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If your

must travel
in wartime
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


W illiam *,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis




Have you been on a train lately? The railroads have a
hard job to do these days, one they are doing well. But
before you decide on a trip with a baby, you should real*j| iz e what a wartime train is like. So let’s look into one.
This train is crowded. At every stop more people get
on— more and still more. Soldiers and sailors on fur„
loughs, men on business trips, women— young and not so
young and babies, lots o f them, mostly small.
^ < The seats are full. People stand and jostle one another
in the aisle. Mothers sit crowded into single seats with
toddlers or with babies in their laps. Three sailors occupy
^ space meant for two. A soldier sits on his tipped-up suit­
case. A marine leans against the back o f the seat. Some
», people stand in line for 2 hours waiting to get into the diner,
some munch sandwiches obtained from the porter or taken
► out of a paper bag, some go hungry. And those who get
to the diner have had to push their way through five or
six moving cars.
# You will want to think twice before taking your baby
into such a crowded, uncomfortable place as a train. And
having thought twice, you’d better decide to stay home
unless your trip is absolutely necessary.
But suppose you and your baby must travel. Well then,
you will have to plan for the dozens o f small but essential
things incidental to traveling with a baby and’ equip
^Lyourself to handle them.


Going by Train?


Unless you appreciate the fact that babies and toddlers
are very special people with very special requirements,
you are in for a lot o f trouble if you attempt a train trip
with them. Planning should be done well in advance.
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

You will need to make your train reservations early.
Select the first or middle o f the week for traveling. Stay
off trains on week ends or holidays. Travel then is like
a bargain-counter rush.
Travel arrangements o f any kind are hard to make
nowadays. Railroads are geared to military needs and
civilians take what is left over.
If you are going on a very long trip, try by all means
to arrange for a stop-over or two with relatives or friends.
It will give you a chance to rest and get things in order

W hen you travel by eoach.
I f you are traveling by coach, let us hope you are in
one of the up-to-date coaches with comfortable reclining
seats rather than in one o f the not-so-modem coaches
found on other trains.
I f it is a de luxe coach and if your child is 2 or 3 years
* o f age, you may he able to get a seat reservation for him.
. Otherwise you will have to hold him on your lap.
Remember, too, if you have trouble, that the Travelers
Aid is always willing to help. Its workers can help you
locate friends or relatives. They can help you if you lose
your tickets or your money, or if any similar emergencies
occur while you are en route. They can get a doctor
“ for you if you or your baby become ill. They can tell
. you o f good restaurants to eat in or of places where you
can rest or feed your baby. You can even arrange by
telegram with the Travelers Aid to have someone meet
you at the station from which you are leaving or at which
you are arriving to help you. I f you are a serviceman’s
^^wife, the USO can help you, too.

