1,334

+28

+2%

Total, Immigration and Naturalization
Service ..........................................................

3,675

3,866

4,269

+403

+10%

and valuable benefit the Federal Government
can bestow—citizenship. The Administration
is committed to ensuring that the benefits
of citizenship are provided in a timely manner.
Border Control and Enforcement: The
budget continues last year’s level of Border Patrol staffing at nearly 9,000 agents—a 127-percent increase from 3,965 agents—representing
a year of consolidation after steady growth
since the start of this Administration. The
budget increases the Administration’s commitment to border control by proposing $50 million in funding for ‘‘force-multiplying’’ technologies, including border monitoring with
high resolution color and infrared cameras and
state-of-the-art command centers. This combination of surveillance technology, Integrated
Surveillance Intelligence System (ISIS), provides the capability to monitor the border from
remote sites. Reliance on this advanced technology will permit Border Patrol agents to
monitor the border more effectively and increase their ability to actively respond to incursions. The $50 million budget request will
fund the deployment of approximately 200 sys-

tems, adding capacity to monitor areas that
would otherwise require the addition of approximately 1,000 extra agents. The deployment of these systems ensures an immediate
and effective deterrent while the Border Patrol
more effectively deploys and builds the experience base of the agents it has hired and
trained over the past several years.
The budget also provides funds to expand,
renovate and construct Border Patrol stations,
border barriers and fencing, install permanent
lighting, and construct support roads along
the Southwest border. These deterrents help
control the border by increasing the abilities
of Border Patrol agents to apprehend those
trying to enter illegally. Since 1993, INS
has added over 165 night scopes, 5,115 ground
sensors, 97 miles of fencing, and 22 miles
of border lighting. It has also added or
improved over 1,500 miles of roads. The
budget provides funds for another 18 miles
of border lighting and additional fencing,
and for maintaining border deterrents now
in place.

8.

ENFORCING THE LAW

125

Detention and Removal of Illegal Aliens:
The Administration is committed to removing
those who have entered the country illegally.
With the resources provided over the past few
years, INS has targeted its efforts primarily
on removing aliens held in Federal, State and
local facilities to ensure these criminal are not
allowed back on the street. In 1998, INS removed 169,072 aliens, including 55,211 criminal aliens. The budget supports INS’ detention
program by proposing a $42.5 million increase
for detention facilities, transportation, and contract bed space to detain and swiftly remove
those who have entered illegally. An additional
$54 million is requested to fund detention operations previously funded from a depleted
Breached Bond/Detention Fund account.

In primary inspection and areas of shared
responsibility, Customs and INS have seen
virtually the same level of staffing growth
from 1993 to 1997, with both agencies adding
approximately 1200 inspectors. Since 1998,
the Administration has targeted INS inspection staff on primary vehicle and pedestrian
inspections, where the use of illegal and
fraudulent entry documents poses the greatest
enforcement threat. This has permitted Customs to focus greater attention on cargo
inspection and pre- and post-inspection roving
operations in the passenger environment.
These efforts have helped to control the
entry of illegal drugs into the country and
to expand outbound vehicle inspections to
control the smuggling of contraband.

Border and Port-of-Entry Coordination:
The United States Customs Service (Customs)
and the INS have developed a strategic plan
to expand cooperation on the Southwest border
focused on increasing the interdiction of illegal
drugs, aliens and other contraband. The border
management agencies have announced six initiatives along the Southwest border aimed at
improving coordination.

To ensure a comparable mix of Customs
and INS enforcement staff and technology
at ports of entry, Customs will continue
to deploy narcotics detection technology to
support cargo and passenger inspection operations. The budget includes $6 million for
INS inspectors for ports scheduled to open
in 2000. Customs inspectors were funded
for these ports in the 1999 Budget.

These initiatives include:
• replicating the successful San Ysidro, California, port management model which
combines enforcement, traffic management
and community partnership to all major
land ports;
• expanding joint intelligence operations and
creating Customs/INS intelligence teams;
• adopting a unified investigative approach
focusing on seizures and controlled drug
deliveries originating from ports of entry;
• sharing research, development, and deployment of border and port technology;
• promoting interoperable wireless communications; and
• developing a coordinated air and marine
interdiction capability.
These initiatives, which began in 1998,
are expected to result in a fully integrated
border management approach by Customs
and INS along the entire Southwest border
by 2003.

Citizenship and Benefits: The Administration is committed to building and maintaining
a naturalization system that ensures integrity
and provides service and benefits in a timely
manner. The surge of citizenship applications
in 1995 required the INS to reengineer what
had previously been a manual operation built
to handle a far smaller application volume.
The INS also had to address unprecedented
growth in naturalization applications from approximately 340,000 annually to nearly 1.6
million applicants in 1997. The record number
of applications, antiquated INS processes, and
complicated reengineering efforts have all contributed to an unacceptable citizenship application backlog of over 1.8 million cases.
In 1999, the Administration worked with
Congress to obtain $176 million in appropriated and reprogrammed funds to supplement the INS fee revenue. These resources
have funded the process reengineering and
the backlog reduction initiatives. The 1999
funding request was accompanied by a series
of INS initiatives including:

126

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• establishing backlog reduction teams in
the five offices responsible for 65 percent
of the caseload and hiring 200 addition
adjudicators,
• expanding support staff and contract services;
• establishing an Immigration Services Division to coordinate backlog reduction and
process reengineering;
• creating a customer service telephone center to provide an accurate and timely responses to inquiries; and
• centralizing application and medical waiver review to ensure quality and integrity.
The budget provides $124 million to continue
funding these initiatives and to assist INS
in finalizing the naturalization process reengineering in 2000. The result of these
funding enhancements is that the unacceptable backlog—which currently requires applicants to wait upwards of two years for
immigration benefits they are eligible for
now—should be reduced to a six to nine
month waiting period.
Reducing Drug Use, Trafficking, and its
Consequences
Drug use and its damaging consequences
cost our society more than $110 billion a
year 1 and poison the schools and neighborhoods where our youth strive to meet their
full potential. Illicit drug trafficking thrives
on a culture of crime, violence, and corruption
1
National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, March 1998.

Table 8–2.

throughout the world. Drug use is a major
contributing factor in the spread of AIDS
and other deadly diseases. All Americans,
regardless of economic, geographic, or other
position in society, feel the effects of drug
use and drug-related crime.
The budget proposes $17.8 billion for drug
control programs, a 4.3-percent increase over
the 1999 budget, which was supplemented
with $844 million in emergency funds primarly
to provide one-time capital investments for
boats and planes. The budget supports increases for key elements in the mission
to reduce drug use and its consequences,
such as drug treatment and prevention, especially for children and adolescents; domestic
law enforcement; and other supply reduction
programs (see Table 8–2).
Community-Based Prevention: The budget
proposes $2.5 billion for drug prevention programs. The percentage of 8th, 10th, and 12th
grade students reporting that they used marijuana at least once in the past month decreased sightly from 1997 to 1998. This is the
second year of decline for 8th graders and the
first year for 10th and 12th graders. The use
of other drugs, including alcohol, cigarettes, cocaine, and heroin either declined or remained
stable over this period. Additionally, the view
that drug use is harmful appears to be more
deeply shared, particularly among the youngest age segment. These results indicate that
America’s youth are receptive to the Administration’s ‘‘no use’’ message and that it should
reinforce this message and expand upon recent
gains.

DRUG CONTROL FUNDING

(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1999
Estimate 1

2000
Proposed

Dollar
Change:
1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

5,372
10,726

5,830
11,212

6,040
11,737

+210
+525

+4%
+5%

16,098

17,042

17,777

+735

+4%

1998
Actual

Demand reduction ...........................................
Supply reduction .............................................
Total, Drug Control Funding ...............
1

Excludes $844 million in emergency funds provided primarily for one-time capital investments.

8.

ENFORCING THE LAW

National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: The Office of National Drug Control
Policy, in conjunction with other Federal,
State, local, and private experts, is implementing a $195 million national media campaign,
including paid advertisements, targeting youth
and their parents on the consequences of illicit
drug use. Advertisers are required to provide
a ‘‘pro bono’’ match for each dollar the Federal
government spends on these paid advertisements. The anti-drug media campaign is fully
integrated Nationwide, including utilization of
the Internet and the entertainment industry.
This campaign will continue in 2000 with proposed funding $10 million higher than 1999.
Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Program: Students can reach their
full potential only in safe, disciplined, and
drug free learning environments. The Safe and
Drug Free Schools and Communities program
helps 97 percent of school districts implement
anti-drug and anti-violence programs in
schools. The budget proposes $591 million for
this program, including $90 million in competitive grants to high-need areas that use proven
program designs and $50 million for the School
Drug Prevention Coordinators program. The
proposed funding, 43 percent more than in
1999, will enable nearly half of the Nation’s
middle schools to have a knowledgeable director of drug and violence prevention programs
to ensure that local programs are effective and
link school-based prevention programs to community-based programs.
Drug Free Communities Act: The budget
proposes $22 million, a 10-percent increase
over 1999 for activities under this Act that
promote citizen participation in our efforts to
reduce substance abuse among youth and provide funds to help community anti-drug coalitions carry out their important missions.
Drug Treatment: The budget proposes $3.6
billion to treat drug abuse, six percent more
than in 1999. The Administration realizes that
an effective treatment system must confront
drug abuse where the challenge is the greatest—in the streets of urban, suburban, and
rural drug markets, and in the criminal justice
system. It is a top priority to close the gap
between the capacity of the public treatment
system and all those who could benefit from
substance abuse treatment. These chronic drug

127
users consume a disproportionate amount of
the illicit drugs used and inflict a disproportionate share of drug-related costs on society.
Zero Tolerance Drug Supervision: The
budget includes $215 million to promote zero
tolerance drug supervision for persons under
criminal justice supervision. Specifically, it
proposes: (1) $100 million to help States and
localities implement tough new systems to
drug test, treat, and punish prisoners, parolees
and probationers; (2) $50 million for drug
courts that work to break non-violent offenders
of their drug habits; and (3) $65 million to
provide intensive drug treatment to hardcore
drug users before and after they are released
from prison.
Domestic Drug Law Enforcement: The
budget proposes $9.2 billion for drug-related
domestic law enforcement, 3.5 percent more
than in 1999, to help bolster community-based
law enforcement efforts, shield the Southwest
border from illicit drugs, and enhance coordination among Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies. The budget proposes an
increase of $22 million for the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), most of which is
to increase staff productivity through an improved information, telecommunications, and
technology infrastructure. The Federal Government will continue its focus on providing leadership and training; facilitating multi-agency
cooperative efforts through the High Intensity
Drug Trafficking Areas program, the Southwest border initiative, and other efforts; and
offering incentives to States and localities to
use the most effective drug control methods.
International Programs and Interdiction: The Administration’s comprehensive approach to combating drug use includes an enhanced international strategy, making it harder for drug-criminals to smuggle illicit drugs
into the United States. The budget includes
funds to upgrade interdiction efforts along the
Southwest border and in the Caribbean, and
continues to provide heightened assistance to
foreign governments to curtail drug cultivation
and production. In addition, the budget fully
supports the operation of the planes and boats
provided for in the 1999 Omnibus Consolidated
and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
Act.

128
Source Nation Efforts: Internationally, the
United States focuses primarily on interdiction
in source countries and transit zones, disrupting the drug organizations and their production, marketing, and money laundering structures. The budget proposes an increase of $29
million over the 1999 base program level to
continue funding counternarcotics programs in
source nations, mainly Columbia, Peru, and
Bolivia. It proposes continued funding for enhanced coca, opium poppy, and marijuana crop
eradication efforts, and to provide training, logistics, equipment, intelligence, and communications support to source nations. The budget also provides for relocation of the U.S. Government’s drug mission from Panama to other
localities in the region in compliance with the
Panama Canal Treaty.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Southern Tier of the United States: The
Administration remains committed to shielding the Nation’s Southern tier from the drug
threat. Customs will continue to deploy technology, such as the use of x-rays in the air
passenger and outbound environments, to detect illicit contraband and currency. The budget further solidifies the interdiction effort by
providing $50 million for the technological
equivalent of adding another 1,000 border patrol agents, of which $7.5 million supports
anti-drug programs. An increase of $36 million, or 7.4 percent above the 1999 level, expands Coast Guard interdiction operations beyond the levels initiated with 1999 emergency
supplemental funding.

9.

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

‘‘We must continue to expand opportunity. Full participation in our strong and growing economy is the best antidote to envy, despair and racism. We must press ahead to move millions more
from poverty and welfare to work; to bring the spark of enterprise to inner cities; to redouble our
efforts to reach those rural communities prosperity has passed by. And most of all, we simply
must give our young people the finest education in the world.’’
President Clinton
August 1997

After six years of the Clinton Administration, the American economy continues to
break records. Homeownership and job creation are at all time highs, while crime,
poverty, and welfare rolls continue to fall.
This new era of prosperity offers unprecedented opportunity, but the doors of opportunity are not open equally to all. ‘‘The
economy has never been stronger,’’ the President has observed, ‘‘but there are still striking
disparities in jobs, in investments in neighborhoods, in education and criminal justice.’’
We must create One America, not only
to address the errors of the past, but to
assure our future. By the middle of the
next century, there will be no majority race
in this country. This, said the President
recently, ‘‘can either strengthen and unite
us, or... weaken and divide us... Today children
of every race walk through the same door,
but then they often walk down different
halls... they sit in different classrooms, they
eat at separate tables. Far too many communities are all white, all black, all Latino,
all Asian. Segregation is no longer the law,
but too often separation is still the rule.’’
Because these challenges reach far beyond
the Federal Government and require our
engagement as individuals, in our families,
churches and communities, the President
began, in 1997, a national Initiative on
Race. The elements of this Initiative were
three-fold: action, study, and dialogue with
communities and community leaders of all
races and regions to raise, discuss, and
better understand the tensions that divide
us. A distinguished advisory board reported

to the President throughout their year of
service. Later this year, the President will
issue his assessment to the American people.
Many of the programs in this budget are
already part of the response.
To build One America, it is essential that
we close the opportunity gap. We must do
this by increasing our efforts to spur economic
development and by expanding access to
jobs with a future, to quality education,
to decent health care, and to safe, affordable
housing. We must guarantee that the criminal
justice system works for all Americans. And
we must ensure that civil rights are enforced
with vigor, for as the President reminds
us, ‘‘we cannot forget one stubborn fact:
There is still discrimination in America.’’
Legally-enforced segregation, of course, is now
a relic of another time. Yet, in housing,
for example, researchers using pairs of applicants matched in all respects but race, find
that half the blacks and Hispanics looking
for a place to live face discrimination—
they are kept from seeing, buying or renting
homes that they can fully afford. Other
situations are more subtle: the lack of opportunity for some inner-city students, for example, to go to a top-notch high school, to
benefit from after-school programs, or to
be guided by mentors who help lead the
way to college.
To build One America, we must also act
to ensure economic opportunity throughout
our cities, across rural communities, and
Tribal reservations. There are still too many
areas, rural and urban, whose economies
are isolated from the Nation’s prosperity.
129

130
In many cities, the economic base disintegrated years ago when the manufacturing
industry began to fail and factories moved
away, leaving behind unemployment, poverty,
and social problems. In many rural areas,
the trend toward concentrations of fewer,
much larger farms has left small farmers
unable to compete and in need of other
ways to be able to support themselves and
their families.
The budget contains important new initiatives and expands current programs to encourage investment. It includes initiatives to
provide communities with economic and tax
incentives to encourage private investment
through fundamental elements of its development agenda—the Empowerment Zones and
Enterprise Communities program—and the
New Markets Initiative, and to encourage
volunteerism and community service through
the National Service program. In these efforts,
the Federal Government works cooperatively
in partnership with States, localities, businesses, non-profits, schools, families, and individuals.
Jobs and Economic Development
The President has strongly supported efforts
to strengthen and encourage economic growth
in distressed communities. The centerpiece
of this approach—Empowerment Zones and
Enterprise Communities—has made significant
progress in promoting economic development
in rural and urban areas. Building on that
progress, this budget proposes the New Markets Initiative—a program to stimulate billions
in new private investment in America’s untapped markets in urban and rural areas.
The New Markets Investment Initiative:
The budget provides tax credit and loan guarantee incentives to stimulate billions of new
private capital investments in targeted areas;
creates a network of private investment institutions to funnel credit, equity, and technical
assistance into businesses in America’s new
markets; and provides the expertise to targeted small businesses that will allow them
to use investment to grow.
• The New Markets Tax Credit: To help spur
$6 billion in new equity capital, this tax

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

credit is worth up to 25 percent for investments in a variety of vehicles serving
these communities, including community
development banks, venture funds and
other new investment company programs
created by this initiative. A wide-range of
businesses could be financed by these investment funds, including small technology firms, inner-city shopping centers,
manufacturers with hundreds of employees, and retail stores.
• America’s Private Investment Companies
(APICs): Just as America’s support for the
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
helps promote growth in emerging markets abroad, APICs will encourage private
investment in this country’s untapped
markets by providing loan guarantees—
administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and
the
Small
Business
Administration
(SBA)—for private investors who target
larger businesses that are expanding within or relocating to inner-city and rural
areas.
• Small Business Investment Companies
New Markets Initiative: Last summer, the
Vice President challenged the SBA to find
ways to better meet the needs of minority
firms and underserved markets. The SBA
is responding by offering more flexibility
and new financing terms—through a new
type of federally-guaranteed loan—to
make it more attractive for SBICs to invest in low- and moderate-income areas.
Other key elements include: New Markets
Venture Capital Firms, which will match
equity of private investors with Government
debt guarantees and deferred interest to
provide capital and expert guidance to innercity and rural entrepreneurs to transform
their small businesses into thriving companies;
New Markets Lending Companies, which will
allow non-bank lenders with strategies to
target their lending to underserved areas
to originate loans through the SBA;
BusinessLinc, an innovative public-private
partnership, spearheaded by the Vice President and CEOs—for which $3 million in

9.

131

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

Building One America for the 21st Century: The President’s Initiative
on Race
In June 1997, the President created his Initiative on Race. Led by an Advisory Board and involving thousands of citizens from all races and communities, the Initiative created our Nation’s
first public forum on race. Americans spoke candidly about their impressions and experiences of
race in America, and shared their hopes, and fears, about the future. This effort made an important first step toward bringing down the barriers that continue to divide us.
For 15 months, the Advisory Board engaged issues such as civil rights enforcement, racial disparities in education, economic opportunity, race and housing discrimination, negative racial
stereotypes, crime and the administration of justice, and immigration. The meetings highlighted
America’s common ground. Equally important, they offered compelling evidence about the need
to confront our past in order to change our future. The Board suggested actions to address these
issues, as part of what is needed to build a more equal country.
The Initiative made clear that we still must struggle, both to reconcile and overcome the past
and to become a part of the multi-racial and multi-cultural America that is our future.
Throughout the year, the Advisory Board made recommendations to the President and the
Nation, which were acted upon: to continue the dialogue that is needed; to continue public education about the facts of race in America and the thousands of efforts in communities, schools,
and churches Nation-wide to bridge racial divides and create a larger community; to close the
gap and ensure common opportunities in education, the workplace, our homes and communities;
to ensure common access to health care and to ensure the broad enforcement of laws against
discrimination. In the course of its work last year the Administration made progress in a range
of program areas, including those listed below. Many others are listed in this chapter and
throughout the Budget.
• Americans with Disabilities Act: A $1 million increase in the Department of Justice’s Civil
Rights Division to enhance enforcement of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
• Educational Help for Low-Income Students: The Administration proposed, and Congress enacted, an early intervention program for low-income students. The budget would double funding for GEAR-UP, the early intervention program that provides funds to State and local partnerships to help students prepare for and attend college.
• Eliminating Health Disparities: $65 million in first-year funding was appropriated for an initiative that sets a national goal of eliminating longstanding disparities in the health status of
racial and ethnic minority groups in the next decade. The budget includes $135 million to continue this initiative.
As these efforts continue, many other programs included by the President in the budget and
described in this chapter will advance these goals. Furthermore, later this year the President
will present to the American people a comprehensive report of his own vision. It will describe
the steps that we as a Nation can take to overcome the burdens of the past and realize the potential of One America in the 21st Century.

seed money will encourage large businesses to
work with small businesses to improve economic competitiveness in small firms in urban
and rural distressed areas; and specialized
small business investment companies, which
will be able to provide increased equity capital
through expanded tax incentives.
Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI): The New Markets Initiative also provides increased funding for CDFIs,

which have expertise in lending and investment in underserved areas, both rural and
urban.
In 1994, the President proposed, and the
Congress established, the CDFI Fund. CDFIs
include a broad range of institutions—community development banks, low-income credit
unions, venture capital funds, and microenterprise loan funds—that provide a wide range
of products and services, such as mortgage

132
financing to first-time home buyers, commercial loans for small businesses, and other
basic financial services. By creating and expanding a diverse set of CDFIs, the Fund
helps develop new private markets, create
healthy local economies, promote entrepreneurship, restore neighborhoods, generate tax
revenues, and empower residents in distressed
urban and rural communities.
The Fund represents a new approach to
community development that uses limited
Federal resources to leverage significant private sector resources. Every CDFI that receives financial assistance from the Fund
must provide at least a one-to-one match
with funds from non-Federal sources. To
date, the CDFI Fund has awarded over
$120 million in financial and technical assistance to CDFIs. In addition the Fund has
awarded nearly $60 million to traditional
banks and thrifts for increasing their activities
in economically distressed communities and
investing in CDFIs.
The budget proposes $125 million for the
CDFI Fund, including $15 million for a
new microenterprise initiative that would provide technical assistance grants to microenterprise intermediaries to assist low-income and
disadvantaged entrepreneurs. Microenterprises
are very small businesses that typically have
fewer than 10 employees and generally lack
access to conventional loans, equity, or other
banking services.
Other programs that provide services to
underserved markets include:
Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Rural
Development Programs: Because their needs
are so different, no single approach will
help both urban and rural communities. The
Administration proposes to give States, localities, and Tribes more flexibility in how
they use USDA’s Rural Development grants
and loans for businesses, water and wastewater facilities, and community facilities such
as day care centers and health clinics. The
1996 Farm Bill authorized this approach
through a new Rural Community Advancement Program (RCAP), combining 12 separate
USDA programs into a Performance Partnership that can tailor assistance to the unique
economic development needs of each rural
community. The budget proposes $3.0 billion

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

in loans and grants for RCAP, nine percent
more than in 1999 and the full flexibility
that the 1996 Farm Bill envisioned. It also
includes the new Partnership Technical Assistance grants and grants for early-warning
weather systems in areas prone to tornadoes.
Economic Adjustment Grants: On November
13, 1998, the President signed the Economic
Development Administration and Appalachian
Regional Commission Reform Act of 1998,
to further leverage private sector investment
and create jobs in America’s poorest communities. The budget continues support for the
Appalachian Regional Commission and provides a $20 million increase for the Economic
Development Administration’s economic adjustment program, which helps distressed
communities recover from sudden and/or severe economic downturns such as those caused
by increased foreign imports, international
trade agreements, industry downsizing, plant
closings, environmental regulations, and natural disasters.
Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC):
The Administration continues support for ARC
to help 406 economically distressed counties
in the 13-State Appalachian region. The ARC’s
Federal-State partnership is a proven economic
development model of balanced fiscal decisionmaking that has helped improve the economic
viability of this region over the past 35
years.
Empowerment Zones (EZs) and Enterprise Communities (ECs): The EZ and EC
initiative is the foundation of the Administration’s empowerment agenda for communities
with high unemployment and poverty rates.
This initiative challenges these urban and
rural communities to develop comprehensive
strategic plans for revitalization, with input
from residents and community partners. The
program selects communities with the most innovative plans and significant local commitments.
Investment in EZs and ECs is available
in many forms. The Federal Government
provides tax benefits for businesses and flexible block grants to communities for job training, day care and other purposes. EZs and
ECs can apply for waivers from Federal
regulations, enabling them to better address
local needs. Special set-asides from USDA

9.

133

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

Investment in Rural America
Over the last year, the Administration reviewed the effectiveness of USDA’s programs to address the needs of rural America, focusing on achievements in rural development since 1993 and
how rural financing needs are changing.
Financial Credit: The lack of credit in rural areas is no longer a pervasive problem, but the
range of credit institutions serving rural areas is likely to be different, often narrower, than
those serving urban areas. In 1994, 27 percent of rural counties were served by two or fewer
banks, while 40 percent of urban counties were served by 10 or more. The size of rural communities and the number of total rural borrowers often limit how many lenders can profitably compete to make rural loans. Not all rural market segments are equally well served. In some rural
areas, the range of available financial services is still too narrow to ensure borrowers have access to sufficient credit at competitive terms.
Housing: The 1990 Census data show that the cost of housing continues to be a serious problem for the rural poor.
• Nearly 22 percent of the Nation’s 20.4 million nonmetro households paid 30 percent or more of
their income for shelter in 1991.
• Nonmetro areas have a greater incidence of moderate or severe housing quality problems than
metro areas.
Innovations developed since 1993 to address the needs of rural areas have been structured to:
address diversity of need (through the flexible funding structure of the Rural Community Advancement Program-RCAP), coordinate Federal and other programs collectively to help communities including EZ and ECs and Champion Communities, and make the most of constrained resources (e.g., leveraging). Building on the findings of the Administration’s review, the budget
continues and improves upon these approaches through the proposed Partnership Technical Assistance Grants, which will provide technical assistance to under-served communities to create
strategic plans, better use and coordinate USDA’s rural development grant and loan programs,
and achieve sustained economic viability, job creation, and improved quality of life.
Since 1994, USDA’s Water 2000 initiative—an effort to bring safe drinking water to rural
communities with serious water problems—has funded almost $1.6 billion in loans and grants
on approximately 1,400 high-priority Water 2000 projects Nation-wide. With proposed 2000
RCAP funding (12 percent above 1999), USDA expects to fund 300 clean water systems out of
the $1.5 billion targeted for water and wastewater programs. Additional RCAP goals in 2000 include providing 100,000 new or saved jobs, compared to 82,000 in 1998, through the Business
and Industry loan programs, intermediary relending program, and community facilities programs. In 2000, USDA will also reduce the number of rural residents living in substandard
housing by providing $4.3 billion in single family housing loans and loan guarantees providing
50,500 new or improved homes.

rural development programs are available
to rural EZs and ECs.
• Original EZs and ECs: Designated in
1994, these EZs and ECs are already
showing promise of success. The Rio
Grand Valley EZ, for instance, is using
$40 million of EZ funds to expand businesses and rehabilitate housing and educational facilities. It has already used $11
million of EZ funds to leverage $100 million in additional capital to create or save
1,500 jobs, train 900 persons, and serve
3,200 youth in developmental programs.

• Additional EZs and ECs: The Administration has worked to expand the reach of
these initiatives to other distressed communities. In 1997, Congress authorized 22
additional EZs and made qualified businesses in these zones eligible for tax incentives including: up-front deductions for
qualifying capital investments; new tax-exempt facility bonds; new deductions for environmental remediation costs; and new
tax credits for holders of qualified zone
education academy bonds. In January
1999, the Administration announced that
it had designated 20 new Zones, selected

134

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

on a competitive basis, from the applications of more than 250 communities.
Flexible grants will be used by these new
Zones to carry out comprehensive revitalization strategies. In 1999, Congress provided
first-year funding of $55 million for the
new EZs, and authority and $5 million in
first-year funding for 20 new rural Enterprise
Communities announced in January.
The budget also proposes mandatory funding
for 10 years for a total commitment of
$1.6 billion: $100 million a year for urban
EZs; $50 million in mandatory funding over
10 years for rural EZs; and $5 million
a year for rural ECs. It also provides $20
million in HUD funding for technical assistance and planning and implementation grants
and $45 million to support 15 new Strategic
Planning Communities. It also includes a
new USDA program to provide $5 million
for partnership technical assistance grants
to help rural communities develop comprehensive strategies for revitalization and to better
coordinate Federal assistance. In addition,
the budget proposes a $50 million Regional
Empowerment Zone Initiative to assist urban
EZs and ECs in linking their economic development strategies to their broader metropolitan regional economies to increase youth
employment.
Designated EZ and EC communities will
receive priority consideration for funds from
Federal economic development programs and
for waivers of certain regulatory requirements
from the Community Empowerment Board
chaired by the Vice President.
Livability Initiative: The budget proposes
six new investments as part of the Livability
initiative. The budget includes an unprecedented request for Community Transportation
Choices, a $6.1 billion mass transit program,
a $1.8 billion congestion relief and air quality
improvement program, and $614 million to implement innovative community based transportation programs; $9.5 billion over five years
for Better America Bonds, a new State and
local bonding authority for green space preservation, water quality enhancement, and clean
up of abandoned industrial sites; and a $50
million HUD Regional Connections Initiative

to promote regional ‘‘smart growth’’ strategies
and complement the Administration’s other regional efforts; Regional Connections matching
grants will help local partnerships design and
pursue smarter growth strategies across jurisdictional lines. The budget also proposes $40
million for a Community-Federal Information
Partnership to provide communities with
grants for easy to use information tools to help
develop strategies for future growth; $130 million for Regional Crime Data Sharing to expand programs to help communities share information to improve public safety; and $10
million for Community-Centered Schools, a
new grant program administered by the Education Department to encourage school districts to involve the community in planning
and designing new schools. Also icnluded in
the budget is the Lands Legacy initiative (see
Chapter 6), which will complement the Livability agenda, emphasizing land conservaton;
smart growth; and partnerships with State
and local governments, land trusts, and other
non-profit grouops to preserve open spaces in
urban, suburban, rural, and coastal areas. As
part of the broader Livability Initiative, the
budget proposes $50 million for a new HUD
program that will support local partnerships
that are designing ‘‘smart growth’’ strategies.
Partnerships that cross jurisdictional lines will
receive grants to address problems of sprawl
and congestion in ways that address the needs
of both cities and suburbs. The outcome will
be development that reduces commute times,
preserves open space, and provides a balanced
distribution of economic opportunity and access to affordable housing regionwide.
Urban and Rural Development and
Increasing Homeownership
In 1994 the Administration launched an
unprecedented partnership with 58 key public
and private organizations to form a National
Homeownership Strategy to increase homeownership. Along with a strong economy
and low interest rates, the Administration’s
policies have helped boost homeownership
to 66.8 percent—a new all-time high; 7.4
million Americans have become homeowners
under this Administration, including record
numbers of minorities.

9.

135

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
Loan Limits: The Administration’s successful
1999 proposal to increase the FHA mortgage
limit will allow FHA to help more families purchase their first homes, especially in areas
with high housing prices. Reforms of FHA’s
property disposition practices, starting this
year, will reduce costs and stabilize neighborhoods.
Play-by-the-Rules: Also in 1999, the Administration proposed, and Congress enacted,
a $25 million Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation Play-by-the-Rules pilot program. This
program will allow renters with solid payment
track records to own their own homes. The
budget proposes a second $15 million investment in this initiative.
Low-Income Housing Tax Credit: The
budget proposes to expand the Low-Income
Housing Tax Credit to spur the private sector
to develop more affordable low-income rental
housing. The proposal will cost $1.6 billion
over the next five years and help develop another 75,000 to 90,000 units per year. It will
restore the value of the tax credit, which has
eroded over the last decade due to an increase
in building costs, helping to reduce rents by
an average of $450 a month for the average
assisted renter who, earns $13,300 a year.
Public Housing Program: In 1998, Congress passed comprehensive public housing reform legislation, the Quality Housing and
Work Responsibility Act. The Act increases the
availability of Federal housing assistance to
very poor families with limited housing choices
while at the same time promoting a greater
mix of income and new administrative flexibility in public housing.
The budget builds on these reforms and
reduces poverty concentrations by providing
$625 million in HOPE VI grants to local
housing authorities to demolish an additional
20,000 dilapidated public housing units and
replace them with portable subsidies or newly
constructed mixed income housing. These
funds provide sufficient resources to achieve
the Administration’s goal of demolishing
100,000 of the most severely distressed units.

The Administration also proposes $580 million
for 100,000 portable housing vouchers, including 25,000 for families seeking to move
from welfare to work, 18,000 to help homeless
move to permanent housing with supportive
services, and 15,000 to assist the extremely
low-income elderly with housing. Local housing
agencies that work in partnership with State
and local welfare agencies will get the flexibility to design programs to serve welfare
families for whom housing assistance is critical
to getting and retaining jobs.
Elderly Housing Program: The budget expands HUD’s elderly housing program by providing mandatory funds for 15,000 new housing vouchers targeted at the elderly, in addition to $660 million in discretionary resources.
Together this funding will address the changing needs of the elderly population and reconfigure an aging housing stock to better
serve the frail elderly. Discretionary spending
of $660 million will provide grants to non-profits for construction of 5,970 units and conversion of some projects to assisted living facilities, using a combination of capital grants and
service coordinators to bring community services to residents. The budget permanently authorizes 15,000 new housing vouchers linked
to Low-Income Housing Tax Credit properties
to make these units affordable to extremely
low-income elderly.
Regional Affordable Housing: The budget
also proposes a new demonstration program,
the Regional Affordable Housing Initiative that
will award funds competitively to provide technical assistance and project development to
five regions committed to creating and adhering to an affordable housing plan that integrates job development with housing production on a regional basis.
Closing the Opportunity Gap
The budget includes numerous programs
to narrow disparities and to increase economic
opportunity in our Nation, so that we may
achieve the goal of building One America.
What follows are selected examples of such
programs in areas including education, national service, health, and justice.

136
Education
Head Start: Among the President’s highest
priorities, Head Start will serve 877,000 lowincome children in 2000, providing comprehensive child development services and helping
parents get involved in their children’s lives.
Since 1993, the President has worked with
the Congress to increase annual Head Start
funding by 68 percent. This year’s proposal
will keep the program on track to meet
the President’s goal of serving one million
children by 2002. The President proposes
to focus resources this year to boost minority
participation in Head Start, particularly in
areas with recent influxes of limited Englishproficient children.
Title I—Education for the Disadvantaged:
This program provides funds to raise the
educational achievement of disadvantaged children. The Title I Account will receive $8.7
billion in 2000, a $373 million increase over
1999. This funding includes resources for
a new Accountability Fund, which would
support immediate and significant State and
local interventions in the lowest performing
schools to improve student achievement.
The End of Social Promotion: The President
is committed to ending social promotion and
will work to give students the tools they
need to meet challenging academic standards.
The budget proposes an expansion to the
21st Century Community Learning Centers,
enabling more than 7,500 schools to open
their doors before and after the school day
and during the summer.
Hispanic Education Agenda: Because the
educational achievement of Hispanic-Americans continues to lag behind that of other
groups, in 1999 President Clinton proposed,
and the Congress enacted, the first-ever Hispanic Education Agenda. The budget continues
support for this plan by proposing increases
for Bilingual Education, Adult Education, Migrant Education, Comprehensive School Reform, High School Equivilancy Program, and
College Assistance Migrant Program, among
others.
GEAR-UP: GEAR-UP will provide increased
funds for States and local partnerships to
help low-income students prepare for and
attend college.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

These and other programs designed to
ensure educational opportunity for disadvantaged Americans are discussed in Chapter
3, ‘‘Investing in Education and Training.’’
National Service
The President has consistently supported
and encouraged community service and volunteerism
through
such
programs
as
AmeriCorps and other programs supported
through the Corporation for National and
Community Service. Volunteerism and community service have been a strong and important
tradition in American ever since its founding.
In 1994, President Clinton signed the King
Holiday and Service Act making the national
holiday a day of service that would bring
people together, promote racial cooperation
and help to solve problems through citizen
action.
The Corporation for National Service: This
program encourages Americans of all ages
and backgrounds to help solve community
problems and provides opportunities to engage
in community-based service. The budget proposes $848 million for the Corporation, an
18.6 percent increase over 1999.
AmeriCorps: Over 150,000 individuals will
have participated in AmeriCorps in the first
five years. The program allows young Americans of all backgrounds to serve in local
communities through programs sponsored by
local and national nonprofits. Participants
serve full-or part-time, generally for at least
a year. In return, they earn a minimum
living allowance, set at about the poverty
level of a single individual and, when they
complete their service, they earn an education
award to help pay for postsecondary education
or repay student loans.
The National Senior Service Corps: This
program provides opportunities for citizens
age 55 and older to use their time and
talents to meet community needs. The budget
funds the Retired and Senior Volunteer Program, the Foster Grandparent Program, and
the Senior Companion Program, enabling more
than half a million older Americans to serve.
Health Care and Services
Providing Quality Health Care to Native
Americans: The budget proposes an increase

9.

137

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

of $170 million for IHS, which will provide
for many services, including exapanded breast
cancer screenings, dental services, immunizations, pre-natal care and more. In addition,
the Administration will coordinate efforts to
ensure that HHS health grants provide assistance to Native Americans, review reimbursements from Medicaid and Medicare, and
increase vigilance to ensure that Federal
funds are used properly.
Help to reduce racial disparities in health
status: Despite improvements in the Nation’s
overall health, continuing disparities remain
in the burden of death and illness that
certain minority groups experience. For example, the infant mortality rate for AfricanAmericans is more than twice that of Caucasians. To address this and other disparities,
the budget includes $135 million for health
education, prevention, and treatment services
for minority populations.
(For additonal information see Chapter 5,
‘‘Strengthening Health Care.’’)
Justice
Criminal Justice: The administration of
criminal justice in America reflects the same
racial and ethnic disparities as other aspects

Table 9–1.

of American society, with differing rates of
incarceration, sentencing and imposition of
the death penalty. For example, black inmates
comprise 50 percent of Federal prison population, four times their proportion of the
general population. These disparities create
a distrust of law enforcement in many minority communities. Moreover, criminal victimization rates, particularly with regard to violent
crimes, are substantially higher for minorities.
The Hate Crimes Initiative addresses one
aspect of this complicated area. President
Clinton first announced the addition of approximately 50 FBI and Federal prosecutors
to enforce the laws against hate crimes
in 1997 at the White House Conference
on Hate Crimes. The budget proposes $31
million to continue the battle against hate
crimes in this Nation.
(For additional information, see Chapter
8, ‘‘Enforcing the Law.’’)
Civil Rights Enforcement: Since the civil
rights movement eliminated the most obvious
forms of discrimination, including segregation,
it has become increasingly difficult to document remaining discrimination in areas such
as housing, employment, credit and insurance.
The budget includes $663 million for funding

CIVIL RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT FUNDING
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1998
Actual

2000
Proposed

Dollar
Change:
1998 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1998 to
2000

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission .................
Housing and Urban Development: Fair Housing Activities ...................................................................................
Justice: Civil Rights Division ............................................
Labor: Ofice of Federal Contract Compliance Programs
Education: Office for Civil Rights .....................................
Health and Human Services: Office of Civil Rights ........
Agriculture: Civil Rights Programs ..................................
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights ......................................
Transportation: Office of Civil Rights ..............................
Labor: Civil Rights Center ................................................
EPA: Office of Civil Rights ................................................
Justice: Attorneys General ................................................

242

312

+70

+29%

30
65
62
62
20
15
9
6
5
2
..............

47
82
76
73
22
19
11
8
6
2
5

+17
+17
+14
+11
+2
+4
+2
+2
+1
..............
5

+57%
+26%
+23%
+18%
+11%
+27%
+22%
+28%
+14%
..............
..............

Total ................................................................................

518

663

145

28%

138

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 9–2.

GOVERNMENT-WIDE NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAM
FUNDING
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1998
Actual

Dollar
1999
2000
Change:
Estimate Proposed 1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

BIA ..............................................................................
IHS ..............................................................................
Program level (non-add) 1 ......................................
All other ......................................................................

1,703
2,099
(2,431)
3,355

1,746
2,242
(2,652)
3,762

1,901
2,412
(2,822)
3,865

+155
+170
(+170)
+103

+9%
+8%
(+6%)
+3%

Total ...........................................................................

7,157

7,750

8,178

+428

+6%

1
IHS program level includes both budget authority and Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance collections.

civil rights enforcement agencies, an $84
million or 15-percent, increase over the 1999
level of $579 million. The budget proposes
a total of $312 million for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (a 12-percent
increase); $82 million for the Department
of Justice’s Civil Rights Division (a 19-percent
increase); $76 million for the Department
of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (a 17-percent increase); and
$47 million for HUD’s fair housing activities
(an 17-percent increase). Additionally, over
$10 million will be used by the USDA
to improve civil rights enforcement and program outreach to under-represented customers. (See Table 9–1 for civil rights enforcement funding.)
The budget proposes to target $10 million
to identify and document discrimination. These
funds include $7.5 million for the Department
of Housing and Urban Development to expand
studies that document discrimination in the
housing market. The budget provides additional funds to encourage other agencies to
begin tracking discrimination, and also funds
the creation of a coordinated research agenda
for Federal agencies to document discrimination in a variety of areas.
Commitment to Native Americans
The Administration honors its governmentto-government relationship with Tribes by
protecting critical, reservation-level programs,
and bringing together government leaders
and resources to address priority Tribal con-

cerns, such as crime and educational opportunities. The budget proposes $8.2 billion, six
percent more than in 1999, for Governmentwide programs addressing basic Tribal needs
and encouraging self-determination (see Table
9–2).
Law Enforcement: The second year of the
Interior and Justice Departments’ joint law
enforcement initiative, for which the budget
proposes $164 million in 2000 (50 percent
over 1999), will continue to address high
crime rates in Indian country with more
resources for drug control and youth crime
prevention programs, equipment, detention
services, crime reporting surveys, and officer
hiring and retention.
Education: The Administration is continuing
its commitment to education by systematically
expanding the school construction initiative
to address Indian reservations’ school repair
and replacement needs. As part of the school
modernization proposal, Interior’s Bureau of
Indian Affairs (BIA) will receive a set-aside
in bond authority ($200 million in both
2000 and 2001, plus up to $30 million
to ensure bond principal repayment) for its
schools on Indian reservations in need of
replacement or major repairs. In addition
to school construction, BIA will increase resources for school operations; early intervention partnerships; child care; and technology
within schools, classrooms and libraries. The
Nation-wide class size reduction initiative
also includes a set-aside for BIA schools.
A separate Education Department initative

9.

BUILDING ONE AMERICA

will hire 1,000 new Indian teachers and
provide professional development.
Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health
Services: The BIA and the Health and Human
Services Department’s Indian Health Service
(IHS) make up nearly two-thirds of Federal
funding for Native American programs. For
the BIA, the budget proposes $1.9 billion,
nine percent over the 1999 enacted level.
Over 90 percent of BIA operations funding
goes for basic, high-priority reservation-level
programs such as education, social services,
law enforcement, housing improvement, and
natural resources management.
For IHS, the budget proposes $2.4 billion,
a substantial increase of eight percent over
the 1999 level. This increase would enable
IHS to continue expanding accessible and
high-quality health care to its Native American service users, through IHS’ existing
network comprised of over 540 direct health
care delivery facilities (discussed earlier in
this chapter). This increase reflects a fourpronged approach for IHS: substantial increase
in 2000, access to health grants, Medicare
and Medicaid reimbursements, and vigilance
on fraud and abuse, which is discussed
in detail in Chapter 5, ‘‘Strengthening Health
Care ).’’
The budget also supports access to health
services and improves health status of Native
American by ensuring that IHS’ health facilities are adequately maintained. Within the
increase, IHS will continue the construction
of the Navajo Fort Defiance Hospital, the
Parker Health Clinic and three to eight
dental units. In addition, the $30 million
a year in diabetes-related funding that IHS
receives under the new Children’s Health
Insurance Program will help alleviate complications from diabetes.
Tribal Contracting and Self-Governance: BIA
and IHS will continue to promote Tribal
self-determination through local decision-making. Tribal contracting and self-governance
compact agreements now represent half of
BIA’s operations budget, and over 40 percent
of IHS’ budget.
Indian Trust Fund Balances: The Administration is committed to resolving disputed
Indian trust fund account balances through

139
informal dispute resolution and supports the
unique government-to-government relationship
that exists in Indian trust land management
issues. After Tribal consultations, BIA submitted its recommendations to Congress in November 1997. Legislation reflecting these recommendations was proposed in 1998, but
not enacted. It will be re-proposed in the
106th Congress.
Trust Land Management: As part of BIA’s
commitment to resolving trust land management issues, BIA will re-propose legislation
to establish an Indian Land Consolidation
program to address the ownership fractionation of Indian land. In 1999, BIA will
devote $5 million to three pilot projects
in Wisconsin in cooperation with Tribes, to
purchase small ownership interests in highly
fractionated tracts of land from willing sellers.
The budget proposes to double funding for
this program.
Trust Management Improvement Project: The
budget provides $90 million for DOI’s Office
of Special Trustee’s trust management improvement project, an increase of $51 million
over 1999. Current activities include verifying
individual Indian’s account data and converting these data to a commercial-grade accounting system. Ownership, lease, and royalty
information related to the underlying trust
assets will also be verified and converted
to a recently acquired commercial asset management system.
Commitment to the District of Columbia
As part of the 1997 balanced budget agreement, the President proposed, and Congress
enacted, a comprehensive financial restructuring plan for the District of Columbia. It
relieved the District of major financial burdens
and laid the groundwork to restore the District’s fiscal health. Due to prudent fiscal
management and on-going efforts to build
private investment, the District—facing bankruptcy only five years ago—produced a budget
surplus in 1997 and 1998. If the District
continues to balance its budget through 2000,
it will regain full home-rule.
Under the comprehensive financial restructuring plan, the Federal Government assumed
certain functions in which it has a clear
interest.

140

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Medicaid: The Federal Government has assumed the role typically played by both Federal and State governments under this health
insurance program, paying 70 percent of Medicaid spending in the District (compared to the
previous 50 percent).

nomic development and infrastructure investments in 1999. To maintain a balanced
budget in the future, the District has launched
major management reforms, cut spending,
and directed a portion of budget surpluses
to eliminate its accumulated deficit by 2000.

Criminal Justice: The Federal Government
now funds the District’s Court System and
other key elements of the District criminal justice system, including the incarceration of sentenced felons and supervision of all adult offenders. By 2001, all adult-sentenced felons
will be in the custody of the Federal Bureau
of Prisons (FBOP). The budget includes $393
million to implement the President’s plan for
District courts and corrections and $255 million to accomodate the transfer of D.C. inmates
for which FBOP assumed responsibility.

The Administration—through its departments and agencies—will continue to provide
technical help and other assistance to the
District in such areas as education and
law enforcement. The Administration strongly
supports the District’s right to self-governance
and is committed to do its part.

Pensions: The Federal Government has resumed responsibility for an estimated $5.9 billion unfunded pension liability that it transferred to the District in 1979.
The Federal Government eliminated its annual payment to the District, though it
provided a one-time, $190 million payment
for District operations in 1998 and provided
$248 million in funding for earmarked eco-

Public Television in the Digital Age
The budget provides a total of $414 million
for 2000 through 2003 for the public broadcasting system’s transition to digital technology.
Digital broadcasting will allow greatly expanded educational, community service, and
cultural programming through innovative applications, including high-definition and interactive television. Funding through the Commerce Department will be devoted to promoting digital transmission, while funding for
the Corporation for Public Broadcasting will
be for digital program production and development capabilities.

10. ADVANCING UNITED STATES
LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD
‘‘If the history of this American century has taught us anything, it is that we will either work to
shape events, or we will be shaped by them. We cannot be partly in the world. We cannot lead in
fits and starts or only when we believe it suits our short-term interests. We must lead boldly, consistently, without reservation ...Our security and prosperity depend upon our willingness to be involved in the world.’’
President Clinton
August 1998

As the era that has been labeled the
American Century comes to a close, the
role of the United States in one significant
way remains unchanged. Today, America is
the world’s sole remaining superpower and,
therefore, still has its own set of unique
obligations and responsibilities. The world
in many ways is safer than in the past,
as democracy and free markets increasingly
prevail, but we cannot afford to be complacent.
Threats to our security still require our
vigilance, and opportunities to promote peace
and economic well-being demand our leadership.
America must remain a leader for peace,
freedom, and security—and a bulwark against
the forces that would undermine them. American diplomacy helped restore momentum in
the Middle East peace process at the Wye
River meeting and helped achieve the ratification of the Good Friday Accord, which brought
an end to 30 years of turmoil for the
people of Northern Ireland.
While progress in making peace offers cause
for optimism, there are real and growing
threats to our national security. The terrorist
attacks against two U.S. embassies in East
Africa last year—which killed hundreds of
people, including 12 Americans—are a stark
reminder that we need to protect our citizens
and to combat our enemies. Our security
and the stability of the international order
is also threatened by the proliferation of

weapons of mass destruction and their means
of delivery, international terrorism and crime,
narcotics, and environmental degradation.
Nations and their economies are increasingly
interdependent, due in large part to the
explosion of communications technology. While
this interdependence can help foster international trade and cultural understanding,
and contribute to the foundation for peace,
there are also fundamental risks. Last year,
disruptions in the Russian and several Asian
economies and the threat to Brazil’s economy
demonstrated the world-wide impact of crises
in major economies.
In order to ensure that America maintains
its role as world leader and responds to
these needs in a complex and crucial time,
the budget includes resources to promote
peace in troubled areas, to provide enhanced
security for our diplomats abroad, to fund
activities to combat weapons of mass destruction, to stabilize the international economy,
to promote trade, and to respond to the
needs of our neighbors and others who face
disaster.
American diplomacy is the tool of American
international leadership in these many important issues, and it depends on strong international affairs programs. In 1999, the Administration and Congress worked successfully
to build bipartisan support for an increase
in international affairs spending.

141

142
Congress appropriated $14.5 billion for the
U.S. share of the International Monetary
Fund (IMF) quota increase and $3.5 billion
for the U.S. share of the New Arrangements
to Borrow. These increases will allow the
IMF the necessary resources to support economic reform and restructuring around the
world, thereby helping to protect U.S. prosperity. Congress also appropriated $1.8 billion
in emergency funding, largely to meet the
urgent needs of protecting American personnel
and facilities abroad from terrorist attacks.
Despite significant progress on international
problems last year, there is an unfinished
and growing set of issues which are critical
to U.S. interests. The Administration and
Congress must continue efforts to promote
peace and stand with those working to build
it and to work for freedom and security.
We must continue to strengthen our alliances
and partnerships in Europe and Asia, the
foundation for America’s security. Finally,
we must work to deepen democracy around
the world—the best long-term investment
we can make in peace and stability.
Although American diplomacy has made
great strides to advance the peace process
in the Middle East and in the Balkans,
there is still an enormous amount of hard
work ahead. Collaboration between the Administration and Congress is essential to give
peace in those regions the opportunity it
deserves. Trade has been essential to the
current economic expansion, and Congress
should enact legislation promoting trade with
Africa and the Caribbean Basin. Such trade
initiatives can help bolster the growth of
countries undertaking desirable free-market
reforms, thereby helping the American economy by increasing markets for our own
exports.
In providing $21.3 billion for international
affairs programs, the budget proposes that
the United States continue to actively meet
the role and responsibility of world leadership
(see Table 10–1). The budget helps resolve
unfinished business from past years, addresses
the many new crises facing the world, and
targets funding increases to the most effective
programs to achieve foreign policy objectives,
rejecting outmoded activities and poorly-performing projects. This will strengthen U.S.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

leadership and benefit the American people,
while costing less than one percent of the
Federal budget.
Protecting American Security
Facility Vulnerability: The bombings of
the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
were evil acts of terror that took the lives of
hundreds of innocent people, including 12
Americans. The bombings highlight the dangers faced daily by Americans and foreign national employees who work abroad in U.S.
Government facilities. A significant step to address vulnerability in our diplomatic facilities
took place with enactment of emergency security funding in 1999. The budget proposes an
increase to the State Department’s operating
budget in 2000 to ensure the continued protection of American embassies, consulates and
other facilities, and the valuable employees
who work there. The Administration will continue to examine the vulnerabilities and requirements for U.S. Government staff overseas
through a review of the number, size, and composition of U.S. overseas missions and future
security requirements. To address further security needs, the budget includes a request for
$3 billion in advance appropriations for a new
multi-year security construction program to replace inadequate overseas facilities. The Administration will continue to work with Congress in a bipartisan manner to address the
continuing challenge of making our overseas
posts secure.
The New Transnational Threats: Another
fundamental goal, and an increasing focus of
our
diplomacy,
is
meeting
the
new
transnational threats to U.S. and global security—the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, drug trafficking, and the spread of
crime and terrorism on an international scale.
In 1997, the Administration sought and obtained Senate ratification of the Chemical
Weapons Convention, which will begin imposing controls on a class of destructive weapons
not well regulated in the past. However, the
Senate has not yet ratified the Comprehensive
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which it has
had since September 1997, and which is central to national security interests. U.S. diplomacy and law enforcement are playing a key
role in stemming the spread of weapons of
mass destruction to outlaw states such as

10.

143

ADVANCING UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD

Table 10–1.

INTERNATIONAL DISCRETIONARY PROGRAMS
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
1998
Actual

International development and humanitarian assistance 1, 2 ..............................................................
International security assistance 2 ...........................
Conduct of foreign affairs/foreign information and
exchange programs 1, 2 ...........................................
International financial programs 3 ...........................

Dollar
1999
2000
Change:
Estimate Proposed 1999 to
2000

Percent
Change:
1999 to
2000

6,797
6,102

6,966
6,022

7,606
6,232

+639
+210

+9%
+3%

4,966
666

4,904
750

5,478
881

+573
+131

+12%
+17%

18,531

18,643

20,196

+1,554

+8%

Multilateral Development Bank arrears ..............
360
International Organization arrears ......................
100
Enacted embassy security and other emergency
items .................................................................... ..............

539
475

169
446

–370
–29

–69%
–6%

Subtotal, International discretionary programs .....................................................................

1,900 .............. .............. ..............

Subtotal, including arrears and enacted
emergency appropriations ............................... 18,991
Proposed Wye River supplemental ........................... ..............

21,557
900

20,811
500

–746
NA

–3%
NA

Total, including proposed Wye River supplemental ....................................................................

22,457

21,311

–1,146

–5%

18,991

NA = Not applicable.
1
Excluding arrears payments.
2
Excluding 1999 embassy security and other emergency appropriations.
3
Excluding 1999 appropriations for the International Monetary Fund.

Libya, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and North Korea. In
addition, U.S. support for such organizations
as the International Atomic Energy Agency,
the CTBT Preparatory Commission, and the
Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization is critical to help prevent the spread
of dangerous nuclear weapons.
U.S. bilateral assistance programs are essential to efforts attacking other transnational
problems. America’s international counter-narcotics efforts are making continued progress
in drug-producing countries. Along with the
additional funding of $233 million in enacted
1999 emergency appropriations, the budget
proposes $295 million to enable the United
States to intensify its efforts to curb drug
production in the Andean countries and to
fight international crime.
The Newly Independent States (NIS): The
transition to market democracies in the NIS

remains vital to U.S. national security. Russia
remains the key to overall progress in the region. The budget proposes $1.03 billion for assistance to the NIS. The pace of that transition
continues to be uneven, and last year there
were serious economic setbacks for Russia. Although these nations have embraced free elections, there is a lack of political consensus in
support of economic reforms, which makes
prospects for sustained economic growth dubious.
The United States and Russia share a
mutual goal of preventing the proliferation
of expertise and technology related to weapons
of mass destruction (WMD). Current economic
conditions increase the risk of proliferation
because weapons scientists and technicians
are unemployed or unpaid, and guards at
facilities and borders are untrained and poorlyequipped. The budget supports significant
increases in funding for State Department

144

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

programs from $41 million last year to $251
million to address this concern. In addition,
the Department of Defense Cooperative Threat
Reduction program is funded at $476 million
and the Department of Energy WMD programs
in the NIS are funded at $276 million
(see Table 10–2).
In addition to this enhanced emphasis
on WMD, the budget includes a renewed
emphasis on our Partnership for Freedom
programs, which work directly with the private
sector and nongovernmental organizations, develop partnerships between U.S. and NIS
institutions, increase exchanges, and help
local governments increase trade and investment.
Promoting Peace Abroad
Peace in the Middle East: The United
States remains committed to a comprehensive
peace in the Middle East. America continues
to play a leadership role in this effort. The
Wye River Memorandum, signed in October
1998, is an important milestone in this process. The effective implementation of this
Memorandum should restore positive momentum to the peace process. The Wye Memorandum provides among other things for enhanced
security steps by the Palestinians, improved
security cooperation between Israelis and Palestinians, further redeployments of Israeli
forces in the West Bank, the opening of the
Gaza airport, and creation of a safe passage
between Gaza and the West Bank. The budget
proposes $5.2 billion for assistance to sustain
the Middle East peace process.

Table 10–2.

In addition, the Administration proposes
a $1.9 billion economic and military assistance
package to help meet priority needs arising
from the Wye Memorandum. This is comprised
of $900 million in 1999 supplemental budget
authority (to be fully offset with an equal
reduction of budget authority) and $500 million in annual advance appropriations in
2000 and 2001. Supplemental Economic Support Fund (ESF) resources will help meet
the Palestinians’ economic development needs
in the West Bank and Gaza, and strengthen
democratic institutions. Supplemental Foreign
Military Financing (FMF) funding for Israel
will help Israel offset some of the costs
of redeploying its forces and enable it to
meet strategic defense requirements. Additional FMF funding for Jordan will allow
it to maintain the operational capabilities
of its forces and additional ESF resources
for Jordan will support further economic
development.
Central and Eastern Europe: The transition to democracy and free markets in Central
and Eastern Europe is advancing rapidly.
Countries are moving to join the European
Union and the World Trade Organization. Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic are
joining NATO. Economic growth is widespread,
and respect for human rights is growing. U.S.
and other international support has been a
critical factor in the pace of that transition.
In certain nations, the success is evident: democracy has taken hold firmly while free markets prevail. At this time, Lithuania and Poland join the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Latvia,
and Hungary as states that no longer need
direct U.S. assistance.

THREAT REDUCTION ASSISTANCE IN THE NIS
(Budget authority, dollar amounts in millions)
Dollar Percent
1998
1999
2000
Change: Change:
Actual Estimate Proposed 1999 to 1999 to
2000
2000

Department of Defense ......................................................
Department of Energy ........................................................
Department of State ...........................................................

382
212
20

440
237
41

476
276
251

Total ................................................................................

614

718

1,003

+36
+8%
+39 +16%
+210 +512%
+285

+40%

10.

