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L ib rary of Congress C ataloging in Publication D ata

U n ite d S t a t e s .
B ureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .
BLS m e a s u re s o f c o m p e n s a tio n .
( B u l l e t i n - B u reau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s ; 19^1)
Bi b l i o g r a p h y : p .
1 . W ages—U n ite d S t a t e s - - S t a t i s t i c a l m e th o d s.
2 . Non-wage p a y m e n ts -- U n ite d S t a t e s - - S t a t i s t i c a l
m e th o d s. 3 . U n ite d S t a t e s .
B u reau o f L ab o r
S ta tis tic s .
I.
T itle .
II.
S e r i e s : U n ite d
S ta te s .
B ureau o f L ab o r S t a t i s t i c s .
B u lle tin :
19*1-1.
HDif973<,B85 1977
3 3 1 .2 ’ 973
77-1*1-87

BLS Measures
of Compensation
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1941




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402 - Price $2.75
Stock No. 029-001-02005-8




-

■

Preface
T h e responsibilities o f a data-collecting agency such as the B ureau o f L ab o r Statistics (B LS)
m ust extend bey o n d the p rep aratio n and publication o f statistical series. T h e agency m ust also m ake
available descriptions o f its data, indicating b oth ap p ro p riate uses and lim itations.
T his bulletin is d esigned as an in tro d u ctio n to th e various B L S series on em ployee com pensation.
It describes each set o f data, indicates th e m anner in w hich it is developed, and points o ut its uses
and lim itations. Illu strativ e statistics supplem ent th e discussion. T h e publication thus indicates to a
potential d ata user th e scope o f th e m aterial available and p rovides g uidance in th e selection o f
series for p articu lar studies.
O m itted from this bulletin are several B LS program s in the general area o f com pensation w hose
uses differ from those u n d er discussion. E xam ples are studies o f the incidence o f v arious types o f
co llectiv e bargaining agreem ent provisions; w age ch ro n o lo g y studies, w h ich deal intensively w ith
w ag e and benefit d evelopm ents in one com pany o r a g ro u p o f com panies; and m o n th ly listings o f
term s o f co n tra ct-re n ew a l settlem ents in individual bargaining units.
T his bulletin w as p re p are d in th e O ffice o f D a ta A nalysis o f th e B ureau. Individual ch ap ters
w e re w ritten by th e p ro g ram office responsible for th e p articu lar bo d y o f data. C o o rd in atio n o f the
w o rk w as p ro v id ed by th e D ivision o f T ren d s in E m ployee C om pensation u n d er th e d irectio n o f
V ic to r J. Sheifer.
M aterial in this publication is in th e public dom ain and m ay be re p ro d u ce d w ith o u t perm ission o f
th e F ed eral G o v ern m en t. Please cred it the B ureau o f L ab o r Statistics and cite th e nam e and
num ber o f th e publication.




Ill




Contents
Chapter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

page

In tro d u c tio n ..................................................................................................................................................
O ccu p atio n al w ag e s u r v e y s .....................................................................................................................
U nion w ag e ra te surveys ..........................................................................................................................
E m p lo y er expenditures fo r em ployee com pensation ........................................................... *
..........
A v e rag e h o u rly and w eekly earnings— establishm ent d a t a ....................................................... .. •
A ppendix: T h e H o u rly E arnings Index ........................................ ................................................
E arn in g s statistics from th e C u rre n t P o p ulation S u rv ey — household d ata ...............................
W ages o f w o rk e rs co v e red b y unem ploym ent insurance program s ...........................................
A nnual earnings and em ploym enF pafterns- .......7 . ..........................................................................
H o u rly com pensation m easures o f the O ffice o f P ro d u ctiv ity and T ech n o lo g y .....................
C hanges in w ag e rates and benefits— th e C u rre n t W age D ev elopm ents p ro g ram .............
Salary d ata fo r g o v ern m en t e m p lo y e e s ................................................................................................
T h e E m p lo y m en t C o st Index ..................................................................................................................
In co m e and earnings d ata from th e 1972-73 C onsum er E xp en d itu re S u rv ey ..........................
C o m p arin g statistical series .....................................................................................................................

1
7

18
24
29
39
41

48
55

60
63
68
73
77

81

Appendix:
A.
B.

S elected com pensation series published b y o th er F ed eral a g e n c ie s .............................................
S elected b ib lio g ra p h y ................................................................................................................................




V

86

118




Chapter 1. Introduction
m entary (“frin g e”) benefit p ractices in effect. T his
package o f a w age rate plus benefit provisions is usually
th o u g h t o f as th e “p rice” o f labor and is a dom inant
facto r in union-m anagem ent negotiations and personnel
policies o f em ployers.
In one sense, th e rate o f pay, as ju st defined,
functions as a building block; to g e th e r w ith o th er
factors, such as hours w orked, it determ ines th e size o f
em ployer paym ents to o r on b eh alf o f a w orker. Such
expenditures co n stitu te em ployee e a rn in g s o r com pen sa­
tion, th e form er if lim ited to em ployer payroll outlays
and the latter if paym ents to public and p riv ate pension,
health, and w elfare funds are included.
W e should no te th at th e term “com pensation” is used
in tw o distinct contexts—first, to denote a specific
concept, and, second, as a label for th e total g ro u p o f
concepts relating to w o rk e r rem uneration. T h e first o f
these usages is developed in th e p receding paragraph;
th e second is used, for exam ple, in the title o f this
publication.
A lth o u g h w age and salary rates m ay be quoted on
eith er a tim e o r o u tp u t basis—depending upon th e pay
system in fo rce—earnings and com pensation are alm ost
alw ays expressed in units o f tim e—hourly, weekly,
m onthly, o r annual .4 Since earnings and com pensation
series are d eveloped by dividing em ployer expenditures
by tim e units, th ey too express paym ents as a rate, that
is, dollars p er hour, w eek, m onth, o r year. H ow ever,
th e term “ rate o f p ay ” w ill be lim ited in this publication
to the building-block co n cep t used in th e price-of-labor

E xcluding th e self-em ployed and unpaid family
w orkers, o v e r 80 m illion persons are em ployed in the
A m erican econom y. T h e w ages, salaries, and supple­
m entary com pensation paid to these w o rk ers account
for about th ree-fo u rth s o f o u r national incom e. T h e
m agnitude o f these figures u n derscores th e im portance
o f an adequate statistical p ro g ram co v erin g em ployee
com pensation. O v e r th e years, in response to the
varying needs o f d ata users, th e B ureau o f L ab o r
Statistics (B L S ) has dev elo p ed a v ariety o f series on
com pensation.
T his bulletin is designed to aid data users in finding
and selecting from am ong these m easures th e statistical
inform ation ap p ro p riate for th eir studies. It describes
each series and p ro v id es illustrative data. T h e publica­
tion thus com bines d escrip tiv e m aterial like th a t found
in the B L S H a n d b o o k o f M e th o d s f o r S urveys a n d
S tu d ie s 1 w ith p ertin en t sum m ary statistics o f th e type
published in the H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s 1 9 7 5 ,1
2
alth o u g h n o t in th e detail found in these tw o w orks. T o
fu rth e r aid d ata users, an appendix briefly describes
series issued by o th e r F ed eral agencies.
T his ch a p te r serves as a po in t o f d ep a rtu re by briefly
indicating th e co n cep tu al differences am ong th e series
and th eir significance to users o f th e data. It also
p rovides a tab u lar sum m ary com parison o f th e series for
easy reference.

Pay concepts
A t th e outset, it is im p o rtan t to reco g n ize th a t the
individual statistical series v ary in co n cep t and, hence,
in ap p ro p riate usage. T h e y m ay m easure rates o f pay,
earnings, com pensation, o r incom e. A lth o u g h these
concepts, o f course, are related, th e differences am ong
th e i- are significant .3
T h e fundam ental c o n c ep t is th e ra te o f p ay, consisting
o f th e basic m oney re tu rn to a w o rk e r fo r a unit o f tim e
w o rk ed o r o u tp u t p ro d u c ed , plus the various supple­

con text.
In c o m e is an even b ro a d er concept, including re ­
ceipts from all sources, for exam ple, interest on savings
accounts; it is n ot lim ited to paym ents for w o rk
perform ed, as are com pensation m easures. Incom e data
are alm ost alw ays presented in annual term s. Incom e
m easures tend to have uses th a t differ from those o f
com pensation series and, consequently, statistical p ro ­
gram s lim ited to th e p ro d u ctio n o f d ata on incom e will
n ot be treated in this bulletin.
C om pensation series typically exclude nonm onetary
item s such as food, lodging, o th er services, o r m erchan-

1 BLS Bulletin 1910(1976).
2 BLS Bulletin 1865(1975).
3 For a more detailed discussion of pay concepts than that which
follows, see Robert H. Ferguson, Wages, Earnings, and Incomes:
Definitions of Terms and Sources of Data, Bulletin 63 (Ithaca: New
York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell
University, 1971), pp. 15-26. See also Glossary of Current Industrial
Relations and Wage Terms, Bulletin 1438 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1965).




4
With regard to hourly compensation, it should be remembered
that paid leave normally results in time off from work with a
continuation of pay, rather than additional money receipts. To
account for this, data on employer outlays' for worker compensation
may be expressed as expenditures per hour worked as well as on an
hours paid for basis.
1

dise receiv ed b y w orkers. A lso, d ata usually are
presen ted before ded u ctio n s such as incom e taxes
w ithh eld , em ployees’ share o f social secu rity taxes and
insurance prem ium s, and union dues; th a t is, th ey refer
to gross e a rn in g s ra th e r th an ta k e -h o m e p a y *

to basic w age rates; com m only, h o u rly earnings exclud­
ing prem ium paym ents for overtim e, w eekend, holiday,
and late-shift w o rk are collected as a proxy for w age
rates. B enefit p ractices norm ally are excluded. T w o
factors are involved. F irst, benefits often are not
occu p atio n ally d eterm ined and are uniform for larg er
em ployee groupings w ithin an establishm ent. S econd,
v acation and holiday p ractices are norm ally spelled o ut
in term s o f a stipulated num ber o f days off, o v ertim e in
term s o f a prem ium pay rate, pensions in term s o f the
size o f m o n th ly paym ents to retired w o rk ers o r a m oney
rate o f em p lo y er co n trib u tio n to a pension fund, and so
forth. T o com bine w age rates and th e various supple­
m en tary benefit practices, it is necessary to m easure all
pay elem ents in com m on term s. T h e usual d enom inator
is em ployer expenditures— th ereb y d ep artin g from the
rate-of-pay co n cep t dev elo p ed earlier in this chapter.
O ne B L S p ro g ram studies average h o u rly expendi­
tures fo r th e various w age-benefit elem ents o f the
com pensation package, individually and com bined,
th ereb y p ro v id in g d ata on b o th th e level and stru ctu re
o f em ployee p a y .7 O th e r series m easuring th e level o f
em ployer expenditures are lim ited to payroll outlays
and p ro v id e d ata expressed on an hourly, w eekly, o r
annual basis.
A lth o u g h differing in industrial and occupational
co v erag e, p o rtio n o f th e total com pensation package
m easured, m eth o d o f d ata collection, detail published,
and tim eliness, expenditure series h av e key elem ents in
com m on. E ssentially, th ey reflect th e com bined influ­
ence o f basic rates o f pay, som e o r all paym ents for
fringe benefits, and lab o r utilization, th at is, the ag g re­
gate m oney paym ents resulting from th e em ploym ent
relation. T o th e w orkers, these sums co n stitute the
prim ary source o f funds needed to finance purchases o f
goods and services. T o th e em ployers, these sums affect
the cost o f th e item s p ro d u c ed and, therefore, influence
decisions reg ard in g selling prices, volum e o f output,
and level o f em ploym ent.
C onsequently, series on th e level o f em ployer payroll
outlays and total com pensation expenditures are p a rtic ­
ularly useful in studies em phasizing m oney flow s in the
econom y, th at is, those concern in g purchasing p o w e r
and w elfare o f w o rk ers o r em ployer costs. Since the
d ata often are for b ro ad w o rk e r groupings, th ey m ay be
useful also as co n v en ien t sum m ary statistics for overall
interin d u stry o r in terarea com parisons. C aution m ust be
exercised in such usage, h ow ever; th e b ro a d e r the
w o rk e r co v erag e o f a series, the m ore difficult it is to
in terp ret th e data. F o r exam ple, if one com pares
av erag e h o u rly earnings d ata to detect, in a sum m ary
w ay, interin d u stry variations in w age rates, it is
necessary to consider th e d eg ree to w h ich th e industries

Statistics on the level and structure of pay
T h e distinctions discussed in th e p reced in g section
are ev id en t in th e B u reau ’s com pensation m easurem ent
program . T h e foundation o f this p ro g ram is th e co llec­
tion o f d ata on o ccu p atio n al w ag e and salary rates.
T hese rates, as is tru e o f prices generally, are im p ortant
as allo cato rs o f p ro d u c tiv e resources. P ay differentials
am ong various occupations, firm s, industries, and areas
affect th e relativ e attractiv en ess o f altern ativ e w o rk
o pportu n ities and, consequently, are am ong th e forces
influencing w o rk e rs in th eir lab o r m ark et behavior.
Sim ilarly, from th e em p lo y er’s side, g eo g rap h ic differ­
entials in w ag e rates, fo r exam ple, are given w e ig h t in
decisions reg ard in g location o f n ew p ro d u c tiv e facili­
ties.
O ccu p atio n al w ag e and salary rate d ata often are
co llected by in d u stry in individual labor m arkets and, as
a result, are useful in studies o f b o th levels o f p ay and
variations in p ay a c co rd in g to o ccupation, industry, and
g eo g rap h ic area. D a ta are sum m arized to present
av erag e p ay levels and, also, distributions o f w o rk ers by
pay level in each occu p atio n al-in d u strial-g eo g raphic
unit o f o b serv atio n to p erm it con sid eratio n o f differen­
tials relatin g to personal ch aracteristics and em ploying
unit. T o p erm it co n sid eratio n o f institutional forces,
separate sets o f d ata m ay be d ev elo p ed for union and
nonunion em ployers and for m etro p o litan and n o nm e­
tro p o lita n areas .6
T hese o ccu p atio n al d ata are used fo r a v ariety o f
purposes, including w age and salary adm inistration,
union-m anagem ent c o n tra c t negotiations, m ediation
and arb itratio n proceedings, p lan t location planning,
o ccupatio n al counseling, evaluation o f jo b offers to
unem ploym ent insurance recipients, m inim um w age
p olicy guidance, and analyses o f w age differentials
am ong occupations, industries, and areas.
F o r th e m ost p art, o ccu p atio n al pay d ata are lim ited
* Although the conceptual distinctions drawn between wage rates
and hourly earnings are well recognized, little is known about their
practical significance. One study is reported in Victor J. Sheifer, “The
Relationship Between Changes in Wage Rates and in Hourly
Earnings,” Monthly Labor Review, August 1970, pp. 10-17. Analysis of
average hourly earnings data is considered in John T. Dunlop, Wage
Determination Under Trade Unions (New York, Augustus M. Kelley,
Inc., 1950), pp. 19-27. For a discussion of the importance of pay
concepts to the development of a compensation series, see Victor J.
Sheifer, “Employment Cost Index: A Measure of Change in the ‘Price
of Labor’,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1975, pp. 3-12.
6 The discussion here emphasizes the ideal. Budget constraints may
limit the amount of detail actually collected and published.




7 Published data on benefits cover both employer expeditures and
the types of benefit practices in force and their prevalence. Only the
former are treated in this bulletin.
2

E C I data w ere published, covering, on a qu arterly
basis, p ercen tag e changes in w age and salary rates in
th e p riv ate nonfarm econom y, excluding households.

studied differ in jo b mix, w h ich also affects th e level o f
averag e ho u rly earnings.

Statistics on changes in pay
Current-dollar and deflated series
In a dynam ic en v iro n m en t, d ata users are often
interested in pay changes. T h e y m ust be aw are th at a
com parison o f av erag e pay at tw o points in tim e does
n ot necessarily p ro v id e a m eaningful m easure o f change
o v e r th e tim e span. F o r exam ple, av erag e h ourly
earnings m ay change n o t o nly as a result o f changes in
w age rates but also because o f such factors as em ploy­
m ent shifts w ithin and am ong industries, changes in the
volum e o f w o rk paid fo r at prem ium rates, and changes
in the volum e o f o u tp u t u n d er incentive pay plans.
Sim ple analysis o f changes in av erag e h o u rly earnings
provid es no clue as to th e specific forces giving rise to
th e ch a n g e.8
E xam ination o f changes in av erag e h o u rly earnings is
ap p ro p riate fo r studies o f changes in m oney flow s o v er
a tim e span, w ith o u t re g ard to th e causes o f th e change.
H o w e v er, fo r those w h o w ish to study separately
changes in rates o f pay, special statistical series are
available and should be used.9 T hese include changes in
w age and benefit rates in m ajo r co llectiv e bargaining
units and general w ag e-rate changes for p ro d u ctio n and
related w o rk e rs in m an ufacturing establishm ents. In
addition, indexes o f changes in union scales are p re p ar­
ed for several industries, as are salary tren d indexes for
selected g ro u p s o f g o v ern m e n t em ployees. P ay setters
use these d ata w idely as in d icato rs o f decisions reached
elsew h ere as to ap p ro p riate w age adjustm ents. T h e
series are also exam ined b y econom ists co n cern ed w ith
the im plications o f w ag e-rate developm ents for the
functioning o f th e econom ic system.
T o p ro v id e such p ay -rate-change d ata on a m ore
com preh en siv e basis, a m ajo r n ew series— th e E m p lo y ­
m ent C ost Index (E C I)— is n o w being developed.
W hen this w o rk is com pleted, the E C I w ill m easure, on
a m on th ly basis, changes in th e p rice (w ages plus
benefits) o f a standardized mix o f p u rch ased labor
services th ro u g h o u t th e civilian econom y, m uch as the
B ureau ’s w ell-know n C onsum er P rice Index m easures
changes in th e p rice o f a standardized “m arket b asket”
o f consum er goods and services. In Ju n e 1976, th e first

Studies o f pay changes m ay be co n cern ed w ith
effects on w o rk e rs’ purchasing pow er, in w hich case it
is necessary to take into acco u n t m ovem ents in consum ­
er prices. T o facilitate such studies, a num ber o f pay
series are deflated, th a t is, adjusted for price changes, by
dividing th e pay data for individual tim e periods by the
C onsum er P rice Index for th e respective periods. P ay is
thus expressed o v er the tim e period in dollars o f
constant purchasing pow er.

Selection of series
A s th e preced in g discussion em phasizes, several
general questions need to be answ ered before d ata users
can determ ine w h ich statistical series w ould be m ost
suitable for th eir w ork:
1.
2.
3.

A nsw ers to those questions w ill lim it th e range o f
series from w h ich a choice m ust be m ade. N evertheless,
several series m ay still seem appropriate. F o r example,
th e B ureau pro d u ces several data sets for analyses o f the
level o f em ployee earnings.
C hoice o f a p articu lar series involves such considera­
tions as th e p o rtio n o f the econom y co v ered by the
d ata—few series co v e r all groups o f w o rk ers o r all
industrial sectors. A n o th e r im p o rtan t consideration
m ay be th e am ount o f detail p ro v id ed —in term s o f
industry, area, and ty p e o f w orker. A lso, the tim e
period co v ered m ay be significant; for som e purposes
annual series m ay suffice, w hile o th er investigations
m ay require m onthly o r q u arterly data.
Finally, users should be fam iliar w ith th e m ethods o f
com piling th e series, since b o th th e conceptual fram e­
w o rk and th e accu racy o f the d ata m ay be affected. A s
observed above, th ere are several sets o f earnings data.
Som e com e from em ployer rep o rts on em ploym ent,
payrolls, and hours; o th ers from household responses in
the C u rren t P opulation S urvey. N evertheless, both
these sets o f data stem from survey w o rk specifically
designed to p ro d u ce the series. E arnings statistics are
also p ro d u ced based on re p o rts filed pursuant to

8 For a more detailed discussion, see references cited in footnote 5.
9 In some cases, it is possible to adjust existing series better to reveal
underlying wage-rate movements. Thus, the Bureau’s Hourly Earn­
ings Index adjusts average hourly earnings data to exclude the effects
of fluctuations in overtime premiums in manufacturing (the only
industry sector for which overtime data are available) and shifts in the
proportion of workers in high- and low-wage industries. Similarly,
indexes developed from occupational data collected in the area wage
survey program minimize the impact of employment shifts. Neverthe­
less, while these adjustments provide closer approximations, they do
not yield the ideal measures.




S hould th e d ata c o v e r rates o f pay o r m oney
flows?
A re w age d ata sufficient, o r is th ere need for
statistics on th e total com pensation package?
S hould th e data be for pay levels o r for pay
changes?

3

Table 1. Comparison of B LS compensation series

Characteristic

Type of data ......................................

Occupational
wage
surveys

Employer
expenditures
for employee
compensation

Union
wage rate
surveys

Primarily
Hourly scales
hourly, weekly, and indexes,
by occupaor monthly
tion
straight-time
earnings, by
occupation

Hourly expenditures for
components
of compensa­
tion

Average hourly
and weekly
earnings—
establishment
data

Earnings
statistics from
Current
Population
Survey—
household data

Wages of
workers
covered by
unemployment
insurance (U l)
programs

Primarily hourly
and weekly
earnings, with
industry and
area detail1

Hourly, weekly, Weekly earnings;
and annual
aggregate
earnings;
payrolls.
hourly rates
Industry and
of pay.
area detail
Demographic
detail

Monthly

Annual

Quarterly

Wages and
salaries

Wages and
salaries

Frequency of publication.................

Annual or
longer

Quarterly,
annual, or
biennial

Compensation coverage...................

Wages and
salaries

Minimum wage Wages and
Wages and
salariq? plus
salaries
scales plus
employer pay­ employer con­
ments to bene­ tributions for
fit funds
social insurance
and private
benefit plans

Workers included...............................

Primarily nonsupervisory
employees2

Workers under
collective
bargaining
agreements

Industrial coverage ..........................

Private nonfarm Local trucking,
printing, local
economy, ex­
cluding house­ transit, con­
struction, and
holds, plus
grocery stores
large city
governments

Primarily
Private nonfarm All industries
economy, ex­
private non­
farm economy, cluding house­
excluding
holds
households

Industries sub­
ject to Ul
laws

Emphasis on pay rates or
employer expenditures...................

Rates3

Rates

Expenditures

Expenditures

Expenditures
and rates

Expenditures

Emphasis on pay levels or change. .

Levels

Levels and
change4

Levels

Levels

Levels and
change

Levels

Data so u rc e ........................................

Statistical
survey

Statistical
survey

Statistical
survey

Statistical
survey

Statistical
survey

Employer reports for ad­
ministration
of Ul laws

Where published5...............................

BLS bulletins

BLS bulletins
for annual and

BLS bulletins

E m ploym ent
and Earnings
and Current
Wage Develop­
ments

E m p lo ym e n t
Special labor
and Wages
force reports;
M o n th ly La b or

Comprehensive
surveys bi­
ennially

All employed
workers

biennial
surveys; Cur­
re n t Wage
Developments
for quarterly
building trades
surveys

See footnotes on page 6.




4

Production and Wage and
nonsupervisory salary workers
workers

Review articles

All employed
workers

Table 1. Comparison of B LS compensation series— Continued

Characteristic

Annual
earnings

Hourly com­
pensation meas­
ures of
Office of Pro­
ductivity and
Technology

Developments
in major
Wage
collective
developments in
bargaining
manufacturing
units

Salary data
for government
employees

Employment
Cost Index6

Type of data........................................

Annual
earnings.
Demographic
and durationof-employment detail

Indexes of
change
and labor
share

Pay rate
changes <
n
cents per hour
and percent

Pay rate
changes in
cents per hour
and percent

Annual
salaries and
indexes

Percent change.
with industry.
occupation,
region, unionstatus detail

Frequency of publication.................

Annual

Quarterly

Quarterly

Quarterly

Annual or
biennial

Quarterly

Compensation coverage...................

Wages and
salaries

Wages, sal­
aries, and
supplements
plus estimate
of labor com­
pensation of
self-employed

Wage rates
and private
supplemen­
tary benefits

Wage rates

Wage and
salary rates

Wages and
salaries

Workers included...............................

All employed
workers

All persons
(employees
and selfemployed)

Production
and nonsupervisory
workers in
bargaining
units of 1,000
workers or
more (5,000
or more for
wages and
benefits com­
bined)

Production
and related
workers in
establish­
ments making
general wage
rate changes

Teachers,
All employed
police, fire­
workers
fighters, refuse
collectors, and
Federal General
Schedule em­
ployees

Industrial coverage.............................

Private non­
farm economy

Private
business
_ 7
sector

Private non­
farm economy

Manufacturing
sector

Government

Private non­
farm economy,
excluding
households

Emphasis on pay rates or
employer expenditures.................

Expenditures

Expenditures

Rates

Rates

Rates

Rates3

Emphasis on pay levels or change. .

Levels

Change

Change

Change

Levels and
change4

Change

Data so u rc e ........................................

Sample of
social
security and
railroad re­
tirement ad­
ministrative
files ^

Employee compensation data
from National
Income
Accounts.
Hours and pro­
prietors' com­
pensation esti­
mated by BLS

Developed
largely from
secondary
sources

Statistical
survey supple­
mented by
data from
secondary
sources

Secondary
Statistical
sources sup­
survey
plemented by
direct inquiries
by BLS

Where published 5..........................

BLS bulletins

Em ploym ent
and Earnings
and Current
Wage Develop­
ments

Curren t Wage
Developments

Current Wage
Developments

Current Wage
Developments

See footnotes on page 6.




5

Current Wage
Developments

-F O O T N O T E S TO T A B L E 1 -

In d e x e s
changes
2

in

a ls o

a re

d e v e lo p e d

m a n u fa c tu r in g

M a jo r e x c e p tio n

and

r e m o v in g

in te rin d u s tr y

e ffe c ts

of

o v e r tim e

e m p lo y m e n t

M o n t h ly

s h ifts .

In itia l

ra te s o f

e a r n in g s

a re

s tu d ie d

as

an

D e s c r ip tio n

a p p r o x im a t io n

of

pay.

P r io r
to ta l

fo r

m any

of

th e

s e r ie s c a n

be fo u n d

and

d a ta

th e

m ay

Handbook
be

in

of

Labor

p r e s s r e le a s e s

S t a t is tic s .

o r s u m m a ry

a p p lie s

to

J u ly

to

d a ta

p u b lis h e d

as o f e a r l y

1 9 7 7 . See

p la n s .
1976,

econom y.

d a ta

T h is

w e re

s e r ie s

p u b lis h e d

is s t i l l

q u a rte r ly

m a in ta in e d

but

fo r
on

th e
an

b a s is .

in t h e

regulations o f agencies adm inistering th e unem ploy­
m ent com pensation and social secu rity p rogram s. S uch
data, o f course, are affected b y th e needs and legal
au th o rity o f th e adm inistrative agencies.
T ab le 1 and th e detailed descriptions in th e follow ing
ch ap te rs are designed to aid users in trea tin g these
considerations. T h e table classifies th e series in a c c o rd ­
ance w ith th e ir em phasis on rates o f p ay o r em ployer
expenditures and on levels o f p ay o r changes in levels.
In addition, inform ation is presen ted on in d u stry and




p r iv a te

annual

m e a s u r e s o f le v e l a n d c h a n g e .
d a ta

of

c h . 1 2 f o r e x p a n s io n

D i f f e r e n t w e ig h tin g p r o c e d u r e s a re e m p lo y e d f o r c o m p u t in g

S u m m a ry

R e v ie w

re p o rts .

is e x p a n d e d c o v e r a g e o f N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f

P r o fe s s io n a l, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , T e c h n ic a l, a n d C le r ic a l P a y .
S tr a ig h t -t im e

Labor

p u b lic a tio n

w o rk e r coverage, frequency o f publication, ty pes o f
com pensation included, and d ata sou rces.10
D esp ite th e g reat v ariety o f series p ro d u ced , avail­
able statistics m ay n o t precisely m eet th e needs o f an
investigator. In such instances, an effort should be m ade
to select th e closest approxim ation to th e desired d ata
and to take acco u n t o f th e deficiency in th e analysis.
1
0
Income and earnings data from the 1972-73 Consumer Expendi­
ture Survey, described in ch. 13, are not included in the tabular
summary, which is limited to continuing series.

6

Chapter 2. Occupational Wage Surveys
groups, such as p ro d u ctio n and related w o rk ers o r
n o nsupervisory w orkers, in addition to th a t for selected
occupations. Inform ation also is published, for broad
em ploym ent groups, on w eekly w o rk schedules; shift
operations and differentials; paid h oliday and vacation
practices; health, insurance, and pension benefits; and
additional item s w hich m ay be applicable only to
certain industries (figure 3). T h e studies also p ro v id e
estim ates o f labor-m anagem ent agreem ent coverage,
p ro p o rtio n s o f w o rk ers em ployed u n d er incentive pay
plans, and th e extent to w h ich establishm ents p ro v id e a
single ra te o r ran g e o f rates for individual jo b ca te g o r­
ies.
A b o u t 50 m anufacturing and 20 nonm anufacturing
industries, acco u n tin g for o v e r 20 m illion em ployees,
are surveyed on a reg u larly recu rrin g basis. A m ajority
are studied on a 5-year cycle, b ut a num ber o f
com p arativ ely lo w -w ag e industries are studied on a 3y ear cycle. A lso, special w age surveys are carried out,
u n d er co n tract, for o th e r F ed eral agencies.
N early all m anufacturing, utilities, and m ining indus­
tries are studied on a nationw ide basis; estim ates also are
p ro v id ed for regions and m ajo r areas o f concentration.
S urveys in co nstruction, trade, finance, and service
industries usually are lim ited to about 25 m etropolitan
areas. N atio n w id e surveys generally develop separate
estim ates by size o f establishm ent, size o f com m unity,
and labor-m anagem ent agreem ent coverage.

T h e B ureau o f L a b o r S tatistics (B L S ) has system ati­
cally co llected w ag e d a ta b y o ccu p atio n since th e tu rn
o f th e c e n tu ry — first b y industry, th en across in d ustry
lines b y m etro p o litan area, and m ost recently, across
industry lines on a natio n w id e basis. F o u r m ajo r types
o f surveys are c o n d u c te d c u rren tly in th e B u reau’s
O ffice o f W ages and In d u strial R elations to p ro v id e
inform ation on th e level o f straight-tim e earnings by
occupation: (1) In d u s tr y w age su rveys in selected m anu­
facturin g and n o n m an u factu rin g industries co v erin g
occupatio n s pecu liar to a p artic u la r industry; (2) a rea
w age su rveys in selected m etro p o litan areas (and, on a
m ore lim ited scope, n o n m etro p o litan areas) co v erin g
occupatio n s com m on to a v arie ty o f m anufacturing and
nonm an u factu rin g industries; (3) a n a tio n a l su rve y o f
profession al, a d m in istra tiv e , tech nical, a n d c le ric a l p a y in
p riv ate industry; and (4) m u n ic ip a l g o v e rn m e n t w age
su rveys in large cities. A lth o u g h differing in industrial,
geograp h ic, and o ccu p atio n al co v erag e, these surveys
form an in teg rated p ro g ram on occupational w ages.1
D a ta fo r all four types o f surveys are supplied
volu n tarily b y em ployers. T h e B ureau’s field ec o n o ­
m ists com pile th e data, w h ich are subsequently pub­
lished in B L S bulletins, sum m aries, and M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w articles in a m an n er th a t w ill avoid disclosure o f
an individual establishm ent’s rates. T his re strictio n on
disclosure does n o t apply to m unicipal g o v ern m ent
w age surveys since th e d ata supplied are a m atter on
public reco rd .

A r e a w age su rve ys consist o f tw o basic types: R egular
surveys co n d u cted annually as p art o f the B ureau’s
program , and special lim ited surveys. T h e latter,
Description of surveys
co n d u cted for th e U.S. D e p artm en t o f L a b o r’s E m p lo y ­
m ent S tandards A dm inistration, are used in setting
In d u s tr y w age su rve ys p ro v id e d ata fo r o ccupations
m inim um pay rates for w o rk ers p roviding services to
selected to be rep resen tativ e o f th e ran g e o f rates and
the F ed eral G o v e rn m en t u n d er th e S ervice C o n tract
different m ethods o f w ag e paym ent in th e industry.
A ct.
C onsideration also is given, in selection o f occupations,
R e g u la r su rve ys m easure th e level and distribution o f
to th eir prev alen ce in th e industry, th eir im p o rtan ce as
w ages by occupational c a te g o ry in o v e r 70 labor
m arkets. T h e 75 o ccupational categories cu rren tly
reference points in co llectiv e bargaining, and th e degree
studied include 28 office clerical; 17 professional and
to w h ich th eir jo b duties can be clearly defined.
technical; and 30 m aintenance, toolroom , pow erplant,
S urveys in m ost industries p ro v id e straight-tim e
custodial, and m aterial m ovem ent jobs. (See figure 4.)
earnings averages o f w ag e d a ta co llected for individual
In addition, these surveys p ro v id e m easures o f w age
w o rkers, and w age freq u en cy distributions o f these
m ovem ent for five o ccupational groups. (See figure 5.)
individual earnings d a ta (figures 1 and 2). T his ty p e o f
In d u stry divisions included in th e reg u lar surveys are
inform ation is often sh o w n fo r b ro ad em ploym ent
(1) m anufacturing; (2) transportation, com m unication,
1
Union wage rate surveys are also part of this program. These are and o th e r public utilities; (3) w holesale trade; (4) retail
trade; (5) finance, insurance, and real estate; and (6)
discussed separately in ch. 3 because of major differences in concepts
and methodology.
selected services. E stablishm ents em ploying few er than




7

50 w o rk e rs are excluded in all industries; in addition,
establishm ents em ploying 50-99 w o rk ers are excluded
in m anufacturing, in tran sp o rtatio n , com m unication,
and o th e r public utilities, and in retail trad e in the
N a tio n ’s 13 larg est com m unities.
S ep arate d ata are p ro v id ed fo r m anufacturing and
nonm an u factu rin g in each g eo g rap h ical area and,
w h e re v e r possible, fo r individual industry divisions in
th e nonm an u factu rin g sector. In 31 o f th e larg est areas,
w age d ata are presen ted sep arately fo r establishm ents
th a t h av e 500 w o rk e rs o r m ore.
D a ta on scheduled w eekly ho u rs and days; paid
holiday and v acatio n practices; and health, insurance,
and pension benefits are published separately for full­
tim e n o n su p erv iso ry office and plant w o rk e rs (nonoff­
ice). Shift op eratio ns and differentials are published for
p lant w o rk e rs in m anufacturing. D a ta on m inim um
en tran ce rates fo r inexperienced office w o rk e rs are
published sep arately fo r m anufacturing and n o n m anu­
facturin g industries. T h ese establishm ent p ractices and
em ployee benefits are studied ev e ry 3 years in all areas.
A sam ple o f 70 areas is selected to rep resen t all
S tan d ard M etro p o litan Statistical A reas o f th e U nited
States. T his enables th e B ureau to publish national and
regional estim ates o f w ag e levels, w ag e trends, and
related benefits.
P ay levels in th e individual areas are co m p ared to
national levels fo r fo u r b ro a d o ccupational g ro u p s—
office clerical, elec tro n ic d ata processing, skilled m ain­
tenance, and unskilled p lan t w orkers. (See figure 6).
T hese estim ates (pay relatives) elim inate differences
caused b y v ary in g su rv ey dates and o ccupational
stru ctu re s am ong the areas surveyed.
S p e c ia l su rveys m easure th e level and distribution o f
w ages by o ccu p atio n al c a te g o ry in o v e r 100 labor
m arkets but are m o re lim ited than reg u lar surveys in
that: (1) F e w e r o ccu p atio n al categ o ries and establish­
m ent p ractices are studied; (2) published d ata are
restric ted to all-industry estim ates (no in d u stry detail);
(3) m easures o f w age tren d s are n o t p ro v id ed for
occup atio n al groups; (4) d ata are not p ro jec ted beyond
th e individual area estim ates.

suitable for com paring th e com pensation o f salaried
em ployees in th e F ed eral civil service w ith pay in
p riv ate industry.
A v erag e salaries relate to straight-tim e salaries
co rresp o n d in g to em ployees’ norm al w o rk schedules,
excluding o vertim e hours. Salary distributions and
averages are published for th e N ation as a w hole.
A v erag es also are show n for establishm ents in all
m etropolitan areas com bined and for establishm ents
em ploying 2,500 w o rk ers o r m ore. Inform ation is
presented on annual increases in average salaries since
1961. F ig u re 7 show s m on th ly and annual salary data
for th e occupations surveyed.
In d u stry divisions included in th e national w hiteco llar study are: (1) M anufacturing; (2) tran sp o rtatio n ,
com m unication, electric, gas, and sanitary services; (3)
w holesale trade; (4) retail trade; (5) finance, insurance,
and real estate; and (6) engineering and arch itectu ral
services, and com m ercially op erated research, d ev elo p ­
m ent, and testing laboratories.
M u n ic ip a l g o v e rn m e n t w age su rve ys co v e r th e 26 U.S.
cities w ith 500,000 inhabitants o r m ore plus A tlanta.
A v erag es and distributions o f straight-tim e earnings are
presented for a w ide range of white- and blue-collar
o ccupations in city governm ents, including office
clerical; d ata processing; m aintenance, custodial, trades,
and labor; public safety; and professional, adm inistra­
tive, and technical. (See figure 8.) Inform ation on a
c ity ’s salary stru ctu re and w o rk practices, along w ith
b rief descriptions o f em ployee benefits, is also provided.
T h e surveys exclude city em ployees in educational
facilities and hospitals, and all w o rk ers in special
districts and authorities operatin g autonom ously from
th e city.

Survey methods
P l a n n in g

C onsultations are held w ith ap p ro p riate m anage­
m ent, labor, and G o v e rn m en t representatives to obtain
view s and recom m endations on scope, tim ing, selection
and definitions o f su rv ey item s, and types o f tabulations.
P articu larly in planning surveys in specific industries,
these discussions form im p o rtan t supplem ents to B LS
regional office com m ents and suggestions m ade at the
conclusion o f th e p revious study. T h e design o f the
N ational S u rv ey o f Professional, A dm inistrative, T e c h ­
nical, and C lerical P ay w as d eveloped in co n ju n ctio n
w ith th e O ffice o f M anagem ent and B udget and the
C ivil S ervice C om m ission so th at it cou ld be used in
evaluating F ed eral w h ite-collar pay. C hanges in the
su rv ey ’s scope, item coverage, and jo b definitions are
initiated by these agencies.

T he N a tio n a l S u rv e y o f P rofessional, A d m in istra tiv e ,
T echnical, a n d C le ric a l P a y (P A T C survey) p rovides

inform ation annually on n ationw ide salary levels and
distributions in p riv ate in d u stry for approxim ately 80
w o rk level categories in ab o u t 20 w h ite-co llar o c c u p a­
tions. D efinitions fo r these o ccupations p ro v id e for
classification o f em ployees ac co rd in g to ap p ro p riate
w o rk levels (o r classes). A lth o u g h reflecting duties and
responsibilities in p riv ate industry, the definitions w ere
designed to be translatable to specific pay g rades in the
G en eral S chedule applying to F ed eral w h ite-collar
em ployees. T hus, this su rv ey provides inform ation




•

8

D

ata

C

w age and salary determ inations and negotiations. T o
the extent th at w ages are a factor, su rv ey d ata also are
considered by em ployers in selecting locations for new
facilities and in estim ating costs.
O ccupational w age surveys are n o t designed to
supply m echanical answ ers to questions o f pay policy.
T h e applicability o f survey results depends upon the
selection and definition o f industries, th e geographic
units fo r w h ich estim ates are developed, th e o ccu p a­
tions and associated item s studied, and th e reference
dates o f p articu lar surveys. D ep en d in g upon specific
needs, th e user m ay find it necessary to in terp o late for
occupations o r areas m issing from the survey.
In addition, users w ill find th a t th e m eth o d o f w age
paym ent can affect earnings averages, and th at the
incidence o f th e different m ethods o f p aym ent varies
g reatly am ong the occupations and establishm ents
studied. Since h o u rly averages for w o rk ers under
incentive plans generally exceed those for h o u rly rated
w o rk ers in th e sam e jo b , averages for som e incentivepaid jo b s m ay equal o r exceed averages for jo b s
positioned h ig h er on a jo b evaluation basis b u t norm ally
paid on a tim e basis. T hus, w h e re v e r possible, d ata are
show n separately for tim e w o rk ers and incentive
w o rk ers in th e ind u stry surveys. In area w age surveys,
incentive plans (generally p lantw ide in application)
apply to only a v ery sm all p ro p o rtio n o f w orkers in the
n o n p ro d u ctio n jobs.
U sers o f su rv ey data m ust also be aw are that,
alth o u g h changes in averages for a jo b o r jo b group
prim arily reflect general w age and salary changes or
m erit increases receiv ed by individuals, these averages
also m ay reflect o th er factors—changes in th e labor
force resulting from labor tu rn o v er, labor force expan­
sions and reductions for o th er reasons, and changes in
the p ro p o rtio n o f w o rk ers em ployed in establishm ents
w ith different pay levels. F o r exam ple, a labor force
expansion m ight increase th e p ro p o rtio n o f lo w er paid
w orkers, th ereb y lo w ering th e average, o r th e closing
o f a relatively high-paying establishm ent m ight cause
average earnings in the area to drop.
T h e reg u lar area w age survey p ro g ram provides
w age tren d indexes for five o ccupational groups: O ffice
clerical, electro n ic data processing, industrial nurses,
skilled m aintenance, and unskilled p lant occupations.
T hese indexes are published, w h ere possible, for all
industries com bined and for m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing ind u stry g roups separately. T o elim inate
changes in av erag e earnings resulting from em ploym ent
shifts am ong establishm ents o r tu rn o v e r o f establish­
m ents included in survey sam ples, these indexes are
based on changes in average h o u rly earnings only in
establishm ents rep o rtin g the sam e jo b s in b o th the
c u rren t and previous year. T h e indexes are, h o w ev er,
still affected by factors o th er than w age increases.

o l l e c t io n

B ureau field econom ists co llect d ata b y personal
visits to each o f th e sam ple establishm ents. F irst, jo b
functions in th e establishm ent are carefully co m pared
w ith those included in th e B u reau ’s jo b definitions. T his
jo b m atching m ay in v o lv e re v ie w o f com p an y reco rd s
such as p ay stru c tu re plans, o rganizational charts, and
position descriptions, as w ell as interview s w ith ap p ro ­
priate officials and, on occasion, observ atio n o f jo b s
w ithin plants. G enerally, o n ce jo b m atch in g has been
com pleted, field econom ists secure w ag e o r salary rates
(or ho u rs and earnings, w h en needed) from p ay roll or
o th er re co rd s and obtain d ata o n com pensation p ra c ­
tices and supplem entary benefits from co m p an y offi­
cials, com pany booklets, and labor-m anagem ent ag ree­
m ents. If com pany officials prefer, th ey m ay p rep are
and subm it re p o rts if jo b m atching has been com pleted
by B ureau econom ists.
A fte r th e initial visit, d ata fo r th e annual area w age
surveys are co llected by personal visit ev e ry th ird year
and b y m ail in th e in terv en in g years. E stablishm ents
particip atin g in th e m ail collection receiv e a tran scrip t
o f the jo b m atching and w age d ata obtained earlier by
the field econom ist, to g e th e r w ith th e jo b definitions.
T h e u p d ated retu rn s are scrutinized and questionable
entries are ch eck ed w ith th e respondent. P ersonal visits
are m ade to establishm ents n o t responding to th e m ail
request and to those rep o rtin g unusual changes from the
previous year.
T h e w o rk o f all field econom ists is ch eck ed for
quality o f rep o rtin g , w ith p articu lar atten tio n d irected
to accu racy in jo b m atching. T h e revisits are m ade by
superv iso ry and senior econom ists. F o r th e tech n ically
com plex n ationw ide w h ite-co llar salary survey, system ­
atic tech n ical audits o f th e validity o f su rv ey definitions,
m ade by staff h av in g specialized training, also are
m aintained.

Uses and limitations
O ccu p atio n al w ag e d ata dev elo p ed in these surveys
h ave a v ariety o f uses. T h e y are used b y F ed eral, State,
and local agencies in w ag e and salary adm inistration
and in form ulation o f public policy on w ages, such as
setting m inim um w ages. T h e y are o f value to F ed eral
and S tate m ediation and conciliation services and to
State em ploym ent secu rity agencies in ju d g in g the
suitability o f jo b offers to unem ploym ent insurance
recipients. K n o w le d g e o f levels and tren d s o f p ay rates
by occupation, industry, locality, and region is required
by econom ists b o th in and o u t o f g o v ern m en t to analyze
c u rre n t econom ic dev elo p m en ts and to stu d y w age
dispersion and w ag e differentials.
B ureau d ata are used by em ployers and unions in




9

A discussion o f the uses o f wage survey results and the
pitfalls to be avoided. A short discussion o f the factors
affecting survey methods is also included.

H irings, layoffs, and tu rn o v e r m ay affect av erage
earnings w ith in an establishm ent w h en w o rk e rs are paid
u n d er plans p ro v id in g a ran g e o f rates fo r individual
jobs.
T h e effects o f em ploym ent shifts am ong occupations
betw een su rv ey dates are elim inated in m easuring
average earnings increases for w o rk ers co v e red b y the
P A T C survey and by selected ind u stry w ag e surveys.
E m plo y m en t shifts am ong establishm ents o r tu rn o v er
o f establishm ents included in su rv ey samples, h o w ev er,
are n ot co n tro lled in these com putations.
R

Field V, Charles, and Keller, Richard L. “How Salaries of
Large Cities Compare with Industry and Federal Pay,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , November 1976, pp. 23-28.
A comparison o f municipal workers’ salaries in 24 o f the
Nation’s largest cities with private industry and Federal
Government pay, as well as with each other.
Houff, James N. “Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , January 1973, pp. 52-57.

e l ia b il it y

A description o f the method used in computing wage
change in area wage surveys.

R esults o f th e surveys g enerally w ill be subject to
sam pling erro r. T h is e rro r w ill n o t be uniform , since,
for m ost occupations, th e dispersion o f earnings am ong
establishm ents and th e freq u en cy o f o cc u rre n ce o f the
o ccu p atio n w ill differ.
T h e sam pling e rro r o f th e percen tag e o f w orkers
receivin g any given supplem entary benefit differs w ith
th e size o f th e p ercen tag e. H o w ev er, th e e rro r is such
th at rankings o f p red o m in an t p ractices alm ost alw ays
w ill ap p ear in th e ir tru e position. Small p ercentages
m ay be subject to considerable erro r, b u t w ill alw ays
rem ain in th e sam e scale o f m agnitude. F o r instance, the
p ro p o rtio n o f em ployees in establishm ents p ro v iding
m ore th an 4 w eeks’ paid v acatio n to long-service
em ployees m ay be given as 2 p ercen t, w h en th e tru e
p ercen tag e fo r a l l establishm ents m ight be only 1
percent. S uch a sam pling erro r, w hile considerable,
does n o t affect th e essential inference th at the p ra ctice is
a ra re one.
E stim ates o f th e num ber o f w ork ers in a given
occu p atio n are subject to considerable sam pling erro r,
due to th e w ide v ariation am ong establishm ents in the
num ber o f w o rk e rs found in individual occupations. (It
is n ot unusual to find these estim ates subject to sam pling
e rro r o f as m uch as 20 p ercen t.) H ence, the estim ated
num ber o f w o rk e rs can be in terp reted only as a ro u g h
m easure o f th e relativ e im p o rtan ce o f various o c c u p a­
tions.

Kanninen, Toivo P. “N ew Dimensions in BLS Wage Survey
Work,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , October 1959, pp. 1081—
84.
An outline o f the occupational wage survey programs as
expanded in 1960. Lists the type o f survey and cycle for each
o f 70 industries studied separately, and identifies the area
sample as originally determined for the labor market survey
program.
Schwenk, Albert E., and Personick, Martin E. “Analyzing
Earnings Differentials in Industry Wage Surveys,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , June 1974, pp. 56-59.
An article on a study undertaken to test the feasibility of
using multiple regression techniques as an analytical tool in
the BLS industry wage survey program.
Smith, William M. “Federal Pay Procedures and the Compar­
ability Survey,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , August 1976,
pp. 27-31.
A discussion o f the procedures used to tie white-collar
salaries in the Federal service to wage rates in private
industry.
U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. B L S
H a n d b o o k o f M ethods. Bulletin 1910, 1976, pp. 133-43.
________ , ________ D irecto ry o f O ccu pation al W age Surveys,
Jan. 1 9 5 0 -D ec. 1975. Report 468, 1976.

—REFEREN CES—

A listing o f publications from the Bureau’s occupational
wage programs between 1950 and 1975.

Baldwin, S.E., and Daski, R.S. “Occupational Pay Differ­
ences Among Metropolitan Areas,” M o n th ly L a b o r
R eview , May 1976, pp. 29-35.

________ , ________ H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S ta tistics 1975.
Bulletin 1865, 1975, pp. 6-8; 201-17; 254; 259-84; and
286-90.

An article discussing the use of multiple regression
techniques in analyzing interarea pay differences.

________ __________ M a jo r P rogram s 1976: B u reau o f L a b o r
Statistics. Report 459, 1976, pp. 20-23.

Cohen, Samuel E. “Studies o f Occupational Wages and
Supplementary Benefits,” M o n th ly L a b o r Review,
March 1954, pp. 292-97.

Ward, Virginia L. “Area Sample Changes in the Area Wage
Survey Program,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , May 1975,
pp. 49-50.

A description o f the methods o f wage surveys.

A description and listing o f the area sample used in the area
wage survey program.

Douty, H.M. “Survey Methods and Wage Comparisons,”
L a b o r L a w Journal, April 1964, pp. 222-30.




10

Figure 1
Table 1. Num ber and average straigh t-tim e hourly earn ing s1 of production and related w orkers2in m en's and boys'
separate trousers m anufacturing estab lish m en ts. United S tates and selected regions,3 June 1974
CHARACTERISTIC

UNITED

TATES 4 /

WORKERS EARNINGS

MIDDLE ATLANTIC

BORDER STATES

WORKERS EARNINGS

WORKERS EARNINGS

SOUTHEAST
WORKERS

EARNINGS

GREAT LAKES
WORKERS

EARNINGS

MIDDLE WEST
WORKERS

EARNINGS

$ 2 .6 4
2 .9 5
2 .5 9

4 ,9 9 4
876
4 ,1 1 8

$ 3 .1 9
3 .6 4
3 .1 0

3 ,3 7 5
448
2 ,9 2 7

$ 2 .7 2
2 .9 8
2 .6 9

3 0 ,6 8 0
4 ,6 3 2
2 6 ,0 4 8

$ 2 .6 0
2 .8 7
2 .5 5

1 ,8 0 8
261
1 ,5 4 7

$ 2 .7 0
3 .1 3 .
2 .6 3

2, 936
336
2 ,5 9 8

2 .7 2
2 . 59

4 ,2 2 0
774

3 .2 4
2 .9 3

1 ,6 0 9

2 .8 2

1 ,8 0 6
2 8 ,8 7 4

2 .6 8
2 .6 0

1 ,0 3 7
771

2 .6 9
2 .7 2

2 ,4 5 1

2 .5 3

2 6 ,1 0 5
4 4 ,9 8 1

2 .6 5
2 .6 4

3 ,3 3 1
1 ,6 6 3

3 .2 5
3 .0 9

615
2 ,7 6 0

2 .6 8
2 .7 3

1 3 ,3 1 4
1 7 ,3 6 6

2 .5 2
2 .6 6

1 ,2 8 5

2 .6 5

1 ,4 2 0
1 ,5 1 6

2 .4 1
2 .6 4

2 3 ,8 6 8
4 7 ,2 1 8

2 .8 5
2 .5 4

4 ,6 3 0

3 .2 1

-

-

3 ,9 0 1
2 6 ,7 7 9

2 .9 0
2 .5 6

1 ,8 0 8

2 .7 0

1 ,9 3 8
998

2 .6 9
2 .2 1

835
ADJ USTERS-----------------------------794
ASSEMBLERS (GARMENT BU N G L E R S )-----729
CUTTERS, CLOTH, MA CHI NE -------------165
CUTTERS AND MARKERS, CLOTH---------752
GARMENT REPAIR ERS --------------------2 ,0 3 9
INSPECTORS, FINA L--------------------641
JA NIT ORS -------------------------------415
MA RKE RS --------------------------------584
PACKER S--------------------------------3 ,3 9 0
PRESSERS, FINISH, MA CH IN E----------SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS 1 / --------- 4 3 , 2 9 2
438
ATTACH CROT CH PIE CES --------------3 ,8 2 2
ATTACH POCKETS---------------------1 ,6 2 1
ATTACH BELT LCOPS-----------------1 ,9 2 2
ATTACH FLY--------------------------2 ,1 2 1
ATTACH WA IST BAN D-------------------878
ATTACH ZIPPER----------------------3 , 289
BARTA CKI NG--------------------------482
BUTTONHOLE MAKERS------------------1 ,2 9 6
HEM LEG BOT TOM S--------------------3 ,7 7 9
JOIN INSEAMS AND OUT S EA MS --------1 ,6 1 5
JOIN SE ATS EAM S---------------------488
MAKE LOOPS--------------------------1 ,6 1 0
MAKE PO CKE TS -----------------------622
PIECING FL YS -----------------------1 ,6 5 7
PIECING POC KET S--------------------1 ,8 9 6
SERGING------------------------------336
SEW ON BUT TON S---------------------639
SEW ON WA 1ST BANC LIN I NG ----------1 ,3 0 1
STITCH PO CKE TS ---------------------149
SHIPPING CLE R KS ----------------------674
SPR EADERS------------------------------349
STOCK CLERKS, GAR M EN TS --------------279
STOCK CLERKS, PIECE GO OD S-----------

3 .8 0
2 .6 4
3 .6 2
3 .6 2
2 .5 0
2 .6 6
2 .3 2
3 .1 4
2 .7 1
3 .0 1
2 .5 9
2 .5 2
2 .6 0
2 .4 9
2 .6 1
2 .6 1
2 .7 0
2 .5 7
2 .6 8
2 .5 6
2 .5 7
2 .6 0
2 .7 0
2 .7 1
2 .8 0
2 . 59
2 .6 4
2 .6 2
2 .6 5
2 .6 6
3 .0 2
2 .9 8
2 .5 9
2 .5 8

44
86
54
22
186
24
12
34
146
2 ,7 1 0
41
258
86
101
157
51
126
53
36
201
82
46
167
36
108
134
45
49
104
26
34
10
9

4 .2 4
2 .9 9
4 .2 7
4 .4 4

-

-

3 .6 8
2 .6 3
3 .6 4
3 .2 2
2 .3 2
2 .6 6
2 .2 0
3 .0 9
2 .5 9
2*98
2 .5 6
2 .2 8
2 .5 9
2 .5 0
2 .5 7
2 .5 0
2 .7 5
2 .5 3
2 .5 9
2 .5 4
2 .5 5
2 .5 3
2 .6 8
2 .5 7
2 .6 6
2 .5 6
2 .6 0
2 .5 5
2 .5 5
2 .6 1
2 .7 6
3 .1 3
2 .6 7
2 .4 3

14
41
31

3 .7 6
2 .7 0
3 .5 4

24
87
49

3 .8 8
2 .4 3
3 .4 3

24
69
24
14
18
109
929
12
58
29
27
47
19
35
26
22
79
33
11
76
23
37
55
14
26
46
21
25
15

2 .6 3
2 .6 8
2 .5 2
3 .3 5
3 .0 1
3 .2 5
2 .6 2
2 .5 0
2 .5 7
2 .5 1
2 .7 0
2 .5 1
2 .6 4
2 .4 2
2 .2 8
2 .4 0
2 .6 1
2 .6 3
2 .9 8
2 .7 2
2 .6 3
2 .4 5
2 .5 1
3 .0 5
2 .5 5
2 .7 9
“
2 .8 6
2 .6 1
2 .9 5

19
71
36
13
22
98
1 ,3 4 5
13
95
20
45
59

2 .6 1
2 .5 3
2 .4 2
3 . 35
2 .4 9
3 .0 5
2 .4 7
2 .2 5
2 .3 6
2 .4 4
2 .4 4
2 .5 2

101
17
35
129
44
14
1
4b
62
14
25
39
28
17

2 .4 4
2 .5 4
2 . 37
2 .3 4
2 .5 9
2 .5 «
2 .8 4
2 .3 0
2 .4 7
2 .5 0
2 .5 9
2 .3 7
2 .8 4
2 .4 9

2 .6 8
2 .7 6
2 .4 2

100
225
109

3 .3 2
3 .5 8
2 .8 7

2 .6 0
2 .6 5
2 .3 8

49
76
46

2 .7 5
2 .8 1
2 .6 3

71
71
83

2 .6 2
2 . 73
2 .3 9

ALL PRODUCTION WOR K ER S --------------- 7 1 , 0 8 6
MEN ---------------------------------- 1 0 , 3 0 5
WOMEN-------------------------------- 6 0 , 7 8 1
SIZE OF COMMUNITY:

MET ROPOLITAN AREAS 1 / -------------- 2 8 , 7 9 6
NONMETROPO LIT AN ARE A S -------------- 4 2 , 2 9 0

$ 2 .5 3
2 .9 2
2 .4 8

-

SIZE OF ESTABLISHMENT:

20-249 WOR K ER S ---------------------250 WORKERS CR MORE---------------LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACT COVERAGE:
ESTABLISHMENTS WITH--

MAJORITY OF WORKERS COVEREO---NONE OR MINORITY COVEREO--------

‘

SELECTED OCCUPATIONS 6 /

31

3 .2 8
•
2 .6 1

399
339
339
18
262
906
278
192
295
1 , B 16
1 7 ,6 3 5
118
1 ,5 6 6
640
800
896
190
1 ,4 8 0
209
543
1 ,5 8 4
7 27
213
696
230
831
627
129
279
707
46
336
114
121

60
136
81

2 .7 9
2 .6 1
2 .4 7

602
664
7 35

"
36
33
39

3 .9 8
2 .4 1

34
1 ,9 5 2
*
172
56
89
115
17
100
16
40
188
69
. 20

3 .0 6
2 .6 7
3 .9 9
3 .2 5
4 .1 2
3 .2 1
3 .2 9
3 .1 6
3 .2 9
3 .5 0
3 .1 4
3 .3 3
3 .0 8
3 .0 5
3 .0 5
3 .1 9
3 .3 1
3 .0 0
3 .5 7
3 .7 4
3 .2 1
2 .9 4
3 .0 9
3 . 55
3 .2 7
3 .6 5
3 .2 7
3 .3 2
3 .6 5

2 .5 8
2 .7 4
*
2 .7 5
2 .6 9
2 .9 9
2 .7 1
3 .4 7
2 .8 1
2 .7 8
2 .7 7
2 .5 3
2 .6 0
2 .9 6

47
96
126
27
58
96
"
26

2 .4 8

2 .9 5
2 .8 0
2 .7 5
2 .5 4
2 .7 1
2 .7 9

-

-

-

_

THREAD TRIMMERS

AND BASTING PULLERS---------------UND ERP RE SS ER S-------------------------WORK DIS TRI BU TO RS ---------------------

1 ,6 8 0
1 ,6 2 7
1 ,9 4 0

1 / EXCLUDES PREMIUM PAY FOR OVERTIME AND FOR WORK ON WEEKENDS, HOLIDAYS, AND LATE SHIFTS.
2 / THE TERMS "PRODUCTION WORKERS" AND "PRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKERS," ARE USED INTERCHANGEABLY IN THIS REPORT AND INCLUDE WORKING FOREMEN AND ALL
NONSUPERVISORY WORKERS ENGAGED IN NONOFFICE FUNCTIONS. ADMINISTRATIVE, EXECUTIVE, PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL PERSONNEL AND FORCE-ACCOUNT CONSTRUCTION
EMPLOYEES, WHO ARE UTILIZED AS A SEPARATE WORK FORCE ON THE FIRMS OW PROPERTIES, WERE EXCLUDED.
N
2 / THE REGIONS IN THIS STUDY INCLUDE: MIDDLE ATLANTIC - -NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, AND PENNSYLVANIA; BORDER STATES - -DELAWARE. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, KENTUCKY,
MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA; SOUTHEAST--ALABAMA. FLORIDA, GEORGIA, M IS S IS S IP P I, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND TENNESSEE; GREAT LAKES- IL L IN O IS ,

IN D IA N A , M IC H IG A N , M IN N E S O T A , O H IO , AND W IS C O N S IN ; AND M ID D LE W E S T - - IO W A .

K A N SA S, M IS S O U R I,

N EB R A SK A ,

NORTH D AKO TA, AND SOUTH DAKOTA.

£ / INCLUDES DATA FOR REGIONS IN ADDITION TO THOSE SHOWN SEPARATELY. ALASKA AND HAWAII WERE NOT INCLUDED IN THE SURVEY.
£ / STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AS DEFINED BY THE U .S . OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET THROUGH APRIL 1973.
6 / WORKERS CLASSIFIED IN DIRECT PROCESSING JOBS, SUCH AS CUTTING, SEWING, AND PRESSING WERE LIMITED TO THOSE ENGAGED IN THE FABRICATION OF MEN'S
AND BOYS' SEPARATE TROUSERS.
2 / INCLUDES DATA FOR WORKERS IN CLASSIFICATIONS IN ADDITION TO THOSE SHOWN SEPARATELY.
NOTE:

DASHES INDICATE NO DATA REPORTED OR DATA THAT DO NOT MEET PUBLICATION CRITERIA.




11

Figure 2
Area P A U L A S - F P B J U y O R I H . T E X . *
Estim ated total
in industry
and area
N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith
or m ore w o rk e rs3 .

4

.

R e p a ir activity
e m p l o y m e n t 4 ........................

A ctu ally studied

Electrical Appliance Repair

J42_

1 , 159

Payroll

N O V E M B E R 1975

Occupational Earnings
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV I N G S T R A IG H T - T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F -

Number
of b
workers6

O ccupation5

T elev isio n -ra d io technicians
( 4 8 7 m e n , 9 w o m e n ) --------- ---------I n s i d e ( b e n c h ) ---------------------------O u t s i d e ( h o m e r e p a i r ) -------------C o m b i n a t i o n ------------------------------T e le v isio n -r a d io tech nician s,
a p p r e n t i c e ------------------------------------E le ctrica l appliance tech nician s
I n s i d e ( b e n c h ) ---------------------------O u t s i d e ( h o m e r e p a i r ) -------------C o m b i n a t i o n ------------------------------E le ctrica l appliance tech nician s,
a p p r e n t i c e - -------------------------------------

$ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 . 2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 . 0 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 . 2 0 $ 6 .4 0 $ 6 .6 0 $ 6 .8 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .2 0
hourly _ a n d
earning*
and
under
$ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 . 2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 .0 0 $ 6 .2 0 $ 6 .4 0 $ 6 .6 0 $ 6 .8 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .2 0 o v e r

4.91

-

-

1
1

-

6
1

178
97

4 .6 1
4 . 74

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

31
5
15
11

27
430
62
290
78

3 . 12
4 .8 8
4 . 62
4 . 96
4 . 77

6

_

17

2 .8 0

496

$4 . 7

221

7

_

-

24
9
6
9

16
1

2
24
5
4
15

1
24
6
11
7

2
22
2
10
10

1

2

-

-

-

_

2
17

11
5

-

-

1
5

15

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
-

15

-

5
-

1
8
5
3

-

*

50
15
30
5

10

1

-

1

-

1

-

'

70
35
15
20

16
1
11
4

-

_

18
1
12
5

9
-

7
2

21
5
8
8

13
6
6
1

_

_

36
10
19
7

49
3
35
11

1
19
5
14

42
27
10
5

30
11
18
1

24
4

37

60
5
55

18
4

-

1

9
4
5

-

-

44
27
17

26
16
10

-

-

64
19
34
11

16
11
5

31
12
14
5

-

-

26
11

2
1
1
-

8
8

11
11

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

6

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

10

2
1
1

6

-

4

-

-

-

"

3

17

5
5

T he study co v e r e d m ajo
in d u s t r i e s a r e d e fin e d in the
and m a j o r e le c t r ic a l h o u se h o ld
r a d i o an d t e l e v i s i o n s t o r e s (Ind

e ^ ^ R e^ ersiito °a lf'n o n su p erW so ^ ry ^ n o n o ffiw o rk ers
‘

E stfm ates^ red ate

p“ n nin g n e c e s s a r y

t o T i

e^ L b U sW n tT m

to m a k e ^ w a g e

e n g a g e d T n the m a j o r h o u s e h o l d e l e c t r i c a l

appliance

repair activ ities

o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t .

t T i n d u s t r i e s and l o c a l i t y a s d e f i n e d f o r t h e s u r v e y
an d a r e i n t e n d e d a s a g e n e r a . g u i d e t ^ t h e s . a e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e .
o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t l i s t s a s s e m b l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d .
. Tnd‘
s ^ ^
w^l ^ " 0^
^
^ d for the s a l e s o f m a in te n a n c e c o n t r a c t s , p a r ts
or appliances

The a d v a n c e
P rem iu m s

Da id f o r l i c e n s e s
if any
h e l d by e m p l o y e e s a r e i n c l u d e d .
T h e s e s u r v e y s , b a s e d on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a r e d e s i g n e d to m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u o a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s at a p a r t i c u l a r
th e s a m p l e c o m p o s i t i o n , and s h i f t s in e m p l o y m e n t a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t
t i m e . T h u s , c o m p a r i s o n s m a d e w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s m a y not r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e m o v e m e n t s b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e in
. r e a se d w a g e s betw een p e r io d s being c o m p a r e d .
N i n e t y - t w o p e r c e n t o l th e p r o d u c t i o n
pay
S u c h s h i f t s , f o r e x a m p l e , c o u l d d e c r e a s e an o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e , e v e n t h o u g h m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t * me r
pay le v e ls .
v e r e d b y t h e s u r v e y w e r e p a i d on a t i m e b a s i s .
workers




Figure 3

Electrical Appliance Repair— Continued
Area

D A L L A S -F O R T WORTH.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
C u rrer t 1 jo b
o p en in g s
N um ber
N um ber
reof
r m in in g
c u rre n t
u n fille d
jo b
for a
openm o n th
m g s2
lo n g e r

T V - r a d i o t e c h n i c i a n ----------------------T V -r a d io tecnnician, apprenticeE le c tr ic a l appliance te c h n ic ia n -E le c t r ic a l ap pliance technician,
a p p r e n t i c e --------------------------------------

6
3
5

_
4

P e r c e n t of

(B)

all

S c h e d u l e d W e e k l y H ou rs

workers

P e r c e n t of

(D )

V a c a t io n P o lic ie s

te c h n ic ia n s ^

te c h n ic ia n s 3

100

WORKERS ----------------------------------------

100

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S n o t p r o v i d i n g
p a id
V A C A T IO N S ----------------------------------IN E S T A B L IS H M E N T S P R O V ID IN G
P A ID V A C A T IO N S ----------------------------------L E N G T H - O F - T IM E PAYMENT -----------OTHER P A Y M E N T ----------------- --------- -------

3 7 1 / 2 HOURS AO HOURS -----------4 2 HOURS -----------4 4 HOURS -----------4 5 HOURS -----------4 7 1 / 2 HOURS 4 8 HOURS ------------

ALL

ID)

V a c a t i o n P o l i c i e s — C o n t in u e d

AMOUNT OF R A I D V A C A T I O N
AFTER — C ON TIN U ED

98
97
2

IN

2

20

OF

P A ID

V A C A T IO N

AFTER 1

P e r c e n t of
se rv ic e
te c h n ic ia n s 3

MONTHS OF S E R V IC E 1
1 WEEK — — — — — —
OVER 1 ANO U N 0E R 2 WEEKS 1 YEAR OF S E R V IC E *
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------OVER 1 ANO UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS --------------------------------------------2 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK
over
i
and under
2
w eeks -

Y EA R S

6

P ai d Ho l i d a y s

over

A LL

WORKERS ----------------------------------

R E C E IV IN G P A ID H O L ID A Y S ----------4 H O L ID A Y S --------------------------------------5 H O L ID A Y S --------------------------------------6 H O L ID A Y S --------------------------------------P L U S 1 H A LF DAY ------------------7 H O L ID A Y S ---------------------------------------8 H O L I D A Y S ------------------- — ------- ------9 H O L ID A Y S ---------------------------------------P L U S 1 H A LF DAY ------------------10 H O L ID A Y S ------------------------------------R E C E IV IN G NO P A ID H O L ID A Y S —

100
98
1

33

11
6

10
5

21
3
9
2

3

2

years

and
of

1 WEEK —
OVER

1

under

s e r v ic e

—

—

AND UNDER

3

:
—
2

w eeks

Footnotes:
1 U n w e i g h t e d o b s e r v a t i o n s in N o v e m b e r 19 75.
? F u l l - t i m e o p e n i n g s a v a i l a b l e f o r f i l l i n g i n S e p t e m b e r and f o r w h i c h th e f i r m w a s a c t i v e l y
t r y i n g to r e c r u i t w o r k e r s f r o m o u t s i d e th e f i r m .
3 R e f e r s to t e l e v i s i o n - r a d i o t e c h n i c i a n s , e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e t e c h n i c i a n s , and a p p r e n t i c e
technicians.




E s t i m a t e s of p r o v is io n s for lo n g e r p e r io d s of s e r v ic e a r e id e n t ic a l.