Plan w ell an d tra vel lig h t.— After you have made
all your travel arrangements, gather your forces at home.
Write out in detail your youngster’s schedule and fist the
food, clothes, and other supplies needed.
Travel fight, so far as your own personal belongings are
concerned, fighter than you’ve ever imagined you could.
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Your aim is to take on the train enough for essential
comfort and not one item more.
Limit yourself to one dark dress or suit. Many
mothers have found an apron a convenience, one that
could be slipped over their dresses when they were caring
for their babies. Additional clothing for yourself can be
checked and sent on ahead.
C lo th es, d iapers, an d su ch .— Carry an abundance of
changes for the baby or toddler. But plan to dress him
simply in clothes that are easy to put on and take off.
Remember weather may change and many trains are
air-cooled. So take along a warm outer garment, prefer­
ably a sweater, and a blanket for the baby.
Unless your baby has completely mastered the art of
keeping dry; use disposable diapers if you can possibly
get them. If you cannot get them, then the next best bet
is a supply o f standard diaper linings— specially treated
papers about the size o f ordinary cleaning tissues, used
with cloth diapers.
Many mothers prefer to use cloth diapers at night.
Some babies become badly chafed if only paper diapers
are used. Used cloth diapers can be wrapped in wax
paper and repacked in your suitcase or put into a water­
proof bag.
If your baby is sufficiently trained to use his own toilet
seat, by all means take it along. He is less likely to be
frightened if there is this one familiar thing in his strange
surroundings. Some toilet seats come with a carrying
case. If the one you have did not, then use a canvas
laundry case or a shopping bag for this purpose.
Pack the baby’s clothes, diapers, and blankets into a
special suitcase or bag. Keep it unlocked and easily
accessible on the train.
M ilk f o r th e ba b y.— I f the baby is breast-fed, feeding
him is relatively easy. Food for babies who are not breast­
fed presents a difficult problem.
For traveling, the simplest formula is one o f evaporated
milk. Milk can be obtained in small cans, and an indi
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vidual feeding can be made up when feeding time comes.
Then no refrigeration is needed. For such a feeding you
will need to carry the following equipment, all of which
should be assembled in one container, such as a heavy
shopping bag or a medium-sized duffle bag:
Bottles and caps— boiled and ready for use.
Take enough for all feedings during the trip,
plus some extras for water. Wrap each
bottle separately.
Nipples— boiled and put in a boiled jar with a lid.
Can opener (or some other instrument to open
small cans o f evaporated milk).
M ilk in small cans.
The cans should be washed off before you
leave home.

Vacuum bottle containing boiled water.
Sugar or syrup may be added to the water if


Funnel— to put water into bottles.
This should be boiled and wrapped in clean


I f your baby has not been on evaporated milk, and your
doctor agrees that it is satisfactory for him, you should
introduce him to it, several days or even a week before
you start on your trip if he get used to new things slowly.
Before you leave home, you can prepare the mixture of
hot boiled water, with or without sugar or syrup, and
carry it in a vacuum jug on the train. Then mix this
¿qM mixture and the evaporated milk as you need it. Your
doctor will tell you the correct proportions.
Usually the hot water in the yacuum bottle, when
added to the milk, will make the feeding the right temper4
ature for the baby. Carry small cans jof milk, using
whatever is needed for one feeding only. Perhaps you
can drink what is left in the can yourself or give it to a
fellow traveler. D o not save it to use later.
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The one thing you cannot do is to run the risk o f giving
your baby contaminated or sour milk. Never attempt
to carry the milk warm in a vacuum jug. I f you do,
the bacteria that are present in milk will multiply many
times, with the result that when the milk is fed to the
baby, it will make him sick.
You can carry boiled nipples in a jar, as already sug­
gested, or you can use nursing bottles with caps that
make it possible to reverse the nipples into the bottle
and thus keep them sterile.
W ater f o r th e ba b y.— For baby’ s protection, it
is very important that you do not give him water that
has not been boiled. Usually it is better to take several
bottles o f boiled water from home even though you may
find it possible to obtain boiled water on the train. Or
plan to use the boiled water from the vacuum jug.
O th er fo o d f o r th e b a b y.— Orange juice and cod-liver
oil usually cannot be carried conveniently. There is no
harm in letting your baby go without these during the
time when you will be traveling.
Unless your baby is on a special diet, don’t load yourself
down with canned foods under present traveling condi­
tions. Your baby can get along for a few days on his
milk. Plan to use as little food as you think you can
get by With.
If your baby is a hearty eater and you fear that he will
miss his cereal, then carry dry ready-prepared baby cereal,
to which you can add hot water from the vacuum bottle.
You will need to take a dish and a spoon in the shopping
or duffle bag. Foods that require heating will have to be
omitted. Some children do not object to cold food. If
yours does not, and if he has a big appetite, you can take
canned vegetables or fruits, which he can eat from the can.
Take rusks or crackers along for emergency use.
In planning these solid foods, remember that nothing
can he heated except by the addition o f hot water from
your vacuum jug, and that no utensils can be washed on
the train.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