ADVANCING UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD

The success of these northern-tier countries
of the region will be used to foster similar
results in the southern tier where the transition has not been as rapid. Reform minded
governments in Bulgaria, Macedonia, and
Romania continue to work toward creating
free markets and democratic governance. However, challenges remain in the rest of the
Balkans. Substantial assistance will continue
to enable countries to participate in the
Partnership for Peace programs, thereby improving mutual understanding and enhancing
the interoperability of regional military forces
with NATO. The budget proposes $393 million
in economic aid for Eastern Europe and
the Baltic States, primarily focused on the
southern tier.
Bosnia: $175 million of the economic aid
program would support the U.S. commitment
to see the Dayton Accords fully implemented
in Bosnia. U.S. assistance will help displaced
persons and refugees return home; multi-ethnic communities rebuild; numerous leaders
embrace the economic reforms necessary to expand opportunities and sustain economic
growth; and governments to continue restructuring their police forces in order to provide
all citizens with a secure environment. American troops remain in the region and our assistance programs are designed to complement
their work and build on the stability created
by their presence.
Kosovo: In Kosovo, international diplomatic
efforts backed by U.S. and allied military capabilities have helped increase stability in this
troubled region. However, the ability to foster
a peaceful transition that protects the rights
of all citizens in that part of Yugoslavia continues to hang in the balance. U.S. humanitarian
assistance has helped alleviate suffering, but
we must work with our allies to help create
a sustainable peace. The budget includes $46
million for an observer force to verify compliance by all parties and to support the training
of a professional, ethnically representational,
local police force that protects the rights of
all citizens. In addition, $50 million is included
in the budget for the U.S. contribution to an
international civil reconstruction effort.
Hurricane Mitch: In 1998, Hurricane
Mitch, the most destructive hurricane in recent history, caused over $10 billion in damage

145

to Central America. The United States immediately stepped up to the massive relief and
reconstruction needs caused by this unprecedented disaster, pledging over $500 million.
However, there is much more that needs to
be done to help these neighboring countries
recover from this devastation, and funding is
needed urgently. Therefore, the President will
work with the Congress in a bipartisan effort
to obtain 1999 supplemental funds to address
the damage caused by Hurricane Mitch, as
well as that caused in the Caribbean by Hurricane Georges.
Leading the International Community
Following World War II, the United States
assumed a unique leadership role in building
international institutions to bring the world’s
nations together to meet mutual security,
economic, and humanitarian needs. America
sponsored and provided significant funding
for the UN, NATO, the IMF, and the World
Bank, along with other specialized regional
security and financial institutions that became
the foundation of international cooperation
during the Cold War and the post-Cold
War period.
To ensure financial stability for this international community, members of the international organizations (IOs) entered into treaties committing them to pay specified shares
of IO budgets. Congress ratified these agreements, making them binding on the United
States. For the Multilateral Development
Banks (MDBs) which include the World Bank,
its regional development bank partners, and
the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the
United States and other developed countries
make firm commitments to regular replenishment of their resources. Replenishments are
subject to the congressional authorization and
appropriations processes.
By 1997, America’s leadership in this international institutional network had seriously
eroded due to past legislative action that
reduced funding for our assessments and
commitments. The resulting arrears to the
IOs had accumulated to almost $1.5 billion.
Although the Administration and Congress
developed bipartisan support for authorizing
legislation in 1997, and again in 1998, to
clear many of the assessed arrears over

146
three years in return for specified IO reforms,
the legislation was never enacted.
Congress did pass appropriations of $100
million in 1998 and $475 million in 1999,
subject to enacting authorization legislation
and certain other conditions. The budget
proposes that the Administration and Congress
work together once again to reach agreement
on paying the UN and related IO arrears.
The budget includes the third-year installment
of arrears funding of $446 million and seeks
$1.198 billion to meet regular assessments
to the IO’s and for UN peacekeeping operations.
Stabilizing the International Economy
As the world becomes more economically
integrated, the smooth functioning of its monetary system becomes increasingly critical to
every nation’s economy. The severe disruptions
in the Russian and several Asian economies
and the threat to Brazil’s economy in 1998
demonstrated the world-wide impact of crises
in major economies. Despite its size and
strength, even the U.S. economy is not immune and could suffer if measures were
not taken to keep global economic crises
in check. It is exactly these kind of disruptions
that the International Financial Institutions
(the IMF, the World Bank, and the other
MDBs) were created to address, and, thanks
in part to the bipartisan effort to increase
the resources available for the IMF last
year, these institutions have already begun
to provide the loans needed for Indonesia,
Brazil, and the other countries most affected,
so that they may begin the long and difficult
recovery process.
Multilateral
Development
Banks
(MDBs): There has been progress in the past
two budgets, with Congress funding most of
U.S. arrears to the MDBs, leaving $310 million
unfunded at present. This advancement, much
improved since 1997, when arrears totaled
nearly $862 million, enabled the Administration to engage other donors and gain agreement on important new policy measures during new replenishment negotiations this past
year for the International Development Association, the African Development Fund, and
the Inter-American Development Bank. The
budget also proposes $168 million to continue

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

the planned payment of MDB and new GEF
arrears and $1.2 billion to pay current commitments to these institutions, which provide
most of the assistance to poor countries around
the world that are undertaking promising economic reforms. During the Clinton Administration, U.S. commitments for all the MDBs have
been cut by 40 percent from the levels in the
mid-1990s.
International Debt Policy: In providing
$120 million, the United States will promote
economic and environmental reform for countries in support of the Tropical Forest Conservation Act of 1998 and help defray the cost
of debt relief by contributing to the Heavily
Indebted Poor Country Initiative Trust Fund.
Furthermore, the United States will continue
its efforts to stimulate economic growth for the
world’s poorer countries by participating in the
multilateral Paris Club debt reductions and
providing bilateral debt relief as part of the
President’s Africa Initiative.
Supporting International Development
and Addressing International Disasters
Development assistance, through the MDBs
and bilaterally through the U.S. Agency for
International Development (USAID), funds
projects which create the conditions for economic growth, stable democracies, improved
human health, and basic education. Our ongoing commitment to provide assistance to
the poorest countries serves long-term U.S.
interests and diminishes the need for shortterm crisis intervention.
Assistance to Africa: The budget proposes
$828 million for Africa—an increase of almost
10 percent—meeting the President’s goal of increasing support for Africa to historically high
levels. These levels of assistance recognize the
increased progress towards reform and economic growth that is being made by a number
of African nations. The assistance programs
funded at current or increased levels will include Presidential initiatives on food security,
education, and trade and investment. The
budget also includes increased support for programs aimed at reducing conflict, promoting
regional peacekeeping and encouraging democracy, as well as enactment of the President’s
trade package for Africa.

10.

ADVANCING UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD

USAID’s Development Assistance Programs: The budget proposes $1.8 billion for
USAID’s development assistance programs,
which provide funding to 51 countries and 12
regional programs in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America. In Asia, USAID programs will provide an important element of the U.S. Government response to the challenges of the economic collapse and an inadequate social safety
net, and the opportunity to support genuine
democratization. In Latin America, the continuing assistance provided in the budget is
critical to meeting the long-term needs arising
from the devastation of Hurricane Mitch.
Humanitarian Assistance: Unfortunately,
many countries face crises which impede their
development, both from natural disasters—so
clearly illustrated by the impact of Hurricane
Mitch—and from ongoing civil conflicts. The
budget proposes $1.7 billion for the humanitarian assistance programs of the Department
of State and USAID. The Department of
State’s refugee program provides for care and
maintenance of refugees abroad and resettlement assistance to those refugees admitted to
the United States. USAID, through its Office
of Foreign Disaster Assistance, provides for the
immediate needs of victims of natural and
manmade disasters, including internally displaced persons. In addition to direct relief,
USAID also works to improve the ability of
poor countries to deal with disasters through
its prevention and mitigation programs and
programs aimed at helping countries move
from conflict to peace. USAID also provides
food aid for vulnerable populations through the
Food for Peace program.
Environment and Population Growth:
USAID development assistance and U.S. contributions to international efforts, such as the
GEF and Montreal Protocol, support large and
successful programs to improve the environment and reduce population growth. The budget also continues to fund USAID’s multi-year
global climate change initiative. The United
States is the recognized world leader in promoting safe, effective family planning projects
and the budget request continues to fund significant levels of U.S. assistance for these programs.

147

Peace Corps: The Peace Corps promotes
better understanding among nations through
its volunteers who have served as unofficial
ambassadors to the developing world. The
American people strongly support the program.
The budget proposes $270 million to enable
the agency to continue increasing the number
of volunteers abroad—with the goal of building
towards 10,000 volunteers by early in the next
century.
Increasing American Prosperity Through
Trade
The Administration remains committed to
opening global markets and integrating the
global economic system, which has become
a key element of continuing economic prosperity here at home. This goal is increasingly
central to America’s diplomatic activities. The
Administration is helping to lay the groundwork for sustained, non-inflationary growth
into the next century by implementing the
North American Free Trade Agreement and
the multilateral trade agreements concluded
during the Uruguay Round.
Export Promotion Initiative: After years
of double-digit growth, U.S. manufacturing exports slowed in 1998 as a result of global economic problems, and that led to thousands of
worker layoffs. Because millions of American
jobs depend on foreign exports, we must help
U.S. manufacturers find new markets and attract new customers for our goods overseas.
Toward that end, the budget includes a $108
million multi-agency initiative to spur additional U.S. exports. First, the initiative boosts
funding by 10 percent—or $81 million—for the
Export-Import Bank, which helps U.S. exporters by providing prudent financing for customers in developing countries when private
funds are not available and by strategically
leveling the playing field against aggressive,
foreign export-credit subsidies. With the additional funds, the Bank can keep U.S. products—from aircraft parts to capital equipment
to environmental technology—flowing to
emerging markets where commercial banks
have withdrawn. Second, the Trade and Development Agency receives an additional $4 million to fund feasibility studies that enable U.S.
companies to participate in major export-generating infrastructure projects overseas. Third,
the initiative provides $14 million for the De-

148
partment of Commerce’s International Trade
Administration (ITA) to increase resources for
export advocacy in key markets and for delivery of export assistance services to America’s
350,000 small manufacturers. Finally, the initiative provides $9 million for ITA and Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) to expand U.S. efforts to
help developing countries establish the legal
and institutional framework needed for a commercial infrastructure making it easier and
cheaper for U.S. firms to export.
Free and Fair Trade: The Administration
will continue to press forward with open trade.
At this time of economic fragility in so many
regions, it is important to continue to pursue
open markets. The budget proposes significant
increases for trade negotiators to pursue an
open, fair, rules-based trading system which
ensures that spirited economic competition
among nations does not become a race to the
bottom in environmental protections, consumer
protections, or labor standards.
The Administration also will propose to
give expanded trade benefits for two years
to the eligible countries under the Caribbean
Basin Initiative, and will propose special
trade benefits on a permanent basis to African
countries that are reforming their economies,
as part of a larger trade and investment
initiative for Africa. In addition, the Administration will propose a one-year extension
of the Generalized System of Preferences
beyond its current expiration date of June
30, 1999, in order to continue the reduced
tariffs on many imports from developing countries provided for by this system.
Additional Trade Activities: The Trade
Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC) is
currently focusing on several key strategic objectives in order to provide more effective and
better coordinated trade promotion programs.
The TPCC works to promote exporter awareness of the benefits of trade, to respond effectively to the Asian crisis. The TPCC is also
working to improve trade in important economic markets around the world.
The Administration also strongly supports
the reauthorization of the Overseas Private

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Investment Corporation which has been an
important part of trade and investment initiatives through its investment insurance and
finance programs. In addition, the budget
provides an 18-percent increase, to $20 million,
for the Commerce Department’s Market Access
and Compliance Unit, whose members monitor
trade agreements and identify compliance
problems.
Conducting Effective Diplomacy
Effective diplomacy is the foundation of
our ability to meet foreign policy goals.
The budget supports a strong U.S. presence
at over 250 embassies and other posts overseas, promoting U.S. interests abroad and
protecting and serving Americans by providing
consular services. The work of the Department
of State and U.S. missions supports the
goals and initiatives of American foreign
policy, and anticipates and helps to prevent
threats to our national security. This work
has expanded considerably in recent years
to include combating threats from terrorism,
proliferation of weapons of mass destruction,
nuclear smuggling, international crime, and
narcotics trafficking. The overseas posts also
serve as the administrative platform for the
many other U.S. agencies with personnel
abroad, from USAID to the Departments
of Defense, Justice, and the Treasury.
Foreign Affairs Reorganization: Enactment of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 provided the President
the authority to fundamentally restructure foreign affairs agencies. The reorganization will
put matters of international arms control, sustainable development policy, and public diplomacy at the heart of our foreign policy within
a reinvented Department of State.
The reorganization will integrate the Arms
Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA)
and the non-broadcasting portion of the U.S.
Information Agency (USIA) as well as certain
limited functions of USAID into the State
Department. The Broadcasting Board of Governors, which oversees all governmental nonmilitary broadcasting abroad and is currently
part of USIA, will become an independent
Federal establishment.

10.

ADVANCING UNITED STATES LEADERSHIP IN THE WORLD

Diplomatic and Consular Operations:
The budget proposes $3.6 billion in 2000 for
the State Department, including public diplomacy and arms control activities. Of this total,
$0.7 billion is proposed for continuing public
diplomacy activities (formerly USIA) and $48
million is for arms control and nonproliferation
activities (formerly ACDA). This funding level
will maintain the Department’s world-wide operations, continue efforts to upgrade information technology and communications systems,
and accommodate increased security and facility requirements at posts abroad. The major
increases proposed in the budget provide for
security and facility enhancements that will
allow foreign policy professionals abroad to do
their jobs in a safer environment. The budget
requests $3 billion in advance appropriations
to fund the construction of secure embassies
and posts around the world. The Administration will pursue these enhancements through

149

a capital construction strategy that will effectively and efficiently meet America’s security
needs.
USAID Operating Expenses: The budget
proposes $508 million for USAID operating expenses. The largest portion of this increase
over 1999 ($12 million) will provide USAID
with the resources it needs to continue to improve its information technology and financial
management capabilities. The resources will
also allow USAID to maintain its overseas
presence in key developing countries, although
it will require USAID to continue its successful
reinvention efforts in order to meet increased
program delivery requirements without increasing overseas staff or expenses. The budget
also accommodates the shift of security functions from the USAID Inspector General to
USAID operating expenses, as required by the
1999 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act.

11. SUPPORTING THE WORLD’S
STRONGEST MILITARY FORCE
Still, this remains a dangerous world and peace can never be a time for rest, for maintaining it
requires constant vigilance.... When we give our Armed Forces a mission, there is a principle we
must keep in mind. We should never ask them to do what they are not equipped to do, but always
equip them to do what we ask them to do.... As Commander in Chief, I have no higher duty than
this: to make certain our troops can do their job while maintaining their readiness to defend our
country and defeat any adversary; to ensure they can deploy far from home, knowing their loved
ones have the quality of life they deserve.
President Clinton
November 1998

The U.S. military is the backbone of the
Nation’s national security strategy. In this
post-Cold War era, the military’s responsibilities have changed, but not diminished. If
anything, they have become more complex
and diverse. As the global leader of the
post-Cold War era, the U.S. must maintain
its military readiness and technological advantage to ensure that this leadership role
continues. We, as a Nation, must provide
our forces with the necessary support to
carry out such a critical role.

sponding to near-term events, crises and
threats while also preparing for future threats.
The QDR is the strategic plan to ensure
that our forces remain capable of executing
the full range of global military operations
into the next century. It identifies four major
threats to U.S. security:

To ensure that America’s Armed Forces
are fully prepared to meet the challenges
of the next century, the President is proposing
in the budget a long-term, sustained increase
in defense spending. In keeping with his
pledge to work with military leaders to
address the Nation’s defense needs, the President has determined that additional resources
are necessary to maintain military readiness;
procure modern and effective weapons systems; and provide appropriate pay, benefits
and quality of life improvements for our
service men and women. This multiple-year
plan provides robust funding for such readiness components as unit operations and training, spare parts, recruiting and retention
programs, joint exercises, equipment maintenance, and base operations.

• the proliferation of the technology of weapons of mass destruction (WMD);

The Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) embraces a
defense strategy which includes shaping the
international strategic environment and re-

• regional dangers, such as cross-border aggression, as well as military challenges
created by failed states, as in the case of
Yugoslavia;

• transnational dangers, such as the spread
of illegal drugs, organized crime, terrorism, uncontrolled refugee migration, and
threats to the environment; and
• direct attacks on the U.S. homeland from
intercontinental ballistic missiles or other
weapons of mass destruction.
The budget fully supports the force levels,
readiness, and weapons modernization goals
of the QDR, thus enabling DOD to meet
these demanding challenges (see Table 11–1).
In particular, it provides additional resources
for three priority areas: enhancing the military’s abilities to respond to crises; building
for the future with weapons modernization
programs; and taking care of military personnel and their families by enhancing their
quality of life.
151

152

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 11–1.

MILITARY FORCE TRENDS
Cold War
(1990)

2000

QDR Target

Army:
Divisions (active/National Guard) ...........................

18/10

10 1/ 8 2

10 1/ 8 2

Air Force:
Fighter wings (active/reserve) ................................

24/12

13/7

12+/8

Navy:
Aircraft carriers (active/reserve) ............................
Air wings (active/reserve) .......................................
Total battle force ships 3 .........................................

15/1
13/2
546

11/1
10/1
314

11/1
10/1
306

Marine Corps:
Divisions (active/reserve) ........................................
Wings (active/reserve) .............................................

3/1
3/1

3/1
3/1

3/1
3/1

Strategic nuclear forces:
Intercontinental ballistic missiles/warheads ........
Ballistic missile submarines ..................................
Sea-launched ballistic missiles/warheads .............

1,000/2,450
31
568/4,864

550/2,000
18
432/3,456

Heavy bombers ........................................................

324

90 5

500/500 4
14 4
336/not
over 1,750 4
92 5

Military personnel:
Active .......................................................................
Selected reserve .......................................................

2,069,000
1,128,000

1,384,806
865,298

1,363,000
835,000

1

Plus two armored cavalry regiments.
Plus 18 separate brigades (15 of which are at enhanced readiness levels).
3
Includes active and reserve ships of the following types: aircraft carriers, surface combatants, submarines, amphibious warfare ships, mine warfare ships, combat logistics force, and other support ships.
4
Upon entry-into-force of START II.
5
Does not include 95 B-1 bombers dedicated to conventional missions.
2

Enhancing Military Readiness and Operations: American forces must be ready and
able to respond and deploy rapidly to the full
spectrum of crises. They must prevail when
committed—whether in a major theater war,
smaller-scale
contingency
mission,
or
counterterrorism operation. Specifically, the
budget increases funding for readiness programs to ensure that the military sustains a
high level of preparedness to carry out all of
its missions and that flying-hour programs, recruiting efforts, manning levels, and unit
training programs are fully funded.
Building for the Future With Weapons
Systems Modernization: The U.S. military
must be the best equipped in the world—it
must have leading edge technologies and wellmaintained equipment in sufficient numbers
to meet mission goals. The budget increases
funding to accelerate weapon systems mod-

ernization programs. It supports procurement
of new warships, tactical fighter aircraft, and
Army and Marine Corps helicopters as well
as upgrades to Army ground combat vehicles.
The budget also provides funding for research
and development efforts that will lead to procurement of next generation weapon systems
incorporating the most advanced technologies.
Taking Care of Military Personnel and
Their Families: If the military is to attract
and keep the best and the brightest, it must
offer pay, retirement, and other quality of life
benefits that compare favorably with the private sector and Government civil service, and
that also recognize the often stressful circumstances of military life, such as long separations from family and dangerous missions.
The budget enhances quality of life for military
personnel through significant across-the-board
pay increases, targeted pay raises with greater

11.

153

SUPPORTING THE WORLD’S STRONGEST MILITARY FORCE

rewards for performance, and retirement benefit improvements. Housing and educational
benefits are also improved.
Nevertheless, we do not have unlimited
resources with which to achieve these objectives. Rather, we must pursue them carefully
within the constraints of available resources
by utilizing efficient management and business
practices to do more with less. The budget
fully supports legislative and organizational
management proposals, initiated under Secretary Cohen’s Defense Reform Initiative
(DRI), including proposals for additional base
closures and competitive sourcing efforts.
Providing the Necessary Funding
For DOD, the budget proposes discretionary
funding of $268.2 billion in budget authority
and $261.8 billion in outlays for 2000 (see
Table 11–2). This represents an increase
of $4 billion over the 2000 level assumed
in the 1999 Budget. After accounting for
lower inflation and other budgetary savings,
a total of $12 billion in additional program
funding is provided for DOD, compared to
the level assumed in last year’s request.
Over the five-year period 2000–2004, funding for the Defense Department will total
$1,453 billion, an increase of $64 billion
above the levels assumed for these years
in the 1999 Budget. Combined with savings
from lower inflation and other budgetary
and technical adjustments, a total of $83
billion in additional program funding will
be made available to the Department to
meet critical readiness, personnel, and modernization needs. This figure grows to an
increase of about $110 billion over the sixyear Future Years Defense Program. To reach
these program levels, the Administration pro-

Table 11–2.

poses to increase the allocation for defense
when Social Security reform is enacted.
Enhancing Military Readiness and
Operations
Ensuring Adequate Resources: Maintaining high levels of readiness is our top defense
priority. To allow U.S. forces to accomplish a
wide range of missions, the budget provides
robust funding for key operations and support
programs, including unit operations and training activities, spare parts, recruiting and retention programs, joint exercises, equipment
maintenance, and base operations. In addition,
DOD continues to monitor its current and future military readiness through the Senior
Readiness Oversight Council, the Joint Monthly Readiness Review process, and the Expanded Quarterly Readiness Report to Congress. The budget provides a $4 billion
increase in 2000 and more than $20 billion
over the next five years for selected readiness
programs, including readiness-related procurement. This funding will ensure that the Services attain their traditional high standard of
readiness by enabling them to meet their required training standards, maintain their
equipment in top condition, recruit and retain
quality personnel, and procure sufficient spare
parts and other equipment.
Ensuring Successful Contingency Operations: The budget proposes funding for ongoing contingency operations—limited military
operations in conjunction with our allies—in
Southwest Asia and Bosnia in the Overseas
Contingency Operations Transfer Fund and
military personnel accounts. For 2000, this
amount is $2.9 billion. Congressional approval
will allow DOD to avoid redirecting funds from
standard operations and maintenance pro-

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FUNDING LEVELS
(In billions of dollars)
Proposed
2000

Defense Discretionary Program Level:
Budget authority ..................................................................
Outlays .................................................................................

2001

2002

2003

2004

268.2
261.8

287.4
269.4

289.3
279.3

299.7
291.2

308.5
300.9

154
grams to contingency operations, thereby helping to maintain the readiness of our force.
Shaping
the
Strategic
Landscape
Through Arms Control and Cooperative
Threat Reduction: The President remains
strongly committed to reducing the threat from
weapons of mass destruction by implementing
verifiable arms control agreements. To that
end, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
(START) process remains a high priority objective of U.S. foreign, security, and non-proliferation policy. As START I implementation continues, the Administration continues to work
hard to bring the START II treaty into force
and, pending Russian ratification of START II,
is preparing to discuss further arms reductions. In addition, implementation of the
Chemical Weapons Convention is underway
and the Administration will work with the
Senate to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty (CTBT).
Furthermore, the Administration proposes
significant increases to threat reduction assistance programs in Russia and other states
of the former Soviet Union that mitigate
the danger posed by WMD, the proliferation
of their loosely guarded fissile material components, and the scientific expertise behind
them. These increases will strengthen the
ongoing
threat
reduction
effort
by
supplementing DOD’s Cooperative Threat Reduction program (also called the Nunn-Lugar
Program) and programs managed by the
Departments of Energy and State. The budget
proposes $1.0 billion—$285 million more than
1999—for this comprehensive and aggressive
program in 2000. The DOD portion of this
effort totals $476 million.
Countering Asymmetric Threats: The
President’s request increases funding to enhance the Department’s capability to counter
asymmetric threats such as terrorism, proliferation and use of WMD, and threats to our
critical infrastructure. Adversaries will increasingly rely on these unconventional strategies to offset U.S. military superiority. The
budget provides over $5 billion for programs
to combat terrorism. Enhancements include
improved awareness and training programs,
worldwide vulnerability assessments, implementation of prescriptive standards for force
protection, and increased resources for offen-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

sive means to deter, defeat, and respond to
terrorist attacks wherever they may occur.
Funding
of
$900
million
for
counterproliferation and defense against WMD
programs improves our ability to locate and
destroy chemical and biological weapons before
they can be used and to defend against and
manage the consequences of a WMD attack.
The budget also proposes increased resources
to protect critical infrastructures that support
national security requirements, bringing this
funding to over $1 billion.
Executing Counter-drug Programs: DOD
participates fully in the National Drug Control
Strategy to stem the flow of illegal drugs into
the country and reduce demand. DOD conducts
its primary missions—to eliminate drug supply
sources and prevent drugs from entering the
country—by detecting and monitoring drugs
moving to the United States, supporting domestic and foreign law enforcement, collecting
and analyzing foreign intelligence, and supporting the activities of the National Guard
under State counter-drug programs. DOD continues to fight illegal drug use in the military
through prevention, education, and testing.
The budget proposes $788 million for DOD’s
counter-drug efforts.
Providing Humanitarian and Disaster
Assistance: Given its global presence and
unique capabilities, America’s military is often
asked to respond to international disasters and
human tragedies. Such responses may come
at the direction of U.S. commanders, who can
respond quickly to regional problems, or at the
President’s direction when he determines that
DOD is the appropriate agency to provide U.S.
support. The proposed $55.8 million for the
Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic
Aid account will allow DOD to provide critical
humanitarian and disaster assistance to support U.S. interests without cutting into the resources available for readiness. Also, $34.4
million will be available in 2000 to support
the President’s Humanitarian Demining Program.
Maintaining the Nation’s Nuclear Deterrent: Strategic forces remain an essential component of our military capability. Within treaty-imposed limits, their primary mission is to
deter nuclear attack against the United States
and its allies, and to convince potential adver-

11.

SUPPORTING THE WORLD’S STRONGEST MILITARY FORCE

saries that they will never gain a nuclear advantage against our Nation.
The budget proposes $4.5 billion for DOE
to maintain confidence in the safety, reliability, and performance of the nuclear weapons
stockpile. DOE will perform this mission
without underground nuclear testing in compliance with the proposed CTBT. To make
up for the loss of testing, DOE plans to
build new non-nuclear test facilities while
upgrading the computer models it uses to
predict the performance of nuclear weapons.
The budget includes: $248 million to continue
construction of the National Ignition Facility
at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; $543 million, for the Advanced Strategic
Computing Initiative; and $170 million for
a new source of tritium to maintain our
nuclear weapons stockpile.
Building for the Future With Weapons
Systems Modernization
Addressing the Modernization Imperative: Modernizing weapons systems is critical
to the future readiness of U.S. military forces.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the Nation invested
heavily in a wide range of equipment—including fighter aircraft, attack submarines, surface
ships, helicopters, and armored vehicles—
which enabled us to reduce weapons purchases
and total defense spending in the early 1990s
as we cut the size of U.S. forces after the Cold
War. But the equipment bought in those prior
two decades, the backbone of today’s forces,
is aging and must be replaced. When complex
military equipment ages, it becomes more costly and more difficult to maintain and operate.
More importantly, the decisive military advantage that new, superior equipment provides
may help reduce casualties and facilitate a
quick, successful resolution of conflict. For
these reasons, weapons system modernization
continues to be a high Administration priority.
The QDR determined that the Nation needs
roughly $60 billion per year in weapons
procurement funding, beginning in 2001, to
modernize U.S. forces and maintain the effectiveness of equipment already in the force.
The budget provides $53 billion for the 2000
procurement program, $4 billion more than
the 1999 level, and achieves the $60 billion
goal in 2001. In addition, the budget provides

155

$7 billion to fund basic and applied research
and development of advanced technologies
that will lay the groundwork for procuring
next-generation systems. These R&D activities
and the educational activities they support
are also vital to the Nation’s strength in
engineering, mathematics, and computer
science.
Modernizing Ground Forces: In the near
term,
Army
modernization
emphasizes
digitization of battlefield systems (discussed
later in this chapter) and upgrades to existing
combat equipment so that our ground forces
will have a clear advantage over potential opponents. The Army will extend the useful life
and improve battlefield performance of primary combat systems by integrating new navigation and data transfer technology, improving
weapons and targeting systems, and augmenting vehicle protection systems. For example,
the budget proposes $652 million to upgrade
the Abrams tank, $352 million to improve the
Bradley Fighting Vehicle, and $787 million to
procure Apache Longbow helicopters.
The centerpiece of the Marine Corps modernization program is the V–22 tilt-rotor
aircraft that will replace the CH–46 and
CH–53A/D helicopters now used to transport
troops and equipment. The budget provides
$951 million to procure 10 V-22s which
will have increased range, payload, and speed
to significantly enhance Marine Corps tactical
operations.
A sometimes overlooked, but no less important, part of ground force modernization is
the replacement of aging combat support
systems such as trucks. Both the Army
and the Marine Corps are replacing their
fleets of medium trucks by procuring new
models.
In the long term, R&D programs aim
to take advantage of leaps in technology
to enhance mission-essential equipment. The
budget funds critical development programs
which will lead to procurement in the middle
of the next decade, including $433 million
for the Army’s Comanche helicopter for armed
reconnaissance, $286 million for the Crusader
self-propelled artillery howitzer, and $93 million for the Marines’ Advanced Amphibious
Assault Vehicle.

156
Modernizing Naval Forces: The budget
continues procurement of several ship classes,
including $2.7 billion for three DDG–51 Aegis
destroyers, and $1.5 billion for two LPD–17
Amphibious Transport Dock Ships. The budget
also provides $440 million to procure the first
ADC-X, a new class of combat logistics ships.
The Navy budget continues advance funding
for the major refueling overhaul of the second
Nimitz-class nuclear aircraft carrier to enable
the ship to stay in service another 25 years.
The Navy also will procure long-lead material
to construct the tenth Nimitz-class nuclear aircraft carrier as well as material for the next
Virginia-class submarine. In addition, the
Navy is undertaking long-term development efforts to design next generation destroyers and
aircraft carriers, to be procured in the middle
of the next decade. Both of these new ship
classes will operate at lower costs than their
predecessors by taking advantage of innovative
technologies.
Along with new ships, the Navy will continue to develop and procure highly-capable
weapons for a number of missions. For defense
against missiles and aircraft, the budget
continues procurement of Standard Missiles.
The budget also supports the development
of the Tactical Tomahawk missile, an improvement to the current Block III version of
this ship-launched land attack weapon. The
budget supports investments in ship selfdefense to provide close anti-air defense for
surface ships, and in gun and missile technologies to improve the Navy’s delivery of
fire support for Marines and soldiers ashore.
Modernizing Air Forces: For the United
States to maintain its ability to dominate battles in the next century, substantial investment in new tactical combat aircraft is necessary. The budget supports three new aircraft
programs. First, it provides $2.9 billion to start
full-rate production of 36 F/A–18E/F Super
Hornets, which will become the Navy’s principal fighter/attack aircraft in the next decade.
Second, it funds the procurement of the first
production lot of six F–22 Raptors, the Air
Force’s new air superiority fighter, at a cost
of $1.9 billion. Full-rate production of the F–22
should be achieved early in the next century.
Third, $477 million is provided to continue
R&D of new materials and manufacturing
processes for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

The JSF is DOD’s largest, most ambitious tactical aircraft program and is designed to
produce a family of aircraft for the Air Force,
Navy, and Marine Corps. It is scheduled to
start replacing about 3,000 aging aircraft
(F–16s, F/A–18C/Ds and AV–8Bs) in 2005.
Joint missile procurement programs include
the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile and the Joint Standoff Weapon. Procurement continues for the Joint Direct Attack
Munition—an inexpensive guidance kit which
transforms unguided bombs into precision
guided munitions. In addition, the Navy’s
program to upgrade existing Harpoon missiles
into Standoff Land Attack Missiles—Expanded
Response continues. The budget also funds
R&D into various munitions programs of
the future, such as the AIM–9X Sidewinder
missile and the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff
Missile.
DOD and its industry partners are developing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles to
provide our military more efficient, economical
access to space and ensure a competitive
U.S. space launch industry able to provide
continued access to space well into the 21st
Century.
Developing Technologies to Defend
Against Strategic Ballistic Missiles: The
budget proposes $837 million in 2000 to continue developing a National Missile Defense
system to protect the United States from a
limited ballistic missile attack. This is a very
ambitious and technically challenging program, but if the United States decides in 2000
to pursue deployment, the budget will enable
the Administration to deploy an effective system in 2005. The Administration’s long-range
defense plan includes about $9.0 billion in
2000-2005 to cover development, procurement,
and construction costs.
Developing and Deploying Defenses
Against Theater Ballistic Missiles: The
budget proposes $2.9 billion to develop and deploy systems to defend against missiles that
directly threaten U.S. and allied forces deployed to specific theaters. While the funding
is primarily for research and development of
advanced systems to meet future threats, it
includes $301 million to procure an advanced
version of the Patriot missile and $55 million
for the Navy’s Area Theater Ballistic Missile

11.

SUPPORTING THE WORLD’S STRONGEST MILITARY FORCE

Defense system which will be deployed in the
near term.
Establishing Information Dominance:
America’s preeminence in using information on
the battlefield has helped us establish the
world’s strongest military. The commander
who can better observe and analyze the battle
while disseminating highly accurate information to his forces has a powerful advantage
over the adversary. Joint Vision 2010, DOD’s
vision for the future, focuses on the continued
development of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance,
and reconnaissance capabilities. This effort
will enhance the accuracy of weapons and
allow more effective use of forces. The Army
plans to ‘‘digitize’’ a division by the year
2000—that is, equip it so that accurate, timely
information about the battle can be transferred
rapidly among U.S. forces. The budget includes
funding for Navy and Air Force automated
command and control systems and land and
space-based communications networks. It also
includes funds for battlefield surveillance assets, such as unmanned aerial vehicles for all
military departments. DOD, with the Department of Transportation, is also funding upgrades to the Global Positioning System navigation satellites to allow the United States to
maintain a military advantage while providing
enhanced navigation capabilities to civilian
users worldwide. The budget provides funds
to purchase national sensors (e.g., satellites)
to help our leaders better anticipate, monitor,
and respond to crises. These assets will play
a key role in both military operations and national security decision-making, and will enable commanders to direct the battle and respond to threats more effectively.
Taking Care of Military Personnel and
Their Families
Enhancing Pay and Compensation: The
Administration is strongly committed to enhancing the quality of life of troops and their
families, which is essential for retaining and
recruiting high-quality personnel. The budget
proposes a 4.4 percent pay raise, effective January 2000, and targeted pay raises for selected
grades, to help ensure that military compensation remains competitive with private sector
wages. In addition, the budget contains a proposal to enhance military retirement benefits.

157

Improving Other Quality of Life Programs: The budget includes substantial funding to improve the quality of health care, military housing, and child care programs. Enhancements to such family support programs
can help reduce the stresses associated with
military life, such as frequent family separations. The budget also increases funding for
educational initiatives that will enhance learning opportunities for military and eligible civilian dependents worldwide by providing a fullday kindergarten program, reducing the pupilteacher ratio to 18:1 in grades 1–3, and piloting a summer school program. These initiatives are commensurate with the President’s
educational programs designed to enhance
learning opportunities in the early years.
Supporting Our Nation’s Youth: The National Guard’s Youth ChalleNGe program, authorized under U.S.C. Title 32, is a civilian
youth opportunity program that provides military-based training, including supervised work
experience in community service and conservation projects, to young people who have left
secondary school prior to graduation. This activity provides life skills and experiences that
enhance the employment potential of those
participating in the program. For 2000, the
budget sustains funding for this program at
last year’s level of $62 million.
Managing Our Defense Resources More
Efficiently
Pursuing Competitive Sourcing: DOD is
implementing an aggressive competitive
sourcing program for its infrastructure and
support activities, including base utility services, general base operations, family housing,
logistics support, training, property maintenance, and distribution depots. Competitive
sourcing will produce estimated savings of $6
billion from 1998 to 2003, with savings thereafter of at least $2 billion annually.
Eliminating Excess Infrastructure: DOD
has facilities that it no longer needs because
infrastructure reductions have lagged behind
force reductions. Excess facilities drain resources that could otherwise go to modernization, readiness, and quality of life. To address
the problem, DOD will send legislation to Congress to seek two more rounds of base closures
and realignments in 2001 and 2005. In addi-

158
tion, the budget supports an aggressive program to demolish unneeded infrastructure located on remaining bases.
Improving Financial Management: DOD
is continuing to implement the most comprehensive reform of financial systems in its
history. Both finance and accounting systems
are being consolidated and overhauled. Internal controls are being strengthened to reduce
and then eliminate ‘‘problem disbursements,’’
reform the contractor payment process, improve computer security and fraud detection,
and transform its financial statements. For example, DOD has cut the category known as
problem disbursements from a total of $34.3
billion in June 1993 to $8.1 billion in August
1998. Such steps will provide managers with
more accurate and timely financial information.
Streamlining the Civilian Work Force:
Since 1993, DOD has cut its work force by
nearly 29 percent, or about 269,000 positions,
and it will continue to streamline its civilian
work force while maintaining quality. As the
QDR and DRI recommended, DOD plans to

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

implement further reductions of 60,000 fulltime-equivalent civilian positions. During this
drawdown, DOD will provide transition assistance for affected employees.
Implementing the Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA):
Also known as the Clinger-Cohen Act, ITMRA
is designed to help agencies improve mission
performance by effectively using information
technology. One example is the Global Command and Control System, which supports
U.S. forces by improving their ability to process and transfer critical military information
quickly and accurately. The Secretary of Defense has established a DOD Chief Information
Officer Council to manage DOD’s annual $26
billion information technology and command,
control, and communication budget and provide advice on ITMRA-related issues. In addition, DOD is continuing to restructure its work
processes while applying modern technologies
to maximize the performance of information
systems, achieve a significant return on investments, cut costs, and produce measurable results.

VI. INVESTING IN THE COMMON
GOOD: PROGRAM PERFORMANCE
IN FEDERAL FUNCTIONS

159

12.

OVERVIEW

The commitment of the President and the
Congress to balance the budget—and keep
it in balance—is promoting an increased
focus on allocating ever scarcer resources
to programs that demonstrate good performance. Departments are increasingly justifying
funds for programs in terms of actual and
expected performance. The Executive Branch
and the Congress are asking the key questions:
‘‘What are we getting for what we are
spending?’’ and ‘‘How will we know if we
are successful?’’.
The Administration’s focus on results is
not new. Led by Vice President Gore’s National
Partnership for Reinventing Government
(NPR), the Administration has made real
progress in creating a Government that in
the words of the NPR, ‘‘works better, costs
less, and gets results Americans care about.’’
In this budget, the Administration highlights
three aspects of performance:
• Fiscal performance (see Chapter 1, ‘‘Sustaining Growth’’);
• Management performance (see Section IV,
‘‘Improving Performance Through Better
Management’’); and
• Program performance, which is contained
in this section.
Together, these sections constitute what
the Government Performance and Results
Act (GPRA) contemplated—a comprehensive,
Government-wide Performance Plan. The Plan
reflects the budget and management decisions
made throughout the process of formulating
the President’s budget, presenting a resultsoriented picture of more than 450 of year
2000 Federal Government performance goals.
The performance of Government programs
is inextricably linked to the fiscal and economic environment and the management
framework in which they operate. The President’s commitment to not only balance the
budget but to invest in the future while
improving public management—to do more
with less—has prompted the Administration

to maintain or expand programs that demonstrate good performance. Performance by
managers is increasingly being judged on
program results.
In this section, the budget categorizes activities according to budget functions in order
to group similar programs together and begin
to present the relationship between their
goals. As contemplated in GPRA, the Administration relied heavily on key performance
measures and annual performance goals that
were drawn from agency Annual Performance
Plans. These were first articulated in the
context of the long-term goals and objectives
in the Strategic Plans that agencies submitted
to OMB and to the Congress in September
1997.
Again this year, in preparing the budget,
the Administration performed crosscutting
analyses to augment analysis by agency and
by budget functions to provide a more complete
and useful picture of related missions and
goals across programs. The Administration
is continuing to discuss with the Congress
and stakeholders how to apply crosscutting
analyses to budget and management decisionmaking.
In preparing the budget, the Administration
studied the measures and goals of the Annual
Performance Plans and took a hard look
at what the public is getting for what it
is financing. Going into this second year
of Government-wide implementation, the agencies continue to improve and make good
progress in managing for results. Nevertheless,
more work remains. Agencies will modify
Annual Performance Plans as they implement
them to reflect changing circumstances and
resource levels, the plans will provide a
backdrop for further discussion about allocating and managing resources, and the President’s future budgets will contain new and
better information. Going forward, the challenge remains to use these tools to create
better performance to improve citizen confidence, service delivery, and program performance and management.
161

162

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 12–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES BY FUNCTION
(In billions of dollars)
Function
NATIONAL DEFENSE:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
GENERAL SCIENCE, SPACE, AND
TECHNOLOGY:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
ENERGY:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
AGRICULTURE:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

272.4

277.0

281.6

301.3

303.2

313.6

322.3

–1.8

–0.8

–0.8

–0.6

–0.7

–0.7

–0.7

0.2
*

0.2
*

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

2.1

2.1

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.2

19.0

40.8

21.3

21.2

20.8

21.0

21.1

–5.0

–4.4

–3.9

–3.7

–3.4

–3.2

–3.1

2.3
12.4

4.0
13.4

1.8
13.0

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

12.3
–0.3

13.1
–0.5

14.1
–0.6

15.2
–0.6

16.3
–0.6

.................
*

11.0
12.4
................. .................

18.0

18.8

19.2

19.4

19.4

19.3

19.3

*

0.1

0.1

0.1

*

*

*

2.0
0.3

1.5
0.9

1.0
0.7

0.9
0.3

0.8
0.1

0.8
0.1

3.1

2.9

2.8

3.2

3.0

3.0

3.0

–2.4

–3.2

–5.1

–4.4

–4.3

–4.2

–4.3

1.0

1.6

1.3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1.6
*

1.6
0.4

1.6
0.7

1.6
0.7

1.4
0.8

1.2
1.0

23.4

23.8

24.0

23.9

23.9

24.0

0.7
–0.8

0.8
–0.7

0.7
–0.8

0.9
–0.7

0.8
–0.7

*

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1.6
–0.1

1.6
–*

1.7
*

1.7
0.1

1.8
0.2

2.4
.................

1.5
.................

23.5

0.4
1.0
................. .................
*

*

1.5
1.5
................. .................

4.3

4.3

4.1

4.1

4.2

4.1

4.1

7.9

16.4

10.9

8.8

7.3

6.0

6.2

12.

163

OVERVIEW

Table 12–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES BY FUNCTION—Continued
(In billions of dollars)
Function
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
COMMERCE AND HOUSING
CREDIT:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
TRANSPORTATION:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
HEALTH:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

................. .................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

–*

–*

–*

–*

–*

8.2
4.2

10.8
6.6

11.6
6.7

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

0.8

0.9

0.9

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

3.1

3.7

5.4

3.3

2.9

2.9

2.9

1.2
–0.1

4.1
–0.1

6.2
–0.1

6.6
–0.1

7.0
–0.1

1.7
233.2

1.6
250.9

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

227.6
–0.1

236.2
–1.3

245.1
–2.2

254.4
–2.0

261.8
–1.8

268.3
–1.8

13.3

13.5

14.2

14.7

15.3

15.8

2.4
*

2.0
*

1.4
*

1.9
*

1.8
*

–2.2
–3.1
................. .................
1.9
256.1
219.3
.................

16.0

2.1
2.1
................. .................
0.2
0.7

0.8
0.1

0.9
0.1

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

10.3

8.9

8.9

8.9

8.9

8.9

8.9

–0.6
*

–0.7
0.1

–0.7
0.2

–0.8
0.2

–0.8
0.2

2.1
3.1

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1.4
*

1.3
0.2

1.2
0.4

1.1
0.5

1.1
0.5

46.6

52.1

54.2

54.2

54.1

54.0

14.0
–*

14.9
–1.7

13.9
–0.1

13.1
–0.3

15.1
–0.6

16.1
–0.4

16.1
23.2

16.0
24.6

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

37.6
0.2

40.0
1.6

42.0
3.7

44.0
2.7

45.9
2.5

49.0
2.6

30.1

30.6

31.0

30.8

30.8

30.8

–0.4
–0.5
................. .................
1.5
1.4

2.4
2.2

1.2
1.3
................. .................

46.7
12.4
.................
12.1
22.0
29.9
.................

26.4

164

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 12–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES BY FUNCTION—Continued
(In billions of dollars)
Function
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
MEDICARE:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
INCOME SECURITY:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
SOCIAL SECURITY:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
VETERANS BENEFITS AND SERVICES:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
GENERAL GOVERNMENT:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

106.6
.................
0.1

117.9
.................

3.2

2003

2004

131.6
0.7

141.7
0.8

153.0
0.9

165.0
0.7

0.1

*

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

91.8
0.1

97.9
1.2

104.4
1.3

111.6
1.5

119.7
1.6

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

2.9

214.9
–1.2

229.2
–1.5

233.2
–1.5

251.2
–1.7

265.2
–1.8

30.2

36.4

36.2

36.2

36.2

214.8
0.8

223.4
1.9

232.4
2.2

240.9
2.2

250.1
2.8

*
0.1

*
0.1

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

132.4
*

135.3
0.3

138.6
0.8

141.8
0.8

144.9
0.8

147.8
0.7

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

405.2
*

423.5
0.1

443.9
0.1

464.9
0.2

487.2
0.2

3.0

32.8

192.3
202.4
................. .................
*
*

2002

122.8
–0.1

190.2
202.0
................. .................

29.7

2001

115.5
*

80.5
85.8
................. .................

2.7

2000

376.1
389.2
................. .................
22.8

23.4

24.6

25.9

27.4

29.0

30.7

18.9

19.3

19.3

19.3

19.3

19.3

19.3

24.7
0.3

25.3
0.6

25.9
1.0

27.0
0.6

27.6
0.9

23.3
24.3
................. .................
1.3
39.9

2.0
32.6

0.7
31.2

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

3.0

3.1

3.3

3.4

3.6

3.7

3.9

24.8

26.2

26.4

26.8

26.9

26.7

26.8

0.7
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.5
................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................

12.1

13.2

1.4
2.4
................. .................

2.1
–1.5

12.7

13.5

13.2

13.3

13.2

1.4
0.1

1.2
0.1

1.1
0.1

1.1
0.1

1.3
0.1

12.

165

OVERVIEW

Table 12–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES BY FUNCTION—Continued
(In billions of dollars)
Function
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................
Proposed legislation .........................
NET INTEREST:
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ......................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

56.8
59.2
................. .................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

61.6
*

64.1
*

66.9
0.1

69.7
0.1

72.9
0.1

243.4

227.2

215.2

205.9

194.7

183.2

173.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.3

7.6

–0.3

–47.7

–41.6

–20.5

–22.5

–2.8

–3.9

–4.6

–4.7

ALLOWANCES:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Proposed legislation ......................

.................

UNDISTRIBUTED OFFSETTING
RECEIPTS:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................

................. .................

–2.8

1.1

1.1

–0.2

–0.2

–47.2
–40.0
................. .................

–42.3
–0.6

–45.3
–0.8

–51.3
–0.9

–45.9
–1.0

–46.7
–1.0

575.0

555.0

540.3

547.2

578.0

585.5

1,145.9
–*

1,177.4
–3.2

1,215.6
–2.6

1,241.8
–3.2

1,297.7
–4.6

1,348.0
–5.3

39.6
311.4

36.2
329.8

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TOTAL:
Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ......
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ..................................
Proposed legislation ......................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements ...............
Guaranteed loans .............................
* $50 million or less.
N/A = Not available.

................. ................. .................

534.2
1,097.9
.................
28.7
336.8

13.
Table 13–1.

NATIONAL DEFENSE

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL
DEFENSE
(In millions of dollars)

Function 050

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

272,370

276,982

281,588

301,321

303,208

313,581

322,343

–1,792

–815

–766

–614

–743

–710

–660

..............
25

172
32

249
37

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

2,095

2,120

2,140

2,160

2,180

2,200

2,220

N/A = Not available

The Federal Government will allocate $281.6
billion in discretionary resources in 2000
to defend the United States, its citizens,
its allies, and to protect and advance American
interests around the world. National defense
programs and activities ensure that the United
States maintains strong, ready, and modern
military forces to promote U.S. objectives
in peacetime, deter conflict, and if necessary,
successfully defend our Nation and its interests in wartime.
Over the past half-century, our defense
program has deterred both conventional and
nuclear attack on U.S. soil and brought
a successful end to the Cold War. Today,
the United States is the sole remaining
superpower in the world, with military capabilities unsurpassed by any Nation. As the
world’s best trained and best equipped fighting
force, the U.S. military continues to provide
the strength and leadership that serve as
the foundation upon which to promote peace,
freedom, and prosperity around the globe.
Department of Defense (DOD)
The DOD budget provides for the pay,
training, operation, basing, and support of

U.S. military forces, and for the development
and acquisition of modern equipment to:
Shape the international environment by
maintaining U.S. defense forces at levels
sufficient to undertake our strategy of engagement, and conducting programs to reduce
weapons of mass destruction, prevent their
proliferation, and combat terrorism;
Respond to the full spectrum of crises
by deploying forces overseas and maintaining
capabilities to mobilize forces stationed on
U.S. soil;
Prepare for an uncertain future by giving
U.S. forces the military hardware that employs
the best available technologies; and
Ensure that the U.S. military remains
the world’s most prepared and capable force
by sustaining force readiness levels and reengineering business practices to improve operations.
To achieve these objectives, the defense
program supports the following forces and
activities.
Conventional Forces: Conventional forces
include ground forces such as infantry and
tank units; air forces such as tactical aircraft;
167

168
naval forces such as aircraft carriers, destroyers, and attack submarines; and Marine Corps
expeditionary forces. The Nation needs conventional forces to deter aggression and, when
that fails, to defeat it. Funds to support these
forces cover pay and benefits for military personnel; the purchase, operation, and maintenance of conventional systems such as tanks,
aircraft, and ships; the purchase of ammunition and spare parts; and training.
Mobility Forces: Mobility forces provide the
airlift and sealift that transport military personnel and materiel throughout the world.
They play a critical role in U.S. defense strategy and are a vital part of America’s response
to contingencies that range from humanitarian
relief efforts to major theater wars. Airlift aircraft provide a flexible, rapid way to deploy
forces and supplies quickly to distant regions,
while sealift ships allow the deployment of
large numbers of heavy forces together with
their fuel and supplies. The mobility program
also includes prepositioning equipment and
supplies at sea or on land near the location
of a potential crisis, allowing U.S. forces that
must respond rapidly to crises overseas to
quickly draw upon these prepositioned items.
Strategic Nuclear Forces: Strategic nuclear forces are also important to our military
capability. They include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine launched
ballistic missiles, and long-range strategic
bombers. Within treaty-imposed limits, the primary mission of strategic forces is to deter
nuclear attack against the United States and
its allies, and to convince potential adversaries
that they will never gain a nuclear advantage
against our Nation.
Supporting Activities: Supporting activities include research and development, communications, intelligence, training and medical
services, central supply and maintenance, and
other logistics activities. For example, the Defense Health Program provides health care
through DOD facilities, as well as through the
CHAMPUS medical insurance program and
TRICARE, its companion program.
DOD Performance
DOD’s corporate goals derive from the
key tenets of the U.S. national security
strategy and form the basis of the performance

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

goals and measures presented here. Each
performance goal reflects one aspect of DOD’s
corporate goals and together contribute to
the overall assessment of the Department’s
performance.
Shaping the International Environment
and Responding to the Full Spectrum of
Crises: DOD’s first performance goal is to
shape the international environment by participating in international security organizations, such as NATO, and improving our ability to work cooperatively with our friends and
allies. Such efforts are designed to promote
regional stability and security, and reduce the
threat of war. Their failure could lead to a
major conflict affecting U.S. interests.
Also, DOD must be able to respond to
the full spectrum of crises, from small-scale
contingencies to two nearly simultaneous
major theater wars.
Evaluating DOD’s performance in this area
includes an assessment of:
• The ability of U.S. forces to enhance and
sustain security relationships with friends
and allies, enhance coalition warfighting,
promote regional stability and support
U.S. regional security objectives, deter aggression, and prevent or reduce the threat
of conflict. One measure of this is DOD’s
ability to conduct joint exercises. In 2000,
DOD will conduct 146 combined military
exercises.
The budget will support DOD’s continued
success in implementing programs that reduce
the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction (WMD). To that end DOD’s Cooperative
Threat Reduction (CTR) activities, in concert
with enhanced threat reduction programs in
the Departments of Energy and State, will
continue to assist the successor states of
the former Soviet Union secure, dismantle
and destroy weapons; and help these states
prevent the proliferation of WMD-related material and expertise.
Overseas presence, mobility, and the sustaining of a capable force structure are also
key to DOD’s ability to respond effectively
to crises. DOD’s effectiveness will be determined, in part, by the ability of U.S. forces
‘‘forward deployed’’ (that is, on site around
the world) and those deploying from U.S.

13.

NATIONAL DEFENSE

bases to rapidly converge at the scene of
a potential conflict to deter hostilities and
protect U.S. citizens and interests in times
of crisis.
• The Army will maintain one mechanized
division in the Pacific region and two divisions with elements in Europe.
• The Navy will maintain an overseas presence, defined by the percentage of time
regions are covered by an aircraft carrier
battle group, at 100 percent in the Pacific,
75 percent in Europe and 75 percent in
Southwest Asia.
• The Air Force will maintain two fighter
wing equivalents in the Pacific, one in
Alaska, two in Europe and one in Southwest Asia.
• The Marine corps will cover the Pacific
region with a Marine expeditionary unit
or amphibious ready group one hundred
percent of the time, Europe eighty percent
of the time, and Southwest Asia 50 percent of the time.
DOD’s current force structure was derived
from the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR)
which was designed to respond to the full
spectrum of crises, up to and including two
major-theater wars. DOD acknowledges the
impact of a high rate of operation on unit
readiness. Therefore, DOD will closely monitor
the pace of peacetime operations across the
forces. In 2000, these measures include:
• The Army will maintain four active corps
headquarters, 18 active and National
Guard divisions, two active armored cavalry regiments, and 15 National Guard enhanced readiness brigades. The Army will
lower the number of units deploying more
than 120 days per year to zero.
• The Navy will maintain 11 aircraft wings,
12 amphibious ready groups, 12 aircraft
carriers, 56 attack submarines, and 114
surface combatants. In addition, the Navy
will reduce to zero the number of units
not meeting its personnel tempo goal.
• The Air Force will maintain 20.2 Air Force
Fighter wing equivalents, four air defense
squadrons, and 187 bombers. The Air
Force will lower the number of units de-

169
ploying more than 120 days per year to
zero.
• The Marine Corps will maintain three marine expeditionary forces, three active and
one reserve divisions, three active and one
reserve air wings, and three active and
one reserve force service support groups.
The Marine Corps will lower to zero the
number of units deploying more than 180
days per year over a 36-month scheduling
period.
Remaining the world’s most ready and
capable force depends on four elements: ensuring the readiness of military units; retaining
and
recruiting
high-quality
personnel;
strengthening and enhancing quality of life
programs for military members and their
families; and providing equal opportunity
throughout the armed services.
DOD has identified specific milestones to
measure progress and to monitor readiness
levels in each area, such as the amount
of training that individual units accomplish,
the availability and operability of equipment,
and the achievement of recruiting and retention goals.
• Several factors determine overall unit
readiness, such as training, quality and
availability of equipment, and number of
personnel and, in 2000, DOD will ensure
that all of its units meet their specified
readiness goals.
• In 2000, on average, the Army will attain
800 tank miles per tank a year; active Air
Force fighter crews will achieve 19.1 flying
hours per crew a month; the Marine Corps
will fully execute its mission training syllabus; and Navy ships will steam 50.5
days per quarter for deployed vessels and
28 days for non-deployed vessels.
Finally, the amount of sealift and airlift
capacity must be sufficient to meet deployment
time lines for deterring and defeating largescale, cross-border aggression in two distant
theaters in overlapping time frames, and
to sustain U.S. forces engaged in two major
theater wars.
• In 2000, DOD will attain an organic strategic airlift capability of 26 million ton

170

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

miles a day and will attain a surge sealift
capacity of 8.7 million square feet.
Preparing Now for an Uncertain Future:
To achieve DOD’s second corporate goal, U.S.
forces must maintain a qualitative superiority
over potential adversaries by pursuing a focused procurement and research and development program. DOD must transform the force
by exploiting the Revolution in Military Affairs, and reengineer the Department to
achieve a 21st Century infrastructure. (Chapter 11, ‘‘Supporting the World’s Strongest Military Force,’’ contains a description of major
DOD acquisition deliverables.) Achieving this
goal depends on ensuring that:
• DOD will recruit 203,000 new members
of the armed services, and will obtain 60
percent of recruits from the top half of
those tested for service.
As part of meeting this goal, DOD will
follow the strategy of Joint Vision 2010,
developed by the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff, to transform U.S. forces
for the future, and it will exploit emerging
communication, information and associated
technologies to reshape the way it fights
and prepares for war.
• DOD will acquire modern and capable
weapon systems and will deliver them to
U.S. forces in 25 percent less time, from
132 months in 1992 to 99 months in 2000,
and will meet required performance specifications.
• Defense Technology Objectives (DTOs)
guide both basic research and focused investment. In 2000, DOD will maintain 70
percent of DTOs on track.
• Joint experimentation is an aggressive
new program designed to give insights into
new operational concepts and validate
their ability to meet future battlefield requirements. In 2000, DOD will conduct 14
joint experiments.
DOD must develop new, innovative approaches to manage infrastructure costs, improve the quality of health care, and capitalize
on the revolution in business affairs. Following
the end of the Cold War, the United States
began a major reduction of its military forces.
DOD’s cuts in infrastructure costs, however,

have not kept pace. To make further cuts,
DOD plans to adopt innovative management
techniques and technological practices.
The Defense Health Program will work
to improve the quality of health care provided
to beneficiaries, expand their access to care,
and contain the cost of that care to the
Federal government. These goals will be
achieved through continued measurement of
health outcomes and customer satisfaction,
partnerships with other Federal agencies as
well as the private sector, and sizing the
system to reflect the wartime and peacetime
requirements more accurately.
As part of this goal, DOD must also
transform its support functions. Therefore,
DOD has identified specific measures around
which to focus the reform of acquisition
and business affairs.
By 2000, DOD will:
• Ensure that U.S. forces can achieve visibility of 90 percent of DOD materiel assets, while resupplying military peacekeepers and warfighters and reducing the
1997 average order-to-receipt time from 36
days to 18 days in 2000.
• Dispose of $500 million in excess National
Defense Stockpile inventories and reduce
other supply inventories by $53 billion.
• Dispose of 41 million cumulative square
feet of excess real property.
• Award contracts for the construction of
41,000 privatized family housing units.
• Compete 50,000 positions under the OMB
A-76 public-private sector competitions
process.
• Limit the cost growth of major acquisition
programs to less than one percent.
• Simplify purchasing and payment by using
purchase card transactions for 90 percent
of all DOD micropurchases, while reengineering the requisitioning, funding,
and ordering processes.
• Cut paper acquisition transactions by half
from 1997 levels through electronic commerce and electronic data interchange.
• Eliminate layers of management by
streamlining processes, while cutting

13.

