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cataloged

BLACK
AMERICANS
a chartbook

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U OF L A B O R
B U LLETIN 1699
1971

SOUTHWEST MISSOURI STATE

COLLEGE LIBRARY
d e p o s it o r y

AUG 1 o 1 7
91




copy

S T A T IS T IC S




CATALOGED

BLACK
AMERICANS
a chartbook

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC S
G eoffrey H. M oore, C om m ission e r
BU LLETIN 1699
1971

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25
Stock Number 2901-0650







CATALOGED

PREFACE
This Chart Book was prepared in the Office of Economic and
Social Research of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Sylvia S. Small
had major responsibility for the preparation of the Chart Book,
under the direction of Dr. Pamela Kacser, Advisor on SocioEconomic Research, Claudia Ellis, Susie Scandrett and Earl
Mellor of BLS and Ann Brown of Trinity College contributed to
the technical work.
Much of the material on which the charts are based was devel­
oped for the joint publication of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the Bureau of the Census, The Social and Economic Status
of Negroes in the United States, 1969, BLS Report 375, part of a
series initiated by the previous Advisor on Socio-Economic Re­
search, Mrs. Dorothy K. Newman.
The Bureau wishes to express appreciation for the assistance
of other organizations, especially the Bureau of the Census and
the National Center for Health Statistics.







CONTENTS
Chart No.

Page

.................................................................

1

Migration and Population...........................................

3

Introduction

1

The percent of blacks in the total population has
remained about the same since the turn of the
century .....................................................................

2

3

5

Blacks are less than 10 percent of the population
in the North and West, but nearly 20 percent
in the S o u th .........................................................

7

Despite substantial migration from the South, over
half of all blacks still live t h e r e ..........................

4
5

6

Blacks have continued to leave the South in recent
years, but at a slower ratethan in the 1940’s ..

n

The population increase among blacks has taken
place in central cities and, among whites, out­
side the cities — but whites in central cities still
outnumber blacks 4 to 1 ...................................

13

The percent of blacks living in segregated neigh­
borhoods has increased since 1960, according
to special censuses in 15 c itie s ..........................

15

Employment and Unemployment
7

8

9

17

Employment of blacks rose 1.5 million between
1960 and 1970 — and unemployment is lower
despite recent increases.............................. :. .

19

The black unemployment rate in 1970 was about
8 percent — much higher than the white rate. .

21




v

Page

In 1970, blacks accounted for 11 percent of the
civilian labor force, 18 percent of the unem­
ployed, and 22 percent of those working part
time involuntarily ..............................................

23

Married men had the lowest unemployment rates,
among both blacks and w h ite s ........................

25

Comparing teenagers and the adult unemployed —
adults have lower unemployment rates and
smaller black-white differences........................

27

About half of all black teenagers are in school; of
those out of school, over one-third are not in the
labor force .........................................................

29

In 1970, 6 out of every 10 blacks were in whitecollar, craftsmen, or operative jobs compared
with 8 out of every 10 w h ite s ........ , .............

31

The largest job gains among black men between
1963 and 1970 were in well-paid durable goods
operative jobs’ ....................................................

33

Unemployment rates were lower for men in whitecollar and craftsmen jobs than for those in
laborer and most service jo b s ..........................

35

Income

37

The ratio of black to white family income rose in
the late 1960’s to the highest on record, but the
level of black income was still only three-fifths
of the w h ite ........................................................

39

Black families are moving into the middle-income
groups. The proportion with incomes of $10,000
or more was 8 times greater in 1969 than in
1947.....................................................................

41

Family incomes increased between 1947 and 1969
for both blacks and w h ite s ..............................

43




VI

19

The greatest disparity between black and white
family income is in the S o u th ............................

45

The earnings of black men are higher than those of
either black women orwh-ite-women, but less
than white men’s ..............................................

47

Family income is highest when both husband and
wife work and lowest for female-headed fam­
ilies, for both blacks and w h ite s ......................

49

Most wives who work for pay contribute less than
one-third of family income, whether the family
is black or w h ite ................................................

51

Poverty

53

The number of poor has decreased sharply since
1959 — but nearly one-third of the blacks and
one-tenth of the whites were still poor in 1969

55

24

Most of the poor do not receive welfare assistance.

57

25

Black families in poverty are more likely than white
to be earners, and with children to support. . .

59

Most of the black poor do not live in large cities. .

61

20

21

22

23

26

Family

27
28

29

63

Three-fourths of black families and four-fifths of
white are headed by aman..................................

65

An increasing proportion of women heads of fam­
ilies — both black and white — are separated or
divorced
.....................................................

67

Most black children live with both parents — but
most poorblack childrenare in broken homes. .

69




VII

Chart No.

Page

Vital Statistics and Health
30

Birth

rates for both

dropped

31

71

blacks and whites have

...................................................................

73

Infant and maternal mortality are much higher for
blacks than for whites, although all are decreas­
ing .............................................................................

33

34
35

36

37

38

39

The number of years of life remaining at any age is
consistently lower for blacks thanfor whites. . .

77

Disabling illnesses and chronic conditions that
limit activity are about the same for blacks and
whites ...............................................................

79

The educational attainment of young black men
has almost caught up with that of whites...........

81

Higher education has meant higher earning power
for both blacks and whites, but at each educa­
tional level, black men have less income than
white m e n ...........................................................

83

Most black youth of school age attend school. A
larger proportion of whites above the compulsory
school ages attend, but among 3- and 4-yearolds, a larger proportion of blacks are in school
programs like “ Head Start” ..............................

85

In 1965, the average performance of black youth
in the final year of high school was at a ninth
grade level . . . the gap with white performance
widened between sixth grade and tw elfth...........

87

The percent completing college had increased for
both blacks and whites, but white gains have
been larger...........................................................

89

Housing

32

75

91

The proportion of blacks living in housing either
dilapidated or lacking basic plumbing is still
much larger than among whites........................

93




VIII

40

In all regions, housing of blacks is far worse in
smaller cities, towns, and rural areas than in
metropolitan c e n te rs .............................................

Crime
41

97

Black men and women are far more likely than
white to be victims of crimes of violence...........

42

99

At every income level, blacks are more likely than
whites to be victims of serious crimes............

43

95

101

Blacks are more likely to be arrested for crimes
of violence. Whites predominate in arrests for
property crimes .........................................................

103

Citizenship
44
45

46

47
48

49

105

In 1970, black men in the Armed Forces ac­
counted for 10 percent of the t o t a l.................

107

Blacks constituted 2 percent of all officers in the
Armed Forces and 3 percent of those in South­
east A s ia .............................................................

109

The reenlistment rate of eligible black men was
much higher than the rate for eligible white
men in the mid-1960’s .....................................

ill

Young black Vietnam War veterans had higher un­
employment rates than whiteVietnam veterans.

113

Six out of every 10 blacks in the United States
voted in the 1968 Presidential election, com­
pared with 7 out of every 10 whites.................

115

The number of blacks elected to State office has
risen sharply, especially in the South...............

117




IX

Chart No.

Page

Projections
50

51
52

53

119

The population of the United States 16 years old
and over will increase more than 25 million
between 1969 and 1980 — 4 million of the
increase will be blacks.....................................

121

Between 1969 and 1980, 2.8 million blacks will
be added to the labor force.............................

123

The percent of black men in the labor force is
expected to increase, and of black women, to
decrease, by 1980, becoming closer to the white
ra te s ....................................................................

125

By 1980, nearly half the white labor force and 60
percent of the black labor force will be under

35 years o ld ..............................................................
54

Educational differences between the black and
white labor force will be much smaller by 1980.




X

127

129

INTRODUCTION
Blacks1 are America’s largest and most visible minority, and
they are on the move — physically, economically, and socially.
The record of the past two decades shows that blacks have been
migrating out of the rural South into the cities of the Nation's
North and West. There, with greater choices, many have been
progressing economically from unskilled low-paid jobs into whitecollar and skilled occupations. In search of better housing, and
better jobs, many have been moving out, from their first place of
urban settlement in city core centers into the surrounding suburban
rings. Over a period of time, a migrant population has been giving
way to a settled, urban, second generation, as increasing numbers
are moving economically and socially from extreme poverty into
middle-class status.
Others are left behind, both in the rural backwaters of the
South and in the urban centers there and elsewhere. In many
instances, white progress has been so much greater as to over­
shadow the blacks’ real gains. In other instances, apparent black
gains have been illusory, when measured against those of the rest
of the population.
At the same time, many problems of urban interrelationship
have been aggravated by the massive and swift movement of
blacks in the past two decades. Whites and blacks alike have mis­
conceptions about the facts which surround today’s mobile popu­
lation.
The charts that follow attempt to present visually some of the
information about the progress and problems of blacks in recent
years, as they advance toward full equality with the white majority.
Many subjects of concern have been given only scant treatment
because the information now available is too old to provide a truly
relevant analysis. After the 1970 census has been tabulated and
analysed, we may be able to ascertain better the problems and
progress of black Americans.
The tables accompanying each of the charts are very brief. For
those interested in further detail, a list of the charts with sources of
additional data is included in the appendices of sources and refer­
ences at the back of this publication.
’ The s ta n d a rd g o v e rn m e n t te rm in o lo g y to d is tin g u is h b etw e e n “ w h ite ” and “ N egro
a nd o th e r ra c e s ” is used in th e ta b le s in th is b u lle tin . W h e re d a ta are a v a ila b le fo r
N egroes o r b la c k s alo n e , th a t is s ta te d e x p lic itly . S ince a b o u t 91 p e rc e n t o f “ N egro and
o th e r ra ce s” is b la ck, th e use o f th e e n tire c a te g o ry o f N eg ro and o th e r races in ta b u ­
la tio n s w h e re th a t te rm in o lo g y is used m a y be re la te d to b la c k s in th e te x t.




1




MIGRATION AND POPULATION




The percentage of blacks in the total population has
changed little in this century. It was about 12 percent
of the total in 1900, compared with 11 percent today.
During the large immigrations of Europeans to
the United States before World War I, it dropped to
10 percent and remained close to that level during
the depression of the 1930’s and World War II.
However, since World War II, a massive migration
from the rural South and concentration in the large
central cities of the North and West have occurred.’
1 E xce p t w h e re n ote d, w h e re d a ta fo r re g io n s are sh ow n in th is and
s u c c e e d in g ta b le s , th e s ta n d a rd C ensus d e fin itio n fo r each re gio n is
used. The S o u th in c lu d e s A la b a m a , A rka n sa s , D e la w a re F lo rid a ,
G e o rg ia , L o u is ia n a , K e n tu c k y , M a ry la n d , M is s is s ip p i, N o rth C a ro lin a ,
O kla h o m a , S o u th C a ro lin a , Tennessee, Texas, V irg in ia , W est
V irg in ia , a nd th e D is tr ic t o f C o lu m b ia .

TABLE 1. TOTAL AND NEGRO POPULATION, 1890-1960,
AND 1966-1969

Population in millions
Year
1890 ....................
1 9 0 0 '....................
1 9 1 0 '....................
1 9 2 0 '....................
1 9 3 0 '....................
1 9 4 0 i....................
I9 6 0 '....................
1960 ....................
1966 ....................
1967 ....................
1968 ....................
1969 ....................

Total
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Negro

62.9
76.0
92.0
105.7
122.8
131.7
150.5
178.5
194.1
196.1
198.2
199.8

7.5
8.8
9.8
10.5
11.9
12.9
15.0
18.8
21.3
21.7
22.3
22.3

Percent
Negro
12
12
11
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11

’ D ata e xclu d e A laska and H a w a ii.
N o te : In th is re p o rt p o p u la tio n d a ta e xc lu d e A rm e d Forces O verseas
a nd in 1950, 1960, a nd 1966-69, A rm e d Forces liv in g in B a rra c k s .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

4

CHART 1.
THE PERCENT OF BLACKS IN THE TOTAL POPULATION HAS
REMAINED ABOUT THE SAME SINCE THE TURN OF THE
CENTURY

Percent

’ E xclud e s A la ska and H a w a ii

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A




5

By 1940, a substantial black population was in the
larger Northern cities. Blacks continued to migrate
North and West in increasing numbers. The most
rapid acceleration took place in the 1940’s and
1950’s when the wartime and the post-War booms
in industrial activity opened jobs in these areas.
As a result, the black percent of the population has
been declining in the South and rising elsewhere.
Nevertheless, today blacks are less than 10 percent
of total population in the North and West, but
nearly 20 percent in the South.

TABLE 2. NEGROES AS A PERCENT OF THE TOTAL
POPULATION, UNITED STATES AND REGIONS, 1940, 1950,
1960, 1966, AND 1969

Region

1940'

1950’

1960

1966

1969

United S ta te s ................... 10

10

11

11

11

South ............................ 24

22

21

20

19

North ........................... 4
N o rth e a s t......... -. . . 4
North C e n tra l......... 4

5
5
5

7
7
7

8
8
8

9
9
8

West

3

4

5

5

...........................

1

' D ata e xclu d e A la ska and H a w a ii.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

6

CHART 2.
BLACKS ARE LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION
IN THE NORTH AND WEST, BUT NEARLY 20 PERCENT
IN THE SOUTH

Percent
South

20

—

1940 1969

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




7

The greatest change in the black population has
taken place in its location rather than its proportion
in the total population, as blacks migrated from the
rural and urban South to cities in other regions.
Even with these substantial migrations, more than
half of all blacks still lived in the South in 1969
compared with three-fourths in 1940.

TABLE 3. PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEGRO
POPULATION, BY REGION, 1940, 1950, 1960, AND 1969

Region

1940'

1950'

1960

1969

100

100

100

11

68

60

52

North .................... . . . 22
N o rth e a s t......... . . . 11
North Central . . . . . 11

28
13
15

34
16
18

41
19
21

4

6

7

United S ta te s ........... . . . 1 0 0
South ....................

...

W e s t....................... . . .

1

' D ata e xc lu d e A la ska a nd H a w a ii.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

8

CHART 3.
DESPITE SUBSTANTIAL MIGRATION FROM THE SOUTH
OVER HALF OF ALL BLACKS STILL LIVE THERE

Percent

100

1969

1940

S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.




9

The movement of blacks from the South to other
places in the United States continued in the 1960’s.
Between 1940 and 1966, a net total of 3.7 million
had left the South for other regions.
By 1970, average annual black migration out of the
South was 8 percent lower than it had been
in the 1940’s.
In spite of massive migration, 12 million blacks
still lived in the South in 1969, an increase of about
2 million since 1940, because of natural population
increases and the increasing life span of the
population.

TABLE 4. ESTIMATED NET MIGRATION,1 BY REGION,
1940-66 (IN THOUSANDS)

Negro and
other races

Region

White

South .........................................- 3 ,7 0 4
All other re g io n s ....................... + 3 ,7 2 2

+ 930
+ 5 ,0 8 4

TABLE 4A. NEGRO POPULATION, AND ESTIMATED NET
OUT-MIGRATION OF "NEGROES AND OTHER RACES”
FROM THE SOUTH,i 1940-70 (IN THOUSANDS)

Item

Population group

1940-50

"Negroes and other races,”
average annual net
out-migration from the South . . 159.7
1940
Negro population in
the S o u th .................... 9,905

1950-60

1960-70

145.7

138.0

1950

1960

1970

10,222

11,312

12,064

' In c lu d e s n e t m ig ra tio n fro m a bro a d .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

10

CHART 4.
BLACKS HAVE CONTINUED TO LEAVE THE SOUTH IN RECENT YEARS,
BUT AT A SLOWER RATE THAN IN THE 1940* S

Average annual net out-migration from the South
0

50,000

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




100,000

150,000

200,000

The great majority of blacks today are city dwellers.
Even in the South (where most rural blacks live)
3 out of every 5 were located in an urban area by
1970. In part, this is because most of the black
population increase since World War II has taken
place in central cities of metropolitan areas. — Most
of the white increase, by contrast, has been in the
suburbs or other places outside the central cities.

