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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Frances Perkins, Secretary
BU R E A U OF LABO R STATISTICS
Isador Lubin, Commissioner
+

and Salary Payments in O hio

By
FRED C. CR O X TO N , FREDERICK E. CROXTON
and F R A N K C. CROXTON

Bulletin T^o. 613

UN ITED STATES
GOVERNM ENT PRIN TING OFFICE
W ASHINGTON : 1935

For sale by the Superintendent of Docum ents, W ashington, D . C. -




Price 15 cents




Letter of Transmittal

U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics,

Washington, August 27, 1935.
report entitled “ Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments in
Ohio, 1916 to 1932.” This report brings together 12 articles pub­
lished in the January, February, March, April, May, June, August,
September, October, November, and December 1934, and January
1935 issues of the Monthly Labor Review.
The report shows the amount and trend of annual wage and salary
payments in Ohio from 1916 to 1932 and is based on statistical infor­
mation collected and compiled by the Ohio Division of Labor Statis­
tics. The Ohio reports furnish an unusually comprehensive and con­
tinuous record of employment and wage and salary payments. The
importance of the studies collected in this report lies in the fact that
annual income is a more significant economic factor in determining
the standard of living than the wage rate per hour, day, week, or
month.
I sador L ubin , Commissioner.
H on. F rances P erkins,
Secretary oj Labor.
M adam S ecretary: I have the honor to transmit herewith a




in




Contents

Chapter 1.—Sources and scope of studies___________________________
Chapter 2.—All industries, 1918 to 1 9 3 2 __________________________
Chapter 3.—Construction industry, 1918 to 1932____________________
Chapter 4.—Manufactures, 1916 to 1932___________________________
Iron and steel and their products______________________________
Food and kindred products___________________________________
Lumber and lumber products_________________________________
Chemicals and allied products________________________________
Paper and printing__________________________________________
Rubber products_____________________________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products_________________________________
Vehicles_____________________________________________________
Leather and leather products___________________________________
Liquors and beverages_________________________________________
Metals and metal products, other than iron and steel_____________
Textiles_____________________________________________________
Tobacco_____________________________________________________
Miscellaneous manufactures____________________________________
Chapter 5.—Wholesale and retail trade, 1916 to 1932________________
Chapter 6.—“ Service ” industries, 1916 to 1932_______________________
Chapter 7.—Transportation and public utilities, 1916 to 1932___________




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133
139
142
150
163
176

UNITED

STATES

DEPARTMENT

OF

LABOR

Bulletin o f the

Bureau o f Labor Statistics
Number 613

WASHINGTON

October 1935

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E A N D SA L A R Y
PAYM EN TS IN OHIO, 1916 T O 1932
Chapter 1.—Sources and Scope of Studies

of studies
in an
as
T HIS series possible thehas been madecourse effort to measureand
nearly as
amount and
of annual wage

salary payments in Ohio. The importance of such studies is due to
the fact that the annual income, rather than the hourly, daily, weekly,
or monthly rate of pay, is the important economic factor in determin­
ing the standard of living. The reports which form the basis of these
studies have been compiled for a period of 19 years and afford an
unusual statistical record of employment and of wage and salary
payments to wage earners, clerical employees, and salespeople.
The data which form the basis of these computations of average
wage and salary payments in the three general occupation groups—
“wage earners”; “bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks”;
and “salespeople (not traveling)”—were collected by the office of the
State government of Ohio responsible for labor statistics. For the
earlier years of the period covered, that office was the Department of
Investigation and Statistics of the Industrial Commission, but since
July 1, 1921, it has been known as the Division of Labor Statistics,
Department of Industrial Relations of Ohio.
The statistical information collected each year was compiled by
the Ohio department for all of the years except 1922. For that year
it was compiled by the Women’s Bureau of the United States De­
partment of Labor. While the compilations were made promptly
each year, the information has been published by the Ohio department
for only 1914, 1915, 1923, 1928, and 1929, with a summary report for
1924 to 1927 accompanying the 1928 report.1 The series of Ohio
1 General summaries covering fluctuation of employment have been published in the Monthly Labor
Review for April, August, and December 1930, for March 1932, and for December 1933. Bulletin No.
553 of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics shows summary and detailed information concerning
fluctuation of employment in Ohio for 1914 to 1929,




1

2

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

reports bears the title, Rates of Wages, Fluctuation of Employment,
Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio. A separate series of reports
covers mining and quarrying, and that general industry group is not
covered in these studies. The years 1914 and 1915 are also not
covered, owing to the considerable difference in number of establish­
ments reporting data relative to number of employees and the number
reporting data relative to wage and salary payments, and for the
same reason 1916 and 1917 are omitted from the chapter on “all
industries” (p. 6) and that on “construetion” (p. 20).
The statistical data covering employees, classified rates of wages,
and wage and salary payments were furnished annually, as required
by law, by the employers of Ohio. The information was requested
during 1914 to 1923 of all employers of five or more persons and
during 1924 to 1932 of all employers of three or more persons in all
industry groups except interstate transportation and governmental
activities.
The list of establishments reporting statistical information and the
list of establishments carrying workmen’s compensation insurance
are carefully and continuously checked against each other. Com­
pensation insurance was compulsory during 1914 to 1923 for all
employers employing five or more, and since January 1, 1924, it has
been compulsory for all employing three or more. Employers of
fewer than the minimum number are permitted, but not required, to
avail themselves of the provisions of the State workmen’s compensa­
tion law. Employers are not required to carry insurance for em­
ployees in household or domestic service, but may do so.
Some employers with fewer than three employees (fewer than five
prior to 1924) furnish statistical data each year and such reports
are included in the tabulations. Comparatively few employing
three or more (five or more prior to 1924) fail to report. The lists
in the workmen’s compensation insurance file and in the statistical
file have been expanded from year to year, and therefore represent a
more nearly complete coverage during the later years than during the
earlier years of the period.
The approximate completeness of the material included in the
Ohio reports, particularly during the period 1924 to 1932, in which
information has been requested from all employers of three or more
persons, can be seen from a comparison of the Ohio reports on the
single industry group “manufactures”, with the United States
biennial Census of Manufactures. Census figures in table 1 include
only those Ohio manufacturing concerns reporting “value of product”
of $500 or more in 1919 and $5,000 or more in other years covered.
The Ohio reports, on the other hand, include only a comparatively
few establishments employing fewer than three persons (fewer than
five persons for the years prior to 1924). The census figures therefore



SOURCES AND SCOPE OF STUDIES

3

include a number of small manufacturing establishments not requested
to furnish information to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics. In
table 1 the census and the Ohio reports are compared for each of the
years in which the census made its biennial report for the period
covered by this article.
T able 1 .— COMPARISON OF COVERAGE OF UNITED STATES CENSUS REPORTS ON
MANUFACTURES IN OHIO, AND OF REPORTS (M ANUFACTURES SECTION ONLY)
OF OHIO DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS, 1919, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1927, 1929, AND 1931
Year and report
1919
United States Census of Manufactures.__ ___________ ___________
_ _ ___
Ohio report_________ ________ _____ ____ . . .
Difference_____________________ . _
1921
United States Census of Manufactures. ...
Ohio report________________ ________ .
____ _ ... .. _
Difference______
_________ . . . . . . -............
1923
United States Census of Manufactures__________ ________________
Ohio report______________ _____________________ . . . ____
Difference________________________ _______________________
1925
United States Census of Manufactures_______ ________________ _
Ohio report___ _______ ________ ___________________________
Difference.— ___________________ ____ ____________ ________
1927
United States Census of Manufactures__ ____ ____ ___ _______
Ohio report___ _ __ _________________ __________________ Difference______________________________________ ___ _
1929
United States Census of Manufactures __ ________________________
Ohio report__________________________________________ ____ _ _
Difference.—
__ ___ _______________ _____________
1931
United States Census of Manufactures2______ _____ ___________ Ohio report
. ____________________ ________Difference...
.. __________ ___ _______________________

Wage
Estab­ earners Amount paid
lish­ (average in wages
ments
of 12
months)
16,125
9, Oil
7,114

730,733 $944,651,734
678, 525 i 872,014,593
52, 208
72,637,141

11,479
8, 632
2,847

494, 288 627,032,666
460,671 i 576,968, 355
33,617
50,064,311

11,195
8, 701
2,494

669,132 979, 659,869
654,142 i 933,989,207
14,990
45,670,662

11,131
9,502
1,629

676,661 975, 738, 405
651,944 i 956,106,644
24, 717
19, 631, 761

10,961
9,880
1,081

669,097 968,181,165
649, 111 i 950, 200,395
19,986
17,980, 770

11,855
10,035
1,820

741,143 1,102,166,499
718,108 11,076,213, 730
23,035
25,952,769

9,883
9,683
200

506, 974 593, 051,176
482,782 i 571,917,215
24,192
21,133,961

1 Amount reported paid to wage earners, and does not include amounts paid to bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks, salespeople (not traveling), and superintendents and managers.
2 Press release, Bureau of the Census, Apr. 1, 1933.

Even with the omission, prior to 1924, from the reports of the Ohio
Division of Labor Statistics of practically all manufacturing plants
employing fewer than five persons and the omission for 1924 to 1932
of practically all those employing fewer than three persons, the aver­
age number of wage earners and the total amount paid in wages are
not far below the census figures for manufactures in Ohio. The per


4

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

cent which the figures of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics form
of the figures of the census for each of those two items is as follows:
T able 2 .—PERCENT WHICH FIGURES OF OHIO DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS FORM
OF FIGURES OF THE CENSUS OF M ANUFACTURES FOR WAGE EARNERS AND
WAGE PAYM ENTS
Year
1919____________________
1921____________________
1923____________________
1925____________________

Wage
earners
92.9
93.2
97.8
96.3

Wage
payments

Year

92.3 1927__________ ______
92.0 1929___________________
95.3 1931___________________
98.0

Wage
earners
97.0
96.9
95.2

Wage
payments
98.1
97.6
96.4

The industry groups included in these studies on average wage and
salary payments are manufacturers, wholesale and retail trade, ser­
vice,2 transportation and public utilities, construction, and agricul­
ture. The great majority of Ohio farmers who hire help employ
fewer than three persons, and therefore this report does not give a
complete picture of conditions in agriculture in general, as the infor­
mation comes from the larger commercial farming undertakings, from
the larger dairy farms, and from the larger florist, fruit-growing, and
nursery establishments. The figures in the subgroup “ domestic
service”, under the general industry group “service”, also do not
afford a complete report, as comparatively few would employ three or
more in domestic service and furthermore workmen's compensation
insurance is not compulsory for such employers. In all the other
industry groups included the Ohio reports and this report give prac­
tically a complete picture except for the very small establishments.
Fisheries was carried as a separate industry group by the Ohio Division
of Labor Statistics prior to 1932, in which year the returns were tabu­
lated under “ trade, wholesale and retail”, as the establishments
reporting were largely packing and sales houses. Chapter 2 shows
average number of employees and total wage and salary payments
for “fisheries”, but average wage and salary payments were not
computed owing to the small number of persons involved.
Average wage and salary payments shown in this report have been
computed from reports furnished by Ohio employers immediately after
the close of each calendar year. These reports show, among other
items, the number of persons employed on the 15th of each month and
the total wage and salary payments during the year. Employers are
not requested to furnish, in connection with such annual reports, infor­
mation concerning number or proportion of employees working full
time, part time, and overtime, nor are they requested to furnish
information relative to the extent to which they have “spread”
2 The principal businesses and activities classified under the industry group “ service” are: Hotels, res­
taurants, clubs, theaters, bowling alleys, servants in private homes, garages, laundering and dry cleaning,
barbers and hair dressers, banks, offices, office buildings, welfare agencies, hospitals, churches, schools and
colleges, photographers, shoe repairing, undertakers, cemeteries, etc.




SOURCES AND SCOPE OF STUDIES

5

work or shortened hours during slack periods or provided overtime
during busy periods. Spreading work through reduced hours for
individual employees, groups of employees, or for the establish.ment as a whole, was followed by many employers during the slack
period in 1921 and was followed very generally during the longer
slack period since 1929. Such plans, of course, merely distribute
available work and wage and salary funds among the larger number
of employees and all carry a part of the hardship resulting from
reduced incomes. Such a procedure in which both employees and
employers cooperate, it is generally believed, means less suffering
on the part of the whole body of employees than would be caused
by retention only of those who could be provided with full-time
employment at former hours and furloughing or releasing all others.
Spreading work during the slack periods following 1920 and 1929
was undoubtedly a considerable factor in reducing the average wage
and salary payments during those two periods. Overtime work
during the periods of great industrial activity preceding the slack
periods, on the other hand, increased average wage and salary pay­
ments at those periods. It is not possible from data available to
determine the amount of part-time and overtime work during the 17
years covered by these studies and to measure, even approximately, the
effect of such conditions upon average wage and salary payments.
Under each of the several general industry groups, data are shown in
this chapter for each of the three general occupation groups—“wage
e a r n e r s “bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks”; and “sales­
people (not traveling).” The table showing total wage and salary
payments also shows separately payments to superintendents and
managers, but data for such employees do not enter into any of the
other tables or computations.




Chapter 2.—All Industries, 1918 to 1932 1

R

EPORTS from practically all establishments in Ohio employing
three or more persons and falling within the general industry
groups of manufactures, wholesale and retail trade, service, trans­
portation and public utilities, construction, agriculture, and fisheries
show an average wage and salary payment of $1,048 for the year 1932
as compared with $1,480 in 1929.
For the occupation group, “wage earners”, the reports show an
average wage and salary payment of $978 for the year 1932 and $1,457
for 1929. For the group, “bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks”, the average was $1,390 for 1932 and $1,677 for 1929. The
group, “salespeople (not traveling) ”, averaged $1,014 for 1932, $1,374
for 1929, and $1,417 for 1927.
Average Number of Employees

T able 3 shows the average number of employees in each of the three
general occupation groups under each industry group. The annual
reports made by employers to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics
show the number of persons employed on the 15th of each month, and
the averages shown in this table were computed by dividing the total
of the monthly figures by 12. Employers are not requested in their
annual reports to give information as to the number of employees on
full time and the number on part time each month.
The number of establishments from which reports are secured
varies from year to year, but within each year the establishments are
identical throughout the 12 months. It should be borne in mind that
reports were requested of employers of three or more persons each
year from 1924 to 1932, and of employers of five or more during the
earlier years of the period covered, and therefore any comparisons
between years should be made separately within those two periods.
For the first of the two periods indicated, 1918 to 1923, the highest
average number of employees occurred in 1920 for all industries com­
bined, for construction, and for manufactures, and in 1923 for service,
trade, and transportation and public utilities. For the second of the
two periods, 1924 to 1932, the highest average number of employees
occurred in 1929 for all industries combined, for manufactures, and
for trade; in 1930 for service and for transportation and public utili­
ties; and in 1927 for construction. The lowest average during the
1 Certain figures in this study, as published in the Monthly Labor Review for January 1934, have been
changed in accord with detailed studies made later. See statement as to 1916 to 1924 in studies of service
and trade (pp. 150 and 163).

6




ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

7

first period occurred in 1921 for all industries combined and for con­
struction, manufactures, and transportation and public utilities, and
in 1918 for service and trade. The lowest averages during the second
period occurred in 1932, except in service, where, with a very much
smaller number of establishments reporting, it occurred in 1924.
AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
EACH YEAR, 1918 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRY AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
All industries
Agriculture

T able 3 —

Year

1918_____
1919______
1920_____
1921_____
1922_____
1923_____
1924_____
1925_..........
1926_____
1927_____
1928_____
1929_____
1930_____
1931..........
1932______

Estab­ All em­
lish­
ments ployees
22,709
23,652
27, 241
23,562
24,124
25,904
30,439
33,443
36,004
38,509
39,979
42,216
43, 348
42,095
39,109

Book­
keepers,
stenog­
Wage
earners raphers,
and
office
clerks

Book­
Sales­
keepers, Sales­
people Estab­ All em­ Wage stenog­ people
(not lish­
raphers, (not
travel­ ments ployees earners and travel­
ing)
office ing)
clerks

1,041,993 895,726 104,264 42,002
1,039,150 876,103 116,185 46,861
1,123,955 942,925 130,857 50,173
812,646 655,340 110, 523 46,784
912,160 750,403 112,283 49,474
1,070,998 889,627 126,470 54,901
1,055,721 860,379 133, 235 62,106
1,121,840 917,380 138,800 65,660
1,175,950 959,800 146, 255 69,895
1,171,268 947,125 150,848 73,295
1,197,885 966,125 154,287 77,473
1,278,992 1,024,165 168,127 , 701
1,133,846 888,527 174,099 71, 220
. 963, 791 739,813 153,136 70,842
817,862 619,044 134, 296 64, 523

86

520
552
586
504
519
548
732
910
1,052
1,199
1,329
1,444
1,639
1,777
1, 736

4,273
4,747
5,382
4,890
5,005
5,883
7,364
8,407
9,145
9,724
9,942
10,183
9,672
8,272
6,456

61,072
57,194
72,217
50,985
54,518
69,202
74,791
77,670
79,928
83,535
78,434
78,631
69,607
45,601
27,519

57,276
53,506
67, 871
47,411
50,981
65,077
69,838
72, 574
74,600
77,944
72, 633
72,670
63,625
41,066
24,094

3,381
3,177
3, 717
2,972
2,913
3,461
4,030
4,104
4,244
4,485
4,727
4,844
5,323
3,630
2,691

415
511
629
602
624
663
923
992
1,084
1,106
1,073
1,117
660
904
734

8,858
9,011
9,652
, 632
8,403
8,701
9,125
9,502
9,704
9,880
9,937
10,035
9, 683
9,102

8

10,011

3,071
3,157
4,650
3,499
3,745
4,120
5, 215
5,971
6,761
7,598
9,335
10,241
10,452
10,357

8,210

57,014
63,157
77,052
74,850
79,438
90,767
104,095
113,046
124,424
130,525
138,542
153,109
155,012
150,122
138,405

40,301
42,086
48,662
48, 537
51,517
59,082
, 937
73,399
82,072
87,132
91,160
100,805
99,427
97,184
91,523

66

217
180
247
215
233
271
301
334
359
422
410
431
379
317

202

48
53
57
63
60

0) 68
79
96
108
108
93
87
73
69

766,914
752,121
794,627
524, 316
609,903
726,043
679, 523
727,988
751, 340
729,250
749, 434
806,607
673,178
552,905
461,183

699,656
678,525
715,858
460, 671
546,435
654,142
606,558
651,944
671,910
649, 111
669, 039
718,108
590,506
482, 782
399, 790

62,155
68,249
73,035
57,965
57, 550
65,538
65,963
68,387
71,195
71, 769
72,041
79,197
77, 702
65,011
56,500

5,103
5, 346
5,735
5,680
5,919
6,363
7,002
7,657
8,234
8,371
8,355
9,302
4,969
5,112
4,893

Trade, wholesale and retail3

Service 2
1918_____
1919_____
1920_____
1921_____
1922_____
1923______
1924_____
1925_____
1926_____
1927______
1928_____
1929........1930_..........
1931...........
1932______

8

4,511
4,403
4,592
4,185
4,138
4,358
5,433
6,056
6,714
7,287
8,016
8,437
8,471
8,706
7,528

Manufactures

Construction
1918_____
1919_____
1920_____
1921_____
1922_____
1923_____
1924_____
1925______
1926_____
1927_____
1928_____
1929_____
1930_____
1931_____
1932_____

4,776
4,635
4,895
4,450
4,413
4,590
5,772
6,436
7,144
7,754
,545
8,940
8,989
9,159
7,915

14,813
18,685
25,993
23,418
24,644
27, 641
32,219
34,124
35, 664
37,934
40,181
44,374
51,162
48,590
42,964

1,899
2,386
2,397
2,896
3,277
4,045
4,939
5,523

6,688

5,459
7,202
7,930
4,423
4,348
3,918

4,815
5,063
5,786
4,962
5,354
5,497
6,707
7,277
7,867
8,526
8,916
9,524
, 111
9,716

10,022
10

92,318 41,539
100,434 43,843
110,524 49,494
98,818 42, 910
104,083 45,593
114,128 49,805
122,071 51,967
126,928 53,759
132,770 56,536
139, 720 58,368
140, 780 56,884
149, 224 56,971
142,286 57,845
137,304 55,482
122,738 49,087

16,448
18,208
19,904
18,547
19,083
20,850
21,380
22, 263
23,055
23,721
23,887
24,973
24,482
22, 267
19,545

34, 331
38,383
41,126
37, 360
39,408
43, 473
48, 724
50, 907
53,179
57,631
60,009
67,280
59,959
59,555
54,106

1 Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry these employees under “ Industries, not
otherwise classified."
2 Including “ Offices.”
s Not including “ Offices/’




8

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EMPLOYED
EACH YEAR, 1918 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRY AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—
Continued

T able 3 .—

In d u str ie s, not
otherwise classi­
fied

Fisheries

Transportation and public utilities

BookBookBook­
keep­
keep­
keepers, Sales
ers, Sales­ All ers, Sales­
All Wage stenog­ people
stenog­ people
Estab­ All em­ Wage stenog­ people Estab­ em­
earn­ ra­ (not em­ ra­ (not
lish­
raphers, (not lish­
ments ployees earners and travel­ ments ploy­ ers phers, travel­ ploy­ phers, travel­
ees and ing)
ees
and ing)
office ing)
office
clerks
office
clerks
clerks

Year

1918___
1919___
1920___
1921
1922___
1923___
1924___
1925___
1926___
1927___
1928___
1929
1930___
1931___
1932___

1,134
1,081
1,146
1,048
1,071
1,129
1,271
1,353
1,453
1, 561
1,625
1,674
1,741
1,776
1,742

59,448
61,172
64,254
58,919
59,473
65,876
69,096
69,426
80,008
80,162
81,849
82,137
84,450
68,382
60,103

52,037
53,357
56,115
51,368
51, 462
56,877
59,320
59,345
67, 671
,999
68,126
66,862
68,358
54,303
47,021

66

7,205 205
7,633 181
7,915 224
7,372 179
7,830 181
8,701 298
9,331 446
9,584 498
11,728 609
12, 546 617
12,999 725
14, 297 978
14,969 1,123
13,231 847
12,279 803

38 452
41 439
39 385
27 307
27 327
26 287
25 325
23 304
296
283
268
344
295
24 289
(3) (3)

22
21
20
21
22

406
384
333
257
278
287
325
304
296
283
268
312
295
289
(3)

46
54
47
46
49
)
)
)
)
)31
)
)
(3)

0
0
0
0
(0
0
0
0

1
6
0)
(0
0
0)
0
0
01
0)
0
4

(3)

4
105
46
41
40
37
33
30
31

46
42
37
35
33
31
30
28

4
59
4
4
5
4

2
3

i Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry these employees under “ Industries, not
otherwise classified.”
3 Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry fisheries under “ Trade” in 1932, as the
establishments reporting were largely packing and sales houses.

Total W age and Salary Payments
T
wage and salary payments reported paid in each of the 15
years 1918 to 1932 are shown in table 4. In supplying data for
this table, employers were requested to report for the year total wage
and salary payments in dollars, including bonuses and premiums and
value of board and lodging furnished. Employers were also instructed
not to include salaries of officials.
While payments to superintendents and managers are included in
this table, that occupation group is not included in the other tables
in this article, and the amounts paid to that group do not enter into
the average payments shown in table 6.
Considering all industry groups combined, during the period 1918
to 1923, the highest payments occurred in 1920, and the lowest oc­
curred in 1921, with a drop (omitting payments to superintendents
and managers) of 39.1 percent. During the period 1924 to 1932 there
was a gradual increase in payments each year until the highest point
was reached in 1929. Each year since 1929 shows a marked decrease,
until in 1932 the payments reported (omitting payments to superin­
tendents and managers) show a decline from 1929 of $1,035,921,872,
or 54.7 percent.
In construction the highest payments reported during the second
period were in 1927 and the lowest in 1932, with a drop (omitting
otal




9

ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

payments to superintendents and managers) from the peak in 1927 of
$107,878,101, or 79.3 percent. In manufactures the highest pay­
ments reported during the second period were in 1929 and the lowest
in 1932, with a drop (omitting superintendents and managers) in 3
years of $762,296,717, or 61.6 percent.
Table 4.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, EACH YEAR 1918 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRY AND GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
All industries

Year
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

Estab­
lish­
ments

Wage
earners

22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562
24, 025
25, 904
30, 439
33, 443
36,004
38, 509
39,979
42, 216
43, 348
42, 095
39,109

$993, 233, 308
1,091,922,134
1,454, 725, 511
820,250,496
937.666, 389
1,264,809,860
1, 209,620,128
1,316,203,710
1,360,927,636
1,355, 767, 253
1,398,706,201
1,492,141,261
1,193,333, 662
877,928, 803
605,190, 299

Book­
keepers, Salespeople
stenog­ (not travel­
raphers,
ing)
and office
clerks
$113, 268,144
152,690,186
195, 573,486
163,589,396
191,696,182
188,694,543
207,015,167
214, 608,478
230,689,854
244,426,090
252,050, 747
282,017,895
291,736,043
239,454,060
186, 710,032

$37, 548,872
48,683,649
62, 713, 758
59,447, 291
60,165,261
73,152, 030
81,728, 091
89, 783, 496
97, 523,735
103,849,983
109,017, 515
119,084, 364
88,972, 655
82, 265, 334
65,421,317

Total

Superin­
tendents
and managers

Grand
total

$1,144, 050, 324
1,293,295,969
1, 713,012, 755
1, 043, 287,183
1,189, 527,832
1, 526, 656,433
1,498, 363,386
1, 620, 595,684
1,689,141, 225
, 704,043, 326
1,759, 774,463
1,893, 243, 520
1, 574, 042, 360
1,199,648,197
857,321, 648

$56,330, 774
73,247,706
87,328,956
83, 596, 901
82,884,097
95,328,822
103,035, 637
113,110, 564
117,637, 539
120, 285, 265
131,366,774
133,461,924
137,112,137
115,105,919
88,841,093

$1, 200, 381,098
1, 366, 543,675
1,800,341, 711
1,125,884,084
1, 272,411, 929
1, 621, 985, 255
1, 601, 399,023
1, 733, 706, 248
1,806, 778, 764
1,824, 328, 591
1,891,141,237
2,026, 705,444
1,711,154,497
1,314,754,116
946,162, 741

$3, 581,346
3,864, 498
5,162, 866
4,107, 272
4,024, 696
4, 565,925
5,859,253
, 573,860
6,932,321
7,616,884
8,424,430
8,681,984
8,529,965
7,499, 673
5, 228,800

$212,913
255,093
331,992
331, 291
338,837
420,316
506,092
542,439
558,358
593, 543
704, 202
712, 565
717,974
649, 410
495,600

$3, 794,259
4,119, 591
5, 494,858
4, 438, 563
4, 363, 533
4,986, 241
, 365, 345
7,116, 299
7,490,679
,210, 427
9,128, 632
9,394, 549
9,247, 939
8,149,083
5, 724,400

$66,842, 364 $4,288, 305
80,847,147 4,001,698
122,659,406 5,474,355
71,370, 567 4,949,853
74,877,020 4,751, 917
133,463,865 5,936,960
122,775,242
,339, 353
128,601, 390
, 553,458
129,615,775 7,003,830
136,121,851 7,334,053
128,359,248 7, 535,688
131,769,687 7,823,916
109,130,989 7,992,681
61,667,081 5,695, 227
28,243, 750 3,270,559

$71,130,669
84,848,845
128,133, 761
76, 320,420
79,628, 937
139,400,825
129,114, 595
135,154,848
136,619,605
143,455,904
135,894,936
139,593,603
117,123, 670
67,362,308
31,514, 309

1

Agriculture

1918______
1919______
1920______
1921 ____
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

520
552
586
504
524
548
732
910
1,052
1,199
1,329
1,444
1,639
1,777
1,736

$3,356,920
3,625,412
4,789,088
3,788,157
3,705,059
4,236,632
5,466,661
6,116,041
, 404,230
7,030,170
7,768,284
8,074,741
7,940, 580
6,999,893
4,894,524

6

$182, 546
186, 241
301,168
236, 724
253, 726
263,927
312,116
348,940
413,050
431,662
511,921
483,350
481, 285
419,193
271,694

$41,880
52,845
72, 610
82, 391
65,911
i 65,366
80,476
108,879
115,041
155,052
144,225
123,893
108,100
80, 587
62, 582

6

6
8

Construction

1918..........
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

1

4,273
4,747
5,382
4,890
5,007
5,883
7,364
8,407
9,145
9,724
9,942
10,183
9, 672
8,272
6,456

$62,646,726 $3,629, 209
75,722,325 4,063,456
115,574, 650 5,856,206
65,528,871 4,761,255
69,408,474 4,327,049
126, 632,946 5, 512,351
114, 334,620 6,631,822
, 767,973
119,786, 318
120,158,128 7,191,240
126,076,960 7, 712, 554
117,922,441 8,275,667
121,413,067 8,160,166
98,314, 644 9,367,262
54, 519, 506 5,833,638
23, 657,092 3, 636,039

6

$566, 429
1,061, 366
1,228, 550
1,080,441
1,141,497
1,318, 568
1,808,800
2,047,099
2,266,407
2,332,337
2,161,140
2,196,454
1,449,083
1,313,937
950,619

6
6

Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry these employees under “ Industries, not
otherwise classified.”




10

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, EACH YEAR 1918 TO
INDUSTRY AND GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Continued

T able 4 —

1932,

BY

Fisheries

Year
1918______
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

Estab­
lish­
ments
38
41
39
27
27
26
25
23

22
21
20
21
22
24

(2)

Wage
earners
$577,228
573,347
626,871
378,476
416,996
408,462
537,035
489,088
481,277
479,939
455,426
511,443
481, 506
434,362
(2)

Book­
keepers, Salespeople
stenog­ (not travel­
raphers,
ing)
and office
clerks
$49,004
64,205
65,907
68,460
66,321
i 58,783
i 63,013
i 52,100
i 49,888
i 49,218
i 46,125
46, 515
i 46,565
i 47,323
(2)

$1,250
12,807
9,744
110,290
i 9,820
i 12,020
i 5,673
i 5,950
i 10.358
i 4,320
1, 744
i 400
i 6,095
(2)

Total

Superin­
tendents
and man­
agers

Grand
total

$626, 232
633,802
705,585
456,680
493,607
477,065
612,068
546,861
537,115
539, 515
505,871
5o9,702
528,471
487,780
(2)

$56,871
63,082
68,424
58,750
46,599
59,975
65,885
68,920
73,275
62, 620
68,400
72,822
69,640
61,153
(2)

$683,103
701,884
774,009
515, 430
540, 206
537,040
677,953
615,781
610,390
602,135
574, 271
632,524
598, 111
548,933
(2)

$890,820,104
980,653,836
1,273,071,437
677,863,449
823,365,751
1,052,041.376
989,331,453
1,089,684,210
1, 111, 592, 319
1,095,360,768
1,145,380, 749
1,238,371,838
958,368,992
690,217,455
476,075,121

$34,550,921
46,296,998
51,667,818
46,048,958
45,706,009
51,259,820
51,142,061
56,133, 781
58, 268,417
58,822,884
59,420, 091
62,777,638
60,396, 459
50,905,300
38,432,348

$925,371,025
1,026,950,834
1,324, 739,265
723,912,407
869,071,760
1,103,301,196
1,040,473, 514
1,145,817,991
1,169,860, 736
1,154,183,652
1, 204,800,840
1,301,149,476
1,018, 765,451
741,122,755
514, 507,469

$5,180,566
7,053, 211
10,297, 669
11,059,4'27
7,589,873
14,204,573
19,617,426
21,959, 639
21,849,163
21,607, 204
25,058,030
26,384, 039
27,932, 230
24, 510, 860
19, 735,297

$54, 743,454
68,660,880
104,171, 225
104, 736,870
80, 748, (556
127,960,847
153,114,973
167,419, 228
183,479,643
196,879,060
205,961,707
238, 291,343
230,365,631
210,047,916
168,416, 743

Manufactures

1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
19281929.
193019311932.

8,858
9, Oil
9,652
, 632
8,330
, 701
9,125
9,502
9, 704
9,880
9,937
10,035
10, Oil
9,683
9,102

8
8

$810,785,446
872,014,593
1,143,662,785
5^6,968,355
693,948,886
933,989, 207
867,024,674
956,106,644
973,197, 214
950,200,395
1,000, 676, 770
1,076, 213,730
806, 211, 539
571,917, 215
382, 080, 692

$72,401,476
99,616,384
118,045,344
89,700, 261
118,786,876
105,092,484
108,441,736
116,531,491
121,169,678
127,339, 270
126,630,061
141,959,719
141,830, 517
109,165,152
85,497, 253

$7,633,182
9,022,859
11,363,308
11,194, 833
10,629,989
12,959,685
13,865,043
17,046,075
17,225,427
17,821,103
18,073,918
20,198, 389
10,326,936
9,135,088
8,497,176

Service, including “ offices”

1918______
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922 3_____
1923______
1924______
1925______
____ _
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

1926

3,071
3,157
4,650
3,499
3,034
4,120
5,215
5,971
, 761
7,598
, 210
9,335
10, 241
10,452
10, 357

6
8

$30,516,708
35,598,590
52,601,409
53,671, 210
50,008,110
65,361,822
77,458,058
86,197,038
94,622,091
105,462,147
102,061, 685
118,959, 260
111, 692,103
103,607,067
85,957,730

22

$16, 348,100
, 453,467
36, 426,294
35, 368,928
19, 645,610
40, 017,329
46, 763,611
48, 314,102
53, 930,013
59, 000,261
65, 040, 343
76, 873,897
83, 742, 536
75, 869,112
58, 630,191

$2,698,080
3, 555, 612
4,845, 853
4,637, 305
3,504, 463
8,377,123
9, 275,878
10,948,449
13,078,376
10,809,448
13, 801, 649
16,074,147
6,998, 762
6,060,877
4,093, 525

$49,562,888
61,607, 669
93,873, 556
93,677, 443
73,158,183
113, 756, 274
133,497, 547
145,459, 589
161, 630,480
175,271,856
180,903, 677
211,907,304
202, 433, 401
185, 537, 056
148, 681, 446

1 Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry these employees under “ Industries, not other­
wise classified.”
2 Tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics carry fisheries under “ Trade” in 1932, as the
establishments reporting were largely packing and sales houses.
3 Not including offices. Data not available to combine.




11

ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

T able 4.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, EACH YEAR 1918 TO 1932, BV
INDUSTRY AND GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Continued
Tradef wholesale and retail, not including “ offices”

Estab­
lish­
ments

Year

Wage
earners

1918
__________$34,922, 511
4,815
1919
__________ 43,359, 687
5,063
1920
__________ 58,837,839
5, 786
1921
__________ 52,203,124
4,962
1922 4_____ 6,031
55,724,935
1923
__________ 59,354,971
5,497
1924
__________ 64, 715,087
6, 707
1925
__________ 67,929,464
7,277
1926
__________ 72,366,350
7, 867
1927
__________ 74,471,388
8, 526
1928
__________ 73, 571,115
8,916
1929
__________ 72,980,211
9, 524
1930
__________ 72,844,362
10, 022
1931
__________ 67,505, 063
10, 111
1932
__________ 52, 243,081
9, 716

Book­
keepers,
stenog­
raphers,
and office
clerks
$14,323,442
18,892, 259
25,512,300
23,802,292
37,310, 729
26,453,941
28,011,605
28,828,086
31,231,010
32,032,811
31,704,191
33,268,959
34,396, 203
28,548, 605
21,934,553

Salespeople
(not travel­
ing)
$26,379,860
34,693,649
44,205,304
42,127, 308
44,403,951
49,846, 849
55,619, 297
58,611, 692
63,490,776
71,337,704
73, 229,892
78,338, 716
67,848,122
64,051,911
50,317,419

Total

Superin­
tendents
and man­
agers

$75, 625, 813 $9,619,073
96,945, 595 12,282, 299
128,555,443 15,917,877
118,132, 724 15,729, 323
137,439, 615 20,162,319
135,655, 761 19,384,463
148,345,989 20,594, 823
155,369, 242 22,965,987
167,088,136 24,120,423
177,841,903 25, 718,819
178,505,198 31,854,439
184,587, 886 28, 532,443
175,088,687 32,256, 244
160,105,579 26,096, 282
124,495,053 20,821, 876

Grand
total
$85,244,886
109, 227,894
144,473, 320
133, 862,047
157,601,934
155,040,224
168,940,812
178, 335, 229
191, 208, 559
203, 560, 722
210,359,637
213,120,329
207,344,931
186, 201,861
145,316,929

Transportation and public utilities

$229,441 $56,991,577 $2,422,125 $59,413,702
$50,427,769 $6,334,367
68,738,422 3,295,325
72,033,747
61,028,180 7,414,174
296, 068
88,984,462 3,570,821
92,555, 283
78,632,869 9,366, 267
«985,326
67,712,303 9,651,476
82,098,347
315, 269
77,679, 048 4,419, 299
80,457,503
64,453,929 11,305, 871
409,160
76,168,960 4, 288, 543
90,758,882
86,696,167 4, 062,715
74,825, 820 11,295,728
574, 619
97,941,834 4,769,997 102, 711,831
80,083,993 16,791, 264 1,066, 577
99,246,872
94, 360,532 4, 886, 340
79,579,117 13, 765, 786 1,015, 629
93, 698, 346 16, 704,975 1,341, 758 111, 745, 079 5, 764, 073 117,509,152
92,046, 254 17,860, 314 1, 383,981 111, 290, 549 6,146,142 117,436, 691
96, 250,480 19, 842,439 1,602, 371 117, 695, 290 6,725,924 124,421, 214
93,988, 809 21, 225, 289 2,151, 021 117,365,119 7,158, 501 124,523, 620
95,848,928 21,871, 675 2,241, 252 119,961,855 7,746,909 127, 708,764
94,133, 573 7,187, 687 101,321, 260
72,945,697 19, 571, 037 1,616,839
74, 597,478 6, 085,413
56, 357,180 16, 740, 302 1,499,996
80, 682, 891
4 Including “ offices”, data not available to separate.
5 This amount is undoubtedly an error, but original schedules and work sheets have been destroyed
and definite correction, therefore, cannot be made. The most likely error was mistaking a figure “ 1” in
the left-hand column for a figure “ 7”. If this assumption is correct, it involves a reduction of $600,000,
which would make the following changes in averages for 1920 shown in table 6 of this article: Transporta­
tion and public utilities, “ all employees”, from $1,385 to $1,376; all industries combined, “salespeople”,
from $1,250 to $1,238.

1918______
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
3924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

1,134
1,081
1,146
1,048
1, 072
1,129
1, 271
1,353
1,453
1, 561
1,625
1, 674
1, 741
1, 776
1,742

Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments

T
6 shows average wage and salary payments for each year of
the period, computed by dividing total wage and salary payments,
as reported to and compiled by the division of labor statistics and
shown in table 4, by the average number of employees within the same
group, as shown in table 3. Very little information concerning aver­
age annual wage and salary payments has been made available on
any extensive basis. The United States Census Bureau does not
compute average annual wage payments in compiling the biennial
Census of Manufactures, and states in the 1929 report the reasons
for not making such computations. When computations are made,
however, from the census reports, for wage earners in manufactures
in Ohio, one finds the following comparisons (table 5) with the
average wage and salary payments to wage earners based on the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics data.
able

140446°—35---- 2




12
T

a ble

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
5 .—

AVERAGE WAGE PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANUFACTURES IN
OHIO, IN SPECIFIED YEARS, 1919 TO 1929
Average wage
payment—

Year

1919____________________
1921 __________________
1923 __________________
1925 ___________________

Com­
puted
from
United
States
census
$1,293
1,269
1,464
1,442

Based
on Ohio
Division
of Labor
Statistics
data

Average wage
payment—
Year

$1,285 1927___________________
1,252 1929___________________
1,428 1931___________________
1,467

Com­
puted
from
United
States
census
$1,447
1,487
1,170

Based
on Ohio
Division
of Labor
Statistics
data
$1,464
1,499
1,185

The two series show a remarkable agreement. The average annual
payments to wage earners in manufactures in Ohio computed from
the Ohio reports as compared with those computed from the United
States census reports, are 0.62 percent lower in 1919, 1.34 percent
lower in 1921, 2.46 percent lower in 1923, 1.73 percent higher in 1925,
1.17 percent higher in 1927, 0.81 percent higher in 1929, and 1.28
percent higher in 1931.
It is not possible from the reports made to the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics to show wage and salary payments separately for
males and for females, nor is it possible to classify occupations beyond
the three general occupation groups shown in this report. Consid­
ering all industries combined, and all employees, the highest average
wage and salary payment was in 1920, with the second highest in
1929. The lowest average was in 1932, with a drop in 3 years of
$432, or 29.2 percent.

In construction the highest average payment was in 1923, with a
drop to the lowest point in 1932 of $903, or 46.8 percent.
In manufactures the highest average payment was in 1920, and the
second highest in 1929. The lowest was in 1932, with a drop of $503,
or 32.8 percent, in 3 years. In service the highest average was in 1929
and the lowest in 1918. In wholesale and retail trade the highest
average was in 1927 and the lowest in 1918; for salespeople (not
traveling) under the general industry group “trade”, the highest
average payment was in 1927. In transportation and public utilities
the highest average was in 1928 and the lowest in 1918.
Charts 1 to 6 show graphically average wage and salary payments
from 1918 to 1932 for each of the industry groups numerically im­
portant and for all industry groups combined. Data are not avail­
able to compute 1922 average wage and salary payments for service
(including offices) and for wholesale and retail trade (not including
offices).




ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

13

F ig u r e l. —A v er a g e A n n u a l w a g e a n d sa l a r y P a y m e n t s in a l l in d u st r y
G r o u p s C o m b in e d , 1918 t o 1932, by G en e r a l O c c u pa t io n G r o u p s

F ig u r e 2.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
a n p t o A ll E m pl o y e e s in t h e C o n st r u c t io n in d u s t r y , i 918 t o 1932




14
T

a ble

AVEKAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
6.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, EACH YEAR 1918 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRY AND GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
All industries

Agriculture

BookkeepEstab- All em- Wage ers, stenoglish- ploy- earn- raphers,
ments ees
ers and office
clerks
1918______
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

22,709 $1,098 $1,109
23,652 1,245 1,246
27, 241 1. 524 1,543
23, 562 1,284 1,252
324,025 1,304 1,250
25,904 1,425 1,422
30,439 1,419 1,406
33,443 1,445 1,435
36,004 1,436 1,418
38, 509 1,455 1,431
39,979 1,469 1,448
42, 216 1,480 1,457
43,348 1,388 1,343
42,095 1,245 1,187
39,109 1,048
978

Sales­
Bookkeep­
people Estab­ All em­ Wage ers, stenog­
(not lish­ ploy­ earn­ raphers,
travel­ ments ees
ers and office
ing)
clerks

$1,086 $894
1,314 1,039
1,495 21,250
1,480 1,271
1,707 1, 216
1,492 1,332
1,554 1,316
1,546 1,367
1,577 1,395
1,620 1,417
1,634 1, 407
1,677 1, 374
1,676 1,249
1,564 1,161
1,390 1,014

520
552
586
504
3 524
548
732
910
1,052
1,199
1,329
1,444
1,639
1,777
1,736

$750
834
1,055
923
912
4981
1,015
1,021
970
982
986
971
949
819
661

Construction
1918...........
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925.......... .
1926______
1927____
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______
jl

4,273 $1,094 $1,094
4,747 1,414 1,415
5,382 1,698 1,703
4,890 1,400 1,382
s 5,007 1,373 i, 361
5,883 1,929 1,946
7,364 1,642 1,637
8,407 1,656 1,651
9,145 1,622 1,611
9,724 1,630 1,618
9,942 1,637 1,624
10,183 1,676 1,668
9,672 1,568 1,545
8, 272 1,352 1,328
982
6, 456 1,026

3,071
3,157
4,650
3,499
4,120
5, 215
5,971
6,761
7,598
8,210
9,335
10,241
10,452
10,357
( 8)

$869
975
1,218
1,252
(8)
1,253
1,282
1,287
1,299
1,343
1,306
1,384
1,306
1, 236
1,074

$757
846
1,081
1,106
(8)
1,106
1,157
1,174
1,153
1,210
1,120
1,180
1,123
1,066
939

(0
0)
0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
(0
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)
0)
0)
0)
(5)
0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
(0
0)
(U

Manufactures
$1,073 0)
8,858 $1,162 $1,159
1,279 $2,077 9,011 1,304 1,285
1,576 1,953 9,652 1,602 1,598
1,602 1,795 8,632 1, 293 1, 252
1,485 1,829 3 8, 330 1,350 1,270
1,593 1,989 8, 701 1,449 1,428
1,646 1,960 9,125 1,456 1.429
1,649 2,064 9,502 1,497 .1,467
1,694 2,091 9,704 1,479 1,448
1,720 2,109 9,880 1,502 1,464
1,751 2,014 9,937 1,528 1,496
1,685 1,966 10,035 1,535 1,499
1,760 2,196 10, Oil 1,424 1,365
1,607 1,453 9,683 1,248 1,185
956
1,351 1,295 10,357 1,032

$1,165
1,460
1,616
1,547
2,064
1,604
1,644
1,704
1,702
1,774
1,758
1.792
1,825
1,679
1,365

$1,496
1.688
1,981
1,971
1,796
2,037
1,980
2,226
2,092
2,129
2,163
2,171
2,078
1,787
1,045

Trade, wholesale and retail7

Service6
1918______
1919______
1920______
1921______
1922______
1923______
1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

$744
823
1,043
905
895
972
1,006
1,010
954
965
969
957
937
804
650

Sales­
people
(not
travel­
ing)

$1,104 $1,421 4,815
1,202 1,490 5,063
1,401 2,022 5,786
1,510 1,601 4,962
1,448 2,071 5,497
1,451 1,878 6,707
1,416 1,982 7,277
1,512 1,955 7,867
1,555 1,980 8,526
1,619 1,916 8,916
1,732 2,027 9,524
1,637 1,582 10,022
1,561 1,394 10, 111
1,365 1,045 9,716

( 8)

( 8)

( 8)

$819
965
1,163
1,195
1,189
1,215
1,224
1,258
1,273
1,268
1,237
1,231
1,166
1,014
( 8)

$841
9&9
1,187
1, 217
(8)
1,192
1,245
1,264
1,280
1,276
1,293
1,281
1,259
1,217
1,064

$871
1,038
1,282
1,283
(8)
1,269
1,310
1,295
1,355
1,350
1,327
1,332
1,405
1,282
1,122

$768
904
1,075
1,128
1,147
1,142
1,151
1,194
1,238
1,220
1,164
1,132
1,076
930

( 8)

1 Not computed owing to small number involved.
2 See note 5 to table 4.
2 The number of establishments reporting employees was: Total, 24,124; agriculture, 519; construction,
5,005; fisheries, 27; manufactures, 8,403; service, 3,032; trade, wholesale and retail, 6,067; and transportation
and public utilities, 1,071.
4 Wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) not included in this average, as number of
such employees could not be determined.
fi Combined with “Industries, not otherwise classified” in detailed tabulation by Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics; number does not exceed 60.
6 Including “offices.”
7 Not including offices.

