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aek Injuries
fng
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
August 1982
Bulletin 2144




industry and science




Back Injuries ^sseeiated
With Lifting
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1982
Bulletin 2144




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3,50




Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
workers in blue-collar occupations who injured their
backs while lifting, placing, lowering, carrying, or hold­
ing objects. The findings of this survey, which was con­
ducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during 1980,
will assist the Occupational Safety and Health Admin­
istration (OSHA) in developing safety standards, com­
pliance strategy, and training programs for reducing
work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, William
Mead, Acting Assistant Commissioner, in cooperation
with 22 States: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado,
Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky,
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Ohio, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washing­
ton, and Wisconsin. The BLS regional offices coordi­
nated State operations. The Offices of Compliance,
Standards Development, Statistical Studies and
Analysis, and Training of OSHA and the Office of
Safety Research of the National Institute for Occupa­
tional Safety and Health contributed to the planning
and development of the survey. Lyn Pearson developed
the computer programs, and Maryrose Cline-Buso and
Debera Solis, under the supervision of Helen
McDonald, planned the survey and edited the question­




ill

naires. Herbert Schaffer prepared the bulletin.
The user should exercise caution in extrapolating sur­
vey data to population estimates because of limitations
of the survey. The data were not intended to be statis­
tically representative of the population studied. States
participating in data collection may not represent the
country as a whole; reporting requirements for workers’
compensation reports, which are the source for select­
ing injuries for study, vary among States; and the
2-month collection period is not intended to represent
the entire year. Because of the exclusion of white-col­
lar and service workers, industries dominated by these
occupations are underrepresented. However, the data
represent injured workers in selected occupations in the
States surveyed during the period studied and are, there­
fore, valid for identifying injury patterns on a relative
basis.
For analytical purposes, the incidence of back inju­
ries associated with lifting was not generated nor can
it be inferred from the data because information on
hours of work are not available. See appendix A for
scope and methodology of the survey.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced with­
out permission.




Page

Summary..................................................................................

1

Tables:
Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States, November-December 1980:
1. Industry............................................................................................................... 2
2. Source of injury.................................................................................................... 3
3. Age of w o rk er...................................................................................................... 4
4. Sex of worker........................................................................................................ 4
5. Selected occupations....................................
5
6. Description of injury...................
7
7. Body position at time of in ju ry .................................... ..................................... 8
8. Workers’ activity.................................................................................................. 9
9. Description of object lifted.................
10
10. Work experience and train in g ..............................................................................12
11. History and care of back problems ...................................................................... 14
12. Weight and height of worker ................................................................................14
13. Preemployment screening .................................................................................... 15
14. Estimated lost workdays........................................................................................16
Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory n o te ....................................................................................... 17
B. Participating State agencies....................................................................................18
C. Survey questionnaire............................................................................................. 19




v

Back Injuries Associated
with Lifting

Weight lifted at time o f injury
compared to heaviest weight
normally lifted




29
36
34

T o ta l...................................................................

Injuries to the back are one of the more common and
costly types of work-related injuries. Based on estimates
derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Annual
Survey of Injuries and Illnesses and the Supplementary
Data System, about 1 million workers suffered back in­
juries in 1980, accounting for almost 1 out of every 5
injuries and illnesses in the workplace. In eight States
which provided information on workers’ compensation
indemnity payments, almost one-fourth of the expendi­
tures were for claims involving back injuries.
This survey focused on back injuries sustained by
workers in blue-collar jobs while lifting, placing, car­
rying, holding, or lowering objects. Of the approxi­
mately 900 workers responding to the survey question­
naire, more than three-fourths indicated that they were
lifting at the time they injured their backs. Four-fifths
of the workers studied were in craft, operative, and la­
borer occupations, equally divided among these. Truck
drivers and other transport equipment operatives ac­
counted for about one-tenth of the workers. Almost
three-fourths were from 20 to 44 years old, and onethird were concentrated in the 25-34 year age group.
Manufacturers employed about two-fifths of the
workers studied in selected occupations, who were, for
the most part, widely dispersed among the component
industries. Retail, wholesale, transportation, and con­
struction firms each accounted for from 10 to 15 per­
cent of the workers within the scope of the survey.
Weight of the object was cited by the injured workers
more frequently than any other factor contributing to
back injuries associated with lifting. More than one-half
of the workers studied reported lifting objects weigh­
ing at least 60 pounds and about three-tenths, 100 or
more pounds. Moreover, about three-fourths of the
workers indicated that they had lifted without any as­
sistance. Focusing on workers lifting alone, the follow­
ing tabulation shows that seven-tenths were injured
while lifting objects weighing at least the same as the
heaviest weight normally lifted on the job, and almost
one-half of these workers were lifting objects heavier
than they normally lift.

Percent o f workers
lifting without
assistance

L igh ter...................................................................
S am e.......................................................................
H eavier...................................................................

Summary off Survey Results

100

A related contributing factor frequently cited was the
bulkiness of the object. Boxes and containers were iden­
tified as the source of injury in 43 percent of the cases
studied, metal objects in 18 percent, and wood objects
in 7 percent. Workers described most of the objects as
hard or rigid in construction, of which 42 percent were
square or rectangular; 24 percent, cylindrical; 17 per­
cent, flat; and the remaining shapes, mixed. Size of the
objects varied widely.
Material-handling equipment to lift and transport the
objects was, reportedly, not available in 61 percent of
the cases studied. Even where workers had access to
such equipment, 58 percent found it impractical to use.
Next to weight, the injured workers claimed that
body movement contributed to their injury. Bending
followed by twisting and turning, frequently in combi­
nation, were the more commonly cited movements.
Tracing the lifting-placing patterns, about one-half of
the workers reported lifting from floor level and most
of the remaining workers, from no higher than the waist.
Placement of the object varied widely. Nearly onefourth set it down about waist high; about three-tenths
placed the object on the floor or no higher than knee
high; and almost one-fifth placed it at least chest high.
More than one-fifth of the workers dropped the object
before completing the pattern because of back pains.
The amount of time and distance required to lift and
place the object was relatively short. Two-thirds of the
workers reported that they held or carried the object
less than 1 minute. Nearly one-half claimed that they
did not move the object any distance, and more than
one-fourth carried the object less than 5 feet.
Another important contributing factor identified by
the workers studied was the large number of lifts made
during the day of the injury. Yet, about one-fifth of the

1

strations, film, or as part of on-the-job training. Of those
workers who indicated that they received such infor­
mation, more than one-half reported exposure during
the year, and about one-third, within the last 6 months.
Fewer than one-fifth of these workers felt that this in­
formation would have been useful for preventing their
back injury. After the injury, relatively few of the
workers studied reported any change in company train­
ing related to safe lifting techniques.

workers felt back pains when they made their initial
lift, and another one-fifth made fewer than five lifts.
Moreover, as indicated below, well over one-half of
the workers reported making fewer lifts prior to being
injured than they normally made in a day.
Number o f lifts prior to injury
compared to number o f lifts
normally made in a day

Percent o f workers

Less........................................................................
Sam e.....................................................................
M o r e .....................................................................