OF

S E R V IC E *
6
4

38

WEEKS

AND UNDER 4
OF S E R V IC E :

WEEKS

OF

S E R V IC E * *

1 ANO UNDER

2

MEEKS -

42
4
53

5

W E E K S ----------------- ---------------------------

2
10
7
79
2

-

OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 WEEKS --------------------------------------------4 WEEKS --------------------------------------------1 5 YEARS OF S E R V IC E *
1 WEEK -----------------------------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS --------------------------------------------3 WEEKS --------------------------------------------4 WEEKS ---------------------------------------------

33

12
7

-

-

4

13
5

—

0 V E r " ~ A N 0 UNDER 3 WEEKS ”2
4 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK -----------------------------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS —
— — — —
OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS 5 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK — — — — —
OVER 1 ANO UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS --------------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS 3 WEEKS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 YEARS OF S E R V IC E :
1 WEEK — —
— — — — —

OVER 3
1 2 YEARS

O VER

(E )
— —

OVER I AND UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS --------------------------------------------3 WEEKS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

*

Y EA R S

OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS 2 WEEKS --------------------------------------------

41
AMOUNT

(C)

TEX.

p
avroii p d N vember 19 5
erio o
7

10
7
79
2
6
7
73
7
5
6
4
45
42
2

4
45
42
2
6
4

Percent of
service
technicians 3

H e a l t h . In s u ra n c e , a n d
R e t ir e m e n t P la n s

A LL

WORKERS

-------------------------------------

I N E S T A B L IS H M E N T S P R O V ID IN G
L E A S T ONE O F T H E B E N E F IT S
SHOWN BELOW ----------------------

life

100

AT

Insurance -----

A C C ID E N T A L D E A T H ANO
D IS M E M B E R M E N T IN S U R A N C E
S IC K N E S S AND A C C ID E N T IN S U R A N C E
OR S IC K L E A V E OR BOTH
----------------S IC K N E S S ANO A C C ID E N T
IN S U R A N C E -------------------------------------------S IC K L E A V E (F U L L PAY AND NO
W A IT IN G P E R IO D ) -------— ----------------S IC K L E A V E ( P A R T IA L P A Y OR
W A IT IN G P E R I 0 0 ) --------------------------L O N G -T E R M D I S A B I L I T Y
IN S U R A N C E ---------------------- — ---------------------H O S P I T A L I Z A T I O N IN S U R A N C E -----------S U R G IC A L IN S U R A N C E
M E D IC A L IN S U R A N C E
MAJOR M E D IC A L IN S U R A N C E
R E T IR E M E N T P L A N S --------------P E N S IO N P L A N S ----------------S E V E R A N C E PAY -----------------

96
71
56
76
32
32

31
96
96
96
95
49
49

43
15
31

NOTE: "Sickness and accident insurance or sick leave", and
"Retirement plans" present unduplicated totals of workers receiving plans
shown separately .
____________

Figure 4
A verage earn ing s' for selected occupations in 6 industry division s2 in 41 areas,
J u ly —Decem ber 1975

O c c u p a tio n

A k ro n ,
O h io

A lb an y ^ 1
S c h e n e c ta d y ^
T r o y , N .Y .(

D e c . 1975

A k ro n ,
O h io

O c c u p a tio n

A lbany^ 1
S c h e n e c ta d y - ^
T r o y , N .Y . '

D e c . 1975

S e p t. 1 9 7 5 1

S e p t . 1975

Professional and technical—C ontinued

Office

D r a f t e r - t r a c e r s ------— ------ — ------------------ .----------------E l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n s ..
C l a s s A________________
C l a s s B _______________
C l a s s C _______________
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is te r e d ) .

B i l l e r * , m a c h i n e ( b i l l in g m a c h in e ) .
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h i n e )
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , c la s s A
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , c la s s B
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B
C le r k s , f ile , c la s
C le rk s , file , c la s s B
C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s C.
C le rk s , o r d e r
C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ----------------K eypunch o p e r a to rs , c la ss A
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ---------------------M e sse n g e rs
S e c r e ta r ie s
S e c r e ta r ie s , c la ss A —
S e c r e ta r ie s , c la ss B
S e c r e t a r i e s , c l a s s C ----S e c r e t a r i e s , c l a s s D.
S te n o g ra p h e rs , g e n e ra L
S te n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r
S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s 3
S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s , c l a s
S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B 3 -------- ------S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s -----------T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A —
T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , c la s
T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , c la s s C _
T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , g e n e ra l.
T y p i s t s , c l a s s A______________________________
T y p is ts, c la ss B

Maintenance and powerplant
$ 5 .8 2
5 .9 7
6 .1 5
6 .0 9
5 .1 6
6 .4 5
5 .9 6
6 .8 8
6 .0 4
7 .1 3
6 .0 2
6 .0 8
6 .2 3

$ 5 .1 2
6 .1 4
5 .8 3
5.1 1

3 .7 4
4 .0 4
5 .9 2
4 .7 2
4 .1 3
5 .0 2

B o i l e r t e n d e r s ------------------------C a r p e n t e r s -----------------------------E le c tr ic ia n s —
E n g in e e rs, s ta tio n a ry —
H e l p e r s , t r a d e s ---------------- — ------- ----M a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m .
M a c h i n i s t s -------------------------- ---------------M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e -------------------M e c h a n i c s ____________________________
M illw r i g h t s ----------------------------------------P a i n t e r s ---------------------------------------------P ip e f itte r s ...
S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s ------------T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s --------------

2 .8 3
3 .7 5
4 .4 8
3 .6 9
3 .6 0
4 .5 3
4 .8 5
4 .4 5
6 .0 9

-

5 .9 5
6 .3 1
5 .7 6
5 .8 4
5 .4 1
5 .8 4
5 .8 6

Custodial and material m ovement
G u a r d s a n d w a t c h m e n -----— ---- ——
J a n ito r s , p o r te r s , and c le a n e rs .
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ------O r d e r f i l l e r s . —. —-------------------------P a c k e r s , s h i p p i n g . . . --------------------R e c e i v in g c l e r k s . -------------------------S h ip p in g c l e r k s .
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s .
T ru c k d riv e rs 3
T r u c k d r i v e r s , l i g h t ( u n d e r lVz t o n s ) —
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d i u m ( l 1 to an d
/*
in c l u d i n g 4 t o n s ) .
u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y (o v e r 4 to n s,
t r a i l e r t y p e ) ------------------------------------------------T r u c k d r iv e r s , h eavy (o v e r 4 to n s ,
o t h e r t h a n t r a i l e r t y p e ) ----------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) -------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( o t h e r t h a n f o r k l i f t ) -----------W a r e h o u s e m e n ---------------------------------------------------

C o m p u te r o p e r a to r s
C la s s A
C la s s B
C la s s C
C o m p u te r p r o g r a m m e
C la s s A
C la s s B
C o m p u te r s y s te m s - a n a ly s ts , bus
C l a s s A—
C l a s s B_.
C la s
D ra fte r
C l a s s A_.

_

4 .6 8
6 .4 5
4 .7 9

5 .5 9

6 .7 6

6 ,5 7

.
5 .7 2
4 .8 1
5 .2 9

Figure 5

Table A-7 . Percent increases in average hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts.
in Portland, Oreg.—Wash., for selected periods
M a y 1973
to
M a y 1974

M a y 1974
to
M a y 1975

M ay 1975
to
M ay 1976

5.4
*

9.0
*

4.6
7.0
7.2

4.3
7.3
7.9

1 0 .3
10.4
**
10.6
11.0

8.3
7.7
**
10.3
9.1

10.8
**
**
11.3
11.1

8.7
**
**
11.6
10.0

10.0
**
**
**
10.7

8.1
**
**
**

M a y 1972
to
M a y 1973

I n d u s t r y and o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p
( m e n an d w o m e n c o m b i n e d )

A ll ind u stries:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ____________________________________________
E l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g ................... ..................................I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ________________________ ______ - S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s * * * ----U n s k ille d p lan t w o r k e r s * * * — - . . . .
- M a n u fa ctu r in g :
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ____________________________________________
E l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g ________
______ ______
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s _____________________ _________ _________
Skilled m a in ten a n ce tr a d e s ***
----U n s k i l l e d p l a n t w o r k e r s * * * __________________ _______

4.7
*

4.2
7.8
9 .3

5.6
*
**
**

9.3

8.2

N onm anufacturing:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l _______________________________________ ____
E l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g ____________________________
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s _________________ __________________
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s * * * ___
__________
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t w o r k e r s *** .
-------------------

8.0

3.5
4.7
5.9

6.7

**
**

8.6
______________________

*
**
★ **

D ata not a v a ila b le .
D ata do not m e e t p u b lic ation c r i t e r ia .
P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s fo r p e r io d s ending p r io r




to

19 7 6 r e l a t e

14

to

men

o n ly.

-

5 .9 9

5 .5 6
4 .9 7
4 .6 3
4 .9 0

Figure 6

Relative pay levels for selected occupational groups in 92 metropolitan areas, March 1974 through July 1975
(Average pay levels fo r each industry and occupational group in 2 62 Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas = 1 0 0 )'
O ffice clerical
Area

Electronic data processing

All
industries

Manufac­
turing
industries

Nonm anu­
facturing
industries

99
-

All
industries

M anufac­
turing
industries

N onm anu­
facturing
industries

103

100

_

-

-

-

Skilled maintenance
A ll
industries

Manufac­
turing
industries

100
94

Unskilled plant
All
industries

Manufac­
turing
industries

Nonm anu­
facturing
industries

100
94

129
108
73

116
98
73

117
109
73

A k ro n ,O h io ...............................................
A lb a n y -S c h e n e c ta d y -T ro y , N .V . .
Albuquerque, N . M ex.............................
A lle n to w n -B e th le h e m -E a s to n ,
P a .-N .J .....................................................

102
101
88

-

103
104
90

113

113

100

103

-

-

98

100

110

105

106

A nahe im -S a n ta A n a Garden Grove, C alif.............................
A tlanta, G a.................................................
Austin, T e x .................................................
Baltimore, M d............................................

104
103
85
99

105
103
82
103

102
105
86
98

109
102
91
96

108

107
105

99
100

102
98

-

93
66
101

88
89
73
83

M uskegon-M uskegon Heights,
M ich...........................................................
N assau-S u ffolk, N .Y ..............................
N ew ark, N .J ................................................
New Orleans, La........................................

98
97
104
90

96
94
101

-

-

104
107

-

-

99
106
90

-

-

New Y o rk , N .Y .- N .J ..............................
N o rfo lk —Virginia B e ac h Portsm outh, V a .-N .C .........................
Northeast, Pa..............................................
Oklahoma C ity, O kla ..............................

108

104

110

111

107

85
84
89

-

86
89

84
82
90

-

Omaha, N e b r.-lo w a ............................
P aterson-C lifton-P assaic, N.J. . . .
Philadelphia, P a .-N .J .............................
Phoenix, A riz .............................................

94
98
98
90

93
96
100
96

Pittsburgh, Pa.............................................
Portland, M e...............................................
Portland, O reg.-W ash ............................
Poughkeepsie, N .Y ...................................

104
86
101
110

108

P rovid e n c e -W a rw ic k -P a w tu c k et,
R .I.-M a s s ................................................
R a le ig h -D u rh am , N .C ............................
R ichm ond, V a ............................................
R ockford, III...............................................

87
89
94
93

Sacram ento, C alif.....................................
Saginaw, M ich............................................
St. Louis, M o .- I ll.....................................
Salt Lake C ity -O g d e n , U t a h .............

101
112
101
91

San
San
San
San

A ntonio , T e x .....................................
Diego, C alif.........................................
Francisco-O akland, Calif. . . .
Jose, C a lif...........................................

81
99
110
110

Savannah, G a..............................................
S e a ttle -E v e re tt, Wash............................
South Bend, In d ........................................
Spokane, Wash...........................................
Syracuse, N .Y ............................................
Toledo, O h io -M ic h .................................
Trenton, N .J ...............................................
Washington, D .C . - M d .- V a ..................
W aterbury, Conn......................................
W ichita, Kans.............................................
Worchester, Mass......................................
Y o rk , Pa.......................................................

-

-

-

-

101

102

92
90
70
90

-

92
94
99
93

92
92
99
95

113
99
104
71

108
88
101
89

104
108
67

113

100

98

121

102

127

-

-

89

-

-

91
81
94

90
77
93

73
93
78

83
79
82

72
100
77

96
96
96
88

93
97
100
98

_
-

95
95
101
96

98
95
97
99

95
94
97
100

89
93
108
85

99
91
103
80

87
92
109
87

99
87
104

99

102

93

-

100
94
121

-

-

113
78
116
93

84
93
97
91

90
73
78

-

105

99
-

98

-

108
109

96

-

-

102
75
106

103
74
108

-

-

-

-

-

111
89
121
93

87
88
93
91

-

-

-

100
87

-

81
90
100
97

78
90
99
97

83
78
85
117

75
84
92
108

_
-

102

-

-

-

103

104

112

-

-

-

101
88

100
92

99
93

-

112
137
112
90

-

103
111
110

83
98
111
109

94
102
91
97

_

_

-

101
90
95

97
104
99
105

95
106
96
-

97
96

95
96
95
89

-

94

92
-

92
95
92
90

-

107
-

95
95
-

96
93
89

90

-

102
93

-

-

-

-

98
107
110

99
110
109

-

101
117
113

104
116
115
87
108
96

107
-

103
97

104
95

-

-

66
104
136
118

101
96

_
-

103
_

86
108
95

-

-

-

-

-

102
106

94
95
100
100

_

_

96

-

94
104
94
103

95
105
92
105

97
123
96
89

_

-

_

-

-

93
-

102

-

-

-

-

' 2 6 2 S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lit a n S ta tis tic a l A re a s in t h e U n ite d
S ta te s (e x c lu d in g A la s k a a n d H a w a ii) as e s ta b lis h e d b y th e O ff ic e
o f M a n a g e m e n t and B u dget th ro u g h F e b ru a ry 1 9 7 4 .




-

96
-

88
87
85
87

87
86
87
85

78
-

79
93
98
106

-

-

-

-

-

111
88

107
92

69

65

-

-

126
112

140

79
120
101

_

-

99
114
92
103
83
93
90
97

-

88
105
87
118
-

90
-

87
89
108

N O T E : D ashes in d ic a te d a ta t h a t d o n o t m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r ite r ia .

15

Figure 7
Average s a l a r i e s o f em ployees in s e l e c t e d w h i t e - c o l l a r o c c u p a tio n s

----------------------------------------------------------------O c c u p a t i o n and c l a s s

1

Number
of
e m p l o y e e s 2 j_

Average s a l a r i e s

In p r i v a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , March 1 9 76 17

3/
O c c u p a t i o n and c l a s s

M on th ly

Annual

A c c o u n t a n t s and A u d i t o r s

Number
of
e m p l o y e M on th ly
es 27

Average s a l a r i e s

C h e m is t s and E n g i n e e r s — C o n t ' d .

I ----------------------------------I I --------------------------------I I I ------------------------------IV--------------------------------V-----------------------------------

5,6 3 6
15,559
31,603
20,498
7,423

A u d i t o r s I ----------------------------------------A u d i t o r s I I --------------------------------------A u d i t o r s I I I ------------------------------------A u d i t o r s IV--------------------------------------C hief
C hief
C hief
C hief

a c c o u n t a n t s I ----------------------a c c o u n t a n t s I I --------------------a c c o u n t a n t s I I I ------------------a c c o u n t a n t s IV---------------------

$ 955
1,117
1,286
1,562
1,951

1,428
2,756
5,304
3,529

981
1,119
1,339
1,663

11,769
13,427
16,059
19,952

552
1,132
742
340

1,705
1,897
2,345
2,827

20,460
22,753
28,136
33,916

740
1,565
1,916
1,948
1,133
625

1,285
1,556
2,018
2,486
3,026
3,646

15,413
18,667
24,205
29,828
36,308
43,747

4,222
12,480
13,726
5,010

978
1,184
1,427
1,673

$1,160
1,266
1,457
1,730
2,007
2,312
2,571
3,020

$13,918
15,184
17,482
20,749
24,082
27,737
30,850
36,236

I ----------I I --------I I I ------IV--------V-----------

3,005
12,355
23,869
28,795
18,407

756
904
1,022
1,182
1,341

9,064
10,841
12,258
14,178
1 6 ,086

698
814
1,003
1,274

8,369
9,763
12,029
15,288

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
Engineers
Engineers

$11,453
13,394
15,428
18,738
23,402

11,732
14,200
17,122
20,075

•

11,648
29,235
82,307
119,970
85,907
44,284
17,608
4,526

Dr af t e r - t r a c e r s -------------------------------

A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants

3/

Annual

I --------------------------------------I I ------------------------------------I I I ----------------------------------IV------------------------------------V--------------------------------------VI------------------------------------V I I ----------------------------------V I I I ---------------------------------

T e c h n ic a l Support
E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering

tech n ician s
tech n ician s
tech n ician s
tech nician s
tech nician s

Attorneys

A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
Attorneys

I I ------------------------------------I I I ----------------------------------IV------------------------------------V--------------------------------------VI -------------------------------------

D rafters
D rafters
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I --------------------------------------------I I ------------------------------------------I I I ----------------------------------------IV-------------------------------------------

I I ------------------------------I I I ----------------------------IV-------------------------------

274
576
484

1,130
1,341
1,596

D irectors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

1,163
1,735
1,079
271

1,517
1,810
2,238
2,755

18,193
21,720
26,845
33,060

C h e m i s t s I I --------------------------------------C h e m i s t s I I I ------------------------------------C h e m i s t s IV---------------------------------------

3,337
8,538
9 ,699

1,174
1,383
1,703

C h e m i s t s VI --------------------------------------C h e m i s t s V I I ------------------------------------C h e m i s t s V I I I -----------------------------------

4,104
1,477
412

2,406
2,797
3, 394

I ------------I I ----------I I I --------IV-----------

I --------------------I I ------------------I I I ----------------IV------------------V--------------------VI-------------------

2,783
8,172
21,718
13,617
2,647
777

647
732
847
991
1,127
1,254

7,761
8,774
10,162
11,881
13,523
15,038

892
1,970
1,254
298

8 29
956
1,068
1,241

9,939
11,470
12,815
14,883

91,001
74,328
25,685
17,556
6,448
55,404
44,358
21,257
43,660
64,553
69,748
43,981
13,752
32,578
39,135
46,214
33,784

637
805
490
554
684
639
735
557
741
804
868
954
1,029
706
788
569
665

7,636
9,652
5,875
6,637
8,205
7,660
8,811
6.676
8,882
9,641
10,413
11,442
12,342
8,472
9,445
6,827
7,975

C lerical

13,559
16,091
19,142

of
of
of
of

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

P e r s o n n e l Management
Jo b a n a l y s t s
Jo b a n a l y s t s
Jo b a n a l y s t s

I I --------------------------------------I I I -------------------------------------

4,281
17,602
29,395
31,426

S u p er visor y

s u p e r v i s o r s I ----------------s u p e r v i s o r s I I --------------s u p e r v i s o r s I I I ------------s u p e r v i s o r s IV--------------C lerical

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I --------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I I ------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I --------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I ------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I I ----------------------------Keypunch o p e r a t o r s I --------------------Keypunch o p e r a t o r s I I -------------------

C h e m i s t s and E n g i n e e r s
12,473
14,077
16,589
20,429
24,099
28,868
33,559
40,723

S e c r e t a r i e s I ----------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I --------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I I ------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s V----------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ----------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r ------------------T y p i s t s I ---------------------------------------—
T y p i s t s I I -----------------------------------------

1/
I n c l u d e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h 2 50 w o r k e r s o r more i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e t a i l t r a d e ; and 100 o r more i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s , w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s , c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , and
t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s , and f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .
2/
O c c u p a t i o n a l em plo ym ent e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e t o t h e t o t a l i n a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y and n o t t o t h e number
a c t u a lly surveyed.
3/
S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e t o t h e s t a n d a r d s a l a r i e s t h a t w e re p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d work s c h e d u l e s ; i . e . , t h e s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s ­
p o n d i n g t o t h e e m p l o y e e ' s n ormal work s c h e d u l e e x c l u d i n g o v e r t i m e h o u r s .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , b ut c o s t - o f - l i v i n g b o n u s e s and
in c e n tiv e ea rn in g s are in clud ed .




16

Figure 8

Table 1.

Average straight-time weekly hours and monthly earnings for selected occupations, Houston, Texas, Municipal Government, July 1976




17

Chapter 3. Union Wage Rate Surveys
o f five m ajo r trades in th e h eavy co n stru ctio n sector.
T h e annual survey o f co n stru ctio n trades is supple­
m ented by a q u arterly su rv ey o f seven m ajo r building
trades in 121 cities. Q uestionnaires are m ailed to
approxim ately 175 union officials to obtain inform ation
on w age rates and em ployer co ntributions to selected
benefit funds as o f th e first w o rk d ay o f each calendar
quarter. E stim ates, relatin g to cities o f 100,000 inhabit­
ants o r m ore, are published in a press release issued the
m onth follow ing th e su rv ey reference date. (See figures
10 and 11.) T h e release is rep rin ted in its en tirety in
C u r r e n t W a g e D e v e lo p m e n ts 2 m onths after the survey
reference date.
T h e annual tru ck in g study em braces drivers and
helpers engaged in local trucking. O v er-th e-ro ad d riv ­
ers and local city d riv ers paid on a m ileage or
com m ission basis are excluded. A ll d ata are presented
separately for the tw o classifications studied—d rivers
and d riv ers’ helpers.
S urveys o f union w ages and hours in th e local-transit
industry are lim ited to operatin g em ployees. C u rren t
data are show n separately for (1) o p erato rs o f surface
cars and buses and (2) o p erato rs on elevated and
subw ay lines. T re n d d ata (indexes), h o w ev er, are
show n only for th e industry as a w hole.

U nion w age ra te surveys, p art o f th e B u reau’s
occup atio n al w ag e su rv ey p ro g ram ,1 h av e been co n ­
d u cted annually since 1907. A t present, these studies
p ro v id e d ata on union w ages and ho u rs in four
industries: C o n stru ctio n (building and h eav y co n stru c­
tion), local transit, local trucking, and printing. Since
1971 a biennial su rv ey o f g ro c e ry stores also has been
condu cted .
U nion w ag e rates and ho u rs are those ag reed on
th ro u g h co llectiv e bargaining betw een em ployers and
trad*: unions; th ey are defined as (1) the basic m inim um
w age rates (excluding holiday, vacation, o r o th er
benefit paym ents reg u larly m ade o r cred ited to the
w o rk e r each p ay perio d ) and (2) th e m axim um num ber
o f hou rs p e r w eek at straight-tim e rates.
T h e use o f union agreem ents o r o th e r union reco rd s
in studies o f o ccu p atio n al w ages is practicable in
industries th a t are hig h ly unionized and in w h ich (1)
w ell-defined c raft g ro u p in g s exist, as in building co n ­
stru ctio n o r printing, o r (2) key o ccupations can be
clearly delineated, as in local transit. In these industries,
obtaining inform ation from union sources, ra th e r than
em plo y er payrolls, is an efficient m eans o f com piling
large m asses o f data.

In the printing industry, 15 b o o k and jo b trades, 8

Description of surveys

new spaper trades, and 6 lith o g rap h y trades are studied.
F o r th e new sp ap er trades, separate data are show n for
d ay w o rk and nightw o rk . D a ta are presented separately
by ty p e o f printing (except lith o g rap h y ) for each trade
and for all trades com bined. (See figure 9.)
T h e g ro c ery store survey develops av erag e w age
rates for a num ber o f jo b s selected to rep resen t th e retail
g ro c ery industry. F ig u re 12 show s co m p arativ e pay
levels in th e occupations studied in 10 o f th e largest
cities in 1975.

E a c h su rv ey cu rre n tly co v e rs 66 cities, ap p ro p riately
w eig h ted to rep resen t all cities having 100,000 inhabit­
ants o r m o re.2 T h e surveys are designed to include all
local unions in th e co v e red in d u stry w hose ju risd ictio n
includes th e selected cities.
T h e annual su rv ey o f union w ag e rates and ho urs in
building co n stru c tio n co v e rs v irtu ally all jo u rn ey m an
and h elp er and lab o re r classifications. W age rates,
indexes, and o th e r d ata are show n as o f th e first
w o rk d a y in Ju ly fo r each im p o rtan t building tra d e as
w ell as fo r all trad es com bined. (See figure 9.) W age
rates and d ata on benefits are p ro v id ed as w ell for each

Survey methods

1 For other surveys in this program see chapter 2, “Occupational
Wage Surveys.”
2 Beginning with the July 1976 survey, a new sample of 66 cities, of
100,000 inhabitants or more. It will continue to include the 27 largest
cities (500,000 inhabitants or more) and nearly half of the 43 cities
previously studied in the 100,000-500,000 size group. Twenty new
cities will fill out the sample.




18

Inform ation is co llected by m ail from local unions in
the cities selected. W hen necessary, inform ation also is
co llected from international unions and regional union
organizations. P ersonal visits are m ade to unions th at do
n ot respond to th e m ail questionnaire.
O n th e basis o f th e survey data collected, an overall
average h o u rly rate is com puted for each o f the

industries except for th e h eav y co n stru ctio n sector,
w h ere only individual jo b rates are presented. In
addition, averages are presen ted by in d u stry branch,
trade, city, and region fo r building co n stru ctio n and
printing; by city and reg io n for local transit and local
trucking; and by trad e and d ep artm en t, at the U.S. level
only, for g ro c e ry stores.
A v e rag e union rates are calcu lated by w eighting
each q u o tatio n fo r th e c u rre n t y ear by re p o rted active
union m em bership, i.e., m em bers w o rk in g o r im m edi­
ately available fo r w o rk . T h ese averages are designed to
p ro v id e com parisons am ong trad es and cities at a given
time; th ey are n o t designed to m easure changes o v er
time. T re n d s in w ag e rates are p ro v id ed by th e index
series described below .
In d e x e s . T o m easure th e tren d o f w age rates and
w eekly hours, chain indexes are calculated for each o f
the fou r annual su rv ey s.3 In calcu latin g these indexes,
th e p ercen t ch an g e in ag g reg ates is co m p u ted from
quotatio n s fo r all identical classifications in th e in d ustry
for tw o successive years. T o obtain th e aggregates,
rates and ho u rs (for b o th th e previous and cu rre n t year)
are w eig h ted b y m em bership in th e p artic u la r classifica­
tion for th e c u rre n t year. T h e index for th e c u rre n t year
is com p u ted b y m ultiplying th e index fo r th e p receding
y ear by th e ratio o f th e ag g reg ate change.
T h e series d ate back to different years: B uilding
trad es and th e p rin tin g industry, 1907; local transit,
1929; and local tru ck in g , 1936. T h e base year for all
indexes is 1967.

Presentation
T h e averages and indexes m entioned, to g e th e r w ith
o th er sum m ary data, are contained in B L S bulletins
published annually fo r each in d u stry (biennially for
g ro c ery stores). In fo rm atio n fo r individual occupations
includes th e p ro p o rtio n o f union m em bers at different
h o u rly rates o f p ay and the p ro p o rtio n o f union
m em bers w h o receiv ed w ag e ra te increases o f specified
am ounts, in cents p er h o u r and percent. T h e av erag e
increase reg istered by th e trad e also is show n.
In addition, bulletins fo r each industry sh o w in d ivid­
ual city w ag e rates for each classification fo r b o th the
previous and c u rre n t year. (See figure 13.) T hese
listings o f union c o n tra c t inform ation also present data
on em p lo y er paym ents for insurance (health and
w elfare) funds, pension funds, and also, fo r co n stru ctio n
trades, vacation and o th e r funds.

Uses and limitations
D a ta from th e B ureau’s union w age series are used
by b o th m anagem ent and labor in co llective bargaining
in th e p riv ate and public sectors. W age-setting co n fer­
ences at the U.S. G o v e rn m en t P rin tin g Office, for
example, refer to d ata obtained from th e annual printing
survey. D a ta on w age rates o f building trades w orkers
are especially im p o rtan t in estim ating construction
costs since labor expenditures co n stitute an im portant
elem ent in th e to tal expense o f building construction.
C oncern o v e r rising food and tran sp o rtatio n costs is
expected to increase th e use m ade o f th e g ro c ery store
and local tru ck in g surveys. R en ew ed interest in mass
transit m ay lead to g re ater use o f th e local transit
survey. P rim ary users o f th e union w age survey data
thus include: F ed eral, State, and local governm ent
agencies; lab o r and m anagem ent officials; and p rivate
researchers, jo b counselors, consum er groups, and
law yers.
D a ta on average w age rates are suitable for com pari­
sons am ong industries, trades, and cities at a given time,
bu t should n o t be used to m easure y ear-to-year changes.
T o m easure changes o v e r time, th e indexes should be
used, since th ey h ave been adjusted to elim inate
changes resulting from fluctuations in union m em ber­
ship and o th e r factors.
U nion rates are n ot necessarily th e actual rates paid
to all w o rkers, and union hou rs are no t necessarily
hours actually w orked. W orkers w ith above-average
experience and skill m ay be em ployed at rates above the
union w ag e rates, especially d u ring prosperous times
w hen a tig h t jo b m arket creates com petitive bidding for
th e b e tte r w orkers. D u rin g periods o f depressed busi­
ness activity, actual ho u rs w o rk ed often are less than
those specified in union agreem ents.
—REFEREN CES—

David, Lily Mary, and Kanninen, T.P. “Workers’ Wages in
Construction and Maintenance,” M o n th ly L a b o r Review,
January 1968, pp. 46-49.
Mobley, Thomas C. “Use o f BLS Survey Data in Wage
Setting at GPO,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , April 1970, pp.

66- 68.
Rose, Arthur. “Wage Differentials in the Building Trades,”
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , October 1969, pp. 14-17.
U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics. B L S
H a n d b o o k o f M ethods. Bulletin 1910, 1976, pp. 144-50.
------------ , -------------, H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S tatistics 1975.
B u lletin 1865, 1975, p. 7 a n d pp. 2 2 5 -3 4 .

3
In the local transit industry, irregular hours of work for operating
employees in many of the covered cities prevent the computation of
------------ , -------------, M a jo r P rogram s 1976: B ureau o f L a b o r
an index for weekly hours.
Statistics. Report 459, 1976, p. 22.




19

Figure 9
T A B LE 95.

Indexes of Union W age R ates1 in Selected Building and Printing Trades, 1 9 0 7 -7 3 — Continued

[1967 = 100]

Trade

July
1,
1955

Ju ly
1,
1956

July
1,
1957

July
1,
1958

July
1,
1959

July
1,
1960

July
1,
1961

Ju ly
1,
1962

July
1,
1963

July
1,
1964

July
1,
1965

July
1,
1966

July
1,
1967

July
1,
1968

July
1,
1969

July
1,
1970

July
1,
1971

Ju ly
1,
1972

July
1,
1973

H ourly wage rates
All building trades. 60.0

62.8

66.0

69.0

72.4

75.4

78.4

81.3

84.2

87.3

90.9

94.7

100.0

106.6

115.4

128.8

144.0 153.2

160.8

60.6
60.4
60.5
65.3
59.8
60.9

63.3
62.8
63.1
68.3
62.3
63.9

66.5
65.6
66.9
70.9
65.6
67.1

69.5
69.6
70.4
73.3
68.6
69.9

72 7
72.5
73.8
76.5
72.1
73.4

75.5
75.0
76.9
78.8
75.0
76.2

78. 4
77.3
80.0
81.8
77.9
79.1

81.4
80.6
82. 8
84.3
80.7
81.6

84.4
83.6
85.4
86.7
83.6
84.2

87.4
86.7
88.9
89.3
86.6
86.9

90.9
90.5
92.3
91.8
90.7
90.9

94.7
94.3
95.8
95.0
94.6
94.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.7
107.0
106.2
106.8
107.0
106.3

115.7
116.6
114.1
115.0
115.8
114.6

128.9
129.5
125. 7
127.7
128.9
127.0

143.9
145.9
139.9
144.9
141.5
143.8

153.4
155.8
148.4
153.4
150.9
154.7

160.8
161.9
156.4
159.5
160.1
161.4

60.3

63.6

66.8

70.3

72. 7

76.4

79.4

83.6

86.2

89.2

91.5

94.9

100.0

106.5

117.1

130.4

148.4 158.8

164.9

62.3
59.2
65.2
59.1
61.5

64.7
62.2
68.0
61.4
64.4

67.3
65.4
70.9
63.7
68.2

70.7
68.7
73.9
67.8
70.8

73.9
72.0
76.5
71.1
73.4

76.3
75.3
79.1
73.8
76.2

79.9
78.1
81.4
76.8
78.9

82.3
80.5
84.1
79.9
81.2

86.4
83.6
86.2
83.3
84.3

89.1
86.9
89.2
86.9
87.0

92.4
90.4
92.4
96.6
96.2

95.6
95.6
95.2
95.1
94.6

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

104.1
107.2
106.3
105.7
106.1

110.4
115.8
115.4
111.8
113.4

124.9
130.7
128.6
121.1
124.6

141.4
145.9
147.0
135.6
138.2

152.4
156.6
155.9
148.7
148.3

159.5
165.7
165.4
156.0
154.8

61.7
60.9
60.7
60.0
66.7
60.3
58.7

64.9
63.4
63.1
62.8
69. 2
62.9
61.4

68.0
66.7
67.1
66.1
71.7
66.4
64.8

70.8
69.1
69.9
69.5
74.0
69.3
67.4

74.1
71.8
72.9
72.5
76.4
72.9
71.0

76.7
74.9
75.8
75.2
79.6
75.3
74.2

79.6
77.7
78.5
78.0
81.4
78.1
77.0

82.4
80.6
81.2
80.9
84.0
81.1
80.5

85.2
84.3
83.7
83.6
86.0
84.4
83.2

88.1
87.3
87.1
86.8
89.7
87.8
86.6

91.8
90.9
90.5
90.4
92.1
91.4
89.4

95.8
94.6
94.4
94.6
95.6
94.6
93. 8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.8
106.3
107.5
106.6
105.1
106.8
107.3

112.9
115.1
117.3
115.7
113.3
115.9
118.0

124.0
126.6
131.0
129. 5
126.0
130.5
130.4

136.4
139. 5
145.4
145.8
140.9
145.8
145.7

143.9
152.1
155.9
154.0
150.9
152.8
154.9

150.5
160.6
164.1
159.5
157.5
158.8
160.8

59. 2

62. 2

65.4

67.8

71.3

74.6

77.6

80.7

83.8

87.0

90.6

94.6

100.0

107.7

116.4

130.0

147.4 156.1

164.3

95.4

100.0

106.4

114.3

125.4

142.1 151.7

160.4

Jo u rn e y m e n ...............
Asbestos w o rk e rs...
Boilerm akers_____
B ricklayers...............
C arpenters...........
C em ent fin ish e rs...
Electricians (inside
w ire m e n ).............
E levator
constructors..........
Glaziers.....................
L a th e rs...................
M achinists________
Marble setters..........
Mosaic and terrazzo w orkers___
Painters ....................
Paperhangers..........
P ip efitters________
P lasterers________
P lu m b ers...... ..........
R odm en...................
Roofers,
com position..........
Roofers, slate and
tile...... ....................
Sheet-metal
w o rk e rs ................
Stonem asons.........
Structural-iron
w orkers........ .........
Tile layers.......... .
Helpers and laborers.
Bricklayers’ tenders.
Building la b o re rs ..
Composition
roofers’ h e lp e rs...
Plasters’ lab o rers.. .
Plum bers’ laborers.
Tile layers’ helpers.
All printing
trades 2 ______
Book a n d jo b ----------B indery w om en---B ookbinders______
Compositors, h an d .
E lectro ty p ers..........
Macine o p e ra to rs...
Machine tenders
(m achinists)------M ailers.. ________
Photoengravers----Press assistants
and feeders-------Pressm en, cylinder.
Pressm en, p la te n ...
Stereotypers--------N ew spaper_________
Compositors, h a n d .
Machine operators..
Machine tenders
(m achinists)------Mailers___________
Photoengravers----Web pressmen:
Journeym en____
Men-in-charge---Journeym en and
men-in-charge.
Stereotypers______

61.3

64.5

67.7

70.9

73.9

76.8

79.5

81.7

85.3

89.0

92.1

59.1
65.0

61.:-:
67. 9

64.7
69. 9

68.3
72.5

71.6
74.9

74.8
77.4

77.4
80.7

80.4
82.7

83.9
85.2

86.7
87.5

90.3
90.0

94.5
94.6

100.0
100.0

106.8
105. 7

116.7
114.0

131.8
128.6

149.9 160.1
142.0 151.0

166.7
157.5

60.7
61.7
56.5
55. 3
56. 1

63.3
64. 1
59. 9
59.6
59. 3

66.6
67.6
63.4
62.8
63.0

68.8
69.5
66.5
65.8
66.1

72.6
73.2
70.7
70.4
70.5

75.1
76.2
74.0
73.2
73.8

78.0
80.0
76.7
76.6
77.4

81.4
81.7
80.3
80.4
80.0

84.1
85.4
83.2
82.8
82.9

87.2
88.2
86.8
86.7
86.4

90.2
92.7
90.8
91.5
90.5

94.8
95.8
94.6
94.5
94. 5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

106.8
106.2
105.9
105.1
106.5

117. 1
113.5
113.9
111.7
114.8

129.5
123.8
128.1
126.0
129. 3

144.7
138.3
144.4
145.6
144.4

152.2
149.3
152.2
152.3
152.2

158.6
156.6
160.8
162.5
160.5

65. 1
62.1
55.2
56,9

58.3
65.4
58.1
59.7

62.3
68.6
61.4
62.2

65.1
71.5
64.7
64.9

68.7
74.5
68.4
69.2

71.6
77.8
72.4
73.8

74.8
80.7
75.9
76.8

77.2
83.3
79.4
80.4

80.8
85.7
81.9
84.2

84.6
89.8
86.1
87.7

89.3
91.6
90.2
91.9

94.0
94.6
94.1
95.4

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

107. 2
106.1
107.0
107.3

116.7
116.4
115. 1
114.4

128.6
131.6
130.1
128.5

148.5
148. 2
148.8
149.1

159.5
156.2
157.5
159.6

169.7
166.5
166.1
167.5

69.0

70.8

73.3

75.8

78.3

80.6

83.2

85.6

88.1

90.4

93.0

96.1

100.0

105.0

111.9

121.2

133.6 144.2

153.3

68.1
63.9
66.1
69.1
72.2
69.4

70.0
65.8
68.1
70.8
74.7
71.0

72.6
69.4
70.6
73.4
77.3
73.7

75.1
71.7
73.2
75.6
80.1
75.9

77.8
75.4
76.4
77.7
82.7
78.2

80.3
78.3
79.0
80.4
85.1
80.9

83.1
81.5
81.8
83.1
87.6
83.4

85.6
84.4
84.1
85.6
89.7
86.1

88.2
87.5
86.9
88.2
91.8
88.5

90.7
90.3
90.2
90.5
93.4
90.8

93.5
93.5
92.7
93.6
94.9
93.8

96.6
96.9
96.7
96.6
96.9
96.7

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.2
106.4
104.6
105.9
103.6
105. 9

111.8
114.0
111.7
111.8
110.0
111.8

121.0
121.4
121.8
121.9
115.4
121.3

133.7
136.0
135.3
135.4
123.5
164. 2

144.4
148. 9
147.9
145.5
131.1
L43.9

155.1
162.8
157.3
157.4
139.6
155.6

63.8
68.8
70.6

65.3
70.8
72.2

67.8
73.5
74.4

69.9
76.4
76.8

71.7
79.2
79.5

74.2
82.1
82.1

76.7
84.7
84.7

79.1
87.8
87.6

81.7
90.1
90.0

90.0
91.o
92.0

93.4
93.4
94.5

96.7
95.6
97.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

106.6
104.0
104.0

112.5
112.7
110.2

122.3
119.2
119.8

137.1 148.1
132.4 140.1
128.9 138.3

159.5
149.3
147.7

66.4
69 3
67. v
,
84.4
70.5
70.7
70.5

68.4
71.1
69.5
84.5
72.3
72.5
72.1

70.9
73.3
72.2
85.7
74.6
74.8
74.6

73.5
76.0
75.1
86.7
77.1
77.2
76.9

75.9
78.5
78.0
86.8
79.4
79.4
79.1

78.3
80.6
80.0
86.4
81.1
81.1
80.8

81.1
83.2
83.3
85.8
83.4
83.1
82.7

83.5
85.6
85.7
88.1
85.7
85.5
85.2

86.1
87.9
88.4
90.1
88.1
87.9
87.6

89.1
90.4
90.8
92.8
90.1
90.3
90.2

91.5
93.3
93.7
94.5
92.5
92.5
92.2

95.7
96.2
96.7
96.7
95.4
95.4
95.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

105.9
104.7
104.8
104.4
105.1
105.1
105.3

113.1
111.5
112.5
111.5
112.0
111.6
112.1

122.5
120.6
121.7
117.0
120.8
120.2
121.6

141.6
131.9
133.5
126.6
133. 1
132.1
133.4

154.0
142.3
145.1
134.1
144.2
143.4
145.0

165.8
151.4
154.3
141.4
152. 2
150.7
150.9

70.6
69.0
72.0

72.3
71.0
73.6

74.6
73.4
75.7

76.8
76.3
78.2

79.2
79.2
80.5

80.9
81.3
82.4

82.9
84.0
85.0

85.5
86.6
86.7

87.9
89.2
89.2

90? 5
90.2
91.7

92.6
93.1
93.8

95.4
95.9
96.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

105.0
105.4
105.1

111.4
113.8
112.0

119.8
121.7
123.1

131.9 .42.7
138.9 .51.2
132.9 144.2

149.6
160.5
152.5

70.5
70.3

72.3
72.1

74.7
74.5

77.1
76.8

79.3
78.8

81.1
80.6

83.9
83.4

85.5
84.8

87.8
86.6

89.7
88.5

91.9
90.6

95.3
93.9

100.0
100.0

104.5
104.2

111.2
111.0

120.0
120.3

131.9
129.2

.41.8
.37.8

151.4
146. 9

70.4
71,6

72.2
73.2

74.5
75.4

76.9
77.8

79.1
80.0

80.9
82.1

83.8
84.6

85.4
86.9

87.6
89.1

89.5
91.0

91.7
93.3

95.1
96.0

100.0
100.0

104.4
105.7

111. 1
112.4

119.9
120.9

131.5 .41.3
132.0 142.2

150.9
152. 9

i Union scales are th e m inim um wage scales (excluding holiday and vacaon paym ents m ade directly to the worker each pay period) or maxim um
hedule of hours agreed upon through collective bargaining between trade




unions and employers. R ates in excess of the negotiated m inim um w hich
m ay be paid for special qualifications or other reasons, are not included.
2 Lithography (offset) workers are included in the index beginning in 1968

20

Figure 10

Table

1.

Union wage

cities

of

rates

100,000

in

building

inhabitants

trades

Change

to

January

average,
January

occupation

---------------

Bricklayers
Building

1977

from

1/:

1976

Percent

January

2,

1976

Cents

Percent

9.59

7.4

0.7

53.0

5.9

4.3

.4

52.6

5.5

7.56

5.1

.6

47.2

6.6

9.92

5.0

.5

50.1

5.3

—

------------

Electricians

1,

1977

10.00

-----------

laborers

Carpenters

$

3,

October
Cents

or

trades

3,

Hourly

Trade

All

in

or m o r e

---------

10.62

19.1

1.8

66.4

6.6

--------------

Painters

9.45

10.7

1 .1

54.6

6.2

9.60

5.2

.5

50.7

5.6

10.53

3.8

.3

57.1

5.7

Plasterers
Plumbers

------------

--------------

4

1/
among

In

computing

all w o r k e r s

in

changes

the

in w a g e

trade,

rates,

including

in e a c h

increases

those

that

did

not

averaged

trade we r e

receive

wage

rate

increases.

Figure 11

Table

2.

Union wage

worker

rates

plus

funds

in b u i l d i n g

trades

100,000

inhabitants

or m o r e

benefit
of

employer

payments
in

to

Change
Trade

to

January

October

1,

1976

3,

1977,

from

1/:

Hourly

or

average,

occupation

January

3,

All

t r a d e s ...........
B r i c k l a y e r s -------------

$llo55

9.9
6.0

11.90

l a b o r e r s ------

January

2,

1976

1977
Cents

Building

specified

cities

Percent

Cents

Percent

0.8
.5

75. 7

7. 1

65.9

5.8

9.25

6.4

.7

65.8

7 .6

11.98

5.8

.4

76.3

6.8

E l e c t r i c i a n s ------------

12.57

27.6

2.2

93.8

8.0

P a i n t e r s -----------------

10.86

13.5

1.2

72.2

7.2

P l a s t e r e r s ---------------

11.40

11.3

1.0

70.2

6.6

P l u m b e r s -----------------

13.20

5.8

.4

82.2

6.6

Carpenters

1/

See




---------------

footnote

1,

table

1.

21

Figure 12

Table 4.

Occupational pay relationships: All cities combined and 10 major population centers

(J u ly 1, 1 9 75; fu ll-tim e grocery clerks = 100)
N ortheast
D e p a rtm e n t and
o c c u p a tio n

Chec k o u t:
Head c a s h ie rs ......................
Cashiers:
F u ll t i m e .........................
Part t i m e .........................
Baggers .................................
G ro c e ry :
Head g ro c e ry c l e r k s ..........
C lerks:
F u ll t i m e .........................
Part t i m e .........................
Meat:
Head m e a tc u tte rs ...............
F irs t c u t t e r s .........................
J o u rn e y m e n .........................
W r a p p e r s ..............................
D a iry :
Head d a iry c le r k s ...............
P roduce:
Head p ro d u c e clerks . . . .
C lerks:
F u ll t i m e .........................
M iscellaneous:
S tockers, day:
F u ll t i m e .........................

S o u th

New
Y o rk

P hilade l­
phia

H ouston

W ashing­
to n

Chicago

108

101

107

105

109

107

100
81
54

100
80
-

100
100
59

100
98
52

100
96
78

115

106

125

124

109

122

100
83

100
80

100
99

100
98

100
96

100
100

133
126
122
95

136
125
122
100

138
126
124
93

158

129
118
114
95

122

105

105

105

115

110

125

122

109

98

100

100

100

95

100

100

-

—

149
118

D e tro it

M ilw a u ­
kee

St.
Louis

Los
Angeles

—

111

107

104

109

—

—
-

49

-

100
99
44

100
65
58

100

—

47

100
102
50

132

118

125

122

109

100
100

100
100

100
65

100
69

100
102

143

133

138

136

—

-

_ ft

-

—

—

—

137
100

126
94

120
93

107

110

—

—

119

132

118

125

120

109

_

_

_

_

__

100

100

—

—

—

—

-

—

117
81

Cleve­
land

West

100

—

1 I n c l u d e s all c i ti e s w i t h 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s o r m o r e , e x c e p t
H o n o l u l u . T h e 7 0 c i ti es st u d i e d w e r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y w e i g h t e d t o
r e p r e s e n t all c i ti es o f t h is size, ba s ed o n t h e 1 9 7 0 Ce nsu s. T h e 10
c i ti e s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y w e r e a m o n g t h e largest p o p u l a t i o n c e n ­
ter s at t h a t t i m e .




N o rth C entral

A ll
c itie s 1

—

-

128
107
—

-

N O T E : F o r t h e 1 0 c i ti e s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y , t h e p a y r e la ti ve s
ar e based o n t h e h i g h e s t t o p r a t e a m o n g all u n i o n a g r e e m e n t s
c o v e r i n g eac h o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i n a c i t y . T h e " a l l c i t i e s " p a y r e l a ­
t iv e s, h o w e v e r , r e l a t e t o ave ra ges o f o c c u p a t i o n a l rat es c o m p u t e d
b y w e i g h t i n g ea c h a g r e e m e n t ' s t o p r a t e b y t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of
u n i o n m e m b e r s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n . Dash i n d i c a t e s no
data re p o rte d .

22

Figure 13
Union Wage Rates and Hours and Employer Contributions to Selected Funds in the Building Trades
HOUSTON, TEX.
July 1, 1974 and July 1, 1975
(Hours are 40 per week fo r both years unless otherwise indicated by footnote.)
July 1,
1974
Trade or occupation

Rate
per
hour1

July 1,
1974

July 1, 1975

Rate
per
hou r1

Employer contributions
for selected benefits2
Insur­
ance3

Pension

Vacation
pay

Trade or occupation
Other4

Rate
per
hou r1

July 1, 1975

Rate
per
hou r1

Employer contributions
for selected benefits2
Insur­
ance3

Pension

Vacation
pay

Other4

B UILD IN G T R A D E S Continued

B UILD IN G TRADES
Journeymen
Asbestos workers ................
Boilermakers.........................
B rickla ye rs...........................
Carpenters ...........................
M illw rig h ts .......................
Piledrivers .......................
Cement fin ish e rs..................
Electricians (inside
wirers) ................................
Elevator c o n s tru c to rs .........
Engineers — Power
equipment operators:
Heavy equipment:
Bulldozers, cat
tractors, cranes,
derricks, draglines.
hoists ( 2 drums
or more), mixers
(14 cu. ft. or
more), piledrivers
shovels .....................
Light equipment:
A ir compressors.
hoists (1 drum),
mixers (less than
14 cu. ft.).
pum ps.......................
Glaziers..................................
L a th e rs ..................................
M achinists..............................
Marble se tte rs .......................
Mosaic and terrazzo
w o rke rs................................
Painters ..................................
In d u s tria l.........................
S p ra y ................................
Industrial ..................
100 feet and o v e r...........
Paperhangers.........................
P ip e fitte rs..............................
Plasterers ..............................
Plum bers................................
Reinforcing iron workers . .
Roofers, c o m p o s itio n .........
Roofers, slate and t i l e .........
Sheet-metal w o rk e rs ............

Journey m en-Continued

$
8.100
7.800
7.840
7.770
8.040
7.770
7.300

$
8.950
8.000
8.690
8.675
9.005
8.675
8.320

704
504
3 2 '/2 4
504
504
504
49 4

704
764
404
504
504
504
42 4

8.064
7.360

9.264
7.790

304
441 /24

2%
294

7.650

8.880

354

6.920
7.910
7.470
8.750
7.560

7.520
8.070
8.370
10.100
7.560

354
471/24
30 4
-

7.560
6.285
6.385
6.660
6.710
6.910
6.535
7.100
7.275
7.310
7.645
6.690
7.440
8.335

7.560
7.085
7.185
7.460
7.510
7.710
7.335
8.100
7.680
7.860
8.770
7.540
8.290
8.585

36’ /24
361/24
361/2 4
361/24
361 1 4
2
361/24
404
424
364
554
20 4
204
221/24

65 4

54%
( 6)

-

564
74
-

Stonemasons.........................
Structural-iron w orke rs. . . .
Sheeters and buckersUP ..................................
Tile la yers..............................

24

$
7.840
7.645

$
8.690
8.770

321/24
554

40 4
704

-

74

7.645
7.560

8.770
7.560

554
-

70 4
-

254

-

5.775
5.875
5.600

6.385
6.485
6.210

284
284
28 4

40 4
404
40 4

5.150
5.150
5.875

5.450
5.450
6.485

4 4 1/24
284

5.150
5.450
5.300
5.150

5.450
5.750
5.600
5.450

-

-

-

-

7.770

8.675

504

504

-

-

8.350

9.330

504

604

-

-

6.350
4.350

7.040
4.750

504
50 4

604
604

-

-

-

-

7.650

8.880

354

654

-

-

6.920
6.340

7.520
6.870

354
354

654
654

-

-

-

54

Helpers and laborers

Bricklayers' tenders ...........
Mortar mixers ................
Building laborers..................
Elevator constructors'
helpers ................................
Marble setters' helpers . . . .
Plasterers' laborers ..............
Terrazzo workers'
helpers ................................
Base m achine..................
Floor m a ch ine
................
Tile layers' helpers
..............

OTHER HE A VY
CONSTRUCTION
Journeymen
5 154
54
5 504
Carpenters ...........................
254
54 Engineers — Power
equipment operators:
25 4
54
Pipelines:
354
404
Group 1 - Heavy
354
40 4
equipment ..............
40 4
354
Group 2 - Light
404
354
equipment ..............
40 4
354
Group 3 - Oilers . . .
354
404
Engineers — Power
604
5 704
equipment operators:
304 s 521/24
Industrial plants:
64
524
8 1/24
504
Heavy equipment
operators ................
704
Light equipment
104
154
104
25 4
154
104
operators ................
471/24
Oilers .........................
204
84
654
204
154
-

-

-

-

-

294
404

(6)
254
-

24
154
-

-

254
25 4
254
254

154
154
154
154

1
Basic (m inimum) wage rates (excluding holiday, vacation pay, or other benefits made or regularly credited to the employee) agreed upon through collective bargaining between
employers and unions. Wage rates shown represent rates available and payable on July 1 of the survey year, and do not include increases made later that are retroactive to July 1 or before.
2 Shown in terms of cents per hour or as percent of rate; in actual practice, however, some employer payments are calculated on the basis of total hours or gross payroll. These variations
in method of computation are not indicated in the above tabulation. Amounts shown include contractually-authorized deductions from negotiated wage rates as well as direct employer contribu­
tions to specified benefit funds. Excluded, however, are voluntary deductions from wage rates authorized by individual employees.
3 Includes life insurance, hospitalization and other types of health and welfare benefits; excludes payments into holiday, vacation, and unemployment funds when such programs have been
negotiated.
4

Includes all other nonlegally required employer contributions, except those for apprenticeship fund payments, as indicated in individual agreements.
Part of negotiated rate; not included in base rate shown.

*' A fter 6 months of service, 2 percent of hourly rate for all hours worked; after 5 years of service, 4 percent of hourly rate fo r all hours worked. An additional amount equal to one-half
percent of the hourly rate shall accrue the employee on the effective date of each rate change until this amount reaches 2 percent.

NOTE:

Dashes indicate no data, or no data reported.




23

Chapter 4. Employer Expenditures
for Employee Compensation
Background

supplem entary wage benefits in the basic iron and steel
industry. In 1959 BLS inaugurated its current series on
Prior to W orld W ar II, most Am erican workers
em ployer expenditures for employee compensation
w ere com pensated for time w orked or for their product
(E E E C ) by a study limited to production w orkers in
solely by the wages and salaries they received. A l­
manufacturing. F o r that study the Bureau collected
though forms o f com pensation other than wages and
information for the first time on three aspects of
salaries w ere not unknown (the Am erican Express
employee compensation: (1) Total wages and salaries,
Com pany had a pension plan as early as 1875), they
or gross payroll, w hich included, in addition to pay for
w ere relatively rare.
time worked, payroll items such as vacation and
Paid leave was provided to some salaried w orkers by
holiday pay; (2) nonwage supplemental compensation
the middle o f the last century but it was not available to
items, both those that w ere legally required, such as
production w orkers until the beginning of this century.
social security and unem ploym ent insurance and those
A nother 20 years passed before paid leave became a
that w ere privately initiated, such as pensions and life,
widely accepted compensation practice.
accident, and health insurance; and (3) the composition
By the G reat Depression, most States had enacted
of payroll hours, w hether hours w orked or paid leave
w orkers’ compensation laws to protect w orkers against
hours.
the adverse economic effects o f occupational accidents
In this study, the Bureau produced estimates o f the
and diseases. In 1935, the Social Security A ct was
cost per hour o f wages and salaries and o f each item of
passed. F o r the first time, em ployers across the Nation
supplemental compensation. T he study thus portrayed
were required by law to provide their employees with
the structure o f the com pensation package—that is, the
tw o types of supplements to pay for time w orked—oldrelative im portance o f individual compensation items
age insurance and unem ploym ent insurance. Subse­
when com pared w ith each other. It also showed how
quent increases in supplements arose mainly out of
paid hours w ere distributed among working time,
collective bargaining and com petition for labor rather
vacations, holidays, sick leave, and other forms of paid
than from legal fiat. The policy o f the W ar Labor Board
leave.
during W orld W ar II encouraged employers to hold the
In 1960, com pensation and payroll hours for p ro ­
line on wages and to increase supplemental com pensa­
duction w orkers w ere studied in the mining industries
tion items instead (vacations, life insurance, etc.).
and in 1962 in m anufacturing again. Between these
Shortly after the war, the National Labor Relations
Board (NLRB) ruled that management must bargain
surveys the Bureau conducted a study o f compensation
w ith unions over nonwage supplements. Backed by
and payroll hours for white-collar w orkers in the
court decisions upholding such N LR B rulings,1 em­
finance, insurance, and real estate industries. A lthough
ployees have successfully negotiated for many and
outside salespeople w ere om itted from the scope o f this
varied benefit plans, notably health insurance, life
survey, by its conclusion the Bureau had studied
insurance, and pension plans. Today, the portion o f the
virtually every occupation.
com pensation dollar paid for supplements is at its
In 1963 the Bureau approached an econom y wide
highest point in history; in all likelihood the im portance
survey o f compensation. In that year it conducted a
o f supplements will continue to increase.
special study of supplem entary com pensation for whitecollar employees in m anufacturing and in many non­
D e v e lo p m e n t o f B L S m easures. Along w ith these signifi­
manufacturing industries. T hat study foreshadowed the
cant changes in the way Am erican workers w ere being
expansion in the scope o f the surveys from selected
paid came the need to measure the incidence and
industries to the entire private nonfarm economy.
m agnitude o f these relatively new nonwage com po­
D uring the following 2 years, in the course of
nents o f compensation. As early as 1951 the Bureau of
measuring com pensation in 15 industries, the Bureau
L abor Statistics (BLS) attem pted to measure the cost of
made a m ajor change in its m ethod of analysis. Instead
1
For example, Inland Steel vs. National Labor Relations Board, 170 of continuing to measure the im portance of com pensa­
tion com ponents relative to gross payroll, all com po­
Federal Reports, Second Series 247 (1948), 251 (1949).




24

nents (including gross payroll) w ere measured in terms
o f their im portance relative to total compensation.
In 1966, the Bureau undertook its first com prehen­
sive study o f the com pensation o f all w orkers in the
entire private nonfarm economy. This study, employing
the analytical techniques developed over the previous 7
years, has been conducted biennially since then; in the
alternate years, selected industries are studied.2

Description of survey
T he survey provides tw o measurements o f the level
o f em ployer expenditures for each compensation prac­
tice: (1) T he average am ount spent for a paid hour and
(2) the average am ount spent for a w ork hour. In
addition, the survey measures the relative im portance of
each element or com ponent of compensation—the
structure o f com pensation—by expressing the expendi­
tures made for each as a percent o f total expenditures
for compensation (figure 14). Expenditures are grouped
according to their nature or purpose. F o r example,
expenditures for the Federal social security program
and for private retirem ent plans are grouped under
expenditures for retirem ent programs. T he survey also
measures the prevalence of compensation items and
practices—that is, the proportion o f the w ork force in
establishments w ith a particular type of expenditure or
practice. Thus, the Bureau provides three kinds of
information for each item of compensation: Cost per
hour (both per hour w orked and per hour paid); its
im portance relative to total compensation; and the
proportion of the w ork force in establishments with
expenditures for the item.
T he survey produces these measures of compensa­
tion biennially for all w orkers in the private nonfarm
economy, and for the m anufacturing and nonmanufac­
turing sectors separately. T he studies provide separate
com pensation data for office and nonoffice employees
and for establishments w hich are unionized and those
w hich are not. T he surveys cover the 50 States and the
D istrict o f Columbia; tabulations are produced at the
national level.
D ata are collected for cash expenditures and hours
paid for during the entire calendar reference year—
shoi i.er periods of time often do not accurately reflect
typical expenditures or paid hours. F or example, paid
leave hours are usually spread unequally throughout
the year. Also, the bulk o f expenditures for unem ploy­
ment taxes are typically paid during the first 6 months,

as was the case until recently for social security taxes.
Cash expenditures for compensation include both
payments made directly to employees and payments to
third parties on the w orkers’ behalf. D irect payments
constitute gross payroll and include payments for hours
worked (including premiums for w ork beyond the
normal w orkday or w orkw eek, or during late shifts);
and paym ent for hours not w orked (paid leave, sever­
ance pay, and nonproduction bonuses). Payments made
to third parties are those paid to insurance companies,
governm ent agencies, trust funds, or any other third
party w hich disburses the m oney to finance immediate
or future benefits for the worker. These indirect
payments may be legally required, such as those for
social security, unem ploym ent insurance, and w orkers’
compensation, or they may be privately initiated and
financed, such as those expended for life, accident, and
health insurance; private pension plans; union-manage­
ment vacation and holiday funds; supplemental unem­
ploym ent funds; and savings and thrift plans.
H ours paid for during the reference year consist of
total hours w orked as well as hours not worked but paid
for (figure 15). T hey include straight-time and overtim e
w ork hours, vacation and holiday hours, sick leave
hours, and leave hours granted for civic and personal
reasons (generally military leave, jury-duty leave, or
bereavem ent time). Lunch periods, rest breaks, and
clean-up time are not considered leave time and are
included in hours w orked w henever they are paid for.

Survey methods
D a t a S o u r c e s a n d C o l l e c t io n M e t h o d s

Most of the expenditures and hours data are obtained
through a survey o f establishments. Generally more
than one record source is needed by an establishment to
arrive at the annual totals requested on the survey form.
Records em ployed include Federal and State tax forms,
payroll ledgers, check registers, union paym ent records,
and others. T he em ployers then enter the annual totals
onto the form supplied by the Bureau (BLS Form 2868)
in accordance with detailed instructions. Occasionally,
when the em ployer cannot produce the requested data,
BLS personnel use docum ents filed w ith regulatory
agencies, unions, and other sources—w hen considered
public inform ation—to arrive at annual totals. All data
reported to the Bureau by employers are held in the
2
A Directory of BLS Studies in Employee Compensation, 1947-71 lists strictest confidence.
the titles of studies published through 1971. Since then, two studies of
D ata are collected prim arily by mail, although
the private nonfarm economy have been conducted (in 1972 and
personal visits are custom arily made by Bureau repre­
1974), in addition to four studies of compensation in banking and in
sentatives to certain large employers and to a sample of
the drug, plastics, and textile manufacturing industries in 1973. A
employers w ho have not responded to tw o previous
study of compensation paid to employees of the 50 State governments
mail requests. Participation in the survey is voluntary.
(except higher education) was conducted in 1972.




25

S a m p l in g P r o c e d u r e s

T he survey is conducted on the basis o f a highly
stratified probability sample of all nonfarm establish­
ments.3 Sample establishments are chosen for industrial
representation, location, and employm ent size. The
sample is selected to yield the most accurate measure­
ments w ith resources available by including a greater
proportion o f large establishments than of small. A
single establishment’s chance of selection to the sample
o f the private nonfarm establishments is roughly pro­
portionate to its em ploym ent size. D ata reported by
each establishment are then weighted to reflect that
establishment’s probability o f selection to the sample.
Thus, a reporting establishment with 1,000 w orkers in
an industry-location-size stratum w hich had 10,000
w orkers will be given a w eight of 10 to represent its
employees and the other 9,000 in like establishments in
that stratum.
All establishments over a certain employm ent size
are included. W hen data cannot be obtained from these
establishments or from the sample of nonrespondents,
the weights are distributed to other establishments w ith
the most similar industry-location-size characteristics.

Uses
Em ployers use the measures produced by the sur­
veys to com pare their com pensation payments and paid
leave practices w ith averages in their industry and the
econom y as a whole. T he three measures o f com pensa­
tion (percent o f compensation, cents per hour, and
prevalence) are suitable for making comparisons or
assessing trends over time (see Limitations). The
measures can indicate the emphasis employees and
em ployers place on individual compensation items, the
emphasis placed by them on supplements beyond those
w hich are legally required, and that on immediate
versus deferred compensation. The level o f expendi­
tures (cents per hour) for any item can indicate
differences in benefit levels (see Limitations) or extent
o f coverage.
F o r example, in 1974 the proportion of office
w orkers in establishments w hich contributed tow ards a
life, accident, or health insurance plan for them was
som ewhat higher than the proportion o f nonoffice
w orkers—90 and 81 percent, respectively. A verage
hourly expenditures for plans for office w orkers (23
cents) com pared to those for nonoffice w orkers (19
cents) could indicate this and also a higher level of
benefits for office employees. Even so, more emphasis
was placed on other items o f compensation for office
w orkers because these health benefits represented a
3 The discussion deals with the sampling procedure for the surveys
in the total private nonfarm economy. Though basically the same,
sampling procedures for individual industry studies may differ
slightly.




26

smaller proportion o f the total com pensation o f office
w orkers than o f nonoffice w orkers (2.8 and 3.6 per­
cent).
L abor and m anagement use the data extensively
during the collective bargaining process. G overnm ent
adm inistrative and regulatory agencies use the data for
such purposes as formation o f economic policy, and
preparation o f estimates of industry productivity (out­
put per hour). These agencies also use the data for
international comparisons o f labor com pensation and
for studies com paring the relative im portance o f pay
supplements in the compensation o f employees in the
Federal governm ent and private industry. T he data
from the surveys are also used extensively by the
academic com m unity and others engaged in economic
research and analysis.

Limitations
W hile the em ployer expenditures measured by the
survey constitute the m ajor com ponents o f total em ­
ployee compensation, they do not represent total labor
cost. T he latter is a broader concept w hich includes
items such as costs o f recruiting and training labor,
expenses o f administering employee benefit programs,
and other costs incurred in using labor.
T he measurements o f expenditures and hours are
subject to both sampling and reporting errors. H ow ev­
er, these errors are generally considered to fall within
acceptable confidence ranges. Except for small cells
w here there are few observations, these errors in almost
every case would have to be in the same direction to
have a material effect on the measurements.
A lthough “em ployer expenditures” are generally
equal to “employee com pensation” (in this chapter, the
tw o term s are usually used interchangeably), some
exceptions may arise in the area of employee benefits. In
the case o f benefits, employee expenditures may not
equal em ployee com pensation because o f differences in
(1) the dem ographic composition o f the w ork force and
of w orkers’ immediate dependents; and (2) the m ethod
of financing benefits. A n example o f the first exception
would be an em ployer o f an especially young and
healthy group o f w orkers who might spend less to
finance a specific health benefit than the average
em ployer might spend for it. T hough the expenditures
of the tw o employers would differ, the am ount of
com pensation (the health benefit) purchased by them
would be equal. H ow ever, over a large group of
employers, these differences tend to average out.
T he second type o f exception involves m ethods of
financing benefits. F o r example, tw o pension plans,
equal in term s o f benefits, could vary significantly in
expenditures needed to finance them if one was a payas-you-go plan and the other was fully funded for past
service liabilities. A t least in the area of private pension

—R E F E R EN C ES—

plans, however, the funding requirem ents of the E m ­
ployee Retirem ent Income Security A ct will tend to
lessen these differences.
Changes in expenditures for compensation, as meas­
ured by the survey, will, to a degree, reflect changes in
the dem ographic com position o f the w ork force in
addition to actual changes in compensation. F o r exam­
ple, the level o f average straight-tim e pay will rise (even
if pay rates are constant) if there is an increase in the
proportion o f employees in higher paid industries and
occupations. T he measures produced by the survey still
provide an indication o f the direction of any change and
its magnitude.

Bauman, Alvin. “Measuring Employee Compensation in U.S.
Industry,” M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , October 1970, pp. 1723.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
P roblem s in M ea su rem en t o f E x p en d itu res on S elected
Ite m s o f S u p p lem en ta ry E m ployee R en u m eration , M a n u ­
fa c tu rin g E stabilish m en ts, 1953. Bulletin 1186, 1956.

________ , ________ B L S H a n d b o o k o f M ethods. Bulletin 1910,

1976, pp. 175-83.
________ , ________ E m ployee C om pensation in the P rivate
N o n fa rm E conom y, 1974,

to be published in 1977.

Figure 14

Table 3.

Employee compensation, private norfarm economy, 1966, 1972, and 1974
1966
All
Industries

Compensation item

1972

Manufacturing

Nonmanu
tacturing

All
industries

1974

Manufacturing

All
Industries

Nonmanu­
facturing

Manufacturing

Nonmanu
facturmg

Per­
Per
Per­
Per
Per­
Per­
Per
Per
Per
cent Dollars cent Dollars cent Dollars
cent Dollars cent Dollars cent Dollars cent Dollars cent Dollars cent Dollars
of
per
of
of
per
per
per
per
of
per
of
of
per
of
of
per
of
per
compen work compen­ work compen work compen­ work compen work compen work compen work compen work compen work
sation houi sation hour sation hour
sation hour sation hour sation hour sation hour sation hour sation hour
100 C S3 44

Total compensation
Pay tor time worked..........................
Straight time pay
Premium pay
Overtime weekend and
holiday work
Shift differentials
.

...........

100 0

S3 76

1000

S3 23

1000

$5 23

1000

S5 64

100 0

$5 00

1000

S6 33

1000

S6 72

100 0

S6 13

83 0
80 6
24

2 85
2 77
08

81 6
78 1
35

3 07
2 94
13

84 0
82 4
16

2 71
2 66
05

80 5
78 5
20

421
4 11
11

78 5
75 5
30

4 43
4 26
17

81 8
80 3
15

4 09
4 02
07

78 2
76 3
19

4 95
4 83
12

76 2
73 3
29

5 12
4 93
19

79 4
78 0
14

4 86
4 78
09

21
03

07
01

29
06

11
02

15
01

05

18
03

09
01

25
05

14
03

13
02

07
01

17
03

10
02

23
05

16
04

13
01

08
01

52
31
19
01

18
11
07

58
35
22
01

21
13
08

47
27
17
01

15
09
05
I'l

56
33
20
01

29
17
11
01

65
38
24
02

36
21
14
01

51
30
18
01

26
15
09
01

60
34
23
02

38
22
14
01

69
39
27
02

47
26
18
01

54
31
20
01

33
19
12
01

02

01

02

01

01

01

02

01

01

01

01

01

02

01

Paid leave (except sick leave).............
Vacations
Holidays
Civic and personal leave
Employer expenditures for vacation
and holidays funds

01

Employer expenditures lor
retirement programs
Social security
Private plans

56
31
25

20
11
09

59
30
29

22
11
11

55
32
23

17
10
07

70
37
33

36
19
17

71
36
36

40
20
20-

69
37
32

34
19
16

81
44
37

51
28
23

84
43
40

56
29
27

79
44
35

49
27
21

35

12

38

15

34

11

47

24

54

31

42

21

49

31

59

39

44

27

21
05
09

07
02
03

26
05
07

10
02
03

18
06
10

06
02
03

30
07
09

16
04
05

40
06
09

22
03
05

24
08
09

12
04
05

33
07
10

21
04
06

43
06
09

29
04
06

27
07
10

16
04
06

11
11
r.