Information concerning total wages and $ajary payments not available.




15

ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932
T able 6 —

AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, EACH YEAR 1918 TO
INDUSTRY AND GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Continued

1932,

BY

Transportation and public utilities
Year

1918___________________________________
1919___________________________________
1920___________________________________
1921__________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925___________________________________
1926_______________-__________________
1927___________________________________
1928___________________________________
1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932___________________________________

Establish­
ments
1,134
1,081
1,146
1,048
3 1,072
1,129
1,271
1,353
1,453
1,561
1,625
1,674
1,741
1,776
1, 742

All em­
ployees

2

$959
1,124
1,385
1,318
1,281
1,316
1,417
1,359
1,397
1,388
1,438
1,429
1,420
1,377
1,241

Wage
earners
$969
1,144
1,401
1,318
1,252
1,316
1,350
1,341
1,385
1,374
1,413
1,406
1,402
1,343
1,199

Book­
keepers, Salespeople
stenog­ (not trav­
raphers,
and office eling)
clerks
$879
971
1,183
1,309
1,444
1,298
1,800
1,436
1,424
1,423
1,526
1,485
1,461
1,479
1,363

(0
(0
(0
0)
(0
to
0)
0)
$2,203
2,243
2,210
2,199
1,997
1,909
1,868

1 Not computed owing to small number involved.
2 See note 5 to table 4.
3 The number of establishments reporting employees was: Total, 24,124; agriculture, 519; construction,
5,005; fisheries, 27; manufactures, 8,403; service, 3,032; trade, wholesale and retail, 6,067; and transportation
and public utilities, 1,071.

General Indexes for Employment and for Wage and Salary Payments

G eneral indexes for all em ployees, for wage earners, for book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and for salespeople (not

f ig u r e

3.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s
a n d t o A ll E m plo y e es in m a n u f a c t u r e s , 1918 t o 1932

traveling), in all industries (m anufactures, w holesale and retail
trade, service, transportation and public utilities, construction,
agriculture, and fisheries), are presented in table 7. Indexes, based




16

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

1918

1920

1922

1924

1926

1928

1930

1932

F ig u r e 5.—a v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o S a l e spe o pl e
(N o t TOr a v e l in g ) a n d t o a ll E m plo y e es in w h o l e sa l e a n d r e t a il T r a d e ,
1918 T 1932




17

ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

on the Ohio reports, are here shown for average number employed,
total wage and salary payments, and average wage and salary pay­
ments for 1924 to 1932, which is the period during which reports were
requested by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from all establish­
ments employing three or more persons. The year 1926 was used as
the base, or 100, in computing these indexes for the reason that it
was, at the time of the publication of this study, the year used by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics as the base in computing general
indexes for employment and pay rolls in manufacturing.
In 1932 the index for average number of wage earners in all indus­
tries combined was 64.5; for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks, 91.8; for salespeople (not traveling), 92.3; and for all em­
ployees, 69.5. The index for total wage and salary payments in 1932
was 44.5 for wage earners; 80.9 for bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks; 67.1 for salespeople (not traveling); and 50.8 for all
employees. The index for average wage and salary payments for wage
earners was 69.0; for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks,
88.1; for salespeople (not traveling), 72.7; and for all employees, 73.0.
T

7 —GENERAL INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER EMPLOYED AND TOTAL AND
AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN ALL INDUSTRIES COMBINED, 1924
TO 1932
[1926=100.01

able

All employees
Year

1924
___________________________
1925 _________________________________
1926__________ - _ _____________
1927_____
____
1928__________________________________
1929 ______ ______ __________
loan
1931__________________________________
1932__________________________________

Total
Average wage and
number salary
payments
89.8
95.4
100.0
99.6
101.9
108.8
96.4
82.0
69.5

88.7
95.9
100.0
100.9
104.2
112.1
93.2
71.0
50.8

Wage earners

Average
Total
wage and Average wage and
salary number salary
payment
payments
98.8
100.6
100.0
101.3
102.3
103.1
96.7
86.7
73.0

Bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks
1924
___________________________
1925
___________________________
1926__________________________________
1927__________________________________
1928__________________________________
1929__________________________________
1930__________________________________
1931__________________________________
1932__________________________________

91.1
94.9
100.0
103.1
105.5
115.0
119.0
104.7
91.8

89.7
93.0
100.0
106.0
109.3
122.2
126.5
103.8
80.9

98.5
98.0
100.0
102.7
103.6
106.3
106.3
99.2
88.1

89.6
95.6
100.0
98.7
100.7
106.7
92.6
77.1
64.5

88.9
96.7
100.0
99.6
102.8
109.6
87.7
64.5
44.5

Average
wage and
salary
payment
99.2
101. 2
100.0
100.9
102.1
102.8
94.7
83.7
69.0

Salespeople (not traveling)
88.9
93.9
100.0
104.9
110.8
124.0
101.9
101.4
92.3

83.8
92.1
100.0
106.5
111.8
122.1
91.2
84.4
67.1

94.3
98.0
100.0
101.6
100.9
98.5
89.5
83.2
72.7

Conclusion

A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of wage and salary payments and number of
employees reported in Ohio affords some measure of the economic
changes among wage earners, bookkeepers, stenographers, and office



18

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

clerks, and salespeople (not traveling) in Ohio during the 3 years from
1929 to 1932.
T he average num ber of em ployees reported in all industries covered
in this chapter com bined fell from 1,278,992 in 1929 to 817,862 in
1932. T he total am ount paid in wages and salaries (om itting super­
intendents and m anagers) fell from $1,893,243,520 in 1929 to $857,321,648 in 1932. T he average wage and salary paym ent to those
em ployed fell from $1,480 in 1929 to $1,048 in 1932. T he average
num ber em ployed decreased 461,130, or 36.1 percent, the total w age
and salary paym ent decreased $1,035,921,872, or 54.7 percent, and the
average w age and salary paym ent to those w ho were em ployed
decreased $432, o r *29.2 percent.
In all industries covered in this chapter com bined, the average
num ber of w age earners reported fell in the 3 years, 1929 to 1932,
from 1,024,165 to 619,044. T he total am ount paid to w age earners
in wages and salaries fell from $1,492,141,261 to $605,190,299 and
the average w age and salary paym ent to those em ployed fell from
$1,457 to $978. T he average num ber em ployed decreased 405,121,
or 39.6 percent, the total wage and salary paym ents to w age earners
decreased $886,950,962, or 59.4 percent, and the average w age and
salary paym ent to those w ho were em ployed decreased $479, or 32.9
percent.
The average num ber of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks reported fell in the 3 years from 168,127 to 134,296. T he
total wage and salary paym ents to th at occupation group fell from
$282,017,895 to $186,710,032, and the average w age and salary pay­
m ent to those w ho were em ployed fell from $1,677 to $1,390. T he
average num ber em ployed decreased 33,831, or 20.1 percent, the total
wage and salary paym ent decreased $95,307,863, or 33.8 percent, and
the average w age and salary paym ent to those w ho were em ployed
decreased $287, or 17.1 percent. This general occupation group
shows a higher average num ber em ployed and a higher total wage
and salary paym ent in 1930 than in 1929, w ith only $1 less in the
average w age and salary paym ent.
The average num ber of salespeople (not traveling) reported fell in
the 3 years from 86,701 to 64,523. T he total w age and salary pay­
m ents to th at occupation group fell from $119,084,364 to $65,421,317,
and the average wage and salary paym ent to those em ployed fell
from $1,374 to $1,014. T he average num ber em ployed decreased
22,178, or 25.6 percent, the total w age and salary paym ent decreased
$53,663,047, or 45.1 percent, and the average w age and salary p ay­
m ent to those w ho were em ployed decreased $360, or 26.2 percent.
In this occupation group the highest average wage and salary p ay­
m ent was reported in 1927 and a decline has been reported each year
since that date.




ALL INDUSTRIES— 1918 TO 1932

19

T he greatest decrease in average num ber em ployed, in total w age
and salary paym ents, and in average w age and salary paym ents
during the 3 years 1929 to 1932 w as in th e general occupation group
“ wage earners.” T he low est decrease in each of the three item s w as
in the general occupation group “ bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks.” A com parison of the general occupation groups,
showing the percent of decrease from 1929 to 1932, is show n in table 8.
Table 8 —PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER EMPLOYED, AND TOTAL
AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, FROM 1929 TO 1932, BY GENERAL
OCCUPATION GROUPS
General occupation group
Wage earners________________________ _____________________ _
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks.— ______________ .
Salespeople (not traveling)___________ ________________ _______
All employees. __________ _____ ______________ _________

Average
number
em­
ployed
39.6
20.1
25.6
36.1

Total
Average
wage and wage and
salary
salary
payments payments
59.4
33.8
45.1
54.7

32.9
17.1
26.2
29.2

Com paring the decreases betw een 1929 and 1932 by industry
groups, the construction industry show s the largest percent of decrease
in average num ber em ployed, in total w age and salary paym ents, and
in average w age and salary paym ents. T he sm allest percent of
decrease is found in service for the first tw o item s, and transportation
show s th e sm allest percent of decrease in average w age and salary
paym ents. T able 9 show s th e percent of decrease during th e 3 years
for w age earners, bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and
salespeople (not traveling), com bined. T he figures are for both sexes.
Table 9.—PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER EM PLOYED, AND TOTAL

AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, 1932 COMPARED WITH 1929, BY
INDUSTRY GROUPS
Industry group

Agriculture___ _____ _ _____________ ________ _____________
Construction_____ __________ ____________ ________________ ..
Manufactures_____________ ______ ... . . ____________ _______
Service..__________ ___________ ____ ___ ___________ ____
Trade, wholesale and retail----------------------------- -----------------------Transportation and public utilities_____________________________
All industries combined------- ----------- ------------------------------




Average
number
em­
ployed
11.5
65.0
42.8
9.6
17.7
26.8
36.1

Total
Average
wage and wage and
salary
salary
payments payments
39.8
78.6
61.6
29.8
32.6
36.4
54.7

31.9
38.8
32.8
22.4
18.0
13.2
29.2

Chapter 3.—Construction Industry, 1918 to 1932

average w age and salary
ent Ohio to w
T H E construction industry, as paymputedinfrom reportsage earners in
the
com
from practi­

cally all concerns or individuals em ploying 3 or m ore persons (w ith
reports from som e w ho em ploy fewer than 3), w as $1,668 in 1929 and
$982 in 1932— a decrease in the 3 years of $686, or 41.1 percent.
T he total w age and salary paym ents to w age earners in th e con­
struction industry, as reported by em ployers, were $121,413,067 in
1929, and $23,657,092 in 1932— a decrease in the 3 years of $97,755,975, or 80.5 percent.
The average num ber of wage earners reported in the construction
industry w as 72,670 in 1929 and 24,094 in 1932— a decrease in the 3
years of 48,576, or 66.8 percent.
Scope of Study
T
U nited States Bureau of the Census recently issued a report
on the construction industry. T he report states th at “ in 1930 the
first census of the contracting group in the construction industry w as
inaugurated as part of the decennial census.” T he report further
states th at “ all persons and establishm ents engaged in construction
business of any kind, provided their gross business for th e year
am ounted to at least $25,000, were required to furnish detailed
reports.” R eports were required for “ all kinds of construction work,
including the erection of buildings and installation of equipm ent
essential to their proper operation, as w ell as engineering construction,
such as highw ays, streets, w ater-power developm ents, railroads and
car lines, bridges and tunnels, docks and piers, sew age disposal and
drainage, airports, and all kinds of public works, and utilities construc­
tion except th at done on ‘force accou n t.’” “ Force a ccou n t” is
defined as the term “ used to indicate work b y ‘day labor’ or labor
em ployed directly by individuals, corporations, m unicipal, county,
State, or G overnm ent authorities and n ot done under co n tra ct.”
C onstruction work on repairs and rem odeling, as w ell as new work,
is covered. T he census report includes operative builders, general
contractors and subcontractors.
T he census report, w hich is lim ited to concerns w hose “ gross busi­
ness for the year (1929) am ounted to a t least $25,000” , covers in
Ohio less than one-fifth as m any establishm ents in the construction
industry as reported for 1929 to the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics,
he

20




CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932

21

which secured reports from practically every establishm ent em ploy­
ing 3 or more persons and from som e em ploying fewer than 3. The
average num ber of w age earners reported for Ohio in the census
w as 68 percent of the num ber reported to the Ohio division and the
w age paym ents (to w age earners only) were 72 percent of the am ount
reported to th e Ohio division.
T he classification of contractors differs in the tw o reports, so that
com parisons of lesser industry classifications are unsatisfactory.
G enerally, how ever, the average w age paym ents are higher in the
census report than in the Ohio report w ith its very large proportion
of sm all establishm ents. T he average w age paym ent to w age earners
in 1929 for the construction industry in Ohio, as com puted from the
1,929 establishm ents included in the census report, w as $1,786 and as
com puted from the reports from 10,183 establishm ents com piled by
the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics it was $1,668. Com parisons
of the tw o reports are shown in table 10.
Table 10.—COMPARISON OF COVERAGE OF UNITED STATES CENSUS REPORT ON

THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY IN OHIO AND OF REPORT (CONSTRUCTION IN ­
DUSTRY ONLY) OF THE OHIO DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS, 1929
Item

Establishments_______ __________ __ _______ ___ ___________
Wage earners (average)_________________ ____ ___________ _ __ _ _
Wages paid (to wage earners) ______________ ________________ ____
Average wage payment (computed)_______- _________ ___ _____ _____

Division
United States Ohio Labor
of
Census
Statistics
1,929
49,183
$87,842, 724
$1, 786

10,183
72, 670
$121,413, 067
$1, 668

The census report on the construction industry presents a table
(table X V I, p. 32) w hich shows, for the U nited States and for geo­
graphical areas, certain item s based upon the com puted average
num ber em ployed. One of these item s is “ w ages paid for construc­
tion labor per workm an em ployed.” T he report states th at “ in
m aking use of these figures the reader is cautioned th at they should
be considered to provide only a very general basis of com parison and
should not be taken as an accurate m easure of any given item .”
A fter explaining the m ethod of com puting the average num ber
em ployed (dividing by 12 the sum of the num ber on the pay roll on
the 15th of each m onth), the report states:
It is recognized th a t this figure may not represent the actual average number
em ployed throughout th e year, because the actual number of men em ployed at
other periods m ay have been greater or less than the number on the midmonth
pay roll. N evertheless, th e average obtained by this m ethod may be assumed,
in m ost instances, to be a close approxim ation of th e actual number. B y divid­
ing total wages paid throughout the year by this derived number employed, the
approximate average annual am ount paid each workman was obtained.

The method used in the present study in computing average
number employed and average wage and salary payments is the same




22

AVEKAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

as th at just described, and the sam e caution should therefore be
observed in using the resultant figures. I t should also be borne in
m ind th at em ployers are n ot requested to give inform ation as to how
m any em ployed on the 15th of each m onth are working full tim e and
how m any are on part tim e, so th at som e reported as em ployed m ay
be working either a short w eek or a short day.
Table 11 show s the num ber of w age earners em ployed in the con­
struction industry on the 15th of each m onth of 1929, as reported by
the 1,929 establishm ents included in the U nited States Census report
and the 10,183 establishm ents reporting to the Ohio D ivision of
Labor Statistics. T he percent of variation from m axim um to
m inim um em ploym ent in this industry is slightly less w hen the
larger num ber of establishm ents is considered.
Table 11.—NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED IN THE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY IN OHIO ON THE 15TH OF EACH M ONTH OF 1929, AS REPORTED BY THE
UNITED STATES CENSUS AND THE OHIO DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS
Month
January__
February. _
March___
April_____
May_____
June_____
July______
August----September.
October__

Ohio
United Division
States of Labor
Census Statistics
29,991
31,737
34,990
43,187
49, 598
55,649
60, 709
63,150
63,382
62, 773

46,346
46,779
54,814
66,568
76,626
85,393
91, 734
91,275
87,478
87,857

Month
November________________
December_________________
Maximum_____________ ___
Minimum____ ___________
Variation from maximum:
Number_____________
Percent________________
Establishments reporting___

Ohio
United Division
States of Labor
Census Statistics
53,268
41,759
63,382
29,991
33, 391
52.7
1,929

75,806
61,363
91,734
46, 346
45,388
49.5
10,183

The Construction Industry as a Whole
Total Wage and Salary Payments

W a g e and salary paym ents in the construction industry, accord­
ing to the reports received and com piled by the division of labor
statistics, represented 5.8 percent of the total w age and salary p ay­
m ents in all industry groups covered by th is series of studies in the
year 1918. T his percentage rose in 1920 to 7.2, in 1927 to 8.0, and
dropped in 1932 to 3.3. P aym ents to superintendents and m anagers
are not included in these com putations. T he average num ber of
em ployees in the construction group as com pared to the total for
the industry groups nam ed was 5.9 percent in 1918, 6.4 percent
in 1920, 7.1 percent in 1927, and 3.4 percent in 1932.
Table 12 show s total w age and salary paym ents reported in the
construction industry each year from 1918 to 1932. P aym ents
are reported separately for each of four occupation groups— w age
earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; salespeople
(not traveling); and superintendents and m anagers. P aym ents and
other data relating to superintendents and m anagers are not included




CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932

23

in any other tables nor in any of the com putations in this study.
Em ployers are instructed not to include in their reports salary pay­
m ents to officials. T otal w age and salary paym ents (om itting super­
intendents and m anagers) in the construction industry increased
rapidly from 1918 to 1920, decreased 41.8 percent in 1921, increased
slightly in 1922, and show ed a very large increase in 1923. There was
a recession in 1924, a gradual increase through 1927, a recession in
1928, a com paratively slight increase in 1929, and a very great
decrease each year since th at date. T he total w age and salary pay­
m ent in 1932 as com pared w ith 1927 shows a decrease of $107,878,101,
or 79.3 percent.
T able

1 2 . —TOTAL WAGE AND
SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY, 1918 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS AND BY YEARS

Year

Estab­
lish­
ments

Wage
earners

1918______________
1919______________
1920______________
1921______________
1922______________
1923______________
1924. __________
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________
1928______________
1929______________
1930........................
1931______________
1932______________

4,273
4, 747
5, 382
4,890
i 5,007
5,883
7,364
8,407
9,145
9,724
9,942
10,183
9,672
8, 272
6,456

$62,646, 726
75,722,325
115,574,650
65,528,871
69,408,474
126,632,946
114,334,620
119, 786, 318
120,158,128
126,076,960
117,922, 441
121,413,067
98,314, 644
54, 519, 506
23,657,092

Book­
keepers,
Sales­
stenog­
Total of
people
raphers, (not trav­ preceding
and office eling)
clerks

Superin­
tendents
and
managers

Grand
total

$3,629,209 $566,429 $66,842, 364 $4,288,305 $71,130,669
4,063, 456 1,061,366 80,847,147 4,001, 698 84,848,845
5,856, 206 1, 228, 550 122,659,406 5,474, 355 128,133, 761
4, 761, 255 1,080, 441 71,370,567 4,949,853 76,320,420
4,327,049 1,141, 497 74,877,020 4,751,917 79,628,937
5, 512,351 1,318, 568 133,463,865 5,936,960 139,400,825
6, 631,822 1,808,800 122, 775,242 6,339,353 129,114, 595
6, 767,973 2,047, 099 128,601,390 6, 553,458 135,154, 848
7,191,240 2, 266,407 129,615, 775 7,003,830 136,619, 605
7, 712, 554 2, 332, 337 136,121,851 7, 334,053 143,455,904
8,275, 667 2,161,140 128,359, 248 7, 535,688 135,894,936
8,160,166 2,196, 454 131,769,687 7,823,916 139, 593, 603
9,367,262 1,449,083 109,130,989 7,992, 681 117,123, 670
5,833, 638 1,313,937 61,667,081 5, 695, 227 67, 362, 308
950, 619 28, 243, 750 3,270, 559 31, 514, 309
3,636,039

i The number of astablishments reporting employees was 5,005; the number reporting wage and salary
payments was 5,007.

Fluctuation in Employment

N o t only does em ploym ent in the construction industry vary
greatly from year to year, but the num ber em ployed w ithin a year
probably fluctuates m ore w idely than in any other industry in Ohio
em ploying large num bers of people, except possibly som e special
agricultural lines for w hich data are n ot available.
T he fluctuation in em ploym ent w ithin each year is show n in
table 13. T he num bers include both sexes em ployed as w age earn­
ers, bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and salespeople
(not traveling). T he sm allest variation from m axim um num ber of
em ployees w as 35.2 percent in 1921, and the greatest 54.2 percent in
1922. T he fluctuation w as m ore than 40 percent of the m axim um
for the year in 11 of the 15 years covered in this study.




24

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 1 3 —FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT (BOTH SEXES) IN THE CONSTRUCTION

INDUSTRY, 1918 TO 1932, BY YEARS AND MONTHS
[This table includes the 3 general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)]
Month
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925
January______ - - ----- ----- 44,840 38,448 55, 538 43,463 32,994 49,161 54, 228 53, 527
February. -------------------------------- 44, 851 36, 932 54, 699 39, 820 32, 759 46, 665 53, 549 54,997
March _ ----- ----- ------------- ----- 52, 271 38,940 62, 260 42, 724 33, 001 52, 482 57, 834 61,133
April... ---------- ------------------------ 61,438 47,162 71, 570 48, 551 39,773 61, 639 71, 399 74, 292
M a y __________ _ --- --- - --- 63, 364 50, 834 76, 733 45, 315 51,450 70, 280 77, 271 83, 607
June ____________ ______ _____ -- 72, 253 59, 044 80, 830 55, 684 60, 942 79, 017 83, 201 89, 721
July— ----- --------------------------- 74, 001 63, 371 83,917 58, 784 66, 007 82, 337 90,122 92, 792
August___ . . . --------- -- -------------- 73, 574 69, 277 83,158 59, 387 71, 587 85, 939 90, 330 92,880
September __ --------- ---------------- 67, 254 72, 062 86, 793 61, 428 70, 499 82,105 88, 681 89,955
October
---------------------------------- 66, 419 73, 401 79, 869 59, 225 70, 706 79, 591 87, 424 88, 395
November------ ------------------------------ 50, 330 71, 624 71, 210 51, 963 67, 014 75, 495 78,484 79, 348
December.. ---------------------------- - 53, 268 65, 228 60, 030 45, 477 57, 481 65, 714 64,974 71, 393
Maximum
--------- ----------------- 74, 001 73, 401 86, 793 61,428 71, 585 85,939 90,330 92,880
Minimum------------ --------------------- 44,840 36,932 54, 699 39,820 32, 759 46,665 53, 549 53, 527
Variation from maximum:
Number _ ------------------------- 29,161 36, 469 32,094 21, 608 38,828 39, 274 36, 781 39,353
P ercen t.---------- ---------------------- 39.4 49.7 37.0 35.2 54.2 45.7 40.7
42.4
Establishments reporting __ ------- 4, 273 4, 747 5,382 4,890 5,005 5,883 7,364 8,407
Month
1927
1926
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
January. --------------------------------------- 54,655 59,160 54, 363 51,965 55,338 37,870 22,315
February------- ------- --------- - ------ 54, 738 61, 230 53,034 52, 461 55,174 37, 526 22, 659
March____________________ _______ 56, 558 67, 340 59,484 60, 592 60,103 39, 670 22, 329
April. ------------------------------------------- 69,200 77, 775 70,937 72,427 72,037 47,429 26,478
M ay------- ----------------------------------- 81,978 88,101 82,070 82, 554 81,203 52,179 29,316
June___ - - -------------- ----------------- 93,101 96, 463 87,411 91,432 82, 239 54, 402 30,984
July_______________________________ 96, 273 100, 442 91,919 97, 838 84, 511 54, 885 31, 057
August---------- ------------------------------ 97,455 102,812 97, 550 97, 432 81,937 53, 657 31,915
September.. ______________________ 98,970 101, 680 94, 819 93, 615 77, 639 51,469 32, 693
October . ---------------- — ---------- 93,992 94, 716 94, 230 93,976 72, 797 47, 671 31, 949
November. ----------------- — ------- -- 87,287 83, 566 85, 216 81,904 62, 290 39,388 27, 641
December. -------------- ----------------- 74,933 69,140 70,169 67,374 50, 021 31,060 20, 891
Maximum. . . . . . ------. . . -------- 98,970 102,812 97, 550 97,838 84, 511 54, 885 32, 693
Minimum____________ —
... .. 54, 655 59,160 53, 034 51,965 50, 021 31, 060 20, 891
Variation from maximum:
44,315 43,652 44, 516 45,873 34,490 23,825 11,802
Number _ _ .
_
44.8
42.5
45.6
Percent-----------------------------------46.9
40.8
43.4
36.1
Establishments reporting------- ------- 9,145 9,724 9,942 10,183 9, 672 8, 272
6, 456

The average num ber (both sexes) reported em ployed each year in
each of the three general occupation groups and for all groups com ­
bined is show n in table 14. T he highest average occurred in 1927
and the low est in 1932 w ith a drop in the 5 years of 67.1 percent.
T able 1 4 —AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS AND BY
YEARS, 1918 TO 1932
Bookkeep­
Sales­
Establish­ Wage ers, stenog­ people (not All em­
Year
raphers,
ments
earners and office traveling) ployees
clerks
4,273
57, 276
3,381
415
61,072
1918
______
________________
4, 747
53, 506
3,177
511
57,194
1919___________________________ ___
5,382
67, 871
3,717
629
72, 217
1920 ________________________________
4,890
47,411
2,972
602
1921
_____________________________
50,985
5,005
50,981
2,913
624
54, 518
1922
______________________________
5,883
65,077
3,461
663
69, 202
1923
___________________________
7,364
69, 838
4,030
923
74, 791
1924 _ ________________________________
72, 574
8,407
4,104
992
77,670
1925
______________________________
74,600
4, 244
1,084
9,145
79,928
1926 _ _____________________________
9, 724
77,944
4,485
1,106
83, 535
1927 _ ______________________________
9,942
72, 633
4,727
1,073
78,434
1928 __________________________________
72, 670
4,844
1,117
10,183
78, 631
1929 __________________________________
9, 672
63, 625
5, 323
660
69, 607
1930
_____ ______________________
904
, 272
41,066
3,630
45, 601
1931 _ _____________________ ________24,094
6,456
2,691
734
27,519
1932 __________________________________




8

25

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932
Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments

Table 15 show s average w age and salary paym ents m ade to each of
the three general occupation groups. These averages were com puted
by dividing the total w age and salary paym ents by the average num ber
em ployed.
T he highest average w age and salary paym ent was reported for
w age earners in 1923, for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in 1930, and for salespeople (not traveling) in 1930. T he low est
average paym ent was reported for wage earners and for salespeople
(not traveling) in 1932, and for the clerical group in 1918.
T able 15 .—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS AND BY YEARS, 1918 TO 1932
Year
1918______________________________________________
1919______________________________________________
1920______________________________________________
1921______________________________________________
1922______________________________________________
1923______________________________________________
1924______________________________________________
1925______________________________________________
1926______________________________________________
1927______________________________________________
1928______________________________________________
1929______________________________________________
1930______________________________________________
1931______________________________________________
1932______________________________________________

Wage
earners
$1,094
1,415
1, 703
1,382
1, 361
1,946
1, 637
1,651
1, 611
1, 618
1,624
1, 668
1,545
1, 328
982

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople All em­
raphers, (not travel­ ployees
and office
ing)
clerks
$1,073
1,279
1,576
1,602
1,485
1,593
1,646
1,649
1,694
1,720
1,751
1,685
1, 760
1,607
1, 351

$1,365
2,077
1,953
1,795
1,829
1,989
1,960
2,064
2,091
2,109
2, 014
1,966
2,196
1, 453
1, 295

$1,094
1,414
1,698
1,400
1, 373
1,929
1,642
1,656
1,622
1,630
1, 637
1,676
1,568
1, 352
1, 026

Chart 7 shows in graphic form the average w age and salary pay­
m ents to wage earners in the construction industry from 1918 to 1932.
Wage Earners in Various Construction Industries
T h is study deals prim arily w ith average wage and salary paym ents
to wage earners in each of the various industries classified by the
division of labor statistics as subdivisions of the construction-indus­
try group. W age earners form ed m ore than 90 percent of the
em ployees reported in the construction-industry group in each of the
15 years except 1932 w hich show s 87.6 percent.
T he num ber of establishm ents in the construction industry report­
ing statistical data to the division of labor statistics is show n in
table 16. T he general construction-industry group is com posed of 12
industries plus construction “ not otherw ise classified.” As previ­
ously stated, reports were requested prior to 1924 from all em ployers
of 5 or m ore persons, and from 1924 to 1932 from all em ployers of 3
or more.




26

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

F ig u r e 7.—A v er a t h ea n n unasl r uacg e a n dnsaulsatrryy ,P a y m et o s 1932w a g e E a r n e r s
ge
in
C o t w t io n I d
1918 n t t o
T

1 6 —NUM BER OF ESTABLISHMENTS REPORTING EMPLOYEES AND TOTAL
WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY YEARS, 1918 TO 1932

a ble

Brick,
stone,
Year and ce­
ment
work
1918.
1919.
1920_
1921_
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

421
441
513
480
507
558
733
775
874
950
955
1,005
897
795
600

Gen­ Oil,
eral gas,
Elec­ Erect­ con­ and Paint­ Plaster­
Sand
ing or
ing, in­
tri­ install­ tract­ water, ing cluding Plumb­ and
cal ing ing, in­ drill­ and lathing ing and gravel
con­ ma­
deco­ and steam exca­
tract­ chin­ clud­ ing or rating stucco fitting vat­
ing pro­
ing ery wreck­ duc­
ing
work
ing ing
169
186
224
202
228
219
294
331
388
428
454
456
433
402
317

73
85
104
86
49
80
113
152
161
164
194
239
245
180
152

1,462
11,808
1,970
1, 731
1, 798
2,185
2, 771
3,180
3,346
3, 554
3,608
3, 538
3,139
2, 566
1, 825

370 274
436 287
493 365
485 311
484 325
521 490
i 589 688
651 804
708 887
708 932
707 942
739 990
751 1,002
670 860
639 645

78
131
158
131
130
150
205
273
301
318
316
329
284
254
169

369
3 394
440
373
371
416
523
649
747
832
851
842
821
742
618

Street
road,
and
sewer
con­
tract­
ing

Ven­
tilat­
ing
and
heat­
ing

86 307 603
73 306 556
86 338 625
72 294 663
79 282 705
91 306 795
117 3 353 906
124 403 965
135 431 1,029
148 441 1,093
151 457 1,131
155 515 1,161
158 505 1,203
146 473 973
136 382 770

40
29
58
58
45
70
69
85
117
121
125
141
148
157
169

Sheetmetal
work
and
roof­
ing

11 additional establishment reported total wage and salary payments.
2 2 additional establishments reported total wage and salary payments.
31 of these establishments did not report total wage and salary payments.




Con­
struc­
tion,
not
other­ Total
wise
classi­
fied
21
15
8
4
2
2
3
15
21
35
51
73
86
54
34

4,273
4,747
5,382
4,890
2 5,005
5,883
7, 364
8,407
9,145
9, 724
9,942
10,183
9, 672
8,272
6,456

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932

27

Some who employ fewer than the indicated minimum make annual
reports to the division of labor statistics and such reports are in­
cluded in the tabulations. Reports from all establishments employ­
ing fewer than three persons in this industry group would, of course,
increase the number of employees and total wage and salary pay­
ments, but the effect on the figures of average wage and salary
payments probably would not be great.
Total Wage and Salary Payments

Table 17 shows total wage and salary payments reported paid to
wage earners in each of the 12 specified subdivisions of the construc­
tion-industry group. The year of highest total wage and salary
payments to wage earners during the period was 1920 for oil, gas, and
water, drilling or producing; 1923 for general contracting, including
wrecking; 1927 for brick, stone, and cement work, for plastering, in­
cluding lathing and stuccowork, for plumbing and steam fitting, and
for street, road, and sewer contracting; 1929 for electrical contract­
ing, for erecting and installing machinery, for sand and gravel exca­
vating, for sheet-metal work and roofing, and for ventilating and
heating. For painting and decorating, the figure for 1919 un­
doubtedly contains a clerical error. The amount of this error cannot
be definitely determined, as all original schedules and work sheets
were destroyed some years ago. Ignoring 1919 leaves 1927 as the
highest year for painting and decorating. Wage and salary pay­
ments for 1922 were not tabulated for individual industries by the
division of labor statistics.
T

1 7 — TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY YEARS, 1918 TO 1932

a ble

Year

1918____________
1919____________
1920____________
1921____________
1922____________
1923____________
1924____________
1925____________
1926____________
1927____________
1928____________
1929____________
1930____________
1931____________
1932____________

General
Erecting contract­ Oil, gas, Painting Plastering,
Brick,
stone, and Electrical or install­ ing, includ­ and water, and deco­ including
lathing
contract­ ing ma­
cement
wreck­ drilling or rating and stucco­
ing
producing
work
chinery ing ing
work
$3, 723,965 $2,344, 269
4,020,501 2, 747,551
7,096, 687 4,626,351
4, 796,198 2, 746,188
(2)
(2)
8, 273, 515 4, 567,314
9, 765,847 6,392, 767
10, 616, 263 5,022,878
11, 497, 547 4, 754, 735
11, 498, 602 5,877, 669
11, 077,411 5,828, 505
9, 321,964 8,327, 784
7, 251,131 6, 382,162
4,415,377 4,033,332
1, 570, 294 1,688,827

$532,624
543,918
1,063,629
678,033
(2)
821,039
1,118, 287
1,337,015
1,255,172
1, 550,966
1,785, 229
1,908, 439
1,891,426
1,417, 566
704, 785

$29,369, 737 $4, 664, 744 $1,760,571
35,932,286 4,826,955 i 8,130,348
61, 797, 823 7,244,175 3,634,081
27,324,324 5,133,372 2,435,930
(2)
(2)
(2)
70,788,995 6,124,838 4,711,684
51,699,955 5, 235, 221 5, 284, 414
52, 803, 369 5,426, 241 6,095,479
51, 609,933 5, 579, 322 5, 577,021
52,516, 510 4,933,887 6,618, 215
49,958, 661 3,861,371 6,123,203
49,728,610 4, 528, 510 6, 233,150
36,887,662 3,931, 343 4,907,841
19,064,336 2,509,033 2,875, 719
6,568,991 2,105,639 1,178,982

1 Apparently a clerical error but original schedules and work sheets have been destroyed,
J Information not tabulated for individual industries.
1 4 0 4 4 6 °— 35-----3




$798, 531
1,033, 799
2,319, 708
1,677, 335
2, (2) 648
586,
3, 277, 208
3, 488,827
3,345, 643
3, 526,698
3,051,283
3,087,133
2,823,363
1,587,566
476, 461

28
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

1 7 .— TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY YEARS, 1918 TO 1932—Contd.

a ble

Plumbing Sand and Sheet-metal Street, road, Ventilat­ Construc­ Total for
tion, not
and steam gravel ex­ work and and sewer ing and otherwise construc­
fitting
cavating roofing contracting heating classified tion in­
dustry

Year
1918____________
1919____________
1920____________
1921____________
1922____________
1923____________
1924____________
1925____________
1926____________
1927____________
1928____________
1929____________
1930____________
1931____________
1932____________
2

$3,482,929 $1,334,719
4, 311, 783
991,477
6, 623, 781 1, 227, 000
4,634, 266
720, 220
(2)
(2)
6, 487,897 1, 235, 285
7,891,800 1,414,831
9, 226,283 1,461, 270
8,909,769 2,010,320
9, 786,114 2,014, 581
9, 370,665 2,023,808
8,985,868 2,135,412
7, 670, 555 1,915, 385
4,386,120 1,179, 212
1,791,863
781, 247

$2,363,983
2,676,208
4,428,101
2,623,078
(2)
4,000,132
4,041, 704
4, 589, 575
4,687,485
4,855, 797
4,625,910
5,040,264
4,132, 070
2,564, 741
1,092,041

$11,579,826
10,018,758
14,494,307
12,011, 516
(2)
16,075,879
17,072,641
18, 226,804
18,820, 568
20, 740,877
18,051,784
19,047,804
17,613,006
8,596, 268
4,951,779

$500,136
360,399
894,915
710, 721
(2)
933, 209
1,110, 257
1,358,086
1,909,400
1,842,197
1,751,694
2,427, 562
1,944,991
1,424, 202
570,668

$190,692
128,342
124, 092
37,690
(2) 511
26,
29, 688
134, 228
201,213
314,847
412,917
640, 567
963, 709
466,034
175. 515

$62,646, 726
75,722,325
115, 574,650
65,528,871
69,408,474
126,632,946
114,334,620
119, 786,318
120,158,128
126,076,960
117,922,441
121,413,067
98,314,644
54, 519, 506
23,657,092

Information not tabulated for individual industries.
Fluctuation in Employment

Probably no numerically important industrial group is subject to
such violent fluctuations of employment as are wage earners in the
construction industry. In addition to the wide variance of such
employment from periods of expansion to periods of contraction and
from year to year, there is a very great fluctuation within a year due
to seasonal conditions, weather, and various other causes. Table 18
shows the fluctuations from month to month within each of the 15
years covered by this study. The variation from maximum was
lowest (37.7 percent) in 1921 and highest (56.5 percent) in 1922. In
12 of the 15 years the variation exceeded 40 percent.
T

a ble

18.—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN THE CONSTRUC­
TION INDUSTRY, BY YEARS AND MONTHS, 1918 TO 1932
Month

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

January---------------------------------------February _______________________
March___________________________
April— __________________________
M ay__________________ _________
June______________________ _______
July___ _____ ____________________
August____________________ _____
September_____________________ __
October_______ ___________ ______
November__________ _____ ______ .
December.. ______________________
Maximum___________________ ____
Minimum________________________
Variation from maximum:
Number. _____________________
Percent_________ _____________
Establishments reporting ______ _

41,298
41,316
48,757
57,848
59, 641
68,249
69,860
69,506
63, 288
62, 515
55, 509
49,524
69,860
41, 298
28, 562
40.9
4,273

35,160
33,652
35,617
43,734
47,305
55,406
59,609
65,411
68,093
69,418
67,541
61,121
69,418
33,652
35, 766
51.5
4, 747

51, 516
50, 566
58,029
67,186
72, 277
76,351
79,415
78,678
82,340
75,469
66,894
55,726
82,340
50,566
31,774
38.6
5,382

39,711
36,134
39,025
44,881
41,685
52,082
55,219
55,864
57,956
55, 797
48,524
42,055
57,956
36,134
21,822
37.7
4,890

29,792
29,537
29,758
36,454
48,003
57,375
62,356
67,852
66,746
66,940
63,232
53,723
67,852
29,537
38,315
56.5
5,005

45,315
42,792
48, 568
57, 651
66,158
74,796
78,067
81, 684
77,895
75,305
71,214
61,483
81,684
42, 792
38,892
47.6
5,883




1924

1925

49,488 48, 676
48,719 50,129
52,975 56, 207
66, 470 69, 275
72, 322 78, 533
78,169 84,554
85,084 87,522
85, 301 87,606
83, 601 84,699
82, 327 83,187
73, 535 74,208
60,069 66,292
85, 301 87,606
48, 719 48,676
36,582 38,930
44.4
42.9
7,364 8,407

29

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1018 TO 1932
T

a ble

1 8 .— FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN THE CON­
STRUCTION INDUSTRY, BY YEARS AND MONTHS, 1918 TO 1932—Continued

Month

1926

1927

1928

January______________________ __ _
Feburary__________________________
March___ _ __________________ __
April_____________ _______________
May______________________________
June___ _________________________
July_______________________________
August........................ _ __ ______
September____ ____ _ _____________
October. _ ____________ ___________
November_________________________
December__________________________
M aximum___________ ____ _________
Minimum______________ _________
Variation from maximum:
Number_______ ________________
Percent_______________ _____ ___
Establishments reporting____________

49,682
49,715
51,453
63,992
76, 693
87,672
90, 769
91,920
93,416
88,491
81,844
69,552
93,416
49,682
43,734
46.8
9,145

53, 855
55,926
61,965
72, 294
82,528
90,832
94,718
97,042
9% 866
88,980
77,828
63,498
97,042
53,855
43,187
44.5
9,724

48,940 46,346
47,572 46,779
53,930 54,814
65,249 66,568
76,276 76,626
81,508 85,393
85,950 91,734
91,540 91,275
88,802 87,478
88,268 87,857
79,285 75,806
64,281 61,363
91,540 91,734
47,572 46,346
43,968 45,388
48.0
49.5
9,942 10,183

1929

1930

1931

1932

49,419
49, 234
54,110
65,982
75,040
76,029
78, 479
75,887
71,634
66,900
56,447
44,333
78,479
44,333
34,146
43.5
9,672

33,411
33,030
35,181
42,705
47,421
49,671
50,235
48,993
46,886
43,243
35,126
26,895
50,235
26,895
23,340
46.5
8,272

18,815
19,170
18,880
22, 960
25,803
27,462
27,567
28,456
29, 264
28,590
24,403
17,762
29,264
17,762
11,502
39.3
6,456

The average number of wage earners reported for each of the indus­
tries is shown in table 19 for 1918 to 1932. Employers report the
number of wage earners employed on the 15th of each month, and the
average was computed by dividing the sum of the monthly figures in
each instance by 12. Both males and females are included in this
table. The reports from employers and the compilations of the
division of labor statistics show the sexes separately as far as em­
ployees are concerned, but employers are not requested to show
wage and salary payments separated according to sex of employees.
In the whole construction-industry group, however, the number of
female wage earners reported is small. The average number of female
wage earners for each of the 15 years 1918 to 1932, in order, was 130,
155, 165, 147, 117, 119, 130, 154, 298, 129, 146, 156, 120, 108, and 60,
representing a maximum of four tenths of 1 percent in 1926.
T

a ble

Year

1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922,
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

1 9 .— AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS REPORTED EMPLOYED IN THE
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY YEARS, 1918 TO 1932

Gen­ Oil,
Plast­
Sand
ering,
eral
Brick, Elec­ Erect­ con­ gas, Paint­ includ­
and
and
ing or
stone, trical install­ tract­ water ing ing Plumb­ grav­ Sheetand con­ ing ing, drill­ and lath­ ing and el ex- metal
work
ce­
deco­ ing steam ca- and
ma­
ment tract­ chin­ includ­ ing or rating and fitting vat- roofing
ing pro­
ing
work
ing
stucco
ery wreck­ duc­
work
ing ing
3,341 1,983 397 26,127 3,801 1,549 1,351 2,805 1,000 2,149
3,238 2,007 338 26,437 3,893 1,753 668 3,116 820 2,062
4,416 2,447 562 34,961 4,473 2,049 1,105 3,621 867 2,610
3,378 1, 661 379 19, 373 3,527 1,544 898 2,797 594 1,874
4,153 1, 576 222 21,997 3,698 1,843 927 2,959 731 1,928
5,229 2,668 424 26,984 5,002 2,610 1,175 3, 778 903 2,420
6,001 2,877 629 29,242 3,903 2,790 1,487 4,300 1,107 2,500
6,602 2,671 648 28,845 4,525 3,275 1,830 4,783 1,138 2,747
6,824 2,479 601 28,663 4,527 3,054 1,584 4,764 1,452 2,922
7,039 3,145 752 30,768 3,916 3,520 1,705 5,205 1,470 2,896
6,733 2,976 878 29,641 3,072 3,311 1,550 5,015 1,438 2, 764
5,935 3,080 983 28,796 3,646 3,415 1,629 4,828 1,499 3,041
4,837 3,670 916 22, 695 3,139 2,834 1,462 4,270 1,430 2,651
3,380 2,372 742 13,866 2,349 1,895 972 2,885 1,066 1,771
1,678 1,267 467 6,516 2,295 1,061 420 1,680 863 1,159




Street,
road,
and
sewer
con­
tract­
ing

Ven­
tilat­
ing
and
heat­
ing

12,194
8,815
10,185
10,950
10,668
13,187
14,410
14,741
16,641
16,452
14,151
14,184
14,001
8,509
5,921

411
274
507
417
268
677
574
674
956
889
796
1,180
1,078
909
556

Con­
struc­
tion,
not
other­ Total
wise
classi­
fied
167
85
71
21
12
16
20
93
135
187
309
457
642
353
212

57, 276
53,506
67,871
47,411
50,981
65,077
69,838
72,574
74,600
77,944
72,633
72,670
63,625
41,066
24,094

30

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments

The average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown
for each year from 1918 to 1932, except 1922, in table 20. These
averages were computed for each year by dividing the total wage
and salary payments to wage earners within each of the subdivisions
as reported by employers to the division of labor statistics by the
average number of wage earners employed as calculated from the
employers’ reports of the number employed on the 15th of each month.
T

20.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE
CONSTRUCTION IN DUSTRY, 1918 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES AND BY YEARS

a ble

Plaster­
Erecting General Oil, gas,
Brick,
ing, in­
and
Electrical or in­ contract­ water, Painting cluding
stone,
and
Year
and contract­ stalling ing, in­ drilling decorat­ lathing
machin­ cluding or pro­
cement
ing
and
ing
work
ery wrecking ducing
stucco­
work
1918_________________________ $1,115 $1,182 $1,342 $1,124 $1, 227 $1,137
0)
1,242
1,609
1,359
1,369
1,240
$1,548
1919_________________________
0)
1,607
1,893
1,768
1,774
1,891
1,620
2,099
1920_________________________
1,420
1,789
1,410
1,455
1,578
1921_________________________
1,653
1,868
1922_________________________
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
1,582
1,224
1,805
2,201
1,712
1,936
1923_________________________
C)
1,894
1,778
1,768
1,341
1, 627
2,204
1924_________________________
0)
1,608
1,881
2,063
1,831
1,199
1,861
1,906
1925_________________________
1,685
1,918
2,088
1,801
1,232
1,826
2,112
1926_________________________
1,634
2,062
1,869
1,707
1,260
1,880
2,068
1927_________________________
1,645
1,959
2,033
1,685
1,849
1,257
1,969
1928_________________________
1,571
1,941
1,727
1,242
1,825
1,895
1929_________________________
C)
1,499
1,739
2,065
1,625
1,252
1,732
1,931
1930_________________________
1,306
1, 700
1,910
1,375
1,068
1,518
1,633
1931_________________________
936
1,333
1, 509
1,008
1,111
1932_________________________
917
1,134
Street,
Construc­
Plumb­ Sand and Shoot- road, Ventilat­ tion, not Total for
ing and gravel metal
and ing and other­ construc­
work
Year
steam excavat­
sewer heating wise tion in­
fitting
ing
classi­ dustry
roofing contract­
ing
fied
$950 $1, 217
$1,094
1918_________________________ $1,242 $1,335 $1,100
(2)
1,384
1,209
1,298
1,315
1,137
1919_________________________
1,415
(2)
1,829
1,697
1920_________________________
1,415
1, 765
1,427
1,703
(2)
1,400
1,657
1,212
1, 704
1,382
1921_________________________
1,097
(2)
1922_________________________
1,361
(3)
(3>
(3)
(3)219
(3)
(2)
1,368
1,717
1,653
1,
1,378
1923_________________________
1,946
(2)
1,835
1,278
1,617
1,934
1,185
1924_________________________
1,637
(2)
1,929
1,284
1,671
1,236
2,015
1925_________________________
1,651
(2)
1,870
1,384
1,604
1,131
1,997
1,611
1926_________________________
(2)
1,880
1,370
1,677
1,261
2,072
1927_________________________
1,618
(2)
1,869
1,407
1,674
2,201 $1,336
1,276
1,624
1928_________________________
1,861
1,425
1,657
1,402
1,343
2,057
1929_________________________
1, 668
1,796
1,339
1,559
1,804
1,258
1,501
1930_________________________
1, 545
1,010
1,520
1,448
1,106
1,567
1,320
1931_________________________
1,328
1,067
942
905
836
1,026
828
1932_________________________
982
1 Apparently a clerical error was made in reporting or in tabulating number of employees or total wage
and salary payments, but not possible to determine definite correction.
2 Not computed owing to small number involved.
2 Information concerning total wage and salary payments not tabulated for individual industries.