56
28
15

T o t a l...........................................................................

Thirty-five percent of the workers who were sur­
veyed indicated that medical examinations were part of
the screening process for hiring job applicants. Sixteen
percent were requested to provide medical histories,
and 6 percent were required to take a lower back X-ray.
Seventeen percent were of the opinion that strength
was a consideration in performing their work. Seventy
percent reported that they had not followed any exer­
cise program to minimize injuries to the back.

100

Other, but less significant factors cited, were confined
workspace, recent exposure to abnormal strenuous ac­
tivity, underestimate of object’s weight, poor lifting
technique, change in usual lifting position, and previous
back problem. Forty-eight percent of the workers re­
ported a history of back problems.
The survey revealed that about one-half of the
workers received information on proper lifting techni­
ques, primarily on how to lift to avoid injury and, to a
much lesser extent, on how to use lifting equipment.
Information was disseminated in the form of posters or
written handouts, as well as through lectures, demon­

The vast majority of the back injuries were, report­
edly, diagnosed as a muscle strain or sprain. About
three-tenths of the workers surveyed lost from 1 to 5
workdays and a similar proportion lost from 6 to 15
workdays. Those losing time averaged 14 days away
from work. More than two-fifths of the workers who
had returned to work were given light duties.

Table 1. Industry: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
November-December 1980
Industry

Workers

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

906

100

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing.........................................................
Mining 1 ................................................................................................
Construction .........................................................................................
Manufacturing ......................................................................................
Transportation and public utilities ......................................................
Wholesale trade...................................................................................
Retail trade...........................................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ...................................................
Services...............................................................................................
Other industries, not elsewhere classified.........................................

26
1
139
378
94
103
90
10
53
12

3
(2
)
15
42
10
11
10
1
6
1

1 Limited to oil and gas extraction.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­




pations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

2




Table 2. Source of injury: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
November-December 1980
Workers

Source of injury
Total ..............................................................................................
Bodily motion ......................................................................................
Boxes, barrels, containers...................................................................

Bottles, jugs, flasks ......................................................................
Reels, rolls....................................................................................
Tanks, b in s ...................................................................................
Containers, not elsewhere classified ...........................................
Buildings and structures.....................................................................

Food products.....................................................................................
Hand tools, not powered......................................................................
Heating equipment (nonelectric), not elsewhere classified ..............
Hoisting apparatus...............................................................................
Machines .............................................................................................
Metal item s..........................................................................................
Metal items, unspecified...............................................................
Beams, bars ..................................................................................
Pipe ...............................................................................................
Metal items, not elsewhere classified..........................................
Mineral items, nonmetallic, not elsewhere classified ........................
Paper and pulp ...................................................................................
Plants, trees, vegetation.....................................................................
Plastic items, not elsewhere classified .............................................
Pumps and prime movers ...................................................................
Scrap, debris, waste materials, not elsewhere classified .................
Textile items, not elsewhere classified...............................................
Vehicles ...............................................................................................
Wood ite m s.........................................................................................
Wood items, unspecified ..............................................................
Logs...............................................................................................
Lumber..........................................................................................
Skids, pallets.................................................................................
Wood items, not elsewhere classified.........................................
Working surfaces.................................................................................
Miscellaneous, not elsewhere classified ............................................
Nonclassifiable....................................................................................
Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­
pations and types of injuries included in the

Percent

906

100

1
5
4
389
4
34
194
4
20
23
14
96
13
4
1
2
2
20
10
47
5
12
9
5
7
2
20
5
160
15
20
12
5
14
94
16
3
6
4
10
2
1
22
60
6
6
21
14
13
4
14
35
6

o
1
0
43
O
4
21
(')
2
3
2
11
1

ft
ft
(')

ft

2
1
5
1
1
1
1
1

ft
2
1
18
2
2
1
1
2
10
2
f)
1
(’)
1

ft
ft

2
7
1
1
2
2
1

0

2
4
1

survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

3

Table 3. Age of worker: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
November-December 1980
Age

Workers

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

906

100

15 years or less...................................................................................
16—19 years.......................................................................................
20—24 years.......................................................................................
25—34 years.......................................................................................
35—44 years.......................................................................................
45—54 years.......................................................................................
55—64 years.......................................................................................
65 years or m ore.................................................................................
Not available.......................................................................................

1
41
186
303
179
96
73
3
24

(’)
5
21
33
20
11
8
(')
3

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occupations and types of injuries included in the

survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports,

Table 4. Sex of worker: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
November-December 1980
Workers

Sex

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

906

100

Men ......................................................................................................
Women.................................................................................................

777
129

86
14

NOTE: See appendix A for occupations and
types of injuries included in the survey.




SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

4

Table 5. Selected occupations: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected
States, November-December 1980
Workers

Occupation

Percent

906

Stock clerks and storekeepers....................................................

Flfirtrin pnwnr linn and cahle installers and repairers ...............
Excavating, grading, and road machine operators,

100

38
20
18

4
2
2

246
3
1
1
13
4
16
4
1
1
15
1

27
(’)
O
0
1
0
2
o
0
0
2
(1
)

Opticians, lens grinders, polishers ...............................................
Painters, construction and maintenance .....................................
Pattern and model makers, excluding paper..............................
Plumbers and pipefitters...............................................................
Printing press operators ...............................................................
Printing press apprentices............................................................
Roofers and slaters......................................................................
Sheetmetal workers and tinsmiths...............................................
Stationary engineers ....................................................................
Structural metal workers...............................................................
Telephone installers and repairers...............................................
Telephone line installers and repairers .......................................
Tool-and-die makers ....................................................................
Tool-and-die maker apprentices..................................................
Upholsterers.................................................................................
Specified craft apprentices, not elsewhere classified ................
Craft and kindred workers, not elsewhere classified..................