04
04
r

12
11

04
04

12
11
01

04
04

10
09
01

05
05

07
05
01

10
09

05
05

11
09

07
06

! i

i’ i

11
10
01

08
06
!1

10
09
I’ l

06
06

i’i

12
09
01

1' 1

01

I’ l

01

01

I’l

:

01

01

01

1’ )

i'l

04'

10

05

10

05

09

05

15

09

12

08

16

10

02

01

02

01

01

01

02

01

03

02

02

01

87 8
12 2

4 59
64

86 5
135

4 88
76

885
11 5

4 43
57

86 3
137

5 46
87

84 9
151

571
1 01

87 0
130

5 33
79

Employer expenditures for life insurance and
health benefit programs-'
Lite, accident, and
health insurance.
Sick leave
Workers compensation .
Employer expenditures for unemployment
benefit programs
Unemployment insurance
Severance pay..........................................
Severance pay funds and supplemental
unemployment benefit funds

n

Nonproduction bonuses

12

04

13

05

12

Savings and thrift plans.............................

01

>'

02

01

01

3 09
35

89 2
108

3 35
41

90 4
96

Wages and salaries (gross payroll)■
'.........
Supplements to wages and salaries4 .

89 9
10 1

2 92
31

I')

4
Supplements to wages and salaries include all employer expenditures lor compensation
other than for wages and salaries They consist of expenditures for retirement programs (including
direct pay to pensioners under pay-as-you-go private pension plans), expenditures for health benefit
programs (except sick leave): expenditures for unemployment benefit programs (except severance
pay), payments to vacation and holiday funds, and payments to savings and thrift plans

' Less than 0.05 percent or $0 005
2 Includes other health benefit programs, principally State temporary disability insurance
not presented separately
3 Wages and salaries include all direct payments to workers They consist of pay for time
worked pay for vacations, holidays, sick leave and civic and personal leave, severance pay: and
nonproduction bonuses




l’i

NOTE Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals

27

Figure 15

Table 5.

Composition of payroll hours, private nonfarm economy, 1972 and 1974

(Percent distribution of paid hours)
All workers

Industry and
compensation item

Office workers

Nonoffice workers

1972

1974

1972

1974

1972

1974

100 0

100 0

100 0

100.0

100.0

100 0

934
890
44

92 8
887
4.1

91 6
89.9
1.7

91 2
89 5
1.7

94 4
88 5
5.9

93 7
88 1
56

6.6
34
2.3
0.7
0.2

7.2
36
2.6
0.8
0.2

8.4
4.2
28
1.2
0.2

8.8
4.3
31
1.2
0.2

5.6
3.0
2.0
0.5
0.1

6.3
3.3
2.3
0.6
0.1

Ali paid hours...............................................................................................................................

100 0

100 0

100 0

100 0

100 0

1000

Work hours.................................................................................................................................................
Straight-time hours...........................................................................................................................
Overtime hours..................................................................................................................................

921
858
6.3

91 4
854
6.0

906
881
2.5

902
878
2.4

927
85.0
7.7

91.9
84.6
7.3

7.9
4.2
2.9
0.6
0.2.

8.6
4.4
33
0.7
0.2

9.4
4.7
3.2
1.2
0.3

9.8
4.9
3.5
1.2
0.3

7.3
3.9
2.8
0.4
0.2

8.1
4.2
3.2
0.5
0.2

All paid hours...............................................................................................................................

100 0

1000

100 0

100.0

100.0

100 0

Work hours...............................................................................................................................................
Straight-time hours.........................................................................................................................
Overtime hours................................................................................................................................

94.0
906
3.4

935
904
3.1

91.9
906
1.4

91.5
901
1.4

95.4
906
4.8

95.0
90.6
4.4

Paid leave hours......................................................................................................................................
Vacations.........................................................................................................................................
Holidays...........................................................................................................................................
Sick leave.......................................................................................................................................
Civic and personal leave...............................................................................................................

6.0
3.0
2.0
0.8
0.1

6.5
3.2
2.3
0.8
0.2

8.1
4.0
2.7
1.2
0.2

8.5
4.1
3.0
1.2
0.2

4.6
2.4
1.5
0.6
0.1

5.0
2.6
1.7
0.6
0.1

A ll In d u strie s

All paid hours.........................................
Work hours................................................
Straight-time hours.........................................
Overtime hours..............................................
Paid leave hours........................................................................................................................................
Vacations...........................................................................................................................................
Holidays.............................................................................................................................................
Sick leave.........................................................................................................................................
Civic and personal leave..................................................................................................................
M an u factu rin g

Paid leave hours........................................................................................................................................
Vacations...........................................................................................................................................
HoMays.............................................................................................................................................
Sin1 leave..........................................................................................................................................
Civic and personal leave..................................................................................................................
N o nm an utacturln g

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




28

Chapter 5. Average Hourly and Weekly Earnings —
Establishment Data
agreements w ith the Bureau, w hereby sample data
collected by the State agency w ere to be used jointly
w ith the BLS for the preparation o f State and national
series. By 1928, five other States had entered into such
compacts, and another five w ere added by 1936. O ver
the years the am ount o f published data on employment
and payrolls for States and areas underw ent a constant
expansion. In 1940, estimates for all 48 States and the
D istrict of Columbia w ere published for the first time.
O ver the years, the feeling grew that the proper
place to estimate State and area em ploym ent was in the
State agencies rather than in W ashington. By 1949, all
States had joined the system, and since that year the
industry em ploym ent statistics program has been a fully
integrated Federal-State project w hich provides em­
ployment, hours, and earnings information on a nation­
al, State, and area basis in considerable industrial detail.
This cooperative program has as its formal base of
authority a Congressional act o f July 7, 1930 (ch. 873,
46 Stat. 1019; 29 U.S.C. 2). In 1976, cooperative
arrangem ents were in effect w ith 49 State employment
security agencies affiliated with the Em ploym ent and
Training A dm inistration and w ith 2 State labor depart­
ments.

A verage hourly and weekly earnings statistics are
developed from a m onthly survey of employment,
payrolls, and hours in nonagricultural establishments
conducted by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics (BLS) in
cooperation w ith the Em ploym ent and Training A d ­
ministration (form erly the M anpow er Administration)
o f the U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor, State employment
security agencies, and State departm ents o f labor.

Background
T he first m onthly studies o f employment and pay­
rolls by the BLS began in O ctober 1915 and covered
four manufacturing industries. By Novem ber 1916, the
BLS program had been expanded to cover 13 manufac­
turing industries; this num ber remained unchanged until
1922.
T he depression of 1921 directed attention to the
im portance o f current employm ent statistics, and in
1922 Congress granted additional funds to provide for
program expansion. By June 1923, the number of
m anufacturing industries covered by the m onthly
employm ent survey had increased to 52. In 1928,
concern over increasing unemployment induced Con­
gress to provide additional appropriations for the
program. D uring the next four years, 53 industries were
added—38 m anufacturing industries and 15 nonm anu­
facturing industries.
In 1930, the deepening economic crisis impelled
President H oover to appoint an A dvisory Committee
on Em ploym ent Statistics to study the need for addi­
tional data in this field. T he Committee made its report
in the spring o f 1931 w ith a num ber of recom m enda­
tions for extension o f the Bureau’s program. T he most
im portant of these called for the developm ent o f series
on hours and earnings. F o r the fiscal year 1932,
Congress granted the Bureau a substantial increase in
the appropriation for the program . In January 1933,
average hourly earnings and average weekly hours
w ere published for the first time for all m anufacturing,
for 90 m anufacturing industries, and for 14 nonm anu­
facturing categories.
T hroughout the period from 1915 to the beginning of
W orld W ar II, there was a constantly grow ing interest
in employment statistics for States and areas. Even
before the BLS entered the field in 1915, three States
(Massachusetts, New York, and N ew Jersey) were
preparing employment statistics. As early as 1915, New
York and Wisconsin had entered into “co-operative”



Description of survey
T he m onthly survey collects data from a nationwide
sample o f over 160,000 nonagricultural establishments
to provide detailed industry data for the Nation, States,
and most m ajor labor areas on the earnings o f pro­
duction and related w orkers in manufacturing and
mining, construction w orkers in contract construction,
and nonsupervisory w orkers in the other nonmanufac­
turing com ponents o f the private nonfarm sector.
C o ncepts

Definitions o f the data requested in the survey are as
follows:
a n d re la te d w o rk ers include working
supervisors and all nonsupervisory w orkers (includ­
ing group leaders and trainees) engaged in fabricat­
ing, processing, assembling, inspection, receiving,
storage, handling, packing, warehousing, shipping,
maintenance, repair, janitorial and guard services,
product developm ent, auxiliary production for a
plant’s ow n use (e.g., pow er plant), and recordkeep­
ing and other services closely associated w ith the
above production operations.
P ro d u ctio n

29

C o n stru ction w orkers include the following em ploy­
ees in the contract construction division: W orking
supervisors, qualified craft workers, m echanic’s
apprentices, laborers, etc., w hether working at the
site o f construction or in shops or yards, at jobs (such
as precutting and preassembling) ordinarily per­
formed by members o f the construction trades.
N o n su p erviso ry em p lo ye es include employees (not
above the working supervisory level) such as office
and clerical workers, repairers, salespersons, opera­
tors, drivers, physicians, lawyers, accountants, nurs­
es, social workers, research aids, teachers, drafters,
photographers, beauticians, musicians, restaurant
workers, custodial workers, attendants, line installers
and repairers, laborers, janitors, guards, and similar
occupational levels, and other employees whose
services are closely associated w ith those o f the
employees listed.
P a y ro ll covers the payroll for full- and part-time
production, construction, or nonsupervisory w ork­
ers w ho received pay for any part o f the pay period
w hich includes the 12th o f the month. T he payroll is
reported before deductions o f any kind, e.g., for oldage and unem ploym ent insurance, group insurance,
w ithholding tax, bonds, or union dues; also included
is pay for overtim e, holidays, vacations, and sick
leave paid directly by the firm. Bonuses (unless
earned and paid regularly each pay period), other
pay not earned in the pay period reported (e.g.,
retroactive pay), tips, and the value of free rent, fuel,
meals, or other paym ent in kind are excluded.
“Fringe benefits’’ (such as health and other types of
insurance, contributions to retirement, etc., paid by
the em ployer) are also excluded.
H o u rs cover hours paid for, during the pay period
w hich includes the 12th o f the month, for pro­
duction, construction, or nonsupervisory workers.
T he hours include hours paid for holidays and
vacations, and for sick leave when pay is received
directly from the firm.
O v e rtim e hours cover hours worked by production
and related w orkers for which overtim e premiums
w ere paid because the hours were in excess of the
num ber o f hours o f either the straight-time w orkday
or the w orkw eek during the pay period w hich
includes the 12th o f the month. W eekend and holiday
hours are included only if overtim e premiums were
paid. Hours for which only shift differential, hazard,
incentive, or other similar types of premiums were
paid are excluded.
E s ta b lish m e n ts are classified into industries accord­
ing to the 1967 S ta n d a r d I n d u s tr ia l C la ssifica tio n
M a n u a l (SIC) on the basis of their m ajor activity
during the previous year.




C o l l e c t io n M e t h o d s

The prim ary collection of the current sample data is
conducted by State agencies w hich have cooperative
agreements w ith the BLS. In most States, this is the
employm ent security agency, affiliated w ith the E m ­
ploym ent and Training Administration. In a few cases
the State departm ent o f labor acts as the agency. T he
agencies mail schedules to a sample o f establishments in
the States each m onth. A “shuttle” schedule is used;
that is, one w hich is submitted each m onth in the
calendar year by the respondent, edited by the State
agency, and returned to the respondent for use again
the following m onth. T he State agency uses the
inform ation provided on the forms to develop State and
area estimates of employment, hours, and earnings, and
then forw ards the data, either on the schedules them ­
selves or in m achine readable form, to the W ashington,
D.C., office o f the BLS, w here they are used to prepare
estimates at the national level.

Earnings estimates
G r o ss A v e r a g e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s

Gross average hourly earnings are probably the most
widely used o f the BLS earnings series based on
establishment data. T hey are derived by dividing the
total production or nonsupervisory w orker payroll by
total production or nonsupervisory w orker hours.
Figure 16 shows gross average hourly earnings by
industry division from 1932 through 1974.
Changes in gross average hourly earnings reflect not
only changes in basic hourly and incentive wage rates
but also such variable factors as premium pay for
overtim e and late-shift w ork and changes in output of
w orkers paid on an incentive plan. Shifts in the volume
o f em ploym ent between relatively high-paid and lowpaid w ork and changes in w orkers’ earnings in individu­
al establishments also affect the general earnings aver­
ages. A verages for groups and divisions further reflect
changes in average hourly earnings for individual
industries.
A verages of hourly earnings differ from wage rates.
Earnings are the actual return to the w orker for a stated
period of time; rates are the amounts stipulated for a
given unit of w ork or time. T he earnings series does not
measure the level o f total labor costs on the part o f the
em ployer since the following are excluded: Irregular
bonuses, retroactive items, payments o f various welfare
benefits, payroll taxes paid by employers, and earnings
for those employees not covered under the definitions
of production w orkers, construction workers, or nonsu­
pervisory employees.
F actors are applied to gross average hourly earnings
30

to elim inate p u rely seasonal fluctuations. B y elim inating
th a t p art o f th e change w h ich can be ascribed to usual
seasonal variation, it is possible to observe th e cyclical
and o th e r nonseasonal m ovem ents in the series.
S t r a i g h t -T im e A v e r a g e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s

A v e rag e h o u rly earnings excluding o v ertim e prem i­
um pay are co m p u ted fo r th e m anufacturing secto r by
dividing th e total p ro d u c tio n w o rk e r pay ro ll for the
industry g ro u p b y th e sum o f to tal p ro d u ctio n w o rk er
hours and on e-h alf o f to tal o v ertim e hours. T his m ethod
elim inates only earnings d ue to o vertim e paid for at
1 1/2 tim es straight-tim e rates. N o adjustm ent is m ade
for o th e r prem ium p ay m en t provisions, such as holiday
w ork, late-shift w ork, and o v ertim e rates o th e r than
tim e and one-half.

Presentation

G r o ss A v e r a g e W e e k l y E a r n i n g s

G ross av erag e w eekly earnings (figure 17) are
derived by m ultiplying av erag e w eekly ho u rs by
averag e h o u rly earnings. T h erefo re, w eekly earnings
are affected n o t o nly by changes in gross av erage
h o u rly earnings b u t also by changes in th e length o f the
w orkw eek. M o n th ly variations in such factors as the
p ro p o rtio n o f part-tim e w orkers, w o rk stoppages, labor
tu rn o v er, and absences fo r w h ich em ployees are not
paid m ay cause the av e rag e w o rk w eek to fluctuate.
L on g -term tren d s o f gross av erag e w eekly earnings
can be affected by stru ctu ra l changes in th e m akeup o f
the w o rk force. F o r exam ple, persistent long-term
increases in the p ro p o rtio n o f part-tim e w o rk e rs in retail
trad e and m any o f th e service industries h av e reduced
av erag e w o rk w eek s in these industries and have affect­
ed the av erag e w eekly earnings series.
T h e seasonally adjusted av erag e w eekly earnings
series is d eriv ed b y m ultiplying seasonally adjusted
averag e w eekly ho u rs by seasonally adjusted av erage
h o u rly earnings.

T h e earnings series ap p ear in several B L S publica­
tions. T h e earliest source o f prelim inary national data
on gross av erag e h o u rly and w eekly earnings for
industry divisions and m ajo r m anufacturing groups is
th e press release, T h e E m p lo y m e n t S itu a tio n , usually
issued 3 w eeks after th e w eek o f reference for th e data.
T hese prelim inary estim ates are based on tabulations o f
data for less th an th e full sam ple to perm it early release
o f figures. A figure for a particu lar m onth is listed as
prelim inary for tw o consecutive m onths; a final figure is
show n in th e th ird m onth o f publication. T hese data
also appear in th e sam e detail in th e M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w approxim ately 1 1/2 m onths later.
T h e press release, R e a l E arn in gs, issued during the
th ird w eek o f each m onth, contains th e m ost up-to-date
spendable av erag e w eekly earnings statistics for indus­
try divisions.
C u rren t earnings statistics are prin ted in g reater
detail in th e m o n th ly publication, E m p lo y m e n t a n d
E arn in gs. T his periodical is published approxim ately 2
w eeks after T he E m p lo y m e n t S itu a tio n is issued. F ig u re
18 indicates the num ber o f industries for w h ich th e four
earnings series are published. C om plete national histori­
cal data can be found in the latest edition o f E m p lo y m e n t
a n d E a rn in g s, U n ite d S ta te s (B ulletin Series 1312).
C u rren t gross average h o u rly and w eekly earnings
data for States and m etropolitan areas are also published
in E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s; h o w ev er, these d ata are
lim ited to th e m anufacturing sec to r (see figure 19).
H istorical statistics (annual averages) are presented for
the full range o f m ajor industrial categories in th e latest
edition o f E m p lo y m e n t a n d E a rn in g s, S ta te s a n d A rea s
(B ulletin Series 1370). In addition, detailed industry

S p e n d a b l e A v e r a g e W e e k l y E a r n in g s

Spendable av erag e w eekly earnings (for a w o rk er
w h o earned th e av erag e am ount) in c u rren t dollars are
obtained by d ed u ctin g estim ated F ed eral social security
and incom e taxes from av e rag e w eekly earnings. T h e
am oun t o f incom e tax liability depends on th e n u m ber
o f dependents, m arital status, and gross incom e. T o
reflect these variables, spendable earnings are co m puted
for a w o rk e r w ith no dep en d en ts and a m arried w o rk er
w ith th re e dependents. T h e com putations are based on
gross av erag e w eekly earnings for all p ro d u c tio n or
nonsup erv iso ry w o rk e rs in th e in d u stry division, ex­
cluding all o th e r fam ily incom e.
T h e series reflect the spendable earnings o f only
those w o rk e rs w hose gross w eek ly pay approxim ates
th e av erag e earnings indicated fo r all p ro d u c tio n and




nonsupervisory w orkers. It does n o t reflect, for exam ­
ple, the average earnings o f all m arried w o rk ers w ith
th ree dependents; such w orkers, in fact, have higher
gross average earnings th an w o rk ers w ith no d ep en d ­
ents.
Since part-tim e as w ell as full-tim e w orkers are
included, and since th e p ro p o rtio n o f part-tim e w o rk ­
ers has been rising, th e series understates th e increase in
earnings for full-tim e w orkers. A s noted, “fringe
benefits” are n ot included in earnings.1
T his series (as w ell as gross av erag e w eekly earnings)
can also be expressed in “real” dollars. “R eal” earnings
are com puted by dividing th e c u rre n t C onsum er Price
Index into the earnings averages for th e cu rren t m onth;
the level o f earnings is th ereb y adjusted for changes in
purchasing pow er.

1
For a more complete discussion of the uses and limitations of these
series, see the article by Paul M. Schwab, “Two Measures of
Purchasing Power Contrasted,” in the Monthly Labor Review for
April 1971. Reprints of this article are available from the Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

31

rates are available m o n th ly in releases published by the
co o p e ratin g S tate agencies (addresses are sh o w n in
figure 20).
T h e d ata also are dissem inated th ro u g h the pu blica­
tions o f m any o th e r F ed eral agencies; e.g., th e D e p a rt­
m ent o f C om m erce, th e B oard o f G o v e rn o rs o f the
F ed era l R eserv e System , and th e C ouncil o f E co n o m ic
A dvisers. T h e y are also reg u larly republished in sum ­
m ary form o r fo r specific industries in m any trad e
association jo u rn als, th e lab o r press, and in general
referen ce w orks.

Uses
T hese series are used by lab o r unions, business firms,
universities, tra d e associations, p riv ate research o rgani­
zations, and m any g o v ern m e n t agencies. R esearch
w o rk e rs in lab o r unions and industry, as w ell as others
responsible fo r analyzing business conditions, use the
tren d s reflected in these p artic u la r statistics as ec o n o m ­
ic indicators. L ab o r econom ists and o th e r social scien­
tists find these series to be an im p o rtan t in d icato r o f the
N a tio n ’s econom ic activity, as w ell as a m easure o f the
w ell-being o f th e m illions o f A m ericans w h o d ep end on
salaries and w ages.
E xecutives use th e em ploym ent, earnings, and hours
d ata fo r g uidance in plant location, sales, and purchases.
A lso, firm s neg o tiatin g long-term supply o r co n stru c­
tion c o n tra cts often utilize series on av e rag e h o urly
earnings as an aid in reach in g an equitable agreem ent;
“escalation clauses” m ay be included in th e co n tracts,
w h ich p erm it an increase o r a low ering o f th e settle­
m ent p rice d epending on th e m ovem ent o f av erage
h o u rly earnings in a selected industry. W ide need has
been d em o n strated b y b o th labor and business for
industry series on h o u rly earnings and w eekly hours, to
p ro v id e a basis fo r labor-m anagem ent negotiations.
T h e y n o t only furnish c u rre n t and historical inform a­
tion on a given in d u stry b u t p ro v id e co m p arativ e data
on related industries.

R e l i a b i l it y

T h e earnings estim ates are subject to sam pling erro rs
w h ich m ay be expressed as relative e rro rs o f the
estim ates. (A relativ e e rro r is a standard e rro r expressed
as a p ercen t o f th e estim ate.) R elative erro rs for m ajor
industries are presented in figure 21 and for individual
industries w ith th e specified num ber o f em ployees in
figure 22. T h e chances are about 2 o ut o f 3 th at the
earnings estim ates from the sam ple w o u ld differ by a
sm aller percen tag e th an th e relative e rro r from the
averages th at w o u ld h ave been obtained from a co m ­
plete census.
F o r th e tw o m ost recen t m onths, estim ates o f
earnings are prelim inary and are so fo o tn o ted in the
tables. T h ese figures are based on less th an th e total
sam ple and are revised w h en all th e re p o rts in the
sam ple h av e been received. R evisions o f prelim inary
earnings estim ates are norm ally n ot g re ater th an 1 cent
for h o u rly earnings.
A nnually, em ploym ent figures are b en ch m ark ed to
reflect reasonably com plete em ploym ent counts. T h e
earnings estim ates for cells are n ot subject to b en ch ­
m ark revisions, alth o u g h th e b ro a d er groupings m ay be
affected slightly by changes in em ploym ent w eights.

Limitations
T h e gross av erag e h o u rly earnings series reflect
actual earnings o f w o rk ers, including prem ium pay.
T h ey differ from w ag e rates, w h ich are th e am ounts
stipulated fo r a given un it o f w o rk o r tim e. G ross
av erag e h o u rly earnings d o n o t rep resen t to tal co m p en ­
sation costs p e r h o u r fo r th e em ployer, for th ey exclude
re tro ac tiv e paym ents and irreg u lar bonuses, various
w elfare benefits, and th e em p lo y er’s share o f p ayroll
taxes. E arn in g s fo r those em ployees n o t co v e red u nder
th e p ro d u c tio n w o rk e r and nonsu p erv iso ry em ployee
categories are, o f course, n o t reflected in th e estim ates.
T h e h o u rly earnings series does not exclude th e effects
o f interin d u stry shifts, such as th e shift o f w o rk ers
b etw een hig h -w ag e and lo w -w ag e industries.
T o approxim ate straight-tim e av erag e h o u rly earn ­




ings, gross average h o u rly earnings are adjusted by
elim inating only prem ium pay for o vertim e at th e rate
o f tim e and one-half. T hus, no adjustm ent is m ade for
o th er prem ium paym ent provisions such as holiday
w ork, late-shift w ork, and prem ium o vertim e rates
o th e r th an at tim e and one-half.
T h e w o rk w eek inform ation relates to av erag e hours
paid for, w h ich differ from scheduled hours o r hours
w orked. A v erag e w eekly ho u rs reflect th e effects o f
such factors as absenteeism , labor tu rn o v er, part-tim e
w ork, and strikes.
T h e series on spendable w eekly earnings m easures
th e net earnings o f w o rk ers w h o earn th e av erag e gross
w eekly earnings, h av e th e specified num ber o f d ep en d ­
ents and th e ap p ro p riate m arital status, and take the
standard deductions for F ed eral incom e tax purposes.
T h u s th ey rep resen t a v ery small num ber; only about 15
p ercen t o f all husband-w ife families w ith one earn er and
th ree d ependents earned this am ount. Spendable earn ­
ings reflect deductions only for F ed eral incom e and
social security taxes. T h ey do n ot take into acco u n t
pay ro ll dedu ctio n s for such purposes as State incom e
taxes, union dues, o r g ro u p insurance.
T h e “ re al” earnings d ata (those expressed in 1967
dollars), resulting from th e adjustm ent o f gross and
spendable av erag e w eekly earnings by m eans o f the
B ureau’s C onsum er P rice Index, indicate th e changes in
th e p u rchasing p o w e r o f m oney earnings as a result o f
changes in prices for consum er goods and services.
T hese d ata can n o t be used to m easure changes in living
standards as a w hole, w h ich are affected by o th er
factors.

32

—RE FE REN CE S—

Alterman, Jack. “Compensation per Man-Hour and TakeHome Pay,” M onthly L abor Review, June 1971, pp. 2534.

Schwab, Paul M. “Two Measures of Purchasing Power
Contrasted,” M onthly L abor Review, April 1971, pp. 314.

Dmytrow, Eric, and Janet Grimes. “Changes in the Spenda­
ble Earnings Series for 1976; Effects of the Tax
Adjustment Act of 1975 and the Social Security Tax
Base Change,” Em ploym ent an d Earnings, March 1976,
pp. 6-13.

Sheifer, Victor J. “The Relationship between Changes in
Wage Rates and in Hourly Earnings,” M onthly L abor
Review, August 1970, pp. 10-17.

Early, John F. “Factors Affecting Trends in Real Spendable
Earnings,” M onthly L abor Review, May 1973, pp. 16-19.
Gavett, Thomas W. “Measures of Change in Real Wages and
Earnings,” M onthly L abor Review, February 1972, pp.
48-53.
Goings, Gloria P. “BLS Establishment Estimates Revised to
March 1974 Benchmark Levels,” E m ploym ent and
Earnings, October 1975, pp. 8-13.
Perry, George L. “Real Spendable Weekly Earnings,” Brook­
ings Papers on Economic Activity, 3:1972, pp. 779-87.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics B L S
H andbook o f Methods, Bulletin 1910, 1976, pp. 26-42.
_______ , ________“Explanatory Notes—Establishment
Data,” Em ploym ent and Earnings, monthly.
-------------, ------------- , Southeastern Regional Office. BLS Series for
Use in Escalation Clauses (Regional Report Number 9).
February 1975 (rev.).

Utter, Carol M. “The Spendable Earnings Series: A Technical
Note on its Calculation,” Em ploym ent an d Earnings and
M onthly R eport on the L abor Force, February 1969, pp.
6- 10.

Tam e t. A verage hourly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workersa on private
nonagricuitural payrolls, by industry division, 1 9 3 2 -7 4

Figure 16




1909 0 191
1914
221
1919472
549
1920
1921
509

1922 0 482
1923
516
1924
541
541
1925
1926- 542

1927 0 544
1928
556
1929560
1930- 546
1931 - 509

NOTE Data include Alaska and Hawaii beginning in 1959

33

Table 5. Average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory w orkers3 on pri­
vate nonagricultural payrolls, by industry division, 1 9 0 9 -7 4
(In dollars |

Year

Total
private

Mining

Contract
construc­
tion

Transpor
tation and
public
utilities

Manufactoring"

Wholesale and retail trade

Total

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

190S
1914
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930

21 94
21 28
23 56
23 67
24 11
24.38
24 47
24 70
24.76
23 00

1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940

20 64
16 89
16 65
18.20
19 91
21 56
23 82
22 07
23 64
24 96

26 75
25 19
25 44
25 38
26 96
28 36
28 51
28 76
29 36

1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950

45
49
50
53

58
00
24
13

59
65
62
67

94
56
33
16

58
65
67
69

87
27
56
68

29.48
36 68
4307
45 70
44 20
43 32
49 17
53 12
53 88
58 32

38 07
40 80
42 93
44.55

31
34
37
40
42
46
50
53
55
58

1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960

57
60
63
64
67
70
73
75
78
80

86
65
76
52
72
74
33
08
78
67

74
77
83
82
89
95
98
96
103
105

11
59
03
60
54
06
65
08
68
44

76
82
86
88
90
96
100
103
108
113

96
86
41
91
90
38
27
78
41
04

63 34
67 16
70 47
70 49
75 70
78 78
81 59
32 71
88 26
89 72

47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
64
66

79
20
35
33
16
48
60
76
41
01

62 02
65 53
69 02
71 28
74 48
78 57
81 41
84 02
88 51
90 72

42 82
43 38
45 36
47 04
48 75
50 18
52.20
54 10
56 15
57 76

54 67
57 08
59 57
62 04
63 92
65 68
67 53
70 12
72 74
75 14

1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

82
85
88
91
95
98
101
107
114
119

60
91
46
33
06
82
84
73
61
46

106.92
110 43
114 40
117 74
123 52
130 24
135 89
142 71
155 23
164 40

118 08
122 47
127 19
132 06
138 38
146 26
154 95
164 49
181 54
195 45

92 34
96 56
99 63
102 97
107 53
112 34
114 90
122.51
129 51
133 73

118 37
125 14
128.13
131.22
138 85
148 15
155 93

67 41
69 91
72 01
74 28
76.53
79 02
81 76
86 40
90 78
95 66

93 56
96 22
99 47
102.31
106 49
111 11
116 06
122.31
129 85
137 60

58 66
60 96
62 66
64 75
66 61
68 57
70 95
74 95
78 66
82 47

77.12
80 94
84 38
85 79
88 91
92 13
95 46
101 75
108 70
113 34

1971
1972
1973
1974

Figure 17

9
i0
21
26

127
136
145
154

28
16
43
45

172.14
187 43
201 03
220.90

211 67
222 51
235.69
249 08

142 44
154 69
166 06
176.40

169 24
187.92
204 62
218 29

146.07
154 81
162 74
174 66

86 61
90 99
95 57
101.04

Services

74
92
84
02

100
105
111
118

39
65
04
33

36
28
99
76
37
05
14
63
49
08

21 01
21 34
22
23
24
26
28
32
c33
36
38
39

17
37
79
77
59
92
77
22
42
71

•
43
45
47
50

120
126
132
140

21
48
63
52

69 84
73 60
77 04
80.38
83 97
90 57
96 66

66
88
10
19

103 28
no 14
117.64
127 46

cBegmnmg in 1947. includes data on eating and drinking places

?See Footnote a. table 3
D
See footnote c. table 3

NOTE Oata include Alaska and Hawaii beginning in 1959

Figure 18
Number of industries for which earnings series are published under BLS Industry Employment Statistics Program
Gross average
Straight-time
hourly earnings hourly earnings

Industry division

Gross average
weekly
earnings1

Spendable
average weekly
earnings1

T o t a l ............................................................................................................................

366

24

366

8

T o t a l p r i v a t e ..................................................................................................................................

1

-

1

1

11

—

11

1

....................................................................................................

11

-

11

1

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ......................................................................................................................

M in in g

........................................................................................................................................

C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t io n

277

24

277

1

.....................................................................

19

19

1

........................................................................................................................................

32

.....................................................................

9

-

..................................................................................................................................

6

—

T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d p u b lic u t i lit i e s
T ra d e

F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d real e s ta te
S e rv ic e s

In c u r r e n t a n d 1 9 6 7 d o lla rs .




34

32

1

9

1

6

1

Figure 19

Availability of gross average weekly and hourly earnings of production workers on manufacturing payrolls,
by State and area
State and area

ALABAM A

State and area

IL L IN O IS

NEBRASKA

IN D IA N A

Omaha

Birm ingham
M obile

State and area

Lincoln

Indianapolis

ALASKA

NEVADA
Las Vegas

IOWA
A R IZO N A

Cedar Rapids

Phoenix

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Oes Moines

Tucson

Dubuque

Manchester
Nashua

Sioux C ity

ARKANSAS

W a te rlo o -C e d a r Falls

NEW JERSEY

F ayetteville—Springdale
F o rt Sm ith

A tlan tic City

KANSAS

L ittle R ock—N orth L ittle Rock
Pine Bluff

Camden

Topeka
W ichita

Hackensack
Jersey C ity

C A L IFO R N IA
A n ah eim —Santa A n a—Garden Grqve

New Brunswick—Perth A m b o y -S a y re v ille

KENTUC KY
Louisville

Newark

LOUISIA NA

Trenton

Paterson—C lifton-P assaic

Bakersfield
Fresno
Los A n g e le s -L o n g Beach

Baton Rouge

Modesto

NEW M EXICO

New Orleans

O xn ard —Simi V a lle y —V entura

Shreveport

Albuquerque

Riverside—San B e rn a rd in o -O n ta rio
Sacramento

NEW YORK

M A IN E

Salinas—S eas id e -M o n te re y

A lb an y -S c h e n e c ta d y —Troy

Lew iston—A uburn

San Diego

Portland

Binghamton
Buffalo

San F ra n c isco -O aklan d
San Jose
Santa B a rb a ra -S a n ta M aria—Lompoc

Elm ira

M A R YL A N D

M onroe County

Baltim ore

Nassau—Suffolk

Santa Rosa
Stockton
V a lle jo -F a ir fie ld -N a p a

New Y o rk -N o rth e a s te rn N ew Jersey

MASSACHUSETTS

New Y o rk and Nassau—Suffolk

Boston

, New Y ork SM SA

Brockton
D e n v e r-B o u ld e r

Fall River

New Y ork City

L aw ren ce-H averh ill

Poughkeepsie

Lowell

COLORADO

Rochester

New Bedford

Rockland County

Bridgeport

S p rin g fie ld -C h ic o p e e -H o ly o k e

Syracuse

H artfo rd

Worcester

CONNECTICUT

U tica—Rome
Westchester C ounty

N ew Britain
N ew Haven—West Haven

M ICH IG AN

Stam ford

NO RTH CAR O LIN A

A nn A rbor

Water bury

Battle Creek

Asheville

Bay C ity

DELAW ARE
W ilm ington

C h arlo tte-G asto n ia

D etro it

G reen sb o ro -W in sto n -S alem -H ig h Point
Raleigh—0

F lin t
G rand Rapids

D IS TR IC T OF COLUM BIA:
Washington SM SA

NO RTH DAKOTA

Jackson

F arg o -M o o rh e a d

K alam azoo-P ortage
Lansing-E ast Lansing

FLO R ID A
F ort L a u d e rd a le -H o lly w o o d

M uskegon—N o rto n Shore—Muskegon Heights
Saginaw

Cincinnati

MINNESOTA

O rlando

Cleveland

D u lu th —Superior

Pensacola

M inneapolis—St. Paul

Columbus
Dayton

T a m p a -S t. Petersburg
West Palm B each -B o ca Raton

A kron
Canton

Jacksonville
M iam i

OH I O

Toledo

MISSISSIPPI

Youngstown -W a rre n

Jackson

GEORGIA
A tlanta
Savannah

O KLAH OM A

MISSOURI

Oklahom a

Kansas C ity

Tulsa

St. Joseph

HAW AII
Honolulu

St. Louis

OREGON

Springfield

Eugene—Springfield

IDAHO




Jackson County

MO NTA NA

Portland

35

Figure 19— Continued

Availability of gross average weekly and hourly earnings of production workers on manufacturing payrolls,
by State and area— Continued

P E N N S YLV A N IA
A lle n to w n —Bethlehem—Easton
A ltoona
Delaware Valley
Erie
Harrisburg
Johnstown
Lancaster
Northeast Pennsylvania
Philadelphia SMSA
Pittsburgh
Reading
Scranton
Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton
Williams por
Y ork

RHODE ISLA N D

State and area

State and area

State and area

V IR G I Nl A-Continued

TENNESSEE
Chattanooga
K noxville

Northern V irginia
Richmond
Roanoke

Memphis
Nashville-Davidson

W ASHINGTON
Seattle—Everett
Spokane

TEXAS
A m a rillo
Austin

Tacoma

B ea u m on t-P ort A rth u r-O ra n g e
Corpus Christi
Dallas—Fo rt W orth

WEST V IR G IN IA
Charleston
H untin g to n —Ashland
P arkersburg-M arietta
Wheeling

El Paso
G alveston-Texas C ity
Houston
Lubbock
San A nto nio
Waco

WISCONSIN
Appleton-Oshkosh

Wichita Falls

Providence-W ar w ick-P a w tu cke t
UTA H
Salt Lake C ity-O g d en

Kenosha
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Racine

SOUTH C A R O L IN A
Charleston—N orth Charleston
Columbia
Greenville—Spartanburg

SOUTH D AK O TA
Sioux Falls




V ER M O N T
B urlington
Springfield
V IR G IN IA
Lynchburg
N o rfo lk -V irg in ia Beach-Portsm outh

36

W YO M ING
Casper
Cheyenne

Figure 20

COOPERATING STATE AGENCIES
State and Local Area Unemployment Statistics Program (LAUS), Current Employment Statistics Program (CES), and
Labor Turnover Statistics Program (LTS)

ALABAM A
ALASKA
A R IZ O N A
ARKANSAS
C A L IF O R N IA
CO LO RADO
C O N N E C T IC U T
DELAW ARE
D IS T . O F C O L .
F L O R ID A
G E O R G IA
H A W A II
ID A H O
IL L IN O IS
IN D IA N A
IO W A
KANSAS
KENTUCKY
L O U IS IA N A
M A IN E
M ARYLAND
M ASSACHUSETTS
M IC H IG A N
M IN N E S O T A
M IS S IS S I P P I
M IS S O U R I
M ONTANA
NEBRASKA
NEVADA
N E W H A M P S H IR E
NEW JERSEY
N E W M E X IC O
NEW YO RK
N O R T H C A R O L IN A
NORTH DAKO TA
O H IO
OKLAHO M A
OREGON
P E N N S Y L V A N IA
R H O D E IS L A N D

SOUTH CAROLINA
SOUTH DAKO TA
TENNESSEE
TEXAS
UTAH
VERMONT
V I R G IN IA
W A S H IN G T O N
W E S T V IR G IN IA
W IS C O N S IN
W Y O M IN G




- D e p a r t m e n t o f In d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s , In d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s B u ild in g , M o n t g o m e r y 3 6 1 0 4
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , P .O . B o x 3 - 7 0 0 0 , J u n e a u 9 9 8 0 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m ic S e c u r it y , P .O . B o x 6 1 2 3 , P h o e n ix 8 5 0 0 5
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , P .O . B o x 2 9 8 1 , L i t t l e R o c k 7 2 2 0 3
- E m p l o y m e n t D e v e lo p m e n t D e p a r t m e n t , P .O . B o x 1 6 7 9 , S a c r a m e n t o 9 5 8 0 8 ( L A U S a n d C E S ) .
- D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d E m p l o y m e n t , R o o m 2 2 2 , 1 2 1 0 S h e r m a n S t r e e t ,
Denver 8 0 2 0 3
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , L a b o r D e p a r t m e n t , 2 0 0 F o l l y B r o o k B o u le v a r d , W e t h e r s f ie ld 0 6 1 0 9
D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , 2 0 5 W e s t 1 4 t h S t r e e t , W ilm in g t o n 1 9 8 9 9
- O f f i c e o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d M a n a g e m e n t S e rv ic e , D .C . M a n p o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , R o o m 6 2 6 ,
5 0 0 C S t r e e t , N .W ., W a s h in g to n 2 0 0 0 1
-D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , C a ld w e ll B u ild in g , T a lla h a s s e e 3 2 3 0 4
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y A g e n c y , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , 2 5 4 W a s h in g to n S t r e e t , S .W ., A t l a n t a 3 0 3 3 4
- D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d In d u s t r ia l R e la tio n s , P .O . B o x 3 6 8 0 , H o n o lu lu 9 6 8 1 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t , P .O . B o x 7 1 8 9 , B o ise 8 3 7 0 7
-B u r e a u o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , 1 6 5 N o r t h C a n a l S t r e e t , C h ic a g o 6 0 6 0 6
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , 1 0 N o r t h S e n a te A v e n u e , In d ia n a p o lis 4 6 2 0 4
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , 1 0 0 0 E a s t G r a n d A v e n u e , D e s M o in e s 5 0 3 1 9
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , 4 0 1 T o p e k a A v e n u e , T o p e k a 6 6 6 0 3
- D e p a r t m e n t o f H u m a n R e s o u rc e s , 2 7 5 E a st M a in S t r e e t , F r a n k f o r t , K e n t u c k y 4 0 6 0 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , P .O . B o x 4 4 0 9 4 , C a p it o l S t a t io n , B a to n R o u g e 7 0 8 0 4
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f M a n p o w e r A f f a ir s , 2 0 U n io n S t r e e t , A u g u s ta 0 4 3 3 0
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t a n d S o c ia l S e rv ic e s , 1 1 0 0 N o r t h E u t a w S t r e e t , B a lt im o r e 2 1 2 0 1
- D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , C h a rle s F . H u r le y E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y B u ild in g , G o v e r n m e n t C e n te r
B o s to n 0 2 1 1 4
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , 7 3 1 0 W o o d w a r d A v e n u e , D e t r o i t 4 8 2 0 2
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e rv ic e s , 3 9 0 N o r t h R o b e r t S t r e e t , S t . P a u l 5 5 1 0 1
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 1 6 9 9 , J a c k s o n 3 9 2 0 5
-D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d In d u s t r ia l R e la tio n s , P .O . B o x 5 9 , J e ffe r s o n
C ity 6 5 1 0 1
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D iv is io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d In d u s t r y , P .O . B o x 1 7 2 8 , H e le n a 5 9 6 0 1
-D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , P .O . B o x 9 4 6 0 0 , S t a t e H o u s e S t a t io n , L in c o ln 6 8 5 0 9
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D e p a r t m e n t , P .O . B o x 6 0 2 , C a rs o n C i t y 8 9 7 0 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , 3 2 S o u th M a in S t r e e t , C o n c o r d 0 3 3 0 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d I n d u s t r y , 2 0 2 J o h n F itc h P la z a , T r e n t o n 0 8 6 2 5
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 1 9 2 8 , A lb u q u e r q u e 8 7 1 0 3
-D iv is io n o f E m p l o y m e n t , N . Y . S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , S t a t e C a m p u s — B u ild in g 1 2 , A lb a n y 1 2 2 0 1
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 2 5 9 0 3 , R a le ig h 2 7 6 1 1
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y B u re a u , P .O . B o x 1 5 3 7 , B is m a r c k 5 8 5 0 5
- D iv is io n o f R e s e a rc h a n d S ta tis tic s , B u re a u o f E m p l o y m e n t S e rv ic e s , 1 4 5 S . F r o n t S t ., C o lu m b u s 4 3 2 1 6
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , W ill R o g e rs M e m o r ia l O f f ic e B u ild in g , O k la h o m a C i t y 7 3 1 0 5
- E m p l o y m e n t D iv is io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f H u m a n R e s o u rc e s , R o o m 4 0 2 , L a b o r a n d In d u s tr ie s B u ild in g ,
S a le m 9 7 3 1 0
-B u r e a u o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d I n d u s t r y , S e v e n th a n d F o r s te r S tr e e ts ,
H a r r is b u r g 1 7 1 2 1
- D iv is io n o f S ta tis tic s a n d C e n su s, D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , R o o m 1 1 7 , 2 3 5 P r o m e n a d e S t r e e t , P r o v id e n c e 0 2 9 0 8
( C E S ) . D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , 2 4 M a s o n S t r e e t , P r o v id e n c e 0 2 9 0 3 ( L A U S a n d L T S )
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 9 9 5 , C o lu m b ia 2 9 2 0 2
- D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r , P .O . B o x 1 7 3 0 , A b e r d e e n 5 7 4 0 1
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , R o o m 5 1 9 , C o r d e ll H u ll O f f ic e B u ild in g , N a s h v ille 3 7 2 1 9
- E m p l o y m e n t C o m m is s io n , T E C B u ild in g , 1 5 t h a n d C o n g re s s A v e n u e , A u s tin 7 8 7 7 8
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , P .O . B o x 1 1 2 4 9 , S a lt L a k e C i t y 8 4 1 4 7
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , P .O . B o x 4 8 8 , M o n t p e l ie r 0 5 6 0 2
- D iv is io n o f R e s e a rc h a n d S ta tis tic s , D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a n d In d u s t r y , P .O . B o x 1 2 0 6 4 , R ic h m o n d
2 3 2 4 1 ( C E S ) . E m p l o y m e n t C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 1 3 5 8 , R ic h m o n d 2 3 2 1 1 ( L A U S a n d L T S )
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y D e p a r t m e n t , P .O . B o x 3 6 7 , O ly m p i a 9 8 5 0 4
- D e p a r t m e n t o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y , S t a t e O f f ic e B u ild in g , 1 1 2 C a lif o r n ia A v e n u e , C h a r le s to n 2 5 3 0 5
- D e p a r t m e n t o f In d u s t r y , L a b o r , a n d H u m a n R e la tio n s , P .O . B o x 6 0 8 , M a d is o n 5 3 7 0 1
- E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r it y C o m m is s io n , P .O . B o x 2 7 6 0 , C a s p e r 8 2 6 0 1

37

Figure 22

Figure 21

Relative errors 1 for average hourly earnings
by industry division

Relative errors for average hourly earnings by size
of employment estimate
S iz e o f e m p lo y m e n t

R e la t iv e e r r o r
In d u s t r y d iv is io n

e s tim a te

(in p e r c e n t)

T o ta l p r iv a t e ..............................

50

M in in g ...............................................................

.................................

.1

.4

T r a d e .................................................................

.2

W h o le s a le ..................................................

.3

R e t a il ..........................................................

.2

Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ..........
S e rv ic e s ............................................................

.4
8

1

R elative errors relate to M arch 1971 data.




.9
.8

...................................................................

.5

2 000 000

.1

N o n d u ra b le goods

1 .1

1 000 000

.1

T ra n s p o rta tio n and p u b lic u t ilit ie s ..........

1 .5

5 0 0 0 0 0 .............................................................................

.3

D ura ble goods ........................................

..........................................................................
..........................................................................

.......................................................................

.5

000

100 000

.5

M a n u fa c tu rin g ................................................

( in p e r c e n t)

2 0 0 0 0 0 .............................................................................

0 .2

C o n s t r u c tio n ..................................................

R e la t iv e e r r o r

38

Appendix to Chapter 5. The Hourly Earnings Index

T h e B u reau ’s H o u rly E arn in g s Index, a key eco n o m ­
ic indicator, w as first published in 1971 as an o u tg ro w th
o f th e basic h o u rly earnings series described in c h a p te r
5. T h e index m o re closely reflects underlying w ag e rate
m ovem ents than do o th e r available m o n th ly m easures
because it excludes th e effects o f tw o types o f changes
unrelated to w ag e-rate developm ents: fluctuations in
o vertim e prem ium s in m anufacturing (the only sector
for w h ich o v ertim e d ata are available); and changes in
th e p ro p o rtio n o f w o rk e rs in high-w age and low -w age
industries. In addition, th e seasonal adjustm ent elim i­
nates th e effect o f changes th a t norm ally o cc u r at the
sam e tim e and in ab o u t th e sam e m agnitude each year.
T h e index is c o n stru c te d by w eig h tin g th e av erage
h o u rly earnings in each in d u stry (at th e 3-digit level o f
detail, as defined in th e S ta n d a r d I n d u s tr ia l C la ssifica ­
tion M a n u a l) b y th e em ployee-hours paid for in th at
industry in 1967. T h e w eig h ted av erag e fo r th a t m onth
is then co m p ared w ith th e 1967 level o f earnings.
S tartin g w ith Jan u a ry 1964, data are available by
m onth in b o th c u rre n t and deflated (1967) dollars for
th e p riv ate nonfarm eco n o m y and fo r seven broad
industry divisions; for th e m anufacturing division only,
m onthly d ata are available back to 1947. A nnual
averages are available from 1947 to 1963, for th e p rivate




39

nonfarm secto r only, calculated at th e 1-digit S IC level
o f industry detail. T h ese are linked to th e series starting
in 1964.
T h e index is b o th tim ely and com prehensive. It has,
ho w ev er, certain shortcom ings: (1) It provides no
occupational o r regional data; (2) it is n o t adjusted for
th e influence o f ov ertim e prem ium pay in th e nonm anu­
facturing sector, w h ich accounts for tw o -th ird s o f total
em ploym ent; (3) it is restricted to th e earnings o f
p ro d u ctio n and nonsupervisory em ployees; (4) it does
not co v e r th e farm and g o v ern m en t sectors; and (5)
supplem ents to pay are excluded. T hese shortcom ings
h ave in part, p ro m p ted th e developm ent o f the E m p lo y ­
m ent C ost Index. (See ch a p te r 12.)
T h e data are published m onthly in B ureau perio d i­
cals, including C u rre n t W age D e v e lo p m e n ts and the
M o n th ly L a b o r R eview , after initial presentation in the
m onthly press release, T h e E m p lo y m e n t S itu a tio n . A
bulletin containing historical data, T he H o u rly E a rn in g s
In d ex , 1 9 6 4 - A u g u s t 1975, B L S B ulletin 1897, was
published in 1976. (See figure 23.)
—REFERENCES—
Samuels, Norman J. “New Hourly Earnings Index,” Monthly
Labor Review, December 1971, pp. 6 6 -6 7 .

Figure 23

Table 1. Hourly Earnings Index, private nonfarm economy, 1964-August 1975—Continued
(1 9 6 7 = 1 0 0 )

U n a d ju s te d
d a ta

P e r io d

S easonal
f a c to r

S e a s o n a lly
a d ju s te d
d a ta

120. 8
1 1 7 .2
117. 9
1 1 8 .4
118. 8
1 1 9 .7
120. 2
121. 0
121. 8
1 2 3 .2
1 2 3 .2
123. 9
124. 5

1 0 0 .2
100. 1
99. 9
99. 9
100. 0
99. 8
99. 9
9 9 .7
1 0 0 .4
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0

1 17. 0
117. 8
118. 5
119. 0
119. 7
120. 4
121. 1
1 2 2 .2
122. 7
1 2 3 .2
123. 9
124. 5

1 2 9 .4
125. 8
126. 6
126. 8
127. 6
128. 7
128. 9
129. 6
130. 3
131. 5
1 3 1 .4
131. 6
13 3 .3

1 0 0 .2
100. 1
99. 9
99. 9
100. 0
99. 8
99. 8
99. 7
100. 4
100. 1
100. 0
100. 0

P e rc e n t changes at annual r a t e s 1

Q u a r te r ly
a v e ra g e of
s e a s o n a lly
a d ju s te d
d a ta

F ro m
p r e v io u s
q u a rte r

•

.

117. 8

5. 6

6. 6

•
•

•
.

6. 6

6. 6

F ro m sam e
q u a rte r
a year
e a rlie r

F ro m
6 m o n th s
e a rlie r

F ro m
12 m o n th s
e a rlie r

6. 1
6. 5
6. 7
5. 9
5. 8
6 .7
7. 1
7. 6
7. 1
7 .2
7. 1
6 .9

6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
7.
6.
6.
6.
6.

1970:

A n n u a l a v e r a g e — -----------—-----------------------

J u n e ---------------------------- — -------------------—
A u g u s t ---------------------------- ---------------—----O c t o b e r --------------------------------------- ---------N o v e m b e r --------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ---------------------------------------------1971s

A n n u a l a v e r a g e -------------------------------------- —

A p ril

----------------------------------------------------

S e p t e m b e r -------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ----------------------------------------------

1 1 9 .7

•
-

•
.

122. 0

7. 9

6. 8

•
.

.
.

123. 8

6 .2
-

6. 6
-

•

•

126. 3

8 .2

7 .2

•
•

•

7. 3

7 .4

m

m
125. 5
126. 5
126. 9
127. 8
128. 7
1 2 9 .2
129. 9
130. 6
131. 0
1 3 1 .3
131. 6
1 3 3 .3

128. 5

_

132. 0

1972:

A n n u a l a v e r a g e ---------------------------- ------------

M a y ---------------------- --------------------------------J u n e -----------------------------------------------------J u l y -----------------------------------------------------S e p t e m b e r ------------------- -------------------------N o v e m b e r ---------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ----------------------------------------------

J u n e --------------------------- —---- ------------------S e p t e m b e r -------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r ------------------- -----------------------1974:

A n n u a l a v e r a g e ---------------------------------—
J a n u a r y ------------------------------------------------F e b r u a r y ---------------------- —
—-------- ---------M a rc h -------------------------------------------------A p r i l ----------------------------------------------------J u n e ------------------------------------- ------- ----------

O c t o b e r ----------------------------- -------------------

1 0 0 .2
100. 1
99. 9
99. 9
100. 0
9 9 .8
9 9 .8
9 9 .7
1 0 0 .4
100. 1
100. 0
100. 1

146, 6
142. 6
142. 8
143. 2
144. 5
145. 0
1 4 5 .7
146. 7
147. 3
149. 5
149. 6
150. 3
1 5 1 .4

100. 2
100. 1
99. 9
99. 9
100. 0
99. 8
9 9 .8
9 9 .7
100. 5
100 . 1
100 . 0
100 . 1

1 4 2 .3
142. 7
1 4 3 .3
144. 6
1 4 5 .0
146. 0
147. 0
147. 7
148. 8
149. 5
1 5 0 .3
1 5 1 .2

158. 6
152. 1
153. 0
153. 6
154. 7
156. 5
158. 1
158. 8
160. 1
162. 8
163. 5
1 6 4 .2
1 6 5 .6

1 0 0 .2
100 . 1
99. 8
100 . 0
100 . 0
99. 8
99. 8
99. 7
100. 5
100 . 1
100 . 0
100. 1

151. 8
1 5 2 .8
153. 9
154. 7
156. 5
158. 5
1 5 9 .2
160. 6
1 6 2 .0
1 6 3 .3
1 6 4 .2
1 6 5 .4

166. 6
167. 8
168. 9
1 6 9 .4
170. 6
171. 9
172. 8
174. 1

100. 2
100. 0
9 9 .9
100, 0
100. 0
9 9 .8
9 9 .8
99. 7

166. 3
167. 8
169. 1
1 6 9 .4
170. 6
172. 2
173. 1
174. 6

134. 3
134. 8
1 3 5 .4
136. 6
136. 7
137. 1
137. 9
1 3 8 .4
139. 1
140. 2
140. 7
141. 7

fro m




s e a s o n a l ly

a d ju s t e d

d a ta

to

4. 8
-

6 .6
-

.

•

6. 8

•
•

.

5 .9

6 .4

.
.

•
•

138. 5

4 .9

6. 1

140. 9

7 .2
-

6. 7
-

•

•

142. 8

5. 5

5 .9

136. 8

.
•

7 .3
7 .4
7. 1
7. 4
7. 6
7 .3
7 .2
6 .9
6. 8
6. 6
6 .2
7. 1

7 .0
6. 5
6 .9
8 .3
8. 0
5. 8
5 .4
5 .3
5. 5
5 .4
5. 9
6 .9

7 .0
6. 6
6. 7
6. 9
6 .2
6. 1
6 .2
5. 9
6 .2
6 .8
6. 9
6 .3

•

6. 5
6 .3
6. 1
6 .4
6. 1
6. 1
6. 6
7 .2
7. 7
6 .9
7. 5
7 .3

6 .0
5. 8
5. 8
5. 9
6. 0
6. 5
6. 6
6. 8
6. 9
6. 6
6. 8
6 .7

6 .7
7. 0
7. 0
7. 0
8. 5
9. 8
9. 9
1 0 .4
10. 9
11. 5
10. 0
9 .0

6. 7
7. 1
7 .3
6. 9
8. 0
8. 5
8. 3
8. 7
8. 9
9 .2
9 .2
9. 4

9. 1
9 .2
8. 9
7. 6
8. 0
8 .4
8 .4
8. 3

9 .5
9. 8
9 .9
9. 6
9 .0
8. 7
8. 8
8. 8

.

.
-

145. 2

tw o d e c im a l p l a c e s .

40

•

147. 8

6. 9

6. 1

.
.

•
-

7 .4

6. 8

•
•

•
•

150. 3

7. 0
-

6. 7
-

•

•

152. 8

6. 8

7. 0

•
-

•

10. 1

7. 8

156. 5

.
-

.
-

160. 6

10. 7

8. 6

•
•

•

164. 3

9 .6

9 .3

*

*

A n n u a l a v e r a g e --------------------------------- — —

1 C o m p u te d

•
•

8. 8

1 3 4 .9

1975:

J u n e ------------------------------------------— -------J u l y -----------------------------------------------------A u g u s t ---------------------------- -------- -------------

7 .0

.
7 .4
7 .2
7. 1
7. 6
8 .0
7 .7
7. 1
6. 7
6. 5
5. 5
4. 5
6. 5

m

137. 8
134. 6
134. 9
1 3 5 .3
1 3 6 .4
136. 7
136. 8
137. 6
137. 9
1 3 9 .7
140. 3
140. 7
141. 9

1973;

A n n u a l a v e r a g e ------------— ------------------------J a n u a r y — --------------------------------------------

•
•

6. 3
_
•

130. 5

6
6
7
6
6
5
6
0
9
5
5
8

-

170. 7

*

8. 6

9 .7

•
•

167. 7

-

7. 5

9. 1

•
-

.
•

*

*

Chapter 6. Earnings Statistics from the Current Population
Survey— Household Data
T h e C u rre n t P o p u latio n S urvey (C PS), co n d u cted
by th e B ureau o f th e C ensus fo r the B ureau o f L ab o r
Statistics (B L S) p rim arily to obtain statistics on em ploy­
m ent and unem ploym ent, also has becom e an increas­
ingly valuable source o f statistics o n earnings.
W h at m akes earnings statistics from th e C P S so
valuable is th a t th ey are d eriv ed from a household
survey from w h ich th e age, sex, race, occupation,
education, and o th e r d em o g rap h ic ch aracteristics o f
w age earners (and o th e r m em bers o f th eir families) also
can be easily o btained. M ost o th e r earnings inform ation
is collected from ad m inistrative reco rd s and surveys o f
establishm ent payrolls; these sources are extrem ely
lim ited in d em o g rap h ic detail and usually cannot
p ro v id e earnings inform ation fo r specific population
groups.
B L S publishes tw o m ajo r earnings series from the
basic C P S data: 1) A n n u al earnings o f h ousehold heads
in p ro d u c tio n and n o n su p erv iso ry jobs, and 2) h o u rly
and w eek ly earnings o f all w ag e and salary w orkers.

Description of survey

public assistance, and so on, also is collected at th at
time. A ll this incom e inform ation, co llected each year
since W o rld W ar II, is used by th e B ureau o f th e C ensus
to estim ate th e distribution o f fam ily and personal
incom e. T h e estim ates, co v erin g about 100 m illion
w o rk ers in 1974, are published reg u larly in th e C ensus’
C u rre n t P o p u la tio n R e p o rts .2

F ro m th e w age and salary data, th e B L S develops its
series on gross annual earnings, after-tax annual earn ­
ings, and real after-tax annual earnings o f household
heads em ployed in p ro d u c tio n and nonsupervisory jo b s
in th e p riv ate nonfarm secto r— about 30 m illion w o rk ­
ers in 1974.3
W age and salary earnings rep resen t m oney w ages
and salaries (thus excluding any paym ents in kind)
received for w o rk perform ed as an em ployee. T h ey
m ay take th e form o f w ages, salaries, com m issions, tips,
piece-rate paym ents, and cash bonuses earned before
deductions for taxes, bonds, pensions, union dues, and
the like.
T h e precise w o rd in g o f th e questions w h ich ulti­
m ately p ro v id e th e w age and salary statistics for the
B LS annual earnings series is as follow s:
“ L ast y ear did . . . receive any m oney in w ages and
salaries?”
(If yes)
“H o w m uch did . . . receiv e before any d ed u c­
tions?”

T h e C P S is a p robability sam ple survey o f ap p roxi­
m ately 47,000 households, co n d u c te d in 461 areas in 923
counties and in d ep end en t cities in th e 50 S tates and the
D istric t o f C o lu m b ia.1 P articip atio n in th e survey is
v o lu n tary and respondents, w h o rep ly fo r them selves
and all o th e r m em bers o f th e household, are assured
th a t all inform ation obtained is com pletely confidential.
A lth o u g h em p lo y m en t and unem ploym ent statistics
are co llected ev e ry m o n th in th e C PS, earnings statis­
tics have, so far, been co llected only in M arch and M ay
from responses to supplem ental questions.

M arch is considered th e best m onth to obtain such
inform ation since kn o w led g e o f the p rio r y ear’s incom e
and earnings is usually relatively fresh in th e respon­
den ts’ m inds because o f th e deadline for filing incom e
tax retu rn s in th e follow ing m onth.
W e e k l y a n d H o u r l y E a r n in g s

A n n u a l E a r n in g s

T h e earnings questions asked each M ay relate to
w eekly and h o u rly earnings o f em ployed w age and

T h e earnings questions asked in M arch relate to the
am oun t o f w ages and salaries w o rk ers living in th at
household receiv ed d u rin g th e previous calen d ar year.
T h e am ount o f o th e r incom e such as interest, dividends,

2 See “Money Income in 1974 of Families and Persons in the United
States,” Current Population Reports: Consumer Income, Series P-60,
No. 101, January 1976.
3 See Robert L. Stein and Paul M. Ryscavage, “Measuring Annual
1
For a discussion of the Current Population Survey and the Earnings of Household Heads in Production Jobs,” Monthly Labor
collection of monthly employment and unemployment statistics, see
Review, April 1974, pp. 3-11, for a thorough discussion of the
ch. 1, “Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment,” BLS
development of these earnings statistics. For more recent data, see
Handbook o f Methods, Bulletin 1910 (Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Paul M. Ryscavage, “Annual Earnings of Household Heads,”
1976), pp. 5-23.
Monthly Labor Review, August 1975, pp. 14-21.




41

BLS calculation procedures

salary w orkers, ab o u t 63 m illion in M ay 1976. W eekly
earnings d ata are available fo r th e 1967-76 p erio d 4. T h e
collectio n o f h o u rly earnings statistics from th e C PS
w as b egun in M ay 1973. A series o f questions w as added
th a t m o n th — and each M ay th ere after — to obtain the
rates o f pay o f w age and salary w ork ers paid by th e
h o u r (about 34 m illion in M ay 1976) as w ell as to derive
th e usual h o u rly earnings o f all w ag e and salary
w orkers.
T h e precise w o rd in g o f th e questions is as follow s:

A n n u a l E a r n in g s

U pon receip t o f th e C P S annual M arch supplem ent
tapes containing d ata on w age and salary earnings, B LS
identifies and tabulates th e earnings o f all household
heads w hose longest civilian em ploym ent th e y ear
before w as as a w age and salary w o rk e r in a p ro d u ctio n
o r nonsupervisory jo b . H ousehold heads m ay be either
husbands in husband-w ife families, o th e r m ale fam ily
heads, w om en w h o head families, o r u n related individu­
als, th a t is, persons w h o live alone o r w ith persons o th e r
than relatives. P ro d u ctio n and n o n supervisory w o rkers,
as defined in this earnings series, are those w hose
longest em ploym ent d uring th e preced in g y ear w as in
clerical, sales, blue-collar, o r service (excluding p riv ate
household jo b s) occupations in th e p riv ate nonfarm
secto r o f th e econom y.
T o calculate after-tax earnings, B LS d ed u cts the
ap p ro p riate F ed eral incom e and social security tax
liabilities from th e gross annual earnings o f household
heads, array ed by household ty p e and fam ily size. G ross
earnings are n o t adjusted for S tate and local taxes o r
o th er deductions.
F o u r assum ptions are m ade for th e calculations: (1)
T h e w age and salary earnings o f th e household head are
th e only incom e o f th e household; (2) th e num ber o f
fam ily m em bers is equivalent to th e num ber o f allo w a­
ble personal exem ptions; (3) all household heads use the
standard deduction; and (4) husbands file jo in t returns,
o th er m ale and fem ale fam ily heads file as heads o f
households, and u n related individuals file as single
individuals. Social security tax liabilities are calculated
on th e basis o f th e h ousehold h ead ’s gross annual
earnings in th e year. (It should be noted, w ith respect to
assum ption (1) h o w ev er, th a t th e d ata base is sufficient­
ly detailed and flexible to perm it th e estim ation o f
spendable earnings distributions for households w h ere
b o th husbands and w ives are w orkers. Som e d ev e lo p ­
m ental w o rk along these lines has been initiated.)
T o d eriv e th e real after-tax earnings o f household
heads, B L S deflates th e after-tax earnings by the
C onsum er P rice Index (1967 = 100).
Since d ata on th e length o f tim e w o rk ed in the
preced in g y ear also are obtained in the M arch C PS , it is
possible to dev elo p separate annual earnings inform a­
tion for those household heads w h o w o rk full tim e (35
hours o r m o re a w eek) y ear round (50 to 52 w eeks a
year).
G ross, after-tax, and real after-tax earnings are
published by B LS in th e form o f m edians.

“ H o w m any ho u rs p er w eek does . . . usually w o rk
at this jo b ? ”
“H o w m uch does . . . usually earn p e r w eek at this
jo b before d eductions?”
“ I s . . . paid by th e h o u r on this jo b ?”
(If yes)
“ H o w m u ch does . . . earn p er hour?”
T h e tim e referen ce to w h ich th e term “usual”
applies, — as in “ usual w eekly earnings” — is n ot
specified in th e survey. T hus, th e reference p erio d is
th a t w h ich th e h ousehold resp o n d en t perceives as
determ in in g h o w m u ch is “ usually” earned, o r w h a t is
th e “usual” n um ber o f ho u rs w o rk ed in a week.
Presum ably, asking for “ usual” w eekly earnings instead
o f earnings and h o u rs in a specific w eek red u ces th e risk
o f obtaining d ata w hich, because o f sudden fluctuations
in hou rs and earnings (such as m ight be p ro d u c ed by a
few days o f bad w eath er), w o u ld n o t rep resen t the
typical earnings p attern. In addition, a person supplying
inform ation for o th e r m em bers o f th e h ousehold is m ore
likely to kn o w th e usual am o u n t o f w eekly earnings or
ho u rs than th e actual am ounts in a given w eek. O n the
o th e r h and, for those w o rk e rs w h o are paid b y th e hour,
th e term “ usual” is n o t used, since respondents are
likely to be fam iliar w ith th e c u rre n t h o u rly ra te o f pay.
T h e B ureau o f th e C ensus co n d u cted a test in
N o v em b er 1975 to determ ine th e usefulness o f special
questions focusing on earnings o f w o rk ers w h o are n ot
paid at eith er a w eekly o r h o u rly ra te— for exam ple,
those paid at m o n th ly o r y early rates, on a p iecew o rk
basis, salary plus com m issions, etc. A n o th e r test c o n ­
d u cted in Jan u a ry 1977 w as designed to co m p are the
earnings re p o rted in th e C P S for a given n um ber o f
w o rk e rs w ith th e p ay ro ll re co rd s o f th eir em ployers.
T h e results o f these tw o tests are to be used b y the
B ureau o f L a b o r Statistics and th e B ureau o f the C ensus
to c h a rt th e fu tu re co u rse fo r th e collection o f earnings
d ata from th e C PS.

4
See Paul O. Flaim, Weekly and Hourly Earnings Data from the W e e k l y a n d H o u r l y E a r n i n g s
Current Population Survey, Special Labor Force Report No. 195
T h e w eekly and h o u rly earnings statistics co llected
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1977), for a comprehensive discussion of
in th e M ay C PS, unlike the annual earnings statistics
the merits and limitations of weekly and hourly earnings data.




42

ju st discussed, relate to all earners in all occupations.
W eekly and h o u rly earnings statistics, h o w e v er, are not
adjusted fo r F ed eral incom e and social security tax
liabilities by th e B LS. T h e y rep resen t earnings at the
gross level before deductions.
B L S tabulates m edians and m eans for usual w eekly
earnings, usual h o u rly earnings, and h o u rly rates o f pay.
Usual w eekly earnings and h o u rly rates o f p ay are
obtained d irec tly from responses to th e M ay questions;
usual h o u rly earnings m ust be calculated by dividing
hou rs p er w eek in to usual w eekly earnings.
U sual h o u rly earnings and th e h o u rly ra te o f p ay are
different m easures o f h o u rly earnings. U sual h ourly
earnings approxim ate th e av erag e h o u rly earnings
derived from establishm ent surveys and can be obtained
for all w age and salary w orkers. T h e h o u rly ra te o f pay,
on th e o th e r hand, approxim ates th e w age rate, and is
obtained only for w ag e earn ers w h o w o rk at stipulated
rates o f pay p er hour.