171

NATIONAL DEFENSE

DOD’s acquisition-related work force by 15
percent.
Department of Energy (DOE)
Performance
DOE contributes to our national security
mainly by reducing the global danger from
nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass
destruction. DOE is committed to maintaining
confidence in the nuclear weapons stockpile
without testing, as required under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; to strengthen
the nuclear nonproliferation regime; to work
with states of the former Soviet Union to
improve control of nuclear materials; to develop improved technologies to detect, identify,
and respond to the proliferation of weapons
of mass destruction and illicit materials trafficking; and to clean up aggressively the
environmental legacy of nuclear weapons programs.
The budget proposes $12.3 billion to meet
DOE’s national security objectives, of which
$6.3 billion is for ongoing national security
missions and $6.0 billion addresses environmental cleanup activities.
DOE will achieve the following performance
goals:
National Security
• Meet all scheduled nuclear weapons alterations and modifications and certify to the
President that standards for safety, reliability, and performance of the nuclear
weapons stockpile are met.
• Demonstrate a computer code to perform
3-D analysis of the behavior of a nuclear
weapons primary, including the prediction
of total explosive yield.
• Dismantle about 375 nuclear warheads
that have been removed from the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile.
• Begin to implement a bilateral agreement
with Russia for disposing of surplus weapons plutonium.
• Continue upgrades to protect fissile materials at over 50 sites in Russia including
five uranium and plutonium processing
sites, three nuclear weapons complex sites,
and 10 Russian Navy projects; and create
civilian ventures in Russia’s formerly

closed nuclear cities to block nuclear
smuggling.
Environmental Quality
• Complete 200 release site assessments. A
release site is a specific location where
hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste
has or is suspected to have occurred.
• Clean up 200 release sites, bringing the
number completed to more than 4,500 of
a total inventory of approximately 9,300
release sites.
• Complete 400 facility decommissioning assessments.
• Decommission 110 facilities, increasing the
number completed to 730 of approximately
2,850 facilities.
Other Defense-Related Activities
Other activities that support national defense and that are implementing performance
measurement include programs involving the:
• Coast Guard, which supports the defense
mission through overseas deployments for
engagements with friends and allies, port
security teams, boarding and inspection
teams for enforcing U.N. sanctions, training, aids to navigation, international
icebreaking, equipment maintenance, and
support of the Coast Guard Reserve;
• Federal Bureau of Investigation, which
conducts counterintelligence and surveillance activities;
• Maritime Administration, which helps
maintain a fleet of active, military useful,
privately owned U.S. vessels that would
be available in times of national emergency;
• Arlington National Cemetery, which is developing an expansion plan for using contiguous land sites that will be vacated by
the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps; and
• Selective Service System, which is modernizing its registration process to promote
military recruiting among registrants.
This spirit of volunteerism will be
achieved in partnership with the America’s Promise group, private corporations,
and the armed services.

172

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Accurately Recognizing and Reporting Veterans Benefits
The Nation has long viewed veterans programs as a key way to attract the high-quality people
needed for our volunteer armed forces. Americans recognize veterans benefits as an appropriate
part of the compensation provided for service in the military. Veterans programs are inextricably linked with national defense; without defense, veterans programs would not exist.
Because the Veterans Affairs Department funds and administers these benefits, however, the
Federal Government has accounted for them differently than other defense-related budget costs.
They appear in the budget’s Veterans Benefits and Services function, not the National Defense
function. Also, the budget does not report the full size of these obligations. Rather than recognize the benefits and future Federal obligations that military members earn through their service, the budget reports only the amounts paid in a single year to veterans. Thus, neither the Defense Department (DOD) nor Congress gets a full picture of defense personnel costs when making decisions about the size and scope of our military, making it far harder to consider which
package of benefits might best attract and retain quality military personnel. Finally, the 1993
Government Performance and Results Act encourages policy makers to align missions and related Government programs in the budget.
The Administration, which plans to work with Congress this year to address this problem, believes that any of the following four options would improve the current budgetary treatment of
veterans programs, enabling the Government to more accurately measure the true cost of our
national defense: (1) move the veterans-related discretionary accounts into the Defense function;
(2) fund veterans entitlements on an accrual basis in DOD’s budget and fund discretionary veterans programs in the Defense function; (3) fund veterans entitlements on an accrual basis in
DOD’s budget and display veterans spending in related functions (e.g., Education); or (4) fund
veterans entitlements on an accrual basis in DOD’s budget and continue to reflect veterans
spending in its current function.
Table 13–2 below shows the estimated annual charges to DOD’s military personnel account
from pre-funding veterans benefits.

Table 13–2.

ACCRUING VA BENEFITS FOR CURRENT MILITARY
PERSONNEL

(Notional Costs of Accruing and Actuarially Funding VA Benefits in DOD Budget)

Program

Percentage
of DOD
Basic Pay 2

2000 DOD
Notional Cost (in
millions of
dollars)

VA Compensation ................................................................................
Active Duty Education ........................................................................
VA Loans .............................................................................................
Vocational Rehabilitation and Counseling .......................................
VA Pensions .........................................................................................
VA Burial .............................................................................................

11.6%
2.0%
0.2%
0.9%
2.5%
0.1%

4,482
773
77
348
966
39

Total VA Benefits ..........................................................................

17.3%

6,684

1

For a more detailed discussion of veterans programs, see Chapter 27, ‘‘Veterans Benefits and Services.’’
Basic pay for military personnel does not include benefits, special and incentive pay or bonuses, or housing and subsistence allowances.
2

14.

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

Table 14–1.

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS
(In millions of dollars)

Function 150

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority 1 ..
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

18,991

40,850

21,311

21,165

20,815

20,965

21,115

–4,992

–4,355

–3,886

–3,680

–3,393

–3,150

–3,057

2,346
12,369

4,002
13,376

1,759
12,983

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

11,040
..............

12,410
..............

12,265
–310

13,100
–540

14,075
–570

15,160
–600

16,280
–630

N/A = Not available
1
1999 includes $18.4 billion for the International Monetary Fund quote increase and the New Arrangements to Borrow.

The Administration proposes $21.3 billion
for International Affairs programs in 2000.
By fully funding these programs, the United
States can continue to provide critical international leadership to accomplish key strategic
goals, such as enhancing national security,
fostering world-wide economic growth, supporting the establishment and consolidation of
democracy, and improving the global environment and addressing other key global issues.
The State Department outlined these goals
more fully in its September 1997 report,
‘‘United States Strategic Plan for International
Affairs.’’
In many cases, the performance goals that
follow are from agency performance plans.
If an agency has not submitted 2000 performance plan to OMB, the performance goals
remain unchanged from the International Affairs chapter of the 1999 Budget. In addition
to the goals identified below, agencies have
established other performance goals for themselves to ensure that they fulfill their legislative mandates in ways that also contribute
to U.S. national interests.

National Security
U.S. security depends on active diplomacy,
steps to resolve destabilizing regional conflicts,
and vigorous efforts to reduce the continuing
threat of weapons of mass destruction. The
budget proposes the necessary funds to support the Middle East peace process following
the signing of the Wye Memorandum. The
budgt also provides funds to help the new
NATO members—Poland, Hungary, the Czech
Republic—and other East European nations.
A strong, active United Nations enhances
U.S. diplomatic efforts, and the budget proposes to fund assessed contributions to this
and other international organizations, as well
as annual assessed and voluntary peacekeeping contributions.
Economic and reconstruction assistance and
police training are critical to our effort to
support the Dayton Accords on Bosnia, and
funding under the FREEDOM Support Act
helps foster the transition to market democracies in the former Soviet Union. For Kosovo,
the budget includes resources to support
observers to verify compliance by all parties
and the training of a professional, local
173

174
police force. Finally, the budget fully supports
further progress on our efforts to control
weapons of mass destruction by requesting
$48 million under the restructured State
Department which will incorporate the Arms
Control and Disarmament Agency for programs that seek to reduce eliminate, or
curb the spread of such weapons.
Relevant agencies will meet the following
performance goals in 2000:
• The State Department, in seeking to advance the Middle East peace process, will
achieve significant progress towards fulfilling the goals of the Oslo Accord.
• The State Department will avert or defuse
regional conflicts where critical national
interests are at stake through bilateral
U.S. assistance and U.N. peacekeeping activities.
• The State and Defense Departments will
ensure that the armed forces of NATO’s
‘‘candidate countries’’ can operate in a
fully integrated manner with other NATO
forces upon their planned entry into
NATO.
• The State and Defense Departments and
the Agency for International Development
(USAID) will achieve significant progress
toward implementing the Dayton Accords
in Bosnia.
• The State Department will achieve full
compliance with, and verification of, treaties regarding weapons of mass destruction and, if necessary, combat suspected
development programs.
Economic Prosperity
International affairs activities increase U.S.
economic prosperity in several ways. First,
the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), supported by the State Department and other
agencies, works to reduce barriers to trade
in U.S. goods, services, and investments by
negotiating new trade liberalizing agreements
and strictly enforcing existing agreements.
Second, the Export-Import Bank (Eximbank)
and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA)
provide grant and credit financing to correct
market distortions that can put U.S. exports
at a competitive disadvantage. The Overseas

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) provides investment insurance and financing for
development projects in support of U.S. businesses large and small.
Third, development assistance from the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and
USAID, along with debt reduction, help increase economic growth, openness, and market
orientation in developing and transitioning
countries, creating new markets for U.S.
goods and services and reducing the economic
causes of instability in these regions.
Relevant agencies will meet the following
performance goals in 2000:
• USTR will use the Third World Treaty Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference
to set the negotiating agenda for the round
that begins in 2000; will conclude two or
more pending accession negotiations to the
WTO; will negotiate cuts in specific, identified barriers to U.S. and global trade;
and will effectively enforce international
trade agreements.
• The Eximbank will develop new mechanisms to expand the availability of financing for U.S. exports by pioneering joint
ventures with the private sector, as well
as innovative financing programs that will
increase the Bank’s support for small and
medium-sized exporters.
• OPIC will increase the amount of private
U.S. investment that supports American,
foreign policy and development goals and
benefits the U.S. economy.
• TDA will increase, from 1998 levels, the
ratio of TDA-supported exports to TDA expenditures and the percentage of TDA
projects that ultimately yield U.S. exports.
• USAID, through bilateral assistance, and
the Treasury Department, through its contributions to the MDBs, will provide assistance that helps to increase the real annual per capita GDP growth rate from
1998 levels in developing countries.
American Citizens and U.S. Borders
The State Department, through the U.S.
passport office and the network of embassies
and consulates overseas, helps and protects
Americans who travel and reside abroad—

14.

175

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

most directly through various consular services, including citizenship documentation and
help in emergencies. The Department also
helps to control how immigrants and foreign
visitors enter and remain in the U.S. by
effectively and fairly administering U.S. immigration laws overseas and screening applicants, in order to deter illegal immigration
and prevent terrorists, narcotics traffickers,
and other criminals from entering the United
States.
The State Department will meet the following performance goals in 2000:
• Improve U.S. passport security by issuing
all passports produced in the United
States with a digitized passport photo.
• Complete the world-wide modernization of
consular systems and meet year 2000 requirements, thus contributing to border
security.
Law Enforcement
The expansion and rising sophistication
of transnational crime, international drug
trafficking, and terrorism represent direct
threats to our national security. The State
Department has broad responsibility for federal law enforcement policy and progrm coordination in the foreign arena. The budget
funds the State Department’s diplomatic efforts to convince other countries to work
cooperatively to address international criminal
threats; it also funds assistance and training
that helps other countries combat corruption,
terrorism, and illegal narcotics, and provides
the developing countries with economic alternatives to narcotics cultivation and export.
The State Department, working with the
Departments of Justice, the Treasury, and
Defense, will meet the following performance
goals in 2000:

• Increase, from 1998 levels, criminal justice
section training, providing equipment, and
techinical assistance to local and federal
law enforcement organizations.
Democracy
Advancing U.S. interests in the post-Cold
War world often requires efforts to support
democratic transitions, address human rights
violations, and promote U.S. democratic values. The budget funds the State Department’s
diplomatic efforts that discourage other nations’ interference with the basic democratic
and human rights of their citizens. It also
funds direct foreign assistance through USAID
and other agencies that helps countries develop the institutions and legal structures
for the transition to democracy. Finally, the
budget funds exchange and training programs
of the State Department, as well as international broadcasting programs that seek to
spread U.S. democratic values throughout
the world and ensure that Americans understand and value the peoples and cultures
of other nations.
Relevant agencies will meet the following
performance goals for 2000:
• USAID, State Department public diplomacy programs, and international broadcasting programs will provide assistance
that lead to the improvement of Freedom
House ratings of countries in which the
United States is assisting the transition
to democracy.
• As a result of State Department diplomacy
and direct assistance, the instances of
human rights abuses as reported by the
State Department in the annual U.S. Report on Human Rights will be reduced
from 1998 levels.
• Public diplomacy activities will increase,
from 1998 levels, the support for democracy, democratic institutions, and human
rights in selected countries that participate in the programs, as measured
through polling.

• Increase, from 1998 levels, the number of
foreign governments that enact and enforce legislation to combat corruption,
money
laundering,
and
other
transnational criminal activities.

Humanitarian Response

• Reduce, from 1998 levels, the hectares of
coca and opium poppies being cultivated
in producing countries.

U.S. values demand that we help alleviate
human suffering from foreign crises, whether
man-made or natural, such as Hurricane

176
Mitch, even in cases with no direct threat
to U.S. security interests. The budget provides
the necessary funds to address and, where
possible, try to prevent, humanitarian crises
through USAID’s Foreign Disaster Assistance
and Transition Initiatives programs, through
the State Department’s Migration and Refugee
Assistance program, and through food aid
provided under ‘‘Public Law 480’’ authorities.
The budget also funds U.S. bilateral demining
efforts to address the growing humanitarian
crisis caused by landmines in areas of former
conflict.
Relevant agencies will meet the following
performance goals for 2000:
• USAID, in conjunction with other public
and private donors, will provide humanitarian assistance that will maintain the
nutritional status of children aged five or
under living in regions affected by humanitarian emergencies.
• The State Department will reduce refugee
populations, from 1998 levels, through
U.S.-sponsored integration, repatriation,
and resettlement activities.
• The State Department will increase, from
1998 levels, the amount of land returned
to productive economic activity by clearing
mines and other unexploded ordnance.
Over time, this will also result in a reduction of innocent casualties.
Global Issues
The global problems of environmental degradation, population growth, and the spread
of communicable diseases directly affect future
U.S. security and prosperity. The State Department’s negotiation of the Kyoto global
climate change treaty and USAID’s fiveyear, $1 billion global climate change assistance effort will reduce the threat of this
global problem. Funding of current commitments and arrears to the Global Environment
Facility remains critical to the effort of reducing environmental degradation.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Similarly, U.S. leadership and U.S. bilateral
assistance efforts and U.S. contributions to
multilateral organizations are critical to reduce the pressures of illegal immigration
on the U.S. economy, and help alleviate
the causes of regional conflict. U.S. support,
mainly through USAID both for bilateral
and multilateral activities also reduces the
global threat of AIDS and other communicable
diseases.
Finally, the volunteer programs of the Peace
Corps serve U.S. national interests by promoting mutual understanding between Americans
and the people of developing nations and
providing technical assistance to interested
countries.
Relevant agencies will meet the following
performance goals in 2000:
• The State Department and USAID, working with the Environmental Protection
Agency and with other bilateral and multilateral donors, through diplomacy and foreign assistance will slow the rate of increase, from 1998 levels, of climate change
gas emissions among key developing nation emitters.
• USAID will provide assistance in conjunction with other donors that will cut, from
1998 levels, the total fertility rates in developing countries.
• USAID, working with the Department of
Health and Human Services and with
other donors, will provide assistance that
will reduce, from 1998 levels, the infant
mortality rate and the rate of new cases
of AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other
communicable diseases in developing countries.
• The Peace Corps will provide opportunities
for 4200 Americans in 2000 to enter service as new volunteers, assisting countries
with their development needs and increasing cultural awareness.

15.

GENERAL SCIENCE, SPACE, AND
TECHNOLOGY

Table 15–1.

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF GENERAL
SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY
(In millions of dollars)

Function 250

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

17,950

18,775

19,202

19,408

19,372

19,339

19,335

44

72

78

68

34

34

34

2,385
..............

1,985
311

1,490
933

1,035
656

855
281

795
133

765
53

Science and technology are principal agents
of change and progress, with over half of
the Nation’s economic productivity growth
in the last 50 years attributable to technological innovation and the science that supported it. Appropriately enough, the private
sector makes many investments in technology
development. The Federal Government, however, also plays a role—particularly when
risks are too great or the potential return
for companies is too long-term.
Within this function, the Federal Government supports areas of cutting-edge science,
through the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA), the National Science
Foundation (NSF), and the Department of
Energy (DOE). The activities of these agencies
contribute to greater understanding of the
world in which we live, ranging from the
edges of the universe to the smallest imaginable particles, and to new knowledge that
may or may not have immediate applications
to improving our lives. Because the results
of basic research are unpredictable, the challenge of developing performance goals for
this area is formidable.
Each of these agencies funds high-quality
research and contributes to the Nation’s cadre
of skilled scientists and engineers. To continue

this tradition, and as a general goal for
activities under this function:
• At least 80 percent of the research projects
will be reviewed by appropriate peers and
selected through a merit-based competitive
process.
Another important Federal role is to construct and operate major scientific facilities
and capital assets for multiple users. These
include telescopes, satellites, oceanographic
ships, and particle accelerators. Many of
today’s fast-paced advances in medicine and
other fields rely on these facilities. As general
goals:
• Agencies will keep the development and
upgrade of these facilities on schedule and
within budget, not to exceed 110 percent
of estimates.
• In operating the facilities, agencies will
keep the operating time lost due to unscheduled downtime to less than 10 percent of the total scheduled possible operating time, on average.
The budget proposes $19.2 billion to conduct
these activities. The Government also stimulates private investment in these activities
through over $1 billion a year in tax credits
177

178
and other preferences for research and development (R&D).
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
The budget proposes $12.5 billion for NASA
activities in this function. NASA serves as
the lead Federal agency for research and
development in civil space activities, working
to expand frontiers in air and space to
serve America and improve the quality of
life on Earth. NASA pursues this vision
through balanced investment in four enterprises: Space Science; Earth Science; Space
Transportation Technology; and Human Exploration and Development of Space.
Space Science programs, for which the
budget proposes $2.2 billion, are designed
to enhance our understanding of how the
universe was created, how stars and planets
evolve and die, and the possible existence
of life beyond Earth. In the past year,
NASA spacecraft achieved several important
watershed events in Space Science including
the first direct image of a planet outside
the solar system, taken by the Hubble Space
Telescope, and a confirmed discovery of ice
on the moon by the Lunar Prospector mission.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

lution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium.
Earth Science programs, for which the
budget proposes $1.5 billion, focus the effects
of natural and human-induced changes on
the global environment through long-term,
space-based observation of Earth’s land,
oceans, and atmospheric processes. This year,
NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
provided new insights that will enable weather
forecasters to more accurately predict where
and when a hurricane will hit land.
• NASA Earth Science will successfully
launch its three planned spacecraft—the
Advanced Cavity Radiometer Irradiance
Monitor, the Vegetation Canopy Lidar
(VCL) mission, and a technology validation
mission to reduce the costs of future
Landsat missions—within 10 percent of
their schedules and budgets.
• NASA Earth Science will double the volume of precipitation, land surface, and climate data it archives from its missions
compared to 1998, increase the number of
products delivered from its archives by 10
percent, and make the data available to
users within five days.

• NASA Space Science will successfully
launch its three planned spacecraft—the
Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics mission;
the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora
Global Exploration, and the High Energy
Solar Spectroscopic Imager—within 10
percent of their schedules and budgets.

• NASA’s Advisory Council will rate all
near-term Earth Science objectives as
being met or on schedule. Examples of objectives include: observe and document
land cover and land use change and impacts on sustained resource productivity;
and understand the causes and impacts
of long-term climate variations on global
and regional scales.

• NASA Space Science will develop innovative new technologies to reduce the cost
of future spacecraft by delivering the first
engineering model of a standard, miniaturized integrated avionics system, to be
used for the Europa Orbiter and future
missions.

Space Transportation Technology programs,
for which the budget proposes $240 million,
work with the private sector to develop
and test experimental launch vehicles that
reduce the cost of access to space.

• The NASA Advisory Council will rate all
near-term Space Science objectives as
being met or on schedule. Examples of objectives include: investigate the composition, evolution and resources of Mars, the
Moon, and small solar system bodies such
as asteroids and comets; identify planets
around other stars; and observe the evo-

• The X–33 program will begin flight testing
in 2000 to demonstrate technologies that
are traceable to the mass fraction and
operability required for future reusable
launch vehicles (including 48-hour surge
turnarounds and seven day routine turnarounds with a 50-person ground crew).
• The X–34 program will continue flight
testing in 2000 to demonstrate tech-

15.

GENERAL SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY

nologies key to the operational requirements of future reusable launch vehicles
including high flight rates (including a
flight rate of 25 flights in one year).
Human Exploration and Development of
Space (HEDS) programs, for which the budget
proposes $5.6 billion, focus on the use of
human skills and expertise in space. In
1998, HEDS programs supported the successful launch of four Space Shuttle flights,
including one flight to better understand
the functioning of the nervous system in
the environment of space. In November, 1998,
assembly of the International Space Station
in orbit began with the joining of the first
Russian and American modules.
• On the International Space Station, NASA
will deploy the U.S. Laboratory Module,
initiate Station-based extra-vehicular activity capability, and activate a Stationbased external robotic manipulator within
performance, schedule and budget targets.
• NASA will ensure that Space Shuttle safety, reliability, availability and cost will improve, by achieving seven or fewer flight
anomalies per mission, successful on-time
launches 85 percent of the time, and a
12-month flight manifest preparation time.
• NASA will expand human presence and
scientific resources in space by initiating
continuous three-person crew presence on
the International Space Station.
National Science Foundation
The budget proposes $3.9 billion in 2000
for NSF. While NSF represents just three
percent of Federal R&D spending, it supports
nearly half of the non-medical basic research
conducted at academic institutions, and 30
percent of Federal support for mathematics
and science education. In 1998, NSF investments, in conjunction with NIH, led to the
discovery that biological clocks are not just
in the brain, but in genes, thereby prompting
the consideration of new strategies for the
treatment of disorders associated with jet
lag, shift work, and seasonal depression.
In addition, NSF-funded scientists determined
that the years 1997, 1995, and 1990 were
the warmest since 1400 A.D., providing further

179
evidence of the importance of human influence
on the global climate system.
NSF research and education investments
are made in three primary areas:
Research Project Support: Over half of NSF’s
resources support research projects performed
by individuals, small groups and centers,
and instrumentation grants.
• An independent assessment will judge
whether NSF’s research investments have
lead to important discoveries and new
knowledge and techniques, both expected
and unexpected, within and across traditional disciplinary boundaries. The assessment will also determine connections between discoveries and their service to society.
• NSF will maintain the percentage of competitive research grants going to new investigators at a minimum of 30 percent.
Facilities: Facilities such as observatories,
particle accelerators, research stations, and
oceanographic research vessels provide the
platforms for research in fields such as
astronomy, physics, and oceanography. About
20 percent of NSF’s budget supports large,
multi-user facilities required for cutting-edge
research. NSF facilities will meet the functionwide goals to remain within cost and schedule,
and to operate efficiently.
Education and Training: Education and
training activities, accounting for 19 percent
of NSF’s budget, revolve around efforts to
improve teaching and learning in science,
mathematics, engineering, and technology at
all education levels. Education and training
projects develop curriculum, enhance teacher
training, and provide educational opportunities
for students from pre-K through postdoctoral.
• Over 80 percent of schools participating
in a systemic initiative program will: 1)
implement a standards-based curriculum
in science and mathematics; 2) further
professional development of the instructional workforce; and 3) improve student
achievement on a selected battery of tests,
after three years of NSF support.

180
Department of Energy
DOE provides major scientific user facilities
and sponsors basic scientific research in specific fields supporting over 60 percent of
federally-funded research in the physical
sciences.
The budget proposes $2.8 billion for DOE
science programs, which include high-energy
and nuclear physics, basic energy sciences,
biological and environmental research, fusion
energy sciences, and computational and technology research. These programs support scientific facilities for high-energy and nuclear
physics and fusion energy sciences and the
research performed by the users of the facilities. They also provide and operate synchrotron light sources, neutron sources, supercomputers, high-speed networks, and other
instruments that researchers use in fields
ranging from biomedicine to agriculture, geoscience, and materials. These facilities provide
the cutting-edge experimental and theoretical
techniques to enable insights into dozens
of applications, and they are available, on
a competitive basis, to researchers funded
by NSF, other Federal agencies, and public
and private entities. DOE’s facilities will
meet the function-wide goals to remain within
cost and schedule, and to operate efficiently.
Regular peer-review assessments will judge
whether DOE science programs have high
scientific quality.
Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports basic
research in the natural sciences for new
and improved energy techniques and technologies, and to understand and mitigate
the environmental impacts of energy technologies.
• BES will continue construction of the
Spallation Neutron Source, at cost and
timetables as contained in the Critical Decision II agreement, to provide beams of
neutrons used to probe and understand
the properties of materials at an atomic
level. This research leads to better fibers,
plastics, catalysts, and magnets and improvements in pharmaceuticals, computing
equipment, and electric motors.
Computational and Technology Research
(CTR) performs long-term computational and

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

technology research through an integrated
program in applied mathematical sciences,
high-performance computing and communications, information infrastructure, and laboratory technology research.
• CTR will develop advanced computing capabilities, computational algorithms, models, methods, and libraries, and advanced
visualization and data management systems to enable new computing applications
in science.
• Users will judge that computer facilities
and networks have met 75 percent of their
requirements.
Biological and Environmental Research
(BER) provides fundamental science to develop
the knowledge to identify, understand, and
anticipate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy production,
development, and use.
• BER will complete sequencing of 50 million subunits of human DNA and provide
these to publicly accessible databases.
• BER will commence full operation at three
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites
to provide unique climatological data.
High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP)
strives to deepen the understanding of the
nature of matter and energy at the most
fundamental level, as well as understanding
of the structure and interactions of atomic
nuclei.
HENP will deliver on the 2000 U.S./DOE
commitments to the international Large
Hadron Collider project. HENP facilities will
provide cutting-edge scientific capabilities to
further study the fundamental constituents
of matter.
Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) conducts research on the scientific and technical basis
for an economical and environmentally acceptable fusion energy source.
• FES will operate the National Spherical
Torus Experiment and three small, innovative experiments to provide a basic scientific understanding of fusion concepts.

15.

GENERAL SCIENCE, SPACE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Tax Incentives
Along with direct spending on R&D, the
Federal Government has sought to stimulate
private investment in these activities with
tax preferences. The current law provides
a 20-percent tax credit for private research
and experimentation expenditures above a
certain base amount. The credit, which was
extended in 1998, is due to expire on June
30, 1999. The President proposes to extend
it for one year. Under current law, the
credit will cost $1.7 billion in 1999 and
$1.0 billion in 2000. The extension will cost

181
$0.3 billion in 1999 and $0.9 billion in
2000.
A permanent tax provision also lets companies deduct, up front, the costs of certain
kinds of research and experimentation, rather
than capitalize these costs. This tax expenditure will cost $510 million in 2000. Finally,
equipment used for research benefits from
relatively rapid cost recovery. The cost of
this tax preference is calculated in the tax
expenditure estimate for accelerated depreciation of machinery and equipment.

16.
Table 16–1.

ENERGY

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF ENERGY
(In millions of dollars)

Function 270

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

3,077

2,888

2,836

3,169

3,020

2,992

2,965

–2,440

–3,184

–5,142

–4,404

–4,336

–4,244

–4,281

992
..............

1,592
..............

1,295
..............

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1,535
..............

1,575
1

1,625
379

1,630
671

1,635
660

1,450
787

1,200
1,040

N/A = Not available

Federal energy programs contribute to energy security, economic prosperity and environmental protection. Funded mainly through
the Energy Department (DOE), they range
from protecting against disruptions in petroleum supplies, to conducting research on
renewable energy sources, to cleaning up
DOE facilities contaminated by years of nuclear-related research activities. The Administration proposes to spend $2.8 billion for
these programs. In addition, the Federal
Government allocates about $1.6 billion a
year in tax benefits, mainly to encourage
development of traditional and alternative
energy sources.
The Federal Government has a longstanding
and evolving role in energy. Most Federal
energy programs and agencies have no State
or private counterparts and clearly involve
the national interest. The federally-owned
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), for instance, protects against supply disruptions
and the resulting consumer price shocks,
while Federal regulators protect public health
and the environment and ensure fair, efficient
energy rates. DOE’s applied research and
development (R&D) programs in fossil, nuclear, solar/renewable energy and energy conservation speed the development of tech-

nologies, usually through cost-shared partnerships with industry. The programs not only
open new opportunities for American industry,
but reach beyond what the marketplace demands today, putting the Nation in a better
position to meet the demands of tomorrow.
Energy Resources
DOE maintains the SPR and invests in
R&D to protect against petroleum supply
disruptions and reduce the environmental
impacts of energy production and use. The
SPR was created in 1975 and now holds
563 million barrels of crude oil in underground
salt caverns at four Gulf Coast sites. The
SPR helps protect the economy and provide
flexibility for the Nation’s foreign policy in
case of a severe energy supply disruption.
• In 2000, DOE will maintain its capability
to reach its SPR drawdown rate of about
four million barrels a day within 15 days
and to maintain that rate for at least 90
days.
DOE’s energy R&D investments cover a
broad array of resources and technologies
to make the production and use of all forms
of energy—including solar and renewables,
fossil, and nuclear—more efficient and less
183

184
environmentally damaging. These investments
not only lay the foundation for a more
sustainable energy future but also open major
international markets for manufacturers of
advanced U.S. technology and enhance our
Nation’s energy security.
Energy conservation programs, for which
the budget proposes $838 million, are designed
to improve the fuel economy of various transportation modes, increase the productivity
of our most energy-intensive industries, and
improve the energy efficiency of buildings
and appliances. They also include grants
to States to fund energy-efficiency programs
and low-income home weatherization. Each
of these activities benefits our economy and
reduces emissions of carbon dioxide and other
greenhouse gases. Many rely on partnerships
with the private sector for cost-sharing and
commercialization.
Energy-efficiency
technologies that have already come to market
include heat-reflecting windows, high-efficiency
lights, geothermal heat pumps, high-efficiency
electric motors and compressors, and software
for designing energy-efficient buildings.
In 2000, DOE’s Energy Conservation program will:
• demonstrate low-cost, high-volume manufacturing processes for key components of
fuel cells for ultra-clean automobiles;
• complete the development of advanced industrial turbines for efficient in-plant generation of electricity and steam;
• arrange for $400 million worth of energyefficiency improvements at Federal facilities to be financed through regional and
national energy-savings performance contracts; and
• weatherize 70,000 low-income homes.
Solar and renewable energy programs, for
which the budget proposes $399 million, focus
on technologies that will help the Nation
use its abundant renewable resources such
as wind, solar, and biomass to produce lowcost, clean energy that contributes no net
carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The United
States is the world’s technology leader in
wind energy, with a growing export market
and production costs that have fallen below
five cents per kilowatt-hour. In addition,

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

photovoltaics are becoming more useful in
remote power applications, and new biofuels
plants are being constructed. DOE also is
coordinating the President’s Million Solar
Roofs initiative, which was introduced in
the 1999 Budget, and States, cities, and
Federal agencies to date have pledged 710,000
solar roof installations (a mixture of solar
heat/hot water and photovoltaics) over the
next nine years.
In 2000, DOE’s Solar and Renewable Energy
program will:
• support the President’s Million Solar Roofs
initiative through partnerships and technical assistance so that at least 29,000
solar roofs will be installed in 2000; and
• complete demonstrations of full-scale biomass co-firing with coal, commercial-scale
conversion of agricultural wastes to ethanol, an advanced geothermal power cycle,
and dispatchable power from a solar
‘‘power tower.’’
DOE’s energy efficiency and renewable energy programs form a major part of the
Administration’s Climate Change Technology
Initiative, which is intended to find ways
to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and
other greenhouse gases in ways that benefit
our economy rather than constrain it. (For
more details, see Chapter 7, ‘‘Promoting Research.’’)
Fossil fuel energy R&D programs, for which
the budget proposes $364 million, help industry develop advanced technologies to produce
and use coal, oil, and gas resources more
efficiently and cleanly. Federally-funded development of clean, highly-efficient gas-fired and
coal-fired generating systems aim to reduce
greenhouse gas emission rates, while reducing
electricity costs. The programs also help boost
the domestic production of oil and natural
gas by funding R&D projects with industry
to cut exploration, development, and production costs.
In 2000, DOE will:
• complete demonstration of new tertiary oil
recovery technologies;
• begin testing the first commercial prototype solid-oxide fuel cell for distributed
power generation; and

16.

ENERGY

185

• verify the design of a fuel-cell/turbine hybrid power plant.

• increase the total number of geographic
sites completed to 76 of 113; and

Nuclear fission power is a widely used
technology, providing over 20 percent of the
electric power consumed in the United States
and about 17 percent worldwide without
generating greenhouse gases. If fossil plants
were used to produce the amount of electricity
generated by these nuclear plants, more than
300 million additional metric tons of carbon
would be emitted each year. Continued R&D
addressing the issues that threaten the acceptance and viability of nuclear fission in the
United States will help determine whether
fission can fulfill its potential for supplying
economically-priced energy while reducing
greenhouse gas emissions.

• make ready for disposal about 87 percent
of the high-level waste at the West Valley,
New York site.

In 2000, DOE will:
• receive Nuclear Regulatory Commission
approval to test advanced ‘‘chip’’-based nuclear plant instrumentation and control
technology for increased reliability and
safety;
• complete validation of artificial intelligence software for steam-tube inspection;
• and identify new reactor and/or fuel-cycle
concepts that may improve the cost, performance, safety, or proliferation-resistance of civilian nuclear power.
Environmental Quality
In Non-defense Environmental Management,
the budget proposes $331 million to manage
the Nation’s most complex environmental
cleanup program, the result of more than
four decades of research and production of
nuclear energy technology and materials. (For
information on DOE’s Defense Environmental
Management program, see Chapter 13, ‘‘National Defense.’’) This will reduce environmental risk and manage the waste at: (1)
sites run by DOE’s predecessor agencies;
(2) sites contaminated by uranium and thorium production from the 1950s to the 1970s;
and (3) DOE’s uranium processing plants
operated by the recently privatized United
States Enrichment Corporation.
In 2000, DOE will:
• complete remediation at four geographic
sites;

DOE’s Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program oversees the management and
disposal of spent nuclear fuel from commercial
nuclear reactors and high-level radioactive
waste from Federal cleanup sites. Following
completion of the Viability Assessment for
storing nuclear waste in Yucca Mountain,
DOE plans to:
• complete an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) in 2000 for use of the Yucca
Mountain site;
• complete scientific and technical work
identified in the Viability Assessment as
necessary for the Secretary to make a nuclear waste site recommendation to the
President in 2001; and
• if the site is determined to be suitable for
a permanent nuclear waste repository,
submit a license application to the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission in 2002.
Energy Production and Power Marketing
The Federal Government is reshaping programs that produce, distribute, and finance
oil, gas, and electric power. In February,
1998, DOE sold the Naval Petroleum Reserve,
commonly known as Elk Hills, for $3.7 billion—the largest privatization of a federal
entity in U.S. history. Elk Hills had been
set aside early this century to provide an
oil reserve for Navy ships, but in recent
years was being operated by DOE as a
commercial oil and gas field because it was
no longer needed for its original purpose.
The four Federal Power Marketing Administrations, or PMAs, (Bonneville, Southeastern,
Southwestern, and Western) market electricity
generated by 127 multi-purpose Federal dams
and manage 33,000 miles of federally-owned
transmission lines in 34 States. The PMAs
sell about six percent of the Nation’s electricity, primarily to preferred customers such
as counties, cities, and publicly-owned utilities.
The PMAs face growing challenges as the

186
electricity industry moves toward open, competitive markets.
• In 2000, each PMA will operate its transmission system to ensure that service is
continuous and reliable—that is, that the
system achieves a ‘‘pass’’ rating each
month under North American Reliability
Council performance standards.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is
a Federal Government corporation and the
Nation’s single largest electric power generator. It generates four percent of the electric
power in the country and transmits that
power over its 17,000 mile transmission network to 159 municipal utilities and rural
electric cooperatives that serve some eight
million customers in seven States.
TVA is responding to changes that are
bringing greater competition to the electric
power industry by taking steps to increase
its ability to supply power at competitive
prices. The agency is now engaged in a
major effort to cut its debt in half, from
$28 billion in 1997 to $14 billion in 2009.
• In 2000, TVA will reduce its debt by $700
million.
(For information on TVA’s non-power activities, see Chapter 21, ‘‘Community and Regional Development.’’)
In 2000, the Agriculture Department’s Rural
Utilities Service (RUS) will make $1 billion
in direct loans to rural electric cooperatives,
public bodies, nonprofit associations, and other
utilities in rural areas for generating, transmitting, and distributing electricity. Its main
goal is to finance modern, affordable electric
service to rural communities. Included within
this funding amount is a new $400 million
Treasury rate loan proposal, which will help
rural utility borrowers position themselves
to be viable in a competitive, deregulated
environment RUS borrowers continue to provide service the poorest counties in rural
America and counties suffering the most
from population out-migration.
• In 2000, RUS will upgrade 130 rural electric systems, benefitting over 1.6 billion
customers and generating nearly 21,000
jobs.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Energy Regulation
The Federal Government’s regulation of
energy industries is designed to protect public
health, achieve environmental and energy
goals, and promote fair and efficient interstate
energy markets. DOE improves the Nation’s
use of energy resources through its appliance
energy efficiency program, which specifies
minimum levels of energy efficiency for major
home appliances, such as water heaters, air
conditioners, and refrigerators. The Federal
Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an
independent agency within DOE, regulates
the transmission and wholesale prices of
electric power, including non-Federal hydroelectric power, and the transportation of oil
and natural gas by pipeline in interstate
commerce. FERC promotes competition in
the natural gas industry and in wholesale
electric power markets. Recent FERC reforms
to give consumers competitive choices in
services and suppliers will cut consumer
energy bills by $3 billion to $5 billion per
year.
In 2000, DOE will issue three final rules
and three proposed rules and determinations
on different categories of applicants. FERC
will measure the extent to which natural
gas and electricity prices more clearly and
quickly reflect changing supply and demand
conditions and will measure the reduction
in wholesale electricity price differences among
regions, to evaluate the success of its initiative
to restructure interstate natural gas and
electricity markets.
DOE Corporate Management
Acquisition Reform at the Department of
Energy is a high priority of the Administration. Because more than 90 percent of the
Department’s budget is spent on contracts
to operate its facilities, improving management
and oversight of these contracts can improve
mission support and save taxpayer dollars.
DOE has established a Department-wide system to evaluate and use past performance
data for contractor selections and will work
with OMB to achieve short-term PBSC successes in 2000 and create incentives for
more conversions.

16.

ENERGY

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
NRC, an independent agency, regulates the
Nation’s civilian nuclear reactors and the
medical and industrial use of nuclear materials to ensure public health and safety
and to protect the environment. NRC international activities also promote U.S. interests
in nonproliferation and the safe and secure
use of nuclear materials in other countries.
NRC safety performance goals for 2000 include:
• no civilian nuclear reactor accidents;
• no significant accidental releases of radioactive material from storage and transportation of nuclear waste; and
• no offsite release of radioactivity beyond
regulatory limits from low-level waste disposal sites.
Tax Incentives
Federal tax incentives are mainly designed
to encourage the domestic production of fossil
and other fuels, and to promote the vitality

187
of our energy industries and diversification
of our domestic energy supplies. Certain fuel
producers many cut their taxable income
as their fuel resources are depleted. An
income tax credit helps promote the development of certain non-conventional fuels. It
applies to oil produced from shale and tar
sands, gas produced from a number of unconventional sources (including coal seams), some
fuels processed from wood, and steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts. Another tax provision provides a credit to producers who make alcohol fuels—mainly ethanol—
from biomass materials. The law also allows
a partial exemption from Federal gasoline
taxes for gasolines blended with ethanol.
The Climate Change Technology Initiative
proposes $3.6 billion in new tax incentives
to help reduce greenhouse gases (see Table
33–4). These incentives provide for purchases
of energy-efficient homes and heating/cooling
equipment, electric and hybrid vehicles, rooftop
solar systems, and combined heat-and-power
systems. They also extend wind and biomass
tax credits.

17.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND
ENVIRONMENT

Table 17–1.

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF NATURAL
RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT
(In millions of dollars)

Function 300

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

23,456

23,355

23,812

23,987

23,886

23,911

23,964

441
..............

1,049
..............

709
–753

802
–740

701
–777

860
–726

834
–703

39
..............

35
..............

46
..............

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1,460
..............

1,515
..............

1,555
–84

1,620
–45

1,670
31

1,735
108

1,790
185

N/A = Not available

The Federal Government spends over $23
billion a year to protect the environment,
manage Federal land, conserve resources, provide recreational opportunities, and construct
and operate water projects. The Federal Government manages about 700 million acres—
a third of the U.S. continental land area.
The Natural Resources and Environment
function reflects most Federal support for
natural resources and the environment, but
does not include certain large-scale environmental programs, such as the environmental
clean-up programs at the Departments of
Energy and Defense.
Within this function,
on providing cleaner air
natural resources, and
mental contamination.
clude:

Federal efforts focus
and water, conserving
cleaning up environThe major goals in-

• protecting human health and safeguarding
the natural environment—air, water, and
land—upon which life depends;

• restoring and maintaining the health of
federally-managed lands, waters, and renewable resources; and
• providing recreational opportunities for
the public to enjoy natural and cultural
resources.
Federal lands include the 378 units of
the National Park System, the 156 National
Forests; the 514 refuges in the National
Wildlife Refuge System; and land managed
by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
in 11 Western States (see Chart 17–1).
Land and Water Conservation Fund
The Land and Water Conservation Fund
(LWCF) is an important tool for species
and habitat conservation. The Fund uses
the royalties of offshore oil and gas leases
to help Federal, State, and local governments
acquire land for conservation and outdoor
recreation.
The 2000 Lands Legacy initiative will allocate full funding ($900 million) from the
LWCF to support: (1) conservation of Federal
189

190

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

lands to preserver wildlife habitat, natural
resources, and historic sites; (2) Federal grants
and planning assistance for States and local
governments to protect local green space,
urban parks, and greenways; and (3) Federal
and State efforts to restore ocean and coastal
resources.
• In 2000, Interior will acquire approximately 500,000 acres in the California
Desert region, 22,500 acres to expand refuges in the Northern Forests of Maine,
Vermont, New Hampshire, and New York,
and about 1,500 acres for Civil War battlefields.
• In 2000, the Forest Legacy program will
support permanent easements for 150,000
acres, up from 9,000 acres in 1999.
• In 2000, approximately 80,000 acres of
farmland threatened with development
will be protected through permanent easements.
• In 2000, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will double

the number of protected acres in the National Estuay Reserve System from
500,000 in 1999.
As a complement to the Lands Legacy
initiative, the Administration will also propose
a Livability Initiative that includes, among
other components, a new financing tool that
will generate $9.5 billion in bond authority
for investments by State, local, and Tribal
governments. These Better America Bonds
will be used to preserve green space, create
or restore urban parks, protect water quality,
and clean up brownfields.
National Parks
The Federal Government spends over $1.8
billion a year to maintain a system of
national parks that covers over 83 million
acres in 49 States, the District of Columbia,
and various territories. Discretionary funding
for the National Park Service (NPS) has
steadily increased (almost five percent a year
since 1986) and fee receipts have grown
from $93 million in 1996 to about $180

Chart 17-1. FEDERAL LAND MANAGEMENT BY AGENCY
MILLIONS OF ACRES

300
264

192

200

93

100

83
56
16

0
BUREAU OF
LAND
MANAGEMENT
(DOI)

FOREST
SERVICE
(USDA)

FISH &
WILDLIFE
SERVICE
(DOI)

NATIONAL
PARK
SERVICE
(DOI)

DEPARTMENT
OF
DEFENSE

TRIBAL
TRUST

17.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

million in 1998. Yet, the popularity of national
parks has generated even faster growth in
the number of visitors, new parks, and additional NPS responsibilities.
With demands growing faster than available
resources, NPS is taking new, creative, and
more efficient approaches to managing parks
and has developed performance measures
against which to gauge progress. NPS and
other Department of the Interior bureaus
are systematically addressing facility maintenance and construction needs through newly
established five-year lists of priority projects.
The bureaus will update these lists annually
to track progress in addressing top priorities
and completing funded projects on time and
at cost.
In 2000, NPS will:
• Maintain the percentage of park visitors
that summarize their experience as good
or very good at 95 percent—the 1998 results of a new survey using an enhanced
methodology and covering over 300 parks.
• Help State and local governments through
NPS partnerships to add an additional 280
miles of recreational trails, 310 miles of
recreational river corridors, and 9,000
acres of recreational parkland, compared
to 220 trail miles, 240 river miles, and
7,000 parkland acres added in 1998.
• Complete 329 data sets for natural resource inventories in 2000 out of 2,287 required, compared to 180 completed
through 1998.
Conservation and Land Management
The 75 percent of Federal land that makes
up the National Forests, National Grasslands,
National Wildlife Refuges, and the BLMadministered public lands also provides significant public recreation. BLM provides for
nearly 65 million recreational visits a year,
while over 30 million visitors enjoy wildlife
each year at National Wildlife Refuges. With
its 133,000 miles of trails, the Forest Service
is the largest single supplier of public outdoor
recreation, providing 341 million recreational
visitor days last year.
Federal lands also provide other benefits.
With combined annual budgets of about $4

191
billion, BLM and the U.S. Forest Service
(USFS) manage lands for multiple purposes,
including outdoor recreation, range, timber,
watershed, wildlife and fish, and wilderness.
BLM, USFS, and NPS have been identified
by the Vice President’s National Partnership
for Reinventing Government as High-Impact
Agencies. As part of the goals to cut red
tape and streamline processes, these agencies
are cooperating to build an integrated nationwide outdoor recreation information system
that delivers seamless service to customers
regardless of agency jurisdiction.
Some high priority reinvention projects include:
Financial Management: USFS is implementing a new general ledger system and reengineering the budget process to better align
budget planning and execution with the agency’s strategic goals. A redesigned budget structure will better connect funding categories
to strategic goals and help employees at
the field level execute integrated ecosystem
projects.
‘‘Service First’’: Proposed in the 1996 Reinventing Government report, USFS and BLM
are working together to deliver seamless
service to customers and ‘‘boundaryless’’ care
for the land. This began as two pilot projects
in Colorado and Oregon to: (1) improve
customer service with one-stop shopping; (2)
achieve efficiencies in operations to reduce
or avoid costs; and (3) take better care
of the land by taking a landscape approach
to stewardship rather than stopping at the
traditional jurisdictional boundaries. USFS
and BLM are also looking to streamline
major business processes to make them work
better for both employees and customers.
BLM and USFS concentrate on the longterm goal of providing sustainable levels
of multiple uses while ensuring and enhancing
ecological integrity. Their performance measures include:
• USFS will target increased funding to
needed watershed restoration work by increasing acres of watershed restoration
work by 100 percent (to 40,000 acres) over
1999 levels of 20,000 acres; increasing the
acres of noxious weed control by 21 percent (to 64,500 acres) over 1999 levels of

192

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

51,410 acres; maintain the pace of obliterating existing roads at the 1999 level
(3,500 miles), as compared to 1,200 miles
in 1998; and increasing the number of
acres treated for fire hazard reduction to
1.8 million, compared to a 1999 planned
level of 1.6 million.
• For priority watersheds, BLM will enhance the ecological integrity of an additional 1,700 miles of riparian areas and
128,500 acres of wetlands in 2000, compared to 868 miles and 11,842 acres enhanced in 1997; BLM will also treat
344,300 acres for fire hazard reduction by
prescribed fire and mechanical means,
compared to 1997 levels of 70,000 acres.
The Interior Department’s Fish and Wildlife
Service (FWS), with a budget of $1.6 billion,
manages 93 million acres of refuges and,
with the Commerce Department’s National
Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), protects
species on Federal and non-Federal lands.
• Proposed 2000 funding increases will enable the refuge system to manage an additional 948,000 more acres over the 1997
baseline of 93 million acres.
• FWS will also increase by one million
acres the number of protected, non-Federal
acres in Habitat Conservation Plans
(HCPs) up from two million in 1998; keep
15 more species off the endangered species
list, compared to a 1998 baseline of seven
species kept off the list; and improve or
stabilize the populations of 37 percent of
species listed a decade or more, over a
1998 baseline of 36 percent.
• NMFS will implement programs in 2000
to continue fully assessing 80 percent of
fish stocks, increasing the number of listed
species that improve in status to 16 over
a baseline of 12 in 1997, and increasing
the number of restored acres of coastal
habitat by 25 percent over 1999 levels of
43,000 cumulative acres restored.
Half of the continental United States is
crop, pasture, and rangeland. Two percent
of Americans own and manage this land—
farmers and ranchers. The Department of
Agriculture’s (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service provides technical assistance

to them to improve land management practices.
Under USDA’s Wetlands Reserve Program
(WRP), the Federal Government buys longterm or permanent easements from cropland
owners that take the land out of production
and restore it to wetlands. Landowners receive
up to 100 percent of the fair market agricultural value for the land and cost-share assistance to cover the wetland restoration expenses.
At the end of 1999, cumulative acreage
in the WRP will total 775,174.
• In 2000, WRP will enroll 199,826 additional acres, bringing its cumulative acreage to the 975,000 authorized enrollment
cap.
• USDA will use a number of programs to
address the goals outlined in the Clean
Water Action Plan’s Animal Feeding Operations Strategy, resulting in the installation of 10,400 animal waste management
systems to protect water from agricultural
pollution, an increase of 30 percent over
1999.
• Through several programs, USDA will also
implement resource management systems
to control erosion and improve habitat on
6.3 million acres of grazing lands, compared to six million acres in 1999.
USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives
Program (EQIP), which provides funds to
farmers and ranchers to adopt sound conservation practices, will again target funds in
2000 to conservation priority areas such as
Maine’s Penobscot Nation and Texas’s Edwards Aquifer. These areas use EQIP funds
to address problems ranging from erosion
to threatened and endangered species to
water quality. The 2000 budget proposes
$300 million in mandatory funding for EQIP,
a $126 million increase above 1999, in support
of the Clean Water Action Plan.
Everglades and California Bay-Delta
Restoration
Federal and non-Federal agencies are carrying out long-term restoration plans for several
nationally significant ecosystems, such as
those in South Florida and California’s BayDelta. The South Florida ecosystem is a
national treasure that includes the Everglades

17.

193

NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

and Florida Bay. Its long-term viability is
critical for the tourism and fishing industries,
and for the water supply, economy, and
quality of life for South Florida’s six million
people. Economic development and water uses
in California’s San Francisco Bay-San Joaquin
Delta watershed have diminished water quality, degraded wildlife habitat, endangered
several species, and reduced the estuary’s
reliability as a water source for two-thirds
of Californians and seven million acres of
highly productive agricultural land.
• The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers will
complete its comprehensive review of the
central and southern Florida project by
July 1, 1999, thus providing a master plan
for restoring the Everglades while accommodating other demands for water and related resources in South Florida. By September 30, 2002, seven of the 68 currently
known federally endangered and threatened species in South Florida will be able
to be ‘‘down-listed.’’
• The Bay-Delta program expects to complete during 2000 the required National
Environmental Policy Act review and select the preferred long-term plan to solve
critical water-related problems in the California Bay-Delta. The plan will contain
specific, measurable performance goals for
levee protection, ecosystem restoration,
and water conservation, storage and conveyance.
Scientific Support for Natural Resources
The management of lands, the availability
and quality of water, and improvements in
the protection of resources are based on
sound natural resources science. The U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) provides research
and information to land managers and the
public to better understand ecosystems and
species habitat, land and water resources,
and natural hazards.
In 2000, the USGS will lead the CommunityFederal Information Partnership, an interagency effort to provide communities with
the geospatial information they need to make
sound planning decisions and preserve open
space. Communities will receive GIS technological tools and earth science data to improve
mapping and planning capabilities.

The Commerce Department’s NOAA manages ocean and coastal resources in the
200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone and in
12 National Marine Sanctuaries. Its National
Ocean Service and NMFS manage 201 fish
stocks, 163 marine mammal populations, and
their associated coastal and marine habitats.
NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS),
using data collected by the National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service,
provides weather forecasts and flood warnings.
Its Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research provides science for policy decisions
in areas such as climate change, air quality
and ozone depletion.
• In 2000, NWS’ ongoing modernization will
increase the lead time of flash flood warnings to 42 minutes and the accuracy of
flash flood warnings to 85 percent; increase the lead time of severe thunderstorm warnings to 20 minutes and the accuracy of severe thunderstorm warnings to
85 percent, and increase the accuracy of
heavy snowfall forecasts to 60 percent.
Pollution Control and Abatement
The Federal Government helps achieve the
Nation’s pollution control goals by: (1) taking
direct action; (2) funding actions by State,
local, and Tribal governments; and (3) implementing an environmental regulatory system.
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA)
$7.2 billion in discretionary funds and the
Coast Guard’s $140 million Oil Spill Liability
Trust Fund (which funds oil spill prevention
and cleanup) finance the activities in this
subfunction. EPA is an NPR High Impact
Agency whose discretionary funds have three
major components—the operating program,
Superfund, and water infrastructure financing.
EPA’s $3.7 billion operating program provides the Federal funding to implement most
Federal pollution control laws, including the
Clean Air, Clean Water, Resource Conservation and Recovery, Safe Drinking Water,
and Toxic Substances Control Acts. EPA
protects human health and the environment
by developing national pollution control standards, largely enforced by the States under
EPA-delegated authority. For example, under
the Clean Air Act, EPA works to make
the air clean and healthy to breathe by

194

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

setting standards for ambient air quality,
toxic air pollutant emissions, new pollution
sources, and mobile sources.
• In 2000, EPA will certify that five of the
estimated 30 remaining nonattainment
areas have achieved the one-hour National
Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone
(see Chart 17–2).
• In 2000, air toxics emissions nationwide
from stationary and mobile sources combined will be reduced by five percent from
1999 (for a cumulative reduction of 30 percent from the 1993 level of 1.3 million
tons).
Under the Clean Water Act, EPA works
to conserve and enhance the ecological health
of the Nation’s waters, through regulation
of point source discharges and through multiagency initiatives such as the Administration’s
Clean Water Action Plan.

ing activities under the Clean Water Action Plan.
Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act and the Federal Food,
Drug, and Cosmetic Act, EPA regulates pesticide use, grants product registrations, and
sets tolerances (standards for pesticide residue
on food) to reduce risk and promote safer
means of pest control.
• In 2000, EPA will reassess 20 percent of
the existing 9,700 tolerances to ensure
that they meet the statutory standard of
‘‘reasonable certainty of no harm,’’ achieving a cumulative 53 percent.
EPA’s pollution prevention program seeks
to reduce environmental risks where Americans reside, work, and enjoy life.
• In 2000, the quantity of Toxic Release Inventory pollutants released, disposed of,
treated, or combusted for energy recovery
will be reduced by 200 million pounds, or
two percent, from 1999 reporting levels.

• In 2000, environmental improvement
projects will be underway in 350 high priority watersheds as a result of implement-

Chart 17-2. AIR QUALITY TRENDS
NUMBER OF NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR ONE-HOUR OZONE NAAQS

120
99

98
93

100

78
80

69
59

60
38
40

30
25

20

0
1992

1993

1994

1995

ACTUAL

1996

1997

ESTIMATES

1998

1999

2000

17.

NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT

Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA and authorized States
prevent dangerous releases to the environment
of hazardous, industrial nonhazardous, and
municipal solid wastes by requiring proper
facility management and cleanup of environmental contamination at those sites.
• In 2000, 146 more hazardous waste management facilities will have approved controls in place to prevent dangerous releases to air, soil, and groundwater, for
a total of 65 percent of 3380 facilities.
EPA’s underground storage tank (UST) program seeks to prevent, detect, and correct
leaks from USTs containing petroleum and
hazardous substances. Regulations issued in
1988 required that substandard USTs (lacking
spill, overfill and/or corrosion protection) be
upgraded, replaced or closed by December
22, 1998.
• By the end of 2000, 90 percent of USTs
will be in compliance with these requirements, which improves upon the estimated
65 percent as of the December 22, 1998
deadline.
In October 1997, the President announced
immediate actions to begin addressing the
problem of global climate change, and included
the Climate Change Technology Initiative
(CCTI) in the 1999 Budget. The 2000 Budget
provides $216 million for the second year
of EPA’s portion of CCTI, much of which
focuses on the deployment of underutilized
but existing technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The partnerships EPA
has built with business and other organizations since the early 1990s will continue
to be the foundation for reducing greenhouse
gas emissions in 2000 and beyond.
• In 2000, greenhouse gas emissions will be
reduced from projected levels by more that
50 million metric tons of carbon equivalent
per year through EPA partnerships with
businesses, schools, State and local governments, and other organizations. This
reduction level will be an increase of 10
million metric tons over 1999 reduction
levels.
• In 2000, energy consumption will be reduced from projected levels by over 60 billion kilowatt hours, resulting in over $8

195
billion in energy savings to consumers and
businesses that participate in EPA’s climate change programs. This will represent
an increase of 15 billion kilowatt hours
and $5 million in annual energy savings
over 1999.
The new Clean Air Partnership Fund will
also contribute to the achievement of these
goals as well as the ozone attainment goal.
The $1.5 billion Superfund program pays
to clean up hazardous spills and abandoned
hazardous waste sites, and to compel responsible parties to clean up. The Coast Guard
implements a smaller but similar program
to clean up oil spills. Superfund also supports
EPA’s Brownfields program, designed to assess, clean up, and re-use formerly contaminated sites.
• In 2000, EPA will complete 85 Superfund
cleanups, continuing on a path to reach
925 completed cleanups by the end of
2002.
• In 2000, EPA will fund Brownfields site
assessments in 50 more communities, thus
reaching 350 communities by the end of
2000.
• In 2000, the Coast Guard will reduce the
rate of oil spilled into the Nation’s waters
to 4.83 gallons per million gallons shipped
from a baseline of 5.25 gallons in 1998.
Federal water infrastructure funds provide
capitalization grants to State revolving funds,
which make low-interest loans to help municipalities pay for wastewater and drinking
water treatment systems required by Federal
law. The $1.625 billion in the 2000 Budget
is consistent with the Administration’s plans
to capitalize these funds to the point where
the Clean Water State Revolving Funds
(CWSRF) and the Drinking Water State Revolving Funds (DWSRF) provide a total of
$2.5 billion in average annual assistance.
The $72 billion in Federal assistance since
passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act has
dramatically increased the portion of Americans enjoying better quality water. Ensuring
that community water systems meet healthbased drinking water standards is supported
by both the DWSRF and operating program
resources.