Detailed tabulations for industries for 1922 were not made by the
division of labor statistics and therefore only the average for the
construction industry as a whole is shown. In five instances the
individual averages have been omitted, as clerical errors have un­
doubtedly occurred and, since all original schedules and work sheets
for those years have been destroyed, it is not possible to make correc-




CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932

31

tions. These probable errors will affect only slightly the average for
the entire construction industry.
Wage earners in the construction industries, particularly in the
building trades, have an hourly rate which is comparatively high as
compared with rates of pay in factories and some other lines of in­
dustrial work. They have, however, also been subject to greater
irregularity in work than is the case in most if not all other industries.
Fluctuation of employment was discussed briefly in connection with
table 18.
With all the information available from many sources concerning
hourly rates of wages in the construction industries, there has been
very little made available concerning average wage and salary
payments to such wage earners.
According to the reports made to the Ohio Division of Labor Statis­
tics covering the 15-year period 1918 to 1932, the highest average wage
and salary payment to wage earners in brick, stone, and cement work
was $1,685 in 1926, and the lowest $936 in 1932, which represented a
drop of $749, or 44.4 percent. The average payment to wage earners
in electrical contracting was $1,959 in 1928, and $1,333 in 1932, which
was a drop of $626, or 32 percent. In that industry, however, the
average payment was lower in 1918 than in 1932. The average
payment to wage earners in erecting or installing machinery fell from
$2,088 in 1926 to $1,509 in 1932, which, though above the 1918
average, was a drop of $579, or 27.7 percent.
In general contracting, including wrecking, the average payment
to wage earners fell from $1,831 in 1925 to $1,008 in 1932, a drop of
$823, or 44.9 percent. In oil, gas, and water, drilling or producing,
the average payment to wage earners was $1,620 in 1920 and $917
in 1932, a drop of $703, or 43.4 percent. In painting and decorating,
the average payment to wage earners was $1,894 in 1924 and $1,111
in 1932, a drop of $783, or 41.3 percent.
The average payment to wage earners in plastering, including
lathing and stucco work, was $2,204 in 1924 and $1,134 in 1932, a
drop of $1,070, or 48.5 percent. The average payment to wage
earners in plumbing and steam fitting was $1,929 in 1925 and $1,067
in 1932, a drop of $862, or 44.7 percent. The average payment to
wage earners in sand and gravel excavating was $1,425 in 1929 and
$905 in 1932, a drop of $520, or 36.5 percent.
In sheet-metal work and roofing the average payment to wage
earners was $1,697 in 1920 and $942 in 1932, a drop of $755, or 44.5
percent. In street, road, and sewer contracting the average pay­
ment to wage earners was $1,427 in 1920 and $836 in 1932, a drop
of $591, or 41.4 percent. In ventilating and heating the average
payment to wage earners was $2,201 in 1928 and $1,026 in 1932, a
drop of $1,175, or 53.4 percent.




32

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

In considering the average wage and salary payments shown in
table 20 it should be borne in mind that the average number of wage

F ig u r e 8.—Av er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y [Pa y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in b r ic k , s t o n e , a n d C em e n t w o r k , 1918 t o 1932 (E x c e p t 1922)

earners was used in computing the average wage and salary pay­
ments. The total number of wage earners who received wage and
salary payments was, of course, in excess of the average number.
The average number of wage earners was computed by adding the
number reported employed on the 15th of each month of the year
and dividing that sum by 12. As employers are not requested to
give information as to how many employed on the 15th of each
month are working full time and how many are on part time, some
reported as employed may be working either a short week or a
short day. The general occupation group “wage earners” includes
skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers. Both sexes also are
included, but the number of female wage earners reported in the
construction industry group did not exceed four-tenths of 1 percent
of the total wage earners in that group in any year during the 15-year
period.
Charts 8, 9, and 10 show in graphic form the average wage and
salary payments to wage earners in three industries—brick, stone,
and cement work; general contracting, including wrecking; and
street, road, and sewer contracting. The omission of 1922 from the
three charts and of 1923 from one chart is explained in notes to
table 20.



CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932

33

General Indexes for Employment and for Wage and Salary Payments
G eneral indexes, based on the Ohio reports, are shown in table

21
for average number of wage earners employed, total wage and salary

F ig u r e 9.—Av er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in G en e r a l C o n t r a c t in g , in c l u d in g W r e c k in g , 1918 t o 1932 (E x c e p t
1922 AND 1923)

payments, and average wage and salary payments for 1924 to 1932,
which is the period during which reports were requested by the

F ig u r e 10.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in S t r e e t , R o a d , a n d S ew er C o n t r a c t in g , 1918 t o 1932 (Ex c e p t 1922)

Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from all establishments employing
three or more persons. The year 1926 was used as the base, or 100.




34

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

In 1932 the index for average number of wage earners employed
in construction was 32.3; for total wage and salary payments to
wage earners, 19.7; and for average wage and salary payment, 61.0.
T

3 1 —INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
CONSTRUCTION, 1924 TO 1932
[1926=100.0]

able

Year
1924______________
1925_____________
1926______________
1927______________
1928______________

Total Average
Wage
wage
wage
earners and sal­ and sal­
(average ary pay­ ary pay­
number) ments
ment
93.6
97.3
100.0
104.5
97.4

95.2
99. 7
100.0
104.9
98.1

101.6
102. 5
100.0
100.4
100.8

Year
1929______________
1930____________
1931______________
1932________ _____

Conclusion

Total Average
Wage
wage
wage
earners and sal­ and sal­
(average ary pay­ ary pay­
number) ments
ment
97.4
85. 3
55.0
32.3

101.0
81.8
45. 4
19.7

103.5
95.9
82.4
61.0

T
average number of wage earners employed, as reported by
practically all concerns and individuals employing 3 or more persons
(with reports from some employing fewer than 3), decreased between
1929 and 1932 more than 70 percent in 3 of the 11 individual indus­
tries listed under construction. Electrical contracting has not been
included in the comparisons in this and succeeding paragraphs for
reasons noted in table 20. The decrease was more than 50 percent in
9 of the 11 industries.
The total wage and salary payments to wage earners, as reported
by employers, decreased between 1929 and 1932 more than 80 per­
cent in 5 of the 11 industries listed under construction. The decrease
was more than 70 percent in 9 of the 11 industries.
The average wage and salary payments to wage earners, as com­
puted from reports from employers, decreased between 1929 and
1932 more than 40 percent in 6 of the 11 industries classified under
construction. The decrease was more than 35 percent in 9 of the 11
industries.
The greatest decrease in average number reported employed and
in total wage and salary payments occurred in the general contracting
industry, and the greatest decrease in average wage and salary pay­
ments occurred in ventilating and heating. In most of the industries
classified under construction, the highest peak in number of employees
and in total wage and salary payments came earlier than 1929.
Table 22 shows for each industry the percent of decrease from 1929
to 1932 in each of the three items just discussed.
he




35

CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY— 1918 TO 1932
T

2 2 ..—PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER EM PLOYED AND TOTAL
AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS, 1932 COMPARED WITH 1929, BY
INDUSTRIES

a ble

Industry
Brick, stone, and cement work_______________________ ____
Erecting or installing machinery_______ ________________
General contracting, including wrecking______ ____________
Oil, gas, or water, drilling or producing____________________
Painting and decorating--------------------------------------------------Plastering, including lathing and stucco work---------------------Plumbing and steam fittin g ________________ ____________
Sand and gravel excavating_____________ ____ ______ ____
Sheet-metal work and roofing___________________________
Street, road, and sewer contracting________________________
Ventilating and heating__________________________________
Total, construction industry________________________




Average
number
employed
71.7
52.5
77.4
37.1
68.9
74.2
65.2
42.4
61.9
58.3
52.9
66.8

Total wage Average wage
and salary and salary
payments payments
83.2
63.1
86.8
53.5
81.1
84.6
80.1
63.4
78.3
74.0
76.5
80.5

40.4
22.3
41.6
26.2
39.1
40.2
42.7
36.5
43.2
37.8
50.1
41.1

Chapter 4.—Manufactures, 1916 to 1932 1

I

N MANUFACTURING industries in Ohio, according to reports
from practically all establishments employing 3 or more persons
in that industry group, the average wage and salary payment to the
group “wage earners” was $1,499 in 1929 and $956 in 1932.
The average for the group “bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks” was $1,792 in 1929 and $1,513 in 1932, and the average
for the group “salespeople (not traveling)” was $2,171 in 1929 and
$1,737 in 1932. The average for the 3 occupation groups combined
was $1,535 in 1929 and $1,032 in 1932.
The decline in average wage and salary payments in manufactures
during the 3 years from 1929 to 1932 was $543, or 36.2 percent, for
wage earners; $279, or 15.6 percent, for bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks; $434, or 20 percent, for salespeople (not traveling);
and $503, or 32.8 percent, for the 3 groups combined.
Scope of Study

When measured by employment afforded, manufactures is the most
important of the general industry groups covered in this series of
studies. During the years 1916 to 1923, when reports were requested
from employers of 5 or more persons, manufactures included from
64.5 to 73.6 percent of all employees covered and from 65 to 77.9
percent of total wage and salary payments. During the years 1924
to 1932, when reports were requested from employers of 3 or more
persons, manufactures included 64.9 percent of all employees covered
in 1925, but the percentage decreased each year, except in 1928 and
1929, until it was only 56.4 in 1932. Total wage and salary payments
in manufactures in 1925 were 67.2 percent of the amount reported
for all industries, with a decrease to 55.5 percent in 1932. Table
23 shows the percentage for each year 1916 to 1932.
1 Certain figures in this study, as published in the Monthly Labor Review for March 1934, have been
changed in accord with detailed studies made later. See notes for 1926 in study of metals and metal products
(p. 130); for 1926 and 1932 in stone, clay, and glass products (p. 108); for 1916 and 1917 in textiles (p. 133); and
for 1916,1917, and 1918 in vehicles (p. 112) and miscellaneous manufactures (p. 143).

36




37

MANUFACTUKES— 1916 TO 1932
T

a ble

23.

—PERCENT EM PLOYM ENT AND PAY ROLL IN M ANUFACTURES FORM OF
THOSE IN ALL INDUSTRIES IN OHIO, 1916 TO 1932
Percent
Percent
employees pay roll
in manu­ in manu­
factures
factures
form of
forms
all em­ that in of
all
ployees
(average) industries

Year

1916__________________
1917___________________
1918____ . ______
1919________________
1920____________________
1921 _ __
1922 . . .
_ .
1923 ___________________
1924____________________

73.5
72.9
73.6
72.4
70.7
64.5
66.9
67.8
64.4

75.2
75.4
77.9
75.8
74.3
65.0
69.2
68.9

66.0

Percent Percent
employees pay roll
in manu­ in manu­
factures factures
form of forms of
all em­
ployees that in all
(average) industries

Year

1925___________________
1926___________________
1927 _________________
1928 __________________
1929___________________
1930 __________________
1931___________________
1932___________________

64.9
63.9
62.3
62.6
63.1
59.4
57.4
56.4

67. 2
65.8
64.3
65.1
65.4
60.9
57.5
55.5

Table 24 shows the coverage in Ohio of the United States Census
biennial reports on manufactures and of the reports of the Ohio Division
of Labor Statistics. Prior to 1919 the census of manufactures was
taken every 5 years. Census figures include Ohio manufacturing
concerns with “value of product” of $500 or more in 1919 and
$5,000 or more in other years covered. The Ohio reports, on the
other hand, include only a comparatively few establishments employ­
ing fewer than 3 persons (fewer than 5 prior to 1924*). The census
figures therefore include a number of small manufacturing establish­
ments not requested to furnish information to the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics.
T

24.—COMPARISON OF COVERAGE OF CENSUS REPORTS ON MANUFACTURES
IN OHIO AND OF REPORTS (M ANUFACTURES ONLY) OF OHIO DIVISION OF LABOR
STATISTICS, BIENNIALLY FROM 1919 TO 1931

able

Establishments
Year

United
States
census

1919________________
1921________________
1923________________
1925________________
1927________________
1929________________
1931________________
1Press release,

16,125
11,479
11,195
11,131
10,961
11,855
i 9,883

Ohio
report
9,011
8,632
8,701
9,502
9,880
10,035
9,683

and
Wage earners (average) Total wage wagesalary payments to
earners
United
States
census
730,733
494,288
669,132
676, 661
669,097
741,143
i 506,974

Ohio
report
678,525
460,671
654,142
651,944
649, 111
718,108
482,782

United States
census
$944,651,734
627,032, 666
979,659,869
975, 738,405
968,181,165
1,102,166,499
i 593,051,176

Ohio report
$872,014,593
576,968,355
933,989, 207
956,106, 644
950,200,395
1,076,213, 730
571,917,215

Bureau of the Census, Apr. 1, 1933.

Table 25 shows the percent of wage earners and of total wage and
salary payments to wage earners in manufactures covered by the
Ohio reports as compared with the United States census reports on
manufactures.




38

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 2 5 .—COVERAGE OF OHIO REPORTS (MANUFACTURERS ONLY) AS COMPARED
WITH CENSUS REPORTS ON MANUFACTURES IN OHIO, BIENNIALLY FROM
1919 TO 1931
Percent Ohio coverage
forms of census cov­
erage as regards—
Year

1919______________________________
1921______________________________
1923_____________________________
1925______________________________
1927 _________________ ________ _
1929______________________________
1931__________________________

Number Wage and
salary
of wage payments
earners
(average) to wage
earners
92.9
93.2
97.8
96.3
97.0
96.9
95.2

92.3
92.0
95.3
98.0
98.1
97.6
96.4

Total Wage and Salary Payments, and Numbers Employed
T
wage and salary payments paid in manufactures as reported
to the Division of Labor Statistics of Ohio are shown for each year
from 1916 to 1932 in table 26. Payments are reported separately for
each of four occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, and office clerks; salespeople (not traveling); and superin­
tendents and managers. Payments and other data relating to super­
intendents and managers are not included in any other tables or com­
putations in this study. Employers were requested to report each
year total wage and salary payments in dollars, including bonuses and
premiums and value of board and lodging furnished. Employers
were instructed not to include in their reports salary payments to
officials. Total wage and salary payments (omitting superintendents
and managers) in manufactures increased rapidly from 1916 to 1920,
decreased 46.8 percent in 1921, increased each of the next 2 years,
decreased slightly in 1924, increased for 2 years, decreased slightly
in 1927, increased in 1928 and 1929, and decreased very rapidly from
1929 to 1932. The highest total paid was in 1920 and the second
highest in 1929. The lowest total was in 1932. The decrease from
1920 to 1932 was $796,996,316, or 62.6 percent.
otal




39

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 26.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURES IN OHIO,
1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Wage and salary payments to—
Number of
Superin­
Bookkeep­
Year
estab­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople Total of
tendents
lish­
travel­ preceding and man­ Grand total
ments Wage earners raphers, and (noting)
office clerks
agers
8,308 $483,223.146 $43,999,761 $7, 245,967 $534,468,874 $22,137,792 $556,606, 666
1916
8,608 625,127,087 56,367,407 6,808,428 688,302,922 26,874,017 715,176,939
1917
8,858 810,785,446 72,401,476 7,633,182 890,820,104 34,550,921 925, 371,025
1918
9, Oil 872.014,593 99,616,384 9,022,859 980,653,836 46,296,998 1,026,950,834
1919
9,652 1,143,662,785 118,045,344 11,363, 308 1,273,071,437 51,667,818 1,324,739, 255
1920
8,632 i 576,968,355 i 89,700, 261 11,194,833 677,863,449 46,048.958 723,912,407
1921
1922.
8,330 693,948,886 118,786,876 10,629,989 823,365,751 45,706,009 869,071,760
1923.
8,701 933,989,207 105,092,484 12, 959,685 1,052,041, 376 51,259,820 1,103, 301,196
1924.
9,125 867,024,674 108,441, 736 13,865, 043 989,331,453 51,142, 061 1,040, 473,514
9, 502 956,106,644 116,531,491 17,046,075 1,089, 684, 210 56,133,781 1,145, 817,991
1925.
9,704 973,197, 214 121,169, 678 17, 225,427 1, 111, 592, 319 58, 268,417 1,169, 860,736
1926.
9,880 950, 200,395 127,339, 270 17,821,103 1,095,360, 768 58, 822,884 1,154,183,652
1927.
9,937 1,000,676,770 126, 630,061 18,073,918 1,145,380,749 59,420,091 1, 204, 800,840
1928.
10, 035 1,076, 213,730 141,959, 719 20,198, 389 1,238,371,838 62, 777, 638 1, 301,149,476
1929.
806,211,539 141,830, 517 10,326,936 958,368,992 60,396,459 1,018, 765,451
10, Oil
1930.
9,683 571,917, 215 109,165,152 9,135,088 690, 217,455 50,905, 300 741,122,755
1931.
9,102 382,080,692 85,497, 253 8,497,176 476,075,121 38,432,348 514, 507, 469
1932.
i Details for specific industries exceed total for the manufactures industry by $21 ($20 for wage earners
and $1 for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks).

1

1

Table 27 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in manufactures each year, 1916 to 1932, in each of the three general
occupation groups and for all groups combined. Both sexes are
included. Employers in their annual reports show the number em­
ployed on the 15th of each month and the average was computed
by dividing the sum of the numbers reported for each month of the
year by 12. The highest average number employed was in 1929,
the second highest in 1920, and the lowest in 1932. The decrease in
average number employed from 1929 to 1932 was 345,424, or 42.8
percent.
Table 27.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN MANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Year
1916......................................................................
1917__________________________________
1918..................................... ................................
1919.....................................................................
1920.......... ............................................ .......... _.
1921..................... .............................................. .
1922_______________ ___________________
1923____ __________ ___________________
1924____ ______________________________
1925_________ _________________________
1926........ ............................................................
1927....................................................................
1928................. .......... .......................................
1929........................................................ ..........
1930_______________ ____ _____ _______
1931................... .......... .......... .......... .................
1932................. ............................................




Establish­
ments
8,299
8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9,652
8,632
8,403
8,701
9,125
9,502
9,704
9,880
9,937
10,035
9,683
9,102

10,011

Wage
earners
628,208
682,379
699,656
678, 525
715,858
460,671
546,435
654,142
606,558
651,944
671,910
649, 111
669, 039
718,108
590, 506
482, 782
399,790

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople All em­
raphers,
(not
and office traveling) ployees
clerks
49,079
55,741
62,155
68,249
73,035
57,965
57, 550
65,538
65,963
68,387
71,195
71, 769
72,041
79,197
77,702
65, Oil
56,500

5,035
5,316
5,103
5,346
5,735
5,680
5,919
6,363
7,002
7,657
8,234
8,371
,355
9,302
4,969
5,112
4,893

8

682,322
743,436
766,914
752,121
794, 627
524, 316
609,903
726, 043
679, 523
727,988
751, 340
729, 250
749,434
806,607
673,178
552, 905
461,183

40

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The fluctuation in employment in manufactures within each year
is shown in table 28. The least variation from maximum employ­
ment within a year was 3.1 percent in 1917, and the greatest was
26.9 percent in 1920. The fluctuation was more than 11 percent
of the maximum for the year in 10 of the 17 years covered. The
month of maximum employment during the 17-year period was
March 1920, and the month of minimum employment was August
1932. The variation from maximum to minimum for the 17 years
was 427,177, or 49.8 percent. The second highest number employed
was in May 1929. The maximum employed during 1932 was slightly
below the minimum employed in any other year in the period covered
by the study.
Table 2 8.—FLUCTUATION IN EMPLOYMENT (BOTH SEXES) IN M ANUFACTURES,

1916 TO 1932
[Includes the 3 general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks^
and salespeople (not traveling)]
Month

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

January______________________________
February____ _______________ ________
March__________ ___________________
April_________________________________
M ay__________________________________
June__________________________________
July___________ ____ __________________
August_________________ ______________
September_________________ _____ _____
October______ ______________________
November____________________________
December_______ _____________________
Maximum____ __________________ ____ _
Minimum_____________________________
Variation from maximum:
Number____________ ______________
Percent___________________________
Establishments reporting_____ _________

612,838
643,360
661,690
669,106
672, 247
687,933
684,107
700,054
706, 418
708,185
717, 977
723,949
723, 949
612,838

730,008
738, 585
753,422
741, 361
748,464
751,979
742, 324
743,490
743,536
745,270
747, 249
735,548
753,422
730,008
23,414
3.1
8,600

728, 224
739,834
759,095
753, 425
767,878
784,098
790,880
793,976
775, 796
778,696
774,308
756, 752
793,976
728,224
65,752
8.3
8,858

731,343
716, 585
713,013
709, 252
706,836
728,345
761, 881
788, 524
794, 472
759, 045
793,552
822, 599
822,599
706,836
115,763
14.1
9,011

841,071
834, 445
857,366
846, 274
824,476
844,531
835, 352
801,398
785, 346
750,158
688,556
626,562
857,366
626, 562
230,804
26.9
9,652

Month

1922

1923

1924

1925

1926

January..........................................................
February......................................................
March................................................................
April— _________ _____________________
M ay............................... ................. .................
June...................................................................
July..............................................................
August........................................ .....................
September.........................................................
October........................................ ....................
November........................................................
December..........................................................
Maximum.......................... .............................
Minimum__ ___________________ ______
Variation from maximum:
Number.................. ................................
Percent______ ________________ ____
Establishments reporting..............................

507,562
530,843
556,100
574,924
598,326
629,447
631,922
644,406
646,186
651,612
662,224
685,289
685, 289
507,562
177, 727
25.9
, 403

696,498
705,748
717, 741
721,615
725,959
724,881
722, 264
729,413
746,969
753, 087
749,713
741,970
753,087
696,498
56,589
7.5
9, 502

733,130
741,602
749,195
754,479
750, 771
753, 283
747, 934
758, 375
775, 597
770, 615
749, 377
731, 723
775,597
731,723
43,874
5.7
9,704




111,15.3
111
8,299

8

688,264 709,872
711,427 726,175
740,836 733, 686
741,235 723,205
749,373 687,200
756,243 644,854
732,935 631,913
736,158 642,840
722,905 661,455
719,014
,443
714,338 657,252
702, 784 669,383
756, 243 733, 686
688,264 631,913
67,979 101, 773
9.0
13.9
8,701
9,125

666

1921
542,341
536,545
530,071
530,598
529,435
524,630
499, 263
508,228
512,913
521,458
531,039
525,271
542, 341
499,263
43,078
7.9
8,632
1927
710,987
736, 762
751,444
750,988
749, 004
748,332
727,987
726,733
731,609
720, 407
701,771
694,980
751,444
694,980
56,464
7.5
9,880

41

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 28.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT (BOTH SEXES) IN M ANUFACTURES,
1916 TO 1932—Continued
1928

Month
January____________________ ____ ______
February______ ____________ _________
March______ ________________ ______
April_________________________________
May_______ ________ _________________
June__________________________________
July__________________________________
August________________________________
September____ _________ ____________
October,,______________________________
November................ __ ______________
December________________ ___________
Maximum_______________ ____________
Minimum__________________ ________
Variation from maximum:
Number..____________ _ _____...
Percent______ _____________________
Establishments reporting________ ____ _

1929

1930

1931

1932

689,774
719,446
734,971
736,907
746,657
753, 921
752,001
766, 243
779, 492
778,660
770,132
765, 007
779,492
689, 774
89,718
11.5
9,937

784,410
808,359
819,917
827,839
835, 820
834, 405
831,223
824, 563
823, 718
808,934
755, 581
724, 513
835,820
724,513
111,307
13.3
10,035

708,893
712, 557
711,876
721,938
715,937
695,838
664,999
652, 518
647,883
634,641
611, 376
599,679
721,938
599, 679
122,259
16.9
10, Oil

564, 729
572, 525
581, 691
585,839
583, 543
571,996
555,230
541,745
540,331
522,918
513,669
500,647
585,839
500,647
85,192
14.5
9,683

489,708
496,479
489, 228
475, 021
465, 873
460, 345
444, 690
430,189
445, 724
449, 596
446, 593
440, 745
496,479
430,189
66,290
13.4
9,102

A comparison of the biennial changes in average number of wage
earners employed and in total wage and salary payments, as reported
by the United States Census of Manufactures and as shown in the
reports of the division of labor statistics, is presented in table 29.
The change recorded by the two series of reports is in the same direc­
tion each biennium except in 1923-25, when the change was very
slight. There is a remarkable agreement in the degree of change
except in the biennium 1921-23.
Table 2 9 —BIENNIAL CHANGES IN AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM ­
PLOYED AND IN TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURES: COMPARISON OF OHIO REPORTS AND CENSUS REPORTS ON
M ANUFACTURES IN OHIO, 1919 TO 1931
Wage earners (average)
Period

1919-21_________________________________________
1921-23________________ ________________________
1923-25___________________________________________
1925-27___________________________________________
1927-29___________________________________________
1929-31___________________________________________

United
States
census
-32.4
+35.4
+1.1
-1 .1
+10. 8
-31.6

Ohio re­
ports
-32.1
+42.0
- .3
- .4
+10.6
-32.8

Average Wage and Salary Payments

Total wage and salary
payments to wage
earners
United
States
census
-33.6
+56.2
- .4
- .8
+13.8
-46.2

Ohio re­
ports
-33.8
+61.9
+2.4
- .6
+13.3
-46.9

T able 30 shows average wage and salary payments in manufactures
to each of the three general occupation groups and to all groups com­
bined. These averages were computed by dividing the total wage and
salary payments by the average number employed. The highest
average wage and salary payment was reported for wage earners and
for all groups combined in 1920, for bookkeepers, stenographers, and




42

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

office clerks in 1922, and for salespeople (not traveling) in 1925. The
lowest average payment was reported for all except salespeople in 1916
and for salespeople (not traveling) in 1917. Charts 11 and 12 show in
graphic form average wage and salary payments to all employees in
manufactures and to each of the three general occupation groups.
Table 30.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURES, 1916 TO
1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Year
1916___________________________________
1917___________________________________
1918___________________________________
1919___________________________________
1920___________________________________
1921___________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925______________________________ —
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928----------------------------------------------1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932____________________ ______________

Establish­
ments
18,299
2 8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9, 652
8,632
3 8,403
8,701
9,125
9,502
9,704
9,880
9,937
10,035
10, Oil
9,683
9,102

Wage
earners
$769
916
1,159
1,285
1,598
1,252
1,270
1,428
1,429
1,467
1,448
1,464
1,496
1,499
1,365
1,185
956

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Sales­
raphers, people (not All em­
and office traveling) ployees
clerks
$897
1, Oil
1,165
1,460
1,616
1,547
*2,064
1,604
1,644
1,704
1,702
1, 774
1,758
1,792
1,825
1,679
1, 513

$1,439
1,281
1,496
1,688
1,981
1,971
1,796
2,037
1,980
2,226
2,092
2,129
2,163
2,171
2,078
1,787
1,737

$783
926
1,162
1,304
1,602
1,293
1,350
1,449
1,456
1,497
1,479
1,502
1,528
1,535
1,424
1,248
1,032

1 The number of establishments reporting employees was, 8,299, the number reporting total wage and
salary payments was 8,308.
2 The number of establishments reporting employees was 8,600, the number reporting total wage and
salary payments was 8,608.
3 The number of establishments reporting employees was 8,403, the number reporting total wage and
salary payments was 8,330.
* This figure, which is in accord with number employed and total wage and salary payments as tabulated
by the Division of Labor Statistics, seems high. No further verification is possible as original schedules
have been destroyed. The average for 1922 has been omitted from chart 12.

It should be emphasized that average wage and salary payments as
here computed do not show average full-time earnings, as data con­
cerning part-time and overtime work are not available. The changes
in averages from year to year, also, do not afford any measure of
changes in wage or salary scales or rates of pay.
The United States Census Bureau does not compute average annual
wage payments in compiling the biennial census of manufactures.2
For this study, however, such averages have been computed and are
shown in table 31, which compares average wage and salary payments
to wage earners in manufactures based on the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics data with computed average payments to wage earners in
manufactures in Ohio based upon the census reports. The two series
show a remarkable agreement.
2 In a report recently issued covering the construction industry, the Census Bureau computed the average
annual wage payment in that industry.




MANUFACTURES—

1916

1918

1920

1922

43

1916 TO 1932

1924

1926

1928

1930

1932

F ig u r e 11 .—A v er a g e a n n u al , w a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in m a n u f a c t u r e s ,
1916 TO 1932, ALL EMPLOYEES

F ig u r e 12.—A v er a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in M a n u f a c t u r e s ,
1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
140446°— 35-




44
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

3 1 .— COMPUTED AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE
EARNERS IN MANUFACTURES: COMPARISON OF OHIO REPORTS AND CENSUS
REPORTS ON M ANUFACTURES IN OHIO, BIENNIALLY FROM 1919 TO 1931

a ble

Year
1919 ________________________________
1921 __________________________________
1923__________________________________
1925 ________________________________
1927 __________________________________
1929 ________________________________
1931___________________________________

Average wage and Ohio reports below Ohio reports above
salary payments U n ited States U n ited S tates
census
to wage earners census
United Ohio
Amount Percent Amount Percent
States
census reports
$8
0.62
$1,293 $1, 285
1,252
1.34
1,269
17
36
1,464
1,428
2. 46
1,442
$25
1,467
1. 73
1,447
1,464
17
1.17
1,499
12
1,487
.81
1,185
15
1,170
1.28

Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments by Manufacturing Subgroups
F
the basic tables showing total salary payments and numbers
of employees for the different subgroups of manufactures 3 there have
been computed the average wage and salary payments in each of the
subgroups for each year from 1916 to 1932. The subgroups of man­
ufactures, as classified in the Ohio reports, are as follows:
rom

Chemicals and allied products.
Food and kindred products.
Iron and steel and their products.
Leather and leather products.
Liquors and beverages.
Lumber and its products.
Metals and metal products, other than iron and steel.
Paper and printing.
Rubber products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Textiles.
Tobacco manufactures.
Vehicles.
Miscellaneous manufactures.

Average Annual Wage and Salary Payments
T
32 shows average wage and salary payments in each of the 14
industry subgroups for each year 1916 to 1932. The average is shown
for each of the 3 general occupation groups and for all combined.
The highest average wage and salary payment (all employees)
occurred in 1920 for iron and steel and their products, rubber prod­
ucts, stone, clay, and glass products, and tobacco manufactures; in
1923 for liquors and beverages; in 1925 for lumber and its products;
in 1926 for textiles and miscellaneous manufactures; in 1927 for
leather and leather products and vehicles; in 1928 for chemicals and
allied products, food and kindred products, and paper and printing;
and in 1929 for metals and metal products, other than iron and steel.
able

s For these basic tables see the discussion on the different subgroups of manufactures.




45

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

The lowest average wage and salary payments occurred in 1916 for
all industry subgroups except liquors and beverages, where it occurred
in 1917. The year 1917 shows the second lowest average for 12 of the
14 industry subgroups, and the year 1932 shows the third lowest
average for 8 of the 14 industry subgroups.
Table 32.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN EACH INDUSTRY SUB­
GROUP IN M ANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Year

1916......................
1917......................
1918-...................
1919_________ 1920.................—
1921...................1922___________
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927-............—
1928___________
1929......................
1930______ ____
1931______ ____
1932....................

Chemicals and allied products
Food and kindred products
Book­ Sales­
Book­ Sales­
All
Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­ Estab­ Wage keepers, people
stenog­ (not
stenog­ (not
lish­ earn­ raphers,
lish­ earn­ raphers,
ments ers and office travel­ ploy­ ments ers and office travel­
ees
ing)
clerks
clerks ing)
1317 $743
340
887
351 1,074
369 1,222
411 1,465
360 1,305
6 373 1, 267
382 1,379
392 1,437
412 1,437
415 1,438
433 1,459
444 1,470
457 1,475
458 1,462
461 1,370
440 1,220

$879
914
1,120
1,187
1,491
1,390
1,419
1,451
1,60,0
1,587
1,629
1,559
1,696
1,656
1,683
1,788
1,586

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$768 a 1,289
894 * 1,364
1,091 1,439
1,218 1,475
1,470 1,601
1,324 1,426
1,301 61,243
1,398 1, 278
1,468 1,366
1,477 1,433
1,481 1,498
1,485 1,601
1,522 1, 617
1,518 1,636
1,520 1,715
1,468 1,685
1,305 1,600

Iron and steel and their products
1916— ............... 71,490
1917...................... i 1,583
1918...................... 1,635
1919___________ 1,687
1920— ............. 1,797
1921— ................. 1,667
1922-.................. io 1, 613
1923— .............
1,647
1924.................... 1,673
1925-............... ... 1,717
1926.................... 1,750
1927-................... 1,700
1928..................... 1,751
1929— ................. 1,775
1930...................... 1,754
1931...................... 1,697
1932.................... . 1,606

$879
1,073
1,377
1,534
1,874
1,327
1,428
1,656
1,609
1,675
1,640
1,621
1,686
1,705
1,541
1,260
959

$993
1, 111
1,285
1,442
1,669
1,665
(8)
1,707
1,718
1,841
1,843
1,922
1,782
1,980
2,034
1,621
1,543

(8)
$2,429
2,375
2,442
2,978
(8)
2,626
3,421
3,727
4,107
3,274
3,041
3,362
3,344
2,997
2,578
2,505

$893
1,077
1,372
1,528
1,859
1,372
1,598
1,664
1,624
1,695
1,662
1,652
1,699
1,734
1,599
1,305
1,038

$674
723
907
1,061
1,287
1,222
1,125
1,235
1,255
1,252
1,219
1,317
1,343
1,331
1,363
1,212
1,067

$814
832
1,053
1,180
1,350
1,383
1,424
1,416
1,537
1,434
1,451
1,463
1,504
1,499
1,475
1,409
1,298

$912
994
1,266
1,348
1,696
1,532
1,450
1,500
1,623
1,704
1,628
1,627
1,682
1,677
1,307
1,237
1,192

All
em­
ploy­
ees
$702
751
941
1,091
1,322
1,262
1,180
1,274
1,315
1,315
1,284
1,366
1,395
1,386
1,371
1, 232
1,093

Leather and leather products
8161 $571
635
160
161
770
156
938
158 1,123
144 1,074
8 138 1,072
145 1,089
138 1,087
141 1,078
147 1,103
137 1,113
130 1,092
126 1,096
922
119
864
110
690
106

$606
672
858
1,039
1,134
1,318
1,298
1,355
1,311
1,325
1,463
1,552
1,473
1,461
1,395
1,323
1,315

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
0 1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
01)
G1)
(u)

$574
638
776
945
1,125
1,091
1,088
12 1,104
1,105
1,096
1,129
1,144
1,118
1,122
12 954
12 892
1 724
2

1 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 2.
2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 10.
8 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and sailary payments
was greater by 1.
6 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 12.
i Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 3.
s Omitted; apparent clerical error in reporting, which cannot be definitely corrected, as original schedules
have been destroyed.
8 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 90.
, . . . , .
ii Carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified m detailed tabulation.
i2 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this aver­
age, as average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.




46

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 33.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN EACH INDUSTRY SUB­
GROUP IN MANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Con.
Liquors and beverages
Year

Lumber and its products

Book­
Book­ Sales­
All
Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­ Estab­ Wage keepers,
stenog­ (not
stenog­
lish­ earn­ raphers,
lish­ earn­ raphers,
ments ers and office travel­ ploy­ ments ers and office
ees
clerks ing)
clerks
192 $1,170
974
179
182 1,137
167 1,286
150 1, 754
121 1,455
120 1,351
124 1,771
140 1,492
147 1,489
153 1,428
155 1,475
150 1,491
164 1,484
163 1,470
175 1,396
158 1, 200

1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

$1,094
1,154
1,286
1,409
1,551
1,615
1,549
1, 573
1,499
1,617
1,594
1,623
1,560
1,554
1,566
1,444
1,243

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
m
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$1,172 13 860
1,004 3 899
1,160
913
1,308
923
1,732 1,003
1,483
914
1,393 6 932
1,761 1,007
1,561 1,130
1,584 1,175
1,493 1,206
1,521 1,238
1,553 1,215
1,527 1,231
1,522 1,192
1,431 1,104
1, 233
999

Metals and metal products other than
iron and steel
1916___________ 3 331
339
1917___________
395
1918___________
409
1919___________
457
1920___________
432
1921___________
1922___________ is 406
456
1923___________
471
1924___________
488
1925___________
490
1926___________
506
1927___________
523
1928___________
544
1929___________
1930___________
519
544
1931___________
1932............ ......... 531

$699
786
1,113
1,128
1,416
1,180
1,154
1,311
1,302
1,372
1, 373
1,371
1,422
1,434
1,355
1,155
973

$815
943
1,060
1,170
1,410
1,440
1,544
1,761
1,549
1,662
1,693
1,688
1,705
1,740
1,809
1, 711
1,477

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$715
802
1,110
1,137
1,422
1,222
1,199
1,360
1,333
1,412
1,416
1,418
1,466
1,476
1,411
1,235
1,047

$617
728
892
1,009
1,271
1,200
1,089
1,220
1,218
1,370
1,265
1,275
1,280
1,275
1,178
1,047
834

$867
939
1,064
1,295
1,457
1,545
1,437
1,513
1,618
1,689
1,629
1,807
1,652
1,678
1, 717
1,544
1, 359

Sales­ All
people em­
(not
travel­ ploy­
ees
ing)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)

(v
m
m
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$640
748
907
1,032
1,288
1,236
1,123
1,254
1,259
1,407
1,310
1,331
1,329
1,328
1,244
1,115
904

Paper and printing
i4 928
930
939
924
977
869
0 886

913
980
1,037
1,075
1,110
1,130
1,158
1,151
1,160
1,139

$720
781
909
1,100
1,412
1,292
1,328
1, 376
1,420
1,282
1,478
1,464
1,508
1,513
1,473
1,362
1,192

$741 $1,204
833 1,478
835 1,200
1,052 1,707
1,295 1,939
1,323 1,790
1,319 2,002
1,476 2,075
1,446 2,116
1,309 2,334
1,466 2,354
1,554 2,341
1,979 2,637
1,550 2,307
1,621 2,354
1,536 2,112
1,356 1,997

$735
803
907
1,109
1,409
1,311
1,345
1,411
1,445
1,319
1,503
1,506
1,605
1, 545
1, 516
1,414
1,250

2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
# Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
less by 1.
is Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 7.
1 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
4
was less by 7.
i* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 4.




47

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Table 33 .—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN EACH INDUSTRY SUB GROUP IN M ANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Con.
Rubber products
Year

1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

Stone, clay, and glass products

Book­ Sales­
Book­ Sales­
All
All
Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­ Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­
stenog­
stenog­
lish­ earn­ raphers, (not ploy­ lish­ earn­ raphers, (not ploy
ments ers and office travel­ ees ments ers and office travel­ ees
clerks ing)
clerks ing)
78
82
93
108
114
107
3 109
119
120
113
112
128
133
127
113
104
95

$810
1,042
1,233
1,288
1, 710
1,465
1,433
1,589
1,540
1, 553
1,562
1,583
1,611
1, 562
1,450
1, 254
1,011

$844
1,032
1,235
2,463
2,089
1,817
1,681
1, 717
1,896
1,906
1,857
1,936
2,014
2,033
2,008
1,985
1,873

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
00
(2)
(2)
(2)
00
00
00
00
00
00

712
$815
702
1,041
1,236
683
1,434
693
1,762
713
1,520
637
1,462 16 664
121,602
674
1, 576
711
1,586
762
1, 593
763
121, 619
768
121, 653
772
121, 610
770
121, 520
747
121, 341
708
12 1, 115
622

Textiles
1916___________ 17 719 $540
1917___________ 18 751
592
1918___________
700
757
1919___________
767
856
1920___________
810 1,054
1921___________
680 1,043
1922___________ 3 689
967
1923___________ 679 1,012
1924___________ 687 1,039
1925___________
705 1,069
1926___________ 707 1,080
1927___________ 679 1,055
1928___________
662 1,035
1929___________
647 1,026
1930___________
954
627
1931___________
587
865
1932___________
567
705

$806
814
1,032
1,128
1,382
1,519
1,378
1,336
1,396
1,463
1,360
1,458
1,417
1,449
1, 502
1,389
1,303

$689
829
971
1,145
1,453
1, 209
1,117
1,188
1,363
1,359
1,360
1, 330
1, 314
1, 319
1,187
1,096
834

$891
1,003
1,043
1,252
(8)
1,421
1,436
1, 533
1, 577
1,624
1, 716
1,686
1,757
1,796
1,909
1,780
1, 432

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$697
836
976
1,151
1,483
1, 220
1,132
1,204
1,374
1,374
1,381
1, 351
1, 341
1,348
1,241
1,145
878

Tobacco manufactures
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(0

$562
242
611
239
724
246
878
249
269
1,081
226
1,082
998 is 210
1,039
213
191
1,070
1,105
175
172
1,107
1,087
160
1,066
157
1,062
137
996
144
904
133
746
127

$448
492
558
645
948
690
693
741
553
713
717
688
676
660
627
599
507

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
C
11)
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

$457
499
571
657
957
705
12 705
12 752
12 562
12 726
12 729
12 701
12 691
12 676
12 643
12 614
12 525

2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was. greater by 2.
8 Omitted; apparent clerical error in reporting, which cannot be definitely corrected, as original schedules
have been destroyed.
11 Carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified”, in detailed tabulation.
12 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this average,
as average number in that group could not be determined from tabulation.
15 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 4.
I®Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 8.
1 Number of establishments reporting employees ;number reporting total wage and salary payments
7
was greater by 5.
is Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 3.