F ood f o r y o u n g ch ild ren .-—Meals for toddlers are
not so much o f a problem as meals for babies are.
Packing a lunch o f customary foods will not be difficult
f°r the short trip. This may include bread-and-butter
jg t sandwiches, wrapped in wax paper; cookies or crackers;
^ ' canned tomato or fruit juice; and canned evaporated
milk. (Several large paper bags to be used as "waste
baskets" are a convenience.)
But for a long trip you may have to rely on getting
your meals in the diner even though this is more expensive.
Some railroads, however, don’t serve meals to civilians
until after servicemen are fed, so you may need to take
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along some food even though you are planning to use the
diner. Be sure to go to meals early.
Most little children are thrilled at the idea o f eating on
the train and tell about the experience for many days
afterward. For a toddler’s diet the railroads even now
can usually supply cooked cereals, baked potatoes, green
vegetables, well-cooked meats, fruits, and milk.
Some dining cars provide half portions for children, but
if they don’t, no one will object if you order a meal for .
yourself and give part o f it to Junior. But in case you are
unable to get into the diner, it is wise to take some simple Kj/
things for your toddler and yourself to eat.
K eep in g baby clea n .— Mothers sometimes
tempt to bathe babies on a train in the washroom hasins.
Don’t do it. It isn’t sanitary. It is better to let your
baby go unbathed during the trip than to run the risk of

Fun in the diner
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infection. Clean his face and hands off with cold cream
and cleansing tissues and let it go at that.
When changing diapers, use oil and cotton and cleansing
tissue. Change the baby where he lies instead o f trying
to take him back to the dressing room.
' Keep handy at all times a small emergency diaper kit
a rubber-lined hag, so you can stop anywhere and take
iK^P'pare o f the baby if necessary.


K eep in g baby co m fo rta b le.— Adjustable canvas seats
are available, chiefly for use in automobiles, but they are
very helpful for train travel, too. They are light and can
be folded and put in a suitcase. Some come in their own
carrying cases. They give the child a restful change from
the car seat.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis


S leepin g in th e co a ch .— I f you travel by coach, the
chances are you are going to have to sleep with your baby
cradled in your arms. You may be able to rent a pillow,
which will make the night more comfortable for you and
your baby.
In most coaches lights are turned down at night and
often babies sleep undisturbed. The night trip will be
harder on you than it is on the baby.



W hen you travel by Pullm an.
There is far more space and better service in Pull­
man accommodations, and if there is any way that you
can manage to have them, you should do it for your own
and your baby’s sake. Accommodations on the Pullman
are worth the extra cash, if you have the cash.
Even though you may be unable to reserve a lower
berth in advance, it may be possible to arrange with the
Pullman conductor to exchange your upper for a lower. The
greater convenience of a lower berth is worth the extra cost.
I f your baby is very tiny (under 3 months), he can travel
by basket if you go by Pullman. For your baby’s food,
it is wise to use an evaporated-milk formula as described
on pages 6 and 9. For any type of travel this formula is
probably the safest and the easiest.
For a short daytime trip or an overnight trip, you may
be able to arrange ahead o f time to keep the bottles in
the refrigerator o f the dining car. If you do so, you must
be very sure, though, that the dining car is not to be taken
off the train at any point before you reach your destina­
tion. If you can safely use the refrigerator o f the diner,
you can prepare your feedings before you leave. Chill them
thoroughly, carry the bottles containing the milk mixture
in your sterilizer, and as you board the train, band it
to the porter to put into the refrigerator. When baby is
ready for food, the porter will heat a bottle and bring it to
you. D on’t forget to include a few bottles o f boiled water
in your quota o f bottles.
If you are traveling in the Pullman, you can put the
baby or young child to bed at his regular time and expect
him to sleep soundly until morning.

