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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Frances Perkins, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R ST A T IST IC S
Isador L ubin, Commissioner (on leave)
A . F . H inrichs, Acting Commissioner
♦

Average H ourly Earnings in the
Airfram e Industry, 1943
P repared in th e
D IV IS IO N O F W A G E A N A L Y S IS
R o b e r t J. M y e rs, C h ie f

Bulletin

7\£o. 790

(R eprinted from the M on th ly Labor R eview
M ay 1944, w ith additional data]

For sale b y the Superintendent o f Docum ents, U . S. G overnm ent Printing Office
W ashington 25. D . C. - Price 10 cents







Contents
Page

Summary_____ ________________________________________________________
Development of the industry___________________________________________
The labor force____________________________________________________
Purpose and nature of study----------------------------------------------------------------Method of study__________________________________________________
Hourly earnings in metal-airframe manufacture:
Factors affecting average hourly earnings---------------------------------------Earnings of factory workers________________________________________
Earnings of office workers_________________________________________
Appendix A.— Wage stabilization in the airframe industry:
Developments since 1938__________________________________________
Job evaluation____________________________________________________
Variations in earnings, by labor grade______________________________
Appendix B.— Hourly earnings in light-airframe manufacture----------------Occupational average hourly earnings______________________________
Appendix C.— Hourly earnings in the glider industry----------------------------Integrated glider plants_______________________




(in)

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Letter o f Transmittal
United States D epartment op L abor,
B ureau op L abor Statistics,
W ashington , D . C ., August 4 , 1 9 4 4 •

The Secretary of L abor :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on average hourly earnings in
the airframe industry in 1943. The report was prepared in the Bureau's Division
of Wage Analysis by Theodore W. Reedy, under the supervision of Victor S. Baril.
A. F. H inrichs, Acting Com m issioner .
Hon. F rances P erkins ,




Secretary of Labor .

(IV)

Bulletin J^o. 790 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics
[Reprinted from the M onthly L abob R eview , May 1944, with additional data]

Average Hourly Earnings in the Airframe
Industry, 1 9 4 3 1
Sum m ary

Factory workers on the first shift in the metal-airframe industry
had straight-time average hourly earnings of 95.0 cents in December
1943. Over half of these workers were in occupations with average
hourly earnings ranging from 85 cents to $1.00, and well over a fourth
were in occupations averaging $1.00 or more an hour. Substantia]
additional payments were made for overtime work and for work on
late shifts. The earnings of workers in 9 representative office occu­
pations varied from 65.8 cents an hour for office boys and girls to
87.5 cents an hour for bookkeepers. These figures are based on data
for 420,480 first-shift factory workers and 29,222 office workers in
50 metal-airframe plants.
General wage levels in the metal-airframe industry were much the
same in three of the four broad regions into which the country was
divided for purposes of the study. The average for the Eastern
region, 98.2 cents, was only 2.7 cents higher than that for the Southern
California region and 3 cents higher than that for the Central region.
The general wage level in the Midwestern region, however, was from
8 to 11 cents below that of the other three regions.
As a group, men earned substantially more than women, the respec­
tive averages for the two groups being 98.2 and 86.7 cents an hour.
The difference was due in part to the fact that women were found
only in small numbers in the higher-skilled and higher-paying jobs,
and in part to the fact that many women had been employed but a
short time and were still receiving beginner’ s rates or but little more.
In those occupations in which women have been employed for some
time and have acquired as much experience as men, differences in
wage rates were small.
Developm ent o f the Industry

The rapid development of the airframe industry during the past
. ^.cade is readily appreciated when it is noted that only 7,800 workers
* This is one of a series of Bureau studies of wartime wages in the manufacture of airframes and in related
industries. The results of earlier studies will be found in Bulletins No. 704 (Wage Rates in the California
Airframe Industry,11941); No. 728 (Earnings in Eastern and Midwestern Airframe Plants, 1942); and No.
744 (Earnings in Aircraft Parts Plants, November 1942); also reprints, Serial No. R 1505 (Earnings in Air­
craft-Engine Plants, May 1942); and Serial No. R 1526 (Wages in Aircraft-Propeller Industry, October
1942). An additional bulletin, No. 746 (Wage Stabilization in California Airframe Industry, 1943), pro­
vides information on the impact of the National War Labor Board’s wage order of March 3,1943.




(i)

2
were known to be employed in the industry in 1933. That number
of workers would constitute only a fraction of the labor force in any
one of the larger airframe plants now in operation. Much of this
development has taken place during the past 3 years.
The structural development of the airplane has been no less dra­
matic than the increase in employment. As an illustration, approx­
imately 35 years ago, the U. S. Signal Corps asked for bids on the
first military plane to be used by the Army. The specifications of
this plane are worthy of note: A speed of 40 miles per hour in level
flight, with a bonus of 10 percent for every mile over 40; capable of
carrying two persons and a total load (including persons) of 350
pounds; and the ability to fly at least 1 hour and carry sufficient fuel
for 125 miles. Even at the end of World War I, the popular plane
was a wood, fabric, and wire “ kite,” mounting a heavy, unreliable
motor which drove a laminated wood propeller of fixed pitch. The
barnstorming JN -4 (“ Jenny” ) of the early 1920's was just such a
ship, powered with an O X -5 8-cylinder, 90-horsepower water-cooled
motor.
The present heavy metal ships, carrying huge bomb loads and
equipped with high-caliber armament, were undreamed of a few years
ago, as were also the great factories from which planes now flow in
continuous streams. The tremendous increase in the volume of
production becomes even more noteworthy when it is realized that
the earlier planes were small, custom-built, and produced at the rate
of only a few per month, whereas in December 1943 almost 9,000
military planes of all types were produced.
T H E L A B O R FO RCE

The tremendous expansion of the working force in airframe manu­
facturing virtually ceased late in 1943, with employment leveling off
to a total of approximately 1,000,000 workers. Mass-production
techniques, coupled with the increased efficiency of the large numbers
of new workers, now make it possible to meet the heavy production
schedules without the addition of more employees. In most plants,
the present hiring schedule is for replacement only.
This decrease in new employment, combined with the provisions
for automatic advancement found in most plants, has led to a material
reduction in the number of learners. This, in itself, has done much
to raise the general level of average hourly earnings, in addition to
such factors as upgrading and promotion.
Airframe plants are primarily concerned with the assembling of
thousands of parts into a complete plane. Much of the work of
manufacturing the component parts of a plane and even the assem­
bling of these parts into units is done in other plants. This no doubt
accounts in part for the fact that, on the average, over half of the
workers in a typical metal-airframe plant are engaged in assembly
and installation work— approximately 25 percent assembling, 10
percent installing, and 11 percent riveting. Less than a fifth of the
workers are engaged either in the operation of machines or in work
at a bench. About 6 percent of the workers are performing any one
of the many inspection jobs. Maintenance, service, and other auxil­
iary work account for the remainder of the labor force.
In December 1943, two of every five airframe-factory workers were
women. Many of these women had limited factory experience.



3
As a result, they were most frequently found in the lower grades of
the various occupations in which they were employed. Although
some women were employed in most of the occupations, they were
found in substantial numbers in comparatively few; for example,
assemblers, filers and burrers, general helpers, inspectors, janitresses,
riveters, sheet-metal workers, and stock and store clerks.
Of the 50 metal-airframe plants studied by the Bureau in late 1943,
17 were organized completely by unions affiliated with the C. I. O.
and 9 by A. F. of L. unions. Independent unions were found in 3
plants. Two plants had both a C. I. O. and an A. F. of L. union,
one plant had a C. I. O. and an independent union, and one plant
had an A. F. of L. and an independent union. The C. I. O. had its
principal strength in the Eastern and Central regions with 9 and 5
plants, respectively, and the A. F. of L. in the West with 5 plants.
The remaining plants were not organized by any union when visited
by the Bureau's field representative. Most of the nonunion estab­
lishments were in the Midwest, the Eastern, and the Central regions.
Purpose and N ature o f Study

The present study of the airframe-manufacturing industry was
designed to provide current basic wage data for the use of those
Government agencies charged with the development of the aircraft
program and with stabilizing wages in the industry, as well as to
meet the needs of labor and management for ouch data. In addition,
the survey depicted the industry's wage structure after a period of
adjustment and regulation which began in March 1943, when the
National War Labor Board issued a wage order affecting eight West
Coast airframe companies. Wage changes resulting from this order,
as well as from subsequent wage orders issued by the Board through
December 1943, are reflected in the figures presented in this report.
In order to arrive at as full comparability as possible among the
various establishments, only those manufacturing completed airframes
were included in the study; thus, all manufacturers of engines, pro­
pellers, parts, and subassemblies were excluded. The present survey
consequently differs slightly from the earlier survey of the airframe
industry, which included a few subassembly plants.
Airframe plants constitute a homogeneous segment of the broad
aircraft-industry group. There are relatively few plants in the in­
dustry and most of them are large, employing many thousands of
workers. Wage levels in the industry are fairly weft standardized,
particularly in the metal-airframe group, the largest of the three
groups in the industry. Most of the plants and the greater propor­
tion of the workers are in this group. The second group includes a
small number of plants engaged in the manufacture of light-weight air­
frames, which frequently are made largely of wood and fabric. The
third group includes those plants engaged in the manufacture of gliders.
Metal-airframe plants are divided about equally among the four
broad regions used in this report. The majority of the plants found
in the Eastern region are in the Northeastern States, including Con­
necticut with 2, eastern New York with 4, New Jersey with 2, Penn­
sylvania with 3, Maryland with 3, and Georgia with 1. Plants in
the Central region are widely distributed, Ohio having 4, western New
York 2, Tennessee 2, and 6 other States one each. In the Midwest,




4
Kansas and Texas each have 3 plants, Louisiana and Oklahoma,
2 each, and Nebraska 1. All western plants for which wage data are
included are on the Pacific Coast— principally in Southern California.
Light-weight airframe plants are largely concentrated in the Central
and Midwestern regions, while the plants making complete gliders
are well distributed over the country.
Altogether, 73 establishments were studied. Of this number, 50
were engaged in the manufacture of metal airframes, 11 produced
light-weight planes, and 12 made gliders. Wage data were obtained
for 437,866 first-shift workers, in selected occupations. Of this num­
ber, 96 percent were in metal-airframe plants, 2 percent in light­
weight airframe plants, and 2 percent in glider plants.
METHOD OF STUDY

Occupational wage data and general background information were
obtained from virtually all plants engaged in the manufacture of
metal airframes, light-weight airframes, and gliders, and from a few
modification centers. Field representatives of the Bureau visited
each plant in the Eastern, Central, and Midwestern regions and those
plants in the Western region not situated in Southern California, and
obtained the desired information directly from pay rolls and other
pertinent records. Although most of the visits were made during
the summer of 1943, the data collected have been adjusted to include
the few general wage changes which took place between the period
scheduled and December 1943. The figures herein presented, there­
fore, depict the structure of the industry at the end of the year.
Wage data for the Southern California airframe plants were compiled
by the Southern California Airframe Industry and represent the
situation in December 1943. Only general background information
for these plants was collected by representatives of the Bureau.
Wage data were obtained for approximately half of the occupations
in metal-airframe plants. This group includes all numerically im­
portant occupations as well as a substantial number of strategically
important occupations in which comparatively few workers are found.
More than 90 percent of the first-shift plant workers were found in
the selected occupations covered in this survey. In those plants
engaged in the production of light airframes and gliders, in which
substantial amounts of wood or fabric are used, data were obtained
for a somewhat different and more limited list of occupations. In
most airframe manufacturing plants, wage data were also obtained
for workers in 9 representative office occupations.
For purposes of this survey, the country was divided into four broad
regions, corresponding to the original Army Air Forces procurement
districts. Their boundaries extend from the northern to the southern
border of the United States. No separate figures are shown for the
South, since the wage levels found in the small number of southern
plants do not differ materially from those found in northern plants.
The Eastern region includes all Atlantic Seaboard States from Maine
to Florida, plus West Virginia and minus western New York, which
is included with the Central region. The Central region includes all
remaining States east of the Mississippi River, plus Missouri and
Arkansas. The Midwest region includes North and South Dakota,
Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana,
and Texas. The Western region includes the States in the Rocky




5
Mountain region and the three States on the Pacific Coast. Separate
occupational wage-rate information is presented for each of these
regions.
The wage data presented in this report for selected occupations
are straight-time average hourly earnings exclusive of premium over­
time and shift-differential earnings. Incentive payments are in­
cluded in these earnings.
The three segments of the airframe industry are basically different.
Metal-airframe plants have a much more diversified occupational
structure than either light-weight airframe or glider plants. The
occupational structure of modification centers follows that of metalairframe plants and for that reason these centers have been combined
with such plants. Many of these occupations do not have their
counterpart in plants manufacturing light planes which include a
substantial amount of wood and fabric. Glider plants are wholly
different from either metal- or light-plane plants. Because of these
basic differences, the occupational wage data for light-airframe and
glider plants have not been combined with those for metal airframes,
but are presented separately in this report.
H ou rly Earnings in M etal-A irfram e M anufacture
FACTORS A FFECTIN G A V E R A G E H O U R LY EARN ING S

The level of earnings in the airframe industry is influenced not
only by the basic rates for the various occupations but also by en­
trance rates, provisions for automatic advancement, extra pay for
work on late shifts and for overtime work, and incentive methods of
wage payment. These factors are discussed briefly in the following
paragraphs.
Entrance rates of unskilled workers in the 50 metal-airframe plants
studied in this survey varied from 50 to 85 cents per hour (table 1).
Of these plants, 30 had entrance rates of 60 cents per hour. The
prevalence of the 60-cent entrance rate is due in large measure to the
influence of National War Labor Board directives stabilizing wages
in the Southern California Airframe Industry and in other airframe
plants. Aside from the 60-cent rate, there are only limited concen­
trations of entrance rates at other levels, 6 plants having an entrance
rate of 79 cents, 4 a rate of 65 cents, and 3 a rate of 62 cents.
Provisions for automatic increases, which also appear in table 1,
show somewhat less variation than entrance rates. The great major­
ity of the plants granted an initial 5-cent increase in the worker’s
hourly base rate after 4 weeks or 30 days, and periodic increases there­
after until the minimum classified job rate was reached. This
usually occurred within 3 months. Promotion beyond this level was
based upon merit in most plants, although in a few instances these
increases continued until specific job rates were reached. For example,
plants operating under the Southern California Airframe Industry
(SCAI) job-classification system started unskilled workers at 60 cents,
advancing them 5 cents every 30 days until the 75-cent classified
minimum rate was reached. Beyond this rate, increases were based
on merit. In some plants, automatic increases continued until the
hourly rate for the job to which the worker is assigned was reached,
regardless of its wage level.
604617°— 44------2




6
T

able

1.— Entrance Rates o f Unskilled W orkers, and Provisions fo r Autom atic Increases,
in M etal-Airfram e Plants, 1943

Number of plants
1 plant. 1 plant______________

Entrance
rates
$0.85
.825

1 plant______________

1.79

5 plants_____________

2
.79

1 plant.........................
1 plant........................

.75
.65

1 p lan t

_ _

.65

1 plant..........................
1 plant........... ...... ........
2 plants........................
1 plant___________ _
30 plants ......................
1 plant.........................
1 plant..........................

.65
3.65
.62
4.62
3.60
.55
«.55

1 plan t

7 50
.

1 plant..........................

Provision for automatic increases
5-cent increase every 2 weeks to minimum job rate.
Increase according to merit, ability, and openings in higher labor
grade.
5-cent increase in 30 days, 10-cent increase next 30 days; then 5 cents
each 30 days to minimum job rate.
10-cent increase in 30 days, thereafter 5-cent increase monthly to maxi­
mum job rate.
None.
5-cent increase monthly for 3 months, thereafter 5 cents each 90 days
to maximum job rate.
5-cent increase monthly for 3 months, thereafter 5 cents each 90 days
to minimum job rate.
5-cent increase monthly for 2 months.
Not available.
10-cent increase after 60 days; 5-cent increase after next 60 days.
6-cent increase after 4 weeks and 8 weeks, 3 cents after 13 weeks.
5-cent increase monthly for 3 months; then to minimum job rate.
5-cent increase after 13 weeks.
5-cent increase after 60 days, and advance to “ learner.” At end of
4 to 6 months, receive specific rate for job.
None. *
Entrance rate for each occupation.