TABLE 5. POPULATION BY LOCATION INSIDE AND OUTSIDE
METROPOLITAN AREAS, 1950, 1960, AND 1969

Total population (m illions)
Negro
Location
1950
United States t o t a l ........................ 15.0

1960
18.8

1969
22.3

1950
135.2

1960
158.1

1969
175.3

12.2
9.7
2.5

15.6
12.3
3.3

80.3
45.5
34.8

99.2
47.5
51.7

111.7
45.3
66.4

6.7

Metropolitan a r e a s .................. 8.4
Central c itie s ......................... 6.5
Outside central cities ......... 1.9
Smaller cities, towns,
and r u r a l................................ 6.7




White

6.7

54.8

58.9

63.6

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

12

CHART 5.
THE POPULATION INCREASE
AMONG BLACKS HAS TAKEN
PLACE IN CENTRAL CITIES
AND AMONG WHITES
OUTSIDE THE CITIES

WHITES
IN CENTRAL CITIES
BUT

STILL OUTNUMBER
BLACKS
4 TO 1

M illio n s

M illio n s

200

1969

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




13

Urban blacks have been segregated, residentially, and indications are
that their segregation has been increasing through the m id-1960’s.
By 1965, only 1 city of the 15 in which there had been special Censuses
since 1960, still had as much as half its black population in a “ w hite”
neighborhood (less than 25 percent Negro) — Sacramento, California.
By way of contrast, in 6 of these cities at least 2 out of every 3 blacks
lived in predominantly black areas (where 75 percent or more of the
population is black). In most, the proportion in such areas had increased.
Blacks were moving, however, into middle-class neighborhoods that
had been vacated by whites who moved to the suburbs. No data are yet
available to indicate whether the tendency toward increased segregation
has been affected by the new Open Housing Laws.
TABLE 6. PERCENT OF ALL NEGROES IN SELECTED CITIES LIVING IN
CENSUS TRACTS GROUPED ACCORDING TO PROPORTION NEGRO
IN 1960 AND 19 64-1968
P ro p o rtio n N e g ro in C en su s T ra c t

C ity a nd S ta te

Year

All
census
tra c ts

75
or
m o re

50
to
74

25
to
49

Less
th a n
25

P e rc e n t o f a ll N e g ro e s in c ity
\
C le ve la n d , O h io . . . j
i
|
M e m p h is , T e n n . . . j
1
(
P h o en ix, A riz ............ 1
l
(
B u ffa lo , N .Y .............. |
1
[
L o u is v ille , K y............|
l
i
N ew H aven, C on n ,
j
II
R o ch e ste r, N.Y.
'

l
1
j
l
1
Des M o in e s , Iow a . . j
l
1
P ro vid e n ce , R .l. . . . j

S a c ra m e n to , C a lif,

\

S h re v e p o rt, La. . . .'
E va n sville , In d . . . .

>

f
j1

(
l
f
R a le ig h , N .C .............. |
1

L ittle R ock, A rk. . . . j

T re n to n ,

N .J ............. j

[

i

1960
1965
1960
1967
1960
1965
1960
1966
1960
1964
1960
1 96 7
1960
1964
1960
1964
1960
1966
1960
1965
1960
1966
1960
1966
1960
1964
1960
1966
1960
1968

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
1 00
100
100
100
100
1 00
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
1 00
1 00

72
80
65
78
19
18
35
69
57
67
0
16
8
16
9
8
0
0
0
0
79
90
34
59
33
41
86
88
26
24

16
12
26
14
36
23
47
10
13
13
33
19
43
45
0
14
28
42
23
16
10
0
27
14
33
18
0
4
9
55

8
4
5
4
24
42
6
13
17
10
19
27
17
24
14
28
31
19
2
46
7
6
9
0
19
22
7
2
48
13

4
4
4
4
21
17
12
8
13
10
48
38
32
15
77
50
41
39
75
38
4
4
30
27
15
19
7
6
17
8

N o te:
S ele cted c itie s o f 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore in w hich a s p ec ial census w as ta k e n in
a ny o f th e y ea rs 196 4-68 . R anked a cc o rd in g to to ta l p o p u la tio n in la te s t Census.




Source: See a p p en d ix A.

14

CHART 6.
THE PERCENT OF BLACKS LIVING IN SEGREGATED NEIGHBORHOODS
HAS INCREASED SINCE 1960, ACCORDING TO SPECIAL CENSUSES
IN 15 CITIES

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A




15




EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT




17

The number of employed blacks rose by nearly
one-fourth between 1960 and 1970, an increase of
1.5 million. White employment also rose sharply
during the 1960’s.
The number of unemployed was about the same
for blacks in 1970 as in 1960, but higher for whites.

TABLE 7. EMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYED,
NEGRO AND OTHER RACES 1960-1970

Employed
(m illions)
Year

WHITE

AND

Unemployed
(m illions)
Negro and
other races

White

.8
1.0
.9
.9
.8
.7
.6
.6
.6
.6
.8

3.1
3.7
3.1
3.2
3.0
2.7
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.3
3.3

11.3
+ 19

1 9 6 0 . . . . ___ 6.9
1 9 6 1 ___ . . . .6.8
1 9 6 2 ___ . . . .7.0
1 9 6 3 . . . . ___ 7.1
1 9 6 4 . . . . ___ 7.4
1 9 6 5 ___ . . . .7.6
1 9 6 6 ___ . . . .7.9
1 967 ___ ___ 8.0
1 9 6 8 ___ ___ 8.2
1 969 ___ ___ 8.4
1 970........ ___ 8.4

White
58.9
58.9
59.7
60.6
61.9
63.4
65.0
66.4
67.8
69.5
70.2

Negro and
other races

*
*

+3
+9

Change
1960-1970:
Number
(m illio n s ). . .1.5
Percent . . . . .+ 2 2
* Less th a n 50,000




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

18

CHART 7.
EMPLOYMENT OF BLACKS
ROSE 1.5 MILLION
BETWEEN 1960 AND 1970

AND

Unemployed (m illions)

Employed (m illions)

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




UNEMPLOYMENT IS
LOWER DESPITE RECENT
INCREASES

19

By 1970, the black unemployment rate — the pro­
portion of the black labor force who were out of a job
and looking for work was very high, over 8 percent.
This was an increase of 1.8 percentage points
from 1969, which had been the year with least
unemployment since the Korean War.
In most of the preceding 10 years, the black
unemployment rate had been decreasing — from
over 12 percent during the 1961 recession to 6.4
percent in 1969. Despite the 1970 increase, the
ratio of black-to-white unemployment rates fell below
the 2:1 relationship that had predominated for
15 years.

TABLE 8. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY RACE 1949-70

Year
194 9
1 950
1 951
1 952
1953
1 954
1 955
1 956
1957
1 958
1959
1 960
1 961
1962
1 963
1 964
1 965
1 966
1 967
1 968
1 969
1 970




........... 8.9
........... 9.0
........... 5.3
........... 5.4
........... 4.5
............ 9.9
........... 8.7
........... 8.3
............ 7.9
.............12.6
.............10.7
.............10.2
.............12.4
.............10.9
.............10.8
............ 9.6
........... 8.1
........... 7.3
........... 7.4
........... 6.7
........... 6.4
........... 8.2

White
5.6
4.9
3.1
2.8
2.7
5.0
3.9
3.6
3.8
6.1
4.8
4.9
6.0
4.9
5.0
4.6
4.1
3.3
3.4
3.2
3.1
4.5

Negro and
other races

Ratio:
Negro and
other races
to white
1.6
1.8
1.7
1.9
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.8

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

20

CHART 8.
THE BLACK UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN 1970 WAS ABOUT 8 PERCENT
- MUCH HIGHER THAN THE WHITE RATE

Percent of civilian labor force
15

WHITE

1949

1955

1960

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




21

1965

1970

In 1970, blacks made up 11 percent of the civilian
labor force, about the same as their share of the total
population. However, their unemployment and
involuntary part-time work was nearly double their
share in the labor force. This reflects not only the
kinds of jobs blacks hold, their lower educational
attainment and the larger proportion in the black
labor force of women and teenagers, the groups
that have the highest unemployment rates —
but also, very likely, discrimination by employers.

TABLE 9. THE LABOR FORCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT, 1970
Number in thousands

Negro and
other races:
rate in
civilian
labor force

Negro
and other
races

Percent
Negro
and other
races

Total civilian labor force. . . .82,715

9,197

11

Unemployment ..................... 4,088
U nem ployeds1 consecutive
/^
months, 15 weeks or m ore.
662
Working part-time
involuntarily ..................... 2,443

752

18

8.2

124

19

1.3

530

22

5.8

5,182

10

379

17

7.3

66

17

1.3

255

20

4.9

4,015

13

373

20

9.3

58

22

1.4

274

24

6.8

Item

Total

MEN
Civilian labor f o r c e ...............51,195
Unemployment ..................... 2,235
Unemployed 3 1 consecutive
/2
months, 15 weeks or m ore.
398
Working part-time
in v o lu n ta rily ....................... 1,295
WOMEN
Civilian labor fo r c e ................. 31,520
Unemployment ..................... 1,853
Unemployed 3 ! / 2 consecutive
months, 15 weeks or.m ore.
265
Working part-time
involuntarily ..................... 1,147




S o u rc e : See a p p e n d ix A.

22

CHART 9.
IN 1970, BLACKS ACCOUNTED FOR 11 PERCENT OF THE CIVILIAN
LABOR FORCE, 18 PERCENT OF THE UNEMPLOYED, AND
22 PERCENT OF THOSE WORKING PART TIM E INVOLUNTARILY

11% of the
civilian
labor force

Q
(5
Q

18% of the
unemployed

19% of those
jobless for 3 %
consecutive months
or longer

22% of those
working part-time
involuntarily

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




23

Despite recent sharp increases, unemployment rates
were lowest and black-white differences smallest for
married men.
Black married men had an unemployment rate of
about 4 percent in 1970 compared with about 8
percent in 1962. Although the 1970 rate was well
above the white rate (2.4 percent) it was lower than
for either black or white women, or black adult
men in general.
Unemployment rates for black teenagers rose very
sharply in 1970, and were the highest in 7 years.

TABLE 10. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY RACE AND SEX, 1960-1970

Married men

Year
1 9 6 0 ..,
1961. .
1962. . . .
1 9 6 3 .. . .
1964. . . .
1965. . . .
1 9 6 6 .. . .
1967. . . .
1968. . . .
1 9 6 9 ... .
1970. . . .

Negro
and
other
races

Adult women

Adult men

Negro
and
other
White races

Negro
and
other
White races

h)
(i)
3.2
3.0
2.6
2.2
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.4
2.4

4.2
5.1
4.0
3.9
3.4
2.9
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
3.2

0)
0)
.7.9
.6.8
.5.4
.4.4
.3.6
.3.2
.2.9
.2.5
.3.9

9.6
11.7
10.0
9.2
7.7
6.0
4.9
4.3
3.9
3.7
5.6

8.3
10.6
9.6
9.4
9.0
7.4
6.6
7.1
6.3
5.8
6.9

Teenagers

White

Negro
and
other
races

White

4.6
5.7
4.1
4.8
4.6
4.0
3.3
3.8
3.4
3.4
4.4

24.4
27.6
25.1
30.4
27.2
26.2
25.4
26.5
25.0
24.0
29.1

13.4
15.3
13.3
15.5
14.8
13.4
11.2
11.0
11.0
10.7
13.5

1 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

24

CHART 10.
MARRIED MEN HAD THE LOWEST UNEMPLOYMENT RATES,
AMONG BOTH BLACKS AND WHITES

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES

WHITE

Percent unemployment

A
'V >
A

^

Teenagers

^

W

A

Adult women

L

Adult m e n i

Married men

0
1960

1965

1970

1960

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




25

1965

1970

Unemployment rates are especially high for young
people. The barriers to employment for young,
inexperienced, black youth are formidable.
Yet, many persist in looking for jobs.
The unemployment rate among black teenagers
was 29 percent in 1970, more than double the white
teenage rate.
By contrast among the adult unemployed,
unemployment rates were lower, and whitenonwhite differences smaller especially, among
married men who form a very large part of both
the black and the white labor force.

TABLE 11. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN 1970 WITH RATIO,
NEGRO AND OTHER RACES TO WHITE

Group
T o t a l................ .
Adult men . . . .
Adult w om en. . .
Teenagers . . . . .
Married men . . .




. 8.2
. 5.6
. 6.9
.29.1
. 3.9

White
4.5
3.2
4.4
13.5
2.4

Negro and
other races

Ratio:
Negro and
other races
to white
1.8
1.8
1.6
2.2
1.6

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

26

CHART 11.
COMPARING TEENAGERS AND ADULT UNEMPLOYED ADULTS HAVE LOWER UNEMPLOYMENT RATES AND
SMALLER BLACK-WHITE DIFFERENCES

Percent unemployment rate, 1970
30

Adult men

Adult women

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




27

Teenagers

About half of all black teenagers are in school, and
most of these are not in the labor force. Of those
not in school, nearly 2 in every 10 are unemployed
and nearly another 4 in 10 are neither at work nor
looking for work. The majority of the latter are
keeping house, awaiting military service or working
without pay in the family business or farm.
The other 4 in 10 black teenagers who are not in
school — about 436,000 — are employed.

TABLE 12. WORK AND SCHOOL STATUS OF TEENAGERS OF WHITE AND
NEGRO AND OTHER RACES, 1970

Negro and other races
Number
(in thousands)

Status

White

Percent

Number
(in thousands) Percent

Out of school ............. .

959

100

5,878

100

Unemployed ................. .
Employed .................... .
Not in the labor fo rc e . . .
Keeping h o u s e .......... .
Unable to work . . .
Other reasons' . . . . .

166
436
357
157
11
189

17
45
37
16
1
20

536
3,694
1,646
724
23
899

9
63
28
12
4
15

.................... .1,034

100

6,639

100

7
13
80

335
1,873
4,432

5
28
67

In school

Unemployed ................
Employed .................... .
Not in the labor force . .