196
• In 2000, another two million people will
receive the benefits of secondary treatment
of wastewater, for a total of 181 million.
• In 2000, 91 percent of the population
served by community water systems will
receive drinking water meeting all healthbased standards in effect as of 1994, up
from 83 percent in 1994.
USDA gives financial assistance to rural
communities to provide safe drinking water
and adequate wastewater treatment facilities
to rural communities. The budget proposes
$1.5 billion in combined grant, loan, and
loan guarantees for this assistance, a 12
percent increase over 1999. Part of those
funds will go toward the Water 2000 initiative
to bring indoor plumbing and safe drinking
water to under-served rural communities.
Since 1994, USDA has invested almost $1.6
billion in loans and grants on high-priority
water 2000 projects nationwide.
• In 2000, USDA will fund 300 high-priority
water 2000 projects.
The Office of Surface Mining (OSM), in
partnership with States, reclaims abandoned
coal mines using funds from the Abandoned
Mine Lands Reclamation Fund.
• In 2000, OSM will reclaim 9,235 acres of
abandoned coal mine lands, 1,235 acres
more than in 1999.
Water Resources
The Federal Government builds and manages water projects for navigation, flooddamage reduction, environmental purposes,
irrigation, and hydropower generation. The
Army Corps of Engineers operates Nationwide, while Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation
operates in the 17 western States. The budget
proposes $4.7 billion for the agencies in
2000—$3.9 billion for the Corps, $0.8 billion
for the Bureau. The budget includes a proposal
to create a new Harbor Services Fund to
increase funding for the Corps’ operations,
maintenance, and construction activities at
our Nation’s ports and harbors and help
ensure a safe and economically competitive
port system. While navigation and flood damage reduction remain the Corps’ major focus,

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

its responsibilities increasingly address environmental objectives.
• In 2000, maintain Corps controlled commercial navigation and flood damage-reduction facilities to be fully operational at
least 95 percent of the time.
• In 2000, the Corps’ regulatory program
will achieve ‘‘no net loss’’ of wetlands by
creating, enhancing, and restoring wetlands functions and values that are comparable to those lost when the Corps
issues permits to allow wetlands to be developed.
Congress created the Bureau of Reclamation
primarily to develop water supplies to support
economic development in the western States.
Since the West is now largely developed,
the Bureau has shifted its emphasis to become
a water resources management agency.
• In 2000, the Bureau will deliver or release
the amount of water contracted for from
Reclamation-owned and operated facilities,
expected to be no less than 27 million
acre-feet. Reclamation will also generate
power needed to meet contractual commitments and other requirements 100 percent
of the time, depending upon water availability.
Tax Incentives
The tax code offers incentives for natural
resource industries, especially timber and mining. The timber industry can deduct certain
costs for growing timber, pay lower capital
gains rates on profits, take a credit for
investments, and quickly write-off reforestation costs—in total, costing about $585 million in 2000. The mining industry benefits
from percentage depletion provisions (which
sometimes allows deductions that exceed the
economic value of resource depletion) and
can deduct certain exploration and development costs—together, costing about $270 million in 2000.
In 2000, Better America Bonds will provide
tax incentives for State and local governments
to protect local green spaces, improve water
quality, and clean up abandoned industrial
sites.

18.
Table 18–1.

AGRICULTURE

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF AGRICULTURE
(In millions of dollars)

Function 350

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,346

4,318

4,140

4,140

4,153

4,140

4,140

7,879
..............

16,445
..............

10,942
–20

8,757
–37

7,342
–33

6,032
–30

6,198
–38

8,222
4,226

10,802
6,563

11,640
6,688

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

780

880

905

950

985

1,035

1,085

N/A = Not available

The Federal Government helps to increase
U.S. agricultural productivity by ensuring
that markets function fairly and predictably
and that farmers and ranchers do not face
unreasonable risk. Agriculture Department
(USDA) programs disseminate economic and
agronomic information, ensure the integrity
of crops, inspect the safety of meat and
poultry, and help farmers finance their operations and manage risks from both weather
and variable export conditions. The results
are found in the public welfare that Americans
enjoy from an abundant, safe, and inexpensive
food supply, free of severe commodity market
dislocations. Agriculture and its related activities account for 16 percent of the U.S.
Gross Domestic Product.
Conditions on the Farm
Economic conditions facing U.S. agriculture
in 1998 challenged this Federal role. Demand
for farm commodities and record market
prices of recent years receded, with gross
crop cash receipts falling seven percent from
the record $112 billion in 1997. Net cash
income fell $1.7 billion short of the 1997
record of $60.8 billion. Forecasts for 1999
put net cash income down $5 billion from
the record level, but within the last five

year’s average. Producers are expected to
earn slightly less from 1998 and 1999 crop
sales due to lower feed grain prices. Livestock
receipts in 1998 fell back to the 1996 level
of $93 billion from 1997’s record $96.6 billion.
Beef cattle prices, continued to decline, despite
reductions in the herd. Pork producers, with
long-expanding inventories experienced a severe drop in hog prices (see Chart 18–1).
Macro-economic agricultural conditions in
1998 were nearly the reverse of conditions
that led to record farm income and prices
of recent years. Last year, world-wide production of major grains was robust, which weakened demand for U.S. crops; the Asian financial crisis dampened a major source of export
growth; the U.S. livestock sector experienced
some relief in reduced feed costs. These
conditions prompted the Federal Government
to expand spending on agriculture, including
$5.9 billion in emergency disaster relief enacted in the 1999 Omnibus Consolidated
and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
Act.
Despite generally lower commodity prices,
farm assets and equity continue to rise.
Farm sector business assets rose four percent
in value in 1998, to $1.13 trillion. Farm
197

198

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

asset values will remain at historic high
levels in 1999, while farm real estate values
will rise for the eleventh straight year. Farm
business debt will rise in 1999, attaining
its highest level since 1986; but debt-toequity and -to-asset ratios improved in 1998
and are much stronger than on the eve
of the financial stress in the 1980s farm
sector. However, a continuation of low commodity prices may cause increasing financial
stress for many producers. In 1998, an index
of farm debt as a percentage of the maximum
debt producers could pay at current income
levels rose to 60 percent from 45 percent
in the early 1990s.
Exports are key to future U.S. farm income.
The Nation exports 30 percent of its farm
production, and agriculture produces the greatest balance of payments surplus, for its
share of national income, of any economic
sector. Agricultural exports reached a record
$60 billion in 1996. Lower world market
prices and bulk export volume reduced exports
by an estimated $4 billion in 1998 and

in 1999 export growth is likely to be minimal.
Pacific Asia, including Japan, is the most
important region for U.S. farm exports, accounting for 42 percent of total U.S. export
sales in 1996. Consequently, the financial
turmoil in certain Asian countries significantly
affects U.S. exports.
The 1996 Farm Bill
Known officially as the Federal Agriculture
Improvement and Reform Act (FAIR) of 1996,
the Farm Bill was a milestone in U.S.
agricultural policy. The bill, effective through
2002, fundamentally redesigned Federal income support and supply management programs for producers of wheat, corn, grain
sorghum, barley, oats, rice, and cotton. It
expanded the market-oriented policies of the
previous two major farm bills, which have
gradually reduced the Federal influence in
the agricultural sector.
Under previous laws dating to the 1930s,
farmers who reduced plantings could get
income support payments when prices were

Chart 18-1. FARM SECTOR INCOME AND FEDERAL SUPPORT
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS

60

50
NET CASH INCOME

40

30
FEDERAL OUTLAYS
SUPPORTING
PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE

20

10

0
1980

1982

1984

Note: 1999 forecast by USDA.

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

18.

199

AGRICULTURE

low, but farmers had to plant specific crops
in order to receive such payments. Even
when market signals encouraged the planting
of a different crop, farmers had limited
flexibility to do so. By contrast, the 1996
Farm Bill eliminated most such restrictions
and, instead, provided fixed, but declining
payments to eligible farmers through 2002,
regardless of market prices or production
volume. This law ‘‘decoupled’’ Federal income
support from planting decisions and market
prices. The law has brought changes in
the crop acreage planted in response to
market signals. In 1997, wheat acreage fell
by six percent, or about five million acres,
from the previous year, while soybean acreage
rose by 10 percent, or over six million
acres.
The Farm Bill’s freedom from planting
restrictions on farmers meant greater potential
volatility in crop prices and farm income.
Not only can USDA no longer require farmers
to grow less when supplies are great, but
the size of farm income-support payments
no longer varies as crop prices fluctuate.
The previous farm bills were not perfectly
counter-cyclical: participants in USDA commodity programs whose crops were totally
ruined when prices were high got no incomesupport payment then, but would now through
fixed payments. And, the 1996 Farm Bill
provides additional ‘‘marketing loan’’ payments
to farmers when commodity prices fall below
a statutorily set ‘‘loan rate’’. However, the
1998 conditions raised the issue of whether
the Federal farm income safety net was
sufficient, and how should it be improved,
to a new urgency.
However, the 1998 crop and price situation
showed that the 1996 Farm Bill does not
sufficiently protect farm income under certain
conditions. Some crop prices significantly decreased from previous years—but the Farm
Bill’s ‘‘decoupled’’ income assistance did not
adjust upward to compensate. If in the future
commodity prices are again unacceptably low,
the Administration will work to secure farm
income assistance.
The 1998 crop experience also highlighted
problems with the crop insurance program,
which is intended to be the foundation of
the farm safety net. Farmers who experience

multi-year losses are left with insufficient
coverage at higher cost; there is no coverage
available for many commodities including livestock; and, most fundamentally, coverage that
provides adequate compensation is simply
not affordable for many farmers. During the
coming year, the Administration will work
to find a bipartisan solution, including offsets,
that will address these weaknesses by reforming crop insurance and strengthening the
safety net for farmers.
Federal Programs
USDA seeks to enhance the quality of
life for the American people by supporting
production agriculture; ensuring a safe, affordable, nutritious, and accessible food supply;
conserving agricultural, forest, and range
lands; supporting sound development of rural
communities; providing economic opportunities
for farm and rural residents; expanding global
markets for agricultural and forest products
and services; and working to reduce hunger
in America and throughout the world. (Some
of these missions fall within other budget
functions and are described in other chapters
in this Section.)
Farming and ranching are risky. Farmers
and ranchers face not only the normal vagaries
of supply and demand, but also uncontrollable
risk from nature. Federal programs are designed to accomplish two key economic goals:
(1) enhance the economic safety net for
farmers and ranchers; and (2) open, expand,
and maintain global market opportunities
for agricultural producers.
The Federal Government mitigates risk
through a variety of programs:
Federal Farm Commodity Programs:
Since most Federal income support payments
under the 1996 Farm Bill are now fixed, farm
income can fluctuate more from year to year
due to supply and demand changes. Farmers
must rely more on marketing alternatives, and
develop strategies for managing financial risk
and stabilizing farm income. However, in response to unprecedented crop/livestock price
decreases and regional production problems,
Congress included as part of the $5.9 billion
in emergency disaster relief provided in the
1999 Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency
Supplemental Appropriations Act an additional

200

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

$2.8 billion in income-support payments, above
the 1996 Farm Bill authorized level of $5.6
billion. In addition, the Federal Government
continues to provide other safety-net protections, such as the marketing assistance loans
that guarantee a minimum price for major
commodities, that paid producers $1.7 in 1998
and will pay them an estimated $2 billion in
1999.

ion the drop in foreign demand. The Foreign
Agriculture Service’s efforts to negotiate, implement, and enforce trade agreements play
a large role in creating a strong market for
exports.

Insurance: USDA helps farmers manage
their risks by providing subsidized crop insurance, delivered through the private sector,
which shares the insurance risk with the Federal Government. Farmers pay no premiums
for coverage against catastrophic production
losses, and the Government subsidizes their
premiums for higher levels of coverage. Over
the past three years, an average 65 percent
of eligible acres have been insured, with USDA
targeting an average indemnity payout of
$1.08 for every $1 in premium, down from the
historical average indemnity of $1.40 for every
$1 in premium. Crop insurance costs the Federal Government about $1.5 billion a year, including USDA payments to private companies
for delivery of Federal crop insurance.

• generate 6,000 trade leads for U.S. agricultural export sales, an increase of 20
percent.

Early in 1999, as part of the $5.9 billion
in emergency disaster relief, the President
signed into law over $2 billion in supplemental
crop insurance payments in response to severe
crop losses in 1998. Payments also were
made to uninsured farmers, but with the
requirement that those farmers purchase insurance in the 1999 and 2000 crop years.
Consequently, crop insurance participation,
and therefore subsidy costs, are expected
to increase in these years, with the percentage
of eligible acres insured rising toward 70
percent. USDA also continues to develop
crop insurance policies on new crops and
expand several insurance products that mitigate revenue risk—price and production risk
combined. These revenue insurance pilots have
shown that farmers generally want these
types of products, and USDA will continue
to expand their application and availability.
Trade: The trade surplus for U.S. agriculture declined by about 10 percent in 1998
to $16.6 billion, after experiencing faster
growth in recent decades than any other sector
of the economy. USDA’s international programs helped to shape that growth, and cush-

In 2000, USDA will:
• take action to overcome 700, or 15 percent,
more trade barriers than in 1999; and

USDA is authorized to spend over $1
billion in 2000 on export activities, ($3.5
billion will be spent in 1999), including
subsidies to U.S. firms facing unfairly-subsidized overseas competitors, and loan guarantees to foreign buyers of U.S. farm products.
USDA also helps firms overcome technical
requirements, trade laws, and customs and
processes that often discourage the smaller,
less experienced firms from taking advantage
of export opportunities. USDA outreach and
exporter assistance activities help U.S. companies address these problems and enter export
markets for the first time.
USDA programs also help U.S. firms, especially smaller-sized ones, export more aggressively, and high-value products now account
for more than half of export value even
as total U.S. farm exports have been declining
recently (see Chart 18-2). By participating
in the Market Assistance Program (MAP)
or USDA-organized trade shows, firms can
more easily export different products to new
locations on their own. Small and mediumsized firm recipients (those with annual sales
of under $1 million) now represent 94 percent
of the MAP branded-promotion spending, up
from 70 percent in 1996, and USDA expects
to raise that figure to 100 percent in 1999.
In 2000, USDA will:
• assist 2,000 U.S. firms to establish export
activities and oversee marketing distribution channels; and
• increase the percentage of new firms that
the MAP supports in establishing marketing and distribution channels by eight percent, to 70 firms for a total of 1,700 participants.

18.

201

AGRICULTURE

Chart 18-2. U.S. AGRICULTURAL EXPORT PROFILE
AND TRADE SURPLUS
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

BULK COMMODITIES
INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS

1995

1996

1997

CONSUMER FOODS

1998

1999 Forecast

EXPORTS
IMPORTS

Notes: High-value products now make up over 50 percent of total exports.
Trade surplus was at $21.5 billion in 1997.

Agricultural Research: The Federal Government spends approximately $1.8 billion a
year to support agricultural research and enhance U.S. and global agricultural productivity. The average annual return to publiclyfunded agricultural research exceeds 35 percent, according to recent academic estimates.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
is USDA’s in-house research agency, addressing a broad range of food, farm, and environmental issues. It puts a high priority on
transferring its research findings to the private sector.
In 2000, ARS expects to:
• submit 70 new patent applications;
• participate in 90 new Cooperative Research and Development Agreements;
• license 30 new products; and
• develop 70 new plant varieties to release
to industry for further development and
marketing.

The Cooperative State Research, Education,
and Extension Service provides grants for
agricultural, food, and environmental research;
higher education; and extension activities.
The National Research Initiative competitive
research grant program, launched in 1990
on the recommendation of the National Research Council, works to improve the quality
and increase the quantity of USDA and
private sector farm, food, and environmental
research. In addition, the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act
of 1998 authorized $120 million annually
in mandatory funds for certain priority research, although appropriations action blocked
these funds for 1999.
Economic Research and Statistics: The
Federal Government spends about $155 million to improve U.S. agricultural competitiveness by reporting and analyzing economic information. The Economic Research Service provides economic and other social science information and analysis for decision-making on agriculture, food, natural resources, and rural de-

202
velopment policy. The National Agricultural
Statistics Service (NASS) provides estimates of
production, supply, price, and other aspects of
the farm economy, providing information that
helps ensure efficient markets.
• In 2000, NASS will include over 95 percent of national agricultural production in
its annual commodities reports, up from
92 percent in 1997.
Inspection and Market Regulation: The
Federal Government spends a half-billion dollars a year to secure U.S. cropland from pests
and diseases and make U.S. crops more marketable. In addition, USDA’s Food Safety and
Inspection Service reduces the risk that U.S.
meat and poultry products will threaten consumers’ health (see Chapter 23, ‘‘Health’’). The
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
(APHIS) inspects agricultural products that
enter the country; controls and eradicates diseases and infestations; helps control damage
to livestock and crops from animals; and monitors plant and animal health and welfare. The
Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) and the
Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration help market U.S. farm products
in domestic and global markets, ensure fair
trading practices, and promote a competitive,
efficient marketplace.
In 2000, APHIS will:
• make about 83 million inspections of incoming passengers (mainly from airlines)
to prevent the entry of illegal plants and
animals that could endanger U.S. agriculture, a slight increase over estimated
1999 levels;
• make about 72,000 interceptions of pests
(an interception may involve more than
one pest specimen) that could endanger
U.S. agriculture, about the same as 1999;
• clear most international air passengers
through its inspection process in 30 minutes or less, a 20-percent improvement
over 1997 rates; and
• clear 65 percent of passengers crossing
U.S. land borders in non-peak traffic periods in 20 minutes or less on the northern
border, and 30 minutes or less on the
southern border.
In 2000, AMS will:

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• contine a microbiological surveillance program on domestic and imported fruits and
vegetables as part of the President’s Food
Safety Initiative; and
• perform about 55,000 analyses on 13 different commodities, collecting 9,000 samples to measure pesticide residues, an increase from the estimated 1999 activities
of about 50,000 analyses, 13 commodities,
about 8,200 samples.
Conservation: The 1996 Farm Bill was the
most conservation-oriented farm bill in history,
enabling USDA to provide incentives to farmers and ranchers to protect the natural resource base of U.S. agriculture. Farmers can
now use crop rotations, which earlier price
support programs had severely limited. Also,
the bill created several new programs. The Environmental Quality Incentives Program
(EQIP), with $200 million in annual spending
(and another $100 million proposed for 2000)
provides cost-share and incentive payments to
encourage farmers to adopt new and improved
farming practices or technology, and reduce
the environmental impact of livestock operations. Farmers may use different nutrient
management or pest protection approaches,
with USDA offering financial assistance to offset some of the risk. Another new 1996 Farm
Bill program was the Farmland Protection Program (FPP). The U.S. loses more than two
acres of farmland to development every
minute. The FPP provides cost-share funds for
agricultural easements to State, local, and tribal governments to preserve farmland and prevent its conversion to other uses.
USDA’s conservation programs give technical and financial help to farmers and
communities. They include the Conservation
and Wetlands Reserve Programs, which remove land from farm uses; and the Conservation Operations program, which provides technical assistance.
In 2000, USDA will:
• increase the number of acres enrolled each
year for riparian buffers and filter strips
to 3.5 million, from an estimated 2.4 million acres in 1999;
• increase the number of locally led resource
plans developed through EQIP to 400 in
2000, up from 200 in 1999, and

18.

203

AGRICULTURE

• protect approximately 130,000 productive
farmland acres through the FPP from
being permanently lost to development.
For more information on conservation, and
USDA’s investments in public land management, see Chapter 17, ‘‘Natural Resources
and Environment.’’ USDA programs also help
to maintain vital rural communities, as described in Chapter 21, ‘‘Community and Regional Development.’’
Agricultural Credit: USDA provides about
$600 million a year in direct loans and over
$2.5 billion in guaranteed loans to finance
farm operating expenses and farmland purchases. Direct loans, which carry interest rates
at or below those on Treasury securities, are
targeted to beginning or socially disadvantaged
farmers who cannot secure private credit.
In 2000, USDA will:
• increase the proportion of loans targeted
to beginning and socially-disadvantaged
farmers to 16 percent, from an estimated
14 percent in 1999 and 11 percent in 1997;
and
• reduce the delinquency rate on farm loans
to 15 percent, from an estimated 17 percent in 1999 and 18 percent in 1998.
The Farm Credit System and Farmer Mac—
both Government-Sponsored Enterprises—enhance the supply of farm credit through
ties to national and global credit markets.
The Farm Credit System (which lends directly
to farmers) has recovered strongly from its
financial problems of the 1980s, in part
through Federal help. Farmer Mac increases
the liquidity of commercial banks and the

Farm Credit System by purchasing agricultural loans for resale as bundled securities.
In 1996, Congress gave the institution authority to pool loans as well as more years
to attain required capital standards, which
Farmer Mac has now achieved.
Personnel, Infrastructure, and the Regulatory Burden: USDA administers its many
farm programs through 2,500 county offices
with over 17,000 staff. The 1996 Farm Bill
significantly cut USDA’s workload, prompting
the Department to re-examine its staff-intensive field office-based infrastructure. In 1999,
USDA will: (1) plan to implement recommendations of a study to find ways to operate more efficiently; (2) continue an Administration initiative to scrap duplicative and unnecessary regulations and paperwork; and (3)
continue to upgrade its computer systems to
streamline its collection of information from
farmers and better disseminate information
across USDA agencies.
In 2000, USDA will:
• merge the headquarters and State office
administrative support staffs for its field
office agencies (Farm Services Agency,
Natural Resources Conservation Service,
Rural Development), consistent with the
recommendations of the 1998 consultant’s
report, to reorganize by business process
instead of by agency, to provide more efficient and coordinated support services. Administrative support functions of the county-based agencies will be merged into a
single account under the Executive Director of the new Support Services Bureau.

19.

COMMERCE AND HOUSING CREDIT

Table 19–1.

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF COMMERCE
AND HOUSING CREDIT
(In millions of dollars)

Function 370

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

3,128

3,704

5,369

3,343

2,863

2,902

2,941

–2,160
..............

–3,058
..............

1,179
–86

4,054
–95

6,224
–103

6,563
–112

7,024
–123

1,944
256,139

1,749
233,210

1,571
250,891

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

219,320
..............

227,555
–52

236,210
–1,306

245,090
–2,190

254,415
–2,016

261,795
–1,804

268,275
–1,783

N/A = Not available

The Federal Government facilitates commerce and supports housing in a range
of ways. It provides direct loans and loan
guarantees to ease access to mortgage and
commercial credit; sponsors private enterprises
that support the secondary market for home
mortgages; regulates private credit intermediaries, especially depository institutions;
protects investors when insured depository
institutions fail; promotes exports and technology; collects our Nation’s statistics; and
offers tax incentives. (The Government also
provides subsidies for low-income housing
through programs classified in the Income
Security function.)
Mortgage Credit
The Government provides loans and loan
guarantees to increase homeownership, and
to help low-income families afford suitable
apartments. Housing credit programs of the
Departments of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Agriculture (USDA), and Veterans Affairs (VA) supported $150 billion in
loan and loan guarantee commitments in
1998, helping more than 1.7 million households (see Table 19–2). All of these programs

have contributed to the success of the President’s National Homeownership Initiative
which, along with a strong economy, has
helped boost the national homeownership rate
to 66.8 percent—its highest ever.
• In 2000, the national homeownership rate
will be 67.5 percent.
HUD’s Mutual Mortgage Insurance
(MMI) Fund: The MMI Fund, run by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), helps increase access to single-family mortgage credit
in both urban and rural areas. In 1998, the
MMI Fund guaranteed over $90 billion in
mortgages for over one million households.
Nearly three-fourths of such mortgages went
to first-time homebuyers.
• The FHA/MMI fund will continue to remain solvent and self-sustaining.
• In 2000 the share of FHA mortgage insurance for first-time homebuyers will increase by one percent a year over 1995
levels to 73.3 percent in 2000.
USDA’s Rural Housing Service (RHS):
RHS offers direct and guaranteed loans and
grants to help very low- to moderate-income
205

206

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 19–2. SELECTED FEDERAL COMMERCE AND HOUSING CREDIT
PROGRAMS: CREDIT PROGRAMS PORTFOLIO CHARACTERISTICS
(Dollar amounts in millions)

Numbers of housDollar volume of ing units/small
direct loans/
business financed
guarantees
by loans/
written in 1998
guarantees
written in 1998

Dollar volume of
total outstanding
loans/guarantees
as of the end of
1998

Mortgage Credit:
HUD/FHA Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund .........................................
HUD/FHA General Insurance and
Special Risk Insurance Fund ..........
USDA/RHS single-family loans ..........
USDA/RHS multifamily loans ............
VA guaranteed loans ...........................

90,518

1,025,024

380,338

15,074
3,830
218
39,862

277,011
56,617
9,628
368,791

89,287
23,626
11,902
169,006

Subtotal, Mortgage Credit ...........

149,502

1,737,071

674,159

SBA Guaranteed Loans ..............................

11,524

45,019

33,695

Total Assistance .........................

161,026

1,782,090

707,854

rural residents buy and maintain adequate, affordable housing. The single family direct loan
program provides subsidized loans to very lowincome rural residents, while the single family
guarantee loan program guarantees up to 90
percent of a private loan for moderate-income
rural residents. Together, the two programs
provided $3.8 billion in loans and loan guarantees in 1998, providing 56,617 decent, safe affordable homes for rural Americans.
• In 2000, RHS will further reduce the number of rural residents living in substandard housing by providing $4.3 billion
in loans and loan guarantees for 50,500
new or improved homes.
Veterans’ Affairs (VA): VA recognizes the
service that veterans and active duty personnel provide to the Nation by helping them buy
and retain homes. The Government partially
guarantees the loans from private lenders, providing $40 billion in loan guarantees in 1998.
One of VA’s key goals is to improve loan servicing to avoid veteran foreclosures.
• In 2000, VA will be successful in intervening to help veterans avoid foreclosure 41
percent of the time, from the 1998 level

of 37 percent. (See Chapter 27 for more
information.)
Ginnie Mae: Congress created Ginnie Mae
in 1968 to support the secondary market for
FHA, VA, and USDA mortgages through
securitization. To date, Ginnie Mae has helped
over 20 million low- and moderate-income families buy homes.
• In 2000, Ginnie Mae will continue to
securitize 95 percent of FHA and VA
loans, enhancing mortgage market efficiency and lowering financing costs for
home buyers.
Rental Housing
The Federal Government provides housing
assistance through a number of HUD and
USDA programs in the Income Security function. HUD’s rental programs provided subsidies for over 4.8 million very-low-income
households in 1998. In addition, USDA’s
RHS rental assistance grants to low-income
rural households provided $547 million to
support 39,000 new and existing rental units
in 1998. For 2000, agencies will meet the
following performance goals:

19.

COMMERCE AND HOUSING CREDIT

207

• RHS will make new and continued rental
assistance commitments to fund 44,400
new and existing units.

for 15,000 new housing vouchers for extremely
low-income elderly linked to Low-Income Housing Tax Credit properties.

• Increase the percentage of Section 8 families with children living in low-poverty
census tracts from 61 percent in 1998 to
63 percent.

Commerce, Technology, and International
Trade

Public Housing and Other Assisted
Housing Programs
The Federal Government funds capital and
management improvements of public housing
authorities across the country. The Government also funds programs supporting the
housing needs of particular populations, such
as the elderly and disabled.
• Demolish over 13,000 public housing units
to move toward the Administration’s goal
of demolishing 100,000 of the worst public
housing units by 2003.
• Help 3,000 low-income, frail elderly live
as independently as possible by financing
conversion of conventional subsidized
apartments to assisted living.
Housing Tax Incentives
The Government provides significant support for housing through tax preferences.
The two largest tax benefits are the mortgage
interest deduction for owner-occupied homes
(which will cost the Government $55.1 billion
in 2000) and the deductibility of State and
local property tax on owner-occupied homes
(costing $19.5 billion in 2000).
Other tax provisions also encourage investment in housing: (1) capital gains of up
to $500,000 on home sales are exempt from
taxes (costing $98 billion from 2000 to 2004);
(2) States and localities can issue tax-exempt
mortgage revenue bonds, whose proceeds subsidize purchases by first-time, low- and moderate-income home buyers (costing $1 billion
in 2000); and (3) installment sales provisions
let some real estate sellers defer taxes. Finally,
the low-income housing tax credit provides
incentives for constructing or renovating rental
housing that helps low-income tenants (costing
about $3.3 billion in 2000). The President
reproposes to raise the volume cap on the
low-income housing tax credit, and further
proposes to provide permanent authorization

Technology Policy: The Commerce Department promotes the development of technology
and advocates sound technology policies. Commerce’s Patent and Trademark Office (PTO)
protects U.S. intellectual property rights
around the world through bilateral and multilateral negotiation, and through its domestic
patent and trademark system.
• In 2000, PTO will issue over 154,000 patents, reduce the average processing time
for inventions from the 1999 average of
10.9 months to an average of 10.2 months,
and attain a 70 percent customer satisfaction measure.
• In 2000, PTO will reduce the average time
required for processing trademark applications from the 1999 average of 15.5
months to an average of 13.8 months, and
attain an 80 percent customer satisfaction
measure.
Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): NIST works
with industry to develop and apply technology,
measurements, and standards. NIST administers the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), which makes technological information and expertise available to smaller manufacturers.
• In 2000, NIST laboratories will produce
over 2,100 technical publications and offer
1,330 standard reference materials.
• In 2000, MEP will serve 36,250 clients,
increasing their sales by $591 million and
generating $459 million in additional capital investment.
The International Trade Administration
(ITA): ITA strives to promote an improved
trade posture for U.S. industry and develop
the export potential of U.S. firms in a manner
consistent with U.S. foreign and economic policy.
• In 2000, ITA will provide counseling assistance to 14,000 small businesses, an increase of 3,500 over 1999 efforts.

208
• In 2000, ITA’s Advocacy Center will support $10.5 billion in exports $500 million
more than 1999.
Commerce’s Bureau of Export Administration (BXA): The BXA is a regulatory agency that enforces U.S. export controls.
• In 2000, BXA will issue 10,400 licenses
for dual use commodities (military or civilian use), 400 more than in 1999.
Commerce’s Census Bureau and Bureau
of Economic Analysis (BEA): The Census
Bureau collects, tabulates, and distributes a
wide variety of statistical information about
Americans and the economy, including the constitutionally-mandated decennial census. In
addition, BEA prepares and interprets U.S.
economic accounts, including the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
• In 2000, the Census Bureau will conduct
a decennial census. The goal is to count
99.9 percent of the population, thus reducing the 1990 undercount of 1.6 percent to
0.1 percent.
Small Business Administration (SBA):
SBA assists and promotes small business by
expanding access to capital through guaranteed private sector loans that carry longer
terms and lower interest rates than those for
which small businesses would otherwise qualify. SBA guaranteed over $11.5 billion in small
business loans in 1998.
• In 2000, SBA will work to increase the
number of small businesses receiving
counseling and training to 1.3 million, an
eight percent increase over the estimated
1999 level.
• SBA will guarantee 63,000 new Sec. 7(a)
and Sec. 504 business loans in 2000, a
13 percent increase over the projected
1999 volume of 55,600.
• Following authorization in 2000, America’s
Private Investment Companies and the
New Market Ventures Capital programs
will commit a combined $1.1 billion to private venture capital firms, which the firms
will leverage with private-sector captial to
make $1.7 billion in total business investments in low- and moderate-income areas.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Financial Regulation
Federal Deposit Insurance: Federal deposit insurance protects depositors against
losses when insured commercial banks, thrifts
(savings institutions), and credit unions fail.
From 1985 to 1995, this insurance protected
depositors in over 1,400 failed banks and 1,100
thrifts, with total deposits of over $700 billion.
Five agencies regulate federally-insured depository institutions to ensure their safety and
soundness: the Office of the Comptroller of the
Currency regulates national banks; the Office
of Thrift Supervision regulates thrifts; the Federal Reserve regulates State-chartered banks
that are Federal Reserve members; the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
regulates other State-chartered banks; and the
National Credit Union Administration (NCUA)
regulates credit unions.
• In calendar 2000, the FDIC will perform
2,928 safety and soundness examinations.
• In calendar 2000, the NCUA will reduce
by seven percent (from 372 to 346) the
number of federally insured credit unions
with net capital of less than six percent.
SEC and CFTC: The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversees U.S. capital markets and regulates the securities industry. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) regulates U.S. futures and options markets. Both regulators protect investors by preventing fraud and abuse in U.S.
capital markets and ensuring adequate disclosure of information.
• The SEC will examine every investment
company complex and every investment
advisor at least once during each five-year
examination cycle.
• The CFTC will review every designation
application and rule change request, except for stock index futures (which require
SEC approval) within 10 to 45 days and
respond to trading exchanges (e.g., Chicago Board of Trade) with an approval or
deficiency letter.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
The FTC enforces various consumer protection and antitrust laws that prohibit fraud,
deception, anticompetitive mergers, and other

19.

209

COMMERCE AND HOUSING CREDIT

unfair and anticompetitive business practices
in the marketplace.
• In 2000, the FTC will save consumers
$200 million by stopping fraud and other
unfair practices, and another $200 million
by stopping anticompetitive behavior.
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC)
The FCC works to encourage competition
in communications and to promote and support
every American’s access to telecommunications
services. Through introduction of more efficient
licensing and authorization processes, the
FCC will ensure a more rapid introduction
of new services and technologies. The FCC’s
policy and rulemaking process promotes a
deregulatory, pro-competitive environment, ensures efficient spectrum use, and sets guidelines for equipment and services so that
all Americans have access to telecommunications services.
• In 2000, the FCC will achieve 90 percent
of enforcement, licensing and service au-

thorization activities within established
deadlines.
Commerce Tax Incentives
The tax law provides incentives to encourage
business investment. It taxes capital gains
at a lower rate than other income. This
will cost the Government $496 billion in
2000. In addition, the law does not tax
gains on inherited capital assets that accrue
during the lifetime of the original owner.
This will cost $27.1 billion from 2000 to
2004. The law also provides more generous
depreciation allowances for machinery, equipment, and buildings. Other tax provisions
benefit small firms generally, including the
graduated corporate income tax rates, preferential capital gains tax treatment for small
corporation stock, and write-offs of certain
investments. Credit unions, small insurance
companies, and insurance companies owned
by certain tax-exempt organizations also enjoy
tax preferences. Tax benefits for other kinds
of businesses are described in other chapters
in Section VI.

20.
Table 20–1.

TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF
TRANSPORTATION
(In millions of dollars)

Function 400

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

16,005

13,330

13,518

14,159

14,709

15,333

15,844

2,063
..............

2,071
..............

2,404
12

2,034
12

1,424
13

1,890
14

1,844
14

151
686

756
120

900
120

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1,645

1,690

1,740

1,810

1,895

1,985

2,070

N/A = Not available

America’s transportation system consists of
public and private systems financed by Federal, State, and local governments, and the
private sector. Our intermodal transportation
network is vital to America’s standard of
living—transportation becomes a part of almost every good and service produced in
the economy, and the mobility it provides
is an essential ingredient of daily life. The
economy grows and works best when there
are few impediments to goods and people
getting where they must—thus an economy
that works for all Americans depends on
a transportation system that is efficient,
reliable, and accessible. Above all, however,
safety is our foremost goal. The Federal
Government spends about $50 billion a year
on transportation, meeting these challenges
today and into the 21st Century.

$218 billion for these surface transportation
programs from 1998–2003. In addition to
providing for increased infrastructure investment, TEA–21 strengthens transportation
safety programs and environmental programs,
establishes a welfare to work transit initiative,
and continues core research activities. TEA–21
also creates two new budget categories designed to ‘‘guarantee’’ funding for these programs for the first time in history. These
categories prevent the expenditure of funds
on programs other than highways, transit,
and highway safety. Of the total amount
of funding authorized by TEA–21, $162 billion
is provided within the Highway Category
Guarantee and $36 billion is within the
Transit Category Guarantee. The remaining
$20 billion is not guaranteed. The budget
provides $28.1 billion and $5.8 billion for
these two categories, respectively.

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st
Century

Safe Operations

A significant portion of Federal investment
in transportation infrastructure is for highways, transit, and highway safety programs.
On June 9, 1998, the President signed the
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA–21), which authorizes a total of

The Federal Government works with State
and local governments and private groups
to minimize the safety risks inherent in
transportation. It regulates motor vehicle design and operation, inspects commercial vehicles, educates the public regarding safety,
211

212

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

directs air and waterway traffic, rescues mariners in danger, monitors railroad safety and
conducts safety research.
A range of Federal activities work to reduce
the number of deaths and injuries from
highway crashes, which number about 42,000
and over three million a year, respectively.
Federal programs reach out to State and
local partners, industry and health care professionals to identify the causes of crashes
and develop new strategies to reduce deaths,
injuries, and the resulting medical costs.
These partnerships yield results—in 1997
the Nation’s safety belt use reached an alltime high of 69 percent. A particularly senseless tragedy—alcohol related highway fatalities—reached a new low in 1997, at 38.6
percent of all highway deaths. Along with
coordinating such national traffic safety efforts, the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA) regulates the design
of motor vehicles, investigates reported safety
defects, and distributes traffic safety grants
to States. The budget proposes $404 million

for NHTSA, a 12-percent increase over 1999,
and fully supports NHTSA’s impaired driving
programs, along with a new initiative that
focuses on drinking and driving by high
risk groups including 21 to 34-year-olds, repeat
offenders with high blood alcohol content,
and youthful drivers (see Chart 20–1).
In partnership with the highway community,
the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
works to identify top roadway safety issues
and countermeasures. In 2000, efforts will
focus on run-off-road and pedestrian/bicycle
crashes, since these safety problems contributed 36 percent and 15 percent respectively
of total highway fatalities in 1997. In 2000
safety construction programs will contribute
$565 million to correct unsafe roadway design
and remove roadway hazards.
The FHWA’s National Motor Carriers program, for which the budget proposes $105
million in 2000, develops uniform standards
that improve motor vehicle and driver safety,
helps coordinate law enforcement activities,
and aligns interstate trucking safety require-

Chart 20-1. INCREASING SEAT BELT USE AND DECLINING
ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES
PERCENT

100

80

60

40

20

0
1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1999

2000

ACTUAL FRONT OCCUPANT SEAT BELT USE
ACTUAL ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES AS A SHARE OF ALL HIGHWAY FATALITIES
TARGET FRONT OCCUPANT SEAT BELT USE
TARGET ALCOHOL-RELATED FATALITIES AS A SHARE OF ALL HIGHWAY FATALITIES

20.

TRANSPORTATION

213

ments. The program maintains national uniform driver testing requirements as well
as information systems that prevent unsafe
operators from registering vehicles. The program also provides grants to States to enforce
Federal and compatible State standards for
commercial motor vehicle safety inspections,
traffic enforcement, and compliance reviews.
The Department of Transportation seeks to:

ations and capital. The Coast Guard seeks
to:

• Reduce the rate of highway-related fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled
(VMT) from 1.7 in 1996 to 1.5 in 2000;
and reduce the rate of injuries from 141
in 1996 to 124 per 100 million VMT in
2000.

The Federal railroad safety program, for
which the budget proposes $132 million in
2000, works in partnership with the rail
industry. The Safety Assurance and Compliance program brings together rail labor, management and the Federal Government to
determine root causes of safety problems.
This partnership has produced results: from
1994 to 1997, the railroad-related fatality
rate, on-the-job casualty rate, and train crash
rate fell by 19, 53, and eight percent respectively. The Federal Railroad Administration
seeks to:

Perhaps the Federal Government’s most
visible transportation safety function involves
air traffic control and air navigational systems.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
handles about two flights a second, moving
1.5 million passengers each day. Through
its regulatory and certification authorities,
the FAA also promotes aviation safety. In
2000, the FAA will perform nearly 320,000
safety related inspections. To meet safety
needs, the Administration plans to spend
$8.4 billion on FAA operations and capital
modernization, 10 percent more than in 1999.
In 2000, the FAA seeks to:
• Reduce the fatal aviation accident rate for
commercial air carriers from a 1994–1996
baseline of 0.037 fatal accidents per
100,000 flight hours. The 2000 target is
0.033 per 100,000—with the reduction to
be achieved in six key areas outlined in
the agency’s Safer Skies Agenda.
The Federal Government also plays a key
safety role on our waterways. The Coast
Guard operates radio distress systems, guides
vessels through busy ports, operates reliable
and safe navigation systems, regulates vessel
design and operation, enforces U.S. and international safety standards, provides boating
safety grants to States, and supports a 35,000member voluntary auxiliary that provides
safety education and assists regular Coast
Guard units. The Coast Guard is recognized
as the world leader in maritime search and
rescue, maintaining and operating a fleet
of cutters, boats, and aircraft that saved
over 4,000 lives in 1998 alone. The budget
proposes $3.3 billion for Coast Guard oper-

• Reduce the number of recreational boating
fatalities from a 1997 baseline of 819 fatalities. The 2000 target is at or below
720 fatalities.
• Continue to save at least 93 percent of
all mariners reported in imminent danger.

• Reduce the rate of rail-related crashes
from a 1995 baseline of 3.91 per million
train-miles to 3.32 or less in 2000; and
to reduce the rate of rail-related fatalities
from a 1995 baseline of 1.71 per million
train miles to 1.54 or less in 2000.
Similarly, the Federal pipeline safety program has implemented several risk management projects to improve the targeting and
effectiveness of regulations while reducing
or minimizing their costs. The Federal Government also develops regulations and standards
for hazardous materials shipping, and enforces
those standards for every mode of transportation. DOT seeks to:
• Reduce the number of serious hazardous
materials incidents in transportation to
411 or fewer in 2000, from a peak of 464
in 1996.
Infrastructure and Efficiency Investment
America has about four million miles of
roads, 580,000 bridges, over 180,000 miles
of railroad track, 5,400 public-use airports,
6,000 transit systems, 350 ports and harbors
and 25,000 miles of commercially-navigable
waterways. This extensive, intermodal network
is essential to the Nation’s commerce, and
enhancing its efficiency advances economic

214

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

growth as well as international competitiveness.
The Federal Government helped develop
large parts of the system, with funding
mainly through user fees and transportation
taxes. Total Federal investment represents
about half of total public investment—that
is, $29 billion of the $61 billion of Federal,
State, and local spending on transportation
infrastructure in 1995. Investment is targeted
to maintain and improve the condition of
the existing system while at the same time
advancing safety, quality, efficiency, and the
intermodal character of transportation infrastructure. In 2000, Federal transportation
infrastructure investment would rise to $36.4
billion, an increase of $1.3 billion or about
four percent over 1999 (see Chart 20–2).
Innovative Financing: In the past six
years, this Administration has taken innovative steps to sustain or accelerate fiscally responsible investment. Under the State Infrastructure Banks (SIB) program, eligible States
can deposit certain Federal funds to assist sur-

face transportation projects. So far, States
have capitalized $526 million in federal funds
in SIBs, and the banks have signed loan agreements to assist 41 projects.
Under the new Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (TIFIA),
direct loans, loan guarantees, and standby
lines of credit are provided to fill market
gaps and encourage substantial private coinvestment for infrastructure of critical importance, such as intermodal facilities, border
crossing infrastructure, and expansion of
multi-State highway trade corridors. With
funding of $81 million in 2000, this program
has the potential to leverage up to $1.8
billion in credit for major project investment.
Highways and Bridges: About 957,098
miles of roads and all bridges are eligible for
Federal support, including the National Highway System and Federal lands roads. In 2000,
the Federal Government plans to spend $28
billion to maintain and expand these roads
with funding from motor fuels taxes, mainly
the gasoline tax. The Federal gas tax is 18.4

Chart 20-2. INCREASING INVESTMENT IN AMERICA'S FUTURE:
FEDERAL FUNDING OF PUBLIC-USE
TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE
CURRENT DOLLARS IN BILLIONS

40

36.4

35

32.3

30

25.7
25

21.1

20
15
10
5
0
1990-93 AVG.

1994-97 AVG.

1998-99 AVG.

2000 REC.

20.

TRANSPORTATION

cents per gallon, of which 15.4 cents goes to
the Highway Trust Fund’s highway account,
to finance formula grants to States for highway-related repair and improvement.
State and local governments provide 56
percent of total highway and bridge infrastructure spending, most of which they generate
through their own fuel and vehicle taxes.
The average State gasoline tax was 19.9
cents per gallon in 1997. State and local
governments accelerate their infrastructure
projects through debt financing, such as bonds
and revolving loan funds. The Federal Highway Administration will work with State
and local governments to:
• Increase the percentage of miles on the
National Highway System (NHS) that
meet pavement performance standards for
acceptable ride quality—from 90.4 percent
in 1996 to 91.8 percent in 2000.
• Reduce delays on Federal-aid highways
from 9.2 hours of delay per 1,000 vehicle
miles traveled in 1996 to 9.0 in 2000.
• Reduce the percentage of bridges on the
NHS that are deficient—from 23.4 percent
in 1997 to 22.5 percent in 2000.
Transit: As with highways, the Federal
Government partners with State and local governments to improve mass transit. Of the Federal motor fuels tax, 2.85 cents a gallon goes
to the Highway Trust Fund’s Mass Transit Account, which funds transit grants to States
and urban and rural areas. Federal capital
grants comprise about half of the total spent
each year to maintain and expand the Nation’s
6,000 bus, rail, trolley, van, and ferry systems.
Together, States and localities invest over $3
billion a year on transit infrastructure and
equipment.
In 2000, the Federal Government plans
to spend $5.6 billion on transit infrastructure,
an eight-percent increase over 1999. The
Federal role is especially important to finance
capital-intensive urban bus and rail transit
systems, as well as rural bus and van
networks. Millions of Americans use transit
for their daily commute, easing roadway
congestion and reducing air pollution. Many
riders depend on public transportation due
to age, disability, or income. Transit can
also provide economic opportunity—the Job

215
Access and Reverse Commute program will
help to provide transportation services in
urban, suburban and rural areas to assist
welfare recipients and low income individuals
reach employment opportunities. The Federal
Transit Administration seeks to:
• Increase transit ridership from 39 billion
passenger miles traveled in 1996 to 40.56
in 2000.
Passenger Rail: The Federal Government
will invest $571 million in 2000 to support
the Nation’s passenger rail system’s capital
improvements and equipment maintenance.
The combination of Federal and private sector
investment in Northeast Corridor will show results in 2000, with the beginning of high-speed
rail service between Boston and New York
which is estimated to reduce trip times by 35
percent. The Federal Railroad Administration,
through capital funding, seeks to:
• Increase Amtrak’s intercity ridership from
20.2 million passengers per year in 1996
to a record level of 24.7 million or more
in 2000.
Aviation and Airports: The Federal Government seeks to ensure that the aviation system is safe, reliable, accessible, integrated, and
flexible. In 2000, spending will continue the
modernization of FAA air traffic control equipment, including upgrades to controller
workstations that will improve reliability and
capacity for future growth. Investments also
include automation tools to optimally sequence
aircraft, and planning to coordinate the flow
of air traffic into major hubs. In addition,
about 3,300 airports throughout the country
are eligible for the Airport Improvement Program, which funds projects that enhance capacity, safety, security, and noise mitigation.
These funds augment other airport funding
sources, such as bond proceeds, State and local
grants, and passenger facility charges. With
98 percent of the population living within 20
miles of one of these airports, most citizens
have excellent access to air transportation. The
Federal Aviation Administration seeks to:
• Reduce the rate of air travel delays by
5.5 percent from a 1992–1996 baseline of
181 delays per 100,000 activities to 171
in 2000. To accomplish this, the FAA seeks
a 20 percent reduction in volume and

216

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

equipment related delays which cause
about one quarter of all air travel delays.
Maritime Transportation: For our Nation’s commercial shipping infrastructure, Federal loan guarantees make it easier to build
and renovate vessels, while the Coast Guard
establishes and operates radio and visual aidsto-navigation infrastructure that enables the
safe movement of shipping. Port development
is left largely to State and local authorities,
which have invested over $16 billion in infrastructure improvements over the past 50
years. The Maritime Administration seeks to:
• Attain a stable U.S. commercial shipbuilding orderbook of 520,000 gross tons by
2000.
Research and Technology
The Federal Government has an integral
role in developing transportation technology.
Federal research helps build stronger roads
and bridges, design safer cars, reduce human
error in operations, and improve the efficiency
of existing infrastructure. In 2000, the Federal
Government will spend over $1.2 billion on
transportation research and technology, 40
percent more than in 1999.
The DOT Joint Program Office’s Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) program is developing and deploying technologies to help
States and localities improve traffic flow
and safety on streets and highways. ITS
provides a cost-effective way to improve the
management of our infrastructure, boosting
efficiency and capacity. The private sector,
which works closely with the ITS program,
will deploy many of the technologies developed
jointly with Federal funding.
The FAA’s research, engineering, and development programs help improve safety, security, capacity, and efficiency in the National
Airspace System. For example, the development of the advanced traffic management
system and the demonstration of user preferred routing and navigation procedures will
improve not only safety but the air system
capacity and efficiency. In 2000, the budget
includes work on improved modeling of airspace capacity; improved weather forecast
processing, reporting, and use; and air travel
delay
forecasting/management
technology.

Other FAA research will focus on the causes
of human error; aircraft safety and fire
protection methods; quieter engines and reduced aircraft emissions; and security and
explosives detection systems.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Aeronautical Research and
Technology Program funds partnerships with
industry that may revolutionize the next
generation of planes, making them safer,
faster, more efficient, and more compatible
with the environment.
Using technology, the Federal Government
seeks to balance new physical capacity with
the operational efficiency and safety of the
Nation’s existing transportation infrastructure.
With this goal in mind, we will:
• Increase the number of metropolitan areas
with integrated ITS infrastructure from 34
in 1997 to 50 in 2000.
DOT, NASA, the Defense Department, and
private industry will work together on research to reduce the fatal aviation accident
rate by a factor of five in 10 years. Research
will focus on preventing equipment malfunctions, reducing human error, and ensuring
the separation between aircraft and potential
hazards.
Regulation of Transportation
Federal rules greatly influence transportation. In the past two decades, economic
deregulation of the domestic railroad, airline,
and interstate and intrastate trucking industries has reduced costs for consumers and
shippers, while improving service.
The Federal Government also issues regulations that spur safer, cleaner transportation.
The regulations—of cars, trucks, ships, trains,
and airplanes—have substantially cut the
number of transportation-related deaths and
injuries, improved the safe handling of hazardous materials shipments, and helped reduce
the number of oil spills.
Where regulations are used to meet our
transportation safety, security, and environmental goals, the government aims for
rulemakings that are cost-effective and make
common sense. For example, in establishing
security standards for passenger vessels and

20.

TRANSPORTATION

associated terminals, the Coast Guard listened
to public comment and tailored the rulemaking
to be consistent with international standards
while giving operators the flexibility to customize their plans and choice of equipment.
Tax Expenditures
For the most part, employees do not pay
income taxes on what their employers pay

217
for parking and transit passes. These tax
expenditures will cost the Government an
estimated $1.7 billion for 2000. To finance
infrastructure, State and local governments
issue tax-exempt bonds. The Federal costs
in lost revenues are included in the calculations for Function 450, ‘‘Community and
Regional Development,’’ and Function 800,
‘‘General Government.’’

21.

Table 21–1.

COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL
DEVELOPMENT
FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF COMMUNITY
AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
(In millions of dollars)

Function 450

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

10,263

8,884

8,902

8,902

8,902

8,902

8,902

–407
..............

–477
..............

–602
29

–701
116

–734
194

–761
223

–815
231

1,502
1,427

2,402
2,165

2,085
3,144

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

1,150
..............

1,275
..............

1,365
12

1,290
195

1,210
376

1,090
465

1,080
543

N/A = Not available

Federal support for community and regional
development helps build the Nation’s economy,
and helps economically distressed urban and
rural communities secure a larger share of
America’s prosperity. The Federal Government
spends over $10 billion a year, and offers
about $1.4 billion in tax incentives to help
States and localities create jobs and economic
opportunity, and build infrastructure to support commercial and industrial development.
Federal programs have stabilized and revitalized many of these communities allowing
them to expand their economic base and
support their citizens, particularly those in
need. Communities hard hit by natural disasters receive Federal assistance to rebuild
infrastructure, businesses, and homes. States
and localities also use these Federal funds
to leverage private resources for their community revitalization strategies.
Department of Housing and Urban
Development (HUD)

ment, enhance infrastructure, and develop
strategies for providing affordable housing
close to jobs.
Community Development Block Grants
(CDBG) provide funds for various community
development activities directed primarily at
low-and moderate-income persons. CDBG
funds go to improving housing, public works
and services, promoting economic development,
and acquiring or clearing land. Seventy percent of CDBG funds go to over 950 central
cities and urban counties, and the remaining
30 percent go to States to award to smaller
localities. The Indian CDBG program focuses
mainly on public infrastructure, community
facilities, and economic development.
HUD’s HOME program (which is described
in the Income Security function) supports
construction of new housing, rehabilitation
of existing homes, acquisition of standard
housing, assistance to home buyers, and assistance for tenant-based rental.

HUD provides communities with funds to
promote commercial and industrial develop219

220
The 2000 goals for the CDBG and HOME
programs include:
• Increasing the number of CDBG grantees
who incorporate milestones with timetables in Consolidated Plans that can help
demonstrate progress in improving locally
defined conditions in their neighborhoods
and communities;
• Developing a standardized HUD assessment of consolidated plans;
• Assisting 108,000 households and assisting 95,000 newly constructed units of affordable housing through HOME, helping
to increase to 72 percent the number of
worst case housing need households receiving Federal assistance;
• Providing housing assistance to almost
210,000 households though the CDBG program.
By the end of 2000, HUD will establish
baseline measures against which to judge
the contributions these programs make to
community development and affordable housing.
Empowerment Zones (EZs) provide tax incentives and grants to carry out 10-year,
community-wide strategic plans to revitalize
designated areas. In 1994, the Administration
designated nine EZs, two Supplemental EZs
(which were designated full EZs in 1998)
and 95 Empowerment Communities (ECs).
These original EZs and related ECs have
begun leveraging private investment, expanding affordable housing and homeownership
opportunities, and helping create jobs. In
December 1998, the Administration selected
15 new urban Zones and five new rural
Zones (administered by the Agriculture Department) from more than 268 distressed
areas that applied for new designations. These
Zones, along with the 20 new rural ECs
were selected in January 1999, and will
begin implementing their comprehensive strategies to redevelop their areas.
The 2000 goals for the EZ and EC program
include:
• Increase to 95 percent the share of urban
EZs and ECs that show satisfactory
progress toward locally defined bench-

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

marks, as measured by the tracking system.
Department of Commerce
The Economic Development Administration
(EDA) provides assistance to communities
to help build capacity and address longterm economic challenges through its nationwide program delivery network. EDA’s public
works grants help build or expand public
facilities to stimulate industrial and commercial growth, such as industrial parks, business
incubators, access roads, water and sewer
lines, and port and terminal developments.
EDA, working with State and local governments and the private sector, has completed
a total of 8,570 projects, creating or retaining
over 783,000 private sector jobs, invested
over $4.9 billion in grants, and generated
over $49.5 billion in private investment. Between 1992 and 1998, EDA awarded 1,208
public works grants, totaling $1.2 billion,
to economically distressed communities to
build these types of infrastructure projects.
EDA’s revolving loan fund (RLF) program
enhances communities’ capacity to invest in
locally identified commercial development that
creates jobs. Since 1976, when the RLF
program was implemented, EDA has provided
initial capital for over 550 local RLFs.
These funds have made more than 7,200
loans to private businesses and have leveraged
more than $1.9 billion in private capital
that upon repayment has tended to stay
in the community for re-lending and further
economic development activity.
The 2000 goals for EDA include:
• Creation or retention of a total of 66,753
jobs.
Department of the Treasury
The Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund seeks to promote
economic revitalization and community development in distressed areas by increasing
the availability of capital and leveraging
private sector funds. The CDFI Fund provides
financial and technical assistance to a diverse
set of specialized, private, for-profit and nonprofit financial institutions known as community development financial institutions. CDFIs

21.

221

COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

have a primary mission of community development and include community development
banks, credit unions, loan funds, venture
capital funds, and microenterprise loan funds.
The 2000 goals for the CDFI Fund include:
• Increasing the diversity of CDFIs that receive assistance so that all 50 States have
at least one CDFI awardee; and
• Increasing the number of CDFIs that receive assistance to 135 from an estimated
125 in 1999.
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
USDA gives financial assistance to rural
communities and businesses to boost employment and further diversify the rural economy.
The Rural Community Advancement Program’s grants, loans, and loan guarantees
help build rural community facilities, such
as health clinics and day care centers, and
create or expand rural businesses. USDA
also provides loans through the Intermediary
Relending Program (IRP), which provides
funds to an intermediary such as a State
or local government that, in turn, provides
funds for economic and community development projects in rural areas.
The 2000 goals for these USDA programs
include:
• Creating 100,000 new jobs, compared to
82,000 in 1998, through the Business and
Industry loans, IRP, and community facilities programs.
Department of the Interior
The Interior Department’s Bureau of Indian
Affairs (BIA) helps Tribes manage and generate revenues from mineral, agricultural and
forestry resources. BIA also promotes Tribal
and individual self-sufficiency by developing
Tribal resources and obtaining capital investments. The Department of the Interior (DOI)
is partnering with the Department of Commerce, the Small Business Administration
and Tribal governments to fulfill the Administration’s directive to develop a strategic plan
and coordinate existing public and private
sector economic development initiatives. BIA
and the Department of Justice seek to lower
crime rates on the 56 million acres of Indian
lands that are held in trust for tribes by

DOI, through the expansion of its joint law
enforcement initiative begun in 1998. BIA
maintains over 7,000 buildings, including 185
schools and 3,000 housing units; over 100
high-hazard dams; and (with the Transportation Department and State and local governments) about 50,000 miles of roads and
745 bridges. Finally the Department will
strengthen its trust services program by facilitating more prudent land management and
maintaining about 150 Tribal resource management plans, projects, co-management programs, and fishing access sites; supporting
15 irrigation projects; managing 46 million
acres for farming and grazing; completing
the first phase of a comprehensive environmental audit; and funding 20 water rights
negotiation teams.
The 2000 goals for DOI include:
• Generating nearly $60 million in federallyguaranteed commercial loans on reservations. These loans, supported by a $5 million appropriation, will foster growth and
development in Indian country;
• Reducing crime rates on Indian lands by
increasing the number of police officers
from 1.3 per 1,000 citizens, which is currently just over half the national average;
• Replacing at least two of BIA’s oldest,
most dilapidated schools, making major
improvements and repairs to additional
schools (including a joint demonstration
project with the Department of Energy utilizing energy-efficient construction materials), and about 430 minor improvement
projects. In addition, BIA will provide financial assitance to Tribes for participating in the Administration’s school modernization initiative; and
• Obtaining about $250 million in timber
sales revenue by helping Tribes manage
16 million acres of forest land.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
TVA operates integrated navigation, flood
control, water supply, and recreation programs. Along with TVA’s electric power program, these programs contribute to the economic prosperity of the seven-State region
it serves. In 2000, TVA plans to pay for
most of these programs in a new way,

222
using proceeds from the agency’s $6.8 billion
power program, user fees and sources other
than appropriations. The budget proposes appropriations of $7 million for TVA to manage
the Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area.
The 2000 goals for TVA include:
• Maximizing the number of days the Tennessee River is open to commercial navigation from Knoxville, Tennessee to Paducah, Kentucky, with a 2000 performance
target of full availability 93 percent of the
time; and
• Minimizing flood damage by operating the
river system with flood control as a priority, and maintaining a 2000 target of 80
percent of flood storage availability.
Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC)
ARC targets its resources to highly distressed areas, focusing on critical development
issues on a regional scale, and making strategic investments that encourage other Federal,
State, local and private participation and
dollars. From 1988 to 1996, Appalachian
employment grew at the national rate of
10.6 percent.
The 2000 goals for ARC include:
• 5,000 people will retain or get jobs;
• 18,000 households will have access to new
or improved water, sewerage and waste
management systems;
• 7,000 people will benefit from business development services; and
• 140 physicians will be placed in the region’s health professional shortage areas
to provide another 700,000 patient office
visits a year.
Disaster Relief and Insurance
The Federal Government provides financial
help to cover a large share of the Nation’s
losses from natural disasters. Over the last
five years, the two major Federal disaster
assistance programs—the Federal Emergency
Management Agency’s (FEMA) Disaster Relief

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Fund and the Small Business Administration’s
(SBA) Disaster Loan program—have provided
over $24.9 billion in emergency assistance.
The Federal Government shares the costs
with States for infrastructure rebuilding;
makes disaster loans on uninsured losses
to individuals and businesses; and provides
grants for emergency needs and housing
assistance, unemployment assistance, and crisis counseling.
In addition to its post disaster response
activities, FEMA is working to establish 100
‘‘disaster resistant communities’’ in each State
by the end of 1999. In exchange for offering
the only source of flood insurance available
to property owners, participating communities
must mitigate future losses by adopting and
enforcing floodplain management measures
that protect lives and new construction from
flooding. FEMA is also modernizing its inventory of floodplain maps, and will be taking
measures to mitigate properties experiencing
repetitive flood damages.
The 2000 goals for FEMA include:
• Processing disaster declarations within
eight days, making 50 percent of funding
for emergency work projects available to
States within 30 days of application approval, making 80 percent of public assistance funding determination within an average of 180 days, and closing 90 percent
of disasters in the Public Assistance Program within two years of the declaration
date; and
• increasing the number of flood insurance
policies in force by five percent per year,
on average.
The 2000 goals for the SBA Disaster Loan
Program include:
• Increasing the number of disaster loan applications processed within 21 days of receipt from 77 percent in 1998 to 80 percent; and
• Establishing an effective field presence
(being able to accept disaster loan applications) within three days of a disaster, for
98 percent of declared events.