48

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 33.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN EACH INDUSTRY SUB

GROUP IN MANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Con.
Vehicles
Year

Miscellaneous manufactures

Book­ Sales­
Book­ Sales­
All
All
Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­ Estab­ Wage keepers, people em­
stenog­ (not
stenog­ (not
lish­
lish­ earn­ raphers,
ploy­ ments earn­ raphers, travel­ ploy­
ments ers and office travel­ ees
ers and office
ees
clerks ing)
clerks ing)

1916___________ i 376
383
1917___________
374
1918___________
390
1919___________
416
1920___________
363
1921___________
1922___________ 10 320
331
1923___________
328
1924___________
1925___________
319
318
1926___________
319
1927___________
304
1928___________
304
1929___________
297
1930___________
265
1931___________
228
1932___________

$789
952
1,246
1, 394
1, 698
1,364
1, 342
1, 538
1,656
1,631
1,394
1,687
1,666
1,609
1, 331
1,174
934

$969
1,148
1,204
1,383
1,629
1,611
1,618
1,719
1,874
1,842
1,836
2,004
1,583
1,647
1,744
1,910
1,667

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
00
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
00
00

$800
967
1,244
1,394
1,693
1,401
1,370
121,552
1,677
1,650
1,430
1,731
1,661
1,622
1,374
121, 242
121,008

3 604
3 649
690
694
776
686
2 700
0

733
798
878
898
946
949
959
982
950
884

$745
799
1,090
1,161
1,432
1,206
1,166
1, 224
1,309
1,341
1,420
1,387
1,373
1,379
1,285
1,196
940

$891
1,021
1,151
1,262
1,437
1,436
1,441
1,504
1,566
1,835
1,676
1,785
1,783
1,823
1,798
1,825
1, 526

(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

$759
824
1,099
1,176
1,435
1, 247
1,204
1,273
1,347
1,410
1,458
1,443
1,431
1,441
1, 361
1, 297
1,043

1 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 2.
2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
s Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
c Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
11 Carried with ‘‘Manufactures, not otherwise classified”, in detailed tabulation.
12 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this aver­
age as average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.
19 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 8.
20 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 9.

General Indexes for Employment and for Wage and Salary Payments
G
indexes for all employees (wage earners; bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling))
and separately for wage earners in manufactures, based upon the
Ohio reports, are shown in table 33. Indexes are here shown for
average number employed, total wage and salary payments, and
average wage and salary payments for 1924-32, which is the period
during which reports were requested by the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics from all establishments employing three or more persons.
The year 1926 was used as the base, or 100, in computing these indexes.
The indexes for employees and for total wage and salary payments
increased from 1924 to 1926, decreased in 1927, increased in 1928 and
1929, and decreased rapidly during 1930, 1931, and 1932. The index
for average wage and salary payments increased in 1925, decreased
slightly in 1926, increased each year until 1929, and decreased in 1930,
1931, and 1932.
The course of the indexes for wage earners is the same as the indexes
for all employees. The indexes for wage earners, however, do not
reach as high a level in 1929 as do the indexes for all employees, and
eneral




49

MANUFACTURES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

in 1932 they reach a lower level than do those for all employees.
These differences are found in each of the three items for which indexes
were computed.
3 3 —GENERAL INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER EMPLOYED AND TOTAL AND
AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURES IN OHIO FOR ALL
EMPLOYEES AND FOR WAGE EARNERS, 1924 TO 1932
[1926=100.0]

T able

Wage earners

All employees
Year

1924______ _________________
1925_______________________
1926_______________________
1927_______________________
1928_______________________
1929_______________________
1930....______________ __ _
1931_______________________
1932______ ____ ____________

Average
Average
Employees Total wage wage and Employees Total wage wage and
(average) and salary salary pay­ (average) and salary salary pay­
payments ments
payments ments
90.4
96.9
100.0
97.1
99.7
107.4
89.6
73.6
61.4

89.0
98.0
100.0
98.5
103.0
111.4
86.2
62.1
42.8

98.4
101.2
100 0
101.6
103.3
103.8
96.3
84.4
69.8

90.3
97.0
100.0
96.6
99.6
106. 9
87.9
71.9
59.5

89.1
98.2
100.0
97.6
102.8
110.6
82.8
58.8
39.3

98.7
101.3
100.0
101.1
103.3
103.5
94.3
81.8
66.0

Chart 13 shows in graphic form general indexes for average num­
ber employed (all employees) and total and average wage and salary
payments in manufactures.
Table 34 presents a comparison of the general indexes for average
number employed and total wage and salary payments in manufac-

F ig u r e 13.—G en er a l In d e x e s fo r A v er a g e N u m b e r E m plo y e d a n d T o ta l
a n d a v e r a g e W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in M a n u f a c t u r e s , 1924 t o 1932
(1926=100)

tures in Ohio, computed from reports of the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics, with the general indexes of the United States Bureau of
Labor Statistics for employment and pay rolls in manufacturing in




50

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

the United States. Indexes computed from the Ohio reports are
shown for all employees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)), and separately for
wage earners.
The course of the three series of indexes is the same, except in
1928, both for employment and for wage and salary payments. The
Ohio indexes are considerably lower than the Bureau indexes for the
United States in 1924 and considerably higher in 1928 and 1929.
For other years there is comparatively dose agreement, particularly
in 1932. It is probable that certain industries which have a wide
fluctuation in number employed and in total wage and salary pay­
ments, such as iron and steel, rubber products, and vehicles, form a
larger proportion of the total in the Ohio reports than they do in the
Bureau’s reports which cover the United States.
COMPARISON OF INDEXES OF U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS FOR
EM PLOYM ENT AND PAY ROLLS, IN M ANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES,
WITH INDEXES FOR M ANUFACTURES IN OHIO, COMPUTED FROM OHIO REPORTS,
1924 TO 1932
[1926 = 100.0]

T able 3 4 .—

Employees (average)
Year

1924________________________
1925_______________________
1926_______________________
1927_______________________
1928_______________________
1929_______________________
1930_______________________
1931_______________________
1932_______________________

U. S. Bu­
reau of
Labor Sta­
tistics
98.2
99.2
100.0
96.4
93.8
97.5
84.7
72.2
60.1

Wage and salary payments

Ohio reports
All em­
ployees
90.4
96.9
100.0
97.1
99.7
107.4
89.6
73.6
61.4

Wage
earners
90.3
97.0
100.0
96.6
99.6
106.9
87.9
71.9
59.5

Ohio reports
U. S. Bureau of
Labor Sta­ All em­
Wage
tistics
ployees
earners
94.6
97.7
100.0
96.5
94.5
100.5
81.3
61.5
41.6

89.0
98.0
100.0
98.5
103.0
111.4
86.2
62.1
42.8

89.1
98.2
100.0
97.6
102.8
110.6
82.8
58.8
39.3

Table 35 shows general indexes for each of the 14 industry sub­
groups under manufactures. The indexes are confined to wage earn­
ers only, and cover average number employed, total wage and salary
payments, and average wage and salary payments.' The 14 industry
subgroups are classified, upon the basis of a classification used by the
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, as manufactures of “dur­
able” products and manufactures of “nondurable” products.
The index for average number of wage earners in 1932 stood below
50 for 4 of the 5 industry subgroups listed under “ durable” products.
The lowest index for that year in the 9 industry subgroups listed
under “nondurable” products was 57.2 and none of the other 8 fell
below 65.5. The indexes in the “durable” group generally rose
higher in 1928 and 1929 than did those in the “nondurable” group.
The index for total wage and salary payments in 1932 stood below
33 for 4 of the 5 industry subgroups listed under “durable.” The




51

MANUFACTURES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

lowest index for that year in the “nondurable ” group was 40.5. The
indexes for total wage and salary payments generally rose higher in
the “durable” group in 1928 and 1929 than did those in the “non­
durable” group.
The index for average wage and salary payments do not disclose
as great a difference between the “durable” and the “nondurable”
groups as do the indexes for number of wage earners and total wage
and salary payments to such employees. The lowest index in 1932
(58.5) and also the second lowest are found in the “durable” group,
but the third and fourth lowest are found in the “nondurable” group.
The highest index in that year in the “durable” group is 70.4 and the
index for 5 of the 9 under “nondurable” was higher than that figure.
3 5 .—GENERAL INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE
EARNERS IN MANUFACTURES, BY INDUSTRY SUBGROUPS CLASSIFIED AS M ANU­
FACTURERS OF “ DURABLE” AND OF "N O N DUR ABLE” PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932
[1926=100.01

T able

W age earners (average num ber)
Industry subgroup
Manufactures of "durable” products:
Iron and steel and their products. __
Lumber and its products_________
Metals and metal products, other
than iron and steel_____________
Stone, clay, and glass products. . __
Vehicles________________________
Manufactures of "nondurable” prod­
ucts:
Chemicals and allied products_____
Food and kindred products_______
Leather and leather products.____
Liquors and beverages---- ------ -----Paper and printing--------------------Rubber products_______________
Textiles___________________ _____
Tobacco manufactures___ ______
Miscellaneous manufactures. _. __

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

90.5 95.2 100.0 93.7 95.0 103.7
101.2 105.3 100.0 101.8 95.7 95.3
93.7 99.9 100.0 96.5 99.3 116.0
96.0 102.7 100.0 97.0 95.8 92.1
82.3 100.9 100.0 91.4 114.8 127.4

1930 1931 1932
81.5
77.7
98.5
75.4
89.6

58.6
62.4
85.7
62.8
69.4

45.1
49.0
77.0
46.1
45.0

94.2 100.9 100.0 100.1 105.1 108.7 98.0
90.9 93.1 100.0 94.6 97.4 103.7 112.4
93.4 98.4 100.0 101.5 96.4 95.2 86.6
99.5 105.6 100.0 95. 7 89.8 89.7 85. 1
91.7 95.8 100.0 102.0 101.1 108.2 103.7
85.8 101.7 100.0 104.2 107.4 113.3 83.2
92.0 95.2 100.0 96.4 94.9 9c*. 0 88.5
114.4 96.5 100.0 96.0 91.0 80.7 74.5
80.2 88.7 100.0 99.4 106.9 120.6 100.1

93.2
106.4
81.6
78.1
98.5
70.6
78.6
65.4
81.8

79.8
97.5
79.7
67.6
90.8
65.5
72.7
57.2
67.2

76.6
72.3
97.3
65.8
85.6

45.0
51.6
72.1
50.6
58.5

26.4
32.3
54.6
28.3
30.2

99.6
125.6
72.5
87.6
103.3
77.2
78.1
65.2
90.6

105.8
64.0
76.4
90.8
56.7
63.0
54.7
68.9

67.7
85.3
49.9
56.8
73.3
42.4
47.4
40.5
44.5

Total wage and salary paym en ts to wage earners
Manufactures of "durable” products:
Iron and steel and their products. __
Lumber and its products_________
Metals and metal products, other
than iron and steel_____________
Stone, clay, and glass products-----Vehicles ............................... ..................
Manufactures of "nondurable” prod­
ucts:
Chemicals and allied products_____
Food and kindred products----------Leather and leather products_____
Liquors and beverages____________
Paper and printing_______________
Rubber products._______________
Textiles____________________ ____
Tobacco manufactures____________
Miscellaneous manufactures______




88.8
97.4

97.3
114.0
88.9 99.9
96.2
97.7 118.1

102.6
94.1 100.8
93.6 95.6
92.1 96.2
103.9 110.1
88.1 101.0
83.1
84.6
88.5 94.1
88.3
73.9

96.0
83.7

100.0 102.6 97.7 107.8
100.0 96.2 96.9 96.1
100.0 96.4 102.9 121.
100.0 110.6 137.2 147.12
100.0 94.9 92.6 89.3
100.0 102. 102.7 111.5
100.0 101.6 107.3 113.1
100.0 102.42 93.8 93.2
95.5
100.0 98.9 103.2 94.6
100.0 105.6 110.8 113.3
100.0 94.1 90.9 93.9
100.0 92.2 85.8 74.3
100.0 97.1 103.4 117.1
100.0
101. 0

110.7

88.8

52

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

35.—GENERAL INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE
EARNERS IN M ANUFACTURES, BY INDUSTRY SUBGROUPS CLASSIFIED AS M ANU­
FACTURES OF “DURABLE” AND OF “NO NDURABLE” PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932—
Continued

T able

A verage wage an d sala ry paym en ts to wage earners

Industry subgroup
Manufactures of “ durable” products:
Iron and steel and their products...
Lumber and its products_________
Metals and metal products, other
than iron and steel--------------------Stone, clay, and glass products------Vehicles_______ _____________
Manufactures of “nondurable” prod­
ucts:
Chemicals and chemical products _
Food and kindred products_______
Leather and leather products______
Liquors and beverages____________
Paper and printing----------------------Rubber products---------- --------------Textiles-------- --------------------------Tobacco manufactures-----------------Miscellaneous manufactures...........

1924

1927

1928

1929

98.1 102.1 100.0 98.8
96.3 108.3 100.0 100.8
94.8 99.9 100.0 99.9
100.2 99.9 100.0 97.8
118.8 117.0 100.0 121.0

102.8
101.2
103.6
96.6
119.5

104.0 94.0 76.8
100.8 93.1 82.8
104.4 98.7 84.1
97.0 87.3 80.6
115.4 95.5 84.2

58.5
65.9
70.9
61.3
67.0

101.4
108.0
100.9
103.3
99.1
101.3
97.7
96.0
97.7

102.2
110.2
99.0
104.4
102.0
103.1
95.8
94.3
96.7

102.6 101.7 95.3
109.2 111.8 99.4
99.4 83.6 78.3
103.9 102.9 97.8
102.4 99.7 92.2
100.0 92.8 80.3
95.0 88.3 80.1
92.1 87.4 83.5
97.1 90.5 84.2

84.8
87.5
62.6
84.0
80.6
64.7
65.3
70.7
66.2

99.9
103.0
98. 5
104.5
96.1
98.6
96.2
77.1
92.2

1925

99.9
102.7
97.7
104.3
86.8
99.4
99.0
99.4
94.4

1926

100.0
100.0
100.0
mo
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1930 1931 1932

Conclusion
F
manufactures as a whole in Ohio, during the 17 years, 1916-32,
the maximum employment was 857,366 in March 1920 and the mini­
mum was 430,189 in August 1932. This was a variation from maxi­
mum of 427,177, or 49.8 percent. The highest average number
employed during a year was 806,607 in 1929 and the lowest average
was 461,183 in 1932, which was a reduction of 345,424, or 42.8 per­
cent. The highest total wage and salary payment (omitting super­
intendents and managers) was $1,273,071,437 in 1920, and the lowest
was $476,075,121 in 1932, which was a decrease of $796,996,316, or
62.6 percent. The highest average wage and salary payment was
$1,602 in 1920, and the lowest was $783 in 1916. The second highest
average was in 1929. The second lowest average was in 1917 and
the third lowest in 1932.
Two major declines in manufactures occurred during the 17-year
period. The first began in the latter part of 1920 and the second
began for manufactures as a whole late in 1929, although marked
declines in numbers employed and in total wage and salary payments
in six subgroups began 2 or 3 years prior to 1929. The six were leather
and leather products, lumber and its products, liquors and beverages,
stone, clay, and glass products, textiles, and tobacco manufactures.
Table 36 shows for manufactures the decline in average number
employed and in total and average wage and salary payments from
1920 to 1921 and from 1929 to 1932. In both periods wage earners
show a greater decline in each of the three items than do either of the
or




53

MANUFACTURES— 1 0 1 6 TO 1 0 3 2

other two general occupation groups, except in average employees in
the later period.
The number employed (all three occupation groups) in manufac­
tures declined 270,311, or 34.0 percent, between 1920 and 1921, and
345,424, or 42.8 percent, between 1929 and 1932.
Total wage and salary payments to the three general occupation
groups in manufactures declined $595,207,988, or 46.8 percent, be­
tween 1920 and 1921, and $762,296,717, or 61.6 percent, between
1929 and 1932.
Average wage and salary payments in manufactures declined $309,
or 19.3 percent, between 1920 and 1921, and $503, or 32.8 percent,
between 1929 and 1932.
—AMOUNT AND PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN MANU­
FACTURES IN OHIO, FROM 1920 TO 1921, AND FROM 1929 TO 1932, BY GENERAL
OCCUPATION GROUPS

T able 3 6

Average num­
ber employed
Period and general occupation group

Total wage and
salary payments

Average wage
and salary pay­
ments

Per­
Per­
Per­
Number cent of Amount of cent of Amount cent of
of de­
decrease de­
de­ crease de­
decrease
crease
crease
crease

1920-21

34.0 $595,207,988
35.6 566,694,430
20.6 28,345,083
1.0
168,475

46.8
49.6
24.0
1.5

$309
346
69
10

19.3
21.7
4.3
.5

1929-32

42.8 762,296, 717
44.3 694,133,038
28. 7 56, 462, 466
47.4 11, 701, 213

61.6
64.5
39.8
57.9

503
543
279
434

32.8
36.2
15.6
20.0

All employees _ __ __________ _---------- - 270,311
Wage earners______________________________ 255,187
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks—_ 15,070
55
Salespeople (not traveling)----- -------------------All employees______ __________ __________ 345,424
Wage earners.__
__ __ ______ __ 318,318
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks... 22,697
Salespeople (not traveling) _ ___________ .. 4,409

Table 37 shows for each industry subgroup the decline in average
number employed and in total and average wage and salary payments
from 1920 to 1921 and from 1929 to 1932.
Considering average number employed, the greatest decline in each
period was in the manufacture of vehicles. The decline in that
industry was 52.6 percent from 1920 to 1921 and 63.6 percent from
1929 to 1932. Other industry groups with a decline of more than 40
percent in each of the two periods were iron and steel and their
products and rubber products. Leather and leather products show
a smaller decline (2.9 percent) from 1920 to 1921 than any other
subgroup, and food and kindred products show the lowest decline
from 1929 to 1932 and the second lowest decline in the first period.
Considering total wage and salary payments, the greatest decline
in each period was also in the manufacture of vehicles. Other
industry subgroups showing a decline of more than 40 percent in




54

AVEKAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

each period are iron and steel and their products, metal and metal
products other than iron and steel, rubber products, and miscellaneous
manufactures. Additional industries showing a decline of more than
40 percent from 1929 to 1932 are leather and leather products, lumber
and its products, stone, clay, and glass products, textiles, and tobacco
manufactures.
The average wage and salary payments declined more than 25 per­
cent in two industry subgroups—iron and steel and their products
and tobacco manufactures—from 1920 to 1921. The decline was
more than 25 percent in 9 of the 14 industry subgroups during the
period from 1929 to 1932, the greatest decline being in iron and steel
and their products, with vehicles second in order. The least decline
from 1929 to 1932 was in chemicals and allied products.
37.—AMOUNT AND PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN EACH
INDUSTRY SUBGROUP IN M ANUFACTURES FROM 1920 TO 1921 AND FROM 1929 TO 1932

T able

All employees Total wage and Average wage
(average num­ salary payments and salary
ber)
payments
Period and industry subgroup

Per­
Number cent Amount of
(de­
crease) of de­ decrease
crease

Per­
cent Amount
of
of de­ decrease
crease

Per­
cent
of de­
crease

1920-21

Chemicals and allied products--------- ------------- Food and kindred products_____ _____________
Iron and steel and their products_____________ ____
Leather and leather products------------- ------------Liquors and beverages----------------------- - - - - - - -Lumber and its products— __________ _
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel __
Paper and printing__ _________ __________________
Rubber products__________________ ________ --Stone, clay, and glass products------------------------------Textiles---------- ----------- -----------------------------------Tobacco manufactures___________________________
Vehicles------------- ------------- --------------------------------Miscellaneous manufactures. . ______ ___________
Total___ _ *______________ -. _______

6, 483
2,559
122,750
511
1,071
6,072
12,010
4,713
34,554
8, 245
7,228
2,363
40,326
22,425
270, 311

22.3 $10,863,462 30.1
7.1 5,406,153 11.3
41.9 311,003,309 57.1
2.9 1,154, 459 5.8
25.3 2,642, 572 36.0
21.1 9,006,048 24.2
31.4 22,309,347 41.0
11.4 10,233,937 17.5
48.4 69,819,458 55.5
19.7 21,047,150 34.0
16.3 7,787,920 16.3
14.8 5,706,032 37.3
52.6 78,904,499 60.8
37.2 39,323, 621 45.5
34.0 595,207,988 46.8

$146
60
487
34
249
52
200
98
242
263
i1
252
292
188
309

6,841
5,842
148.962
2,856
557
12, 607
13, 507
8,048
28, 510
21,249
12,391
2,644
49,921
31,900
345,424

24.6 14,062,217 35.2
13.9 18,715,432 32.0
54.7 344,231,688 72.9
17.4 8,579, 315 46.5
24.8 1,345,914 39.3
47.4 22,658,765 64.2
31.6 32,457,865 51.5
14.8 26,067,468 31.0
41.0 66,306,184 59.2
49.0 39,068,836 66.8
26.7 23,925,705 48.5
29.1 2,770,205 44.9
63.6 98,395,656 77.3
41.7 63,711,467 57.8
42.8 762,296, 717 61.6

213 14.0
293 21.1
696 40.1
398 35.5
292 19.1
424 31.9
429 29.1
295 19.1
495 30.7
470 34.9
316 29.8
151 22.3
614 37.9
398 27.6
2 503 2 32.8

9.9
4.5
26.2
3.0
14.4
4.0
14.1
7.0
13.7
17.7
i.l
26.3
17.2
13.1
19.3

1929-32

Chemicals and allied products— ................................
Food and kindred products----------------------------------Iron and steel and their products--------------------------Leather and leather products--------------------------------Liquors and beverages-------------------------------- --------Lumber and its products_________________________
Metals and metal products, other than iron and steel.
Paper and printing. . ------ . ---------------------------Rubber products________________________________
Stone, cla^, and glass products________ ____ _____
Textiles-----------------------------------------------------Tobacco manufactures___ ______________________
Vehicles________________________________________
Miscellaneous manufactures__________________ ...
Total_____________________________________

1 Increase.
2 Owing to a clerical error, the article on “Average wage and salary payments in Ohio, 1918 to 1932’%
in the Monthly Labor Review for January 1934, shows the decrease $461, or 30 percent.




M ANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

55

M a n u fa ctu re o f Iron an d Steel an d T h eir P rod u cts

M
of iron and steel and their products in Ohio recorded
the highest total wage and salary payments to wage earners during
the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, in 1920 and the second highest in 1929,
The amount reported for 1920 was $502,546,495 and for 1929, $420,269,624. The lowest total was $102,971,570 in 1932.
The greatest average number of wage earners during the 17 years
was 268,187 in 1920 and the lowest average was 107,348 in 1932. The
maximum number of wage earners employed was 284,009 in March
1920, and the minimum number was 94,902 in August 1932.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners reached the
highest point in 1920 and the second highest in 1929. The lowest
average was shown for 1916 and the second lowest for 1932. From
1920 to 1921 average wage and salary payments to wage earners
decreased from $1,874 to $1,327, and from 1929 to 1932 the average
decreased from $1,705 to $959.
The industries classified by the division of labor statistics under
manufacture of iron and steel and their products employ approxi­
mately one-third of the total persons employed in manufactures in
Ohio. During the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, the percent varied from 38
in 1917 to 26.8 in 1932. The percent had not fallen below 32.5 prior
to 1931.
The total wage and salary payments in the manufacture of iron
and steel and their products shows an even higher percent of the total
of such payments in manufactures. During the period from 1916
to 1932 the percent varied from 44.5 in 1918 to 26.9 in 1932. The
percent stood above 40 in 7 of the 17 years and did not fall below
36.5 except in 1921, 1931, and 1932.
With the percent for total wage and salary payments higher than
the percent for number of employees, it means, of course, that average
wage and salary payments in the manufacture of iron and steel and
their products were higher than the average for manufactures as a
whole.
Table 38 shows the percent the average number employed and the
total wage and salary payments reported in the manufacture of iron
and steel and their products form of those in manufactures. The
three general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)—are included.
The data are for both sexes combined as employers are not requested
to show separately total wage and salary payments to males and
females.
an ufacture




56
T

a ble

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
3 8 — PERCENT EM PLOYM ENT AND PAY ROLL IN THE IRON AND STEEL
INDUSTRY FORM OF THOSE IN M ANUFACTURES, IN OHIO, 1916 TO 1932

Year

1916
______
1917
________
1918 _________________
1919__________________
1920___________________
1921
______
1922
.
______
1923 - _____
1924___________________

Percent
employees
in iron and
steel in­
dustry form
of all em­
ployees in
manufac­
tures
(average)

Percent
pay roll in
iron and
steel forms
of that in
manufac­
tures

36.8
38.0
37.6
35.3
36.9
32.5
34.2
36.0
35.1

42.4
44.2
44.5
41.4
42.8
34.5
40.5
41.3
39.2

Year

1925___________ _______
1926__________________
1927_______ __________
1928__________________
1929__________________
1930 _________ ____ _
1931__________________
1932__________________

Percent
employees
in iron and
steel in­
dustry form
of all em­
ployees in
manufac­
tures
(average)

Percent
pay roll in
iron and
steel forms
of that in
manufac­
tures

34.3
34.9
33.8
33.4
33.8
32.5
28.7
26.8

38.9
39. 2
37.1
37.1
38.2
36.5
30.0
26.9

Total wage and salary payments to general occupation groups in
the manufacture of iron and steel and their products are shown in
table 39. Payments to superintendents and managers are also shown
but data for that group are not included in any other tables or com­
putations in this study. In supplying data, employers were requested
to report for the year total wage and salary payments in dollars,
including bonuses and premiums and value of board and lodging
furnished. Employers were instructed not to include salaries of
officials.
Total wage and salary payments to the three general occupation
groups combined (omitting superintendents and managers) increased
each year from 1916 to 1920, when the highest total of $544,726,590
was reached, then alternately decreased and increased from 1921 to
1929, and decreased each year thereafter, reaching the lowest total
of $128,275,747 in 1932. The decrease from maximum to minimum
was $416,450,843, or 76.5 percent.
From 1920 to 1921, total wage and salary payments to wage earn­
ers declined 60.1 percent and to bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks 23.8 percent. Payments to salespeople (not traveling)
increased. The decline for the three groups combined was 57.1
percent.
From 1929 to 1932, total wage and salary payments to wage earn­
ers declined 75.5 percent; to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks, 51.2 percent; and to salespeople (not traveling), 60.0 percent.
The decline for the three groups combined was 72.9 percent.




57

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
T

39.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF
IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS

a ble

Year

1916..
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920..
1921..
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932

_
.
.
.
.
.

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Total wage and salary payments to—
Wage
earners

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeo­
raphers, ple (not
and office traveling)
clerks

1,493 $208, 727,435 $15,695,199
1,581 282,854,136 20,743,181
1,635 368,668,646 26,516,900
1,687 371,891,426 32,238,757
1, 797 502, 546,495 40,655,200
1,667 200,732,645 30,988,188
1, 523 269,758,761 162,399,986
1,647 394,175,213 38,472,874
1,673 346,224,983 39,465, 209
1,717 379,481,681 42,173,960
1,750 389,986,133 43,619,979
1,700 361,055,437 44,315,282
_______ 1, 751 381,073,764 42,053,082
__________1,775 420,269,624 50,131,320
__________ __________
..................... ..................... .....................
1, 754 298, 611, 604 50,301,885
_______ 1,697 175,577,104 30,540,053
_______ 1,606 102,971, 570 24,462,368

$2,051,022
782,185
983,200
1,362,369
1,524,895
2,002,448
1,155,545
1,645,622
1,677,028
2,110,855
1,869,523
1,514,329
1,758,116
2,106,491
1,324,488
618,657
841,809

Total
$226,473,656
304,379,502
396,168,746
405,492,552
544,726,590
233,723,281
333,314,292
434,293,709
387,367, 220
423,766, 496
435,475,635
406,885,048
424,884,962
472,507,435
350,237,977
206,735,814
128,275,747

Superin­
tendents
and man­ Grand total
agers
$6,892,316
8,825,159
11,259,841
14,253,989
17,241, 774
14,638,293
13,809,018
15,632,423
15,416,692
17,656,783
18,479,095
17,533,714
18,137,375
19,344, 111
18,319,553
13,890,090
10,271,831

$233,365,972
313,204,661
407,428,587
419,746,541
561,968,364
248,361, 574
347,123,310
449,926,132
402,783,912
441,423,279
453,954,730
424,418,762
443,022,337
491,851,546
368,557,530
220,625,904
138,547,578

1 Apparently a clerical error was made in reporting or in tabulating, but unable to make definite correction
as original schedules have been destroyed.

The average number of persons reported employed in each of the
three general occupation groups and in the three groups combined
in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products is shown in
table 40.
The general course of the average number of employees was the
same as the general course of total wage and salary payments just
discussed, except that in 1919 the average number of employees
decreased and total wage and salary payments increased.
The highest average number of employees was 293,054 in 1920
and the lowest 123,537 in 1932, the difference being 169,517, or 57.8
percent.
From 1920 to 1921, the average number of wage earners reported
employed decreased 43.6 percent and the average number of book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks decreased 23.6 percent.
From 1929 to 1932, the average number of wage earners reported
employed decreased 56.5 percent and the average number of book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks decreased 37.4 percent.
The number of salespeople (not traveling) in this industry sub­
group is small, but a decrease was reported in each of the two periods.
The decrease in the average for the three occupation groups com­
bined was 41.9 percent from 1920 to 1921 and 54.7 percent from 1929
to 1932.




58
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

4 0 —AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS EM PLOYED IN M ANUFACTURE OF IRON
AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS

able

Average number of persons (both sexes) employed as—
Number of
establish­
Bookkeepers,
ments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople All em­
phers, and (not trav­ ployees
eling)
office clerks

Year

1916_______________________________
1917_______________________________
1918_______________________________
1919_______________________________
1920_______________________________
1921_______________________________
1922_______________________________
1923_______________________________
1924_______________________________
1925_______________________________
1926_______________________________
1927_______________________________
1928_______________________________
1929_______________________________
1930_______________________________
1931_______________________________
1932_______________________________

1,490
1,583
1,635
1,687
1,797
1,667
1,613
1,647
1,673
1, 717
1,750
1,700
1,751
1,775
1,754
1,697
1,606

237,345
263,505
267,688
242,506
268,187
151,257
188,847
238,036
215,136
226, 552
237, 795
222,736
226,022
246, 554
193,792
139, 394
107, 348

15,804
18,667
20,635
22,361
24, 355
18, 610
19, 312
22,543
22,976
22,904
23, 663
23,051
23, 603
25,316
24,735
18,843
15,854

355
322
414
558
512
436
440
481
450
514
571
498
523
630
442
240
336

253,504
282,493
288,737
265,424
293,054
170, 304
208, 599
261,059
238, 562
249, 970
262,028
246,285
250,148
272,499
218,968
158, 476
123, 537

The computed average wage and salary payment to wage earners
in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products is shown for
each year, 1916 to 1932, in table 41. The highest average is shown for
1920 and the second highest for 1929. The lowest average was in
1916 and the second lowest in 1932.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners increased
each year from 1916 to 1920, decreased and increased alternately
thereafter until 1930; beginning with that year decreases have been
shown.
From 1920 to 1921, the decrease in average wage and salary pay­
ments to wage earners was $547, or 29.2 percent, and from 1929 to
1932 it was $746 or 43.8 percent.
T

a ble

4 1 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932
Year

Average wage
and salary
payment to
wage earners

1916
1917
1918.
1919
1920
1921.......... .........

$879
1,073
1,377
1,534
1,874
1,327

Year
1922_____________
1923 - ______
1924_____________
1925
_____
1926....................—.
1927_________ ___

Average wage
and salary
payment to
wage earners
$1,428
1,656
1,609
1, 675
1,640
1,621

Year
1928_____________
1929_____________
1930_____________
1931_____________
1932_____________

Average wage
and salary
payment to
wage earners
$1,686
1,705
1,541
1,260
959

Chart 14 shows in graphic form average wage and salary payments to
wage earners in manufacture of iron and steel and their products.
1916 to 1932.




59

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Table 42 shows fluctuation in employment of wage earners in the
manufacture of iron and steel and their products. The fluctuation

f ig u r e 14.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d sa l a r y p a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f Ir o n a n d S t e el a n d T h eir P r o d u c t s , 1916 t o 1932

from maximum within the year varied from 4.9 percent in 1918, the
year of least fluctuation, to 39.1 percent in 1922, the year of greatest
fluctuation. The variation exceeded 20 percent in 8 of the 17 years.
Maximum employment reported for wage earners during the 17
years was 284,009 in March 1920, and the minimum reported was
94,902 in August 1932. The variation from maximum within the
period covered by this study was 189,107, or 66.6 percent.
T

42.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932

able

Month

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

January---------------------------February-----------------------March___ ________________
April---------- --------- -----------M ay____ - _______________
June____ _______________
July______________________
August.
____________
September________________
October------------- ------ -------November________________
Decem ber,.-...........................
Maximum________________
Minimum________________
Variation from maximum:
Number.-. ........... . _-Percent_____________ .
Number of establishments.--

210,268
222,857
230,041
229, 770
232, 392
240,106
235, 434
243, 849
246,122
246, 564
253, 718
257,017
257,017
210, 268
46, 749
18.2
1,490

256,851
257, 355
264,432
257,134
262, 900
263, 787
261, 709
264, 653
265, 398
270,901
271,583
265,351
271,583
256,851
14,732
5.4
1,583

260,471
261, 511
267,384
262, 262
268,388
267,329
273,151
273,891
267,632
273,485
270, 790
265,965
273,891
260,471
13,420
4.9
1,635

262,719
247,464
239,715
232, 595
232,842
234,843
246, 578
253, 443
254,069
209.605
236, 211
259,982
262, 719
209,605
53,114
20.2
1,687

278, 796
273,372
284,009
274, 824
260,073
275, 016
277, 535
273, 682
279,608
269,161
250,121
222, 049
284, 009
222,049
61,960
21.8
1,797

184,993
172, 593
162,411
154, 695
152,142
145,447
128, 310
135, 411
137,489
142,958
150,845
147,795
184,993
128,310
56,683
30.6
1,667

140446°—35------5




1922

1923

140,990 221,850
150, 299 227,806
164,159 240,903
171,698 239, 038
182, 914 245, 405
195, 278 249, 272
197,511 243, 668
201, 783 246, 646
201,412 240,146
211,385 238, 252
217,385 234, 425
231, 346 229, 022
231,346 249, 272
140,990 , 221,850
90,356 27,422
39.1 11.0
1,613 1,647

1924
238, 390
243, 497
244,067
236,303
219,356
193,284
192,901
196, 660
199,627
203,280
200,524
213,744
244,067
192,901
51,166
21.0
1,673

60
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

4 2 —FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932—Con.

a ble

Month

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

January_______ ___________
February__________________
March. _ ________________
April_____ ______ _____
May. ____ ________ ____
June.. . ... ... _______
July______________________
August____________________
September.. ___________
October__________ ______
November .. ... ._ ______
December __ _____________
Maximum_________________
Minimum_______ ________
Variation from maximum:
Number___ _________ ..
Percent_______________
Number of establishments...

224,937
224,472
225,610
223,988
224, 219
221,612
223,489
221,585
227,134
232,950
232, 264
236, 369
236,369
221, 585
14,784
6.3
1,717

235,263
236,823
238,957
240,450
236, 638
237,375
237,816
238, 378
243, 331
243,903
234,659
229,942
243,903
229,942
13,961
5.7
1, 750

224,127
232,185
236, 391
232, 453
229,310
230,842
222,382
219, 443
217, 489
212, 620
207,057
208, 537
236,391
207,057
29, 334
12.4
1,700

209,093
218,113
222,840
221,136
224, 520
222,829
223,925
230,114
232,936
236, 663
236,485
233,611
236, 663
209,093
27, 570
11.6
1,751

241,525
246,650
252,604
255,098
259,386
256,027
256, 678
255, 208
249, 668
247, 200
223,870
214, 731
259,386
214, 731
44,655
17.2
1,775

215,180
215, 272
211,169
215, 536
212,315
199, 629
190,147
183, 361
180, 837
175, 667
165, 209
161,181
215, 536
161, .181
54,355
25.2
1, 754

151, 254
153,082
154,317
154,655
151,481
144, 712
139,398
130, 730
126, 378
125, 539
122,150
119,026
154,655
119,026
35,629
23.0
1,697

121,338
121,382
118, 237
112,444
107,410
107,130
104,007
94,902
98,406
102,186
100, 389
100,347
121,382
94,902
26,480
21.8
1,606

Industries Manufacturing Iron and Steel and Their Products
T
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classifies 26 industries under
manufacture of iron and steel and their products. In addition a
group designated as “iron and steel and their products, not otherwise
classified” is carried. For the purposes of this study 8 of the smaller
industries, 2 of which are represented by so few establishments that
the division found it necessary in some years to tabulate them under
“not otherwise classified” to avoid identification of individual estab­
lishments, and iron and steel, not otherwise classified, are combined
under “iron and steel and their products, other.” The industries
combined under “other ” are burial vaults, steel; files; nails and spikes,
cut, wrought, and wire; pipe, wrought; savrs; scales and balances;
screws, machine and wood; sewing machines, cases, and attach­
ments; springs, coil; springs, steel, car and carriage; and iron and steel
and their products, not otherwise classified.
Table 43 shows for each of 16 industries and for the group “ iron and
steel and their products, other,” the number of establishments report­
ing, average number of wage earners, and total wage and salary pay­
ments to wage earners each year, 1916 to 1932, excepting 1922, for
which the division of labor statistics did not tabulate total wage and
salary payments by individual industries. For two industries data
were not separately tabulated by the division of labor statistics for
1916 to 1918.
The highest average number of wage earners during the 17 years
was reported in 1917 for steel doors and shutters, foundry and ma­
chine-shop products, and wire work; in 1918 for bolts, nuts, washers,
and rivets, and cutlery and tools; in 1919 for blast furnace products
and forgings; in 192Q for safes and vaults and stoves and furnaces;
he




61

MANUFACTURES— 1016 TO 1032

in 1923 for boilers and tanks, and pumps and windmills; in 1924 for
wire; in 1926 for steel works and rolling mills; and in 1929 for calculat­
ing machines, gas engines and tractors, and tin plate and terne plate.
The lowest average number of wage earners was reported in 1916 for
manufactures of calculating machines; in 1917 for pumps and wind­
mills; in 1919 for boilers and tanks; in 1921 for gas engines and trac­
tors, tin plate and terne plate, and wire work; in 1922 for steel doors
and shutters; in 1931 for blast furnace products; and in 1932 for the
8 other industries.
The highest total wage and salary payments to wage earners (with
data for 1922 not available) was reported in 1917 for manufactures
of wire work; in 1918 for cutlery and tools; in 1919 for blast furnace
products; in 1920 for boilers and tanks, forgings, foundry and machineshop products, safes and vaults, steel works and rolling mills, stoves
and furnaces, and wire; in 1923 for bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets,
and pumps and windmills; and in 1929 for calculating machines,
steel doors and shutters, gas engines and tractors, and tin plate and
terne plate.
The lowest total wage and salary payments to wage earners was
reported in 1916 for calculating machines and wire work; in 1917 for
pumps and windmills; and in 1932 for the 13 other industries.
T

4 3 —AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EMPLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS, IN
M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIES

a ble

Blast furnace products
Year

Estab­
lish­
ments

1916___________
1917 ............. .
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
1921___________
1922_______
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

Boilers and tanks

Bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets

Wage
Wage
Wage
earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
lish­
(aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary
payments
payments
age)
age)
age) payments

32 7,626 $7,814, 558
33 10,661 14, 575, 881
33 212,097 22, 799, 675
33 15, 237 30, 807,195
32 8, 336 19, 704, 265
34 3 3,815 6, 300, 350
31 4, 547
(4)
33 12, 498 24, 399, 077
27 6, 290 11,809, 300
26 5,922 11,259, 391
23 6, 225 11, 465, 568
19 8,460 15, 679,408
21 5,708 11, 201, 810
16 5,612 10,125, 412
13 4,927 9,556,144
10 2, 627 4,821, 541
11 2, 747 3, 563, 492

0)
0)
(0
(0
0)23 0)989
34 2, 573
36 31,149
39 1,570
44 2,887
45 2, 345
47 2, 722
45 2, 457
48 2,586
49 2,466
53 2,768
55 2,518
55 1,844
53 1,333

0)
0)
0)
$1,426,120
4, 675, 718
1, 500, 298
0)
4, 453, 567
3, 564, 495
4,041, 486
3, 886, 261
4,029,046
4,059, 976
4,537, 724
3, 813, 862
2,450, 516
1,423, 249

1 Not shown separately by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
2 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 214.
3 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 331.
4Not tabulated by individual industries by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.




23 5,167
23 5,489
26 2 5, 948
30 5, 389
30 5, 533
30 3 3, 324
26 4, 503
27 5, 518
28 4, 602
29 5,303
27 5,070
24 4, 506
24 4,851
21 5,253
20 3,953
19 3,097
19 2,410

$3,917,427
5,014, 516
5, 774, 406
6,615, 074
7,166, 469
3,264, 053
7, (4) 037
252,
5,999, 517
7,244, 258
6,829, 174
5,936, 098
6, 755, 922
7,016, 049
4,585, 717
2,933, 475
1, 683, 201

62

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 4 3 —AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS, IN
M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIE S—Continued
Calculating machines

Doors and shutters, iron
and steel
Wage
Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
and salary
ments (aver­ payments
age)
*8
397
$441,682
10
791
698,995
8
2 587
584, 828
7
439
500,034
7
521
778, 762
7 3 347
460,108
6
332
(4)
7
562
749, 704
621
9
893, 749
8
680
999, 212
8
605
902, 867
9
694 1,122, 964
10
712 1,189, 370
10
737 1,224,125
8
690
981, 223
7
539
707, 227
5
492
391, 310

Wage
Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
and salary lish­ (aver­ and salary
payments ments age) payments
14
$4,450,484
50 3,991 $4,751,891
191652 4,668 3,857,578
12
6,612,350
1917124 «11,990 713,442,258
7
6,025,831
191810
11,196,276
87 6,362 8,148,186
191913
86 4,997 7,483,908
1920.
15,704,018
76 3 2,485 2, 568, 817
9
1921.
8,811,889
71 3,079
1922_
18
(4)
(4)
21
12,167,843
70 3,831 4, 803,947
192322
12, 244, 700
71 3,472 4,403, 943
1924,
24
11,654,069
68 3, 695 4, 930, 763
192569 3,893 5,139, 688
27
12, 351,034
192669 3,333 4, 285,162
29
12,860,892
192766 3, 280 4, 628, 454
14,145, 437
192827
67 2,898 4,204, 685
15,927,499
192930
61 2, 541 3,004, 812
11,893,722
193027
22 1,163 1,074, 501
32
1931_
8,493,224
16 1,035
679, 295
1932.
28
6,150, 363
Foundry and machine-shop Gas engines and tractors
Forgings
products
19165 35 5,602 $4, 665, 654 «1,048 115,937 $93,062,131 <0
0)
0)
37 5,846 5,492,904 81, 151 123,069 119,029,907 0)
19170)
0)
1918.
36 2 6,812 8,667,771 1,112 2116,782 138,472, 788 0)
0)
(0
25 2,009 $2,775,412
34 8,236 9,872, 500 1,151 108, 073 145, 258, 653
191931 3,203 5,495,971
192037 7,241 11,847,593 1,222 117, 264 195,910,962
25 3 1, 220 1, 748,644
34 3 3,001 3, 362, 607 1,127 3 62, 334 78, 216,897
1921.
25 1,677
1922_
1,079 69, 582
33 3,745
(4)
(4)
(4)
20 1,662 2,477, 579
34 4, 755 5, 603,388 1,086 92,977 152,490, 628
192321 2, 365 3, 668, 582
1924_
35 4,827 6, 511,908 1,104 79,167 116,139, 746
21 2,047 3,322, 417
1925_
37 5,135 7,496,977 1,143 82,927 124, 964, 528
19 2,235 3, 537, 720
1926_
39 4, 570 6,641, 784 1,176 90,467 138,177, 292
18 2,232 3,440, 582
38 3, 632 5,069, 733 1,126 85,374 129, 529,326
192718 2, 581 4,274, 970
1928.
35 4, 389 7,045, 301 1,181 86, 386 134, 805,119
18 3, 349 5, 520,190
36 3,878 6,534,183 1,208 96,964 154, 920, 597
1929_
14 2,448 3,882, 349
34 2,543 3,561, 808 1,220 76,423 106, 922, 227
1930_
15 1, 743 2,671,109
1931_
34 1,909 1,896, 390 1,209 54, 785 63, 577, 747
1932_
32 1,271 1,041, 566 1,144 39, 305 35, 212, 399
17 1,336 1, 394, 948
Pumps and windmills
Steel works and rolling mills
Safes and vaults
Year
1916_.
16 1,121 $755,199
51 59, 315 $61, 941, 809
11 1,829 $1,344,175
16
999
12 1,909 1,553, 266
1917
748, 679
48 71,416 93,992,805
23 2 2,816 3,077,040
54 2 74, 358 127, 783, 724
1918_
16 2 2,096 2,160, 588
1919.
25 2,482 3,048,040
15 2, 565 3,051, 815
54 55, 039 108, 556, 468
1920..
30 2,218 3,218,860
17 2,963 4,349, 931
63 71, 701 168, 237,913
1921..
28 31, 866 2, 268, 492
19 3 2, 585 3,336,907
59 3 43, 560 63, 554, 745
1922..
11 2,022
28 2,080
59 62, 356
(4)
(4)
(4)
1923..
28 3,476 4,777,342
11 2, 555 4, 282, 001
62 70, 849 129,214,482
1924..
29 2,812 3,762,407
11 2,406 4,032,144
64 72,145 131, 203,957
192511 2,399 3,956, 580
29 2,841 3,883,868
68 79,822 155,956,727
1926..
29 2,874 4, 032, 422
9 2,169 3,686, 352
68 84,610 154, 225, 748
27 2, 574 « 2,834,854
1927.
10 2,038 3,464,765
66 75, 460 136, 630, 642
1027
2,277 3,568,272
9 2,033 8 1,938, 458
1928..
60 77,748 149,174, 386
1929..
31 2,483 3,612,665
9 1,786 2,861,131
69 81,165 156, 489,837
32 2,425 3,431, 782
9 1, 550 2,081, 740
1930..
60 63, 615 112,105,497
1931..
30 2,119 2, 550, 267
10 1,135 1,321,865
52 43,114 60,199,457
1932..
30 1,868 1,678, 601
532
7
460,893
54 34,102 34, 389, 558
1 Not shown separately by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
2 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 214.
3 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 331.
4 Not tabulated by individual industries by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
« Figure seems high, but cannot be verified, as original reports have been destroyed. Total reported by
industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 214.
7 Figure seems high, but cannot be verified, as original reports have been destroyed.
8 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
less by 2.
* Figure seems low, but cannot be verified, as original reports have been destroyed.
10 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
Year

Estab­
lish­
ments




Wage
earners
(aver­
age)
5,345
6,973
2 5,503
8,105
9,418
3 6,040
6,943
8,287
7,549
7,453
7,945
8,170
8, 877
10,152
7,769
7,093
6,383

Cutlery and tools

63

MANUFACTURES— 1016 TO 1332
T

43.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS, IN
MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued

a ble

Stoves and furnaces
Year

Estab­
lish­
ments

1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923._____ _____
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932......................