4
27
3
5
1
2
16
2
63
3
1
14
1
1
12
2
1
2
19
7
1
5
3
1
2
1
8
4
1
4
13
3
5
1
2
1
1
1
3
3

Operatives, excluding tra n s p o rt.....................................................
Asbestos and insulation workers.................................................
Assemolers...................................................................................
Blasters.........................................................................................
Checkers, examiners, inspectors; manufacturing ......................
Clothing ironers and pressers......................................................
Cutting operatives, not elsewhere classified ..............................
Dressmakers, excluding factory...................................................
Drywall installers and lathers.......................................................

246
1
25
1
10
1
7
1
6

Furniture and wood finishers .......................................................

Aircraft mechanics.....................................................................

Heavy equipment mechanics....................................................
Household appliance and accessory installers and mechanics
Office machine repairers............................................................
Radio and television repairers..................................................
Miscellaneous mechanics and repairers...................................
Mechanics and repairers, not specified....................................
Millers; grain, flour, fe e d ...............................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




5 ‘

0
3
0
1
(1
)
(')
2
0
7
o
0
2
0
0
1
0
o
(')
2
1
o
1
o
o
(’)
0
1
0
(1
)
0
1
(’)
1
0
0
(1
)
(1
)
0
(1
)
o
27
(1
)
3
(')
1
(')
1
0
1

Table 5. Selected occupations: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected
States, November-December 1980—Continued
Workers

Occupation

Percent

Operatives, excluding transport—Continued

Sewers and stitchers ....................................................................
Shoemaking machine operatives .................................................
Welders and flame cutters...........................................................
Winding operatives, not elsewhere classified..............................
Machine operatives, miscellaneous specified..............................
Machine operatives, not specified................................................
Miscellaneous operatives .............................................................
Operatives, not specified..............................................................

3
1
4
3
5
4
2
2
4
20
4
1
1
3
3
2
6
1
1
1
1
15
1
33
7
33
33

Transport equipment operatives.....................................................
Bus drivers.....................................................................................
Delivery and route workers..........................................................
Forklift and tow motor operatives ................................................
Truck drivers .................................................................................

102
1
23
8
70

11
(’)
3
1
8

Laborers, excluding fa rm .................................................................
Construction laborers, excluding carpenter helpers ...................
Freight, material handlers.............................................................
Garbage collectors.......................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, excluding farm ........................
Timber cutting and logging workers.............................................
Stock handlers..................................................... ........................
Vehicle and equipment cleaners..................................................
Warehouse laborers, not elsewhere classified............................
Miscellaneous laborers.................................................................
Laborers, not specified.................................................................

246
31
48
7
11
2
14
1
37
62
33

27
3
5
1
1
0
2
0
4
7
4

Farm laborers and farm laborer supervisors................................

16

2

Nonclassifiable...................................................................................

12

1

Filers, polishers, sanders, buffers ...............................................
Furnace tenders, smelters, and pourers; m etal.........................
Garage workers and gas station attendants ..............................
Laundry and dry cleaning operatives, not elsewhere classified ..
Meat cutters and butchers, excluding manufacturing.................
Meat cutters and butchers, manufacturing .................................
Meat wrappers, retail trad e ..........................................................
Metal platers .................................................................................
Mixing operatives..........................................................................
Packers and wrappers, excluding retail.......................................
Painters, manufactured articles ................................................ .
Photographic process workers ....................................................
Drill press operatives ...................................................................
Grinding machine operatives .......................................................
Lathe and milling machine operatives.........................................
Precision machine operatives, not elsewhere classified............
Punch and stamping press operatives ........................................
Riveters and fasteners..................................................................

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­
pations and types of injuries included in the




0
0
0
0
1
0
o
0
(’)
2
0
(’)
(’)
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
(’)
4
1
4
4

survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.




Table 6. Description of injury: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
November-December 1980
Workers

Item

Percent

Indicate the nature of your back injury.
Total 1............................................................................................

906

(1
)

Muscle strain/sprain ...........................................................................
Dislocated or herniated disc (slipped disc)........................................
Dislocated vertebrae...........................................................................
Misaligned vertebrae (subluxation).....................................................
Inflammation of joint ...........................................................................
Pinched nerve.....................................................................................
O th e r...................................................................................................

799
84
52
88
57
162
13

88
9
6
10
6
18
1

Total ..............................................................................................

906

100

Yes—first felt pain as I was lifting/holding the o b je ct......................
No—felt pain shortly after lifting/holding...........................................
No—felt pain several hours later .......................................................
No—felt pain next d a y........................................................................
O th e r...................................................................................................

580
206
56
56
8

64
23
6
6
1

Total 1............................................................................................

871

O

Object too heavy.................................................................................
Object too bulky ..................................................................................
Small confined workspace ..................................................................
Had been doing a lot of lifting that d a y .............................................
Had lifted heavy object earlier that d a y .............................................
Body movement or motion contributed to injury...............................
Underestimated weight of object before lifting..................................
Changed usual lifting position.............................................................
Previous back problems.....................................................................
Poor physical condition.......................................................................
Poor or careless lifting techniques.....................................................
Attempted to lift or place object while walking or running ...............
O th e r....................................................................................................
Don’t know ..........................................................................................

313
205
136
192
74
296
123
105
111
13
83
19
46
63

36
24
16
22
8
34
14
12
13
1
10
2
5
7

Did you first feel the pain in your back while you were
lifting/holding the object that caused your injury?

Which items do you feel contributed to your injury?

1
Because more than one response is pos­
sible, the sum of the responses and percent­
ages may not equal the total. Percentages are
calculated by dividing each response by the
total number of persons who answered the
question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may

not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­
pations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

7

Table 7. Body position 1 at time of injury: Back injuries associated with lifting,
selected States, W©w®mb@r-B@c©mb@r 1980
Workers

Item

Percent

If you felt pain as you were lifting/holding, indicate the
position closest to that of your arms, back, and legs at the
moment of injury.
\
Position of arms
Total ..............................................................................................