1 Entrance rate from training school. Workers enter training school at 70 cents.
2 Employees with vocational-school training or equivalent receive 5 cents more for each 160 hours of
training.
a Entrance rate from training school. Workers enter training school at 60 cents.
<Entrance rate from training school. Workers enter training school at 60 cents.
8Includes plants with automatic increase at 4-, 8-, and 12-week or similar intervals. One plant reported
a 50-cent entrance rate for women.
« Plus guaranteed bonus of 24.6 percent.
7New plant: Plans were under consideration at time of Bureau study.

Wage differentials for work on late shifts were paid in all except
1 of the 50 metal-airframe plants scheduled (table 2). Approximately
half of these plants paid either 5 or 6 cents extra per hour for work
on the second shift, 7 paid 10 cents extra per hour, and 8 paid 5 percent
over the base rate. A third shift was operated by 37 of the 50 plants.
In 26 of these, 8 hours’ pay was given for 6 % hours’ work, in addition
to shift differentials ranging from 5 to 10 cents per hour. In 25 of
the plants, the third-shift differential paid was either 5 or 6 cents per
hour. Seven plants paid a third-shift differential of 5 percent over
the base rate, with 1 of these giving 8 hours’ pay for 7% hours’ work.
Practically complete uniformity was found in methods of overtime
payment. All plants paid time and a half after 40 hours per week
or 8 hours per day, and on the sixth consecutive day and holidays.
Double time was paid on the seventh consecutive day in all but one
plant.
Incentive methods of wage payments were found in only six plants.
In two plants, only supervisory or administrative employees were
affected; in two other plants practically all workers received production
bonuses based upon percentage increases in total production. Incen­
tive plans found in the remaining two plants affected workers in certain
departments only. In one of these plants, a bonus was paid for de­
partmental production above a fixed standard, while in the other
)lant both individual and group incentive plans were used. This
atter plant was the only one surveyed in which an incentive system
was calculated to increase the pay of the worker in direct ratio to his
individual output.

{




7
T able 2.— D ifferentials P aid fo r W ork on Late Shifts in M etal-A irfram e Plants , by
Region , 1943
Number of plants in—
Differential1

United
States

Eastern
region

Central
region

Second-shift differential
__ _
_ ______
10 cents per hour _ .
_
_
9 cents per honr_
_ _______ __________
8 cents per hnnr
_ __
_
__ _
_
7.fi cents per h ou r___
______
7 cents per h o u r _ _
. .
fi cents per hou r
_
_
..........
fi cents per hou r
___
_
_
__________
R percent over base rate
_
N o differential
.... _ _
__
_
_

50
7
2
4
2
3
11
12
8
1

15
2
2
2
2

14
4

T h ird -sh ift differential
__
_ __ _
11 cents per hour__________________________________
10 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ pay for 6H hours’
work....... ............. ........... .................................................

37
1

10 cents per hour........... ........................ ...............
8 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ pay for 6H hours’
work.............. ......... ..........................................
6 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ pay for 6H hours’
work.................................................................
6 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ pay for 6H hours’
work..................................................................
5 cents per hour plus 8 hours’ pay for 6H hours’
w ork

_

__

_ _________ _____

5 cents per hour.... .................................................
5 percent over base rate plus 8 hours’ pay for 7 \i
hou rs' w or k

fi percent over base rate

_

Midwest Western
region
region
11

10
1

i

1

2
5

3
1
3
2
1

2
7
1

8

8
1

10

9

10

1
1

1

1

1

1

1

2

7

4

2
10
1

1

13
1

2

7
1

1
6

5

1

1

113 plants operated on 2 shifts only; 37 plants operated both second and third shifts.
EARN ING S OF FACTORY W O R K E RS

Wage data are presented in table 3 for a total of 145 classes or
grades of workers in 57 specific occupations. It will be noted that in
42 of these 57 occupations figures are shown for three classes of workers,
designated as A, B, and C, and that in 4 of the occupations figures
are shown for two classes of workers, namely, A and B. A single
average is shown for only 11 occupations. The refinement of the data
in the 46 occupations was necessary in view of the wide variation in
the nature of the duties performed within these occupations. For
example, the duties of workers operating any one of the standard
machine tools may vary from simple repetitive work requiring only
very limited training and little or no skill to highly complicated and
exacting work which only a skilled mechanic can perform. Equally
wide variations are found in the many types of assembly and inspection
occupations, as well as in many other processing and maintenance
occupations.
The classifications within jobs used in this study were originally
developed by the Sou II era California Airframe Industry and are now
applied by many establishments in other parts of the country. The
workers in factories not using this job-classification system were
grouped on the basis of written definitions issued by the SCAI. In
some cases— particularly in factories previously engaged in the pro­
duction of automobiles— this grouping involved great difficulty and
was accomplished with only approximate accuracy. The SCAI jobclassification system differs somewhat from the classifications custom­
arily employed in Bureau wage studies.




T able 3.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f Workers in Selected Occupations in M etal-Airfram e Plants, b y Region , 1943

Occupation

Aver­ Aver­
Per­
age
cent
age
of total hourly hourly
earn­
employ­ earn­
ings
ings
ment
100.0

$0,950

Hiiihest

Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings
$0,952

$1,100
1.020
.910
1.304
1.048
.914
1.317
1.257
1.102

1.026
.903
.863
1.126
.972
.934
1.085
1.032
.894

.966
.897

1.260
1.180

.726
.979
.805

1.070
1.116
.976

.984
.978
(*)
1.211
1.102
(*)
.886
1.088
.987

1.006
.944
.895
1.259
1.143‘
1.016
.918
1.261
1.035
.882
.730

.914
.783
.775
1.100
.867
.838
.717
1.012
.756
.790
.565

1.128
1.075
.930
1.324
1.238
1.055
.966
1.391
1.233
1.044
.849

1.096
.985
.874
1.178
1.111

1.017
.918
.812
1.005
.831

1.206
1.090
.926
1.300
1.201

Assemblers, general, B
_ ____________________
____________________________
Assemblers, general, 0
Assemblers, precision, bench, A .............................................
Assemblers, precision, bench, B .............................................
Assemblers, precision, bench, C__..........................................

.992
.893
.843
1.136
.957
.868
1.144
.997
.871

Po K a cnlinnro A
1
P.ohlp q V
t
I
_ _________
PoV»ln cn1inm C1
*e
_______________ ____
Carpenters maintenaTnee, A
Carpenters, maintenance, B .................................. - .............PannAnfove moirtfanonon P
fljpfjfg «?f.nnlr ^<1 stores
- - _____________________
__________ _____________
^ n t firs A
_
Craters) B
__ ________________________________

.1
.1
.1
.3
.2
.1
4.9
.2
.3

.977
.916
.831
1.155
1.036
.882
.874
1.037
.925

1.098
1.088
(’)
.859
1.043
.894

Drill-press operators, A ...........................................................
Drill-press operators, B _._......................................................
Drill-press operators, C .. - ......................................................
Electricians, maintenance, A..................................................
Electricians, maintenance, B__...............................................
Electricians, maintenance, C..................................................
Filers and burrcrs, A ...............................................................
Grinder operators, A ................................................................
Grinder operators, B __________________________________
Grinder operators, C ______________________________________
_____________ _________ ______
Helpers, general

.3
.7
.6
.4
.3
.1
1.0
.1
.2
.2
3.8

1.042
.917
.833
1.264
1.105
.948
.861
1.225
1.080
.903
.760

Inspectors, detail, A .................................... - ..........................
Inspectors, detail, B _ _________________________________
Inspectors, detail, C .................................. ........ .....................
Inspectors, final assembly, A ..................................................
Inspectors, final assembly, B ............. ....................................

.3
.4
.6
.4
.6

1.132
1.001
.877
1.229
1.094




Low­
est

$0,982

.4
.8
.9
4.4
6.5
9.9
.3
.5
.5

Assemblers, electrical and radio, A_.......................................
Assemblers, electrical and radio, B ........................................

Plant average

1.080
.954
.883
1.143
.965
.857
1.172
1.020
.906

$1,019
.765
.663
.924
.791
.655
.955
.825
.798

8

Southern California

Midwest

Central

Eastern

United States1

Plant average

Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Plant average

Plant average
Low­
est

High­
est

Low­
est

High­
est

Low­
est

High­
est

—
$0,900
.822
.760
.929
.816
.788
1.017
.881
.768

$0,869
— ---------- —
$1.100
1.002 $0,923
.802
1.150
.842
.750
1.100
.827
1.297
1.041
.945
1.161
.809
.910
.754
1.102
.827
1.109
1.020
1.054
.879
1.118
.906
.777
.821
.910

$1,402
1.163
1.033
1.408
1.244
1.104
1.425
.942
.851

.955
.864
.783
1.126
.957
.846
1.132
.958
.863

_ --‘
!
$0,950
.850
.770
1.080
.940
.840
1.090
.900
.850

$0,960
.870
.800
1.150
.970
.850
1.150
.970
.900

■

$0,955

1.100
1.165
1.130

(2
)
.858
.880
1.101
.947
.866
.795
.986
.807

.800
.750
1.000
.913
.831
.758
.943
.825

1.300
1.133
1.444
1.191
1.047
1.010
1.075
1.019

.939
.860
.791
1.142
.964
.872
.893
1.009
.899

.900
.840
.780
1.070
.940
.850
.830
1.000
.870

.950
.870
.810
1.170
1.010
.880
1.040
1.050
.920

.928
.801
.750
1.106
.935
.834
.752
1.121
.924
.793
.688

1.161
1.112
.943
1.441
1.289
1.127
1.100
1.483
1.292
1.150
.957

.961
.845
.797
1.207
1.042
.900
.802
1.214
1.013
.877
.751

.930
.820
.750
1.063
.856
.794
.750
1.121
.950
.812
.729

1.358
1.141
1.020
1.452
1.258
1.076
1.016
1.251
1.070
1.038
.826

1.009
.888
.784
1.278
1.121
.944
.752
1.176
1.009
.888
.752

.990
.880
.770
1.240
1.100
.930
.750
1.110
.980
.890
.750

1.060
.900
.790
1.320
1.140
.960
.770
1.220
1.040
.900
.890

.979
.833
.789
1.066
.93r

1.348
1.252
1.131
1.360
1.250

1.112
.950
.853
1.195
1.039

1.096
.913
.717
1.080
.951

1.165
1.056
1.085
1.264
1.256

1.109
.945
.850
1.255
1.114

1.070
.930
.830
1.180
1.070

1.150
.970
.860
1.290
1.140

.883
.772

1.133
1.150

1.060
.875

1.334
1.229

.731
.973
.825

1.046
.968
.875
1.282
1.089
.953
.921
1.231
1.078
.929
.788
1.189
1.051
.900
1.189
1.088

Inspectors, final assembly, 0 _ ..........
Inspectors, general assembly, A .......
Inspectors, general assembly, B.......
Inspectors, general assembly, O.......
Inspectors, machined parts, A .........
Inspectors, machined parts, B .........
Inspectors, machined parts, O.........
Inspectors, service and flight, A .......
Inspectors, service and flight, B .......
Inspectors, service and flight, O.......

.4
.6
.8
.8
.1
.2
.2
.2
.1
<>
*

.907
1.152
.993
.873
1.240
1.024
.881
1.345
1.189
.987

.907
1.165
1.021
.872
1.297
1.081
.903
1.315
1.073
1.002

Installers, controls, A_......................
Installers, controls, B ........................
Installers, controls, C ........................
Installers, electrical, A ......................
Installers, electrical, B _ ....................
Installers, electrical, O......................
Installers, general, A .........................
Installers, general, B .........................
Installers, general, O.........................
Installers, hydraulics, A ...................
Installers, hydraulics, B ...................
Installers, hydraulics, O...................
Installers, power plant, A .................
Installers, power plant, B .................
Installers, power plant, O.................

.3
.4
.1
.5
.5
.5
1.6
2.1
2.8
.4
.3
.2
.2
.2
.2

1.113
1.044
.852
1.118
.959
.897
1.074
1.006
.866
1.145
.970
.930
1.115
.969
.863

1.162
.969
.842
1.159
.993
(*)
1.151
.988
.867
(2
)
.916
(2
)
1.123
1.004
(2
)

Janitors, A ............ .............................
Jig builders, A....... ...........................
Jig builders, B ...................................
Jig builders, O...................................
Laborers, A ........................... ............

2.4
.5
.8
.8
.9

.779
1.351
1.171
.979
.774

.765
1.370
1.239
.974
.726

Lathe operators, engine, A ...............
Lathe operators, engine, B ...............
Lathe operators, engine, C ...............
Lathe operators, turret, A ................
Lathe operators, turret, B ................
Lathe operators, turret, O................
Learners-...........................................
Machinists, bench, A ........................
Machinists, bench, B ........................
Machinists, bench, O.............. __w __

.3
.2
.1
.2
.3
.2
5.5
.2
.2
.6

1.197
1.022
.907
1.202
1.041
.904
.689
1.172
.990
.848

1.194
1.029
.927
1.174
1.084
.884
.685
1.212
1.036
.949

Mechanics, experimental, A .............
Mechanics, experimental, B .............
Mechanics, experimental, O.............
Mechanics, field and service, A ........
Mechanics, field and service, B ........
Mechanics, field and service, C ........
See footnotes at end o f table.

.1
.3
.3
.4
.8
.4

1.306
1.148
.969
1.298
1.126
.965

1.163
(2
)
(2
)
1.223
1.130
.950




.885
.950
.770
.709
.963
.779
.655
1.250
.958
.770

1.090
1.237
1.130
.958
1.406
1.160
1.005
1.367
1.158
1.152

.888
1.154
.998
.878
1.273
1.007
.826
1.361
(*)
1.004

.751
.950
.823
.723
1.150
.955
.760
1.160

1.143
1.348
1.244
1.131
1.361
1.252
.917
1.511

.956

.940
.800
.667
1.063
.909

1.305
1.062
.958
1.165
1.030

.900
.914
.700

1.173
1.022
.879

1.136
1.088
.902
1.177
.969
.981
1.015
1.095
.900
1.088
1.052
1.036
1.065
1.030
.891

1.000
.775
.788
1.018
.835
.785
.961
.842
.775
1.033
.889
.806
1.006
.900
.800

1.132

.892
1. I ll
.947
.876
1.181
1.022
.921
1.300
1. I ll
.970

.833
1.050
.902
.798
1.138
.947
.821
1.189
.963
.915

1.108
1.322
1.183
1.103
1.214
1.136
1.092
1.426
1.176
1.010

.958
1.122
.963
.860
1.189
1.018
.897
1.345
1 194
(*)

.920
1.090
.930
.850
1.150
.990
.890
1.290
1.150

.980
1.140
1.000
.880
1.230
1.050
.910
1.390
1.210

1.300
1.118
.938
1.256
1.200
1.107
1.272
1.155
1.100
1.272
1.156
1.100
1.272
1.155
.938

1.017
.902
.819
1.034
.914
.818
1.029
.940
.839
1 026
.905
.817
1.046
.928
.850

.967
.838
.777
.972
.868
.770
.945
.818
.759
.990
.863
.794
.983
.884
. 772

1.046
.918
1.022
1.166
1.238
1.073
1.398
1.282
1.128
1 050
! 937
841
1.413
1.219
1.113

1.075
.957
.852
1.069
.951
.857
l! 069
.956
.848
1 128
!964
850
l! 125
.960
.856

1.060
.940
.830
1.000
.950
.840
l! 050
.940
.840
1 080
i960
. 850
l! 060
.940
. 850

1.120
.980
.860
1.090
.970
870
1.090
.960
.930
1 140
.*980
860
1.160
1.000
.870

.783

.924

.950
.800

L i90
1.121

.524
1.234
.900
.750
.526

.882
1.457
1.362
1.085
.960

.821
1.344
1.192
.983
.843

.565
1.150
1.010
.866
.504

.933
1.430
1.323
1.106
1.020

.747
1.292
1.071
.939
.747

.570
1.107
.984
.857
.656

.912
1.665
1.367
1.206
.899

.753
1.344
1.156
.999
.764

.750
1.290
1.140
.990
.750

.760
1.550
1.190
1.030
.780

.992
.773
.835
1.008
.894
.775
.550
1.075
.950
.811

1.310
1.295
.980
1.372
1.513
.957
.795
1.301
1.183
1.000

1.171
.974
.917
1.188
1.007
.933
.708
1.188
1.025
.849

1.033
.818
.812
1.043
.840
.818
.567
1.089
.925
.846

1.267
1.150
1.123
1.348
1.250
1.200
1.030
1.461
1.330
.925

1.235
1.024
.887
1.214
1.031
.892
.675
1.136
.948
.847

1.038
.917
.800
1.057
.980
.866
.600
1.000
.898
.757

1.571
1.101
1.080
1.279
1.323
1.080
.860
1.500
1.281
1.073

1.186
1.019
.900
1.192
1.016
.893
(4
)
1.129
.957
.845

1.170
1.010
.890
1.150
.990
.870
(4
)
1.110
.940
.840

1.240
1.030
.920
1.230
1.030
.920
(4
)
1.140
.990
.890

1.060

1.293

1.028
.881
.848

1.331
1.201
1.021

1.305
1.131
.942
1.301
1.144
1.005

1.122
1.000
.805
1.148
.913
.825

1.503
1.390
1.266
1.411
1.260
1.144

(a
)
(2)
(2)
1.204
1.041
.922

1.483
1.278
1.130

1.322
1.159
1.017
1.318
1.125
.969

1.260
1.140
1.010
1.260
1.100
.960

1.340
1.190
1.050
1.350
1.150
.980




1.110
.962
.844

T able 3.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f Workers in Selected Occupations in M etal-Airfram e Plants, by Region , 1943 — Continued
United States1
Occupation

Eastern

Per­
Aver­ Aver­
cent
age
age
of total hourly hourly
earn­
employ­ earn­
ings
ment
ings

Low­
est

High­
est

Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Plant average

High­
est

Aver­
age
hourly
oarningr.