Wire

Wage
Wage
Wage
earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
lish­
(aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary
payments
payments
age)
age)
age) payments

85 9, 558 $7,451,362
89 10,552 9,567,900
90 210,440 11,605,675
87 9,833 12,722,913
87 11, 366 17,807,153
84 3 8,005 9,368, 570
87 9,649
(4)
93 9,870 13,167,530
87 9,497 13,753,303
84 9,233 13, 252,697
91 8,330 11,945,310
90 8,820 12,766,449
95 9,773 14,513,167
86 10,340 15,124,721
86 8,394 10,838,531
74 6,307 6,899,938
71 5,261 4,612,109
Wirework, wire rope and
cable

1916___________
1917____ ____ ___
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923____ ____
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932. - ............... .

Tin plate and terne plate

733 $678,206
36
42 7 3,038 7 3,336,471
2 696
678,442
38
622
36
679,835
672
875,495
37
3 532
744,658
30
24
555
0)
652
29
876,498
31
648 8 889, 380
34
676
977,109
662 1,036,881
33
34
783 1,221,207
32
714 1,107,557
33
710 1.153, 672
31
605
948, 703
32 7 1,608 7 1,874,094
32
882 1,181,483

6 4,290 $4,852,966
7 5,225 7,999, 553
8 2 4,773 9, 731,067
10 4,080 8,130, 531
9 5,267 11, 702, 227
8 3 1,909 3,571,650
8 4,213
(4)
7
4,923 8,000, 709
9 3,882 7,868,050
8 4, 749 8,895, 320
8 4,896 9,285,034
8 4,287 7,689,602
4 3,770 7,079, 873
5 7,644 14,337,463
4 3,375 6,103, 507
5 2,905 4,361,801
5 2,674 3,271,173

10 6,324 $4,296,960
7 4,233 4,468,851
11 2 6,411 10,190,578
10 5,190 9,438,972
11 6,851 14,993,918
9 3 4,148 5, 231, 243
9 4,265
(4)
10 5,656 9,116, 673
11 7,078 11, 648, 463
10 5,077 8,268, 551
9 3,887 6,355, 536
10 4,781 7,620,993
9 4, 507 7,486, 569
6 4, 290 7,271, 242
9 5,445 8,683, 697
8 3, 532 5,469, 919
8 2,810 3, 209, 200

Iron and steel and their
products, other
65 10,113 $8,302,931
44 8,637 5,904,480
49 2 6,593 7,673,975
50 7,857 9,663, 402
51 8,064 12, 593, 332
52 3 5,269 6,422, 537
(*)
59 7,730
65 7,079 10,342,208
69 5,431 7,831,339
70 5,869 8,377, 728
70 6,901 10,487, 462
75 5,007 6,873, 714
8 84 5,950 8,099, 203
77 6,526 9,408, 429
71 4, 575 6,216, 283
83 3,873 4, 274,033
74 2,908 2,628, 730

2 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 214.
3 Total reported by industries exceeds total for iron and steel by 331.
* Not tabulated by individual industries by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
2 Figure seems high, but cannot be verified, as original reports have been destroyed.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 2.

Average wage and salary payments to wage earners in each of the
16 industries and in the group “iron and steel and their products,
other ” are shown in table 44. As explained heretofore, average wage
and salary payments were computed by dividing total wage and
salary payments by the average number of employees reported. The
averages should not be taken as exact measures but as approximate
figures. Wage earners include skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled
workers. Both sexes are included but only 3.1 percent of the wage
earners in manufactures of iron and steel and their products were
females in 1920 and in 1929. Data concerning total wage and salary




64

AVEBAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

payments for 1922 were not tabulated by the division of labor sta­
tistics for individual industries, and information for 1916 to 1918
was not separately tabulated for boilers and tanks and gas engines
and tractors.
The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners
was in 1920 for manufacture of blast furnace products, boilers and
tanks, calculating machines, cutlery and tools, foundry and machineshop products, gas engines and tractors, steel works and rolling mills,
stoves and furnaces, tin plate and terne plate, and wire; in 1926 and
1927 for safes and vaults; in 1928 for bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets,
steel doors and shutters, and pumps and windmills; and in 1929 for
forgings and wirework.
The lowest average wage and salary payment to wage earners was
in 1916 for 9 of the 16 industries, and in 1932 for 7 industries.
Table 44.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENT TOWAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­

FACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Bolts,
Foundry Gas en­
Blast Boilers nuts, Calcu­ Cutlery Doors
and
and
furnace and washers, lating and shutters, Forgings machine- gines,
Year
ma­
and
products tanks
and chines tools
shop tractors
steel
rivets
products
$833 $1,191 $1,113
$833
$1,025
$758
$803
1916
1917
____ 1, 367
914
948
884
940
967
971 1,095 0 )
1,121
996 1,272 1,186
_______ 1,885
1918
1919____________ 2,022 $1,442 1.228 1,381 1,281 1,139 1,199 1,344 $1,381
1,716
1920____________ 2.364 1,817 1,295 1,667 1,498 1,495 1,636 1,671
982 1,459 1,034 1,326 1,120 1,255
1.433
1921____________ 1,651 1,306
1922____________
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1,491
1923____________ 1,952 1, 543 1,314 1,468 1,254 1,334 1,178 1,640
1,551
1924_ __________ 1,877 1, 520 1,304 1,622 1,268 1,439 1,349 1,467
1,623
1925____________ 1,901 1,485 1,366 1,564 1,334 1,469 1,460 1,507
1,582
1926____________ 1,842 1,582 1,347 1, 555 1,320 1,492 1,453 1, 527
1,541
1927____________ 1,853 1, 558 1,317 1,574 1, 286 1.618 1,396 1,517
1,656
1928____________ 1,962 1,646 1,393 1, 593 1,411 1,670 1,605 1,560
1,648
1929____________ 1,804 1, 639 1,336 1,569 1, 451 1,661 1, 685 1,598
1,586
1930____________ 1,940 1,514 1,160 1,531 1,183 1,422 1,401 1,399
924 1 312
947 1,197
993 1,160
1,532
1931____________ 1,835 1,329
964
656
795
819
1,044
698
896
1932____________ 1, 297 1,068
Wire Iron and
Steel
Pumps Safes and works Stoves Tin plate
work, steel and
Year
and fur­ and terne Wire including their
and
and roll­
windmills vaults ing mills naces
plate
wire rope products,
and cable other
$674
$735 $1,044
$780 $1,131
$925
$821
$679
1916______________
814
907
749
1,316
1,531
684
1,056
1,098
1917______________
1,112
1,093
1,031
1,590
1,718
2,039
1,164
1918______________
975
1,972
1,294
1,993
1,228
1,190
1,819
1,230
1,093
1919______________
1,451
1,567
2,222
1920______________
1,468
2,346
2,189
1,303
1,562
1,216
1,170
1,871
1,261
1,291
1,459
1921..........................
1,219
1,400
1922______________ (2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1,374
1,824
1923______________
1,334
1,625
1,612
1,676
1,344
1,461
1924______________
1,646
1,338
1,676
1,819
1,448
2,027
1,373
1,442
1,367
1,954
1925______________
1,435
1,649
1,873
1,629
1,445
1,427
1,434
1,403
1,700
1926____, _________
1,823
1,896
1,635
1,566
1,520
1927______________
1,700
1,447
1,794
1,594
1,811
1,560
1,373
0)
1928______________ 1,567
1,919
1,485
1,878
1,661
1,551
1,361
0)
1,455
1,602
1929______________
1,463
1,928
1,876
1,695
1,442
1,625
1930.................. ........
1,415
1,762
1,343
1,291
1,595
1,808
1,568
1,359
1,204
1931______________
1,165
1,094
1,501
1,396
1,549
1,165
1,104
1932________ _____
899
866
1,008
877
1,223
1,142
1,340
904
i Omitted, as figure seems extremely low in comparison with other years; cannot be verified, however
as original reports have been destroyed.
3 Not tabulated for individual industries by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.




65

MANUFACTURES1 1916 TO 1932
—

Tables 45 and 46 show fluctuation in employment of wage earners in
foundries and machine-shop products and in steel works and rolling
mills. In the manufactures of iron and steel and their products these
two industries rank first and second in number of wage earners em­
ployed. Manufactures of foundry and machine-shop products in­
cluded 39.3 percent of the total in 1929 and 36.6 percent in 1932.
Steel works and rolling mills included 32.9 percent of the total in 1929
and 31.8 percent in 1932.
In manufactures of foundry and machine-shop products the varia­
tion from maximum was 4 percent in 1917, which was the year of least
variation, and 45.9 percent in 1922, which was the year of greatest
variation. The variation from maximum exceeded 20 percent in 6 of
the 17 years covered. Maximum employment during the 17-year
period was 125,719 in March 1920, and minimum employment was
35,666 in August 1932. The variation from maximum for the period
was 90,053, or 71.6 percent.
In steel works and rolling mills the variation from maximum in
1918, the year of least change, was 6.6 percent and in 1919, the year of
greatest change, it was 58.9 percent. The variation from maximum
exceeded 20 percent in 10 of the 17 years covered. Maximum em­
ployment during the 17-year period was 89,188 in October 1926, and
minimum employment was 26,467 in October 1919. The variation
from maximum for the period was 62,721, or 70.3 percent. The
second lowest month of employment was August 1932, with 29,782
reported.
T

45.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF FOUNDRY AND MACHINE-SHOP PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932

able

Month

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

January......................................
February__________________
March____________________
April_____ ___________ ____
M ay______________________
June______________________
July________________ ______
August____________________
September________________
October___________________
November_________________
December_________________
Maximum_________________
Minimum_______ _______
Variation from maximum:
Number_______________
Percent________________
Number of establishments__

104,978
110, 364
114, 598
113,483
112,490
116, 806
115,565
118, 716
118,658
119,187
121,914
124,489
124,489
104,978
19, 511
15.7
1,048

120,247
121, 270
122, 282
120,863
122, 588
123,816
123, 304
123, 332
123, 582
125,135
125, 266
125,140
125,266
120,247
5,019
4.0
1,151

113,495
115,842
116,074
113, 346
114,180
115, 683
118, 655
119,644
116,873
120, 370
120,351
116,876
120,370
113,346
7,024
5.8
1,112

113,666
105,889
103,930
100,971
100,077
101,306
105, 340
108, 239
108,096
113, 559
116,367
119,430
119,430
100,077
19,353
16.2
1,151

123,645
121,891
125, 719
124,351
118, 649
121,126
121, 721
121,361
119, 653
111, 155
103, 954
93,942
125,719
93,942
31,777
25.3
1,222

81, 764
76, 383
71,511
66,350
64,523
59,881
55, 298
54, 058
52,974
53,177
55,830
56, 253
81, 764
52,974
28,790
35.2
1,127

50,929
53,085
55, 686
59,073
64,701
69,484
73,176
75,911
76,494
81,330
80,902
94, 213
94, 213
50,929
43,284
45.9
1,079

86,232
90,167
93, 710
95,812
97,927
99, 779
99, Oil
97, 701
93, 527
89,244
86,893
85, 726
99,779
85, 726
14,053
14.1
1,086




66
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

4 5 .—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF FOUNDRY AND MACHINE-SHOP PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932-Con.

able

Month

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

January________ __________
February..................................
March.......................................
April..........................................
May_____________________
June_________________ ____
July______________________
August. ------------------------September_____ __________
October__________________
November________ ____ ___
December_____________ ___
Maximum______ ____ _____
Minimum________________
Variation from maximum:
Number...........................
Percent........... ...................
Number of establishments...

84,009
87,216
89,068
85,941
83,029
78, 776
75,202
73,101
73,140
72,595
72,669
75, 257
89,068
72,595
16,473
18.5
1,104

79,267
80, 794
81,569
82,034
82,204
81,866
82, 594
82,092
83,425
85, 553
85, 776
87,945
87,945
79,267
8,678
9.9
1,143

88, 535
90,404
91,917
92,288
91,077
91,225
91,478
90,763
91,267
90,557
88,078
88,020
92,288
88,020
4,268
4.6
1,176

86,408
88,932
90,392
89,758
88,226
88,115
86,086
84,099
82, 722
81,092
79,275
79,377
90,392
79,275
11,117
12.3
1,126

77,832
81,107
82,397
83,277
85,700
86,445
86,408
88,695
89,931
91,178
91,401
92,256
92,256
77,832
14,424
15.6
1,181

91,926
96,041
98,559
98,969
100, 502
100,254
100,370
99,383
98,140
98, 299
92, 758
88,372
100,502
88,372
12,130
12.1
1,208

84,763
84,627
84,011
84,145
82,688
80, 595
75,415
72,554
70,892
67,644
65,393
64,350
84,763
64,350
20,413
24.1
1,220

T

able

1931

1932

60,301 45,343
60, 711 45,298
60,123 44,166
59,975 41,043
59,372 40,124
57,108 39,013
54, 336 36, 721
51,397 35,666
50, 678 35, 733
49, 201 36,052
47,422 36,522
46, 791 35,975
60,711 45,343
46,791 35,666
13,920 9,677
22.9
21.4
1,209 1,144

4 6 —FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
STEEL WORKS AND ROLLING MILLS, 1916 TO 1932
Month

1916

1917

1918

January_____ _____ ________
February--------------------------March__________________ _
April------------- ------------------M ay________________ ____ June______________________
July--------------------------- -----August____________ _______
September________________
October----------------------------November-------------------------December---------- -------------Maximum------------------------Minimum-------------------------Variation from maximum:
Number----------------------Percent_______________
Number of establishments__

50,213
54,542
55,947
56,590
58,615
60,869
58,130
62,007
62,980
61,681
64,768
65,432
65,432
50, 213
15,219
23.3
51

64,811
66,175
70,161
66,639
73,135
72,964
72,526
74,189
73,508
74,645
75,290
72,947
75,290
64,811
10,479
13.9
48

72,428 64,361 74, 282
73,853 61,392 70, 734
75,130 56,078 75,593
73,904 53, 546 69,971
77,574 54,822 63,117
74,248 56,273 73,663
75, 577 60, 211 74, 716
74,933 62,880 70,373
72,761 63,134 77, 546
74,520 26,467 76,972
73,462 43,595 71,962
73,906 57, 712 61,483
77,574 64,361 77,546
72,428 26,467 61,483
5,146 37,894 16,063
58.9
6.6
20.7
54
54
63

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

51, 264
47,034
41,219
42,087
43,086
41,111
34, 677
40,498
42,050
45,444
48, 641
45,604
51,264
34,677
16, 587
32.4
59

46,305
49,195
58,455
61,045
62,559
66,020
65,369
65, 591
64, 710
67,872
70,521
70,629
70,629
46,305
24,324
34.4
59

64,071
64,185
71,839
69,362
71,451
72,610
70,921
73,270
72,707
74,251
73,705
71,811
74,251
64,071
10,180
13.7
62

Month

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1928

1930

January...
February..
March.......
April____
May-------June....... .
July_____
August___
September
October...
November
December .
Maximum______ _______
Minimum______________
Variation from maximum:
Number____________
Percent_____________
Number of establishments...

84, 801
84,114
84,151
80, 949
71,136
55, 597
60,089
65, 716
67, 440
69,041
67,142
75, 566
84,801
55, 597
29,204
34.4
64

82,809
79,999
80,118
78, 725
79,119
76,672
78, 590
76, 677
80,136
81, 750
80,464
82,803
82,809
76,672
6,137
7.4

84,296
83,429
83,453
85,349
83, 714
83, 771
84,275
84, 859
88,176
89,188
83,700
81,107
89,188
81,107
8,081
9.1

75, 354
80, 220
82,425
79, 248
78, 568
80,180
75,040
73, 428
72, 731
70,509
67, 735
70,087
82,425
67,735
14,690
17.8

73,337
77,258
79, 779
77,089
77,449
74,333
76,895
78, 634
79,838
80,554
80,391
77,423
80, 554
73,337
7,217
9.0
60

83, 520
83,099
84, 591
85,075
87,603
86, 352
86,897
86,627
82,590
78,879
65, 289
63, 456
87,603
63,456
24,147
27.6

71,623
70,965
68,857
73,161
72,976
64,608
63,437
60, 454
58,934
57, 464
51,322
49, 579
73,161
49, 579
23,582
32.2
60




68

1931

1932

46, 737 38, 776
47,959 38,258
49, 748 37,281
49, 586 35,922
48,422 33,045
45, 548 33,432
44, 084 34,065
39,816 29,782
37,149 32, 214
36,950 33,024
36, 526 31, 227
34,847 32,197
49,748 38,776
34,847 29,782
14,901 8,994
30.0
23.2
52
54

67

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
G
indexes for average number of wage earners employed
and total and average wage and salary payments to wage earners in
the manufacture of iron and steel and their products are shown in
table 47. The base for these indexes is 1926. The years covered are
1924 to 1932, during which period reports were requested by the Ohio
Division of Labor Statistics from all establishments employing three
or more persons.
eneral

T

4 7 —GENERAL IN DEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM ­
PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE
EARNERS IN M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1924
TO 1932

a ble

Index numbers (1926=100.0)
of—
Year

1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.

Total
wage
Wage
and
earners salary
(average) pay­
ments

Average
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

88.8
97.3
100.0
92.6
97.7

98.1
102.1
100.0
98.8
102.8

90.5
95.2
100.0
93.7
95.0

Index numbers (1926=100.0)
of—
Year

1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932______________

Total
wage
Wage
and
earners salary
(average) pay­
ments
103.7
81.5
58.6
45.1

107.8
76.6
45.0
26.4

Average
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments
104.0
94.0
76.8
58.5

The general index for average number of wage earners employed
exceeded the base year, 1926, in 1929 only, and fell to 45.1 in 1932.
The general index for total wage and salary payments also exceeded
the base year only in 1929 and fell to 26.4 in 1932. The general index
for average wage and salary payments exceeded the base year as
100.0, in 1925,1928, and 1929, and fell to 58.5 in 1932. In each of the
3 years (1930 to 1932) of declining employment and total wage and
salary payments, the general index for average wage and salary pay­
ments has stood considerably above the indexes for the other two
items.
Chart 15 shows in graphic form general indexes for average number
of wage earners employed and total and average wages and salary
payments to wage earners, in manufacture of iron and steel and their
products, 1924 to 1932.
Table 48 shows for each of 14 industries classified under manufac­
ture of iron and steel and their products, indexes for average number
of wage earners employed and total and average wage and salary
payments to wage earners. Indexes were not computed for two
industries, included in tables 43 and 44, which reported an average
of less than 1,000 wage earners, nor for the group ‘‘iron and steel and
their products, other.”




68

AVEKAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The index for average number of wage earners employed reached
the highest point during the 9 years in 1924 for 2 industries, in 1925
for 2 industries, in 1926 for 3 industries, in 1927 for 1 industry, and
in 1929 for 6 industries. The lowest point was reached in 1932 by
each of the 14 industries included.
The index for total wage and salary payments to wage earners
reached the highest point during the 9 years in 1924 for 2 industries,

F ig u r e 15.—g e n e r a l in d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m plo y e d a n d W a g e a n d
S a lary p a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s in m a n u f a c t u r e o f Ir o n a n d s t e e l
a n d T h eir p r o d u c t s , 1924 t o 1932

in 1925 for 2 industries, in 1926 for 2 industries, in 1927 for 1 industry,
and in 1929 for 7 industries. The lowest point was reached in 1932.
The index for average wage and salary payments reached the highest
point during the 9 years in 1924 for 2 industries, in 1925 for 1 industry,
in 1926 and 1927 for 1 industry, in 1928 for 6 industries, and in 1929
for 4 industries. The lowest point was reached in 1932.
In 1932 the index for average number of wage earners employed fell
below 50 for 7 of the 14 industries; the index for total wage and
salary payments to wage earners fell below 30 for 6 industries; and
the index for average wage and salary payments to wage earners fell
below 50 for only 1 of the 14 industries.




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

69

Charts 16 and 17 show in graphic form indexes for average num ber
of w age earners em ployed and total and average w age and salary

F IG U R E

16.— I N D E X E S

OF W A G E EAR N ERS EM P LO YED AND W A G E AND S A L A R Y

P a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s in
s h o p P r o d u c t s , 1924 t o 1932

M a n u f a c t u r e o f f o u n d r y a n d m a c h in e -

paym ents to w age earners, in m anufactures of foundry and m achineshop products and in steel works and rolling m ills, 1924 to 1932.
T able 4 8 —INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIES

Year

1924............ ...............
1925................... ........
1926. ..........................
1927______________
1928_____ _____ _
1929______________
1930...........................
1931.____ ________
1932........................




Index numbers (1926=100.0) in specified industries
Bolts, nuts, washers, and
Blast furnace products
Boilers and tanks
rivets
Wage and salary Wage Wage and salary Wage Wage and salary
Wage
payments
payments
payments
earners
earners
earners
(average) Total Average (average) Total Average (average) Total Average
101.0
95.1
100.0
135.9
91.7
90.2
79.1
42.2
44.1

103.0
98.2
100.0
136.8
97.7
88.3
83.3
42.1
31.1

101.9
103.2
100.0
100.5
106.5
97.9
105.3
99.6
70.4

95.4
110.8
100.0
105.3
100.4
112.7
102.5
75.1
54.3

91.7
104.0
100.0
103.7
104.5
116.8
98.1
63.1
36.6

96.1
93.9
100.0
98.5
104.0
103.6
95.7
84.0
67.5

90.8
104.6
100.0
88.9
95.7
103.6
78.0
61.1
47.5

87.9
106.1
100.0
86.9
98.9
102.7
67.1
43.0
24.6

96.8
101.4
100.0
97.8
103.4
99.2
86.1
70.3
51.8

70

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 48.—INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIES—Continued
Index numbers (1926=100.0) in specified industries
Calculating machines
Cutlery and tools
Forgings
Year
Wage and salary
Wage and salary Wage Wage and salary
Wage
Wage
payments
payments
payments
earners
earners
earners
(average) Total Average (average) Total Average (average) Total Average
95.0
1924 . ________
89.2
98.0
99.1 104.3
96.1 105.6
92.8
85.7
112.4 112.9
93.8
94.4
1925 _____________
100. 5
94.9
95.9
1926 __________
79.5
104.1
85.6
83.4
97.4
76.3
1927______________
96.1
96.0 106.1
90.1 106.9
84.3
110. 5
1928 __________ 111.7 114.5 102.4
84.9
98.4
74.4
116.0
1929 __________ 127.8 129.0 100.9
81.8 109.9
97.8
55.6
96.3
65.3
96. 4
1930 __________
98.5
58.5
89.6
53.6
89.3
41.8
1931 ____________
77.0
70.0
28.6
68.3
29.9
20.9
80.3
27.8
1932. ___________
13.2
59.4
49.9
62.0
26.6
49.7
15.7
Foundry and machine- Gas engines and tractors
Pumps and windmills
shop products
97.8
87.5
84.1
93.1
96.1 105.8 103.7
95.4
1924 ___________
97.5
98.9
96.1
91.7
90.4
91.6
93.9
98.7
1925______________
97. 4
_________
1926
89.6
94.4
97.3
93.7
99.3
99.9
96.8
1927 __ __________
) 7
79.2
115.5
88.5
95.5
111.
97.6
104.7
1928 _____________
86.4
89.6
104.6 149.8 156.0 104.2
103. 7
1929 ____________ 107.2
84.4
77.4
84.5
91.6 109.5 109.7 100.3
85.1
1930
_ ______
100.9
63.2
46.0
76.0
78.0
73.7
75.5
60.6
96.3
1931_____________
85.8
65.0
59.8
39.4
41.6
1932 _____________ 43.4
25.5
58.7
64.1
Steel works and rolling
Safes and vaults
Stoves and furnaces
mills
98.6
85.3
85.1
99.8 114.0 115.1
1924 .. ________ 110.9 109.4
94.3
107.2
110.9
107.3
97.0
1925 ____________
1926
_______
89.2
94.0
94.0
99.3 105.9 106.9
100.9
1927 __________
93.7
91.9
96.7 105.3 117.3 121. 5
103. 6
1928 _ __________
)
)
94.2
82.3
95.9 101.5 105.8 124.1 126.6
77.6
1929 _ __________
75.2
71.5
56.5
79.0
90.7
72.7
96.7
90.0
1930 ____________
68.5
51.0
75.7
52.3
35.9
39.0
76.6
57.8
76.3
1931 __ ___
63.2
24.5
12.5
50.9
40.3
22.3
55.3
38.6
1932 ___________
61.2
Tin plate and terne plate
Wire
79.3
84.7 106.9 182.1 183.3 100.7
1924
______
______
97.0
1925
95.8
98.8 130.6 130.1
99.6
1926 ______ -87.9
82.8
94.6 123.0 119.9
97.5
1927 __________
76.3
99.1 116.0 117.8
1928
................. 77.0
98.9 110.4 114.4 103.7
1929 __________ 156.1 154.4
95.4 140.1 136.6
1930
______
69.0
65.7
97.6
94. 7
59.3
47.0
79.2
1931 __________
90.9
54.6
35.2
64.5
72.3
50.5
69.8
1932 __________
i Omitted as total wage and salary payments were extremely low as compared to previous and succeeding
years but unable to make further verification as original schedules have been destroyed.

100.6
101.0
100.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.1 100.0 100.0 100.0
102.0
101.2
68.8
102.6
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 0 0
(0 100.
102.2
120.8
112.1
66.0
110.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.1 100.0 110.8 100.0
101.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
88.6
0 0
100.8

101.1
0
100.0
100.
102.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
101.6
86.1
Conclusion

I n t h e m anufacture of iron and steel and their products during the
17 years, 1916-32, em ploym ent for w age earners reached the peak
in 1920. E m p loym en t w as only slightly less in 1918 and 1917,
w hich cam e second and third in order. T he year 1929 w as fourth in
average num ber em ployed. T w o m ajor reductions in average num ­
ber em ployed occurred, the first follow ing 1920 and the second fol,
low ing 1929. Lesser reductions in em ploym ent occurred in 19191924, and 1927.
T otal w age and salary paym ents to w age earners reached the
highest am ount during the 17 years in 1920. T he year 1929 show ed



MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

71

the second highest amount, 1923 stood third, and 1926 fourth in order.
The total for 1929 was $82,276,871 below the total for 1920 and
$26,094,411 above the total for 1923. Major reductions in total wage
and salary payments occurred following the 2 peak years. Lesser
reductions occurred in 1924 and 1927.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners during the 17
years were highest in 1920 and second highest in 1929, with 1928 and
1925 third and fourth in order. Major decreases in average wage and

17.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m plo y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a lary
P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in S te el W o r k s a n d r o l l in g M il l s , 1924 to
1932

F ig u r e

salary payments to wage earners followed the two peak years with
lesser reductions in 1924, 1926, and 1927.
Table 49 shows for the manufacture of iron and steel and their
products and for each of the several industries classified under that
heading, the change in employment of wage earners and in total and
average wage and salary payments to wage earners, from 1920 to 1921
and from 1929 to 1932.
Manufacture of iron and steel and their products shows a decrease
in average number of wage earners employed of 116,930, or 43.6 per­
cent, from 1920 to 1921, and a decrease of 139,206, or 56.5 percent,
from 1929 to 1932. The decrease in total wage and salary payments




72

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

to wage earners was $301,813,850 or 60.1 percent, from 1920 to 1921,
and $317,298,054, or 75.5 percent, from 1929 to 1932. The decrease
in average wage and salary payments to wage earners was $547, or
29.2 percent, from 1920 to 1921, and $746, or 43.8 percent, from 1929
to 1932.
Of the 16 industries included and the group “iron and steel and their
products, other”, the decrease in average number of wage earners
employed exceeded 50 percent for 6 industries from 1920 to 1921, and
for 10 industries and the group “other” from 1929 to 1932. The
decrease was less than 25 percent for three industries from 1920 to
1921 and for one from 1929 to 1932. One industry shows an increase
from 1929 to 1932 in average number employed. Manufacture of
tin plate and terne plate shows the highest percent of change during
the first period, and safes and vaults during the second period.
Total wage and salary payments to wage earners declined more than
60 percent for 9 industries from 1920 to 1921, and for 13 industries and
the group “ other” from 1929 to 1932. The decline was less than 25
percent for two industries from 1920 to 1921. From 1929 to 1932,
one industry shows a slight increase but no other industry shows a
decline of less than 50 percent.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners declined more
than 25 percent for seven industries from 1920 to 1921 and for all
industries except one from 1929 to 1932. During the earlier period
the average increased for one industry.
T able 4 9 —AMOUNT AND PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE

EARNERS EMPLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS
TO WAGE EARNERS, IN M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PROD­
UCTS FROM 1920 TO 1921 AND FROM 1929 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

Period and industry

Wage earners
wage and
(average num­ Totalpayments salary Average wage and
salary payments
ber)
Number Percent Amount of Percent Amount Percent
(de­ of de­
of de­ of de­ of de­
crease) crease decrease crease crease crease

1920 to 1921

Blast-furnace products....................................... 4,521
Boilers and tanks________________________ 1,424
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets_______ ____ 2,209
Calculating machines_____________ ________ 3,378
Cutlery and tools___________ _____________ 2, 512
Doors and shutters, steel__________________
174
Forgings__________ __________ ___________ 4,240
Foundry and machine-shop products_______ 54,930
Gas engines and tractors________________ _ 1,983
Pumps and windmills____ __ ________ .
352
Safes and vaults. _ __________ ____ _______
378
Steel works and rolling mills. ... _______ 28,141
Stoves and furnaces__________________ ____ 3, 361
Tin plate and terne plate....... ................... ........ 3,358
Wire_____ ____________________________
2,703
Wirework, including wire rope and cable..........
140
Iron and steel and their products, other.......... 2,795
T o ta l_________ _________________ _ 1116,930
1
*

54.2
55.3
39.9
35.9
50.3
33.4
58.6
46.8
61.9
15.9
12.8
39.2
29.6
63.8
39.5
20.8
34.7
43.6

$13,403,915
3,175,420
3,902,416
6,892,129
4,915,091
318, 654
8,484,986
117,694,065
3, 747, 327
950, 368
1,013,024
104,683,168
8,438, 583
8,130, 577
9,762, 495
130,837
6,170, 795
301,813,850

68.0
67.9
54.5
43.9
65.7
40.9
71.6
60.1
68.2
29.5
23.3
62.2
47.4
69.5
65.1
14.9
49.0
60.1

$713
511
313
208
464
169
516
416
283
235
177
887
397
351
928
2 97
343
547

30.2
28.1
24.2
12.5
31.0
11.3
31.5
24.9
16.5
16.2
12.1
37.8
25.3
15.8
42.4
27.4
22.0
29.2

The total
i.ncr§<^s§, reported by industries exceeds the total for iron and steel and their products by 331 in 1931,




73

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 4 9 —AMOUNT AND PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE NU M BER OF WAGE

EARNERS EM PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS
TO WAGE EARNERS, IN M ANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND TH EIR PROD­
UCTS FROM 1920 TO 1921 AND FROM 1920 TO 1932, BY IN DUSTRIES—Continued

Period and industry

Wage earners
wage and
(average num­ Total paymentssalary Average wage and
salary payments
ber)
Number Percent Amount of Percent Amount Percent
(de­ of de­
of de­ of de­ of de­
crease) crease decrease crease crease crease

1929 to 1932

Blast-furnace products............... ........................ 2,865 51.1
Boilers and tanks_________ _________ _____ 1,435 51.8
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets------------------ 2,843 54.1
Calculating machines_____________________ 3,769 37.1
Cutlery and tools_________________________ 1,863 64.3
245 33.2
Doors and shutters, steel---------------------------Forgings_________________________________ 2,607 67.2
Foundry and machine-shop products ---------- 57, 659 59.5
Gas engines and tractors---------------------------- 2,013 60.1
615 24.8
Pumps and windmills_______ _ ---------Safes and vaults_________ _______ ______ 1,254 70.2
Steel works and rolling mills----------------------- 47,063 58.0
Stoves and furnaces----------------------------------- 5,079 49.1
Tin plate and terne plate---------------------------- 4,970 65.0
Wire______________________________ ____ 1,480 34.5
Wirework, including wire rope and cable. ... 2 172 2 24.2
Iron and steel and their products, other------- . 3, 618 55.4
Total_____ _____________________ _ 139, 206 56.5

$6,561,920
3,114,475
5,332,848
9,777,136
3,525,390
832,815
5,492, 617
119,708,198
4,125, 242
1,934,064
2,400, 238
122,100, 279
10, 512,612
11,066, 290
4,062,042
2 27,811
6, 779, 699
317, 298,054

64.8
68.6
76.0
61.4
83.8
68.0
84.1
77.3
74.7
53.5
83.9
78.0
69.5
77.2
55.9
2 2.4
72.1
75.5

$507
571
638
605
795
866
866
702
604
556
736
920
5S6
653
553
285
538
746

28.1
34.8
47.8
38.6
54.8
52.1
51.4
43.9
36.7
38.2
45.9
47.7
40.1
34.8
32.6
17.5
37.3
43.8

2Increase.
M a n u fa ctu re o f F ood an d K in d red P rod u cts

R e p o r t s compiled from practically all establishments in Ohio
employing three or more persons in the manufacture of food and
kindred products show a reduction from 1929 to 1932 of 13.9 percent
in average number of persons employed, a reduction of 32 percent in
total wage and salary payments, and a reduction of 21.1 percent in
the average wage and salary payments.
During the 17 years covered by this study the average number of
employees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks; and salespeople—not traveling) reached the highest point in
1930 and total wage and salary payments reached the •highest amount
in 1929. The average wage and salary payment to the three general
occupation groups combined reached the highest amount in 1928,
when it was $1,395 or $9 above 1929. The average in 1932 was
$1,093, which was lower than in any year since 1919.
Total wage and salary payments to each general occupation group
in the manufacture of food and kindred products are shown in table 50
for the 17 years, 1916 to 1932. Payments to superintendents and
managers are shown in this table, but data for that group are not
included in any other tables or computations in this study. In their
annual returns to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, employers
were requested to report for the year total wage and salary payments
in dollars, including bonuses and premiums and value of board and




74

AVEKAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

lodging furnished. Employers were instructed not to include
salaries of officials.
Total wage and salary payments to the three general occupation
groups combined (omitting superintendents and managers) increased
each year from 1917 to 1920, decreased in 1921 and 1922, increased
each year from 1923 to 1929, and decreased in 1930, 1931, and 1932.
The great increase in total wage and salary payments to wage earners
from 1929 to 1930 and the corresponding decrease to salespeople were
occasioned by the change of classification by the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics of bakery-wagon drivers from “ salespeople ” to
“wage earners”, beginning in 1930.
Table 5 0 —TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF FOOD
AND KINDRED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Total wage and salary payments to—
Year

Number
of estab­
lishments

1916_____________
1917_____________
1918_____________
1919_____________
1920_____________
1921_____________
1922_____________
1923_____________
1924_____________
1925_____________
1926_____________
1927_____________
1928_____________
1929_____________
1930_____________
1931_____________
1932_____________

1,291
1,374
1,439
1, 475
1,601
1,426
1, 255
1,278
1, 366
1, 433
1, 498
1,601
1, 617
1, 636
1, 715
1, 685
1, 600

Wage
earners
$16,235,629
19,074, 215
25,327, 701
31,914,316
39,042,634
33,856,893
31,573,015
36, 236, 747
36,792, 791
37,566, 715
39,308, 242
40,154, 757
42,167, 215
44, 476, 748
i 49,382, 918
41, 570,846
33, 540, 768

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople
raphers,
(not
and office traveling)
clerks
$1,875,961
2,278,716
2, 698,833
3, 755,945
4,464, 524
4,688,149
4,467, 679
4, 742,100
5,058, 752
4,959, 436
5,157, 582
5,273,928
5,440,098
5,833, 977
6,043,039
5, 424, 379
4, 375, 497

$1,820,146
2,083,681
2, 623,167
3,117,622
4,363, 517
3, 919,480
4,182,688
4,487,112
5,459,096
6,489, 547
6, 904,109
7,168,164
7,389, 529
8,086,751
i 2, 546, 940
2, 536, 266
1, 765, 779

Total
$19,931, 736
23, 436, 612
30, 649, 701
38,787,883
47,870, 675
42,464, 522
40, 223, 382
45, 465, 959
47, 310,639
49,015, 698
51,369, 933
52, 596,849
54,996, 842
58,397,476
57,972, 897
49, 531,491
39, 682,044

Superin­
tendents
and
managers

Grand
total

$1,423,307 $21,355,043
1,830,166 25. 266, 778
2,407, 717 33,057, 418
3,024,171 41,812,054
3,419,168 51, 289,843
3,355,903 45,820,425
3, 291,830 43, 515, 212
3,535, 578 49,001, 537
3,716, 263 51,026,902
3,879, 589 52,895,287
4, 218, 742 55, 588,675
4, 224,092 56,820,941
3,993, 353 58,990,195
4, 578,972 62,976,448
4, 561, 737 62, 534,634
3, 954,936 53,486,427
3, 247, 201 42, 929, 245

1 Classification of bakery-wagon drivers changed by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from “ sales­
people” to “ wage earners”, beginning in 1930.

Table 51 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups and in the three com­
bined, in the manufacture of food and kindred products. The general
course of the average number employed was the same as the general
course of total wage and salary payments (table 50) except that the
average number of employees increased in 1922, decreased in 1927,
and reached the highest point in 1930. The average in 1929 was
second highest and in 1931 third highest for the 17-year period.
The average in 1932 was the lowest since 1924. The large increase
from 1929 to 1930 in wage earners and the corresponding decrease
in salespeople were occasioned, as already noted, by a change of
classification of bakery-wagon drivers.




75

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Table 51 .—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF FOOD AND K INDRED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Number of employees
Number
of estab­
lishments

Year

1916_____________________________
1917_____________________________
1918_____________________________
1919_____________________________
1920_____________________________
1921___ ___________ ______________
1922_____________________________
1923____ _____ ___________________
1924_____________________________
1925_____________________________
1926_____________________________
1927________ ____ ________________
1928__________ ____ ______________
1929___ ____ _____________________
1930____ _____ ___________________
1931_____________________________
1932_____________________________

1,289
1,364
1,439
1,475
1,601
1,426
1,243
1, 278
1,366
1,433
1,498
1,601
1, 617
1,636
1,715
1,685
1,600

Wage
earners
24,074
26,374
27,933
30,067
30,335
27,706
28,058
29,336
29,323
30,007
32,241
30,485
31,409
33,422
i 36,237
34,302
31,442

Bookkeepers, Salespeople
stenogra­
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
2,306
2,738
2,564
3,182
3,306
3,390
3,138
3,350
3,291
3,459
3, 555
3,606
3, 617
3,893
4,098
3, 851
3,372

1,996
2,097
2,072
2,313
2, 572
2, 558
2,885
2,992
3,364
3,809
4, 216
4,406
4,392
4,821
i 1,949
2,051
1,481

All em­
ployees
28,376
31, 209
32, 569
35,561
36, 213
33, 654
34,082
35, 677
35,978
37,275
40,011
38,496
39,418
42,137
42, 284
40, 204
36, 295

1 Classification of bakery-wagon drivers changed by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from ‘*salespeople *’
to “wage earners ”, beginning in 1930.

Table 52 shows the computed average wage and salary payments
to each of the three general occupation groups and to the three com­
bined, in the manufacture of food and kindred products, for each
year from 1916 to 1932.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners increased
each year from 1917 to 1920, then alternately decreased and increased
until 1931 and 1932, which both showed decreases. The 1930 in­
crease in average to wage earners and decrease to salespeople were
due, doubtless, to the change of classification of bakery-wagon drivers.
The average wage and salary payment to bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks increased each year from 1917 to 1922, de­
creased in 1923, increased in 1924, decreased in 1925, increased in 1926,
1927, and 1928, and decreased each year from 1929 to 1932.
Considering the three general occupation groups combined, the
highest average wage and salary payment was reported in 1928,
with 1929 and 1930 second and third in order. The average in 1932
was lower than in any year except the first four (1916 to 1919) of
the period covered.

14 0 4 4 6°— 35-




6

76

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 5 2 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
FOOD AND K INDRED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Average wage and salary payments to—
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
Year
stenogra­
Wage
All em­
travel­
phers, and (noting)
earners
ployees
office clerks
$674
$814
$912
$702
1916_____________________________ i 1,289
723
832
994
751
1917_____________________________ 2 1,364
1,439
907
1,053
1, 266
941
1918_____________________________
1,475
1,061
1,348
1,180
1,091
1919_____________________________
1, 696
1, 601
1, 287
1,322
1,350
1920_____________________________
1,426
1, 222
1,383
1,532
1921_____________________________
1,262
1,125
1,424
1922_____________________________ 3 1, 243
1, 450
1,180
1, 278
1, 235
1,416
1923. ___________________________
1, 500
1, 274
1, 366
1, 255
1, 623
1,315
1, 537
1924_____________________________
1, 252
1,433
1,434
1, 704
1925_____________________________
1,315
1,498
1, 219
1,451
1,628
1926_____________________________
1, 284
1,463
1,601
1,317
1,627
1,366
1927_____________________________
1, 343
1,682
1,617
1,504
1928_____________________________
1,395
1,636
1,331
1,499
1,677
1,386
1929_____________________________
4 1, 363
1,715
1,475
4 1, 307
1930_____________________________
1, 371
1,685
1, 212
1931_____________________________
1,409
1, 237
1,232
1932_____________________________
1,067
1, 298
1,192
1,600
1,093
1 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
2 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 10.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 12.
4 Classification of bakery-wagon drivers changed by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from “ salespeople’ '
to ‘‘wage earners”, beginning in 1930.
Number
of estab­
lishments

Chart 18 shows graphically average wage and salary payments to
the three general occupation groups combined.