69
136
830

' In c lu d e s m a n y w a itin g to be ca lle d to m ilita r y d u ty and u n p a id fa m ily w o rk e rs .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

28

CHART 12.
ABOUT HALF OF
ALL BLACK TEENAGERS
ARE IN SCHOOL;

OF THOSE OUT OF SCHOOL
OVER ONE-THIRD ARE NOT
IN THE LABOR FORCE

Number of persons in 1970
1, 000,000

Unable to work
750,000

500,000 —

250,000

IN SCHOOL

OUT OF SCHOOL

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




29

In 1967, for the first time, substantially more than
half of all black workers held white-collar, craftsmen,
or operative jobs. The proportion increased to 58
percent in 1969 and 60 percent in 1970.
Employment of blacks in these occupations was
70 percent larger in 1970 than in 1960, compared
with a 25 percent gain for whites.
However, the proportion of white workers in these
jobs was still higher than for blacks — 8 in every 10
whites compared with 6 in every 10 blacks.
TABLE 13. EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATION IN 1970 AND THE
DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYMENT

Number (in thousands)

Percent

Negro and
other races

White

Negro and
other races

White

All o c c u p a tio n s .................. .8,445

70,182

100

100

Professional and technical.
Managers, officials, and
proprietors ....................
C le ric a l................................
Sales ..................................
Craftsmen, fo re m e n .........
Operatives .........................
Private household workers.
Service workers ................
Nonfarm la b o re rs ..............
Farmers, farm workers . . .

766

10,374

9

15

. 298
.1,113
. 179
. 691
.2,004
. 653
.1,547
. 866
. 328

7,991
12,601
4,675
9,467
11,904
906
6,608
2,859
2,797

4
13
2
8
24
8
18
10
4

11
18
7
13
17
1
9
4
4

Occupation

.

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

TABLE 13A. EMPLOYMENT BY BROAD OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS,
AND 1966-70 (NUMBERS IN MILLIONS)

White-collar
workers, craftsmen
and operatives

All
other
occupations

White

Negro and
other races

White

Negro and
other races

White

58.9
65.0
66.4
67.8
69.5
70.2

2.9
4.0
4.3
4.6
4.9
5.1

46.1
52.5
53.6
54.9
56.4
57.0

4.0
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4

12.8
12.6
12.7
12.8
13.1
13.2

19

72

24

Total
Year

Negro and
other races

1 960___
1 9 6 6 ....
1 967 ___
1 9 6 8 ....
1 9 6 9 ___
1 9 7 0 ....

.6.9
,7.9
.8.0
.8.2
.8.4
.8.4

Change
1960-70
(percent)

22




1960

-1 4 .8

3.2

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

30

CHART 13.
IN 1970, 6 IN EVERY 10 BLACKS WERE IN WHITE-COLLAR,
CRAFTSMEN, OR OPERATIVE JOBS COMPARED WITH
8 IN EVERY 10 WHITES

100%
Professional and
technical
Managers, Officials

Clerical
Sales
Craftsmen, Foreman

Operatives

Private household
workers

Service workers

Nonfarm laborers

Farmers, farm workers

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




31

Breaking the major occupational groupings down into detailed
classifications makes it clear that the largest gains for black men
between 1963 and 1970 were as factory operatives, especially
in durable goods manufacturing. About 185,000 new jobs were
opened to black men in durable goods factories in the 7 year period
— and another 94,000 in nondurable goods. Next largest were
increases in clerical jobs, some of which pay fairly high wages
In terms of future trends, increases in professional and technical
occupations, salaried management positions, craft occupations,
and police and other protective service occupations may prove
to be more important.

TABLE 14. EMPLOYED MALES OF NEGRO AND OTHER RACES BY
OCCUPATION, 1963 AND 1970
w e e kly
e a r n in g s '
n o n w h ite
m a le s

E m p lo y m e n t
(N u m b e rs in
th o u s a n d s )

C hange
in e m p lo y m e n t
1963-70

1970

1963

1970

N u m b e r (in
th o u s a n d s )

T o t a l ................................................... .$ 1 1 4

4,229

4,803

574

14

174
148
188
172

208
28
45
135

374
40
62
271

166
12
17
136

80
43
38
101

169
123

147
222

2 28
354

81
132

55
59

99
123
125
91
155
129
100

7
215
72
38
34
454
47

5
349
88
54
34
662
55

—2
134
16
16
0
208
8

( 2)
62
22
42
( 2)
46
17

118
122
137

125
144
40

149
218
63

24
74
23

19
51
58

131
170
112
105
121

74
24
1,073
325
305

115
63
1,362
339
4 90

41
39
289
14
185

55
163
27
4
61

104
102
98
100
100
95
52
95
114
110
89
54
55

177
266
896
203
247
4 46
19
674
39
126
509
145
321

271
261
839
203
242
394
14
615
71
103
441
82
185

94
-5
-5 7
0
-5
-5 2
—5
-5 9
32
-2 3
-6 8
-6 3
— 136

53
-2
-6
( 2)
-2
— 12
-2 6
-9
82
-1 8
-1 3
-4 3
-4 2

O c c u p a tio n

P ro fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l . . . .
M e d ic a l and o th e r h e a lth . . .
T e a ch e rs, e x c e p t c o lle g e . . . .
O th e r ............................................ .
M a n a g e rs, o ffic ia ls , and
p ro p rie to rs ............................... .
C le ric a l w o r k e r s ........................... .
S teno, ty p is ts , and
s e c re ta ria l .............................
O th e r ............................................ .
S ales w o rk e rs ............................... .
R etail t r a d e ...............................
O th e r ........................................... .
C ra fts m e n a nd f o r e m e n ............ .
C a r p e n te r s .................................. .
C o n s tru c tio n c ra fts , e x c e p t
c a r p e n t r y ................................ .
M e c h a n ic s and re p a irm e n . . .
M e ta l c ra fts and m a c h in is ts . .
O th e r c ra fts and k in d re d
w o rk e rs .................................. .
F o r e m e n ....................................... .
.................................... .
O p e ra tiv e s
D riv e rs and d e liv e ry m e n . . . .
D u ra b le g o o d s m a n u fa c tu rin g .
N o n d u ra b le goods
m a n u fa c tu rin g ................... .
O th e r in d u s trie s ................... .
N o n fa rm l a b o r e r s ........................ .
C o n s tru c tio n
........................... .
M a n u fa c tu rin g ........................ .
O th e r ...........................................
P riv a te h o u se h o ld w o rk e rs . . . .
S e rvice w o rk e rs ...........................
P ro te c tiv e se rvice w o rk e rs . . .
W a ite rs , cooks, b a rte n d e rs . . .
O th e r ............................................ .
F a rm e rs and fa rm m a n a g e rs . .
Farm la b o re rs and fo r e m e n . . .

P e rc e n t

' M e dia n e a rn in g s o f w o rk e rs w h o u s u a lly w o rk fu ll-tim e .
2 Base to o s m a ll to sh o w s ig n ific a n t ch an g e .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

32

CHART 14.
THE LARGEST JOB GAINS AMONG BLACK MEN BETWEEN 1963 AND
1970 WERE IN WELL-PAID DURABLE GOODS OPERATIVE JOBS

L a rg e s t e m p lo y m e n t g a in s by o c c u p a tio n fo r m a le s o f N e g ro a nd o th e r races
(s h o w in g u su a l w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs )
In cre a se 1963-70 (in th o u s a n d s )
0

50

100

150

C ra fts m e n (o th e r th a n c o n s tru c tio n , m e c h a n ic s o r m e ta l w o rk e rs )

P o lice m e n , fire m e n a nd o th e r p ro te c tiv e s e rvice s

C o n s tru c tio n c ra fts m e n (e xce p t c a rp e n te rs )

T e a ch e rs (e x c e p t c o lle g e )

M e d ic a l and h e a lth w o rk e rs

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A




33

200

The unemployment rate is affected by the occupa­
tions of the labor force as well as by its composition.
Changes in the rate for black men can be explained
in part by the shift in their occupational distribution,
as well by general economic changes between 1970
and earlier years. Black men were more likely
to be unemployed in 1970 if they were in laborer or
operative or service jobs than if they worked in
white-collar or craftsmen jobs. In all occupations
except private household work, their 1970 unemploy­
ment rates were higher than those of white men,
but the differences were smaller in the professional
and managerial groups where the unemployment
rates for both blacks and whites were very low.
Black men’s unemployment was much less than
double the white rate in most occupations in 1970.
However since more blacks worked in the high
unemployment occupations, their total unemploy­
ment rate was nearly double the white rate.

TABLE 15. 1970 UNEMPLOYMENT RATES BY RACE AND OCCUPATION

Ratio: Male
unemployment

Male

Occupation

Female

Negro
and
other
races

White

Negro
and
other
races

White

Negro and
other races
to White

4 .0

9.3

5.4

1.8

3.6

7.7

4.6

1.8

1.8

2.2

2.3

1.1

1.2
3.2
2.7
3.7
5.7
9.1

1.2
8.1
13.3
2.5
11.6
11.6

2.1
3.9
4.9
4.1
9.1
11.8

1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2

1.3

5.4

3.5

—

4.7
2.1

8.1
11.0

5.1
2.8

1.4
2.1

All occupations . . . 7.3
Experienced labor
force .................... 6.6
Professional,
te c h n ic a l............. 2.0
Managers, officials,
proprietors ......... 2.0
C le ric a l.................... 5.2
Sales ...................... , 4.0
,
Craftsmen, forem en. 5.2
Operatives ............. 7.5
Nonfarm laborers . . 10.5
Private household
*
w o rk e rs ...............
Other service
w o rk e rs ............... . 6.8
Farm workers . . . . 4.5

S o u rc e : See a p p e n d ix A.

* Base to o s m a ll to be sh ow n s e p a ra te ly




34

CHART 15.
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES WERE LOWER FOR MEN IN WHITE-COLLAR
AND CRAFTSMEN JOBS THAN FOR THOSE IN LABORER AND
MOST SERVICE JOBS

Male unemployment rates, 1970

All
occupations
Professional
and technical
Managers,
officials,
and proprietors
Clerical

Sales

Craftsmen
and foremen

Operatives

Nonfarm
laborers
Private house­
hold workers
Other service
workers
Farm
workers

1 Base to o s m a ll to be sh ow n s e p a ra te ly

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




35







INCOME

The average (median) income that a black family
receives has been lower than that of a white family
throughout American history, reflecting the lower
educational and occupational attainments of blacks
as well as the effects of discrimination.
Despite sharp gains in the late 1960's, the average
income of a black family was only 60 percent of
the average income of a white family.
Information on the incomes of all races other than
white — of which blacks are over 90 percent —
indicates that this was the highest ratio on record.

TABLE 16. MEDIAN INCOME OF NEGRO AND OTHER RACES
AND NEGRO FAMILIES AS A PERCENT OF WHITE FAMILY
INCOME, 1950-69

Percent of White income
Negro and
other races'

Year
1 950
1951
1952
195 3
1954
1955
195 6
1 957
1958
195 9
196 0
1961
1962
1963
1964
196 5
1966
196 7
1968
1 969

....................................54
....................................53
.................................... 57
.................................... 56
.................................... 56
.................................... 55
.................................... 53
.................................... 54
.................................... 51
.................................... 52
.................................... 55
.................................... 53
.................................... 53
.................................... 53
.................................... 56
.................................... 55
.................................... 60
.................................... 62
.................................... 63
.................................... 63

Negro7
(3
>
(3>
(3>
<
3>
(3
)
(3>
(3>
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3>
(3)
(3)
54
54
58
59
60
61

1 In c lu d e a ll ra ces e x c e p t w h ite .
2 The a n n u a l fig u re s sh ow n are based on th e C u rre n t P o p u la tio n
S u rve y. The p e rc e n t o f N e g ro to w h ite m e d ia n fa m ily in c o m e (in s te a d
o f th e p e rc e n t o f N e g ro a nd o th e r ra ces to w h ite as sh o w n ) is
a v a ila b le fro m th is s u rv e y o n ly fo r 1964 and la te r.
- 3 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A

38

CHART 16.
THE RATIO OF BLACK TO WHITE FAMILY INCOME ROSE IN THE
LATE 19 60’S TO THE HIGHEST ON RECORD, BUT THE LEVEL OF
BLACK INCOME WAS STILL ONLY THREE-FIFTHS OF THE WHITE

Black median fam ily income as a percent of White
65

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




39

In 1969, about one-quarter of all black families had
incomes of $10,000 or more, compared with 9
percent who had equivalent incomes in 1960,
and 3 percent in 1947, adjusted for price changes.
(In order to purchase the same amount as $10,000
bought in 1969, a family would have had to have
$8,100 income in 1960 and $6,100 in 1947).
As large a percent of black families had such incomes
in 1969 as white families about 10 years before.
In the North and West, about one-third of black
families had incomes of $10,000 or more in 1969.

TABLE 17. PERCENT OF FAMILIES WITH
$ 1 0,00 0 OR MORE, 1947-69 ADJUSTED
CHANGES (IN 1969 DOLLARS)

Year

Negro
and
other
races

United States
1 9 4 7 .... 3
1 948 ___ 2
194 9 ___ 2
195 0 ___ 3
1 9 5 1 .... 1
195 2 ___ 2
1 953 ___ 5
1 954___ 4
1 9 5 5 .... 3
1 956 ___ 5
1 957 ___ 5
1 958 ___ 5
1 959 ___ 7
1960 ___ 9
1 961 ___ 10
196 2 ___ 9
1 9 6 3 . . . . 10
196 4 ___ 13
1965. . . . 14
1966___ 17
1967___ 21
1968 ___ 24
1 969___ 24




White
12
11
11
12
12
13
16
16
19
22
21
21
25
27
28
30
33
35
37
40
43
46
49

Year

INCOME OF
FOR PRICE

Negro
and
other
races

White

South:
1 9 6 6 ___ 8
1 9 6 8 ___ 13
1 9 6 9 . . . . 14

32
38
41

Northeast
196 6 ___ 19
196 8___ 27
196 9 ___ 30

43
49
52

North Central
1 9 6 6 ___ 25
196 8 ___ 32
196 9___ 33

43
48
52

West
1 9 6 6 ___ .33
1 9 6 8 ... 42
1 9 6 9 . . . . 39

44
50
51

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

40

CHART 17.
BLACK FAMILIES ARE MOVING INTO THE MIDDLE-INCOME GROUPS.
THE PROPORTION WITH INCOMES OF $ 1 0,00 0 OR MORE
WAS 8 TIMES GREATER IN 1969 THAN IN 1947

United States

By regions

Percent of families of Negro and other races with incomes of
$ 1 0 ,0 0 0 'or more (in constant 1969 dollars).

1 1969 d o lla rs (a $ 10,000 in c o m e in 1969 b o u g h t as m u c h as $8,100 in 1960
and $6,100 in 1947)
S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A




41

Incomes have increased since World War II for both
black and white families, and the percent of black
families with less than $3,000 in purchasing power
(income adjusted for changes in prices) has been
reduced from nearly 60 percent of all black families in
1947 to 20 percent in 1969.
In addition, the rate of increase in incomes has been
much sharper for black than for white families, as full­
time work replaced part-time jobs and occupational
and educational advancement was reflected in incomes.
However, black incomes were so low in 1947, that
even with this sharper rate of gain, the actual difference
in dollars between black family incomes and white (adjusted
for price changes) widened between 1947 and 1968.
In 1969, the average black family had about
$6,200 to spend, $3,600 less than a white family. In 1947,
a black family had $2,500 less than a white family
(using constant 1969 dollars, adjusted for price changes).
The decrease in the number of poor families,
although impressive, still leaves a large number with
low incomes. In 1969, despite 20 years of progress,
1 in every 5 black families had income of less than
$3,000 compared with 1 in every 10 white families.
TABLE 18. DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES BY INCOME IN 1947, 1960, AND
1969 (IN CONSTANT 1969 DOLLARS)

Negro and other races

White

1947

1960

1969

1947

1960

1969

3,119

4,333

5,215

34,120

41,123

46,022

Percent . . . . 100
57
Under $3,000 .........
$3,000 to $4,999 . . 25
9
$5,000 to $6,999. .
6
$7,000 to $9,999. .
$10,000 to $14,999 1
$15,000 and over. . 1 3

100
38
22
16
14
f 7
l 2

100
20
19
17
20
16
8

100
21
26
24
18

100
14
14
19
26
18
8

100
8
10
12
22
28
21

Median income . . . . .$2,660

$4,001

$6,191

$5,194

$7,252

$9,794

Income group
Number of families
(in m illio n s ) ...........