Low­
est

Plant average
Low­
est

Southern California

Midwest

Central

High­
est

Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Low­
est

Plant average

Plant average
High­
est

Mechanics, maintenance, A ....................................................
Mechanics, maintenance, B ....................................................
Mechanics, maintenance, 0 ....................................................

0.4
.4
.2

$1,220
1.077
.940

$1,201
1.124
.937

$1,029
.900
.779

$1,354
1.243
1.088

$1.190
1.072
.927

$1,056
.867
.853

$1,341
1.175
.985

$1.150
.973
.917

$1,062
.876
.829

$1,508
1.241
1.038

$1,275
1.107
.955

$1,240
1.090
.940

$1,330
1.160
1.000

Metal fitters, A .........................................................................
Metal fitters, B_.......................................................................
Metal fitters, C.........................................................................
Milling-machine operators, A .................................................
Milling-machine operators, B .................................................
Milling-machine operators, C .................................................................................
Oilers, maintenance, A ............................................................

.3
.3
.5
.3
.5
.5
.2

1.137
.987
.838
1.202
1.053
.892
.907

1.125
1.017
.804
1.164
1.048
.891
.840

.931
.788
.729
.978
.796
.750
.737

1.253
1.082
.898
1.315
1.150
1.008
.948

1.165
1.038
.827
1.202
1.063
.892
.980

1.063
.900
.794
1.115
.827
.764
.750

1.178
1.178
.944
1.433
1.332
1.175
1.105

1.118
.937
.838
1.221
1.024
.880
.805

1.066
.900
.804
1.100
.964
.810
.744

1.403
1.248
1.085
1.265
1.331
1.120
.893

1.135
.961
.845
1.179
1.025
.896
.911

1.100
.950
.830
1.160
1.000
.890
.880

1.150
.990
.860
1.230
1.080
.920
.930

Painters, aircraft, A .................................................................
Painters, aircraft, B.................................................................
Painters, aircraft, 0 ............. ...................................................
Painters, maintenance, A ....... ................................................
Painters, maintenance, B ........................................................
Painters, maintenance, C _______________________________

.4
.3
.4
.1
.1

1.093
.971
.853
1.064
1.066
.892

1.090
1.016
.882
1.019
1.097
.918

.923
.788
.757
.955
.929
.800

1.270
1.149
.942
1.280
1.146
1.020

1.104
.963
.830
1.085
1. 233

.950
.813
.772
1.000
.950

1.244
1.150
1.080
1.206
1.305

1.054
.923
.848
1.045
.894
.829

1.000
.841
.777
.970
.831
.798

1.409
1.227
1.045
1.100
1.106
.981

1.080
.957
.855
1.079
.960

1.040
.940
.830
1.050
.950

1.090
.970
.860
1.100
.980

1.6
.1

.847
1.159
1.027

.729
1.031
.965

.949
1.238
1.085

.927
1.246
1.116

.759
1.010
1.013

1.047
1.386
1.233

1.065
.913
.872
1.054
.954
.883
1.088
1.059
.902

1.044
.960
.852
1.136
1.010
1.027
1.003
.918
.834

1.054
1.168
1.175
1.069

1.040
1.180

1.342
1.067
.951
1.285
1.117
.994
1.177
1.120
.949

.770
1.050
.917
.800

.840
1.131

.804
.783
.826
.857
.769
.789
.900
.763
.690

.855
1.150
.957
.859

.966
1.167

.1
.2
.1
.3
.4
.2
1.6
6.6
2.3

.901
1.178
1.038
.880
1.045
.914
.813
1.074
.946
.925
1.056
.958
.840

.896
.809
.750
.971
.850
.763
.866
.768
.750

1.229
1.150
.873
1.232
1.180
1.112
1.328
1.161
.914

.877
.806
.997
.872
.815
.864
.866
.834

.820
.755
.832
.800
.777
.813
.788
.767

1.181
.983
1.375
1.238
1.069
1.369
1.158
1.026

1.022
.894
.788
1.026
.889
.786
1.021
.886
.786

.980
.880
.780
1.020
.860
.780
.990
.880
.760

1.040
.920
.810
1.050
.910
.790
1.030
.890
.820

.3
.3
.6
1.0
1.4

1.000
.911
1.120
.971
.874

1.033
.872
1.134
.968
.833

.814
.814
.978
.784
.715

1.126
.981
1.430
1.151
.972

1.008
1.019
1.097
.969
.914

.846
.782
1.008
.850
.792

1.214
1.144
1.400
1.250
1.150

.947
.820
1.149
.992
.855

.871
.780
.975
.871
.800

1.140
1.013
1.495
1.346
1.140

.968
.855
1.120
.967
.846

.930
.840
1.100
.950
.820

.980
.870
1.160
.980
.860

Plant protection.......................................................................
Plumbers, maintenance, A ......................................................
Plumbers, maintenance, B ______________________ ___ ___
Plumbers, maintenance, C ___ __________________________
Power-shear operators, A _______________________________
Power-shear operators, B ........................................................
Power-shear operators, C ........................................................
Punch-press operators, A ........................................................
Punch-press operators, B ........................................................
Punch-press operators, C ........................................................
Riveters, A ...............................................................................
Riveters, B .............. ...............................................................
Riveters, C ...............................................................................
Saw operators, A . ....................................................................
Saw operators, B ._ ..................................................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, A ...............................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, B ...............................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, C_..............................................




(3)

(3)
(3)

( 2)

(2)

(2)

( 2)

( 2)

( 2)
( 2)

Spot welders, A ........................................................................
Spot welders, B ........................................................................
Spot welders, O.......................................................................

.2
.2
.2

1.073
.900
.871

1.072
.914
(1
2
)
3

.960
.848

1.109
1.064

1.109
.965
.960

.888
.850
.750

1.205
1.116
1.150

1.033
.889
.812

.900
.800
.759

1.125
1.169
1.020

1.015
.885
.782

.990
.880
.780

1.040
.900
.800

Template makers, A ...............................................................
Template makers, B ........................ ......................................
Template makers, C...............................................................
Tool and die makers, A ..........................................................
Tool and die makers, B ..........................................................
Tool and die makers, C...........................................................

.2
.2
.2
.5
.3
.1

1.211
1.031
.888
1.404
1.210
1.039

1.290
1.130
.900
1.442
1.235
1.049

1.130
.933
.805
1.288
.988
.800

1.422
1.300
1.197
1.547
1.422
1.150

1.187
.991
.913
1.3S7
1.181
1.057

1.041
.901
.853
1.231
1.008
.825

1.300
1.047
.970
1.573
1.455
1.319

1.108
.992
.871
1.332
1.150
.958

1.003
.880
.777
1.130
1.109
.923

1.523
1.333
1.207
1.684
1.450
1.017

1.176
1.010
.885
1.403
1.178
1.009

1.150
.990
.870
1.360
1.130
.970

1.190
1.030
.900
1.450
1.230
1.020

Tool-crib attendants, A ...........................................................
Tool-crib attendants, B ...........................................................
Tool-crib attendants, O...........................................................
Truck-crane operators. ...........................................................
Truck drivers, A .....................................................................
Truck drivers, B ................................................................... .
Truckers, power, A .................................................................
Truckers, power, B .................................................................
Tube benders, bench, A ..........................................................
Tube benders, bench, B .........................................................
Tube benders, bench, C ..........................................................

.3
.5
.4
.1
.2
.2
.4
.1
.1
.2
.2

.976
.856
.911
.966
1.013
.893
.938
.824
.999
.874
.839

.968
.872
.802
.945
.952
.944
.935
(2
)
1.031
.827

.808
.667
.650
.880
.799
.800
.735

1.079
1.080
.957
1.021
1.150
1.070
1.088

.970
.760

1.176
.908

1.032
.869
1.043
.935
.989
.826
1.025
.842
1.013
.903
.886

.878
.782
.750
.836
.813
.650
.783
.778
.863
.795
.750

1.200
1.150
1.072
1.151
1.338
.965
1.100
.951
1.321
1.158
1.100

.936
.829
.804
.857
.940
.843
.839
.783
.982
.852
.836

.807
.780
.736
.821
.911
.600
.667
.737
.925
.796
.757

1.305
1.120
1.038
.898
.990
.995
.913
.852
1.343
1.113
1.009

.951
.855
.774
1.017
1.010
.907
.885
.793
.969
.865
.787

.950
.840
.760
.900
.970
.850
.840
.760
.950
.860
.780

.970
.870
.780
1.180
1.020
.920
.950
.820
1.030
.880
.800

.1
.1

1.148
.959
(2
)
1.216
1.057
.916
1.213
1.115
1.059

1.028
.900

1.373
1.000

1.278
1.239

1.211
.911
.750
1.083
.925
.825

1.286
1.118
.983
1.300
1.240
1.157

1.187
1.072
(2
)
1.154
.910
.895
1.236
1.214
.862

1.020
.875

.3
.2
.1
.3
.1
(*)

1.210
1.066
.889
1.248
1.078
.901
1.264
1.139
.952

1.037
.820
.800
1.000
.850
.823

1.345
.985
.977
1.448
1.326
.946

1.342
1.076
.887
1.272
1.118
.883
1.216
1.123
.935

1.225
.808
.817
1.092
.900
.822
1.082
.925
.875

1.590
1.375
1.193
1.603
1.248
1.069
1.613
1.300
1.099

1.236
1.061
.877
1.300
1.103
.893
1.296
1.089
.910

1.160
1.030
.860
1.250
1.080
.860
1.275
1.064
.880

1.260
1.090
.950
1.320
1.120
.930
1.314
1.131
.980

.2
2.2

1.110
1.192

1.106
1.222

.934
1.010

1.326
1.246

1.179
1.149

1.138
1.058

1.463
1.302

(2
)
1.146

1.076

1.180

(4)
(4
)

(4
)
(4
)

Welders, aluminum, A ............................................................
Welders, aluminum, B ...................................... ....................
Welders, aluminum, C............................................................
Welders, gas, A .......................................................................
Welders, gas, B .......................................................................
Welders, gas, O........................................................................
Welders, jig and fixtures, A ....................................................
Welders, jig and fixtures, B ....................................................
Welders, jig and fixtures, C ....................................................
Working supervisors, maintenance........................................
Working supervisors, production...........................................

(a
)

1 Data for Boeing A.ircraft Co. of Seattle included in United States totals but omitted from regional figures to avoid disclosure of individual operations.
2 Insufficient number of plants and/or employees to justify presentation of averages.
3Less than a tenth of 1 percent.
<Adequate data unavailable.




(4
)
(4
)

12

Of necessity the criteria employed in establishing classes within
occupations vary from job to job. Common criteria which apply to
many metalworking-machine operations will not apply to inspection
or assembly operations. In a machine-tool operation, such as an
engine-lathe operation, a class A operator would be called upon to
perforin complicated and diversified work, to work to close tolerances,
to perform difficult set-ups, and to assume a high degree of responsi­
bility; a class B operator, although working to close tolerances, would
have less diversity of work and less complicated set-ups; and a class C
operator would normally perform highly repetitive operations and
would be not much more than a machine tender. It should be pointed
out that the A, B and C classifications used are not comparable from
occupation to occupation, owing to wide differences in the levels of
skill represented. For example, a class A tool and die maker is a
much more skilled worker than class A operators in many other
occupations.
The straight-time average hourly earnings of factory workers in
the metal-airframe industry in the United States amounted to 95.0
cents an hour in December 1943. These earnings are based on data
for first-shift workers in the 57 representative occupations. More
than 90 percent of all first-shift workers were employed in these
occupations.
The wide dispersion in the occupational average hourly earnings
indicates, among other things, widely different skill levels in the
industry. Earnings varied from 68.9 cents an hour for learners to
$1,404 for class A tool and die makers. Of the 145 classes of workers
for which figures are presented 67, in which 29.8 percent of the work­
ers were employed, averaged $1.00 or more an hour. Another 65
occupational classes, accounting for 52.2 percent of the workers,
averaged between 85 cents and $1.00 an hour. Only 13 occupations,
with less than a fifth of the workers, had average hourly earnings
under 85 cents.
Much the same general wage levels were found in three of the four
broad geographic regions. The average for the Eastern region, 98.2
cents, was only 2.7 cents higher than that for the Southern California
region2 and 3 cents higher than that for the Central region. In all
three regions the averages for more than three-fourths of the occu­
pational classifications were distributed over the 35-cent range from
85 cents to $1.20. The general wage level in the Midwest was sub­
stantially lower (from 8 to 11 cents) than in the other three broad
regions. In this region, workers in nearly two-thirds of the occu­
pational classes averaged less than $1.00 an hour. In the Eastern and
Central regions workers in less than 45 percent of the occupational
classes had average hourly earnings below $1.00. In Southern Cali­
fornia, 56 percent of the workers were in occupations averaging less
than that amount.
Some idea of the variations in occupational average hourly earnings
within regions may be had from the high and low plant averages shown
in table 3 for each of the four regions. These figures are based on
data for all workers in all occupations. It should be pointed out that
2It should be noted that the average for all occupations for the Southern California region excludes
learners and working supervisors, data for whom were not available. The net effect of these important
exclusions has probably been to overstate the average slightly. In the following figures, data for learners
and working supervisors have been omitted from all regions: Eastern region, $0,977: Central, $0,967; Mid­
west, $0,902; and Southern California, $0,955.