21.

COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Tax Expenditures
The Federal Government provides tax incentives to encourage community and regional
development activities, including: (1) tax-exempt bonds for airports, docks, high-speed
rail facilities, and sports and convention facilities (costing $3.6 billion from 2000 to 2004);
(2) tax incentives for qualifying businesses
in economically distressed areas that qualify
as Empowerment Zones—including an employer wage credit, higher up-front deductions
for investments in equipment, tax-exempt
financing, and accelerated depreciation—as
well as capital gains preferences for certain

223
investments in the District of Columbia and
incentives for first-time buyers of a principal
residence in the District (costing $1.9 billion
over the five years); (3) a 10-percent investment tax credit for rehabilitating buildings
that were built before 1936 for non-residential
purposes (costing $150 million over the five
years); (4) tax exemptions for qualifying mutual and cooperative telephone and electric
companies (costing $135 million over the
five years); and (5) up-front deductions of
environmental remediation costs at qualified
sites (costing $135 million over the five
years).

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT,
AND SOCIAL SERVICES

Table 22–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF EDUCATION,
TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES
(In millions of dollars)
Function 500

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

46,700

46,595

52,138

54,152

54,160

54,108

54,025

12,418
..............

14,031
–9

14,876
–1,716

13,905
–101

13,090
–342

15,113
–636

16,088
–397

12,145
21,966

16,118
23,171

16,015
24,557

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

29,885
..............

37,580
165

40,035
1,577

42,025
3,656

43,975
2,674

45,885
2,527

49,035
2,550

N/A = Not available

A wide variety of Federal programs assist
States and localities in providing essential
education, training, employment and social
services. These programs educate young people; offer training and employment services
to all Americans, especially the low-skilled
and jobless; assist youth and adults to overcome financial barriers to postsecondary education and training; provide essential assistance to poor Americans; and work with
employers and employees to maintain safe
and stable workplaces.
The Government spends over $65 billion
a year on: grants to States and localities;
grants, loans, and scholarships to individuals;
direct Federal program administration; and
subsidies leveraging nearly $41 billion in
loans to individuals. It also allocates about
$42 billion a year in tax incentives for
individuals.
Education Department
Elementary and Secondary Education:
Federal spending for elementary and secondary education targets important national

needs, such as equal opportunity and the use
of challenging academic standards to improve
student achievement. Most low-performing
children in high priority schools receive extra
educational assistance through Title I-Education for the Disadvantaged. Other programs
provide related support for children with disabilities and limited English proficient children; support teacher and administrator training; help finance and encourage State, school,
and system reforms; help reduce class size;
and support research and technical assistance.
The Administration’s long-term goal is to help
all children, especially low-income and minority children, make steady educational achievement gains over time.
The Federal focus began to change in
1994 from supporting individual programs
to emphasizing school-wide and school system
reforms, through the President’s Goals 2000
Educate America Act and his Improving America’s Schools Act, of which Title I is a
part. These laws support State and local
standards-based reform efforts and speed the
expansion of the use of technology in education
225

226
to help raise learning gains. These new
approaches freed States and schools from
unnecessary Federal process restrictions, providing greater flexibility while requiring more
accountability for results. Early results show
that the new approaches are having a significant impact: for example, in the 1997–98
school year, all but one State had content
standards in at least reading and math.
About seven percent of schools based reading
and math curricula on challenging academic
standards, and 17 States had tests tied
to challenging academic standards. Before
Goals 2000, only a handful of States had
challenging academic standards and tests in
place. Minority students have made substantial gains in science, math, and reading
since the 1970s, narrowing the gap between
minority and Caucasian student achievement
by about a third.
Title I: Citing Title I, as well as Head Start
and child nutrition programs, a 1994 RAND
study found that ‘‘the most plausible’’ way to
explain big education gains of low-income and
minority children in the past 30 years is ‘‘some
combination of increased public investment in
education and social programs and changed social policies aimed at equalizing educational
opportunities.’’ The budget provides $8.78 billion for Title I including $8 billion for grants
to local education agencies.
As described in Chapter 3, ‘‘Investing in
Education and Training,’’ the 1994 reauthorization of Title I set in motion a series
of new requirements on States for improving
educational results for disadvantaged children,
as a condition for receipt of Title I funds.
Implementation has been uneven. For 2000,
the Administration proposes a stronger emphasis on accountability for improved education
results in Title I, financed with $200 million
for a new Accountability Fund and will
reinforce this approach with its 1999 reauthorization proposal for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. States and districts
will identify their worst performing schools
(establishing a baseline for measurement),
and take specific actions to improve those
schools, while providing immediate extra educational assistance to the children in those
schools.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• In 2000, Title I grants to school districts
will provide educational services to over
12 million students in high poverty communities, 500,000 more children than in
1999.
The National Assessment of Education
Progress (NAEP) will continue to be one
of the data bases that indicates whether
Title I is helping students catch up with
their more advantaged peers. NAEP measures
progress toward achieving the goal that rising
percentages of all students will meet or
exceed basic, proficient, and advanced performance levels in national and State assessments
of reading, math, and other core subjects,
and the goal that students in high-poverty
schools will show improvement gains comparable to those for all students.
Improving Accountability: The budget
provides $200 million to help accelerate States’
implementation of accountability provisions in
the Title I program.
• In 2000, States will identify their lowest
performing schools, begin intervening with
effective strategies to improve student outcomes, and begin periodic reporting on
their results.
21st Century Community Learning Centers/Ending Social Promotion: The budget
proposes to triple this program to $600 million,
as part of a comprehensive approach to fix
failing schools and help end social promotion
the way successful schools do it—without
harming the children. School districts will
have a competitive advantage for these new
funds if they combine before and after school
and summer school programs with other resources that support State and school commitments to high educational standards, more
qualified teachers, smaller classes that enhance learning, and accept accountability for
increased student achievement.
• In 2000, 7,500 schools will receive 21st
Century Community Learning Center
grants. Most of these districts will have
made commitments to use these funds as
part of a comprehensive effort to improve
learning in low performing schools. In future years, grantees will report their
progress and receive continuation grants
if they meet program terms.

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

America Reads: A student’s most basic
skill to master is reading. Although reading
problems are particularly severe for disadvantaged students, students with reading difficulties represent a cross-section of American children. In 1994, only 30 percent of 4th graders
scored at the proficient level in reading on
NAEP, while only 59 percent scored at basic
level. In 1998, the President launched the
America Reads Challenge to provide extra help
to meet the goal that every child will read
well and independently by the end of the third
grade, and obtained enactment of new legislation that will begin funding local programs on
July 1, 1999. The budget provides $286 million
for America Reads.
• In 2000, America Reads will continue to
help increase the percentages of fourthgraders who meet basic, proficient, and advanced levels in reading on the 4th grade
NAEP (administered in 1998 and every
two years thereafter).
• By 2002, 68 percent of fourth grade public
school students will score at or above the
basic level of proficiency on the NAEP.
Education Technology: The Administration’s education technology programs serve to
make modern computers and technologies accessible to all students; connect classrooms to
one another and to the outside world; make
high-quality educational software an integral
part of the curriculum; and enable teachers
to effectively integrate technology into their instruction. The budget provides $801 million for
education technology.
• The percentage of public schools with access to the Internet will increase to 95
percent by 2000, compared to 65 percent
in 1996.
• In Fall 1996, 20 percent of public school
teachers used advanced telecommunications for teaching. In 1994, 40 percent
of the fourth graders and 17 percent of
the eighth graders had teachers reporting
use of computers to teach reading. In
1996, about 75 percent of fourth grade students and 46 percent of eighth grade students had teachers reporting use of computers for math instruction. In 2000, a
higher percentage of teachers will inte-

227

grate high-quality technology-based instruction into their curriculum.
Special Education: Under the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the
Education Department works with States to
ensure that children with disabilities benefit
from the Act’s requirement for a ‘‘free appropriate public education’’ and are part of all
accountability systems. As of July 1, 1998, all
States were required to have performance
goals and strategies in place for children with
disabilities aged three to 21, and will report
their progress toward meeting those goals on
a biennial basis. The budget provides $5.45
billion for IDEA.
• In 2000, all States will include children
with disabilities in State and district-wide
regular assessments or provide alternate
assessments to measure educational performance.
Bilingual Education: Federal funds help
children and adults learn English while progressing in school, and help States train teachers to educate individuals who are limited
English proficient. The budget provides $415
million for Bilingual Education with special
emphasis on expanding teacher training.
• In 1999, Federal funds supported the
training of 4,000 teachers. In 2000, funds
will support training of 6,000 teachers to
specialize in teaching limited English-proficient children.
Class Size Reduction: The budget proposes
$4.1 billion, an increase of $200 million over
1999, as the second installment of the President’s plan to help schools recruit, hire, and
train 100,000 new teachers by 2005 and reduce
class size in the early grades.
• States will annually reduce the average
class size in grades one through three so
that by 2005, the average class size nationally in the targeted grades is 18 students per classroom. In 1993–94, the average number of students in a grade one
to three classroom was 22.
Public School Choice: The budget includes
several initiatives to expand the availability
of choice in public schools, including funding
for private sector and school partnerships to
create ‘‘Worksite Schools’’ in the more inte-

228
grated setting of the workplace, and funding
for inter-district Magnet Schools. The largest
public school choice program is Charter
Schools.
Charter schools introduce innovation and
choice into public schools. In 1992, there
was one charter school in operation, funded
locally. In 1998, approximately 1,000 charter
schools are operating around the nation,
of which about 950 received Federal funding.
The budget provides $130 million for charter
schools.
• In 2000, nearly 2,000 charter schools will
be operating, continuing progress toward
the President’s goal of 3,000 charter
schools by 2002.
Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities: Since 1993, this program has provided a total of $3.7 billion to help 97 percent
of all school districts implement anti-drug and
anti-violence programs. The budget proposes
$591 million, including $90 million in competitive grants for projects that use proven program designs in high-need areas; $50 million
for the newly established School Drug Prevention Coordinators program to ensure that half
of all middle schools have a director of drug
and violence prevention programs to monitor
local programs and link school-based programs
to community-based programs; and $12 million
for SERVE, a resource for responding to school
violence incidents. In 1997, rates of alcohol use
in schools were five percent for 8th graders
and eight percent for 10th and 12th graders;
1997 rates of marijuana use in school were
five percent, 11 percent and 10 percent for
eighth, 10th and 12th graders respectively.
• By 2001, rates of annual alcohol use in
schools will decline to four percent for
eighth graders and seven percent for 10th
and 12th graders; rates of annual marijuana use in school for the same time period will decline to three percent, 10 percent and nine percent for eighth, 10th, and
12th graders respectively.
Title VI Education Block Grant: This program provides general resources for education.
It does not have clear, measurable goals and
is not designed in law to produce specific results in terms of student achievement gains.
Evaluations of the program show that school

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

districts generally use the funds for routine
activities that do not necessarily improve
teaching and learning. As a result, the budget
eliminates funding for this program in order
to support other programs, such as Title I,
for which there are stronger indicators of results in terms of student achievement gains.
Postsecondary Education: The economic
returns to a college education are dramatic.
Males working full time who are over 25 years
old and have at least a bachelor’s degree
earned 89 percent more in 1993 than comparable workers with just a high school degree.
Moreover, the benefits of college extend beyond
the college graduates themselves. The resulting higher socioeconomic status of parents
with college degrees leads to greater educational achievement by their children.
Since the GI Bill was enacted following
World War II, the Federal Government has
played a growing role in helping Americans
go to college. From 1964 to 1993, Federal
postsecondary programs have helped nearly
triple college enrollment, increasing by a
third the share of high school graduates
who attended college, and raise college enrollment rates for minority high school graduates
by nearly two-thirds.
• In 2000, the Education Department will
provide financial aid to an estimated nine
million students.
Hope Scholarships and Lifetime Learning Tax Credits: These tax benefits for postsecondary education were proposed by President Clinton in 1996 and enacted in 1997.
They have helped make college more affordable for many American families.
• In 2000, 5.5 million students will receive
over $4 billion in Hope tax credits, and
7.2 million students will receive almost $3
billion in Lifetime Learning tax credits.
College Completion Challenge Grants:
This initiative will award $35 million in 2000
to colleges that submit high quality applications demonstrating how they will close the
difference in the rates at which disadvantaged
and other students complete college. Grants
will be used to strengthen counseling, mentoring and related services, increase grant aid,
or help finance summer programs. The gap between the persistence rates of low-income and

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

229

at-risk students receiving services under this
program and of students who do not receive
need-based aid will decrease at school receiving grants.

ing in high-poverty communities upon graduation. The President proposes $115 million for
teacher quality enhancement grants, including
$35 million for teacher recruitment in 2000.

Pell Grants: When President Clinton took
office in 1993, the Pell Grant maximum award
was $2,300—the same as it was when President Bush took office in 1989. Over the next
five years, from 1994 to 1999, the maximum
award increased 36 percent to $3,125. Currently 76 percent of Pell Grant funds go to
students below 150 percent of the poverty
level. The budget provides $7.5 billion for Pell
Grants.

• In districts with grantees, the percentage
of individuals who teach in low-income
communities who satisfy all State licensure requirements will increase each year.
Baseline data will be collected in 2000.

• An estimated 3.9 million needy students
will receive Pell Grants in 2000, for which
the budget proposes a maximum award of
$3,250, an increase of $125 over 1999.
Work-Study: The Work-Study program
helps needy undergraduate and graduate students finance postsecondary education through
part-time employment. In 1996, the President
set a goal of supporting one million work-study
students each year by 2000. The budget includes $934 million, an increase of $64 million
over 1999.
• In 2000, Work-Study will add 56,000 students and reach the President’s goal of
supporting one million students.
GEAR-UP: The budget proposes doubling
funding for GEAR-UP, the early intervention
program based on the President’s High Hopes
proposal, to $240 million in 2000. GEAR-UP
provides funds for States and local partnerships to help students in high-poverty schools
prepare for and attend college.
• Program participants will successfully
complete college preparatory curricula at
higher rates than comparable non-participants.
• Program participants will enroll in postsecondary education programs at higher
rates than comparable non-participants.
Initial data should be available in 2001.
Teacher Quality: A new teacher recruitment program will provide grants to partnerships of high-need school districts and institutions of higher education to provide scholarships to college students who commit to teach-

Modernization of the Student Aid Delivery System: The Education Department manages the delivery of student aid benefits to
nearly nine million students in approximately
6,200 postsecondary schools, and oversees the
direct and guaranteed loan systems affecting
37 million individuals, 4,100 lenders, and 36
guarantee agencies. The Department has made
modernization of student financial aid management one of its highest priorities. Through the
Higher Education Amendments of 1998, the
Administration and Congress authorized the
Department to establish the Government’s
first ever Performance-Based Organization
(PBO). This new organization will have unprecedented flexibility in procurement, operations and management of Federal student financial assistance programs. Major parts of
the effort include improving customer service
at lower cost through better contracting practices and using new information technology.
For example, students can now apply for student financial aid electronically and access
their direct student loan information over the
Internet. The PBO is one of the Vice President’s High Impact Agencies (see Section IV,
‘‘Improving Performance Through Better Management’’). Among its goals are:
• By October 2000, increase the annual
number of students applying for Federal
aid electronically to three million, up from
1.9 million in 1997 and 2.3 million in
1998.
• By October 2000, enable students and
families applying for Federal aid electronically to have their eligibility determined
in four days, cutting in half the current
processing time;
• By December 1999, make the Department’s website the most comprehensive
and efficient source of information on Federal student aid and program require-

230

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

ments, reducing hard copies of materials
that now must be printed and mailed by
at least a third;
• By July 2000, test a multi-year promissory
note for student loans to streamline application procedures, minimize delays in receiving funds, and provide better consumer information for borrowers; and
• By December 1999, establish, with its
partners in the financial aid community,
mutually agreed upon industry-wide
standards for data exchanges needed in
administering student aid.
Student Loan Defaults: In recent years,
the Education Department has made great
progress in reducing defaults and increasing
collections from defaulters. The national student loan cohort default rate used for institutional eligibility dropped for the sixth straight
year to 9.6 percent for 1996, down from 10.4
percent for 1995 and from 22.4 percent in
1990. This dramatic reduction is due, in large
part, to the Education Department’s improved
institutional oversight that has led to the removal of 1700 schools from all student aid programs and 300 additional schools from only
the loan programs. In addition, the department has implemented rigorous recertification
standards for institutions to participate in the
student aid programs. As a result, it has rejected about a third of initial applications to
participate in the student aid programs over
the last three years—twice the rate in 1990.
• In 2000, the default rate will remain below
10 percent.
Student Aid Income Verification: In
1999, in accordance with the Higher Education
Amendments of 1998, the Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Treasury will begin
development of methods by which Education
can reduce fraud and improve eligibility determinations through access to IRS data. In addition, the 2000 budget proposes a new debt collection initiative through use of the New Hire
Data Base (in HHS) that will increase collections by approximately $1 billion over five
years.
Direct Loan Consolidations: By relying
more on performance-based contracting, the
Education Department is ensuring the availability of this option to borrowers in repay-

ment to consolidate multiple loans into single
loans at lower interest rates and with greatly
reduced paperwork. The Department is also
improving the loan consolidation process by
improving the accuracy of its data, strengthening managerial controls through better tracking and reporting, increasing the number and
expertise of consolidation contractor staff, and
speeding up the loan certification process. As
a result of new procedures, the department
now averages just under 60 days to complete
a loan consolidation application.
• In 2000, the average time to complete a
loan consolidation application will continue to be no more than 60 days.
• In 2000, surveys of borrowers will show
that the majority of applicants for loan
consolidation are highly satisfied with the
timeliness and accuracy of the loan consolidation process. In 1998, 60 percent of
applicants were highly satisfied.
Adult Education: Federal adult education
programs assist adults to become literate and
obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to
attain employment and self-sufficiency, to be
better parents, and to complete their secondary
education. The new Adult Education and Family Literacy Act places a strong emphasis on
performance and accountability, and States
must now establish annual performance targets for the educational achievement of participating adults. States that meet or exceed their
targets in adult education and other Federal
workforce development programs are eligible
to receive special incentive grants. The budget
proposes $575 million for adult education, an
increase of $190 million over 1999.
• By 2000, 40 percent of the adults in beginning level adult basic education, adult secondary education, and English as a second
language (ESL) programs will achieve
basic skill proficiency, earn a diploma or
General Educational Development (GED)
credential, or achieve basic English proficiency. In 1998, 28 percent of the adults
in basic education, 38 percent of those in
secondary education, and 27 percent of
those in ESL programs achieved basic skill
proficiency, earned a diploma or GED, or
achieved basic English proficiency.

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

• By 2000, 300,000 participating adults will
enroll in further academic education and/
or vocational training compared with
175,000 in 1998. Also by 2000, 300,000
participating adults will get a job or retain
or advance in their current job, compared
with 268,000 in 1998.
Vocational Rehabilitation Services: The
Vocational Rehabilitation program provides
funds to States to help individuals with disabilities prepare for and obtain gainful employment. In 1997, the program helped to rehabilitate 211,520 individuals with disabilities. The
program has not had consistent performance
goals and measures of progress. The budget
includes $2.7 billion for Vocational Rehabilitation. Starting in 1999, as a result of the program’s reauthorization in 1998, all States will
develop challenging State-specific goals based
on a comprehensive assessment of the vocational rehabilitation needs of individuals with
disabilities in the State, describe the strategies
it will use to address those needs, and report
on progress made towards those goals. State
agencies will begin reporting progress toward
achieving those goals in 2000.
• In 2000, about 750,000 individuals will be
served, approximately the same number as
in 1999.
Labor Department
Elementary, secondary, and postsecondary
investments enable Americans to acquire the
skills to get good jobs in an increasingly
competitive global economy. In addition, most
workers acquire more skills on the job or
through billions of dollars that employers
spend each year to enhance worker skills
and productivity. However, some workers also
need special, targeted assistance. In addition
to Pell Grants, student loans, and tax credits,
the Federal Government spends nearly $7
billion a year through Department of Labor
(DOL) programs that finance job training
and related services. Workers who want to
learn about job openings can use the State
Employment Service and One-Stop Career
Center System and DOL’s popular America’s
Job Bank (AJB) website, which lists over
900,000 job vacancies every day and has
over six million job searches each month.

231

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of
1998: The WIA takes full effect on July 1,
2000 as the Job Training Partnership Act is
repealed and all States will be implementing
the requirements of the WIA. The WIA reflects
the principles the President sought in his GI
Bill for America’s Workers proposal including:
the streamlining of services; empowering individuals with the information and resources
they need to choose the training that is right
for them; providing universal access to a core
set of employment services such as job search
assistance; increasing accountability; ensuring
a strong role for the private sector and the
local boards who develop and over-see programs; facilitating State and local flexibility;
and improving the quality of youth job training
services.
DOL has launched several longitudinal evaluations of its job training programs over
the past two decades, including major impact
evaluations of the Job Corps and Dislocated
Worker Assistance programs. Past studies
have found mixed, but generally positive
results.
While impact evaluations are the best measure of program effectiveness, DOL also sets
annual performance goals for its major job
training programs. Performance goals for 2000
will continue to emphasize placement in unsubsidized employment, employment retention,
and earnings levels.
Reemployment Services: This budget includes
funding for new initiatives to ensure that
(1) every displaced worker would receive
training he or she want and need; (2) every
person who lost his or her job due to
no fault of his or her own could get the
re-employment services; and (3) every American would have access to One-Stop Career
Centers.
WIA’s Dislocated Worker Employment and
Training Activities: This program will provide
training and employment services to about
840,000 displaced workers in 2000. The budget
proposes $1.6 billion for dislocated workers,
an increase of $190 million over 1999.
• In 2000, about 74 percent of those who
receive services will be working three
months after leaving the program, earning
an average hourly wage that represents

232

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

93 percent of the wage in their previous
job.
Employment Service/One-Stop Career Centers: The Employment Service provides a
free labor exchange for all workers and
job seekers, and is growing more effective
through implementation of One-Stop Career
Centers. The budget proposes $1.048 billion
for these activities.
• In 2000, continue to expand the One-Stop
Career Center System to include 60 percent of all local employment service and
WIA offices, compared to 16 percent in
1997, and to increase the number of employers listing jobs with the American Job
Bank (AJB) website by 19 percent over
the 1998 level while expanding the basic
One-Stop concept. The new concept for
2000 will include access through a tollfree number, access to AJB for the blind,
mobile One-Stops, and on-line job information made available at Community-Based
Organizations.
Work Incentive Assistance Grants: In order
to enhance the prospects of employment for
individuals with disabilities, the budget includes $50 million for competitive grants
to partnerships or consortia in each State
to provide new services and information
sources for people with disabilities who want
to return to work. These partnerships would
work with the One-Stop system to augment
its capabilities to provide timely and accurate
information that people with disabilities need
to get jobs and to learn about the benefits
available to them when they return to work.
In addition, the partnerships would help
improve local service delivery by coordinating
the various State and local agencies and
disability organizations which help ensure
persons with disabilities are prepared to
enter or reenter the workforce. Performance
goals and measures will be developed with
the grantees.
WIA’s Adult Employment and Training
Activities: This program currently helps about
380,000 low-income individuals get training,
support services, and job placement assistance.
The budget proposes $955 million for adult
programs.

• In 2000, about 64.8 percent of those who
receive services will be working three
months after leaving the program, with
weekly earnings averaging $361.
Right Track Partnership: The budget includes $100 million for this new initiative designed to prevent youth from dropping out of
school and encourage those who already have
to return to school and complete their high
school education.
• In 2000, the Right Track Partnership program will provide grants to serve 100,000
economically disadvantaged and Limited
English Proficiency youth ages 14–21.
From baseline data developed for each
grantee, RTP will increase the rate at
which these youth reenter, complete, and
excel in high school through integrated
Federal, State, local, public and private
sector efforts.
Youth Opportunity Grants: The Youth Opportunity Grants initiative addresses the special problems of out-of-school youth, especially
in inner-cities and other areas where unemployment rates are high. The budget provides
$250 million for this program.
• The Department will develop with each
successful applicant a goal for a substantial increase in the rate of employment
for youth in the program area, as well as
improvement in the rate at which participants return to high school, go on to college, receive vocational training that leads
to a good job, or go in to the military.
Job Corps: The Corps provides skill training, academic and social education, and support services in a structured, residential setting to approximately 70,000 very disadvantaged youth a year at 121 centers:
• In 2000, about 85 percent of graduates will
get jobs or pursue further education. This
compares with 75 percent in 1999. In addition, 70 percent of those students will still
have a job or will be pursuing education
90 days after their initial placement date.
School-to-Work: All States are implementing school-to-work systems, using the five-year
Federal venture capital grants to devise new
collaborations between schools and the private
sector. By June 1997, over 805,000 students

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

233

in 2,200 high schools throughout the nation,
as well as 200,000 employers, participated in
School-to-Work systems.

tention and support services they need to
achieve economic self-sufficiency. The budget
includes $1 billion to extend WtW in 2000.

• In 2000, the final year of school-to-work
funding, all States will have completed the
portion of their Statewide systems financed with Federal funds. Two million
youth will be actively engaged in schoolto-work activities, 500,000 more than in
1999, and 40 percent of high schools will
offer key school-to-work components, an
increase of five percent over 1999.

• In 2000, an estimated 56 percent of participants will be placed in unsubsidized
employment.

Workplace Protections: DOL regulates
compliance with various laws that give workers certain workplace protections—a minimum
wage for virtually all workers, prevailing
wages and equal employment opportunity for
workers on government contracts, overtime
pay, restrictions on child labor, and time off
for family illness or childbirth. In these areas,
the Federal Government is working to increase
industry’s compliance with labor protections
through voluntary compliance initiatives (coupled with continued strong enforcement), outreach to new and small business, and targeted
enforcement in specific industries, with specific
measurable goals.
• In 2000, increase compliance by five percent (compared to baseline) among employers who were previously violators and the
subject of repeat investigations in targeted
health care, garment, and identified agricultural commodities.
International Child Labor: The budget
proposes $52 million in additional funding to
continue the Administration’s commitment increasing opportunity to improving work conditions for children and raising international
labor standards.
• Increase the implementation of core labor
standards in five countries in 2000.
Welfare-to-Work: Moving people from welfare to work is a primary goal of Federal welfare policy. In addition to the $16.5 billion per
year provided through the Temporary Assistance for Needy Children Program, the President obtained $3 billion to help achieve this
goal through Welfare-to-Work (WtW) grants in
fiscal years 1998 and 1999. These grants provide welfare recipients with the job placement
services, transitional employment, and job re-

Department of Health and Human
Services
Head Start: Head Start gives low-income
children a comprehensive approach to child development, stressing language and cognitive
development, health, nutrition, and social competency. Head Start is administered by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF)
in the Department of Health and Human Services. ACF is one of the Vice President’s High
Impact Agencies (see Section IV). The 2000
budget provides $5.3 billion for Head Start,
a $607 million increase over the 1999 level.
• In 2000, Head Start will serve an additional 42,000 children, for a total of
877,000 children. The Head Start program
goal established by the President is to
serve one million children annually by
2002.
• Within the overall total of children served,
in 2000 an additional 7,000 children under
age three will participate in the Early
Head Start component, for a total of nearly 45,000. The President established the
goal of doubling the number of children
below age three served in Head Start by
2002, within the goal of one million total
children.
National evaluation studies of both the
regular Head Start program and the Early
Head Start component are under way to
increase outcomes for Head Start families,
including child growth and development. Preliminary results are expected in late 1999
for the regular Head Start program and
in 2001 for the early Head Start component.
Foster Care and Adoption Assistance:
The Administration for Children and Families
(ACF), a high impact agency (see Section IV),
administers a number of programs that focus
on preventing maltreatment of children, protecting children from abuse and neglect, and
finding permanent placements for children
who cannot safely return to their homes. The

234
budget proposes a $265 million initiative to
support the transition from foster care to independent living in addition to the new Foster
Care Medical benefits described in Chapter 3.
As part of the comprehensive effort to develop
performance measures for the child welfare
system, ACF is developing specific performance
goals for the Independent Living Program that
will establish goals for increasing the proportion of children that have graduated from high
school, or received a GED within one year of
aging out of foster care.
• In 2000, the Foster Care, Adoption Assistance and Independent Living Programs
will support over 600,000 youth monthly
at an annual cost of $5.5 billion.
Aging Services Programs: The Administration on Aging (AoA) administers information and assistance, home and communitybased support services for older people and
support programs that protect the rights of
vulnerable, at-risk older people. In 2000, the
budget proposes $1 billion for AoA programs.
The budget includes $125 million for a new
state grant program that will assist families
who are caring for frail elderly relatives. The
goal of this National Family Care Giver Support Program is to help sustain the efforts of
family care givers by providing information,
education and counseling, and respite services.
AoA will develop performance measures for activities supported through the program’s formula and competitive grants. The budget includes $147 million, an increase of $35 million,
30 percent, for the Home-Delivered Meals Program.
• In 2000, AoA will increase the number of
meals served under the Home-Delivered
Meals Program to 146 million, compared
to 119 million meals in 1996.
National Service
The Corporation for National and Community Service supports programs providing service opportunities Nation-wide for Americans
of all ages and backgrounds. Through Corporation-supported projects, over 1.5 million participants work to address the Nation’s unmet,
critical needs. The Corporation organizes its
programs into three streams of service, with
various annual performance goals.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

AmeriCorps: In 1999, there were 53,000
participants in AmeriCorps.
• In 2000, AmeriCorps will engage 69,000
Americans of all ages and backgrounds in
community service, and provide education
awards in return for such service with a
goal of 100,000 participants in AmeriCorps
by 2002.
• In 2000, AmeriCorps participants will recruit and organize 53,000 community volunteers to serve in elementary school
reading programs.
Learn and Serve America: This program
provides opportunities for students to improve
their academic learning while participating in
service-learning projects in schools, universities, and communities.
• In 2000, 20,000 high school students who
have provided outstanding community
service will receive Presidential Service
Scholarships—compared with 15,000 students in 1999.
National Senior Service Corps: The
Corps, comprising over 500,000 people age 55
and older, encourages seniors to use their experience, skills and talents while serving as
Foster Grandparents, Senior Companions, and
the Retired and Senior Volunteers.
• In 2000, Foster Grandparents and Senior
Companions will serve 160,000 special
needs youth and frail elderly, while 9,375
retired senior volunteers and volunteer
leaders will work in furtherance of the
goals of America’s Promise and the America Reads Challenge.
Cultural Agencies
The Smithsonian Institution and other
Cultural Agencies: The Smithsonian Institution, the National Gallery of Art, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the John F.
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts all
have advancement of knowledge and sharing
that knowledge with the American public as
part of their mission. In order to accomplish
their missions, each institution must maintain
its physical infrastructure and provide access
to its unique assets.
• In 2000, each agency will provide new and
updated exhibits and performances, in-

22.

EDUCATION, TRAINING, EMPLOYMENT, AND SOCIAL SERVICES

cluding the conservation of the Star Spangled Banner in a special laboratory at the
Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History; the National Gallery of Art’s
exhibit entitled ‘‘Art Nouveau: Sources and
Cities, 1890–1914’’; the implementation of
a state-of-the-art memorial interpretation
program at the John F. Kennedy (JFK)
Center; and the ‘‘Flight and Rescue’’ exhibit at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.
• In 2000, each agency will protect its
unique assets through implementing its
comprehensive plans for repair and renovation, including continuation of capital
renovation at the Smithsonian’s National
Museum of Natural History; analysis and
preliminary design work to repair or replace the National Gallery of Art’s mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems;
a building-wide sprinkler system and new
fire alarm system at the JFK Center; and
completion of the security bollards project
at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.
The National Endowment for the Arts
and the National Endowment for the Humanities: The budget proposes $150 million,
each, for the National Endowment for the Arts
and the National Endowment for the Humanities to provide support for important cultural,
educational and artistic programs for communities across America. The budget also proposes $188.5 million for the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) to support
museums and libraries. In 2000, the Endowments and IMLS will fund education and lifelong learning as well as projects designed to
increase public access to performances, exhibitions, and our Nation’s cultural treasures held
by museums, libraries, archives, and historical
organizations. Special attention will be afforded underserved areas and to the use of
the arts and humanities to strengthen community and family life.
• In 2000, NEA, through its new Challenge
America program, will award more than
1,200 grants through direct grants or in
partnerships with the States, to communities across America to address Arts Education, Access to the Arts, Youth-at-Risk,
Cultural Heritage and Preservation, and
Community Arts Partnerships.

235

• In 2000, NEH will help improve the quality of humanities education offered to hundreds of thousands of American school
children and college students; provide opportunities for citizens from all walks of
life to engage in a lifetime of learning
about the Nation’s history and culture;
preserve and democratize access to millions of brittle books and other important
cultural and intellectual resources; and
dramatically expand access to humanities
programming for millions of citizens in
rural areas, communities, and cities across
America.
• In 2000, IMLS will promote access to
learning and information resources held by
museums and libraries through electronic
linkages, helping all 55 State library agencies expand materials available electronically and increase Internet access. IMLS
will help museums develop and support
regional electronic networks, providing
technical support to thousands of museums in putting collection information online, and supporting after-school programs
located in museums.
Tax Incentives
The Federal Government helps individuals,
families, and employers (on behalf of their
employees) plan for and buy education and
training through numerous tax benefits, which
will cost an estimated $42 billion in 2000.
Along with the Hope Scholarship and Lifetime
Learning tax credits for college costs, the
tax code provides other ways to pay for
education and training. State and local governments, for instance, can issue tax-exempt
debt to finance student loans or to build
the facilities of non-profit educational institutions. Interest from certain U.S. Savings
Bonds is tax-free if the bonds go solely
to pay for education. Many employers provide
education benefits that do not count as income.
Starting in 1998, many taxpayers can deduct
the interest on student loans. Finally, the
tax code gives employers a Work Opportunity
Tax Credit and a Welfare-to-Work Tax Credit,
letting them claim a tax credit for part
of the wages they pay to certain hardto-employ people who work for them for
a minimum period.

236
New tax provisions for education in the
President’s budget include proposals to modify
the current exclusion for employer-provided
educational assistance by extending it for
another year and including graduate as well
as undergraduate courses; to eliminate the
60-month limit on the student loan interest
deduction to provide longer-term relief to
low-and middle-income taxpayers with large

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

educational debt; to eliminate the tax owed
when certain student loans are forgiven after
25 years of repayment; and to provide a
tax credit for employer-provided workplace
literacy and basic education programs. In
addition, the budget proposes exclusion from
income for repayment or cancellation of a
student loan under the AmeriCorps Education
Award Program.

23.
Table 23–1.

HEALTH

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF HEALTH
(In millions of dollars)

Function 550

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

26,386

30,070

30,611

30,971

30,846

30,836

30,836

106,588
..............

115,481
8

122,769
–52

131,625
693

141,724
828

152,964
890

165,038
683

..............
94

..............
73

..............
48

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

80,545
..............

85,810
..............

91,795
59

97,885
1,235

104,410
1,281

111,640
1,423

119,660
1,577

N/A = Not available

In 2000, the Federal Government will spend
about $152 billion and allocate about $92
billion in tax incentives to provide direct
health care services, promote disease prevention, further consumer and occupational safety,
conduct and support research, and help train
the Nation’s health care work force. Together,
these Federal activities will contribute to
considerable progress in extending life expectancy, cutting the infant mortality rate to
historic lows, preventing and eliminating infectious diseases, improving treatment and quality of care, and improving the quality of
life for individuals suffering from chronic
diseases and disability. Estimated life expectancy reached a record-high of 76.5 years
for those born in 1997, and infant mortality
has reached a record low of 7.1 infant
deaths per 1,000 live births, an eight-percent
reduction from the previous year. Age-adjusted
death rates associated with HIV/AIDS fell
47 percent from 1996 to 1997, and the
1997 rate of 5.9 deaths per 100,000 is
the lowest since mortality data have been
available.
The Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS), the Federal Government’s
lead agency for health, aims: ‘‘to enhance

the health and well-being of Americans by
providing for effective health and human
services and by fostering strong, sustained
advances in the sciences underlying medicine,
public health, and social services.’’ This mission is supported by the following strategic
goals: (1) Reduce the major threats to health
and productivity of all Americans; (2) Improve
the economic and social well-being of individuals, families, and communities in the United
States; (3) Improve access to health services
and ensure the integrity of the Nation’s
health entitlement and safety net programs;
(4) Improve the quality of health care and
human services; (5) Improve public health
systems; and (6) Strengthen the Nation’s
health sciences research enterprise and enhance its productivity.
Health Care Services and Financing
Of the estimated $152 billion in Federal
health care outlays in 2000, 88 percent
finances or supports direct health care services
to individuals.
Medicaid: This Federal-State health care
program served about 33 million low-income
Americans in 1998, the latest year for which
statistics are currently available The Federal
237

238
Government spent $101 billion, 57 percent of
the total, on the program in 1998 while States
spent $76 billion, or 43 percent. States that
participate in Medicaid must cover several categories of eligible people, including certain lowincome elderly, women, and children, and people with disabilities, as well as several mandated services, including hospital care, nursing
home care, and physician services. States also
may cover optional populations and services.
Under current law, Federal experts expect
total Medicaid spending to grow an average
of 7.7 percent a year from 2000 to 2004.
Medicaid covers a fourth of the Nation’s
children and is the largest single purchaser
of maternity care as well as of nursing
home services and other long-term care services; the program covers almost two-thirds
of nursing home residents. The elderly and
disabled made up less than a third of Medicaid
beneficiaries in 1997, but accounted for almost
two-thirds of spending on benefits. Other
adults and children made up over two-thirds
of recipients, but accounted for less than
a third of spending on benefits. Medicaid
serves at least half of all adults living
with AIDS (and up to 90 percent of children
with AIDS), and is the largest single payer
of direct medical services to adults living
with AIDS. Medicaid pays for over onethird of the nation’s long-term care services.
Medicaid spends more on institutional care
today than it does for home care, but the
mix of payment will be almost equal in
10 years.
Enrollment in Medicaid managed care arrangements rose from 7.8 million in 1994
to approximately 15 million in 1997. In
1998, the Federal Government proposed regulations to improve the quality of care and
patient protections for Medicaid beneficiaries
enrolled in managed care plans.
Because the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and States jointly administer
Medicaid, HCFA must consult with State
Medicaid agencies to develop and test national
performance goals for Medicaid. Understanding that Federal and State Medicaid funding
must result in improved health conditions
and quality of care for children and lowincome families, the State agencies are working with HCFA to define performance goals

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

and measures that are measurable. The States
and HCFA have agreed to increase immunization rates among needy children, to increase
the number of children enrolled in the Children’s Health Insurance program and Medicaid, and to increase enrollment of duallyeligible Medicare beneficiaries, for example.
State cooperation with the Federal GPRA
program will produce quantifiable national
goals and measures during 1999, for 2000
and beyond.
Children’s Health Insurance Program:
More than 11 million American children lack
health insurance. To increase the number of
children with insurance, the Children’s Health
Insurance Program (CHIP) was established in
1997 to provide $24 billion over five years for
States to expand health insurance coverage to
low-income, uninsured children. CHIP provides
States with broad flexibility in program design
while protecting beneficiaries through basic
Federal standards. In the program’s first year,
States have expanded Medicaid, created separate State programs, and developed programs
that combine the two.
A State receives CHIP funding after HCFA
approves its child health plan. Nearly every
State submitted and received approval of
its State CHIP plan in 1998. These plans
describe the strategic objectives, performance
goals, and performance measures used to
assess the effectiveness of the plan. In addition, HCFA is working with the States to
develop baselines and targets for the CHIP/
Medicaid goal as well as to develop additional
goals for CHIP:
• Decrease the number of uninsured children by working with States to implement
CHIP and by enrolling children in Medicaid. In 1999, HCFA will work with the
States to establish performance measurement baselines and performance targets.
Other Health Care Services: HHS supplements Medicare and Medicaid with a number
of ‘‘gap-filling’’ grant activities to support
health services for low-income or specific populations, including Consolidated Health Center
grants, Ryan White AIDS treatment grants,
the Maternal and Child Health block grant,
Family Planning grants, and the Substance
Abuse block grant. In addition, the Indian
Health Service (IHS) delivers direct care to

23.

HEALTH

about 1.4 million American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 2000, the following agencies will
work to meet the following goals:
• IHS: Increase the proportion of women
who have annual pap screening to 55 percent, from the 1997 baseline of 43 percent.
• Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA): Reverse
the upward trend and cut monthly marijuana use among 12 to 17-year-olds by 25
percent, from the 1995 baseline of 8.2 percent to 6.2 percent by the end of 2002.
• Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA): Increase the number of AIDS
Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) clients
receiving appropriate anti-retroviral therapy (consistent with clinical guidelines)
through State ADAPs during at least one
month of the year, to a projected monthly
average of 82,200 by the year 2000. This
would constitute a 49 percent increase
over the 1998 baseline of 55,000.
• HRSA: Increase the number of women
served by family planning clinics by at
least two million over the 1995 baseline
of 4.5 million women served.

239
integrate and improve health services for
the uninsured.
• Increase the number of uninsured people
receiving primary care, mental health,
substance abuse, and other health services
and expand the number of services supported.
• Reduce, where appropriate, hospital admissions for ambulatory care-sensitive
conditions for uninsured people living in
project service areas.
Strengthening Graduate Medical Education at the Nation’s Children’s Hospitals: The budget includes a significant new
investment in training pediatric care-givers at
the Nation’s free-standing children’s hospitals.
In 2000, this program has the following two
goals:
• Increase the number of pediatric caregivers receiving training; and Increase the
number of children with acute illnesses receiving appropriate care in their communities.

• Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Release and disseminate Medical
Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data
and associated products to the public within nine to 12 months of data collection.

Prevention Services: Measures to protect
public health range from providing sanitation
to prevent bacteria from developing resistance
to antibiotics. State and local health departments traditionally lead such efforts, but the
Federal Government—through HHS’ Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—
also provides financial and technical support.

• Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC): CPSC, an independent agency,
will reduce product-related head injuries
to children by 10 percent in 2000, from
a 1997 level of 650,000.

• Working with HCFA, CDC will continue
to help States ensure that at least 90 percent of all U.S. children by age two receive
each recommended basic childhood vaccine.

Public Health Initiative for the Uninsured: HHS has established a new initiative
to increase the capacity and effectiveness of
the Nation’s health care safety-net in ways
that increase the number of uninsured people
receiving needed health care and improve the
quality of care that is received.

• With FDA and SAMHSA, CDC will work
to reduce the number of children in grades
nine through twelve who smoke from 36.4
percent to 21 percent by 2010 by conducting education campaigns, providing funding and technical assistance to state programs, and working with nongovernmental entities.

HHS has set the following performance
goals for the year 2000 and beyond:
• Increase the number of new integrated
health services networks that are providing care using report card information to

• CDC will increase purchase of vaccines in
support of the World Health Organization’s goal to eliminate polio globally by
December 31, 2000.

240
Public Health Electronic Surveillance: Increase the number of State and local health
departments that have integrated their electronic surveillance systems for infectious disease, food safety, and bioterrorism, and have
electronic linkages to the medical community.
Bioterrorism: While research and product
regulation are primarily Federal roles, enhancing surveillance, epidemiologic capabilities,
and laboratory capacities, and medical response systems, are activities where the Federal government can work in partnerships
with states, providing leadership and funding
early in this multi-year effort. States should
be expected to assume more responsibility
for their share of partnership expenses over
time.
• Implement the plan developed in 1999 to
ensure ready availability of a national
pharmaceutical stockpile to respond to terrorist use of potential biological or chemical agents, including the ability to protect
four million civilians from an anthrax attack.
• Develop blood and urine analytical chemistry methods that will rapidly measure
50 chemicals likely to be used in chemical
terrorism.
• Create a network of twelve state or major
city laboratories to provide rapid and accurate diagnostic and/or reference support
for 10–15 select biologic agents.
Biomedical Research: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) supports and conducts
research to gain knowledge to help prevent,
detect, diagnose, and treat disease and disability. NIH conducts research in its own laboratories and clinical facilities; supports research
by non-Federal scientists in universities, medical schools, and hospitals across the Nation,
and helps train research investigators. NIH
supports over 50,000 grants to universities,
medical schools, and other research and research training institutions while conducting
over 1,200 projects in its own laboratories
and clinical facilities. Examples of recent
research advances include new discoveries
of genes associated with diseases, including
a form of Parkinson’s disease that occurs
early in life; discovery that a drug used
to treat breast cancer can also reduce breast

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

cancer in high-risk women; and the use
of high-energy X-rays to visualize how HIV
begins to attack the body’s immune system.
NIH performance goals for the next century
of research, include:
• increasing the rate of sequencing to 190
million base pairs a year in 2000 in order
to complete the human genome sequencing
project by 2003; and
• promoting private sector participation and
investment in applications of novel research discoveries by increasing the number of executed cooperative development
agreements by five percent over the 1998
level.
Additionally, NIH is leading the national
effort to meet the President’s goal of developing an AIDS vaccine by 2007.
Public Health Regulation and Safety Inspection: The Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) spends $1 billion a year to promote
public health by helping to ensure that
foods are safe, wholesome, and sanitary;
human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices are safe and effective; and cosmetics and electronic products
that emit radiation are safe. It leads Federal
efforts to ensure the timely review of products
and ensure that regulations enhance public
health, and not serve as an unnecessary
regulatory burden. In addition, the FDA supports research, consumer education, and the
development of both voluntary and regulatory
measures to ensure the safety and efficacy
of drugs, medical devices, and foods.
To speed the review process, FDA has
set the following performance goals for 2000:
• review and process 90 percent of complete
new drug applications within a year of
submission;
• review and process 85 percent of new medical device applications (know as pre-market applications) within 180 days, compared to 79 percent in 1997. To give the
public useful health information, FDA has
set the following performance goal:
• Ensure that, by the year 2000, 75 percent
of consumers receiving new drug prescriptions will get more useful and readable
information about their product.

23.

241

HEALTH

The Food Safety and Inspection Service
(FSIS) in the U.S. Department of Agriculture
uses $600 million annually to inspect the
Nation’s meat, poultry, and egg products,
ensuring that they are safe, wholesome, and
not adulterated. In 1996, FSIS began implementing a modernized inspection system, Hazard Analysis and Crisis Control Point
(HACCP) system, that will begin shifting
responsibility for ensuring meat and poultry
safety from FSIS to the industry. Together
with FSIS, HHS has the following food safety
goals:
• By 2000, 99 percent of Federally-inspected
meat and poultry plants will comply with
the HACCP.
• 80 percent of the domestic seafood industry will be operating preventive controls
for safety as evidenced by functioning
HACCP systems.
• Increase the frequency of inspection of
high-risk domestic food establishments to
once every year, from once every three to
four years.
• More than double the number of inspections conducted of foreign food processors
from 100 to 250.
• Establish and enhance eight active
FoodNet food-borne surveillance sites. Expand state health department capacity to
subtype and rapidly exchange information
using PulseNet for E.coli (currently 29
labs) and Typhimurium Salmonella (currently 15 labs) to 40 labs for each.
• Increase the number of outbreaks of diarrheal and/or food borne illness that will
be detected and investigated to 24.
Workplace Safety and Health
The Federal Government spends $620 million a year to promote safe and healthy
workplaces for over 100 million workers in
six million workplaces, mainly through the
Labor Department’s Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Regulations that help businesses create and maintain safe and healthy workplaces have significantly cut illness, injury, and death from
exposure to hazardous substances and dan-

gerous employment. In 1997, workplace injuries and illnesses fell to the lowest rate
on record.
• To improve workplace safety and health
for all workers, by September 30, 2000,
OSHA will: (1) reduce injury/illness rates
20 percent in at least 50,000 of the most
hazardous workplaces; and (2) initiate investigation of 95 percent worker complaints within one working day or conduct
an on-site inspection within five working
days.
• MSHA will, in 2000, reduce fatalities and
lost workdays in all mines to below the
average number recorded for the previous
five years. From 1993–1997, there was an
average of 95.8 fatalities and 4.29 lost
workdays.
Federal Employees Health Benefit
Program (FEHBP)
Established in 1960, the FEHBP is America’s largest employer-sponsored health benefit
program, providing $17 billion in health care
benefits a year to about nine million Federal
workers, annuitants, and their dependents.
About 85 percent of all Federal employees
participate in the FEHBP, and they select
from nearly 300 health care plans. The
Office of Personnel Management administers
the FEHBP. By the year 2000, the FEHBP
will be fully compliant with the President’s
Patients’ Bill of Rights. The Patients’ Bill
of Rights is an Administration initiative to
provide health care consumers with rights
of information disclosure, choice of providers
and plans, access to emergency services, participation in treatment decisions, respect and
nondiscrimination, confidentiality of health
information, and rights of complaint and
appeal.
Tax Expenditures
Federal tax laws help finance health insurance and care. Most notably, employer contributions for health insurance premiums are
excluded from employees’ taxable income. In
addition, self-employed people may deduct
a part (60 percent in 1999, rising to 100
percent in 2003 and beyond) of what they
pay for health insurance for themselves and
their families. Total health-related tax expend-

242
itures, including other provisions, will reach
an estimated $91.8 billion in 2000, and
$525 billion from 2000 to 2004. The exclusion
for employer-provided insurance and related

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

benefits (including deductions by the self
employed) accounts for most of these costs
($79 billion in 2000 and $455 billion from
2000 to 2004).

24.
Table 24–1.

MEDICARE

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF MEDICARE
(In millions of dollars)

Function 570

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,723

2,989

2,926

2,926

2,926

2,926

2,926

190,233
..............

202,037
..............

214,944
–1,243

229,182
–1,496

233,195
–1,526

251,244
–1,673

265,201
–1,824

Created by the Social Security Amendments
of 1965, and expanded in 1972, Medicare
is a Nation-wide health insurance program
for the elderly and certain people with disabilities. The program, which will spend an
estimated $217 billion in 2000 on benefits
and administrative costs, consists of two
complementary but distinct parts, each tied
to a trust fund: (1) Hospital Insurance (Part
A) and; (2) Supplementary Medical Insurance
(Part B).
Over 30 years ago, Medicare was designed
to address a serious, national problem in
health care—the elderly often could not afford
to buy health insurance, which was more
expensive for them than for other Americans
because they had higher health care costs.
Medicare was expanded in 1972 to address
a similar problem of access to insurance
for people with disabilities. Through Medicare,
the Federal Government created one insurance
pool for all of the elderly and eligible disabled
individuals while subsidizing some of the
costs, thus making insurance much more
affordable for almost all elderly Americans
and for certain people with disabilities.
Medicare has very successfully expanded
access to quality care for the elderly and
people with disabilities, but at an increasing
cost. The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of
1997 improved Medicare’s financial outlook
for the near future, yet its trust funds
face financing challenges as the Nation moves

into the 21st Century. Along with legislative
proposals discussed elsewhere in the budget,
the Health Care Financing Administration
(HCFA), which runs Medicare, is working
to improve Medicare through its regulatory
authority and demonstration programs.
Because it serves almost 40 million Medicare
beneficiaries, HCFA has been designated as
a High Impact Agency by the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. To meet
the challenges of the changing health care
system and increase responsiveness to its
constituencies, HCFA has begun a process
of management reform (see Section IV). Included in this reform are increased management and program flexibilities, increased accountability to constituencies, structural reforms, and legislative changes to promote
competition and increase efficiency in Medicare
contracting.
The Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS), which houses HCFA, is the
Federal Government’s lead agency for health
programs. HHS’ Strategic Plan states the
agency mission as: ‘‘to enhance the health
and well-being of Americans by providing
for effective health and human services and
by fostering strong, sustained advances in
the sciences underlying medicine, public
health, and social services.’’ Medicare supports
HHS’ second, third, fourth and sixth strategic
goals, as described in Chapter 23, ‘‘Health.’’
243

244
Part A
Part A covers almost all Americans age
65 or older, and most persons who are
disabled for 24 months or more and who
are entitled to Social Security or Railroad
Retirement benefits. People with end-stage
renal disease (ESRD) also are eligible for
Part A coverage. Part A reimburses providers
for the inpatient hospital, skilled nursing
facility, home health care related to a hospital
stay, and hospice services provided to beneficiaries. Part A’s Hospital Insurance (HI)
Trust Fund receives most of its income from
the HI payroll tax—2.9 percent of payroll,
split evenly between employers and employees.
Part B
Part B coverage is optional, and it is
available to almost all resident citizens age
65 or older and to people with disabilities
who are entitled to Part A. About 94 percent
of those enrolled in Part A have chosen
to enroll in Part B. Enrollees pay monthly
premiums that cover about 25 percent of
Part B costs, while general taxpayer dollars
subsidize the remaining costs. For most beneficiaries, the Government simply deducts the
Part B premium from their monthly Social
Security checks.
Part B pays for medically necessary physician services; outpatient hospital services;
diagnostic clinical laboratory tests; certain
durable medical equipment (e.g., wheelchairs)
and medical supplies (e.g., oxygen); home
health care; physical and occupational therapy;
speech pathology services; and outpatient mental health services. Part B also covers kidney
dialysis and other services for ESRD patients.
Fee-for-Service vs. Managed Care
Beneficiaries can choose the coverage they
prefer. Under the traditional fee-for-service
option, beneficiaries can go to virtually any
provider in the country. Medicare pays providers primarily based on prospective payment,
an established fee schedule, or reasonable
costs. About 85 percent of Medicare beneficiaries now opt for fee-for-service coverage.
Alternatively, beneficiaries can enroll in
a Medicare managed care plan, and the
15 percent who do are concentrated in several
geographic areas. Generally, enrollees receive

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

care from a network of providers, although
Medicare managed care plans may offer a
point-of-service benefit, allowing beneficiaries
to receive certain services from non-network
providers. Additional kinds of managed care
plans, including provider sponsored organizations and preferred provider organizations,
will be phased in for Medicare beneficiaries
over the next few years as part of Medicare
+ Choice.
Most managed care plans receive a monthly,
per-enrollee capitated payment that covers
the cost of Part A and B services. As
of March 1998, 72 percent of all Medicare
beneficiaries lived in a county served by
at least one Medicare managed care plan.
Successes
Medicare has dramatically increased access
to health care for the elderly—from slightly
over 50 percent of the elderly in 1966 to
almost 100 percent today. According to a
recent Medicare Payment Advisory Commission report, 97 percent of Medicare feefor-service beneficiaries (94 percent for managed care) reported no trouble obtaining care.
Further, 88 percent of fee-for-service Medicare
beneficiaries (92 percent for managed care)
reported having a physician or physician’s
office as a usual source of care. Medicare
beneficiaries have access to the most upto-date medical technology and procedures.
Under the BBA and other recent legislation,
Medicare beneficiaries now have expanded
access to many important preventive care
services including mammographies, prostate
and colorectal cancer screening, bone mass
measurements and diabetes self-management
services. These benefits will help prevent
or reduce the complications of disease for
millions of beneficiaries.
Medicare also gives beneficiaries an attractive choice of managed care plans, which
can provide coordinated care that is focused
on prevention and wellness. As of December
1, 1998, over six million beneficiaries have
enrolled in 346 Medicare managed care plans.
During the 12-month period ending December
1, 1998, enrollment in the capitated managed
care plans called ‘‘risk contracts’’ grew by
16 percent.

24.

245

MEDICARE

In addition, Medicare is working to protect
the integrity of its payment systems. Building
on the success of Operation Restore Trust,
a five-State demonstration aimed at cutting
fraud and abuse in home health agencies,
nursing homes, and durable medical equipment suppliers, Medicare is increasing its
efforts to root out fraud and abuse. Recent
legislation provides mandatory Federal funds
and greater authority to prevent inappropriate
payments to fraudulent providers, and to
seek out and prosecute providers who continue
to defraud Medicare and other health care
programs. Since 1993 the Federal Government
has assigned more Federal prosecutors and
FBI agents to fight health care fraud. As
a result, it has increased prosecutions by
over 60 percent, convictions by 240 percent,
and saved $20 billion in health care claims.
The budget also proposes legislation that
can save Medicare another $2 billion over
the next five years.
Spending and Enrollment
Net Medicare outlays will rise by an estimated 31 percent from 1999 to 2004—from
$201 billion to $264 billion. 1 Part A outlays
will grow by an estimated 30 percent over
the period—from $130 billion to $169 billion—
or an average of 5.4 percent a year. Part
B outlays will grow by an estimated 33
percent—from $71 billion to $95 billion—
or an average of six percent a year.
Medicare is consuming a growing share
of the budget. In 1980, Federal spending
on Medicare benefits was $31 billion, comprising 5.2 percent of all Federal outlays. In
1995, Federal spending on Medicare benefits
was $156.6 billion, or just over 10 percent
of all Federal outlays. By 2004, assuming
no changes in current law, Federal spending
on Medicare benefits will total an estimated
$264 billion, or almost 14 percent of all
Federal outlays.
Medicare enrollment will grow slowly until
2010, then explode as the baby boom generation begins to reach age 65. From 1995
to 2010, enrollment will grow at an estimated
average annual rate of 1.5 percent, from
1
These figures cover Federal spending on Medicare benefits, but
do not include spending financed by beneficiaries’ premium payments or administrative costs.