Net change, 1947-69
Percent.........




$3,531
133

12

$4,600
89
S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

42

CHART 18.
FAMILY INCOMES INCREASED BETWEEN 1947 AND 1969 FOR
BOTH BLACKS AND WHITES

BLACK FAMILIES WITH
LESS THAN $3,000 INCOME
HAVE DECREASED

BUT

THE DOLLAR GAP
BETWEEN BLACKS AND WHITES
HAS INCREASED
Median fam ily income

Percent

$ 10,000

100

75

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

1947 1969

1947 1969

1947

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




43

1969

In recent years, the median income of black families
has ranged from a little over half of the white median
in the South to about three-fourths or more of the
white median in the North Central and Western
regions.
Low incomes of blacks in the South, and the
great disparity between black and white family
income there, is explained in part, by the fact that
much more of the black population there is rural
than in other regions. In 1969, median income of
blacks not on farms was more than double that of
blacks living on farms.

TABLE 19. MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME IN 1969 AND
COMPARISON OF NEGRO AND WHITE FAMILY INCOME,
1967, AND 1969, BY REGION

Negro income
as a percent
of white

Median
fam ily income,
1969
Region

Negro

Total United States. . $5,999
N o rth e a s t................
North C e n tra l.........
South .......................
W e s t.........................




..
..
..
..

6,911
7,726
4,987
7,682

White

1967

1969

$9,794

59

61

10,265
10,194
8,764
10,197

66
78
54
74

67
76
57
75

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

44

CHART 19.
THE GREATEST DISPARITY BETWEEN BLACK AND WHITE
FAMILY INCOME IS IN THE SOUTH

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




45

Whether they were black or white, men earned more
than women. White men earned most, but black men
earned more than either black or white women. The
relationships were such that a black man working
full time, all year, earned about two-thirds as much
as a white man working the same amount of time,
but 1V2 times as much as a black woman, and
16 percent more than a white woman working full­
time, all year in 1969.
The largest differences in the incomes of black
men and women were in the West, where black
incomes were highest, and the smallest differences in
the South where incomes were lowest.

TABLE 20. MEDIAN EARNINGS OF WORKERS BY COLOR AND SEX, 1969

Negro
Group

White
Women

All workers ................................ $4,375
Full-time, all year workers. . . . . 5,880
Ratio, women’s earnings to men’s
(Men’s earnings = 1.00):
All w o rk e rs .............................
Full-time, all year workers . .

Men

Women

$1,991
4,009

Men

$7,200
8,737

$2,688
4,977

.46
.68

.37
.57

TABLE 20A. MEDIAN INCOME' OF NEGRO MEN AND WOMEN WORKERS,
AND RATIO BY REGION FOR NEGRO AND WHITE WOMEN, 1969

Median income of
Negro workers
Men

Region

Ratio: women’s
to men’s income
Negro

White

$4,094

.69

.58

4,618
4,774
3,536
5,494

.69
.64
.76
.70

.60
.56
.59
.59

Women

Year-round, full-tim e workers . . $5,917
N o rth e a s t....................................
North C e n tra l.............................
South ...........................................
W e s t.............................................

.
.
.
.

6,686
7,485
4,655
7,836

1 R efers to to ta l in c o m e ra th e r th a n to e a rn in g s alo n e as in th e p re c e d in g ta b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

46

CHART 20.
THE EARNINGS OF BLACK MEN ARE HIGHER THAN THOSE OF
EITHER BLACK WOMEN OR WHITE WOMEN, BUT LESS THAN
WHITE MEN'S

Annual earnings of full-tim e year round workers in 1969

$ 10,000 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------WHITE

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
MEN

WOMEN

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




47

Families with a man and wife at the head are more
likely to have high incomes, whether they are black or
white, especially if the wife works — and under
these circumstances the percent difference in income
between black families and white is smallest.
On the other hand, families headed by a woman
alone have the smallest incomes regardless of age.
However, black families headed by younger men
have higher incomes than the average for all black
male-headed families. Their incomes are closer
to those of whites.

TABLE 21. MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME BY RACE, AND BY SEX AND AGE OF
HEAD, 1969

Head
aged 25-34

Ratio: Negro to
White income

White

Negro

White

All
ages

Age
25-34

$9,794

$6,454

$9,819

6 1%

66%

11,886

9,174

11,275

76

81

9,111
8,818
5,500

6,641
0)
3,373

9,488
9,489
3,804

62
71
61

70
(i)
89

All
age groups
Family type

Negro

All fa m ilie s ........... $5,999
Male fam ily head
married, wife present
Wife in labor
force ............. . 9,134
Wife not in
labor force . . 5,612
Other status 2 . . 6,223
Femalefamily head 2 3,341

' Base to o s m a ll to p ro v id e a d e q u a te sa m p le .
2 In c lu d e s s in g le , w id o w e d , d iv o rc e d , o r se p a ra te d .




S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

48

CHART 21
FAMILY INCOME IS HIGHEST WHEN BOTH HUSBAND AND WIFE
WORK AND LOWEST FOR FEMALE-HEADED FAMILIES, FOR BOTH
BLACKS AND WHITES

Family income in 1969 (median)

Married men
with wife
in the
labor force

Married men
with wife
not in the
labor force

Other
male-headed
families

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




49

Female-headed
families

About half of all black women at paid work in 1968
were married and living with their husbands. In most
families, their earnings provided less than one-third
of total family income, about the same as the white
working wife’s contribution to family income.
Only about 11 percent of the wives of either race
contributed more than half of their family’s
total income.
Two in every 10 black women working for wages
or salaries were single in 1968 and 3 in every 10
were widowed, divorced, or separated — and 5 were
married and living with their husbands. Among
whites, 6 in every 10 working women were married
and living with husbands, 2 were single, and the
remaining 2 were widowed, divorced, or separated.

TABLE 22. DISTRIBUTION OF NONFARM FAMILIES BY
PERCENT OF TOTAL FAMILY INCOME CONTRIBUTED BY
WORKING WIFE LIVING WITH HUSBAND, 1968

Percent distribution
Negro and
other races

Percent w ife’s earnings are
of total fam ily income

All earnings g ro u p s .................... ___ 100
Less than 20 percent................
20-30 p e rc e n t.............................
30-40 p e rc e n t.............................
40-50 p e rc e n t.............................
50 percent and o v e r ..................




___
___
....
___
....

White
100

34
18
19
17
11

37
19
19
13
11

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

50

CHART 22.
MOST WIVES WHO WORK FOR PAY CONTRIBUTE LESS THAN
ONE-THIRD OF FAMILY INCOME, WHETHER THE FAMILY IS
BLACK OR WHITE

WIFE
CONTRIB­
UTES:
Less than
20% of
family
income

20-30%

30-40%

40-50%

More
than half
of fam ily
income

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




51







POVERTY

While the incomes of many people increased duringthe 1960’s,
and the number of poor persons decreased sharply,
by 1969, nearly 25 million persons in over 5 million families
were still poor. Of these, 3 in every 10 persons were black
— a total of over 7 million poor blacks and a total of nearly
17 million poor whites in the 200 million American population.
As a result of better education, widening job opportunities,
and general economic growth, the proportion of the black
population who were poor fell sharply from over half in 1959 to
less than one-third in 1969; for the white population, the propor­
tion of poor fell from 18 percent in 1959 to 10 percent in 1969.
In 1969, a nonfarm family of four headed by a man was
considered in poverty if income was at or below $3,745. In 1959
prices, the comparable poverty standard would have been $2,973.
The poverty standard varies by size, composition, and location
of families.
Between 1959 and 1969, the number of black persons who
were poor dropped a little more than one-fourth compared with a
drop of over two-fifths for whites.

TABLE 23. PERSONS BELOW THE POVERTY LEVEL’ , 1959-69 (NUMBERS
IN MILLIONS)

Million
Year
1 959
1 960
1 961
1 962
1 963
1 964
1 965
1966

Negro and
other races
......11.0
......11.5
......11.7
......12.0
......11.2
......11.1
......10.7
...... 9.7

Based on revised method
1 966 ............. 9.2
1967 4 ........... 8.8
1968
...... 8.0
1969
...... 7.6

Percent
Negro
9.9
(2 )
(2 )
(2 )
(z)
(2 )
(2 )
(2 )

White

Negro and
other races Negro

28.5
28.3
27.9
26.7
25.2
25.0
22.5
20.8

56
56
56
56
51
50
47
42

55
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

18
18
17
16
15
15
13
12

19.3
19.0
17.4
16.7

40
37
33
31

42
39
34
32

11
11
10
10

White

3

8.9
85
7.6
7.2

1 The p o v e rty c o n c e p t used th ro u g h o u t th is re p o rt is based on a re vise d d e fin itio n
a d o p te d in 1969. A d e ta ile d e x p la n a tio n o f th e re vise d p o v e rty d e fin itio n a p p e a rs in
C ensus B u rea u S p e cia l S tu d ie s, S e rie s P-23, No. 28. The p o v e rty th re s h o ld fo r a
n o n -fa rm fa m ily o f fo u r w as $3,745 in 1969 and $2,973 in 1959.
2 N o t a v a ila b le .
3 R e fle c ts im p ro v e m e n ts in s ta tis tic a l p ro c e d u re s used in p ro c e s s in g th e in c o m e d ata .
* Due to a p ro c e s s in g d iffe re n c e , d a ta fo r 1967 are n o t s tr ic tly c o m p a ra b le w ith th o s e
sh ow n fo r 1966 and 1968.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

54

CHART 23.
THE NUMBER OF POOR HAS DECREASED SHARPLY SINCE 1959
- BUT NEARLY ONE-THIRD OF THE BLACKS AND ONE-TENTH
OF THE WHITES WERE STILL POOR IN 1969

Percent of total in poverty

1959

1960

1965

N ote: R evision in m e th o d o lo g y m a de in 1966 ca use d b re a k in th e se rie s.

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




1969

Only a small fraction of the population and of the
poor, whether black or white, receive welfare
assistance. Since blacks are much more likely to be
poor, they are also proportionately more likely to
receive welfare than whites. In 1969, 18 percent of
all black persons (mainly small children and the
aged) received welfare, compared with 4 percent of
all whites. The number of welfare recipients has
increased considerably between 1966 and 1969.

TABLE 24. NUMBER AND PERCENT OF PERSONS BELOW THE POVERTY
LEVEL AND OF PERSONS RECEIVING WELFARE, BY RACE, 1966-69
(NUMBERS IN MILLIONS)

Negro and other races

White

1966

1967

1968

1969

1966

Total
population . . .23.2

23.7

24.5

24.5

170.2 172.0 175.6 175.4

8.4

8.0

7.6

19.5

17.8

17.4

16.7

35

32

31

12

10

10

10

3.4

3.8

4.4

4.5

5.0

5.6

6.7

14

16

18

3

3

3

4

Group

Below
poverty
level ......... . . 9.3
Percent
of total
population . . . 40

Receiving
welfare . . . . . 3.2
Percent
of total
population . . . 14




1967

1968

1969

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

56

CHART 24.
MOST OF THE POOR DO N O T RECEIVE WELFARE ASSISTANCE

Millions of people in 1969




57

More of the black poor families than the white have
young children under age 18 to support, and fewer
are headed by elderly people over 65 years of age.
In 1969, there were children under age 18 in
8 out of every 10 poor families that were black
compared with 6 in every 10 that were white. Also,
the proportion of poor black families headed by an
elderly person (age 65) was about half as high
as the white’s.
A large majority of poor families had at least one
earner, in most cases the head of the family.

TABLE 25. CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES BELOW THE
POVERTY LEVEL, 1969

Negro
(Percent)

Family type

Total .................................................., . 100
Male fam ily h e a d s ...........................
Female fam ily h e a d s ......................
Aged fam ily head ' .........................
Families with c h ild r e n * ..................
Families with at least one earner. .
Families with
heads who worked during 1969. . .

.
.
.
.
.

White
(Percent)
100

47
53
16
80
70

70
30
29
59
62

. 58

53

' F a m ilie s w ith a t le a s t 2 p erso n s, w ith head age 65 o r over.
2 U n m a rrie d c h ild re n u n d e r age 18.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

58

CHART 25.
BLACK FAMILIES IN POVERTY ARE MORE LIKELY THAN WHITE TO
BE EARNERS, AND WITH CHILDREN TO SUPPORT

Percent of poor' families

1969

100

Poor families
with at least
one earner

Aged
poor fam ily
heads

80

1 As d e fin e d by S o cia l S e c u rity A d m in is tra tio n .

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




59

Poor families
with
children

Poverty is most visible in cities, where many poor
blacks live close together. It is less visible, but much
more prevalent, among blacks outside the central
cities of metropolitan areas. In 1969, a black family
living on a farm was more than 2 V2 times as likely
to be poor as one living in a metropolitan area,
since only 21 percent of city families were poor
compared with 57 percent of farm families.
However, because so large a proportion of all black
families live in large cities, a large proportion also,
of black poor live there. In 1969, 6 in every 10
black families lived in the central cities of metro­
politan areas, but less than 5 in every 10 poor
black families lived there.

TABLE 26.
LOCATION OF ALL NEGRO FAMILIES
FAMILIES BELOW THE POVERTY LEVEL, 1969

Percent
distribution of
Negro families

AND

OF

NEGRO

Negro fam ilies below
the poverty level in
each location

Below the
poverty level

Number
(thousands)

Percent

United States ........................ 100

100

1,326

28

Inside metropolitan areas. . . 73
Central c it ie s ................ 57
Suburban fringe .............. 15
Small towns and rural areas. 27
Farm ..................................
3
Nonfarm ........................... 23

54
44
10
46
6
40

720
582
138
606
79
527

21
21
19
46
57
45

Location




Total

S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

60

CHART 26.
MOST OF THE BLACK POOR DO NOT LIVE IN LARGE CITIES

Percent
distribution, 1969

Percent of Negro families in
each location who are poor, 1969
100

100
Small
towns
and
rural
areas
75 —

75

Suburban
fringe

TOTAL
Negro
families

POOR
Negro
families

farm

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




61







FAMILY

Most black families, like most white families, are
headed by a husband and his wife (especially those
in the middle and higher-income groups). However,
an increasing proportion of black families have
a woman at the head. In 1969, more than one-fourth
of all black families were headed by a woman.
Many of these were very low-income families. More
than half the black families with income under $3,000
were headed by a woman, but only 10 percent
of those with income over $7,000.