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it s naraer on you
I f your baby is very young, you may use the basket for
sleeping purposes. Berths are wide and long and you can
keep the baby, basket and all, with you at night. Change
and feed the baby in the berth each morning before1^ ,
getting him up.
^ *
Put the older child in the half o f the berth next to the
window, carefully padding the window sill and window
with a pillow to prevent head bumping and in winter to
keep the youngster warm.
Carry along a waterproof sheet to give the porter when
he makes up the berth. If the child is under 4, this is a
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wise precaution even though he may be perfectly trained
at home.


Entertaining the young child.


Little children get tired on a long trip, and who can
blame them? You can keep them entertained if you
take along a few carefully selected toys: Colored crayons,
pencils, tablets, a favorite doll, and story books. A
familiar toy should be included, as new ones are not so
Children like books under such circumstances, and you
should have several small ones with you. Books about
trains and engines will be good fun.
Keep a small toy or two in your purse for odd mo­
ments— when you are waiting for your meal in the diner,
for example, or when you are waiting for a train. It is a
good plan to have a pencil handy and paper for you to
draw on to amuse your youngster, or for him to scribble
on if he is old enough. Another good thing to have with
you is a small cloth picture book that can be rolled up
into a compact cylinder.


Fellow travelers.


Most people like children, so don’t get too upset if
Jimmy talks with his fellow-passengers. Many grown-ups
find an alert, friendly child a delightful diversion on a
long and tiresome trip.
Almost always when you tell the person to whom the
child is talking, ’'Send Jimmy hack if he annoys you,”
you get the assurance, "H e’s perfectly all right. I enjoy
talking to him.” Accept such statements at their face
value. Don’t cramp Jimmy’s style "in winning friends
and influencing people.”
There are times, although they will be rare, when you
may need to curb Jimmy’s friendliness— when he shows
too much interest in an obviously undesirable or un­
interested person. Bring him back to your seat to hear a
story or to eat an apple and then keep him busy until he
forgets about the stranger.






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A time to make friends
You will need to keep your eyes glued on overfriendly
grown-ups who in a burst o f enthusiasm may give your
youngster candy or other undesirable food. Many
\JtT~ adults are thoughtless about food for children, and if you
are unfortunate enough to meet one o f these individuals,
y°u will need to be tactful but firm. You can’t afford to
run the risk o f having a sick child.
Many times people will offer to carry your suitcase, to
watch one child while you attend to another, to carry your
tqddler into the dining car, or to keep an eye on your
sleeping baby while you go to the rest room,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis




Use good judgment about accepting such offers to help
you. They are usually made in good faith and with the
best intentions in the world. And you’ll certainly need
some help if you’re traveling with a youngster in these
days o f overworked train crews and few redcaps. But
don’t ever leave your baby with a stranger in a railroad
station, and do hesitate to leave him with a total stranger
oh the train. Don’t leave him for very long with anyone;
he may be frightened when you go away. Don’t trust
your baby to anyone who has a cold or any other visible
illness that the baby might catch.

Going by Bus?

As a rule busses are even more crowded than trains, and
there is far less space. And traveling by bus with a baby
or young child requires even better planning than travel
by train.
There are a few things you will need to know about bus
travel before you start out. Busses make 15-minute rest
stops every 2 hours and 40-minute to 1-hour stops' three
times a day for meals. Any child who occupies a seat
is required to have a half-fare ticket even though he is
under 5.
By all means plan your trip for the first or the middle of
the week, avoiding the week-end travel peak if at all
possible. If you are going on a long trip, plan stop-overs
that will break your journey. Everything that was said
about clothes, supplies, and equipment for traveling by
train coach will be needed when you travel by bus. If
anything, your things will need to be packed even more
If your baby is breast-fed, traveling will be easier than
4 ^ÉT if he is not. You will need to plan with your doctor about
putting your baby on an evaporated-milk formula if he
is bottle-fed. Remember, too, that you will have to
count on preparing his feedings during rest and meal
Emergency supplies o f food for yourself and your young
child will be necessary even though you hope to buy your
meals on the way. Restaurants in bus depots are over
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crowded and you may not be able to get food in the time
you have.
For a short trip you had better plan on carrying food
for yourself and your youngster.