Analysis
A n n u a l E a r n in g s

A s m entioned at th e outset, earnings statistics from
th e C P S are extrem ely useful for econom ic analysis
because th ey can be cross-classified by a g re at num ber
o f personal ch aracteristics o f w ork ers to determ ine the
earnings levels and tren d s o f specific p opulation g roups
(i.e., h ousehold heads, youths, blacks, etc.) A s sh o w n in
figure 24, levels o f gross, after-tax, and real after-tax
earnings v ary w id ely b y ty p e o f household head.
H usbands ten d to h av e th e highest earnings am ong all
househ o ld heads em ployed in p ro d u c tio n and nonsupervisory jobs, follow ed, in descending ord er, b y o th er
m ale heads o f families, u n related individuals, and
w om en w h o head families.
O bviously, am ong th e 30 m illion household heads in
p ro d u c tio n and n o n su p erv iso ry jobs, som e w o rk m ore
d u rin g th e co u rse o f th e y ear th an others. F o r exam ple,
th e m ajo rity o f husbands w o rk full tim e, y ear round,
w hereas o nly slightly m o re th an h alf o f th e w om en w h o
head families and h a lf o f th e u nrelated individuals w o rk
full tim e, year around.
B etw een 1963 and 1974, inflation, and to som e extent
h ig h er taxes, ero d ed gains in gross annual earnings. F o r
all household heads em ployed in p ro d u c tio n and
nonsup erv iso ry jo b s gross annual earnings rose from
$5,040 in 1963 to $8,865 in 1974 o r at a co m pound
annual rate o f 5.3 percen t. A fte r adjusting these
earnings fo r increases in F ed eral incom e and social
security taxes and co n su m er prices, th e co m pound
annual ra te o f increase in real after-tax earnings am o u n t­
ed to only 0.5 p ercen t. A n n u al gains in real after-tax
earnings for husbands (1.3 p ercen t) w e re significantly




43

g re ater th an those for all household heads, bu t gains for
u nrelated individuals and w om en w ho head families
w ere significantly less (0.5 and 0.6 percent, respective­
ly)W e e k l y E a r n in g s

T h e usual w eekly earnings statistics published by the
B LS p ro v id e earnings inform ation for a m uch w ider
spectrum o f w age and salary w o rk ers than th e annual
earnings statistics ju st discussed.5
A s show n in figure 25, usual w eekly earnings o f all
w age and salary w orkers w ere $169 in M ay 1976, up
from $100 in M ay 1967, an annual rate o f gain o f 6.0
percent. A m o n g m ale heads o f households w h o w ork
full tim e (35 hours o r m ore a week), usual w eekly
earnings rose from $131 in M ay 1967 to $245 by M ay
1976, an annual rate o f increase o f 7.2 percent. D urin g
th e sam e period, w ives and o th e r relatives o f family
heads earned lo w er w eekly pay than m ale heads, and
th eir w eekly earnings rose som ew hat m ore slow ly.
Usual w eekly earnings can be analyzed for m any
o th er groups o f w orkers. F o r exam ple, figure 25 show s
th at black m en, w ork in g full tim e, have substantially
lo w er w eekly earnings th an w h ite m en, b ut black
w om en h ave earnings nearly as high as th eir w hite
co u n terp arts. A m ong occupational groups, m anagers,
professionals, and craft w o rk ers h ave th e highest
w eekly earnings; p riv ate household and farm w orkers
h ave th e low est. Statistics o f earnings by age group
show th a t o ld er w o rk ers generally earn m ore than
y o u n g er w orkers.
A lth o u g h n o t show n in figure 25, usual w eekly
earnings are also available for various educational,
industrial, and regional groupings o f w o rk ers as w ell as
for part-tim e w o rkers, and even for som e w o rk ers w ho
w ere unem ployed at th e tim e o f th e survey.
H o u r l y E a r n in g s

F ig u re 26 presents som e statistics on usual ho u rly
earnings and h o u rly rates o f pay for th e N ation as a
w hole and for th e m anufacturing industry, cross-classi­
fied by race-sex groups. T his table also illustrates ho w
C P S earnings statistics can be disaggregated.
A b o u t one-h alf o f all em ployed w age and salary
w o rk ers (about 34 m illion in 1976) are re p o rted in the
C PS as being paid at an h o u rly rate (as opposed to a
w eekly, m onthly, o r annual rate o f pay). H o u rly
w orkers tend to be em ployed in blue-collar occupations
in the g o o d s-producing secto r o f th e econom y. In M ay
1976, th e m edian h o u rly rate o f p ay for these w age and
5
See Paul O. Flaim and Nicholas I. Peters, “Usual Weekly
Earnings of American Workers,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1972,
pp. 28-38 for a comprehensive analysis of these data for the year 1971.
For a review of the trends in these data between May 1967 and May
1975, see John Stinson and Thomas Bradshaw, “An Analysis of
Trends in Weekly Earnings of American Workers,” Monthly Labor
Review, August 1975, pp. 22-32.

dem ographic ch aracteristics are contained on th e sam e
co m p u ter tape reco rd , inform ation can be tabulated
acco rd in g to any specification and used in m ore
sophisticated statistical routines such as m ultiple reg res­
sion analysis.

salary w o rk e rs w as $3.55, co m p ared w ith $3.39 in M ay
1975 and $3.20 in M ay 1974. Y early increases in
p ercen tag e term s am ounted to 5.9 p ercen t betw een
1974 and 1975 and 4.7 p ercen t b etw een 1975 and 1976.
W h ite m ale w o rk ers in m anufacturing h av e the
highest h o u rly rate o f pay am ong th e race-sex g ro u p s—
$5.05 an h o u r in M ay 1976. T h e h o u rly rate o f pay o f
black m en w as ab o u t 12 p e rcen t low er, w hile for black
and w h ite w om en em ployed in m anufacturing, the
h o u rly rates o f pay w e re ab o u t 35 to 40 p ercen t low er.
T hese earnings statistics co u ld have been d isaggre­
gated by o th e r d em o g rap h ic characteristics. F o r exam ­
ple, it is possible to exam ine th e h o u rly rates o f p ay for
full-tim e and p art-tim e w o rk e rs in all industries co m ­
bined.
U sual h o u rly earnings, w h ich relate to all w ag e and
salary w orkers, are generally h ig h er than h o u rly rates
o f pay because th ey include th e earnings o f m o re highly
paid salaried w orkers. A s show n, in figure 26, usual
h o u rly earnings for all w age and salary earn ers rose
from $3.71 in M ay 1974 to $4.02 in M ay 1975 and $4.26
in M ay 1976.

Limitations
C PS earnings statistics are, h o w ev er, subject to
im p o rtan t lim itations. In obtaining earnings d ata
th ro u g h a household survey, som e reliability is sacri­
ficed. E arnings d eriv ed from a sam ple o f households are
subject to e rro r because: 1) th e household resp o n d en t
m ay in co rrectly re p o rt his o r h er earnings and the
earnings o f o th e r m em bers o f th e household; 2) the
respondents m ay refuse to re p o rt th e earnings and this
n o n rep o rtin g m ay be m ore com m on am ong som e
groups than others; and 3) th e earnings averages
estim ated from a sam ple o f w o rk ers m ay differ from
those averages obtained th ro u g h a com plete census o f
w orkers.
T h e e rro r due to m isreporting earnings is difficult to
quantify. O bviously, in m any cases, th e household
resp o n d en t’s m em ory serves as th e only source o f
earnings inform ation. T h e B ureau o f th e C ensus a t­
tem pts to m inim ize th e erro rs associated w ith faulty
m em ories by scheduling th e questions on annual incom e
and earnings for th e M arch survey. T h e deadline for
filing incom e tax retu rn s is th en less th an a m onth aw ay,
and respondents should at this tim e be fairly fam iliar
w ith th e earnings th ey o r o th er m em bers o f the
household received in th e previous year. W ith respect
to th e M ay survey, th e B ureau o f th e C ensus asks
respondents for th eir “usual” am ount o f w eekly earn ­
ings in co n tra st to th eir actual earnings. Presum ably,
respondents are m ore likely to know the general level
o f earnings ra th e r th an the actual am ount for a
p articu lar w eek. O n th e o th er hand, it is assum ed th at
th e respondents w ou ld h av e a m uch firm er idea as to
w h at th e h o u rly rate o f pay is for those w o rk ers paid by
th e hour, since it is this rate for w h ich the w o rk e r has
co n tra cted his o r h e r labor.
T h e n o n re p o rtin g o f earnings in b o th th e M arch and
M ay surveys is an o th er source o f p o tential e rro r w h ich
is difficult to quantify. E rr o r due to nonresponse can be
large if th e n o n re p o rtin g o f earnings is clu stered at one
end o f th e earnings distribution. In th e M arch survey,
th e nonresponse rate on th e earnings question has
ranged from abo u t 6 p ercen t to 11 p ercen t du rin g the
past several years. In th e M ay survey, th e nonresponse
rate on th e w eekly earnings question has ran g ed from
about 16 to 20 p ercen t o v e r th e 1967-76 period, and the
nonresponse rate on th e h o u rly rate o f pay question has
been som ew hat low er, 14 p ercen t in 1976. T o lessen the
degree o f e rro r th at can arise because o f nonresponse,

Uses
A nnual earnings statistics o f household heads in
p ro d u c tio n and n o n su p erv iso ry jo b s, d ev elo p ed from
th e M arch C P S , p ro v id e som e indication o f long-run
trends in earnings o f rank-and-file w orkers. In addition,
th e dem o g rap h ic o rien tatio n o f th e C PS and th e design
o f th e d ata base m ake it possible to gauge th e progress
m ade b y heads o f h ouseholds o f different ty p es and
sizes.
U sual w eekly earnings, usual h o u rly earnings, and
h o u rly rates o f pay, d ev elo p ed from the M ay C P S , on
th e o th e r hand, are m ore useful in observing th e im pact
o f recen t econom ic activ ity on th e earnings o f th e
various d em o g rap h ic gro u p s in th e N ation. T hese
statistics n o t only are m o re co m prehensive in th eir
coverag e, b u t are available m o re quickly from the
B ureau o f th e C ensus and, therefo re, are m ore useful for
c u rre n t analysis.
E arn in g s inform ation from th e C PS , w h e th e r from
the M arch o r M ay surveys, also are useful in in te rp re t­
ing changes in o th e r m easures o f earnings. B ecause C PS
statistics can be d isaggregated, th ey can help determ ine
w h e th e r ch an g es in som e b ro a d m easure o f earnings
result from changes in com pensation o r sim ply from
shifts in th e d em o g rap h ic com position o f th e w o rk
force.
L astly, C P S earnings statistics are useful in research
designs req u irin g m icro -o rien ted d ata bases.6 Since the
earnings statistics o f individual w ork ers and their
* Usual hourly earnings statistics have recently been used (at the
micro-level) in an analysis of union-nonunion earnings differentials.
See Paul M. Ryscavage, “Measuring Union-Nonunion Earnings
Differences,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1974, pp. 3-9.




44

the Bureau o f the Census generally imputes earnings to
those w orkers for whom no earnings w ere reported; the
basis o f the imputation is the earnings of w orkers with
characteristics similar to those w ho did not report
earnings. This procedure is currently used w ith the data
derived from the M arch survey, but not w ith the
findings from the M ay survey.
Since the CPS is based upon a scientifically draw n
probability sample, measures o f sampling variability,
such as the standard error, can be calculated and are
presented below for earnings obtained from both
surveys. These errors show the amount o f variation that
occurs by chance because only a sample o f the
population is surveyed rather than the whole universe.
In terms o f income and earnings, the standard error also
partially measures the effect of those response and
enum eration errors w hich occur at random. It does not,
how ever, measure the im pact of any systematic bias
such as a possible tendency on the part of a m ajority of
respondents to underreport earnings. Provided there is
no such systematic bias, an estimate based on a sample
o f the population should not, in tw o out of three cases,
on average, differ from one based on a com plete survey
o f the universe by m ore than one standard error.
Standard errors have been calculated on the median
gross annual earnings in 1973 of the four groups of
household heads discussed above, as follows:

F or the M ay data on earnings, the standard errors
associated w ith some o f the largest numbers for 1975
were estimated by the Bureau of the Census to be of the
following magnitudes:
M e d ia n

Usual weekly earnings of all
wage and salary workers __
Usual weekly earnings of full­
time wage and salary work­
ers ...........................................
Hourly rates of pay of wage
and salary workers paid by
the hour .................................
Usual hourly earnings of all
wage and salary workers __

S ta n d a r d
error

$161.00

$0.60

185.00

.80

3.39

.0 2

4.02

.0 2

The standard errors on the median earnings from the
M arch and M ay survey, then, provide some measure of
the extent o f the error associated w ith earnings statistics
obtained through the CPS.
In sum, while obtaining estimates o f w orkers’ earn­
ings through a household survey such as the CPS
involves some imprecision, this handicap must be
viewed in light of the fact that the CPS is the only
regular source of earnings statistics w hich provides a
w ealth o f dem ographic detail.
—R E F E R E N C E S—

S ta n d a r d
M e d ia n

erro r

$9,859
8,117
4,205
5,281

$ 50
280
125
75

Flaim, Paul O. W eekly an d H ourly Earnings D ata from the
Current Population Survey, Special Labor Force Report
195. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1977.

Since estimates o f median after-tax and median real
after-tax earnings are derived from the actual median
gross annual earnings collected in the survey, standard
errors can only be approxim ated for these data. As a
rough approximation, the relationship between the
error and the median at the gross level can be applied to
the median after-tax and median real after-tax earnings
levels.

Ryscavage, Paul M. “Annual Earnings of Household Heads,”
M onthly L abor Review, August 1975, pp. 14-21.

Husbands ............................... ...
Other male family heads ....
Female family heads ...........
Unrelated individuals ..........




45

Stein, Robert L., and Ryscavage, Paul M. “Measuring Annual
Earnings of Household Heads in Production Jobs,”
M onthly L abor Review, April 1974, pp.3-11.
Stinson, John, and Bradshaw, Thomas. “An Analysis of
Trends in Weekly Earnings of American Workers,”
M onthly L abor Review, August 1975, pp.22-32.

Figure 24
Median annual earnings of household heads employed in production and nonsupervisory jobs, 1963-74

Group

A ll ho u se h o ld heads:
Gross earnings

1963

....................

A fte r-ta x earnings .............
Real a fte r-ta x earnings . . .
H usbands:
Gross earnings

....................

A fte r -ta x earnings

.............

Real a fte r-ta x earnings

. . .

1964

$ 5 ,0 4 0

$ 5 ,1 9 9

4 ,3 8 5
4 ,7 8 2

4 ,5 9 7
4 ,9 4 8

5 ,4 1 8
4,741
5 ,1 7 0

1965

$5,409
4,815

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

Annual
average
percent
change1

$ 5 ,6 9 3

$ 5 ,9 4 8

$ 6 ,3 4 2

$ 8 ,4 3 0

$ 8 ,8 6 5

5.3

5,431

$ 6 ,9 5 6
5,8 8 9

$ 7 ,8 2 3

6 ,2 4 5

6 ,7 6 3

7 ,1 53

7 ,4 8 5

5.0

5,095

5,1 73
5,173

$ 6 ,7 3 9
5,6 97

$7,271

4 ,9 8 0
5,1 23

5,2 12

5,1 8 9

5 ,0 6 4

5 ,1 48

5 ,3 9 7

5 ,3 7 4

5 ,0 6 8

0.5

5,681

5,989

6 ,3 22

6,611

7 ,1 05

7,6 2 6

7 ,8 7 6

8 ,2 7 2

8 ,9 4 7

9 ,8 5 9

10 ,408

6.1

5,0 47

5,356

5 ,5 49

5 ,7 7 2

6 ,1 0 3

6 ,4 6 5

6 ,6 9 6

7 ,1 3 0

7 ,7 3 0

8 ,3 5 3

8 ,7 7 5

5.8

5 ,4 33

5,668

5,7 0 9

5 ,7 72

5 ,8 57

5 ,8 88

5 ,7 5 8

5,8 78

6 ,1 6 9

6 ,2 7 6

5,941

1.3

5.1

O th e r m a le fa m ily heads:
Gross earnings

....................

4 ,6 8 6

4 ,7 4 5

5,009

5,0 43

5,6 12

5 ,7 5 6

6 ,4 4 9

6 ,6 2 0

6 ,7 8 6

7 ,1 13

8 ,1 1 7

8,121

.............

3 ,9 8 8

4,131

4,4 00

4 ,3 8 5

4 ,8 3 2

4 ,9 0 9

5,3 82

5,751

5 ,7 7 4

6,521

6 ,8 4 0

6,861

5.1

Real a fte r-ta x earnings . . .

4 ,3 4 9

4 ,4 4 7

4,656

4,511

4 ,8 3 2

4,711

4 ,9 0 2

4 ,9 4 5

4 ,7 6 0

5 ,2 0 4

5 ,1 3 9

4 ,6 4 5

0.6

2 ,6 8 5

2,7 53

2,814

2 ,9 3 3

3,2 23

3 ,3 7 7

3 ,4 8 2

3 ,6 1 4

3 ,8 6 6

4,0 5 8

4 ,2 0 5

4 ,6 2 9

5.1

2,4 2 7

2,501

2,575

2,661

2,9 13

3 ,0 2 9

3 ,0 9 6

3 ,2 2 0

3,4 49

3 ,7 2 8

3 ,8 13

4 ,1 6 5

5.0

2,6 4 7

2 ,6 9 2

2,725

2 ,7 38

2 ,9 13

2,9 0 7

2 ,8 2 0

2 ,7 6 9

2,8 43

2 ,9 75

2 ,8 6 5

2 ,8 2 0

0.6

3 ,4 0 3

3 ,3 2 0

3,502

3,741

3,901

4 ,1 1 5

4 ,2 2 0

4 ,4 9 3

4 ,6 8 6

4 ,9 3 3

5,281

5 ,6 8 2

4.8

2 ,7 7 8

2 ,7 8 2

2,960

3,1 28

3 ,2 4 6

3 ,3 7 5

3 ,4 2 6

3 ,6 1 5

3 ,8 6 6

4 ,1 9 7

4 ,4 3 0

4 ,7 2 6

4.9

3 ,0 2 9

2 ,9 94

3,132

3 ,2 1 8

3 ,2 4 6

3 ,2 3 9

3 ,1 2 0

3 ,1 0 8

3 ,1 87

3 ,3 5 0

3 ,3 2 8

3 ,2 0 0

0.5

A fte r -ta x earnings

Fem ale fa m ily heads:
Gross earnings

....................

A fte r -ta x earnings

.............

Real a fte r-ta x earnings

. . .

U n re la te d in d iv id u a ls :
Gross earnings

....................

A fte r -ta x earnings

.............

Real a fte r-ta x earnings

.. .

R e fle c t s c o m p o u n d e d ra te s o f c h a n g e f o r 1 9 6 3 - 7 4 p e r io d .




Figure 25

Table 1. M edian usual w eekly earnings of w age and salary workers, by selected characteristics, in current dollars.
M ay 1967-M ay 1976
May
1967

Charac teris tic

May
1969

May
1970

May
1971

May
1972

May
1973

May
1974

May
1975

May
1976

Average
annual
percent
change 1/

$100

$ m

$118

$124

$130

$140

3151

$161

$169

6.0

ALL WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS
Total............................................
FULL-TIME WAGE AND SALARY WORKERS
109

121

130

138

144

159

169

185

197

6.8

Male head of household...............................
Male relative of head................................
Male nonrelative of head.............................

131
88
104

147
101
119

158
105
121

170
108
131

175
111
135

198
122
147

214
131
157

231
136
160

245
144
174

7.2
5.6
5.9

Female head of household.............................
Wife of head........................................
Female relative of head..............................
Female nonrelative of head...........................

81
79
72
69

91
87
79
84

100
95
85
89

106
101
89
95

114
108
93
105

124
117
99
110

134
126
105
115

149
139
115
138

156
147
121
144

7.6
7.1
5.9
8.5

Male, 16 years and over..............................
16 to 24 years.....................................
25 years and over..................................

125
97
131

142
108
148

151
112
160

162
114
172

168
118
178

188
136
203

204
146
219

221
149
235

234
159
251

7.2
5.6
7.5

Female, 16 years and over............................
16 to 24 years.....................................
25 years and over..................................

78
74
79

86
82
88

94
88
96

100
91
103

106
96
110

116
103
121

124
111
131

137
117
146

145
125
154

7.1
6.0
7.7

White, total........................................
Male..................... ........................
Female............................................

113
130
79

125
146
88

134
157
95

142
168
102

149
172
108

162
193
117

173
209
125

190
225
138

202
239
147

6.7
7.0
7.1

Black and other, total...............................
Male..............................................
Female............................................

79
90
63

90
104
73

99
113
81

107
123
87

115
129
99

129
149
107

140
160
117

156
173
130

162
187
138

8.3
8.5
9.1

145
164
113
91
131

167
178
123
102
146

181
190
133
109
157

—
93
32
75
58

—
106
34
82
66

—
110
38
87
71

189
200
141
115
167
—
—
117
38
96
74

192
214
151
121
172
119
152
122
40
104
80

212
238
163
130
195
132
169
138
39
111
96

228
250
172
140
211
141
180
149
50
117
107

246
274
189
150
223
157
198
154
54
123
111

256
289
198
158
239
162
214
161
60
134
120

6.5
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.9
8.0
8.9
6.3
7.2
6.7
8.4

Total.............................................
Household status:

Sex and age:

Race and sex:

Occupation:
Professional and technical workers....................
Managers and administrators, except farm...............
Sales workers.......................................
Clerical workers.....................................
Craft and kindred workers............................
Operatives, except transport 2/.......................
Transport equipment operatives 2/.....................
Nonfarm laborers.....................................
Private household workers............................
Other service workers........... .....................
Farm workers........................................

1/
2,1

Reflects compounded rates of change for 1967-1976 period.
Separate data for these two groups not available prior to 1972.

Figure 26
Median usual hourly earnings and hourly rates of pay of wage and salary workers in the manufacturing industry, by race-sex group.
May 1974, May 1975, and May 1976
Usual hourly earnings
Group

Amount

Percent change

May
1974
A ll indu stries

........................................

M a n u fa c tu rin g

..............................

Hourly rates of pay

May
1975

May
1976

$3.71

$ 4 .0 2

$ 4 .2 6

4.0 6

4.61

4 .7 8

1974 to
1975

Amount

Percent change

1975 to
1976

May
1974

May
1975

May
1976

8 .4

6.0

$ 3 .2 0

$ 3 .3 9

$ 3 .5 5

5.9

4.7

13.5

3.7

3.71

4 .1 6

4 .2 9

12.1

3.1

1974 to
1975

1975 to
1976

W h ite :
Male

......................................

Fem ale

.................................

4.81

5.3 4

5.59

11.0

4.7

4 .3 3

4.7 7

5 .0 5

10.2

5.9

2.9 7

3.2 7

3.41

10.1

4.3

2.81

3 .0 6

3.21

8.9

4.9

3.85

4 .5 4

4.6 5

17.9

2.4

3 .7 6

4 .3 4

4 .4 5

15.4

2.5

2.7 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

11.1

3.3

2 .5 8

2 .9 0

2 .9 3

12.4

1.0

B lack and o th e r:
M ale

......................................

Fem ale

.................................




47

Chapter 7. Wages of Workers Covered by
Unemployment Insurance Programs
Em ploym ent and wage data for w orkers covered by
State unem ploym ent insurance (UI) laws and for
Federal civilian w orkers covered by the program of
Unem ploym ent Compensation for Federal Employees
(U C FE ) provide a virtual census of workers and their
wages in private nonagricultural employment and in
the Federal Governm ent. As of the first quarter o f 1975,
almost 81 percent of State governm ent employees, 20
percent o f local governm ent employees, and 5 percent
o f agricultural w orkers were covered. Beginning in
1978, all State and local governm ent employees will be
included.
T he data are com piled by State employment security
agencies from quarterly tax reports submitted by
em ployers subject to UI laws and by Federal installa­
tions covered by U C F E programs. M ore than 3.9
million employers in private industry and about 34,000
reporting units o f the Federal G overnm ent submitted
reports in the first quarter o f 1975, covering about 64
million w orkers and representing $165.1 billion in total
quarterly wages. State em ploym ent security agencies in the 50 States, the D istrict o f Columbia, and Puerto
Rico - summarize the data from these reports and
transm it them quarterly to the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics (BLS). T he BLS, in turn, summarizes and
publishes the data quarterly in E m p lo y m e n t a n d Wages.

Background
W hen the Federal Unemploym ent Insurance Tax
A ct first became effective in January 1938, it applied
only to firms em ploying at least eight persons in 20
weeks in a calendar year and excluded certain categor­
ies o f workers. Am endm ents to the Social Security A ct
extended coverage to Federal civilian employees on
January 1, 1955, and to w orkers in firms em ploying four
to seven w orkers on January 1, 1958.
In 1958, the Unemploym ent Compensation for Exservicem en (UCX) program , covering a significant
portion o f men and women w ho had served in the
A rm ed Forces, became effective. Earlier program s for
form er service personnel had been temporary.
O ver the years many States, through changes in
State legislation, have provided unemployment insur­
ance protection to additional categories of w orkers
above the base established through Federal legislation.



48

Federal legislation effective January 1, 1972, extend­
ed UI coverage in 28 States to firms em ploying one or
more workers, and expanded some statutory coverage
provisions. T he remaining States had expanded cover­
age for small employers before the Federal minimum
requirem ent was passed. These amendments as well as
additional changes in State legislation have broadened
the base o f w orkers protected by U I to 4 out o f 5
workers.
D ata on em ploym ent and wages o f w orkers covered
by UI have been published quarterly since 1950. Earlier
reports w ere issued semiannually beginning w ith 1938.

Description of data
T o tal W ages

Total wages, as reported on the quarterly contrib­
ution report o f em ployers in private industry covered
by State U I laws, are, in most States, the total
com pensation paid by the em ployer during the quarter
for services perform ed, w hether or not they were
perform ed during the calendar quarter. A few State
laws specify that the wages reported shall be on a
payable basis, i.e., for services perform ed during the
quarter. U nder most State laws or regulations, wages
include bonuses, the cash value of meals and lodging
when supplied, and tips and other gratuities.
Em ployer contributions for old-age, survivors’, disa­
bility, and health insurance (O A SD H I), unem ploym ent
insurance, w orkers’ compensation, and private pension
and welfare funds are not reported as wages. On the
other hand, employee contributions for the same
purposes, as well as money w ithheld for income taxes,
union dues, etc., are reported even though they are
deducted from the w orker’s gross pay.
Wages o f Federal w orkers represent the gross
amount o f all payrolls for all periods ending within the
quarter, including cash allowances, the cash equivalent
of any type o f remuneration, and all payments for sick
leave, lump-sum payments for terminal leave, w ithhold­
ing taxes, and civil service retirem ent deductions.
Federal employee rem uneration generally covers the
same types o f services as those for w orkers in private
industry. Depending upon the m ethod used by the
Federal agency in preparing its quarterly summary
balance (cash or accrual basis), the gross am ount of
payrolls is either paid or payable.

T a x a b l e W a g e s a n d C o n t r ib u t io n s

Taxable wages, that part of wages subject to the
State UI tax, and contributions paid on such wages, also
are reported quarterly.
State law, w hich has varied substantially over time,
determines the portion o f wages subject to taxation. In
all but five States, an em ployer pays contributions on
only the first $4,200 o f an em ployee’s annual wage. In
25 States, employers may obtain low er tax rates by
contributing voluntarily to the unemployment fund.
T hree States—Alabama, Alaska, and N ew Jersey—also
accept contributions from employees. Such contribu­
tions are not identified separately.
U nder Federal law, certain units of State and local
governm ent after 1942 and certain nonprofit establish­
ments in the private sector after 1972 could reimburse
the State to w hich they w ere liable for any claims filed
against them. F o r these reimbursable accounts, w hich
are not subject to quarterly assessments, and for
accounts under UCX and U C FE , the taxable wage item
would not be reported.
W orkers C o v er ed
P riv a te in du stry. Em ploym ent data, as reported quarter­

ly by employers in private industry, represent the
num ber o f w orkers earning wages during the pay
period including the 12th o f the month. The pay period
will vary in both date and length from em ployer to
employer. F o r most employers, the payroll period is a
7-day period, not necessarily a calendar week. An
em ployer w ho pays on m ore than one basis (such as
production employees weekly and office employees
semimonthly) reports the total num ber of w orkers on
each type o f payroll for the appropriate period.
T he count o f w orkers in private industry includes all
corporation officials, executives, supervisory personnel,
clerical workers, wage earners, persons on paid vaca­
tions, piece workers, and part-time workers. Since the
em ploym ent count is based on individual establish­
ments, w orkers are reported as working in the State of
the physical location o f their job.
Persons on paid sick leave, paid holiday, paid
vacation, and so forth, are included, but those on leave
w ithout pay for the entire payroll period are excluded.
Persons on the payroll o f m ore than one establishment
during the period are counted each time reported.
W orkers are counted even though, in the latter months
o f the year, their wages may not be subject to the
unem ploym ent insurance tax. T he em ploym ent count
excludes the following: (1) W orkers w ho earned no
wages during the entire applicable pay period because
o f strikes or w ork stoppages, tem porary layoffs, illness,
o r unpaid vacations; (2) w orkers w ho earned wages
during the m onth but earned no wages during the




applicable pay period; and (3) proprietors, the selfemployed, unpaid family workers, most farm workers,
and most domestics in private households.
S ta te a n d lo ca l g o v e rn m e n t em ployees. Federal legisla­

tion, according to provisions o f P L 91-373, now
requires States to cover employees in State-owned and
operated hospitals and State institutions of higher
education. In addition, U I laws o f 42 States provide
coverage for some portion of State and local govern­
ment employees, although some States do not imple­
ment these laws. In 21 States coverage is m andatory for
all State employees, and in 2 States coverage is
m andatory for both State and local governm ent w ork­
ers. In the remaining States only 25 percent o f all State
and local governm ent employees are now covered.
Com plete coverage will begin in 1978.1
F e d e r a l em ployees. Em ploym ent data for Federal civil­

ian employees are a byproduct o f the operations of
State em ploym ent security agencies in administering
provisions of Title X V o f the Social Security A ct—the
program o f Unem ploym ent Compensation for Federal
Employees.
In governm ent, the equivalent o f a reporting unit is
an “installation” and the organization o f w hich it is a
part, i.e., the departm ent, agency, or instrumentality
responsible for an activity o f governm ent, is the
em ployer (firm equivalent). A Federal installation is a
single physical location at w hich an organizational unit
of a Federal departm ent or agency has civilian em ploy­
ment.
D ata are based on reports o f m onthly em ploym ent
submitted each quarter to State agencies for all installa­
tions o f Federal agencies having employees covered by
the act, except the Central Intelligence A gency and the
National Security Agency, w hich are om itted for
security reasons.
The D epartm ent o f Defense (except units paid from
nonappropriated funds) submits data under a special
arrangement. In lieu of quarterly reports, installations
o f the D epartm ents o f Arm y, Navy, A ir Force, and
other Defense units submit m onthly reports to State
agencies covering each installation w ith 101 employees
or more. Q uarterly data for all installations including
those w ith fewer than 101 employees are reported
directly to the BLS, w hich then transmits the figures to
the States for inclusion in the D epartm ent of Defense
totals.
As in private industry, the em ploym ent count in any
given m onth for all agencies (except the D epartm ent of
Defense) is based on the num ber on the payroll for the
1
Details on coverage are provided in Comparisons o f State
Unemployment Insurance Laws, available on request from the Employ­
ment and Training Administration - UI Service, U.S. Department of
Labor, Washington, D.C. 20213.

49

reporting units, using “nature of business” information
collected every 3 years. The possibility that a reporting
unit comprises several establishments is also determ ined
from this information.

period including the 12th o f the month. The count in
installations o f the D epartm ent o f Defense includes
persons em ployed on the last w orkday o f the m onth
plus all interm ittent employees during the month.
Interm ittent w orkers are those em ployed occasionally
at any time during the month.

L o ca tio n . In most States each reporting unit is assigned

Classification of data
Reporting units w hich are summarized to produce
the aggregate statistics are classified individually ac­
cording to several attributes—industrial economic ac­
tivity, geographic location, and employm ent size inter­
val. Such classification enables tabulation o f data for
any combination o f these attributes. H ow ever, the
accuracy o f the resulting aggregates depends on both
the validity o f the classifications and the proper
definition o f the reporting unit.
R e p o rtin g unit. A n establishment is defined as a single

physical location at w hich one, or predom inantly one
type of economic activity is performed. Most em ploy­
ers covered under U I laws operate only one place of
business. In such instances the establishment, the
reporting unit, and the em ployer are identical. State
agencies request employers who operate at tw o or more
locations and employ m ore than 50 w orkers in all
secondary locations to identify separately the em ploy­
ment and payrolls o f each location. To the extent that
State agencies have successfully obtained em ployer
cooperation, reporting units and establishments of such
employers are identical. W hen multi-establishment
employers do not furnish this breakdown, employm ent
and payrolls for secondary locations are combined with
the prim ary location as one reporting unit. Also,
particularly in industries characterized by small branch
establishments (e.g., food stores, drug stores, banks),
em ployers may combine all branch establishments in a
county as a single reporting unit.
In contrast to reporting by private industry, Federal
agencies may combine as a single statewide reporting
unit (a) all installations o f 10 or few er w orkers or (2) all
installations w hich have fewer than 50 workers. Also,
fewer than 25 w orkers in all secondary installations in a
State may be reported w ith the major installation.
Because of these procedures, the number o f reporting
units is always larger than the num ber o f employers (or
governm ent agencies) but is smaller than the number of
establishments (or installations).

E m p lo y m e n t size. R eporting units also are classified by

em ploym ent into nine size classes in the first quarter of
each year. Except for nonprofit organizations o f fewer
than four employees, the actual business population is
accurately represented by the size class distribution.

Presentation
E m p lo y m e n t a n d Wages, a quarterly BLS publication,
contains national aggregates of employment and wage
data to the 3-digit industry level (figure 27). T he data
also are distributed by State and region for im portant
industry groups (figure 28). Because o f space limita­
tions, BLS does not publish State and regional data for
all industry detail but such information may be request­
ed for specific industries. Publications for the first
quarter of each year include national totals for 4-digit
m anufacturing industries. Em ploym ent and wage data
also are tabulated for Federal workers by agency and,
for the largest agencies, by State.
Except for 3 years (1964-66), tabulations are pub­
lished for the first quarter o f each year from 1959 to the
present to show the distribution of employm ent and
wages by em ploym ent size class o f reporting unit for
each m ajor industry division within each State and for
2-, 3-, and 4-digit (manufacturing) reporting units for the
United States as a whole.
M any State agencies either publish or have figures
available on covered employees and wages by county
and for im portant local labor areas. A num ber of
agencies can furnish such data for detailed industries
within the industry groups for w hich totals are shown.
Requests for such detail should be made directly to the
State employm ent security agencies listed in chapter 5.
D is c l o s u r e R e s t r ic t io n s

T o preserve the anonymity o f establishments, the
BLS w ithholds release o f employm ent and wage data
for any industry level containing fewer than three
reporting units. A State may request that data also be
w ithheld for any industry level if (1) the “fewer than
three” rule would not prevent disclosure of information

In d u stry. E ach o f these reporting units is assigned an

industrial code on the basis o f its principal activity
according to the S ta n d a r d I n d u s tr ia l C la ssifica tio n
M a n u a l. D etail o f classification has varied over time.
Presently, almost all States assign a 4-digit code to all




the county code of its location, or its principal location,
according to the criteria delineated above. In some
industries, how ever, the degree to w hich small estab­
lishments have been lumped into one reporting unit
does affect the county aggregates of these reporting
units.

50

relating to an individual reporting unit and (2) a single
installation or establishment accounts for over 80
percent o f the industry.

Uses and limitations
D ata produced by this program represent the largest
universe o f m onthly em ploym ent and quarterly wage
information by industry, county, and State regularly
available. In addition to their basic use in administering
the UI laws, they have broad economic significance in
evaluating labor trends and m ajor industry develop­
ments, both for the Nation as a whole and for individual
States.
Private em ployer contribution reports and govern­
ment reports provide data for administering State UI
programs. Private industry employment data reflect the
extent o f UI coverage o f individual State laws, and
corresponding wage data provide a basis for estimating
the future flow o f income into State U I funds. The
revenue for these funds is derived from a tax on payrolls
o f covered private employers. Actuarial studies and
evaluation o f the financial solvency o f State UI funds
must take into account em ploym ent and payroll fluctua­
tions, and the State’s industrial composition.
O ther organizations use these data, either independ­
ently or in cooperation w ith the BLS and the State
agencies, to prepare other statistical series. F or exam­
ple, the Bureau o f Econom ic Analysis, D epartm ent of
Commerce, uses State UI wage data as the m ajor wage
and salary com ponent o f national income and its
distribution by State. In addition, State UI data are used
to estimate that part o f wage and salary supplements
accounted for by em ployer contributions to State UI
funds, as well as the Federal em ployer taxes paid for
O A SD H I.
D ata on wages and average employment o f both
private and Federal w orkers are used to calculate, with
reasonable accuracy, average weekly wages of covered
workers. T he average weekly wage is com puted by
dividing total wages for the year by 52 to derive a figure
on wages paid during the average week of the year.
This figure is then divided by the corresponding figure
on average m onthly employment. Similarly, quarterly
wages are divided by 13. This procedure assumes that
“average m onthly em ploym ent” is approximately the
same in an average week, since pay periods for which
em ploym ent is reported are in most cases single weeks.
Caution should be exercised in using these average
weekly wages, particularly those developed from
quarterly total wages. The wage data for quarters may
be affected by strikes, bonus payments (usually in the
O ctober-D ecem ber quarter), retroactive payments, and
the influx o f young summertime workers in the July-




51

Septem ber quarter. The average weekly wage per
covered w orker will not measure precisely the average
annual or quarterly wage of workers, since such
averages would be overstated due to the effect of labor
turnover, short-time jobs, etc. T he number of different
workers employed at one time or another during an
entire quarter or year, and hence sharing in the wages
paid for the quarter or year, is substantially larger than
the average num ber employed in the pay periods
including the 12th of each m onth o f the quarter or year.
M ore extensive data on annual per capita earnings of
w orkers can be obtained from individual continuous
w ork history tabulations prepared by the Social Securi­
ty Adm inistration (see chapter 8) and from special
studies prepared by some State employment security
agencies from their files.
L im it a t io n s o f C o v e r a g e

In analyzing and com paring UI data geographically
and over time, the effects o f nonuniform coverage of
the UI laws am ong States must be taken into considera­
tion, particularly for periods prior to 1972. Starting in
1972, Federal legislation extended coverage to practi­
cally all private nonagricultural employers o f one or
more employees in all States. Beginning in 1978,
coverage will be extended to include employees of
State and local governments, agricultural laborers of
larger firms, and domestic workers. M ajor groups of
workers still not covered by Federal requirem ents will
be self-employed workers, agricultural laborers of
smaller firms, and employees o f private educational
institutions and religious organizations.
Excluded from private industry coverage during
January-M arch 1975 w ere approxim ately 1.0 million
agricultural workers, 1.6 million self-employed farmers,
5.4 million self-employed nonagricultural workers, 1.3
million domestic workers, 1.3 million employees of
nonprofit religious, charitable, medical, scientific, and
educational institutions, 0.7 million unpaid family w ork­
ers, and 0.6 million w orkers covered by the railroad
unem ploym ent insurance system.
In addition, 7.8 million State and local governm ent
workers w ere not protected by unemployment com pen­
sation laws. Also excluded from the data were 2.2
million members o f the A rm ed Forces.
R e l i a b i l it y

Because the data comprise a universe count of
employees covered by UI, the report is not subject to
sampling variability. E rro r sources, of course, do exist.
One o f the most im portant arises from the need to
estimate delinquent accounts — estimates may be
required for as many as 10 percent o f the total reporting
units in a State. A nother source of error is the lack of

lected Papers from North American Conference on Labor
Statistics, 1973. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of

adequate inform ation on w h ich to base industrial
classification o f establishm ents. E fforts are being m ade
to lessen th e e rro r arising from these sources.

Labor Statistics, 1973, pp. 136-38.
Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies. The
ES-202 Needs a New Priority in Federal-State Coopera­
tion. June 1971.

— R E F E R E N C E S—

“Technical Notes on Insured Unemployment, Covered Em­
ployment, and Wage Statistics: Their Source, Nature,
and Limitations,” Summary o f Employment Security
Statistics Report. U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower
Administration, May 1975.

Bunke, Alfred L. “Quarterly Report of Employment, Wages,
and Contributions (ES-202),” Selected Papers from
North American Conference on Labor Statistics, 1973.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1973, pp. 132-33.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Ad­
ministration. Comparisons o f State Unemployment Insur­

Ehrenhalt, Samuel M. “Some Thoughts on Planning a
Comprehensive Employment Statistics Program,” Se­




ance Laws.

52

Figure 27

INDUSTRY DETAIL
U S. TOTALS
Table C-1.

Private industry, monthly em ployment and quarterly w a g e s .firs t quarter 1975
EMPLOYMENT
IN D U S T R IA L

CODE

AN D

JANUARY
P R IV A T E

FEBRUARY

MARCH

T O T A L ...........................................................................................................................

5 9 ,9 7 3 ,2 7 4

5 9 ,2 5 3 ,5 9 1

A G R I C U L T U R E , F O R E S T R Y , A N D F I S H E R I E S ..............................................................................
0 1 C O M M E R C I A L F A R M S ....................................................................................................................................

2 7 7 ,4 2 7

2 7 0 ,4 9 0
5 4 ,0 5 4

2 8 4 ,3 1 0
5 7 ,6 7 3

8 ,7 7 8
1 5 ,6 4 1

8 ,4 6 8
1 7 ,2 8 4

011
012
013

IN D U S T R Y

QUARTERLY
WA GES
( I N OOOS)

T IT L E

F I E L D C R O P F A R M S ..............................................................................................................................
F R U IT ,
T R E E N U T , A N D V E G E T A B L E F A R M S ..............................................................
L I V E S T O C K F A R M S .................................................................................................................................

0 1 A GENERAL

5 4 ,9 7 2
8 ,7 9 8
1 5 ,8 7 9

8 , 002

F A R M S ........................................................................................................................................

5 ,6 0 8

0 1 9 M I S C E L L A N E O U S C O M M E R C I A L F A R M S .................................................................................
0 7 A G R I C U L T U R A L S E R V I C E S A N D H U N T I N G A N D T R A P P I N G ....................................

1 6 ,6 8 5
1 9 9 ,4 3 3

071
072

A G R IC U L T U R A L S E R V I C E S , EXC EPT A N IM A L HUSBANDRY
A N D H O R T I C U L T U R A L S E R V I C E S ...........................................................................................
A N I M A L H U S B A N D R Y S E R V I C E S .................................................................................................

0 7 3 H O R T I C U L T U R A L S E R V I C E S ...........................................................................................................
0 7 4 H U N T I N G A N D T R A P P I N G , A N D GAME P R O P A G A T I O N ...........................................
0 8 F O R E S T R Y ..............................................................................................................................................................
0 8 1 T I M B E R T R A C T S .......................................................................................................................................
0 8 2 F O R E S T N U R S E R I E S A ND T R E E S E E D G A T H E R I N G A N D E X T R A C T I N G .
0 8 4 G A T H E R I N G OF G U M S A N D B A R K S ...........................................................................................
0 8 5 F O R E S T R Y S E R V I C E S ...........................................................................................................................
0 8 6 G A T H E R I N G OF F O R E S T P R O D U C T S , N O T E L S E W H E R E C L A S S I F I E D . .
0 9 F I S H E R I E S ..........................................................................................................................................................
0 9 1 F I S H E R I E S ....................................................................................................................................................
0 9 8 F I S H E R Y S E R V I C E S .................................................................................................... .........................

7 ,9 1 5
4 ,6 6 9
1 7 ,0 5 1
1 9 3 ,5 3 0

5 9 ,3 3 5 ,7 0 8 $ 1 1 *1 ,5 5 0 ,6 0 1

7 ,9
5 ,6
1 8 ,3
2 0 2 ,9

4
1
5
5

6
6
9
0

4 7 8 ,4 8 4
1 0 8 ,5 6 1
2 4 ,8
2 9 ,3
1 3 ,6
9 ,9

9
4
7
2

3
4
3
4

3 0 ,7 2 6
3 1 6 ,8 2 3

3 0 ,7 1 7
9 3 ,3 7 4
6 9 ,1 1 4

3 3 ,2 9 3

5 4 ,3 5 8

9 4 ,6 5 1
7 4 ,6 9 1

352
1 0 ,5 1 1
4 , 174
836

325
1 0 ,4 7 4
4 ,2 3 4

315
1 0 ,6 7 6
4 ,1 1 3

858

51
5 ,3 6 8

52
5 ,2 3 0

845
53
5 ,5 6 9

1 3 5 ,1 3 2
1 2 6 ,8 7 2
462
1 9 ,8 0 3
9 ,4 7 2
1 ,3 6 7

82
1 2 ,5 1 1
1 1 ,2 0 8

100

3 2 ,6 2 2
9 4 ,6 9 2
7 1 ,7 6 7

78
8 ,7 4 5

1 2 ,4 3 2
1 1 ,1 2 5
1 ,3 0 7

96
1 3 ,0 1 1
1 1 ,6 2 5
1 ,3 8 6

140
3 3 ,2 9 6
3 1 ,0 5 4
2 ,2 4 3

2 3 ,4 5 2
4 3 ,2 3 9

7 3 0 ,8 5 2
9 4 ,7 9 0
2 3 ,5 0 1
4 1 ,5 8 9

7 3 5 ,1 9 3
9 3 ,0 2 6
2 3 ,5 1 6
3 9 ,7 9 8

2 ,5 4 3 ,5 1 6
3 2 3 ,9 4 6
8 5 ,7 1 7
1 4 5 ,1 5 2

8 ,3 0 0
3 ,6 1 7
469

8 ,3 0 8

8 ,3 6 1

3 ,6 6 1
471

3 ,7 2 6
471

2 4 ,8 3 6
1 0 ,6 5 8

1 0 8 M E T A L M I N I N G S E R V I C E S ..............................................................................................................
1 0 9 M I S C E L L A N E O U S M E T A L O R E S ....................................................................................................
11 ( 1 1 1 )
A N T H R A C I T E M I N I N G ..............................................................................................................

4 , 587
4 , 125
8 , 602
3, 565

4 ,6
3 ,9
8 ,6
3 ,5

4 ,6 1 7
3 ,8 1 8
8 ,7 1 9

12 ( 1 2 1 )
B I T U M I N O U S C O A L A ND L I G N I T E M I N I N G ........................................................
1 3 C R U D E P E T R O L E U M A ND N A T U R A L G A S ....................................................................................
1 3 1 C R U D E P E T R O L E U M A N D N A T U R A L G A S ..............................................................................
1 3 2 N A T U R A L G A S L I Q U I D S ....................................................................................................................
1 3 8 O I L A N D G A S F I E L D S E R V I C E S ..............................................................................................

1 9 7 ,0 3 3
3 2 4 ,9 7 2
1 5 0 ,5 8 6
3 ,9 8 2
1 7 0 ,4 0 4

1 4 M I N I N G A N D Q U A R R Y I N G OF N O N M E T A L L I C M I N E R A L S , E X C E P T F U E L S
1 4 1 D I M E N S I O N S T O N E ................................................................................................................................

1 0 9 ,9 4 7
3, 834

M I N I N G ..............................................................................................................................................................................
1 0 M E T A L M I N I N G .................................................................................................................................................
1 0 1 I R O N O R E S ....................................................................................................................................................
102
103
104

C O P P E R O R E S ..............................................................................................................................................
L E A D A N D Z I N C O R E S .......................................................................................................................
G O L D A N D S I L V E R O R E S .................................................................................................................

105
106

B A U X I T E AN O O T H E R A L U M I N U M O R E S ..............................................................................
F E R R O A L L O Y O R E S , E X C E P T V A N A O I U M ...........................................................................

142
144

C R U S H E D A ND B R O K E N S T O N E , I N C L U D I N G R I P R A P ...........................................
S A N D A N D G R A V E L .................................................................................................................................

145
147
148
149

C L A Y , C E R A M I C , A N D R E F R A C T O R Y M I N E R A L S .......................................................
C H E M I C A L AN O F E R T I L I Z E R M I N E R A L M I N I N G ........................................................
N O N M E T A L L I C M I N E R A L S ( E X C E P T F U E L ) S E R V I C E S ........................................
M I S C E L L A N E O U S N O N M E T A L L I C M I N E R A L S , E X C E P T F U E L S .........................

C O N T R A C T C O N S T R U C T I O N ...............................................................................................................................
15 ( 1 5 1 )
B U I L D I N G C O N S T R U C T I O N — G E N E R A L C O N T R A C T O R S ..............................
16 C O N S T R U C T IO N OTHER THAN B U I L D I N G C O N S T R U C T IO N — GENERAL
C O N T R A C T O R S ................................. ...............................................................................................................
H IG H W A Y AND S T R E E T C O N S T R U C T I O N , E X C E P T E L E V A T E D
H I G H W A Y S ....................................................................................................................................................
1 6 2 H E A V Y C O N S T R U C T I O N , E X C E P T H IG H W A Y AND S T R E E T
C O N S T R U C T I O N .......................................................................................................................................
1 7 C O N S T R U C T I O N — S P E C I A L T R A D E C O N T R A C T O R S .............................................................
1 7 1 P L U M B I N G , H E A T I N G , A ND A I R C O N D I T I O N I N G .................................................... .
1 7 2 P A I N T I N G , P A P E R H A N G I N G , A N D D E C O R A T I N G .................................................... ..
1 7 3 E L E C T R I C A L W O R K ................................................................................................................................. ..
1 7 4 MASONRY, STONEWORK, T I L E
S E T T I N G , A N D P L A S T E R I N G ....................... ..

1, 303
7 3 1 ,9 0 8
9 6 ,3 9 1

3 7 ,9 2 5
3 2 ,3 2 8
7 ,7 9 4
2 3 ,0 0 1
705
4 ,3 6 0
3 ,3 4 1 ,8 3 3
1 ,0 4 4 ,7 0 3

2
6
7
6

3
0
7
8

1 9 8 ,3 4 6
3 2 5 ,9 6 9
1 5 1 ,3 2 4
3 ,9 8 4
1 7 0 ,6 6 1
1 0 8 ,1 7 9
3 ,7 8 2
3 7 ,1 5 1
3 1 ,2 5 9

3 ,6 1 8
2 0 1 ,5 8 9
3 2 6 ,8 2 8
1 5 1 ,8 2 5
4 ,0 0 6
1 7 0 ,9 9 7

1 ,5 2 5
1 5 ,6 0 6
1 2 ,9 6 5
2 7 ,4 8 7
9 ,9 8 2
7 5 3 ,6 3 2
1 ,1 5 4 ,5 6 8
6 1 5 ,0 9 4
1 4 ,8 5 7

2 3 ,1 1 8
723
4 ,4 4 2

7 ,7 0 0
2 3 ,4 6 8
718
4 ,5 1 6

5 2 4 ,6 1 7
3 0 1 ,3 8 7
8 ,3 3 7
1 0 0 ,4 6 6
8 5 ,1 4 1
1 9 ,8 5 0
7 4 ,1 1 4
2 ,1 0 7
1 1 ,3 7 2

3 ,2 2 4 ,8 8 9
1 ,0 0 3 ,9 3 2

3 ,2 4 0 ,2 5 4
1 ,0 0 2 ,1 5 7

9 ,6 7 4 ,4 5 1
2 ,9 2 9 ,1 6 7
1 ,9 2 7 ,6 8 7

7 ,7 0 4

1 1 0 ,1 3 2
3 ,8 1 4
3 7 ,7 6 1
3 2 ,1 5 5

6 0 3 ,2 2 5

5 9 1 ,6 2 7

6 0 5 ,4 5 0

2 1 9 ,7 5 1

2 1 3 ,0 1 7

2 2 1 ,3 3 3

6 3 3 ,0 2 3

3 7 8 ,6 1 0
1 .6 2 9 ,3 3 0
4 2 1 ,0 9 1
1 0 0 ,3 1 1
3 1 9 ,9 6 5
1 6 9 ,8 1 7
8 6 ,9 1 5
1 0 9 ,6 8 9
6 5 ,7 4 3

3 8 4 ,1 1 7
1 ,6 3 2 ,6 4 7

1 ,2 9 4 ,6 6 4
4 ,8 1 7 ,5 9 6

1 5 ,2 1 8
3 4 0 ,5 8 1

4 1 5 ,9 2 1
1 0 1 ,5 8 0
3 1 7 ,1 9 3
1 7 3 ,2 2 0
8 7 ,2 3 8
1 1 1 ,5 5 5
6 8 ,8 5 2
1 5 ,3 7 2
3 4 1 ,7 1 6

1 ,3 4 8 ,9 8 5
2 5 1 ,6 0 5
1 ,0 8 5 ,5 1 3
4 2 2 ,0 1 6
2 0 6 ,3 0 5
2 7 9 ,8 1 7
1 6 1 ,2 6 2
3 6 ,6 3 0
1 ,0 2 5 ,4 6 3

1 8 ,5 7 0 ,0 4 8

1 8 ,2 3 2 ,6 0 9

1 8 ,1 0 2 ,2 5 0

1 7 9 ,0 6 3
2 ,5 3 4

1 7 7 ,2 4 5

1 7 5 ,7 5 2

5 0 ,6 4 9 ,7 7 6
6 3 6 ,0 7 1

2 ,5 0 8

1 3 3 ,5 8 8

1 3 1 ,7 9 8

2 ,4 8 1
1 3 0 ,1 3 9

8 ,0 5 5
4 9 4 ,3 6 2

1 0 0 ,0 9 1

9 9 ,3 6 6
3 2 ,4 3 2

9 8 ,5 1 7

4 1 2 ,1 1 0

3 1 ,6 2 2
5 ,8 0 8
5 ,2 7 1
1 5 ,9 5 6

8 2 ,2 5 2
1 8 ,7 9 9
2 0 ,1 7 4
4 5 ,7 7 0
3 7 ,8 9 6
1 1 ,0 1 5

161

175
176

C A R P E N T E R I N G A NO WOOD F L O O R I N G ...................................................................................
R O O F I N G ANO S H E E T M E T A L W O R K .........................................................................................

177
178
179

C O N C R E T E W O R K ....................................................................................................................................... ..
W AT ER W E L L D R I L L I N G .................................................................................................................... ..
M I S C E L L A N E O U S S P E C I A L T R A D E C O N T R A C T O R S .................................................... ..

M A N U F A C T U R I N G .........................................................................................................................................................
1 9 O R D N A N C E A N D A C C E S S O R I E S .............................................................................................................
191

(1911)

GUNS,

H O W IT Z E R S ,

MORTARS,

AND

RELATED

E Q U IP M E N T ..,

1 9 2 A M M U N I T I O N , E X C E P T F O R S M A L L A R M S ..........................................................................
1 9 2 5 G U I O E D M I S S I L E S AND SP A C E V E H I C L E S , C O M P L E T E L Y
A S S E M B L E D .............................................................................................................................................
1 9 2 9 A M M U N I T I O N , N O T E L S E W H E R E C L A S S I F I E D ..........................................................
193 (1 9 3 1 )
T A N K S A N D T A N K C O M P O N E N T S .............................................................................
194 ( 1 9 4 1 )
S I G H T I N G A N D F I R E C O N T R O L E Q U I P M E N T .............................................
195
196
199

( 1951)
(1961)
(1999)

S M A L L A R M S .............................................................................................................................
S M A L L A R M S A M M U N I T I O N .........................................................................................
O R D N A N C E A NO A C C E S S O R I E S , N . E . C ..........................................................

2 0 F O O D AN O K I N D R E D P R O D U C T S ..........................................................................................................
2 0 1 M E A T P R O D U C T S ..........................................................................................................................................

S ee n ot es at end o f t ab le .




53

3 8 3 ,4 7 4
1 ,6 9 3 ,9 0 5
4 3 5 , 119
1 0 4 ,4 3 9
3 3 1 ,1 4 9
1 7 7 ,8 1 5
9 1 ,1 6 5
1 1 6 ,6 3 3
6 9 ,7 6 9
1 5 ,7 1 7
3 5 2 ,0 9 9

3 3 ,4 9 7
5 ,5 7 3
5, 316
1 5 ,5 9 1
1 2 ,7 4 5
3 ,7 1 6
1 ,6 2 3 ,1 7 0
3 3 2 ,2 2 4

5 ,6 7 0
5 ,2 7 1
1 5 ,7 8 1
1 2 ,6 5 8
3 ,5 5 9
1 ,5 9 7 ,3 5 3

1 2 ,5 8 2
3 ,5 1 5
1 ,5 9 8 ,6 0 5

3 2 8 ,2 0 9

3 2 5 ,5 7 3

4 ,1 0 8 ,8 4 6
8 3 4 ,6 2 2

Figure 28

STATE A ND REGION
DETAIL
Table C-6. Total all industries, monthly employment and quarterly wages of w o rk e rs covered under
State Ul and UCFE programs,first quarter 1975 —Continued
IN D U S T R Y

STATE

A ND

D IV IS IO N

-

M IN IN G

P E R C E N T CHANGE
F R O M SA ME P E R I O O
OF P R E C E D I N G Y E A R

REG IO N
EMPLOYMENT

QUARTERLY
W A GE S
0 0 0 'S )

M A I N E ...........................................

213
300
705
615

N E W H A M P S H I R E .................
V E R M O N T . . . . .......................
M A S S A C H U S E T T S .................
R H O D E I S L A N D .....................
C O N N EC TIC U T
NEW E N G L A N D ....................

FEBRUARY

( IN

M ARCH

MARCH

OUARTERLY

EMPL.

JANUARY

wages

217
284

519
741

-1 2 .3

2 -6

720
574
78
761
2 ,6 3 4

215
293
711
571

2 .0 5 7
1 ,6 7 6
215
2 ,7 3 7
7 ,9 4 4

"4-9
-1 7 .9
-2 0 .4
8 .3

6 .9

2 0 .3
-1 2 .3
-3 5 .4
2 1 .7
7 .9

76

66

721
2 ,6 3 0

685
2 ,5 4 1

7 ,7 9 5
2 ,5 6 4

7 ,6 3 3
2 ,5 5 4

7 ,7 3 4

3 4 ,5 3 4

-2 .6

2 ,6 0 8

8 ,0 2 5

4 4 ,2 7 6

4 4 ,2 5 6

4 5 ,0 1 8

A T L A N T IC ...

5 4 ,6 3 5

5 4 ,4 4 3

5 5 ,3 6 0

1 6 0 ,1 4 5
2 0 2 ,7 0 4

-1 2 .9
1 0 .9
7 .4

O H I O ..............................................
I n d i a n a ....................................

2 5 ,6 3 7

I L L I N O I S .................................
M I C H I G A N .................................

2 5 .1 8 7
1 2 ,9 2 5
1 ,9 3 6

2 5 ,6 3 6
6 .9 6 2
2 4 ,9 5 0
1 2 ,8 0 6
1 .8 3 9

2 5 ,9
7 ,1
2 5 ,3
1 2 ,9

NEW

Y O R K .................................

NEW J E R S E Y ...........................
P E N N S Y L V A N I A ....................
M ID D LE

6 ,8 8 6

2
0
4
4

3
0
8
8

8 9 ,1 8 8
2 4 ,0 9 3
9 1 ,0 6 8

-5 .4

1 8 .0

5 .9
-3 .9
3 0 .0
2 3 .5

9 .2
2 .7

2 4 .1
1 9 .7
1 7 .5
3 .8

4 3 ,7 0 4
5 ,6 6 4

5 .4
2 .3
-8 .9

2 5 3 ,7 1 9

5 .4

1 8 .7

7 2 ,5 7 1

7 2 .1 9 3

1 .9 0 4
7 3 ,2 2 3

M I N N E S O T A ..............................

1 3 ,2 6 5

1 3 ,2 8 0

1 3 ,3 4 3

4 6 ,7 9 8

I O W A ..............................................
M I S S O U R I .................................
N O R T H D A K O T A ....................
S O U T H D A K O T A ....................
N E B R A S K A .................................

2 ,4 4 5

2 ,4 0 8
8 ,5 9 3
1 .6 4 1

2 ,5 0 6
8 ,6 3 0

6 ,7 5 0
2 6 ,8 1 9

1 ,6 9 2
2 ,3 8 8
1 ,3 3 0

5 ,2 4 6

1 8 .0

6, 566

4 .6
-1 8 .6

1 2 .7
1 .9

K A N S A S ........................................
W EST N O R T H C E N T R A L

1 0 ,1 2 0

8 .6

2 6 .0

3 9 ,8 3 2

1 2 3 ,6 0 3

3 .1

2 0 -2

D E L A W A R E .................................
M A R Y L A N D .................................

237
1 ,7 3 1

976

-1 9 .6
3 .3
3 0 .8
1 7 .4
1 4 .7
-1 .2

W I S C O N S I N ..............................
EA S T NORTH C E N T R A L

8* 6 ^
1 ,6 2 6
2 ,4 2 1
1 ,3 1 1

2 ,3 7 3
lt2 7 8
1 0 .2 1 7
3 9 ,7 9 0

1 0 ,3 9 2
4 0 ,2 8 1

234

230
1 .6 9 2

1 ,7 0 5
51

3 ,0 1 7
2 8 ,4 0 7

3 .0
-1 0 . 1
2 .4

2 0 .3
2 4 .2
-1 .0
1 5 .7
39. 1

8 .4

1 ,9 5 7

9 ,1 2 8
4 ,2 7 6

1 .6

3 3 .8
5 6 .1
3 5 .8
4 0 .7
5 .5
3 .4

1 0 .1 2 9
1 0 4 ,7 4 3

6 ,7 8 0
1 0 ,3 5 0

1 6 ,6 0 6
3 1 ,7 9 9

-1 2 .2
1 .7

-4 .7
1 3 .4

1 0 5 ,8 5 6

3 4 8 ,7 3 3

1 0 .4

3 2 .0

4 3 ,9 6 3
8 ,4 3 4
1 0 ,6 3 4
6 ,3 9 6
6 9 ,4 2 7

4 3 ,7 5 6
8 ,4 4 5
1 0 .9 4 3
6 ,4 8 7
6 9 .6 3 1

4 4 ,3 6 8
8 ,4 9 9
1 1 ,0 3 4
6 ,5 7 2
7 0 ,4 7 3

1 5 8 ,4 2 3
2 4 ,0 6 5
4 0 ,7 1 5
1 7 ,0 3 2
2 4 0 ,2 3 6

2 7 .2
1 3 .9

5
4
5
2

A R K A N S A S .................................
L O U I S I A N A ..............................
O K L A H O M A .................................

4 ,0 4 3
5 8 ,8 8 2
4 1 ,6 8 4

4 ,0 3 1
5 9 ,3 4 9
4 1 ,6 1 8

1 1 ,0 1 0

-2 .9

1 4 .3

1 9 7 ,9 0 9
1 4 8 ,3 3 1

9 .7
1 0 .4

T E X A S ...........................................
W EST SO U TH C E N T R A L

1 3 1 ,8 1 5
2 3 6 ,4 2 4

4 ,0 3 1
5 9 ,5 8 1
4 1 ,5 8 3
1 3 2 ,1 4 1

1 3 2 .8 7 2

2 3 7 ,3 3 6

2 3 7 .8 7 0

4 7 6 .0 9 2
8 3 3 ,3 4 2

1 2 .2

2 6 .1
3 3 .3
3 4 .4
3 1 .8

M O N T A N A ....................................

7 ,1 9 3
3 ,5 3 4
1 7 ,7 0 2

6 ,9 1 4
3 .5 6 6
1 7 ,7 8 1

6 ,9 4 4
3 ,5 6 0
1 7 ,6 8 8

2 2 ,9 8 0
1 0 ,4 0 9
6 0 ,2 5 ?

- .9
3 .7
2 1 .4

1 8 ,2 0 2
1 9 ,8 2 6

1 8 ,2 5 9
1 9 ,9 2 9

6 8 ,1 6 4
5 9 ,5 5 4

1 9 .2
8 .5

2 5 ,1 2 1
1 3 ,1 7 7
4 ,4 6 4

9 0 ,6 7 4
4 6 ,3 9 4

-1 1 .2
3 .1

2 9 .9

1 4 ,1 9 1

1 0 9 ,1 4 2

3 7 2 ,6 1 9

.2 7 .7
5 .7

4 3 .6
2 6 .1

-4 .0
.4

2 2 .3

2 .2

1 6 .5
1 1 4 .9
-8 7 .9

D I S T . O F C O L .....................
V I R G I N I A .................................

52
1 9 ,4 9 7

W E S T V I R G I N I A .................
N O R T H C A R O L I N A ..............
S O U T H C A R O L I N A ..............

5 9 ,2 6 6
4 ,1 6 0
1 ,9 9 4

G E O R G I A .....................................
F l o r i d a ....................................

7 ,0 3 4

1 .9 7 0
6 ,9 1 2

A T L A N T IC ....

1 0 ,2 4 7
1 0 4 ,2 1 8

K E N T U C K Y .................................
T E N N E S S E E ..............................
A L A B A M A ....................................
M I S S I S S I P P I .......................
EAST SOUTH CEN TR A L

SOUTH

I D A H O ...........................................
W Y O M I N G ....................................
C O L O R A D O .................................
NEW M E X I C O ..........................
A R I Z O N A ....................................

1 8 ,1 8 5
1 9 ,7 3 2

51
1 9 ,9 9 7

1 9 ,7 6 4
5 9 ,9 6 4

6 0 ,7 6 5
4 ,0 3 4

4 ,0 1 4

2 5 ,6 2 9

4 ,7 0 3
296
6 6 ,1 6 0
2 1 4 ,7 8 8

2 1 .6
9 .2
2 2 .7

1 4 .5

4
4
2
0

.9
.0
.1
.5

5 0 .3

1 5 .3
2 3 .8
4 4 .6
3 7 .0
2 7 .0
8 .9

2 7 ,0 5 2
1 4 ,1 9 1
4 ,6 6 5
1 1 2 ,2 5 4

4 ,5 4 5
1 1 0 ,4 0 1

1 ,7 5 3
1 ,3 9 3

1 ,7 2 3

1 ,7 9 9

5 ,8 9 2

1 ,3 6 1
3 1 ,9 6 6
3 ,8 0 6
4

4 ,0 4 7
1 2 3 ,4 0 4

A L A S K A .......................................
H A W A I I .......................................

3 2 ,3 4 3
3 ,5 1 9
4

1 .4 4 1
3 2 ,2 3 4
3 ,9 7 7

2 5 ,9 8 9

4 5 .4

3 9 ,0 1 2

3 8 ,8 6 0

3
3 9 ,4 5 4

6

P A C I F I C .................................

1 5 9 ,3 3 8

-8 6 .4
4 .9

905

914

900

1 .2 7 8

-1 3 .6

3 .6

7 3 1 ,9 0 8

7 3 0 ,8 5 2

7 3 5 ,1 9 3

S 2 ,5 4 3 ,5 1 6

9 .7

2 9 .5

U T A H ..............................................
N E V A D A .......................................
M O U N T A I N ..............................
W A S H I N G T O N ...........................
O R E G O N .......................................
C A L I F O R N I A ..........................

PUERTO

R I C O ........................

V IR G IN

1 3 ,9 3 8

1 2 .6

2 6 .0

I S L A N D S ..............

total

1...........................................

See f o o t n o t e s at e nd o f tabl e.




54

Chapter 8. Annual Earnings and Employment Patterns
T h e B u reau ’s series on annual earnings and em ploy­
m ent p attern s (A E E P ) is th e m ost a c cu ra te and c o m p re­
hensive source o f d a ta available on annual earnings o f
w age and salary w orkers. T h e p rim ary classification o f
the earnings d a ta is b y industry, w ith cross-classifica­
tion by d em o g rap h ic ch aracteristics o f w orkers, such as
age, sex, and race, and b y n u m b er o f q u arters w o rk ed
and geo g rap h ic lo catio n o f em ploym ent.
F o r 1964, th e first y ear fo r w h ich th e series is
available, inform ation w as p resen ted only fo r p riv ate
n o n agricu ltu ral w o rk e rs w h o w ere co v e red u n d er the
provisions o f old-age, survivors, disability, and h ealth
insurance, m o re co m m o n ly referred to as social securi­
ty. F o r 1965, th e series w as extended to include w o rk ers
co v ered b y th e R ailro ad R etirem en t A ct. T h e series
does n o t include w o rk e rs in ag ricu ltu re and g o v ern ­
m ent (civilian and m ilitary) and self-em ployed in d ividu­
als.

Description of data
T h e d ata fo r th e A E E P p ro g ram are obtained from a
-percen t ran d o m sam ple o f th e earnings re co rd s o f
individual em ployees m aintained b y th e Social S ecurity
A dm in istratio n and th e R ailro ad R etirem en t B oard. A
m ulti-stage system atic clu ster p ro c e d u re insures th at
th e sam ple is strictly ran d o m and th a t th e same
individuals are in clu d ed in th e sam ple in each year.
E ac h individual em p lo y ee’s re co rd contains inform a­
tion on sex, race, y ear o f b irth , em ployers’ locations,
and total estim ated annual w ages and salaries. T his total
includes estim ates b y th e Social S ecu rity A d m in istra­
tion o f earnings th a t exceed th e limits for w h ich social
security taxes are co llected ($15,300 in 1976).
E m p lo y ers c o v e re d u n d er th e R ailroad R etirem ent
A c t are req u ired to re p o rt m o n th ly em ployee earnings,
also subject to a taxable limit. T o com pensate fo r this
lim itation th e R ailro ad R etirem en t B oard has d ev el­
oped a series o f step-up factors for each o ccu p ation
w h ich raises cred itab le earnings to to tal earnings for
w o rk ers w h o earn m ore th an th e taxable limit.
1

sex, age, region, industry o f m ajo r earnings, and the
num ber o f q u arters w o rk ed d uring th e year. T w o kinds
o f earnings inform ation are tabulated for each w o rk er
by ind u stry division, by 2-digit S tan d ard Industrial
C lassification (S IC ) industry groups, and by m ost 3digit S IC industries: (1) E arnings in th e industry o f
m ajor earnings d u rin g a given year; and (2) total
earnings, regardless o f industry, in th a t year (figure 29).
d a ta . E xtensive cross-tabulations also are
available for a com bination o f any o f th e follow ing:
Industry, g eo g rap h ic area, race, sex, q u arters o f w ork,
num ber o f em ployers, age a n d /o r earnings interval
(figure 30).

D e ta ile d

M e a su re s o f in e q u a lity o f in co m e d istrib u tio n . T h e A E E P

p ro g ram also pro v id es m easures o f th e degree o f
inequality o f th e distribution o f incom e in a population
th ro u g h th e use o f G ini indexes. T h e G ini index
m easures th e cum ulative p ercen t o f total incom e
receiv ed by cum ulative population percentiles. T h e
g rap h ic rep resen tatio n o f this relationship, a L orenz
curve, pro v id es th e co n cep t from w h ich th e index is
derived. (See figure 31.) W hen a situation o f com plete
incom e equality exists (all units receiving the sam e
incom e), th e L o ren z cu rv e for th e distribution becom es
a straig h t line (line o f equality). T his indicates th at any
p ercen tag e o f th e total population, as p lo tted on th e Xaxis, receives a like p ercen tag e o f total incom e. A n
actual incom e distribution results in a cu rv e w ith the
sam e end points b ut lying beneath this straig h t line.
F ig u re 31 show s this relationship w ith th e h y pothetical
line o f equality A B and th e actual L o ren z cu rv e o f a
distribution. T h e G ini index is th e p ro p o rtio n o f the
area b ounded by th e L o ren z cu rv e and th e line o f
equality to th e area o f the triangle A B C . T h e less
equally distributed th e incom e, th e g re ater w ill be the
area betw een th e line o f equality and th e L o ren z curve,
and consequently th e larg er th e G ini index.