TABLE 27. COMPOSITION OF FAMILIES, 1950, 1955, 1960, AND 1966-70
(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION)

Husband-wife

1 9 5 0 ...
1 9 5 5 ...
1 9 6 0 ...
1 9 6 6 ...
1 9 6 7 ...
1 9 6 8 ...
1 9 6 9 ...
1 9 7 0 ...

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Female head'

Negro
and other
races

Year

Other male head

White

Negro
and other
races
White

Negro
and other
races

White

88.0
87.9
88.7
88.8
88.7
88.9
88.8
88.7

4.7
4.0
4.0
3.7
3.9
4.5
3.9
3.5

17.6
20.7
22.4
23.7
23.6
26.4
27.3
26.8

8.5
9.0
8.7
8.9
9.1
8.9
8.9
9.0

.77.7
.75.3
.73.6
.72.7
.72.6
.69.1
.68.7
.69.7

3.5
3.0
2.6
2.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3

’ F e m ale h ea d s o f fa m ilie s in c lu d e w id o w e d and s in g le -jwomen, and w om e n s e p a ra te d
fro m h u s b a n d s in th e a rm e d s e rvice s o r o th e rw is e a w ay fro m hom e in v o lu n ta rily , as
w e ll as th o s e se p a ra te d fro m th e ir h u s b a n d s th ro u g h d iv o rc e o r m a rita l d is c o rd . In
1968, d iv o rc e a nd m a rita l d is c o rd a c c o u n te d fo r 50 p e rc e n t o f th e b la c k fe m a le fa m ily
hea d s and 31 p e rc e n t o f th e w h ite .
S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

TABLE 27A. FAMILIES
(PERCENT)

BY SEX OF

HEAD,

BY

All fa m ilie s ..................
Under $3,000 ..............
$3,000 to $ 4 ,9 9 9 . .. .
$5,000 to $6,999. . . .
$7,000 to $9,999. . . .
$10,000 to $14,000. . .
$15,000 and over. . . .




Total
. 100
. 100
. 100
. 100
. 100
. 100
. 100

GROUP,

1968

Female

Male

9
27
17
12
6
4
3

91
73
83
88
94
96
98

White

Negro
Income Group

INCOME

Female Male
72
44
64
78
89
91
93

29
56
36
22
11
9
7

Total
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

64

CHART 27.
THREE-FOURTHS OF BLACK FAMILIES AND FOUR-FIFTHS OF
WHITE ARE HEADED BY A MAN

Percent
100

HEADED BY A MAN
WHITE

1950

1970

1950

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




65

1970

Not long ago, most women who had their own
households were widows. Now, an increasing
proportion of women heads of families — both black
and white — are separated or divorced. Although
the percent separated or divorced is greater among
black heads of families, the increase among them
since 1960 has been less than among whites. The
percent widowed is declining in both groups but
remains greater among whites than blacks.

TABLE 28.
MARITAL STATUS OF FEMALE HEADS OF
FAMILIES, 1960 AND 1970 (PERCENT DISTRIBUTION)

Negro
Marital status
Total

I9 6 0 '

................................ 100

Single (never married). .
Separated or divorced. . .
S e p a ra te d ....................
D iv o rc e d .......................
Married, husband absent.
In Armed Forces.........
Other reasons ...........
W id o w e d ...........................

4
42
29
14
15
2
13
40

White
1970

1960

1970

100

100

100

16
47
33
14
7
2
4
30

10
25
9
16
10
2
8
55

9
36
11
25
8
3
5
47

1 N e g ro a nd o th e r races.




S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

66

CHART 28.
AN INCREASING PROPORTION OF WOMEN HEADS OF FAMILIES
BOTH BLACK AND WHITE - ARE SEPARATED OR DIVORCED

Percent
50

NEGRO

1960

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




1970

1960

1970

About 70 percent of black children and 90 percent
of white children live with both parents. At a family
income level of $7,000 and above, about 90 percent
of black children are living with both parents. At
the other end of the economic scale, only about
one-fourth of black children in families with incomes
below $3,000 are living with both parents.

TABLE 29. PERCENT OF CHILDREN' LIVING WITH BOTH
PARENTS, 1960-69
Negro and
other races

Year
1 960 .........
1961.........
1 9 6 2 .........
1 963.........
1 964.........
1 965.........
1 966 .........
1 9 6 7 .........
1 968.........
1 969.........

White

.........75
.........76
.........73
......... 70
......... 71
.........71
.........71
.........73
......... 69
......... 69

92
92
92
92
92
91
91
92
92
92

TABLE 29A. PERCENT OF CH ILDREN’ LIVING WITH BOTH
PARENTS, BY FAMILY INCOME, 1969

Income group
Under $3,000 .............
$3,000 to $4,999 . . . .
$5,000 to $6,999 . . . .
$7,000 to $9,999 ___
$10,000 to $14,999 . .
$15,000 and o ve r.........

Negro

White

....2 7
....5 5
___ 78
. . . . 90
. . . . 88
....8 7

49
75
88
95
97
98

1 U n m a rrie d c h ild re n u n d e r 18 ye a rs o ld liv in g in fa m ilie s .




S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

68

CHART 29.
MOST BLACK CHILDREN LIVE WITH BOTH PARENTS - BUT MOST
POOR BLACK CHILDREN ARE IN BROKEN HOMES

Percent living with both parents, by fam ily income
100

Under
$3,000

$3,0004,999

$5,0006,999

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




69

$7,000
and over




VITAL STATISTICS AND HEALTH




Birth rates are higher for blacks than for whites,
but they have decreased for both groups in recent
years. Analysis of birth rates among black women
shows that they are higher for the poor than for the
middle-income groups, for the less educated than
for those with higher education, and for rural than for
urban populations.

TABLE 30. FERTILITY RATES, 1955-68 (LIVE BIRTHS PER
1,000 WOMEN, AGE 15 TO 4 4 )

Negro and
other races

Year

White

1 9 5 5 ........................................ 155
1 9 5 6 ........................................ 161
1 957 ........................................ 163
1 958 ........................................ 161
1 959 ........................................ 162
1 960 ........................................154
1 9 6 1 ........................................ 154
1 9 6 2 '......................................... 149
1963 1......................................... 145
1964 ........................................ 142
1 9 6 5 ........................................ 134
1 966 ........................................ 126
1 967 ........................................ 120
1 968 ........................................ 115

114
116
118
115
114
113
112
108
104
100
91
86
83
82

1 E xclu d e s d ata fo r N ew Je rsey.
NOTE: B irth s 1955-59 a d ju s te d fo r u n d e r-re g is tra tio n o f b irth s .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

72

CHART 30.
BIRTH RATES FOR BOTH BLACKS AND WHITES HAVE DROPPED

Live births per 1000 women, age 15-44

0
1955

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




1960

1965

1968

Infant and maternal mortality rates have dropped
sharply during the past 2l/ 2 decades. However, the
mortality rate for black mothers was about 3 times
that of white mothers in 1967. Infant mortality rates
for blacks were also much higher than for whites.

TABLE 31. MATERNAL AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES,
1940, 1950, AND 1960-68 (PER 1,000 LIVE BIRTHS)

Infant
Less than
1 month old

Maternal
N e g ro and
o th e r races

Year
1 9 4 0 ...
1 9 5 0 ...
1 9 6 0 ...
1 9 6 1 ...
1 9 6 2 ...
1 9 6 3 ...
1 9 6 4 ...
1965. ...
1 9 6 6 ...
1 9 6 7 ...
1 9 6 8 ...

. . .7.6
. . .2 .2

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.1.0
.1.0
. 1.0
.1.0
.0.9
.0.8
.0.7
.0.7
.NA

W h ite

3.2
0.6
0.3
0 .2
0 .2
0 .2
0 .2
0 .2
0 .2
0 .2

NA

N eg ro a nd
o th e r races

39.7
27.5
26.9
26.2
26.1
26.1
26.5
25.4
24.8
123.8
123.0

1 month to
1 year old
W h ite

27.2
19.4
17.2
16.9
16.9
16.7
16.2
16.1
15.6
i l5 . 0
il4 . 7

N e g ro and
o th e r ra ces

34.1
17.0
16.4
14.5
15.3
15.4
14.6
14.9
14.0
212.1
211.6

W h ite

16.0
7.4
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.0
24.7
24.5

' F ig u re s are fo r in fa n ts less th a n 28 d a ys old.
2 F ig u re s are fo r in fa n ts 28 days to 1 y e a r old .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

74

CHART 31.
INFANT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY ARE MUCH HIGHER FOR
BLACKS THAN FOR WHITES, ALTHOUGH ALL ARE DECREASING.

MOTHERS
Deaths per 1,000 live births

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

WHITE

Deaths per 1,000 live births (less than 1 month old)

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES
WHITE

NOTE: In flu e n z a e p id e m ic s are kn ow n to a ffe c t n o n -w h ite in fa n ts
m o re s e rio u s ly th a n w h ite in fa n ts .
S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




75

Length of life is a most significant indicator of the
health of the population. During the 1960’s, the life
expectancy of blacks was about 10 percent lower
than that of whites in all age groups from 25 to 55
years of age, the prime working years.

TABLE 32. LIFE EXPECTANCY IN PRIME WORKING YEARS, 1960 AND
1967 (ADDITIONAL YEARS OF LIFE EXPECTED AT EACH AGE)

1960
Negro
and
other
races
Age
25 years .
35 years.
45 years.
55 years.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

1969i

White

Difference

48.8
39.4
30.3
22.0

-5 .6
-4 .8
-3 .6
-2 .3

.43.1
.34.3
.26.2
. 19.3

White

Difference

Negro
and
other
races

48.3
38.8
29.7
21.5

-5 .2
-4 .5
-3 .5
-2 .2

43.2
34.6
26.7
19.7

' P re lim in a ry .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

76

CHART 32.
THE NUMBER OF YEARS OF LIFE REMAINING AT ANY AGE IS
CONSISTENTLY LOWER FOR BLACKS THAN FOR WHITES

Average number of years of life remaining at given ages.
50

At 25 years
of age

At 35 years
of age

At 45 years
of age

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




77

At 55 years
of age

The incidence of disabling illnesses and chronic
conditions that limit activities is about the same for
blacks and whites, but days of bed disability and lost
work days affect blacks slightly more.

TABLE 33. DAYS OF DISABILITY PER PERSON PER YEAR, JULY 1965JUNE 1967, AND PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH ACTIVITY LIMITATIONS
RESULTING FROM CHRONIC ILLNESS

Percent of population affected 1
Negro and
other races

Type of activity limitation
Restricted-activity days 2 ..............................
Bed-disability d a y s .......................................
Work-loss days 3 ...........................................
School-loss days * .........................................
Percent of persons with chronic conditions
and activity lim ita tio n s...........................

White

17
7
7
4

15
6
5
5

11

12

1 R ounded fig u re s .
2 For a ll ty p e s o f illn e s s e s , in c lu d in g c h ro n ic c o n d itio n s , a d ju s te d fo r age d iffe re n c e s
in th e w h ite p o p u la tio n a nd th a t o f N e g ro a nd o th e r races.
3 In c lu d e s p e rso n s 17 y e a rs o f age and o v e r c u rre n tly e m p lo y e d .
4 In c lu d e s c h ild re n 6-16 ye a rs o f age (d a ta n o t a ge -a d ju ste d ).




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

78

CHART 33.
DISABLING ILLNESSES AND CHRONIC CONDITIONS THAT LIMIT
ACTIVITY ARE ABOUT THE SAME FOR BLACKS AND WHITES

Percent of population
with chronic disabling illnesses and activity lim itations
15

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

WHITE

10

5

0
Days lost because of illness (average per year)
0

5

Bed
disability

Lost
work days

Lost
school days

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




79

10

Education has had a most important effect on the
entire life style of the American population, as well as
on its occupational achievement. The educational
attainment of both blacks and whites has been
increasing. Today, black men in all age groups have
more education than in 1960.

TABLE 34. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF PERSONS 25-29 YEARS OLD,
BY SEX AND RACE, 1960 AND 1966-69

Median years of school completed
Male
Negro and
other races

Year
1 9 6 0 .........
196 6 .........
1 967 .........
1 968 .........
196 9 .........

......... 10.5
......... 12.1
.........12.2
.........12.2
.........12.3

Female
White

Negro and
other races

White

12.4
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.7

11.1
11.9
12.1
12.2
12.1

12.3
12.5
12.5
12.5
12.5

Percent completing 4 years of high school or more
1 960 .........
1 9 6 6 .........
1 9 6 7 .........
1 968 .........
1 9 6 9 .........

.........36
.........53
.........56
......... 60
.........60




63
73
74
76
78

41
49
55
56
56

65
74
75
75
77

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

80

CHART 34.
THE EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF YOUNG BLACK MEN HAS
ALMOST CAUGHT UP WITH THAT OF WHITES

Median years of school completed
15 -------------------------------------------------M A L E S -A G E 25-29

WHITE

1960

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




1969

At each educational level, black men have less income
than white men. The disparity is greatest at the
college level. The dollar disparity is least among the
less educated because their jobs and their age
distributions are much more similar than among
better educated white and black men.

TABLE 35. MEDIAN INCOME OF MEN 25 YEARS OLD AND
OVER, BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 1969

White

Negro income
as a percent
of white

Elementary:
Less than 8 years. $2,973
8 years ................ . 4,293

$3,613
5,460

82
79

High school:
1 to 3 years......... . 5,222
4 years ................ . 6,144

7,309
8,631

71
71

College: ;
"
4 or more years. . . 8,567

12,437

69

Median income 1969
Level of education




Negro

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

82

CHART 35.
HIGHER EDUCATION HAS MEANT HIGHER EARNING-POWER FOR
BOTH BLACKS AND WHITES, BUT AT EACH EDUCATIONAL LEVEL,
BLACK MEN HAVE LESS INCOME THAN WHITE

Educational attainm ent in 1969 of men, 25 years old and over
Median income, 1969
$15,000

Elementary
school

High
school

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




83

College

Except among pre-schoolers and those in the
compulsory school attendance ages of 6-15, enroll­
ment of black students continued to lag behind white
despite steady increases. Nearly all 6-15 year olds
are enrolled in school, and a very large proportion of
those 16-17, both black and white. However, only
1 in every 8 blacks age 20-24 years compared with
over 1 in every 5 whites of this age, go to school.
(Most of these are in college.) An interesting change
is the sharp rise in enrollment of 3-and-4-year-olds,
where black enrollments were higher than white in
1968, especially in programs like “ Head-Start.”

TABLE 36. PERCENT ENROLLED IN SCHOOL, BY AGE, 1960, 1966, AND
1969

Negro
Students enrolled

I9 6 0 '

3 and 4 years........... , 0
5 y e a r s .................... 51
6 to 15 years........... 98
16 and 17 years. . . . 77
18 and 19 years. . . . 35
,
20 to 24 years......... 8

White
1966

1969

1960

1966

1969

14’
65
99
85
38
8

21
70
99
86
45
12

0
66
99
83
39
14

12
74
99
89
46
21

15
80
99
90
51
24

1 N e g ro a nd o th e r races.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

84

CHART 36.
MOST BLACK YOUTH OF SCHOOL AGE ATTEND SCHOOL. A LARGER
PROPORTION OF WHITES ABOVE THE COMPULSORY SCHOOL AGES
ATTEND, BUT AMONG 3-AND-4-YEAR-OLDS, A LARGER PROPORTION
OF BLACKS ARE IN SCHOOL PROGRAMS LIKE “ HEAD START”

Percent of population in school

' N o t a v a ila b le e a rlie r.