553

100

Extended dow n....................................................................................
Bent at elbow......................................................................................
Extended out at shoulder....................................................................
Extended over head............................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

254
181
72
32
10
4

46
33
13
6
2
1

Total ..............................................................................................

572

100

Straight.................................................................................................
Slightly bent.........................................................................................
Very b e n t.............................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

87
334
142
7
2

15
58
25
1
O

T o ta l..............................................................................................

569

100

Straight.................................................................................................
Slightly bent.........................................................................................
Squatting..............................................................................................
O ther....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

155
313
83
8
10

27
55
15
1
2

Total ..............................................................................................

566

100

Less than 12 inches a p a rt..................................................................
12 or more inches apart......................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

162
249
155

29
44
27

Position of back

Position of legs

How far apart were your feet at the moment of injury?

1 See appendix C for pictures of body
positions used in questionnaire.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­




pations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

8




Table 8. Workers’ activity: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States,
Wovember-December 1980
Workers

Item

Percent

What were you doing when you injured your back?
903

C)

133
13
96
692
107
145
65
39
14
3
9

15
1
11
77
12
16
7
4
2
(2
)
1

Total 1............................................................................................

894

0

Bending................................................................................................
Climbing...............................................................................................
Sitting ...................................................................................................
Slipping, tripping, or falling..................................................................
Squatting..............................................................................................
Standing...............................................................................................
Stretching ............................................................................................
Suddenly changing body position ......................................................

505
16
3
9
107
243
141
159
299
72
7
16

56
2
o
1
12
27
16
18
33
8
1
2

Total 1............................................................................................

870

(')

Yes—lifting more objects than normal ...............................................
Yes—lifting heavier objects than normal ...........................................
Yes—involved in strenuous outside activity (sports, work at
home, etc.)........................................................................................
N o ........................................................................................................

60
42

7
5

14
769

2
88

Total 1............................................................................................
Catching/throwing ...............................................................................
Lifting....................................................................................................
Lowering object ..................................................................................
Placing object......................................................................................
Pulling...................................................................................................
Pushing ................................................................................................
Shoveling.................................................................... ........................
O th e r....................................................................................................

What movements were you making when you injured your
back?

Walking or running ..............................................................................
Other ....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

Within 48 hours before your injury, was your activity at work
or at home more strenuous than normal?

1 Because more than one response is pos­
sible, the sum of the responses and percent­
ages may not equal the total. Percentages are
calculated by dividing each response by the
total number of persons who answered the
question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­
pations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

9

Table 9. Description of object lifted1
:
States, November-December 1980

Back injuries associated with lifting, selected

Workers

Item

Percent

Describe the specific object you were handling when you
injured your back.2
784

100

295
169
119
123

38
22
15
16

41
26
5
6

5
3
1
1

826

100

40
123
158
91
105
257
52

5
15
19
11
13
31
6

Total ..............................................................................................

824

100

No 3 ......................................................................................................
Yes .......................................................................................................

199
625

24
76

Total ..............................................................................................

833

100

Did not carry object any distance......................................................
Carried object less than 5 fe e t...........................................................
Carried object 5 to 20 fe e t...............................................................
Carried object more than 20 fe e t.......................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Don’t know ..........................................................................................

388
234
130
70
3
8

47
28
16
8
O
1

Total ..............................................................................................

818

100

Less than 1 minute .............................................................................
1 to 2 minutes......................................................................................
2 minutes or m ore...............................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

537
145
87
49

66
18
11
6

Total ..............................................................................................
Rigid
Square or rectangular...................................................................
Cylinder.........................................................................................
Flat ..............................................................................................
Other .............................................................................................
Flexible
Square or rectangular..................................................................
Cylinder.........................................................................................
Flat ..............................................................................................
O th e r.............................................................................................
What was the approximate weight of the object?

Less than 20 pounds..........................................................................
20 to 40 pounds ..................................................................................
40 to 60 pounds ..................................................................................
60 to 80 pounds ..................................................................................
80 to 100 pounds................................................................................
100 or more pounds ...........................................................................

Were you holding the object by yourself?

How far did you carry the object?

How long were you holding or carrying the object?

See footnotes at end of table.




10

Table 9. Description of object lifte d 1 Back injuries associated with lifting, selected
:
States, Movember-December 1980—Continued
Item

Workers

Percent

What level was the object on before you attempted to lift it?
Total

820
427
72
104
137
36
12
7
17

Floor level.......
Ankle height....
Knee height.....
Waist height ....
Chest height....
Shoulder height
Head height.....
Over head.......
O th e r...............

100

52
9
13
17
4

8

1
1
2
1

799

100

176
21
135
43
67
184

22

23

66

8

38

5

Where did you put the object?
Total ......................................
Dropped object when felt pain ......
Dropped object before feeling pain
Floor level.......................................
Ankle height...................................
Knee height....................................
Waist height ...................................
Chest height...................................
Shoulder height..............................
Head height....................................
Over head.......................................
O th e r..............................................

3
17
5
8

10

1

38
21

5
3

Total .....................................................................

810

100

N o ................................................................................
Yes ..............................................................................

209
601

26
74

708

100

434

61

61

9
17

Was that where you intended to put the object?

Was lifting/moving equipment available to help you move the
object? If available, why wasn’t it used?
Total .............................................................................................
Equipment not available..............................................
Equipment available but not used because:
Did not think it was necessary...............................
It was not practical to u s e ......................................
It was in bad condition or not working...................
It takes too long ......................................................
Injury occurred while using lifting/moving equipment
O th e r............................................................................
Don’t know if lifting/moving equipment was available

121
11

12

2
2
6
2
2

Total

784

100

None..........
1 to 4 .........
5 to 9 .........
10 to 24 .....
25 to 49 .....
50 to 99 .....
100 or more

145
155
90

20
11

73
69
150

13
9
9
19

16
41
12

About how many objects had you lifted before you were
injured?

102

4 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occupa­
tions and types of injuries included in the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires were used,
the total number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Limited to workers able to identify the
specific object they handled at the time of injury.
2 The worker’s written description was
classified according to the object’s shape and
flexibility.
3 Includes those who were assisted by coworker(s) or who were handling objects partially
supported by other means.




18

11

Table 10. Work experience and training: Back injuries associated with lifting,
selected States, November-December 1980
Item

Workers

Percent

How often do you normally lift in your job?
Total ..............................................................................................