37.6 million enrollees in 1995 to 46.9 million
in 2010. But after 2010, average annual
growth will almost double, with enrollment
reaching an estimated 61.3 million in 2020.
The Two Trust Funds
HI Trust Fund: As noted earlier in this
chapter, the HI Trust Fund is financed by a
2.9 percent payroll tax, split evenly between
employers and employees. In 1995, HI expenditures began to exceed the annual income to
the Trust Fund and, as a result, Medicare
began drawing down the Trust Fund’s accounts to help finance Part A spending. Prior
to the BBA, the Government’s actuaries predicted that the HI Trust Fund would become
insolvent in 2001. The BBA, however, extended the solvency of the Trust Fund until
2008.
Medicare Part A still faces a long-term
financing challenge. Since current benefits
are paid by current workers, Medicare costs
associated with the retirement of the baby
boomers starting in 2010, will be borne
by the relatively small number of people
born after the baby boom. As a result,
only 2.3 workers will be available to support
each beneficiary in 2030—compared to today’s
four workers per beneficiary. The President
plans to work with Congress and the bipartisan Medicare Commission to develop a longterm solution to this financing challenge.
SMI Trust Fund: The SMI Trust Fund receives about 75 percent of its income from general Federal revenues and about 25 percent
from beneficiary premiums. Unlike HI, the
SMI Trust Fund is really a trust fund in name
only; the law lets the SMI Trust Fund tap
directly into general revenues to ensure its annual solvency.
Balanced Budget Act Implementation
HCFA continues to implement the many
changes in Medicare payment methodologies
and provider options that were mandated
in the BBA. Although HCFA has been forced
to delay some provisions due to the year
2000 (Y2K) computer problem, the agency
has issued major rules that implement the
new Medicare + Choice program, PSO solvency
standards, an interim payment system for
home health services and a prospective pay-

246
ment system for skilled nursing facilities.
According to the Board of Trustees for the
Part A Trust Fund, the reform measures
enacted in the BBA extended the solvency
of the Part A Trust Fund from 2001 to
2008 and lowered its projected 75-year deficit
by about one-half.
Performance Plan
HCFA has developed a set of performance
goals to measure its progress in ensuring
that Medicare beneficiaries receive the highest
quality health care. HCFA’s performance goals
relate to four critical areas: quality assurance;
access to care for the elderly and disabled;
administrative efficiency; and a reduction in
fraud and abuse. For example, HCFA’s 2000
goals include:
• Increasing the percentage of Medicare
beneficiaries who receive a mammogram
once every two years from 55 percent in
1994 to 60 percent in 2000;
• Increasing the number of Medicare beneficiaries over age 65 receiving vaccinations
for influenza from 55 percent in 1995 to
60 percent in 2000;
• Increasing the percentage of Medicare
beneficiaries who have at least one managed care choice from 70 percent in 1997
to 80 percent in 2000.
• Decreasing the one-year mortality rate
among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

for heart attacks from 31.4 percent in 1995
to 27.4 percent in 2000.
• Reducing the telephone busy rate for
Medicare carriers, for which measurement
will begin in 2000. By 2001, the number
of Medicare carriers who answer calls
within two minutes and the number who
answer 80 percent of calls within one
minute will increase.
• Reducing the payment error rate under
Medicare’s fee-for-service program from 14
percent in 1996 to seven percent in the
year 2000 and five percent by the year
2002; and
• Ensuring that all systems necessary for
continuity of HCFA payments and other
mission critical outputs through and beyond 2000 will be Y2K computer compliant. Specifically, all systems will be certified compliant (mission-critical certified
by the independent contractor and others
by appropriate HCFA personnel) prior to
the need for those systems to process new
dates.
The budget includes legislative proposals
relating to the Patients’ Bill of Rights, long
term care, and several proposals expanding
Medicare access. Appropriate performance
measures will be developed as legislation
is enacted and implemented.

25.
Table 25–1.

INCOME SECURITY

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF INCOME
SECURITY
(In millions of dollars)

Function 600

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

29,748

32,819

32,652

36,396

36,196

36,196

36,196

192,303
..............

202,410
..............

214,844
829

223,419
1,879

232,353
2,205

240,912
2,164

250,073
2,816

35
24

21
88

7
85

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

117,906
..............

132,388
27

135,291
277

138,642
817

141,850
807

144,946
779

147,757
656

N/A=Not available

The Federal Government provides about
$248 billion a year in cash or in-kind benefits
to individuals through income security programs, including about $164 billion for programs in this chapter generally defined as
part of the ‘‘social safety net.’’ Since the
1930s, these safety net programs, plus Social
Security, Medicare, Medicaid, and housing
assistance (each discussed in other chapters
in this Section), have grown enough in size
and coverage so that even in the worst
economic times, most Americans can count
on some form of minimum support to prevent
destitution.
The remaining $84 billion for income security programs include retirement and disability
insurance (excluding Social Security, which
is described in Chapter 26), Federal activity
related to private pensions and Federal employee retirement and disability programs.
Major Public Benefit Programs
The largest means-tested income security
programs are Food Stamps, Supplemental
Security Income (SSI), Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families (TANF), and the Earned
Income Tax Credit (EITC). The various kinds

of low-income housing assistance are discussed
in Chapter 19, ‘‘Commerce and Housing Credit.’’ These programs, along with unemployment
compensation (which is not means-tested),
form the backbone of cash and in-kind ‘‘safety
net’’ assistance in the Income Security function.
The major income security programs are
managed by four of the High Impact Agencies
(see Section IV, ‘‘Improving Performance
through Better Management’’), agencies designated as such because they interact the
most with the American people and businesses. These agencies are the Food and
Nutrition Service, the Administration on Children and Families, the Social Security Administration, and the Internal Revenue Service.
Nutrition Assistance
Federal nutrition assistance programs are
managed by the Department of Agriculture’s
Food and Nutrition Service (FNS). The largest
of all means-tested income security programs
is the Food Stamp Program. In addition,
FNS administers the Special Supplemental
Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and
247

248
Children, and the National School Lunch
and Breakfast Programs.
Food Stamps: Food Stamps help most lowincome people get a more nutritious diet.
In an average month in 1998, 19.8 million
people, or 8.2 million households, received
benefits and that year, the program provided
total benefits of $17 billion. In 2000, the
program will provide an average projected
benefit of $75 to 20.1 million persons each
month. Food Stamps is the only Nationwide, low-income assistance program available
to essentially all financially-needy households
that does not impose non-financial criteria,
such as whether households include children
or elderly persons. (The new welfare law
limits the eligibility of non-citizens as well
as the number of months that childless,
able-bodied individuals can receive benefits
while unemployed.)
• In 2000, FNS will expand the number of
States using Electronic Benefits Transfer
(EBT) to issue Food Stamp benefits to 42
percent, compared to 36 percent in 1998,
improving the delivery of benefits, and increasing the ability to track benefits redemption as a fraud prevention tool.
Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and
Children (WIC): WIC provides nutrition assistance, nutrition education and counseling, and
health and immunization referrals to lowincome women, infants and children. The
program reached an average of 7.4 million
people each month in 1998. The budget
proposes $4.1 billion to serve 7.5 million
people through 2000 fulfilling the President’s
goal of full participation in WIC.
• In 2000, FNS, together with State public
health agencies, will increase the incidence of breast-feeding among WIC mothers to 36 percent, compared to 34 percent
in 1998.
Child Nutrition Programs: The National
School Lunch and Breakfast Programs provide
free or low-cost nutritious meals to children
in participating schools. In 2000, the programs
will serve an estimated 27.3 million lunches
daily.
• In 2000, FNS’ goal is that school districts
will have reduced the average percent of
calories from saturated fat in school

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

lunches to 10 percent, compared to 11 percent in elementary schools and 12 percent
in secondary schools in 1998.
Income Assistance to Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals
The SSI program, administered by the
Social Security Administration (SSA), provides
benefits to needy aged, blind, and disabled
adults and children. In 1998, 6.3 million
individuals received $27.3 billion in benefits.
In 2000, an estimated 6.3 million individuals
will receive a total of $28.7 billion in SSI
benefits. Eligibility rules and payment standards are uniform across the Nation. Average
monthly benefit payments range from $242
for aged adults to $430 for blind and disabled
children. Most States supplement the SSI
benefit.
• In 2000, SSA will process 66 percent of
initial SSI aged claims within 14 days of
the filing date. SSA estimates that only
54 percent of these claims met this goal
in 1998. In future years, the agency’s goal
is to continue to increase the proportion
of SSI aged claims processed within 14
days.
Income Assistance to Families
Major income assistance for low-income families is provided through the TANF program,
administered by the Department of Health
and Human Service’s Administration for Children and Families (ACF) and the Earned
Income Tax Credit, administered by the Internal Revenue Service. In addition, ACF administers the Child Support Enforcement Program
and the Child Care and Development Fund.
Other income security programs run by ACF
include refugee assistance and low-income
home energy assistance.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families:
In the 1996 welfare reform law, the President
and Congress enacted TANF as the successor
to the 60-year-old Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program. TANF,
for which the Federal Government allocates
about $16.5 billion each year, is designed
to meet the President’s goal of dramatically
changing the Nation’s welfare system into
one that requires and rewards work in exchange for time-limited assistance. The TANF
program gives States broad flexibility to set

25.

INCOME SECURITY

eligibility criteria and to determine the types
of assistance they provide.
• The strong work focus of welfare reform
and the economy have enabled ACF to
meet its goal of moving one million welfare
recipients into new employment before its
2000 goal date. Using new program data,
ACF will continue to develop measures of
high performance in the areas of job retention and earnings gains.
Individual Development Accounts (IDAs):
The budget includes $20 million for IDAs,
to empower low-income individuals to save
for a first home, post-secondary education,
or to start a new business. ACF will select
sites to administer this program in 1999.
Performance measures will be developed based
on the design of these programs.
Child Support Enforcement: The Child Support Enforcement Program establishes and
enforces the support obligations owed by
noncustodial parents to their children. In
1998, the Federal Government provided $2.6
billion to State and local governments to
help them run this program. The Federal
Government retained more than $1.3 billion
in TANF-related collections from the States,
making the net cost of this program to
the Federal Government $1.2 billion. In 2000,
estimated Federal costs net of TANF collections will be $1.9 billion. In 2000, the budget
provides an additional $6.5 million to the
Departments of Health and Human Services
and Justice to investigate and prosecute noncustodial parents who owe large sums of
child support.
• By October 2000, ACF will increase parents’ financial support for their children
by increasing the amount of total child
support collections to $20.8 billion, an increase of 40 percent over 1998 and 160
percent over 1992. The agency’s goal is
to maximize child support collections for
all families served in the program.
Child Care: The Child Care and Development Fund provides grants to States for
the purposes of providing low-income families
with financial assistance for child care, improving the quality and availability of child
care, and establishing, expanding or conducting early childhood development programs

249
and before- and after-school programs. Federal
child care funding has risen by 80 percent
under this Administration, providing child
care services for 1.25 million children from
low-income working families or whose parents
are moving from welfare to work.
In addition to the $173 million increase
for child care quality already provided by
Congress for 2000, the President also proposes
a 2000 increase of $1.2 billion for child
care subsidies as well as a new $600 million
Early Learning Fund for grants to communities to improve early childhood education
and the quality and safety of child care
for children under five years old. For the
proposed Early Learning Fund, ACF will
measure the type of quality and safety activities funded and will work to establish performance measures that focus on language development, emergent literacy, and other child
development outcomes and aspects of school
readines.
Access to high-quality, affordable child care
is critical to the achievement of self-sufficiency
by TANF recipients and low-income working
families. ACF is currently developing performance measures and baseline data for the
program’s twin goals of increasing access
to affordable care and improving the quality
of care to promote children’s development.
• In 2000, the Child Care and Development
Fund, including new funds, will provide
child care assistance to an additional
500,000 low-income children over 1999.
Earned Income Tax Credit: The EITC, a
refundable tax credit for low-income workers,
has two broad goals: (1) to encourage families
to move from welfare to work by making
work pay; and (2) to reward work so parents
who work full-time do not have to raise
their children in poverty. In 1998, the EITC
provided $29.6 billion in credits for lowincome tax filers, including spending on both
tax refunds and reduced tax receipts. For
every dollar that low-income workers earn—
up to certain limits—they receive between
seven and 40 cents as a tax credit. In
1998, the EITC provided an average credit
of nearly $1,584 to nearly 20 million workers
and their families. In 2000, an estimated
20 million families will receive an average
credit of $1,644.

250
Unemployment Compensation
Unemployment Compensation, administered
by the Department of Labor’s Employment
and Training Administration, provides benefits, which are taxable, to individuals who
are temporarily out of work and whose employer has previously paid payroll taxes to
the program. The State payroll taxes finance
the basic benefits out of a dedicated trust
fund. States set benefit levels and eligibility
criteria, which are not means-tested. Regular
benefits are typically available for up to
26 weeks of unemployment. In 1998, about
7.1 million persons claimed unemployment
benefits that averaged $191 weekly. In 2000,
an estimated 8.3 million persons will receive
an average benefit of $210 a week.
Benefits are available to experienced workers who lose their jobs through no fault
of their own. Thus, unemployment compensation does not cover all of the unemployed
in any given month. In 1998, on average,
the ‘‘insured unemployed’’ represented about
36 percent of the estimated total number
of unemployed. Those who are not covered
include new labor force entrants, re-entrants
with no recent job experience, and those
who quit their jobs voluntarily without good
cause and, thus, are not eligible for benefits.
However, others do not receive benefits because State laws restrict eligibility or because
the unemployed worker is not aware of
the program.
• In 2000, DOL’s goal is that all States will
meet the Secretary’s standard for promptness in paying worker claims by providing
87 percent of initial intrastate payments
and 70 percent of interstate payments
within 14 days in States with a waiting
period and within 21 days in States without a waiting period. In 1998, 78 percent
of States met the interstate standard and
90 percent met the intrastate standard.
Effects of Income Security Programs
Federal safety net programs have a major
effect on reducing poverty. Chapter 26, ‘‘Social
Security,’’ explores the impact of Social Security alone on the income and poverty of
the elderly. This section looks at the cumulative impact across the major programs.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

For purposes of this discussion, Government
benefits includes both means-tested and social
insurance benefits. Means-tested benefits include AFDC, SSI, certain veterans pensions,
Food Stamps, child nutrition meals subsidies,
rental assistance, and State-funded general
assistance. Medicare and Medicaid greatly
help eligible families who need medical services during the year, but experts do not
agree about how much additional income
Medicare or Medicaid coverage represents
to the covered. Consequently, those benefits
are not included in the analysis that follows.
Social insurance benefits include Social Security, railroad retirement, veterans compensation,
unemployment
compensation,
Pell
Grants, and workers’ compensation. The definition of income for this discussion (cash
and in-kind benefits), and the notion of
pre- and post-Government transfers, do not
match the Census Bureau’s definitions for
developing official poverty statistics. Census
counts income from cash alone, including
Government transfers.
Reducing Numbers of People in Poverty:
Based on special tabulations from the March
1998 Current Population Survey (CPS), 56.4
million people were poor in 1997 before
accounting for the effect of Government programs. After accounting for Government transfer programs and taxes, the number of poor
fell to 29.8 million, a drop of 47 percent.
Reducing the Poverty Gap: The poverty
gap is the amount by which the incomes
of all poor people fall below the poverty
line. Before counting Government benefits,
the poverty gap was $205.7 billion in 1997.
Benefits from Government programs cut it
by $139 billion, or 68 percent.
Employee Retirement Benefits
Federal Employee Retirement Benefits: The
Civil Service Retirement and Disability Program provides a defined benefit pension for
1.9 million Federal civilian employees and
800,000 U.S. Postal Service employees. In
1998, the program paid $43 billion in benefits
to 1.7 million retirees and 600,000 survivors.
Along with the defined benefit, employees
can participate in a defined contribution
plan—the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). Employees hired since 1983 are also covered by

25.

INCOME SECURITY

Social Security. The budget proposal to increase pension portability includes provisions
that would allow newly-hired Federal employees to participate immediately in, and to
roll over private sector accounts into, the
TSP. (For a discussion of military retirement
programs, see Chapter 27, ‘‘Veterans Benefits
and Services.’’ For a discussion of performance
measures for this program, see Chapter 29
‘‘General Government.’’)
Private Pensions: The Department of Labor’s
Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration
(PWBA) establishes and enforces safeguards
to protect the roughly $3.5 trillion in pension
assets. Also at the Department of Labor,
the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
(PBGC) protects the pension benefits of about
42 million workers and retirees who earn
traditional (i.e., ‘‘defined benefit’’) pensions.
Through its early warning program, PBGC
also works with solvent companies to more
fully fund their pension promises, and has
protected the benefits of more than 1.6 million
people since its inception eight years ago.
The budget proposes a new, simplified defined
benefit plan for small businesses that PBGC
will insure. The budget also proposes new
rules to improve the audits of private pension
plans to ensure that promised benefits are
secure. In 2000:

251
• PWBA will more speedily process the exemptions that allow certain financial
transactions that are needed by pension
plans, reducing the time taken by 5.6 percent from the 1998 average of 179 days.
• PBGC will more quickly replace the initial
calculation with the final dollar levels of
its pension benefits, reducing the time
taken by about 13 percent from seven to
eight years, which is the 1998 level.
Tax Treatment of Retirement Savings: The
Federal Government encourages retirement
savings by providing income tax benefits.
Generally, earnings devoted to workplace pension plans and to many traditional individual
retirement accounts (IRAs) receive beneficial
tax treatment in the year earned and ordinarily are taxed only in retirement, when
lower tax rates usually prevail. Moreover,
taxpayers can defer taxes on the interest
and other gains that add value to these
retirement accounts. For the newer Roth
IRA accounts, contributions are made from
after-tax earnings, with no tax deduction.
However, account earnings are free from
tax when the account is used in retirement.
These tax incentives amount to $99 billion
in 2000—one of the three largest sets of
preferences in the income tax system.

26.
Table 26–1.

SOCIAL SECURITY

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF SOCIAL
SECURITY
(In millions of dollars)

Function 650

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

3,205

3,164

3,226

3,225

3,225

3,225

3,225

376,119
..............

389,157
..............

405,231
3

423,519
78

443,918
141

464,915
177

487,192
186

22,770

23,415

24,650

25,930

27,395

28,990

30,660

The Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) programs, popularly known
as Social Security, will spend $408 billion
in 2000 to provide a comprehensive package
of protection against the loss of earnings
due to retirement, disability, or death.
Social Security provides monthly benefits
to retired and disabled workers who gain
insured status and to their eligible spouses,
children, and survivors. The Social Security
Act of 1935 provided retirement benefits,
and the 1939 amendments provided benefits
for survivors and dependents. These benefits
now comprise the Old Age and Survivors
Insurance (OASI) program. Congress provided
benefits for disabled workers by enacting
the Disability Insurance (DI) program in
1956 and added benefits for the dependents
of disabled workers in 1958.
The Government will collect $473 billion
in Social Security taxes in 2000. These taxes
will be credited to the OASI and DI trust
funds, along with $57 billion of interest
on Treasury securities held by the trust
funds.
In 1998, Social Security paid out $372
billion to 42 million beneficiaries. These payments included $250 billion in benefits to
more than 30 million retired workers and
their families. Along with retirement benefits,

Social Security also provides income security
for survivors of deceased workers. In 1998,
Social Security paid about $73 billion in
benefits to more than seven million survivors.
The DI program provides income security
for workers and their families in the event
the family’s primary wage earner becomes
disabled. In 1998, Social Security paid about
$48 billion in benefits to more than six
million disabled workers and their families.
Social Security is a crucial source of income
for millions of Americans and their families.
Without Social Security, elderly retirees and
disabled workers would face a significantly
higher risk of poverty. The OASDI programs
will serve 45 million beneficiaries in 2000.
The Social Security Administration (SSA)
To operate a program of this magnitude,
both in terms of the dollar amounts involved
and the size of the population served, requires
an efficient and responsive administrative
structure. SSA, which administers the OASI
and DI programs, touches the lives of millions
of Americans every year. SSA also runs
the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program for low-income aged and disabled individuals, which is part of the Income Security
function (see Chapter 25). In addition, the
agency provides services that support the
Medicare program on behalf of the Health
253

254
Care Financing Administration, which is part
of the Medicare function (see Chapter 24).
Because SSA interacts extensively with the
American public, the Vice President’s National
Partnership for Reinventing Government designated SSA as a High Impact Agency.
SSA’s caseload has grown markedly in
recent decades, while its staffing levels have
declined. The agency serves over 11 million
more people today than it did 14 years
ago, with 19,000 fewer full-time equivalent
staff. More than 44 percent of the caseload
growth has occurred in disability claims,
which are substantially more complicated to
administer than other types of claims. To
maintain and improve performance under
these conditions requires the agency to continuously increase productivity and efficiency.
SSA undertakes a variety of activities in
administering its programs. These activities
include issuing Social Security numbers, maintaining earnings records for wage earners
and self-employed individuals, taking claims
for benefits and determining eligibility, updating beneficiary eligibility information, educating the public about the programs, combating
fraud, and conducting research, policy analysis
and program evaluation. These activities are
largely integrated across the various programs,
allowing the agency to minimize duplication
of effort and provide one-stop service to
customers.
SSA’s Performance Plan for 2000 includes
a number of performance indicators that
reflect the agency’s goals of responsive programs, good customer service, efficiency and
program integrity, and strengthening public
understanding of Social Security. Like the
agency’s administrative activities, these goals
cut across programs. SSA’s commitments and
performance measures for 2000 include the
following.
Promoting responsive programs: SSA recognizes that Social Security programs must reflect the interests of beneficiaries and society
as a whole. Programs must evolve to reflect
changes in the economy, demographics, technology, medicine, and other areas. Many DI
and SSI beneficiaries with disabilities, for example, want to be independent and work.
Many of them can work, despite their impairments, if they receive the support they need.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Yet less than one percent of disabled beneficiaries in any given year actually leave SSA’s
programs due to work. One of SSA’s strategic
objectives is to shape the disability program
in a manner that increases self-sufficiency.
The budget proposes a new program to
encourage DI beneficiaries and SSI disabled
recipients to enter the workforce. Currently,
SSA refers these beneficiaries to State employment service providers. Under this proposal,
beneficiaries can choose their own employment
service provider—and the provider can keep
a share of the DI and SSI benefits that
the Federal Government will no longer pay
to these individuals once they leave the
rolls. The budget also includes a demonstration
project that reduces an individual’s DI benefits
by $1 for each $2 earned above a specified
level. Under current law, a DI beneficiary
in the extended period of eligibility receives
no cash benefit if he or she earns more
than $500 in a month.
SSA plans to set numerical goals for increasing the number of working DI and SSI
disabled beneficiaries. The goals will be set
once baseline data is available.
Improving customer service delivery:
Roughly three-quarters SSA’s total administrative budget is devoted to the day-to-day work
generated by requests for service from the general public. Much of this work takes the form
of determining eligibility and processing claims
for benefits. The time required to process
claims for benefits is affected by the design
of the eligibility determination procedure, as
well as by the level of resources earmarked
for claims-processing activities and the number
of claims received.
• In 2000, the average processing time for
initial disability claims will be 100 days,
maintaining SSA’s current performance
level on this measure.
The budget provides sufficient administrative funding to meet this goal. SSA also
is investigating ways to streamline its disability eligibility determination process. Because
any benefits from process changes would
not materialize until after 2000, the performance goal is based on the current process.
Once SSA has made decisions on how to
redesign its disability determination process,

26.

255

SOCIAL SECURITY

it will specify long-term performance goals
for claims processing time that are relevant
to the redesigned process. Improving the
disability determination process is one of
the Administration’s PMO’s for 2000.
• SSA will maintain its current performance
level of processing 83 percent of OASI
claims by the time the first regular payment is due or within 14 days from the
effective filing date, if later.
• SSA will maintain its current performance
level of ensuring that callers gain access
to the toll-free 800 number within five
minutes of their first call 95 percent of
the time. Ninety percent of callers will get
through on their first attempt.
Increasing operational efficiency and
program integrity: The budget includes approximately $1.7 billion for activities undertaken by SSA to ensure the integrity of records
and payments. These activities include reviewing claimants’ eligibility for continued benefits,
collecting debt, detecting overpayments, and
investigating and deterring fraud.
SSA is in the midst of a seven-year effort
to eliminate the backlog of Continuing Disability Reviews (CDRs) that built up prior to
1996. To stay on schedule for eliminating
the backlog by the end of 2002, SSA will
conduct 1.9 million CDRs in 2000. SSA
completed 26 percent of its plan in 1998
and expects to reach 44 percent completion
by the end of 1999. This concentrated effort
is helping increase public confidence in the
integrity of SSA’s disability programs by
ensuring that only people who continue to
be disabled receive benefits. CDRs conducted
in 1998–2002 will produce an estimated fiveyear savings of $5.3 billion in the DI program
and $3 billion in the SSI program. The
budget includes the funds necessary to keep
the plan on schedule.
• In 2000, SSA will complete 63 percent of
its plan for eliminating the backlog of Continuing Disability Reviews.
In a program the size of SSI, a small
percentage error translates into large dollar
amounts. Consequently, SSA has committed
to improving the SSI payment accuracy rate
to at least 96 percent by 2002. The goal
for 2000 equates to a reduction in overpayment

errors of $160 million below the 1996 level;
the goal for 2002 equates to a $535 million
overpayment error reduction.
• SSA will improve the SSI payment accuracy rate to 95 percent in 2000, up from
94.5 percent in 1996.
The best tool for improving the accuracy
of SSI payments is the redetermination process, which assesses the income and resources
affecting beneficiaries’ eligibility and payment
amounts. SSA saves $7 in for every $1
spent on redeterminations. The budget includes $75 million for an additional 400,000
high-error profile redeterminations, bringing
the total number of non-disability redeterminations to 2.2 million.
Strengthening public understanding of
Social Security programs: The budget includes more than $100 million for the development, production and distribution of products
to educate the public about the benefits available through Social Security, as well as Social
Security’s larger impact on society. SSA will
conduct a survey in 1999 to measure the current level of public understanding, which will
be used as baseline data to measure progress
toward this strategic goal.
Part of the public education is the issuance
of Personal Earnings and Benefit Estimate
Statements (PEBES), which provide workers
with an estimate of their potential future
Social Security benefits based on their earning
history to date. Starting in 2000, SSA is
required by law to issue PEBES every year
to all eligible workers age 25 and over.
• SSA will issue 126 million PEBES in 2000,
reaching all eligible workers age 25 and
over as required by law.
Tax Expenditures
Social Security recipients pay taxes on
their Social Security benefits only when their
overall income, including Social Security, exceeds certain income thresholds. The exclusion
of Social Security income below these thresholds reduces total income tax revenue by
$25 billion in 2000 and $138 billion from
2000 to 2004.

27.

VETERANS BENEFITS AND SERVICES

Table 27–1.

FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF VETERANS
BENEFITS AND SERVICES
(In millions of dollars)

Function 700

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Credit Activity:
Direct loan disbursements .............
Guaranteed loans ...........................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

18,943

19,282

19,282

19,279

19,274

19,292

19,293

23,280
..............

24,322
..............

24,680
269

25,313
644

25,851
964

26,981
569

27,628
947

1,344
39,862

1,959
32,635

672
31,244

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
N/A

2,990

3,120

3,265

3,415

3,560

3,715

3,875

N/A = Not available

The Federal Government provides benefits
and services to veterans and their survivors
of conflicts as distant as the Spanish-American
War and as recent as the Persian Gulf
War, recognizing the sacrifices of war- and
peacetime veterans during military service.
The Federal Government spends over $42
billion a year on veterans benefits and services, and provides over $3 billion in tax
benefits to compensate veterans and their
survivors for service-related disabilities; provide medical care to low-income and disabled
veterans; and help returning veterans prepare
to reenter civilian life through education
and training. In addition, veterans benefits
provide financial assistance to needy veterans
of wartime service and their survivors.
About seven percent of veterans are military
retirees who can receive both military retirement from the Department of Defense (DOD)
and veterans benefits from the Department
of Veterans Affairs (VA). Active duty military
personnel are eligible for veterans housing
benefits, and they can contribute to the
Montgomery GI Bill (MGIB) program for
education benefits that are paid later. VA
employs 21 percent of the Federal Government’s non-DOD workforce—approximately

240,000 people, about 192,000 of whom deliver
or support medical services to veterans.
VA’s mission is ‘‘to administer the laws
providing benefits and other services to veterans and their dependents and the beneficiaries
of veterans. To serve America’s veterans
and their families with dignity and compassion
and be their principal advocate in ensuring
that they receive medical care, benefits, social
support, and lasting memorials promoting
the health, welfare and dignity of all veterans
in recognition of their service to this Nation.’’
The veteran population continues to decline
and age (see Chart 27–1). The types of
benefits and services needed by veterans
likely will change as the population ages.
Further, as the veteran population shrinks
and technology improves, access to, and the
quality of, service should continue to improve.
Medical Care
VA provides health care services to 3.2
million veterans through its national system
of 22 integrated health networks, consisting
of 166 hospitals, 544 ambulatory clinics, 132
257

258

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart 27-1. ESTIMATED VETERAN POPULATION
VETERANS IN MILLIONS

28

27.2
26.4

26

25.1
23.5

24

21.8

22
20.0

20
18
0
1990

1994

1998

nursing homes, 40 domiciliaries 1, and 206
vet centers. VA is an important part of
the Nation’s social safety net because over
half of its patients are low-income veterans
who might not otherwise receive care. It
also is a leading health care provider for
veterans with substance abuse problems, mental illness, HIV/AIDS, and spinal cord injuries
because private insurance usually does not
fully cover these conditions.
VA’s core mission is to meet the health
care needs of veterans who have compensable
service-connected injuries or very low incomes.
By law, these ‘‘core’’ veterans are the highest
priority for available Federal dollars for health
care. However, VA may provide care to
lower-priority veterans if resources allow after
it meets the needs of higher-priority veterans.
In recent years, VA has reorganized its
field facilities from 172 largely independent
medical centers into 22 Veterans Integrated
1
Domiciliaries serve homeless veterans and veterans rehabilitation with special needs.

2002

2006

2010

Service Networks, charged with providing
veterans the full continuum of care. Recent
legislation eased restrictions on VA’s ability
to contract for care and share resources
with DOD hospitals, State facilities, and
local health care providers.
To improve veterans health care further,
VA will continue to enhance the efficiency
of, access to, and quality of care. Between
1997 and 2002, VA is pursuing its ‘‘30/
20/10’’ goal to:
• reduce the cost per patient by 30 percent
from the 1997 level of $5,458 (by 18 percent in 2000);
• increase the number of patients treated
by 20 percent from the 1997 level of
3,142,065 (by 16 percent in 2000); and
• increase resources from outside sources
(primarily private insurers) to 10 percent
of the total operating budget from less
than one percent in 1997 (to five percent
in 2000).

27.

VETERANS BENEFITS AND SERVICES

Also, VA formed partnerships with the
National Committee on Quality Assurance,
the American Hospital Association, the American Medical Association, the American Nurses
Association, and other national associations
to ensure quality patient care. The Chronic
Disease Care Index measures VA physicians’
adherence to established industry practice
guidelines for key diseases affecting veterans.
Similarly, the Prevention Index measures adherence to disease prevention and screening
guidelines. VA plans to:
• increase the scores on the Chronic Disease
Care Index to 95 percent by 2001 from
the 1997 level of 76 percent (to 93 percent
in 2000); and
• increase the scores on the Prevention
Index to 95 percent by 2003 from the 1997
level of 67 percent (to 89 percent in 2000).
The budget includes a legislative proposal
to authorize VA to cover the cost of outof-network emergency care for enrolled veterans with compensable disabilities related to
military service. Under law, these veterans
have top priority for VA medical services.
This legislation would ensure that these veterans have access to emergency care when
treatment in VA facilities is not an option.
The budget also proposes a new smoking
cessation program for any honorably discharged veteran who began smoking in the
military. In addition, increased funding is
proposed for evaluting, testing, and treating
Hepatitis C in the veteran population and
for programs that directly assist homeless
veterans.
Medical Research: VA’s research program
provides $316 million to conduct basic, clinical,
epidemiological, and behavioral studies across
the spectrum of scientific disciplines, seeking
to improve veterans medical care and health
and enhance our knowledge of disease and disability. In 2000, VA will focus its research efforts on aging, chronic diseases, mental illness,
substance abuse, sensory loss, trauma-related
impairment, health systems research, special
populations (including Persian Gulf War veterans), and military occupational and environmental exposures.
• In 2000, at least 99 percent of funded research projects will be reviewed by appro-

259
priate peers and selected through a meritbased competitive process (1997 base of 99
percent).
Health Care Education and Training:
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is
the Nation’s largest trainer of health care professionals. About 91,000 students a year get
some or all of their training in VA facilities
through affiliations with over 1,200 educational institutions. The program trains medical, dental, nursing, and related health professionals to ensure an adequate supply of clinical
care providers for veterans and the Nation.
The program will continue to realign its academic training and update its curriculum, focusing more on primary care to meet more
effectively the needs of the VHA and its patients, students, and academic partners.
• By 2000, 46 percent of VA’s residents will
be trained in primary care and, in 2004,
that figure will increase to 48 percent
(from the 1997 level of 39 percent).
Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA)
VBA processes veterans’ claims for benefits
in 58 regional offices across the country.
As the veteran population declines, the number of new claims and appeals is expected
to decline. VBA is implementing a ‘‘balanced
scorecard,’’ a tool that will help management
to weigh the importance of and measure
progress toward meeting VBA’s strategic goals,
which include:
• improving responsiveness to customers’
needs and expectations;
• improving service delivery and benefit
claims processing; and
• ensuring best value for the available taxpayers’ dollar.
VBA monitors its performance in deciding
disability benefits claims through measures
of accuracy, customer satisfaction, processing
timeliness, and unit cost. The following key
measures have been established for disability
claims requiring a rating:
• In 2000, VA will process rating-related disability claims in 95 days, improving to 74
days by 2004 (from 128 days in 1998).

260
• In 2000, VA will improve its rating accuracy (for core rating work) to 81 percent,
improving to 96 percent by 2004 (from 64
percent in 1998).
Income Security
Several VA programs help veterans and
their survivors maintain their income when
the veteran is disabled or deceased. The
Federal Government will spend over $23
billion for these programs in 2000, including
the funds the Congress approves each year
to subsidize life insurance for veterans who
are too disabled to get affordable coverage
from private insurers. Veterans may receive
these benefits in addition to the income
security benefits available to all Americans,
such as Social Security and unemployment
insurance. VBA is developing strategic goals
for the compensation and pension programs.
Compensation: Veterans with disabilities
resulting from, or coincident with, military
service receive monthly compensation payments based on the degree of disability. The
payment does not depend on a veteran’s income or age or whether the disability is the
result of combat or a natural-life affliction. It
does depend, however, on the average fall in
earnings capacity that the Government presumes for veterans with the same degree of
disability. Survivors of veterans who die from
service-connected injuries receive payments in
the form of dependency and indemnity compensation. Compensation benefits are indexed
annually by the same cost-of-living adjustment
(COLA) as Social Security, which is an estimated 2.4 percent for 2000.
The number of veterans and survivors
receiving compensation benefits will total an
estimated 2.6 million in 2000. While the
veteran population will decline, the compensation caseload is expected to remain relatively
constant due to changes in eligibility and
better outreach efforts. COLAs and increased
payments to aging veterans will increase
compensation spending by about $3 billion
from 2000 to 2004.
Pensions: The Government provides pensions to lower-income, wartime-service veterans or veterans who became permanently and
totally disabled after their military service.
Survivors of wartime-service veterans may

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

qualify for pension benefits based on financial
need. Veterans pensions, which also increase
annually with COLAs, will cost over $3 billion
in 2000. The number of pension recipients will
continue to fall from an estimated 650,000 in
2000 to less than 585,000 in 2004 as the number of veterans drops.
Insurance: VA has provided life insurance
coverage to service members and veterans
since 1917 and now directly administers or supervises eight distinct programs. Six of the
programs are self-supporting, with the costs
covered by policyholders’ premium payments
and earnings from Treasury securities investments. The other two programs, designed for
service-disabled veterans, require annual congressional appropriations to meet the claims
costs. Together, these eight programs will provide $460 billion in insurance coverage to over
4.5 million veterans and service members in
2000. The program is designed to provide insurance protection and best-in-class service to
veterans who cannot purchase commercial policies at standard rates because of their serviceconnected disabilities. To reach this goal, the
program is designed to provide disbursements
(e.g., death claims, policy loans, and cash surrenders) quickly and accurately, meeting or exceeding customers’ expectations.
Veterans’ Education, Training, and
Rehabilitation
Several Federal programs support job training and finance education for veterans and
others. The Department of Labor runs several
programs for veterans. In addition, several
VA programs provide education, training, and
rehabilitation benefits to veterans and military
personnel who meet specific criteria. These
programs include the Montgomery GI bill
(MGIB)—which is the largest—the post-Vietnam-era education program, the Vocational
Rehabilitation and Counseling (VR&C) program, and the Work-Study program. Spending
for all these VA programs will total an
estimated $1.5 billion in 2000. One of the
program’s strategic goals is:
• In 2000, VA will increase to 50 percent
the number of VR&C participants who acquire and maintain suitable employment
and are considered to be rehabilitated, and

27.

261

VETERANS BENEFITS AND SERVICES

further increase it to 55 percent in 2004
(from the 1998 level of 41 percent).
The Montgomery GI Bill: The Government
originally created MGIB as a test program,
with more generous benefits than the postVietnam-era education program, to help veterans move to civilian life and to help the Armed
Forces with recruitment. Service members who
choose to enter the program have their pay
reduced by $100 a month in their first year
of military service. VA administers the program and pays basic benefits once the service
member leaves the military. Basic benefits
now total over $19,000 per recipient.
MGIB beneficiaries receive a monthly check
based on whether they are enrolled as fullor part-time students. They can get 36 months
worth of payments, but they must certify
monthly that they are in school. DOD may
provide additional benefits to help recruit
certain specialties and critical skills. Nearly
284,000 veterans and service members will
use these benefits in 2000. The MGIB also
provides education benefits to reservists while
they are in service. DOD pays these benefits,
and VA administers the program. In 2000,
over 72,000 reservists will use the program.
Over 90 percent of MGIB beneficiaries use
their benefits to attend a college or university.
In 1999, MGIB beneficiaries, dependents, and
survivors got a one-time 20 percent increase
in their benefit rate. VA has set the following
goal:
• In 2000, VA will increase the usage rate
of eligible veterans in the MGIB from to
57 percent, and increase the figure to 70
percent in 2004 (from 53 percent in 1997).

during the year. Slightly over 40 percent
of veterans who have owned homes have
used the VA loan guaranty program. To
increase veteran home ownership and the
program’s efficiency, VA will cut its administrative costs. Improving loan servicing to
avoid veteran foreclosures also is a key
goal.
• In 2000, of the loans headed for foreclosure, VA will be successful 40 percent
of the time in ensuring that veterans retain their homes (from the 1998 level of
37 percent).
National Cemetery Administration (NCA)
VA provides burial in its national cemetery
system for eligible veterans, active duty military personnel, and their dependents. VA
manages 119 national cemeteries across the
country and will spend over $97 million
in 2000 for VA cemetery operations, excluding
reimbursements from other accounts. Over
76,700 veterans and their family members
were buried in national cemeteries in 1998.
In addition, VA has jointly funded 38 state
veterans cemeteries through its State Cemetery Grants Program (SCGP). The program
will open four new national cemeteries in
1999 and 2000, expand existing cemeteries,
make more effective use of available burial
space, and encourage States’ participation
in the SCGP. VA has established this measure:
• In 2000, VA will increase the percentage
of veterans served by a burial option within a reasonable distance of the veteran’s
place of residence to 77 percent (from the
1998 level of 69 percent).

Veterans’ Housing
Along with the mortgage assistance that
veterans can get through the Federal Housing
Administration insurance program, in 2000
the VA-guaranteed loan program will help
an estimated 280,000 veterans get mortgages
totaling almost $31.2 billion. The Federal
Government will spend an estimated $264
million on this program in 1999, reflecting
the Federal subsidies implicit in loans issued

Related Programs
Many veterans get help from other Federal
income security, health, housing credit, education, training, employment, and social service programs that are available to the general
population. A number of these programs
have components specifically designed for veterans. Some veterans also receive preference
for Federal jobs.

262
Tax Incentives
Along with direct Federal funding, certain
tax benefits help veterans. The law keeps
all cash benefits that VA administers (i.e.,
disability compensation, pension, and MGIB
benefits) free from tax. Together, these three

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

exclusions will cost about $3.2 billion in
2000. The Federal Government also helps
veterans obtain housing through veterans
bonds that State and local governments issue,
the interest on which is not subject to
Federal tax. In 2000, this provision will
cost the Government an estimated $40 million.

28.

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

Table 28–1. FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
(In millions of dollars)
Function 750

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

24,840

26,177

26,376

26,754

26,915

26,734

26,833

682
..............

1,042
..............

796
..............

611
..............

574
..............

546
..............

2,062
–1,522

While States and localities bear most of
the responsibility for fighting crime, the Federal Government also plays a critical role.
Along with supporting State and local activities, the Federal Government investigates
and prosecutes criminal acts that require
a Federal response. In 1999, anti-crime expenditures will consume 4.6 percent of all
Federal discretionary spending, compared with
about two percent in 1989.
Total Federal, State, and local resources
devoted to the administration of justice—
including law enforcement, litigation, judicial,
and correctional activities—grew from $82
billion in 1990 to an estimated $153 billion
in 1999—an 87-percent increase (see Chart
28–1). During this period, the Federal law
enforcement component, including transfer
payments to State and local law enforcement
activities, more than doubled, from $12.4
billion in 1990 to $26.2 billion in 1999.
Nevertheless, Federal resources account for
only 17 percent of total governmental spending
for administration of justice.
The number of criminal offenses that law
enforcement agencies reported fell by two
percent from 1996 to 1997—marking the
sixth straight year that the crime rate has
fallen. The number reported in the first
six months of 1998, the most recent period
for which figures are available, was five
percent lower than in the same period in

1997. The drop in crime, when compared
with increases in anti-crime spending during
the same period, suggests a causal relationship, although crime is affected by varying
factors. The budget builds upon this record
of success by continuing to provide substantial
funding for proven anti-crime programs.
Funding for the Administration of Justice
function includes: (1) law enforcement activities; (2) litigative and judicial activities; (3)
correctional activities; and (4) assistance to
State and local entities (see Chart 28–2).
In 1999, 69 percent of these funds went
to the Justice Department (DOJ), while most
of the rest went to the Treasury Department
and the Judicial Branch.
Law Enforcement
The Department of Justice (DOJ): The
2000 budget enables DOJ to enforce a wide
range of laws. The FBI and Drug Enforcement
Administration (DEA) enforce diverse Federal
laws dealing with violent crime, terrorism,
white collar crime, drug smuggling, and many
other criminal acts. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) protects the U.S. border from illegal migration while providing
services to legal aliens. Federal agencies also
work with State and local law enforcement
agencies, often through joint task forces, to address drug, gang, and other violent crime prob263

264

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart 28-1. ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE EXPENDITURES
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS
160

140

120

100

LOCAL

80

60

40

STATE

20

FEDERAL
0
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Note: Federal data includes discretionary expenditures only.

lems. In 2000, with respect to violent crime,
the Justice Department will:

114,386 in 1997 to approximately 165,800
in 2000.

• maintain the Federal Government’s commitment to reduce the incidence of violent
crime below the 1997 level of 611 offenses
per 100,000 population.

• identify over 38,500 unauthorized alien
workers, thereby opening up potential jobs
for U.S. citizens and other legally authorized workers.

• reduce specific areas of organized crime
and its influence on unions and industries
from the 1998 level, while intensifying efforts to prevent emerging organized crime
enterprises from gaining a foothold in particular areas.

• in conjunction with the Treasury and Agriculture Departments, increase the percent
of legitimate air passengers cleared
through primary inspection in 30 minutes
or less from 35 percent in 1998 to 65 percent in 2000; and work to process legitimate land border travelers through the
primary inspection process on the Mexico
border in 30 minutes or less in 2000.

• apprehend 80 percent of violent offenders
within one year of a warrant’s issuance,
and reduce the fugitive backlog by five
percent from 1999 levels. At the end of
1998, there were 10,677 outstanding fugitive warrants.
With respect to immigration and border
control, DOJ will:
• increase the number of removals of aliens
who are illegally in the United States from

• reduce the average time between application and naturalization of qualified candidates from an estimated 20 months in
1998 to six to nine months by the end
of 2000.
The Treasury Department: Within the
Treasury Department, the U.S. Customs Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

28.

265

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

Chart 28-2. FEDERAL JUSTICE EXPENDITURES
DOLLARS IN BILLIONS
30

25
CRIMINAL JUSTICE ASSISTANCE

20

15
CORRECTIONS

LITIGATIVE/JUDICIAL

10

5
LAW ENFORCEMENT

0
1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Note: Data includes discretionary expenditures only.

(ATF), United States Secret Service, and other
bureaus enforce laws related to drug and contraband at our borders; commercial fraud; firearms trafficking; arson and explosives crime;
and financial crimes, including money laundering, counterfeiting, and credit card fraud. In
addition, the Customs Service regulates the
importation and exportation of goods; ATF regulates the alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives industries; and the Secret Service protects the President, Vice President, and visiting foreign dignitaries. The Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) provides
basic and advanced training to Treasury and
other law enforcement personnel. In 2000, the
Treasury Department will:
• help solve violent crimes and reduce firearms trafficking by tracing up to 285,000
firearms used in criminal activities, compared to 191,378 in 1997;
• ensure the physical protection of the President, Vice President, visiting foreign dignitaries, and others protected by the Secret Service.

• maintain or improve upon its 99 percent
collection rate for trade revenue (duties,
taxes, and user fees).
• enhance trade data quality by improving
importers’ compliance with trade laws
(e.g., quotas, trademarks, classification,
etc.) from 83 percent in 1997 to 86 percent
in 2000.
Federal Drug Control Activities: The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
has lead the Federal drug control agencies in
the development of a comprehensive set of aggressive societal goals for anti-drug programs,
recognizing that achieving National Drug Control Strategy Objectives depends critically on
the actions of not only the Federal Government, but of State, local, and foreign governments, the private sector and on the behavior
of individuals. At the core of these crosscutting
goals are 12 Impact Targets that define what
the drug control community is trying to
achieve by 2002 and 2007. Following are three
of these goals for 2002:

266
• reduce the overall rate of illegal drug use
in the United States by 25 percent, from
the 1996 baseline of 6.1 percent to 4.6 percent.
• reduce the rate of crime associated with
drug trafficking and use by 15 percent.
(Collection and reporting of 1996 data is
in progress.)
• reduce by 10 percent the health and social
costs associated with drug use. (Collection
and reporting of 1996 data is in progress.)
Civil Rights Laws: Federal responsibility
to enforce civil rights laws in employment and
housing arises from Titles VII and VIII of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as more recent legislation, including the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the Americans
with Disabilities Act. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) enforces
laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis
of race, color, sex, religion, disability, familial
status, or national origin in the sale or rental,
provision of brokerage services, or financing
of housing. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enforces laws that prohibit
employment discrimination on the basis of
race, color, sex, religion, disability, age, and
national origin. DOJ’s Civil Rights Division enforces a variety of criminal and civil statutes
that protect the constitutional and statutory
rights of the Nation’s citizens. The performance goals for this area are as follows:
• The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission will reduce the backlog of private
sector complaints from 57,000 at the end
of 1998 to 28,000 at the end of 2000.
• As part of a three year, 60 community
initiative, HUD will ensure that its grantees in an additional 20 communities (for
a total of 40 undertake fair housing auditbased enforcement, using a HUD-developed standardized methodology, to develop
local indices of discrimination, to identify
and pursue violations of fair housing laws,
and to promote new fair housing enforcement initiatives at the local level.
Litigation and Judicial Activities
After law enforcement agencies such as
the FBI, DEA, and ATF have investigated

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

and apprehended perpetrators of Federal
crimes, the United States must prosecute
them. This task falls primarily to the 93
United States Attorneys and the 4,700 Assistant United States Attorneys. Along with
prosecuting cases referred by Federal law
enforcement agencies, the U.S. Attorneys work
with State and local police and prosecutors
in their efforts to bring to justice those
who have violated Federal laws—whether
international drug traffickers, organized crime
ringleaders, or perpetrators of white collar
fraud. The U.S. Marshals Service protects
the Federal courts and their officers; apprehends fugitives; and maintains custody of
prisoners involved in judicial proceedings.
In addition, DOJ contains several legal
divisions specializing in specific areas of criminal and civil law. These divisions—including
the Civil, Criminal, Civil Rights, Environment
and Natural Resources, Tax, and Antitrust
Divisions—work with the U.S. Attorneys to
ensure that violators of Federal laws are
brought to justice. The Federal Government,
through the Legal Services Corporation, also
promotes equal access to the Nation’s legal
system by funding local organizations that
provide legal assistance to the poor in civil
cases. In 2000, the Justice Department will
seek to:
• increase the number of hate crime cases
prosecuted, compared with 1999. In 1998,
there were 17 cases prosecuted.
• ensure that no judge, witness, or other
court participant is the victim of an assault stemming from his or her involvement in a Federal court proceeding.
The Judiciary’s growth in recent years
arises from increased Federal enforcement
efforts and Congress’ continued expansion
of the Federal courts’ jurisdiction. Accounting
for 13 percent of total administration of
justice spending, the Judiciary comprises the
Supreme Court and 12 circuit courts of
appeals, 94 district courts, 90 bankruptcy
courts, 94 federal probation offices, the Court
of Appeals for the Federal Circuit and the
Court of International Trade. The Federal
Judiciary is overseen by 2,196 Federal judges
and nine Supreme Court justices.

28.

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

Correctional Activities
The budget proposes $3.8 billion for corrections activities. As of December, 1998, there
were more than 124,000 inmates in the
Federal Prison System, more than double
the number in 1989. This growth, which
is expected to continue, is due to tougher
sentencing guidelines, the abolition of parole,
minimum mandatory sentences, and higher
spending on law enforcement. The total U.S.
inmate population, of which the Federal Prison
System represents less than one tenth, has
increased as well. State inmate populations
have grown, in part, due to sentencing requirements tied to Federal prison grant funds.
In the Federal system, 62 percent of inmates
serving time were convicted on drug-related
charges. In 2000, the Federal Bureau of
Prisons will:
• keep the overcrowding rate below 32 percent by expanding its bed capacity and
continuing to construct additional prisons
within performance, schedule and budget
targets.
• operate the Federal prison system in an
efficient manner, in part by maintaining
the 1997 daily per capita cost of $59.83.
Criminal Justice Assistance for State and
Local Governments
Community Policing and Preventing
Gun Violence: The budget proposes $4 billion
to help State and local governments fight
crime including $424 million to assist crime
victims. The 2000 budget builds on the success
of the Community Oriented Policing Services
(COPS) program and includes $1.3 billion for
the 21st Century Policing Initiative. This program expands the concept of community policing to include community prosecution, law enforcement technology assistance, and prevention. To address the continuing problem of gun
violence, the Administration supports a new

267
effort under the Brady Law to keep guns out
of the hands of criminals and to make America’s streets safer. As part of this effort, the
Justice Department, working with the States,
is now conducting computerized background
checks on all firearm purchases. The
instacheck system has been used to block more
than 100 illegal gun sales a day since the program was implemented. In 2000, DOJ will:
• provide funding to communities to hire
over 6,000 additional officers.
• in conjunction with the Treasury Department, review over nine million prospective
gun sales to prevent felons, fugitives,
stalkers and other prohibited purchasers
from buying guns.
Stopping Violence against Women: To
combat the significant problem of violence
against women, the budget proposes $462 million to enhance the States’ abilities to respond,
and to further expand access to previously
under-served rural, Indian, and other minority
populations.
• As a result of grants that encourage arrests, DOJ will seek to increase by 145
percent over the 1997 baseline estimate
of 50, the number of grantees reporting
a decrease in domestic violence calls in
2000.
Combating Juvenile Delinquency: To prevent young people from becoming involved in
the juvenile justice system, the budget includes
$289 million for juvenile justice programs, including those that provide supervised afternoon and evening activities for youth. In 2000,
compared with 1999 levels, DOJ will seek to:
• reduce the incidence of juveniles illegally
carrying guns.
• reduce the number of juvenile gun-related
crimes.

29.
Table 29–1.

GENERAL GOVERNMENT
FEDERAL RESOURCES IN SUPPORT OF GENERAL
GOVERNMENT
(In millions of dollars)

Function 800

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................
Proposed legislation .......................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

12,071

13,200

12,722

13,509

13,181

13,259

13,224

1,437
..............

2,445
..............

1,443
73

1,153
87

1,064
101

1,117
110

1,324
118

56,805
..............

59,175
..............

61,570
24

64,140
46

66,865
71

69,715
106

72,900
141

The General Government function encompasses the central management activities of
the executive and legislative branches. Its
major activities include Federal finances (tax
collection, public debt, currency and coinage,
Government-wide accounting), personnel management, and general administrative and property management.
Four agencies are responsible for these
activities: the Treasury Department (for which
the budget proposes $12.5 billion), the General
Services Administration ($161 million), the
Office of Personnel Management ($198 million), and the Office of Management and
Budget in the Executive Office of the President
($63 million).
Department of the Treasury
Treasury is the Federal Government’s financial agent. It produces and protects the
Nation’s currency; helps set domestic and
international financial, economic, and tax policy; enforces economic embargoes and sanctions; regulates financial institutions and the
alcohol, tobacco, and firearms industries; manages the Federal Government’s financial accounts; and protects citizens and commerce
against those who counterfeit money, engage
in financial fraud, violate our border, and
threaten our leaders. Treasury’s law enforce-

ment functions are included in Chapter 28,
‘‘Administration of Justice.’’
In 2000 Treasury will seek to collect an
estimated $1.8 trillion in tax and tariff revenues due under law; pay electronically more
than 75 percent of the 903 million payments
that it makes; issue $2 trillion in marketable
securities and savings bonds to finance the
Government’s operations and promote citizens’
savings; and produce nine billion Federal
Reserve Notes, 15 billion postage stamps,
and 17.9 billion coins.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS): The
IRS is the Federal Government’s main revenue
collector. The Service’s newly revised mission
is to provide America’s taxpayers with top
quality service by helping them understand
and meet their tax responsibilities and by applying the tax law with integrity and fairness
to all. To carry out its new customer service
oriented mission, IRS will reorganize into four
operating divisions, each focused on serving a
group of taxpayers with similar needs (i.e.,
wage and investment, small business/self-employment/supplemental income, middle market/large corporate, and tax exempt).
The IRS is introducing a new system
in 1999 to assess organizational performance
and identify opportunities for improvement.
269

270
The IRS is realigning management processes
and activities to ensure that they support
the Service’s mission and incorporate the
principles of a balanced measurement system.
Organizational performance measures will balance business results (including quality and
quantity measures), customer satisfaction, and
employee satisfaction. In addition to the new
measurement system, IRS is undertaking a
study to improve its methodology for estimating taxpayer compliance burden.
Some performance targets will not be available for the IRS’ new measures until the
IRS establishes baselines. However, in 2000,
the targets for the following critical areas
of the Service’s performance are:
• continue to improve customer service
through its toll-free assistance, answering
80 to 90 percent of calls, (89.9 percent in
1998), with an accuracy rate of 85 percent
for tax law questions;
• receive 25.0 percent of individual returns
filed electronically, up from 19.8 percent
in 1998, with seven to eight million using
Telefile, which allows taxpayers to file a
simple tax return on the telephone in 10
minutes;
• receive 78.0 percent of tax revenues electronically (up from 41 percent in 1997);
and
• process 98 percent of refunds for electronic
returns within 21 days.
The Financial Management Service
(FMS): The FMS mission is to improve the
quality of Federal Government financial management by providing financial services, information and advice to Federal program agencies and other clients. In 2000, FMS will:
• increase the percentage of Federal payments and associated information transmitted electronically from 58 percent in
1997 to 75 percent in 2000; and
• increase electronic collections as a percentage of total collections from 52 percent in
1997 to 75 in 2000.
The Bureau of Public Debt (BPD): BPD
conducts all public debt operations for the Federal government and promotes the sale of U.S.
savings-type securities. In 2000, BPD will:

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

• issue at least 95 percent of over-thecounter bonds within three weeks of their
purchase; and
• announce auction results within one hour
95 percent of the time.
The U.S. Mint: The U.S. Mint produces the
Nation’s coinage and manufactures numismatic products for the public. In 2000, the U.S.
Mint will:
• introduce a new dollar coin and the second
five-State series in the 50 States Commemorative Quarter Program; and
• maintain high levels of customer service
by shipping commemorative coins within
four weeks and recurring coins within
three weeks of order placement.
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing
(BEP): BEP produces all U.S. currency, about
half of U.S. postage stamps, and other government securities. In 2000, the BEP will:
• introduce the newly-designed $10 and $5
notes with enhanced security features; and
• meet all currency shipment requirements
for the Federal Reserve.
General Services Administration (GSA)
GSA provides policy leadership and expertly
managed space, products, and services to
support the administrative needs of Federal
agencies. In 2000, revenues from GSA’s various business lines will approach $14 billion.
GSA is responsible for more than $50 billion
a year in Federal spending for property
management and administrative services, and
management of assets valued at nearly $500
billion.
In recent years, GSA has worked to develop
a new Federal management model, focusing
on performance measurement, accountability
for agencies and employees, and the effective
use of technology in changing work environments. GSA has established inter-agency
groups to advise it on the policies, best
practices, and performance benchmarks appropriate for each administrative service and
information system. GSA’s ultimate goal is
a Federal Government in which agencies
receive the administrative services they need

29.

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

according to the best practices known and
at the least cost.
As a provider of many administrative services, GSA seeks to exceed all Governmentwide performance goals and industry benchmarks for these services as such benchmarks
are developed or identified. Its overall goals
as a service provider are to exceed its
customer agencies’ expectations for price, service and quality. In 2000:
• the Public Buildings Service will deliver
80 percent of its construction and repair
projects on schedule and within budget,
up from 78 percent in 1998;
• the Federal Technology Service projects a
monthly line charge for local telephone
service of $19.84, a 31-percent cut from
1994 rates; and
• the Federal Supply Service will lease automobiles and other motor vehicles to Federal agencies at rates that average 20 percent below comparable commercial lease
rates.
Because GSA provides services on a reimbursable basis, agency budgets fund most
of GSA’s activities. In 2000, for example,
the budget proposes an appropriation of $161
million for GSA, primarily for the Office
of Government-wide Policy and the Office
of the Inspector General. However, the budget
projects obligations of nearly $14 billion
through GSA’s revolving funds. In addition,
GSA will administer contracts through which
agencies will buy more than $19 billion
in goods and services outside of GSA’s revolving funds.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
OPM provides human resource management
leadership and services, based on merit principles, to Federal agencies and employees.
It provides policy guidance, advice, and direct
personnel services and systems to the agencies;
operates a Worldwide job information and
application system; and provides fast, friendly,
accurate, and cost-effective retirement, health
benefit, and life insurance services to Federal
employees, annuitants, and agencies.
In 2000, OPM will:

271
• maintain the average time to process an
annuity application of 23 days (which exceeds the 1999 goal of 35 days—down from
83 days in 1994) and reduce survivor pay
processing time from 20 days in 1998 to
nine days;
• handle about 1,072,000 annuity inquiries,
a 10-percent increase in volume, and increase its customer satisfaction rate to 95
percent;
• increase the percentage of health benefits
program customer phone calls answered
and completed within the performance
standard of 1.5 minutes from 85 percent
in 1998 to 90 percent; and
• reduce annuity rolls processing time from
4.5 days 1998 to 4.0 days.
OPM administers the Federal civil service
merit systems, covering nearly 1.5 million
employees. In 1998, OPM conducted nationwide reviews of eight major agencies, finding
few serious problems and discovering many
‘‘best practices’’ it shared with other agencies.
In 1999, OPM will conduct seven reviews.
In 2000, additional reviews will expand to
non-Title 5 agencies (e.g., personnel in the
Executive Branch who are not covered by
Title 5 of the U.S. Code) and more small
agencies, increasing site visits from 120 to
134.
OPM plays a proactive role in diversity
initiatives. In 1998, OPM issued a strengthened nine-point plan to increase Hispanic
employment, an initiative for improving African-American representation at higher grade
levels, and targeted recruitment guidance for
women and for persons with disabilities.
OPM will build upon these efforts by institutionalizing the successful outreach strategies
employed in the Presidential Management
Intern program, and utilizing competencybased assessment tools to identify high quality,
diverse candidates for professional and administrative careers.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
OMB helps the President create policy
relating to receipts and expenditures, regulations, information, and legislation; and manage
the Executive Branch in the faithful execution
of laws, policies, and programs. OMB also

272
provides the President with the highest-quality
analysis and advice on a broad range of
topics.
OMB advocates the appropriate allocation
and effective use of Government resources.
OMB helps the President prepare the Federal
budget and oversee its execution in the
departments and agencies. In helping formulate the President’s spending plans, OMB
examines the effectiveness of agency programs,
policies, and procedures; assesses competing
funding demands among agencies; and provides policy options. OMB works to ensure
that proposed legislation, and agency testimony, reports, and policies are consistent
with Administration policies. OMB focuses
particular attention on managing the processes
for coordinating and integrating policies for
interagency programs. On behalf of the President, OMB often presents and justifies major
policies and initiatives related to the budget
and Government management before Congress.
OMB has a central role in developing,
overseeing, coordinating, and implementing
Federal procurement, financial management,
information, and regulatory policies. OMB
helps to strengthen administrative management, develop better performance measures,

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

and improve coordination among Executive
Branch agencies.
In 2000, OMB will produce the annual
budget for 2001 using a state-of-the art
off-site secure data center, to improve efficiency and timeliness, improve services to
agency customers, and ensure Y2K compliance.
Tax Incentives
The Federal Government provides significant tax benefits for State and local governments. It permits tax-exempt borrowing for
public purposes, costing $20.4 billion in Federal revenue losses in 2000 and $104.3 billion
over five years, from 2000 to 2004. (The
budget describes tax-exempt borrowing for
non-public purposes in the chapters on other
Government functions.) In addition, taxpayers
can deduct State and local income taxes
against their Federal income tax, costing
$37.0 billion in 2000 and $210 billion over
five years. Corporations with business in
Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions receive
a special tax credit, costing an estimated
$4.6 billion in 2000 and $21 billion over
five years. This tax credit is phasing out
and will expire at the end of 2005. Finally,
up to certain limits, taxpayers can credit
State death taxes against Federal estate
taxes, costing $28.4 billion over five years.