13
the figures appearing in these two columns in any one region relate to
a number of different establishments and not to the same establish-*
ment, as no single plant in any one region pays the lowest or the
highest wages in all occupations.
The range in plant averages was influenced by many factors. Im­
portant among these were incentive-wage systems; these were in use
in too few plants to affect the average in any region materially, but
they had, nevertheless, a material effect in many occupations upon the
upper limit of the range. Lower limits In plant averages were influ­
enced by a few low-wage plants. In most cases these were small
plants which exercised little effect on the occupational averages. The
range in earnings for individual workers was, of course, much greater
than the range in plant averages.
Variations in Earnings, by Sex

Separate occupational averages for men and women factory workers
in the Eastern, Central, anti Midwestern regions are shown in table 4.
Similar information is not available, however, for Southern California.
As a group, men earned substantially more per hour than women.
For the Eastern, Central, and Midwestern regions combined, men
averaged 98.2 cents an hour, or 11.5 cents more than women. Much
of this advantage is undoubtedly due to the fact that women either
are not found or are found only in small numbers in many of the
higher-skilled and higher-paying occupations. When the comparison
is confined to the 35 occupational classifications in which both men
and women are employed in all regions, the men's advantage is reduced
from 11.5 to 4.1 cents. The latter difference, which represents lower
pay for women apparently doing the same work as men, is due in part
to variations among regions in the ratio of women in the occupations
and in part to the fact that the large majority of women have not
worked a sufficient length of time to have received the same propor­
tion of automatic and merit increases as men. In those occupations
in which women have been employed over a long period of time and
have acquired as much experience as men, the differences in the
earnings of men and women are undoubtedly very small.
T able 4.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etal-A irfram e W orkers in
Selected Occupations in Eastern , Centred, and M idwestern R egions, by Sex, 1943
Midwestern
region

Eastern region

Central region

Men

Women

Men

$1.019

$0,900

$0.997

$0,899

$0,912

$0.779

1.064
.892
0)
1.144
.973
.859
1.172
1.034
.971

0)
.975
.885
1.133
.924
.855
0)
0)
.871

1.035
.913
.858
1.138
.966
.910
1.086
1.030
.890

0)
.894
.866
1.110
.989
.952
0)
1.050
.895

1.067
.898
.841
1.044
.934
.838
1.055
.908
.833

0)
.823
.822
.988
.872
.816
0)
.904
.810

1.013
0)
.969
. 988
0)
C)
1Insufficient number of plants and/or workers to justify presentation of an average.

0)
.887
0)

0)
.834
(9

Occupation

All o c c u p a tio n s .
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,
Assemblers,

electrical and radio, A ____________
electrical and radio, B .....................
electrical and radio, C............. ........
general, A........................................
general, B........................ ...............
general, C.........................................
precision, bench, A ___________ _
precision, bench, B ______________
precision, bench, 0 ______________

Cable splicers, A_
_ ___ ___
Cable splicers, B
__
..
_ .
Cable splicers, C...................................................
604617°— 44------ 3




8

0)
0)

Women

Men

Women

14
T a b l e 4.—-Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etal-A irfram e W orkers in
Selected Occupations m Eastern , Central, and M idw estern R egions, by Sex , 1945— C od ,
Eastern region
Men

Men

Midwestern
region

Central region

Occupation
Women

Carpenters, maintenance, A___
Carpenters, maintenance. B___
Carpenters, maintenance. C___
Clerks, stock and stores_______
Craters, A .................
Craters, B ..................................

$1.098
1.088
0)
.901
1.043
.896

Drill-press operators. A ..............
Drill-press operators. B ..............
Drill-press operators. C..............
Electricians, maintenance. A __
Electricians, maintenance. B
Electricians, maintenance. C ___
Filers and burrers, A__..........
Grinder operators, A..................
Grinder operators. B.............
Grinder operators. C_______
Helpers, general, A.....................

1.013
.936
.921
1.259
1.143
1.016
.923
1.261
1.167
.882
.718

0)

Inspectors, detail, A .............................................
Inspectors, detail, B .............................................
Inspectors, detail, C .............................................
Inspectors, final assembly, A ...............................
Inspectors, final assembly, B....................... .......
Inspectors, final assembly, C ..............................
Inspectors, general assembly, A ...........................
Inspectors, general assembly, B ...........................
Inspectors, general assembly, C...........................
Inspectors, machined parts, A .............................
Inspectors, machined parts, B .............................
Inspectors, machined parts, C .__........................
Inspectors, service and flight, A ..........................
Inspectors, service and flight, B ..........................
Inspectors, service and flight, C..........................

1.103
.997
.905
1.176
1.133
.921
1.167
1.027
.902
1.303
1.111
.921
1.315
1.073

0)
.971
.855
0)
.974
.888
1.160
.986
.840
(0
0)
.841

Installers, controls, A ________________________
Installers, controls, B ..........................................
Installers, controls, C........................... ...............
Installers, electrical, A ..........................................
Installers, electrical, B ................................. ........
Installers, electrical, 0 ..........................................
Installers, general, A ________________ ________
Installers, general, B .............................................
Installers, general, C ...................................... .
Installers, hydraulics, A _____________________
Installers, hydraulics, B .......................................
Installers, hvdraulics, C ___ ___
____
Installers, power plant, A ______ __________
Installers, power plant, B ....................................
Installers, power plant, 0 .....................................

1.162
.996
0)
1.159
1.009
0)
1.152
.994
.870
0)
.905
O
')
1.123
1.005
0)

0)
.893
0)

Janitors, A ........................................................... .
Jig builders, A ______________________________
Jig builders, B ______________________________
Jig builders, C______________________________
Laborers, A ...........................................................

.767
1.370
1.239
.974
.725

.760

Lathe operators, engine, A ___________________
Lathe operators, engine, B ...................................
Lathe operators, engine, C.................................
Lathe operators, turret, A _______________ ____
Lathe operators, turret, B__................................
Lathe operators, turret, C _..................................

Women

$1.211
$0,822
0)
0)
.948
.884

.916
0)

.7 «

0)

0)
0)
0)
.936
.864
0)
0)
0)
0)

1.102
(0

.913
1.088
! 988

1.048
.980
.885
1.281
1.089
. 951
.917
1.231
1.103
.942
.790

1.021

1.202
1.109
.914
1.206
1.091
.897
1.157
.996
.840
1.277
1.056
.832
1.361
(i)
.998

’ 947
.866

$0.852
0)
0)

1.104
1.001
.893
0)
1.068
.878
0)
1.003
.905
(0
.957
.824

1.136
1.088
.912
1.177
.955
.946
1.015
1.096
.892
1.088
1.049
1.003
1.065
1.033
.890

Women

$1.101

. 818
. 986
! 868

.949
.870
(i)
.921

1.076
.891

.998
.892
.829

.728

1.192
1.033
.930
1.169
1.092
.887

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
.880

1.171
.983
.925
1.188
1.028
.923

0)
0)
.891

Learners......... .....................................................
Machinists, bench, A . _______ ________ _____
Machinists, bench, B ....... ......................... .........
Machinists, bench, 0 ...........................................

.701
1.212
1.036
.974

.676
0)

.724
1.188
1.022
.853

Mechanics, experimental, A ........... .....................
Mechanics, experimental, B __________________
Mechanics, experimental, C __________________
Mechanics, field and service, A ............ ..............
Mechanics, field and service, B _______________
Mechanics, field and service, 0 ...........................
Mechanics, maintenance, A .................. ..............
Mechanics, maintenance, B_ _ _
Mechanics, maintenance, 0 .................................

1.163
0)
0)
1.223
1.130
.949
0)
1.201
1.124
.937 ___

1.305
1.132
.946
1.301
1.144
1.002
1.190
1.072
.928

.866

.844
.942
.691
(i)
V846
(0
0)
1.047

o
■
1Insufficient number of plants and/or workers to justify presentation of an average.

. 855
! 798
(i)
. 862
! 744
(1
)

1.121
.963
.868
1.199
1.050
.906
2.108
.961
.904
1.182
1.026
. 951
1.300
1 111
! 969'

(l)
0)

0)
1.064

C)
1

1810

.912
.787

i. 093
.908

(i)
.841
. 794

1.214
1.014
. 881
.
’758

(0

i. 018
1.000

$0,762

.968
.849
.801
1.207
1.042
.906

0)

.815
1.344
1.192
.983
.842




Men

i

(l)
(i>

1.017
.905
.814
1 039
. 915
.829
1 031
.942
. 850
2 027
[ 906
.819
1.047
.930
.859

(i)
O)
(0
(1)
K;9io
.803
(!)
K .919
.813
(1)
0)
.814
(i)
0)
.829

.747
1.292
1.071
.940
.748

.742
0)

1.235
1.026
.890
1.214
1.032
.895
.677
1.137
.952
.852
(i)
0)
(i)
1.205
1.041
.921
1.150
.973
.917

.935

.847
C)
1
.976
. 865
('!)
. 916
.854
(i)
(i)
.88 7

.906
.734
0)
0)
0)
.879
.674
0)
0)
.804

0)
(1
)
«
(t)
0)

15
T able 4.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etalrAirfram e W orkers in
Selected Occupations in Eastern, Central, and M idwestern Regions, by S ex, 1943 — Con.
Eastern region

C entral region

M id w estern
region

O ccupation
M en
M etal Attars, A _
. ... _. .
.
M etal f i t t e r s ' B
_ _
_
___ _ _
___
M etal fitters', C_
M illin g-m achine operators, A ___ _____ _____
M illin g-m achine operators' B
... _
M illin g-m achine operators' C
Oilers, m aintenance, A _ ____________________
_

$1,127
1.026
.804
1.160
1.050
.913
.837

aircraft, A ___ ______ _________
aircraft’ B ______________________________
aircraft^ C _________________________
m aintenance, A_______
m aintenance, B
_ _
maintenance^ O _
_

1.099
1.024
.912
1.019
1.097

P lan t protection
. . . . . . .
P lum bers, m aintenance, A__________ __
_ __
P lum bers) m aintenance' B__
_
P lum bers, m aintenance' C ______
_ _ _____
Pow er-shear operators, A
. . . .

Power-shear operators, B ____________________
Power-shear operators, C____________________
P unch-press operators) A _______ _
_ __
Punch-press operators, B ____________________
Punch-press operators, C____________________

.853
1.159
1.027
0)
1.059
.926
.922
1.053
.914
0)

Riveters, A ________________ _____ _____ _____
Riveters, B _________________________________
Riveters, C............ ......... .....................................
Saw operators, A ____________________________
Saw operators, B ____________________________
Sheet-metai workers, bench, A _______________
Sheet-metal workers, bench, B ___________ ____
Sheet-m etal workers, bench , C_ _
Spot welders, A _____________________________
Spot welders, B ................ ...................................
Spot w elders, C . _
____

1.075
1.070
.910
1.034
.876
1.139
.978
.829
1.072
.878
0)

Template makers, A _____________ ___ _ _ __
Template makers, B_____________ _
_ __
Template makers, C _____ __________________
T o o l and die m akers, A _ _____

1.200
1.130
.900

Painters,
Painters,
Painters,
Painters'
Painters,
Painters^

T o o l and die m akers, B
Tool and die makers, C_

_____
Tool-crib attendants, A _______________

T ool-crib attendants, B . ____
T ool-crib attendants, C _.

__ _

_ __ . . . . . . . . .

W om en

0)

$0,956
.804
(i)

0)

.855.

(0
1.012
1.004
.843

.918

1.442

1.235
1.049
.971
.902
.822

M en
$1.165
1.039
.829
1.202
1.069
.891
.980
1.104
.944
.820
1.085
1.233

.801

0)
(v
(i)

(0
.984
0)
1.120
1.049
.895
1.026
.869
0)
.921
.835
(i)

.957
(0

0)

0)
.813
.771

.930
1.246
1.116
(0
1.045
1.016
.857
1.136
1.060
1.066
1.028
1.032
.852
1.039
1.071
1.097
1.016
.948
1.108
.980
1.022
1.187
.994
.913
1.387
1.181
1.057
1.044
.877
.960

(0
(0

Welders, aluminum, A __________________ ____
Welders, aluminum, B .........................................
W elders, alum inum , O ___ _
___
Welders, gas, A ________ ____________________
Welders, gas, B ________ __________ _________
Welders, gas, C.....................................................
W elders, jig and fixtures, A ___
Welders, jig and fixtures, B _______ __________
Welders, jig and fixtures, C_................................

1.146
(0
(0
1.208
1.062
.948
1.206
1.121
1.088

(0
0
(0
(0
1.037
.881
(0
(0
(0

1.188
1.102
(0
1.158
.949
.912
1.237
1.222
0)

Working supervisors, maintenance.. _ __ ._
Working supervisors, production_____________

1.119
1.227

(0
1.080

1.179
1.149

_
Truck drivers, A ____________________________
Truck drivers, B .... ........... ...... ...........................
Truckers, power, A_________________________
Truckers, power, B _ ________ _
T u b e benders, bench , A
T u b e benders, bench , B .......... . . _

Tube benders, bench, 0 _____________________

CO
IO. 823
1.000
.893
.982

0)
.835

(O
’
(0

.973
.851
.991
.828
1.026
.842
1.018
.943
.875

.913
(i)
0)
.878
.842
.913
.963
.907
.887
.827
.880
.858
(i)
.840
.884

$1.120
.942
.831
1.222
1.025
.889
.806
1.054
.954
.856
1.045
.924

.858
1.150
.957
.859
(0
.888
.807
1.007
.877
.831

.936
.935

.954
.911
.837
.942
.825
1.149
.994
.869
1.046
.901
.843

.974
.863
1.060

1.108
1.009
.895
1.332
1.150
.958
.948
.828
.844

0 )

0)

W om en

(0
0)

$0,862

0)
0)

1847

0)
0)

.868
.836

0)
.821
(0
.827
.799
0)
.856
.792
,82«V
.815
.831
0 )

.797

C)
1

.960
.836

0)

.869
.799

0 )

.832

.891
.830
.778
(0

.983
.865
.890

0)
0)
.940
.846
.840
.787
.990
.882
.846

0)
1.019
(0
(0
0)
.884
(0
(0
(0

1.365
0)
.931
1.272
1.158
.903
1.217
1.133
.941

(0
0)
. 806
0)
1.000
0)
(0

(1)

(0

0)
1.150

(1)
0)
0)

i Insufficient number of plants and/or workers to justify presentation of an average.




M en

.829

(0

(0
0)
.952
.948
.939
(*)
1.036
.836

T ru ck-cran e operators, A
T ru ck-cran e operators, B

W o m en

0)
.807
(0
.756
0)
.831
.822

0)
0)

16
Earnings in Plants o f A ircraft and O ther-Than-A ircraft Origin

The tremendous expansion in the airframe industry in recent
years was accomplished in part by enlarging and streamlining the
facilities of firms already in the field and in part by converting to the
manufacture of airframes some of the facilities of other mass-produc­
tion industries. As a result, there are within the industry two general
types of airframe plants—those of “ aircraft” origin (i. e., which were
already in the industry or which were developed solely for the purpose
of airframe assembly) and those of “ other than aircraft” origin (which
were converted to airframe manufacture or which are operated by
companies normally engaged in other types of production). Pre­
dominant in the latter group are factories operated by automobile
manufacturers; other industries are also represented.
A limited comparison of wage levels in these two general types of
airframe plants can be made for the Central region. This comparison
is limited to 29 broad occupations. Because of the difficulty en­
countered in classifying jobs in certain plants operated by the auto­
mobile industry, and also because of the small number of plants
available for such a comparison, figures are presented only for the
broad occupations and not for classes of workers within these jobs.
T able 5.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etal-A irfram e W orkers in
Selected Occupations in Central R egion , by Plant O rigin , 1943

Occupation

Assemblers, electrical and
rad io....................___........
Assemblers, general— .......
C arpenters, m aintenance. _.
Clerks, stock and stores......
Craters ________ _________
Drill-press operators....... .
Electricians, maintenance...
Filers and burrers___ _____
Grinder operators..... ...........
Inspectors, general assembly.
Inspectors, machined partsInstallers, electrical............ .
Installers, general.................
Janitors.................................

Plant origin
Total,
all air­
frame Air­ Other
than
plants craft
air­
craft

$0,883 $0,848
.915
.968
1.171 1.146
.886
.840
1.017 1.000
.918
.936
1.175 1.128
.921
.846
1.070 1.043
.983
.933
.938
1.004
.982
1.014
.985
.956
.821
.794

$1,039
1.061
1.218
.964
1.084
1.021
1.248
.995
1.181
1.163
1.187
1.085
1.057
.874

Occupation

Jig builders............ .............
Laborers_________________
Lathe operators, engine.......
Lathe operators, turret........
Machinists, bench________
Milling-machine operators. .
Painters, aircraft-................
Power-shear operators........
Punch-press operators_____
Riveters....... ......... ..............
Sheet-metal workers............
T emplate makers.................
Tool and die makers............
Truckers, power..................
Tube benders, bench.........