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




85

Age




Test scores on national standardized tests of reading
and other school subjects, in the Fall of 1965, showed
that at that time the average performance of black
youth in the final year of high school was at a
ninth-grade level, reflecting varied adverse factors,
including environmental. The gap in achievement
level between Negro and white students widened
between the sixth and twelfth grades. Recent changes
in educational techniques, supplementary programs
like Headstart and other special efforts, as well as
school desegration, may have effected gains in
student achievement. However, there has been no
recent nationwide study to indicate current
comparative achievement.

TABLE 37. ACHIEVEMENT ON NATIONAL STANDARDIZED
TESTS OF READING AND OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS,
FALL 1965
Test level grade
Grade in school

Negro

White

S ix t h ..........................................4.4

6.8

Ninth

........................................7.0

9.9

T w e lfth ..................................... 9.2

12.7

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

86

CHART 37.
IN 1965, THE AVERAGE PERFORMANCE OF BLACK YOUTH IN THE
FINAL YEAR OF HIGH SCHOOL WAS AT A NINTH GRADE LEVEL. . .
THE GAP WITH WHITE PERFORMANCE WIDENED BETWEEN SIXTH
GRADE AND TWELFTH (No recent studies have been made)

Grade levels of achievement on national standardized tests

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




87

Many managerial jobs, as well as most professional
positions, require a college education. Negroes have
made substantial gains since 1960 in completing
college. By 1969, 6.6 percent of all blacks age 25-34
had completed at least 4 years of college, compared
with about 16 percent of all whites in this age group.
However, the difference between the percent of
blacks and whites finishing college was wider in 1969
than in 1960, as white college attendance increases
outpaced those of blacks.

TABLE 38. PERCENT OF POPULATION 25 TO 3 4 YEARS OLD
WHO COMPLETED 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE OR MORE, BY SEX,
1960, 1966, AND 1969

Negro
Year

Male

Female Total

Male

1 9 6 0 .. . .4.3

3.9

4.6

11.7

15.7

7.8

1 9 6 6 .. . .5.7

5.2

6.1

14.6

18.9

10.4

1 9 6 9 .. . .6.6

7.6

5.6

16.2

20.2

12.3




Total

White
Female

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

88

CHART 38.
THE PERCENT COMPLETING COLLEGE HAS INCREASED FOR BOTH
BLACKS AND WHITES, BUT WHITE GAINS HAVE BEEN LARGER

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




89







HOUSING

The condition of housing for blacks has improved
since 1960. Nevertheless, the proportion living in
housing that either is dilapidated or lacks basic
plumbing facilities has decreased sharply since
1960 in all areas, especially in large cities. Yet
about one-fourth of black households still live in
such dwellings, compared with one-sixteenth of
the whites.

TABLE 39. PERCENT OCCUPYING HOUSING NOT MEETING
SPECIFIED CRITERIA', BY LOCATION, 1960 AND 1968

Negro and
other races

White

1960

1968

1960

............. .44

24

13

6

Metropolitan areas:
Central cities ........... .25
Suburbs .................... .43

9
16

8
7

3
3

Nonmetropolitan areas . .77

55

23

11

Location
United States

1968

1 H o u s in g is c la s s ifie d as " n o t m e e tin g s p e c ifie d c r ite r ia ” i f it e ith e r
is d ila p id a te d o r la cks one o r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g b a sic p lu m b in g
fa c ilitie s : h o t ru n n in g w a te r in th e s tru c tu re , flu s h to ile t fo r p riv a te
use o f m e m b e rs o f th e h o u se h o ld , and b a th tu b o r sh o w e r fo r p riv a te
use o f m e m b e rs o f th e h o u se h o ld .
H o u s in g is re p o rte d as " d ila p id a te d ” i f d e fe c ts are so c r itic a l o r so
w id e s p re a d th a t th e s tru c tu re w o u ld re q u ire e x te n s iv e re p a irs , re b u ild ­
ing, o r ra zin g , o r w as o f in a d e q u a te o rig in a l c o n s tru c tio n . In fo rm a tio n
is c o lle c te d a lso on h o u s in g c o n d itio n ra te d as " d e te r io ra tin g ,” th a t is,
h a v in g one o r m o re d e fe c ts o f an in te rm e d ia te n a tu re th a t re q u ire
c o rre c tio n i f th e u n it is to c o n tin u e to p ro v id e sa fe a nd a d e q u a te
s h e lte r.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

92

CHART 39.
THE PROPORTION OF BLACKS LIVING IN HOUSING EITHER
DILAPIDATED OR LACKING BASIC PLUMBING IS STILL MUCH LARGER
THAN AMONG WHITES

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES
Percent

WHITE

100

50 —

1960

1968

1960

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




93

1968

In the South, over one-third of all black households
live in dwellings that either are dilapidated or lack
basic plumbing facilities, compared with about
one-tenth in the North and West.
In all regions, housing is far worse in smaller cities,
towns, and rural areas than in the metropolitan
centers.

TABLE 40. PERCENT OCCUPYING HOUSING NOT MEETING
CRITERIA,1 BY REGION AND LOCATION, 1968

North and West

Region and Location

South

Negro
and other
races

White

Negro
and other
races

SPECIFIED

White

All housing uni t s. . . . . . . 11
Metropolitan areas:
Central c it ie s ......... . . . 9
Suburbs .................. . . . 12

5

36

9

4
3

9
22

3
3

Nonmetropolitan areas . . .22

7

61

16

1 H o u s in g is c la s s ifie d as " n o t m e e tin g s p e c ifie d c r ite r ia ” if it e ith e r is d ila p id a te d o r
la c k s one o r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g b a s ic p lu m b in g fa c ilitie s : h o t ru n n in g w a te r in
th e s tru c tu re , flu s h to ile t fo r p riv a te use o f m e m b e rs o f th e h o u s e h o ld . and b a th tu b
o r s h o w e r fo r p riv a te use.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

94

CHART 40.
IN ALL REGIONS, HOUSING OF BLACKS IS FAR WORSE IN SMALLER
CITIES, TOWNS, AND RURAL AREAS THAN IN METROPOLITAN
CENTERS

Percent below specified criteria
0

North
and West

10

20

NEGRO AND OTHER RACES
WHITE

Large
cities

South

North
and West
Urban
fringe
South

North
and West
Smaller
cities,
towns
and
rural
South

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




40

95

60







CRIME

Blacks are far more likely than whites to be the
victims of serious crimes of violence such as murder,
rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, whether
they are male or female. However, black females are
the most vulnerable group of all.
Burglary and larceny (over $50) are also greater
threats to black than white women, but there is no
significant difference between black and white men.
On the other hand, black men and women are
somewhat more likely to be the victims of auto theft
than are whites.

TABLE 41. VICTIMS OF SERIOUS CRIMES, BY SEX AND RACE, 1965-66
(RATES PER 100 POPULATION)

Negro and
other races
Crimes
Crimes of violence
(Homicide, Rape, Robbery
and Aggravated A ssa u lt)......... .

Male

White
Female

Male

Female

.5

.8

.4

.2

Burglary and larceny (over $50). . 2.4

1.2

2.4

.6

.2

.2

.1

Vehicle theft .................................. .




.3

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A-

98

CHART 41.
BLACK MEN AND WOMEN ARE FAR MORE
TO BE VICTIMS OF CRIMES OF VIOLENCE

LIKELY THAN

Number of victims per 100 population
(Homicide, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault)

1.0
NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

WHITE

Female

1965-66

1965-66

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




99

WHITE

Blacks are more likely to be the victims of serious
crimes than whites, no matter what their income
group. Crimes of violence against the person —
including murder and other homicide, forcible rape,
robbery, and aggravated assault — are most likely
to affect the poorest blacks. However, even blacks in
the higher income groups are much more likely than
whites to suffer such crimes. Crimes against property
are also more likely to victimize a black than a
white at every income level. However, the incidence
of such crimes is much greater against higher-income
blacks, and the black-white differences are larger in
the high income than the lower-income groups.

TABLE 42. NUMBER OF VICTIMS (PER 100 POPULATION) OF
SERIOUS CRIMES BY RACE AND INCOME GROUP, 1966

Negro and
other races

Crimes
Violent crimes
Against those with income under $3,000.
$3,000-$5,999 .........................
$6,000-$9,999 .........................
$10,000 and o v e r ....................
Property crim es2:
Against those with income under $3,000.
$3,000-$5,999 .........................
$6,000-$9,999 .........................
$10,000 and o v e r ....................

White

.8
.7

14
2.1
1.9
} 3.0

.3
.4
(
i

2
-3

1.8
1.8

r i-s
1 1-9

1 M u rd e r and o th e r h o m ic id e , ra pe , ro b b e ry, a nd a g g ra v a te d a s s a u lt.
2 B u rg la ry , la rc e n y o v e r $50 a nd v e h ic le th e ft.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

100

CHART 42.
AT EVERY INCOME LEVEL, BLACKS ARE MORE LIKELY THAN WHITES
TO BE VICTIMS OF SERIOUS CRIMES

Victims per 100 population

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES
Under
$3,000
income
WHITE

$3,000 to
$5,999
<
!
income

Over
$ 6,000
income

i

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




101

More blacks than whites are arrested for serious
crimes of violence, but arrests for crimes against
property take place mainly among whites.
Even in cities, where most blacks live, they are not
the major group responsible for serious property
crimes, such as burglary, larceny (over $50), and
auto theft. In the suburbs, a greater proportion of
arrests for serious crimes involves whites, whether
violent crimes (homicide, rape, robbery, and
aggravated assault) or property crimes. However,
arrest data alone are not necessarily good measures
of criminality, since an arrest may not result in
conviction in court, and some groups are more
subject to arrest than others.

TABLE 43. ARRESTS FOR SERIOUS CRIMES, 1969

Total

Percent of total

(in thousands)

Negro

White

All serious crimes:
Violent crim es’ ................ ___ 190
Property crim es 2 .............. ___ 840

55
33

43
64

Serious crime in cities:
Violent crimes ................ ___ 162
Property c rim e s ................ ___ 723

60
37

38
61

Serious crime in suburbs:
Violent c r im e s .................. . . . . 34
Property c rim e s ................ . . . . 1 9 7

31
18

68
81

Crimes

' M u rd e r, ra pe , ro b b e ry a nd a g g ra v a te d a s s a u lt.
2 B u rg la ry , la rc e n y o ve r $50, a u to th e ft.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

102

CHART 43.
BLACKS ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE ARRESTED FOR CRIMES OF
VIOLENCE. WHITES PREDOMINATE IN ARRESTS FOR PROPERTY
CRIMES.

Percent

CRIMES OF VIOLENCE'

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY2

' H o m ic id e , ra pe , ro b b e ry, a nd a g g ra v a te d a s s a u lt.
2 B u rg la ry , la rc e n y o ve r $50, a u to th e ft.

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




103







CITIZENSHIP

On March 31, 1970, blacks made up 10 percent of the
Armed Forces and 10 percent of those serving in Southeast
Asia, but 13 percent of those who died in Vietnam combat.

TABLE 44. MEN IN THE ARMED FORCES, 1970 (IN
THOUSANDS)

Negro

Percent
Negro

Total .................................. .3,074

293

10

Outside Southeast Asia . . . .2,555

241

9

519

52

10

41

5

13

Area

Total

In Southeast A sia............. .
Deaths in Southeast Asia.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

106

CHART 44.
IN 1970, BLACK MEN IN THE ARMED FORCES ACCOUNTED FOR
10 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL

Percent
15
Deaths in
Southeast
Asia

1970

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




107

The number of blacks serving in the Armed Forces
are roughly proportionate to their share of the
population. In 1969 and 1970 blacks equalled about
10 percent of all enlisted men, and 11 percent of
those in Southeast Asia. This amounted to 65,000
in Southeast Asia out of a total of nearly 315,000
black enlisted men in 1969. By contrast, a very small
proportion of black soldiers were officers — 2 percent
in the Armed Forces and 3 percent in Southeast Asia.

TABLE 45. NEGRO OFFICERS AND ENLISTED
FORCES, 1969 AND 1970 (IN THOUSANDS)

Total
Rank and area

1969

MEN

Negro

IN

THE

ARMED

Percent Negro

1970

1969

1970

3,074

323

293

9

10

419
354
65

366
0)
0)

9
7
2

8
0)
0)

2
2
3

2
0)
(i)

Enlisted men ...................3,020
Outside Southeast A sia. 2,447
.
In Southeast A sia. . . . 573

2,708
0)
0)

314
249
65

284
0)
0)

10
10
11

11
0)
0)

Total ................................ .3,439
O ffic e rs ........................... .
Outside Southeast Asia .
In Southeast A sia. . . .

1969

1970

1 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

108

CHART 45.
BLACKS CONSTITUTED 2 PERCENT OF ALL OFFICERS IN THE
ARMED FORCES AND 3 PERCENT OF THOSE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

Percent

Total

In Southeast
Asia

Total

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




109

In Southeast
Asia

In 1970, 14 percent of all blacks drafted into the
Armed Forces who were eligible reenlisted after their
first tour of duty, compared with 9 percent of eligible
white draftees. The reenlistment rate for young
servicemen who had enlisted into the regular armed
services was also much higher for blacks than
for whites.

TABLE 46. REENLISTMENT RATES OF SERVICEMEN'
1968-1970 (EXCLUDES REENLISTMENTS OF CAREER
SERVICEMEN AFTER FIRST TERM REENLISTMENT)
Inductees
Year

Negro

Enlistees
White

Negro

White

1968 ................... 15

9

(2 )

(2 )

1969 ................... 14

11

21

14

1970 ................... 14

9

18

11

' S e rvice m e n w h o have e a rn e d h o n o ra b le s ta tu s a nd o th e rw is e d e m o n ­
s tra te d th e q u a litie s n e ce ssa ry fo r c a re e r s e rvice in th e A rm e d Forces.
O n ly firs t-te rm s e rv ic e m e n are in c lu d e d .
2 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

110

CHART 46.
THE REENLISTMENT RATE OF ELIGIBLE BLACK MEN WAS MUCH
HIGHER THAN THE RATE FOR ELIGIBLE WHITE MEN IN 1970

Percent

2 0 ------INDUCTEES

ENLISTEES

1970

1970

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




Ill

Unemployment rates were higher for young Vietnam war
veterans 20-24 years old than for veterans in the next higher age
group — 25-29 years old — whether they were black or white.
However, Vietnam war veterans who were black had much higher
unemployment rates than those who were white. In 1969 and
1970, 10 percent or more of the younger black veterans were
unemployed compared with 8 percent or less of the white veterans.
Part of the difference between black and white veterans’
unemployment rates may result from the higher participation of
the white veterans in Veterans Administration Benefit Programs.
Of enlisted men who had been discharged from the Armed Forces
in the preceding year, 18 percent of the black and 24 percent
of the white veterans were in Veterans Administration supported
programs in 1969. Most of these men were attending college.
Of other blacks in the programs, one-third were in schools below
the college level, and under 10 percent in on-the-job training.