Uses and limitations
S u m m a r y da ta . S um m ary tables, w h ich are published
annually in th e bulletin A n n u a l E a rn in g s a n d E m p lo y ­
m e n t P a tte rn s o f P riv a te N o n a g ric u ltu ra l E m p lo yees,

T h e A E E P p ro g ram p rovides d ata for use in public
and p riv ate p olicy determ ination as w ell as in general
econom ic analysis. O f p articu lar significance in this
p ro g ram is the capability to stratify industry data in
num erous w ays acco rd in g to th e needs o f th e data user.

contain m eans, m edians and frequency distributions, by
industry, o f th e annual earnings o f w ag e and salary
earners by selected characteristics. T hese include race,




55

T h e result is th e ability to gain som e insights, at several
levels o f detail, into th e d em o g rap h ic and industrial
ch aracteristics w h ich affect th e econom ic b eh a v io r o f
an individual o r g ro u p o f individuals.
O ne distinguishing feature o f th e d ata is th e ability to
classify w o rk e rs b y th e n u m b er o f q u arters w orked.
T h e d ata fo r individuals em ployed in fo u r q u arters o f
th e y ear (approxim ately 65 p e rc e n t o f th e w o rk force)
p resen t th e m ost m eaningful p ictu re w h en assessing th e
overall w o rk and earnings experience o f th e p riv ate
nonfarm lab o r force. T his is because w o rk ers w h o w ere

only peripherally attached to the labor force or who
w e re eith er en terin g o r leaving th e labor fo rce during
th e y ear w o u ld g enerally n o t be included am ong th e 4q u arte r w orkers. T h e value o f o th e r th an 4 -q u arter data
lies in th e aid th ey p ro v id e in th e id entification o f
possible seasonal and o th e r em ploym ent p attern s w ithin
certain econom ic groups.
T h e d ata are used in co llectiv e bargaining, in m aking
interin d u stry com parisons, in analyzing earnings and
em ploym ent distributions b y in d u stry fo r different
dem og rap h ic groups, and in determ ining q u arterly
em ploy m en t p attern s b y industry.
T w o p rim ary lim itations o f th e series are th e inability
to determ in e h o u rs o r w eeks w o rk e d o r paid fo r and the
lack o f o ccu p atio n al inform ation. T h e tim e lag o f 2-3
years b etw een th e referen ce y ear and publication also
lim its th e use o f th e d ata in analyzing cu rre n t econom ic
conditions. D e sp ite th e delays caused by th e re p o rtin g
requirem ents established b y law , th e data requirem ents
o f th e co llectin g agencies, and th e tim e req u ired to
ex tract a sam ple and red u ce th e ra w d ata to statistical
tables, it is expected th a t th e lag can soon be re d u ced to
2 years. T h e re is also reason to believe that, o w in g to an
in terag en cy effort, o ccu p atio n al inform ation w ill b e­
com e available in th e n o t to o distant future.




Comparison with other series
T h e A E E P series is th e m ost accu rate source o f data
on th e annual earnings o f w age and salary w orkers.
O th er series, such as th e B ureau’s data on av erage
w eekly earnings based on establishm ent re p o rts (see
ch a p te r 5), do n o t p ro v id e any inform ation on annual
earnings since th ey lack d ata on the av erag e num ber o f
w eeks w o rk ed d u rin g th e year. T h e m ost com parable
d ata are found in th e C ensus B ureau’s re p o rts on annual
incom e,1 b u t these contain th e om issions and in accu ra­
cies in h eren t in h ousehold interv iew data. O nly the
A E E P series show s annual earnings for all o f the
follow ing classifications and cross-classifications:
W o rk ers’ d em o g rap h ic characteristics, q u arters o f
w ork, ind u stry o f em ploym ent, and th e geo g rap h ic
location o f place o f em ploym ent. It also p rovides th e
capability for follow ing a c o h o rt o f w o rk ers th ro u g h

many years of employment. The Census Bureau series,
on the other hand, has the advantage of showing total
money earnings for occupational groups in each industry
division and a few industry subdivisions.

1 See Current Population Reports, series P-60, No. 97, pp. 179-80.

—RE F E R E N C E S—

Gastwirth, Joseph L. “The Estimation of the Lorenz Curve
and Gini Index,” The Review o f Economics and Statistics,
Vol. LIV, No. 3, August 1972, pp. 306-16.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Annual
Earnings and Employment Patterns o f Private Nonagricultural Employees, 1971 and 1972. Bulletin 1928, 1976.

56

Figure 29

T a b le B -1. M edian an n ual earnings of all w orkers em plo yed in any q u a rter and in fo u r quarters, by industry
of m ajo r earnings, 1972
EABNINGS FROH MAJOR INDUSTBY
BY QUARTERS WORKED IN —
MAJOR INDUSTRY
ANY INDUSTRY
4 QTBS
ANY QTB
4 CTBS

EABNINGS FROM ALL EMPLOYMENT
BY QUARTEBS WORKED IN —
4)T? INDUSTRY
MAJOR INDUSTRY
4 QTBS
ANY QTR
|
4 QTBS

PRIVATE ECONOMY ....................................................................

S 4.640

S 7,228

S 7 ,2 2 8

S 4 .640

S 7,228

* 7, 228

BINING .............................................................................................................

8,428

10,214

9,805

8 ,757

10,284

9. 920

HETAL MINING ..........................................................................................

9,071

9,8 8 5

9,6 8 3

9 ,205

9,9 8 0

9, 796

COAL B I I I I G .............................................................................................
ANTBBACITE BINING .........................................................................
BITUMINOUS COAL AMD L I G N IT E MINING ..........................

9,731
6 ,2 5 0
9,807

10,629
7,500
10,688

10,425
7,333
1 0,488

9 , e 28
6 .750
9 ,896

10,663
7,5 8 3
10,721

10, 504
7 , 583
10, 570

OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION ..............................................................
CBODE PETBOLEUfl, NATURAL GAS S LIQUIDS ...............
OIL AND GAS FIELD SERVICES ................................................

7,740
9,6 5 3
5,458

1 0,490
10,842
9,705

9,847
10,538
8 .3 7 5

8 .098
9 ,750
6 ,250

10,528
10,879
9,797

9 . 973
10, 613
8, 875

BONHETALLIC MINERALS, EXCEPT FUELS .............................
STONE, SAND, AND GBAVEL .........................................................
OTHER NONBETALLIC MINERALS ................................................

6,913
6,6 0 9
7,7 5 0

9,096
9,107
9,092

8,432
8,333
8,750

7 .538
7 ,279
8 ,071

9,146
9,167
9 . 125

8. 740
8, 676
8. 917

INDUSTRY

CONTBACT CONSTBUCTION ....................................................................

5,495

9,753

8 .8 4 5

5 ,914

9,953

9 , 178

GENEBAL BUILDING CONTBACTOBS .............................................

4,3 8 6

9,2 2 0

7 ,7 5 0

5 ,213

9,790

8 , 768

HEAVY CONSTBUCTION CONTRACTOBS ........................................
HIGHWAY AND STREBT CONSTRUCTION ..................................
HEAVY CONSTRUCTION, NEC ........................................................

5,437
5 , 177
5,486

9,537
8,452
1 1,048

8,2 6 3
7,513
8,894

6 , 120
5 ,779
6 ,596

9,844
8,706
11,500

8, 962
8 , 076
10, 078

SPECIAL TRADE CONTBACTOBS ......................................................
PLUMBING, HEATING, AIB CONDITIONING .......................
PAINTING, PAPEB HANGING, DECORATING .......................
ELECTRICAL WORK ...............................................................................
MASONRY, STONEWORK, AND PLASTERING ..........................
CARPENTERING AND FLOORING ..............................................
ROOFING AND SHEET METAL WOBK ..........................................
CONCBETE WORK ....................................................................................
OTHER SPECIAL TRADE CONTRACTORS ..................................

5,606
6.858
3,533
8,608
4,270
3,208
4 , 4 06
3,711
5,288

10,074
10,797
8,738
11,824
8,724
8,313
8 , 9 C6
8,859
10,481

8 ,9 4 0
9 ,4 2 7
7.333
10,859
7 ,5 3 8
6,587
7,971
7 ,0 4 2
8,730

6 ,228
7 ,556
3 ,956
9 ,083
4 ,970
3 ,908
5 ,000
u ,620
6,404

10,411
11,181
8,934
12,056
9,227
8,537
9,136
9,375
11,229

9 , 565
10, 228
7 , 917
11, 429
8, 462
7 , 300
8, 526
8, 0 0 0
10, 042

MANUFACTURING ..........................................................................................

6,275

8,572

8 ,215

6 ,437

8,654

8, 361

ORDNANCE AND ACCESSORIES .........................................................
AMMUNITION, EXCEPT FOB SMALL ARMS .............................
OTHER ORDNANCE AND ACCESSORIES .................................

9,213
9 , 6 56
8,511

10,481
16,948
9,783

10,134
10,510
9 ,5 4 3

9 ,375
9 ,778
8 ,656

10,600
11,038
9,875

1 0 , 291
10. 6 8 0
9, 716

FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS ................................................
MEAT PRODUCTS ............................................................................
DAIRY PRODUCTS .........................................................................
CANNED, CURED, AND FBOZEN FOODS .....................................
GRAIN MILL PRODUCTS ....................................................................
BAKEBY PRODUCTS ...............................................................................
BEVERAGES ...............................................................................................
OTHER FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS ..................................

4,8 6 6
5,325
6,085
1,734
6,445
6,400
6,952
4,726

8,330
8,875
8,391
6,417
8,907
8,6 6 3
9,155
7,770

7,727
8 ,1 3 7
7 ,7 4 5
5,775
8 ,4 6 0
8.220
8,681
7,1 1 2

5 177
5 ,625

8,440
8,969
8 . 536
6 , 511
8,977
8,776
9,229
7 , 95 9




57

6 438
1.953
6 ,700
6 ,726
7 ,2 3 8
5 ,054

7,
8,
8,
5,
8,
8,
8,
7,

957
39 0
044
968
663
417
880
378

Figure 30

Table B-12. Median annual earnings of black four-quarter workers, by age, 1972 — Continued
UNDER
18

INDUSTRY

PBIVATE ECOMOBY SERVICES -

18-19

20-29

25-29

30-39

90-99

60-69

65-69

7 0 AND
OVER

9,219 $ 3,833
9,339
9,125
3 , 125
1 ,0 0 0
3,500
9,500
9,750

3,000
2,250
-

1,667
1,583
-

50-59

CONTINUED

COMTIMOED

PERSONAL SERVICES ..........................................................................
LAUNDRIES AND DRY CLEANING PLANTS ............................
PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIOS ................................................................
BEAUTY SHOPS AND BAHBEB SHOPS .......................................
APPAREL REPAIR AND CLEANING SHOPS ............................
OTHER PERSONAL SERVICES ........................................................

-

$ 2,750
2,750
~

9 , 150 S 3 , 7 0 0
3,600
9,250
3,250
3,500
9,000
9,250
-

9 , 1 9 2 S 3.9CC
9, 179
9.05C
9,092
3 ,1 2 5
3,750
3,688
5.250
3,250

HISCELLANEOOS BUSINESS SERVICES ....................................

1,875

AUTO REP AIR, SERVICES, AND GARAGES ............................
AUTO RENTALS AND PARKING .....................................................
AUTO REPAIR SHOPS AND SERVICES ....................................

1,500
1,500

2,750

9,500

5 , 193

5,979

5,000

9,583

5,083

3,625

9,250

3,250
3,250

5,250
6,583
9.250

6,917
7,250
5,500

7,625

6 , 500

7,000
5,000

9,500
9,500

2 ,0 0 0

6,500

6.50C
6,667
6,2 5 0

*

HISCELLAHEOUS REPAIR SERVICES ..........................................

-

-

6 ,0 0 0

7,625

8,750

6.8 7 5

5,750

-

-

-

BOTION PICTURES ................................................................................
MOTION PICTURE FILBING 6 DISTRIBUTING .................
BOTION PICTURE THEATERS AND SERVICES ....................

-

-

3,750
9,750
2,500

6 ,0 0 0

6,500
-

8,500
8,500
-

5.375
5,500
5,250

3,500
5,750
3,375

_
*

_
-

_
-

AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION SERVICES, NEC .................
INDOOB AHUSEHENTS AND RECREATION ...............................
B I S C . AMUSEMENT AND RECREATION SERVICE ..............

2 ,0 0 0

2 , 167

1,500

9 , 125
9,000
9,250

5,000
5,000

5,625
3,500
5,750

9,6 6 7
1,750
9,750

5,000
3,250
5,000

5,250
5,250

9,250
9,250

9,250
-

2,250

BEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES ...............................
HOSPITALS ..............................................................................................
OTHER BEDICAL AND HEALTH SERVICES ............................

2 .0 0 0

2,833
2,750
3,000

9,982
9,703
3,833

5.083
5,997
3.929

5,901
5,811
9,318

5,563
5,921
9,396

5,216
5,789
3,865

5,375
5,722
9,083

9,333
9,750
2,250

LEGAL SERVICES

..................................................................................

EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ..................................................................
ELEBENTABY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS ...............................
COLLEGES AND UNIV ER SITIES ..................................................
OTHER SCHOOLS AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES ..............
MUSEUMS,

S

2,167
1 ,0 0 0

2 ,0 0 0

9,500
5,500
2 ,0 0 0

-

5,250

6 , 583

6,250

6 ,0 0 0

1 , 7 50

1,500

-

-

1 ,0 0 0

2,083

917
1,500
-

2 ,1 0 0

5,095
5 , 500
9,893
3,250

6,60 3
6,865
5,786
6,250

6,700
6,903
6,333
6.625

6,281
6,639
5,899
5,750

5,982
5,857
5 , 182
6,250

5,875
6,125
5,500
-

9 , 188
9,000
5,000
-

2,250
2,250
9,750
-

-

-

8 . 50 0

*

-

-

-

-

9,37 5
5, 3 75
9,750
9,219

5,531
9,250
5,833
5,60 7

5,292
9,500
5. 167
5,700

5,800
9,250
6,250
6,0 2 5

9 , 339
3.167
9 , 625
9,750

9,917
9,750
9,750
5,000

2,125
1,563
3,500

1,938
2,500
2.250
1,750

*

BOTANICAL 6 ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS ..............

*

NONPROFIT BEBBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS ............................
RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................
CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS .....................................................
BUSINESS, LABOR, 6 OTHER NONPROFIT ORG ..............

778
769

PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS ........................................................................

-

3,000
•
1,321
1.286

-

HISCELLANEOOS SERVICES .............................................................
ENGINEERING 6 ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES ....................
NONPROFIT RESEARCH AGENCIES ............................................
OTHER HISCELLANEOOS SERVICES ..........................................




8 ,0 0 0

* 2,250
5,125
-

-

6 ,0 0 0

6,333
5,833
6 , 500

1,969

1> 586

1,987

1,992

1,369

1,175

1 ,0 0 0

7,87 5
5,500
9.250

8,500
1 0 , 125
8,500
8,250

7.5 0 0
10,750
7,7 5 0

5, 000
7,750
3,250

_

_

_

-

-

-

8 ,0 0 0

6 ,0 0 0

-

NOTH. A dash (-) indicates either that the sample did not include any workers with these charac­
teristics, or that the data did not meet the Bureau publication criteria

58

Figure 31

Chart 3. Income distribution (Lorenz) curves, 1972
Earnings from m ajor industry o f em p lo ym e nt for w o rkers w ith
earnings in any quarter and in four quarters

P e rc e n t o f e a rn in g s




59

Chapter 9. Hourly Compensation Measures of
the Office of Productivity and Technology
family workers, although their hours are included when
com puting productivity.) T he hourly labor com pensa­
tion o f proprietors is assumed to be the same as that of
the average em ployee in that sector.

T he Office o f Productivity and Technology (OPT)
o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics (BLS) develops
measures o f hourly compensation and real hourly
com pensation in its program of productivity and cost
measurement. These measures are published quarterly
for the private business sector and the nonfarm business,
nonfmancial corporate, and manufacturing sectors, and
annually for m ajor nonm anufacturing sectors. F o r the
most part the series extend back to 1947.
T he measures are in index form and cover total
com pensation including wages and salaries, supplem en­
tal payments (such as em ployer contributions for social
security, unem ploym ent insurance, and private health
and pension plans), payments in kind, and estimates of
the labor compensation o f proprietors. H ourly com pen­
sation is com pensation divided by payroll hours; real
hourly com pensation is hourly compensation divided
by the Consumer Price Index. (See figure 32.)

H ours

T he hours data used in the O P T com pensation series
come from various surveys. H ours for the all-employee
series—the private business sector, and the nonfarm
business, nonfmancial corporate, and m ajor nonm anu­
facturing sectors—are provided by the Bureau’s C ur­
rent Em ploym ent Statistics (CES) survey, w hich gath­
ers data m onthly on em ploym ent and average weekly
hours o f production w orkers in nonagricultural estab­
lishments. (See chapter 5.) These statistics represent
hours paid rather than hours at work, and are based on
payroll records from a sample o f establishments.
Estimates o f hours paid are developed annually for
each m ajor sector, and are then aggregated to private
business and nonfarm business sector levels. H ours are
treated as homogeneous; no distinction is made between
hours o f employees at different levels o f skill or pay.
Since the C ES establishment survey covers only
nonfarm wage and salary workers, statistics from the
C urrent Population Survey are used for the rest o f the
em ployed population (farm workers, proprietors, un­
paid family workers, and private household w orkers) to
develop estimates o f the hours o f all persons for the
private business sector, and the nonfarm business,
manufacturing, and m ajor nonm anufacturing sectors.
These statistics represent hours at work, not hours paid,
and are based on a m onthly survey o f a nationwide
sample o f households conducted for the BLS by the
Bureau o f the Census.
In the m anufacturing sector, estimates o f total hours
are derived separately for production and nonproduc­
tion w orkers and then combined to produce the entire
m anufacturing sector. Since the establishment survey
covers only production workers, the length o f the
average w orkw eek for nonproduction w orkers is devel­
oped from BLS studies o f wages and supplements
w hich provide data on the regularly scheduled w ork­
week of white-collar employees. F o r nonm anufacturing
sectors, it is assumed that hours for supervisory
employees are the same as for the nonsupervisory wage
and salary w orkers covered.

Sources and methods
T he O P T series o f hourly compensation combines
com pensation information primarily from data devel­
oped by the Bureau of Econom ic Analysis (BEA), U.S.
D epartm ent o f Commerce, w ith BLS hours data.
C

o m p e n s a t io n

BEA develops employee compensation data as part
o f the national income accounts. These data include
both direct payments and supplements. D irect pay­
ments are wages and salaries (including executive
compensation), commissions and tips, bonuses, and
payments in kind w hich represent income to the
recipients. Supplements include such items as em ployer
contributions for social insurance, private pension and
health and welfare plans, compensation for injuries,
doctors’ fees, and pay for military leave.
BEA com pensation measures cover only wage and
salary workers, and therefore omit the cost of labor
inputs contributed by proprietors. Since labor costs
would be seriously underestim ated as a result o f this
omission in sectors w here these hours represent a
substantial portion o f the labor input, as in farming and
retail trade, the O P T imputes a payment for proprietors’
labor services. (No payments are imputed for unpaid



60

Presentation
T he hourly com pensation indexes produced by the
Office o f Productivity and Technology are published in
the quarterly BLS press releases P ro d u c tiv ity a n d Costs:
P rivate Business, N o n fa rm Business, an d M anufacturin g
S ecto rs and P ro d u c tiv ity a n d C osts: N on fin an cial C orpo­
rations. The former appears 1 month after the reference

period; the latter, 2 months after. Tables 31— in the
34
M o n th ly L abor R e v ie w contain information on produc­

tivity and related measures each month. The indexes
for the major sectors, which are derived annually, are
not published regularly, but are available from the Office
of Productivity and Technology.

Uses and limitations
T he hourly com pensation series are designed to be
used w ith the related productivity and cost measures
for economic analysis. These series are useful in areas
such as wage determ ination and analysis o f prices and
living conditions. H ow ever, since the O P T com pensa­
tion series are presented in index form, their use is
limited to analysis o f changes over time.
H ourly com pensation measures are especially rele­
vant to a discussion o f productivity and production
costs. Unit labor cost, or compensation per unit of
output, represents a m ajor portion o f total unit cost and
reflects the combined effects o f changes in compensa­
tion per hour and productivity (output per hour). An
increase in com pensation per hour tends to increase unit
labor costs, while an increase in output per hour tends
to reduce these costs. Therefore, the degree to w hich
gains in com pensation put pressure on prices or profits
depends in large part on w hat is happening to prod­
uctivity.
Indexes o f hourly com pensation help to provide
understanding o f w hat is occurring in the economy. F or
instance, in the recent recession, real compensation did
not recover from the initial decline (which began with
the second quarter o f 1973) until the fourth quarter of
1976. Thus a total o f 14 quarters elapsed before real
hourly com pensation returned to its form er level.
D uring the period, the index initially registered four
straight quarters o f decline (the longest decline on
record) before showing any upw ard movement. Begin­
ning w ith the fourth quarter of 1975, the index grew
steadily and in the fourth quarter of 1976 surpassed its
previous peak. This was the longest recovery period in
the series (which begins in 1947); previously, the
longest recovery period included only 3 quarters.
T he labor share (compensation as a percent o f output




61

measured in current dollars) was virtually unchanged
over the entire postw ar period. (See figure 32.) This
shows that nonlabor payments (profits, depreciation,
interest, and indirect taxes) w ere also affected by the
recent recession.
One limitation of the hourly com pensation measures
arises from the m anner in w hich the indexes are
extended from com pensation per hour o f a ll em p lo yees
to compensation per hour o f a ll persons. Since com pen­
sation data are reported directly only for employees,
forcing an im putation of labor com pensation for propri­
etors, the measures are not as reliable at the all-persons
level as at the employee level, although they are
obviously more complete. This problem is mitigated
som ewhat for the annual series, as opposed to the
quarterly series, because the annual aggregates are built
up from the estimates for the m ajor sectors.1
O ver the long term, the aggregate compensation
measure is affected by shifts in the relative im portance
o f the various com ponent sectors as well as by changes
in compensation within them. Studies o f labor prod­
uctivity have shown that the shift in employm ent from
the farm sector into the nonfarm sector that occurred
from W orld W ar II to 1965 contributed to the increase
in labor productivity over that period since productivi­
ty is higher in the nonfarm sectors. Similarly, the shift
to nonfarm employment, w here com pensation levels
tend to be higher, raised the level—and rate of
grow th—o f hourly compensation for the entire private
business sector.
1
In the private business sector, about 15 percent of 1975 hours of all
persons were worked by proprietors and unpaid family workers. The
reliability of the proprietors’ imputation undoubtedly varies from
sector to sector: It may be adequate for manufacturing, where the
labor compensation of the proprietor of a toolmaking shop may well
approximate that of an employee in a similar enterprise, but may be
inadequate for services, where the labor compensation of a proprietor
such as a doctor or a lawyer generally exceeds an employee’s labor
compensation by a substantial amount. However, since indexes of
hourly compensation are developed rather than measures of levels,
the imputation poses less serious problems.

—REFERENCES—
Mark, Jerome A. “Wage-Price Guidepost Statistics: Problems
of Measurement”, in Proceedings of the Business and
Economic Statistics Section (1968), American Statistical
Association.
Norsworthy, J.R., and Fulco, L.J. “Productivity and Costs,
First Quarter 1976,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1976,
pp. 31-34.

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS
Handbook o f Methods. Bulletin 1910, 1976, pp. 219-24.

Figure 32
Indexes of hourly compensation and labor share in the private business sector, all persons, selected years, 1947-76
(1967=100)
Year

1947
1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976

.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................
.............................................................................................




Compensation
per hour

35.1
41.6
54.9
71.4
88.4
123.3
131.5
138.9
150.3
164.3
180.2
195.0

62

Consumer Price
Index

66.9
72.1
80.2
88.6
94.5
116.3
121.3
125.3
133.1
147.7
161.2
170.5

Real compensation
per hour

52.5
57.7
68.5
80.5
93.6
106.0
108.4
110.8
112.9
111.2
111.8
114.3

Labor share

103.0
98.2
99.4
102.3
99.1
103.7
102.5
101.6
102.0
104.6
102.7
101.7

Chapter 10. Changes in Wage Rates and Benefits —
the Current Wage Developments Program
T he Bureau o f Labor Statistics (BLS) prepares
quarterly statistical summaries o f general changes in
wage rates for 1) w orkers covered by m ajor collective
bargaining agreements and 2) all production and related
w orkers in manufacturing industries. M ajor collective
bargaining summaries present data relating to the size of
newly negotiated settlements and total wage-rate
changes effective in a time period. T he quarterly
manufacturing series tabulates general wage-rate
changes by the bargaining status (union versus nonun­
ion) o f the establishments involved. Summaries are
published in the m onthly periodical C u rre n t W age
D evelopm en ts.

Background
T he quarterly statistical summaries of m ajor collec­
tive bargaining agreements grew out o f a m onthly
listing o f settlements by com pany and union. This
listing was initiated because o f the rapid increase in
wage rates and prices in the early post-W orld W ar II
period, the interest in determ ining the extent to which
settlem ent patterns spread from industry to industry,
and the discontinuance o f an index of wage rates that
had been initiated during W orld W ar II. Interest was
further stimulated by the Korean em ergency when the
W age Stabilization Board needed data on the extent to
w hich wages and benefits w ere being changed. In 1949,
and again in 1951 and 1952, statistical summaries of
wage-rate changes w ere prepared to supplement the
listing, but regular preparation of a statistical summary
began in 1954.
Beginning in 1959, another statistical summary,
entitled W age D e v e lo p m e n ts in M a n u fa c tu rin g (W DM ),
was instituted. It is limited to m anufacturing, but
includes information on general wage-rate changes for
nonunion and small union units, as well as for large
collective bargaining units. From 1959 through 1970,
this summary also included information on changes in
supplem entary benefits.
G row ing concern during the 1960’s over the extent
to w hich increased labor costs w ere contributing to
inflation heightened interest in the size o f collective
bargaining settlements. W hereas in earlier years the
economic terms o f negotiated settlements could be
equated largely w ith agreed-upon changes in wages
rates, m ore recently changes in a host o f pay supple­
ments have grow n in importance. The BLS began



63

estimating the cost o f wage and benefit (package)
changes in a limited num ber o f key settlements in 1964.
The w ork was expanded the following year and, since
1966, the Bureau has attem pted to determ ine the price
o f all settlements affecting 5,000 w orkers or m ore in the
private nonfarm sector. In addition, a separate series has
been developed for the construction industry, covering
settlements for 1,000 w orkers or more.

Description of data
T he statistical summary of developm ents in m ajor
collective bargaining units hereafter is referred to as the
“m ajor” series; the summary based on changes in wage
rates in m anufacturing firms o f all kinds is described as
the “m anufacturing” series.
T he m ajor series describes general wage-rate
changes and changes in benefits1 in all collective
bargaining settlements involving 1,000 production and
related w orkers or m ore in m anufacturing and 1,000
nonsupervisory w orkers or m ore in the nonm anufactur­
ing sector, excluding governm ent.2 C ontracts covering
multiplant firms are included if the agreem ent as a
w hole covers 1,000 w orkers or m ore even though each
individual plant employs few er workers. Also included
are contracts w ith trade associations or w ith groups of
firms that bargain jointly w ith a union or unions, even
though the firms are not associated formally and each
has few er than the minimum num ber o f workers
covered by the series. T w o unions or m ore (together
representing m ore than 1,000 w orkers but individually
accounting for fewer than this number) are tabulated as
one bargaining unit when essentially identical contracts
w ith one firm or a group of firms are negotiated.
T he m anufacturing series represents all establish­
ments w ith four employees or m ore that adjust wages
by means o f general wage-rate changes,3 regardless of
w hether the w orkers are represented by a union.
A wide variety of measures of wage change are
available for analysis from both the m ajor series and the
1 Only changes in benefits that represent changes in costs are
included.
2 Prior to 1966, the construction, service, and finance industries
were also excluded.
3 General wage-rate changes are defined as changes affecting at
least one-tenth of the workers at any one time or all workers in an
occupation. Changes resulting from promotions, merit increases, etc.,
are excluded.

m anufacturing series. W hile it is not feasible to describe
all o f these measures in this brief summary, some key
features are as follows:
1. T he data on m ajor collective bargaining settle­
ments focus on new ly negotiated contracts and
thus provide inform ation on the current economic
bargaining climate.
2. Separate statistics are presented on second- and
third-year wage-rate increases in long-term con­
tracts, in addition to first-year increases and annual
rates over the life o f the contracts.
3. D ata are presented on the im pact of escalator
adjustm ents on first-year settlements.
4. Q uarterly and annual data are also available on
“effective” wage-rate changes, i.e., those wage
gains going into effect in a given time period,
regardless o f w hen they w ere negotiated. (Figures
33 and 34 present annual data.)
5. T he data available on wage developm ents in
m anufacturing focus primarily on the differential
m ovem ent o f current wage decisions in the union
and nonunion sectors o f the economy. (See figure
35.)

Data sources and collection methods
T he m ajor series is compiled primarily from second­
ary sources, including general circulation newspapers
and periodicals and union, management, and trade
publications. O ther im portant sources o f information
are the file o f union contracts maintained by the BLS
and the files o f pension and health and welfare agree­
ments maintained by the Office of Em ployee Benefits
Security o f the U.S. D epartm ent of Labor. A t the end
o f the year, the BLS contacts either managem ent or
labor representatives if information on wage and benefit
changes during the year has not been obtained from
these other sources.
F o r the m anufacturing series, information for nonun­
ion and small unionized firms is gathered quarterly
(semiannually in 1965 and 1966) by a questionnaire
mailed to participating establishments. This information
on general wage changes is supplemented by the
contract file (for unionized establishments) and new spa­
per clippings purchased from a commercial clipping
service. A t the end o f each year, BLS field representa­
tives contact (primarily by telephone) a sample o f firms
that have failed to respond to the mail questionnaire or
have not provided com plete information.

Presentation
Prelim inary information on both the general wage
changes resulting from collective bargaining settle­
ments involving the m ajor units (1,000 w orkers or
m ore) and the wage and benefit “package” cost in units
covering 5,000 w orkers or m ore is presented in press
releases issued about 4 weeks after every quarter. In
addition, the inform ation is presented in the m onthly

Sampling and estimating procedures
F o r the m ajor collective bargaining series, it is
believed that the current list o f about 2,200 m ajor




collective bargaining units, built up since the listing was
begun in 1948, represents the universe o f such units. A
bargaining unit is w ithdraw n from the universe list if it
ceases to be within the scope o f the survey (e.g., a
change to a business classification outside the scope of
the survey, a change to nonunion from union, or an
apparently perm anent drop in em ploym ent to substan­
tially below 1,000).
F o r the m anufacturing series, a sample is derived
from State unem ploym ent insurance (UI) listings w hich
show reporting units w ith four em ployees or m ore by
location, num ber o f employees, and industry classifica­
tion. T he sample is a highly stratified probability design,
w ith sampling ratios varying from 1 out of 150
establishments w ith 4 to 19 employees to all establish­
ments w ith 1,000 employees or more. T he ratios are
uniform for all industries. Since data are available from
secondary sources for those unionized units w ith at
least 1,000 production and related workers, data for all
establishments meeting this criterion also are included
in the summary for manufacturing. T he sample selected
from the U I listings is com pared w ith this list of
establishments for w hich inform ation already is avail­
able. Since data for these sample members are obtained
from secondary sources, these establishments are not
sent questionnaires. Approxim ately 6,000 establish­
ments are left for the questionnaire survey.
A lthough the sampling design yields a sample in
w hich large firms are relatively overrepresented, this
bias is overcom e by the estimating procedure. E ach
establishment in the sample is assigned a w eight w hich
is the reciprocal o f the sampling ratio in the stratum
from w hich it was selected. A n establishment selected
from a stratum from w hich 1 out of 4 establishments is
chosen is assigned a w eight of 4, so that it represents
itself and three other establishments. Inform ation for
each establishment is m ultiplied by the w eight assigned
to the establishment. Thus, all establishments, regard­
less o f size, are represented appropriately in the final
estimates.
A new sample o f nonunion and small unionized
plants in m anufacturing usually is selected every 3
years. A fter the initial contact, establishments o f any
size indicating that they have a policy o f adjusting
wages on an individual basis, rather than by means of
general wage changes, are om itted from the survey.

64

publication, C u rre n t W age D ev elo p m en ts. Final data are
not available until sometime early in the following year,
at w hich time they are published in C u rre n t W age
D e v e lo p m e n ts and the M o n th ly L a b o r R eview .
Q uarterly tabulations of the m anufacturing data and
an article covering the full year are published in C u rre n t
W age D evelo p m en ts. T he 3-, 6-, and 9-month tabulations
w hich are based on prelim inary data prim arily stress
wage changes resulting from settlements or m anage­
ment decisions made during the period, while the yearend article, based on final data, also analyzes trends in
the size, frequency, and type o f wage changes, and the
prevalence and results o f wage escalation policies.
Because data are available separately for large and small
establishments, unionized and nonunionized, the analy­
sis can provide many useful comparisons.

Uses and limitations
Both the m ajor series and the manufacturing series
are used extensively by labor, management, and the
Federal M ediation and Conciliation Service in collec­
tive bargaining; by private institutions and universities
in studies o f industries or groups o f industries; and by
local and Federal G overnm ent agencies and others
interested in current and future trends in wages and
benefits.
In the pricing o f collective bargaining settlements,
since a value is placed on settlements at the time they




65

are reached, the costs attributed to them obviously are
estimates o f outlays to be made in the future. The
estimates are made on the assumption that conditions
existing at the time the contract is negotiated will not
change. F o r example, estimators assume that methods
o f financing pensions will not change, and that expendi­
tures for insurance will not change except as a result of
altered benefit provisions or modified participation
because o f changes in com pany contributions. They
also assume that the com position of the labor force will
not change. A lthough package cost estimates are
extremely valuable as com prehensive measures of
change resulting from union-management negotiations,
to use the estimates as precise, unambiguous, and
unfailing measures of the economic effects o f collective
bargaining is adding an assignment w hich the data are
incapable o f fulfilling.
—REFERENCES—
David, Lily Mary, and Sheifer, Victor J. “Estimating the Cost
of Collective Bargaining Settlements”, Monthly Labor
Review, May 1969, pp. 16-26.
Sheifer, Victor J. “The Relationship Between Changes in
Wage Rates and in Hourly Earnings,” Monthly Labor
Review, August 1970, pp. 10-17.
Sheifer, Victor J. “New Measures of Wage-Rate Changes,”
Monthly Labor Review, December 1974, pp. 10-15.

Figure 33

Table 1. Average general w a g e -ra te changes in collective bargaining units covering 1 ,0 0 0 w orkers or m ore, 1 9 5 4 -7 5

1 E s tim a te d .
2 N o t a v a ila b le .
NOTE:

A d ju s tm e n ts




in c lu d e

th e s e

ty p e s

of w a g e -r a te

w a g e c h a n g e s , d e c r e a s e s in w a g e s , a n d i n c r e a s e s in w a g e s . I n c r e a s e s
i n c l u d e o n ly t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e w a g e s w e r e r a i s e d . F o r y e a r s p r i o r
to 1 9 6 6 , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s e r v i c e , f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e
i n d u s tr i e s w e r e e x c lu d e d .

a c tio n s : No

66

Figure 34
Table 2. Average p ercent changes in hourly cost of w ages and b en efits in
collective bargaining units covering 5 ,0 0 0 w orkers or m ore, 1 9 6 5 -7 5
Y ear

P riv a te n o n fa rm
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g
in d u s tr ie s
M ean
M e d ia n
M ean
M e d ia n
M ean
M e d ia n
a d ju s tm e n t a d ju s tm e n t a d ju s tm e n t a d ju s tm e n t a d ju s tm e n t a d ju s tm e n t
F i r s t - y e a r c h a n g e s in c o n tr a c ts n e g o tia te d d u rin g y e a r 3

19 66 - ---------------------- -------------1 967 -----------------------------------------------1968 ----------------------------------------------1 969 ----------------------------------------------197 0 ----------------------------------------------1971 ----------------------------------------------1972 ----------------------------------------------1 973 ----------------------------------------------1 9 7 4 -----------------------------------------------

17
95

6. 1
7. 4
8. 7
1 0. 9
13. 1
1 3. 1
8. 5
7. 1
10. 7
1 1 .4

5. 6
8 .4
8. 7
9 .6
9. 9
1 1. 7
8. 5
7. 0
8.8
10. 4

5 .8
7. 3
8. 1
10. 9
12. 0
1 3 .9
7 .9
6. 8
10. 5
11. 4

5. 6
9. 0
8. 1
8 .8
8.8
13. 5
8. 2
5 .9
7. 0
1 1 .3

6. 9
6. 5
8. 6
12. 3
1 5 .9
14. 1
8. 5
7. 1
11. 6
11.6

6. 0
4. 9
8 .2
11. 8
14. 0
16. 0
7. 9
7. 0
10. 5
1 1 .9

A n n u a l r a te o f c h a n g e o v e r life o f c o n t r a c t s n e g o tia te d d u r in g y e a r
19651
196 6
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975

- ------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. 3
4. 0
5 .2
6. 0
7. 4
8 .4
9. 0
6. 9
5. 5
6. 5
7 .8

( 2>
4. 1
5. 1
6. 5
8 .2
9. 1
8. 8
7. 4
6. 1
7 .8
8. 1

( 2)
3 .8
5. 2
5 .9
6. 6
5. 5
8.8
6 .2
5. 5
6 .2
11. 3

(2)
4. 1
5. 1
5 .9
6. 6
6.2
7. 7
6. 3
6. 0
6. 7
9 .2

(2)
4 .2
5. 2
7. 1
9. 7
11. 5
9. 5
7 .9
6 .2
8. 3
7 .8

(2)
4. 1
4 .8
6. 5
9 .6
11. 7
9. 0
7 .9
6. 1
7 .2
7 .8

7. 1
7. 4
10. 1
11. 1
8. 7
7 .9
9 .2
9 .3

7. 1
6 .2
10. 6
11.6
8. 0
8. 5
8. 1
9 .4

C h a n g e s e f f e c tiv e in y e a r
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1 97 4
197 5

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. 4
5. 7
8. 7
8. 5
6. 7
7 .8
1 0. 5
8 .4

6.8
6. 5
9. 0
9 .8
7 .6
7. 9
1 0 .4
9 .4

1 C o v e r a g e l i m i t e d t o s e t t l e m e n t s f o r 10, 0 0 0
w o r k e r s o r m o r e in 1 9 6 5 .
N ot a v a ila b le .

6. 3
5. 7
7. 7
8 .2
6 .2
8. 0
12. 1
9. 0

6. 3
5. 0
6. 3
8. 5
5. 7
7 .8
1 3 .2
8. 0

3 C h a n g e s n e g o t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r a n d g o in g
i n t o e f f e c t w i t h i n 12 m o n t h s f r o m t h e e f f e c t i v e d a t e
Qf t h e c o n t r a c t .

Figure 35

T a b l e 1. M e a n f i r a t - y e a r w a g e c h a n g e s i n u n io n a e t t le n n e n te a n d w a g e d e c is io n s i n n o n u n io n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d
p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d , 1 9 6 9 -7 5 1

1969

1 970

1971

W o r k e r s c o v e r e d ( i n t h o u s a n d s ) ------------------------------------

6 . 193

6, 664

6 , 190

P e r c e n t of w o r k e rs re c e iv in g i n c r e a s e s :
A l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------A l l u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a j o r u n i o n -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n u n i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8 7 .4
98. 9
99. 8
75. 8

Ite m

M ean a d ju s tm e n t (p e rc e n t):
A l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------A l l u n i o n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a j o r u n i o n -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M ean in c r e a s e (p e rc e n t):
A l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------A l l u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a j o r u n i o n -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M ean a d ju s tm e n t (c e n ts p e r h o u r):
A l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------A l l u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a j o r u n i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------N o n u n i o n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------M ean in c r e a s e (c e n ts p e r h o u r):
A l l m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------—------------------------------------A l l u n i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a j o r u n i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------N o n u n i o n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

88.
98.
99.
76.

85. 9
9 8 .3
98. 8
69. 6

6, 0 3 8

89.
97.
98.
82.

9
8
3
9

1974

1975

8 ,2 2 3

8 .3 9 2

5 . 812

94. 9
98. 7
9 9 .2
89. 8

93. 7
9 8 .3
9 9 .2
8 7 .4

89.2
98. 6
9 7 .3
82. 3

6.
6.
5.
5.

7.
8.
8.
7.

8
1
7
5

7. 0
8. 7
9 .8
5. 7

0
0
9
9

5.
7.
7.
4.

9
3
9
6

6.2
7. 6
8. 1
4. 6

6. 9
9 .2
10. 9
3. 9

5 .0
5. 7
6. 6
4. 4

6.
7.
7.
6.

8
4
9
1

7.
7.
8.
6.

1
7
1
0

8.
9.
11.
5.

1
4
0
7

5.
5.
6.
5.

6
8
7
3

6 .3
6. 1
6. 0
6. 6

8 .4
8. 2
8. 7
8. 6

1 6 .4
2 1. 2
23. 0
11. 7

1 9 .3
25. 0
28. 2
12.2

24.
33.
40.
11.

3
7
8
7

1 6. 6
20. 1
2 4 .2
1 3 .4

21.6
23. 8
2 5 .4
18. 5

3 1. 1
3 5 .3
4 1 .0
2 6. 1

29. 7
4 1. 0
45. 9
2 1 .4

18. 8
2 1 .4
23. 0
15. 5

21. 8
2 5 .4
28. 2
16. 0

28.
34.
41.
17.

3
3
3
0

1 8 .4
20. 6
24. 7
16. 2

22.
24.
25.
20.

3 3 .4
35. 9
4 1. 3
29. 7

3 3 .3
41. 6
47. 2
2 6. 1

1 T h i s t a b l e i n c l u d e s u n i o n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n ­
i n g a g r e e m e n t s w h i c h w e r e n e g o t i a t e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d a n d a l l n o n u n io n
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y f i r m s w h ic h n o r m a lly g r a n t g e n e r a l w a g e i n c r e a s e s .
T h e B u r e a u a s s u m e s t h a t e x c e p t in t h o s e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h m a k e
in d iv id u a l w a g e a d j u s t m e n t s o n ly , a l l n o n u n io n f i r m s m a k e a n n u a l w a g e
d e c is io n s w h e th e r w a g e s a r e a c tu a lly c h a n g e d o r n o t, s in c e , in th e a b s e n c e
o f r e p o r t s o f w a g e c h a n g e s , t h e r e i s n o o b j e c t i v e w a y o f d e t e r m i n i n g if
a c h a n g e w a s c o n s i d e r e d . E x c e p t a s n o te d b e lo w , th e f i r s t - y e a r m e a s u r e s
f o r u n io n w o r k e r s in c lu d e a ll c h a n g e s n e g o tia te d d u r in g th e p e r io d an d




6
1
8
7

1973

1972

67

8
2
6
7

7.
8.
10.
6.

8
9
1
9

s c h e d u l e d to g o in t o e f f e c t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 1 2 m o n t h s o f th e a g r e e m e n t s ;
f o r n o n u n io n w o r k e r s th e y in c lu d e a l l c h a n g e s r e s u lt i n g f r o m u n i l a t e r a l
m a n a g e m e n t d e c i s i o n s d u r in g th e p e r io d . E x c e p t f o r g u a r a n te e d m in im u m
i n c r e a s e s , a u to m a tic c o s t- o f - liv in g e s c a l a t o r a d ju s tm e n ts r e s u lt i n g f r o m
m o v e m e n ts in th e p r i c e in d e x a r e e x c lu d e d . M e a s u r e s o f i n c r e a s e in c lu d e
o n ly t h o s e w o r k e r s w h o s e w a g e s w e r e i n c r e a s e d ; m e a s u r e s o f a d j u s t m e n t
in c lu d e w o r k e r s w h o s e w a g e s w e r e u n c h a n g e d o r d e c r e a s e d a s w e ll a s
in c re a s e d .
M e d ia n s a r e a v a ila b le f r o m 1959 to th e p r e s e n t .
M eans
a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r p e r i o d s p r i o r to 1 9 6 9 .

Chapter 11. Salary Data for Government Employees
T he Bureau o f L abor Statistics currently prepares
reports on salary levels and trends for selected categor­
ies of governm ent employees—U.S. G eneral Schedule
employees, firefighters, police o f the patrol rank, urban
public classroom teachers, and refuse collectors. Salary
levels published are minimum and maximum annual
salary scales for firefighters, police, and refuse collec­
tors; average salaries for teachers; and both salary scales
and average salaries for U.S. G eneral Schedule em ploy­
ees. All except the relatively new report on refuse
collectors contain indexes o f long-term salary m ove­
ments.
D ata for the four occupations o f firefighters, police,
teachers, and refuse collectors apply to cities o f 100,000
inhabitants or m ore in 1970, and are published for the
N ation as a w hole and by region and city-size group
(figures 36—
38). Material on individual cities is not
presented. D ata for U.S. G eneral Schedule employees
are published only for the Nation as a w hole (figure 39);
they are supplemented by textual discussion of wage
developments.

Presentation
R eports appear annually in the m onthly periodical
W age D e v e lo p m e n ts (CW D). Press releases
containing summary data for firefighters and police
precede publication of the articles. Until 1977, salary
changes for teachers w ere reported biennially, since the
basic data w ere issued at 2-year intervals.

Data sources

C u rre n t

Salary trend reports are prepared largely from
secondary sources. F o r U.S. G eneral Schedule em ploy­
ees, reports are based on data published by the U.S.
Civil Service Commission in its annual report P a y
S tru c tu re o f th e F e d e r a l C iv il S ervice; for teachers,
reports are based mainly on data from the Educational
Research Service, Inc. (form erly obtained from the
National Education Association); and for firefighters,
police, and refuse collectors, data are obtained mainly
from the International City M anagem ent Association.
This inform ation is supplemented by data from annual
surveys o f salaries and w orking conditions conducted
by the International Association o f Fire Fighters and
the F raternal O rder o f Police and, when necessary, by
direct inquiries by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics.

Uses and limitations
Salary trend reports are useful as sources o f com par­
ative wage data for union, management, and govern­
ment officials engaged in wage setting and as research
tools for econom ic analysts. These reports are one of
the relatively few sources o f data on wage movem ents
and levels in the governm ent sector, in w hich labormanagement negotiations have become increasingly
important. T he tem ptation may be to use salary trend
reports as indicators o f salary movem ents for govern­
ment em ployees in general. H ow ever, the particular
groups covered by these reports are by no means a
representative sample for this purpose. Since the
statistical series presented are largely derived from
materials collected by other agencies, presentation of
consistent data for all employee groups is not always
possible.

Statistical procedures
Statistical analysis for these series is confined largely
to the preparation o f indexes o f salary movem ents o f the
various groups o f governm ent employees. Sampling
problems do not arise since in each case an effort is




made to examine the total universe, i.e., all U.S. G eneral
Schedule employees; all firefighters and police in cities
o f 100,000 population o r m ore in 1970; all refuse
collectors in cities of this size w hich have municipal
refuse collection systems; and all public classroom
teachers in cities o f 100,000 inhabitants or m ore and
also, since 1967, in counties o f this size in Standard
M etropolitan Statistical A reas that have countyw ide
school systems.
Indexes are com puted by a m ethod that minimizes
the effect o f year-to-year changes in relative em ploy­
ment in the cities or occupational categories covered.
As a rule, chain indexes are employed; i.e., the index for
the current year is obtained by adjusting the index for
the prior year by the percentage change in average
salaries over the intervening period. T o preserve a pure
measure of salary change, average salaries for each o f
the 2 years are com puted using constant weights
(employm ent in the most recent year).

68

—REFEREN CES—

Borum, Joan. “Police and Firefighters’ Salary Scales, January
1976,” Current Wage Developments, February 1977.
Kuhmerker, Peter. “Teachers’ Pay Rises 15.2 Percent from
1973 to 1975, and 7.2 Percent from 1975 to 1976,”
Current Wage Developments, February 1977.

Lacombe, John. “Moderate Rise in Salary Scales of Refuse
Collectors Recorded in 1975,” Current Wage Develop­
ments, February 1977.
LeRoy, Douglas. “Salaries for U.S. General Schedule Em­
ployees Rose 5.1 Percent in October 1976,” Current
Wage Developments, March 1977.

Figure 36
Table 1. Percent change in minimum and maximum annual salary scales of firefighters and police, by city population
size and region, 1971-76
Region 2 /

C ity p o p u latio n s iz e
O ccu p atio n al
group
and y ear

A ll c i t i e s
100,000
and
over

Over
999,999

500,000
to
999,999

250,000
to
499,999

100,000
to
249,999

N orth­
east

South

North
C entral

Best

Minimum
F i r e f i g h t e r s and p o l i c e
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 .....................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 .....................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................

35.9
6.5
5.3
6.2
6.7
6.9

35.4
8.2
4.0
6. 7
3.9
8. 6

36.8
5.9
6.5
4.5
9.7
5.7

36.5
4.0
6.3
7.2
8.7
6.0

35.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
7.6
5.8

34.8
9.6
5.3
6.2
3. 2
6.6

39.1
3.9
8.4
6.1
9.8
5.9

32.3
4.6
3.3
6.0
7.8
7.0

39.3
6. 1
4. 8
6.4
8. 5
8. 6

F irefig h ters
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 .....................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 .....................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................

36.4
6.4
5.5
6. 1
7.2
6.8

3 6. 4
8.4
4.3
6.6
3.8
9. 1

36.5
6.5
5.6
4.3
10.4
5.6

37.2
3.7
6.8
7.6
8.3
6.4

35.8
5.7
6.2
6.0
7.8
5.7

34.4
9.3
5.4
6.4
3.4
6. 3

39.8
4.0
8.1
6.4
9.8
6.5

33.0
5.0
3.8
5.2
8.9
6.5

39 .
6.
4.
6.
8.
8.

P o lic e
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 .....................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 .....................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 ......................................................

35.6
6.6
5.2
6 .2
6.4
6.9

35.0
8. 1
3.9
6.7
4.0
8.4

36.9
5.6
7. 1
4. 7
9.3
5.7

35.9
4.3
6.0
6.9
9.0
5.7

35.1
5.4
6.0
6.4
7.4
5.8

35. 0
9.7
5. 3
6.2
3. 1
6. 8

38.6
3.9
8.7
6.0
9.9
5.4

32.0
4. 4
3.0
6.4
7.3
7.2

39. 1
6. 1
4. 7
6.4
8. 4
8.6

7
0
9
5
7
6

Maximum
F i r e f i g h t e r s and p o l i c e
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 ......................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 97 4 - 19 7 5 ......................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 ......................................................

42. 1
7.1
8.5
6.4
7.6
7.0

44 . 1
8.7
9. 9
6.6
4.7
8.3

42.3
6.0
8.6
5.1
11. 1
5.7

40.9
4.8
6.6
8.1
9.6
6.4

39.1
6.4
6.4
6.4
8.6
6.4

42.2
8.6
12. 5
6 .3
3. 3
6.5

47.0
4.9
10.7
6.6
12.0
6.2

37.8
6.3
4 .3
5.9
9.5
7.0

42. 4
7. 6
4.4
7. 3
8.5
9. 0

F irefig h ters
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 .....................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 .....................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................

41.9
6.8
8.1
6.6
6. 1
6.9

44.4
8. 4
10.6
6. 6
4. 6
8.7

42.0
6.6
7.4
5.3
11.4
5.6

42.0
4.8
7.0
8. 3
9.5
6.8

38.9
6.4
6.2
6.5
8 .6
6.2

40. 3
8. 2
11.6
6.6
3. 5
6. 1

47.8
5.3
9,6
7.0
1 1 .9
6.8

38.1
6.3
4.8
5.6
10.0
6.6

41.5
6.7
4. 4
7.3
8. 7
8. 8

Police
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 .....................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 .....................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 4 .....................................................
1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 .....................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 .....................................................

42. 2
7.2
8.7
6.4
7.3
7.0

43.9
8. 9
9.7
6.6
4.7
8. 1

42.5
5.6
9.4
5.0
10. 9
5.7

40.0
4.8
6. 3
7.8
9.8
6.1

39.2
6.4
6.6
6 .3
8.5
6.6

43.2
8. 8
13.0
6.2
3. 2
6.6

46.3
4.6
11.4
6.4
12 . 1
5.6

37.7
6.4
4.1
6.0
9.2
7.2

42. 9
8. 2
4.4
7. 3
8.3
9. 1

1 / D a t a f o r 1976 a r e p r e l i m i n a r y .
£ / R egions c o m p rise th e fo llo w in g s t a t e s :
N o r t h e a s t - - C o n n e c t i c u t . H a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , NeB H a m p s h i r e , New J e r s e y , New Y o r k ,
P e n n s y l v a n i a , Rho de I s l a n d , a n d V er m o n t ;
S o u th --A la b a m a . A rk a n s a s, D elaw are, D i s t r i c t o f C olum bia, F l o r i d a , G e o rg ia , Kentucky,
L o u i s i a n a , M a r y l a n d , M i s s i s s i p p i , N o r t h C a r o l i n a , O k l a h o m a , S o u t h C a r o l i n a , T e n n e s s e e , T e x a s , V i r g i n i a , an d N e s t V i r g i n i a ;
North
C e n tr a l - - I l l i n o i s . I n d i a n a , I o w a , K an sas, M ic h ig a n , M in n e s o ta , M is s o u r i, N e b ra s k a , N orth D a k o ta , O hio, South D ak o ta, and W isc o n sin ;
B e s t — A l a s k a , A r i z o n a , C a l i f o r n i a , C o l o r a d o , H a w a i i , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , N e v a d a , New M e x i c o , O r e g o n , U t a h , W a s h i n g t o n , a n d Hyom ing .
H ow e v e r, n o t e v e r y s t a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d .
NOTE:
To l i m i t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s i n c o m p u t i n g p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n a v e r a g e minimum o r maximum s a l a r i e s b e t w e e n
each p a i r of y e a rs
( f o r e x a m p l e , 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 o r 1 9 7 1 - 7 6 ) , t h e a v e r a g e i s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e tw o p e r i o d s u s i n g c o n s t a n t w e i g h t s
(employment i n t h e l a s t o f e a ch p a i r of y e a r s ) .
S l i g h t r e v i s i o n s i n some o f t h e d a t a a r e d u e t o r e v i s e d c o m p u t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s .




69

Figure 37

Table 1. Percent change in minim um and m axim um annual salary scales of refuse collectors, by city population
size and region, 1 9 7 2 -7 6 1
C ity

Year

A ll
c ities
100,000
and
over

Ov e r
999,999

population siz e

500,000
to
999,999

250,000
to
999,999

Region 2 /

100,000
to
299,999

N orth­
east

South

N orth
C entral

West

29.1
5. 1
6.0
7.9
3.8

39.1
7.3
8.7
7.9
6.8

33.6
6 .2
7.0
9.9
7.2

30. 6
9. 6
7.9
8. 9
7. 9

35.7
15.2
6.5
7.5
3.9

35.6
6.0
9.9
1 0 .1
6.6

32. 1
5.3
6.5
10.3
6.8

29.6
3. 8
7.7
9. 3
6. 3

Minimum
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 6 ............................................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 ............................................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 9 .............................................................................
1 9 7 9 - 1 9 7 5 .............................................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 ............................................................................

2 8. 8
5.8
6.9
8. 0
5.9

26.9
5.2
6.6
8.2
9.6

31.8
6.6
8.6
6.7
6.9

30.6
5.9
5.6
9.2
6.5

1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 6 ............................................................................
1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 ............................................................................
1 9 7 3 - 1 9 7 9 ............................................................................
1 9 7 9 - 1 9 7 5 ............................................................................
1 9 7 5 - 1 9 7 6 ............................................................................

39.5
10.6
7.2
8.6
5.0

36.5
19.2
6.6
8.1
9.2

26.8
3.7
7.3
8.3
6.2

39.7
5.7
9.7
9.9
5.5

31.0
7.1
7. 1
7.6
6.2
Maximum
35. 1
7.2
7.9
9.9
6.6

\y
D a t a f o r 1976 a r e p r e l i m i n a r y .
E egions com prise th e fo llo w in g s t a t e s :
No r t h e a s t - - C o n n e c t i c u t . M a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , New H a m p s h i r e , New J e r s e y , New Y o r k ,
P e n n s y l v a n i a , Rhode I s l a n d , a n d V e r m o n t ;
S o u th --A lab am a. A rk a n s a s, D elaw are, D i s t r i c t o f C olum bia, F l o r i d a , G e o rg ia , Kentucky,
L o u i s i a n a , M aryland, M i s s i s s i p p i , North C a r o l i n a , Oklahoma, S o u th C a r o l i n a , T e n n e s s e e , T e x a s , V i r g i n i a , and B e s t V i r g i n i a ;
Nort h
Ce n t r a l — I l l i n o i s , I n d i a n a , I o w a , K a n s a s , M i c h i g a n , M i n n e s o t a , M i s s o u r i , N e b r a s k a , N o r t h D a k o t a , O h i o , S o u t h D a k o t a , a n d H i s c o n s i n ;
ye s t — A l a s k a , A r i z o n a , C a l i f o r n i a , C o l o r a d o , H a w a i i , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , N e v a d a , New M e x i c o , O r e g o n , D t a h , W a s h i n g t o n , a n d Wyoming.
H o w e v e r, n o t e v e r y s t a t e i s r e p r e s e n t e d .

NOTE:
To l i m i t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s i n c o m p u t i n g p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n a v e r a g e minimum o r maximum s a l a r i e s b e t w e e n
each p a i r o f y e a r s
' f o r e x a m p le , 1975-76 o r 1 9 7 2 - 7 6 ) , t h e a v e r a g e i s o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e two p e r i o d s u s i n g c o n s t a n t w e i g h ts
^ em p l o y m e n t i n t h e l a s t o f e a c h p a i r o f y e a r s ) .
S l i g h t r e v i s i o n s i n so me o f t h e d a t a a r e d u e t o r e v i s e d c o m p u t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s .




70

Figure 38

Table 4 .

Percent distribution of urban public classroom teachers by change in average annual salary, 1971 to 1973
R e g io n 1

I n h a b it a n ts
C h a n g e in a v e r a g e
annual sa la ry

A ll
5 0 0 , 000 2 5 0 , 000 10 0 , 000
1 , 000, 000
and
N ew
s y s te m s
and
M id d le
an d
or
under
u n d e r E n g la n d A t l a n t i c
under
m o re
1 . 00 0 .0 0 0 5 0 0 . 000 2 5 0 . 000

B o rd e r
S ta te s

S o u th ­
east

G reat
L ake 8

M id d le
W est

C e n tra l
S o u th ­
w est

M oun­
ta in

P a c ific

P erc en t
T o ta l —
In c re a se s:
U n d e r 2 . 5 -----------------------------2 . 5 a n d u n d e r 5. 0 ----------------5. 0 a n d u n d e r 7. 5 - 7. 5 a n d u n d e r 1 0. 0 ----- ~
10. 0 a n d u n d e r 12. 5 ------------12. 5 a n d u n d e r 1 5. 0 ------- ~
15. 0 a n d u n d e r 1 7. 5 —
----17. 5 a n d u n d e r 2 0 . 0 ------------2 0 . 0 a n d u n d e r 2 2 . 5 ------------2 2 . 5 a n d u n d e r 2 5 . 0 ------------2 5 . 0 a n d u n d e r 2 7 . 5 ------------27. 5 and u n d e r 30. 0 —
3 0 . 0 a n d u n d e r 3 2 . 5 ------------3 2 . 5 a n d u n d e r 3 5 . 0 ------------3 5 . 0 a n d u n d e r 3 7. 5 ------------3 7 . 5 o r m o r e ------------------------D e c re a se s
”
------ — "

100. 0

100 . 0

10 0 . 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1. 8
8. 9
14. 0
12. 7
12. 4
1 4 .2
10. 9
3. 3
4. 6
11. 5
4. 5
. 8
. 4

5. 9
6. 8
15, 7
7 .4
6 .4
41. 6
1 6 .2
-

2. 2
7. 7
23. 2
20. 2
12. 5
15. 1
14. 7
4. 4
-

1 3 .2
15. 6
17. 7
14. 8
17. 7
9. 7
6. 8
1. 6
. 2. 8
-

6. 6
10. 2
13. 7
1 3. 0
16. 9
28. 3
4. 5
6. 8
*
-

1. 0
2. 3
7. 7
4. 5
1 6. 0
. 6
2. 9
65. 0
-

3. 1
2. 7
8. 9
23. 3
13. 9
13. 9
23. 9
8. 0
2. 3
-

2. 7
1 5. 8
13. 2
11. 3
24. 7
7. 6
8. 2
2. 2
9 .2
1. 7
3. 4
-

-

3 .6
3 4 .3
26. 4
22. 5
5. 7
7. 4
-

21. 1
12. 6
6. 0
45. 1
15. 2
-

0. 4
1.2
27. 1
6 .9
8 .4
46. 9
7. 3
1. 9
-

-

-

-

-

3. 8
12. 0
14. 4
1 3. 5
4. 1
9. 6
4. 9
10. 9
24. 6
2. 1

12. 9
32. 1
21. 7
1 8 .4

-

4. 6
9 .3
18. 2
14. 4
1 5. 6
9. 2
11. 9
8. 1
5. 0
0. 9
1. 1
. 5
1. 3

-

-

-

-

100. 0

100, 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

0. 8
1. 0
1. 2
5. 0
5. 5
3. 6
7 .2
5. 8
5 .3
6. 7
6 .4
2. 6
3. 0
2. 7
4. 3
7. 3
4 .4
5. 0
. 5
1. 5
. 7
. 3
. 9
1. 7
. 4
. 1
11. 7
4. 2
. 4

5. 9
6. 8
15. 7
7 .4
6. 4
41. 6
16. 2
-

2. 2
7. 7
2. 5
6. 1
6 .9
8. 8
13. 9
1 3. 1
4. 7
.
12. 2
9 .9
3. 9
3. 8
4. 4
-

2. 9
10. 2
6. 0
1. 8
13. 7
7. 2
2. 1
5. 2
10. 6
4. 1
4. 6
6. 7
1. 8
12. 6
4. 7
1. 2
1. 6
2. 8
-

1. 2
1. 5
3. 5
11. 3
5. 1
4. 9
10. 2
5. 2
3. 4
8. 6
22. 5
1. 0
1. 7
3 .2
2. 2
8.2
1.0
1. 7
3 .4
'

1. 2
2. 6
8. 2
3. 8
1. 1
2. 7
16. 9
2. 1
5. 0
2. 6
1. 5
6. 5
3. 1
1 .9
1 .4
1. 6
9. 8
1.2
24. 6
2. 1

12. 9
4. 9
2 7 .2
21. 7
12. 3
6. 1
6. 7
4. 9
3. 3
-

21. 1
7. 5
5. 1
6. 0
1 4. 3
30. 9
15. 2
-

-

3. 1
2. 7
1. 6
3. 3
9. 1
6. 8
11. 4
4. 2
1 .4
8 .4
7. 9
10. 8
9. 1
2 .3
8. 3
1. 7
8. 0
-

3. 6
2 .3
1 3 .2
37. 7
1 8. 5
2. 1
1 3. 6
3. 6
5 .4
-

-

6. 6
1 8 .3
1 2 .4
6. 2
7. 4
9. 5
2 8. 3
4. 5
6. 8
-

1. 0
1. 0
1. 3
7. 7
. 9
4. 5
1. 3
2. 5
12. 0
1 .2
1. 6
2. 2
62. 8
-

-

1. 0
3. 6
2. 0
3. 3
7. 2
6. 2
8 .9
7. 6
5. 7
8. 9
7. 8
5. 9
2. 9
4. 3
3. 7
3 .3
2. 2
4. 2
. 8
1. 7
2 .4
1. 0
3. 0
. 5
. 7
1. 3

-

-

0. 4
1. 2
4. 9
17. 6
4 .6
5. 5
1 .4
3. 0
5. 5
4. 3
1. 7
3 2 .4
11. 7
1 .9
2. 1
1 .9
-

562

146

129

127

159

17

97

72

106

96

22

55

22

-

-

6. 7
4. 9
3. 3

D o lla rs
T o ta l - - - - In c re a se s:
U nder $100 $ 1 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 0 0 ----------$200 and u n d er $300
$ 3 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 0 - -- $ 4 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0 0 ----------$ 5 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 0 -----------$ 6 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 0 -- - —
$700 and u n d e r $800 $ 8 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 0 0 ----------$ 9 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1 , 000 ------$ 1 , 000 a n d u n d e r $ 1 , 100 —
$ 1 , 100 a n d u n d e r $ 1 , 200 —
$ 1, 2 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1, 3 0 0 —
$ 1, 3 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1, 4 0 0 —
$ 1, 4 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1, 500 —
$ 1, 5 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 1, 6 0 0 —
$ 1 , 600 an d u n d e r $ 1 , 700 —
$ 1, 700 a n d u n d e r $ 1, 8 0 0 —
$ 1 , 800 a n d u n d e r $ 1 , 9 0 0 —
$ 1 , 900 an d u n d e r $ 2 , 000 —
$ 2 , 000 a n d u n d e r $ 2 , 100 —
$ 2 , 10 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 , 200 —
$ 2 , 200 and u n d e r $ 2 , 300 —
$ 2 , 300 and u n d e r $ 2 ,4 0 0 —
$ 2 , 400 an d u n d e r $ 2 , 500 —
$ 2 , 500 and u n d e r $ 2 , 600 —
$ 2 , 600 a n d u n d e r $ 2 , 700 —
$ 2 , 7 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 2 , 800 —
$ 2 , 800 o r m o r e
--------D e c r e a s e s ----- —
—
-----N u m b e r of t e a c h e r s ( in
th o u s a n d s ) “

1
T h e r e g io n s u s e d in t h i s s tu d y a r e : N e w E n g la n d — o n n e c tic u t,
C
M a i n e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , N e w H a m p s h i r e , R h o d e I s l a n d , V e r m o n t; M id d le
A tla n tic — e w J e r s e y , N ew Y o rk , P e n n s y lv a n ia ; B o r d e r S ta te s — e la w a r e .
N
D
D i s t r i c t o f C o lu m b i a , K e n tu c k y , M a r y l a n d , V i r g i n i a , W e s t V i r g i n i a ;
S o u th e a s t— la b a m a ,
A
F lo r id a ,
G e o rg ia ,
M is s is s ip p i,
N o r th C a r o lin a ,
S o u th C a r o l i n a ,
T e n n e s s e e ; G r e a t L a k e s — llin o is , In d ia n a , M ic h ig a n ,
I
M i n n e s o t a , O h io , W i s c o n s i n ; M i d d le W e s t - I o w a . K a n s a s , M i s s o u r i , N e -




71

-

75

b r a s k a , N o r t h D a k o ta , S o u th D a k o ta ; C e n t r a l S o u th w e s t - A r k a n s a s , L o u i ­
s i a n a , O k l a h o m a , T e x a s ; M o u n t a i n - A r i z o n a . C o l o r a d o , Id a h o , M o n ta n a ,
N e v a d a , N e w M e x i c o , U ta h , W y o m in g ; a n d P a c i f i c -^ A la s k a . C a l i f o r n i a ,
H a w a ii, O r e g o n , W a s h in g t o n .
N O T E : B e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g , s u m s o f i n d i v id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

Figure 39
Table 2. Minimum General Schedule salary scalea by grade, selected dates, August 1939-October 1975
M in im u m b a s i c s a l a r y s c a le , b y g r a d e
E ffe c tiv e d a te o f c h a n g e
1‘

A u g u s t 1 9 3 9 -------A u g u s t 1 9 4 2 -------J u l y 1 9 4 5 -------------J u l y 1 9 4 6 -------------J u l y 1 9 4 8 -------------N o v e m b e r 1949 J u l y 1 9 5 1 -------------M a r c h 1 955 ---------J a n u a r y 1 9 5 8 -----J u l y I 9 6 0 -----------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 2 -----J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 ------J u l y 1 9 6 4 ------------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 5 ------J u l y 1 9 6 6 ------------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 -----J u l y 1 9 6 8 -------------J u l y 1 9 6 9 ------------D e c e m b e r 1969 —
J a n u a r y 1 9 7 1 -----J a n u a r y 1 9 7 2 -----J a n u a r y 1 9 7 3 -----O c t o b e r 1 9 7 3 ------O c t o b e r 1 9 7 4 -----O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 -------

$ 1 , 180
1 ,2 6 0
1, 5 0 6
1. 7 5 6
2 , 086
2 , 20 0
2, 5 0 0
2 , 690
2, 960
3, 185
3, 2 4 5
3, 305
3, 385
3, 5 0 7
3, 6 0 9
3, 7 7 6
3, 8 8 9
3, 8 8 9
4 , 125
4, 326
4 , 5 64
4, 798
5, 0 1 7
5, 2 9 4
5, 559

$ 1 ,4 4 0
1, 4 4 0
1, 7 0 4
1, 9 5 4
2. 2 8 4
2 ,4 5 0
2, 7 5 0
2, 9 6 0
3, 255
3, 5 0 0
3, 5 6 0
3, 6 2 0
3, 6 8 0
3, 8 1 4
3, 9 2 5
4 , 108
4 , 231
4, 360
4, 621
4, 987
5, 166
5, 4 3 2
5, 6 82
5, 9 9 6
6, 2 96

10

A u g u s t 1 9 3 9 ------------------------------------------A u g u s t 1 9 4 2 ------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 4 5 -------------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 4 6 -------------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 4 8 -------------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 9 --------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 5 1 ------------------------------------------------M a r c h 1 9 5 5 --------------------------------------------J a n u a r y 1 9 5 8 -----------------------------------------J u l y I 9 6 0 ------------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 2 ------------------------------------------J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 ------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 6 4 -------------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 5 ------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 6 6 -------------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 -----------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 6 8 ------------------------------------------------J u l y 1 9 6 9 ------------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 9 -------------------------------------J a n u a r y 1 971 -----------------------------------------J a n u a r y 1 9 7 2 ------------- --------- —
- ■
J a n u a r y 1 9 7 3 ------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 7 3 ------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 7 4 ------------------------------------------O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 -------------------------------------------

2

11

12

$ 3 , 800
3, 8 0 0
4, 300
4 , 902
5. 2 32
5, 4 0 0
5, 9 4 0
6 , 390
7, 0 3 0
7, 5 6 0
8. 0 4 5
8, 4 1 0
8, 6 5 0
8, 961
9, 2 2 1
9, 6 5 7
10, 2 0 3
11, 233
11, 9 0 5
1 2, 6 1 5
1 3, 309
1 3 ,9 9 6
1 4 ,6 7 1
1 5, 4 8 1
1 6, 2 2 5

$ 4 , 600
4, 6 0 0
5, 100
5, 905
6 , 235
6, 400
7, 0 4 0
7, 5 7 0
8, 3 3 0
8, 9 5 5
9, 4 7 5
9, 9 8 0
10, 2 5 0
1 0, 6 1 9
10, 927
11, 4 6 1
12, 174
1 3, 3 8 9
1 4, 192
15, 0 4 0
15, 866
1 6, 6 8 2
1 7, 4 9 7
18, 4 6 3
19, 3 8 6

$ 3 , 500
3, 5 0 0
3. 9 7 0
4, 526
4 , 856
5, 0 0 0
5, 5 0 0
5 , 915
6 , 500
6 , 995
7, 2 9 0
7, 6 9 0
7. 9 0 0
8, 184
8, 4 2 1
8, 821
9, 2 9 7
10, 252
1 0 , 869
1 1, 5 1 7
12, 151
1 2, 775
13, 3 7 9
1 4 ,1 1 7
14, 8 2 4

3
$ 1,
1,
1,
2,
2,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3,
3,
3,
4,
4,
4,
4,
4,
4,
5,
5,
5,
6,
6,
6,
7,

1 A l l g r a d e s in t h e s u b p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e c l e r i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
a n d f i s c a l , a n d in th e p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h e d u le s e s t a b l i s h e d b y th e C l a s s ­
if ic a tio n A c t o f 1923 h a v e b e e n c o n v e r te d to e q u iv a le n t G e n e r a l S c h e d u le
g r a d e s a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y th e C la s s if i c a t i o n A c t o f 1 9 4 9 . M in im u m b a s ic
s a l a r y s c a l e s o f g r a d e 1 u n d e r th e 1 9 2 3 A c t w e r e c o m p u t e d b y w e ig h t i n g
e q u a lly th e b a s e p a y f o r e a c h o f th e t h r e e g r a d e s ( s u b p r o f e s s io n a l g r a d e s
1 and 2 and c le r ic a l, a d m in is tr a tiv e , an d fis c a l g ra d e 1 ) th a t w e re c o m ­
b in e d in to th is G e n e r a l S c h e d u le g r a d e .
2 G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e g r a d e s 1 6 -1 8 w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e C l a s s ­
i f i c a ti o n A c t o f 1 9 4 9 . S o m e e m p lo y e e s p r e v io u s l y w o r k e d in p o s itio n s




72

620
620
902
16 8
498
650
950
175
495
760
820
880
005
149
269
466
600
917
212
524
828
612
408
764
102

4
$ 1,
1,
2,
2,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3,
4,
4,
4,
4,
4,
4,
4,
5,
5,
5,
6,
6,
6,
7,
7,
7,

800
800
10 0
394
724
875
175
415
755
040
110
215
480
641
776
995
145
522
853
202
544
882
198
596
976

13
$5,
5,
6,
7,
7,
7,
8,
8,
9,
1 0,
11,
11,
12,
1 2,
12,
1 3,
14,
1 5,
1 6,
17,
1 8,
19,
20,
21,
22,

600
600
230
102
432
600
360
990
890
6 35
150
725
075
510
873
507
409
812
760
761
737
700
677
8 16
906

5

6

$ 2 , 000
2 , 000
2, 3 2 0
2, 6 4 5
2, 975
3 . 100
3, 4 1 0
3, 6 7 0
4, 040
4 , 345
4, 565
4, 690
5, 0 0 0
5, 181
5, 331
5, 565
5, 7 3 2
6, 176
6, 548
6, 9 3 8
7, 319
7, 6 9 4
8, 0 5 5
8 , 500
8, 9 2 5

$ 2 , 300
2, 3 0 0
2, 6 5 0
3, 021
3, 351
3, 4 5 0
3, 7 9 5
4, 080
4, 490
4 , 830
5, 035
5, 2 3 5
5, 505
5, 7 0 2
5, 867
6, 137
6 , 321
6, 882
7 , 2 94
7, 7 2 7
8, 153
8, 5 7 2
8, 9 7 7
9, 4 7 3
9, 9 4 6

14
$ 6 , 500
6, 500
7, 175
8, 180
8, 5 1 0
8, 800
9, 6 0 0
1 0, 3 2 0
1 1 , 355
1 2 , 2 10
1 2 , 845
13, 6 1 5
14, 170
14, 6 8 0
1 5 , 106
15, 841
16, 946
1 8, 531
19, 6 4 3
2 0 , 815
21, 960
23, 088
2 4 , 247
2 5 ,5 8 1
2 6 , 861

15
$ 8, 000
8, 000
8, 7 5 0
9, 975
1 0, 305
31 0 , 000
1 0 , 800
1 1 , 610
1 2 ,7 7 0
13, 7 30
1 4, 5 6 5
1 5, 6 6 5
16, 460
17, 0 5 5
1 7, 5 5 0
1 8, 4 0 4
1 9 , 7 80
21, 589
2 2 , 885
2 4 , 251
25, 583
26, 898
28, 263
2 9 , 818
31, 309

7
$ 2,
2,
2,
3,
3,
3,
4,
4,
4,
5,
5,
5,
6,
6,
6,
6,
6,
7,
8,
8,
9,
9,
9,
10,
11,

600
600
980
397
727
825
205
525
980
355
540
795
050
269
451
734
981
639
098
582
053
520
969
520
046

16

$ 11,
12,
12,
14,
1 5,
1 6,
16,
18,
19,
20,
20,
22,
25,
26,
28,
29,
31,
32,
3 4,
36,

(1
2)
(2)
(2)
( 2)
(2)
20 0
000
900
190
255
000
000
935
619
075
982
835
044
547
129
678
203
806
607
338

8
$2,
2,
3,
3,
4,
4,
4,
4,
5,
5,
6,
6,
6,
6,
7,
7,
7,
8,
8,
9,
10,
10,
11,
11,
12,

900
900
310
773
103
200
620
970
470
885
090
390
630
869
068
384
699
449
956
493
013
528
029
640
222

17
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2 )
$ 1 2 , 200
13, 0 0 0
13, 9 7 5
1 5 , 375
16, 530
1 8, 000
18, 000
2 1 ,4 4 5
22, 217
2 2, 760
2 3 , 788
26, 264
28, 976
30, 714
32, 546
3 4 , 355
36, 000
36, 000
36, 000
3 7 ,‘ 8 0 0

9
$ 3, 2 0 0
3 ,2 0 0
3, 6 4 0
4 , 150
4 , 4 80
4, 600
5, 0 6 0
5, 4 4 0
5, 985
6, 435
6, 675
7, 0 3 0
7, 2 2 0
7, 4 9 7
7, 6 9 6
8, 0 5 4
8, 4 6 2
9, 3 2 0
9, 881
10, 4 7 0
11, 0 4 6
1 1, 6 1 4
1 2, 167
1 2 , 841
13, 4 8 2
18
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
$ 14, 0 0 0
1 4, 8 0 0
414, 800
1 7, 5 0 0
1 8, 5 0 0
2 0 , 000
2 0 , 000
24, 500
2 5 , 382
2 5 , 890
2 7 ,0 5 5
52 8 , 000
33, 495
35, 505
3 6, 0 0 0
36, 000
36, 000
36, 000
36, 000
3 7, 8 0 0

c l a s s i f i e d a t a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e G S -1 6 . T h e r a t e s p a i d w o r k e r s
in t h e s e p o s i ti o n s , h o w e v e r , w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y s p e c if i c l e g i s l a t i o n .
3 U n d e r p r o v is io n s o f th e C la s s if i c a t i o n A c t o f 1949, th e f o r m e r
r a t e o f $ 1 0 ,3 3 0 (th e s e c o n d s te p o f th e g r a d e u n d e r p r e c e d in g l e g i s ­
l a t i o n ) w a s c o n v e r t e d t o $ 1 0 , 5 0 0 , t h e m i d d l e r a t e o f t h e n e w G S -1 5 .
4 R a i s e d to $ 1 6 , 0 0 0 b y t h e F e d e r a l E x e c u t i v e P a y A c t o f 1 9 5 6 ,
a p p r o v e d J u ly 3 1 , 1 9 5 6 , e f f e c tiv e o n th e f i r s t d a y o f th e f i r s t p a y p e r io d
a f te r Ju n e 30, 1956.
5 I n c r e a s e d to $ 3 0 , 2 3 9 o n t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e fir=*t p a y p e r i o d
a f t e r F e b . 1 4, 1 9 6 9 .