860

100

Seldom (less than 5 times a day)......................................................
5 to 9 times a d a y ...............................................................................
10 to 24 times a day...........................................................................
25 to 49 times a day...........................................................................
50 to 99 times a day...........................................................................
100 or more times a d a y ....................................................................

129
78
146
126
111
270

15
9
17
15
13
31

Total ..............................................................................................

866

100

Less than 20 pounds..........................................................................
20 to 40 pounds ..................................................................................
40 to 60 pounds ..................................................................................
60 to 80 pounds ..................................................................................
80 to 100 pounds................................................................................
100 or more pounds ...........................................................................
Seldom lift objects...............................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

30
106
148
132
165
120
129
36

3
12
17
15
19
14
15
4

Total ..............................................................................................

856

100

N o .........................................................................................................
Yes .......................................................................................................
Seldom lift objects...............................................................................

209
518
129

24
61
15

Total 1............................................................................................

836

(')

How to lift to avoid injury....................................................................
Use of equipment to lift/move loads (e.g., forklift, pulley,
crane/hoist, rope, lever, hand cart, dolly).......................................
Use of wrist or knee braces, work shoes, work gloves....................
Combine lifting with rest breaks or light ta sks..................................
Maximum weight I should lif t ..............................................................
Benefit of exercise to avoid back injury.............................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
No information on lifting/moving provided.........................................

364

44

111
58
32
52
47
3
430

13
7
4
6
6
(2
)
51

Total 1............................................................................................

346

0

Supervisor............................................................................................
Safety representative..........................................................................
Co-worker ............................................................................................
Union representative...........................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

203
77
56
18
51

59
22
16
5
15

What is the weight of the heaviest object you normally lift in
your job without the help of a co-worker or lifting equipment?

Is your lifting work usually spread evenly throughout your
work hours?

What information were you given on proper lifting/moving
procedures before your injury?

Who provided the information on lifting/moving procedures?

See footnotes at end of table.




12




Table 10. Work experience and training: Back injuries associated with lifting,
selected States, November-December 1980—Continued
Item

Workers

Percent

How was the information on lifting/moving procedures
provided?
Total 1............................................................................................

380

(1
)

Lecture.................................................................................................
Demonstration.....................................................................................
Film .......................................................................................................
Written material or posters..................................................................
On the job ...........................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

122
94
80
181
132
3

32
25
21
48
35
1

Total ..............................................................................................

382

100

Less than 6 months a g o ...................................... ..............................
6 months to 1 year a go......................................................................
1 to 2 years a g o ..................................................................................
2 or more years a g o ...........................................................................
Don't kn o w ..........................................................................................

128
81
37
60
76

34
21
10
16
20

Total ..............................................................................................

381

100

N o ........................................................................................................
Yes ......................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

190
71
120

50
19
31

Total 1............................................................................................

851

0

Conducted training on how to lift/m ove.............................................
Provided lifting/moving equipment (e.g., pulley, dolly, e tc .).............
Required use of lifting/moving equipment.........................................
Provided exercise program (classes), equipment or facilities...........
Mixed lighter work with lifting .............................................................
Reduced maximum weights to be lifte d .............................................
Other action ........................................................................................
Employer took no action ....................................................................
Don’t know ..........................................................................................

48
16
18
3
26
41
28
337
361

6
2
2
(2
)
3
5
3
40
42

When was the last time you received information on how to
lift/move?

Do you feel you would have prevented your back injury by
using this information?

What actions, if any, did your employer take after your injury
to prevent back injuries from happening to others?

1 Because more than one response is pos­
sible, the sum of the responses and percent­
ages may not equal the total. Percentages are
calculated by dividing each response by the
total number of persons who answered the
question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occu­
pations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

13

Table 11. History and care of back problems: Back injuries associated with lifting,
selected States, November-December 1980
Item

Workers

Percent

881

100

57

6

364
460

41
52

Total ..............................................................................................

890

100

N o .........................................................................................................
Yes—regularly......................................................................................
Yes—sometimes..................................................................................

626
76
188

70
9
21

Have you ever had any back problems before this injury?
Total ..............................................................................................
Yes—had previous back problem(s) but did not obtain medical
or chiropractic treatment ..................................................................
Yes—had back problems which were treated by a physician
or chiropractor...................................................................................
N o .........................................................................................................

Did you do situps or other exercises which strengthen your
stomach before your injury?

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occupations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires

were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

Table 12. Weight and height of worker: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected States, NovemberDecember 1980
Height
Weight
Total

5’5”
or less

57”

5’6”

5’8”

5’9”

5’10”

5*11”

6’

6’1”

6'3”
or more

6’2”

Men
T otal...............................
Less than 140 pounds .........
140—149 pounds ................
150—159 pounds ................
160—169 pounds ................
170—179 pounds ................
180—189 pounds ................
190—199 pounds ................
200—209 pounds ................
210—219 pounds ................
220—229 pounds ................
230 pounds or m ore............

762
49
60
86
129
119
100
75
44
36
19
45
Total

Women
T otal...............................
Less than 110 pounds.........
110—119 pounds ................
120—129 pounds ................
130—139 pounds ................
140—149 pounds ................
150—159 pounds ................
160—169 pounds ................
170—179 pounds ................
180—189 pounds ................
190—199 pounds ................
200 pounds or m ore............

124
8
13
20
21
17
9
12
5
8
2
9

46
18
7
7
8
2
1
0
1
1
1
“
5’
or less

8
3
1
2
1
1
-

44

39
4
11
6
10
7
0
1
0
0

10
9
5
7
4
2
5
2
-

0

-

-

5’2”

5’3”

4

13

1
1
1
1
-

_
3
3
3
2
1
0
-

5’4”

9

2
5
2
3
4
0
1
0
1

_
2
1
0
4
1
0
1

-

-

-

”

_

1

1

14

94

109

58

53

40

_

_

-

_

_

5
7
15
20
18
13
7
2
2
5

3
8
17
27
18
14
9
2
2
4
1
5’5”

19

-

105

4
8
13
20
10
12
7
3
5
2
3

1

5’1”

87

10
8
10
16
16
13
9
1
3

NOTE: See appendix A for occupations and types of injuries
included in the survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires




87

4
14
11
18
20
9
8
13
4
8

-

-

-

2
10
12
8
10
5
5
1
5

5
3
4
10
9
7
4
2
9

2
8
2
3
8
1
3
13

5’6”

14

57”

5’8”

5’10”
or more

5’9”

23

18

7

6

3

_

_

_

1
1
5
3
2
1
0
3
0
2

-

1
2
0
0
1
0
1
0
1

_
_
_
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1

1

1

-

-

3
1
1
2
2
2
0
1
1

6
4
1
1
4
2
2
0
2

0
2
2
1
1
0
1
0
0

were used, the total number of responses may vary by question,
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.