TABLE 47. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OF
VETERAN-NONVETERAN STATUS

MEN 20-29 YEARS

OLD,

BY

Negro and other races
Age

Period

White

Vietnam
veterans

Nonveterans

Vietnam
veterans

Nonveterans

20-24 years . . .

1969
11970

10.0
14.0

8.1
11.3

5.1
8.2

4.5
7.1

25-29 years. . .

1969
U970

3.6
6.2

4.1
6.7

3.2
3.8

1.7
3.2

TABLE 47A. PERCENT OF ENLISTED M E N -N E G R O E S , AND
WHITES AND OTHER R A C E S -W H O ENTERED TRAINING
UNDER VETERANS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAMS (OF MEN
SEPARATED FROM THE ARMED FORCES JUNE-DEC. 1968)

Training

Other races
including white

Negro

Percent who entered training. . . . 18

24

Type of training: all ty p e s ........... . 100
C o lle g e ............................. . 57
Below college schooling. . 35
On-the-job tr a in in g .........
8

100
68
23
10

1 A ve ra g e o f fir s t 9 m o n th s , n o t s e a s o n a lly a d ju s te d .




S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

112

CHART 47.
YOUNG BLACK VIETNAM WAR VETERANS HAD HIGHER
UNEMPLOYMENT RATES THAN WHITE VIETNAM VETERANS

Percent
Young men
20-24 years old

Men
25-29 years old

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

1970

1970

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




113

In recent elections, blacks have been exercising their
right to vote in proportions nearly as high as those
of whites. In the North and West, nearly 2 out of every
3 eligible blacks voted in the 1968 presidential
election, compared with 3 out of every 4 eligible
whites. In the South, 5 in every 10 eligible blacks
voted, compared with 6 in every 10 eligible whites.

TABLE 48. PERCENT OF PERSONS OF VOTING AGE WHO
REPORTED THAT THEY HAD VOTED IN THE PRESIDENTIAL
ELECTIONS OF 1964 AND 1968, BY REGION

Negro
Group and region

1964

Persons of voting age
(thousands) .............. 10,340
Percent reporting that
they had voted:
United States . . . .
North and West. . .
South ....................




59
72
44

White
1968

1964

1968

10,935

99,353

104,521

58
65
52

71
75
60

69
72
62

S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

114

CHART 48.
SIX IN EVERY 10 BLACKS IN THE UNITED STATES VOTED IN THE
1968 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, COMPARED WITH 7 IN EVERY
10 WHITES
THE PROPORTION VOTING
WAS HIGHER
IN THE NORTH AND WEST

THAN
IN
THE SOUTH

Percent
100

---------

SOUTH

NORTH AND WEST

WHITE

1968

1968

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




115

Although they are still a very small proportion of all
legislators, the number of blacks in the U.S. House
of Representatives and in State legislatures has
increased sharply in recent years.
At local levels, several cities now have black mayors,
mostly in the South.

TABLE 49. NEGRO LEGISLATORS AND NEGROES ELECTED
TO OTHER PUBLIC OFFICE, 1962, 1964, 1966, AND 1970

Office held

1962

1964

1966

1970

U.S. C o n g re ss......................... 4
House of representatives. . 4
Senate ................................ 0

5
5
0

7
6
1

14
13
1

State legislatures
United States to ta l........... 52
South .................................. 6

94
16

148
37

205
73

Local Mayors
United States to ta l........... 0)
South .................................. 0)

0)
0)

0)
0)

64
42

1 D ata n o t a v a ila b le .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

116

CHART 49.
THE NUMBER OF BLACKS ELECTED TO STATE OFFICE HAS RISEN
SHARPLY, ESPECIALLY IN THE SOUTH

Number of Negroes elected
250

All State
legislatures

200

150

100
State
legislatures
in the
South i
50

Congress
of the U.S.

1 In c lu d e s b o rd e r s ta te s .

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




117







PROJECTIONS

To determine the Nation’s future manpower needs,
BLS has been making economic projections for the
past three decades. The latest of these indicate that
the Nation’s working age population, 16 years old
and over, will have increased by over 25 million
between 1969 and 1980. Nearly 4 million of this
increase will be men and women of races other than
white — primarily blacks. Between 1969 and 1980,
the black population 16 years old and over will
increase about 29 percent, while the white population
is increasing about 18 percent. In 1980, blacks are
expected to be 12 percent of the 16 and over
population compared with 11 percent in 1969.

TABLE 50. POPULATION 16 YEARS OLD AND OVER, 1960-80 (PROJECTED)
(IN MILLIONS)

Projected

1969-80 Change

1965

1969

197 5 1 198 0 ’

Number Percent

All persons 16
years old and
over .................. . 121.8

133.3

140.0

154.3

166.6

26.6

+ 19

Negro and other
races ................ . 12.5
6.0
Men .............
6.5
W o m e n .........

14.1
6.7
7.4

15.2
7.2

17.4
8.3
9.1

19.6
9.3
10.3

4.4

+29
+29
+29

White ................ . 107.3
Men ............. . 53.4
W o m e n ......... . 55.0

119.2
57.7
61.3

124.8
60.4
64.4

136.9

146.9
71.0
75.9

22.1
10.6

Group

1960

8.0

66.2
70.7

2.1
2.3

11.5

+ 18
+ 18
+ 18

1 As p ro je c te d by B u re a u o f th e C ensus.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

120

CHART 50.
THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES 16 YEARS OLD AND
OVER WILL INCREASE MORE THAN 25 MILLION BETWEEN 1969
AND 1980 + 4 . 5 MILLION OF THE INCREASE WILL BE BLACKS

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




121

As population in working ages increases, so does
the labor force. The size of the labor force increase
depends on the share of the population who decide
to work. By 1980, the black labor force is expected
to total 12 million — 2.8 million more than in 1969 —
because of the rapid increase of working-age blacks
in the population. The black labor force will increase
by almost one-third between 1970 and 1980,
compared with almost one-fifth increase in the white
labor force, according to BLS projections.

TABLE 51. LABOR FORCE BY RACE AND
1960, 1969, 1 9 7 5 ', AND 1 9 8 0 '

SEX,

ANNUAL

Change 1969-80

Number (m illions)
1960

1969

1975i

1980'

Negro and
other races . . .7.9
Male . . . . . 4.8
Female . . . 3.1

9.5
5.4
3.9

10.7
6.4
4.3

12.1

2.8

7.2
4.9

1.8

1.0

W h ite ........... .64.2
Male . . . . .44.1
.20.1
Female

74.9
48.3
26.6

82.1
52.5
29.6

88.6

13.7

56.4
32.3

5.7

Race and sex

AVERAGES,

Number

8.1

Percent
30.7
33.3
25.6
18.3
16.8
21.4

1 P ro je c te d by B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s .




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

122

CHART 51.
BETWEEN 1969 AND 1980, 2.8 MILLION BLACKS WILL BE ADDED
TO THE LABOR FORCE

Millions of persons
of Negro and other races in the labor force '

1960

1969

1 P eople w o rk in g o r lo o k in g fo r w ork.

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




123

1975

1980

In the next 10 years, the proportions of men and
of women in the black population who are in the labor
force — working or looking for work are expected
to become more like the white. About 77 percent of
black men over 16 years of age were in the labor
force in 1969. By 1980, this labor force participation
rate will have edged up to 80 percent, the same as for
white men. However, among black women — who
have been more likely than white women to work
outside their homes — the rate will edge downward.
In 1969, half of all black women were in the labor
force. By 1980, about 48 percent will be in the labor
force, compared with 43 percent of all white women.
TABLE 52. CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES

Sex and race

1969

1980

All P e rso n s......................... .........60

61

Men:
Negro and other ....................77
White ............................. ...........80

80
80

Women:
Negro and other .................... 50
White ............................. ........... 42

48
43




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

124

CHART 52.
THE PERCENT OF BLACK MEN IN THE LABOR FORCE IS EXPECTED
TO INCREASE, AND OF BLACK WOMEN, TO DECREASE, BY 1980,
BECOMING CLOSER TO THE WHITE RATES

Civilian labor force participation rate
1 0 0 ------------------------------------------WOMEN

MEN
NEGRO
AND
OTHER WHITE

1969

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




1980

1969

1980

In contrast with 1968, when one-third of the black
labor force was 45 years old or over, only about
one-fourth will be that old in 1980. More than half
will be under 35 years of age, born after World War II,
and educated in the era of atomic advance, urban
migration, and social change that followed. Their
increasing proportion will contribute to an
increasingly sophisticated labor force in the future.

TABLE 53. DISTRIBUTION OF THE LABOR FORCE BY AGE, 1960, 1968,
AND 19 80 i

Negro and other races

White

1960

1968

1980

1960

1968

1980

Number ....................... 7,894

9,106

12,093

64,210

73,166

88,634

100

100

100

9
15
23

100
10

100

7

7

9
13

100
8

Group

Percent
16 years old and over.
16-19 years ................
20-24 years ................
25-34 years ................
35-44 years ..............
45-54 years ..............
55-64 years .............
65 years and over. ..

12
24
24
19

17
28
18
15

10
2

21
18

11

11

3

3

10
21
21

20
21
20

13
5

14
4

23

14
26
19
16
13
3

1 As p ro je c te d by BLS.




S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.

126

CHART 53.
BY 1980, NEARLY HALF THE WHITE LABOR FORCE AND 60 PERCENT
OF THE BLACK LABOR FORCE WILL BE UNDER 35 YEARS OLD

NEGRO AND
OTHER RACES

Percent of the
labor force

1980

1980

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




WHITE

127

Differences between the educational qualifications of
the black and the white labor force will continue
into 1980. However, disparities will be much smaller,
especially among young workers. By 1980, 74 percent
of the blacks in the 25-34-year age group who are
working or looking for work will have at least 4 years
of high school education, compared with 84 percent
of the whites in this age group, a difference of
only 10 percentage points. In 1969, the difference
was about 20 percentage points — 57 percent for
blacks, compared with 76 percent for whites.

TABLE 54. PERCENT WITH FOUR YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL
OR MORE, 1969 AND PROJECTED 1980, BY AGE AND RACE

All ages 25 years
old and over

Age 25-34

1969

1980

1969

1980

Negro and
other races. . . . .40.8

56.1

57.1

73.6

W h ite ................ . . .63.5

73.4

76.4

83.5

Race




S ource: See a p p e n d ix A.

128

CHART 54.
EDUCATIONAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE* BLACK AND WHITE
LABOR FORCE WILL BE MUCH SMALLER BY 1980

Percent of high school graduates in the labor force
100 ------------------------------------------------------------

Young persons
age 25-34

All persons
25 years old and over

S o u rce : See a p p e n d ix A.




129




APPENDIX A

Sources of Data

Chart and
table

1: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
(BLS), The Social and Econom ic Status of Ne­
groes in the United States, 1969, BLS Report 375,
p. 2, published jointly with the U.S. Department of
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, as Current Popu­
lation Survey (CPS), Series P-23, No. 29, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
The Negroes in the United States: Their Econom ic
and Social Situation, BLS Bulletin 1511, U.S.

2:
3:
4:

5:

6:
7:

8:

9:

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
1966, p. 63.
BLS Report 375, CPS series P-23, No. 29, p. 4.
BLS Bulletin 1511, tables IA-3, IA-4, pp. 63 and 64.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 3.
BLS Bulletin 1511, tables IA-3, IA-4, p. 65.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 5.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table IB-2, p. 74.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., “ Recent Patterns of
Internal Migration,” S tatistical Bulletin, Vol. 46,
April 1965, p. 2.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 6.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table IA— p. 68.
8,
Newman, D. K., “ The Negro's Journey to the City,”
M onthly Labor Review, May 1965, p. 502, and
June 1965, p. 644.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 10.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Handbook of Labor Statistics 1970, BLS Bulletin
1666, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C., 1970, table 16.
U.S. Department of Labor, Manpower Administration,
M anpower Report of the President, 1971, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., table
A-12, p. 219, and unpublished tabulations from the
current Population Survey.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Em ploym ent and Earnings, January 1971, pp. 124
and 131-132.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 37.




131

Chart and
table

10: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 31.
M anpower R eport of the President, 1971, table A-5,
p. 209 and A-17, p. 224.
BLS Bulletin 1511, p. 87.
11: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, pp. 3 0 - 31
and 31.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table IIA-2, p. 80.
12: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 33.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table IIC-9, p. 130.
13: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 20, p. 40.
Em ploym ent and Earnings, January 1971, p. 127
BLS Bulletin 1511, tables IIB1-IIB5, pp. 107-115.
14: U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Em ploym ent and Earnings, December 1969, table
8, p. 36.
15: BLS Bulletin 1511, p. 88.
16: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 14.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table IMA— p. 138.
1,
17: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 17.
BLS Bulletin 1511, table MIA— pp. 139-141.
6,
18: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 16.
19: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 15.
BLS Bulletin 1511, pp. 140-141.
20: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 20.
21: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Survey, Consumer Income,
Series P-60, No. 75. (See also Series P-60, No. 66,
table 12.)
22: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
M arital and Fam ily C haracteristics of Workers,
M arch 1968, Special Labor Force Report 120,

table U, p. A-25.
23: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 24.
Newman, D. K. et al, “ Perspectives on Poverty,"
M onthly Labor Review, February 1969, pp. 33-62.
Orshansky, Mollie, “ The Shape of Poverty in 1966,"
Social Security Bulletin, March 1968; Progressing
Against Poverty, Research and Statistics Note
No. 24, Social Security Administration, December
10, 1968; “ Recounting the Poor — A Five-Year
Review," Social Security Bulletin, April 1966.
24: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 26.
Newman et al, “ Perspectives on Poverty,” pp. 32-36.
Orshansky, Mollie, Counting the Poor Before and
A fter Federal Support Programs, Joint Economic
Committee; Old Age Insurance Part II: The Aged




132

Population and R etirem ent Incom e Programs,

25:
26:

27:
28:
29:
30:

31:

32:

33:

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
1967, pp. 177-231; “ The Aged Negro and His
Income,” Social Security Bulletin, February 1964,
p. 3.
Orshansky, “ The Shape of Poverty,” pp. 11-14.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 25.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 23.
Orshansky, Mollie, “ The Poor in City and Suburb,
1964,” Social Security Bulletin, December 1966,
p. 1.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, pp. 70-73.
BLS Bulletin 1511, pp. 184-186.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 71.
BLS Bulletin 1511, pp. 183-186.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, pp. 74
and 75.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, National Center for Health
Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States,
1968, Vol. 1, “ Natality,” tables 1 and 2.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, National Center for Health
Statistics, Vital Statistics of the United States,
1968, Vol. 2, “ Mortality,” table 1-16 and table 2-1.
See also, White and Nonwhite M ortality D ifferen­
tials in the United States, June 1965, table 3.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, “ Life Tables,” Vital Statistics
of the United States, 1967, Vol. 2, Section 5,
table 5-4.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, National Center for Health
Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, 1969,
unpublished provisional tabulations.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, Vital and Health Statistics,
Series 10, No. 56, D ifferentials in Health Charac­
teristics by Color, United States, July 1965June 1967.

34: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Survey, Educational Attainment,
Selected Years, Series P-20, Nos. 194, 182, 169,
and 158.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 51,
for data for Negroes alon§.