Chapter 12. The Employment Cost Index
In M ay 1975, representatives o f the Bureau o f Labor
Statistics (BLS) began visiting employers across the
Nation to gather information on wages and salaries for a
m ajor new com pensation series - the Em ploym ent Cost
Index (ECI). This survey was the first step in the
developm ent o f a m onthly measure o f the trend in
wages, salaries, and benefit costs in the total civilian
economy, w hich would provide, as well, detailed
subindexes for occupational, industrial, geographic, and
other characteristics o f the measure.
The index is being implemented in stages. The first
stage, publication o f a quarterly measure o f changes in
straight-tim e hourly earnings in the private nonfarm
economy, was com pleted in 1976. T he second stage,
expansion to a measure o f total compensation including
benefits for the same industrial coverage, is now
underway. This is to be followed by coverage o f the
rem ainder o f the civilian economy (governments,
agriculture, and households), and finally, to com plete
the index, publication o f m onthly measures with ex­
panded industry detail.

Background
F o r many years a need had been evident for a
com prehensive measure o f change in the price o f labor
(defined as the rate o f com pensation) com parable to the
measure o f change in the price o f commodities provid­
ed by the Consumer Price Index. T he attem pt to
understand and cope w ith inflation in the late 1960’s
provided the immediate stimulus to fill this gap in our
national statistics.
In the course o f developing the EC I, the Bureau
obtained the advice o f representatives o f governm ent,
business, labor, and the academic and professional
statistics communities, and tested alternative methods
to accomplish the objectives o f the program at mini­
mum cost to taxpayers and w ith a minimum burden on
employers participating in the survey. Taking into
consideration the suggestions received and the experi­
ence gained in testing, the Bureau established the
conceptual and statistical fram ework for the ECI.

Data collection
The basic unit o f data collection is an occupation in
an establishment. These occupations—such as accoun­
tant, electrician, truckdriver, and nurse—are generally
broader in scope than required in other BLS occupa­
tional wage surveys. Each occupation in an establish­
ment is broken dow n into specific jobs for which
compensation data are collected. In situations w here it
is not feasible to report data for every job in the
occupation, sampling procedures are used to select a
limited set o f jobs or w orkers to represent the occupa­
tion.
In addition to being capable of disaggregation into
specific jobs, the data reported for occupations can be

Description of survey
T he current survey covers all employees in the
private nonfarm econom y with the exception o f private



household workers. A gricultural and governm ent em­
ployees are excluded, as well as the self-employed,
proprietors, unpaid family workers, and the initial and
tem porary exclusion o f Alaska and Hawaii. Establish­
ments o f all sizes are included.
The E C I is based on a probability sample of both
establishments and occupations. A pproxim ately 2,300
establishments, representing the entire spectrum of
employers in the private nonfarm economy, are partici­
pating in the survey. This size was determ ined to be the
minimum from w hich reliable subindex statistics could
be obtained. These establishments w ere selected in tw o
phases.
The first phase consisted o f selecting 10,000 estab­
lishments from the com plete universe o f employers in
the private nonfarm econom y and obtaining em ploy­
ment information for a sample o f 23 occupations per
industry from a total o f 441 occupations. Five certainty
occupations w ere selected for each industry in the firstphase sample on the basis o f their im portance in the
industry according to the 1970 Census; the remaining 18
( 2 per occupational group) w ere selected by probability
sampling.
The occupational em ploym ent information reported
by the establishments in the first-phase survey (or in
some instances from a prior independent occupational
em ploym ent survey) was used to select the final sample
of 2,300 establishments and a set o f up to 23 occupations
for w hich data would be collected from each establish­
ment. This sample has a built-in statistical flexibility for
expansion in detail and scope, and for sample replenish­
ment within the fram ework o f the survey design.

73

period. E C I statistics are com puted from com parable
wage and benefit cost data collected from a m atched
sample o f establishments and occupations from quarter
to quarter. A verage com pensation for each occupation
in each o f 62 industry groupings is com puted for the
current and previous survey quarters. These averages
are w eighted by occupational em ploym ent reported in
the 1970 census. T he ratios o f the weighted aggregates
o f one quarter to the prior quarter form a time series of
relatives that can be chained to form indexes w hich are
expressed as a percentage of the base reference period.
T he E C I statistics are now published as quarterly
percentage changes rather than in index form to avoid
confusion caused by shifts o f the reference base as the
index is expanded in scope. W hen the expansion is
complete, indexes will be published.

aggregated into the broader families o f occupational
classifications w hich are the m ajor occupational
groups. Thus a com plete and integrated fram ework is
available for organizing the survey data.
T he prim ary information collected in the ongoing
wage and salary survey is the straight-time average
hourly earnings for the pay period encompassing or
closest to the 12th o f the survey month. Straight-time
earnings are total earnings before deductions, excluding
premium payments (for overtim e and for w ork on
weekends and holidays) and shift differentials. P ro­
duction bonuses and cost-of-living allowances are
included in straight-tim e earnings. Earnings are calcu­
lated as an hourly rate, even for workers paid on some
other basis, such as salaried employees or employees
paid under an incentive wage system.
T he com putation of the average pay rate for an
occupation involves averaging the individual rates by
workers, using employm ent rather than hourly weights
for the com ponent jobs.
O ther data collected in the wage and salary survey
are employm ent for occupations in the index, certain
characteristics o f w orkers in the occupation, such as
union or nonunion status, or part- or full-time em ploy­
ment, incentive or time-rated work, and year-round or
seasonal work, and certain characteristics o f the estab­
lishment, i.e., industry and location. These characteris­
tics are used in controlling for employm ent shifts and in
tabulation o f the data.
D ata on benefits are now also being collected along
w ith wage and salaries. T he benefit data include
information on benefit practices, em ployer expendi­
tures, and workweeks, from w hich an em ployer’s cost
in cents per hour w orked is calculated for the survey
occupations. This cost is added to the occupational
earnings to obtain a total compensation cost per hour
worked. A quarterly report o f changes in benefit
practices provide data for repricing benefit costs, w hich
are also autom atically recalculated, if wage-related,
w hen wage changes occur.
A nother area o f E C I expansion now underw ay is the
extension o f coverage to include governments. T he
sampling frame for this phase is being developed. D ata
from governm ents will be combined w ith data from the
private econom y to com pute measures for the total
civilian economy, excluding agriculture and house­
holds, and will provide an industry subseries “ Public
A dm inistration”, as defined in the 1972 S ta n d a r d

Presentation
E C I statistics are now regularly published for the
reference m onths o f M arch, June, September, and
Decem ber. T he statistics appear quarterly in a press
release, in the second m onth after the survey period.
F o r example, statistics com puted from the survey data
for Decem ber, M arch, June, and September, are
published in February, May, August, and Decem ber,
respectively. D ata from the press release presenting the
Septem ber 1976 E C I are shown in figure 40. Reprints of
the release and the com plete series starting with
Septem ber 1975 appear in the m onthly BLS publication
C u rre n t W age D ev elo p m en ts.

Separate detail is now published for the total private
nonfarm economy, for each o f four broad geographic
areas o f the United States, for five m ajor industry
divisions, and for eight m ajor occupational groups. A t
the national level, measures are also published for
w orkers covered by collective bargaining agreem ents
and those not covered, and for establishments in or
outside o f m etropolitan areas.
T he regional coverage is as follows: N o r th e a s t Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, N ew Hampshire,
N ew Jersey, N ew York, Pennsylvania, R hode Island,
and Verm ont; S o u th - Alabama, Arkansas, D elaw are,
D istrict o f Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
Louisiana, M aryland, Mississippi, N orth Carolina,
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia,
and West Virginia; N o rth C e n tr a l - Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebras­
ka, N orth D akota, Ohio, South D akota, and Wisconsin;
and West - Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho,
M ontana, Nevada, N ew Mexico, Oregon, Utah, W ash­
ington, and W yoming.

I n d u s tr ia l C la ssifica tio n M a n u a l

Computation
T he E C I is a fixed employment, base-weighted
average o f changes in the rate o f com pensation ex­
pressed as a relative o f average rates in a reference base



T he five m ajor industry divisions are:
C ontract construction
74

M anufacturing
Wholesale and retail trade
Transportation, communication, electric, gas, and
sanitary services
Services, except private household
All other private nonfarm industries, except house­
holds, are covered in the survey and in the overall
measure, but the sample size is insufficient to support
publication at this time for the other private nonfarm
m ajor industry divisions, e.g., mining, and finance,
insurance, and real estate.
T he eight occupational groups are:
Professional, technical, and kindred workers
M anagers and administrators, except farm
Clerical and kindred workers
Craft and kindred workers
Operatives, except transport equipment
Transport equipment operatives
Laborers, except farm
Service workers, except private household
In 1978 the group “ Salesworkers” will be added to
the published series.
W hen sufficient benefit data are collected to establish
a base period, a set o f measures of changes in com pensa­
tion will be com puted from the data, generally in the
same m anner and w ith the same detail as for wages and
salaries. In addition some limited series on benefits
alone are under consideration for publication.

Comparison with other series
T he E C I, w hen fully developed, will differ from
other m ajor series prim arily in the greater degree o f
occupational detail it will provide. Also, it will cover
m ore industries and types o f compensation than the
hours and earnings series (chapter 5); be more timely
than the survey o f em ployer expenditures for employee
compensation (E E E C ) (chapter 4), and be freer o f the
effects o f em ploym ent shifts w hich influence the
m ovem ent o f most o f the other m ajor series. On the
other hand, the E C I does not have the industrial detail
provided by the hours and earnings series, and was not
designed to provide the information on levels o f pay
available from either the hours and earnings or the
E E E C surveys.
T here are also differences in the statistical design
between the E C I and other compensation series. EC I
data are collected from a joint probability sample of
occupational and establishment employment, rather
than from a universe or sample of establishments. The
E C I statistics therefore represent changes in occupa­




tional compensation rather than changes in compensa­
tion for the establishment.

Uses and limitations
T he Em ploym ent Cost Index will provide, for the
first time, a com prehensive and timely measure of
changes in the rate o f em ploym ent compensation, free
of m uch of the influence o f em ploym ent shifts. Such a
measure may be especially useful for understanding and
explaining trends in compensation, forecasting such
trends, and relating them to other economic variables.
In addition, it may be o f use in the formation o f wage
decisions by parties to collective bargaining and in
contract cost escalation, as well as for those presently
unforseen uses w hich inevitably arise from the ingenui­
ty of the users. The E C I is not, how ever, intended as a
substitute for existing measures o f compensation, all of
w hich are useful for their purposes. In many instances,
it may com plem ent or illuminate existing statistical
series.
The limitations of the index must be kept in mind.
Because the E C I is an index, it measures changes rather
than levels of compensation. Further, the index is not a
measure o f the total cost o f em ploying labor. Some
labor costs (e.g., training expenses, retroactive pay, etc.)
do not fall under the Em ploym ent Cost Index definition
of compensation. Also, total em ploym ent costs vary
w ith the amounts and types o f labor used—factors
w hich are held constant in the Em ploym ent Cost Index.
In its initial stage the E C I will not cover all employers
and employees and all compensation; ultimately this
limitation will be eliminated. M oreover, the index is not
a pure rate measure. A lthough straight-time hourly
earnings provide a close approximation o f the rate and
the Em ploym ent Cost Index is designed to eliminate
employm ent shifts among establishments, industries,
and occupations, em ploym ent shifts within the occupa­
tions and longevity pay increases will influence the
level o f earnings reported by the respondent.
Some of these limitations are tem porary; some are
built into the conceptual fram ework of the measure;
others stem from deficiencies in the state of the art of
measurement w hich will be resolved in time with
research and improvem ents in technique.
—REFERENCES—
Sam uels, N orm an J. “D e v e lo p in g a G en eral W a g e In d ex ,”
Monthly Labor Review, M arch 1971, pp. 3 -8 .
Sh eifer, V ic to r J. “E m p lo y m en t C o st Index: A M easure o f
C h a n g e in th e ‘P rice o f L ab or’,” Monthly Labor Review,
Ju ly 1975, pp. 3 -1 2 .
U .S . D ep a rtm en t o f L abor, B ureau o f L abor Statistics. “T h e
E m p lo y m e n t C o st In d ex ”, C h. 25, BLS Handbook of
Methods, B u lletin 1910, 1976.

75

Figure 40

Rate of wage and salary changes in Employment Cost Index,
September 1975 through September 1976
(In percent)
3 months ending

Series
December
1975

March
1976

June
1976

September
1976

12 months ending
in September 1976

All private nonfarm workers .........
Workers, by occupational group
Professional, technical, and kindred workers.
Managers and administrators, except farm ....
Clerical and kindred workers ...............
Craft and kindred workers ..................
Operatives, except transport ...............
Transport equipment operatives .............
Laborers, except farm ......................
Service workers, except private household ...

1.8

1.9

1.7

1.5

7.2

1.7
1.3
1.8
1.8
2.2
1.7
2.U
3.3

l.U
1.3
2.2
1.9
2.8
1.2
2.1
1.9

1.1
2.1
1.3
2.0
0.8
1 .5
*
1.9
3.3

1.7
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
0.6
1.2
o.i*

6.1
5.8
7.1*
7.9
8.0
8.3
7.8
9-1

Workers, by industry division
Construction ..............................
Manufacturing .............................
Transportation and public utilities ........
Wholesale and retail trade .................
Services ..................................

2.1
2.6
1.8
1.8

1.9
1.9
2.2
1.5

3.1
1.5
2.8
2.2
1.5

2.6
1.8
1.3
0.9
1.7

7.1*
8.9
7.3
6.6

Workers, by region
Northeast .................................
South .....................................
North Central .............................
West .............................. t......

l.»*
1.5
2.3
2.1

0.9
2.1*
1.5
3.3

1.1*
1.3
1.6
2.3

2.5
1.7
1.5
0.5

6.3
7.0
7.1
8.6

Workers, by bargaining status
Occupations covered by collective bargaining
agreements ..............................
Occupations not covered by collective bargaining agreements .......................

2.1*

1.6

1.8

2.1*

8.5

1.6

2.0

1.6

1.1

6.5

Workers, by area
Metropolitan areas .........................
Other areas ...............................

1-9
1.6

1.9
2.2

1.5
2.1*

1.7
0.9

7.1
7.1

Bote:

The statistics are percent changes in straight-time average hourly earnings
example, the 1.7 percent change for the "all private nonfarm worker" series
actual percent change in straight-time average hourly earnings from the pay
survey month of March to the comparable period in June. The statistics are
adjusted for seasonal influences.

over the period indicated. For
in the second quarter 1976 is the
period including the 12th of the
not annualized, nor are they

The computation of percent changes spanning more than one survey period is accomplished by compounding
successive changes for individual quarters. In actual practice, the compounding calculations are made to the
fifth decimal place.
Dashes in the table indicate that the data collected were insufficient to meet statistical criteria for
publication during the periods indicated.




76

Chapter 13. Income and Earnings Data from the 1972-73
Consumer Expenditure Survey
In each year, the sample for each com ponent consisted
of approxim ately 10,000 families. M ore com plete in­
formation concerning the design and conduct of both
com ponents o f the survey appears in “The 1972-73
Consumer Expenditure Survey,” published in the
D ecem ber 1974 issue o f the M o n th ly L a b o r R eview .

Consumer expenditure surveys are specialized stud­
ies in w hich the prim ary emphasis is on collecting data
relating to family expenditures for goods and services.
In order to analyze the determ inants o f expenditures,
the surveys also collect information on the amount and
com position o f family income, on changes in savings
and debts, and on m ajor dem ographic and socioeco­
nomic characteristics o f families.
Since 1888, the Bureau o f Labor Statistics (BLS) has
periodically conducted surveys of consum er expendi­
tures, savings, and income. These have been the only
com prehensive sources o f detailed information on
expenditures, income, and changes in assets and liabili­
ties related to the socioeconomic and dem ographic
characteristics o f families in the United States. The
Consumer Expenditure Survey of 1972-73, the eighth
m ajor survey o f this type, and the first since 1960-61,
extends this tradition. Unlike previous surveys, the
collection o f data was carried out by the Bureau o f the
Census under contract to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Past surveys have been designed to meet a great variety
o f user demands. T he 1972-73 survey was undertaken
in part to revise the weights and associated pricing
samples in the current Consumer Price Index, and in
part to help m eet the need for timely, accurate, and
detailed information on how Am erican families earn
and spend their income.

R e f e r e n c e P e r io d

T he interview survey collected information on
wages and salaries from employm ent and on income
from self-employment for each member o f the consum­
er unit aged 14 years old and over. In addition, data
w ere obtained on income received by the consum er unit
from other sources. (See figure 41 for details.) Income
data reported in 1972, the first year of the interview
survey, consisted o f estimates o f total income from all
sources for 1971 and estimates o f income detail for 1972;
income data reported in the second survey year
consisted o f total estimates for 1972 and detailed
estimates for 1973.
In the diary survey, income data w ere collected for
each consum er unit m ember for the previous 12 months.
Incom e from other sources covered the same period.
(See figure 42 for details.) Thus, the reference period
for income covered the 12 months prior to the time that
the consum er unit participated in the survey.
C o n c ept of Inc o m e

Description of survey

Incom e as collected in both the diary and interview
surveys is conceptually identical—that is, it reflects
T he BLS com pleted the 1972-73 Consumer Expend­
total money income from all sources earned by all
iture Survey in June 1974. Covering the civilian
family members during a 12-month period. T he concept
noninstitutional population over a period of 2 years, the
excludes other money receipts such as inheritances or
survey consisted o f tw o separate components: (1) A
bequests, lump-sum settlements from casualty insur­
diary or recordkeeping survey com pleted by respon­
ance, and occasional gifts o f cash from persons outside
dents for tw o 1-week periods, and (2) an interview
the family. On the other hand, the estimates o f income
panel survey in w hich consumer units, or families,
as published in separate reports o f the tw o surveys can
reported information to interview ers every 3 months
vary due to differences in the collection o f income
over a 15-month period.1 T he diary com ponent covered
detail. A review o f figures 41 and 42 points out these
the period July 1972-June 1974, and the interview
differences in collection detail. T he estimate of income
com ponent covered the 1972 and 1973 calendar years.
as presented in tables from the interview survey
provides for a reduction in money wages and salaries
1
A consumer unit is defined as (1) a family of two persons or more for occupational expenses but includes food and rent
usually living together who pool their income and draw from a
received as pay. These adjustments are not possible in
common fund for their major items of expense, or (2) a single
the diary survey because such detailed information was
consumer who is financially independent of any family group. The
not collected.
single consumer may be living alone in a separate housing unit;
rooming in a private home, lodging house, or hotel; or sharing a unit.
T he estimates of income as published may differ




77

betw een the tw o surveys in several other respects. The
income estimate in the interview survey is adjusted for
the net value o f food stamps (exchange value minus
cost). This adjustment cannot be made in the diary
survey because food stamp information was not collect­
ed in the first-year diary. A similar explanation applies
to the net value from the sale o f stock (sale price minus
cost). This value is included in the income estimate in
the interview survey, but since it was not specifically
collected in the diary survey, it is excluded from the
estimate o f income in that survey.

Uses and limitations
T he BLS consum er expenditure survey is the only
nationwide study w hich links the levels o f family
income to patterns o f consum er expenditure and saving.
This linkage permits the user to classify expenditures by
income alone or in conjunction w ith other socioeco­
nomic and dem ographic characteristics of the consum er
unit. F o r example, the income information can be of
value in studies o f the welfare o f particular population
groups such as the aged, low-income earners, urban
dwellers, or food stamp recipients. The Internal R eve­
nue Service has used average expenditures o f families
classified by income and family size as the basis for
revising its average sales tax tables, w hich taxpayers
may use in filing Federal income tax returns. Aside
from its im portance in the C PI revision program , the
Bureau o f L abor Statistics will use the information to
revise and update its family budget estimates. The
income data from the survey will be of interest to
policym akers studying income differences over time or
the distribution of income among different socioeco­
nomic groups or different geographic areas. Econom e­
tricians will find the data useful in constructing models
o f consum ption and savings behavior. M arket research­
ers will find them valuable, together with the expendi­
ture data, in analyzing the demand for a broad group of
consum er goods and services.

Comparison with other series
T w o agencies o f the D epartm ent o f Com m erce—the
Bureau o f the Census and the Bureau o f Econom ic
Analysis—regularly publish estimates o f family income.
W hile there are some similarities betw een the BLS
income concept and that o f the Bureau of the Census,
w hich collects family m oney income information annu­
ally in its C urrent Population Survey (CPS), some
differences do exist.2 First, the population coverage o f
the CPS is som ewhat broader than that o f the BLS
survey, as the CPS includes military personnel living
on-post w ith their families. Second, the CPS definition
o f a family differs from the BLS definition o f a
consum er unit. T he CPS defines a family as a group of
persons living together w ho are related by blood,
marriage, or adoption. Members o f a group who are
unrelated to the head o f the family are treated as
separate families or unrelated individuals. A third
difference, w hich applies only to the BLS diary survey,
concerns the time period covered by the income data.
T he CPS income estimates are based on surveys
conducted in M arch o f each year and cover the
preceding calendar year (as does the BLS interview
survey). Incom e data from the diary survey, on the
other hand, are obtained throughout the year, covering
the 12 months preceding the time of the interview.
Finally, the Bureau of the Census imputes values when
respondents fail to answer income questions; the BLS
does not apply im putation techniques to the income
section. In addition, the BLS interview survey collect­
ed income in m ore detail than the CPS survey.
T here are also differences betw een incom e in the
BLS survey and the income estimate published by the
Bureau o f Econom ic Analysis (BEA), w hich annually
compiles the National Incom e and P roduct Accounts.

R e l i a b i l it y

T he income data from the interview and diary
surveys are subject to tw o types of errors—sampling
and nonsampling. Sampling errors could have occurred
because observations w ere not taken from the entire
population. Nonsampling errors can be attributed to
m any sources, such as inability to obtain information
about all the respondents in the sample, definitional
difficulties, differences in the interpretation o f ques­
tions, inability or unwillingness o f the respondent to
provide correct information, mistakes in recording or
coding the data obtained, and other errors of collection,
response, processing, and coverage. W ith regard to
consum ption categories, this applies especially to the
“alcoholic beverages” and “tobacco” components,




w hich historically have been underreported in house­
hold surveys. T he accuracy o f the results o f a survey is
determ ined by the joint effects of sampling and nonsam­
pling errors.
T he limitations o f income data collected from
household surveys are discussed in chapter 6 in some
detail. M ost o f the caveats apply to the data collected in
the expenditure survey as well. W hile standard errors
for the expenditure survey income data have not been
com puted, they are likely to be larger than those shown
in chapter 6 for the CPS because the sample is smaller
for each year. A rough estimate is that the standard
error for 1 year’s data would be about tw ice that shown
in chapter 6 and about 1.6 times that for the 2 years’
data combined.

2 For a detailed discussion of earnings data from the CPS, see ch. 6.

78

being made available in tw o different forms. First,
publications can be obtained containing tables which
are similar to those produced for the 1960-61 Survey,
showing income in detail by socioeconomic and dem o­
graphic characteristics. Second, tapes are to be made
available w ith as m uch detail as is consistent w ith the
confidentiality policies o f BLS and the Bureau of the
Census. Users may then decide on their ow n definition
o f income.

First, the population coverage o f the BLS survey is not
as broad as that o f the BEA, the latter including
nonprofit institutions, inmates o f institutions, and onpost military personnel. Second, personal income data
in the National A ccounts reflect various imputed
values, the most im portant o f w hich are rental value of
owner-occupied homes and services furnished without
paym ent by financial intermediaries. Third, BEA in­
cludes as income the value o f food and clothing issued
to military personnel and the accrued interest on
governm ent bonds. N one o f these items are considered
as income in the BLS survey.
Excluded from total personal income in the National
A ccounts is a large and grow ing com ponent in the BLS
survey—that is, the Social Security contribution of
employees and the self-employed. These contributions
are a part o f BLS wages and salaries and self-employ­
ment income but are deducted in arriving at personal
income in the National Accounts. O ther exclusions
from B E A ’s income com ponent are income received in
the form o f alimony, separate maintenance payments,
and contributions for support. All o f these are included
in the BLS definition of income.

—REFERENCES—
U .S .

o f L abor, B ureau o f L abor Statistics.

Consumer Expenditures and Income: Survey Guidelines.
B u lletin 1684, 1971.
D o c u m e n ts th e planning, op eration , and evalu ation o f the
S u rv ey o f C on su m er E xp en d itu res, 1960-61, and lays the
fou n d ation for plan n in g su rv ey s in th e 1970’s.
C arlson, M ich a el D . “T h e 1972-73 C on su m er E xp en d itu re
S u r v e y ,” Monthly Labor Review, D e c e m b e r 1974, pp.
16-23.
U .S .

D ep a rtm en t

o f L abor, B ureau o f L abor Statistics.

Consumer Expenditure Survey Series: Diary Survey, 1972
and 1973. R ep o rt S eries 448, 1976.

Presentation

_________ , __________ Consumer

Expenditure Survey Series:
Interview Survey, 1972 and 1973. R ep o rt Series 455,

T he 1972-73 Consum er Expenditure Survey data are




D ep a rtm en t

1976.

79

Figure 41

Figure 42

Level of income detail collected— interview survey

Level of income detail collected— diary survey
Money income before taxes

Money income before taxes
Wages and salaries
Civilian occupations
Wages and salaries
Minus: Occupational expenses
Plus: Food received as pay
Rent received as pay

Wages and salaries
Net income from own business and professional practice
Net income from own farm

Armed Forces
Pay on active or reserve duty
Quarters and subsistence allowances

Social security and railroad retirement
Estates, trusts, and dividends; net rental income; and interest
on savings accounts and bonds

Self-employment income
Net income from own business and professional practice
Net income from own farm

Welfare payments and other public assistance
Unemployment and workers' compensation, government
pensions, and veterans' payments

Income from roomers and boarders
Income from rental property and royalties
2
Profit from stocks and bonds
Interest from bonds, savings accounts, loans, etc.
Dividends from stock, mutual funds, etc.

Private pensions and annuities, alimony, and other income

Other income
Social security and railroad retirement
Federal civil service retirement
State and local government retirement
Private pensions, annuities, and retirement
Veterans' compensation and benefits
Unemployment insurance, government
Unemployment insurance, private
Welfare and other public assistance
Regular contributions for support
Insurance refunds
Other money income, including workers' compensation
Income from subleasing
Federal food stamps (value received minus cost)
Refunds from property taxes, from Federal, State, and
local taxes, from social security taxes,
or from other taxes received in the survey year
Personal taxes paid
Federal income taxes
State and local income taxes
Personal property taxes
Other taxes
Money income after taxes
*

T h e le v e l o f d e t a i l in

p u b lic a t io n s m a y v a r y f r o m

t h e le v e l o f

c o lle c t io n d e p e n d in g o n t h e r e l ia b i l it y o f t h e d e t a il.
2

The

tra n s a c tio n s

v a lu e

o f s e c u r itie s

s o ld

in

th e

s u rv e y y e a r

less t h e c o s t o f t h o s e s a m e s e c u r it ie s p u r c h a s e d in t h e s u r v e y y e a r .




80

Chapter 14. Comparing Statistical Series
incom e and social security taxes. By separately co m p u t­
ing social security contributions (5.85 p ercen t o f earn ­
ings), w e can estim ate the independent influence o f
incom e taxes. In sim ilar fashion, by com paring cu rren td o llar and real spendable earnings—th e latter obtained
by dividing th e form er by th e C P I—w e can isolate the
im pact o f p rice changes since 1967.
F ig u res 44 and 45 are illustrative o f reconciliation o f
som e o f th e com pensation series discussed in the
preced in g chapters. In figure 44 an attem p t is m ade to
identify and quantify th e factors responsible for differ­
ences in th e m ovem ent o f th e H o u rly E arnings Index
and th e h o u rly com pensation series, using th e interm e­
diate series show n in th e u p p er h a lf o f th e table.
C om parison o f th e 7.1-percent annual rate o f increase in
the H o u rly E arnings Index d u rin g th e th ird q u arter o f
1976 w ith th e 6.5-percent gain in gross h o u rly earnings
im plies a com bined im pact o f -0.6 percen tag e points
because o f fluctuations in overtim e in m anufacturing
and in terin d u stry em ploym ent shifts.3 T h e separate
effect o f o vertim e in m anufacturing can be approxim at­
ed by m ultiplying th e difference betw een changes in
straight-tim e and gross h o u rly earnings in m anufactur­
ing by one-third, the relative w eight o f m anufacturing
in th e p riv ate nonfarm econom y. By subtraction, the
separate im pact o f interin d u stry em ploym ent shifts can
then be found.
A ssum ing th a t th e difference betw een the 6.5-percen t rise in h o u rly earnings in th e p riv ate nonfarm
econom y aijd th e 6.2-percent gain in h o u rly w ages and
salaries reflects co v erag e differences in th e tw o series,
w e attrib u te a -0.3 percentage-point im pact to the
inclusion o f supervisory o r n o n p ro d u ctio n w o rk ers in
th e p riv ate secto r and all em ployees in governm ent
enterprises in the w ages and salaries series and the
exclusion from these data o f em ployees in nonprofit
institutions. F inally, com parison o f h o u rly w ages and
salaries and h o u rly com pensation indicates a 0.5-per­
centage-point effect o f changes in supplem entary bene­
fits.
T h e individual factors show n in th e lo w er h alf o f
figure 44 “explain” th e different m ovem ents o f the
H o u rly E arnings Index and h o u rly com pensation.

A nalysts freq u en tly co m p are statistical series.1 O ne
goal is th e in d irect stu d y o f th e d iffe re n c e betw een tw o
available series. A t o th e r tim es, th e aim is to explain
variations in th e signals given o u t b y different sets o f
d ata w h ich p u rp o rt to m easure th e sam e basic p h enom ­
enon. S uch studies m ay be com plicated b y a m ultiplici­
ty o f factors. A side from re p o rtin g erro rs, variations in
series findings m ay be th e result o f differences in:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6 .
7.
8 .
9.
10.

C o n cep t
W o rk er c o v erag e
G e o g rap h ic co v erag e
Industrial co v e rag e
E stablishm ent size cu to ff
T im ing
U nit o f m easurem ent
C ollection techniques
E stim ating techniques
Sam ple size and variability

T h e m ore closely related th e series being com pared,
th e few er are th e factors th a t h av e to be considered and
the g re a te r th e confidence th a t can be placed in the
result. T h e follow ing exam ples use a relativ ely sim ple
techniq u e and serv e as an in tro d u ctio n to th e co m p ari­
son o f statistical series.
F ig u re 43 illustrates m easurem ent o f the factors
resulting in different levels o f series on av erag e w eekly
earnings and real spendable w eekly earnings for a
m arried w o rk e r w ith th ree dependents w h o earn ed the
averag e w eekly earnings. S ince the la tte r series is
d eriv ed from d ata on av erag e w eekly earnings, the
factors causing v ariatio n are co n tro lled and it is possible
accu ra te ly to ac co u n t for differences betw een the
series. T hus, application o f th e form ula2 for com p uting
cu rren t-d o llar spendable w eekly earnings to seasonally
adjusted av erag e w eekly earnings o f $176.89 in the
th ird q u arte r o f 1976 yields spendable earnings o f
$156.95, im plying a tax liability o f $19.94 for F ed eral
1 For example, see Paul M. Schwab, “Two Measures of Purchasing
Power Contrasted,” Monthly Labor Review, April 1971, pp. 3-14;
Victor J. Sheifer, “The Relationship Between Changes in Wage Rates
and in Hourly Earnings,” Monthly Labor Review, August 1970, pp. 1017; and Victor J. Sheifer, “Reconciling Labor Department and
Stabilization Agency Wage Data,”Monthly Labor Review, April 1973,
pp. 24-30.
2 See Eric Dmytrow and Janet Grimes, “Changes in the Spendable
Earnings Series for 1976: Effects of The Tax Adjustment Act of 1975
and the Social Security Tax Base Change,” Employment and Earnings,
March 1976, pp. 6-13.




Moreover, the sum o f their effects, -0.4 percentage points in
the third quarter o f 1976, equals the difference between
the changes in the two series.
3
The effect is negative since gross earnings rose less rapidly than
the Index.

81

F ig u re 45 presents a sim ilar co m p arativ e analysis—in
this case b etw een changes in h o u rly com pensation o f all
persons in th e p riv ate business sec to r and real spendable
w eekly earnings o f m arried p ro d u c tio n o r nonsupervisory w o rk e rs in th e p riv ate nonfarm eco n o m y w ith
th ree dep en d en ts w h o earn ed th e av erag e w eekly
earnings.
T h e p ro c ed u re follow ed in figures 43-45 is m ost
satisfactory w h e re th e differences am ong series can be
attrib u ted solely to co n cep tu al and co v erag e differ­
ences, ra th e r th an m easurem ent errors. T hus, in figure
44 th e com bined effect o f o v ertim e in m anufacturing
and in terin d u stry em p lo y m en t shifts is readily ap p aren t
in th e co m p arativ e m ovem ents o f th e H o u rly E arnings
Index and gross h o u rly earnings, w h ich are g en erated
from th e sam e statistical d ata base and differ solely in
term s o f com p u tatio n al p ro c ed u re s designed to isolate
th e Index from th e tw o forces un d er co n sid eration.4
M o reo v er, since consistent gross and straight-tim e
h o u rly earnings d ata are available fo r m anufacturing, it
is possible to separate th e influence o f o vertim e flu ctua­
tions in this sector, th ere b y allow ing th e isolation o f
em ploy m en t shifts.
4 See above, p. 39.




82

W hen series are developed independently, h o w ev er,
e rro rs in m easurem ent in b o th sets o f d ata— rep o rtin g
errors, random sam pling errors, and so fo rth —m ay
affect th e spread betw een them . T h erefo re, differential
changes in h o u rly w ages and salaries o f all em ployees in
the nonfarm

business sector and hourly

earnings o f

p ro d u ctio n o r nonsupervisory w o rk ers in th e p riv ate
nonfarm econom y, although attrib u ted in figures 44 and
45 to th e co v erag e differences o f th e tw o series, also
reflect th e m easurem ent erro rs in the tw o sets o f data.
In this reg ard , attributing the 1.4-percentage point
difference in th e second q u arte r o f 1976 betw een th e
8.3-percent increase in w ages and salaries o f all em p lo y ­
ees and th e 6.9-percent increase in earnings o f p ro ­
ductio n o r nonsupervisory w o rk ers to th e effect o f pay
changes for th e residual g ro u p im plies substantial
adjustm ents for these em ployees, w h o co n stitu te a small
fraction o f th e total w o rk force.5
* For detailed comparisons of series emphasizing these techniques,
see Jack Alterman, “Compensation per Man-Hour and Take-Home
Pay,” Monthly Labor Review, June 1971, pp. 25-34; John F. Early,
“Factors Affecting Trends in Real Spendable Earnings,” Monthly
Labor Review, May 1973, pp. 16-19; and Thomas W. Gavett,
“Measures of Change in Real Wages and Earnings,” Monthly Labor
Review, February 1972, pp. 48-53.

Figure 43

Factors accounting for differences between average weekly earnings and real spendable weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers
in the private nonfarm economy, 1974 I - 1976 III
(Earnings data are seasonally adjusted.)
1974

1975

1976

Item
I

Average weekly earnings .........................................................
Less:
Income taxes1 ................................................................
Social security taxes1 ..................................................
Current-dollar spendable weekly earnings2 ........................
Less:
Price change ..................................................................
Real spendable weekly earnings

2

...........................................

II

III

IV

II

I

III

1

IV

II

III

$149.87

$152.76

$156.55

$158.39

$159.63

$161.61

$165.07

$169.16

$172.34

$174.61

$176.89

10.27
8.77
130.83

10.75
8.94
133.07

11.41
9.16
135.98

11.71
9.27
137.41

11.92
9.34
138.37

7.98
9.45
144.18

6.38
9.66
149.03

7.05
9.90
152.21

8.78
10.08
153.48

9.18
10.21
155.22

9.59
10.35
1 56.95

38.45

41.60

45.16

48.26

50.37

53.85

57.51

60.23

61.76

63.50

65.55

92.38

91.47

90.82

89.15

88.00

90.33

91.52

91.98

91.72

91.72

91.40

4.2
5.9
35.6

5.1
5.9
35.8

5.3
5.9
36.4

5.4
5.9
37.1

Percent of average weekly earnings
Income taxes ................................................................
Social security taxes ....................................................
Consumer price change ...............................................

Taxes
who




a r e th o s e w h ic h a r e a p p lic a b le t o

e a rn e d t h e a v e ra g e w e e k ly

e a r n in g s .

6.9
5.9
25.7

a m a r r ie d w o r k e r w it h

7.0
5.9
27.2

3 d e p e n d e n ts

7.3
5.9
28.8

7.4
5.9
30.5

M a r rie d

7.5
5.9
31.6

w o r k e r w ith

4.9
5.9
33.3

3.9
5.9
34.8

3 d e p e n d e n t s w h o e a r n e d t h e a v e ra g e w e e k ly

e a r n in g s .

Figure 44

Factors "explaining" differences in changes1 in the Hourly Earnings Index for the private nonfarm economy and in hourly compensation
of employees in the nonfarm business sector, 1974 I - 1976 III
1976

1975

1974
Item
1

II

III

IV

1

II

III

IV

1

II

III

Quarterly percent changes at annual rates
Basic measures
Production or nonsupervisory workers:
Hourly Earnings Index, private nonfarm ec o n o m y ..........
Straight-time hourly earnings, manufacturing .................
Gross hourly earnings, manufacturing.................................
Gross hourly earnings, private nonfarm econ om y............
All employees:
Hourly wages and salaries, nonfarm business sector . . . .
Hourly compensation, nonfarm business sector ..............

7.6

8.0
6.4
6.8
7.5

6.9
7.8
9.2
7.3

6.5
7.6
6.8
6.9

7.1
10.1
10.3
6.5

7.0
7.6

6.6
6.6

7.4
7.2

8.3
9.3

8.3
8.4

6.2
6.7

9.0

7.3

8.4

8.0

6.9

6.5

7.1

-1 .1
-1 .6

-1 .5

.6
-1 .4

.1
-.6

.5
-.1

-.3
.7

.1
-.7

1.8
.7

4.7
1.1

1.2
.6

- 1 .0

- .1
-.2

1.0
1.0

1.4
.1

-.3
.5

11.2

12.1

7.6

6.6

9.3

8.4

6.7

7.2
6.1
5.2
6.5

10.3
11.7
10.1
9.1

10.4
14.1
14.6
10.3

9.4
12.3
10.5
8.7

9.0
11.0
7.8
6.3

7.3
6.0
6.1
5.8

8.4
6.5
8.4

8.4
9.2

11.0
11.3

11.0
11.3

10.5
11.2

11.0
12.1

7.2

10.3

10.4

9.4

-.3
-.4

-.5
-.7

.2
-.3

1.9
.8

1.9
.3

.7
.3

9.2

11.3

11.3

Analysis o f spread
Hourly Earnings Index, production or nonsupervisory
workers, private nonfarm economy
......................................
Effect (in percentage points) of:
Overtime in manufacturing2 ..................................................
Interindustry employment shifts ........................................
Supervisory or nonproduction workers in the private
sector and all employees in government enterprises.
less employees in nonprofit institutions ..........................
Supplementary benefits .........................................................
Equals: Hourly compensation, all employees, nonfarm
business s e c to r..............................................................................




1

C o m p u te d fro m

s e a s o n a l ly a d j u s t e d d a t a .

-.6
-.1

C o m p u te d

by

—

7.2

m u l t i p l y i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c h a n g e s in s t r a i g h t - t i m e a n d

g r o s s h o u r l y e a r n i n g s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g b y o n e - t h i r d .

Figure 45

Factors "explaining" differences in changes' in hourly compensation of all persons in the private business sector and real spendable
weekly earnings of married production or nonsupervisory workers (with three dependents) in the private nonfarm economy, 1974 I -1 9 7 6 III
1974

1975

1976

Item
'

II

III

IV

'

II

III

IV

I

Ill

II

Quarterly percent changes at annual rates
Basic measures
Private business sector:
Hourly compensation, all persons......................................
Nonfarm business sector:
Hourly compensation, all persons ...................................
Hourly compensation, all employees ............................ .
Hourly wages and salaries, all employees ........................
Hourly earnings, production or nonsupervisory workers . .
Weekly earnings, production or nonsupervisory workers . .
Spendable weekly earnings, production or nonsupervisory
workers2 ........................................................................................
Real spendable weekly earnings, production or
nonsupervisory workers2 .........................................................

8.0

12.7

12.6

9.9

13.1

6.9

5.2

8.3

10.9

7.5

7.4

9.3
9.2
8.4
6.5
4.2

11.5
11.3
11.0
9.1
7.9

11.5
11.3
11.0
10.3
10.3

10.9
11.2
10.5
8.7
4.8

11.8
12.1
11.0
6.3
3.2

7.9
7.6
7.0
5.8
5.1

6.8
6.6
6.6
7.6
8.8

6.6
7.2
7.4
7.5
10.3

9.5
9.3
8.3
7.3
7.7

8.9
8.4
8.3
6.9
5.4

6.9
6.7
6.2
6.5
5.3

3.7

7.0

9.1

4.3

2.8

17.9

14.1

8.8

3.4

4.6

4.5

-8 .0

-3 .9

-2 .8

-7 .2

-5 .1

11.0

5.4

2.0

-1 .1

-

8.0

12.7

12.6

9.9

13.1

6.9

5.2

8.3

10.9

7.5

7.4

1.3
- .1
-.8

- 1 .2
-.2
-.2

-1 .1
-.2
-.3

1.0
.3
-.7

- 1 .3
.3
-1 .1

1.0
-.3
-.6

1.6
-.2

- 1 .7
.6
.2

-1 .4
-.2
-1 .0

1.4
-.5
'-.1

-.5
-.2
-.5

-1 .9
— 2.3
-.5
-1 1 .7

-2 .0
-1 .2
-.9
- 1 0 .9

-.7
- 1 .2
- 1 1 .9

-1 .8
- 3 .9
-.5
-1 1 .5

- 4 .7
-3 .1
-.4
- 7 .9

- 1 .2
-.7
12.8
-6 .9

1.0
1.2
5.3
- 8 .7

.1
2.8
-1 .5
-6 .8

- 1 .0
.4
- 4 .3
- 4 .5

- 1 .4
- 1 .5
-.8
- 4 .6

.3
- 1 .2
-.8
- 5 .9

-3 .9

-2 .8

- 7 .2

-5 .1

11.0

5.4

2.0

- 1 .4

Analysis o f spread
Hourly compensation

................................................................

Effect (in percentage points) of:
Farm economy ....................................................................
Self-em ployed.........................................................................
Supplementary b e n e fits ......................................................
Supervisory or nonproduction workers in the private
sector and all employees in government enterprises,
less employees in nonprofit institu tio ns........................
Weekly hours .........................................................................
Federal income and social security taxes ...........................
Consumer price change ......................................................
Equals: Real spendable weekly earnings ...............................

i




C o m p u t e d f r o m s e a s o n a lly a d j u s t e d d a t a .

-8 .0

2

M a r rie d w o r k e r

—

-1 .1

-

- 1 .4

w i t h 3 d e p e n d e n t s w h o e a r n e d t h e a v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s .

Appendix A - Selected Compensation Series Published by
Other Federal Agencies
T h e series on com pensation, w ages and salaries, and
em ployer contributions to social insurance, classified by
industry, as show n in figures A -3-5, ap p ear annually in
th e Ju ly issue o f th e S u rv e y o f C u rre n t B usin ess. A v erag e
annual earnings p er full-tim e em ployee by industry
(figure A -6) also are published in th e Ju ly issue.

A lth o u g h th e B ureau o f L ab o r Statistics is the
principal so u rce o f F ed eral d ata on em ployee co m p en ­
sation, o th e r F e d e ra l agencies also com pile and publish
such data. S everal o f th e m o re im p o rtan t o r re p resen ta­
tive series are sum m arized in this appendix.
Statistics on com pensation are p ro d u ced by th ree
types o f agencies— analytic and research agencies,
adm inistrative and re g u la to ry agencies, and generalpurpose statistical agencies.1

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E A N D R E G U L A TO R Y AGENCIES

A dm inistrative and re g u la to ry agencies co llect co m ­
pensation statistics to c a rry o u t th eir statu to ry responsi­
bilities o r p ro d u c e them as b y p ro d u c ts o f th eir o p era­
tions. A m o n g such adm inistrative agencies are the
Social S ecu rity A dm inistration, th e R ailroad R etire­
m ent B oard, th e E d u ca tio n D ivision o f th e D e p artm en t
o f H ealth, E d u catio n , and W elfare, the In tern al R ev e­
nue S ervice o f th e T reasu ry D ep artm en t, the Civil
S ervice C om m ission, and th e N ational Science F o u n d a­
tion. R eg u lato ry agencies pro d u cin g com pensation
series include the In terstate C om m erce Com m ission,
th e F ed eral A viatio n A dm inistration, the M aritim e
A dm inistration, and th e Securities and E x ch an g e C o m ­
mission.

A N A L Y T IC A L A N D RESEARCH AGENCIES

A nalytical and research agencies p rim arily com pile,
analyze, and in terp re t com pensation series obtained o r
d eriv ed from o th e r sources; th ey seldom co llect p rim a­
ry data. T h e principal F ed eral agency o f this ty p e is the
B ureau o f E co n o m ic A nalysis (B E A ) o f th e D e p a rt­
m ent o f C om m erce. B ased on statistics com piled from
o th e r sources and various internal estim ating p ro c e ­
dures, th e B ureau p ro d u ces annual and q u arte rly data
on com pensation, including series on to tal com pensa­
tion, w ages and salaries, and supplem ents to w ages and
salaries; and av erag e annual earnings p e r full-tim e
em ployee, by industry.
A ll except th e last are aggregates o f m oney flow s at
annualized rates. T h e m easure o f earnings is an av erage
deriv ed from the w age and salary statistics and esti­
m ates o f full-tim e em ploym ent. T hese series ap p ear in
th e S u rv e y o f C u rre n t B u sin ess as p art o f th e N ational
Incom e and P ro d u c t A cco u n ts. C o rresp o n d in g in form ­
ation for historical periods is available in th e N a tio n a l

Social Security Administration (SSA)

I n c o m e a n d P ro d u c t A c c o u n ts o f th e U n ite d S ta tes, 1 9 2 9 65, S ta tis tic a l Tables, a supplem ent to th e S u rv e y o f
C u rre n t Business.

T h e series on to tal com pensation, w ages and salaries,
supplem ents, and em p lo y er contributions for social
insurance ap p ear in table 7 o f th e Survey, as sh o w n in
figure A -l.
T h e series on w ages and salary disbursem ents
appears w ith subtotals for m ajo r in d u stry g roupings in
table 10 o f th e S urvey, as show n in figure A-2.
1
An introductory orientation to Federal statistical sources is
presented in J. E. Morton’s, “A Student’s Guide to Federal Govern­
ment Statistics,” Journal of Economic Literature, June 1972, vol. X, 2;
pp. 371-97.




86

T h e S SA publishes statistics on th e annual earnings
o f w o rk ers in em ploym ent co v ered by th e Social
S ecurity program . Statistics are based on a 1-percent
sam ple o f all co v ered w orkers. M edian annual earnings
o f w age and salary w o rk ers and th e self-em ployed, by
sex, are published annually in th e S o c ia l S e c u rity
B u lle tin , A n n u a l S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t (figure A-7).
Periodically, th e SSA publishes distributions o f co v ered
w o rk e rs’ earnings by age b racket, sex, and race, for all
w o rk ers and for those w orking in four qu arters o f the
year. N ational sum m aries and g eo g rap h ic and m etro ­
politan area detail are available for these distributions.
A v erag e earnings by age b rack et and by four q u arte r
and all-w o rk er classifications are also published w ith
co rresp o n d in g g eo g rap h ic detail. T h e latest publication
containing these statistics is E a rn in g s D istr ib u tio n s in th e
U n ite d S ta tes, 1969, p rep ared by th e O ffice o f R esearch
and Statistics, Social S ecurity A dm inistration.
T h e 1-percent sam ple d ata are also th e source o f the
detailed annual earnings statistics com piled and pub­
lished by BLS. (See ch a p te r 8.)

T he S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , A n n u a l S ta tis tic a l S u p ­

Internal Revenue Service (IRS)

p le m e n t, also prepared by the Office o f Research and

Statistics, contains a chronology o f em ployer contrib­
ution rates dating back to the inception o f the social
security program (figure A-8), and an annual series of
em ployer aggregate contributions to private pension
and profit-sharing plans (figure A-9).
T he Social Security Adm inistration also prepares
annual statistics on coverage, contribution, and benefits
under private em ployer benefit and pension plans.
These statistics appear in articles in the S o c ia l S e c u rity
B u lletin . Tables from these articles are shown in figures
A-10 and -11.

Railroad Retirement Board
T he Railroad R etirem ent Board publishes annual and
quarterly statistics on the financing and amount of
benefits provided under the Railroad Retirem ent A ct to
employees (or their survivors) of railroads and other
organizations affiliated w ith railroad transportation.
T he principal source o f annual statistics is the S ta tis tic a l
S u p p le m e n t to the A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the Railroad
Retirem ent Board. These annual statistics include
aggregate contributions and payments under the act;
average amounts o f annuities, unemployment, and
sickness benefits by various classifications o f recipients,
including occupational groups (figures A -12 and -13);
and data on the average and distribution o f taxable
com pensation for covered employees of Class 1 rail­
roads (figures A -14 and -15). Some data are available by
age, sex, and employer.
T he Q u a rte rly R eview , published by the Railroad
Retirem ent Board, contains current quarterly statistics
on contributions to the fund and the average amount of
benefit payments under the program.

Civil Service Commission (CSC)
T he Bureau o f Intergovernm ent Personnel Program s
o f the CSC conducts an annual survey o f salary ranges
now covering 104 State governm ent job titles in 31
occupational categories. The survey is conducted to
assist States in the establishment o f pay systems consist­
ent w ith the Intergovernm ental Personnel A ct of 1970.
The results o f the survey are published each year in
S ta te S a la r y S u rvey. T he mean minimum and maximum
salaries are shown for each occupation for every State
reporting that occupation. A n example o f these data is
shown in figure A-20.
A verage annual pay and pay distributions for Execu­
tive Branch employees, by pay system, are presented in
P a y S tru c tu re o f th e F e d e r a l C iv il S ervice (annual).
Statistics are shown for the United States, the W ashing­
ton, D.C., area (figure A-21), U.S. territories, and
foreign countries.
A verage annual salaries o f Federal white-collar
w orkers by occupation, occupational group, and sex are
presented in O cc u p a tio n s o f F e d e r a l W h ite -C o lla r W ork­
ers (annual). D ata are presented at a national level and
for the W ashington, D.C., area (figure A-22).
M onthly data on Federal em ploym ent and payrolls
are presented in F e d e r a l C ivilia n M a n p o w e r S ta tistic s
(monthly)(figure A-23).

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
The

Education Division of Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare

I n t e r s ta te

C om m erce

C o m m is s io n

c o m p i le s

statistics on com pensation o f employees o f railroad
companies, electric railways, carriers by water, pipe­
lines, m otor carriers, freight forwarders, and private
railroad car owners subject to the Interstate Commerce
Act. T he IC C reports statistics for each type of
regulated carrier for the calendar year in an annual
report, T ra n sp o rt S ta tistic s in th e U n ite d S ta tes. Part I of
this report covers railroads, the R EA , and electric
railways. Statistics are provided on aggregate em ploy­
ment, hours, and payrolls by occupational classification.
Part II contains statistics on annual aggregate em­
ployment, hours paid or worked, salaries and wages by
occupational category, and fringe benefit costs for
m otor carriers.
Parts III, IV, V, and VI show total annual compensa­
tion costs and em ploym ent for employees of freight

T he National C enter for Educational Statistics o f the
Education Division, D epartm ent o f Health, Education,
and Welfare, collects and publishes compensation
statistics for instructional staff in elementary, second­
ary, and higher education. A verage annual salaries of
professional educational staff and classroom teachers in
public elem entary and secondary schools are published
annually for the school year for States, other areas of
the United States, and the 20 most populous cities
(figure A -16).
Statistics also are published, by school year, on the
salaries and fringe benefits of faculty in institutions of
higher education (figures A -17 and -18).




The IRS annually publishes statistics on aggregate
salaries and wages for the calendar year based on a
sample of tax returns, in S ta tistic s o f In co m e : I n d iv id u a l
In c o m e T a x R e tu r n s (figure A -19).

87

forwarders, private railroad car lines, carriers by water,
and pipelines, respectively.
T he Interstate Com m erce Commission also collects
m onthly data on payrolls and hours for employees of
Class I railroads. D ata are published in June and
Decem ber, in total and for 128 occupations, in W age

available in their files. C om puter printouts o f data may
be obtained on a fee basis by w riting to the Office of
Maritime M anpower.

S ta tistic s o f C la ss I

T he SEC publishes a series covering em ployer
contributions to private noninsured pension funds in an
annual release, P riv a te N o n in su re d P en sion F u n ds. This
series covers all pension fu n d s o f c o r p o r a tio n s, n o n p r o f­
it o r g a n iz a tio n s, a n d u n io n and m ultiem ployer groups,
except funds managed by insurance companies. It also
includes deferred profit-sharing plans but excludes
health, welfare, and bonus plans. These statistics are
shown in figure A-28.

R a ilr o a d s

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

in th e U n ite d S ta te s

(Statem ent No. 300). A verage straight-time wage rates
and overtim e rates are shown for six occupational
groupings (figure A-24).
Annual summaries o f the m onthly data appear in
Statem ent A-300 under the same title as the m onthly
publication.

National Science Foundation
T he median annual salaries o f full-time employees in
selected science fields reporting to the National Regis­
ter o f Scientific and Technical Personnel w ere pub­
lished biennially in A m e ric a n S cien ce M a n p o w e r until
1970, when the register was discontinued. D ata are
classified by sex, experience, level of education, age,
type o f employer, and w ork activity. A national mail
survey of scientific and engineering personnel was
subsequently conducted from w hich salary data could
be obtained. M edian annual salaries obtained from this
survey are shown in figure A-25.

GENERAL-PURPOSE S TA T IS T IC A L AGENCIES

General-purpose statistical agencies produce the
great bulk o f Federal statistics on compensation. In
addition to the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, these
agencies include the Bureau o f the Census o f the
D epartm ent o f Com m erce and the Statistical R eporting
Service o f the D epartm ent o f A griculture.

Bureau of the Census
T he Bureau o f the Census collects and publishes tw o
basic types o f com pensation statistics—individual in­
come data and payroll data.
T he data on individual wage and salary income are
obtained every 10 years from a census o f households
and annually from a sample o f households which
comprise the C urrent Population Survey. T he decenni­
al census provides average annual wage and salary
information and earnings distributions on a national,
regional, and State basis for the entire labor force, w ith
detail by occupation, sex, industry o f employment, class
of w orker, and weeks w orked annually. T he basic
published source is the 1 9 7 0 C en su s o f P opu lation , w hich
is published in a national summary volume as W£ll as by
State. A n excerpt from the summary docum ent is
shown in figure A-29.
T he C urrent Population Survey provides annual
average wage or salary income for the sample of
persons in the household on a national basis by m ajor
industry division and occupational group, sex, race, and
class o f worker, for year-round full-time workers. T he
source is Bureau of the Census, C o n su m e r In com e,

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Payrolls, employment, and average annual salaries
for employees o f domestic and international air carriers
regulated by the F A A are published in the F A A
S ta tis tic a l H a n d b o o k o f A v ia tio n (a n n u a l) (figure A-26).

Maritime Administration
M onthly base rates paid to licensed and unlicensed
personnel em ployed on board oceangoing ships cov­
ered by collective bargaining agreements were pub­
lished biennially until 1968, in S e a fa rin g W age R a te s, by
the M aritime Adm inistration, U.S. D epartm ent of
Commerce. Rates are shown by occupation and type of
ship for the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific districts. A
chronology o f em ployer contributions per day to
pension, welfare, and vacation plans is also included in
the publication. T he source materials used in prepara­
tion o f this publication are records of the Maritime
Adm inistration, labor-management agreements, arbitra­
tors’ awards, trustees’ actions, and pension, welfare, and
vacation plans. Excerpted data from the publication are
shown in figure A-27.
A lthough publication has ceased, the data continue
to be collected by the Office o f Maritime M anpower,
M aritime Administration. C urrent data are therefore




C urrent

P o p u la tio n

R e p o r ts, S eries P -6 0 , p u b lish e d an­

n u a lly . A n e x a m p le o f in fo r m a tio n in th a t p u b lic a tio n is
sh o w n in figure A -3 0 .

F or an explanation o f CPS m ethodology, see Bureau
of the Census, T he C u rre n t P o p u la tio n S u rv e y — A R e p o r t
on M e th o d o lo g y, Technical Paper No. 7, Series P-60,
No. 51, January 12, 1967.
88

Annual aggregate payroll data and corresponding
employm ent totals are obtained from mail enumerations
o f business enterprises and political units, usually
conducted at 5-year intervals. Hours data are also
obtained for production w orkers in manufacturing, and
an average wage per production w orker is calculated.
T he data pertain to the calendar year o f the census.
T he censuses include the C en su s o f A g ricu ltu re,
C en su s o f B usiness, C en su s o f M a n u fa ctu re s, C en su s o f
C o m m e r c ia l F isheries, C en su s o f M in e r a l In d u stries, and
the C en su s o f G overn m en ts. Similar but less detailed data
are obtained annually from a sample o f manufacturing
establishments—the A n n u a l S u rv e y o f M a n u fa c tu re s —
and a sample survey of local governm ent units.
T he C en su s o f A g r ic u ltu re collects and reports data
on hours w orked and cash payments for hired farm
labor (including wages to members of the farm opera­
to r’s family). Cash payments cover wages and contribu­
tions to social security. T he data are available by type of
farm product, type o f farm ownership, size o f farm, and
aggregate number o f hours worked. G eographic detail
is presented in the individual State volumes published
by the Bureau.
T he C en su s o f B u sin ess covers retail trade, wholesale
trade, selected service industries, and construction.
National, State, SMSA, and, in some instances, business
district detail are published. Detail is available by kind
of business, size, and SIC group.
T he C en su s o f M a n u fa c tu re s covers manufacturing
plants. Annual payroll and employm ent data are pub­
lished for all employees and for production and related
workers. D ata are shown to the 4-digit SIC level, by
geographic region, for 50 States and the D istrict of
Columbia, and for Standard M etropolitan Statistical
Areas (SM SA’s). Figures A-31 and A-32 show exam­
ples o f tabulations.
H ours data and wages per hour are provided for
production and related workers. D ata are published for
422 m anufacturing industries, and by State and SMSA.
D ata are available by em ploym ent size o f establish­
ments, degree o f product specialization within the
plant, and type o f ownership.
T he A n n u a l S u rv e y o f M a n u fa c tu re s carries forw ard
for the intercensal years the statistics covered in more
detail by the quinquennial C en su s o f M a n u fa ctu re s.
T he C en su s o f C o m m e r c ia l F ish eries provides data on
payroll and employm ent by m ajor type of catch, and
region for selected States.
T he C en su s o f M in e r a l In d u strie s provides data for 53
mineral industries and subindustries on employment,
payroll, and w ork hours. D etail is shown by geographic
region, State, and type o f operation.
T he C en su s o f G o v e rn m e n ts provides employment
and payroll data from all governm ent units in the




89

United States. Em ploym ent relates to all persons on
governm ent payrolls during a specified month; payroll
relates to total wages, salaries, and fees paid during the
month.
The Bureau of the Census also conducts an annual
survey of State and local governments. This survey
covers all State governm ent agencies and a sample
consisting of approxim ately 16,000 local governm ent
and public school systems. Payroll and employment
data, by full- and part-tim e workers, are collected for
the m onth o f October. A dditional data are collected
and published on governm ent contributions to State and
local retirem ent systems. A derived published series is
the average m onthly pay o f full-time employees.
Payroll, employment, and earnings statistics are
published by function (education, police protection,
natural resources, etc.), type of political jurisdiction,
and State. Statistics from the annual surveys are
p u b lish ed in Public Employment, G ty Employment, and
Finances o f Employee-Retirement Systems o f State and
Local Governments.
T he Bureau also publishes statistics on payrolls and
employment, by county, in C o u n ty B u sin ess P a tte rn s
(annual). Payroll data pertain to the January-M arch pay
period. Industrial detail extends to the 4-digit SIC level
depending on the county. National and State summary
data as well as selected SM SA and city statistics are
presented (figure A-33).
The C o u n ty B u sin ess P a tte rn s reports are statistical
byproducts o f em ploym ent and payroll information on
Treasury F orm 941 furnished by employers under the
social security programs.