Plant origin
Total,
all air­
frame Air­ Other
plants craft than
air­
craft
$1.162 $1,098
.843
.834
1.050 1.045
1.020
.868
.970
.951
1.007
.977
.978
.930
.977
.950
1.055
.968
.913
.874
.960
.926
1.055 1.002
1.271 1.221
1.009
.888
.912
.870

$1,274
.921
1.073
1.131
1.053
1.185
1.077
1.044
1.133
.957
1.040
1.190
1.414
1.094
.986

In all 29 occupations, workers in plants of other than aircraft
origin averaged more per hour than did similar workers in plants of
aircraft origin. The difference varied from 2.8 cents for engine-lathe
operators to 26.8 cents an hour for turret-lathe operators (table 5).
In 22 of the occupations, the difference was 10 cents or more and
in 5 it was 20 cents or more. The average difference in favor of plants
of other than aircraft origin amounted to 13.1 cents.3 The greatest
differences between the two groups of plants were in the earnings of
3 This figure represents the difference between the weighted averages for each group of plants for the
29 selected occupations only. The averages in each case were arrived at by using as a weight for each
occupation the total number of workers in that occupation in the region, rather than the actual number in
each group of plants. Thus, variations in occupational structure between the two groups of plants were
not reflected in the comparison.




17
workers in the intermediate and lower classes within occupations.
Differences in the earnings of workers in the upper classes were
quite limited. The higher earnings in plants of other than aircraft
origin are due largely to the level of earnings in plants either con­
verted from automobile production or operated by former auto­
mobile manufacturers. These plants pay automotive wages, which
are, on the whole, considerably higher than those paid in plants of
aircraft origin.
Trend o f Factory W orkers’ H ours and Earnings

Wage rates in this industry have risen rapidly since the outbreak
of the war. Hourly earnings for aircraft and parts plants averaged
only 78 cents in January 1941, while the somewhat more restricted
airframe industry paid an average of $1.12 in December 1943 (table
6). These figures indicate an increase of almost 45 percent. Little
of this rise was due to increased overtime payments, since average
weekly hours of work rose but slightly. On the other hand, shift
differentials have exercised an influence of increasing importance.
Drastic changes in occupational structure have also occurred.
Dependable information regarding changes in average wage rates
is not available for this entire period. On the basis of available
information, it appears that wage changes resulting from general
wage increases accounted for less than half of the over-all increase.
Since these do not take into account merit increases and other adjust­
ments affecting individual workers or small groups, it must be
considered as a minimum estimate of the wartime increase in wage
rates in the airframe industry.
T a b l e 6. — W eekly H ours and H ourly Earnings in M anufacture o f A ircraft and Parts,

1941 and 1942 , and A irfram es , 1943
H o u r ly earnings
W e e k ly
hours
U n ad­
Ad­
justed » justed 2

In d u stry and date

H o u r ly earnings
In d u stry and date

Aircraft and parts

1942— C on tin u ed .
A u g u st__________ ____
S eptem ber. _
O ctober _ _ __
N o v e m b e r.................. ..
D ecem ber.

U nadAd­
ju s t e d 1 ju s te d 2

Aircraft and parts— C on.

1941:
January
F eb ru a ry____________
M arch
A p r il..............................
M a y _________________
June.......................... ..
J u ly ............................ ..
A u gu st...........................
Septem ber_________
O ctober______________
N ovem b er____ ______
D e c e m b e r___________

W e e k ly
hours

1942:
January___________
February__________
March_____________
April______________
M ay .

_

.

_

June
July...........................

44.7
45.5
45.2
45.1
45.4
45.0
44.8
45.6
45.5
45.2
44.4
46.3

$0.78
.78
.78
.79
.79
.80
.81
.85
.85
.87
.90
.92

$0.73
.73
.73
.73
.74
.74
.76
.79
.79
.81
.85

48.7
47.7
47.6
47.3
47.7
47.2
46.6

.96
.95
.96
.97
.98
.99
.99

.88
.87
.88
.89
.90
.91
.92

.85

46.7
46.3
46.3
46.6
46.9

$0.99
1.01
.99
1.00
1.00

$0.92
.94
.92
.92
.92

46.5
46.0
46.1

.99
1.00
.99

.91
.93
.92

47.1
46.6
46.4
45.4
45.6
46.4
46.6
46.6
45.6

1.04
1.05
1.06
1.06
1.07
1.11
1.10
1.11
1.12

.96
.97
.98
.99
.99
1.03
1.02
1.03
1.04

Airframes
1943:
Jan u ary_____________
F e b ru a ry .................... .
M a r c h ...........................

April______________
May...........................
June_______________
July...........................
August......................
Septem ber
O cto b e r________

November_________
December_________

1 Gross earnings including both premium-overtime and shift-differential earnings.
2 Net earnings-excluding premium-overtime earnings but including shift-differential earnings.




18
Changes in O ccupational R ates, 1942-43

Information regarding changes in hourly wage rates is available
for a period of approximately 1% years. Table 7 presents occupa­
tional wage rates reported in an earlier study by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and applying to the spring and fall of 1942. These are
compared with data for the same occupations and classes as of Decem­
ber 1943. Comparable figures are available for 72 classifications
within 30 occupations. The comparison in both years is confined
to establishments engaged in the manufacture of metal airframes.
T able 7.— Com parison o f Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etal-A irfram e
W orkers in Selected O ccupations in the United States, 1942 and 1943

Occupation

Average
hourly earn­
ings
1942

1943

Assemblers, general, A ......... $1,026 $1.122
.909
.955
Assemblers, general, B ........
.870
Assemblers, general, C ........ .802
Assem blers, precision,
bench, A _______________ 1.047 1.137
Assem blers, precision ,
.903
.995
bench, B _______ ____ ___
Assem blers, precision ,
.783
.870
bench, C............. __....... .
Carpenters, maintenance, A. 1.068 1.151
Carpenters, maintenance,'B. .904 1.027
Drill-press operators, A ....... .915 1.000
Drill-press operators, B ....... .821
.910
.829
Drill-press operators, C ....... .769
Electricians, maintenance,
A. . _________________ 1.140 1.263
Electricians, maintenance,
B
..... ........... ......... .948 1.100
Grinder operators, A............ 1.169 1.210
.951 1.042
Grinder operators, B,______
Grfndpr npp.rflf.nrs, C .
.896
.819
.754
Helpers, general, A ________ .747
Inspectors, detail, A ............ 1.034 1.128
Inspectors, detail, B _______ .874 1.000
Inspectors, final assembly,
.......... ............................ 1.135 1.217
A.
Inspectors, final assembly,
.987 1.094
B .................... ...........................
Inspectors, general assem­
bly, A ................................ 1.040 1.147
Inspectors, general assem­
.993
bly, B ...................................... .909
Inspectors, general assem­
.873
bly, C ....................................... .834
Installers, electrical, A ........... 1.014 1.092
.957
Installers, electrical, B ........... .882
Installers, general, A .............. .938 1.060
.844 1.006
Installers, general, B ...........
.867
Installers, general, C............ .791
.744
.776
Janitors, A _______ __________
Jig builders, A .......................... 1.199 1.342
.982 1.158
Jig builders, B ..................
.978
Jig builders, C._................... .838
.772
Laborers, A _________________ .750
Lathe operators, engine, A .. 1.154 1.190
Lathe operators, engine, B__ .952 1.009
Lathe operators, engine, C._ .821
.907

Per­
cent
of in­
crease

9.4
5.1
8.5
8.6
10.2
11.1
7.8
13.6
9.3
10.8
7.8
10.8
16.0
3.5
9.6
9.4
.9
9.1
14.4
7.2
10.8

Occupation

1942
Lathe operators, turret, A ...
Lathe operators, turret, B ...
Lathe operators, turret, C ...
Machinists, bench, B ...........
Machinists, bench, C______
Mechanics, field and serv­
ice, A __________________
Mechanics, field and serv­
ice, B ______ _____ ______
Mechanics, field and serv­
ice, C ................ .......... .
Mechanics, maintenance, A .
Mechanics, maintenance, B.
Mechanics, maintenance, C.
Milling-machine operators,
A ___
_______ ____ _
Milling-machine operators,
B .................. .................
Milling-machine operators,
C _____________ _____ _
Painters, aircraft, A _______
Painters, aircraft, B _______
Painters, aircraft, C.............
Riveters, A ____________
Riveters, B....... ...................
Saw operators, A __________
Saw operators, B .....................
Sheet-metal workers, bench,
B ........ .......................................

10.3
9.2
4.7
7.7
8.5
13.0
19.2
9.6
4.3
11.9
17.9
16.7
2.9
3.1
6.0
10.5

Average
hourly earn­
ings

Sheet-metal workers, bench,
C............. ................... ...........
Tool and die makers, A ........
Tool and die makers, B ........
Tool and die makers, C ........
Tool-crib attendants, A ____
Tool-crib attendants, B ____
Tube benders, bench, A ____
Tube benders, bench. B ___
Welders, aluminum and gas,
A.
.
Welders, aluminum and gas,
B ..............................
Welders, aluminum and gas,
C.
Welders, jig and fixtures, A ..
Welders, jig and fixtures, B ..

1943

$1.153 $1.191
.975 1.025
.827
.904
.889
.990
.780
.849

Per­
cent
of in­
crease

3.3
5.1
9.3
11.4
8.8

1.107

1.289

.950

1.115

17.4

.825
1.080
.953
.846

.963
1.217
1.068
.939

16.7
12.7
12.1
11.0

1.156

1.185

2.5

.967

1.045

8.1

.828
.957
.849
.805
.888
.809
.857
.804

.890
1.085
.970
.851
1.044
.954
.990
.907

7.5
13.4
14.3
5.7
17.6
17.9
15.5
12.8

.905

.970

7.2

.806
1.312
1.067
.887
.863
.789
.924
.818

.873
1.397
1.190
1.028
.976
.856
.984
.870

8.3
6.5
11.5
15.9
13.1
8.5
6.5
6.4

16.4

1.148

1.233

7.4

.992

1.073

8.2

.825
1. 216
1.003

.898
1.255
1.135

8.8
3.2
13.2

It is apparent from this table that wage rates were materially
higher in 1943 than in 1942. The increases ranged from 0.9 percent
for general helpers to 19.2 percent for general installers, class
B. In 32 instances the increases exceeded 10 percent, in 31 instances
they varied from 5 to 10 percent, and in 9 cases they amounted to less
than 5 percent. However, these gains were not Nation-wide in all




19
occupations, decreases in certain occupational averages occurring within
specific regions. These decreases, as well as the variations in the
amount of increase in earnings among the remaining occupations, are
due largely to changes in the distribution of workers within the rate
ranges in given occupations. An increased concentration of workers
at the lower limits of the rate range as a result of labor turnover would
obviously result in a lower average without a decrease in the wage rate
of any individual worker.
EA R N IN G S OF OFFICE W O R K E RS

Wage data were collected during the course of the survey of the
metal-airframe manufacturing industry for 29,222 office workers in 9
occupations. Data for these occupations, all of which are below the
executive and administrative levels, are presented in table 8. All
but 8 percent of the employees are women and, as a result, it is not
feasible to show separate figures by sex. Although some plants recog­
nize A, B, and C grades in these occupations, many more do not
recognize these divisions; hence, the averages shown for each occupa­
tion are for all employees combined.
Average earnings of office workers varied from 65.8 cents for office
boys and girls to 87.5 cents an hour for bookkeepers. Most of the
workers were concentrated in 3 of the 9 occupations, namely, general
clerks, stenographers, and typists. Earnings were somewhat higher
in the Western region than in the other regions. The greatest varia­
tion in earnings among occupations was found in the Eastern region
where earnings varied from 58.6 cents an hour for office boys and girls
to 93.9 cents an hour for bookkeepers. The least variation in earnings
was found in the Central region, where there was a spread of only 21.8
cents between the lowest average (57.4 cents for office boys and girls)
and the highest average (79.2 cents an hour for bookkeepers).
T able 8.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f M etal-A irfram e W orkers in
Selected Office O ccupations, by R egion , 1943
Occupation
Accounting clerks__________________ ______ _____
Bookkeepers____________________________________
Ualenlating-maehine operators
_ _ _
File clerks______________________________ _______
General clerks___________________________________
Office hoys and girls
Stenographers_______ ___________________________
Switchboard operators_
_
_ __ _
Typists............................. .............. ........... ......... ......




United
States
$0,852
.875
.780
.733
.748
.658
.838
.796
.728

Eastern
region

Central
region

$0,838
.939
.731
.684
.759
.586
.781
.701
.691

$0,738
.792
.763
.727
.712
.574
.742
.719
.709

Midwest Western
region
region
$0,856
.906
.753
.724
.795
.692
.788
.789
.746

$0,905
.906
.836
.777
.776
.777
.929
.861
.773

A ppendix A .— W age Stabilization in the A irfram e Industry
DEVELOPM ENTS SINCE 1938

Prior to 1938, the wage structure in the airframe industry was com­
pletely unstandardized. Such wage data as are available for that
period indicate wide variations in the wages paid in the various plants
in the industry.1
The first attempt at wage stabilization in the industry was directed
toward the establishment of minimum rates. In December 1938, the
Secretary of Labor established a 50-cent minimum rate for the aircraft
industry under the authority of the Public Contracts Act. This rate
remained in effect until after the beginning of the National Defense
Program. Then, in 1940, as a result of wage negotiations between
employers and employees, minima above the 50-cent rate were estab­
lished. Finally, late in 1941, under the leadership of the Labor Divi­
sion of the Office of Production Management, a beginners’ scale of 60
cents per hour, with provisions for automatic advancement to 75 cents
per hour, was put into effect in all but one of the Southern California
airframe plants— and this plant adopted the same scale in January
1942\

This standardization of minimum-wage rates in the California plants
did not prevent the continuance of marked differences in the wages of
experienced workers in various classified occupations. It was to be
expected that these plants, having taken the first steps toward stabili­
zation, should look toward the possibility of further adjustment, par­
ticularly since maladjustments in the wage scales raised problems of
labor turnover and worker morale.
In July 1942, a wage-stabilization conference was held under the
sponsorship of the Labor Production Division of the War Production
Board. No conclusion was reached at this conference, owing in part
to the belief that the Government would not approve any general wage
increase as part of an agreed plan of wage stabilization. In September
1942, the National War Labor Board took jurisdiction over all of the
West Coast airframe cases.1 Hearings were held in Los Angeles in
2
October and recommendations were submitted to the Board in Jan­
uary 1943.3 After a hearing, the Board issued its wage order on March
3, 1943, which aimed at stabilized wages in the airframe industry in
Southern California.
Approval of the Southern California plan by the Board encouraged
the submission of new wage proposals by individual plants in other sec­
tions of the country. Many unions and firms had been waiting for the
Board’s California decision before requesting approval of similar plans
for their own plants. During the early summer, the National War
1United States Department of Labor, Exhibit I, Proceedings before the Public Contracts Board. Data
collected by the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America.
2 Cases Nos. 174, 307, 557, 558, 608, 609, 610, and 673.
8 In the matter of West Coast Airframe Companies: Report and recommendations of Paul R. Porter,,
chairman of wage hearings held in Los Angeles, October 12-17,1942.




(20)

21

Labor Board approved in quick succession the establishment of jobevaluation labor-grade systems in a number of airframe plants in the
Midwest and the South. The basic approach was generally in accord
with that used in the case of the Southern California plants. As a
result, by mid-1943 well over four-fifths of the employees in the air­
frame industry were in plants operating under job-evaluation laborgrade plans.
In a case involving the Boeing Aircraft Co. of Seattle, Wash., the
Board in September 1943 altered somewhat the decision made in
connection with the Southern California plan. First of all, the Boe­
ing decision eliminated the learner brackets found in the Southern
California plan; and, second, it set up a single rate for each of the 10
labor grades instead of a range of rates. Wage rates were also es­
tablished at a somewhat higher level than in Southern California
plants, in order to enable that company to secure and hold the necessary
workers.
The War Labor Board also approved the proposal of the Grumman
Aircraft Corporation in September 1943 for a company-wide incen­
tive plan, designed to bring about a rapid increase in plane output.
The incentive plan adopted at that time provided for a percentage
increase according to production in excess of 0.48 pounds of airframe
per man-hour actually worked. A 2-percent increase in production
resulted in a 1-percent increase in earnings of all those employees sub­
ject to the plan. In addition, 5 cents per hour was added to the base
pay of each employee entitled to participate in the plan.
In other decisions, the National War Labor Board directed the
installation of labor-grade systems for office and technical workers,
completing the stabilization program for the entire plant and office.
An airframe panel was established by the Board in September
1943 to handle all wage cases arising in the industry. On January 1,
1944, the jurisdiction of this panel was limited to a specified list of
companies. ( At the time of this writing, the panel had not been in
operation a sufficient length of time to indicate the trend of its deci­
sions. However, it appears that much of the work remaining to be
done by the Board lies in adjustments within the scope of the wage
pattern, which now includes a large part of the industry.
JOB E V ALU ATION

Virtually all airframe manufacturing plants have job-evaluation
plans. These plans attempt to rationalize wage differentials among
jobs by means of a systematic study of job requirements. Depend­
ing on its requirements of skill and effort and certain other qualities,
each job is classified in an appropriate “ labor grade” carrying a pre­
determined wage or wage range. Somewhat more than four-fifths
of the workers in this industry are in plants which have labor-grade
systems along the lines either of the Southern California Airframe
Industry (SCAI) plan or of the National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA) plan. Converted automobile plants retain
the plan developed in the automobile industry, while most of the
remaining plants operate under various other plans. Less than 1
percent of the workers are found in plants which have no factory­
wide plan whatever.