133

35: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Survey, Incom e in 1969 of
Fam ilies and Persons in the United States, Series
P-60, No. 75, pp. 104 and 108.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 21, for
men 25-54 years old.
36: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Survey, School Enrollment,
Series P-20, Nos. 206, 167, and 110, table 2.
BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 48.
37: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Office of Education, computed from basic data
prepared for the Fall 1965 Survey of Equality of
Educational Opportunity.
Coleman, James S. and E. Q. Campbell, C. J. Hobson,
J. McPatland, A. M. Mood, F. D. Weinfeld, R. I. York,
Equality of Educational Opportunity, U.S. Depart­
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of
Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash­
ington, D.C., 1966.
38: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 52.
39: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 57.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Census of Housing, 1960, HC(1), No. 1, tables 2
and 22.
40: BLS Report 375, CPS Series, P-23, No. 29, p. 58.
41: Ennis, Philip H., C rim inal Victim ization in the
United States, University of Chicago, National
Opinion Research Center, submitted to the Presi­
dent's Commission on Law Enforcement and Admin­
istration of Justice, May 1967, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
42: Ennis, C rim inal Victim ization in the United States.
43: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of
Investigation, Crime in the United States, Uniform
Crime Reports, 1969.

44: U.S. Department of Defense, Office of Civil Rights,
Data Sheet, March 31, 1970.
45: See Source of data, chart 44.
46: See Source of data, chart 44.
47: Waldman, Elizabeth, “ Vietnam War Veterans —
Transition to Civilian Life,” M onthly Labor Review,
November 1970, p. 28.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Veterans Administration, Two Years of Outreach,
1968-1970, VA Pamphlet 2 0 -7 -0 -1 , June 1970,
pp. 22 and 23.




134

48: BLS Report 375, CPS Series P-23, No. 29, p. 89.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
Current Population Survey, Series P-23, No. 14,
Technical Studies, Population of Voting Age, and
Votes Cast fo r President. Series P-20, No. 192,
Voting and R egistration in the Election of
November 1968.

49: Metropolitan Applied Research Center and Joint
Center for Political Studies, Washington, D.C.
Original data provided December 10, 1970.
50: Travis, Sophia, “ The U.S. Labor Force Projections to
1985,” M onthly Labor Review, February 1970,
p. 3.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
U.S. Econom y in 1980: A Summary of BLS P rojec­
tions, BLS Bulletin 1673, table A - l, p. 39.

51: BLS Bulletin 1673, p. 41.
52: BLS Bulletin 1673, p. 41.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
Em ploym ent and Earnings, January 1970, table
A-2, pp. 105 and 106.
53: Travis, “ The U.S. Labor Force Projections to 1985,”
table 5, p. 10.
54: Johnston, Denis F., “ Education of Adult Workers:
Projections to 1985,” M onthly Labor Review,
August 1970, pp. 52-55. See also chart on p. 50.




135

APPENDIX B

Appendix B. Selected List of Bibliographies and Refer­
ences on Black Americans (The selection process was
aided immensely by the Library of Congress bibliography,
The Negroes in the United States: A Selected B ib lio g ­
raphy, listed below.)

Bibliographies
A. Philip Randolph Institute. List of Publications Available
from the A. Philip Randolph Foundation and the
A. Philip Randolph Education Fund, New York, 1969.
Abrahamson, Julia. Race Relations (Special section on
Negroes by J. Waxman), Chicago, Julius Rosenwald
Fund, 1945.
American Jewish Committee, Negro History and Litera­
ture, by St. Clair Drake, New York, 1968.
Baker, Augusta. Books about Negro Life for Children,
New York Public Library, 1963.
Bennet, Elaine C. Calendar of Negro-related Documents
in the National Archives, Washington, D.C., American
Council of Learned Societies, 1949.
Booth, Robert E. with Gloria L. Dardarian, Patricia L.
Mertins, and True M. English. Annual Index to Poverty,
Human Resources, and M anpower Inform ation, 1966,
Ann Arbor, Mich., University of Michigan-Wayne State
University, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
(See also Poverty and Human Resources Abstracts.)
Brooks, Alexander D. C ivil Rights and Liberties in the
United States, New York Civil Liberties Educational
Foundation, 1962.
Chapman, Abraham. The Negro in Am erican Literature,
Stevens Point, Wis., Wisconsin State University, 1966.
(Wisconsin Council of Teachers of English, Special
Publication No. 15.)
Dodds, Barbara. Negro Literature fo r High School
Students, Champaign, III., National Council of Teachers
of English, 1968.




136

DuBois, W. E. B., ed. A Select B ibliography of the Negro
Am erican, Atlanta, Ga., Atlanta University Press, 1905.
Dumond, Dwight L., A B ibliography of Antislavery in
Am erica, Ann Arbor, Mich., University of Michigan
Press, 1961.
Ellis, Ethel M. V. The Negro American, Washington, D. C.
Howard University Library, Negro Collection, 1968.
Harris, Helen Y, Lanetta Parks and Lillie Story. The Black
List, Baltimore, Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1969.
Hampton Institute. A Classified Catalogue of the Negro
Collection in the Col M P. Huntington Library, Hampton,
s
Va., 1940.
Howard University. The Arthur B. Spingarn Collection of
Negro Authors, Washington, D.C., 1948.
Hussey, Edith, Mary Henderson, and Barbara Mars. The
Negro Am erican: A Reading List, New York, National
Council of Churches of Christ in the USA, Department of
Racial and Cultural Relations, 1957.
Index to Periodical A rticles By and About Negroes,

March 1950, Boston, G. K. Hall, quarterly.
Jackson, Miles M., assisted by M. E. Cleaves and
A. L. Gray. A B ibliography of Negro H istory and Culture
fo r Young Readers, Pittsburgh, Pa., University of
Pittsburgh Press, 1969. (Published for Atlanta Univer­
sity.)
Johnson, Clifton H. and Carroll G. Barber. The Negro
Am erican (A bibliography for high schools and junior
colleges), Nashville, Tenn., Amistad Research Center,
1968.
Kaplan, Louis with J. T. Cook, C. E. Colby, Jr., and
Daniel C. Haskell. A B ibliography of Am erican A uto­
biographies, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press,
1961.
Koblitz, Minnie W. The Negro in Schoolroom Literature:
Resource M aterials for the Teacher of Kindergarten
through the Sixth Grade, New York, Center for Urban

Education, 1967.
Lancaster, Emmet M. A Guide to Negro M arketing
Inform ation, U.S. Department of Commerce, Business
and Defense Services Administration, Washington, D.C.,
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966.
Lewinson, Paul. A Guide to Documents in the N ational
Archives fo r Negro Studies, Washington, D.C., American
Council of Learned Societies Devoted to Humanistic
Studies, Committee on Negro Studies, Publication,
No. 1, 1947.
McNamee, Lawrence F. Dissertations in English and
Am erican Literature (1865-1964), New York, Bowker Co.,
1968.




137

Bibliographies
Miller, Elizabeth W. The Negro in Am erica, Cambridge,
Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966.
Murray, Daniel A. P. Preliminary List of Books and Pam­
phlets by Negro Authors for Paris Exposition and Library
of Congress, Washington, D.C., U.S. Commission to the
Paris Exposition, 1900.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People, Education Department. Integrated School Books:
A Descriptive Bibliography of 399 Preschool and
Elementary School Texts and Story Books, New York,
NAACP Special Contribution Fund, 1967.
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA,
Division of Christian Education. Negro Heritage Re­
source Guide, New York, Council Press, 1967.
National Urban League, Department of Research and
Community Projects. Selected B ibiliography on the
Negro, New York, 1937, Supp. No. 1, 1938.
New Jersey Library Association, Bibliography Committee.
New Jersey and the N egro: A Bibliography, 1715-1966,

Trenton, 1967.
New York Public Library. The Negro: A List of Significant
Books (compiled by Dorothy R. Homer), New York, 1960.
New York Public Library. Shom burg C ollection of Negro
Literature and H istory: D ictionary Catalogue (9 Vol­
umes), Boston, G. K. Hall, 1962. (See also 2-volume
supplement published in 1968.)
Oberlin College Library. A C lassified Catalogue of the
C ollection of Anti-Slavery Propaganda, Oberlin, Ohio,
1932.
Porter, Dorothy B. “ Early American Negro Writings,” in
Papers, Bibliographical Society of America, Vol. 39, 3d
quarter, 1945.
Porter, Dorothy B. North Am erican Negro Poets, 17601944, Hattiesburg, Miss., Book Farm, 1945.
Pride, Armistead S. Negro Newspapers on M icrofilm :
A Selected List, Washington, D.C., Library of Congress,
Photoduplication Service, 1953.
Princeton University, Program in American Civilization.
The Negro in Am erica, Princeton, N. J., American
Studies Institute, 1966.
Reid, Ira DeA. Negro Youth: Their Social and Econom ic
Backgrounds: A Selected B ibliography of Unpublished
Studies, 1900-1938, Washington, D.C., American Coun­

cil on Education, American Youth Commission, 1939.
Rollins, Charlemae, H., ed. We B uild Together: A
Reader’s Guide to Negro Life and Literature fo r
Elementary and High School Use. Champaign, III.,

National Council of Teachers of English, 1967.




138

Ross, Frank A. and Louise V. Kennedy. A B ibliography of
Negro M igration, New York, Columbia University Press,
1935.
Salk, Erwin. A Layman’s Guide to Negro History, Chicago,
Quadrangle Books, 1966.
Sawyer, F. B., ed. D irectory of U.S. Negro Newspapers,
Magazines, and Periodicals, New York, U.S. Negro
World, 1966.
Scally, Mary Anthony, Sister. Negro C atholic Writers,
1900-1943, Detroit, W. Romig, 1945.
Schomburg, Arthur A. A B iographical C hecklist of A m eri­
can Negro Poetry, New York, L. F. Heartmann, 1916.
Seig, Vera. The Negro Problem : A Bibliography, Madi­
son, Wis., Wisconsin Free Library Commission,
American Social Questions No. 1, 1908.
Social Sciences and Hum anities Index. J. Dims Dart, ed.,
D. E. Cere and L. J. Woods, indexers, Listings 1907-70,
New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1970.
Southern Regional Council. Catalogue of Publications,
Atlanta, Ga., 1969.
Southern Regional Council, South Today Index (Monthly)
Vol. 1, July 1969-June 1970, Atlanta, Ga., 1970.
Spangler, Earl. B ibliography of Negro History, Minne­
apolis, Minn., Ross and Haines Co., 1963.
Texas Southern University, Houston Library. Heartman
Negro Collection, Catalogue Vol. 1, Houston, Texas,
1955.
Thompson, Edgar T. and Alma M. Thompson. Race and
Region: A D escriptive Bibliography, Chapel Hill, Univer­
sity of North Carolina Press, 1949.
Treworgy, Mildred L. and Paul B. Foreman. Negroes in the
United States: A B ibliography of M aterials for
Schools Approveable fo r Purchase in Pennsylvania
under NDEA Provisions, University Park, Pa., Pennsyl­

vania State University, Office of the Director of Libraries
(School Series No. 1), 1967.
Tuskegee Institute, Department of Records and Research.
A B ibliography of the Student Movement Protesting
Segregation and D iscrim ination, Tuskegee Institute,

Alabama, 1961.
A Selected List of References Relating to the Ele­
mentary, Secondary, and Higher Education of Negroes,

1949-June 1955, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 1955.
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Office of Information and
Publications. Catalogue of Publications of the U.S.
Commission on C ivil Rights, 1970, Washington, D.C.
1970.




139

Bibliographies
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Docu­
m ent and Reference Text: An Index to M inority Group
Em ploym ent Inform ation, prepared by University of

Michigan-Wayne State University, Institute of Labor and
Industrial Relations, Research Division, Ann Arbor, Mich.,
1967, pp. 473-572.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
A B ibliography of Research on Equal O pportunity in
Housing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,

D.C., 1969.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
M onthly Labor Review; annual index appears in
December issue; titles of articles listed under “ Equal
employment oportunity” or “ Minority groups.” See also
Index of Volumes 72-83 of the M onthly Labor Review,
January 1951-Decem ber 1960, BLS Bulletin 1335

(1965).
U.S. Library of Congress. 75 Years of Freedom: Com­
m em oration of the 13th Amendment, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1943.
U.S. Library of Congress, Division of Bibliography. List of
Discussions of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Am end­
ments with Special Reference to Negro Suffrage, U.S.

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1906.
U.S. Library of Congress. The Negro in the United States:
A Selected Bibliography, compiled by Dorothy B. Porter,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
1970.
U.S. Library of Congress, Division of Bibliography. Select
List of References on the Negro Question, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1906.
Weinberg, Meyer, School Integration, Chicago, Integrated
Education Associates, 1967.
Welsch, Erwin K. The Negro in the United States, Bloom­
ington, Ind., Indiana University Press, 1965.
Whiteman, Maxwell. A Century of Fiction by Am erican
Negroes. Philadelphia, 1955.
Williams, Daniel T., and Carolyn L. Redden. The Black
M uslims in the United States. Tuskegee Institute, Hollis
Burke Frissell Library, 1964.
Work, Monroe N. A B ibliography of the Negro in Africa
and Am erica, New York Argosy-Antiquarian, 1965.




140

References
Bicknell, Marguerite E., and Margaret C. McCulloch. Guide
to Inform ation A bout the Negro and Negro-white
Adjustm ent. Memphis, Tenn., Brunner Printing Co.,

1943.
Davis, John P., ed. The Am erican Negro Reference
Book, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Encyclopedia of the Negro: Preparatory Volume with
Reference Lists and Reports, by W. E. B. DuBois and

Guy B. Johnson, New York, Phelps-Stokes Fund, 1946.
Fleming, George J., and Christian E. Burckel. Who’s Who
in C olored Am erica, New York, C. E. Burckel, 1950.
Gibson, John W. Progress of a Race, Naperville, III.,
J. L. Nichols, 1929.
Haley, James T. Afro-A m erican Encyclopedia, Nashville,
Tenn., Haley and Florida, 1895.
Julius Rosenwald Fund. D irectory of Agencies in Race
Relations: National, State and Local, Chicago, 1945.
The N ational Encyclopedia of the C olored Race.

Montgomery, Ala., National Publishing Co., 1919.
The Negro Handbook, New York, Malliet Tables, 1942-49.
Negro Year Book. New York, W. H. Wise, 1912-52.
Plans for Progress. D irectory of Negro Colleges and
Universities, March 1967, Washington, D.C.
Ploski, Harry A., and Roscoe C. Brown. The Negro
Alm anac, New York, Bellwether Publishing Co., 1967.
Welsch, Erwin K., The Negro in the United States: A
Research Guide, Bloomington, Ind., Indiana University

Press, 1965.
Who’s Who in C olored Am erica: A B iographical D ic­
tionary of Notable Living Persons of Negro Descent
in Am erica, New York, T. Yenser, 1927-1938-40.
Who’s Who of the C olored Race: A General B io­
graphical D ictionary of Men and Women of African
Descent. Chicago, 1915.
Williams, Ethel L. B iographical D irectory of Negro
M inisters, New York, Scarecrow Press, 1965.
Wright, Richard R., ed. The Encyclopedia of the African
M ethodist Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, 1947.




141
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