Table 13. Pre-employment screening: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected
States, November-December 1980
Workers

Percent

Total 1............................................................................................

875

(1
)

Take a medical exam .........................................................................
Have a lower back X-ray....................................................................
Provide a medical history...................................................................
Take strength or lifting tests, e.g., do situps, lift weights, etc...........
O th e r...................................................................................................
None of the above..............................................................................

304
52
136
5
4
520

35
6
16
1
(2
)
59

Total ..............................................................................................

869

100

N o ........................................................................................................
Yes ......................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

474
144
251

55
17
29

Item
When you applied for your job were you required to:

Was your strength a consideration in the job tasks you were
given?

1 Because more than one response is possible, the sum of the responses and percentages may not equal the total. Percentages are
calculated by dividing each response by the
total number of persons who answered the
question.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100.
See appendix A for occupations and types of injuries included in the
survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

15

Table 14. Estimated lost workdays: Back injuries associated with lifting, selected
States, November-December 1980
Percent

Workers

Item
How many workdays did you (or do you expect to) lose due
to your injury? (NOTE: Do not count the day of injury, days
on light-duty work, normal days o ff or holidays.)
Total ' ............................................................................................

868

100

No time lo s t.............. ...........................................................................
1 to 5 workdays lost ...........................................................................
6 to 10 workdays lo s t.........................................................................
11 to 15 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
16 to 20 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
21 to 25 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
26 to 30 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
31 to 40 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
41 to 60 workdays lo s t.......................................................................
More than 60 workdays lo s t...............................................................

106
255
154
85
30
22
37
20
32
14

12
29
18
10
3
3
4
2
4
2

Number of workdays lost not estimated ............................................

113

13

14

Average days lost per lost workday case .............................

If you have returned to work: Indicate the number of
workdays your job duties were changed or restricted (light
duty) due to your back injury.
Total ..............................................................................................

629

100

No days of restricted activity..............................................................
6 to 10 days of restricted activity.......................................................
11 to 15 days of restricted activity ....................................................
16 to 20 days of restricted activity....................................................
21 to 25 days of restricted activity ....................................................
26 to 30 days of restricted activity ....................................................
31 to 40 days of restricted activity ....................................................
41 to 60 days of restricted activity .....................................................
More than 60 days of restricted activity.............................................

358
115
55
32
12
10
12
4
7
4

57
18
9
5
2
2
2
1
1
1

Employee still on restricted activity ....................................................

20

3

1 Excludes nine workers who retired, were
laid off or put on permanent disability.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages may
not add to 100. See appendix A for occupations and types of injuries included in the




survey.
Because incomplete questionnaires
were used, the total number of responses may
vary by question,
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire,

16

Appendix A. Syrwey

Explanatory 1 © @
MS

The survey was designed to develop information on
back injuries incurred by workers injured while lifting
objects, materials, and animals. Excluded were workers
injured while lifting humans. The scope of the survey
included overexertion injuries to the back associated
with lifting, placing, lowering, carrying, and holding.
Excluded were back cases not usually associated with
lifting such as pulling, pushing, throwing, catching, fall­
ing, etc. The scope of the survey covered injured
workers in the following occupations: Shipping, receiv­
ing, and stock clerks; craft workers; operatives; trans­
port operatives; and laborers and farm laborers. Ex­
cluded were workers in white-collar and service occu­
pations. Although all industries were surveyed except
coal and metallic and nonmetallic mining, those in which
service and white-collar workers dominate employment
were underrepresented in the survey. Cases were ex­
cluded from the survey if the injury resulted in a fatal­
ity or if more than 120 days had elapsed between the
time of the injury and the beginning of the survey.
To identify back injury cases within the scope of the
survey, participating State agency staff reviewed em­
ployers’ reports of injuries required by State workers’
compensation laws and mailed questionnaires to injured
workers selected for the study. They requested coop­
eration on a voluntary basis. During the survey period,
November-December 1980, 22 State agencies reviewed
injury reports and mailed about 1,900 questionnaires.
About one-half of the workers selected as within the
scope of the study responded to the mail questionnaire.
Although data were aggregated for 22 States, it




should be noted that the workers’ compensation cases
selected for study reflect differences in State reporting
requirements. For example, some participating States
require reporting of workers’ compensation cases in­
volving medical treatment regardless of lost time, while
others limit reporting to cases involving lost time rang­
ing from 1 to 8 days.
In addition, no attempt was made to estimate back
injuries associated with lifting for the occupations stud­
ied. Although participating States provided a broad
geographical and industrial mix, they were not selected
statistically to represent the country as a whole. Moreo­
ver, data collection was terminated when responses ex­
ceeded 750 cases.
Characteristics of the injury and the person injured
were classified and tabulated for all respondents within
the scope of the survey based on information furnished
by the employer in the workers’ compensation report.
Questionnaires returned by the injured worker were
reviewed for completeness and reliability. Responses to
the question on nature of injury (IA) may not neces­
sarily be based on medical diagnosis. Also, respondents
may have experienced difficulty in recalling precise
body positions and movements immediately before they
felt back pains. All usable responses of incomplete ques­
tionnaires were used in the tabulations. Consequently,
response rates among questions vary. No attempt was
made to adjust the data for nonresponses.
Numerical values shown in the tables were actual
counts while percentages were rounded to the nearest
whole number.