30.

NET INTEREST

Table 30–1.

NET INTEREST

(In millions of dollars)
Function 900

Spending:
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Tax Expenditures:
Existing law ....................................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

243,359

227,244

215,187

205,905

194,741

183,237

172,959

965

1,015

1,065

1,115

1,175

1,235

1,295

The Federal Government pays large
amounts of interest to the public, mainly
on the debt it incurred to finance past
budget deficits.
The Government also pays interest from
one budget account to another, mainly because
it invests its various trust fund balances
in Treasury securities. Net interest—which
does not include these internal payments—
closely measures Federal interest transactions
with the public. In 2000, Federal outlays
for net interest will total an estimated $215.2
billion.

to 3.3 percent of GDP between 1980 and
1991 (see Chart 30–1).
As budget deficits were gradually eliminated, and as interest rates declined, the
ratio of net interest to GDP fell from 3.3
percent in 1991 to 2.9 percent in 1998.
The combination of budget surpluses starting
in 1998, and continued low interest rates,
reduce the projected ratio further, to an
estimated 1.6 percent in 2004. Thus, the
interest burden is projected to fall by onehalf in just over a decade. As shown in
the table above, net interest in dollars is
expected to begin to decline in 1999.

The Interest Burden

Components of Net Interest

As noted above, the amount of net interest
depends on the amount of debt held by
the public, as well as on the interest rates
on the Treasury securities that comprise
that debt. Debt held by the public is the
total of all deficits that have accumulated
in the past—minus the amount offset by
budget surpluses. Large deficits in the 1980s
and early 1990s sharply increased the ratio
of debt held by the public to the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP)—from 26.1 percent
in 1980 to 50.2 percent in 1993. Partly
due to the huge rise in debt, interest rates
on Treasury securities also rose sharply.
The combination of much more debt and
higher interest rates caused a substantial
increase in Federal interest costs—from 1.9

Net interest is defined as gross interest
on the public debt minus the interest received
by on-budget and off-budget trust funds and
minus all activities that fall under ’’other
interest’’ (discussed later in this chapter).
Gross Interest on the Public Debt: Gross
interest on the public debt will total an estimated $346.5 billion in 2000 and $339.0 billion
in 2004. At the end of 1998, the gross Federal
debt totaled $5.479 trillion, of which $3.720
trillion was held by the public. The debt held
by the public accounted for 23.4 percent of the
total credit-market debt owed by the non-financial sector of the U.S. economy. The proportion peaked at 26.8 percent in 1994 and has
trended down over the last few years as Federal Government borrowing diminished with
273

274

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Chart 30-1. NET INTEREST
PERCENT OF GDP
4

3

2

PROJECTED
2004
1.6%

1

0
1960

1964

1968

1972

1976

1980

the declining deficits (see Table 12-1 in Analytical Perspectives).
Interest Received by Trust Funds: Under
current law, the receipts and disbursements
of Social Security’s old-age and survivors insurance (OASI) trust fund and disability insurance (DI) trust fund are excluded from the
budget. Social Security, however, is a Federal
program. Thus, the net interest of the Federal
Government as a whole includes the off-budget
interest earnings. Because Social Security will
accumulate large surpluses over the next several years, its interest earnings will rise from
an estimated $56.5 billion in 2000 to $82.7
billion in 2004.
The other major trust funds are on-budget.
The interest earnings of the civil service
retirement and disability fund will rise from
an estimated $34.6 billion in 2000 to $37.4
billion in 2004, and the interest of the
military retirement fund will rise from $12.7
billion to $13.6 billion. The Medicare Hospital
Insurance (HI) trust fund will receive $9.1
billion in 2000.

1984

1988

1992

1996

2000

2004

Other Interest: Other interest includes both
interest payments and interest collections—
much of it consisting of intra-governmental
payments and collections that arise from Federal revolving funds. These funds borrow from
the Treasury to carry out lending or other
business-type activities.
Budgetary Effect, including the Federal
Reserve
The Federal Reserve System buys and
sells Treasury securities in the open market
to implement monetary policy. The interest
that Treasury pays on the securities owned
by the Federal Reserve is included in net
interest as a cost, but virtually all of it
comes back to the Treasury as ‘‘deposits
of earnings of the Federal Reserve System.’’
These budget receipts will total an estimated
$25.1 billion in 2000 and $29.0 billion in
2004.

31.

ALLOWANCES

Table 31–1.

ALLOWANCES

(In millions of dollars)
Function 920

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Proposed legislation .......................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

..............

7,577

–307

–47,652

–41,599

–20,491

–22,452

..............

..............

..............

–2,824

–3,917

–4,553

–4,688

Resources Contingent upon Social
Security Reform
The budget assumes that Social Security
will be reformed and that the surplus will
be reserved until Social Security is reformed.
Once Social Security has been reformed, additional resources would be made available
for defense and non-defense discretionary
spending. The budget request for the Department of Defense (DOD) provides for substantial program expansion to ensure adequate
funding levels for national security. Increases
in non-DOD programs ensure continuity for
critical functions of core Government, and
provide for a discretionary Reserve for Priority
Initiatives for funding initiatives such as
increasing funding for the National Institutes
of Health by nearly 50 percent, and investments that raise student achievement and
that protect Americans at home and abroad.
If Social Security reform is not enacted,
allowances reduce the defense and non-defense
top lines to levels consistent with the discretionary caps for 2001 through 2004.
Natural Disasters and Other Emergencies
This allowance will provide funding for
unanticipated emergencies such as the re-

sponse to the devastating damage caused
to Central America by Hurricane Mitch.
Expected Release of Contingent Emergency
Funding
This allowance provides funding for the
release of amounts already appropriated as
contingent emergencies that are expected to
be, but have not been released at the time
of transmittal of the budget.
Tobacco Recoupment Policy
U.S. taxpayers paid a substantial portion
of the Medicaid costs that were the basis
for much of the State settlement with the
tobacco companies, and Federal law requires
that the Federal Government recoup its share.
This allowance recognizes that the Administration will again support legislation to waive
direct Federal recoupment, if States agree
to use a portion of funds from the settlement
to support shared national and State priorities.
Adjustments to Certain Accounts
This allowance provides for growth in the
budgets of certain agencies at rates closer
to historical levels.

275

32.

UNDISTRIBUTED OFFSETTING
RECEIPTS

Table 32–1.

UNDISTRIBUTED OFFSETTING RECEIPTS
(In millions of dollars)

Function 950

Spending:
Discretionary Budget Authority ....
Mandatory Outlays:
Existing law ................................
Proposed legislation ....................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

..............

..............

–2,800

1,100

1,100

–200

–200

–47,194
..............

–40,028
..............

–42,271
–585

–45,330
–787

–51,278
–898

–45,865
–971

–46,673
–1,009

Offsetting receipts, totaling $45.7 billion
in 2000, fall into two categories: (1) the
Government’s receipts from performing business-like activities, such as proceeds from
the sale of Outer Continental Shelf leases
or a Federal asset; and (2) the amounts
that the Government shifts from one account
to another, such as agency payments to
retirement funds.
Rents and Royalties on the Outer
Continental Shelf (OCS)
The Interior Department’s Outer Continental Shelf Lands leasing program, which it
began in 1954, currently generates about
20 percent and 27 percent of U.S. domestic
oil and natural gas production, respectively.
Since its inception, it has held 126 lease
sales, covering areas three to 200 miles
offshore and generating over $117 billion
in rents, bonuses, and royalties—mainly for
the Treasury.
OCS revenues help to reduce the deficit,
but they also provide most funding for the
Land and Water Conservation Fund and
Historic Preservation Fund programs. The
OCS program will generate more than $3
billion in receipts in 1999. In 2000, the
Administration will continue the leasing moratoria for the environmentally sensitive areas—
offshore California, Oregon, and Washington;
the Eastern Seaboard; the southwestern coast-

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

line of Florida, including the Everglades;
and certain parts of Alaska.
Asset Sales
The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC): USEC, which began operations
in July, 1993, sells enriched uranium globally
to utilities as fuel for nuclear power plants.
Congress created USEC as a wholly-owned
Government corporation—the first step in a series of actions designed to lead to privatization.
On July 28, 1998, the sale of USEC common
stock in connection with an initial public offering was completed, resulting in proceeds to the
Government of $1,385 million and a payment
of an additional $500 million exit dividend.
Naval Petroleum Reserve 1 (Elk Hills):
The Defense Authorization Act of 1996 required the sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve
1 in California, commonly known as Elk Hills,
by February 10, 1998. The sale of Elk Hills
to Occidental Petroleum for $3.5 billion was
completed on February 5, 1998. This sale was
the largest privatization in the history of the
U.S. Government.
Alaska Power Administration: The Administration completed the sale of the power
plants at Anchorage and Juneau to current
customers, as authorized under a 1995 law.
The sale, which raised an estimated $88 mil277

278
lion in Federal revenues, was completed in August 1998.
Employee Retirement
In 2000, Federal agencies will pay an
estimated $37.5 billion on behalf of their
employees to the Federal retirement funds,1
the Medicare health insurance trust fund,
and the Social Security trust funds. As civilian
employee pay rises, agencies must make
commensurate increases in their payments
to recognize the rising cost of retirement.
1
The major programs are the Military retirement System, the
Civil Service Retirement System, and the Federal Employee Retirement System.

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Other Undistributed Offsetting Receipts
Beginning in 1993, the President and Congress gave the Federal Communications Commission authority to assign spectrum licenses
through competitive bidding, which has proven
an extremely efficient and effective way to
allocate this scarce public resource. The budget
reflects the continued policy of assigning
licenses by auction, as authorized by the
1997 Balanced Budget Act. The Government
will auction spectrum made available from
the transition to digital broadcast technology
as well as 120 MHZ of reallocated spectrum—
raising an estimated $21 billion over the
next 10 years, and helping to balance the
budget while compensating the public for
the use of this valuable resource.

33.

REGULATION: COSTS AND BENEFITS

Along with taxing and spending, the Federal
Government makes policy through regulating—that is, generally, through Executive
Branch actions to interpret or implement
legislation. The Administration’s approach to
regulation is careful design and implementation at the least cost. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the White House
office that sets regulatory policy, has adopted
the following objective in its Strategic Plan:
maximize social benefits of regulation while
minimizing the costs and burdens of regulation.
The Government is still learning how to
accurately estimate regulatory costs, such
as how much the private sector spends to
comply with regulations, and benefits, such
as safer cars and food. For more than 20
years, a series of Executive Orders has
charged OMB with reviewing regulations and
providing information on their costs and benefits. The President’s September 1993 Executive
Order, ‘‘Regulatory Planning and Review,’’
directs agencies to assess the costs and
benefits of available regulatory alternatives
and to issue only regulations that maximize
net benefits (benefits minus costs), unless
a law requires another approach.
Developing and evaluating the best possible
data on benefits and costs are central to
the Government’s ability to assess how well
the regulatory system functions to fulfill
public needs. To meet that goal, OMB works
with the agencies to improve the quality
of the data and analyses they use in making
regulatory decisions for both new and existing
regulations, and to promote the use of standardized assumptions and methodologies uniformly across regulatory programs.
Difficulties in Estimation: Estimating regulatory costs and benefits is hard for a variety
of reasons, two of the most important of which
are the ‘‘baseline’’ problem and the ‘‘apples and
oranges’’ problem.
To estimate how regulations affect society
and the economy, the Government must determine the baseline against which to measure

costs and benefits; that is, what would have
happened if the Government had not issued
the regulation? But, several problems arise.
First, no one can craft such a hypothetical
baseline with certainty. Second, measures
of costs and benefits often vary, depending
on who is measuring. Agencies generally
support their regulatory programs and, thus,
may understate costs or overstate the likely
benefits; at the same time, businesses and
others who bear the costs will likely do
the opposite. Third, the timing of estimates
also may make a difference. Most estimates
are made before the regulation takes effect,
but evidence exists that once regulations
are in place, the affected entities find less
costly ways to comply.
The ‘‘apples and oranges’’ problem derives
from the nature and diversity of regulation
itself. Over 60 Federal agencies regulate
over 4,000 times a year for a wide array
of public purposes. OMB itself reviews about
500 proposed and final rules per year. The
Government must make decisions about the
chemicals introduced into commerce, the accessibility of public transportation, and safety
of the Nation’s food supply. Estimating the
costs of such diverse activities is hard; estimating the benefits is even harder. The Government is working on these problems and
is making steady progress on methodology
and data collection.
Costs and Benefits of Regulation: OMB’s
second survey, Report to Congress on the Costs
and Benefits of Federal Regulations, 1998, presents new estimates of the aggregate costs and
benefits of Federal regulation and regulatory
programs, as well as the costs and benefits
of major individual regulations issued during
the last three last years. The report continues
progress toward developing a system to track
OMB performance in minimizing costs while
achieving social benefits.
The report uses information on costs and
benefits published in peer-reviewed journals,
or published for public comment by agencies
and reviewed by OMB, to estimate aggregate
279

280

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

costs and benefits for four categories of
social regulation: environmental, transportation, labor, and other social regulations,
such as food safety (see Table 33–1).
The estimates in Table 33–1 are presented
in wide ranges to emphasize their inherent
uncertainty, particularly with the benefit estimates. Moreover, only costs and benefits
that could be quantified and assigned a
dollar value are included in the estimates.
The estimates indicate that regulation has
most likely produced very large net benefits
for society, especially for the environment
and transportation. The benefits of environmental regulations reflect the value that
society places on improved health, recreational
opportunities, quality of life, preservation of
ecosystems, biodiversity, and so on. The broadening of the upper end of the range in
the benefit estimates for the environment
is largely due to an Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) report that, due to a courtordered deadline did not go through an
interagency review, and which estimates that
the annual benefits of the Clean Air Act
might be as high as $3.2 trillion. The OMB
report discusses the key assumptions behind
these estimates and specifically notes that
the results appear to be sensitive to choices
made concerning the baseline for the analysis
and the translation of improvements in air
quality to human health benefits.
The benefits of transportation, labor, and
other social regulation mainly include the
value provided by improved safety and health.
Generally, the costs are the expenses incurred

Table 33–1.

in compliance, based on engineering designs
and current prices, although sometimes they
properly include the opportunity costs of
foregoing the benefits of what would have
been produced in the absence of the regulation.
Although Table 33–1 shows that, in total
and for important categories, Federal regulations have provided more benefits than costs,
it says little about current regulatory policy
or how to improve it. To address these
issues, the Government needs estimates of
the costs and benefits of the incremental
changes to recent regulations. In its report,
OMB also provided estimates of the costs
and benefits of 34 final regulations that
it reviewed from April 1, 1995, to March
31, 1998, for which it had relatively complete
monetized estimates. These 34 rules represent
about 25 percent of the ‘‘major’’ rules—
rules that are expected to have an economic
impact on the economy of over $100 million
—and about five percent of all the rules
reviewed by OMB over this period.
The 34 rules are estimated to provide
$30 billion to almost $100 billion in annualized
benefits to society for about $28 billion in
annualized costs, suggesting net benefits even
at the lower benefit estimate. Three rules
dominate these estimates: a 1996 Health
and Human Services rule that places restrictions on the sale of tobacco and the two
1997 EPA rules revising the National Ambient
Air Quality Standards for ozone and particulate matter.

Estimates of the Total Annual Benefits and Costs of Social
Regulations
(In billions of 1996 dollars as of 1998, Q1)
Benefits

Environmental .......................................................................
Transportation .......................................................................
Labor ......................................................................................
Other ......................................................................................
Total ...............................................................................

1

93 to 3,300
84 to 110
28 to
30
53 to
58

260 to 3,500

Source: OMB, Report to Congress On the Costs and Benefits of Federal Regulations, 1998.
1
The upper end of the range is based on an EPA report.

Costs

120
15
18
17

to
to
to
to

170
18
19
22

170 to 230

33.

281

REGULATION: COSTS AND BENEFITS

Further Action: The Government needs
better data and analysis to determine whether
proposed regulations maximize social benefits
while minimizing cost. But agencies have legitimate reasons for their often incomplete estimates. In some cases, they face significant
technical problems in assessing costs and benefits. In others, legal or judicial deadlines force
the agencies to act within time frames that
do not allow for adequate analysis. In still others, agencies may need to allocate their limited
financial and human resources to higher priorities. Finally, in cases of emergencies, the public expects its elected leaders to respond without the delay that careful analysis would entail.

as by offering technical outreach programs
and training sessions on using OMB’s ‘‘Best
Practices’’ on economic analysis, and to make
recommendations for better estimation techniques to value costs and benefits.

OMB is committed to improving the indicators to assess its performance in meeting
the goal of ensuring that it is faithfully
executing and managing regulatory policy.
It will continue to lead an inter-agency
effort to raise the quality of analyses that
agencies use in developing regulations, such

Regulation and regulatory reform can do
much good for society, depending on whether
the Government has the needed information
and analysis for wise decision-making. The
steps outlined above are designed to continue
the Government’s efforts to improve its ability
to make better regulatory decisions.

OMB also will:
• continue to develop a database on benefits
and costs of major rules, using consistent
assumptions and better estimation techniques to refine agency estimates of incremental costs and benefits; and
• work on developing appropriate methodologies to evaluate whether to reform or
eliminate existing regulatory programs or
their elements.

34.

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

050 National defense:
Discretionary:
Department of Defense—Military:
Military personnel ......................
69,822
70,932
73,724
76,259
78,417
80,914
83,748
Operation and maintenance ......
96,939
97,779
103,251
103,565
104,673
107,469
110,887
Procurement ...............................
44,772
48,951
53,021
61,783
62,297
66,552
69,211
Research, development, test and
evaluation ................................
37,090
36,635
34,374
34,290
34,680
34,518
35,015
Military construction .................
5,463
5,079
2,297
7,079
4,246
4,342
4,452
Family housing ...........................
3,829
3,580
3,141
3,827
3,614
3,744
3,851
Revolving, management and
trust funds ...............................
1,968
955
281
598
544
714
755
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ................................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
830
1,447
582
Discretionary offsetting receipts
–35
–394
–217
–1
–2
–2
–2
DOD-wide savings proposals ..... ................... ...................
–1,650 ................... ................... ................... ...................
Total, Department of Defense—Military .............

259,848

263,517

268,222

287,400

289,299

299,698

308,499

11,548

12,363

12,184

12,744

12,732

12,706

12,667

140

140

150

150

150

150

150

17

17

18

18

18

18

18

Total, Atomic energy defense activities .............

11,705

12,520

12,352

12,912

12,900

12,874

12,835

Defense-related activities:
Discretionary programs .............

817

945

1,014

1,009

1,009

1,009

1,009

Total, Discretionary ...................

272,370

276,982

281,588

301,321

303,208

313,581

322,343

Mandatory:
Department of Defense—Military:
Revolving, trust and other DoD
mandatory ...............................
Offsetting receipts ......................

1,041
–2,353

448
–1,402

382
–1,379

385
–1,416

388
–1,418

385
–1,384

384
–1,324

Total, Department of Defense—Military .............

–1,312

–954

–997

–1,031

–1,030

–999

–940

Atomic energy defense activities:
Department of Energy ...............
Formerly utilized sites remedial
action .......................................
Defense nuclear facilities safety
board ........................................

Atomic energy defense activities:
Proceeds from sales of excess
DOE assets ..............................

–1 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

283

284

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Defense-related activities:
Mandatory programs .................

197

202

209

221

233

242

254

Total, Mandatory ........................

–1,116

–752

–788

–810

–797

–757

–686

Total, National defense .............

271,254

276,230

280,800

300,511

302,411

312,824

321,657

1,811

1,811

1,811

1,811

1,811

1,473

1,473

1,473

1,473

1,473

50

50

50

50

50

150 International affairs:
Discretionary:
International development,
humanitarian assistance:
Development assistance and operating expenses .....................
1,681
1,710
Multilateral development banks
(MDB’s) ....................................
1,487
1,512
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Multilateral development banks (MDB’s)

1,487

1,512

1,523

1,523

1,523

1,523

1,523

581
867
700

847
862
670

1,032
787
690

1,032
787
690

1,032
787
690

1,032
787
690

1,032
787
690

408

430

393

393

393

393

393

303
226

292
241

293
270

293
270

293
270

293
270

293
270

904

1,264

975

975

975

975

975

Total, International development, humanitarian assistance ..........

7,157

7,828

7,774

7,774

7,774

7,774

7,774

International security assistance:
Foreign military financing
grants and loans .....................
Economic support fund ..............
Other security assistance ..........

3,359
2,435
308

4,032
2,633
345

3,780
2,539
413

3,780
2,539
413

3,430
2,389
413

3,430
2,389
413

3,430
2,389
413

Total, International security assistance ..............

6,102

7,010

6,732

6,732

6,232

6,232

6,232

2,922
1,031

2,929
484

2,929
784

2,929
934

2,929
1,084

2,929
1,234

922

963

963

963

963

963

231

235

235

235

235

235

475
171

446 ................... ................... ................... ...................
140
140
140
140
140

Assistance for the New Independent States ........................
Food aid ......................................
Refugee programs .......................
Assistance for Central and
Eastern Europe .......................
Voluntary contributions to
international organizations ....
Peace Corps ................................
Other development and humanitarian assistance ....................

Conduct of foreign affairs:
State Department operations ....
2,087
Foreign buildings .......................
389
Assessed contributions to international organizations ............
943
Assessed contributions for international peacekeeping ............
257
Arrearage payment for international organizations and
peacekeeping ........................... ...................
Other conduct of foreign affairs
168
Total, Conduct of foreign
affairs ............................

3,844

5,752

5,197

5,051

5,201

5,351

5,501

34.

285

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Foreign information and exchange activities:
Broadcasting Board of Governors .......................................
Other information and exchange activities .....................
Total, Foreign information and exchange activities ...........................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

427

397

453

453

453

453

453

795

719

274

274

274

274

274

1,222

1,116

727

727

727

727

727

International financial programs:
Export-Import Bank ...................
718
Special defense acquisition fund
–52
IMF new arrangements to borrow ........................................... ...................
Other IMF ................................... ...................

799
881
881
881
881
881
–48 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
3,450 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
14,943 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Total, International financial programs .........

666

19,144

881

881

881

881

881

Total, Discretionary ...................

18,991

40,850

21,311

21,165

20,815

20,965

21,115

Mandatory:
International development,
humanitarian assistance:
Credit liquidating accounts .......
Other development and humanitarian assistance ....................

51

–456

–445

–445

–464

–458

–449

17

–8

–34

–4

–4

–4

–4

Total, International development, humanitarian assistance ..........

68

–464

–479

–449

–468

–462

–453

International security assistance:
Repayment of foreign military
financing loans ........................
Foreign military loan reestimates .......................................
Foreign military loan liquidating account ..............................
Total, International security assistance ..............
Foreign affairs and information:
Conduct of foreign affairs ..........
U.S. Information Agency trust
funds ........................................
Miscellaneous trust funds .........
Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission ..........................................
Total, Foreign affairs and
information ...................

–534

–371 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

19

5 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

–215

–287

–550

–458

–402

–339

–271

–730

–653

–550

–458

–402

–339

–271

1

12

3

4

2

3

3

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

1

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

15

7

8

6

7

7

286

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
International financial programs:
Foreign military sales trust
fund (net) .................................
Exchange stabilization fund ......
Other international financial
programs .................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

–3,459
–1,910
–2,670
–2,430
–3,100
–1,540
–680
30 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–134

–285

–251

–327

–159

–72

–80

Total, International financial programs .........

–3,563

–2,195

–2,921

–2,757

–3,259

–1,612

–760

Total, Mandatory ........................

–4,222

–3,297

–3,943

–3,656

–4,123

–2,406

–1,477

Total, International affairs ......

14,769

37,553

17,368

17,509

16,692

18,559

19,638

250 General science, space, and
technology:
Discretionary:
General science and basic research:
National Science Foundation
programs .................................
Department of Energy general
science programs ....................

3,368

3,608

3,858

3,916

3,899

3,873

3,875

2,261

2,698

2,835

2,835

2,835

2,835

2,835

Total, General science
and basic research .......

5,629

6,306

6,693

6,751

6,734

6,708

6,710

Space flight, research, and
supporting activities:
Science, aeronautics and technology .......................................
Human space flight ....................
Mission support ..........................
Other NASA programs ..............

4,770
5,560
1,973
18

4,885
5,480
2,084
20

4,805
5,638
2,045
21

5,017
5,544
2,075
21

5,141
5,290
2,186
21

5,501
4,925
2,184
21

5,609
4,782
2,213
21

Total, Space flight, research, and supporting
activities .......................

12,321

12,469

12,509

12,657

12,638

12,631

12,625

Total, Discretionary ...................

17,950

18,775

19,202

19,408

19,372

19,339

19,335

Mandatory:
General science and basic research:
National Science Foundation
donations .................................

45

72

78

68

34

34

34

Total, General science, space,
and technology ........................

17,995

18,847

19,280

19,476

19,406

19,373

19,369

1,149

1,134

964

1,414

1,265

1,237

1,210

107
226
–388
156
230

14 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
220
235
235
235
235
235
–398
–420
–420
–420
–420
–420
169
297
180
180
180
180
222
178
178
178
178
178

270 Energy:
Discretionary:
Energy supply:
Research and development ........
Naval petroleum reserves operations .......................................
Uranium enrichment activities
Decontamination transfer ..........
Nuclear waste program .............
Federal power marketing ..........

34.

287

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Rural electric and telephone
discretionary loans .................
Financial management services

59
503

69
466

41
316

41
316

41
316

41
316

41
316

Total, Energy supply .......

2,042

1,896

1,611

1,944

1,795

1,767

1,740

Energy conservation and preparedness:
Energy conservation ...................
Emergency energy preparedness

584
208

628
160

838
164

838
164

838
164

838
164

838
164

792

788

1,002

1,002

1,002

1,002

1,002

22

20

23

23

23

23

23

Total, Energy conservation and preparedness
Energy information, policy,
and regulation:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) .......................................
Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission fees and recoveries, and other ..........................
Departmental and other administration ...................................

–10

–29

–28

–28

–28

–28

–28

231

213

228

228

228

228

228

Total, Energy information, policy, and regulation ................................

243

204

223

223

223

223

223

Total, Discretionary ...................

3,077

2,888

2,836

3,169

3,020

2,992

2,965

–3
–728
–480
–6
–642

–4
–588
–757
–17
–632

–4
–743
–1,008
–17
–632

–3
–822
–978
–32
–631

–3
–787
–922
–32
–632

–2
–879
–1,367
–4
–632

–1,168

–3,098

–1,962

–1,844

–1,716

–1,347

Mandatory:
Energy supply:
Naval petroleum reserves oil
and gas sales ...........................
–210
Federal power marketing ..........
–782
Tennessee Valley Authority ......
–754
Proceeds from uranium sales ....
–13
Nuclear waste fund program .....
–600
Rural electric and telephone liquidating accounts ....................
–422
Rural electric and telephone
loan subsidy reestimate ......... ...................

–171 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Total, Mandatory ........................

–2,781

–3,198

–5,096

–4,366

–4,310

–4,092

–4,231

Total, Energy ...............................

296

–310

–2,260

–1,197

–1,290

–1,100

–1,266

300 Natural resources and environment:
Discretionary:
Water resources:
Corps of Engineers .....................

3,995

3,922

3,713

3,746

3,742

3,778

3,795

Bureau of Reclamation ..............
Other discretionary water resources programs ....................

864

780

856

856

856

856

856

250

134

122

131

120

124

134

Total, Water resources ....

5,109

4,836

4,691

4,733

4,718

4,758

4,785

288

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

Conservation and land management:
Forest Service .............................
2,461
2,534
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Forest Service .....

2,461

2,534

Management of public lands
(BLM) .......................................
989
1,030
Conservation of agricultural
lands ........................................
673
692
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2,704

2,719

2,704

2,704

2,704

–111

–111

–111

–111

–111

2,593

2,608

2,593

2,593

2,593

1,115

1,115

1,115

1,115

1,115

766

766

766

766

766

5

5

5

5

5

Subtotal, Conservation of
agricultural lands ............

673

692

771

771

771

771

771

Other conservation and land
management programs ...........

564

554

772

772

772

772

772

Total, Conservation and
land management ........

4,687

4,810

5,251

5,266

5,251

5,251

5,251

3,151

2,759

2,970

3,027

2,986

2,985

2,980

221

118

118

118

118

118

118

3,372

2,877

3,088

3,145

3,104

3,103

3,098

2,831

2,831

2,831

2,831

2,831

2,838
1,500

2,838
1,500

2,838
1,500

2,838
1,500

2,838
1,500

192

192

192

192

192

–20

–20

–20

–20

–20

7,341

7,341

7,341

7,341

7,341

2,536

2,597

2,567

2,553

2,584

–34

–34

–34

–34

–34

Recreational resources:
Operation of recreational resources .....................................
Other recreational resources activities ......................................
Total, Recreational resources ..........................

Pollution control and abatement:
Regulatory, enforcement, and
research programs ..................
2,616
2,637
State and tribal assistance
grants .......................................
3,213
3,407
Hazardous substance superfund
1,500
1,500
Other control and abatement
activities ..................................
138
187
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
Total, Pollution control
and abatement .............

7,467

7,731

Other natural resources:
NOAA ..........................................
2,051
2,234
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, NOAA ..................

2,051

2,234

2,502

2,563

2,533

2,519

2,550

Other natural resource program
activities ..................................

770

867

939

939

939

939

939

Total, Other natural resources ..........................

2,821

3,101

3,441

3,502

3,472

3,458

3,489

Total, Discretionary ...................

23,456

23,355

23,812

23,987

23,886

23,911

23,964

34.

289

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

Mandatory:
Water resources:
Mandatory water resource programs .......................................
18
–23
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Total, Water resources ....

18

–23

Conservation and land management:
Conservation Reserve Program
and other agricultural programs .......................................
2,147
1,830
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Conservation Reserve Program and other
agricultural programs .....

2,147

1,830

Other conservation programs ....
525
479
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other conservation programs ...................

525

479

Offsetting receipts ......................
–1,843
–1,978
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

18

–19

–19

–23

–27

9

12

15

17

17

–966

–963

–960

–996

–1,014

–939

–970

–964

–1,002

–1,024

2,016

1,973

2,061

2,114

2,122

90

90

90

90

90

2,106

2,063

2,151

2,204

2,212

496

479

479

475

477

–5

–3

4

31

41

491

476

483

506

518

–2,075

–2,037

–2,043

–2,044

–2,053

–5

–15

–34

–34

–35

Subtotal, Offsetting receipts

–1,843

–1,978

–2,080

–2,052

–2,077

–2,078

–2,088

Total, Conservation and
land management ........

829

331

517

487

557

632

642

970

948

797

847

932

3

3

148

149

152

973

951

945

996

1,084

–302

–309

–317

–98

–110

–122

Recreational resources:
Operation of recreational resources .....................................
835
922
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Operation of recreational resources ..........

835

922

Offsetting receipts ......................
–350
–434
–433
–440
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Offsetting receipts

–350

–434

–433

–440

–400

–419

–439

Total, Recreational resources ..........................

485

488

540

511

545

577

645

290

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Pollution control and abatement:
Superfund resources and other
mandatory ...............................
–270
–201
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

–177

–149

–124

–124

–124

200

200

200

200

200

Total, Pollution control
and abatement .............

–270

–201

23

51

76

76

76

Other natural resources:
Other fees and mandatory programs .......................................

–42

–8

–1

3

3

4

3

Total, Mandatory ........................

1,020

587

140

82

217

287

342

Total, Natural resources and
environment .............................

24,476

23,942

23,952

24,069

24,103

24,198

24,306

347

341

291

291

291

291

291

196
976

194
831

128
824

128
824

128
824

128
824

128
824

1,519

1,366

1,243

1,243

1,243

1,243

1,243

1,236
402
61

1,236
402
61

1,236
402
61

1,236
402
61

1,236
402
61

442

442

442

442

442

–9

–9

–9

–9

–9

433

433

433

433

433

157
26

157
26

157
26

157
26

157
26

–15

–15

–15

–15

–15

11

11

11

11

11

138

138

138

138

138

–28

–28

–28

–28

–28

110

110

110

110

110

350 Agriculture:
Discretionary:
Farm income stabilization:
Agriculture credit loan program
P.L.480 market development activities ......................................
Administrative expenses ............
Total, Farm income stabilization .......................

Agricultural research and
services:
Research programs .....................
1,262
1,357
Extension programs ...................
423
438
Marketing programs ..................
48
50
Animal and plant inspection
programs .................................
431
433
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Animal and plant
inspection programs ........

431

433

Economic intelligence .................
190
167
Grain inspection .........................
24
27
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Grain inspection

24

27

Foreign agricultural service ......
144
136
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Foreign agricultural service .....................

144

136

34.

291

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other programs and
unallocated overhead ..............

305

344

487

487

500

487

487

Total, Agricultural research and services ......

2,827

2,952

2,897

2,897

2,910

2,897

2,897

Total, Discretionary ...................

4,346

4,318

4,140

4,140

4,153

4,140

4,140

9,875

7,496

5,490

5,382

5,511

–30

–51

–63

–75

–84

Mandatory:
Farm income stabilization:
Commodity Credit Corporation
8,652
19,462
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Commodity Credit
Corporation ......................

8,652

19,462

9,845

7,445

5,427

5,307

5,427

Crop insurance and other farm
credit activities .......................
Credit liquidating accounts
(ACIF and FAC) ......................

824

1,557

1,004

1,677

1,739

1,811

1,895

–1,150

–1,144

–1,110

–1,085

–1,069

–1,048

–1,028

Total, Farm income stabilization .......................

8,326

19,875

9,739

8,037

6,097

6,070

6,294

8

8

8

8

428

435

542

549

30

30

30

30

Agricultural research and
services:
Fund for Rural America (Proposed Legislation PAYGO) ..... ................... ................... ...................
Miscellaneous mandatory programs .......................................
199
358
418
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Miscellaneous
mandatory programs .......

199

358

418

458

465

572

579

Offsetting receipts ......................

–141

–149

–149

–150

–150

–150

–150

Total, Agricultural research and services ......

58

209

269

316

323

430

437

Total, Mandatory ........................

8,384

20,084

10,008

8,353

6,420

6,500

6,731

Total, Agriculture .......................

12,730

24,402

14,148

12,493

10,573

10,640

10,871

657

621

699

699

699

699

699

–355

–346

–407

–407

–407

–407

–407

5
581

–154
558

–400
560

–400
560

–400
560

–400
560

–400
560

888

679

452

452

452

452

452

164

164

164

164

164

370 Commerce and housing credit:
Discretionary:
Mortgage credit:
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loan programs ......
Government National Mortgage
Association (GNMA) ...............
Other Housing and Urban Development ................................
Rural housing insurance fund ...
Total, Mortgage credit .....
Postal service:
Payments to the Postal Service
fund (On-budget) ....................

86 ...................

292

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Deposit insurance:
National Credit Union Administration ......................................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

1

2000

2002

2003

2004

2 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Other advancement of commerce:
Small and minority business assistance ....................................
568
554
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Small and minority business assistance ....

2001

581

581

581

581

581

83

83

83

83

83

568

554

664

664

664

664

664

703

683

764

689

674

674

674

736
–115

1,388
97

3,127
–141

870
76

445
84

471
97

445
161

299
–38

285
16

305
34

305
123

305
75

305
75

305
76

Total, Other advancement of commerce ........

2,153

3,023

4,753

2,727

2,247

2,286

2,325

Total, Discretionary ...................

3,128

3,704

5,369

3,343

2,863

2,902

2,941

Science and technology ..............
Economic and demographic statistics .......................................
Regulatory agencies ...................
International Trade Administration ......................................
Other discretionary ....................

Mandatory:
Mortgage credit:
FHA General and Special Risk,
downward reestimate of negative subsidies ...........................
–333 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
FHA and GNMA negative subsidies ........................................
–2,332
–6,117
–388
–177
–1,977
–2,063
–2,300
Mortgage credit reestimates ......
1,076
1,264 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Mortgage credit liquidating accounts ......................................
–764
–1,226
–145
828
–516
–534
–605
Other mortgage credit activities ...................
205 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Total, Mortgage credit .....

–2,353

–5,874

–533

651

–2,493

–2,597

–2,905

Postal service:
Postal Service (Off-budget) ........

6,359

5,607

4,874

1,829

521

96

–144

Deposit insurance:
Bank Insurance Fund ................

–19

–23

–22

–22

–23

–24

–25

–42

–10

–10

–10

–10

–10

–10

–2

–2

–2

–2

–2

–2

–2

29

35

34

34

35

36

37

FSLIC Resolution Fund .............
Savings Association Insurance
Fund ........................................
Other deposit insurance activities ...........................................
Total, Deposit insurance
Other advancement of commerce:
Universal Service Fund .............
Payments to copyright owners ..
Spectrum auction subsidy .........
Regulatory fees ...........................
Patent and trademark fees ........
Credit liquidating accounts .......

–34 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

2,759
2,750
4,668
6,463
10,772
10,922
11,075
250
260
282
300
311
327
343
4,811 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–29
–30
–30
–30
–30
–30
–30
–119 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
1
–756
–251 ................... ................... ................... ...................

34.

293

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other mandatory ........................

–445

–477

93

95

96

87

88

Total, Other advancement of commerce ........

7,228

1,747

4,762

6,828

11,149

11,306

11,476

Total, Mandatory ........................

11,200

1,480

9,103

9,308

9,177

8,805

8,427

Total, Commerce and housing
credit ..........................................

14,328

5,184

14,472

12,651

12,040

11,707

11,368

400 Transportation:
Discretionary:
Ground transportation:
Highways ....................................
559
332
Highway safety ...........................
147
88
Mass transit ................................
2,584
–371
Railroads .....................................
747
777
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Railroads .............

747

777

Regulation ...................................
14
13
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

–451
–125
–125
–125
–128
125
125
125
125
128
291 ................... ................... ................... ...................
745
710
710
710
710
–87

–87

–87

–87

–87

658

623

623

623

623

14

14

14

14

14

–14

–14

–14

–14

–14

Subtotal, Regulation ...........

14

Total, Ground transportation .............................

4,051

839

623

623

623

623

623

7,351

7,716

8,531

9,147

9,672

10,296

10,801

1,327
9

1,196
1,070
1,095
1,120
1,120
1,126
–3 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

8,687

8,909

Air transportation:
Airports and airways (FAA) ......
Aeronautical research and technology .......................................
Payments to air carriers ............
Total, Air transportation

13 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Water transportation:
Marine safety and transportation .......................................
2,901
3,244
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

9,601

10,242

10,792

11,416

11,927

3,002

3,126

3,126

3,126

3,126

–41

–165

–165

–165

–165

Subtotal, Marine safety and
transportation ..................

2,901

3,244

2,961

2,961

2,961

2,961

2,961

Ocean shipping ...........................

129

90

97

97

97

97

97

Total, Water transportation .............................

3,030

3,334

3,058

3,058

3,058

3,058

3,058

251

251

251

251

251

–15

–15

–15

–15

–15

Other transportation:
Other discretionary programs ...
237
248
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Total, Other transportation .............................

237

248

236

236

236

236

236

Total, Discretionary ...................

16,005

13,330

13,518

14,159

14,709

15,333

15,844

294

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Mandatory:
Ground transportation:
Highways ....................................
Highway safety ...........................
Mass transit ................................
Offsetting receipts and subsidy
reestimates ..............................
Credit liquidating accounts .......
Total, Ground transportation .............................
Air transportation:
Airports and airways (FAA) ......
Payments to air carriers ............
Total, Air transportation

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2002

2003

2004

24,582
268
2,260

29,315
372
5,363

31,406
384
5,797

30,556
397
6,272

31,108
412
6,746

31,658
422
7,225

32,307
425
7,256

–48
–14

–12
–26

–12
–30

–12
–29

–12
–29

–12
–29

–12
–29

27,048

35,012

37,545

37,184

38,225

39,264

39,947

1,668
2,322
39 ...................

1,600
50

1,600
50

1,600
50

1,600
50

1,600
50

1,707

1,650

1,650

1,650

1,650

1,650

730

778

825

877

926

–1

–3

–5

70

71

12

12

13

14

14

2,322

Water transportation:
Coast Guard retired pay ............
653
684
Other water transportation programs .......................................
–46
–86
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other water
transportation programs

2001

–46

–86

11

9

8

84

85

Total, Water transportation .............................

607

598

741

787

833

961

1,011

Other transportation:
Other mandatory transportation
programs .................................

–30

–30

–31

–33

–534

–35

–36

Total, Mandatory ........................

29,332

37,902

39,905

39,588

40,174

41,840

42,572

Total, Transportation ................

45,337

51,232

53,423

53,747

54,883

57,173

58,416

30

30

30

30

30

4,725

4,725

4,725

4,725

4,725

50

50

50

50

50

4,873

4,775

4,775

4,775

4,775

4,775

10

17

17

17

17

17

450 Community and regional development:
Discretionary:
Community development:
Community development loan
guarantees ...............................
30
30
Community development block
grant ........................................
4,925
4,873
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Community development block grant .........

4,925

Community adjustment and investment program ................... ...................

34.

295

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Community development financial institutions .......................
80
95
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Community development financial institutions ..................................

80

95

Brownfields redevelopment .......
25
25
Other community development
programs .................................
260
469
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

110

110

110

110

110

15

15

15

15

15

125

125

125

125

125

50

50

50

50

50

385

385

385

385

385

137

137

137

137

137

Subtotal, Other community
development programs ....

260

469

522

522

522

522

522

Total, Community development ..........................

5,320

5,502

5,519

5,519

5,519

5,519

5,519

826

826

826

826

826

393

393

393

393

393

50
1,169

50
1,169

50
1,169

50
1,169

50
1,169

Area and regional development:
Rural development .....................
819
905
Economic Development Administration ...................................
366
413
Regional connections (Proposed
Legislation non-PAYGO) ........ ................... ...................
Indian programs .........................
1,013
1,045
Appalachian Regional Commission ...........................................
170
Tennessee Valley Authority ......
70
Denali commission ..................... ...................
Total, Area and regional
development .................

66
66
66
66
66
66
50
7
7
7
7
7
20 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

2,438

2,499

2,511

2,511

2,511

2,511

2,511

1,920

308

297

297

297

297

297

173

197

125

125

125

125

125

412

378

450

450

450

450

450

Total, Disaster relief and
insurance ......................

2,505

883

872

872

872

872

872

Total, Discretionary ...................

10,263

8,884

8,902

8,902

8,902

8,902

8,902

Disaster relief and insurance:
Disaster relief .............................
Small Business Administration
disaster loans ..........................
Other disaster assistance programs .......................................

Mandatory:
Community development:
Pennsylvania Avenue activities
and other programs ................
172 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Urban empowerment zones
(Proposed Legislation
PAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
150
150
150
150
150
Total, Community development ..........................

172 ...................

150

150

150

150

150

296

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

Area and regional development:
Indian programs .........................
596
481
Rural development programs ....
5
128
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

111
36

113
36

113
36

116
36

118
36

15

22

22

22

22

Subtotal, Rural development programs ................

5

128

51

58

58

58

58

Credit liquidating accounts .......
Offsetting receipts ......................

–143
–321

304
–401

61
–102

1,002
–104

1,347
–104

–111
–107

303
–108

Total, Area and regional
development .................

137

512

121

1,069

1,414

–44

371

Disaster relief and insurance:
National flood insurance fund ...
–14
–92
–138
–166
–206
–20
–20
National flood mitigation fund ..
27
20
20
20
20
20
20
Flood map modernization fund
(Proposed Legislation
PAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
58
60
63
65
68
Radiological emergency preparedness fees .........................
–12 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Disaster loans program account
61
9 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
SBA disaster loan subsidy reestimate ................................... ...................
–236 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Credit liquidating accounts .......
–5
–6
–6
–6
–6
–6
–6
Total, Disaster relief and
insurance ......................

57

–305

–66

–92

–129

59

62

Total, Mandatory ........................

366

207

205

1,127

1,435

165

583

Total, Community and regional development ................

10,629

9,091

9,107

10,029

10,337

9,067

9,485

1,275
1,538

1,314
2,811

1,947
2,723

1,947
2,723

1,947
2,723

1,947
2,723

1,947
2,723

7,871
4,811
808
1,508
621

3,670
5,334
864
1,539
640

8,744
3,525
736
1,750
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

354
8

380
269

415
295

415
295

415
295

415
295

415
295

Total, Elementary, secondary, and vocational
education ......................

18,794

16,821

20,821

22,746

22,746

22,746

22,746

Higher education:
Student financial assistance .....

8,979

9,348

9,183

9,183

9,183

9,183

9,183

500 Education, training, employment, and social services:
Discretionary:
Elementary, secondary, and
vocational education:
Education reform ........................
School improvement programs ..
Education for the disadvantaged ........................................
Special education ........................
Impact aid ...................................
Vocational and adult education
Indian education programs .......
Bilingual and immigrant education .......................................
Other ...........................................

34.

297

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Higher education account ..........
947
1,308
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Higher education
account .............................

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,527

1,527

1,527

1,527

1,527

52

52

52

52

52

947

1,308

1,579

1,579

1,579

1,579

1,579

Federal family education loan
program ...................................
Other higher education programs .......................................

46

47

48

48

48

48

48

342

349

360

360

360

360

360

Total, Higher education ..

10,314

11,052

11,170

11,170

11,170

11,170

11,170

Research and general education aids:
Library of Congress ....................
Public broadcasting ....................
Smithsonian institution .............
Education research, statistics,
and improvement ....................
Other ...........................................

269
291
490

283
314
515

301
412
555

312
490
555

320
490
555

329
429
555

340
335
555

431
729

665
773

540
884

540
884

540
884

540
884

540
884

Total, Research and general education aids .......

2,210

2,550

2,692

2,781

2,789

2,737

2,654

5,500

5,500

5,500

5,500

5,500

–40

–40

–40

–40

–40

5,460

5,460

5,460

5,460

5,460

440

440

440

440

440

1,326

1,326

1,326

1,326

1,326

–20

–20

–20

–20

–20

Training and employment:
Training and employment services ...........................................
4,988
5,281
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Training and employment services ............

4,988

5,281

Older Americans employment ...
440
440
Federal-State employment service .............................................
1,249
1,249
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal-State employment service ..............

1,249

1,249

1,306

1,306

1,306

1,306

1,306

Other employment and training

90

96

103

103

103

103

103

Total, Training and employment .......................

6,767

7,066

7,309

7,309

7,309

7,309

7,309

1,306

1,306

1,306

1,306

1,306

–25

–25

–25

–25

–25

Other labor services:
Labor law, statistics, and other
administration ........................
1,041
1,126
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Total, Other labor services ................................
Social services:
National service initiative .........
Children and families services
programs .................................

1,041

1,126

1,281

1,281

1,281

1,281

1,281

686

716

849

849

849

849

849

5,677

6,032

6,588

6,588

6,588

6,588

6,588

298

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Aging services program .............
865
882
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

923

923

923

923

923

125

125

125

125

125

Subtotal, Aging services
program ............................

865

882

1,048

1,048

1,048

1,048

1,048

Other ...........................................

346

350

380

380

380

380

380

Total, Social services .......

7,574

7,980

8,865

8,865

8,865

8,865

8,865

Total, Discretionary ...................

46,700

46,595

52,138

54,152

54,160

54,108

54,025

3,684

3,927

3,089

3,988

3,713

–849

–636

–691

–672

–270

–1,556

–18

–18

–19

–16

1,279

3,273

2,380

3,297

3,427

84

–133

–240

42

457

Mandatory:
Higher education:
Federal family education loan
program ...................................
2,055
3,335
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ...................
–105
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal family
education loan program ..

2,055

3,230

Federal direct loan program ......
897
327
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ...................
98
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal direct
loan program ....................

897

425

Other higher education programs .......................................
12
–37
Credit liquidating account
(Family education loan program) .......................................
551
–411
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

15 ................... ................... ................... ...................
–110

–7

–9

–9

–10

–11

–140

–249

33

447

–40

–40

–40

–40

–40

–539

–525

–477

–402

–318

480

–121

–111

–97

–80

Subtotal, Credit liquidating
account (Family education loan program) .......

551

–411

–59

–646

–588

–499

–398

Total, Higher education ..

3,515

3,207

1,169

2,447

1,503

2,791

3,436

Research and general education aids:
Mandatory programs .................

22

32

33

21

19

19

19

94

94

94

95

95

82

82 ................... ................... ...................

Training and employment:
Trade adjustment assistance .....
127
131
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Trade adjustment
assistance .........................

127

131

176

176

94

95

95

34.

299

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Welfare to work grants ..............
1,488
1,409 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
1,000 ................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Welfare to work
grants ...............................
Other training and employment
Total, Training and employment .......................

1,488
...................
1,615

Other labor services:
Other labor services ................... ...................

1,409

1,000 ................... ................... ................... ...................

42

50

1,582

1,226

5

5

Social services:
Payments to States for foster
care and adoption assistance
4,311
4,922
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

48 ................... ................... ...................
224

94

95

95

5 ................... ................... ...................

5,627

6,154

6,722

7,358

8,024

40

45

50

55

35

Subtotal, Payments to
States for foster care and
adoption assistance .........

4,311

4,922

5,667

6,199

6,772

7,413

8,059

Family support and preservation ...........................................
Social services block grant ........
Rehabilitation services ...............
Other social services ..................

255
2,299
2,247
12

275
1,909
2,305
27

295
2,380
2,339
32

305
1,700
2,393
32

305
1,700
2,448
32

305
1,700
2,504
32

305
1,700
2,562
32

Total, Social services .......

9,124

9,438

10,713

10,629

11,257

11,954

12,658

Total, Mandatory ........................

14,276

14,264

13,146

13,326

12,873

14,859

16,208

Total, Education, training, employment, and social services ..............................................

60,976

60,859

65,284

67,478

67,033

68,967

70,233

2,627
2,412

2,727
2,447

2,627
2,422

2,627
2,412

2,627
2,412

7,105

7,105

7,105

7,105

7,105

65

290

290

290

290

550 Health:
Discretionary:
Health care services:
Substance abuse and mental
health services ........................
2,147
2,488
Indian health ..............................
2,099
2,242
Other discretionary health care
services programs ...................
5,797
6,864
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other discretionary health care services programs ...................

5,797

6,864

7,170

7,395

7,395

7,395

7,395

Total, Health care services ................................

10,043

11,594

12,209

12,569

12,444

12,434

12,434

Health research and training:
National Institutes of Health ....
Clinical training .........................

13,632
296

15,612
309

15,933
258

15,933
258

15,933
258

15,933
258

15,933
258

300

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other health research and
training ....................................

303

327

239

239

239

239

239

Total, Health research
and training .................

14,231

16,248

16,430

16,430

16,430

16,430

16,430

653

653

653

653

653

–504

–504

–504

–504

–504

Consumer and occupational
health and safety:
Food safety and inspection ........
589
617
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Food safety and
inspection .........................

589

617

149

149

149

149

149

Occupational safety and health
Other consumer health programs .......................................

553

582

631

631

631

631

631

970

1,029

1,192

1,192

1,192

1,192

1,192

Total, Consumer and occupational health and
safety .............................

2,112

2,228

1,972

1,972

1,972

1,972

1,972

Total, Discretionary ...................

26,386

30,070

30,611

30,971

30,846

30,836

30,836

114,821

122,356

131,137

141,197

152,321

–161

–155

–74

425

563

114,660

122,201

131,063

141,622

152,884

4,215

4,215

3,090

3,150

3,150

34

34

25

25

25

4,249

4,249

3,115

3,175

3,175

6

123

127

146

156

5,101

5,537

5,988

6,464

7,008

354

345

336

329

320

57

14

13

12

12

Mandatory:
Health care services:
Medicaid grants ..........................
99,591
102,522
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Medicaid grants ..

99,591

102,522

State children’s health insurance fund .................................
4,235
4,247
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, State children’s
health insurance fund .....

4,235

4,247

Long-term care tax credit (Proposed Legislation PAYGO) ..... ................... ...................
Federal employees’ and retired
employees’ health benefits .....
4,095
4,631
Coal miner retiree health benefits (including UMWA funds)
373
362
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ...................
8
Subtotal, Coal miner retiree
health benefits (including
UMWA funds) ..................

373

370

411

359

349

341

332

Other mandatory health services activities ...........................

389

464

377

390

404

336

351

Total, Health care services ................................

108,683

112,234

124,804

132,859

141,046

152,084

163,906

34.

301

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Health research and safety:
Health research and training ....
39
64
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Health research
and training .....................

39

64

Consumer and occupational
health and safety .................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

59

56

54

22

17

10

190

250

300 ...................

69

246

304

322

17

–1

–1

–1

–1

–1

Total, Health research
and safety .....................

39

64

68

245

303

321

16

Total, Mandatory ........................

108,722

112,298

124,872

133,104

141,349

152,405

163,922

Total, Health ................................

135,108

142,368

155,483

164,075

172,195

183,241

194,758

1,423

1,423

1,423

1,423

1,423

–116

–116

–116

–116

–116

1,307

1,307

1,307

1,307

1,307

1,697

1,697

1,697

1,697

1,697

–78

–78

–78

–78

–78

570 Medicare:
Discretionary:
Medicare:
Hospital insurance (HI) administrative expenses ...................
1,196
1,331
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Hospital insurance (HI) administrative
expenses ...........................

1,196

1,331

Supplementary medical insurance (SMI) administrative expenses ......................................
1,527
1,658
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Supplementary
medical insurance (SMI)
administrative expenses
Total, Discretionary ...................

1,527

1,658

1,619

1,619

1,619

1,619

1,619

2,723

2,989

2,926

2,926

2,926

2,926

2,926

144,562

150,880

153,250

162,507

170,540

–163

–189

–5

–85

–44

–645

–580

–677

–641

–703

143,754

150,111

152,568

161,781

169,793

92,326

102,160

106,529

117,566

125,605

–115

–112

–3

–46

–23

–455

–340

–353

–339

–367

91,756

101,708

106,173

117,181

125,215

Mandatory:
Medicare:
Hospital insurance (HI) .............
135,341
145,005
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Hospital insurance (HI) ..........................

135,341

145,005

Supplementary medical insurance (SMI) ...............................
74,841
77,797
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Supplementary
medical insurance (SMI)

74,841

77,797

302

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Health care fraud and abuse
control ......................................
659
764
Medicare premiums, collections,
and interfunds ........................
–19,897
–21,005
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

864

950

1,010

1,075

1,075

–22,991

–25,032

–27,158

–30,093

–32,252

135

–275

–488

–562

–687

Subtotal, Medicare premiums, collections, and
interfunds .........................

–19,897

–21,005

–22,856

–25,307

–27,646

–30,655

–32,939

Total, Mandatory ........................

190,944

202,561

213,518

227,462

232,105

249,382

263,144

Total, Medicare ...........................

193,667

205,550

216,444

230,388

235,031

252,308

266,070

600 Income security:
Discretionary:
General retirement and disability insurance:
Railroad retirement ...................
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation ...................................
Pension and Welfare Benefits
Administration and other ......

299

285

267

267

267

267

267

10

11

11

11

11

11

11

83

92

104

104

104

104

104

Total, General retirement
and disability insurance ...............................

392

388

382

382

382

382

382

Federal employee retirement
and disability:
Civilian retirement and disability program administrative
expenses ..................................
Armed forces retirement home

85
69

80
71

83
68

83
68

83
68

83
68

83
68

Total, Federal employee
retirement and disability ..................................

154

151

151

151

151

151

151

Unemployment compensation:
Unemployment programs administrative expenses .............

2,484

2,364

2,464

2,464

2,464

2,464

2,464

3,003
2,555

3,003
2,555

3,003
2,555

3,003
2,555

3,003
2,555

12,866

17,066

17,066

17,066

17,066

45

45

45

45

45

Housing assistance:
Public housing operating fund ..
2,900
2,818
Public housing capital fund .......
2,500
3,000
Subsidized, public, homeless
and other HUD housing .........
11,436
14,180
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Subsidized, public, homeless and other
HUD housing ...................

11,436

14,180

12,911

17,111

17,111

17,111

17,111

Rural housing assistance ...........

613

650

524

924

724

724

724

Total, Housing assistance

17,449

20,648

18,993

23,593

23,393

23,393

23,393

34.

303

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Food and nutrition assistance:
Special supplemental food program for women, infants, and
children (WIC) ........................
Other nutrition programs ..........

3,924
498

3,924
488

4,105
598

4,105
598

4,105
598

4,105
598

4,105
598

Total, Food and nutrition
assistance .....................

4,422

4,412

4,703

4,703

4,703

4,703

4,703

443

443

443

443

443

1,100

1,100

1,100

1,100

1,100

1,183

1,183

1,183

1,183

1,183

Other income assistance:
Refugee assistance .....................
423
435
Low income home energy assistance ..........................................
1,160
1,100
Child care and development
block grant ..............................
1,002
1,000
Contingency fund (Proposed legislation non-PAYGO) .............. ................... ...................
Supplemental security income
(SSI) administrative expenses
2,262
2,321

–1,644 ................... ................... ................... ...................
2,377

2,377

2,377

2,377

2,377

Total, Other income assistance .........................