Department of Agriculture
S t a t i s t ic a l R e p o r t i n g S e r v ic e

The Statistical R eporting Service’s publication F a rm
L a b o r provides a quarterly series o f average wage rates
and corresponding indexes for hired farm workers, w ith
detail by m ethod o f pay, type o f work, and geographic
region (figure A-34). Annual averages are also shown.
D ata for this measure are obtained from a probability
sample o f agricultural employers reporting for the pay
period including the 12th o f the survey month.
E c o n o m ic R e s e a r c h S e r v ic e

Annual aggregate wages, salaries, and other labor
income of farm resident workers, and contributions of
farm operators to social insurance are reported in The
F a rm In c o m e S itu a tio n , July (annual).
T he average num ber of days worked, and annual and
per day earnings are reported yearly for farm w orkers

S ta tis tic a l A b s tr a c t o f th e U n ite d S ta te s (annual), H is to ri­
c a l S ta tistic s o f th e U n ite d S ta tes, C o lo n ia l T im e s to 1970,
P a rts 1 a n d 2 (1975), and the Bureau of the B udget’s
S ta tis tic a l S ervices o f th e U n ite d S ta te s G o v e rn m e n t

by selected dem ographic and other characteristics in
T he H ir e d F a rm W ork F o rce (figure A-35).
This survey o f Federal Statistics on com pensation is
not intended as a com prehensive catalog or a com plete
description o f existing sources. Useful reference publi­
cations for information on most o f the series cited here
and other sources are the Bureau o f the Census’

(1975).
R ecent developm ents in Federal statistics, including
those on compensation, are reported in the S ta tis tic a l
R e p o rte r, a m onthly publication o f the Statistical Policy
Division, Office o f M anagem ent and Budget.
Figure A -2

Figure A-1

1975
1974

1975

II

III

IV

I

II

1974

I II »

II

1975

I

II

I lle

Billions of dollars

Billions of dollars

T a b le 10.— P erson a l I n c o m e a n d Its D is p o s itio n (2.1)

T a b le 7.— N a tio n a l I n c o m e b y T y p e o f I n c o m e (1.13)

Personal in c o m e_______

1 , 1 3 5 .7 1 , 2 0 7 .6 1 , 1 8 2 .7 1 , 2 3 3 .4 1 . 2 6 4 .6 1 , 3 0 4 .7 1 , 3 3 7 .4

Com pensation o f em ployees___

8 7 5 .8

9 2 8 .8

9 1 2 .9

9 3 5 .2

9 6 3 .1

Wages and salaries____ . . .
Government and governm ent enterprises___ . _.
O ther........................ ............
Supplem ents to wages and
salaries_____ __________
Em ployer contributions
for social insurance. ___
O ther labor income.............

7 6 4 .5

8 0 6 .7

7 9 2 .8

8 1 1 .7

8 3 6 .4

8 6 1 .5

W age and salary d isburse..........
m en ts----------- .

9 9 4 .4 1 , 0 1 7 .2 1 , 0 3 7 .3

S ource:

III

IV

Seasonally adjusted a t annual rates

Seasonally adjusted at annual rates

N ational in c o m e ...........

1976

1975

1976

8 8 1 .1

7 6 5 .0

8 0 6 .7

7 9 2 .8

8 1 1 .7

8 3 6 .4

8 6 1 .5

8 8 1 .1

8 9 7 .7

C om m odity-producing industries 3. ____________
M anufacturing.___ _____
D istributive industries 4__
Service in d u stries5........... ...
Government and governm ent enterprises.................

2 7 3 .9
2 2 1 .4
1 8 4 .4
1 4 5 .9

2 7 5 .3
2 1 1 .7
1 9 5 .6
1 5 9 .9

2 6 9 .1
2 0 6 .9
1 9 2 .6
1 5 7 .4

2 7 6 .2
2 1 2 .5
196. 8
1 6 1 .3

2 8 5 .8
2 2 0 .3
2 0 2 .3
1 6 6 .1

2 9 5 .3
2 2 9 .6
2 0 8 .3
1 7 2 .4

3 0 2 .9
2 3 5 .6
2 1 2 .8
1 7 6 .7

3 0 6 .8
2 3 8 .8
2 1 6 .4
1 8 2 .8

1 6 0 .9

1 7 5 .8

1 7 3 .8

1 7 7 .3

1 8 2 .2

1 8 5 .4

1 8 8 .7

1 9 1 .7

O ther labor in c o m e......... ...........

5 5 .5

6 2 .5

63 ; 3

6 5 .2

_ 67-1

6 9 .J I

7L 1

8 9 7 .7

1 6 0 .4
6 0 1 .1

1 7 5 .8
6 3 0 .8

1 7 3 .8
6 1 9 .0

1 7 7 .3
6 3 4 .4

1 8 2 .2
6 5 4 .1

1 8 5 .4
6 7 6 .1

1 8 8 .7
6 9 2 .4

1 9 1 .7
7 0 6 .0

1 1 1 .3

1 2 2 .1

1 2 0 .1

1 2 3 .5

1 2 6 .7

1 3 2 .9

1 3 6 .2

1 3 9 .6

6 5 .8
5 6 .5

6 9 .7
6 2 .5

5 8 .7
6 1 .4

6 0 .2
6 3 .3

6 1 .6
6 5 .2

6 5 .9
6 7 .1

6 7 .1
6 9 .0

1 , 1 5 3 .3 1 , 2 4 9 .7 1 , 2 3 0 .3 1 , 2 6 5 . 5 1 , 2 9 9 .7 1 , 3 3 1 .3 1 , 3 6 2 .0 1 , 3 8 6 .2

6 8 .6
7 1 .1

S ource:

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce , Bureau o f E c o n o m ic

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce , B ureau o f E c o n o m ic

A nalysis, S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , O c to b e r 1 9 7 6 , p. 15.

A nalysis, S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , O c to b e r 19 76, p. 14.

T a b le 6 .5 .— C o m p e n s a tio n
o f E m p lo y e e s b y In d u s tr y

Figure A - 3

T a b le 6 .6 .— W a g e s a n d
S a la r y b y In d u str y

[Millions of dollars]
1972

1973

1974

715,145

799,194

Domestic industries------------------------------------- ---------------------------- 715,100

799,150

All industries.....................................................................................

[Millions of dollars]
1975

1972

1973

1974

1975

875,823

928,781

633,765

701,214

764,486

806,663 |

875,777

928,733

633,720

701,170

764,440

806,615 <
8,208 I
5^962 t
2, 266 '

(

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries............................ ......................... .
Farms_________________ ____ _________________ __________
Agricultural services, forestry, and fisheries.......................................

6,287
4,542
1,745

7,378
5,302
2,076

8,399
6,078
2,321

9,054
6,516
2, 538

5,798
4, 218
1,580

6,734
4,873
1,861

7,639
5,576
2| 063

Mining.......................... .............. .............................................. ...............
Metal m ining............................... ....................... ......................... ........
Coalmining____________________________________ _____ ____
Oil and gas extraction........... ........ ................................. .....................
Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels............................................ ........

7,797
1,104
2,221
3,229
1,243

8,697
1,252
2,449
3,600
1,396

10,501
1,429
2,999
4, 531
1,542

12,831
1,532
4,173
5, 619
1,607

6,625
918
1,785
2,821

7,290
1,012
1,945
3,115
1,218

8,834
1,197
2,385
3,903
1,349

Contract construction______ ______ __________________ ________ 43,005
Manufacturing_______________ ______________________________ 203,306
Nondurable goods________________________________ ..
___
76,482
Food and kindred products_________________________
___ 16,818
Tobacco manufactures_________________ .. ___
749
Textile mill products___________________________ ..
7,409
Apparel and other textile products_________________________
8 , 526
Paper and allied products___________________ ____
7,701
Printing and publishing_____________ ___________ ____ . .. 11,178
Chemicals and allied products_____ _______________
12, 864
Petroleum and coal products_______________________
____
2, 893
Rubber and plastic products, n.e.c_______________ _________ _
6,301
Leather and leather products_______________________ ____
2,043

48,440
229,894
83,331
17, 906
839
9,314
8,518
12,086
14, 052
3,073
7,241
2,090

51,517
249,358
90,121
19,513
932
8,332
9,469
9, 276
12,962
16,102
3, 706
7,739
2,090

50,220
251,422
93,152
21,104
988
7,778
9,394
9,414
13,502
17, 264
4,175
7,502
2,031

38,857
175,249
66,789
14, 627
609
6,641
7, 601
6 ,704
10,042
11,149
2,271
5, 333
1,812

43,339
196,186
72,061
15,405
'672
7, 283
8,219
7, 290
10,763
12,136
2,420
6,039
1,834

46,003
211,403
77,306
16,819
733
7,376
8 ’359
7,885
lb 487
13’ 649
2 , 731
6, 433
1,834

44,651 '
211,658 <
79,’ 604 1
ik' 103 4
771 1
6,863
8,291
7 ’ 96'. 1
l l ’940 1
14 ’ 660 (
3] 085 (
6,165 ,
1,774 (

Government and government enterprises___ ____________ _______ 152,489
Federal_____________________ ______ ______________________ 59, 724
Government____________________________________________
50,060
Civilian. ____________________________________________
27, 417
Military 1................................... ................................... ........ .......... 22, 643
9,664
Government enterprises__________________________________
State and local______________ ____________________________ 92, 765
Government________________
____ ..
___
____
87,312
Education__________________________________ „_________
O ther...___ _______________ ________ _____ __________
Government enterprises______ ____________________________
5, 453

165,785
62, 407
51,923
29,020
22,903
10, 484
103,378
97,139

180,620
66, 732
54,924
31, 556
23,368
11,808
113,888
106,688

199,737
72,302
59,300
35,068
24,232
13,002
127,435
119,230

6,239

7,200

8,205

137,589
55,095
46, 484
24,521
21,963
8, ill
82, 494
77,625
42,380
35,245
4,869

148,584
57, 210
47,913
25,792
22,121
9,297
91,374
85, 834
46,402
39,432
5,540

160,360
60, 490
50,124
27, 618
22, 506
10,366
99, 870
93,526
50,334
43,192
6,344

175,833 *
64, 605 <
53,395 1
30,140 |
23, 255 ,
11,210 (
111,228
104,029 ’
55,755 (
48,274 l
7,199 1

44

46

48

45

44

46

48 !

Rest of the world__________ .
Source.

___

45

8 ,2 1 2

1 ,1 0 1

10,736
1,273
3,331
4,738
1,394

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce, Bureau o f E c o n o m ic A n a lysis, S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , J u ly 1 9 76, p. 51.




90

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<
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<
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Figure A -4

T a b le 6.13.— O th e r L a b or I n c o m e b y In d u stry a n d b y T y p e
(Millions of dollars]
1972

1973

1974

41,956

48,691

55,499

62,460

D om estic industries........ . .......... _.............................................

41,956

48,691

55, 499

62,460

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries................... ...................

200

Contract construction....... ........... .............................. ........

1,874

266
986
2,194

314
1,147
2,401

370
1,473
2,563

M anufacturing ..... ................................................. .................
Nondurable goods_______ . .......... ...............................
Durable goods.......................... ...................... . .............. ..

18,358
5,968
12,390

21,246
6,623
14,623

24,355
7,771
16,584

26,521
8,463
18,058

T ransportation ___ __________ ___________________ ____
Electric, gas, and sanitary services ............ ...........................

2,111
2,572
1,068

2,492
2,889
1,213

2,882
2,978
1,362

3,202
3,389
1,508

Wholesale and retail tra d e . . _.......... __...............................
Wholesale trade _________________ ____ _________ ___
Retail trade ............................. ......... ......................... ..............

5,275
2,308
2,967

6, 245
2,816
3, 429

7,258
3,490
3,768

8,593
4,167
4,426

Finance, insurance, and real estate—. . - ............... ...........

3,268
4,184

3,713
4,976

3, 999
5,773

4,417
6,714

Government and governm ent enterprises____________

2,201

2,471

3,030

3,710

R est o f th e world......... ........... ................. ......................... .............

0

0

0

0

Other labor in com e................ ....................... - ...................

1975

By industry:

By type:
Employer contributions to private pension and welfare

41,240

47,897

54,643

61,539

Pension and profit-sharing____ ____ _____ ____ ______ 17,782
15,459
Group life insurance_______ ________ ____ _______ . . . 3,565
W orkmen's compensation..................................................... 4,279
Supplemental unem ploym ent..............................................
155

20,691
18,399
3,652
4,995
160

24, 765
20;057
3,925
5, 731
165

28,449
22,270
4,015
6,633
172

716

794

856

921

33,838

37,772

43,684

10,015
17,728
3,091
2 , 864
140

19,648
3,172
3,622
110

12,930
23,023
3,359
3,972
400

Addenda:

N ote .— T he industry classification is on an establishm ent basis and is based on the 1967
Standard Industrial Classification.

Source:

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce, Bureau o f E co n o m ic

A n a ly s is , S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , J u ly 1 9 7 6 , p. 53.

Figure A-5

T a b le

6.12.— E m p loy er C o n trib u tio n s
In d u stry

fo r

S o cia l

In s u ra n c e b y

[Millions of dollars]
1972

1973

Employer contributions for social in su ra n ce..............

39,424

49,289

55,838

59,658

D om estic in d u stries............. ....................................... ................. -

39,424

49,289

55,838

59,658

Contract construction___________ _________ - ----------M anufacturing.........................................................................
N on durable goods................... ........... .................................
Durable goods .......................................... ............................

289
327
2,274
9,699
3,725
5,974

378
421
2,907
12,462
4,647
7,815

446
520
3,113
13,600
5,044
8,556

476
622
3,006
13,243
5,085
8,158

Transportation ........... ..............................................................
Com m unication ................ ......................................................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services .................... ................. .

1,778
554
360

2,561
708
454

3,065
795
508

3,056
841
540

Wholesale and retail trade......... ......... ............. ................
Wholesale trad e__________________ ______________
Retail trade — ---------------------------------------------------

5,754
1,986
3,768

7,349
2,570
4,779

8,249
2,942
5,307

8,676
3,101
5,575

Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ----------------- ---------

1,662
4,028
12,699

2,126
5,193
14,730

2,382
5,930
17,230

2,531
6,473
20,194

0

0

0

0

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries . . . . . . . . ........... ..

Government and governm ent enterprises....................
R est o f the world..............................................................................

1974

1975

N ote .— The industry classification is on an establishm ent basis and is based on the 1967
Standard Industrial Classification.

Source:

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce, Bureau o f E cono m ic

A n a ly s is , S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , J u ly 1 9 76, p. 53.

91

Figure A -6

T a b l e 6.8. — F u l l - T i m e
E q u iv a le n t E m p lo y e e s by
I n d u s tr y 1

T a b le 6 .9 .— W a g es a n d
S a la r ie s p e r F u ll- T im e
E q u iv a le n t E m p lo y e e
b y in d u s tr y
[Dollars]

[Thousands]
1972

1973

1974

1975

1972

1973

1974

1975

All industries.......................................................................................

72,348

75,484

76,416

74,061

8,760

9,290

10,004

10,892

Domestic industries................................................- ..........- .........................

72,359

75,493

76,424

74,071

8,758

9,288

10,003

10,890 j|

Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries..........................................................
rarms.............................................................................................- ........
Agricultural services, forestry, and fisheries........................................

1,229
994
235

1,332
1,057
275

1,365
1,081
284

1,362
1,088
274

4,718
4,244
6,724

5,056
4,610
6,767

5,596
5,158
7,264

Mining.........................................................................................................
Metal mining...........................................................................................
Coal mining....................................................... ...... .................. ...........
Oil and gas extraction............ ..................................................... .........
Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels.......................................................

614
86
159
258
111

624
88
158
263
115

685
96
177
294
118

733
95
210
315
113

10,790
10, 675
11,227
10,935
9,919

11,683
11,500
12,310
11,844
10,591

12,8%
12,469
13,475
13,276
11,432

14,647
13,400
15,862
15,041
12,336

K

Contract construction..................................................... ..........................
Manufacturing.............................. ........................ .................... .........
Nondurablegoods------------------------- ---------------------------- ------- Food and kindred products......... ......................................................
Tobacco manufactures......................................................................
Textile mill products.......................................................................
Apparel and other textile products....... .......................... ............. .
Paper and allied products..... ............. ............................................ .
Printing and publishing---------------- ----------- ------------ ----------Chemicals and allied products...................................... ...................
Petroleum and coal products..............................................................
Rubber and plastic products, n.e.c.......... ..................... ..................
Leather and leather products............................ ..............................

3,612
18,548
7,731
1,650
74
969
1,307
674
983
993
183
612
286

3,843
19,566
7,916
1,645
76
1,003
1,344
689
1,009
1,022
184
662
282

3,764
19,494
7,785
1,635

10,758
9,449
8,640
8,865
8,230
6,854
5,816
9,947
10,216
11,228
12,410
8,715
6,336

11,277
10,027
9,103
9,365
8,842
7,261
6,115
10,581
10,667
11, 875
13,152
9,122
6,504

12,222

10,845
9,930
10,287
9,519
7,756
6,597
11,461
11,351
13,061
14,450
9,777
6,973

13, 726
11,941
10,978
11,407
11,014
8,421
7,178
12,678
12,184
14,349
16,497
10,740
7,581

>

951
1,267
688
1,012
1,045
189
658
263

3,253
17,726
7,251
1,587
70
815
1,155
628
980
1,021
187
574
234

Durable goods................................................................... .....................
Lumber and wood products.......................................................... .
Furniture and fixtures............................................... ............. ..........
Stone, clay, and glass products............... ........ .................................
Primary metal industries_____________ __________________
Fabricated metal products.................................................................
Machinery, except electrical.......................... ................................
Electrical equipment and supplies.............................. ..................
Transportation equipment, except motor vehicles and equipment, and ordnance.........................................................................
Motor vehicles and equipment.........................................................
Instruments and related products.....................................................
Miscellaneous and manufacturing industries..................................

10,817
603
488
645
1,214
1,360
1,864
1,810

11,650
623
519
681
1,304
1,469
2,053
2,001

11,709
607
496
671
1,327
1,470
2,194
2,015

10,475
502
421
605
1,185
1,314
2,027
1,700

10,027
7,606
7,302
9,543
11,048
9,654
10,576
9,487

10,655
8,238
7,728
10,129
11,982
10,216
11,242
9,899

11,452
8,883
8,286
10,909
13,317
11,031
12,014
10,574

12,607
9,916
9,090
11,701
14,278
12,209
13,088
11,876

<
<
<
|
(

1,085
877
455
416

1,118
961
488
433

1,086
901
509
433

1,063
777
492
389

11,010
12,573
9,930
7,796

11,564
13,559
10,455
8,095

12,657
13,898
11,165
8,711

13,969 |
15,313 (
12,270
9,522 '

Government and government enterprises.................. ........ ....................
Federal.....................................................................................................
Government................................................................... ......... .........
Civilian........................................................................... ..............
Military2.............................................................. .........................
Government enterprises................................... .................. ..............
State and local.........................................................................................
Government.........................................................................................
Education.........................................................................................
Other.................................................................................................
Government enterprises.............. . . ........... ..................................

14,586
5,333
4,487
1,934
2,553
846
9,253
8,723
4,577
4,146
530

14,799
5,186
4,350
1,911
2,439
836
9,613
9,053
4,753
4,300
560

15,057
5,152
4,302
1,957
2,345
850
9,905
9,304
4,912
4,392
601

15,320
5,116
4,270
1,978
2,292
846
10,204
9,567
4,990
4,577
637

9,433
10,331
10, 360
12,679
8,603
10,179
8,916
8,899
9,260
8, 501
9,187

10,040
11,032
11,014
13,497
9,070
11,121
9,505
9,481
9,763
9,170
9,893

10,650
11,741
11,651
14,112
9,597
12,195
10,083
10, 052
10, 247
9,834
10,556

11,477
12,628
12,505
15,238
10,146
13,251
10,900
10,874
11,173
10,547
11,301

-1 1

Source:

-9

77

-8

6,026 <
5,471 l1
8,234 i1

-1 0

U.S. D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce, Bureau o f E co n o m ic A n a lysis, S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , J u ly 1 9 7 6 , p. 52 .




92

<
>
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<

\

1
<
1
1
b
I
(>

'
<

,
'
<
<
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,
'
1
<

Figure A-7

T

able

37.— Workers with taxable earnings: Estimated number and median annual earnings, by type of worker and sex, 1937-74
[Based on sample data]
All wage and salary
workers

All workers
Year
Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

4-quarter wage and salary
workers 1

Women

Total

Men

Women

All self-employed
workers 2
Total

Men

Women

Number (in thousands)
1937____ ___________ _____
1940____________________ _
1945.......................... ..............

32,904
35,393
46,392

23,811
25,572
28,825

9,093
9,821
17,567

32,904
35,393
46,392

23,811
25,572
28,825

9,093
9,821
17,567

(s)
22,682
26.6C9

(s)
16,971
17,575

(!)
5,711
9, O1
f4

1950.._____ _________ _____
1951.......................... ...............
1952___________ ____ ______

48,283
58,120
59,576

32,621
38,518
39,184

15,662
19,602
20,392

48,283
54,631
56,059

32,621
35,508
36,150

15,662
19,123
19,909

31,932
36,916
38,221

23,051
25,880
26,615

8,881
11,036
11,606

4,191
4,241

3,625
3,685

566
556

Median earnings 5
1937...._______ ___________
1940____________________
1945______ _________ _____

$761
746
1,159

$945
935
1,654

$484
472
770

$761
746
1,159

$945
935
1,654

$484
472
770

(s)
$1,157
2,020

(s)
$1,353
2,560

(*)
$757
1,347

1950.........................................
1951............ ............. ...........
1952....................................... .
1953............................. ............
1954............................. ...........

1,926
2,097
2,258
2,400
2,425

2,532
2,838
3,046
3,275
3,263

1,124
1,192
1,278
1,357
1,374

1,926
2,037
2,183
2,336
2,363

2,532
2,810
3,031
3,258
3,250

1,124
1,162
1,239
1,338
1,359

2,759
2,919
3,113
3,325
3,341

3,212
3,502
3,731
3,973
3,977

1,862
1,920
2,065
2,181
2,195

$2,663
2,737
2,788
2,815

$2,850
2,934
3,001
3,065

$1,271
1,589
1,619
1,621

1955_________ ____ ______ _
1956.____ _________ _____ _
1957_____________________
1958_____________________
1959.........................................

2,438
2,599
2,651
2,674
2,837

3,315
3,546
3,538
3,516
3,783

1,351
1,454
1,544
1,589
1,634

2,383
2,548
2,612
2,629
2,781

3,348
3,572
3,575
3,548
3,780

1,338
1,451
1,544
1,581
1,639

3,464
3,605
3,619
3,692
3,880

4,197
4,355
4,343
4,424
4,680

2,251
2,346
2,454
2,528
2,642

2,397
2,573
2,674
2,777
2,854

2,550
2,746
2,863
2,957
3,070

1,552
1,610
1,641
1,642
1,685

1960_____________________
1961..___ ________________
1962............ ......... ............ .
1963_____________________
1964___ ____ _____________

2,894
2,938
3,058
3,149
3,298

3,879
3,936
4,132
4,266
4,480

1,679
1,742
1,808
1,856
1,945

2,833
2,876
2,990
3,082
3,224

3,875
3,919
4,112
4,239
4,449

1,676
1,736
1,809
1,851
1,941

3,995
4,052
4,190
4,325
4,511

5,837
4,950
4,139
5,298
5,629

2,706
2,776
2,876
2,956
3,063

2,903
3,017
3,202
3,283
3,499

3,129
3,266
3,475
3,574
3,834

1,695
1,703
1,755
1,776
1,803

1965___ ___________ ______
1966_____________________
1967......... ........ ............ ...........
1968.___ __________ _____
1969_____________________

3,414
3,566
3,716
3,945
4,173

4,685
5,010
5,208
5,546
5,933

1,984
2,082
2,259
2,435
2,585

3,319
3,449
3,660
3,843
4,111

4,630
4,902
5,179
5,448
6,038

1,979
2,077
2,276
2,434
2,554

4,675
4,883
5,080
5,382
5,782

5,739
6,124
6,398
6,819
7,457

3,168
3,338
3,509
3,762
3,972

3,858
4,327
4,472
4,865
5,012

4,242
4,775
4,962
5,385
5,655

1,898
2,069
2,152
2,282
2,321

1,970............................. .............
1971___ _______ __________
1972 * ...._____ ___________
1973 *.........................................
1974 *_ _______________
_

4,370
4,603
4,865
5,170
5,495

6,185
6,475
6,908
7,445
7,930

2,735
2,882
2,983
3,146
3,395

4,317
4,541
4,751
5,069
5,394

6,173
6,410
6,725
7,356
7,851

2,770
2,943
3,022
3,179
3,457

6,194
6,509
6,884
7,362
7,931

7,701
8,121
8,813
9,429
10,154

4,300
4,509
4,750
5,036
5,417

5,104
5,242
5,771
6,586
6,889

5,683
5,833
6,448
7,513
8,041

2,360
2,408
2,661
2,780
2,812

Source:

Social S e c u rity A d m in is tr a tio n , O ffic e o f Research and S tatistics, S o c ia l S e c u r it y B u ll e t i n , A n n u a l S t a t is t ic a l

S u p p le m e n t , 1 9 74, p. 69.




93

Figure A-8

Maximum Amount of Contribution
Employee

Self-employed

Beginning—
Total
Annual:
1937______________
1950______________
1951______________
1954______________
1955______________
1957______________
1959______________
1960______________
1962______________
1963______________
1966________ •____
1967______________
1968______________
1969______________
1970______________
1971______________
1972______________
1973..
1974______________
1975______________
1976______________

$30.00
45.00
54.00
72.00
84.00
94.50
120.00
144.00
150.00
174.00
277.20
290.40
343.20
374.40
374.40
405.60
468.00
631.80
772.20
824.85
895.05

Cumulative:
1937-50____
. .
1951-60-.
. ..
1961-70___________

435.00
855.00
2,475.60

1937-76___________

7,76 3 .1 0

S o u rc e :

OASI

DI

$30.00
45.00
54.00
72.00
84.00
84.00
108.00
132.00
138.00
162.00
231.00
234.30
259.35
290.55
284.70
315.90
364.50
464.40
577.50
616.875
669.375

HI

Total

$10.50
12.00
12.00
12.00
12.00
23.10
23.10
37.05
37.05
42.90
42.90
49.50
59.40
75.90
81.075
87.975

$23.10
33.00
46.80
46.80
46.80
46.80
54.00
108.00
118.80
126.90
137.70

$81.00
108.00
126.00
141.75
180.00
216.00
225.60
259.20
405.90
422.40
499.20
538.20
538.20
585.00
675.00
864.00
1,042.80
1,113.90
1,208.70

435.00
810.00
2,055.90

45.00
223.20

196.50

1,282.50
3 j 623.10

6,309.45

664.95

788.70

10,395.00

OASI

$81.00
108.00
126.00
126.00
162.00
198.00
207.60
241.20
348.15
354.75
396.825
435.825
427.05
473.85
546.75
670.14
816.42
872.085
946.305

DI

HI

$15.75
18.00
18.00
18.00
18.00
34.65
34.65
55.575
55.575
64.35
64.35
74.25
85.86
107.58
114.915
124.695

$23.10
33.00
46.80
46.80
46.80
46.80
54.00
108.00
118.80
126.90
137.70

1,215.00
3'091.80

67.50
334.80

196.50

8,632.35

973.95

788.70

S o c ia l S e c u r it y A d m in i s t r a t io n , O f f i c e o f R e s e a rc h a n d S ta tis tic s , S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , A n n u a l S ta tis tic a l

S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 4 , p . 3 3 .
F ig u re

A -9

T a b l e 18.—Selected social insurance programs: Source of funds from contributions and transfers, 1965-74
[In millions]
Program and source

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

Retirement, survivor, and disability insurance:
OASI1............................................. ........ ...............
Employer_______________________________
Employee_______________________________
Self-employed___________________________
Government1.......................................................

$16,017
7,618
7,440
959

$20,658
9,966
9,754
859
78

$23,216
10,923
10,660
1,555
78

$24,100
11,284
11,077
1,358
382

$28,389
13,519
13,058
1,370
442

$30,705
14,489
14,204
1,564
449

$34,20
16,264
15,884
1,575
488

$38,256
18,231
17,899
1,651
475

$46,416
22,199
21,845
1,930
442

$52,528
25,031
24,662
2,388
447

D I 1.................................... ................... .................
Employer......... ............................ .......................
Employee__________ ________ __________ _
Self-employed................ ................................. .
Government1.....................
...........

1,188
564
551
73

2,022
977
962
67
16

2,302
1,073
1,054
159
16

3,348
1,602
1,582
132
32

3,615
1,733
1,679
.187
16

4,497
2,154
2,117
210
16

4,670
2,224
2,167
229
50

5,158
2,462
2,417
227
51

5,984
2,863
2,814
255
52

6,878
3,281
3,234
311
52

Railroad retirement s_._........................................
Em ployer...........................................................
Employee......... ................. .................................
Government2.......................... . ........................

647
315
315
17

752
369
367
17

858
436
405
18

935
473
443
18

1,023
515
489
18

968
510
439
19

1,027
533
454
40

1,034
556
477

1,306
734
528
44

1,495
1,137
358

Federal civil service 4. ______ ________ _______
Employer_________ _____________________
Employee....... ......................................................

2,197
1,123
1,073

2,381
1,220
1,161

2,571
1,313
1,259

2,889
1,472
1,417

3,098
1,577
1,521

3,870
2,001
1,869

5,126
3,154
1,972

5,483
3,360
2,123

5,627
3,424
2,203

7,293
4,878
2,415

State and local government5.................................
Employer____ _____________________ ____
Employee............................... ........ ....................

4,225
2,525
1,700

4,705
2,840
1,865

5,395
3,320
2,075

6,095
3,780
2,315

6,902
4,288
2,614

7,895
4,920
2,975

8,775
5,495
3,280

9,985
6,200
3,785

11,420
7,235
4,185

12,750
8,400
4,350

1,911
937
937
37

3,464
1,497
1,497
158
312

5,160
2,028
2,008
81
1,044

5,101
2,194
2,121
158
628

5,818
2,411
2,364
169
874

5,537
2,441
2,378
166
551

6,223
2,839
2,791
164
429

10,540
4,935
4,883
222
499
2

11,495
5’348
5,261
362
519
5

322
322

1,573
640

1,691
832

1,821
914

2,189
1,096

2,615
1,302

2,771
1,382

933

858

907

1,093

1,313

1,389

3,255
1,492
59
1,705

4,029
1,664
140
2,225

Health insurance (Medicare) under OASDHI:
Hospital insurance (HI)18
Employer..
Employee ..
Government2
Supplementary medical insurance (SMI)1 . . _
Government.................... .................... ................
S o u rc e :

S o c ia l S e c u r it y A d m in i s t r a t io n , O f f i c e o f R e s e a rc h a n d S ta tis tic s , S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , A n n u a l S ta tis tic a l

S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 4 , p . 4 7 .




1974

F igure A-1 0

a b l e 1.—Private pension and deferred profit-sharing plans:1 Estimated coverage, contributions, beneficiaries, benefit payments,
and reserves, 1940-74

T

Coverage,3
end of year
(in thousands)
Year

Employer
contributions
(in millions)

Employee
contributions
(in millions)

Amount of benefit
payments
(in millions)

Reserves, book
value, end of year
(in billions)

In­ NonTotal, sured, InIn­
In­
In­
In­ Nonin­
In­
Total sured Nonin­ Total sured Nonin­ Total sured Nonin­ Total 3 sured sured3 Total sured Nonin­
sured
sured
net
sured
sured
gross sured,
gross

_ _
_ _
1940
1945
............
1950 ......................
1951 .. ............ - 1952 .....................
1953 ___________
1951
_________
1955 ______ _____
1956 ____________
1957_____________
1958_____________
1959__ __________
1960_____________
1961_____________
1962_____________
1963_____________
1964____ ____ ____
1965_____________
1966_____________
1967_____________
1968_____________
1969_____________
1970_____________
1971_____________
1972_____________
1973_____________
1974_____________

4,100
180
830
6,400
9,800 2,600 7,200 1,750
10,800 2,900 8,100 2,280
11,300 3,200 8,500 2,510
12,600 3,400 9,800 2,990
13,400 3,600 10,600 3,000
14,200 3,800 11,600 3,280
15,500 4,100 12,800 3,600
16,700 4,400 13,700 4,030
17,200 4,500 14,300 4,100
18,200 4,800 15,100 4,590
18,700 4,900 16,300 4,710
19,200 5,100 17,100 4,830
19,700 5,100 17,900 5,200
20,300 5,400 18,400 5,560
20,900 6,000 18,600 6,370
21,800 6,200 19,100 7,370
22,700 6,900 19,400 8,210
24,300 7,700 19,800 9,050
24,800 7,900 20,100 10,020
26,000 8,700 21,300 11,390
26,100 9,300 22,000 12,580
26,400 9,600 22,700 15,150
27,500 10,300 23 200 16,940
29,200 11,300 24,100 19,390
29,800 11,700 24,400 23,020

720
820
910
1,010
1,030
1,100
1,110
1,220
1,250
1,330
1,190
1,180
1,240
1,390
1,520
1,770
1,850
2,010
2,320
2,900
2,86C
3.83C
4,200
5,020
6,050

1,030
1,460
1,630
1,980
1,970
2,180
2,490
2,810
2,850
3,260
3,520
3,650
3,960
4,170
4,850
5,60C
6,360
7,0iC
7,700
8,490
9,720
11,320
12,740
14,370
16,970

130
160
330
380
430
485
515
560
625
690
720
770
780
780
830
860
910
990
1,040
1,130
1,230
1,360
1,420
1,49C
1,600
1,710
2,000

200
210
240
260
270
280
290
300
310
330
300
290
310
300
310
320
330
340
340
350
350
37C
400
440
540

130
170
190
225
245
280
335
390
410
440
480
490
520
560
600
670
710
790
890
1,010
1,G
7C
1.12C
1,200
1,270
1,460

160
310
450
540
650
750
880
980
1,090
1,240
1,400
1,590
1,780
1,910
2,100
2,280
2,490
2,750
3,180
3,460
3,920
4,180
4.74C
5,18C
5,550
6,080
6,390

150
170
200
230
270
290
320
370
430
500
5:0
570
630
690
740
790
870
930
1,010
1,070
1,220
1,300
1,350
1,480
1,550

140
220
300
370
370
450
450
520
520
620
610
710
690
850
770 1,000
870 1,140
970 1,290
1,090 1,540
1,240 1,720
1,340 1,970
1,470 2,330
1,590 2,590
1,750 2,990
1,960 3,520
2,310 4,190
2,530 4,790
2,810 5,530
3,110 6,450
3,520 7,360
3,88C 8,590
4,200 10,000
4,600 11,220
4,840 12,930

80
290
100
350
120
400
140 . 480
160
550
180
670
210
790
240
900
290 1,000
340 1,200
390 1,330
450 1,520
510 1,820
570 2,020
640 2,350
720 2,800
810 3,380
910 3,880
1,030 4,500
1,160 5,290
1,330 6,030
1,510 7,080
1,700 8,300
1,910 9,310
2,190 10,740

A lf r e d M . S k o ln ik , " P r iv a t e P e n s io n P la n s , 1 9 5 0 - 7 4 , " S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , Ju n e 1 9 7 6 , p . 4 .




2.4
54
12.1
14 5
17 3
20 5
23 8
27.5
31 4
36.1
40.9
46 6
52 C
57 8
63 5
69 9
77.7
86 5
95 5
106 1
117.8
127.8
137 1
151.4
167.8
180.2
191.7

1.0
2.6
5.6
66
7.7
88
10.0
11.3
12 5
14.1
15 6
17.6
18.8
20.2
21.6
23 3
25.2
27 3
29 3
31.9
34.7
37 2
40 1
45. C
50 3
53.7
58.0

1.4
2.8
6.5
8.0
9.6
11.7
13 8
16 1
18.9
22.0
25 3
29.1
33 1
37 5
41.9
46.6
52.4
59.2
66.2
74.2
83.1
90 6
97.0
106 4
117.5
126 5
133.7

3 Excludes beneficiaries.
3 Includes refunds to employees and their survivors and lump sums paid
under deferred profit-sharing plans.
Source: Compiled by the Social Security Administration from data furn­
ished primarily by the Institute of Life Insurance and the Securities and
Exchange Commission.

1 Includes pay-as-you-go, multiemployer, and union-administered plans,
those of nonprofit organizations, and railroad plans supplementing the Fed­
eral railroad retirement program. Excludes pension plans for Federal, State,
and local government employees as well as pension plans for the self-em­
ployed. Insured plans are underwritten by insurance companies; noninsured
plans are, in general, funded through trustees.
S o u rc e :

Number of bene­
ficiaries, end of year
(in thousands)

95

Figure A-1 1

T a b l e 3.—Estimated total employer and employee contributions1 under employee-benefit plans,2 by typo of benefit, 1950-74
[In millions]
All wage and salary workers

Year

Total

Accidental
Life
death
insurance
and
and death5 dismem­
berment4

W age and salary workers in private industry

Total

Hospital­
ization5 8

Surgical
and
regular
medical5

Total8

Written
in compli­
ance with
law

$18.0
39.0
94.0
169.0
266.0
357.0

$75.9
143.8
155.8
186.5
178.1
178.8
177.1
217.2
232.3
232.8

$40.0
125.0
170.0
125.0
125.0

$2,080.0
2,660.0
2.970.0
3.475.0
3.515.0
3,840.0
4,225.0
4,720.0
4,820.0
5,360.0

1,282.2
1,439.6
1,595.9
1.684.1
1.876.1
2,109.2
2,299.7
2,552.1
2,915.2
3,363.4

470.0
651.0
753.0
837.0
965.0
1,078.0
1,195.0
1,294.0
1,621.0
1,890.0

1,178.9
1,214.6
1,311.4
1,360.3
1,397.1
1,573.8
1,754.4
1,897.2
2,332.7
2,702.2

238.8
255.3
255.4
244.4
238.0
258.4
280.1
310.6
342.0
399.4

118.0
102.0
152.0
148.0
112.0
116.0
130.0
113.0
125.0
110.0

5,490.0
5,610.0
6,030.0
6,420.0
7,280.0
8,360.0
9,250.0
10,180.0
11,250.0
12,750.0

3.998.3
4.489.3
5,152.3
5,937.8
7,022.4

2,310.0
2,635.0
3,568.4
4,050.4
4,608.5

3,074.9
3,226.5
3,749.7
3,938.8
4,250.1

417.4
442.8
499.3
522.2
517.1

130.0
140.0
155.0
160.0
160.0

14,000.0
16,640.0
18,540.0
21,100.0
25,020.0

$3,940.0
4.986.4
5.676.8
6.629.8
6.988.5
7.856.6
8,910.5
10,041.7
10,520.6
11,714.5

$480.0
524.4
619.8
693.6
731.5
880.5
1,002.0
1,076.9
1,179.0
1,291.7

$18.4
23.2
27.0
31.2
33.5
43.4
49.7
56.5
60.9
66.0

$856.3
1,139.1
1,373.4
1,663.8
1.923.6
2.193.6
2,594.7
2,995.8
3,286.4
3,774.2

$562.4
727.2
880.5
1,070.8
1,221.4
1,385.1
1,603.2
1,805.5
1,944.9
2,230.3

$293.9
411.9
492.9
593.0
684.2
769.5
897.5
1,021.3
1,075.5
1,186.9

1960.......................
1961____________
1962........................
1963____ _______
1964____________
1965............. ..........
1966_____ _______
1967................ .
1968............ ..........
1969........................

12,530.1
13,482.4
14,758.4
15,880.6
17,657.4
19,918.8
21,682.6
23,419.0
26,888.8
30,568.9

1,416.2
1,556.6
1,677.1
1,867.0
2,043.6
2,233.0
2,375.7
2,538.0
2,936.5
3,221.9

70.0
75.0
80.0
92.0
99.0
116.0
131.0
142.0
169.0
190.0

4,257.0
4,924.2
5,507.9
5,993.3
6,725.7
7,520.0
8,041.5
8,548.8
10,075.6
11,594.8

2,504.8
2,833.6
3,159.0
3,472.2
3,884.6
4,332.8
4,546.8
4,702.7
5,539.4
6,341.4

1970..___ ______
1971...___ ______
1972___________
1973....................
1974....................

34,873.0
39,792.1
45,299.7
50,370.5
57,512.0

3,566.5
3,853.9
4,323.2
4,368.7
4,684.6

224.0
229.0
283.6
302.8
329.2

13,877.6
15,702.7
18,248.2
20,500.2
23,068.1

7,569.3
8,578.4
9,527.5
10,512.0
11,437.2

1 Excludes dividends in group insurance.
1 See footnote 1, table 1.
! Group and wholesale life insurance premiums based on data from Insti­
tute of Life Insurance, O roup L ife Insurance and G roup A n n u i ty Coverage
in the U nited States, annual issues, modified to exclude group plans not re­
lated to employment. Also excludes premiums for servicemen’s group life
insurance. Self-insured death benefit costs based on data for various tradeunion, mutual benefit association, and company administered plans.
4 Data from Health Insurance Association of America, G roup H ealth
Insurance Coverages in the U n ited States, annual issues.
5 Data from “ Private Health Insurance in 1974: A Review of Coverage,
Enrollment, and Financial Experience,” Social Security B u lle tin , March
1976; and Health Insurance Association of America (see footnote 4). In esti­
mating contributions for employees under plans other than group insurance
and union and company plans, it was assumed that the proportion of sub­
scription income attributable to employed groups increased gradually from
75 percent in 19.50-60 to 85 percent in 1974.
8 Includes private hospital plans written in compliance with State tempo­
rary disability insurance law in California; separate data not available for
these plans.
7 Represents premiums for group supplementary and comprehensive

Majormedical
expense7

Supple­
mental
0
unem­ Retirement1
ployment
benefits8

$505.3
639.7
686.6
766.2
784 9
859.1
914.1
1,022.5
1,049.3
1,097.6

1950... ...................
1951
... .
1952
..... .
1953
..........
1954
___
1955.......... .............
19.56......................
1957___ ________
1958........................
1959.......................

S o u rc e :

Temporary disability,
including formal
sick leavo

Health benefits

major-medical insurance underwritten by commercial insurance carriers.
Data from Health Insurance Association of America (see footnote 4).
8 Data from “ Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948-74,” Social
S ecurity B u lle tin , July 1976. Includes private plans written in compliance
with State temporary disability insurance laws in California, New Jersey,
and New York, shown separately in next column. Includes contributions
under long-term disability policies.
•Based on trade-union and industry reports, and “ Financing Supple­
mental Unemployment Benefit Plans,” M o n th ly Labor R eview , November
1969. Excludes dismissal wage and separation allowances, except when
financed by supplemental unemployment benefit funds covering temporary
and permanent layoffs.
1 Estimated by the Social Security Administration from data compiled
0
by the Institute of Life Insurance, P en sio n Facts 1976, and the Securities
and Exchange Commission, 1974 S u rvey o f Private N o n in su red P ension
F u n d s . Includes contributions to pay-as-you-go and deferred profit-sharing
plans, plans of nonprofit organizations, union pension plans, and railroad
plans supplementing the Federal railroad retirement program. Excludes
contributions to plans for Federal, State, and local employees, to tax-shel­
tered annuity plans, and to plans for the self-employed.

A l f r e d M . S ^ o l n ik , " T w e n t y - f i v e Y e a rs o f E m p lo y e e B e n e f it P la n s ," S o c ia l S e c u rity B u lle tin , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 6 , p . 8 .




96

Figure A-1 2

Table B-lla.— Number and average amount of employee annuities
in current-payment status on Dec. 31,1974, by occupational group

Employee also receiving
Regular annuities

Supplemental annuity

Social security benefit

Occupational group
Average amount

Average amount
Total
number
Total 2/---------------------------------

VO

■1
^

Office employees:
Executives, officials and staff
assistants-----------------------------Supervisors and professionals-----------Station agents and telegraphers---------Clerks and other office employees-------Train-and-engine-service employees:
Engineers--------------------------------Conductors-------------------------------Firemen and hostlers--------------------Brakemen, baggagemen, and switchtenders—
Gang foremen---------------------------------Maintenance employees:
Way and structures craftsmen------------Shop craftsmen---------------------------Way and structures helpers and
apprentices----------------------------Shop helpers and apprentices------------Other maintenance-of-way employees------Other shop and stores employees---------Station and platform employees— ------------All other employees---------------------------




S o u rc e :

Average
amount

Number

457,410

$305

120,314

11,265
35,617
14,403
55,706

376
361
315
301

24,154
22,687
8,974
26,284
23,664

Supple­
mental

Number

Regular
railroad

$383

$66

178,182

$235

$139

879
7,691
4,299
15,977

400
406
388
382

63
65
67
65

3,441
11,266
5,765
23,934

300
288
263
241

167
149
135
144

373
365
302
329
341

9,526
8,200
1,947
6,696
8,654

410
407
383
393
396

68
68
63
65
67

5,989
6,249
3,935
9,778
6,855

331
308
249
268
258

114
124
133
125
138

14,012
68,524

312
318

4,027
20,563

386
392

66
67

4,939
26,380

228
252

136
142

2,732
17,640
47,343
23,513
21,226
39,035

242
242
236
254
254
273

418
2,603
8,518
5,285
4,537
10,454

360
363
346
351
347
357

65
65
65
64
63
65

1,331
8,951
19,106
10,537
10,735
18,651

176
189
159
197
201
215

144
153
136
135
140
141

R a ilr o a d R e t ir e m e n t B o a rd , S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 5 A n n u a l R e p o rt, 1 9 7 6 , p . 2 8 .

Regular

Social
security 1/

Figure A-1 3
Table C-5.— Beneficiaries both unemployed and sick in 1974-75» and related data,
by selected occupational group

Average per beneficiary

Beneficiaries

Occupational group

Number

Percent of all
beneficiaries

Unemployed

Total 1/--------------------

6,900

Office employees:
Executives, officials, and staff
assistants--— — — — — -— "— ” 2/
Supervisors and professionals------100
100
Station agents and telegraphers-— -800
Clerks and other office employees--Train-and-engine-service employees:
300
Engineers— — — — —
—
— — —
400
Conductors—
— — — — — — —
—
200
Firemen and hostlers— — — — — — —
Brakemen, baggagemen, and
switch tenders---- ---------------- 2,200
100
Gang foremen— — — — — —
— — —
Maintenance employees:
200
Way and structures craftsmen— -----1,100
Shop craftsmen--— — — — — — —
—
Way and structures helpers and
apprentices—
— — — — — — —
— 2/
200
Shop helpers and apprentices------500
Other maintenance-of-way employees—
200
Other shop and stores employees— —
100
Station and platform employees— ------500
All other employees--- — ---— --------




S o u rc e :

Median
age

Total

Sick

39

12

9

Sickness

Total

Unemploy­
ment

56

$906

$446

67
63
47

53
49
63

3/
1,005
920
909

Unemploy­
ment

110

54

3/

3/

9
8
10

5
6
10

46
33
38

3/
120
112
111

9
8
6

9
9
16

55
44
45

92
102
81

38
42
42

54
61
39

9
8

26
4

31
51

106
121

54
47

51
74

9
10

7
9

43
41

104
104

46
51

58
53

39
40
45
51
48

3/
123
142
100
125
132

3/

3/

3/

3/

3/

3/
10
10
8
6
12

20
13
8
13
16

Amount of benefits

Days on benefit rolls

R a i lr o a d R e t i r e m e n t B o a r d , S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 5 A n n u a l R e p o r t, 1 9 7 6 , p . 6 8 .

3/

3/
50
77
49
57
69

73
66
51
69
63

Sickness

$460

3/

3/
573
521
383

432
399
526

745
837
632

303
338
332

442
499
299

856
1,025

440
407

416
618

398
443

473
430

871.
873
3/
1,041
1,221
840
1,047
1,072

3/

3/
437
673
429
473
566

604
548
412
573
506

Figure A - 1 4

Table D-3-— Employees and averages of months of service and taxable compensation, for all classes of employer
and for class I railroads, 1964-74

Employees with 12 months
of service

All employees

Number
(thousands)

Average
months of
service

Average taxable
compensat ion
Per month
In year

Number
(thousands)

Average taxable
compensati on
Per month
In year

ALL C LASSES OF
EMPLOYER

1964------------------------1965-----------------------1966------------------------1967-----------------------1968------------------------1969------------------------1970------------------------1971------------------------1972------------------------1973
--------------------1974-------------------------

y

990
969
955
911
879
865
825
774
737
726
730

10.2
10,1
10.0
10,2
10,1
9,9
10.1
10.2
10,3
10.4
10.3

$417
423
494
496
563
58Q
588
618
705
830
961

$4,254
4,272
4,941
5,064
5,688
5,741
5,935
6,240
7,259
8,629
9,910

702
685
669
643
606
585
570
542
529
529
527

$433
438
514
521
592
608
616
630
727
859
994

$ 5,191
5,256
6,162
6,253
7,108
7,296
7,389
7,561
8,720
10,305
11,923

827
799
793
767
747
742
719
680
652
645
653

10.4
10,3
10,3
10.3
10.2
10.0
10.1
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.4

$419
428
495
500
569
587
595
614
707
832
967

$ 4,360
4,408
5,095
5,155
5,807
5,868
6,007
6,324
7,350
8,736
10,012

601
584
572
550
526
512
502
482
472
476
474

$434
440
516
523
596
611
618
633
730
863
999

$ 5,210
5,277
6,194
6,278
7,148
7,334
7,416
7,592
8,758
10,354
11,985

CLASS I RAILROADS
1964------------------------1965------------------------1966------------------------1967------------------------1968------------------------1969------------------------1970-----------------------1971------------------------1972------------------------1973 1 / --------------------1974-------------------------

S o u rc e :




R a i lr o a d R e t i r e m e n t B o a r d , S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 5 A n n u a l R e p o rt, 1 9 7 6 , p . 9 9 .

Figure A-1 5

Table D-10.— Employees in 1974, by occupational group and by amount of taxable compensation

Number by amount of taxable compensation
Occupational group

Total

-------------------— ---Under
$4,000

Total !/■

Office employees:
Executives, officials, and staff
assis tants-------------------------- —
Supervisors and professionals-------- —
Station agents and telegraphers— ■-— —
Clerks and other office employees- - —
Train-and-engine-service employees:
Engineers---- -------------------- --Conductors------------------ --------Firemen and hostlers----- ----------- —
Brakemen, baggagemen, and
switch tenders---------- ------------ -Gang foremen--- -------------------------- —
Maintenance employees:
Way and structures craftsmen--------- —
Shop craftsmen------------------------ Way and structures helpers and
apprentices------------------------Shop helpers and apprentices--------- —
Other maintenance-of-way employees--- —
Other shop and stores employees— -— - —
•
Station and platform employees--- ------All other employees-------------------------




S o u rc e :

$4000$5,999

—

— ...

-

■

.. — ....
.
.

.1

$6,000$7,999

$8,000$9,999

$10,000$10,999

$11,000$11,999

$12,000$13,199

$13,200

105,080

183,484

125,221

729,763

97,015

33,392

40,888

74,124

70,559

21,177
63,834
19,871
93,240

501
2,277
1,579
9,393

301
1,317
634
4,247

434
1,909
822
5,086

343
1,962
1,087
9,804

203
2,358
1,945
19,464

399
5,325
6,216
24,883

1,545
17,526
6,241
17,128

17,451
31,160
1,347
3,235

22,968

1,291
1,569
1,237

542
764
625

1,104
1,687
891

1,338
2,234
1,469

958
1,855
1,403

2,100
3,588
2,815

11,462
17,755
8,636

21,366
14,698
5,892

103,232
26,375

11,655
1,016

4,911
695

6,653
1,331

9,682
1,419

7,042
2,340

11,916
5,242

35,590
9,976

15,783
4,356

35,029
97,437

4,311
5,529

1,826
3,743

2,244
5,263

3,209
7,002

5,446
7,245

6,705
24,539

8,571
40,174

2,717
3,942

5,057
13,230
74,571
21,282

1,516
3,197
35,977
5,038
2,836
7,166

474
1,294
6,394
1,856
765
2,782

441
1,364
5,798
1,998
790
2,762

974
4,369
12,927
7,438
1,960
6,432

875
1,457
7,480
2,980
1,699
5,573

452
739
3,707
1,168
906
4,156

295
745
2,083
742
790
3,944

30
65
205
62
160
1,053

33,868

R a i lr o a d R e t i r e m e n t B o a r d , S ta tis tic a l S u p p le m e n t, 1 9 7 5 A n n u a l R e p o r t, 1 9 7 6 , p . 1 2 0 .

Figure A -1 6

Table 10.— Estimated revenue and nonrevenue receipts for public elementary and secondary education from Federal, State, intermediate, and local
sources, by State or other area and in large cities: United States, 1975-76

Total
receipts
cols. 3
and 12)
(in thou­
sands)
2

State or other area
and city
1

Revenue receipts by source (in thousands)
Inter­
mediate

Percent of revenue
receipts by source
Inter­
mediate

Non­
revenue
receipts
(in thou­
sands)
12

Total

Federal

State

Local

Federal

State

3

4

5

5

7

8

9

10

11

$341,348

$32,128,083

8.0

43.7

.5

47.8 $3,136,188

175,437
46,523
314,802
152,540
3,442,257

16.1
15.1
10.5
15.5
9.2

63.5
64.9
47.8
52.2
40.4

470,000
700,712
53,300
3/221,489
822,238

6.8
4.1
8.0
17.8
6.2

39.8
27.7
67.7
54.6

—

416,185

12.1
7.3
10.9
6.2
5.7

51.9
92.7
49.5
46.2
40.6

36.0

62,000

2.9
.1
.4

36.7
47.6
53.3

28,950
220,500
35,000

64.8
47.9
87.0
75.4
90.2

UNITED STATES___

$70,273,125

$67,136,937

$5,345,912

$29,321,594

Alabama............
Alaska............
Arizona............
Arkansas...........
California.........

870,615
242,881
827,617
523,396
7,013,788

858,774
232,881
763,757
472,634
6,831,788

1/138,308
35,157
80,438
73,361
2/630,037

545,029
151,201
365,258
246,733
2,759,494

3,259

Colorado...........
Connecticut........
Delaware...........
District of Columbia.
Florida............

900,000
1,055,105
234,220
269,420
2,127,304

880,000
1,027,105
219,220
269,420
2,097,669

60,000
42,096
17,500
3/47,931
130,328

350,000
284,297
148,420

NA
NA

1,145,103

Georgia............
Hawaii............
Idaho.............
Illinois...........
Indiana............

1,217,179
285,881
254,673
4,526,229
4/1,536,000

1,155,179
285,881
225,723
4,305,729
1,501,000

139,506
20,736
24,599
266,524
85,000

599,488
265,145
111,788
1,988,132
610,000

_
___
___

—

___

—

___

—

6,542
2,738
6,000

82,794
2,048,335
800,000

___

.4
—
NA
NA
___

Local

20.4
20.0
41.2
32.3
50.4

11,841
10,000
63,860
50,762
182,000

53.4
68.2
24.3
82.2
39.2

20,000
28,000
15,000
29,635
___

OUTLYING AREAS:
American Samoa......
Canal Zone..........
Guam...............
Puerto Rico.........
Virgin Islands......

$

6,803
22,240
42,363
394,969
37,334

6/$

6,803
22,240
42,363
394,969
37,334

6/$ 2,394
11,592
5,501
95,959
3,644

DOD Overseas Schools..
Trust Territory of
the Pacific Islands..

—

—

—

( 7/)
$1,062
—

6/$

4,409
10,648
7/36,862
297,948
33,690

—

—

—

—

—

—

.3
“

35.2
52.1
13.0
24.3
9.8

—
—

N

0

R

0

R

T

N

0

R

0

R

—
—
—
—
—

T

LARGE CITIES:
115,434
NA
475,512
104,471
114,920

9.1
—
12.0
14.4
1.6

46.9
—
45.8
25.0
36.7

—
—
14.7
(8/)

44.0
—
42.2
45.9
61.7

—
NA
$36,877
315
102

138,553
125,095
67,000
663,891
55,984

11.9
2.2
7.1
8.6
.9

48.5
46.2
33.3
27.2
39.6

.1
—
.3
.3
13.4

30.5
51.6
59.3
63.9
46.2

6,075
15
1,000
300
—

—
—
—
79

128,569
39,950
1,568,000
198,394
115,693

9.4
18.8
8.9
15.3
5.1

29.9
48.8
30.8
51.3
50.3

—
—
—
(8/)

60.7
32.4
60.3
33.4
44.6

18,950
4,000
—
—
4,626

2,353
—
1,989
220
—

43,435
21,697
126,545
117,259
3/221,489

19.9
11.9
10.0
9.0
17.8

35.9
58.6
24.3
19.0
—

2.3
—
1.0
.1
—

41.9
29.5
64.7
71.8
82.2

7,034
10
500
500
—

Baltimore, Md.......
Boston, Mass........
Chicago, 111........
Cleveland, Ohio.....
Dallas, Tex.........

262,502
NA
1,162,780
228,101
186,381

262,502
NA
1,125,903
227,786
186,279

23,943
NA
135,300
32,775
3,016

123,125
NA
515,091
57,000
68,342

Detroit, Mich.......
Houston, Tex........
Indianapolis, Ind...
Los Angeles, Calif....
Memphis, Tenn.......

356,709
242,398
113,969
1,039,022
121,209

350,634
242,383
112,969
1,038,722
121,209

41,743
5,354
8,000
89,016
1,069

170,138
111,934
37,669
282,329
47,956

300
3,486
16,200

Milwaukee, Wis......
New Orleans, La.....
New York, N.Y.......
Philadelphia, Pa....
Phoenix, Ariz.......

230,701
127,395
2,601,000
594,864
264,320

211,751
123,395
2,601,000
594,864
259,694

19,805
23,190
232,000
91,057
13,216

63,377
60,255
801,000
305,413
130,706

St. Louis, Mo.......
San Antonio, Tex....
San Diego, Calif....
San Francisco, Calif..
Washington, D.C.....

110,594
73,491
196,139
163,822
269,420

103,560
73,481
195,639
163,322
269,420

20,576
8,740
19,458
14,748
3/47,931

37,196
43,044
47,647
31,095
—

—

NA
—

$33,540
1
200
—

_

—

—

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, National Center for Educational Statistics,
Statistics o f Public Elem entary and Secondary Schools, F all 1975, 1976, pp. 34-35.




101

Figure A -1 7

Table A.-Mean and percent increase in salaries of full-time instructional faculty in institutions of higher education, by sex, length of contract, *
and academic rank: 50 States and District of Columbia, 1972-73 and 1974-75
Men and women
Length of contract
and academic rank

Women

Men

1972-73

1974-75

Percent
increase

1972-73

1974-75

Percent
increase

1972-73

1974-75

Percent
increase ■

$13,580
19,182
14,572
12,029
10,736
11,637
12,676

$15,611
21,263
16,128
13,290
12,691
12,575
13,532

12.7
10.8
10.7
10.5
18.2
8.1
6.8

$14,415
19,405
14,714
12,190
11,147
12,105
13,047

$16,290
21,517
16,260
13,452
13,350
13,231
14,007

13.0
10.9
10.5
10.4
19.8
9.3
7.4

$11,925
17,122
13,826
11,510
10,099
10,775
11,913

$13,470
19,011
15,481
12,857
11,740
11,443
12,618

13.0
11.0
12.0
11.7
16.2
7.1
5.9

$16,675
2,631
17,728
14,859
11,773
13,487
12,579

$18,876
25,377
20,261
16,710
13,378
16,179
14,275

13.2
12.1
14.3
12.5
13.6
20.0
13.5

$17,577
22,882
17,986
15,288
12,284
14,201
13,012

$19,815
25,608
20,459
17,035
13,791
16,672
14,689

12.7
11.9
13.7
11.9
12.3
17.4
12.9

$13,150
19,162
16,144
13,562
10,919
12,245
11,570

$15,536
22,570
19,117
15,795
12,718
15,515
13,365

18.1
17.8
18.4
16.5
16.5
26.7
15.5

9-10 month contracts
All ranks combined . ..
Professors . ...............
Associate professors. ..
Assistant professors . ..
Instructors....................
Lecturers ......................
Undesignated ranks . ..
11-12 month contracts
All ranks combined . ..
Professors....................
Associate professors. ..
Assistant professors . . .
Instructors....................
Lecturers......................
Undesignated ranks . . .

Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, National Center for Educational Statistics,
Salaries and Tenure o f In stru ctio n a l F aculty in In stitu tio n s o f Higher Education, 1974-75, 1976, p. 1.




102

Figure A -1 8

TABLE

5

. — MEAN

FRINGE-BENEFTT

CCNTRACTS

IN

EXPENDITURES

INSTITUTIONS
OF

OF

BENEFIT

FOP

HIGHER
PLAN:

FULL-TIME

ACADEMIC

EDUCATION,
50

STATES

( ALL

BY

AND

D ISTR IC T

CF

IN STITU TIO N

TYPE

OF

BENEFIT

AND

RESIDENT

RANK,
OF

CONTROL

COLUMBIA,

ASSOC.

PRO­

ALL

IN S T I­

PLAN

ON

9-10-M 0NTH

I N S T I T U T 1 0 N, A N D

TYPR

1971-7?

ASST.

CF

AND

FACULTY
OF

INSTITUTIO NS)

NUMBER
CCNTRCL

DEANS

ACADEMIC

RANKS

DEANS

FESSORS

FESSORS

FESSORS

3

4

5

6

7

ACAOEMIC

PPO-

PRO­

UNDES­
INSTRUCT0R S

IGNATED

LEC­
TURE® S

RANKS

TUTIONS

2

1

PUBLIC

ANC

PRIVATE,

1,833

$ 1 ,6 1 2

.............................

1,578

1,056

1 ,6 0 9

.........................................................

1, 205

1,164

1,731

919

RETIREMENT,
VESTED

TOTAL

TOTAL

.

.

$2,259

$ 2 ,3 0 0

$ 1 ,7 5 6

$ 1 ,4 5 3

l ,599

1 ,127

1 ,695

1 ,1 8 6

920
968

...........................................

534

775

1,098

1,1 5 7

H O S P I T A L I Z A T I O N ....................................

1,462

1 76

697

189
64

171

..................................................

71

75

NCT

VESTED

D IS A B IL IT Y

*96

304

411

264

683

614

452

589

803

....................................

465

44 5

440

44 8

COMPENSATION

.

454

93

109

94

92

90

98

98

91

.

.

1 ,059

82

102

103

90

74

66

63

73

7C7

TOTAL

.............................

? 7

37

39

33

30

33

37

60

1,0 3 3

137

132

128

141

355

461

1,558

2 ,2 5 9

2, 10\

1,712

1,470

1 ,222

1 ,508

1 , 168

l ,660

219

....................................

61 *

1,036
1,171
787
204

..................................................

211

66

.........................................................

VESTEC

...........................................

HOSPITALIZATION

971

.

.

8 29

4 20
406

l ,567

1 , 156

953

730

1,0 6 7

620

1,8 5 6

1 ,694

1,244

1,027

778

1 ,1 7 0

794

1 ,1 2 2

1 , 186

944

783

656

737

547

1 74

178

180

180

194

213

334

71

78

62

52

68

63

81

216

191

88
10

183

119

184

106

...........................................

462

570

328

373

672

318

S E C U R I T Y ....................................

615

462

466

467

46 7

466

449

448

456

TUITIO N

F L A N S ...........................................

HOUSING
SOCIAL

FLAN

UNEMPLOYMENT

240

255

.

112

86

93

90

81

80

99

94

71

.

431

84

54

112

96

76

67

66

75

.

.

374

43

37

46

37

34

35

48

63

.......................................................................
V

38

199

170

98

84

75

128

24?

466

INSURANCE
COMPENSATION

1,747

2,258

2 ,6 6 9

1, 8 5 2

1 ,4 1 6

998

1 ,1 2 4

1 ,258

.............................

871

1, 1 14

1,531

1 ,664

1,060

822

591

829

821

.........................................................

785

1, 148

1,578

1 ,698

1, 0 8 5

841

616

859

871

128

561

96 5

755

559

485

375

208

697

....................................

849

162

167

1 74

160

159

153

486

62

7 1

73

61

56

57

155
6 *

164

..................................................

515

796

1,3 3 0

1 ,1 0 0

730

523

576

452

68 5

TCTAL

RETIREMENT,
VESTED

...........................................
TOTAL

VESTED

...........................................

HOSPITALIZATION
D IS A B IL IT Y
TU ITIC N

.

o
o

PRIVATE,

COMPENSATION

163

.

LIFE

WORKMAN'S

PLANS

...........................................

*

55

80

700

1,7 8 3

763

748

597

524

589

89 5

9 7*

458

464

466

466

462

435

424

428

.

342

98

118

97

100

97

97

100

115

.

.

628

78

156

93

80

70

64

57

.

.

595

29

37

34

29

25

27

23

33

.......................................................................

55

36 3

1,1 5 6

3 58

>84

>91

248

6 36

320

HOUSING

FLAN

...........................................

SECURITY

UNEM F L C Y M E N T
LIFE

WCRKMAN'S
CTHER

78

467

T C T A L ..................................................

GROUP

63

585

PUELIC ,

SOCIAL

317

63

717

93

NOT

198

54

467

969

CTHEF

184

61

46 5

.

GROUP

17 3

1,610

COMPENSATION

D IS A B ILITY

552

1 ,288

.......................................................................

VESTED

633
806

716

656

60*

CTHER

NCT

1,026
1,1 0 5

645

584

INSURANCE

RETIREMENT,

711
747

765
172

461

S E C UR I T V

UNEMPLOYMENT

WORKMAN'S

$1,178

90

FLAN

LIFE

$1 ,4 0 3

$ 1 ,1 7 0

1 ,588

P L A N S ...........................................

HOUSING
SOCIA L

10

9

...........................................

TUITIO N

GPCUF

8

....................................

C OMPENSATIO N

INSURANCE
COMPENSATIO N

.

Source:
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, National Center for Educational Statistics,
Salaries and Fringe Benefits 1971-72 and 1972-73, 1975, p. 86.




103

6 ?

Figure A - 1 9

Table 1A.— Sources of Income and Selected Tax Items, 1972 and 1973
|AH figures a rt estimates based oe samples- number of returns are in thousands, money amounts are in millions |

1972

(2)

in
Humber ef returns, total
Taxable
Nontaxable

lucreasa or
decrease ( ),
1973 ever 1972

1173

(3)

77.573

10.593

3.121

60.869
16 704

64.267
16.425

3,398
278

Adjusted gross income (less deficit)

745.975

827.148

81.174

Sources of income
Salaries and wages (gross)
Business or profession net profit less net loss
farm net profit less net loss
Partnership net profit less net loss
Small business corporation net profit less net loss

622.599
34.453
4.106
11.058
2.112

687,179
38.102
7.228
11.160
2.136

64.580
3 650
3.121
101
24

17.075
16.794
27.400
2.989
911
1.823
14.218

16.671
18,734
32,174
3.763
1,160
2 019
17 488

-404
1.940
4.774
774
248
195
3.270

9.565
447.633
1.083
93.360

10.665
511.929
1.493
107.901

1.100
64.297
411
14 542

216
93.576
2.330
95 949

182
108 084
3.011
111.175

-3 4
14 508
681
15.226

Sales of capital assets net gam less net loss
Dividends in adjusted gross income
Interest received
Rent net income less net loss
Royalty net income less net loss
Estates and trusts net income le s rn e t loss
All other sources (net) 1
Statutory adjustments*
Taxable income
Total credits
Income tax after credits
Additional tax for tax preferences
Total income tax
Self^mployment ta x ...........................................................
Total tax lia b ility ' .............................................................

'Comprises income from pensions and annuities (taxable portion), gams and losses from sales of property other than capital assets. State income tax refunds, alimony, and other income or loss
Comprises sick pay exclusion, moving expense deduction, employee business expense deduction, and self-employed retirement deduction
T he sum of total income tax. self employment tax. social security taxes on tip income, tax from recomputing prior year investment credit, and tax from recomputing prior year Work Incentive (WIN) credit
NOTE Detail may not add to total because of rounding

Source: U.S. Department of the Treasury, Internal Revenue Service, Statistics o f Incom e 1973: In d ivid u al Incom e Tax
Returns, p. 2.

Figure A -2 0

CHIEF FISCAL OFFICER
D i s t r i c t o f Columbia
A l a s k a ...................................
T e x a s .....................................
O r e g o n ...................................
M i c h i g a n .............................
N o r t h C a r o l i n a ..............
I l l i n o i s .............................
U t a h ........................................
N o r t h D a k o t a ...................
W a s h i n g t o n ........................
New J e r s e y . ......................
Ca 1 i f o r n i a ........................
M o n t a n a ................................
T e n n e s s e e ...........................
C o n n e c t 1c u t ......................
Co 1o r a d o .............................
P e n n s y 1v a n i a ...................
I n d i a n a ................................
A r i z o n a ................................
Rhode I s l a n d ...................
M a s s a c h u s e t t s ................
V i r g i n i a ..............................
Wi s c o n s i n ...........................
K a n s a s ...................................
G e o r q J a ................................
West V i r g i n i a ................

I o w a .................................. . . . . $ 1 7 5 2 4 - 2 4 6 4 8 ( f
I d a h o ................................
M a r y 1a n d ......................... . . . 1 71 12 - 2 2 4 7 8 ( b
Hawa i i .............................
a
a
O h i o . ................................
D e 1a w a r e ........................ . . . .
16642-231861 a
F 1o r . i d a .......................... . . . . 1 6 6 2 0 - 2 3 1 3 5
Wyom i n g ..........................
a
16556-19957( a
M a i n e ................................. . . .
N e v a d a ............................. . . . . 1 6 4 9 0 - 22861
Ok 1a h o m a ........................
a
A 1a b a n u ..................... .. ,
Mi n n e s o t a ...................... . . . 1 6 1 7 6 - 2 2 1 4 0 1 z
N e b r a s k a ..................... . . . .
16044-22416
Sou t h C a r o l i n a . . . . . . . 1 5 9 4 3 - 2 2 6 7 0
V i r g i n I s 1a n d s . . . . . . .
15497-19612
Mi s s o u r i ..................... . . . .
14592-19224
S o u t h D a k o t a .......... . . . . 14551 - 2 1 5 7 8
M i s s i s s i p p i ............. . . . •
14532-204721! a
New H a m p s h 1 r e . . . . . . . . 1 3 9 1 6 - 1 7 0 4 6 ( a
K e n t u c k y .....................
13788-21264
Lou i s i a n a ................... . . . .
V e r m o n t . . < ................ . . . .
13078-190581d
A r k a n s a s ......................
P u e r t o R i c o ............. . . . .
12000-16800

.$31309-37800
. 30^08-365761 a )
. 25700
(z)
. 23292-29736
. 23156 - 2 8 4 3 9 ( a . z )
. 22836-290161 a )
. 22680-31068
. 21948-32052
. 20124-26964
. 19500-24876
. 19428-26225
. 19068-22992
. 18922-22528(a )
. 18912-26316
. 18904 - 229901 a )
. 18624-24972
. 18484-24294
. 18356-23894
. 18165-24714
. 18063-20547(a.z)
. 18039-22875
. 17900-24500
. 17868-25008
. 17796-22560
. 17586-23190(a)
. 17568-25956

M ean
M ean

M in im u m
M ax im u m

S a la r y
S a la r y

- $18106
* $23788

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, State Salary Survey, August 1976, p. 4.