17

Arizona Industrial Commission

Michigan Department of Labor

Arkansas Department of Labor
California Department of Industrial Relations

Missouri Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations

Colorado Department of Labor and Employment

Montana Department of Labor and Industry
Nebraska Workmen’s Compensation Court

Delaware Department of Labor

Ohio Industrial Commission

Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations

Tennessee Department of Labor

Idaho Industrial Commission

Utah Industrial Commission

Indiana Division of Labor

Virginia Department of Labor and Industry

Iowa Bureau of Labor

Washington Department of Labor and Industries

Kentucky Department of Labor

Wisconsin Department of Industry, Labor and
Human Relations

Maine Department of Manpower Affairs
Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries




18

Appsndix G. Surw@y Questionnaire

U.S. Department of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report
Back Injuries Associated With Lifting

Form Approved
O.M.B. No. 44R-1614

This report is authorized by taw 29 U.S.C. 2
Your voluntary cooperation is needed to make
the results o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, and timely.

The information collected on this form by the Bureau
of Labor Statistics and the State Agencies cooperating
in its statistical program will be held*in confidence and
will be used for statistical purposes only._________

Date of
Accident
II. COMPLETE THIS SECTION ONLY IF YOU KNOW THE SPECIFIC
OBJECT THAT CAUSED YOUR BACK INJURY.
A. Describe the specific object you were handling when you injured your
back.

A. Indicate the nature of your back injury. (Check all that apply.)
1. □ Muscle strain/sprain
2. D Dislocated or herniated disc (slipped disc)
3. □ Dislocated vertebrae
4. □ Misaligned vertebrae (subluxation)
5. □ Inflammation of joint
6. □ Pinched nerve
7. D Other (Describe)____________________________________
• 8. D Don't know

B. What was the approximate weight of the object? (Check one.)
5. □ 80 to 100 pounds
□ Less than 20 pounds
6. □ 100 or more pounds
2. □ 20 to 40 pounds
7. □ Don't know
3. □ 40 to 60 pounds
4. □ 60 to 80 pounds

B. Did you first feel the pain in your back while you were lifting/holding the object that caused your injury? (Check one.)
1. □ Yes—
first felt pain as I was lifting/holding the object
2. □ No—felt pain before lifting/holding
3. □ No—felt pain shortly after lifting/holding
4. □ No—felt pain several hours later
5. □ No—felt pain next day
6. □ Other (Explain) ______________________:____ ; -------------C,

C. Estimate the size of the object.
1.

Height—____fe e t,____

inches

2.

Width— ____fe e t,____

inches

.fe e t,____ inches
4. □
5. □

If you answered "Yes—
first felt pain as I was lifting/holding the
object," check the position closest to that of your arms, back, and
legs at the moment of injury.
a.
Position of arms at moment of injury. (Check one.)

D. Were you holding the object by yourself?
1. □ No—
had helpfrom co-worker(s)
2. □ Yes
s
E. How
1. □
2. □
3. □
4. □

1.

F. How long were you holding or carrying the object? (Check one.)
1. □ Less than 1 minute
3. □ 2 or more minutes
2. □ 1 to 2 minutes
4. □ Don't know
G. Check the level the object was on before you attempted to lift it.
(Check one.)
1. □ Floor level
6. □ Shoulder height
2. □ Ankle height
7. □ Head height
3. □ Knee height
8. O Overhead
4. □ Waist height
’
9. □ Other (Explain) _______
5. □ Chest height

Position of back at moment of injury. (Check one.)

H. Where did you put the object? (Check one.)
1. □ Dropped object when felt pain
2. □ Dropped object before feeling pain
3. □ Floor level
4. □ Ankle height
• 5. □ Knee height
6. □ Waist height
7. □ Chest height
8. □ Shoulder height
9. □ Head height
10. □ Over head
11. □ Other (Explain) __________________________________

' n
1.

□ Straight

2. D Slightly bent

3. D Very bent

4. □ Other (Explain)
5. □ Don't Know
c.

Position of legs at moment of injury. (Check one.)

I.

1.

□

Straight

2. □

Slightly bent

3. □ Squatting

7. □ Other (Explain)
8. □ Don't know if lifting/moving eqiupment was available

How far apart were your feet at the moment of injury? (Check one.)
1. □ Less than 12 inches apart
2. O 12 or more inches apart
3. D Don't know

About how many objects had you lifted before you were injured?
(Check one.)
1. □ None
6. □ 50 to 99
2. □ 1 to 4
7. □ 100 or more
3. □ 5 to 9
4. □ 10 to 24
5r □ 25 to 49

IF YOU KNOW THE OBJECT THAT CAUSED YOUR
BACK INJURY, COMPLETE SECTION II.
IF NOT, CONTINUE WITH SECTION III, ON REVERSE
SIDE.
BLS 100 (October 1980)




Was that where you intended to put the object?
1.
□ No
2. □ Yes
Was lifting/moving equipment available to help you move the object?
If it was, why was it not used? (Check one.)
i. □
2. □
3. □
4. □
5. □
6. □

4. □ Other (Explain)
5. D Don't know
D.

far did you carry the object? (Check one.)
Did not carry object any distance
Carried object less than 5 feet
Carried object 5 to 20 feet
Carried object more than 20 feet

5. □ Other (Explain) ____:___________________________ ___
6. □ Don't know

D Extended 2. □ Bent 3. □ Extended 4. □ Extended
over head
down
out at
shoulder

5. □ Other (Explain)
6. □ Don't know
b.

Other (Explain)______ _______________
Don't know

CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE.

19

10
0.

V.

A.

What were you doing when you
(Check all that apply.)
1. □
Carrying
7. □
2. □ Catching/throwing 8. □
3. □ Holding
9. □
4. □ Lifting
10. □
5. □ Lowering object
11. □
6. □ Placing object

B. What movements were you
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Bending
2. □ Climbing
3. □ Sitting
4. □ Slipping, tripping
or falling
5. □ Squatting
6. □ Standing

A.

injured your back?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pulling
Pushing
Shoveling
Other (Describe)____
Don't know moment of injury
B.