22

The Southern California Airframe Industry (SCAI) plan, under
which fully one-half of the workers in the industry are now working,
provides for a list of 116 titles for factory occupations.4 Counting the
*
A, B, and C classes which are provided for in most of these occupations,
there are 291 job classifications in all. This represents a consolidation
and redefinition of over 1,150 occupational titles which were in use as
late as the year 1941.
Job evaluation under the SCAI plan involves a quantitative apprai­
sal of the importance of each of seven factors related to every job:
Skill, mentality, equipment and material responsibility, mental appli­
cation, physical application, job conditions, and unavoidable hazards.
The requirements of each job are expressed in terms of a scale of
points which varies according to the relative importance of each factor
and the degree to which that factor is judged to be involved. The
factor of skill carries the greatest weight, with point values based upon
the length of training and experience normally required to qualify the
worker for the occupation. Other factors are evaluated in terms of 5
degrees, with a weight ranging from 20 to 100 points for “ mentality”
and from 5 to 45 points for “ unavoidable hazards.” As an illustra­
tion, the factor of mentality in the occupation of laborer requires that
he “ must be able to follow simple written or verbal instructions only” —
this comes within the first degree and earns 20 points out of a possible
100 toward the total rating score. Toward the other end of the scale
is the tool and die maker, who must develop and make a tool solely
from a drawing, and have the ability to use shop mathematics, includ­
ing trigonometry, and to interpret complicated blue prints. This abil­
ity earns a tool and die maker a total of 100 points to apply toward the
total job rating. In the occupation of laborer, less than 3 months7
experience is normally required, which is good for only 15 points;
while 6 years7experience is given as the normal requirement for a tool
and die maker, with a point value of 345. The highest total point
value actually given on any job is 655 for service and flight inspectors,
and the lowest, 125 points, for janitors. Eight of the ten labor grades
have a spread of 50 evaluation points; for example, from 200 to 250
for labor grade IX and from 550 to 600 for labor grade II. Labor
grade X has a spread of 75 points— from 125 to 200; and labor grade I
includes occupations evaluated at 600 points or more.
The 291 factory occupational classifications established under the
SCAI plan are classified under 10 labor grades, the evaluation points
of each classification determining the grade into which it falls. The
specific rates and evaluation points for each labor grade as established
by the National War Labor Board for shop occupations in the Southern
California Airframe Industry are found in table 9.
Labor grade X , which includes the least-skilled occupations, is
divided into two parts. A flat rate of 75 cents an hour is set for
certain of the lowest-rated jobs, such as that of janitor, while a wage
range of 75 to 80 cents is set for other jobs coming within this labor
grade, such as that of class B anodizer and class C electrical assembler.
Labor grades X -B and X -C thus consist of jobs in which the indi­
vidual worker is subject to upgrading as his experience on the job
becomes greater. Labor grades V, VI, VII, VIII and IX have a
4A separate SCAI evaluation plan has been established for supervisory, technical, and office occupations,
providing for 14 labor grades with wage rates ranging from $0.75 to $1.75 per hour. It follows the factory plan
m principle of operation.




23
10-cent range in rates; labor grades II, III, and IV, a 15-eent range
in rates; and labor grade I a 20-cent range in rates. These ranges
overlap, except in the case of labor grade X .
T able 9.— Evaluation P oints and H ourly W age Rates by Labor Grades, Southern Cali­
forn ia A irfram e Industry , as Established by N ational W ar Labor Board , M arch 3 ,1943

Labor grades

Grade X -A ____________________________________
Grada
and G
Grada TX
Grada VTTT
Grada VTT
Grada VT
_ _
Grada V
_ . _ ___
_
. _ _ _ _ ___
Orada T V ^
. . . _ ...
_ ___
Grada T T
T
_
_
_
Grada T ....... .
T
...... . ... ..............
__ ._. _____
___ . . . . . .
Grada T

Evaluation
points

125-200
125-200
200-250
250-300
300-350
350-400
400-450
450-500
500-550
550-600
600 and over

Hourly wage rates
Minimum

Maximum

$0.75
.75
.80
.85
.90
.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.20
1.25

$0.75
.80
.90
.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.20
1.25
1.35
1.45

Specialist

$1.30
1.35
1.45
1.60

Specialist rates are provided for not more than 10 percent of the
workers in labor grades I to IV, to provide rates somewhat above
the ordinary level for especially skilled workers; and, for class A and
B welders, to permit the continued payment of rates, established by
certain collective agreements, at a level higher than would have been
provided under an automatic application of evaluation points.
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) plan
was formulated earlier than the SCAI plan. It has been adopted by
the National Metal Trades Association, and has had wide acceptance
among eastern plants. In terms of numbers of employees affected, it
is second in importance to the SCAI plan, accounting for a third of the
factory workers in the industry. The basic concepts of job evaluation
and the payment of wage rates according to labor grades under the
NEMA plan are practically identical with those of the SCAI plan.
Under the NEM A plan, evaluation is made for each occupation in
terms of 11 factors under 4 broad categories, namely, skill, effort, re­
sponsibility, and job conditions. Only 7 factors, it will be remem­
bered, were considered under the SCAI plan. The principal differ­
ences between the 2 plans in the items on which the job is rated consist
of the substitution of education, experience, initiative, and ingenuity
under the NEMA plan for 2 groups, skill and mentality, under the
SCAI plan. Responsibility for the safety of others and for the work
of others, which are not rated under the SCAI plan, are included by
the NEM A plan. Point values range from 162 to 381 in the 10 grades
for male employees. A distinctive feature of this plan, as it is used in
some plants, is the establishment of 5 separate labor grades for women.
Two of these grades lie below the tenth labor grade for men, with eval­
uation points under 140 for the lowest, and from 140 to 161 for the next
lowest. The remaining 3 grades correspond to labor grades X , IX ,
and V III for men.
The plan found in plants operated by automobile manufacturers
does not provide for classes within occupations and for that reason is
not convertible to the SCAI or the NEMA plans. Less than 10 per­
cent of the workers in plants manufacturing completed airframes are
employed in such plants.




24
V A R IA T IO N S IN E A R N IN G S, B Y LA BO R GRADE

As has been indicated, job-evaluation labor-grade wage systems
have become common in all sections of the country. An analysis of
wage rates by labor grades for those plants in which such systems are
found is consequently of considerable interest.
Earnings data for each of the 10 labor grades are presented in tables
10 and 11 for the country as a whole, and for each of 4 regions. In
these tables, data representing the SCAI and NEMA plans and certain
of the minor plans have been combined. Plants of automotive origin,
however, and plants not operating under labor-grade systems, have
been excluded from these tabulations. As previously indicated, job
requirements and wage levels range downward from grade I, the high­
est under the plan, to grade X , the lowest classified grade. No figures
are shown for learners, stock and store clerical employees, plant pro­
tection workers, and working supervisors, as these occupations do not
come within the 10 labor grades.
T able 10.— Percent o f Em ploym ent and Straight-Tim e A verage H ourly Earnings in
M etal-A irfram e Plants , by Labor Grade and R egion, 1943 1
Eastern

United States2

Central

Southern
California

Midwest

Labor grades Percent Average Percent Average Percent Average Percent Average Percent Average
of em­ hourly of em­ hourly of em­ hourly of em­ hourly of em­ hourly
earn­
earn­
earn­
ploy­
ploy­
earn­
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
earn­
ings
ings
ings
ment
ment
ment
ment
ings
ment
ings
All grades.......

100.0

$0,948

100.0

$0,945

100.0

$0,932

100.0

$0.910

100.0

$0,959

Grade I ...........
Grade I I ------Grade III.......
Grade IV ........
Grade V .........
Grade V I........
Grade V II___
Grade V I I I ...
Grade I X .......
Grade X .........

1.5
1.5
3.8
10.8
3.7
7.2
19.6
10.9
25.6
15.4

1.352
1.256
1.183
1.137
1.087
1.025
.968
.889
.856
.785

1.1
.8
3.2
13.3
2.8
7.3
28.3
7.6
16.7
18.9

1.335
1.205
1.161
1.139
1.128
1.032
.973
.883
.854
.742

1.6
.9
3.3
5.1
2.9
7.4
16.8
18.3
26.8
16.9

1.342
1. 217
1.168
1.121
1.054
1.004
.991
.875
.875
.812

1.1
2.0
3.6
8.9
4.1
6.6
21.4
6.8
28.1
17.4

1.312
1.181
1.140
1.064
1.035
.978
.934
.872
.837
.777

1.9
2.1
4.3
13.8
4.2
7.1
18.0
9.6
28.5
10.5

1.355
1.296
1.181
1.134
1.076
1.023
.961
.891
.850
.767

1 Excludes establishments of automotive origin and establishments not operating under job-evaluation
plans.
2 Data for Boeing Aircraft Co. of Seattle included in United States totals but omitted from regional figures
to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

T able 11.— Straight-Tim e A verage H ourly Earnings o f W orkers in M etal-A irfram e
P lants , by Labor Grade, O ccupation , and R egion , 1943 1
Percent
of em­
ploy­ United
ment
States2

Labor grade and occupation

All labor grades'

Mechanics, experimental, A __________
T o o l and die m akers, A _

_

_

_

Mechanics, field and service, A ______
Mechanics, maintenance, A ...................
See footnotes at end of table.




Central

Southern
Midwest California

$0.948

$0,945

$0.932

$0.910

$0,959

.2
.6
.2
.6

Tnt 5nAotnrs, sPfvir>p and flight, A
<
Jig bu ild ers, A

■Rleotfioians, m aintenance, A

Eastern

100.0

-

Grade I:

Grade II:

Average hourly earnings

1.333
1.338
1.306
1.385

1.315
1.314
1.163
1.375

1.300
1.312
1.305
1.371

1.300
1.292
(3
)
1.332

1.345
1.344
1.322
1.403

.5
.5
.5

1.250
1.294
1.217

1.241
1.205
1.143

1.230
1.248
1.188

1.207
1.204
1.150

1.278
1.318
1.275

25
T

able

11.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f Workers in M etal-Airfram e
Plants, by Labor Grade, Occupation, and Region, 1943 — C o n t in u e d
Average hourly earnings

Labor grade and occupation

Grade III:
Grinder operators, A ...............................
Inspectors, final assembly, A ..................
Inspectors, machined parts, A ____ ____
Inspectors, service and flight, B._..........
Jig builders, B.........................................
Lathe operators, engine, A ......................
Lathe operators, turret, A . . ...................
Mechanics, experimental, B ......... .........
Milling-machine operators, A .................
Template makers, A ................................
Tool and die makers, B ...........................
Grade IV:
Assemblers, general, A ............................
Assemblers, precision, bench, A — .........
Carpenters, maintenance, A ...................
Electricians, maintenance, B — ..........._
Inspectors, detail, A .............. ..................
Inspectors, general assembly, A .............
Installers, hydraulics, A ..........................
Installers, power plant, A ........................
Machinists, bench, A ..............................
Mechanics, field and service, B ..............
Mechanics, maintenance, B ....................
Metal fitters, A ....... ................................
Plumbers, maintenance, A —
...................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, A ...............
Welders, gas, A ........ ..............................
Welders, jig and fixtures, A .....................
Grade V:
Installers,* controls, A ._...........................
Installers, electrical, A ............................
Installers, general, A.__.......... ...............
Painters, aircraft, A — .............................
Painters, maintenance, A ........................
Welders, aluminum, A ............................
Grade VI:
Craters, A .................................................
Drill-press operators, A _______________
Grinder operators, B — .........................
Inspectors, final assembly, B ..................
Inspectors, machined parts, B ................
Inspectors, service and flight, C.............
Jig builders, C_........................... ............
Lathe operators, engine, B ......................
Lathe operators, turret, B .....................
Mechanics, experimental, C ...................
Milling-machine operators, B .................
Power-shear operators, A ........................
Punch-press operators, A ........................
Riveters, A .......... ................ ...................
Spot welders, A_________ _______ _____
Template makers, B ....... ........................
Tool and die makers, C— ......................
Truck drivers, A ......................................
Grade VII:
Assemblers, electrical and radio, A_.......
Assemblers, general, B .._........................
Assemblers, precision, bench, B .............
Carpenters, maintenance, B _____ _____
Electricians, maintenance, C..................
Inspectors, detail, B__............................
Inspectors, general assembly, B .............
Installers, controls, B .......... ...................
Installers, electrical, B _________ ______
Installers, general, B ...............................
Installers, hydraulics, B ..........................
Installers, power plant, B........................
Machinists, bench, B ..............................
Mechanics, field and service, C ..............
atfechanics, maintenance, C....................
Metal fitters, B ........................................
Painters, aircraft, B .................................
Painters, maintenance, B ........................
See footnotes at end of table.




of em­
ploy­
ment

United
States 8

Eastern

Central

0.2
.5
.2
.1
.9
.3
.3
.4
.4
.2
.3

$1.206
1.221
1.238
1.164
1.150
1.194
1.201
1.146
1.203
1.198
1.185

$1.158
1.147
1.297
1.073
1.155
1.175
1.165
<)
3
1.155
1.225
1.144

$1,202
1.157
1.281
(3
)
1.150
1.170
1.188
1.125
1.197
1.172
1.158

$1.214
1.195
1.181
1.111
1.071
1.235
1.214
(3
)
1.221
1.108
1.150

$1.176
1.255
1.189
1.194
1.156
1.186
1.192
1.159
1.179
1.176
1.178

4.9
.4
.4
.3
.2
.6
.5
.3
.3
.9
.5
.3
.1
.6
.3
.3

1.137
1.142
1.139
1.084
1.117
1.142
1.145
1.114
1.166
1.111
1.074
1.138
1.162
1.115
1.243
1.251

1.143
1.169
1.056
1.109
1.106
1.166
(3
)
1.117
1.212
1.081
1.109
1.105
1.158
1.121
1.179
1.170

1.147
1.085
1.182
1.029
1.102
1.138
1.088
1.065
1.171
1.066
1.069
1.165
1.119
1.091
1.149
1.139

1.041
1.054
1.101
1.042
1.112
1.111
1.026
1.046
1.136
1.041
.973
1.118
1.150
i. 149
1.272
1.216

1.126
1.132
1.142
1.121
1.109
1.122
1.128
1.125
1.129
1.125
1.107
1.135
1.167
1.120
1.300
1.296

.3
.6
2.1
.5
.2
.1

1.093
1.118
1.074
1.078
1.061
1.206

1.061
1.159
1.151
1.060
1.008
1.129

1.136
1.177
1.014
1.061
1.077
1.175

1.017
1.034
1.029
1.054
1.045
(3
)

1.075
1.069
1.069
1.080
1.079
1.236

.2
.4

1.033
1.041
1.055
1.075
1.017
.975
.978
1.020
1.031
.963
1.040
1.035
1.050
1.031
1.055
1.021
1.024
1.009

1.021
1.006
.873
1.091
1.081
1.002
.965
1.017
1.085
(3
)
1.049
1.035
1.049
1.032
1.070
1.070
1.047
.922

1.088
1.041
1.044
1.036
.993
(3
)
.981
.972
.978
.932
1.026
1.035
1.091
.992
1.024
.994
1.022
.981

.986
.961
1.013
1.039
1.022
.970
.939
1.024
1.031
(3
)
1.024
(3
)
.997
.864
1.033
.992
.958
.940

1.009
1.009
1.009
1.114
1.018
(3
)
.999
1.019
1.016
1.017
1.025
1.022
1.026
1.021
1.015
1.010
1.009
1.010

.978
.954
.994
1.005
.934
.951
.965
1.043
.958
.990
.970
.967
.987
.952
.937
.985
.949
.987

1.033
.963
1.009
1.059
.993
.961
1.006
.890
.993
.988
.916
.997
1.026
.912
.916
1.016
.981
1.012

1.026
.957
1.032
1.010
.928
.938
.941
1.088
.965
1.072
1.049
1.030
1.021
.974
.927
1.038
.919
.938

1.001
.910
.906
.947
.900
.950
.947
.902
.914
.940
.905
.928
.948
.922
.917
.937
.923
.894

.955
.957
.958
.964
.944
.945
.963
.957
.951
.956
. .964
.960
.957
.969
.955
.961
.957
.960

.3

.6
.3

(*)
1.0
.2

.3
.3
.6
.2

.3
1.6
.2
.2
.2

.3
.4
8.2
.7
.2
.1

.4
.9
.6
.6
2.6

.3
.3
.3
.4
.3
.4
.4
.1

Southern
Midwest California

•

26
T

able

11.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f Workers in M etal-Airfram e
Plants, b y Labor Grade, Occupation , and Region , 1943— Continued

Labor grade and occupation

Average hourly earnings

Percent
of em­
ploy­
United
ment
States2

Eastern

Central

Southern
Midwest California

Grade VII—Continued.
Plumbers, maintenance, B .....................
Saw operators, A .....................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, B ...............
Tool-crib attendants, A ...........................
Truck crane operators, A ........................
Tube benders, bench, A ........................ .
Welders, aluminum, B ............................
Welders, gas, B ........................................
Welders, jig and fixtures, B ....................