F ig u r e 18.—A v er a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in t h e M a n u ­
f a c t u r e o f F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c t s , 1916 to 1932, a ll E m plo y e es

Fluctuation in employment of wage earners in the manufacture of
food and kindred products is shown in table 53. Fluctuation from




77

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

the maximum within a year varied from 14.8 percent in 1932 to 27.4
percent in 1925. The fluctuation falls between 20 and 25 percent in
11 of the 17 years. Extreme seasonal fluctuations occur in two
industries—canning and preserving and in manufacture of sugar.
In bakeries and in flour and grist mills there is comparatively slight
seasonaLfluctuation.
For the industry group, maximum employment for wage earners
occurred in September in every year except 1922. Minimum em­
ployment fell in 1 of the first 4 months of the year, most frequently
in April.
T able 53.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
MANUFACTURE OF FOOD AND K INDRED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932
Month

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

January__________________
February________________ _
March___ ________________
April---------------------------------M ay______________________
June.. ------------------------ _
July_______ _____ _________
August------------------------------September___ _____ ________
October_________ ______
November-------------------------December_________________
Maximum_________________
Minimum_________________
Variation from maximum:
Number_______________
Percent________________
Establishments reporting------

21,769
21,786
21,890
22, 021
21,174
23,005
23,199
25,068
28,184
27,418
27,155
25,220
28,184
21,769
6,415
22.8
1,289

24,124
24,010
24, 233
23,964
24,250
25, 652
25, 760
26, 393
30, 755
29,921
29, 234
28,193
30,755
23,964
6,791
22.1
1, 364

25,030
25,343
25,804
25,865
26,111
28,329
27,352
30,565
31, 503
29,811
29, 582
29,904
31,503
25,030
6,473
20.5
1,439

28,136
26,843
26,396
26, 459
27,036
30,183
29,947
32, 348
35, 224
33,133
33, 256
31,843
35,224
26,396
8,828
25.1
1,475

29,582
27,947
27, 581
27, 423
27,973
30, 529
31,125
32,123
36, 378
33,600
31,321
28,438
36,378
27,423
8,955
24.6
1,601

26,648
25,699
25,674
25,375
25,689
27,675
26,350
29,005
31, 725
30, 510
29, 833
28, 289
31,725
25,375
6,350
20.0
1,426

25,003
25,577
25, 425
25.304
25, 295
27,665
26,768
29,004
31,638
32,752
31, 686
30,581
32,752
25,003
7,749
23.7
1,243

26,236
26,462
26,452
26,038
26,754
29 459
28,782
31,126
35,283
33, 205
31,927
30,302
35,283
26,038
9,245
26.2
1,278

27,933
28,081
28,004
27, 597
27,627
28,777
29, 534
29,133
33, 668
32, 236
30, 250
29,036
33,668
27,597
6,071
18.0
1,366

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

27,705
27, 530
27,264
26,982
27,913
30, 593
29, 324
31,865
37,157
32,155
31, 219
30,376
37,157
26,982
10,175
27.4
1,433

29,900
30,018
30,236
29, 540
30,956
32, 269
31,901
33, 403
37,934
35,107
33,678
31,945
37,934
29,540
8,394
22.1
1,498

28,061
28,342
28,288
28, 265
28,809
30, 575
30, 231
30, 547
35, 576
34, 462
32,199
30,460
35,576
28,061
7,515
21.1
1,601

28,373
28,888
29,171
29, 252
29,752
31,629
31,803
32,116
37,052
34,462
33,028
31,377
37,052
28,373
8,679
23.4
1,617

30, 582
30,771
30,921
30,990
31,755
34,094
33,872
34,356
39, 538
36,631
34,721
32,835
39,538
30,582
8,956
22.7
1,636

34, 514
34,666
34,459
34,710
35, 372
36, 289
35, 605
35,877
42, 259
39, 687
36, 425
34,978
42,259
34,459
7,800
18.5
1,715

32,468
32,482
32,305
32,453
33, 284
34, 754
33,929
35, 512
41, 358
36,054
33,865
33,159
41,358
32,305
9,053
21.9
1,685

30, 367
30,227
30, 228
30, 214
30,601
31,140
30, 659
31,440
35,462
33,854
31,945
31,166
35,462
30,214
5,248
14.8
1,600

Month
January------------------- ---------February. _ __________ _____
M arch................ ....................
April______________________
M ay----------------------------------J u n e ..------ ----------------------July_______________________
August—. ______ __________
September--------- ----------------October........................................
November___ ____ _________
December__________________
Maximum__________________
Minimum----- ------ --------------Variation from maximum:
Number. _______ ____ Percent-------------------- ----Establishments reporting-------

Industries in the Manufacture of Food and Kindred Products
I
study several of the smaller industries classified by the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics under the manufacture of food and
kindred products have been combined under “Food and kindred
n t h is




78

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

products, other.” The manufacturing industries combined are: Cor­
dials, sirups, and flavoring extracts; oleomargarine; sugar; vinegar and
cider; and food and kindred products, not otherwise classified.
Table 54 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners
in each of eight industries and in the group “Food and kindred prod­
ucts, other.” Average wage and salary payments were computed by
dividing the total wage and salary payments for a given year by the
average number employed. These averages should not be taken as
exact measures but as approximate figures.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners was highest
in 1920 for flour and grist mills and food and kindred products, other,
in 1921 for confectionery, in 1925 for slaughtering and meat packing,
in 1926 for food preparations, in 1928 for bakery products, in 1929 for
canning and preserving, and in 1930 for coffee, spices, and peanut
roasting and grinding, and dairy products and ice cream. The lowest
wage and salary payment was in 1916 for all industries.
It should again be emphasized that average wage and salary pay­
ments as here computed do not show full-time earnings, as data con­
cerning part-time and overtime work are not available. The changes
from year to year, also, do not afford any measure of changes in wage
or salary scales or rates of pay.
Table 54.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TOWAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF FOOD AND K INDRED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Year

Coffee,
Slaugh­
spices,
Dairy Flour­
Canning and pea­ Confec­ products mill and Food tering
Bakery and pre­ nuts:
grist­ prepara­ and
products serving roasting tionery and ice mill
meat
cream products tions packing
and
grinding

1916—........................
$729
1917- ....................
745
1918...........................
931
1919. ............... .......... 1,075
1920______________ 1,292
1921______________ 1,236
1922.......... ...........
(2)
1923-............... ........... 1,335
1924_____________ _ 1,251
1925______________ 1,285
1926-_-........-............ 1,304
1927._____________ 1,294
1928........................... 1,466
1929_.......................... 1,309
1930-................... .
4 1,380
1931______ ____ _
1,216
1932. ______ _______ 1,095

$414
483
605
713
832
1545
(2)
744
732
722
750
726
678
839
699
627
494

$572
$526
702
607
714
723
705
859
842
1,058
1,035 i 1,039
(2)
(2)
809
1,058
1,055
873
1,074
867
1,090
868
981
866
921
1,044
1,041
893
1,110
880
924
797
671
937

$713
911
1,014
1,232
1,387
1,544
(2)
1,470
1,419
1,375
1,559
1,570
1,498
1,617
1,635
1,461
1,266

$730
785
980
1,115
1,589
1,202
(2)
1,273
1,302
1,325
1,402
1,346
1,359
1,323
1,309
1,159
1,163

$651
817
965
1,201
1,516
1,285
(2)
1,393
1,390
1,361
1,550
1,506
1,429
1,418
1,336
1,290
777

$809
1750
1,067
1,272
1,473
1,375
C
2)
1,396
1,467
1,510
(3)
1,455
1,433
1,480
1,491
1,340
1,139

Food
and
kindred
prod­
ucts,
other
$657
750
985
1,175
1,467
1,062
(2)
1,122
1,243
1,241
1,135
1,405
1,261
1,270
1,294
1,057
1,073

1 In accord with Ohio Division of Labor Statistics tabulations; further verification is impossible as original
schedules have been destroyed.
2 Not tabulated by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics for individual industries.
3 Omitted; owing to probable error.
4 Classification of bakery-wagon drivers changed by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from “ salespeople ”
to “ wage earners”, beginning In 1930.




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

79

Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I
for average number employed and for total and average
wage and salary payments in the manufacture of food and kindred
products are shown in table 55 and chart 19. The base for these
indexes is 1926. The years covered are 1924 to 1932, during which
period reports were requested each year by the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics from all establishments employing 3 or more persons.
Indexes are shown for all employees, which is the total of the three
general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenograndexes

F ig u r e 19.— in d e x e s o f A v er a g e N u m b e r E m plo y ed a n d T o t a l a n d A v e r ­
a g e W a g e a n d sa l a r y P a y m e n t s in t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f F o o d a n d K in ­
d r e d p r o d u c t s , 1924 t o 1932 (1926=100)

phers, and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)—and also
for wage earners. The indexes for wage earners are affected by the
change in 1930, by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, in the clas­
sification of bakery-wagon drivers from salespeople to wage earners.
Considering the three general occupation groups combined, the
index for average number employed exceeded the base year (1926) in
1929, 1930, and 1931, and fell to 90.7 in 1932. The indexes for both
total wage and salary payments and average wage and salary pay­
ments exceeded the base year in 1927, 1928, 1929, and 1930, and fell
to 77.2 and 85.1, respectively, in 1932.




80

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 5 5 .—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER EM PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE
WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF FOOD AND K IND RED
PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932
Index numbers (1926=100.0) of—
All employees

Wage earners

wage Average
Average Totalsalary wage and
number and
salary
payments payment

Year

Average
Average Total wage wage and
number and salary salary
payments payment

89.9
93.2
100.0
96. 2
98. 5
105. 3
105.7
100.5
90.7

1924 __ ___________________
1925____________ __________
1926 . ___ __________
1927 - __________________
1928 ____ _______________
1929 - ________________
1930
____ ______ ___
1931____ __________ . -1932 _____________________

92.1
95.4
100.0
102.4
107.1
113.7
112.9
96.4
77.2

102.4
102.4
100.0
106.4
108.6
107.9
106.8
96.0
85.1

90.9
93.1
100.0
94. 6
97.4
103.7
i 112.4
106.4
97.5

93. 6
95.6
100.0
102. 2
107.3
113.1
1 125. 6
105. 8
85.3

103.0
102.7
100.0
108.0
110.2
109.2
i 111.8
99.4
87.5

1 Classification of bakery-wagon drivers changed by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from“ salespeople ”
to “wage earners”, beginning in 1930.

Table 56 shows indexes for each of seven industries. Slaughtering
and meat packing is omitted owing to the probable error in data for
1926. In 1932, the indexes for average number of wage earners em­
ployed stood above the base year in 3 of the 6 industries for which
data were available for that year, but in manufacture of confectionery
it fell to 65.5. The indexes in 1932 for total and average wage and
salary payments show the greatest decline in food preparations, in
confectionery, and in canning and preserving.
T able 56.—INDEXES FOR AVERAGE N U M B E R OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF FOOD AND K INDRE D PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]
Bakery products
Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Canning and pre­
serving
Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Coffee, spices, and
peanuts: Roasting
and grinding
Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Confectionery

Year

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927__________
1928__________
1929__________
1930__________
1931__________
1932__________

97.8
98.8
100.0
108.6
112.5
120.1
0)
0)
0)

93.8 95.9 89.8 87.7 97.6 109.8 106.2 96.8 94.5 95.2
97.3 98.5 114.2 109.9 96.3 118.5 116.8 98.5 99.0 98.9
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
107.8 99.2 86.0 83.2 96.8 127.4 114.7 90.0 84.1 83.9
126.4 112.4 90.8 82.1 90.4 137.5 131.7 95.8 83.0 88.1
120.5 100.4 109.1 122.0 111.9 136.5 130.5 95.5 92.5 95.2
(0
(9 106.2 98.9 93.2 106.3 108.3 101.8 80.3 81.4
(9
0) 115.2 96.4 83.6 89.9 76.3 84.8 75.7 69.5
97.7 64.3 65.9 100.2 86.2 86.0 65.5 50.7
h
0)

100.6
99.9
100.0
99.8
106.1
102.9
101.4
91.8
77.3

i Omitted. See note to table 50.




Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

81

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 5 6 —INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF FOOD AND K INDRED PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—
Continued
Flour mill and grist mill
Food preparations
products
Total Average
Total Average
Total Average
Wage
wage
wage
wage
wage
wage
Wage
wage
Wage
earners and
earners
earners
and
and
and
and
and
(average) salary salary (average) salary salary (average) salary salary
payments payment
payments payment
payments payment

Dairy products and ice cream
Year

1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

90.2
96.9
100.0
106.5
105.2
113.4
120.4
118.4
103.6

82.1
85.4
100.0
107.3
101.1
117.7
126.3
101.9
84.1

91.0
88.2
100.0
100.7
96.1
103.7
104.9
93.7
81.2

100.3
91.3
100.0
99.2
98.5
96.2
94.3
88.9
106. 4

93.2
86.3
100.0
95.2
95.5
90.8
88.1
73.5
88.3

92.9
94.5
100.0
96.0
96.9
94.4
93.4
82.7
83.0

114.5
112.8
100.0
107.5
112.2
106.5
117.1
117.8
84.0

M a n u fa ctu re o f L u m b er an d L u m b er P rod u cts

102.6
99.1
100.0
104.4
103.5
97.4
100.9
98.0
42.1

89.7
87.8
100.0
97.2
92.2
91.5
86.2
83.2
50.1

In
manufacture of lumber and lumber products in Ohio, ac­
cording to reports from practically all establishments employing
three or more persons, the average number of persons employed
declined 12,607, or 47.4 percent, from 1929 to 1932; total wage and
salary payments decreased $22,658,765, or 64.2 percent; and the
average wage and salary payment decreased $424, or 31.9 percent.
During the 17 years covered by this study the average number of
employees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, office clerks;
and salespeople—not traveling) reached the highest point in 1917,
and both total and average wage and salary payments reached the
highest amount in 1925. In 1932, the average number of persons
employed and total wage and salary payments were at the lowest
point during the 17 years and the average wage and salary payment
was the lowest since 1917.
Total wage and salary payments are shown in table 57 for the 17
years, 1916-32. Payments to superintendents and managers are
included in this table, but data for that group are not included else­
where in this study. In their annual returns to the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics employers are requested to report for the year total
wage and salary payments in dollars, including bonuses and premiums
and value of board and lodging furnished. Employers were instructed
not to include salaries of officials.
Total wage and salary payments to wage earners reached the highest
amount in 1925, to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in
1927, and to salespeople (not traveling) in 1929. Total wage and
salary payments in 1932 to wage earners were the lowest for any year
during the period covered; to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks the lowest since 1918; and to salespeople the lowest since 1922.
the




82

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 57.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF LUM ­
BER AND LUM BER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Year
1916............................
1917.......... ..................
1918.......... ..................
1919______________
1920.......... ...............
1921..........................
1922______________
1923............................
1924_____ _________
1925............................
1926................. ..........
1927............................
1928............................
1929............................
1930.............................
1931.............................
1932.................... .

Number
of estab­
lishments
867
901
1913
3 923
1,003
914
933
1,007
1,130
1,175
1,206
1,238
1,215
1,231
1,192
1,104
999

Wage
earners
$17,562,961
20,967,472
22,528,312
25,501,658
34,087,906
25, 013,240
25, 016,955
32,751,129
30,825,527
36,067,047
31,641,184
32,452,919
30,657,439
30,401,272
22,889,967
16,332,758
10,215,185

Total wage and salary payments to—
Bookkeep­ Sales­
Superin­
ers, stenog­ people
tendents
(not
Total
raphers,
and man­
and office travel­
agers
clerks
ing)
$1,712,886 $337,982 $19,613,829
1,919,356 368,303 23, 255,131
1,722,879 277,708 24,528,899
2,209,712 283, 818 27,995,188
2,720,582 337,815 37,146,303
2,720,895 406,120 28,140,255
2,578,035 406,251 28, 001,241
3,091,756 592,431 36,435,316
3,274, 386 641, 293 34,741,206
3,866, 868 711,229 40,645,144
3,677,859 782,189 36,101,232
4,178,851 710, 020 37,341, 790
3,759,316 805,939 35, 222,694
4,025,948 869,472 35,296,692
3,704,156 559,999 27,154,122
2,871, 244 536,340 19,740,342
1,985,314 437,428 12,637,927

1Details by industries total 917 establishments.

$1,117,267
1,254,873
1,306, 332
1,560, 221
2,054,180
1,931, 289
2,108,637
2,701,727
2,897,813
2,932, 257
2,908, 529
3,147,804
3,114,850
3,040,814
2,791,969
2, 234, 576
1,567,465

Grand
total
$20, 731,096
24,510,004
25,835, 231
29,555,409
39, 200,483
30, 071,544
30,109,878
39,137,043
37,639, 019
43,577,401
39,009,761
40,489,594
38,337,544
38,337, 506
29,946,091
21,974,918
14, 205, 392

* Details by industries total 924 establishments.

The average number of persons reported employed in each of the
three general occupation groups is shown in table 58. The highest
average number of wage earners was employed in 1917 and the lowest
in 1932. The average in that occupation group showed a decline
each year since 1927. The highest average number of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks was employed in 1929 and the lowest
in 1932. Comparatively few salespeople (not traveling) are reported
in the manufacture of lumber and lumber products.
T able 5 8 .—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES') REPORTED EM PLOYED

IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF LUM BER AND LUM BER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Year

1916...................................................................... ...............
1917.............................. ..................................................... .
1918............................................. ........................................
1919...................................... .......... .....................................
1920................................ ......................................................
1921........................................................................................
1922.............................. .........................................................
1923.............................. ........................................................
1924.............................. .......... ..............................................
1925...............................................................___...................
1926.............................. .................................................
1927......................................................................................
1928....................................................................... .............
1929___ _______________________ _________ _______
1930___ ___________________ ____ ____ __________
1931.......................................................................................
1932............ ..........................................................................
1 Details by industries total 8 less.




Number
of estab­
lish­
ments
860
899
913
923
1,003
914
932
1,007
1,130
1,175
1,206
1,238
1,215
1,231
1,192
1,104
999

]Number of?employees3
Book­
keepers, Sales­
stenog­ people All em­
Wage
(not
earners raphers, travel­ ployees
and
office
ing)
clerks
28,452
1,975
197
30,623
28,817
2,045
245
31,108
25,268
1,619
144
27,031
25,277
1,707
146
27,130
26,828
1,867
143
28,839
J 20,842
1,761
164
22, 767
22,974
1,794
165
24,932
26,843
2,044
163
29,050
25,307
2,024
259
27,590
26,329
2,289
260
28,878
25,014
2,258
278
27,549
25,461
2,312
282
28,055
23,949
2,276
288
26,512
23,844
2,399
344
26,587
19,426
2,157
241
21,824
15, 602
1,860
249
17,711
12, 255
1,461
264
13,980

M ANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

83

More than 85 percent of the employees in the manufacture of
lumber and lumber products each year were classified as wage
earners. Table 59 shows for that occupation group the fluctuation in
employment from 1916 to 1932. The fluctuation from maximum
within a year varied from 6.5 percent in 1926 to 23.3 percent in 1922.
The fluctuation was less than 10 percent in 8 of the 17 years.
Maximum employment during the 17-year period was 29,911 in
November 1916 and minimum employment 11,379 in December 1932.
T able 59.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEX ES)IN
THE M ANUFACTURE OF LUM BER AND LUM BER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932

Month
January.....................................
February...................................
March........................................
April.........................................
May............................................
June.................................-.........
July.......................-....................
August.......................................
September................................
October......................................
November.............................
December..................................
Maximum_________ ____
Minimum____________ ____
Variation from maximum:
Number..................... .......
Percent-----------------------Establishments reporting___
Month
January__________________ February...................................
March.........................................
April............................................
May.............................................
June______________________
July..............................................
August........................................
September..................................
October.......................................
November.................................
December................................. .
Maximum..................................
Minimum..................................
Variation from maximum:
Number...............................
Percent................. ..............
Establishments reporting___

1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922
26,343 28,793 24,608 22,533 27,761 19,295 19,666
27,190 29,119 25,161 23,023 27,148 20,611 20,415
27,942 29,617 25,875 22,944 27,735 20,716 21,145
28,173 28,859 25,449 22,678 27,396 20,853 21,762
27,743 29,555 25, 287 24,800 27,245 20,842 22,550
28,784 29,659 25,989 25,689 27,915 21,677 23,184
28, 661 29,793 26,550 26,192 27,878 20,354 23,615
28,690 28,995 26,062 26,414 27,627 20,362 23,626
29,094 28,383 24,863 26,293 27,133 20,779 23,982
29,096 27,837 24,720 27,212 26,122 20,843 24,764
29,911 27,962 24,370 27,630 25,105 21,882 25,349
25,627
29,793 27,234 24,283 27,911 22,876
25,627
29,911 29,793 26,550 27,911 27,915
26,343 27,234 24,283 22,533 22,876 19,295 19,666
3,568 2,559 2,267 5,378 5,039 2,593 5,961
23.3
8.5 19.3 18.1
11.9
932
860
923 1,003
914
899
913
1926
1928
1930
1925
1927
1929
24,911 24,439 24,128 22,475 22,767 20,451
25,476 24,071 24,742 23,141 23,140 20,314
25,923 24,630 25,117 23,739 23,585 20,362
26,400 24,663 25,254 23,783 23,944 20,209
26,656 24,875 25,570 24,040 23,998 20,462
26,636 25,357 26,278 24,394 24,188 20,125
26, 427 25,117 25,837 24,305 23,981 19,269
26,656 25,299 25,986 24,296 24,566 19,196
26,755 25,379 26,292 24,513 24,766 18,851
26,978 25,755 26,235 24,925 25,000 18,898
26,876 25,718 25,616 24,198 23,970 17,965
26, 256 24,861 24,479 23,574 22,217 17,009
26,978 25,755 26,292 24,925 25,000 20,462
24,911 24,071 24,128 22,475 22,217 17,009
2,067 1,684 2,164 2,450 2,783 3,453
8.2
9.8
7.7
6.5
11.1
16.9
1,175 1,206 1,238 1,215 1, 231 1,192

8.6

21,888
21,888
11.8

1923
25,134
25,726
26,133
26,432
26, 782
27,872
27,791
27,533
27,357
27,554
27,336
26,471
27,872
25,134
2,738
9.8
1,007
1931
15,701
15,978
16,189
16,252
16,398
15,878
15,777
15,778
15,705
15,161
14,499
13,908
16,398
13,908
2,490
15.2
1,104

1924
24,482
25,388
25,851
26,268
25,681
25,238
24,308
24,592
25,019
25,570
25,734
25, 549
26, 268
24,308
1,960
7.5
1,130
1932
12,316
12,828
12,780
12,969
12,748
12,619
11,640
11,388
12,167
12, 254
11,966
11,379
12,969
11,379
1,590
12.3
999

Table 60 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners,
to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and to all occupa­
tion groups combined. Chart 20 shows graphically average wage and
salary payments to wage earners. Average wage or salary payments
to salespeople (not traveling) were not computed, because of the small
number involved.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners reached the
highest amount in 1925. The average declined each year since 1928,
and in 1932 it was the lowest since 1917. The average wage and salary
payment to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks reached the




84

AVERAGE AN NUAL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

highest amount in 1927, and in 1932 it was at the lowest amount since
1919. The average payment to the three general occupation groups

F ig u r e 20.—a v e r a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f L u m b e r a n d l u m b e r P r o d u c t s , 1916 t o 1932

combined reached the highest amount in 1925, and in 1932 it was at
the lowest amount since 1917.
T able 6 0 .—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
LUM BER AND LUM BER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS i

Average wage and salary
Average wage and salary
payments to—
payments to—
Num­
Num­
Book­
Book­
ber of
ber of
keepers,
keepers,
Year
estab­
Year
estab­
stenog­ All
stenog­ All
lish­ Wage raphers, employ­
lish­ Wage raphers employ­
ments earners and
ments earners and
ees
ees
office
office
clerks
clerks
1916.........— . 2 860
$640 1925 ............. 1,175 $1,370 $1,689 $1,407
$617
$867
1917.__........... 3 899
748 1926...........— 1,206 1,265
728
939
1,310
1918________
892 1,064
907 1927................ 1,238 1,275 1,629
913
1,331
1919________
1,032 1928.............. 1,215 1,280 3,807
923 1,009 1,295
1,652
1,329
1920___ ____ 1,003 1,271 1,457
1,288 1929-.............. 1, 231 1,275 1,678
1,328
1921................
1,236 1930.............. 1,192 1,178 1,717
914 1,200 1,545
1,244
1922................ 4 932 1,089 1,437
1,123 1931_.............. 1,104 1,047 1,544
1,115
1923........ .
999
834 1,359
1,007 1,220 1,513
1,254 1932_..............
904
1924................ 1,130 1,218 1,618
1,259
1 Average for salespeople (not traveling) not computed, owing to small number involved.
a Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 7.
3Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
greater by 1.

Industries in the Manufacture of Lumber and Lumber Products
S everal of the smaller industries classified b y the Ohio Division

of Labor Statistics under the manufacture of lumber and lumber
products have been combined in this study under “ lumber and




85

M ANUFACTUBES— 1916 TO 1932

lumber products, other.” The manufacturing industries combined
are: Baskets, wood, rattan, and willow; billiard tables and ma­
terials; boxes, cigar; furniture, wicker and reed; lasts; looking-glass
and picture frames; show cases and store fixtures; wood preserving;
and lumber and lumber products, not otherwise classified.
Table 61 shows average wage and salary payments to the wage
earners in each of 7 industries and the group “Lumber and lumber
products, other.” Average wage and salary payments were com­
puted by dividing the total wage and salary payments for a given
year by the average number employed. These averages should not
be taken as exact measures but as approximate figures.
Considering the 7 manufacturing industries and the group “ other”,
average wage and salary payments to wage earners reached the
highest amount in 1920 for boxes and packing crates, cooperage
and related goods, and matches, in 1921 for wood bending, turning,
and carving, in 1925 for sawmills and planing mills, in 1927 for
furniture, and in 1929 for coffins and undertakers’ goods and the
group “ other.” The lowest average for each of the industries was
in 1916, except for boxes and packing crates (with data not available
for 1916 and 1917), which was in 1932.
T

6 1 . — AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURES OF LUM BER AND LUMBER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

a ble

Furni­
Sawmill
Coffins
Boxes and and Cooper­ ture, in­
and
packing under­ age and cluding Matches planingmill
crates takers’ related upholster­
goods
ing
products
goods

Year
1916_______________
1917_______________
1918_______________
1919_______________
1920_______________
1921__________ _____
1922_______________
1923_______________
1924_______________
1925_______________
1926_______________
1927_________ ____
1928_______________
1929_______________
1930_______________
1931_______________
1932_________ _____ _

0)
0)
$815
2

863
1,207
940
(3)
1,020
1,047
1,086
1,084
1,047
1,138
1,104
1,062
957
743

$665

730
874
995
1,244
1,100
(3)
1,207
1,152
1,258
1,321
1,291
1,330
1,369
1,348
1,271
1,054

$629
691
876
950
1,230
1,119
(3)
1,109
1,194
1,137
1,197
1,159
1,152
1,196
1,095
928
759

$578
745
866
1,036
1, 276
1,255
(3)
1,182
1,216
1,257
1,258
1,301
1,288
1,290
1,149
1,013
753

$582
753
918
1,072
1,356
1,167
(3)
1,130
1,226
1,191
1,184
1,215
1,188
1,195
1,146
1,171
987

$668
746
961
1,033
1,331
1, 234
(3)
1,356
1,256
1,579
1,327
1,343
1,344
1,311
1,231
1,070
855

Wood Lumber
bending, and
turning, lumber
and products,
carving other
$574
628
944
949
1,152
1,332
(3)
1,014
1,097
1,206
1,120
1,132
1,159
1,151
1,052
926
602

$556
596
704
946
1,065
1,082
(3)
1,089
1,207
1,236
1,226
1,169
1,231
1,272
1,154
1,017
843

1 Data not available.
3 In accord with Ohio Division of Labor Statistics; unable to make further verification as original
schedules have been destroyed.
3 Data relating to total wage and salary payments not tabulated for individual industries by the Ohio
Division of Labor Statistics.

Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments

I ndexes for average number of wage earners employed and for
total and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are
shown in table 62 and chart 21. The base for these indexes is 1926,




86

AVEBAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The indexes cover the period during which the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics annually requested reports from all employers of 3 or more
persons. Indexes are shown in the table for the manufacture of

F ig u r e 21.—I n d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a l a r y
P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f l u m b e r a n d L u m b e r
PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932 (1926=100)

lumber and lumber products and for each of the 7 industries under
that classification.
In 1932, the index for average number of wage earners employed
stood slightly above the base year (1926) in the manufacture of
matches. For the general industry group, for furniture, and for




87

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

sawmills and planing mills, the index for 1932 was below 50, the
lowest index (35.5) being shown for sawmills and planing mills.
The 1932 index for total wage and salary payments to wage earners
was below 50 for the general industry group and for each of the
industries except coffins and undertakers’ goods and matches. For
sawmills and planing mills the index was 22.8. The 1932 index for
average wage and salary payments to wage earners stood above 60,
except for furniture and for wood bending, turning, and carving.
T able 62.—INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS, IN
THE MANUFACTURE OF LUM BER AND LUM BER PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY IN ­
DUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]
Lumber and lumber Boxes and packing
crates
products
Year

1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927.....................
1928....................
1929....................
1930— ...............
1931— .............
1932....................

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Cooperage and
related goods

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

101.2 97.4 96.3 94.0 90.7 96.6 90.8
105.3 114.0 108.3 95.9 96.0 100.2 111.6
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
101.8 102.6 100.8 100.8 97.3 96.6 105.4
95.7 96.9 101.2 96.4 101.2 105.0 99.8
95.3 96.1 100.8 96.2 97.9 101.8 117.7
77.7 72.3 93.1 70.5 69.0 98.0 108.2
62.4 51.6 82.8 73.6 65.0 88.3 77.0
49.0 32.3 65.9 55.8 38.2 68.5 76.4

79.2
106.3
100.0
103.1
100.4
122.0
110.4
74.1
60.9

87.2 106.1 105.9
95.2 106.8 101.5
100.0 100.0 100.0
97.7 98.3 95.2
100.7 91.3 87.9
103.6 83.1 83.1
102.0 72.8 66.6
96.2 64.9 50.3
79.8 48.8 30.9

99.7
95.0
100.0
96.8
96.2
99.9
91.5
77.5
63.4

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Furniture, including
upholstery
1924.. ................
1925....................
1926__________
1927__________
1928__________
1929._________
1930............ .......
1931— ..........1932__________

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Coffins and under­
takers' goods

93.6
100.7
100.0
102.2
97.5
99.2
77.6
58.7
45.2

90.5
100.6
100.0
105.7
99.8
101.7
70.9
47.2
27.0

96.7
99.9
100.0
103.4
102.4
102.5
91.3
80.5
59.9

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Sawmill and planing- Wood bending, turn­
mill products
ing, and carving

TV/TofnV i nc

121.9
119.6
100.0
102.0
106.3
99.4
94.7
98.1
100.3

126.3
120.3
100.0
104.7
106.7
100.4
91.7
97.1
83.6

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

103.5
100.6
100.0
102.6
100.3
100.9
96.8
98.9
83.4

104.0 98.5 94.6 96.6 94.7
107.2 127.5 119.0 91.4 98.4
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.3 101.5 101.2 105.9 107.0
90.5 91.6 101.3 105.0 108.7
89.7 88.6 98.8 111.0 114.1
68.8 63.8 92.8 84.8 79.6
51.5 41. 5 80.6 61.5 50.9
35.5 22.8 64.4 50.9 27.4

97.9
107.7
100.0
101.1
103.5
102.8
93.9
82.7
53.8

M a n u fa ctu re o f C h em ica ls an d A llied P rod u cts

T
highest total amount of wage and salary payments to wage
earners in the manufacture of chemicals and allied products in Ohio
during the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, was reported in 1929, and the second
highest in 1920. The amount reported for 1929 was $30,647,937 and
the amount for 1920 was $845,356 less. The lowest total was reported
in 1916, with 1917 and 1932 second and third lowest. The total
reported for 1932 was $12,044,135 below 1929.
The highest average number of wage earners during the 17 T
ears
was 20,779 in 1929 and the second highest was 20,340 in 1920. The
lowest average number was 14,713 in 1916 and the second lowest was
14,968 in 1921.
he




3

88

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The average wage and salary payment to wage earners reached the
highest point in 1929, with 1928 and 1920 second and third in order.
From 1920 to 1921 the average wage and salary payment to wage
earners declined from $1,465 to $1,305, or 10.9 percent, and from 1929
to 1932 the average declined from $1,475 to $1,220, or 17.3 percent.
Slightly more than 3 percent of the wage earners in manufactures
in Ohio were employed in the industries classified by the division of
labor statistics under manufactures of chemicals and allied products,
in 13 of the 17 years covered. The number was less than 3 percent
in 1916 and 1917 and exceeded 4 percent in 1931 and 1932.
Total wage and salary payments to wage earners in manufactures
of chemicals and allied products were from 3 to 4 percent of the total
for manufactures in 10 of the 17 years. They were less than 3 percent
in each of the first 5 years of the period, 4.9 percent in 1931, and 5.4
percent in 1932.
Table 63 shows percentages for each year from 1916 to 1932. The
three general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, ste­
nographers and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)—are in­
cluded. The data are for both sexes combined, as employers are not
requested to show separately total wage and salary payments to
males and females.
T able 63.—PERCENT EM PLOYM ENT AND PAY ROLL IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FORM OF THOSE IN ALL M ANUFACTURES
REPORTED IN 1916 TO 1932

Year

1916
.......................
1917............ ..........................
1918 . _ ____________
1919 .................................
1920 .....................................
1921....................... ................
1922 ________________
1923
1924____________________

Percent
employees Percent
in chem­ pay roll in
icals form chemicals
of all em­ forms of
ployees
that in
(average) manufac­
tures
in manu­
factures
2. 6
2.7
3.0
3.2
3. 1
3.6
3.4
3. 2
3.3

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.8
3.7
3.3
3.1
3.4

Year

1925_........................ ...........
1926_ ................................___
1927.............. ........................
1928-________ __________
1929____________________
1930___________________
1931-.....................................
1932 ___________ _______

Percent
employees
in chem­
icals form
of all em­
ployees
(average)
in manu­
factures

Percent
pay roll in
chemicals
forms of
that in
manufac­
tures

3.3
3.2
3. 3
3.2
3.3
3.6
4. 2
4.3

3.3
3.2
3.3
3.2
3. 2
3.9
4.9
5.4

Table 64 shows total wage and salary payments to general occupa­
tion groups in the manufacture of chemicals and allied products.
Payments to superintendents and managers are also shown in this
table but data for that group are not included in any other table or
computations in this study. In their annual returns to the division
of labor statistics, employers were requested to report for the year
total wage and salary payments in dollars, including bonuses and
premiums and value of board and lodging furnished. Employers
were instructed not to include salaries of officials.




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

89

Total wage and salary payments to the three general occupation
groups combined (omitting superintendents and managers) increased
each year from 1916 to 1920, decreased $10,863,462 in 1921, increased
in each year from 1922 to 1925, decreased slightly in 1926, increased
in 1927, remained practically the same in 1928, increased in 1929,
and decreased in 1930, 1931, and 1932.
From 1920 to 1921, total wage and salary payments to wage earn­
ers declined 34.4 percent and to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks, 11.2 percent. Payments to salespeople (not traveling) in­
creased 13.5 percent. The decline for the three groups combined was
30.1 percent.
From 1929 to 1932, total wage and salary payments to wage earn­
ers declined 39.3 percent, to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks, 19.8 percent, and to salespeople (not traveling), 48.9 percent.
The decline for the three groups combined was 35.2 percent.
Table 6 4 —TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF CHEMI­
CALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Total wage and salary payments to—

Bookkeep­ Sales­
Super­
ers, stenog­ people Total of intendents Grand
raphers, (not trav­ preceding and man­ total
and office eling)
agers
clerks
315 $10,928,677 $2,714,704 $169,836 $13,813, 217 $1,147,730 $14,960,947
1916__________________
340 14,917,943 3,117, 251 233,260 18,268,454 1,387, 544 19,655, 998
1917.......... ................... — .
351 120,370,871 3,911,847 432,972 24,715, 690 1, 592,817 26,308,507
1918.......... ..........................
369 223,729,351 4,836,359 318, 792 28,884, 502 2, 287, 572 31,172,074
1919_____________ _____
411 29,802, 581 5,883,978 436,871 36,123,430 2,767,256 38,890, 686
1920__________________
360 19,537,820 5,226,491 495,657 25,259,968 2,921, 224 28,181,192
1921.....................................
1922_................................... 374 21,524,453 5,199,164 536,964 27,260,581 2,735,902 29,996,483
1923___________ _______ 382 26,062,140 6,322, 314 568,655 32, 953,109 3, 206, 292 36,159,401
1924____________ ______ 392 25,870, 674 7,037, 064 506,754 33,414,492 3,057,896 36,472,388
412 27,708,226 7, 627, 797 562,478 35,898, 501 2,909,386 38,807,887
1925__________________
1926___________________ 415 27,491,839 7,695,488 483,802 35, 671,129 3,273,720 38,944,849
1927-.................-..............- 433 27,919,278 7,525,383 515,196 35,959,857 3,700,771 39, 660, 628
444 28,235,663 8,037,916 672,881 36,946,460 3,835,203 40,781,663
1928__________________
1929__________________
457 30,647,937 8,676,862 620,867 39,945, 666 4,185,920 44,131,586
458 27,387,946 9,145, 624 445, 803 36,979,373 3,965, 731 40,945,104
1930__________________
461 24,407, 767 9,022,451 310, 588 33,740,806 3,762,085 37, 502,891
1931______________ ____
440 18, 603,802 6,962,173 317,474 25,883,449 3,213,671 29,097,120
1932__________________
1 This total exceeds the total for industries by $60,938, but correction cannot be made as original schedules
have been destroyed.
2 This total exceeds the total for industries by $1,595, but correction cannot be made as original schedules
have been destroyed.
Year

Wage
earners

Table 65 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups and in all three com­
bined, in the manufacture of chemicals and allied products. Em­
ployers show in their annual reports to the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics the number of persons employed in each of the three general
occupation groups on the 15th of each month. They are not re­
quested to give information in their annual reports as to the number
of employees working full time, part time, and overtime each month.
The general course of the average number of employees was the
same as the general course of the total wage and salary payments,




90

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

except that in 1924 the average number of employees decreased
slightly while total wage and salary payments increased.
The highest average number of employees reported was 26,320 in
1929 and the lowest 17,983 in 1916. The second highest average was
24,568 in 1920. The years 1921 and 1932 rank second and third
lowest in average number employed.
From 1920 to 1921, the average number of wage earners reported
employed decreased 26.4 percent and the average number of book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks decreased 4.7 percent.
From 1929 to 1932, the average number of wage earners decreased
26.6 percent and the average number of bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks decreased 16.2 percent.
Salespeople (not traveling), who were very few in number, increased
from 1920 to 1921 and decreased from 1929 to 1932.
Table 6 5 .—A V ER AG E

N U M B E R OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) R E P O R TE D E M P L O Y E D
IN M A N U F A C T U R E OF C H EM ICALS A N D AL L IE D PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, B Y GEN*
ER AL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Number of employees

Year
1916______________________ -.........
1917.—______ ______________ —
1918.......................... — .........— ........
1919____________ _______________
1920____________________________
1921................................ .......................
1922___________ __________ _____
1923________________ __________
1924____________________________
1925_____ ____ __________________
1926_________ _________________
1927.......................................................
1928................................................— 1929......................................................
1930...................................................1931___________________________
1932.......... ............................................

Number of
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
establish­
stenogra­
ments Wage earners phers, and (not travel­
ing)
office clerks
317
340
351
369
411
360
373
382
392
412
415
433
444
457
458
461
440

14,713
16,825
18,974
19,421
20,340
14,968
16,989
18,903
18,005
i 19,277
19,112
19,138
19,209
20,779
18,730
17,812
15, 253

3,088
3,409
3,492
4,076
3,946
3,759
3,664
4,359
4,397
4,806
4,725
4,827
4,738
5,239
5,434
5,047
4,390

182
210
187
208
282
357
303
316
354
230
247
253
324
302
170
122
196

All
employees
17,983
20,444
22,654
23,705
24,568
19,085
20,956
23, 578
22,756
24,313
24,084
24,218
24,270
26,320
24,334
22,981
19,839

i This total exceeds the total for industries by 19, but correction cannot be made as original schedules
have been destroyed.

Table 66 and chart 22 show average wage and salary payments to
wage earners in the manufacture of chemicals and allied products;
these averages were computed by dividing total wage and salary pay­
ments to wage earners by the average number (total of number em­
ployed on the 15th of each month, divided by 12) reported employed
each year, 1916 to 1932.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners increased
each year from 1916 to 1920, decreased in 1921 and 1922, increased in
1923 and 1924, remained unchanged in 1925, increased each of the
next four years, and decreased in 1930, 1931, and 1932.
From 1920 to 1921, the decrease in average wage and salary pay­
ments to wage earners was $160, or 10.9 percent, and from 1929 to
1932 the decrease was $255, or 17.3 percent.




91

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
T able

66.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932
Year

1916.......... ......... ....................
1917.......... ........ .......................
1918....................................
3919.......... .................... .........
1920..........................................
1921...........................................
1922..........................................
1923.........................................
1924.........................................

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments
i 317
340
351
369
411
360
3 373
382
392

Average
wage and
salary
payment
$743
887
1,074
1,222
1,465
1,305
* 1,267
1,379
1,437

Year
1925.........................................
1926..........................................
1927................................... .
1928..........................................
1929.....................................
1930.....................................
1931..........................................
1932...........................................

Number Average
of estab­ wage and
lish­
salary
ments payment
412
415
433
444
457
458
461
440

$1,437
1,438
1,459
1,470
1,475
1,462
1,370
1,220

i Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary pay­
ments was less by two.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by one.
* In accord with Ohio Division of Labor Statistics tabulations; unable to make further verification as
original schedules have been destroyed.