□
□
O
D
□
□

Stretching
Suddenly changing body position
Twisting/turning
Walking or running
____ ;_______
Other (Describe) _
Don't know

Is your lifting work usually spread evenly throughout your work
hours?
1. □ No 2. □ Yes
3. □ Seldom lift objects

C.

making when you injured your back?
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

What is the weight of the heaviest object you normaljy lift in your job
without the help of a co-worker or lifting equipment? (Check one.)
1. □ Less than 20 pounds
5. □ 80 to 100 pounds
2. □ 20 to 40 pounds
6. □ 100 or more pounds
3. □ 40 to 60 pounds
7. O Seldom lift objects
4. □ 60 to 80 pounds
8. □ Don't know

C. Within 48 hours before your injury, was your activity at work or at
home more strenuous than normal? (Check all that apply.)
1. □ Yes—
lifting more objects than normal
2. □ Yes—lifting heavier objects than normal
3. □ Yes—involved in strenuous outside activity (sports, work at

4. □

A. When you applied for your job were you required to:
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Take a medical exam
2. □ Have a lower back x-ray
3. □ Provide a medical history
4. □ Take strength of lifting tests, e.g., do situps, lift weights, etc.

at home, etc.) (Describe)_____________________________
No

D. Check those items which you feel contributed to your injury.
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Object too heavy
2. □ Object too bulky
3. □ Small confined workspace
4. □ Had been doing a lot o f lifting that day
5. □ Had lifted heavy object earlier that day
6. D

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Q
□
□
□
□
□

How often do you normally lift in your job? (Check one.)
□ Seldom (less than 5 times a day)
□ 5 to 9 times a day
□ 10 to 24 times a day
□ 25 to 49 times a day
□ 50 to 99 times a day
□ 100 or more times a day

(Describe)________ ;_________________________________
5. □
6. □

Other (Describe)____________________________________
None of the above

B ody m ovement o r m o tio n contributed to in ju ry

Underestimated weight o f object before lifting
Changed usual lifting position
Previous back problems
Poor physical condition
Poor or careless lifting techniques
Attempted to lif t or place object while walking or running

13. □ Other (Describe)
14. □ Don't know

B.

C.

__________________________ ______

Was your strength a consideration in the job tasks you were given?
1. □ No 2. □ Yes
3. □ Don't know

1. What is your height? ___ fe e t____ inches
2.

!V.

What is your weight? ___ pounds

D.

Did you do situps or other exercises which strengthen your stomach
before your injury?
1. □ No
2. □ Yes—
regularly
3. □ . Yes—
sometimes

E.

A. What information were you given on proper lifting/moving procedures
before your injury? (Check all that apply.)
1. □ How to lift to avoid injury
2. □ Use o f equipment to lift/move loads (e.g.. forklift, pulley,
■crane/hoist, rope, lever, hand cart, dolly)
3. □ Use o f wrist or knee braces, work shoes, work gloves
4. □ Combine lifting with rest breaks or light tasks
5. O Maximum weight I should lift
6. □ Benefit of exercise to avoid back injury

How many workdays did you (or do you expect to) lose due to your
injury? (NOTE: Do not count the day of injury, days on light duty
work, normal days off or holidays.)
____ Workdays

7. □ Other (Describe) ___________________________________
8. □ No information on lifting/moving provided

F.

IF YOU CHECKED 1-7 ABOVE, ANSWER B, C, D AND
E BELOW.
3.

If you have returned to work: Indicate the number of workdays your
job duties were changed or restricted (light duty) due to your back
injury.
____ Workdays

Who provided the information on lifting/moving procedures?
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Supervisor
2. □ Safety representative
3. □ Co-worker
4. □ Union representative
5. □ Other (Describe)____________________________________

G.

H.

C. How was the information on lifting/moving procedures provided?
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Lecture
2. □ Demonstration
3. □ Film
4. □ Written material or posters
5. □ On-the-job
_______
6. □ Other (Explain) ____________________________ 1
D. When was the last time you received information on how to lift/move?
(Check one.)
1. □ Less than 6 months ago 4. □ 2 or more years ago
2. D 6 months to 1 year ago
5. D Don't know
3. □ 1 to 2 years ago

Have you ever had any back problems before this injury?
(Check one.)
1. □ Yes—
had previous back problem(s) but did not obtain
medical or chiropractic treatment
2. □ Yes—
had back problems which were treated by a
physician or chiropractor
3. □ No
What actions, if any, did your employer take after your injury to
prevent back injuries from happening to others?
(Check all that apply.)
1. □ Conducted training on how to lift/move
2. □ Provided lifting/moving equipment (e.g., pulley, dolly, etc.)
3. □ Required use o f lifting/moving equipment
4. □ Provided exercise program (classes), equipment or facilities
5. □ Mixed lighter work with lifting
6. □ Reduced maximum weights to be lifted
7. □ Other action (Describe) ____________________________
8. □ Employer took no action
9. □ Don't know

E. Do you feel you would have prevented your back injury by using this
information?
1. □ No (Explain)_______________________________________
2. □ Yes
3. □ Don't know__________________________________________

' ll. Describe in as much detail as possible what you were doing at the time of the injury. If you don't know what caused your injury, then describe the
lifting (or other activity) that you did which may have caused your injury.




20

Productivity and
the Economy:

A Chartbook

Productivity. Ew@rybody Salks about it.
What does it mean?
How does it affect wages and costs?
What does it ha^e t® do with employment?

This new chartbook,
produced by the staff
of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, answers
questions in under­
standable—yet
technically accuratecharts and captions.

The 100 page chartbook, priced at $5.50,
is available from the
Superintendent of
Documents, U.S.
Government Printing
Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402, or you
may send your order
to the BLS regional
office nearest you.

1603 JFK Federal Bldg.
Boston, Mass. 02203

P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
1371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367

9th Floor
Federal Office Bldg.
230 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604

911 Walnut St.
Kansas City , Mo. 64106

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036

iLS regional offices

The chartbook explains
what productivity is,
how it has changed
over the years, and
what factors have
contributed to that
change.

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Square Bldg.
Dallas, Tex. 75202

□

Please send____copies of Productivity and the Economy: A Chartbook, Bulletin 2084,
GPO Stock No. 029-001 -02634-0, at $5.50 per copy.

Q

Enclosed is check or money order payable to the Superintendent of Documents.

□

Charge to my GPO Account n o .__________________________________

□

Charge to my Mastercard* Account no..________:__________________

Expiration date

D

Charge to my VISA* Account no._________________________________

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102

Expiration date

Order form

* Available only on orders sent directly to the Superintendent of Documents.

Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State,
ZIP




•fir U-S- GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1 9 8 2

0 - 3 6 1 - 2 7 0 (4 9 4 6 )

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region S
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
Region ll
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region 11
1
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region V
S
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions V S and V S
S
IS
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678


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