104

Figure A-21

TABLE 1 4 .— Em ployees by Pay Group and Pay System , W ashington, D .C ., M etropolitan Area, M ar. 3 1 , 1 9 7 4
[See headnote, table 1[

Annual—equivalent pay group

All employees

Number

General schedule

Percent

All groups______________

297, 759

Average salary:
Mean___________________
Median__________________

$15, 508
$12, 441

Less than $999_______________
$1,000 to $1,499_______________
$1,500 to $1,999_______________
$2,000 to $2,499______________

4
2
6
2

$2,500 to
$3,000 to
$3,500 to
$4,000 to
$4,500 to

100.0

Number
226,519

Wage system

Percent
100.0

$16, 129
$13, 522

Number

Percent

34, 784

100.0

$10, 683
$10,157

0
0
0
0

1

Other acts and
administrative
determination

Postal Service
Number

Percent

16, 039

100.0

$12, 689
$11,377

11
369
138
44
19

0
.1
0
0
0

$5,000 to $5,499_______________

656

.2

618

$13,000 to $13,499_____________
$13,500 to $13,999_____________
$14,000 to $14,499_____________
$14,500 to $14,999_____________

4, 408
4,161
3,026
8, 452

1.5
1.4
1.0
2.8

$15,000 to $15,499_____________
$15,500 to $15,999_____________
$16,000 to $16,499_____________
$16,500 to $16,999_____________
$17,000 to $17,499_____________

5, 006
5,139
3, 621
2,713
7,021

$17,500 to $17,999_____________
$18,000 to $18,499_____________
$18,500 to $18,999_____________
$19,000 to $19,499_____________
$19,500 to $19,999_____________

20,417

Percent
100.

$19 05?
$16 046
3
2
6
2

0

'

$2,999_______________
$3,499_______________
$3,999_______________
$4,499______________
$4,999_______________

Number

o
o
o
0

1.

11
2

0

4

0

369
136
44
15

.3

1

0

37

3, 358
3,027
1,972
7,249

1.5
1.3
.9
3.2

581
526
434
464

1.7
1.5
1.2
1.3

149
223
146
268

.9
1.4
.9
1.7

320
380
474
471

1.6
1.9
2.3
2.3

1.7
1.7
1.2
.9
2.4

4,026
2, 507
3,037
2,154
6, 417

1.8
1.1
1.3

1.2
6.6
.8
.4
.4

132
128
76
114
55

.8
.8
.5
.7
.3

435
195
218
302
402

2.1

2.8

413
2, 309
290
143
147

1.1
1.5
2.0

1,791
3,839
2,895
4, 368
2,864

.6
1.3

1.0

1,244
3, 463
2,602
3, 965
2,604

.5
1.5
1.1
1.8
1.1

88
79
135
173
58

.3
.2
.4
.5
.2

127
72
60
57
64

.8
.4
.4
.4
.4

332
225
98
173
138

1.6
1.1
.5
.8
.7

$20,000 to $20,999_____________
$21,000 to $21,999_____________
$22,000 to $22,999_____________
$23,000 to $23,999_____________
$24,000 to $24,999______ ____ _ .

7,959
4, 272
8,714
4,708
8,709

2.7
1.4
2.9
1.6
2.9

7,181
3, 840
8,103
4,105
7, 989

3.2
1.7
3.6
1.8
3.5

50
37
9
4
19

.1
.1
0

120
107
114
95
85

.7
.7
.7
.6
.5

608
290
488
504
616

3.0
1.4
2.4
2.5
3.0

$25,000 to $25, 999_____________
$26,000 to $26 999_____________
$27,000 to $27 999_____________
$28,000 to $28,999_____________
$29,000 to $29,999_____________
$30,000 and over_________ __

5, 939
5, 300
3, 418
3, 642
5,103
21,110

2.0
1.8
1.1
1.2
1.7
7.1

5,462
4, 925
3,078
3, 268
4, 657
16, 515

2.4
2.2
1.4
1.4
2.1
7.3

8

0

6

0

109
71
88
87
72
329

.7
.4
.5
.5
.4
2.1

360
304
246
287
372
4, 265

1.8
1.5
1.2
1.4
1.8
20.9

1.0

1.5

1.0

0

.1

2

0

1

0

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Pay Structure o f the Federal C ivil Service, March 3 1 ,1 9 7 4 , p. 29.




105

1.0

Figure A-22




TABLE C- 2 f u l l - t i m e w h i t e - c u l l a r e mp l oyme nt and ave rage s al a r y by p a t c o
CATEGORY, OCCUPATION, MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC AREA, AND SEX, OCTOBER 3 1 ,
OCCUPATION WITHIN
PATCO CATEGORY
CODES

titles

GRAND TOTAL

t ot al
e mp l t
AVG

SAL

ALL AREAS
M
FN
EMPLT AVG SAL

1975

womfn

EMPLT

|
'i

AVG SAL

1,975,7*5

15,152

1,279,1*1

17, 155

696,60*

11**75

/

39*
*78
872

23,568
21,393
22,376

3*3
*75
818

2 * , * 39
21,63*
22,65*

51
3
5*

17,905
19,60*
18,000

('
<
•
»

2,210
*,95*
2,283
71
136
56
1*8
*73
2,86*
85
3,038
6*
101
16, *83

22,66*
2 3 , 588
25,868
2 8 , **9
31,383
27,327
2 0 , 83*
22,313
23,9*8
22, 651
18,988
25,687
18,115
23,001

1, 557
*,317
2*012

23,557
2*,169
26,582
29, 8*1
31,553
28,15*
21,760
23,256
2*,532
2*,191
19,*?5
26,538
19,310
23,958

653
637
271
11
2
12
26
8*
*18
27
1 *333
12
15
3 * 501

2 0 , 53*
19,650
20*566
20*858
19, 386
2**256
16* * 8 7
17*897
20*528
19* 3 * *
18**31
22*127
11,26*
19, *50

<
■
<
.
|

PROFESSIONAL
0 0 0 2 0 P commj ni t y p l anni ng
00060 P chaplai n
00000 mi scellaneous occupati ons
0 0101 P
00110 P
00130 P
00131 P
00135 P
00 1 AO P
00150 P
00170 P
00180 P
0018* P
00185 P
00 1 9 0 P
00193 P
00100

SOCIAL SCIENCE
ECONOMIST
f o r e i g n AFFAIRS
i nternational

relations

FOREIGN AGRI AFFAIRS
MANPOWER RES AND ANALYSIS
GEOGRAPHY
HISTORY
PSYCHOLOGY
SOCIOLOGY
SDCIAL W
OR<
general

ant hr o p ol og y

ARCHEOLOGY
SOCIAL SCI PSYCH WELFARE

60

13*
**
122
389
2 , **6
58
1, 705
52
86
12,982

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Manpower Statistics Division, Occupations o f Federal
W hite-Collar Workers, October 31, 1974 and 1975, p. 18.

10 6

/
>
1.
1
.►
>
<|




Figure A-23

table 6

—

FEDERAL CIv111an EMPLOYMENT and COMPENSATION By BRANCH/ AGENCy, ANO AREA AS UF JULy 1976
TOTAL/ ALL AREAS
AGENCY

employment

TOTAL/ ALL AGENCIES.... .............................
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH................. ..

CONGRESS,, . , , , , , , .......... .......... (
UNITED STATES SENATE,..,..........
U,S, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,,..,,,

39,728)

2/775/064

3,704,934,035
(

18/356) (
7/009
11/347

COMPENSATION

employment

compensation

2/901/791
<

WASHINGTON/ U,C, SMSA

UNITED states

361/606

3,608,483,082
(

51,571,507)

(

39,652,

23/593/389)
8/780/230
14/913/159

(

18/356) (
7/009
11/347

COMPENSATION

empluyment

(

51,441,496,

(

37,131

23/593/389,
8/780/230
14/813/159

(

18/356, (
7/009
11/347

5 4 8 „ 3 5 5 , 22 1
49,966,491)

23/593/389,
8/780/230
14/813/159

ARCHITECT OF THE CAPITOL,,..........
BUta NIC garden ,.,..................
CUST accounting standards board ,,.....
GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE,,.,,.,,...

2/153
62
39
5/ < 6
*5

2/542/839
79/946
82/694
8/143/276

2/153
62
39
5/395

2/542,839
79,946
82/694
8/027/475

2/153
62
39
3/437

2/542/839
79/946
82/694
5/076/516

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.... , . . , , ,
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS........... .. ....
CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE.,.......
NATIONAL STUDY COMMISSION,..........

8 /306
4/934
216

,0/976/ 5 4 6
5/755/030
179/175
3/179

8 /3 O6
4/928
216

^0# 8 76j 5 »
<6
5/740/820
179,175
3/179

7/743
4/928
216

1 3 352/ 500
*/
5/740/820
179/175
3/179

197

315/433

197

315/433

197

315/433

UNITED STATES TAX COURT............
JUDICIAL BRANCH',,,.... .. .... .. ........ (

1lr255) (

1&/317/172)

316
10/939

425/908
15/991/264

2,850,808)

(3,637,045,356)

WHITE HOUSE OFFICE,.,,,............
OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT........
OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET,....
COUNCIL OF ECONOMIC ADVISERS,...,...

530
24
727
38

CITIZENS! ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.... ......... ...
council on environmental q uality ....
COUNCIL ON INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC
POLICY.............................................. ....
COUNCIL ON WAGE ANO PRICE STABILITY,,,

1

11/133) (

16/144/170)

316
10/817

425/908
15/718/262

2,724,279)

(3,540,897,416)

911/571
44/512
1/970/076
97/509

530
24
727
30

44/512
1/870/076
97/509

530
24
727
38

BH / 5 7 I
44/512
1/870/076
97/509

63

3/ 199
108/944

63

1

3/ 199
108/944

63

1

3 199
/
108/944

37
56

59/083
96/731

37
56

59,083
96/731

37
56

59/083
96/731

DOMESTIC COUNCIL,...... . ................
EXECUTIVE MANSION AND gROUNDS,
.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL,..,,... , , .
OFFICE OF SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE FOR
TRADE NEGOT ITIAT IONS........... , , ,

49
82
91

131/717
120/976
152/676

49
82
91

131/717
120/976
152/676

49
82
91

131/717
120/976
152/676

47

97/863

47

97/863

47

97/863

OFFICE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY,,,
STATE (INCLUDES AID),,,.,,..........

94
30/317

155/700
36/658/243

94
10/759

155/700
17/196/425

94
9/522

155/700
15/309/332

SUPREME COURT,,..... .. ..... ..........
UNITED STATES COURTS............. ...
EXECUTIVE BRANCH............... ................ (

(

{

(

1/539) 5

2/190/754)

316
1/223

(

425/908
1/764/846

322,936)

(

498,197,976)

executive office of the presidenti

a 11 / 57I

Source: U.S. Civil Service Commission, Bureau of Manpower Information Systems, Federal Civilian M anpower Statistics,
M o n th ly Release, October 1976, p. 16.

Figure A-24

C O MP ENS AT I O N

STRAIGHT
TIME
P A I D FOR

GROUP

PERCENT
OF T O T A L
1

AVERAGE
STRAIGHT

COHPENSAT I O N

(H)
I

II

I l l

IV

V

VI-A

EXECUTIVES.

AND

STAFF

ASSISTANTS.

F OR

PERCENT
OF T O T A L

AVERAGE
OVERTIME

CGMPEN-

RATES

SATION

RATES
(K)

( J)

( 1 )

2

(Ml

(L)

*2.651

*22.381

*35.155.407

98.92

1 1 .9 67

G E N E R A L .....................

116,352.157

87.78

6.956

5,752,359

3 . 58

9.656

S T R U C T U R E S ...........................

92.717,627

83.31

6.236

1 1,050.017

9 . 93

9.351

S T O R E S ....................

115. 111.C02

85.82

6.825

7,679,572

5.66

10.536

T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ( O T H E R THAN T R A I N ,
ENGINE.
A N D Y A R D ) .......................................................................

32.359,399

83.18

6.827

2.252.553

5.79

9.9C8

10,529,201

80.35

7.698

1.052,562

7.95

11.070

SERVICE).

175,029,289

70.85

6.658

21.997,290

8.9b

9.973

C O M P A N I E S ) ....................................................

576,255,072

80.85

6 .8 8 6

58,766.795

6.85

9.876

EMPLOYEES
(IN C LU D IN G SWITCHING
A N D T E R M I N A L C O M P A N I E S ) ....................................................

593.601,815

80.72

6.895

50,991,170

6.93

9 . 9 C1

PROFESSIONAL,

CLERICAL.

AND

MAINTENANCE

OF

WAY

M AI NT ENANCE

OF

EQUIPMENT

TRANSPORTATION
SWITCH

VI-B

OFFICIALS

OVERTIME
PAID

TIME

ALL

EMPLOYEES
AND

ALL

AND

(TRAIN

H O S T L E R S ) .................................

AND

(EXCLUDING

TERMINAL

AND

( YARDMASTERS,

TENOERS,

TRANSPORTATION

AND

.0 1

ENGINE

SWITCHING

Source: Interstate Commerce Commission, Bureau of Accounts, Wage Statistics o f Class / Railroads in the U n ite d States (No. 300),
June 1976, p. 2.

Figure A-25
T a b le 2 .

M edian a n n u a l s a l a r i e s o f th e 1970 s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g l a b o r f o r c e by f i e l d and t y p e o f e m p lo y e r : 1974
Type o f em p lo y e r

F ie l d
T o ta l

B u s in e s s
and
i n d u s tr y

U n iv e r ­
s ity &
4 -y e a r
c o lle g e

2 -y e a r
c o lle g e

O th e r
educa­
tio n a l
instw

H o s p ita l
or
c lin ic

F ed eral
G o v e rn ­
m ent

S ta te
g o v ern ­
ment

L ocal
g o v ern ­
m ent

O th e r
g o v ern ­
m ent

Non­
p ro f it
o rg a n i­
z a tio n s

O th e r

T o t a l .................................................................

$ 1 9 ,3 0 0

$ 1 9 ,0 0 0

$ 1 9 ,4 0 0

$ 1 7 ,4 0 0

1 9 ,0 0 0

$ 1 7 ,5 0 0

$ 2 1 ,7 0 0

$ 1 6 ,4 0 0

$ 1 8 ,9 0 0

$ 1 9 ,4 0 0

$2 0 , 1 0 0

$ 1 9 ,6 0 0

P h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s ................................
C h e m i s ts .....................................................
P h y s i c i s t s / a s t r o n o m e r s ....................
O th e r p h y s i c a l s c i e n t i s t s ............
M a th e m a tic a l s c i e n t i s t s ......................
M a t h e m a ti c ia n s .......................................
S t a t i s t i c i a n s .........................................
C om puter s p e c i a l i s t s .............................
E n v iro n m e n ta l s c i e n t i s t s ....................
E a r t h s c i e n t i s t s ..................................
O c e a n o g r a p h e r s .......................................
A tm o s p h e ric s c i e n t i s t s ....................
E n g i n e e r s ........................................................
L i f e s c i e n t i s t s .........................................
B i o l o g i c a l s c i e n t i s t s ......................
A g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s .................
M e d ic a l s c i e n t i s t s .............................
P s y c h o l o g i s t s ..............................................
S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .....................................
E c o n o m is ts .................................................
S o c io lo g is ts /a n th ro p o lo g is ts ...
O th e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s ............

1 9 ,5 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,3 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,4 0 0
2 0 ,1 0 0
1 9 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,7 0 0
2 2 ,3 0 0
1 9 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,8 0 0
1 7 ,9 0 0
1 7 ,1 0 0
1 9 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,4 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
2 2 ,3 0 0
1 9 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,6 0 0

1 9 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,3 0 0
2 1 ,6 0 0
2 0 ,7 0 0
2 1 ,8 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
1 8 ,2 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
1 7 ,9 0 0
(i)
1 9 ,6 0 0
2 4 ,3 0 0
2 4 ,5 0 0
(1 )
2 3 ,6 0 0

1 8 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,5 0 0
1 8 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,4 0 0
1 9 ,2 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
1 8 ,8 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0
2 0 ,9 0 0
2 0 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,2 0 0
1 9 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,6 0 0
2 0 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
2 0 ,1 0 0
2 1 ,1 0 0
1 9 ,4 0 0
1 9 ,9 0 0

1 7 ,6 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0
(i)
1 6 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0
(1)
(1)
1 8 ,1 0 0
1 8 ,1 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 8 ,5 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
1 5 ,7 0 0
(1)
(1)
1 8 ,3 0 0
1 8 ,2 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )

(1 )
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,7 0 0
1 3 ,6 0 0
1 3 ,4 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,4 0 0
1 9 ,7 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )

1 8 ,3 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
(1)
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
U)
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
1 5 ,2 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 5 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
1 6 ,4 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )

2 1 ,7 0 0

1 5 ,6 0 0
1 4 ,3 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
(i)
1 5 ,0 0 0
U)
1 4 ,2 0 0
1 5 ,7 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0
1 4 ,7 0 0
(1)
(1 )
1 7 ,4 0 0
1 3 ,9 0 0
1 4 ,1 0 0
1 3 ,4 0 0
(1 )
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 4 ,1 0 0
1 6 ,7 0 0
(1 )
1 2 ,7 0 0

1 8 ,2 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
(1 )
2 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,8 0 0
1 7 ,4 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
1 9 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,4 0 0
1 5 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,4 0 0
1 4 ,7 0 0
(1 )
1 8 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0
(1 )
1 7 ,5 0 0

1 8 ,2 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,5 0 0
2 0 ,8 0 0
2 0 ,8 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,3 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
2 5 ,5 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )

2 1 ,4 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0
2 3 ,5 0 0
(1)
2 3 ,1 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0
(1 )
1 7 ,8 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
2 0 ,7 0 0
1 5 ,6 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0
(1)
(1)
2 1 ,3 0 0
1 7 ,5 0 0
2 3 ,4 0 0
(1 )
1 6 ,7 0 0

1 9 ,5 0 0
1 8 ,4 0 0
2 1 ,9 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
2 0 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,2 0 0
2 1 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
1 8 ,8 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
1 9 ,7 0 0
1 7 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,8 0 0
2 0 ,1 0 0
1 7 ,6 0 0
2 5 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,8 0 0
2 3 ,7 0 0
(1 )
(1 )

2 0 ,3 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,9 0 0
2 3 ,2 0 0
2 0 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0
2 0 ,6 0 0
2 2 ,1 0 0
2 2 ,8 0 0
2 2 ,3 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,8 0 0
1 7 ,1 0 0
2 5 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,7 0 0
2 4 .6 0 0
2 4 ,6 0 0
(1 )
2 4 ,7 0 0

_____

No r e p o r t
$ 2 5 ,1 0 0
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )
(1 )

(1 ) L e s s th a n 20 c a s e s r e p o r t i n g s a l a r y

Source: National Science Foundation, "National Sample of Scientists and Engineers: Median Annual Salaries, 1974," Science
Resources Studies Highlights, December 1975.




108

Figure A-26
TA
BLE 6.30 - PERSONNEL, PAYROLL, A D A ER G SA R O CERTIFICATED R U AIR CARRIERS B TYPE O SERVICE A D CARRIER G P:
N V A E LA Y F
O TE
Y
F
N
ROU

Type of Service and Carrier Group

Total

Pilots and
Copilots

Other
FIight
Personnel

Pursers,
Stewards,
Stewardesses

Communi­
cations
Personnel

Mechanics 2/

Ai r c ra ft
and Traffic
Servicing
Personnel

1974 ]_/

Office
Employees

All Other

Personnel
Total .................................

305.301

26,045

7,431

41 .426

1 ,713

46,581

88,103

59,600

34,402

Domestic passenger/cargo--total ..
Trunk c a rrie rs ...............................
Local service c a rrie rs ...............
Intra-Alaska carrie rs .................
Intra-Hawaii carrie rs .................
Helicopter carrie rs .....................

260,453
226,146
29,337
2,339
2,231
400

23,580
19,429
3,712
216
176
47

6,075
5,922
84
69

36,209
32,501
3,270
182
239
17

1,094
951
112
17
12
2

41,044
36,424
3,881
378
240
121

75,280
63,001
10,570
815
770
124

49,781
43,290
5,536
367
524
64

27,390
24,628
2,172
295
270
25

International and T erritorial
passenger/cargo carrie rs ............

38,670

1 ,928

1,054

5,103

574

4,630

10,644

8,527

6,210

All-cargo c a r r ie rs ...........................

6,022

518

291

114

43

876

2,118

1 ,264

798

Other c a rrie rs ...................................

156

i£

2

31

6J

28

4

—
. . .

n.

—

Annual Payroll ($000)
Total .................................

4,948.620

994.883

202.139

431.819

20,099

773.325

1.231.180

766,516

528,659

Domestic passenger/cargo--total ..
Trunk ca r r ie rs ...............................
Local service c a r r ie rs ...............
Intra-Alaska carrie rs .................
Intra-Hawaii car r ie rs .................
Helicopter c a rrie rs .....................

4,277,015
3,729,734
474,627
35,200
31,974
5,480

887,146
749,997
124,561
5,897
5,764
927

161 ,420
159,013
687
1 ,720

371,369
336,559
31,202
1 ,333
2,120
155

14,440
12,757
1 ,311
214
142
16

681 ,386
605,311
63,641
6,805
3,921
1 ,708

1 ,086,328
912,978
150,144
11 ,538
10,187
1 ,481

647,1 10
566,025
69,174
4,719
6,355
837

427,816
387,094
33,907
2,974
3,485
356

International and T errito rial
passenger/cargo c a rrie rs ...........

574,214

86,723

33,507

59,408

5,276

78,897

117,468

101,220

91,715

All-cargo c a r r ie rs ...........................

95,807

20,664

7,152

1 ,042

365

12,667

26,903

17,911

9,103

Other car r ie rs ...................................

1 ,584

350

60

X8

375

481

275

25

—
. . .

—

Average Annual Salary
Total .................................

16,209

38,199

27,202

10,424

11 ,733

16,602

13,974

12,861

15,367

Domestic passenger/cargo--total ..
Trunk c a rrie rs ...............................
Local service carrie rs ...............
Intra-Alaska carrie rs .................
Intra-Hawaii carrie rs .................
Helicopter c a rrie rs .....................

16,421
16,493
16,178
15,049
14,332
13,700

37,623
38,602
33,556
27,301
32,750
19,723

26,571
26,851
8,179
24,928

10,256
10,355
9,542
7,324
8,870
9,118

13,199
13,414
11,705
12,588
11,833
8,000

16,601
16,618
16,398
18,003
16,338
14,116

14,430
14,491
14,205
14,157
13,230
11,944

12,999
13,075
12,495
12,858
12,128
13,078

15,619
15,718
15,611
10,081
12,907
14,240

International and T erritorial
passenger/cargo carrie rs ............

14,849

44,981

31,790

11,642

9,192

17,040

11,036

11 ,871

14,769

All-cargo c a rrie rs ...........................

15,909

39,892

24,577

9,140

8,488

14,460

12,702

14,170

11,407

Other c a rrie rs ...................................

10,154

18,421

5,455

9,000

12,097

7,885

9,821

6,250

—
. . .

—

X Based on average number of employees at beginning and end of l a s t payroll period.
/
2/ Includes mechanics and other maintenance personnel.
Source: Federal Aviation Administration, FAA Statistical Handbook o f A via tio n , 1974, p. 82.




Figure A-27

MASTERS, MATES, AND PILOTS - PA C IFIC D ISTR IC T
DOCUMENT DATED
INCREASE GRANTED
EFFECTIVE DATE

6- 9-66
2 \%

6-16-66

RATINGS AND POWER
TONNAGE CLASSIFICATION

6-30-67
W

6-16-67

9-13-68
u*
6-16-68

y

MONTHLY BASE WAGE RATES

C l a s s D ( 5 , 0 0 1 to 7 , 5 0 0
S i n g l e S c r e w ) ( 3 , 5 0 1 to 5 , 5 0 0
T w i n Scr e w )
Master
First Officer
Second Officer
Third Officer

$1,275.61
7U6.U3
660.00
600.28

$1,372.32

$1,768.78®/

803.07

1,053.592/

710.05
6U 5.80

671.63

738.U5

C l a s s E (Less t h a n 5 , 0 0 1 S i n g l d
Scre w ) (Less t h a n 3 , 5 0 1 T w i n
Scr e w )
l,275-6U
732.00

1 , 372.32
787.52

6U5.57
585.86

69U.56

630.33

7 2 2 . 3U
6 5 5 - 5U

HOURLY OVERTIME RATE

U.33

U.U3

U.53

U. S. P o r t s w h e n c a r g o a c t i v i t y is
invo l v e d - overtime rate

U.8U

U.95

5.15

HOURLY PENALTY RATE

3.07

U.U3

U.53

153.21

210.00

218.UO

U.33

U.U3
U.95

U.61

h.Qh

8U0.03

903.70

939.85

Master
First Officer
Second Officer
Third Officer

NON-WATCHSTANDERS MONTHLY PAY?/
RELIEF OFFICERS - HOURLY RATE®/
( W h e n c a r g o a c t i v i t y is i n v o l v e d )
P i l o t s - ( E m p l o y e d as r e g u l a r c r e w
m e m b e r s on s h i p s in t h e A l a s k a t r a d e )

1 , 768 .78® /
1 , 0 3 7 . U 2 2/

Wage increased 2%% plus 5.212%.
Except base wages of Masters which were increased to reflect the same percentage differential
t h a t e x is te d b e t w e e n M a s te rs a n d C h ie f E n g in e e r s as o f 6 - 1 6 - 6 7 .

Includes non-watch pay.
a Additional sum paid monthly to non-watchstanding officers.
Receive a minimum of 7 hours pay for each call.
Source: U.S. Maritime Administration, Office of Maritime Manpower, Seafaring Wage Rates,
December 1968, April 1969, p. 59.




110

5.15

Figure A-28

Table 1

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF PRIVATE NONINSURED PENSION FUNDS
(Killions of Dollars)
1968

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

13,195

17,545

20,070

19,673

21,063

26,583

c
v
i
n

1970

14,151

Employer Contributions

7,702

8,487

9,717

11,324

12,745

14,368

16,971

19,828

Employee Contributions

893

1,011

1,074

1,120

1,199

1,273

1,460

1,604

Investment Income

3,193

3,549

3,866

4,102

4,302

4,843

5,982

6,703

Net Profit (Loss) on Sale of Assets

1,265

991

904

1,723

(3,477)

(1,659)

99

113

130

95

101

^3

127

107

4,621

5,428

6,180

7,263

8,493

9,539

11,030

12,597

4,503

5,290

6,030

7,083

8,297

9,313

10,740

12,334

118

138

150

180

196

226

290

263

8,531

8,723

7,015

10,282

11,577

10,134

10,033

13,936

Total Receipts

Other Receipts
Total Disbursements
Benefits Paid Out
Expenses and Other Disbursements
Net Receipts

NOTE:
Source:

t
n

1969

(1,592)

(924 )

Includes deferred profit sharing funds and pension funds of corporations, unions, and multiemployer groups, and
nonprofit organizations.
Securities and Exchange Commission, 1975 Survey o f Private Noninsured Pension Funds, 1976, table 1.




Figure A-29

Table 296.

Occupation of the M ale Experienced Civilian Labor Force by Earnings in 19 6 9 and Race, fo r Regions:
[Data based on sam ple, see text.

M e d ia n e a r n in g s

M a le s w i t h e a r n in g s in 1 9 6 9

R e g io n s

T o to l.
16 y e a rs
o ld o n d
over

( d o lla r s )

$ 4 ,0 0 0
to
$ 4 ,9 9 9

$ 5 ,0 0 0
to
$ 5 ,9 9 9

$ 6 ,0 0 0
to
$ 6 ,9 9 9

$ 7 ,0 0 0

$ 8 ,0 0 0

o r lo s s

$ 2 ,0 0 0
to
$ 3 ,9 9 9

to
$ 7 ,9 9 9

to
$ 9 ,9 9 9

12 OM 604

097 615

915 395

644 704

970 499

139 693

283 871

1 139 91*

1 890 775

94 466

100 603

47 777

66 (09

90 334

123 334

280 013

155 905
14 8 8 6

5 498
488

10 5 5 9
458

2 058
5 943
231
848
1 482
730
2 652
2 247

3 327
286
1 437

6 995
337

195
181
185
685
861
751
699
477

6 032
539
2 274
5 079

4 986

62
327
13
40
83
48
140
78

3 266
143
689

5 643
198
879
1 489

2 440
5 64 1

3 736
9 494

20 1
934

225
459
870
209
731
992

4 6 37 1
31 9 5 4
142 29 9

1 269
817

$1 t o
$ 1 ,9 9 9

19 70

For minimum base for derived figures (percent., median, etc.) and meaning of sym bols, see text]

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0
to
$ 1 4 ,9 9 9

$ 1 5 ,0 0 0
or
m o re

E a rn e rs
w o rk e d
A ll
e a r n e rs

5 0 to 52
w eeks

NO RTHEAST

•

T o ta l

txp«ri«m»d ctvifian

labor fo re * _

P re fe s s ie e e l, te d m ie d , e e d t ie d r e d w e rfc e rs __________________
A c c o u n t a n t s __________________________________________________________
A r c h it e c t s ^ ____ __________________________________________________________
C o m p u te r s p e c ia lis t s __________
______ ________________________________
E n g in e e r s ________ _______ ______ _______ ____________________________
A e r o n a u t ic a l a n d a s t r o n a u t i c a l _____________________________________
C i v i l _______ __________________________________________________________
E le c tric a l a n d e l e c t r o n i c _____________________________________________
M e c h a n ic a l____________________________________________________________
O th e r e n g in e e r s _______________ ____________________________________
_
L a w y e r s a n d | u d g e s ____ . _ __________ _________ ___________ ________
L ife a n d p h y s ic a l s c i e n t is t s _____________________________________________
C h e m i s t s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P h y s ic ia n s , d e n t is t s , a n d r e la te d p r o c t i t i o n e r s _______________________
D e n t i s t s ___________ ______ _______ ____________________________________
P h a r m a c is t s ___________________________________________________________
P h y s ic io n s . m e d ic a l a n d o s t e o p a t h i c _______________
__________
O th e r r e lo t e d p r o c t i t i o n e r s __________ ______________________________
H e o lth t e c h n o lo g is ts a n d t e c h n ic ia n s __ _____________ ______________
R e lig io u s w o r k e r s _______________________________________________________

18 716
43 818
27 720

4 208
693
1 546
1 521
448
2 265
5 918
941

S o c ia l a n d r e c r e a tio n w o r k e r s _______ ______ ______________________
T e a c h e rs _____________________________ __ ______________________________
C o lle g e a n d u n i v e r s i t y . _______________ __ _________ ___________________
E le m e n ta r y a n d p r e k m d e r g o r t e n __________ ________ _____________

31 9 5 2
313 465

3 338
19 4 9 0

156
568

S e c o n d a ry ____________________________________________________________
E n g in e e rin g a n d s c ie n c e t e c h n ic ia n s ___ __ ____________________________
D r a fts m e n o n d s u r v e y o r s ____________________________________________

146 4 9 5
197 3 7 0

S o c ia l s c i e n t i s t s ___ ______ _______________________________________________

27
26
77
11

83
64

095
024
286
894

88 434

163
758
1 328
664

355
1 935

2 166
2 660

746
379
1 309

743
2 334

1 125
767
2 614

1 073

1 551

1 358

1 647
955
4 749

862
537
2 911

1 211
832
2 934

1 43 1
992

703
1 16 2
2 384

366
584

548
699

1 688

1 334

120
449
773
1 474

500
2 061
8 831
948

273
965
3 334

353
1 524
4 368

1 932
4 988

527

575
1 517
10 0 1 9
2 291

2 471

6 076
4 693
6 065
8 947
4 057

10 192
1 0 841
5 660

908
032
500
258
427
363
367

2 437
1 756
4 583
501
1 358
2 283
441
1 967

840

2 482
24 980
6 867
6 176

-

9
2
2
3
6
3

3

1
1
1
4
1

424

2 S22 663 1370 246

7 993

1 *56

593 (93

494 546

11 19t

12 1S6

2 6 231
1 279

55 044
4 837

37 233
6 307

11 30 1
13 8 2 6

11 9 7 3
14 6 1 9

10 3 3 8

26 065
141 3 7 4

11 9 1 2
11 7 021
5 661

11

11
13
14
13
14

33

720
855
4 686
6 672
4 547

5 508
17 3 4 1
3 5 651
21 9 0 4

13 091
33 498
17 8 0 8

16 9 6 0
3 996

60 970
14 30 9

46 963
4 9 291

6
4
10
1
3
4

16
12
25
3
10
9

473
037
756
933
297
195

14 45 3
9 046
8 3 590

2 331
3 375
4 945

6 206
1 750
2 109

588
982
448
190
352
988
918
2 877
5 147

4

178
900

2 748

968
158
908
999

7 381
57 129
8 864

2 566

2 0 17 4
2 221
6 203

3
27
2
7

4 053
11 2 2 8
5 590

10 4 2 3
17 0 3 3
7 628

14 6 7 2
23 775
9 980

31 2 7 5
5 0 541
2 0 841

13 591

8 478

18 7 1 2
6 253
52 4 1 9

11

763

620
094
616
443

53 41 7
56 65 8
2 6 321

13 35 3
14 154
12 9 0 9
13 8 1 7
1 3 501
13 0 8 2
15000 +




13 8 2 0
13 4 0 3
15000

+

12 9 1 4
12 6 5 3
15000
15000 +
12 3 0 3
15000

15000
7 311
5 876
13 763

15000
8 351
6 161
14 6 5 8

+
+

12 951
11 9 8 4
4 990

25 813
3 639

Source: Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census o f P opulation: D etailed Characteristics, U nited States Sum mary, PC( 1 )-D 1,
February 1973, vol. 1, part 1, section 2, p. 1316.

112

943
704
573
374
170

12 3 4 9
1 2 121
15000
15000
11 7 1 8
15000

2 267
4 4 389

7
101
25
17

320

+
+

8
9
11
8

350
606
923
352

9 560
8 811
8 761

+

+
+

9 135
10 9 8 3
13 8 0 0
9 258
10 301
9 271
9 296




X X U P A T IO N OF LONGEST JOB IN 1 9 7 4 -C IV IL IA N WORKERS 14 YEARS OLD AND OVER BY TOTAL MONEY EARNINGS
IN 1974, BY SEX AND WORK EXPERIENCE
(Persons 14 years old and over as of March 1975)

NUMBER
(THOU­
SANDS)

60 102

NUMBER
WITH
EARN­
INGS
T OTAL
(TH0US.)

$5 0 0
TO
$9 9 9

$1,000
TO
$1,499

41/500
TO
$1/999

$2,000
TO
$2,499

$2,500
TO
$2,999

$3,000
TO
$3,999

DISTRIBUTION
$4,000
TO
$4,999

$5,000
TO
$5,999

$6,000
TO
$6,999

$7,000
TO
$7,999

$8,000
TO
$9,999

$10,000
TO
$14,999

$15,000
TO
$24,999

$25,000
A ND
OVER

752

100.0

6 .4

4.2

3.1

2.6

3.1

1 .°

4.1

3 .9

4.8

4. 8

5 .5

10.8

24,8

15 . 7

130
098
252
005
062
309
973
662
268
975
724
542
027
737
086
584
431
635

100.0
i o o .o
100.0
100.0
10 0 . c
ioo.o
100.0
100.0
ioo.o
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 00.0

26.2
1.8
4 .4
3.0
1.2
2 .6
11 . 3
2.1
0.7
5 .8
1.5
5.1
1.6
0 .7
2.1
1.3
5 .0
3 .0
0 .7
10.3
2 .0
5 .4

8 .6
1.2
9.1
1.9
2 .5
3 .2
8.9
1.9
0.5
2 .0
1.9
4 .9
1.5
0.3
0. 2
1.6

6.2
0 .7
3.1
2.1
2 .8
2.6
5 .3
1.8
0.5
1.9
1.8
4 .7
1.6
0.3
0.7
1.7
4 .3
2 .2
0.8
3.4

4.2
3.0
2.2
0.4
1.6
1.9
^.2
1.7
0.4

5.2
2 .0
3.2
0.8
2.7
3.2
5 .0
1.9
0.4
1.6
2.0
4.9
1.8
0.2
1.9
2 .0
3.7
2.1
0.7
1.2
1.8
6 .9

2 .5
0 .5
2.1
1.5
1.3
1.5
4 .3
1.4
0 .4
0 .8
1.4
3.9
1.2
0.4
0 .5
1.2
3.5
1.8
0.3
1.2
1.8
4.6

6.0
3.0
5 .0
1.0
5.1
5 .3
6.9
3.2
0 .7
3.4
6 .9
3.1
0 .8
2 .5
3.2
6 .9
3.4
0 .6
4.5
3.4
7 .0

5. 4
3.2
4.6
1.7
1.3
4. 2
7 .9
3.2
1.4
2.1
3.5
5 .9
3.2
1.6
2 .7
3 .5
5 .0
3 .3
1.0
1.4
3.6
7 .5

6.5
2 .6
5.7
1.2
4.6
6 .2
7.1
4.5
1.7
3.9
4 .6
9.0
4.3
1.6
3.7
4.7
8 .0
4 .7
1.9
4 .2
4 .6
10 . 7

5. 0
3.6
6. 2
4. 8
5. 0
6. 2
7.1
4. 9
2. 0
2. 4
5. 9
6. 6
4. 6

3.5
3.3
6.2
3.4
8.2
6 .6
6.2
6 .2
2 .3
5.2
7 .4
7 .5
5 .9
2 .2
4 .6
7.0
7.1
6.7
2.4
5 .8
8 .0
8 .0

4.8
8.2
IP.7
6.7
14 . 0
13 . 9
12.3
13 . 3
6 .4
14.4
15.2
13.5
13 . 7
6.1
16 . 0
15 . 5
15.1

7.2
44,6
22 . 3
22.7
26 , 6
25 . 6
10.5
32 , 0
28 , 8
33 . 7
35.1
18,0
33 . 2
29.7
38 . 3
35 . 7
20.5
29 , 9
27.2
28.0
34 . 0
19.1

5 .8
18 . 6
15.5
31.6
19 . 6
15 . 9
2 .9
17 . 9
38.5
17 . 6
13 . 9
3. 8
18 . 8
39.3
19.1
14.9
4 .2
16.2
37.0
15 . 8
12 . 2
3.2

2 .8
3.7
3.0
17.1
3.6
1.1
.
3.8
15 . 3
4.3
0 .8
0.5
3.6
19 . 5
3.4
0 .9
0 .3
4 .2
16 . 8

4 621
804
476
2 689
653
2 753
703
859
847
344

4 61 5
804
4 76
2 68 9
647
2 7 97
703
859
846
339

i oo.o
ioo.o
100.0
1 00.0
ioo.o
100.0
ioo.o
ioo.o
100.0
ioo.o

2 .4
0 .6
1.1
2.1
6.9
1.8
0 .6
0 .2

1.8
1.1
1.1
1.6

1.0
0 .2
0 .7

2. 7
1.4
2.5
2.4
5 .6

3 .7
1.5
2 .4
3.6
7.8

3 .0

3.0
1.5
3.6

0 .9
3.1
4.9
2 .3

34 . 8
26,8
47 , 8
37.3
24.5
26 . 2
25.1
26 . 2
30.7
r v o

21.9
39.3
15.4
21.5
7 .2
18 . 8
32.3
24.6
9 .2

3.5
15.8
1.1

3 .3

3.9
1.2
3 .9
4.2
6.1
3 .9
2 .0
3.7
3.8
8 .9

MEDIAN
EARN­
INGS
(DOL­
LA R S )

4.5

3 69 2
700
6 277
811
130
4 08 6
1 250
15 9 93
3 06 2
1 302
9 968
1 662
10 2 65
1 975
72 3
6 54 0
1 02 7
5 72 9
1 086
57 9
3 428
635

3 901
700
6 29*1
814

4
1
16
3
1
9
1
10
1
6
1
5
1
3

59

PERCENT
$1 TO
$4 9 9
OR L O S S

3 .3
5 .8

1.0

5 .6

5.3

1.7
4.8
1.6
0.3
1.3
1.4
5. 2
2.0
0.6
0. 5
2.3
4. 0

1 .4

i.i
0.2
0.7
1.1
2 .8
2 .7
0 .5
0 .7
4 .3
8 .0

1.8
0.4
0.6
1.9
3.5
2. 0
i.i
1.5
2.6
4. 0

4 .4
2. 6
0.7
4.1
2. 4

0. 2
1.7
0 .9
4 .6
3.1
0 .5
1.6
9 .0
10.5

1 .9

3 .8
1.8

1.0
2.4
1.7
2 .3

1.0
2.4
1.7
1.9
1.9
4 .0

3 .3

7 .7

1 .9
3.0
5 .3
6 .9
5. 4
2.2
1.6
7 .0
6. 0

4 .5
2.6
5.2
4.7
5.3
5.0
0.7

5 .5
7.3
7.0

4 .9
3.1
4.8
5.2
6.0
7 .0
3 .8
6 .8
9.2
8 *3

Consumer Incom e: M oney Income in 1973 o f Families and Persons in the U nited
>, Series P-60, No. 97, January 1976.

I P .5
7. 0
12.4
14.5
10 . 9

10.7
5. 8

11.0
11.5
13.3
12.2
10.2
13.1
13.1

IP . 9

_

9 064

9 85 3

2
11
8
19
9
8
4
10
15
10
9
5
10
15
11
10
6
10
16
9
9
5

1.0
0 .2

7 .4
18.4
7.6
0 .4

_

458
903
537
719
971
949
516
586
981
838
985
982
850
954
403
211
592
060
032
886
559
343

5
11
9
16
10
9
5
10
17
10
9
6
11
17
11
9
6
10
17
10
9
5

001
862
359
449
608
216
072
896
148
772
743
397
073
033
356
937
649
5 79
357
042
372
989

11
16
11
11
7
10
15
11
8

5 .5
0 .6
0 .8

____ 1

MEAN
EARN­
INGS
(DOL­
LARS)

462
27 9
497
306
203
458
210
605
517

11
16
10
10
7
11
17
12
8

464
935
843
941
292
770
919
674
468

5 610

6 008

Figure A-31
1972 CENSUS OF M ANUFACTURES__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

table

GENERAL SUMMARY

3

l. General Statistics for All Operating Manufacturing Establishments: 1972 and Earlier Years
(See appendix, Explanation of Terms)
All employees'

Establishments
Total

Number2

With 20
employees
or more

Year

(number)

(number)

Production workers
Number2

Payroll

(million
dollars)

(1.000)

Man-hours

Value
added by
manufacture3

Wages

(1.000)

(million
dollars)

(million
dollars)

(millions)

Value of
industry
shipments

Capital
expenditures.
new4

(million
dollars)

Index of
industrial
production
(1967=100)

(million
dollars)

1 9 7 2 ...................................
1 9 7 1 s ................................
1 9 7 0 s .................................
1 9 6 9 s .................................
1 9 6 8 s .................................
1 9 6 7 ...................................

3 1 2 ,6 6 2
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
3 0 5 ,6 8 0

1 0 9 ,9 4 1
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
1 0 7 ,1 3 8

1 8 ,0 3 2 .4
1 7 ,4 2 6 .3
1 8 ,2 8 9 .5
1 9 ,1 5 5 .6
1 8 ,6 8 1 .0
1 8 ,4 9 2 .0

1 6 0 ,4 1 4 .4
1 4 4 ,2 4 6 .3
1 4 1 ,8 8 6 .4
1 4 2 ,6 4 5 .1
1 3 2 ,5 6 8 4
1 2 3 ,4 8 0 .6

1 3 ,5 2 6 .5
1 2 ,8 7 4 .9
1 3 .5 2 8 .0
1 4 ,3 5 7 .8
1 4 ,0 4 1 .2
1 3 ,9 5 5 .3

2 6 ,6 9 6 .7
2 5 ,2 6 5 .9
2 6 .6 6 9 .3
2 8 .5 9 9 .8
2 8 .1 5 6 .8
2 7 ,8 3 7 6

1 0 5 ,4 9 4 .7
9 3 .2 3 1 .7
91 , -'0 9 .0
9 3 .4 5 9 6
8 7 .4 8 0 .4
8 1 ,3 9 3 .6

3 5 3 ,9 7 3 .4
3 1 4 .1 3 8 4
3 0 0 .2 2 7 6
3 0 4 .4 4 0 .7
2 8 5 .0 5 8 .9
2 6 1 .9 8 3 .8

7 5 6 ,4 6 6 .9
6 7 0 .9 7 0 .5
6 3 4 ,3 2 2 .1
6 4 2 ,6 3 5 .8
6 0 3 .2 2 0 .1
5 5 7 .3 9 7 .8

2 4 ,0 7 3 .1
2 0 .9 4 0 7
2 2 ,1 6 4 .3
2 2 .2 9 1 4
2 0 ,6 1 3 .1
2 1 , 5 0 3 .0

115 1
106 8
106 6
1 1 0 .7
1 0 5 .7
1 0 0 .0

1 9 6 6 s .................................
1965 s .................................
1 9 6 4 s ................................
1 9 6 3 ...................................
1 9 6 2 s .................................

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
3 0 6 ,6 1 7
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
9 9 ,3 5 2
(NA)

1 8 ,2 0 0 .3
1 7 ,2 5 0 .5
1 6 ,4 8 5 .7
1 6 ,2 3 1 .9
1 6 ,1 5 4 .7

1 1 7 ,1 5 7 .4
1 0 6 ,6 4 3 .2
9 8 ,6 8 5 .3
9 3 ,2 8 3 .3
8 9 ,8 1 9 .2

1 3 ,8 2 6 .5
1 3 ,0 7 6 .0
1 2 ,4 0 3 .3
1 2 ,2 3 2 .0
1 2 ,1 2 6 .5

2 8 ,1 0 2 .5
2 6 ,5 6 7 .8
2 5 ,2 4 5 .5
2 4 ,5 0 9 .4
2 4 ,2 6 9 .5

7 8 ,2 5 6 .4
7 1 .3 6 1 .5
6 5 ,8 3 8 .9
6 2 ,0 9 3 .6
5 9 ,1 3 4 .1

2 5 0 .8 8 0 .1
2 2 6 .9 3 9 .9
2 0 6 .1 9 3 .6
1 9 2 ,0 8 2 .9
1 7 9 ,0 7 1 .1

5 3 8 .7 3 6 .9
4 9 2 .0 0 5 .7
4 4 7 .9 8 5 .1
1 2 0 ,5 2 8 .1
3 9 9 .3 0 8 9

2 0 .2 3 5 .8
1 6 .6 1 5 0
1 3 .2 9 4 .3
1 1 ,3 7 0 .0
1 0 ,4 3 6 .2

97 9
89 2
8 1 .7
76 5
7 2 .2

1 9 6 1 s .................................
1 9 6 0 s .................................
1 9 5 9 s ................................
1 9 5 8 6 .................................
1957 s .................................

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
2 9 9 ,0 1 7
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
9 5 ,2 7 8
(NA)

1 5 ,7 2 9 .6
1 6 ,1 4 9 .9
1 6 ,0 6 2 .9
1 5 ,4 2 3 .1
1 6 ,6 2 1 .1

8 3 ,6 7 7 .4
8 3 ,6 7 2 .5
8 1 ,2 0 3 .6
7 3 ,8 7 5 .2
7 6 ,3 1 4 .6

1 1 ,7 7 8 .5
1 2 ,2 0 9 .5
1 2 ,2 7 2 .6
1 1 ,6 8 1 .1
1 2 ,8 3 8 .9

2 3 ,2 8 9 .4
2 4 ,1 7 4 .4
2 4 ,4 4 3 .6
2 2 ,6 7 9 .2
2 5 ,2 0 8 .0

5 4 ,7 6 4 .6
5 5 ,5 5 5 .5
5 4 ,7 1 4 .1
4 9 ,6 0 5 .2
5 2 ,5 6 9 .0

1 6 4 ,2 8 1 .1
1 6 3 ,9 9 8 .5
1 6 1 .5 3 5 .8
1 4 1 ,5 4 0 .6
1 4 7 ,8 3 8 .4

3 6 9 .9 9 4 .3
1NA)
(NA)
3 2 6 ,7 2 2 8
(NA)

9 .7 7 9 .8
1 0 ,0 9 7 .8
9 ,1 4 0 .0
9 ,5 4 3 5
1 2 ,1 4 4 .0

6 6 .7
6 6 .2
6 4 .8
5 7 .9
6 1 .9

1 9 5 6 s .................................
1955 s .................................
1 9 5 4 ...................................

(NA)
(NA)
2 8 6 ,8 1 4

(NA)
(NA)
9 0 ,4 7 0

1 6 ,6 9 4 .4
1 6 ,3 3 5 .5
1 5 ,6 4 5 .5

7 4 ,0 1 5 .1
6 9 ,0 9 6 .6
6 2 ,9 6 2 .7

1 3 ,1 3 1 .3
1 2 ,9 5 4 .4
1 2 ,3 7 2 .0

2 6 ,0 8 8 .5
2 5 ,8 9 8 .3
2 4 ,3 3 4 .1

5 2 ,0 4 0 .8
4 9 ,2 1 7 .9
4 4 ,5 9 0 .5

1 4 4 ,9 0 9 .3
1 3 5 ,0 2 2 .5
1 1 7 ,0 3 2 .3

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1 1 .2 3 3 .2
8 ,2 3 3 .1
8 ,2 0 0 .7

“ 1. 1
5 8 .5
5 1 .9

Source: Bureau of the Census, 1972 Census o f Manufactures: Genera! Sum mary, p. 3.

F ig u r e A - 3 2

table

3. General Statistics for Establishments by Industry Group and Industry:

1972 and 1967

(See appendix, Explanation of Terms)

Companies

Establishments
Total

Industry group and industry

(number)
ALL MFG. ESTABS.

20

IN C L .

C .A .O .i S.

FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS.

.

.

(number)

Production workers

All employees

With 20
employees
or more

Number

Payroll

Number

Man hours

Wages
ture

Value
added by
manufac

Value of
shipments

(million
dollars)

(million
dollars)

/

(number)

(1.000)

(million
dollars)

(1.000)

(millions)

.

267 422

320 701

114 186

19 0 26 .8.

174 ie 6 . 7

13 5 2 6 .5

26 6 9 6 .7

(million
dollars)

105 4 9 4 .7 353 9 7 3 . 4

7 56

4 6 6 .9

.

22 171

28 183

12 325

1 5 6 9 .3

12 9 2 0 .2

1 0 8 5 .3

2 1 6 6 .8

8 0 0 7 .0

35 6 1 4 .8

201
2011
2013
2016
2 01 7

MEAT PRODUCTS....................................................
MEATPACKING p l a n t s ..........................................
SAUSAGES AND OTHER PREPARED MEATS. .
POULTRY DRESSING PLANTS...............................
POULTRY AND EGG PROCESSING .....................

3 944
2 291
1 207
407
110

4 437
2 474
1 311
522
130

1 882
863
557
369
93

3 0 7 .7
1 5 7 .5
5 8 .1
7 7 .6
1 4 .6

2 5 4 3 .6
1 5 3 2 .1
5 4 2 .2
3 9 1 .8
7 7 .5

2 5 0 .6
1 2 3 ,4
4 3 .5
7 0 .7
1 3 .0

5 0 6 .7
2 5 4 .4
8 8 .2
1 3 9 .3
2 4 .7

1 9 1 3 .3
1 1 4 8 .4
3 7 2 .2
3 3 1 .1
6 1 .7

4 9 6 0 .9
2 9 6 6 .1
1 0 9 9 .9
7 2 4 .4
1 6 8 .5

*31
23
4
3

202
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026

DAIRY PRODUCTS ...............................................
CREAMERY BUTTER....................................................
CHEESE, NATURAL AND PROCESSED. . . .
CONDENSED AND EVAPORATED M IL K . . . .
ICE CREAM AND FROZEN DESSERTS. . . .
F LU ID M ILK ..............................................................

3 557
201
739
172
561
2 025

4 590
231
872
283
697
2 507

2 067
63
281
163
273
1 287

1 8 8 .7
4 .0
2 5 .2
1 2 .3
2 1 .1
1 2 6 .1

1 5 9 6 .4
3 1 .0
1 8 6 .3
1 0 8 .3
1 8 4 .7
1 0 8 6 .1

9 3 .0
2 .9
2 0 .6
9 .4
1 2 .0
4 8 .0

1 8 8 .7
6 .0
4 0 .8
1 9 .4
2 3 .5
9 9 .1

7 3 2 .5
2 2 .1
1 3 7 .1
7 7 .8
9 4 .7
4 0 0 .8

4 0 5 4 .1
8 2 .3
4 9 2 .3
4 6 7 .3
4 5 9 .8
2 5 5 2 .4

‘ 16 3 1 1 .5
8 0 8 .3
3 1 9 5 .0
1 6 6 7 .8
1 2 4 4 ,7
9 3 9 5 .7

203
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
203 8

PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. .
CANNED s p e c i a l t i e s ..........................................
CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES . . . .
d e h y d . f r u i t s , v e g e t a b l e s , SOUPS . .
P IC K L E S , SAUCES, SALAD DRESSINGS . .
FROZEN FRU ITS AND VEGETABLES . . . .
FROZEN S P E C IA LTIE S ..........................................

1 923
178
765
133
429
136
388

2 557
203
1 038
178
495
208
435

1 389
88
621
88
191
190
211

2 3 3 .1
2 9 .1
8 9 .8
1 2 .4
2 0 .8
4 2 .8
3 8 .3

1 5 3 3 .5
2 1 7 .8
5 5 9 .9
8 4 .3
1 4 6 .2
2 6 1 .2
2 6 4 .1

1 9 9 .3
2 4 .0
7 8 ,8
1 0 .6
1 6 .6
3 7 .6
3 1 .8

3 8 2 .1
4 6 .9
1 4 7 .1
1 9 .8
3 2 .4
7 4 .5
6 1 .5

1 1 7 9 .1
1 6 7 .0
4 4 7 .9
6 3 .0
1 0 2 .2
2 0 8 .8
1 9 0 .1

4 5 1 4 .4
2 8 1 4 .6
2 1 6 2 5 .1
2 3 5 .7
2 4 2 8 .0
26 V 4 ,6
27 l 6 ,3

*11 4 7 8 .6
2 1 8 7 6 .6
2 4 0 4 3 .8
6 0 7 .3
2 1 1 6 6 .7
21 8 4 8 .8
21 9 3 5 .5

204
2041
2043
2044
2045

GRAIN M IL L PRODUCTS....................................
FLOUR, OTHER GRAIN M IL L PRODUCTS . .
CEREAL BREAKFAST FOODS ...............................
RICE M IL LIN G .........................................................
BLENDED AND PREPARED FLOUR .....................

2 223
340
34
48
115

3 080
457
47
57
137

1 093
101
26
35
57

1 1 1 .4
1 6 .1
1 2 .9
4 .0
7 .9

1 0 1 2 .8
1 5 2 .8
1 4 0 .9
3 0 .9
7 4 .9

7 8 .5
1 1 .9
1 0 .7
3 .0
5 .7

1 6 8 .9
2 6 .9
2 1 .6
6 .6
1 2 .3

6 6 5 ,6
1 0 8 .1
1 1 1 ,6
1 9 .1
5 3 .2

3 6 9 e,7
5 0 9 .8
6 8 8 .4
1 4 8 .3
3 j) 6a 8

12 1 6 2 .2
2 3 8 0 .0
1 1 2 5 .5
6 8 0 .6
7 0 4 .6

Source: Bureau of the Census, 1972 Census o f Manufactures: General Summary, pp. 1-37.




114

21 15 0 5 1 .5
4 7 7 ,9
0 0 3 .4
6 3 2 .4
2 5 4 .1
5 8 8 .1

Figure A-33

Table 2. Counties— Employees, Payroll, and Establishments, by Industry: 1974—Continued
(Excludes governm ent employees, railroad employees, self-em ployed persons, e t c — see G eneral Explanation." Size class 1 to 4 includes establishm ents having payroll during 1st quarter
but no em ployees during m id-M arch pay period. " 0 " denotes figures w ithheld to avoid disclosure of operations of individual establishments)

SIC
code

Industry

Num ber of
employees
for week
including
March 12

Num ber of establishm ents, by em ploym ent-size class

Payroll ($1000)
First
quarter

Annual

1 to 4

Total

20
to
49

10
to
19

5 to 9

50
to
99

250
to
499

100
to
249

1000
or
more

500
to
999

CAM ERON

38 972
879
(B)
781
72

52 337
1 227
(D)
1 122
157

224 795
6 454
(D)
5 931
573

3 328
204
21
182
8

1 982
149
14
134
3

645
36
6
30
1

363
14
1
13
3

211
5
5
1

64

50

A gricultural services.forestry.fisheries.................
Agricultural services..............................................
Fishing, hunting, and tra p p in g ............................
M in in g ..............................................................................

-

-

-

-

-

2 700
892
781
111

3 635
1 103
984
119

14 443
4 107
3 586
521

262
57
50
7

141
27
25
2

51
11
9
2

40
10
9
1

25
8
6
2

3

2
1
1

.

15
151
153

Contract construction..................................................
G eneral contractors and operative builders.....
G eneral building c o n tracto rs ...........................
Operative builders................................................

16
161
162
17
171
172
173
174
1741
175

Heavy construction c o n tracto rs..........................
Highway and street construction.....................
Heavy construction, except highway..............
Special trade contractors......................................
Plum bing, heating, air co nditioning ...............
Painting, paper hanging, decorating..............
Electrical w o rk.......................................................
Masonry stonework, and p lastering..............
Masonry and other stonew ork......................
C arpentering and flo o rin g .................................

352
194
127
1 456
303
99
280
190
120
188

650
355
235
1 882
483
120
451
222
160
163

2 583
1 372
952
7 753
1 836
371
1 820
1 051
827
757

20
10
9
J85
39
13
33
22
14
34

8
4
4
106
24
8
16
12
7
23

4
2
2
36
8
1
6
3
2
6

2
2

4
1
2
13
3
1
3
3
2
1

2
1
1
1
1

1751
1752
176
177
179
1799

126
61
241
(B)
91
(B)
8 950
2 627
(B)
(B)

100
63
262

512
242
1 115

.

(D)
519
(D)
58 430
13215

17
5
9
2
10
2
38
7
-

1

(D)

(D)

23
10
20
5
17
6
131
33
2
2

4
2
6

20
201
2011

C arp en terin g ......................................................
Floor laying and floor work, n e c .................
Roofing and sheet metal w o rk .........................
C oncrete w o rk ......................................................
Misc special trade contractors........................
Special trade contractors, n e c .....................
M a n u fa c tu rin g ...............................................................
Food and kindred p ro d u cts..................................
M eat p ro d u c ts .......................................................
M eat packing p la n ts ........................................

202
2026
203
2037
205
2051
207
2074
208
2086

Dairy products.......................................................
Fluid milk.............................................................
Preserved fruits and vegetables.......................
Frozen fruits and veg etables........................
Bakery products...................................................
Bread, cake, and related products..............
Fats and oils
Cottonseed oil mills .......................................
Beverages
Bottled and canned soft drin ks....................

(C)
(C)
(E)
(E)
(C)
(C)
222
(C)
172
172

1
1
2
2
2
2
4
3
4
4

_
-

313
(D)
227
227

(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(0)
1 378
(0)
1 014
1 014

-

-

209
2092

Misc. foods and kindred products..................
Fresh or frozen packaged fish......................

1 415
(G)

1 406
(D)

5 892
(D)

17
10

6
1

1

T o t a l ..................................................................................

07
09

Source:

107
(D)
13 203
3 225
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)

(D)

(D)

-

-

6
3
14
2
1
1
.
-

28
3
3
8
4
3
4
1
3
4
2
21
4
-

-

-

.
-

.

1
1
1
2
1

Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns, 1972, Ohio, (January 1977), p. 14.




115

1
1
1
16
3

-

' 1
1
2
2
.

-

-

-

9
-

3

i

-

-

-

1

-

-

.
-

1

16
6
1
1
.
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2

-

-

1

1

19
9

5
2
-

1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

-

-

-

■

-

4
4

2
2

.

.

.

-

-

■

Figure A-34

ANNUAL
AVERAGE
1974 •

:
:
:

1
ANNUAL
AVERAGE :
:
1975

OUT
:
JUL
12-18,
:
11-17,
1975
:
1976
DOLLARS PER HOUR

^ o o

1976, WITH COMPARISONS, UNITED STATES
01 C^
T

ITEM

OCT

1
.....

FARM WAGE RATES,

METHOD OF PAY:
ALL HIRED FARM WORKERS
PAID BY PIECE-RATE
PAID BY OTHER THAN PIECE-RATE
PAID BY HOUR ONLY 1/
PAID CASH WAGES ONLY 2/
PAID BY HOUR CASH WAGES ONLY 3/

2.25
2.58
2.21
2.23
2.43
2.32

2.43
2.96
2.38
2.39
2.60
2.45

2.63
3.13
2.56
2.57
2.82
2.65

2.53
2.93
2.48
2.50
2.65
2.52

2.80
3.27
2.75
2.74
2.94
2.81

TYPE OF WORK PERFORMED:
FIELD AND LIVESTOCK WORKERS
PACKINGHOUSE WORKERS
MACHINE OPERATORS
MAINTENANCE AND BOOKKEEPING
SUPERVISORS
OTHER AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

2.08
2.41
2.25
2.85
3.77
2.40

2.26
2.52
2.50
3.15
4.00
2.76

2.46
2.64
2.58
3.38
4.12
2.92

2.37
2.73
2.66
3.39
4.32
2.76

2.60
2.89
2.79
3.42
4.47
2.96

INDEXES 4/
(1910-14=100)
(1967=100)
V

2/
3/
4/

1,492
176

1,612
190

1,656
196

1,804
213

MAY INCLUDE PERQUISITES SUCH AS ROOM AND BOARD, INCLUDES ONLY THOSE PAID BY THE HOUR.
DOES NOT INCLUDE PERQUISITES, INCLUDES ALL METHODS OF PAY.
DOES NOT INCLUDE PERQUISITES, INCLUDES ONLY THOSE PAID BY THE HOUR.
INDEXES ARE BASED ON ALL HIRED FARM WORKERS AND ARE ADJUSTED FOR SEASONAL VARIATION.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Statistical Reporting Service, Farm Labor, November 24, 1976, p. 3.




116

1,742
206

Figure A-35
Table 7.— Average number of days worked and wages earned at farm and nonfarm wagework, for all farm
wageworkers, by selected characteristics,

Farm and nonfarm
Selected
characteristics

Number
of
workers

Per
year

Per
day_

Nonfarm

Farm
Wages earned

Wages earned
Days
worked

1 97A

Days
worked‘

Per
year

Per
day— /

. Wages earned
Days
Per
worked : Per
dayi/
: year

Thou.
ALL WORKERS, 197A

No.

Pol.

Pol.

No.

Pol.

Pol.

Pol.

Pol.

2,737

138

2,476

17.95

87

1,447

16.60

•
51

No.

1,030

20.25

2,277
460
2,165
1,869
296
572
408
164

142
120
154
154
158
76
85
52

2,613
1,798
2,871
2,941
2,428
' 983
1,112
662

18.45
14.95
18.60
19.10
15.40
12.95
13.05
12.65

86
93
99
95
123
44
47
37

1,461
1,377
1,663
1,633
1,854
629
673
518

16.95
14.90
16.85
17.25
15.05
14.25
14.35
13.95

56
28
56
59
34
32
38
15

1,153
421
1,208
1,309
574
354
438
144

20.75
15.25
12.65
22.10
16.70
11.15
11.40
9.45

823
708
572
136
115
445
35
1,435
234
1,046
155

218
239
241
229
93
235

18.05
18.05
18.15
17.45
18.45
22.50

205
226
241
166
70
30

3,680
4,082
4,374
2,852
1,201
461

18.00
18.05
18.15
17.15
17.25
15.25

14
12

262
220

19.15
18.25
—
18.25
21.95
23.55

63
55
65
58

3,942
4,303
4,374
4,001
1,723
5,278
*
—
787
700
770
1,034

RACE AND SEX
White
Negro and other races
Male
White
Negro and other races
Female
White
Negro and other races
CHIEF ACTIVITY
Farmwork
Farm wagework
Without nonfarm work
With nonfarm work
Other farmwork^/
Nonfarm work
Unemployed.3/
Not in labor force
Keeping house
Attending school
Other

—

—

12.50
12.65
11.80
17.75

—

—

—

488
457
491
515

38
36
40
33

12.75
12.65
12.40
15.50

—

—

63
24
204

1,149
522
4,817

—

—

—

243
279
519

25
19
26
25

12.15
12.65
10.85
20.80

299

RESIDENCE, SEX, AND DURATION
OF FARM WAGEWORK
All workers
REGION, MIGRATORY STATUS,
AND RACE
All workers
Migratory
White
3/
Negro and other races—
Nonmigratory
White
Negro and other races

193
16

139
—

3,097
—

22.20

77

1,614

21.05

63

1,483

23.65

2,084
444

142
119

2,568
1,751

18.10
14.75

87
92

1,446
1,334

16.65
14.45

55
26

1,122
417

20.45
15.75

South
Migratory
White
Negro and other races.!/
Nonmigratory
White
Negro and other races

67
58
9
971
593
378

140
134

2,794
2,730

19.95
20.40

82
78

1,541
1,387

18.85
17.75

58
56

1,253
1,343

21.50
24.05

128
136
116

2,061
2,371
1,575

16.10
17.45
13.55

84
82
87

1,205
1,261
1,117

14.30
15.35
12.80

44
54
29

856
1,110
459

19.45
20.65
15.85

West
Migratory
White
3/
Negro and other races— '
Nonmigratory
White
3/
Negro and other races—

66
58
7
633
593
40

143
146
—
145
143
—

3,448
3,510
—
2,845
2,775
—

24.10
24.00

96
98

2,547
2,542

26.40
25.95

47
48

900
968

19.30
20.10

19.65
19.40

110
106

2,169
2,057

19.75
19.40

35
37

676
718

19.35
19.40

—

—

Numbers of workers are rounded to the nearest thousand without being adjusted to group totals.
Rounded to the nearest 5 cents.
Includes operating a farm and unpaid family labor.
V Averages not shown where base is lass than 50,000 persons.

j
L/

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, The H ired Farm Work Force o f 1974, July 1975, pp. 15-16.




117

Appendix B. Selected Bibliography

T h e w orks listed b elo w are eith er indicative o f the
subject areas in w h ich com pensation statistics are used
o r serve to p ro v id e in tro d u c to ry m aterials for data
users. T hese w o rk s should be supplem ented by the
references cited in th e individual ch ap ters o f this
bulletin..
Dale, Ernest. Sources o f E con om ic Inform ation f o r C ollective
Bargaining. Research Report 17. N ew York: American
Management Association, 1950.
Douty, H. M. The D evelopm en t o f W age S tatistics in the U n ited
States. Ithaca: N ew York State School o f Industrial and
Labor Relations, Cornell University, 1972.

Morton, J. E. “A Student’s Guide to American Federal
Government Statistics,” Jou rn al o f E con om ic L iteratu re,
June 1972, pp. 371-97.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
W age D eterm in ation . Papers presented at an internation­
al conference. Paris: OECD, 1974.
Pearce, C. A. W age Statistics a n d In d u stria l R ela tio n s R esearch
In S ta te L a b o r Agencies. Publication B-76. N ew York:
N ew York State Department o f Labor, Division of
Research and Statistics, 1954.
Raimon, Robert L. “Sources o f Wage Data,” Proceedings o f
th e S ix th A n n u a l M eeting. Madison, Wisconsin: Industri­
al Relations Research Association, 1954, pp. 252-65.

Douty, H. M. et al. “Collection and Use o f Occupational
Wage Statistics,” P roceedings o f the T h ird A n n u a l
M eeting. Madison, Wisconsin: Industrial Relations Re­
search Association, 1951, pp. 220-248.

Rees, Albert. The E con om ics o f W ork a n d Pay. N ew York:
Harper & Row, 1973.

Dunlop, John T. (ed.) The Theory o f W age D eterm ination.
London: Macmillan & Co., 1957.

Reynolds, Lloyd G., and Cynthia H. Taft. The E volution o f
W age S tructure. N ew Haven: Yale University Press,
1956.

Executive Office of the President, Office o f Management and
Budget. S ta tistic a l Services o f the U n ited S ta te s G overn­
m ent, revised edition, 1975.
Ferguson, Robert H. Wages, E arnings, a n d Incom es: D e fin i­
tions o f T erm s a n d Sources o f D ata. Bulletin 63. Ithaca:
N ew York State School of Industrial and Labor
Relations, Cornell University, 1971.
Gavett, Thomas W. “Analyses o f Wage Change Measures,” in
1971 Proceedings. Business and Economic Statistics
Section, American Statistical Association, pp. 46-55.
Livernash, E. Robert. “Wages and Benefits,” in W oodrow L.
Ginsburg et al. (eds.) A R eview o f In d u stria l R ela tio n s
Research, Vol. I. Madison, Wisconsin: Industrial Rela­
tions Research Association, 1970, pp. 79-144.

Shiskin, Julius. “Recent Trends in Wages and Industrial
Relations and Problems o f Measurement.” Remarks
before the Honolulu Chapter, Industrial Relations
Research Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, September
12, 1974.
Taylor, George W., and Frank C. Pierson (eds.) N e w C oncepts
in W age D eterm in ation . N ew York: McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1957.
Tolies, N. Arnold, and Robert L. Raimon. Sources o f W age
Inform ation: E m p lo y e r Associations. Ithaca: N ew York
State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell
University, 1952.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics.
H a n d b o o k o f L a b o r S tatistics, 1975 R eferen ce E dition,

McConnell, Campbell R. (ed.) Perspectives on W age D e te rm i­
nation: A B ook o f R eadings. N ew York: McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1970.
Morgenstern, Oskar. On the A ccu racy o f E con om ic O bserva­
tions. Second edition. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, 1963.*




Bulletin 1865, 1975.
________ , _________B L S H a n d b o o k o f M ethods, Bulletin 1910,
1976.
________ __________ G lossary o f C u rren t In d u stria l R elation s
a n d W age Terms, Bulletin 1438, 1965.
* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O FFIC E : 1 9 7 7 - 2 4 1 - 0 1 6 /1 8

118

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312)353-1880
Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215)596-1154

Regions VII and VIII*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816)374-2481

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404)881-4418

Regions IX and X**
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415)556-4678




Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
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Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300




Lab-441


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