Fluctuation in the employment of wage earners in manufactures of
chemicals and allied products is shown in table 67.
The least fluctuation from the maximum within a year was 8.1
percent in 1918 and the greatest was 23.4 percent in 1920. The fluc-

F ig u r e 22.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d s a l a r y p a y m e n t s t o W a g e
Ea n e r
TOr1932.s in t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f c h e m ic a l s a n d A llied p r o d u c t s , 1916

tuation was in excess of 15 percent in 3 of the 17 years and was below
10 percent in 6 years.
The maximum employment reported for wage earners during the
17 years was 22,232 in September 1929, and the minimum was 13,825
in January 1916.
140446°—35--- T




92

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 67 .—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932
JYLOnUl
January.................................. .
February.....................................
March..........................................
April.........................................
May............................................
June....... ...................................
July..............................................
August.................................... -1
September.............................. —
October. .....................................
November— ...........................
December...............................
Maximum— ..............................
M inimum.--..............................
Variation from maximum:
Number...............................
Percent................................
Number of establishments---jYLontn
January.............------- -----------February.--------------------------March..............-..........................
April------------------ --------- -----M ay_________ _____ ________
June---------- -----------------------July-------- --------------------------August-------------------------------September--------------------------October------------ ----------------November--------------------------December----------- ---------------Maximum__________________
Minimum----- --------- --------—
Variation from maximum:
Number________________
Percent...... .......... ...............
Number of establishments___

Number of wage earners (both sexes) employed in—
1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

13,825
14,144
14,581
14,766
14,509
14,807
14, 607
14, 876
15, 364
14,886
14,913
15,273
15,364
13,825
1,539
10.0
317

15,777
16,186
16,864
16,719
16,703
16,911
16,888
17,145
17,311
17,080
17,142
17,178
17,311
15, 777
1,534
8.9
340

18,009
18,284
19,251
19,028
18,550
18,609
19,187
19,377
19,459
19,194
19,140
19,601
19, 601
18,009
1, 592
8.1
351

19, 353
18, 773
18, 125
17, 637
18, 140
18, 985
19, 715
20, 871
21, 809
20, 520
20, 003
19, 126
21, 809
17, 637
4, 172
19.1
369

20,347
20,443
21, 505
20,820
20,074
20,922
21,366
21,418
21,298
20,404
19,010
16,472
21,505
16,472
5,033
23.4
411

15, 543
15, 248
15, 156
14, 812
14, 435
14, 197
14, 068
14, 498
15, 496
15, 435
15, 559
15, 174
15, 559
14, 068
1, 491
9.6
360

16, 015
16, 300
16, 374
16, 512
16,565
16,435
16,883
17, 269
17, 710
17, 606
17,964
18,236
18,236
16,015
2,221
12.2
373

18, 672
18,828
19,304
19,106
19,178
19,119
19,117
19,386
19, 539
18,504
18, 201
17,823
19,539
17,823
1,716
8.8
382

17,978
18,356
18,864
18,978
18,451
17,829
16,874
17,166
18,117
17,789
17,737
17,922
18,978
16,874
2,104
11.1
392

Number of wage earners (both sexes) employed in—
1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

18,259
18,782
19,311
19,789
19,313
19, 338
19,335
19, 250
20,419
19,400
19,170
18,952
20,419
18,259
2,160
10.6
412

18,786
19,118
19,237
19,197
19,085
19,017
18,834
18, 967
20,434
19, 072
18,929
18,663
20,434
18,663
1,771
8.7
415

18, 697
18, 977
19, 707
19, 561
19, 176
19, 067
18, 865
19, 003
20, 329
19, 139
18, 762
18, 370
20, 329
18, 370
1, 959
9.6
433

17,763
18,176
18,788
19,154
19,053
19,231
19, 473
19,549
20,744
19,461
19,622
19, 493
20,744
17,763
2,981
14.4
444

19,600
19,888
20,325
21, 111
21,108
21,099
21,045
21, 224
22,232
21,258
20,590
19,870
22,232
19,600
2, 632
11.8
457

19, 525
19,344
19, 739
19,892
19, 432
18, 936
18,540
17,899
18, 661
18,134
17, 651
17,001
19,892
17,001
2,891
14.5
458

18,865
18,834
19,688
19,229
17, 961
17,273
16, 854
16, 502
17, 510
17,068
17, 215
16, 748
19,688
16, 502
3,186
16.2
461

16,158
16,117
15,676
15,789
15,569
15,159
14,989
14,521
15,023
14, 691
14, 742
14,600
16,158
14, 521
1, 637
10.1
440

Industries in Manufacture of Chemical and Allied Products

T
industries classified under manufacture of chemical and allied
products by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics total 14, with an
added group designated as “not otherwise classified.” For the pur­
poses of this study 7 of the smaller industries and the group “chemi­
cals and allied products, not otherwise classified,, are combined
under “chemicals and allied products, other.” The industries com­
bined under “other” are baking powder and yeast; blacking, cleansing,
and polishing preparations; bone, carbon, and lampblack; dyestuffs
and extracts; explosives; ink (printing and writing); oil—linseed,
he




93

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

lubricating, and cottonseed—and oil cake; and chemicals and allied
products, not otherwise classified.
Table 68 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners
(both sexes combined) in each of 7 industries and in the group
“ chemicals and allied products, other.” The average wage and
salary payment, as previously explained, was computed by dividing
the total wage and salary payments for a given year by the average
number employed. These averages should not be taken as exact
measures but as approximate figures. Data concerning total wage
and salary payments for 1922 were not tabulated by the division of
labor statistics for individual industries.
The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners was
in 1920 for manufacture of chemicals, acids, and wood distillation,
fertilizers, tankage, petroleum refining, and salt; in 1921 for patent
medicines and drug compounds; in 1927 for soap, candles, grease, and
tallow; and in 1928 for paint and varnish. The lowest average wage
and salary payment to wage earners was in 1916 for all industries.
It should be emphasized, as explained heretofore, that average
wage and salary payments as here computed do not purport to show
full-time earnings, as data concerning part-time and overtime work
are not available. The changes from year to year also do not afford
any measure of changes in wage or salary scales or rates of pay.
T able 6 8 .—AVE R A G E W A G E A N D

SA L A R Y P A Y M E N T S TO W A G E EAR N E R S IN M A N U ­
FACTU RE OF C H EM ICALS A N D AL LIE D PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, B Y IN D U STR IES

Year
1916_______________
1917_______________
1918_______________
1919_______________
1920_______________
1921_______________
1922__________ _____
1923_______________
1924_______________
1925_______________
1926__________ ____ _
1927_______________
1928_______________
1929_______________
1930_______________
1931...............................
1932_______________

Chemi­
cals,
acids, Fertiliz­ Paint
tank­
and wood ers,age and var­
nish
distilla­
tion
$911
1,086
0)
1,547
1,892
1,507

$753
927
1,133
1, 235
1,540
1,026

$713
797
993
1,173
1,352
1,268

(3)

(3)

(3)

1,644
1,657
1,728
1,720
1,731
1, 701
1,695
1,653
1,577
1,433

1,272
1,315
1,282
1,300
1,304
1,264
1,291
1,268
1,089
929

1,355
1,410
1,420
1,424
1,459
1,502
1,486
1,445
1,350
1,175

Patent
medicines Petrole­
and drug um refin­
com­
ing
pounds
$479
544
599
739
957
2 1, 214
(3)
1,021
1,100
1,053
1,128
1,133
1,148
1,090
1,114
1,119
971

J
1
Salt

Soap, Chemi­
candles, cals and
grease, allied
and products,
tallow other

$839
989
1,123
1,376
1,628
1, 503

$610
971
1,116
1,232
1,556
1,391

$621
718
872
1,059
1,165
1,099

(3)

(3)

(3)

1,474
1,496
1,457
1,516
21,223
1,489
1,548
1,533
1,401
1,316

1,405
1,417
1,421
1,444
1,487
1,334
2 1,286
1,422
1,453
1,369

1,195
1,276
1,334
1,282
21,602
1,413
1,401
1,416
1,323
1,131

$768
842
1, 279
1,235
1, 414
1, 290
(3)

1, 325
1, 522
1, 380
1,379
1, 358
1,407
1, 411
1, 391
1,290
1,130

i “ Chemicals” apparently tabulated with “ Chemicals and allied products, not otherwise classified” by
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics; acids and wood distillation was tabulated separately but in this study
it has been combined in 1918 with “ Chemicals and allied products, other.”
3 In accord with Ohio Division of Labor Statistics tabulations; unable to make further verification as
original schedules have been destroyed.
3 Total wage and salary payments not tabulated for individual industries by Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics.




94

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I
for average number of wage earners employed and for
total and average wage and salary payments to wage earners in manu­
factures of chemicals and allied products are shown in table 69 and
chart 23. The base for these indexes is 1926. The years covered are
1924-32, during which period reports were requested each year by the
ndexes

F ig u r e 23.—In d e x e s o f A v er a g e N u m b e r o f W a g e E a r n e r s a n d o f T o ta l
AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE MAN­
UFACTURE OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932 (1926=100)

Ohio Division of Labor Statistics from all establishments employing
three or more persons.
The index for average number of wage earners employed exceeded
the base year, 1926, in 1925, 1927, 1928, and 1929, and fell to 79.8 in
1932. The same trend was shown by total wage and salary payments,
which fell to 67.7 in 1932. The index for average wage and salary
payments exceeded the base in 1927, 1928, 1929, and 1930, and fell to
84.8 in 1932.




MANUFACTURES—

95

1916 TO 1932

69

.— IN D E X E S FOR AVE R A G E N U M B E R OF W A G E EA R N E R S E M P L O Y E D A N D
T O T A L A N D AVE R A G E W A G E A N D SA L A R Y P A Y M E N T S TO W A G E EAR N ER S IN
M A N U F A C T U R E OF C H EM ICALS A N D A L L IE D PR O D U CTS, 1924 TO 1932

T able

Index numbers (1926=100.0) of—

Year
9924........................................................................................ .
1925-........... ........ ......................... ........................................ .
1926.......... .........................__......................................................
1927_____________ _____________ ____________ _______
1928_____________ ____ ____________ ____ ___________
1929_____________________________ _________________
1930..............— ......................... .............................................
1931........................................................................................
1132............................................................................................

Wage earners
(average)
94.2
100.9
100.0
100.1
105.1
108.7
98.0
93.2
79.8

Total wage
and salary
payments
94.1
100.8
100.0
101.6
102.7
111.5
99.6
88.8
67.7

Average wage
and salary
payment
99.9
99.9

100.0
101.4
102.2
102.6
101.7
95.3
84.8

Table 70 shows for each of seven industries classified under manu­
facture of chemicals and allied products, indexes for average number
of wage earners employed and total and average wage and salary
payments to wage earners. Indexes have not been computed for the
group “ chemicals and allied products, other.”
The index for average number of wage earners employed reached
the highest point during the 9 years in 1924 for 1 industry, in 1925
for 1 industry, in 1925 and 1926 for 1 industry, in 1928 for 1 industry,
in 1929 for 2 industries, and in 1931 for 1 industry. The lowest
point was reached in 1928 for 1 industry, in 1930 for 1 industry, in
1931 for 1 industry, and in 1932 for 4 industries.
The index for total wage and salary payments to wage earners
reached the highest point during the 9 years in 1924 for 1 industry,
in 1925 for 1 industry, in 1926 for 1 industry, in 1928 for 1 industry,
in 1929 for 2 industries, and in 1931 for 1 industry. The lowest point
was reached in 1930 for 1 industry and in 1932 for 6 industries.
The index for average wage and salary payments to wage earners
reached the highest point during the 9 years in 1924 for 1 industry,
in 1927 for 3 industries, in 1928 for 2 industries, and in 1929 for 1
industry. The lowest point was reached in 1927 for 1 industry, in
1929 for 1 industry, and in 1932 for 5 industries.




96
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

70.—INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUS­
TRIES
[1926=100.0]

a ble

Chemicals, acids and Fertilizers, tankage
wood distillation
Year

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927__________
1928__________
1929__________
1930__________
1931__________
1932__________

Total
wage
and
salarypay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Paint and varnish Patent medicines and
drug compounds
Wage Total
earn­ wage
ers and
(aver­ salary
pay­
age) ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

96.2
101.8
100.0
104.0
103.0
113.8
100.6
87.9
77.0

Year

1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927__________
1928__________
1929__________
1930__________
1931__________
1932__________

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age)

92.7 96.3 87.7 88.2 101.2 85.8 85.0 99.0 90.0 87.8 97.5
102.3 100.5 108.5 106.4 98.6 96.3 96.1 99.7 100.0 93.4 93.4
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
104.7 100.6 90.2 90.0 100.3 97.7 100.1 102.5 89.4 89.8 100.4
101.8 98.9 107.3 103.7 97.2 96.8 102.0 105.5 86.2 87.7 101.8
112.2 98.5 103.5 102.3 99.3 100.1 104.5 104.4 80.8 78.1 96.6
96.7 96.1 94.7 91.9 97.5 92.1 93.5 101.5 73.7 72.8 98.8
80.6 91.7 67.7 56.4 83.8 74.4 70.5 94.8 64.1 63.6 99.2
64.2 83.3 72.0 51.2 71.5 67.1 55.4 82.5 63.8 54.9 86.1
Soap, candles, grease, and
Petroleum refining
Salt
tallow
Total Average
Total Average
Total Average
Wage wage
wage Wage wage
wage Wage
wage
wage
earners and
and earners and
and
earners
and
and
(aver­ salary salary (aver­ salary salary (aver­ salary salary
age)
pay­
pay­
age)
pay­
pay­
age)
pay­
pay­
ments ment
ments ment
ments ment
113.7 112.1
98.7 112.6 110.5
84.1
98.1
84.5
99.5
119.7 115.0
96.4
89.2
96.1
97.9
98.4
104.1
92.8
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
97.4
120.7
80.7 100.0 103.0
103.0
88.3
110.3
125.0
98.2
95.8
94.0
88.2
92.4
106.6
110.2
81.5
117.5
106.1 108.3 102.1
81.3
72.4
89.1
114.6
109.3
104.8
110.8 112.1 101.1
72.3
73.5
93.4
103.2
98.5
110.5
92.4
129.3 119.5
77.5
78.0
103.2
100.6
91.0
93.9
87.4
86.8
100.7
78.1
74.0
94.8
78.3
88.2
69.1
M a n u fa ctu re o f Paper an d P rin tin g

I
t h e m anufacture of paper and printing in Ohio during th e 17
years, 1916 to 1932, the highest average w age and salary p aym en t for
all occupation groups com bined w as $1,605 in 1928, the second highest
was $1,545 in 1929, and the low est w as $735 in 1916. T he average
in 1932 w as $1,250, w hich w as the low est since 1919.
T he decline in average w age and salary paym ents from 1929 to
1932 was $321, or 21.2 percent, for w age earners; $194, or 12.5 per­
cent, for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; $310, or 13.4
percent, for salespeople (not traveling); and $295, or 19.1 percent,
for the three general occupation groups com bined.
T he average num ber of persons reported em ployed in each of the
general occupation groups is show n in table 71.
T he year 1929 show s the highest average num ber em ployed of
wage earners, of salespeople (not traveling), and of the general
occupation groups com bined. T he highest average num ber of book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks w as em ployed in 1930. T he
low est average num ber of wage earners w as em ployed in 1918, of
salespeople (not traveling) in 1917, and of bookkeepers, stenogran




97

M ANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

phers, and office clerks, and of the general occupation groups com ­
bined, in 1916. In 1932 th e average num ber of w age earners em ployed
was the low est since 1923 and th e average for the general occupation
groups com bined w as the low est since 1924.
T

71.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN MANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND PRINTING, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPA­
TION GROUPS

a ble

Number of employees
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
Year
stenogra­
Wage
travel­ All em­
ployees
earners
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
34, 526
820
928
29,339
1916___________________________
4,367
764
34, 774
930
29, 627
4,383
1917___________________ ____ ___
34, 668
1918__________ ____ ____________
939
29,032
951
4,685
924
5,072
903
37, 205
1919___________________________
31, 230
41,496
34,862
1,029
1920___________________________
977
5,605
36, 783
1921_____ ______________________
5,776
1,061
869
29,946
32, 207
39,041
1922___________________________
1,047
5,787
42,097
913
34,766
6,096
1,235
________
1923__________________■_
45, 475
, 936
1,357
1924____ _______________________
980
37,182
38,851
7,292
1,451
47, 594
1925___________________________
1,037
49, 734
1,075
40, 540
7,676
1,518
1926___________________________
41,352
50, 948
8,005
1,591
1927______________ ____ ________
48,951
1,130
41,004
1,508
1928___________________________
,439
43,871
1,764
54,286
1,158
8,651
1929____________________________
42,022
9,462
52,451
1,151
1968
1930______________________ _____
1,160
39,933
7,866
1,596
49, 395
1931____________________________
1932___________________________
7,696
46, 238
1,139
36,817
1, 726
1 In accord with tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, but possibly some error in reporting
or tabulating.
Number of
establish­
ments

886

6

1,110

6

In 16 of the 17 years covered in this stud y m ore than 80 percent of
the em ployees were classified as w age earners. T able 72 show s for
th at occupation group fluctuation in em ploym ent from 1930 to 1932.
M axim um em ploym ent for th e 17-year period w as 45,024 in October
1929, and m inim um em ploym ent w as 27,881 in January 1916.
T

a ble

7 2 .—

FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND PRINTING, 1930 TO 1932 i

Month

Number of wage earn­
ers (both sexes) em­
ployed in—
1930

January _ ___________
February
March________________
April
May
_
June___________ _______
July...............................—
August. ________ ___ Septem ber..________
October------------ -----------

1931
40,899
40,956
40, 936
40,809
41,035
40, 701
39,425
38,935
39, 225
38,954

38,172
38,115
38,074
37, 735
37,198
36, 425
35, 781
35,447
36,196
36,159

1930

1932

42,267
42, 352
42,999
43,142
42,708
42, 597
41,966
41, 514
41,410
41,341

Month

Number of wage earn­
ers (both sexes) em­
ployed in—

November_____________
December_____________
Maximum_____________
Minimum_____________
Variation from maxi­
mum:
Number.......... ............
Percent................. .......
Number of establish­
ments_______________

1931

1932

41,072
40,892
43,142
40,892

38,934
38,389
41,035
38,389

36,530
35,968
38,172
35,447

2,250
5.2
1,151

2,646
6.4
1,160

2,725
7.1
1,139

1 For years 1916 to 1929, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Table 73 show s average wage and salary paym ents in the m anu­
facture of paper and printing.




98
T

able

AVERAGE ANNU AL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO
73.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF PAPER
AND PRINTING, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Average wage and salary payments to—
Number of
establish­
Bookkeepers,
ments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople All employees
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks

Year

1916___________________________
1917___________________________
1918_____ ______________ ______1919.......... ................— ................. . . .
1920__________ ____ -____ _______
1921____________________________
1922_____ ______________ ________
1923_____________ ____ ________...
1924.....................................................
1925........ .............................................
1926.............................. .................... .
1927................................................ .
1928......................................................
1929......................................................
1930.....................................................
1931.......... .....................................
1932.......................................................

1928
930
939
924
977
869
3 886
913
980
1,037
1,075
1,110
1,130
1,158
1,151
1,160
1,139

$720
781
909
1,100
1,412
1,292
1,328
1,376
1,420
1,282
1,478
1,464
1,508
1, 513
1,473
1,362
1,192

$741
833
835
1,052
1,295
1,323
1,319
1,476
1,446
1,309
1,466
1, 554
1,979
1, 550
1,621
1,536
1, 356

$1,204
1,478
1,200
1,707
1, 939
1,790
2,002
2,075
2,116
2,334
2,354
2,341
2,637
2,307
2,354
2,112
1,997

$735
803
907
1,109
1,409
1,311
1,345
1,411
1,445
1,319
1,503
1.506
1,605
1,545
1,516
1,414
1,250

1Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 7.
3Number of establishments reporting employees; the niifnber reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.

The highest average w age and salary paym en t to w age earners was
m ade in 1929 and to each of the other occupation groups and to the
three groups com bined in 1928. T he low est average w as paid in
1916 to each classification except salespeople (not traveling), where
the low est average w as paid in 1918. T he 1932 average paym en t to
wage earners and to the occupation groups com bined w as th e low est
since 1919, the 1932 paym ent to bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks the low est since 1922, and to salespeople (not traveling)
the low est since 1921. Chart 24 shows graphically the trend of
average paym ents to w age earners.
Industries in Manufacture of Paper and Printing

I n t h i s stud y the follow ing industries have been com bined under
“ Paper and printing, o th er” : Card cu tting and designing; engraving
and die sinking; type founding and printing m aterials; w all paper; and
paper and printing, n ot otherw ise classified.
T able 74 show s average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners
in each of the 8 industries and in th e group “ Paper and printing,
other.” These averages should not be taken as exact m easures bu t
as approxim ate figures.




99

M ANUFACTUKES— 1916 TO 1932

AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF PAPER AND PRINTING, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

T able 7 4 .—

Year

1916............
1917______
1918______
1919______
1920______
1921............
1922............
1923______
1924............
1925______
1926.........1927...........
1928______
1929...........
1930______
1931______
1932______

Bags,
paper
$534
659
770
940
1,107
941
0)
1,122
1,117
1,041
990
1,047
993
1, 111
1,099
1,038
874

Boxes,
fancy
and
Labels
paper, Enve­ and tags
lops
and
drinking
cups
$469
516
635
766
918
941
0)
1,037
1,094
1,124
1,130
1,143
1,158
1,237
1,149
1,103
900

0)
$607
726
863
1,024
970
0)983
1,012
1,000
1,046
1,028
1,043
1,085
1,061
1,011
907

(0
0)
$803
905
1,311
1,367
0)999
1,246
1,386
1,330
1,367
1,282
1,147
1,167
1,317
1,204

Stereo­ Paper
Paper,
and
includ­ Photo­ Printing typing
ing sta­ engrav­ and pub­ and elec­ printing,
ing
lishing trotyp­ other
tionery
ing
$666
775
1,010
1,182
1,564
1,244
0)
1,308
1,343
1,345
1,345
1,318
1,371
1,386
1,337
1,240
1,027

$1,015
1,172
1,232
1, 569
1,920
1,862
0)
2,017
2,124
2,115
2,298
2,394
2,491
2,610
2,384
2,158
1,960

$790
822
930
1,156
1,489
1,393
0)
1, 518
1,545
(2)
1,631
1,593
1,648
1,622
1,580
1,436
1,289

$842
983
1,068
1,239
1,482
1,606
(0
1,741
1,840
1,828
1,926
1,980
2,012
2,001
1,915
2,000
1,730

$564
705
835
895
1,194
1,186
0) 245
1,
1,241
1,336
1,328
1,270
1,399
1,331
1,431
1,338
1,018

1Data not available.
»Omitted due to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.

The highest average w age and salary paym ent to wage earners was
m ade in 1920 in 1 industry, in 1923 in 1, in 1925 in 1, in 1928 in 2, in

f ig u r e 24.—a v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d sa l a r y p a y m e n t s t o W a g e
Ea r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f P a pe r a n d p r in t in g , 1916 to 1932

1929 in 3, and in 1930 in 1. T he low est average paym ent was m ade
in 1916 in 7 industries, in 1917 in 1, and in 1918 in 1.




100

AVERAGE ANNU AL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

Indexes of Employment and of Wage and Salary Payments

I ndexes of average num ber of wage earners em ployed and of total
and average wage and salary paym ents to w age earners are show n in
table 75. T he base is 1926. T he indexes cover the period during
w hich th e Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics requested reports from
all em ployers of 3 or m ore persons. Indexes are show n for m anufac­
ture of paper and printing as a w hole and for each of 8 industries.
T

75.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF PAPER AND PRINTING, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

able

Paper and printing
Year

1924............
1925............
1926,..-- —
1927.............
1928.............
1929............
1930............
1931............
1932............

Total Average Wage
Total Average Wage
Total Average
Wage
earners wage and wage and earners wage and wage and earners wage and wage and
salary salary (average salary salary (average salary salary
(average pay­
pay­
pay­
pay­
pay­
pay­
number) ments ment number) ments ment number) ments ment
91.7
95.8
100.0
102.0
101.0
108.2
103.7
98.5
90.8

88.1
83.1
101.0
103. 2
110. 7
103.3
90. 8
73.3
100. 0

96.1
86.8
100.0
99.1
102.0
102.4
99.7
92. 2
80.6

Envelops
1924............
1925............
1926..........
1927______
1928............
1929............
1930..........
1931............
1932............

95.1
97.3
100.0
102.7
98.9
96.6
98. 6
90.9
84.4

92. 0
93. 0
100.0
101.0
98.6
100.2
100.1
87.9
73.3

83.1
94.3
100.0
120.5
125.5
144.9
142.5
138.2
111.0

76.8
86.8
100.0
125.5
136.0
164.6
147.8
129.8
94.7

78. 5
82.1
100.0
98.0
107.7
90.4
93.0
110.2
90.4

88. 5
86.4
100.0
103.6
108.1
101. 5
103.2
115. 6
79.9

112. 8
105. 2
105. 8
100.3
112. 2
111.0
104.8
88.3
100. 0

Labels and tags
96. 7
95. 6
100.0
98.3
99.7
103.7
101.4
96. 7
86.7

95.6
97.6
100.0
98.6
109.1
114.1
96.4
38.9
35.1

89.6
101.7
100.0
101.3
105.1
98.4
84.7
38.7
31.8

*
,

93.7
104.2
100.0
102.8
96.4
86.2
87.7
99.0
90.5

Printing and publishing

Photo-engraving
1924 ..........
1925............
1926............
1927............
1928...........
1929 ..........
1930.............
1931............
1932............

Boxes, fancy and paper, and
drinking cups

Bags, paper

92.4
92.0
100.0
104.2
108.4
113.6
103.7
93.9
85.3

90.6
95.1
100.0
103.7
100.5
111.2
110.3
109.1
101.5

85.8
0)
100.0
101.2
101.6
110.6
106.8
96.0
80.2

94.7
0)
100.0
97.7
101.0
99.4
96.9
88.0
79.0

93. 6
96. 3
100.0
93.8
90. 5
111.6
89.8
86.8
82.4

90. 6
95. 7
100.0
94. 9
92. 7
122. 2
91.3
84.7
65.6

96.8
99.5
100.0
101.2
102.5
109.5
101.7
97.6
79.6

Paper, including stationery
95.1
98.7
100.0
101.4
104.8
101.5
98.3
84.5
77.5

94.9
98.7
100.0
99.4
106.9
104.6
97.7
77.9
59.2

99.9
100.0
100.0
98.0
101.9
103.0
99.4
92.2
76.4

Stereotyping and
electrotyping
91.8
104.0
100.0
108.4
116.1
105.3
99.8
80.7
78.4

87.7
98.7
100.0
111.4
121.3
109.4
99.2
83.8
70.4

95.5
94.9
100.0
102.8
104.5
103.9
99.4
103.8
89.8

i Omitted due to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.

Considering the industry group as a w hole, the index in 1932 w as
90.8 for average num ber of w age earners em ployed, 73.3 for total
wage and salary paym ents to w age earners, and 80.6 for average
w age and salary paym ents.
Labels and tags show the low est 1932 index for average num ber of
w age earners em ployed and for total w age and salary paym ents, and




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

101

m anufacture of paper the low est 1932 index for average paym ents.
T w o of the 8 industries show a higher average num ber of w age earn­
ers em ployed in 1932 than in the base year (1926). T he 1932 index
for average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners w as above 85
in 5 of the 8 industries.
Chart 25 show s graphically the indexes for the industry as a w hole.
M a n u fa ctu re o f R u b b er P rod u cts

I n manufacture of rubber products in Ohio, according to reports
from practically all establishments employing three or more persons,
the average number of persons employed declined 28,510, or 40.9
the

F ig u r e 25.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m plo y ed a n d T o t a l a n d a v e r a g e
W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f P a per
a n d P r in t in g , 1924 t o 1932 (1926=100)

percent, from 1929 to 1932; the total wage and salary paym ents
decreased $66,306,184, or 59.2 percent; and the average wage and
salary paym ent decreased $495, or 30.7 percent.
D uring the 17 years covered b y this stu d y the average num ber of
em ployees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks; and salespeople, n ot traveling) reached the highest point in
1919, and both total and average w age and salary paym ents reached
the highest am ount in 1920. T he average num ber em ployed reached
the low est point in 1921, and both total and average w age and salary
paym ents were low est in 1916.
T he average num ber of persons reported em ployed in each of the
three general occupation groups is show n in table 76.
T he highest average num ber of w age earners w as em ployed in 1919
and the highest average num ber of bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks in 1920. T he average num ber of wage earners em ployed




102

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

reached the low est point in 1921, and the average num ber of book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks the low est point in 1932.
Table 76.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN M ANUFACTURE OF RUBBER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS

Number of employees
Number of
establish­
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
ments Wage earners stenograph­ (not travel­ All employees
ers, and office
ing)
clerks

Year

78
82
93
108
114
107
109
119
120
113
112
128
133
127
113
104
95

1916.......... ........................................
1917............ ..........................................
1918.......... ........ ...................................
1919______________ _____________
1920....................................................
1921_____ ______________________
1922.....................................................
1923___________________________
1924..................... . . . ...........................
1925.'__________________________
1926____ _____________________ _
1927_______________________ ____
1928_____ ______________________
1929____________ _____ ____ _____
1930_____________________ ____ _
1931—........-..................... — ..........1932_______________ ____________

5,702
6,942
7,835
9,213
9,598
5,458
5,314
5,311
5,040
5,614
5,994
6,450
6,897
7,138
6, 515
5,252
4,937

42,401
55,418
49,236
66,367
61,671
31,270
43,617
46,864
47,207
65,929
55,021
57,311
59,114
62,358
45, 755
38,870
36,048

113
428
53
73
73
61
53
0)
96
62
57
0)
0)
0)
0)
(»)
0)

48,216
62,788
57,124
75,653
71,343
36,789
48,985
52,175
52,343
61,605
61,072
63,761
66,011
69,496
52,270
44,122
40,986

i Carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified”, in tabulations of the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics.

M ore than 85 percent of the em ployees in the m anufacture of
rubber products were classified as w age earners except in 3 of the 17
years covered. T able 77 show s for th at general occupation group
fluctuation in em ploym ent from 1930 to 1932. M axim um em ploy­
m ent for the 17-year period w as 82,063 in April 1920, and m inim um
em ploym ent w as 23,240 in January 1921, w ith a reduction of 58,823,
or 71.7 percent, in a period of 9 m onths.
Table 77.— FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF RUBBER PRODUCTS, 1930 TO 1932 i

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

January..............................
February............................
March.................................
April....................................
M a y _________________
June.....................................
July.....................................
August.............. .................
September..........................
October...............................

49,561
48, 696
48,073
48,980
49,928
49,254
46,954
45,354
42,347
40, 617

1931

Month

1932

39, 734 37,427 November................. .........
39,019 37, 706 December.................... .......
39,248 37,497
38, 759 37,191 Maximum_____________
39,950 36,904 Minimum..........................
40,428 37,488 Variation from maxi­
39, 789 36, 599 mum:
Number.......................
39,003 35,086
Percent........................
38,154 33,544
37,602 34,149 Number of establish­
ments.............................

>For years 1916 tQ 1929 see bureau Qf Labor Statistics Bui. No, 663




Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

1931

1932

39,759
39.540
49,928
39.540

37,487
37.267
40,428
37.267

34,586
34,404
37,706
33,544

10,388
20.8
113

3,161
7.8
104

4,162
11.0
95

103

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 78 show s average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners,
to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and to all occupation
groups com bined.
T he average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners reached the
highest am ount in 1920. T he average declined each year follow ing
1928 and in 1932 it w as the low est since 1916. T he average paym en t
to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks reached the highest
am ount in 1919, w ith 1920 second in order. T he low est average p ay­
m ent to th at group w as in 1916, w ith 1917 second in order.
Table 78.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF RUBBER
PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Average wage and salary payments to—
Number of
Bookkeepers,
establish­
ments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople
travel­ All em­
ployees
phers, and (noting)
office clerks

Year

1916____________ _______________
1917-..........- ....................................._
1918__________________________
1919............................ ........................
1920___________________________
1921__________ ___ _____________
1922____________________ _______
1923___________________________
1924_____ ____ _____________ ____
3925___________________________
1926___________________________
1927__________________ ______
1928..................... ........... ................
1929............ .........................................
1930_____ ______________________
1931___ ________________ _______
1932_________ ________ ________

78
82
93
108
114
107
*109
119
120
113
112
128
133
127
113
104
95

$810
1,042
1,233
1,288
1,710
1,465
1,433
1,589
1,540
1,553
1,562
1,583
1,611
1,562
1,450
1,254
1, on

$844
1,032
1,235
2,463
2,089
1,817
1,681
1,717
1,896
1,906
1,857
1,936
2,014
2,033
2,008
1,985
1,873

0)
0)
0)
(0
(9
0)
0)
(3)
0)
0)
0)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
( 3)

$815
1,041
1,236
1,434
1, 762
1, 520
1,462
* 1, 602
1,576
1, 586
1,593
4 1,619
41, 653
4 1, 610
4 1, 520
41, 341
41,115

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
greater by 2.
3 Carried with "Manufactures, not otherwise classified”, in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statis­
tics.
4 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this aver­
age, as average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.

Chart 26 show s graphically average wage and salary paym ents to
wage earners.
Industries in Manufacture of Rubber Products
D a t a for industries classified under m anufacture of rubber products
were n o t tabulated separately b y the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics
for 1916 to 1918. In this stud y, m anufacture of rubber garm ents and
of rubber products n ot otherw ise classified have been com bined under
“ R ubber products, other.”
A verage w age and salary paym ents to wage earners in each of the
industries and in the group “ R ubber products, other” , are show n in
table 79. T hese averages should n ot be taken as exact m easures but
as approxim ate figures,




104

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 79.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF RUBBER PRODUCTS, 1919 « TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
•
Drug­
gists’
Tires
sundries, and
and toys, tubes
rubber

Year
1919________ _____
1920______________
1921______________
1922______________
1923_____________
1924______________
1925_____________

$981
1,094
1,061
(2)
1,163
1,162
1,238

$1,299
1,727
1,488
(2)
1,629
1.580
1.580

Rubber
products,
other

Year

1926.........................
1927..
1928______
1929............. ......
1930______ ______
$1,297 1931............. ..............
1,395 1932—

8

Drug­
gists’
Tires
sundries, and
and toys, tubes
rubber
$1, 227
1.194
1.195
1, 215
1,101
968
808

$1,594
1,619
1,659
1,600
1,492
1,294
1,040

Rubber
products,
other
$1,379
1,195
1,186
1,306
1,152
978
801

1 Data by industries not available for 1916 to 1918.
3 Data not available.
3 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

In the m anufacture of druggists’ sundries and toys, rubber, the
highest average paym ent to w age earners was $1,238 in 1925, and

F ig u r e 26.—a v e r a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y p a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f R u b b e r P r o d u c t s , 1916 t o 1932

the low est $808 in 1932. In the m anufacture of tires and tubes the
highest average paym ent to w age earners w as $1,727 in 1920, and
the low est $1,040 in 1932.
Indexes of Employment and of Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s of average num ber of w age earners em ployed and of total
and average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners are show n
in table 80 for 1924 to 1932. T he base is 1926. T he indexes cover
the period during w hich the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics re-




MANUFACTURES—~1916 TO 1932

105

quested reports annually from all em ployers of three or m ore persons.
Indexes are show n for the m anufacture of rubber products and for

F ig u r e 27.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d T o t a l a n d a v e r a g e
W a g e a n d s a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in m a n u f a c t u r e o f r u b b e r
PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932 (1926=100)

In 1932, the indexes of em ploym ent of w age earners and of average
wage and salary paym ents were above 60, and the index of total w age
and salary paym ents to w age earners fell below 50 except for druggists’
sundries and toys, rubber.
Chart 27 show s graphically the indexes for the m anufacture of
rubber products.




106

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 80.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF RUBBER PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926—100]
Rubber products
Year

1924______
1925______
1926______
1927______
1928______
1929______
1930______
1931______
1932______

Druggists' sundries and toys,
rubber

Wage
Total Average
earners wage and wage and
(average salary- salary
number) payments payment

Wage
Total Average
earners wage and wage and
(average salary salary
number) payments payment

85.8
101.7
100.0
104.2
107.4
113.3
83.2
70.6
65.5

84.6
101.0
100.0
105.6
110.8
113.3
77.2
56.7
42.4

98.6
99.4
100.0
101.3
103.1
100.0
92.8
80.3
64.7

103.0
99.2
100.0
97.7
117.1
115.2
102.9
85.8
76.3

97.5
100.0
100.0
95.0
114.0
114.0
92.3
67.7
50.2

94.7
100.9
100.0
97.3
97.4
99.0
89.7
78.9
65.9

Tires and tubes
Wage
Total
earners wage and
(average salary
number) payments
85.6
102.8
100.0
105.9
106.8
112.3
82.3
68.8
63.7

84.8
101.9
100.0
107.5
111.2
112.7
77.0
55.8
41.6

Average
wage and
salary
payment
99.1
99.1
100.0
101.6
104.1
100.4
93.6
81.2
65.2

T he total am ount of w age and salary paym ents to the three general
occupation groups in the m anufacture of rubber products during the
9 years, 1924 to 1932, form ed 8.9 percent of the total reported paid
in m anufactures in Ohio.
In the m anufacture of rubber products, in w hich the m anufacture
of tires and tubes em ploys m ore than 85 percent of the total w age
earners em ployed, the peak in em ploym ent and also in total and
average w age and salary paym ents w as reached prior to the depres­
sion in 1921. T he peak year for em ploym ent and total w age and
salary paym ents during the latter part of the period covered was
1929, bu t in th at year the average num ber of em ployees (the three
general occupation groups com bined) w as below 1919 and 1920,
total w age and salary paym ents were below 1920, and average w age
and salary paym ents were below 1920, 1928, and 1927. T he average
num ber of persons em ployed in 1932 did n o t reach so low a point as
in 1921. T he reduction in num ber of em ployees since 1929 has
continued for a longer period but the reduction w as n o t so rapid nor
so great as occurred beginning in m idsum m er of 1920.
M a n u fa ctu re o f S ton e, Clay, an d G lass P rod u cts

I n t h e m anufacture of stone, clay, and glass products in Ohio
during the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, the highest average w age and salary
paym ent to all occupation groups com bined w as $1,483 in 1920, the
second highest w as $1,381 in 1926, and the low est w as $697 in 1916.
T he average in 1932 w as $878, w hich w as the low est since 1917.
T he decline in average w age and salary paym ents from 1929 to 1923
was $485, or 36.8 percent, for w age earners; $364, or 20.3 percent, for
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; and $470, or 34.9 per­
cent, for the three general occupation groups (including salespeople,
not traveling) com bined.




107

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

C ertain of the figures for 1926 and 1932 in this study w ill not be in
agreem ent w ith the stud y of “ A verage w age and salary paym ents in
m anufactures” , published in the M onth ly Labor R eview for M arch
1934, due to correction of an error in th e tabulations of the Ohio
D ivision of Labor Statistics after the publication of th at study.
T he average num ber of persons reported em ployed in each of the
three general occupation groups is show n in table 81.
T h e year 1925 show s the highest average num ber em ployed for
w age earners and for the occupation groups com bined. T he highest
average num ber of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks w as
em ployed in 1930, and of salespeople, not traveling (a very sm all
group) in 1929. T he year 1932 show s the low est average em ploy­
m ent for wage earners and for the occupation groups com bined.
T

8 1 .— AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN M ANUFACTURE OF STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

a ble

Number of employees
Number of
establish­
ments

Year
1916...............................................— .
1917.......................................................
1918.............................. ...................... .
1919..................................... ..............
1920..................................... ..............
1921.......................................................
1922.......................................................
1923.......................................................
1924.......................................................
1925............................................... ...
1926................................................ . ....
1927............-...................................
1928.................................... .................
1929........................................................
1930.....................................................
1931.............................. ........................
1932..........................................................

712
702
683
693
713
637
664
674
711
762
763
768
772
770
747
708
622

Wage
earners
44,096
43,591
35,192
36.916
40,168
32,054
34, 909
43,053
42, 898
45,871
44,665
43, 328
42,805
41,128
33,670
28,068
20,603

Bookkeepers, Salespeople
stenogra­
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
1,329
1,287
1, 323
1,361
1,532
1,443
1,471
1,827
1,816
1,971
2,099
2,077
2,173
2,091
2,262
2, 089
1,460

84
84
83
88
101
61
65
93
94
145
160
133
147
174
139
78
81

All
employees
45,509
44, 962
36,598
38, 364
41,802
33, 557
36,445
44,973
44,808
47,987
46,924
45,539
45,126
43, 393
36,071
30,234
22,144

M ore than 90 percent of the em ployees in the m anufacture of stone,
clay, and glass products were classified each year as w age earners. T able
82 show s for th at general occupation group fluctuation in em ploym ent
from 1930 to 1932. M axim um em ploym ent for the 17-year period w as
47,603 in O ctober 1925, and m inim um em ploym ent w as 18,323 in
July 1932.

1 4 0 4 4 6 °— 3!




-8

108
T

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

8 3 .— FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES)
IN M ANUFACTURE OF STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, 1930 TO 1932 i

a ble

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

January___ ____ _______
February------ --------------M arch.__ __________ _
April___ ______________
M ay__________________
June__________________
July___________________
August________________
September_____________
October_______________

33,670
34,589
35, 322
35, 930
35,806
35, 795
32, 329
33, 384
32,876
32,887

1931

1932

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

26, 713 21, 516 November_____________ 31,937
28,401 22,482 December-------------------- 29.515
29, 516 22, 567
30,680 21,818 Maximum_____________ 35,930
31,108 21,192 Minimum_____________ 29.515
30, 219 20,581 Variation from maximum:
Number............ .......... 6,415
27,623 18,323
Percent____________ 17.9
28,199 18,672
27,454 20,202 Number of establish­
27,030 20,321 ments________ _______ 747

1931

1932

25, 795
24,076
31,108
24, 076
7,032
22.6
708

20,054
19, 504
22, 567
18,323
4,244
18.8
622

1 For years 1916 to 1929, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553. Certain figures have been
revised since publication of the bulletin.

Table 83 and chart 28 show average wage and salary paym ents in
the m anufacture of stone, clay, and glass products.
T he highest average paym ent to w age earners and to the occupation
groups com bined was in 1920, w ith 1924 second in order for w age
earners and 1926 for the groups com bined. T he highest average
paym ent to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks w as in 1930.
T he low est average paym ent in each classification w as in 1916. T he
1932 average paym ent to w age earners and to the occupation groups
com bined w as the low est since 1917.
Table 8 3 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN MANUFACTURE OF STONE,
CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Average wage and salary payments to—
Number of
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
establish­
Year
All
ments Wage earners stenographers (not trav­ employees
and office
eling)
clerks

712
$689
$891
$696
1916_____ ____________________
0)
702
829
1,003
837
1917____ _______________________
0)
683
971
1,043
976
1918_____ _____ ____ ____________
(0
1,252
693
1,145
1919___________________________
1,151
0)
1,453
1,483
1920____ _________ ____ ________
713
(2) 1,421
(0
1,209
1921____ _______________________
637
1,220
0)
*664
1922___________________________
1,436
1,132
1,117
0)
674
1,188
1,533
1,204
1923_______________________ ____
0)
1,363
1924____________________________
1,577
1,374
711
0)
1, 624
762
1,374
1925............................. ............. ..........
1,359
(0
763
1, 360
1, 716
1926<___________________ - ..........
1,381
0)
1, 330
1,686
768
1, 351
1927.......................................................
0)
1,314
772
1,757
1,341
1928______________ _____________
0)
1929_____ ______________ ____ ___
770
1,319
1,796
1,348
0)
1,241
1930. *____________ __________
1,187
1,909
747
0)
1,780
1931____________________________
708
1,096
1,145
0)
<834
1,432
1932____ _______________________
622
<878
0)
1Not computed, owing to small number involved.
2 Omitted, owing to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.
2 Number of establisnments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 8.
<Not in agreement with study of “Average wage and salary payments in manufactures", Monthly
Labor Review, for March 1934, due to correction in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics after
publication of March study.




109

MANUFACTURES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

Industries in Manufacture of Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
this study the following manufacturing industries have

I
been
combined under “ Stone, clay, and glass products, other Burial
vaults, concrete; crucibles; emery wheels and other abrasives, includ­
ing sand and emery cloth; glass cutting, staining, and ornamenting;
n

f ig u r e 28.—A v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f S t o n e , C l a y , a n d G l a s s P r o d u c t s , 1916 t o 1932

lime; mirrors; statuary and art goods; stone and clay crushing and
grinding; and stone, clay, and glass products, not otherwise classified.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners in each of the
7 industries and in the group “other’’ are shown in table 84. These
averages should be taken not as exact measures but as approximate
figures.
Table 84.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Year
1916__________ _____
1917______ _________
1918_______________
1919___________ ____
1920_______________
1921...........................
1922_______________
1923______ ________
1924______ _________
1925_______________
1926........................ .
1927...................... ........
1928............. .................
1929........................ .
1930_______________
1931............. ........... .
1932______ .................

Brick
and tile, Cement Concrete
products
clay
$681
796
973
1, 235
1, 770
1,203
(2)
1,341
1,385
1,364
1,480
1, 302
1, 314
1,291
1,154
947
693

$819
1,070
1,467
1,473
1,652
1, 524
(2)
1,518
1, 696
1, 557
1,578
1,873
1,792
1,739
1,620
1,455
1,136

$691
822
861
1,479
1,344
1,238
(2)
1,403
1, 392
1,401
1,491
1,401
1,355
1,333
1,225
1,061
916

Glass
$738
833
981
1,136
1,400
1,109
(2)
1,262
1, 355
1, 332
1, 329
1,344
1,344
1,346
1,190
1,109
959

Marble
and stone
work,
stone
yards
$818
912
1,109
1,353
1,755
1,743
(2)
1,808
1,834
1,807
1,789
1,876
1,893
1,953
1,888
1, 686
1, 335

Pottery, Wall
Stone,
terra plaster, clay, and
cotta, and including glass
fire-clay hydrated products,
other
products lime
$651
780
937
1,104
1,372
1,201
(2)
1,043
1, 342
1, 320
1, 257
1, 250
1,231
1, 227
1,085
1,123
734

$735
927
1,362
1,399
1, 717
1,789
(2)
1,653
0)
1, 519
1,647
1,632
1,379
1,527
1, 443
1, 302
901

1 Omitted owing to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verificati<?n possible,
* Data not available,




$698
C1,002
1)
1,080
1, 361
1,189
(2)
1, 266
1,282
1, 303
1, 372
1, 327
1,326
1,332
1,293
1,092
776

110

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners was
made in 1920 in 3 industries, in 1921 in 1, in 1926 in 2, in 1927 in 1,
and in 1929 in 1. The lowest average payment was made in 1916 in
each of the 8 industries and the average in 1932 was second lowest in 4.
Indexes of Employment and of Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s o f average number of wage earners employed and of total
and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown in
table 85. The base is 1926. The indexes cover the period during
which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics has requested reports
from all employers of three or more persons. Indexes are shown for
manufactures of stone, clay, and glass products as a whole and for
each of seven industries.

INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS, 1924 to 1932, BY INDUS­
TRIES
[1926=100.0]
Stone, clay, and Brick and tile, clay
Cement
Concrete products
glass products 1
Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­
earn­ wage age earn­ wage age earn­ wage age earn­ wage age
Year
ers and wage ers and wage ers and wage ers and wage
(aver­ salary and (aver­ salary and (aver­ salary and (aver­ salary and
age pay­ salary age pay­ salary age pay­ salary age pay­ salary
num­ ments pay­ num­ ments pay­ num­ ments pay­ num­ ments pay­
ber)
ment ber)
ment ber)
ment ber)
ment
1924__________ 96.0 96.2 100.2 69.5 65.0 93.6 64.7 69.5 107.5 78.9 73.7 93.4
1925__________ 102.7 102.6 99.9 115.1 106.2 92.2 105.9 104.5 98.7 96.9 91.1 94.0
1926__________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1927__________ 97.0 94.9 97.8 105.6 92.9 88.0 90.1 106.9 118.7 103.8 97.5 94.0
1928__________ 95.8 92.6 96.6 109.9 97.5 88.8 83.6 95.0 313.6 104.6 95.0 90.9
1929__________ 92.1 89.3 97.0 127.4 111. 1 87.2 77.6 85.1 110.2 96.6 86.4 89.4
1930__________ 75.4 65.8 87.3 94.4 73.6 78.0 64.4 66.1 302.7 76.1 62.5 82.2
1931 _________ 62.8 50.6 80.6 81.3 52.0 64.0 45.3 41.8 92.2 61.3 43.7 71.2
1932__________ 46.1 28.3 61.3 39.5 18.5 46.8 37.1 26.7 72.0 30.3 18.6 61.4
Marble and stone Pottery, terra cotta, Wall plaster, includ­
Glass
work, stone yards and fire-clay products ing hydrated lime
1924— .........
92.2 94.0 102.0 114.3 117.2 102.5 112.8 120.4 106.8 100.2 67.2
1925__________ 99.7 99.9 100.2 114.1 115.3 101.0 98.9 103.9 105.0 99.8 92.1 (2)
92.2
1926__________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1927__________ 94.0 95.1 101.1 122.3 128.3 104.9 95.6 95.1 99.4 62.8 62.3 99.1
1928__________ 99.3 100. 5 101.1 93.2 98.7 105.8 89.3 87.5 97.9 63.7 51.6 83.7
1929__________ 109.3 110.8 101.3 112.2 122.6 109.7 69.0 67.4 97.6 55.4 51.4 92.7
1930__________ 83.9 75.1 89.5 101.5 107.2 105.5 60.1 51.9 86.3 45.0 39.5 87.6
1931__________ 87.0 72.6 83.4 89.5 84.3 94:2 42.1 37.6 89.3 33.8 26.7 79.1
1932.................... 76.3 55.1 72.2 59.2 44.1 74.6 36.7 21.4 58.4 25.8 14.1 54.7
1 Indexes not in agreement with study of “Average wage and salary payments in manufactures**^ Monthly
Labor Review for March 1934, due to corrections in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics after
publication of March study.
2 Omitted owing to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.
T able 8 5 —

Considering stone, clay, and glass products as a whole, the index
in 1932 was 46.1 for average number of wage earners employed, 28.3
for total wage and salary payments to wage earners, and 61.3 for
average wage and salary payments. The indexes for the industry
group are not in agreement with the study of “Average wage and
salary payments in manufactures”, published in the Monthly Labor
Review for March 1934, due to corrections in the tabulations of the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics after the publication of that study.