4,847

4,856

3,459

5,103

5,103

5,103

5,103

Total, Discretionary ...................

29,748

32,819

30,152

36,396

36,196

36,196

36,196

4,243

4,389

4,551

4,740

4,710

4,794

4,904

1,088

1,056

1,010

964

911

864

814

–10

–11

–11

–12

–12

–12

–13

234

222

230

238

248

256

Mandatory:
General retirement and disability insurance:
Railroad retirement ...................
Special benefits for disabled
coal miners ..............................
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation ...................................

District of Columbia pension
funds ........................................ ...................
Proceeds from sale of DC retirement fund assets .................... ...................
Special workers’ compensation
expenses ..................................
128
Total, General retirement
and disability insurance ...............................

5,449

–3,075 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
152

160

164

168

171

174

2,745

5,932

6,086

6,015

6,065

6,135

47,386
33,180

49,340
34,100

51,291
34,973

53,320
35,851

55,514
36,748

1

1

1

1

2

Federal employee retirement
and disability:
Federal civilian employee retirement and disability ...........
43,616
45,325
Military retirement ....................
31,234
32,287
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Military retirement ..................................

31,234

32,287

33,181

34,101

34,974

35,852

36,750

Federal employees workers’
compensation (FECA) .............

201

181

81

82

73

66

63

304

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Federal employees life insurance fund .................................

28

33

35

36

37

38

39

Total, Federal employee
retirement and disability ..................................

75,079

77,826

80,683

83,559

86,375

89,276

92,366

25,286

27,534

28,869

30,164

31,424

90

190

260

20

40

25,376

27,724

29,129

30,184

31,464

220

218

225

231

239

75

84

Unemployment compensation:
Unemployment insurance programs .......................................
19,424
22,512
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Unemployment
insurance programs .........

19,424

22,512

Trade adjustment assistance .....
222
230
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

9 ................... ...................

Subtotal, Trade adjustment
assistance .........................

222

230

295

302

234

231

239

Total, Unemployment
compensation ................

19,646

22,742

25,671

28,026

29,363

30,415

31,703

40

40

40

40

40

87

88

90

92

94

127

128

130

132

134

22,455

23,306

23,944

24,472

25,278

10

10

10

15

15

22,465

23,316

23,954

24,487

25,293

9,543

10,012

10,559

11,022

11,502

–57

–66

–52

–66

–75

Housing assistance:
Mandatory housing assistance
programs .................................
37
50
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Total, Housing assistance

37

50

Food and nutrition assistance:
Food stamps (including Puerto
Rico) .........................................
24,907
22,586
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Food stamps (including Puerto Rico) ........

24,907

22,586

State child nutrition programs
7,998
9,179
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, State child nutrition programs ...................

7,998

9,179

9,486

9,946

10,507

10,956

11,427

Funds for strengthening markets, income, and supply
(Sec.32) ....................................

513

587

669

536

548

548

548

Total, Food and nutrition
assistance .....................

33,418

32,352

32,620

33,798

35,009

35,991

37,268

34.

305

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

Other income support:
Supplemental security income
(SSI) .........................................
25,969
28,331
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Supplemental security income (SSI) ..........

25,969

28,331

Family support payments ..........
607
2,649
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Family support
payments ..........................

607

2,649

Federal share of child support
collections ................................
–1,007
–945
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal share of
child support collections ..

–1,007

–945

Temporary assistance for needy
families and related programs
18,632
17,053
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Temporary assistance for needy families
and related programs ......

18,632

17,053

Child care entitlement to states
2,070
2,167
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Child care entitlement to states ..................

2,070

2,167

Earned income tax credit
(EITC) ......................................
23,239
26,273
Simplification of foster child
definition for purposes of the
EITC (Proposed Legislation
PAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
Child tax credit .......................... ...................
415
Other assistance .........................
53
52
SSI recoveries and receipts .......
–1,361
–1,415

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

28,936

29,950

31,248

32,337

33,392

–14

–18

13

110

277

28,922

29,932

31,261

32,447

33,669

750

2,569

3,350

3,630

3,910

–9

32

31

31

30

741

2,601

3,381

3,661

3,940

–965

–974

–939

–927

–947

–65

–66

–87

–117

–129

–1,030

–1,040

–1,026

–1,044

–1,076

17,087

17,142

16,824

16,824

16,824

–83

–158 ................... ................... ...................

17,004

16,984

16,824

16,824

16,824

2,367

2,567

2,717

2,717

2,717

1,755

1,880

2,000

2,200

2,665

4,122

4,447

4,717

4,917

5,382

26,880

27,631

28,595

29,529

30,538

–2
528
62
–1,452

–36
496
63
–1,497

–37
483
63
–1,544

–39
453
64
–1,594

–40
425
64
–1,642

Total, Other income support ................................

68,202

74,580

75,775

79,581

82,717

85,218

88,084

Total, Mandatory ........................

201,831

210,295

220,808

231,178

239,609

247,097

255,690

Total, Income security ..............

231,579

243,114

250,960

267,574

275,805

283,293

291,886

650 Social security:
Discretionary:
Social security:
Old-age and survivors insurance (OASI)administrative
expenses (Off-budget) .............

1,773

1,746

1,765

1,765

1,765

1,765

1,765

306

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

Disability insurance (DI) administrative expenses (Offbudget) .....................................
1,422
1,406
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,465

1,465

1,465

1,465

1,465

–19

–19

–19

–19

–19

Subtotal, Disability insurance (DI) administrative
expenses (Off-budget) ......

1,422

1,406

1,446

1,446

1,446

1,446

1,446

Office of the Inspector General—Social Security Adm. ....

10

12

15

14

14

14

14

Total, Discretionary ...................

3,205

3,164

3,226

3,225

3,225

3,225

3,225

367,529

382,223

398,341

415,229

64

113

144

153

350,694

367,593

382,336

398,485

415,382

54,891

58,707

63,438

68,385

73,911

3

14

28

33

33

54,894

58,721

63,466

68,418

73,944

Mandatory:
Social security:
Old-age and survivors insurance (OASI)(Off-budget) .........
328,873
338,405
350,694
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Old-age and survivors insurance
(OASI)(Off-budget) ..........

328,873

338,405

Disability insurance (DI)(Offbudget) .....................................
48,394
49,793
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Disability insurance (DI)(Off-budget) ......

48,394

49,793

Quinquennial OASI and DI adjustments ................................. ................... ................... ...................
Intragovernmental transactions
(On-budget) .............................
9,142
11,277
10,339
Intragovernmental transactions
(Off-budget) .............................
–9,140
–11,278
–10,340

–1,121 ................... ................... ...................
10,818

11,383

12,033

12,785

–10,818

–11,383

–12,033

–12,785

Total, Mandatory ........................

377,269

388,197

405,587

425,193

445,802

466,903

489,326

Total, Social security .................

380,474

391,361

408,813

428,418

449,027

470,128

492,551

700 Veterans benefits and services:
Discretionary:
Veterans education, training,
and rehabilitation:
Loan fund program account ......

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

18,432

18,593

18,805

18,830

18,857

56

56

56

56

56

18,488

18,649

18,861

18,886

18,913

Hospital and medical care for
veterans:
Medical care and hospital services ...........................................
18,056
18,283
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Medical care and
hospital services ..............

18,056

18,283

34.

307

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Collections for medical care .......
Construction of medical facilities ...........................................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

–700

–638

–762

–926

–1,143

–1,150

–1,176

465

407

275

275

275

275

275

Total, Hospital and medical care for veterans ....

17,821

18,052

18,001

17,998

17,993

18,011

18,012

Veterans housing:
Housing program loan subsidies

161

160

158

158

158

158

158

1,112

1,112

1,112

1,112

1,112

10

10

10

10

10

Other veterans benefits and
services:
Other general operating expenses ......................................
960
1,069
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Total, Other veterans
benefits and services ...

960

1,069

1,122

1,122

1,122

1,122

1,122

Total, Discretionary ...................

18,943

19,282

19,282

19,279

19,274

19,292

19,293

18,310

19,003

19,565

20,162

20,754

293

639

988

1,338

1,707

5

5

5

–10

–19

18,608

19,647

20,558

21,490

22,442

3,712

3,732

–513

–520

Mandatory:
Income security for veterans:
Compensation .............................
17,295
18,623
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Compensation .....

17,295

18,623

Pensions ......................................
3,071
3,106
3,136
3,161
3,180
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Pensions ..............

3,071

3,106

3,136

3,161

3,180

3,199

3,212

Burial benefits and miscellaneous assistance .........................
National service life insurance
trust fund ................................
All other insurance programs ...
Insurance program receipts .......

117

129

123

125

127

128

130

1,196
57
–219

1,122
52
–213

1,050
34
–198

1,001
43
–186

949
43
–173

890
43
–161

829
43
–149

Total, Income security for
veterans ........................

21,517

22,819

22,753

23,791

24,684

25,589

26,507

Veterans education, training,
and rehabilitation:
Readjustment benefits (GI Bill
and related programs) ............
Post-Vietnam era education ......
All-volunteer force educational
assistance trust fund ..............
Total, Veterans education, training, and rehabilitation ...................

1,366
1,175
1,469
1,722
1,714
1,712
1,740
–1 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–198

–174

–209

–213

–217

–220

–235

1,167

1,001

1,260

1,509

1,497

1,492

1,505

308

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Hospital and medical care for
veterans:
Fees, charges and other mandatory medical care ....................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

138 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Veterans housing:
Housing loan subsidies ..............
920
311
285
251
251
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Housing loan subsidies .................................
Housing loan reestimate ............
Housing loan liquidating account ........................................

2004

920

311

285

251

251

484

521

–188

–190

296

331

–206 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
270 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Total, Veterans housing ..

984

311

285

251

251

296

331

Other veterans programs:
Other mandatory veterans programs .......................................

43

44

82

39

39

131

36

Total, Mandatory ........................

23,849

24,175

24,380

25,590

26,471

27,508

28,379

Total, Veterans benefits and
services ......................................

42,792

43,457

43,662

44,869

45,745

46,800

47,672

4,582

4,582

4,582

4,582

4,582

600

600

600

600

600

4,768

4,768

4,768

4,768

4,768

–475

–255

–255

–230

–230

750 Administration of justice:
Discretionary:
Federal law enforcement activities:
Criminal investigations (DEA,
FBI, FinCEN, ICDE) ..............
4,337
4,389
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms
investigations (ATF) ...............
533
549
Border enforcement activities
(Customs and INS) .................
3,994
4,637
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Border enforcement activities (Customs
and INS) ...........................

3,994

4,637

4,293

4,513

4,513

4,538

4,538

242

279

312

312

312

312

312

Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission .............................
Tax law, criminal investigations
(IRS) .........................................
Other law enforcement activities ...........................................

372

371

376

376

376

376

376

1,488

1,452

1,481

1,481

1,481

1,481

1,481

Total, Federal law enforcement activities ......

10,966

11,677

11,644

11,864

11,864

11,889

11,889

2,421

2,518

2,985

2,985

2,985

2,985

2,985

283

300

340

340

340

340

340

Federal litigative and judicial
activities:
Civil and criminal prosecution
and representation .................
Representation of indigents in
civil cases ................................

34.

309

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Federal judicial and other
litigative activities ..................

3,236

3,491

3,989

3,999

4,065

4,101

4,136

Total, Federal litigative
and judicial activities ..

5,940

6,309

7,314

7,324

7,390

7,426

7,461

Correctional activities:
Discretionary programs .............

3,099

3,302

3,780

3,929

4,024

3,782

3,846

Criminal justice assistance:
Discretionary programs .............

4,835

4,889

3,638

3,637

3,637

3,637

3,637

Total, Discretionary ...................

24,840

26,177

26,376

26,754

26,915

26,734

26,833

Mandatory:
Federal law enforcement activities:
Assets forfeiture fund ................
411
479
410
425
430
440
Border enforcement activities
(Customs and INS) .................
1,681
1,630
1,716
1,681
1,757
1,789
Customs and INS fees ...............
–2,316
–2,612
–2,792
–2,826
–2,790
–2,866
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

451
1,823
–1,403
–1,522

Subtotal, Customs and INS
fees ....................................

–2,316

–2,612

–2,792

–2,826

–2,790

–2,866

–2,925

Other mandatory law enforcement programs ........................

440

390

350

348

327

330

333

Total, Federal law enforcement activities ......

216

–113

–316

–372

–276

–307

–318

Federal litigative and judicial
activities:
Mandatory programs .................

422

435

461

469

481

492

505

Correctional activities:
Mandatory programs .................

–2

–3

–3

–3

–3

–3

–3

Criminal justice assistance:
Mandatory programs .................

394

356

407

408

409

410

411

Total, Mandatory ........................

1,030

675

549

502

611

592

595

Total, Administration of justice ..............................................

25,870

26,852

26,925

27,256

27,526

27,326

27,428

800 General government:
Discretionary:
Legislative functions:
Legislative branch discretionary
programs .................................

1,976

2,245

2,263

2,289

2,310

2,345

2,380

327

362

411

411

411

411

411

233

296

263

263

263

263

263

Executive direction and management:
Drug control programs ...............
Executive Office of the President ..........................................

310

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Presidential transition and
former Presidents ...................

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Total, Executive direction
and management .........

562

660

676

676

676

676

676

Central fiscal operations:
Tax administration ....................
Other fiscal operations ...............

7,469
502

7,980
640

7,974
636

8,494
636

8,301
636

8,301
636

8,301
636

Total, Central fiscal operations ............................

7,971

8,620

8,610

9,130

8,937

8,937

8,937

General property and records
management:
Real property activities ..............
Records management .................
Other general and records management ...................................

–57
221

293
248

4
223

189
294

112
213

155
213

84
213

141

160

156

156

156

156

156

Total, General property
and records management ..............................

305

701

383

639

481

524

453

Central personnel management:
Discretionary central personnel
management programs ...........

149

152

164

164

164

164

164

823

429

313

313

313

313

313

11
11
120
125
1 ...................

10
125
–5

10
125
–5

10
125
–5

10
125
–5

10
125
–5

Total, General purpose
fiscal assistance ...........

955

565

443

443

443

443

443

Other general government:
Discretionary programs .............

153

257

183

168

170

170

171

Total, Discretionary ...................

12,071

13,200

12,722

13,509

13,181

13,259

13,224

Mandatory:
Legislative functions:
Congressional members compensation and other ................

98

100

102

96

96

98

95

Central fiscal operations:
Federal financing bank ..............
Other mandatory programs .......

3,081
–2,327

1,300
–51

31
–20

32
–19

34
–17

36
–20

32
–24

Total, Central fiscal operations ............................

754

1,249

11

13

17

16

8

General property and records
management:
Mandatory programs .................

22

18

19

20

21

21

22

General purpose fiscal assistance:
Payments and loans to the District of Columbia .....................
Payments to States and counties from Federal land management activities ...................
Payments in lieu of taxes ..........
Other ...........................................

34.

311

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Offsetting receipts ......................

–63

–26

–29

–34

–35

–35

–32

Total, General property
and records management ..............................

–41

–8

–10

–14

–14

–14

–10

General purpose fiscal assistance:
Payments and loans to the District of Columbia .....................
–50 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Payments to States and counties ...........................................
784
845
860
876
875
882
894
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
27
41
55
64
72
Subtotal, Payments to
States and counties .........

784

845

Tax revenues for Puerto Rico
(Treasury, BATF) ....................
342
328
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Tax revenues for
Puerto Rico (Treasury,
BATF) ...............................

342

328

Other general purpose fiscal assistance ....................................
90
98
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other general
purpose fiscal assistance

887

917

930

946

966

329

336

338

341

344

34

34

34

34

34

363

370

372

375

378

99

93

93

93

93

12

12

12

12

12

90

98

111

105

105

105

105

1,166

1,271

1,361

1,392

1,407

1,426

1,449

167
678

162
764

164
712

166
712

192
712

194
712

194
712

63
–84

63
63
–60 ...................

63
63
63
63
–11 ................... ................... ...................

Total, Other general government ........................

824

929

939

930

967

969

969

Deductions for offsetting receipts:
Offsetting receipts ......................

–1,069

–1,160

–1,160

–1,160

–1,160

–1,160

–1,160

Total, Mandatory ........................

1,732

2,381

1,243

1,257

1,313

1,335

1,351

Total, General government ......

13,803

15,581

13,965

14,766

14,494

14,594

14,575

Total, General purpose
fiscal assistance ...........
Other general government:
Territories ...................................
Treasury claims ..........................
Presidential election campaign
fund ..........................................
Other mandatory programs .......

312

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

900 Net interest:
Mandatory:
Interest on the public debt:
Interest on the public debt ........
363,793
353,356
346,297
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ...................
73
207
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ................... ...................
Total, Interest on the
public debt ....................

363,793

353,429

346,504

Interest received by on-budget
trust funds:
Civil service retirement and disability fund ..............................
–29,925
–31,649
–33,262
CSRDF interest receipts from
FFB, Postal, and TVA ............
–1,841
–2,539
–1,379
Military retirement ....................
–12,358
–12,533
–12,716
Medicare ......................................
–11,760
–12,038
–12,033
Other on-budget trust funds .....
–11,324
–8,401
–9,064
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ...................
–73
–157
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ................... ...................

2002

2003

2004

344,325

341,427

339,018

338,013

301

419

508

579

93

195

296

396

344,719

342,041

339,822

338,988

–33,946

–34,714

–35,412

–36,179

–1,373
–12,912
–11,917
–9,397

–1,368
–13,121
–11,895
–9,728

–1,368
–13,338
–12,022
–10,089

–1,174
–13,568
–11,999
–10,521

–251

–369

–458

–529

–93

–195

–296

–396

Subtotal, Other on-budget
trust funds .......................

–11,324

–8,474

–9,221

–9,741

–10,292

–10,843

–11,446

Total, Interest received
by on-budget trust
funds .............................

–67,208

–67,233

–68,611

–69,889

–71,390

–72,983

–74,366

Interest received by off-budget
trust funds:
Interest received by social security trust funds .......................

–46,630

–51,869

–56,492

–62,107

–68,500

–75,448

–82,749

–4,141

–2,736

–2,352

–2,153

–1,996

–1,845

–1,859

2,599

2,904

3,036

3,180

3,304

3,423

3,560

2,328

2,328

2,328

2,328

2,328

2,328

2,328

3,435

2,693

2,773

2,862

2,973

3,087

3,205

–5,670

–6,609

–7,740

–8,797

–9,851

–10,902

–11,892

–1,228

–1,050

–1,115

–1,105

–1,105

–1,105

–1,105

–3

–1,264

Other interest:
Interest on loans to Federal Financing Bank ..........................
Interest on refunds of tax collections .........................................
Payment to the Resolution
Funding Corporation ..............
Interest paid to loan guarantee
financing accounts ..................
Interest received from direct
loan financing accounts ..........
Interest on deposits in tax and
loan accounts ...........................
Interest received from Outer
Continental Shelf escrow account, Interior .........................

–9 ................... ................... ................... ...................

34.

313

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

All other interest ........................
–3,912
–3,349
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, All other interest

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

–3,085

–3,083

–3,013

–3,090

–3,101

–50

–50

–50

–50

–50

–3,912

–3,349

–3,135

–3,133

–3,063

–3,140

–3,151

Total, Other interest .......

–6,592

–7,083

–6,214

–6,818

–7,410

–8,154

–8,914

Total, Net interest ......................

243,363

227,244

215,187

205,905

194,741

183,237

172,959

–50,652
3,000

–47,599
6,000

–29,491
9,000

–34,452
12,000

920 Allowances:
Discretionary:
Resources contingent upon Social Security reform ................
Reserve for priority initiatives ..
Natural disaster and other
emergencies .............................
Adjustment to certain accounts
Expected release of contingent
emergency funding .................

................... ................... ...................
................... ................... ...................

...................
3,250 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
................... ...................
–307 ................... ................... ................... ...................
...................

Total, Discretionary ................... ...................

4,327 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
7,577

–307

–47,652

–41,599

–20,491

–22,452

–1,315

–519

–545

–3,385

–4,281

–4,255

–4,600

–4,700

–4,800

–4,800

–307

–52,252

–46,299

–25,291

–27,252

–2,600

1,300

1,300 ................... ...................

–200

–200

–200

–200

–200

–2,800

1,100

1,100

–200

–200

–10,740

–10,981

–11,268

–11,585

–11,969

–849

–1,058

–1,159

–1,231

–1,270

Mandatory:
Tobacco recoupment policy (Proposed Legislation PAYGO) ..... ................... ................... ...................
–4,600
Tobacco recoupment policy (Legislative proposal, discretionary offset) .......................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Total, Mandatory ........................ ................... ................... ...................
Total, Allowances ....................... ...................

7,577

950 Undistributed offsetting receipts:
Discretionary:
Other undistributed offsetting
receipts:
Spectrum auction ....................... ................... ...................
Analog spectrum lease fee (Proposed Legislation nonPAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
Total, Discretionary ................... ................... ...................
Mandatory:
Employer share, employee retirement (on-budget):
Contributions to military retirement fund ................................
–10,421
–10,534
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Contributions to
military retirement fund
Postal Service contributions to
Civil Service Retirement and
Disability Fund .......................

–10,421

–10,534

–11,589

–12,039

–12,427

–12,816

–13,239

–6,109

–6,071

–6,274

–6,451

–6,620

–6,760

–6,849

314

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–1. BUDGET AUTHORITY BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND
PROGRAM—Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other contributions to civil and
foreign service retirement and
disability fund .........................
Contributions to HI trust fund

–8,791
–2,499

–8,931
–2,567

–9,283
–2,684

–9,782
–2,775

–10,204
–2,913

–10,286
–3,045

–10,843
–3,187

Total, Employer share,
employee retirement
(on-budget) ....................

–27,820

–28,103

–29,830

–31,047

–32,164

–32,907

–34,118

–7,969

–8,442

–9,102

–9,746

–10,442

264

271

261

260

261

Employer share, employee retirement (off-budget):
Contributions to social security
trust funds ...............................
–7,052
–7,355
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Total, Employer share,
employee retirement
(off-budget) ...................

–7,052

–7,355

–7,705

–8,171

–8,841

–9,486

–10,181

Rents and royalties on the
Outer Continental Shelf:
OCS Receipts ..............................

–4,522

–3,123

–2,779

–2,798

–2,806

–2,673

–2,608

Sale of major assets:
Proceeds from Sale of U.S. Enrichment Corporation .............
Privatization of Elk Hills ...........
Proceeds from sale of Power
Marketing Administrations ...
Total, Sale of major assets ................................

–1,885 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–3,185 ...................
–323 ................... ................... ................... ...................
–88 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–5,158 ...................

–323 ................... ................... ................... ...................

Other undistributed offsetting
receipts:
Spectrum auction .......................

–2,642

–1,447

–2,219

–4,101

–8,365

–1,770

–775

Total, Mandatory ........................

–47,194

–40,028

–42,856

–46,117

–52,176

–46,836

–47,682

Total, Undistributed offsetting
receipts ......................................

–47,194

–40,028

–45,656

–45,017

–51,076

–47,036

–47,882

Total ......................................................

1,692,252

1,770,106

1,781,050

1,802,748

1,833,377

1,920,008

1,976,842

On-budget ........................................... (1,368,253) (1,443,651) (1,441,914) (1,452,490) (1,472,567) (1,546,765) (1,590,164)
Off-budget ..........................................
(323,999) (326,455) (339,136) (350,258) (360,810) (373,243) (386,678)

34.

315

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

050 National defense:
Discretionary:
Department of Defense—Military:
Military personnel ......................
Operation and maintenance ......
Procurement ...............................
Research, development, test and
evaluation ................................
Military construction .................
Family housing ...........................
Revolving, management and
trust funds ...............................
General transfer authority ........
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ...................................
DoD budget amendments ..........
Discretionary offsetting receipts
DOD-wide savings proposals .....
Total, Department of Defense—Military .............

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

68,976
93,138
48,206

71,957
96,560
48,422

75,437
97,291
47,038

73,915
103,506
51,205

77,883
104,680
55,089

80,606
106,814
60,023

83,413
109,837
63,932

37,420
6,044
3,871

36,758
5,287
3,894

34,523
4,708
3,700

34,477
3,969
3,472

34,514
5,130
3,621

34,537
4,833
3,660

34,823
4,455
3,741

1,809
280

23
220

490
...................

671
787
696
710
100 ................... ................... ...................

................... ................... ................... ...................
................... ................... ...................
–1,323
–35
–394
–217
–1
................... ...................
–914
–591

182
–2,477
–2
–99

616
–560
–2
–23

648
–645
–2
–12

258,110

264,573

261,809

269,400

279,308

291,200

300,900

11,181

11,824

11,898

12,170

12,331

12,338

12,350

71

169

146

150

150

150

150

17

19

18

18

18

18

18

Total, Atomic energy defense activities .............

11,269

12,012

12,062

12,338

12,499

12,506

12,518

Defense-related activities:
Discretionary programs .............

869

960

964

998

1,011

1,009

1,009

Total, Discretionary ...................

270,248

277,545

274,835

282,736

292,818

304,715

314,427

Mandatory:
Department of Defense—Military:
Revolving, trust and other DoD
mandatory ...............................
Offsetting receipts ......................

365
–2,353

385
–1,402

404
–1,379

581
–1,416

442
–1,418

432
–1,384

410
–1,324

Total, Department of Defense—Military .............

–1,988

–1,017

–975

–835

–976

–952

–914

Atomic energy defense activities:
Department of Energy ...............
Formerly utilized sites remedial
action .......................................
Defense nuclear facilities safety
board ........................................

Atomic energy defense activities:
Proceeds from sales of excess
DOE assets ..............................

–1 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Defense-related activities:
Mandatory programs .................

197

202

209

221

233

242

254

Total, Mandatory ........................

–1,792

–815

–766

–614

–743

–710

–660

Total, National defense .............

268,456

276,730

274,069

282,122

292,075

304,005

313,767

316

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

150 International affairs:
Discretionary:
International development,
humanitarian assistance:
Development assistance and operating expenses .....................
2,131
1,823
Multilateral development banks
(MDB’s) ....................................
1,565
1,432
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Multilateral development banks (MDB’s)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,779

1,696

1,753

1,754

1,756

1,471

1,672

1,955

1,765

1,675

50

50

50

50

50

1,565

1,432

1,521

1,722

2,005

1,815

1,725

626
778
722

565
815
687

602
823
694

708
799
692

923
762
690

990
790
690

1,017
787
690

470

450

411

356

372

384

388

300
217

293
241

293
270

296
269

293
270

293
270

293
270

398

739

951

924

963

928

923

Total, International development, humanitarian assistance ..........

7,207

7,045

7,344

7,462

8,031

7,914

7,849

International security assistance:
Foreign military financing
grants and loans .....................
Economic support fund ..............
Other security assistance ..........

3,152
2,461
252

3,851
2,201
338

3,531
2,269
388

3,637
2,186
411

3,499
2,323
413

3,504
2,348
413

3,491
2,328
413

Total, International security assistance ..............

5,865

6,390

6,188

6,234

6,235

6,265

6,232

2,990
725

2,928
777

2,929
885

2,929
1,029

963

963

963

963

235

235

235

235

475
145

446 ................... ...................
140
140
140

Assistance for the New Independent States ........................
Food aid ......................................
Refugee programs .......................
Assistance for Central and
Eastern Europe .......................
Voluntary contributions to
international organizations ....
Peace Corps ................................
Other development and humanitarian assistance ....................

Conduct of foreign affairs:
State Department operations ....
1,824
2,588
3,087
Foreign buildings .......................
235
508
610
Assessed contributions to international organizations ............
829
1,000
962
Assessed contributions for international peacekeeping ............
151
336
235
Arrearage payment for international organizations and
peacekeeping ........................... ................... ................... ...................
Other conduct of foreign affairs
177
170
160
Total, Conduct of foreign
affairs ............................

3,216

4,602

5,054

5,533

5,489

5,152

5,296

Foreign information and exchange activities:
Broadcasting Board of Governors .......................................

403

415

450

450

453

453

453

34.

317

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other information and exchange activities .....................

753

797

347

280

274

274

274

Total, Foreign information and exchange activities ...........................

1,156

1,212

797

730

727

727

727

International financial programs:
Export-Import Bank ...................
Special defense acquisition fund
Other IMF ...................................

672
–39
24

594
–36
22

584
5
16

658
754
824
873
6
5 ................... ...................
9 ................... ................... ...................

Total, International financial programs .........

657

580

605

673

759

824

873

Total, Discretionary ...................

18,101

19,829

19,988

20,632

21,241

20,882

20,977

–1,781

–1,323

–1,226

–1,184

–1,136

–1,092

–1,044

20

–8

–34

–4

–3

–3

–3

–1,761

–1,331

–1,260

–1,188

–1,139

–1,095

–1,047

Mandatory:
International development,
humanitarian assistance:
Credit liquidating accounts .......
Other development and humanitarian assistance ....................
Total, International development, humanitarian assistance ..........
International security assistance:
Repayment of foreign military
financing loans ........................
Foreign military loan reestimates .......................................
Foreign military loan liquidating account ..............................
Total, International security assistance ..............
Foreign affairs and information:
Conduct of foreign affairs ..........
U.S. Information Agency trust
funds ........................................
Miscellaneous trust funds .........
Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission ..........................................
Total, Foreign affairs and
information ...................
International financial programs:
Foreign military sales trust
fund (net) .................................
International monetary fund .....
Exchange stabilization fund ......
Credit liquidating account
(Exim) ......................................

–534

–371 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

19

5 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

–215

–287

–550

–458

–402

–339

–271

–730

–653

–550

–458

–402

–339

–271

46

15

4

4

2

3

3

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

–1
2

2

3

3

3

1

1

1

49

19

8

8

4

5

5

–125 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–175 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–1,236
–1,254
–1,312
–1,380
–1,394
–1,408
–1,422
–880

–851

–521

–335

–303

–241

–242

318

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other international financial
programs .................................

–134

–285

–251

–327

–159

–72

–80

Total, International financial programs .........

–2,550

–2,390

–2,084

–2,042

–1,856

–1,721

–1,744

Total, Mandatory ........................

–4,992

–4,355

–3,886

–3,680

–3,393

–3,150

–3,057

Total, International affairs ......

13,109

15,474

16,102

16,952

17,848

17,732

17,920

250 General science, space, and
technology:
Discretionary:
General science and basic research:
National Science Foundation
programs .................................
Department of Energy general
science programs ....................

3,070

3,132

3,491

3,706

3,875

3,881

3,883

2,239

2,534

2,747

2,824

2,835

2,835

2,835

Total, General science
and basic research .......

5,309

5,666

6,238

6,530

6,710

6,716

6,718

Space flight, research, and
supporting activities:
Science, aeronautics and technology .......................................
Human space flight ....................
Mission support ..........................
Other NASA programs ..............

5,118
5,551
2,061
136

5,055
5,526
2,146
64

4,617
5,528
1,988
120

4,791
5,510
2,047
21

4,842
5,378
2,163
21

5,282
5,055
2,181
21

5,510
4,842
2,206
21

Total, Space flight, research, and supporting
activities .......................

12,866

12,791

12,253

12,369

12,404

12,539

12,579

Total, Discretionary ...................

18,175

18,457

18,491

18,899

19,114

19,255

19,297

Mandatory:
General science and basic research:
National Science Foundation
donations .................................

44

72

78

68

34

34

34

Total, General science, space,
and technology ........................

18,219

18,529

18,569

18,967

19,148

19,289

19,331

1,673

1,437

1,285

1,385

1,390

1,360

1,292

96
249
–388
164
247

42
223
–398
163
245

22
234
–420
234
203

1 ................... ................... ...................
240
240
240
240
–420
–420
–420
–420
239
180
180
180
178
178
178
178

91
489

91
487

82
396

77
371

63
366

53
367

49
367

2,621

2,290

2,036

2,071

1,997

1,958

1,886

270 Energy:
Discretionary:
Energy supply:
Research and development ........
Naval petroleum reserves operations .......................................
Uranium enrichment activities
Decontamination transfer ..........
Nuclear waste program .............
Federal power marketing ..........
Rural electric and telephone
discretionary loans .................
Financial management services
Total, Energy supply .......

34.

319

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Energy conservation and preparedness:
Energy conservation ...................
Emergency energy preparedness
Total, Energy conservation and preparedness

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

621
233

560
182

722
169

816
164

838
164

838
164

838
164

854

742

891

980

1,002

1,002

1,002

37

24

23

23

23

23

23

Energy information, policy,
and regulation:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) .......................................
Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission fees and recoveries, and other ..........................
Departmental and other administration ...................................

–10

–29

–28

–28

–28

–28

–28

208

206

225

228

228

228

228

Total, Energy information, policy, and regulation ................................

235

201

220

223

223

223

223

Total, Discretionary ...................

3,710

3,233

3,147

3,274

3,222

3,183

3,111

–3
–702
–463
–6

–4
–619
–746
–17

–4
–753
–1,011
–17

–3
–821
–981
–32

–3
–813
–1,025
–32

–2
–905
–1,370
–4

Mandatory:
Energy supply:
Naval petroleum reserves oil
and gas sales ...........................
–210
Federal power marketing ..........
–945
Tennessee Valley Authority ......
–869
Proceeds from uranium sales ....
–13
United States Enrichment Corporation ...................................
–46
Nuclear waste fund program .....
–597
Rural electric and telephone liquidating accounts ....................
240
Rural electric and telephone
loan subsidy reestimate ......... ...................

1 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–642
–632
–632
–631
–632
–632
–1,198

–3,124

–1,987

–1,868

–1,739

–1,368

–171 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Total, Mandatory ........................

–2,440

–3,184

–5,142

–4,404

–4,336

–4,244

–4,281

Total, Energy ...............................

1,270

49

–1,995

–1,130

–1,114

–1,061

–1,170

300 Natural resources and environment:
Discretionary:
Water resources:
Corps of Engineers .....................

3,866

3,920

3,811

3,754

3,759

3,784

3,802

Bureau of Reclamation ..............
Other discretionary water resources programs ....................

775

1,121

838

856

856

856

856

272

340

217

157

120

124

134

Total, Water resources ....

4,913

5,381

4,866

4,767

4,735

4,764

4,792

2,604

2,718

2,706

2,704

2,704

–111

–111

–111

–111

–111

2,493

2,607

2,595

2,593

2,593

Conservation and land management:
Forest Service .............................
2,549
2,449
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Forest Service .....

2,549

2,449

320

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

Management of public lands
(BLM) .......................................
1,015
790
Conservation of agricultural
lands ........................................
669
752
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,264

1,196

1,115

1,115

1,115

749

764

760

763

768

3

4

5

5

5

Subtotal, Conservation of
agricultural lands ............

669

752

752

768

765

768

773

Other conservation and land
management programs ...........

584

505

577

739

730

767

772

Total, Conservation and
land management ........

4,817

4,496

5,086

5,310

5,205

5,243

5,253

2,552

3,230

2,917

3,040

3,076

3,079

3,078

102

134

127

118

118

118

118

2,654

3,364

3,044

3,158

3,194

3,197

3,196

2,808

2,832

2,838

2,835

2,835

3,140
1,432

3,298
1,447

3,038
1,482

2,949
1,528

2,880
1,572

177

185

191

191

192

–20

–20

–20

–20

–20

7,537

7,742

7,529

7,483

7,459

2,327

2,455

2,496

2,561

2,569

–34

–34

–34

–34

–34

Recreational resources:
Operation of recreational resources .....................................
Other recreational resources activities ......................................
Total, Recreational resources ..........................

Pollution control and abatement:
Regulatory, enforcement, and
research programs ..................
2,544
2,687
State and tribal assistance
grants .......................................
2,597
2,800
Hazardous substance superfund
1,431
1,419
Other control and abatement
activities ..................................
135
159
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
Total, Pollution control
and abatement .............

6,707

7,065

Other natural resources:
NOAA ..........................................
2,110
2,033
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, NOAA ..................

2,110

2,033

2,293

2,421

2,462

2,527

2,535

Other natural resource program
activities ..................................

754

873

964

950

951

951

951

Total, Other natural resources ..........................

2,864

2,906

3,257

3,371

3,413

3,478

3,486

Total, Discretionary ...................

21,955

23,212

23,790

24,348

24,076

24,165

24,186

34.

321

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Mandatory:
Water resources:
Mandatory water resource programs .......................................
–192
73
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Total, Water resources ....

–192

73

Conservation and land management:
Conservation Reserve Program
and other agricultural programs .......................................
1,928
1,890
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Conservation Reserve Program and other
agricultural programs .....

1,928

1,890

Other conservation programs ....
573
666
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other conservation programs ...................

573

666

Offsetting receipts ......................
–1,843
–1,978
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

46

51

–143

–14

–43

9

12

15

17

17

–966

–963

–960

–996

–1,014

–911

–900

–1,088

–993

–1,040

1,944

2,013

2,014

2,072

2,096

18

31

52

66

72

1,962

2,044

2,066

2,138

2,168

507

481

473

475

478

–12

–8

1

29

29

495

473

474

504

507

–2,075

–2,037

–2,043

–2,044

–2,053

–5

–15

–34

–34

–35

Subtotal, Offsetting receipts

–1,843

–1,978

–2,080

–2,052

–2,077

–2,078

–2,088

Total, Conservation and
land management ........

658

578

377

465

463

564

587

896

900

860

838

832

3

3

47

102

150

899

903

907

940

982

–302

–309

–317

–98

–110

–122

Recreational resources:
Operation of recreational resources .....................................
680
1,022
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Operation of recreational resources ..........

680

1,022

Offsetting receipts ......................
–350
–434
–433
–440
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Offsetting receipts

–350

–434

–433

–440

–400

–419

–439

Total, Recreational resources ..........................

330

588

466

463

507

521

543

322

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Pollution control and abatement:
Superfund resources and other
mandatory ...............................
–285
–210
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

–185

–157

–147

–147

–147

200

200

200

200

200

Total, Pollution control
and abatement .............

–285

–210

15

43

53

53

53

Other natural resources:
Other fees and mandatory programs .......................................

–70

20

9

–9

–11

–11

–12

Total, Mandatory ........................

441

1,049

–44

62

–76

134

131

Total, Natural resources and
environment .............................

22,396

24,261

23,746

24,410

24,000

24,299

24,317

347

353

299

303

300

300

300

175
967

934
770

154
825

132
824

128
824

128
824

128
824

1,489

2,057

1,278

1,259

1,252

1,252

1,252

1,364
424
60

1,230
404
61

1,205
402
61

1,247
402
61

1,236
402
61

449

446

442

442

442

–9

–9

–9

–9

–9

440

437

433

433

433

158
26

157
26

157
26

157
26

157
26

–15

–15

–15

–15

–15

11

11

11

11

11

134

138

138

138

138

–28

–28

–28

–28

–28

106

110

110

110

110

350 Agriculture:
Discretionary:
Farm income stabilization:
Agriculture credit loan program
P.L.480 market development activities ......................................
Administrative expenses ............
Total, Farm income stabilization .......................

Agricultural research and
services:
Research programs .....................
1,259
1,372
Extension programs ...................
413
430
Marketing programs ..................
42
44
Animal and plant inspection
programs .................................
451
433
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Animal and plant
inspection programs ........

451

433

Economic intelligence .................
179
157
Grain inspection .........................
24
27
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Grain inspection

24

27

Foreign agricultural service ......
157
137
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Foreign agricultural service .....................

157

137

34.

323

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Other programs and
unallocated overhead ..............

313

347

383

458

497

491

488

Total, Agricultural research and services ......

2,838

2,947

2,946

2,868

2,876

2,912

2,898

Total, Discretionary ...................

4,327

5,004

4,224

4,127

4,128

4,164

4,150

10,477

8,105

6,721

5,307

5,324

–20

–41

–53

–65

–74

Mandatory:
Farm income stabilization:
Commodity Credit Corporation
8,248
16,383
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Commodity Credit
Corporation ......................

8,248

16,383

10,457

8,064

6,668

5,242

5,250

Crop insurance and other farm
credit activities .......................
Credit liquidating accounts
(ACIF and FAC) ......................

997

1,200

1,493

1,569

1,465

1,522

1,588

–1,437

–1,235

–1,184

–1,194

–1,180

–1,186

–1,110

Total, Farm income stabilization .......................

7,808

16,348

10,766

8,439

6,953

5,578

5,728

1

3

5

6

427

486

539

546

3

17

30

30

Agricultural research and
services:
Fund for Rural America (Proposed Legislation PAYGO) ..... ................... ................... ...................
Miscellaneous mandatory programs .......................................
212
246
305
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Miscellaneous
mandatory programs .......

212

246

305

430

503

569

576

Offsetting receipts ......................

–141

–149

–149

–150

–150

–150

–150

Total, Agricultural research and services ......

71

97

156

281

356

424

432

Total, Mandatory ........................

7,879

16,445

10,922

8,720

7,309

6,002

6,160

Total, Agriculture .......................

12,206

21,449

15,146

12,847

11,437

10,166

10,310

762

693

923

737

763

748

699

–355

–346

–407

–407

–407

–407

–407

3
576

–156
603

–319
588

–399
568

–399
557

–398
561

–400
558

986

794

785

499

514

504

450

164

164

164

164

164

370 Commerce and housing credit:
Discretionary:
Mortgage credit:
Federal Housing Administration (FHA) loan programs ......
Government National Mortgage
Association (GNMA) ...............
Other Housing and Urban Development ................................
Rural housing insurance fund ...
Total, Mortgage credit .....
Postal service:
Payments to the Postal Service
fund (On-budget) ....................

86 ...................

324

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Deposit insurance:
National Credit Union Administration ......................................

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

1

2000

2002

2003

2004

2 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Other advancement of commerce:
Small and minority business assistance ....................................
521
469
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Small and minority business assistance ....

2001

571

608

580

580

580

50

79

83

83

83

521

469

621

687

663

663

663

696

687

676

696

732

726

704

665
–137

1,288
35

2,891
–148

1,206
75

534
84

466
97

450
161

303
53

273
–38

295
–25

304
98

305
134

305
143

305
146

Total, Other advancement of commerce ........

2,101

2,714

4,310

3,066

2,452

2,400

2,429

Total, Discretionary ...................

3,174

3,510

5,259

3,729

3,130

3,068

3,043

Science and technology ..............
Economic and demographic statistics .......................................
Regulatory agencies ...................
International Trade Administration ......................................
Other discretionary ....................

Mandatory:
Mortgage credit:
FHA General and Special Risk,
downward reestimate of negative subsidies ...........................
FHA and GNMA negative subsidies ........................................
Mortgage credit reestimates ......
Mortgage credit liquidating accounts ......................................
Other mortgage credit activities

–333 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–2,332
1,076

–6,117
–388
–177
–1,977
–2,063
–2,300
1,264 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

–2,334
3

2,742
205

Total, Mortgage credit .....

–3,920

–1,906

–3,281

–2,677

–4,363

–4,830

–5,437

Postal service:
Postal Service (Off-budget) ........

217

964

1,833

1,829

902

223

280

–774

–251

270

696

1,117

–2

–7

–12

–17

–23

–84

–88

–91

–95

–100

Deposit insurance:
Bank Insurance Fund ................
–1,220
–763
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Bank Insurance
Fund .................................
FSLIC Resolution Fund .............
Savings Association Insurance
Fund ........................................
National Credit Union Administration ......................................

–2,895
–2,500
–2,386
–2,767
–3,137
2 ................... ................... ................... ...................

–1,220

–763

–860

–346

167

584

994

–2,485

–3,658

–906

–895

–1,011

–325

–76

–448

–402

–317

–251

–198

69

280

–213

–249

–263

–330

–328

–372

–404

34.

325

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program
Other deposit insurance activities ...........................................
Total, Deposit insurance
Other advancement of commerce:
Universal Service Fund .............
Payments to copyright owners ..
Spectrum auction subsidy .........
Regulatory fees ...........................
Patent and trademark fees ........
Credit liquidating accounts .......
Other mandatory ........................

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

–6

23

22

34

35

36

37

–4,372

–5,049

–2,324

–1,788

–1,335

–8

831

1,769
3,770
4,668
6,463
10,772
10,922
11,075
275
307
275
220
220
220
220
4,811 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–30
–30
–30
–30
–30
–30
–30
–119 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
–207
–578
–80
–87
–78
–72
–63
–584
–536
32
29
33
26
25

Total, Other advancement of commerce ........

5,915

2,933

4,865

6,595

10,917

11,066

11,227

Total, Mandatory ........................

–2,160

–3,058

1,093

3,959

6,121

6,451

6,901

Total, Commerce and housing
credit ..........................................

1,014

452

6,352

7,688

9,251

9,519

9,944

24,378
17
506
4,141
639

25,797
11
537
4,968
735

26,148
9
523
5,482
730

26,518
5
537
6,179
717

27,170
3
548
6,603
713

–87

–87

–87

–87

–87

552

648

643

630

626

14

14

14

14

14

–14

–14

–14

–14

–14

400 Transportation:
Discretionary:
Ground transportation:
Highways ....................................
18,684
21,716
State infrastructure banks ........
64
37
Highway safety ...........................
380
452
Mass transit ................................
4,297
4,002
Railroads .....................................
1,086
519
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Railroads .............

1,086

519

Regulation ...................................
14
13
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Regulation ...........

14

Total, Ground transportation .............................

24,525

26,739

29,594

31,961

32,805

33,869

34,950

9,215

9,311

9,937

10,490

10,987

11,668

12,193

1,339
40

1,251
–3

1,103
1,074
1,086
1,118
1,125
20 ................... ................... ................... ...................

10,594

10,559

Air transportation:
Airports and airways (FAA) ......
Aeronautical research and technology .......................................
Payments to air carriers ............
Total, Air transportation

13 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Water transportation:
Marine safety and transportation .......................................
2,843
2,904
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

11,060

11,564

12,073

12,786

13,318

3,114

3,080

3,118

3,112

3,125

–41

–165

–165

–165

–165

Subtotal, Marine safety and
transportation ..................

2,843

2,904

3,073

2,915

2,953

2,947

2,960

Ocean shipping ...........................

125

106

26

98

97

91

60

326

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

Panama Canal Commission ......

–47

–15

Total, Water transportation .............................

2,921

2,995

Other transportation:
Other discretionary programs ...
229
276
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

44 ................... ................... ................... ...................
3,143

3,013

3,050

3,038

3,020

250

253

252

251

251

–28

–20

–15

–15

–15

Total, Other transportation .............................

229

276

222

233

237

236

236

Total, Discretionary ...................

38,269

40,569

44,019

46,771

48,165

49,929

51,524

1,541

1,632

1,504

1,339

1,183

1,021

921

–48
–14

–12
–26

–12
–30

–12
–29

–12
–29

–12
–29

–12
–29

1,479

1,594

1,462

1,298

1,142

980

880

Mandatory:
Ground transportation:
Highways ....................................
Offsetting receipts and subsidy
reestimates ..............................
Credit liquidating accounts .......
Total, Ground transportation .............................

Air transportation:
Airports and airways (FAA) ......
28 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Payments to air carriers ............ ................... ...................
30
50
50
50
50
Total, Air transportation

28 ...................

Water transportation:
Coast Guard retired pay ............
647
651
Other water transportation programs .......................................
–61
–144
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other water
transportation programs

30

50

50

50

50

714

771

818

869

919

234

–52

–52

26

31

12

12

13

14

14

–61

–144

246

–40

–39

40

45

Total, Water transportation .............................

586

507

960

731

779

909

964

Other transportation:
Other mandatory transportation
programs .................................

–30

–30

–36

–33

–534

–35

–36

Total, Mandatory ........................

2,063

2,071

2,416

2,046

1,437

1,904

1,858

Total, Transportation ................

40,332

42,640

46,435

48,817

49,602

51,833

53,382

450 Community and regional development:
Discretionary:
Community development:
Community development loan
guarantees ...............................

6

16

23

24

30

30

30

34.

327

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Community development block
grant ........................................
4,621
4,964
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Community development block grant .........

4,621

4,964

Community adjustment and investment program ................... ...................
10
Community development financial institutions .......................
39
64
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Community development financial institutions ..................................

39

64

Brownfields redevelopment ....... ...................
10
Other community development
programs .................................
250
405
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,855

4,801

4,754

4,711

4,731

1

17

38

46

48

4,856

4,818

4,792

4,757

4,779

9

18

17

17

17

75

109

109

110

110

5

16

15

15

15

80

125

124

125

125

20

32

43

47

49

385

385

394

405

394

29

64

109

127

133

Subtotal, Other community
development programs ....

250

405

414

449

503

532

527

Total, Community development ..........................

4,916

5,469

5,402

5,466

5,509

5,508

5,527

822

848

854

857

829

439

424

402

393

393

1
1,100

17
1,142

38
1,282

46
1,293

48
1,293

152
45
2

131
14
4

75
10
6

76
7
3

59
7
3

66
7
2

2,417

2,488

2,511

2,522

2,662

2,658

2,638

1,998

2,232

2,290

1,974

1,345

1,075

941

354

263

158

128

125

125

125

442

453

446

477

450

450

450

Total, Disaster relief and
insurance ......................

2,794

2,948

2,894

2,579

1,920

1,650

1,516

Total, Discretionary ...................

10,127

10,905

10,807

10,567

10,091

9,816

9,681

Area and regional development:
Rural development .....................
735
850
Economic Development Administration ...................................
387
439
Regional connections (Proposed
Legislation non-PAYGO) ........ ................... ...................
Indian programs .........................
1,022
1,000
Appalachian Regional Commission ...........................................
188
Tennessee Valley Authority ......
85
Denali commission ..................... ...................
Total, Area and regional
development .................
Disaster relief and insurance:
Disaster relief .............................
Small Business Administration
disaster loans ..........................
Other disaster assistance programs .......................................

328

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Mandatory:
Community development:
Pennsylvania Avenue activities
and other programs ................
253
4
Urban empowerment zones
(Proposed Legislation
PAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
Credit liquidating accounts .......
–51
–36
Total, Community development ..........................

202

–32

2001

2002

2003

2004

3 ................... ................... ................... ...................
3
–35

51
–34

114
–32

138
–26

144
–18

–29

17

82

112

126

111
40

112
37

115
35

117
35

12

19

21

21

Area and regional development:
Indian programs .........................
527
472
111
Rural development programs ....
15
108
73
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Rural development programs ................

15

108

73

52

56

56

56

Credit liquidating accounts .......
Offsetting receipts ......................

–182
–321

–97
–401

–104
–102

–106
–104

–277
–104

–482
–107

–506
–108

Total, Area and regional
development .................

39

82

–22

–47

–213

–418

–441

Disaster relief and insurance:
National flood insurance fund ...
–450
–124
–184
–229
–278
–310
–349
National flood mitigation fund ..
4
21
25
20
20
20
20
Flood map modernization fund
(Proposed Legislation
PAYGO) ................................... ................... ...................
26
53
61
64
66
Radiological emergency preparedness fees .........................
–12 ................... ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
SBA disaster loan subsidy reestimate ................................... ...................
–236 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................
Credit liquidating accounts .......
–190
–188
–389
–399
–212
–6
–6
Total, Disaster relief and
insurance ......................

–648

–527

–522

–555

–409

–232

–269

Total, Mandatory ........................

–407

–477

–573

–585

–540

–538

–584

Total, Community and regional development ................

9,720

10,428

10,234

9,982

9,551

9,278

9,097

746
1,366

1,267
1,437

1,304
2,175

1,752
2,526

1,915
2,837

1,947
2,853

1,947
2,863

7,817
3,659
700
1,444
615

6,687
4,264
985
1,319
615

7,963
5,130
848
1,485
664

8,612
5,756
808
1,794
687

8,725
5,444
736
1,740
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

8,744
5,450
736
1,750
686

500 Education, training, employment, and social services:
Discretionary:
Elementary, secondary, and
vocational education:
Education reform ........................
School improvement programs ..
Education for the disadvantaged ........................................
Special education ........................
Impact aid ...................................
Vocational and adult education
Indian education programs .......

34.

329

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Bilingual and immigrant education .......................................
Other ...........................................

207
10

386
27

416
117

419
244

414
318

415
322

415
324

Total, Elementary, secondary, and vocational
education ......................

16,564

16,987

20,102

22,598

22,815

22,903

22,915

9,144
1,243

9,524
1,476

9,167
1,523

9,158
1,527

9,158
1,527

6

41

51

52

52

Higher education:
Student financial assistance .....
7,934
9,352
Higher education account ..........
785
1,061
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Higher education
account .............................

785

1,061

1,249

1,517

1,574

1,579

1,579

Federal family education loan
program ...................................
Other higher education programs .......................................

38

47

51

47

48

48

48

340

341

358

359

358

358

358

Total, Higher education ..

9,097

10,801

10,802

11,447

11,147

11,143

11,143

Research and general education aids:
Library of Congress ....................
Public broadcasting ....................
Smithsonian institution .............
Education research, statistics,
and improvement ....................
Other ...........................................

262
289
487

264
313
490

320
392
553

360
413
551

372
463
554

384
427
553

396
425
552

514
700

529
830

660
846

563
875

544
881

540
884

540
884

Total, Research and general education aids .......

2,252

2,426

2,771

2,762

2,814

2,788

2,797

5,123

5,411

5,463

5,500

5,500

–40

–40

–40

–40

–40

5,083

5,371

5,423

5,460

5,460

440

440

440

440

440

1,294

1,297

1,321

1,326

1,326

–20

–20

–20

–20

–20

Training and employment:
Training and employment services ...........................................
4,644
5,151
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Training and employment services ............

4,644

5,151

Older Americans employment ...
448
444
Federal-State employment service .............................................
1,296
1,211
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal-State employment service ..............

1,296

1,211

1,274

1,277

1,301

1,306

1,306

Other employment and training

89

99

105

103

103

103

103

Total, Training and employment .......................

6,477

6,905

6,902

7,191

7,267

7,309

7,309

330

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

Estimate

1998
Actual

1999

2000

Other labor services:
Labor law, statistics, and other
administration ........................
1,036
1,103
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Total, Other labor services ................................

1,036

1,103

Social services:
National service initiative .........
591
732
Children and families services
programs .................................
5,329
5,841
Aging services program .............
828
864
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,266

1,304

1,304

1,304

1,304

–25

–25

–25

–25

–25

1,241

1,279

1,279

1,279

1,279

821

714

791

816

820

6,210
890

6,575
893

6,614
924

6,586
923

6,587
923

81

118

125

125

125

Subtotal, Aging services
program ............................

828

864

971

1,011

1,049

1,048

1,048

Other ...........................................

327

384

371

380

380

380

380

Total, Social services .......

7,075

7,821

8,373

8,680

8,834

8,830

8,835

Total, Discretionary ...................

42,501

46,043

50,191

53,957

54,156

54,252

54,278

Mandatory:
Elementary, secondary, and
vocational education:
Vocational and adult education

7

2 ................... ................... ................... ................... ...................

Higher education:
Federal family education loan
program ...................................
2,352
2,769
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ...................
–105
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Federal family
education loan program ..

2,352

2,664

Federal direct loan program ......
876
342
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ...................
96
Legislative proposal, discretionary offset ....................... ................... ...................

3,231

3,442

2,577

3,628

3,412

–700

–587

–638

–594

–343

–1,554

–12

–16

–17

–15

977

2,843

1,923

3,017

3,054

53

–182

–252

41

458

15 ................... ................... ................... ...................
–110

–7

–9

–9

–10

Subtotal, Federal direct
loan program ....................

876

438

–42

–189

–261

32

448

Other higher education programs .......................................

–137

–69

–72

–55

–71

–70

–68

34.

331

DETAILED FUNCTIONAL TABLES

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

Credit liquidating account
(Family education loan program) .......................................
–118
213
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................

2001

2002

2003

2004

–490

–498

–460

–392

–312

468

–110

–111

–97

–80

Subtotal, Credit liquidating
account (Family education loan program) .......

–118

213

–22

–608

–571

–489

–392

Total, Higher education ..

2,973

3,246

841

1,991

1,020

2,490

3,042

Research and general education aids:
Mandatory programs .................

19

22

21

17

18

18

18

113

47

94

95

95

26

66

56

16 ...................

139

113

150

1,464

523

133

518

333

16 ...................

872

1,597

1,041

355

16 ...................

39
1

15
22

1,036

1,773

5

5

Training and employment:
Trade adjustment assistance .....
95
124
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Trade adjustment
assistance .........................

95

124

Welfare to work grants ..............
16
872
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................
Subtotal, Welfare to work
grants ...............................

16

Payments to States for AFDC
work programs ........................
48
Other training and employment ...................
Total, Training and employment .......................

159

Other labor services:
Other labor services ................... ...................

Social services:
Payments to States for foster
care and adoption assistance
4,451
4,939
Proposed Legislation
(PAYGO) .............................. ................... ...................

111

95

22 ................... ...................

8 ................... ................... ...................
41
47
23
6
1,203

552

150

101

5 ................... ................... ...................

5,485

6,081

6,679

7,281

7,931

6

31

43

49

51

Subtotal, Payments to
States for foster care and
adoption assistance .........

4,451

4,939

5,491

6,112

6,722

7,330

7,982

Family support and preservation ...........................................
Social services block grant ........

214
2,441

224
2,050

257
2,445

288
1,812

299
1,707

303
1,700

305
1,700

332

THE BUDGET FOR FISCAL YEAR 2000

Table 34–2. OUTLAYS BY FUNCTION, CATEGORY AND PROGRAM—
Continued
(In millions of dollars)
Function and Program

1998
Actual

Estimate
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Rehabilitation services ...............

2,154

2,498

2,327

2,376

2,430

2,486

2,543

Total, Social services .......

9,260

9,711

10,520

10,588

11,158

11,819

12,530

Total, Mandatory ........................

12,418

14,022

13,160

13,804

12,748

14,477

15,691

Total, Education, training, employment, and social services ..............................................

54,919

60,065

63,351

67,761

66,904

68,729

69,969

2,519
2,301

2,644
2,345

2,660
2,383

2,623
2,424

2,624
2,425

6,754

7,062

7,110

7,107

7,106

19

89

232

279

290

550 Health:
Discretionary:
Health care services:
Substance abuse and mental
health services ........................
2,213
2,331
Indian health ..............................
2,128
2,219
Other discretionary health care
services programs ...................
5,433
6,217
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Other discretionary health care services programs ...................

5,433

6,217

6,773

7,151

7,342

7,386

7,396

Total, Health care services ................................

9,774

10,767

11,593

12,140

12,385

12,433

12,445

12,475
269

13,995
296

15,426
283

15,871
267

15,929
259

15,939
258

15,935
258

301

324

320

256

244

242

239

13,045

14,615

16,029

16,394

16,432

16,439

16,432

651

653

653

653

653

–504

–504

–504

–504

–504

Health research and training:
National Institutes of Health ....
Clinical training .........................
Other health research and
training ....................................
Total, Health research
and training .................

Consumer and occupational
health and safety:
Food safety and inspection ........
592
617
Proposed Legislation (nonPAYGO) ............................... ................... ...................
Subtotal, Food safety and
inspection .........................

592

617

147

149

149

149

149

Occupational safety and health
Other consumer health programs .......................................

557

579

623

629

631

631

631

884

1,028

1,161

1,183

1,188

1,191

1,193

Total, Consumer and occupational health and
safety .............................

2,033

2,224

1,931

1,961

1,968

1,971

1,973

Total, Discretionary ...................

24,852

27,606

29,553

30,495

30,785

30,843

30,850

34.

333

DETAILED FUNCTIO