Going by Car?
Families going to strange cities to establish new homes
are still able to obtain gasoline with which to travel by
car. A few tips on automobile travel may therefore be
of value. .
Proper care o f your baby when traveling by car can be
summed up in this way: Clean milk, clean water, clean
food, and as little change as possible from the regular
schedule to which he is accustomed.
Most young children enjoy riding in an automobile
although they do get tired and bored on long trips. There
are many things that you can do to make traveling by car
When your baby is small, take him in his carrying basket,
if you have one, and put him on the back seat in a coach or
sedan or on the back ledge o f a coupe, if it is wide enough.
Small canvas hammocks that fasten onto the back of the
front seat may still be available and are a real boon to the
baby who must travel. If your baby’s crib fits into the
back of the car, you will have it ready for him to sleep in
when he reaches his new home.
When your baby can sit up, there are canvas seats
available that hook over the top o f the car seat. These
will keep the child comfortable and erect and allow him
to look out the window without stretching his neck.
The young child can take his afternoon nap stretched o u t '
on the bade seat and covered with a light robe or coat.
Plan your packing o f luggage with this in mind.
The baby’s food must loom large in your plans if he is
not breast-fed. You will either have to find a place each
night where you can prepare his feedings and devise a way
for keeping them on ice and heating them while you travel,
or you will have to put the baby on the evaporated-
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„ ^







milk formula described on pages 6 and 9.
If you
plan to prepare his usual feedings you must take along all
the equipment to do it.
Small portable stoves using canned heat can be used to
heat the feeding, or you can stop in restaurants and ask a
waitress to have the bottle heated for you. The impor­
tant thing is to have a feasible plan worked out for doing
it. Cereal, canned food, and oranges may be obtained
along the way.
When stopping for meals, be sure to select good places
►where well-cooked food can be obtained for young chil­
dren. Be certain that the milk served the youngsters is
pasteurized. And insist that the milk be served directly
from the bottle (opened at the table).
Order sensibly for the children, getting them the same
type o f meal you would supply them at home.
By all means carry your own water, and for the baby
or young child it should be boiled. Give the youngsters a
drink from your own supply before stopping for food.
Don’t let them drink water from drinking fountains,
hotels, or tourist homes. This does not mean that the
water may not be all right; it is merely a precautionary
measure against digestive upsets.
I f you are traveling by car, you will be able to take
along the baby’s own toilet equipment, and remember
to carry it with you into rest rooms, hotels, or tourist
Don’t attempt to drive too many miles in one day when
a baby is a passenger. Babies require many stops, and
rest periods for a toddler should be frequent.
Plan to stop each night by 5:30 or 6 o’clock. This will
‘ give you time to select a hotel or tourist room and get
the baby or toddler comfortably to sleep by his usual
If toddlers are part o f your carload, you will have
amusement problems. Gather together a number of
small toys and place them in a box o f their own. I f yours
is a two-seated automobile, allow the youngster to change
his seat often. Sometimes he will enjoy riding in the
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front seat; at other times he will want to play with his
toys or take a nap in the back seat. It will help to keep
him amused if you can think up stories to tell h im about
the things he sees along the way— the children, the cattle,
the trains, and the factories. Songs you know by heart
will be used many times over, too.
A job this traveling with habies in wartime! Certainly
not something to attempt lightly. But if you must travel
with your baby, you’ll be doing a real war service if you
make it as painless as you can to the transportation sys­
tem, your baby, and yourself.

The Bureau gratefully acknowledges
the work o f Mr. Gluyas Williams, who
illustrated this booklet as a contribu­
tion to the war effort.

Fr a n c e s

p e r k in s

, Secretary

K A T H A R IN E F . L E N R O O T , C h ief

Children in Wartime No. 6

Bureau Publication 307

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D . C . . Price 5 cents
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