0.1
.3
1.2
.4
.1
.1
.1
.2
.1

$1,034
.977
.953
.941
1.003
.993
1.000
1.075
1.096

$1,035
1.004
.942
.966
1.039
1. Oil
.946
1.032
1.060

$1,031
.923
.939
.915
.969
.986
.937
.910
1.006

$0.957
.947
.992
.936
.903
.982
1.076
1.118
1.123

$0.988
.968
.967
.951
1.017
.969
1.061
1.103
1.089

Grade VIII:
Cable splicers, A.................................... .
Craters, B ................................................
Drill-press operators. B ...........................
Grinder operators, C ...............................
Inspectors, final assembly, C_____ ____
Inspectors, machined parts, C ................
Lathe operators, engine, C......................
Lathe operators, turret, C .......................
Milling-machine operators, C.................
Oilers, maintenance, A ...........................
Power-shear operators, B ........................
Punch-press operators, B ........................
Riveters, B ...............................................
Spot welders, B ........................................
Template makers, C................................
Truck drivers, B ......................................

.1
.3
.9
.3
.4
.3
.1
.3
.7
.2
.3
.4
6.1
.2
.3
.2

.977
.911
.896
.894
.892
.880
.900
.898
.884
.886
.895
.905
.884
.894
.887
.892

(8
)
.880
.888
.836
.902
.903
.920
.876
.881
.814
.882
.897
.879
.885
.886
.940

.984
.956
.926
.907
.855
.824
.904
.916
.871
.935
.905
.910
.867
.945
(8
)
.817

(8
)
.867
.845
.877
.892
.921
.887
.892
.880
.805
.877
.872
.866
.889
.871
.843

.939
.899
.888
.888
.958
.897
.900
.893
.896
.911
.894
.889
.886
.885
.885
.907

1.0
11.9
.6
.1
.1

.845
.855
.902
(8
)
CO
.846
.860
(8
)
CO
.867
(8
)
(8
)
.942
.799
.863
.850
.825
.850
.830
.898
.850
.859
.823
(8
)
.847
(8
)

.902
.877
.894
.905
(8
)
.864
.829
.902
.868
.885
.888
.891
.849
.827
.826
.905
.883
.876
.890
.851
.833
.903
.885
(3
)
.895
(8
)

.842
.827
.821
.858
.866
.853
.876
.819
.818
.839
.817
.850
.847
.838
.848
.829
.859
.820
.855
.820
.829
.839
.852
.887
.883
.935

.864
.846
.863
.860
.850
.860
.852
.857
.848
.850
.856
.845
.845
.855
.827
.858
.855
.846
1.017
.855
.885
.865
.877
.893
.910

.753

.803
(8
)
.875
.835
.787
.795
.833
.852
.848
.834
.849
.793
(8
)
.818

.827
.880
.797
.802
.751
.747
.747
.806
.815
.834
.812
.804
.783
.836

.783
.791
.784
.752
.752
.753
.764
.788
.786
.786
.782
.774
.793
.787

Grade IX :
Assemblers, electrical and radio, B .........
Assemblers, general, C............................
Assemblers, precision, bench, C ............
Cable splicers, B_.....................................
Carpenters, maintenance, C...................
Inspectors, detail, C ................................
Inspectors, general assembly, C ..............
Installers, controls, C ..............................
Installers, electrical, C........................... .
Installers, general, C..... ..........................
Installers, hydraulics, C ........................ .
Installers, power plant, C.......................
Machinists, bench, C ......... ....................
Metal fitters, C........................................
Painters, aircraft, 0 .................................
Painters, maintenance, C ...................... .
Plumbers, maintenance, C.................. .
Saw operators, B .............. ......................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, C.......... .
Truck crane operators, B ........................
Tool-crib attendants, B...........................
Truckers, power, A .................................
Tube benders, bench, B ..........................
Welders, aluminum, C............................
Welders, gas, C........................................
Welders, jig and fixtures, C...................;

.9
.1
.6
3.5
.2
.3
.8
.6
.5
(4
)
(* )
.3
1.7
.1
.6
.4
.2
(4
)
.1
(4
)

.887
.851
.871
.877
.876
.856
.850
.846
.851
.859
.847
.862
.848
.838
.850
.885
.859
.861
.863
.928
.843
.896
.870
.889
.881
.923

Grade X :
Assemblers, electrical and radio, C.........
Cable, splicers, G
_ _______ _____
Drill-press operators, 0 ...........................
Filers and burrers, A ...............................
Helpers, general, A ..................................
Janitors, A ................................................
Laborers, A ..............................................
Power-shear operators, C ........................
Punch-press operators, C ........................
Riveters, C...............................................
Spot welders, C.......................................
Tool-crib attendants, C...........................
.Truckers, power, B .................................
Tube benders, bench, C ..........................

1.0
.l
.7
1.0
4.8
2.8
1.1
.1
.2
2.5
.2
.3
.2
.2

'.805
.831
.828
.801
.760
.763
.767
.809
.822
.821
.811
.819
.820
.812

.7

.865
.840
.730
.728
.717
(3
)
(8
)
.817
(8
)
.790
(3
)

.872

1 Plants of automotive origin and other establishments not operating under job-evaluation plans are not
included in these averages.
2 Data for Boeing Aircraft Co. of Seattle included in United States totals but omitted from regional figures
to avoid disclosure of individual operations.
8Averages withheld to avoid disclosure of individual operations.
4 Less than a tenth of 1 percent.




27
It is important to emphasize that the occupational wage data pre­
sented in table 11 by labor grade are not comparable with the occupa­
tional data presented in table 3. First of all, the two sets of figures are
based on substantially different groups of plants, as only those plants
having labor-grade systems or job-evaluation plans readily convertible
to labor grades are represented in the labor-grade data shown in table
11; whereas all plants studied, regardless of job evaluation systems
used, are represented in the occupational wage-rate data presented in
table 3. Learners are not included in table 10 or table 11.
Earnings for all workers in the occupations for which labor-grade
figures are presented varied from 91.0 cents in the Midwestern region
to 95.9 cents in Southern California. Earnings in the Eastern and
Central regions were 94.5 and 93.2 cents, respectively. The omission
from the labor-grade tabulation for the Eastern and Central regions of
plants operated by automobile manufacturers, which have somewhat
higher wage levels than regular airframe plants, accounts very largely
for the fact that in these two regions the averages shown by labor
grades (table 11) are somewhat lower than the averages shown for the
corresponding occupations for all plants combined (table 3). The
differences between the two sets of occupational averages for Southern
California are small, owing to the fact that virtually all plants covered
in this area are represented in the labor-grade tabulation.
The distributions of factory workers by labor grades shown in table
10 indicate a very heavy concentration of workers in the four lowest
grades. Thus, 71.5 percent of the workers were found in labor grades
VII, VIII, IX, and X. The proportion of workers employed in these
four grades varied from 66.6 in Southern California, where stabiliza­
tion has been in effect the longest, to 78.8 percent in the Central region.
More than one-fifth of the workers were found in the intermediate
labor grades IV, V, and VI. The proportion of workers in these
grades varied from 15.4 percent in the Central region to 25.1 percent in
Southern California. Only 6.8 percent of all factory workers were
found in the three labor grades with the highest job evaluations. The
relative number of such workers varied from 5.1 in the Eastern region
to 8.3 percent in Southern California.
An examination of the averages for the country as a whole (table 10)
reveals a spread of 56.7 cents between the straight-time hourly earn­
ings of workers in the lowest labor grade (78.5 cents) and those of
workers in the highest labor grade ($1,352). The differences in earn­
ings between labor grades vary somewhat, the least difference (3.3
cents) occurring between the earnings of workers in labor grades VIII
and IX, and the greatest difference (9.6 cents) between the earnings of
workers in labor grades I and II. Similar variations in earnings be­
tween labor grades are found in each of the four regions. These var­
iations are due in part to differences in the width of the range in
rates provided for in the various labor grades and in part to the dis­
tribution of workers within these ranges.
Detailed information is presented in table 11, by labor grade, for 51
specific occupations and 134 job classifications within these occupa-




28
tions. For 39 of the 51 occupations, figures are shown for three levels
of skill— A, B, and C; for 5 occupations, figures are shown for two
levels—A and B ; while a single figure is shown for 7 occupations. It
should be pointed out that the A, B, and C designations used relate to
widely different levels of skill; for example, occupations designated
“ A ” are found in most of the labor grades. Within any one labor
grade, however, there is comparatively little variation in the level of
skill and, for that reason, the SCAI plan provides for a single rate
range for the group of occupational classes assigned to each labor
grade.




Appendix B .— H ourly Earnings in Light-Airframe Manufacture

Among the 11 light-airframe manufacturers included in the Bureau's
survey are found several of the names heard in connection with private
flying before the beginning of the war. Many of these firms are
manufacturing substantially the same planes as they did before the
war, having simply adapted their lower-powered, relatively slow
planes to military use. These are the “ hedgehopping" observation
planes that can land on any field, or drop messages to the artillery
or other ground forces.
Plants in this segment of the airframe industry are small by com­
parison to metal-airframe plants. Total employment in the 11 lightplane plants, 17,220 workers, is substantially smaller than that in
any one of several large metal-airframe plants. Three of the 11 plants
studied employed less than 1,000 workers and only 2 employed more
than 2,000 workers. Eight of the plants are located in the Central
and Midwestern regions, 2 in the Eastern region, and 1 in the Western
region.
As pointed out earlier, the manufacture of light planes is substan­
tially different from that of heavy all-metal planes. The occupational
structure of a typical light-plane plant is on the whole somewhat
simpler than that of a metal-plane plant. Among other things, there
are proportionately fewer assemblers and installers, and one-half of
the former are wood assemblers. Few riveters, but a substantial
number of welders, are found in light-plane plants. A number of
other occupations which are found in metal-plane plants either do not
have their counterpart in light-plane plants or are unimportant. On
the other hand, woodworking-machine operations are important in
light-plane plants, owing to the amount of lumber used in these
planes, but are unimportant in metal-plane plants. Figures are
shown in table 12 for 51 specific occupations, and for 117 classifica­
tions of workers within these occupations.
In light-plane plants, as in metal-plane plants, the job classifications
used are those originally developed by the Southern California Air­
frame Industry. Six o f the 11 plants had either the SCAI plan or a
plan readily convertible to the SCAI plan. In the remaining 5 plants,
the grouping of workers presented certain problems and was accom­
plished with only approximate accuracy. The occupational data
presented for light planes are comparable to the metal-airframe data
in table 3.
Entrance rates of unskilled workers in light-airframe plants varied
from 50 to 70 cents per hour, with six plants paying 60 cents, two
plants paying 50 cents, two paying 55 cents, and one paying 70 cents.
All but two of the plants had provisions for automatic advancement
from the entrance rate. Eight plants granted an initial 5-cent in­
crease after 30 days, and six of these gave an additional 5-cent increase
every 30 days until the 75-cent rate was reached.
Ten of the eleven plants studied operated a second shift and seven
operated a third shift. All but one of the plants operating a second




(2 9 )

30
shift paid a differential, seven paying 5 cents per hour in addition
to the base rate, one paying 8 cents, and one paying 5 percent. On
the third shift, four plants paid a differential of 5 cents, 2 paid 10
cents, and one paid 10 percent in addition to the base rate.
Provisions for overtime pay are uniform in all plants. These pro­
visions are the same as those found in metal-airframe manufacture,
i. e., time and a half after 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day, and
on the sixth consecutive day and holidays. Double time is paid on
the seventh consecutive day.
Eight of the eleven plants are unionized, five having agreements
with unions affiliated with the A. F. of L., two with C. I. O. unions,
and one with an independent union. Of the three plants which were
nonunion at the time of the survey, two had contracts under ne­
gotiation.
OCCUPATIONAL AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS

The straight-time average hourly earnings of factory workers in
the light-plane industry in the United States were 88.9 cents in De­
cember 1943 (table 12). This figure is 6.1 cents below that for
workers in metal-airframe plants. Although occupational averages
for light airframes tend to be lower on the whole than for metal air­
frames, there are plants in the light-plane group which compare
favorably with many of those in the metal-airframe group.
T able 12.— Straight-Tim e A verage H ourly Earnings o f W orkers in Selected O ccupations
in Light-A irfram e Plants, 1943
Percent of
employ­
ment

Occupation

All nnni7pq.t.inns

. _ _

Average
hourly
earnings

Plant average
Lowest

Highest

100.0

$0.889

Assemblers, electrical and radio, A .................................
Assemblers, electrical and radio, B ...................... ..........
Assemblers, electrical and radio, C ..................................
Assemblers, general, A .....................................................
Assemblers, general, B ................. ...................................
Assemblers, general, C .....................................................
Assemblers, precision, bench, A .....................................
Assemblers, precision, bench, B ......................................
Assemblers, precision, bench, C ......................... ............
Assemblers, wood, major, A —..........................................
Assemblers, wood, major, B „ ..........................................
Assemblers, wood, major, C.............................................
Assemblers, wood, sub, A_^.............................................
Assemblers, wood, sub, B ................................................
Assemblers, wood, sub, C ................................................

.2
.9
.8
1.5
2.8
3.3
.2
.7
.3
2.3
3.3
2.0
.7
2.4
1.1

1.056
.875
.762
1.064
.906
.746
1.001
.912
.744
1.000
.872
.739
1.088
.873
.715

$1,000
.809
.600
.988
.780
.698
.930
.775
.687
.890
.780
.657
.908
.770
.641

$1,097
.886
.792
1.088
.979
.828
1.142
.990
.791
1.020
.917
.833
1.118
.929
.785

Cable splicers, A ...............................................................
Cable splicers, B ...............................................................
Carpenters, maintenance, A ...........................................
Carpenters, maintenance, B ............................................
Carpenters, maintenance, C............................................
Clerks, stock and stores....................................................
Craters, A .........................................................................
Craters, B .......................... - .............................................
Drill-press operators, A ....................................................
Drill-press operators, B ....................................................
Drill-press operators, C ........... ......... ..............................
Electricians, maintenance, A ............... ...........................
Electricians, maintenance, B ...........................................
Filers, burrers, and sanders, A ........................................
Helpers, general, A ............. .............................................

.4

.929
.823
1.023
.928
.831
.781
.837
.727
.974
.859
.752
1.089
1.009
.682
.751

.914
.800
.850
.836
.750
.670
.738
.648
.910
.750
.663
1.063
.852
.605
.746

.982
.867
1.125
1.031
.917
1.080
.950
.879
1.095
.927
.884
1.133
1.182
.783
.850

.991
.881
.754

.941
.795
.686

1.100
1.051
.896

Inspectors, detail, A .........................................................
Inspectors, detail, B ........................................................
Inspectors, detail, C.........................*...............................




.2
.2

.4

.2

6.4
.5
.6

.2
.7
.6
.1

.5

.2

1.3

.5
.7
.5

31
T able 12.— Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f Workers in Selected Occupations
in Light-Airfram e Plants, 1943 — Continued

Occupation

Percent of
employ­
ment

Inspectors, final assembly, A ....... ...................................
Inspectors, final assembly, B...........................................
Inspectors, final assembly, C...........................................
Inspectors, general assembly, A . .....................................
Inspectors, general assembly, B ........................... ...........
Inspectors, machined parts, A —......................................
Inspectors, machined parts, B .........................................
Inspectors, machined parts, C.._....... ...........................
Inspectors, service and flight, A ....... ............................. Inspectors, service and flight, B ..... ........................... .
Inspectors, service and flight, 0 _ ......................... ..........
Inspectors, wood, A ..........................................................
Inspectors, wood, B ..........................................................

0.4
.6
.2
.5
.6
.2
.3
.4
.4
.2
.2
.4
.2

Installers, controls, A _._..................................................
Installers, controls, B .._ ..................................................
Installers, electrical, A .....................................................
Installers, electrical, B ......................................................
Installers, electrical, 0 .....................................................
Installers, general, A ........................................................
Installers, general, B .......................................................
Installers, general, C ........................................... .......... .
Installers, power plant, A ................................................
Installers, power plant, B ................................................
Installers, power plant, 0 ................................................

.2
.4
.2
.3
.2
.5
3.3
1.8
.4
.9
.2

Janitors, A . . . ................................................... ...............
Jig builders, metal and wood, A......................................
Jig builders, metal and wood, B ....................................
Jig builders, metal and wood, 0 ......................................
Laborers, A ._....... .............................. .............................
Lathe operators, engine, A___...................... ...................
Lathe operators, engine, B .................................. ............
Lathe operators, engine, 0 .... ..........................................
Lathe operators, turret, A................................................
Lathe operators, turret, B................................................
Lathe operators, turret, C............ ...................................
Learners....................................................................... .
Machine operators and mill men, woodworking, A ____
Machine operators and mill men, woodworking, B .......
Machine operators and mill men, woodworking, O____
Machinists, bench, A ............................. ..........................
Machinists, bench, B ....................................................
Machinists, bench, 0 .................................................. .
Mechanics, field and service, A .......................................
Mechanics, field and service, B .................................... .
Mechanics, field and service, 0 .................................. .
Mechanics, maintenance, A ........................................... _
Mechanics, maintenance, B .............................................

Average
hourly
earnings

Lowest

Highest

$1,061
.800
.823
.914
.735
.850
.773
.650
1.130
1.067
.913
.875
.850

$1,400
1.181
1.032
1.150
1.080
1.300
1.167
1.041
1.416
1.258
1.123
1.197
1.140

.957'
.957
1.079
.926
.764
1.022
.924
.774
1.060
.956
.779

.938
.771
.900
.800
.717
.937
.800
.720
.917
.870
.750

1.000
1.074
1.267
.968
.783
1.100
1.033
.908
1.175
.975
.850

3.7
.3
.6
.5
1.9

.734
1.300
1.068
.897
.730

.595
1.284
.935
.743
.589

.895
1.377
1.117
.954
.980

.3
.3

1.141
1.025
.844
1.175
.975
,923
.625

.989
.870
.767
1.140
.810
.850
.500

1.313
1.140
.867
1.217
1.010
1.025
.800

1.008
.861
.766
1.070
.805
1.121
1.082
.964
1.095
.893

.933
.814
.762
1.050
.906
.773
1.040
.870
.750
1.000
.804

1.155
.873
.771
1.100
.933
.894
1.150
1.283
1.032
1.200
.955

.918
.799
.700
.979
.806
.708

.918
.870
.783
1.360
1.103
.991

.1
.4

.2
.2
5.0
.5
.8

.7
.1

.2
.4

.2
.5
1.0
.1

.2

$1,156
1.009
.886
1.003
.869
1.105
.892
.855
1.272
1.106
1.063
1.105
1.083

Plant average

.919

Metal-fitters, A .................................................................
Metal-fitters, B ............................................................... .
Metal-fitters, 0 ............................................................... .
Milling-machine operators, A ...... ....................................
Milling-machine operators, B ..........................................
Milling-machine operators, 0 ..........................................

.4
.3

.918
,844
.743
1.126
1.001
.876

Painters and dopers, aircraft, A .......................................
Painters and dopers, aircraft, B .......................................
Painters and dopers, aircraft, C .......................................
Painters, maintenance, A .................................................
Plant protection................ ...............................................
Plumbers, maintenance, A ...............................................
Power-shear operators, A .................................................
Power-shear operators, B .................................................
Power-shear operators, 0 .................................... ............
Punch-press operators, A .................................. ..............
Punch-press operators, B _
_
Punch-press operators, 0 .................................................

.9
1.1
1.1
.2
4.9
.1
.1
.2
.1
.2
.5
.2

1.127
.915
.768
.986
.793
.936
1.038
.915
.879
1.003
.938
.795

.900
.800
.680
1.053
.638
.823
1.000
.817
.775
.880
.750
.713

1.185
1.055
.850
1.075
1.026
1.000
1.060
1.042
.920
1.163
.950
.864

Saw operators....................................................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, A ........................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, B ........................................
Sheet-metal workers, bench, 0 ................................... .
Tool and die makers, A ....................................................
Tool and die makers, B ....................................................
Tool and die makers, 0 ............................................ ........

.9
.7
.9
1.8
1.0
.6

.866
1.066
.929
.814
1.391
1.163
1.076

.688
.963
.810
.667
1.042
.985
.820

.931
1.231
1.023
.907
1.561
1.293




.1

.5
.2
.3

.3

1.174

32
T

able

1 2. — Straight-Tim e Average H ourly Earnings o f W orkers in Selected Occupations

in Light-Airfram e Plants, 1943 — Continued
Percent of
employ­
ment

Occupation

Tool-crib attendants, A _____________ _____ __________
Tool-crib attendants, B ______________ _____ ___________
T o o l-crib attendants, C
T r u c k drivers, A
_
T ru ck ers, pow er, A _ _
W elders, gas, A
W elders, gas, B_

_

,
______

.

_
___

___
____

._

_ _

Welders, gas, C ____________________ _______________
W elders, jig and fixtures, A _ _ __
_
.... ___
.
W elders, jig and fixtures, B

Working supervisors, maintenance. ................. ..............
Working supervisors, production. __ _______________

0.1
.6
.3
.6

.5
4.6
3.6
1.2
.6

.6
.1
1.8

Average
hourly
earnings

Plant average
Lowest

Highest

$0,963
.908
.668
.863
.751

$0,917
.750
.583
.706
.748

$1.107
1.074
.717
.973
.765

1.139
.899
.821
1.281
1.100
1.179
1.155

1.000
.816
.692
1.033
.883
1.100
.911

1.200
1.042
.965
1.360
1.171
1.300
1.379

Average hourly earnings of workers in light-plane plants ranged
from 62.5 cents, paid to learners, to $1,409, paid to class A tool and
die makers. One-half of the workers were in 56 occupational classi­
fications with earnings ranging from 70 to 95 cents, and one-fifth
were in 42 occupational classifications with average earnings varying
from 95 cents to $1.15. Less than 5 percent of the workers were in
occupational groups which averaged less than 70 cents an hour; most
of these workers were learners.
The lowest and highest plant average hourly earnings,5 which are
also presented in table 12, indicate rather wide variations among
light-plane plants in occupational average hourly earnings. Incentive
methods of wage payment, however, are not responsible for these
contrasts, as all workers in light-plane plants were paid on a time basis.
Women, who accounted for approximately a fourth of the labor
force, averaged somewhat less per hour than men. In 27 occupational
classifications in which both men and women were employed in three
or more of the light-plane plants, women averaged 83.3 cents an hour,
or 2.2 cents less than men. In 11 of the 27 classifications the earnings
of women were higher than those of men and in 16 they were lower,
generally by small amounts.
Straight-time average hourly earnings for workers in nine office
occupations in light-airframe plants in 1943 are given below. Eightyfive percent of the office employees in these plants are women. Earn­
ings range from 56.9 cents for office boys and girls to 83.9 cents for
general clerks. These averages are not materially below those re­
ported for metal-airframe plants.
Average
hourly
earnings

Accounting clerks_____________________________________$0. 726
Bookkeepers________________________________________
. 822
Calculating-machine operators_______________________
. 729
File clerks________________________
. 676
General clerks_______________________________________
. 839
Office boys and girls_________________________________
. 569
Stenographers_______________________________________
. 750
Switchboard operators-receptionists-typists__________
. 752
Typists (general)____________________________________
. 623
* The figures appearing in the tw o “ plant average” columns relate to a number of different establish­
ments, as no single plant pays the lowest or the highest wages in all occupations. In each case the plant
averages are based on data for all workers in an occupational classification in the given plant.




Appendix

C.— H ourly Earnings in the Glider Industry

Gliders play a vital role in modern warfare. They are used ex­
tensively in any offensive to land men and materials far behind
enemy lines. Today a small number of plants are actively engaged
in manufacturing gliders for the armed forces. In the current
survey, data were obtained for 12 plants engaged in the manufacture
of complete gliders.1
INTEGRATED GLIDER PLANTS

The 12 plants making complete gliders are widely scattered.
Four are located in the East, three in the Central region, four in the
Midwest, and one on the West Coast. These plants compare in size
with plants manufacturing light planes. Four plants had less than
1,000 workers and only 3 had more than 2,000 workers. Five of the
12 plants are organized by C. I. O. and 2 by A. F. of L. unions.
Another plant had a contract under negotiation at the time of the
Bureau survey.
Entrance rates for inexperienced workers varied from 50 cents to
75 cents per hour in 11 of the 12 glider plants for which such informa­
tion is available. Four plants had a rate of 50 cents an hour and 5
a rate of 60 cents an hour.
All 12 plants worked a second shift, and all but 1 paid shift differ­
entials which varied from 3 to 10 cents an hour; one-half of the
plants paid a 5-cent differential. Third-shift operations were carried
on in only 6 of the plants, and shift differentials were paid in all but
1 of these plants. One plant paid 3 cents an hour, 2 paid 5 cents an
hour, 1 paid 10 cents an hour, and 1 paid 5 cents an hour and also
allowed 8 hours of pay for 6% hours of work.
The occupational structure of an integrated glider plant is quite
different from that found in plants manufacturing either metal or
light planes. Many of the occupations found in the latter plants
either are not found or are relatively unimportant in glider plants.
Assemblers and installers account for over a fourth of the factory
workers in a glider plant. The next most important occupation is
that of general woodworker. Comparatively few workers are en­
gaged in metal-working operations, but 6.7 percent of the workers
are dopers, tapers, and fabric workers. Wage data are presented in
table 13 for 35 representative occupations, which accounted for ap­
proximately three-fifths of all factory workers. No averages are
presented for classes or grades within the various occupations because
of the limited number of employees represented, and also because of
the lack of comparable grade classifications between plants.
One-fourth of the labor force in glider plants was made up of
women. They were found in most of the processing occupations.
1 Eleven furniture plants in Grand Rapids, Mich., have pooled their facilities to produce glider parts.
Data for these plants are not presented in this report, but are available upon request.




(33)

34
One-third of the women were engaged in assembly and installation
work, one-eighth were working as welders, a tenth were operating
machine tools or other metal-working machines, and another tenth
were doing clerical work in the stock and store rooms. Slightly over
6 percent of the women were inspectors.
T a b l e 13.— Straight-Tim e A verage H ourly Earnings o f W orkers in Selected O ccupations

in Plants M aking Com plete Gliders, 1943

Occupation

All ocrmpatfons

Percent
of employ­
ment

Average
hourly
earnings

Plant average
Lowest

Highest

100.0

$0,855

Assemblers, final...............................................................
Assemblers, sub................................................................
Assemblers, and installers, electrical and radio..............
Carpenters, maintenance..................................................
Clerks, stock and stores....................................................
Craters and packers..........................................................

22.5
2.6
.7
.8
5.3
4.8

.826
.791
.885
.933
.773
.830

$0.731
.679
.797
.685
.550
.792

$1,004
.873
.960
1.083
.889
1.030

Dopers and tapers............................................... .............
Electricians, maintenance................................................
Fabric workers..................................................................
Glue men.................... ................. ...................................
Helpers, general................................................................

3.7
.6
3.1
.1
.2

.841
.947
.767
.807
.656

.724
.675
.636
.775
.617

.867
1.125
.894
.813
.717

Inspectors, detail...............................................................
Inspectors, final assembly................................................
Inspectors, general assembly................... v......................
Inspectors, machined parts..............................................
Inspectors, wood...............................................................
Installers, cable.................................................................
Installers, glass.................... .............................................

.8
2.1
1.8
.8
.3
1.2
.4

.910
.934
.948
.985
.972
.876
.729

.717
.810
.788
.888
.923
.775
.724

1.002
1.183
1.062
1.250
1.066
1.000
.734

Janitors........................................... ................................ .
Jig and form builders........................................................
Laborers........................... - ...............................................
Learners, productive...................... .................................

3.4
2.0
1.5
6.2

.553
.859
.580
.526

.798
1.205
.939
.750

Machine operators............................................................
Machinists, all-round-__ ............„..................................
Machinists, bench.......................................................... .
Material handlers................. ......................................... .
Mechanics, maintenance.................................................
Metal fitters......................................................................

1.0
.9
1.0
1.0
.5
1.2

.859
.998
.876
.801
.883
.894

.720
.918
.806
.750
.725
.757

.975
1.270
.890
.850
1.000
.908

Painters...........................................- .............. - .............. .
Painters, maintenance........... .........................................
Plant protection. _____________________ ____________
Plumbers, maintenance....................................................
Saw operators................. ........... .......................................
Sheet-metal workers.................. .......................................

4.0
.1
4.5
.1
.1
2.0

.878
.967
.814
.985
.898
.933

.708
.825
.713
.910
.885
.721

1.013
1.033
.908
1.075
.963
1.043

Tool and die makers.........................................................
Tool-crib attendants___________ __________ - ..............
Truck drivers_______ ____ _________________ ________
Welders, arc and gas.........................................................
Woodworkers, general......................................................
Working supervisors, production....................................

.6
.9
.4

1.269
.772
.836
1.076
.957
1.051

1.226
.664
.713
.755
.814
.916

1.450
.925
.978
1.286
.997
1.400

5.5
8.9
2.6

.682
1.052
.767 *
.601

The straight-time average hourly earnings of factory workers in
glider plants were 85.5 cents in December 1943 (table 13). The
lowest hourly earnings, 60.1 cents, were for learners and the highest,
$1,269, for tool and die makers. Roughly, four-fifths of the workers
were in 28 occupations with average hourly earnings ranging from
75 cents to $1.00. One-tenth of the workers were in three occupations
with average earnings below 70 cents an hour.
The highest and lowest plant averages, which also appear in table 13,
indicate widely different wage levels among glider plants. In 25 of
the 35 occupations, the difference between the highest and lowest
plant averages was 20 cents or more, and in 8 occupations it was




35
35 cents or more. None of these differences are due to incentive
methods of wage payment, as all workers in the selected occupations
studied were paid on a time basis.
The wage rates paid to office workers in glider plants compare
favorably with those paid in airframe plants. These earnings ranged
from 56.4 cents an hour for file clerks to 92.9 cents an hour for book­
keepers. Straight-time average hourly earnings of workers in selected
office occupations in plants making complete gliders, in 1943, were
as follows:
Average
hourly
earnings

Accounting clerks____________________________________ $0. 827
Bookkeepers________________________________________
. 929
Calculating-machine operators_______________________
. 719
File clerks__________________________________________
. 564
General clerks---------------------------------------------------------. 673
Office boys and girls____________:____________________
. 495
Stenographers_______________________________________
. 712
Switchboard operators-receptionists-typists__________
. 639
Typists (general)-----------------------------------------------------.604




W. S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE i I § 4 4


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102