111

MANUFACTURES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

The 1932 index fell below 40 in 5 of the 7 industries for average
number of wage earners employed and for total wage and salary
payments to wage earners. The 1932 index for average payments fell
below 75 in each of the 7 industries, and in 1 it fell below 50.

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

1932

F ig u r e 29.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d T o t a l a n d A v e r a g e
w a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e e a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f s t o n e ,
C l a y , a n d G l a s s P r o d u c t s , 1924 t o 1932 (1926=100)

Chart 29 shows graphically the indexes for the industry group
as a whole.
M a n u fa ctu re o f V eh icles

I n t h e manufacture of vehicles in Ohio, the average number of per­
sons employed declined 49,921, or 63.6percent,from 1929 to 1932; total
wage and salary payments decreased $98,395,656, or 77.3 percent; and
the average wage and salary payment decreased $614, or 37.9 percent.




112

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

During the 17 years covered by this study the average number of
employees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks; and salespeople, not traveling) reached the highest point in
1919; total wage and salary payments reached the highest amount in
1920; and the average wage and salary payment reached the highest
amount in 1927. Employment and total wage and salary payments
reached the lowest point in 1932, and average wage and salary pay­
ments in 1916.
The Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classifies airplanes and ship
and boat building under “Vehicles” beginning with 1919. In this
study, therefore, those industries have been transferred for the earlier
years from “ Miscellaneous manufactures” to “ Manufacture of
vehicles” and the figures for 1916, 1917, and 1918 will not be in agree­
ment with the summary for manufactures published in the Monthly
Labor Eeview for March 1934.
The average number of persons reported employed in each of the
three general occupation groups is shown in table 86.
The highest average number of wage earners was employed in 1929.
The average in 1919, however, was only one-half of 1 percent less.
The lowest average number was employed in 1932 and the second
lowest in 1921. The highest average number of bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, and office clerks was employed in 1920, the lowest average in
1932, and the second lowest in 1916.
Table 86.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN MANUFACTURE O F VEHICLES, 1910 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Number of employees
Year

19161________________________
19171________________________
19181________________________
1919_________________________
1920_________________________
1921_________________________
1922_________________________
1923_________________________
1924_________________________
1925_________________________
1926_________________________
1927_________________________
1928_________________________
1929_________________________
1930_________________________
1931_________________________
1932_________________________

Number of
establish­
ments
376
383
374
390
416
363
320
331
328
319
318
319
304
304
297
265
228

Wage
earners
58,144
68,821
71,487
72,340
69,283
31,942
46,090
64,520
46,952
57,584
57,066
52,174
65,484
72,727
51,144
39,613
25, 684

Bookkeepers, Salespeople
stenograph­
All
(not
ers, and office traveling) employees
clerks
3,663
23101
61,907
54
4,681
73,556
<5,584
5 71
77,142
6,982
88
79,410
7, 287
98
76,668
4,315
85
36,342
4,510
65
50,664
5,732
70,252
(6)
5,083
97
52,132
5,012
115
62,711
4, 711
90
61,867
4,897
95
57,166
5,186
116
70,786
5,617
120
78,463
111
5,375
56,630
4,022
43,635
C9
2,858
28,542
(6)

1 Shipbuilding and boatbuilding classified by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics under “ Manufacture of
vehicles” beginning in 1919 and therefore transferred in this study from “ Miscellaneous manufactures”
for 1916 to 1918. Manufacture of airplanes and parts also transferred for the same reason for 1917 and 1918
but no data for that industry are available for 1916.
3 Number of salespeople (not traveling) in shipbuilding and boatbuilding not known. Total wage and
salary payment, $7,200.
3 Number of salespeople (not traveling) in shipbuilding and boatbuilding not known. Total wage and
salary payments, $2,600.
4 Number of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in manufacture of airplanes and parts and
not known. Total wage and salary payments, $46,627.
5 Number of salespeople (not traveling) in shipbuilding and boatbuilding not known. Total wage and
salary payments, $2,700.
6 Tabulated by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified.”




113

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

More than 90 percent of the employees in the manufacture of
vehicles were classified as wage earners in 11 of the 17 years covered
in this study, and more than 85 percent .in the other 6 years.
Table 87 shows fluctuation in employment of wage earners from
1930 to 1932. Maximum employment for the 17-year period was
86,400 in February 1929, and minimum employment was 21,179 in
October 1932.
Table 87.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES)
IN M ANUFACTURE OF VEHICLES, 1930 TO 1932 i

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

January_____ ____ _____
February______________
March________________
April.____ ____________
May_______ _ _ __ _
June__________________
July___________________
August____________ _
September..___________
October_______________

1931

54,365
56,553
56, 809
58, 691
57,343
54, 558
50, 023
47, 622
45, 225
44,010

41,062
41,079
43, 231
46,022
45,637
43,096
41,081
37, 582
35,621
32,024

29,137
30,890
28,855
27,379
27,119
25,626
25,169
22,712
22.179
21.179

Month

1932

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

November_____________
December_____________
Maximum_____________
Minimum_____________
Variation from maximum:
Number___________
Percent____________
Number of establish­
ments_______________

43.430
45,100
58,691
43.430
15,261
26.0
297

1931

1932

35,207 23,353
33,710 24,610
46,022 30,890
32,024 21,179
13,998 9,711
31.4
30.4
228
265

1 For years 1916 to 1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Average wage and salary payments to wage earners, to bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks, and to the general occupation groups
combined are shown in table 88.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners reached the
highest amount in 1920. The average in 1927, however, was only
$11, or six-tenths of 1 percent less. Following 1927, the average de­
clined each year, and in 1932 it was the lowest since 1916. Average
wage and salary payments to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks, and to the general occupation groups combined, reached the
highest amount in 1927 and the lowest in 1916.




114
T able

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
88.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN MANUFACTURE OF
VEHICLES, 19X6 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

Year

19161__________________________
1917 i__________________________
19181__________________________
1919____________________________
1920____________________________
1921____________________________
1922____________________________
1923____________________________
1924____________________________
1925____________________________
1926____________________________
1927____________________________
1928____________________________
1929____________________________
1930____________________________
1931__________ ________________
1932__________ _____ ___________

Average wage and salary payments to—
Number of
establish­
Bookkeepers,
ments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople
All
phers, and (not travel­ employees
ing)
office clerks
2 376
383
374
390
416
363
»320
331
328
319
318
319
304
304
297
265
228

$789
952
1,246
1,394
1,698
1,364
1,342
1,538
1,656
1,631
1,394
1,687
1,666
1,609
1,331
1,174
934

$969
1,148
4 1,204
1,383
1,629
1,611
1,618
1,719
1,874
1,842
1,836
2,004
1,583
1,647
1,744
1,910
1,667

(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
00
(3)
00
00
00
00
00
00
(«)
(0

4 $800
4 967
41,244
1,394
1,693
1,401
1,370
71,552
1,677
1,650
1,430
1,731
1,661
1,622
1,374
71,242
7 1,008

1 See note 1 to table 86.
2 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
less by 2.
3 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
4 Amounts indicated in notes to table 86 deducted before computing averages.
« Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
greater by 8.
« Carried with “ Manufacturers, not otherwise classified” in detailed tabulation.
7 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this aver­
age, as average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.

F ig u r e 30.—a v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s
in Ma n u f a c t u r e o f V e h ic l e s , 1916 to 1932

Chart 30 shows graphically average wage and salary payments to
wage earners.




115

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Industries in Manufacture of Vehicles
I
study manufacture of bicycles, motorcycles, and parts,
and manufacture of vehicles, not otherwise classified, have been
combined under “ Vehicles, other.”
Table 89 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners
in each of the six industries and in the group “Vehicles, other.”
These averages should not be taken as exact measures but as approxi­
mate figures.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners reached the
highest amount in 1920 for automobiles and parts, steam and street
railroad cars, and ship and boat building, in 1921 for airplanes and
parts, in 1926 for carriages and wagons, in 1928 for children’s carriages
and sleds, and in 1929 for the group “Vehicles, other.” The lowest
average was paid in 1916 for all industries except airplanes and parts
for which industry data for 1916 are not available, and the lowest
average was paid in 1917. In 4 of the 6 industries the highest aver­
age for the 17 years was paid prior to the depression in 1921.
n t h is

T able 89.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M ANU­
FACTURE OF VEHICLES, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Carriages,
steam
Auto­ Carriages wagons,
Airplanes mobiles and sleds, and ma­ Cars,street Ship and
boat
and parts and parts children’s terials, and
railroad building
including
repairing

Year
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

0)$989
1,214
1,740
1,600
1,899

(0 735
1,
1,816
1,791
1,602
1,601
1,578
1,604
1,718
1,761
1,527

$801
958
1,184
1,380
1,727
1,365
)
1,567
1,700
1,659
1,380
1,719
1,687
1,621
1,309
1,153
916

0

$684
733
892
1,001
1,208
1,015
0)
1,080
1,226
1,172
1,282
1,259
1,293
1,272
1,133
1,143
845

$691
828
956
1,030
1,386
1, 279
(})

1, 205
1,196
1,280
1,437
1,356
1,331
1,236
1,144
943
759

$836
1,036
1,189
1,483
1,750
1, 380
0)

1,496
1, 561
1. 562
1,491
1,657
1,613
1,725
1, 605
1,264
1,076

$780
1,058
1,791
1,633
1,806
1,478
(9

1,579
1,654
1,664
1,642
1,660
1,702
1,628
1,549
1,305
1, 240

Vehicles,
other
$759
772
973
1,210
1,444
1,280
1,312
1,422
1,457
1,385
1,370
1, 504
1,580
1,344
1,282
981

1 Data not available.

Indexes of Employment and of Wage and Salary Payments
I
of average number of wage earners employed and of total
and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown in
table 90. The base is 1926. The indexes are for the period during
which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics requested reports an­
nually from all employers of three or more persons. Indexes are
shown for manufactures of vehicles as a whole and for each of six
industries,
ndexes




116

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

In 1932, the em ploym ent index for airplanes and parts w as con­
siderably above the base year. In all other industries, except chil­
dren^ carriages and sleds, the index w as below 50. T he 1932 index
of total w age and salary paym ents to w age earners, also, w as con­
siderably above the base year for airplanes and parts, b u t it was
below 50 in all other industries. T he 1932 index of average w age and
salary paym ents to w age earners w as above 65 for all industries except
carriages and wagons.
Table 90.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACTURE OF VEHICLES, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926 = 100.0]
Vehicles

Airplanes and parts

Carriages and sleds,
children's

Automobiles and
parts

1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salarypay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

82.3
100.9
100.0
91.4
114.8
127.4
89.6
69.4
45.0

Year

97.7
118.1
100.0
110.6
137.2
147.1
85.6
58.5
30.2

118.8
117.0
100.0
121.0
119.5
115.4
95.5
84.2
67.0

92.4
171.9
100.0
117.1
222.0
248.4
257.9
230.2
126.8

104.7
192.1
100.0
117.1
218.6
248.7
276.5
253.0
120.9

113.3
111.8
100.0
99.9
98.5
100.1
107.2
109.9
95.3

81.6
102.6
100.0
92.8
121 9
134.7
93.1
73.3
47.2

100.6
123.3
100.0
115.6
149.1
158.3
88.4
61.3
31. 3

123.2
120.2
100.0
124.6
122.2
117.5
94.9
83.6
66.4

94.3
96.0
100.0
101.1
93.1
106.4
55.0
64.4
72.7

90.2
87.8
100.0
99.3
93.9
105.5
48.6
57.4
47.9

95.6
91.4
100.0
98.2
100.9
99.2
88.4
89.2
65.9

Carriages, wagons, and Cars, steam and street
materials, including re­
railroad
pairing
Year

1924______________
1925-..........................
1926___________ —
1927______________
1928______________
1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932______________

Total
Wage wage Average Wage
wage earners
earners and
and
(average salary salary (average
number) pay­ payment number)
ments
106.7
104.8
100.0
79.1
88.0
57.2
35.8
26.0
17.4

88.8
93.3
100.0
74.6
81.5
49.2
28.5
17.1
9.2

83.2
89.1
100.0
94.4
92.6
86.0
79.6
65.6
52.8

104.2
73.7
100.0
45.5
43.6
53.8
48.2
21.3
13.8

Ship and boat building

Total Average
wage wage Wage
and
and earners
salary salary (average
pay­ payment number)
ments
109.1
77.1
100.0
50.6
47.2
62.2
51.9
18.1
9.9

104.7
104.8
100.0
111.1
108.2
115.7
107.6
84.8
72.2

36.6
86.1
100.0
124.7
62.4
111.5
105.5
41.5
27.0

Total Average
wage wage
and
and
salary salary
pay­ payment
ments
36.8
87.2
100.0
126.0
64.6
110.5
99.5
32.9
20.4

100.7
101.3
100.0
101.1
103.7
99.1
94.3
79.5
75.5

Tw o industries show extrem e declines since 1926. In 1932 the in­
dexes for m anufacture of carriages and w agons were 17.4 for em ploy­
m ent and 9.2 for total w age and salary paym ents to w age earners, and
the indexes for steam and street railroad cars were 13.8 for em ploy­
m ent and 9.9 for total w age and salary paym ents to w age earners.
Chart 31 show s graphically the indexes for the m anufacture of
vehicles.




M ANUFACTURES— 1910 TO 1932

117

M a n u fa ctu re o f L eather an d L eath er P rod u cts

I n t h e m anufacture of leather and leather products in Ohio, accord­
ing to reports from practically all establishm ents em ploying three or
more persons, the average num ber of w age earners, bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks em ployed declined 17 percent from

F ig u r e 31.—I n d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d T o t a l a n d A v e r a g e
W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f V e h i ­
c l e s . 1924 TO 1932 (1926=100)

1929 to 1932, total w age and salary paym ents to such em ployees
decreased 46.3 percent, and average wage and salary paym ents
decreased 35 percent. Salespeople (not traveling) were om itted in
the preceding com parison, as data concerning the num ber em ployed
in 1932 were n ot available.
D uring the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, the average num ber of persons
em ployed reached the highest point in 1916 and the low est in 1932.
B oth total and average wage and salary paym ents reached the highest
am ount in 1927 and the low est in 1916.




118

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

The average num ber of persons reported em ployed in the m anu­
facture of leather and leather products in each of the three general
occupation groups is show n in table 91.
The highest average num ber of w age earners w as reported em ployed
in 1916 and th e second highest in 1919, w hile the low est w as in 1932,
w ith 1931 and 1930 second and third in order. T he highest average
num ber of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks w as em ployed
in 1926 and the low est in 1932. T he average num ber of w age earners,
of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and of the general
occupation groups com bined show a decline in em ploym ent each
year follow ing 1927.
T

9 1 — AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN MANUFACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

a ble

Number of employees
Year

1916................... . .............................. .
1917........................................................
1918.......................................................
1919.......................................................
1920......................................................
1921........................................................
1922.......................................................
1923_...............................................
1924..................................................._.
1925.......................................................
1926................................................ .
1927.......................................................
1928........................................................
1929......................................................
1930......................................................
1931--..................................................
1932.......................................................

Number of
establish­
Bookkeepers,
ments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
161
160
161
156
158
144
138
145
138
141
147
137
130
126
119
110
106

18,346
17,465
16,855
17,790
16,395
15,947
14,876
16,266
15,043
15,855
16,113
16,351
15,538
15,345
13,959
13,153
12,844

1,060
1,068
1,049
1,075
1,146
1,078
959
1,013
981
933
1,176
1,165
1,049
1,039
1,001
852
749

37
34
27
39
42
47
58
0) 55
60
59
67
61
65
0)
0)
0)

All em­
ployees
19,443
18,566
17,930
18,904
17,583
17,072
15,893
17,279
16,079
16,848
17,348
17,582
16,647
16,449
14,960
14,005
13,593

1 Carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified," in detailed tabulation by Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics.

M ore than 90 percent of persons em ployed in the m anufacture of
leather and leather products are classified in the general occupation
group of w age earners. F luctuation in em ploym ent from 1930 to
1932 in th at general occupation group is show n in table 92.
M axim um em ploym ent during the 17 years w as reported in D ecem ­
ber 1919. M inim um em ploym ent w as reported in June 1922, w hen
the num ber of w age earners em ployed w as 41.7 percent below the num ­
ber at the peak 2 %years earlier. T he second low est num ber reported
em ployed w as in N ovem ber 1931.




119

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
T

a ble

9 2 . — FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 1930 TO 19321

Number of wage earn­
ers (both sexes) em­
ployed in—

Month

1930
January......... .................. .
February................ ..........
March................................
April.................. .................
May....................................
June....................................
July....................................
August....................... .........
September_____________
October...............................

1931
12,590
13,345
13,756
13, 547
13,091
13,023
14, 221
14,379
13,941
12,652

12,663
13,203
13,224
12,886
12,660
12,649
13,017
13,293
13,394
13,007

Month

1932

14,975
14,805
14,547
14,063
13,539
13,840
14,278
14,820
14,253
13, 737

Number of wage earn­
ers (both sexes) em­
ployed in—
1930

November. ........................
December...........................
Maximum...........................
Minimum..........................
Variation from maxi­
mum:
Number......................
Percent........................
N umber of establishments.

1931

1932

12,566
12.089
14,975
12.089

11.580
11,709
14,379
11.580

11.958
12,175
13,394
11.958

2,886
19.3
119

2,799
19.5
110

1,436
10.7
106

1 For years 1916 to 1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

T able 93 show s average wage and salary paym ents to wage earners,
to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and to the general
occupation groups com bined, in the m anufacture of leather and leather
products.
T

9 3 . — AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE
OF
LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS i

a ble

Average wage and salary
payments to—

Year

1916_________
1917............ .
1918_________
1919................
1920_________
1921...................
1922................
1923...................
1924............

Num­
ber of
Book­
estab­
lish­ Wage keepers, All em­
stenog­
ments earners raphers, ployees
and office
clerks
161
160
161
156
158
144
3 138
145
138

$571
635
770
938
1,123
1,074
1,072
1,089
1,087

$606
672
858
1,039
1,134
1, 318
1,298
1,355
1,311

$574
638
776
945
1,125
1,091
1,088
<1,104
1,105

Average wage and salary
payments to—

Year

1925_____ ____
1926..............
1927_________
1928_________
1929_____ ____
1930_________
1931................1932_________

Num­
ber of
Book­
estab­
lish­ Wage keepers, All em­
stenog­
ments earners raphers, ployees
and office
clerks
141 $1,078
147 1,103
137 1,113
130 1,092
126 1,096
922
119
110
864
106
690

$1,325
1,463
1,552
1,473
1,461
1,395
1,323
1,315

$1,096
1,129
1,144
1,118
1,122
* 954
4 892
4 724

i Average for salespeople (not traveling) not computed owing to small number involved; in 1923, 1930,
1931, and 1932, carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified”, in detailed tabulation by Ohio
Division of Labor Statistics.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
greater by 1.
4 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing this average,
as average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.

The average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners reached the
highest am ount during the 17 years in 1920 and the low est in 1916.
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks received the highest
average am ount in 1927 and the low est in 1916. C om bining the
three general occupation groups, the highest average w age and
salary paym ent w as reported for 1927 and the low est for 1916.




120

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Chart 32 show s graphically average wage and salary paym ents to
wage earners in the m anufacture of leather and leather products.
Industries in Manufacture of Leather and Leather Products

I n t h i s study several of the smaller industries classified by the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics under the manufacture of leather
and leather products have been combined under “ Leather and leather
products, other.” The industries thus combined are: Leather belting

F ig u r e 32.—Av e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f L e a t h e r a n d L e a t h e r p r o d u c t s , 1916 t o 1932

and hose; leather gloves and m ittens; saddlery and harness; trunks
and valises; and leather and leather products, n ot otherw ise classified.
E xcept in the year 1918, m ore than 80 percent of the w age earners
in industries classified b y the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics under
m anufacture of leather and leather products, were em ployed in the
m anufacture of boots, shoes, cu t stock, and findings. T able 94 show s
fluctuation in em ploym ent of w age earners in th at industry from
1930 to 1932.
M axim um em ploym ent of w age earners during the 17 years w as
reported in D ecem ber 1919 and m inim um em ploym ent 2 %years later,
June 1922, w hen the num ber w as 47.1 percent less. T he second
low est num ber reported em ployed w as in N ovem ber 1931.




121

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
T

9 4 . — FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF BOOTS, SHOES, CUT STOCK, AND FINDINGS, 1930 TO 19321

a ble

Month
January______________
February_____ ____ ____
March___________ _____
April_________________
M ay__________________
June..................................
July.....................................
August________________
Septem ber......................
October...............................

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1932
1930 1931
12, 251 10, 398 10,606
12,089 11,044 11,131
11,899 11,546 11,271
11,467 11, 330 10,987
10,937 10,838 10,809
11,271 10,858 10,916
11,724 11,995 11,290
12,265 12,166 11, 540
11,716 11,702 11,551
11,147 10,428 11,037

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930 1931 1932
10,081 9,452 10,076
9, 664 9,571 10,399
12, 265 12,166 11, 551
9,664 9,452 10,076

November___________ _
December________ _____
Maximum_____________
Minimum_____________
Variation from maxi­
mum:
Number___________ 2,601
Percent____________ 21.2
Number of establish­
ments...............................
45
i For years 1916 to 1929, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

2,714
22.3
38

1,475
12.8
40

Table 95 shows average wage and salary paym ents to w age earners in
each of the industries and in the group ‘‘Leather and leather products,
o th e r /7 These averages should be taken not as exact m easures but
as approxim ate figures.
T

95.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN MANU
FACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

a ble

Leather,
Leather
Boots,
Boots,
shoes,
tanned,
shoes,
and
Year
cut stock, curried,
leather
cut stock,
products,
and
and
and
other
findings
findings finished
$542
$1,044
$628 1925.................
1916.................
$785
1,062
1917________
773 1926________
590
854
1918________
1,076
719
1,050
873 1927.................
1919________
886
1,348
1,015 1928................
1,046
1920.. ___
1,227 1929.................
1,050
1,067
1,490
1921________
1,184 1930________
1.302
859
1,045
1922________
816
0)
0)
(01,089 1931________
1932_______
1,061
1923—
1.302
650
1,138
1924________
1,050
1,356
i Information concerning total wage and salary payments not tabulated by
Statistics for individual industries.
Year

Leather, Leather
tanned,
and
curried,
leather
and
products,
finished
other
$1,325
$1,138
1,370
1,207
1,415
1,137
1,441
1,127
1,430
1,132
1,344
1,022
1,242
882
999
177
Ohio Division of Labor

In the m anufacture of boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings, the
average w age and salary paym ent w as highest in 1927, second highest
in 1920, low est in 1916, and second low est in 1917. In th e m anufac­
ture of tanned, curried, and finished leather, the average w as highest
in 1920, second highest in 1928, low est in 1916, and second low est in
1917. In the group “ Leather and leather products, o th er77, the
average w as highest in 1920, second highest in 1926, low est in 1916,
and second low est in 1932.
Chart 33 shows, graphically, average w age and salary paym ents in
the m anufacture of boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings.
Indexes of Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s of average num ber of w age earners em ployed and total
and average wage and salary paym ents to w age earners are show n in
table 96. T he base for these indexes is 1926. T he years covered are




122

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

1924 to 1932, during w hich period reports were requested each year
by the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics for all establishm ents em ­
ploying three or m ore persons.
In the m anufacture of leather and leather products, the index for
each of the three item s covered exceeded the base year in 1927. T he
indexes were low est in 1932— 79.7 for average num ber of w age earners
em ployed, 49.9 for total w age and salary paym ents, and 62.6 for
average wage and salary paym ent.
In the m anufacture of boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings, the
index for each of the item s also exceeded the base year in 1927. The

FIGURE 33.—A V ER A G E ANNUAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f B o o t s , S h o e s , C u t S t o c k , a n d F in d in g s , 1916 t o 1932

indexes, how ever, were low est in 1931 for average num ber of w age
earners em ployed (82.1), and in 1932 for total w age and salary p ay­
m ents (50.4) and for average w age and salary paym ents (61.2).
In the m anufacture of tanned, curried, and finished leather, the
index w as at the highest point in 1926 for average num ber of w age
earners em ployed and at the low est point (79.3) in 1932. T he index
for total w age and salary paym ents reached the highest point (102.3)
in 1927 and the low est (57.9) in 1932, w hile th at for average w age
and salary paym ent reached the highest point (105.2) in 1928 and
the low est (72.9) in 1932.
In the group “ L eather and leather products, oth er” , the index for
average num ber of w age earners em ployed and also for total w age
and salary paym ents w as highest in 1929 and low est in 1932. For
average wage and salary paym ents the index w as highest in 1926 and
low est in 1932.




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

123

F ig u r e 34.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a l a r y
P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f l e a t h e r a n d l e a t h e r
PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932

Charts 34 and 35 show graphically indexes for the m anufacture of
leather and leather products and for the m anufacture of boots, shoes,
cut stock, and findings.
Table 96.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
THE M ANUFACTURE OF LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS, 1924 TO 1932, BY
INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

Year

1924.....................
1926.....................
1926.....................
1927.....................
1928.....................
1929............. .
1930............. .
1931....................
1932....................

Leather and leather
products
Wage Total Aver­
earn­ wage age
ers and wage
(aver­ salary- and
age pay­ salary
num­ ments pay­
ber)
ment
93.4 92.1 98.5
98.4 96.2 97.7
100.0 100.0 100.0
101.5 102.4 100.9
96.4 95.5 99.0
95.2 94.6 99.4
86.6 72.5 83.6
81.6 64.0 78.3
79. 7 49.9 62.6

.140446°— 35-------- 9




Boots, shoes, cut
stock, and findings
Wage Total Aver­
earn­ wage age
ers and wage
(aver­ salary and
age pay­ salary
num­ ments pay­
ber)
ment
93.9 92.8 98.9
98.6 96.9 98.3
100.0 100.0 100.0
101.7 103.1 101.3
95.0 93. 7 98.5
93.2 92.2 98.9
85.4 69.1 80.9
82. 1 63.1 76.8
82.3 50.4 61.2

Leather, tanned, cur­
ried, and finished
Wage Total Aver­
earn­ wage age
ers and wage
(aver­ salary and
age pay­ salary
num­ ments pay­
ber)
ment
98.2 97.2 99.0
98.2 95.0 96.7
100.0 100.0 100.0
99.0 102.3 103. 3
96.1 101.1 105.2
97. 5 101.8 104.4
90.0 88.3 98 1
85.9 77.9 90. 7
79.3 57.9 72.9

Leather and leather
products, other
Wage Total Aver­
earn­ wage age
ers and wage
(aver­ salary and
age pay­ salary
num­ ments pay­
ber)
ment
81.6 77.0 94.3
96.9 91.4 94.3
100.0 100.0 100.0
102.1 96.2 94.2
112 4 105. 0 93.4
114.2 107. 2 93.8
96.3 81.6 84.7
70.6 51.6 73.1
51.6 33.0 63. 9

124

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO
M a n u fa ctu re o f L iq u ors an d Beverages

In
manufacture of liquors and beverages in Ohio during the
17 years, 1916 to 1932, the highest average wage and salary payment
to all occupation groups combined was $1,761 in 1923; the second
highest was $1,732 in 1920; and the lowest was $1,004 in 1917. The
average payment in 1932 was $1,233, which was the lowest since 1918.
In this industry group employment of wage earners and total wage
the

F ig u r e 35.—In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m plo y ed a n d W a g e a n d S alary
P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in M a n u f a c t u r e o f B o o t s , s h o e s , C u t s t o c k ,
a n d F in d in g s , 1924 t o 1932

and salary payments have declined each year since 1925, and average
payments each year since 1928.
Emplojunent and pay rolls in this industry group were, of course,
affected by the adoption of the eighteenth amendment to the Federal
Constitution. The manufacture of distilled liquor disappears from
the Ohio reports following 1918, and the manufacture of malt liquor
following 1919. There occurred at once a great increase in employ­
ment and pay rolls in the manufacture of mineral and soda waters.
Following 1920, however, employment and pay rolls in that industry
began to decrease and a decline was reported each year since 1925.




125

M A N U F A C T U R E S — 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

Table 97 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups.
The highest average number was employed in each of the occupa­
tion groups, except salespeople (not traveling), in 1916, and the
second highest in 1917. The lowest average number was employed
in 1932 in each of the occupation groups.
Table 9 7 .—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED

IN M ANUFACTURE OF LIQUORS AND BEVERAGES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OC­
CUPATION GROUPS
Number of employees
Year

1916___________________________
1917_____________________ ____
1918____ ____ ___________ _______
1919___ ____ ___________________
1920............... ......................................
1921.......... ........ .................... ..............
1922....................................................
1923_____________ ______________
1924____________________________
1925____________________________
1926____________________________
1927____________________________
1928........................... ........................
1929...___________________ _____
1930______ _____ ___________ ____
1931..._______________ ;________
1932.................................. .................

Number of
establish­
ments
192
179
182
167
150
121
120
124
140
147
153
155
150
164
163
175
158

Wage
earners
6,461
6,342
5,820
4, 533
3, 651
2,670
2, 234
2,194
2,015
2,139
2, 026
1,939
1,820
1,817
1,724
1,583
1,370

Bookkeepers,
stenographers, Salespeople
travel­
and office (noting)
clerks
639
636
576
529
453
362
313
316
279
282
285
255
245
261
247
248
244

150
168
152
144
128
129
134
127
142
131
165
163
143
163
99
91
71

All
employees
7, 249
7,147
6, 547
5,206
4, 232
3,161
2, 681
2, 637
2, 436
2, 552
2, 476
2, 357
2,207
2, 242
2, 071
1, 922
1, 685

More than 80 percent of the employees in the manufacture of
liquors and beverages were classified each year as wage earners.
Table 98 shows for that occupation group fluctuation in employment
from 1930 to 1932.
This industry group has a high seasonal fluctuation and the varia­
tion from maximum within the year exceeded 30 percent in 11 of the
17 years. Within the year, maximum employment occurred in June,
July, or August—usually in July—and minimum employment in
January, February, or December—usually in December. Maximum
employment of wage earners reported during the 17-year period was
7,368 in August 1916, and minimum employment was 1,183 in
December 1932.




126

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 98.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF LIQUORS AND BEVERAGES, 1930 TO 1932 i

Month
January_______ ________
February______________
March.................................
April__________________
May__________________
June...... ..............................
July..................................
August__ _____ ________
September________ ____
October________ _______

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930 1931
1932
1,498 1,421 1,312
1,502 1,439 1,320
1,526 1,460 1,291
1,652 1,556 1,378
1,942 1,650 1,470
2,044 1,720 1,717
2,118 1,887 1,468
2,122 1,856 1,408
1,762 1,668 1,356
1,595 1,530 1,249

Month

November
December__
Maximum_____
Minimum_______
Variation from maxi­
mum:
Number..
Percent__
Number of establish­
ments...............................
i For years 1916 to 1929, see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930 1931 1932
1,480 1,414 1,286
1,449 1,389 1,183
2,122 1,887 1,717
1,449 1,389 1,183
673
31. 7
163

498
26.4
175

534
31.1
158

Table 99 shows average wage and salary payments in the manufac­
ture of liquors and beverages.
The highest average payment to wage earners and to the three
general occupation groups combined was reported in 1923, the second
highest in 1920, and the lowest in 1917. The average in 1932 was the
lowest since 1918.
Table 99.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN M ANUFACTURE OF LIQUORS
AND BEVERAGES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS i

Average wage and salary
Average wage and salary
payments to—
payments to—
Num­
Num­
Book­
Book­
ber of
ber of
keepers,
estab­
Year
keepers,
estab­
Year
lish­ Wage stenog­ All em­
lish­ Wage stenog­ All em­
ments earners raphers, ployees
ments earners raphers, ployees
and office
and office
clerks
clerks
1Q1fi
192 $1,170 $1,094 $1,172 1925 ___
147 $1,489 $1,617 $1,584
1917 ______ 179
974
1,154 1,004 1926.................... 153 1,428
1,594 1,493
1,286 1,160 1927.................... 155 1,475
1918
_____ 182 1,137
1,623 1,521
___ 167 1,286
1919
1,409 1,308 1928...................
150 1,491
1,560 1,553
1,551 1,732 1929....................
164 1,484
1,554 1,527
150 1,754
1920 .................
1,615 1,483 1930....................
163 1,470
1,566 1,522
1921. ______ 121 1,455
1,549 1,393 1931.................... 175 1,396
1,444 1,431
1922
120 1, 351
124 1,771
1,573 1,761 1932.................
1,243 1,233
158 1,200
1923 . ______
1,499 1,516
140 1,492
1924...................
i Average for salespeople (not traveling) not computed owing to small number involved.

Industries in the Manufacture of Liquors and Beverages

I n t h is study, the manufacture of vinous liquors, malt, and liquors
and beverages not otherwise classified, has been combined under
“ Liquors and beverages, other.”

Two of the industries disappear from the reports following the
adoption of the eighteenth amendment. Data for total wage and
salary payments for 1922 were not tabulated by the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics for individual industries.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners in each of the
industries are shown in table 100. These averages should be taken not
as exact measures, but as approximate figures.




127

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

Table 100.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M AN­
UFACTURE OF LIQUORS AND BEVERAGES, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Mineral Liquors
Liquors, Liquors, and and bev­
soda erages,
malt
distilled
waters other

Year
1916................
1917................
1918................
1919...............
1920................
1921.............. .
1922..............
1923.......... ___
1924................

0)
$712
746

$940
1,010
1,154
1,263

$766
846
1,157
1,301
1,775
1,463
(2)
1,791
1,479

$777
789
1,022
1,156
1,448
1,333
(2)
1,483
1,650

Year

Mineral
Liquors, Liquors, and
distilled malt
soda
waters

Liquors
and bev­
erages,
other

$1,476
1,406
1,447
1,460
1,456
1,434
1,365
1,161

$1,637
1,624
1,725
1,736
1,669
1,664
1,521
1,331

1Q25
102fi
1927
1928

1929................
1930................
1931................
1932................

i Omitted due to error in reporting or tabulating; unable to make further verification. Average for 1915
was $651.
* Data not available.

Indexes of Employment and Wage and Salary Payments

of average number of wage earners employed and of total
and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown
in table 101 for the industry group as a whole and for the manufacture
of mineral and soda waters. The base is the year 1926. The indexes
cover the period during which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics
requested reports from all employers of three or more persons.
The indexes of employment and total payments show a decline
each year since 1925, and the indexes of average payments a decline
each year since 1928.
Indexes

T able 101.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND

TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF LIQUORS AND BEVERAGES AND IN THE MINERAL- AND
SODA-WATER INDUSTRY, 1924 TO 1932
[1926=100.0]
Manufacture of liquors and
beverages
Year

1924______ ________________
1925.......................................... .
1926............................. .................
1927........................................ — _
1923______ ________________
1929............................. .................
1930_______________ _______1931............- ................. ..............
1932..............................................

Wage
earners
(average
number)
99.5
105.6
100.0
95.7
89.8
89.7
85.1
78.1
67.6

Mineral and soda waters

Total
Average
wage and wage and
salary
salary
payments payment

Wage
earners
(average
number)

104.5
104.3
100.0
103.3
104.4
103.9
102.9
97.8
84.0

102.2
107.9
100.0
95.6
88.9
87.1
79.7
69.1
57.6

103.9
110.1
100.0
98.9
93.8
93.2
87.6
76.4
56.8

Total
Average
wage and wage and
salary
salary
payments payment
107.6
113.2
100.0
98.3
92.4
90.2
81.3
67.0
47.5

105.2
105.0
100.0
102.9
103.8
103.6
102.0
97.1
82.6

M a n u fa ctu re o f M etals a n d M etal P rod u cts, O th er th a n Iron a n d Steel

I n the manufacture of metals and metal products, other than iron
and steel, in Ohio during the 17 years, 1916 to 1932, the highest
average wage and salary payment to all occupation groups combined




128

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

was $1,476 in 1929 and the lowest was $715 in 1916. The average in
1932 was $1,047, which was the lowest since 1917.
The decline in average wage and salary payments from 1929 to 1932
was $461, or 32.1 percent, for wage earners; $263, or 15.1 percent, for
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; and $429, or 29.1 per­
cent for the three general occupation groups (including salespeople,
not traveling) combined.
Table 102 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups.
The year 1929 shows the highest average number employed of
wage earners and of the occupation groups combined, the year 1920
shows the second highest average, 1921 the lowest during the 17
years, and 1932 the lowest since 1921.
Table 102.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN M ANUFACTURE OF METALS AND M ETAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND
STEEL, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Number of employees
Year

1916.__________________________
1917____________________________
1918____________________________
1919____________ _____ _________
1920___ _____ ___________________
1921___ _____ ___________________
1922____________________________
1923____________________________
1924____________________________
1925____________________________
1926______________________ _____
1927______________ ____ _____ ___
1928___________________ ____
1929____________________________
1930____________________________
1931______________________ _____
1932__________ _________ _______

Number
of estab­
Bookkeepers,
lishments Wage earners stenogra­ Salespeople
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
331
339
395
409
457
432
406
456
471
488
490
506
523
544
549
544
531

24,993
25,433
31,800
29,643
34,404
22,746
27, 523
34,148
30,496
32,506
32,533
31,383
32,306
37, 744
32,061
27,879
25,046

2,229
2,339
2,950
3,494
3,742
3,395
3,022
3,601
3, 540
3, 622
3, 657
4,062
4,115
4,724
4, 869
4,493
4,022

109
107
193
138
134

121
122
123
109
175
185
185
195
234
187
97
128

All
employees
27,332
27,879
34,943
33, 259
38, 284
26,274
30,667
37,873
34,144
36,303
36,375
35,629
36, 616
42,703
37,116
32,469
29,196

More than 85 percent of the employees in the manufacture of
metals and metal products, other than iron and steel, were classified
each year as wage earners. Table 103 shows fluctuation in employ­
ment for that occupation group from 1930 to 1932. Maximum
employment for the 17-year period was 40,148 in October 1929, and
minimum employment was 20,733 in August 1921.




129

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

TABLE 103.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES) IN
M ANUFACTURE OF METALS AND METAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND
STEEL, 1930 TO 19321
Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—

Month

1930
January_______________
February______________
March__________ ______
April_________ ____ _ __
M ay______________ __
June________ _________
July..................... ................
August________________
September_____________
October...............................
1For years 1916 to

34,047
33,715
33, 988
34, 322
33,991
32,490
31,075
30,302
30,657
30,801

1931

Month

1932

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

27,397 26,023 November_____________
28,483 26,300 December _ _ _ _
29,182 26,435
29,591 25, 520 Maximum
29,148 25,419 Mim’Trmrn
28, 351 25,148 Variation from maxi­
27,665 24,259 mum—
Number.......................
27,048 23,073
Percent...... ........ .........
27,317 24,825
27,409 25,027 Number of establish­
ments.................... .........

1931

1932

30,179
29,160
34,322
29,160

26,889
26,069
29, 591
26,069

24,769
23,748
26,435
23,073

5,162
15.0
549

3, 522
11.9
544

3,362
12.7
531

1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Table 104 shows average wage and salary payments in the manu­
facture of metals and metal products, other than iron and steel.
The highest average payment to wage earners and to the general
occupation groups combined was in 1929. The highest average pay-

1918

1922

1924

1926

1930

1932

F ig u r e 36.—A v er a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e Ea r n e r s
in M a n u f a c t u r e o f m e t a l s a n d M etal P r o d u c t s , o t h e r t h a n I ron a n d
STEEL, 1916 TO 1932

ment to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks was in 1930.
The lowest average was paid to each group in 1916. The 1932 aver­
age payment to wage earners and to the groups combined was the
lowest since 1917. Chart 36 shows graphically average wage and
salary payments to wage earners,




130

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

T able 1 0 4 .—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN MANUFACTURE OF
METALS AND METAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND STEEL, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS!

Average wage and salary
Average wage and salary
payments to—
payments to—
Num­
Number of
berof
Book­
Book­
Year
estab­
Year
estab­
lish­ Wage keepers .
lish­ Wage keepers, All em­
stenog­
stenog­
ments earners raphers, All em­
ments earners raphers, ployees
ployees
and office
and office
clerks
clerks
2 331 $699
$815
$715 1925.................... 488 $1,372 $1,662 $1,412
1916.
802 1926 4................. 490 1,373
943
1,693 1,416
1917.
339
786
1927...................
506 1,371
1,418
395 1,113
1,060
1918.
523 1,422
409 1,128
1,170 1,137 1928...................
1,705 1,466
1919.
544 1,434
1920.
1,740 1,476
457 1,416
1,410 1,422 1929...................
1921.
432 1,180
1,440
1930.................... 549 1,355
1,809 1,411
1922.
544 1,155
*406 1,154
1,544 1,199 1931...................
1,711 1,235
1,761 1,360 1932................... 531
1923.
973
456 1,311
1,477 1,047
1924.
1,549 1,333
471 1,302
Average for salespeople (not traveling) not computed, owing to small number involved.
Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 4.
Not in agreement with study of “ Average wage and salary payments in manufactures,” Monthly
Labor Review, March 1934, due to corrections in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics after
publication of March study.

1,110
1,222

1,688

4
8
4

Industries in the Manufacture of M etals and M etal Products, Other Than
Iron and Steel
I
study the following manufacturing industries have been
combined under “ Metals and metal products other than iron and
steel, o th erB ab b itt metal and solder; metal caskets; electroplat­
ing; galvanizing; bar, pipe, and sheet lead; silverware and plated
ware; smelting and refining of aluminum, brass, and copper; smelting
and refining, not from ore; metals and metal products, other than iron
and steel, not otherwise classified.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners in each of the
6 industries and in the group “Other ” are shown in table 105. These
averages should be taken not as exact measures but as approximate
figures.
Omitting consideration of 1927 data for clocks, watches, and
materials, and 1928 data for the group “Other ” 1the highest average
wage and salary payment to wage earners was made in 1920 in 3 in­
dustries, in 1927 in 1, in 1928 in 1, in 1929 in 1, and in 1930 in 1.
The lowest average payment was made in 1916 in 6 industries and in
1932 in 1.
1See note to table 105.
n

t h is




131

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

T able 105.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN M AN­
UFACTURE OF METALS AND METAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND STEEL,
1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Year
1916.......... .......................................
1917.................................................
1918............................................
1919................................................
1920___________________ _____
1921.................................................
1922...................................... ..........
1923____________ ____________
1924................................... ..............
1925___________________ _____
1926......................... .......................
1927.......... ......................................
1928_____ ___________________
1929.......... .......................................
1930______________ __________
1931..................................................
1932.......... ........ ..............................

Brass,
bronze,
and
alumi­
num
products
$855
891
1,183
1,368
1,651
1,277
0)
1,468
1,435
1,457
1,505
1,452
1,494
1, 564
1,466
1,268
997

Clocks, Copper, Furni­
watches, tin, and ture and
and ma­ sheetoffice
iron
terials products fixtures
$615
750
855
998
1,242
1,066
(1) o
1,253
1,305
1,438
1,313
00
1,586
1,585
1,470
1,305
1,113

$709
808
1,228
1,123
1,424
1,154
0)
1,279
1,266
1,351
1,314
1,300
1,357
1,401
1, 289
1,058
906

0)
(9
0)

$1,056
1,420
1,066
0)
1,295
1,467
1,380
1,424
1,485
1,490
1,535
1,380
1,200
956

Gas and
electric
fixtures
and
lamps
and re­
flectors
$594
658
806
911
1,154
1,183
0)
1,175
1,181
1,267
1,275
1,311
1,301
1, 247
1,336
1, 222
1,095

Jewelry, Metals
includ­
and
ing re­ metal
ducing products,
and re­ other
fining
$757
840
929
1,000
1,253
1,366
0)
1,131
1,372
1,459
1,479
1,526
1,455
1,507
1,482
1,212
1,079

$820
975
1,109
1,246
1,611
1,295
0)
1,348
1,235
1,419
1,459
1,425
(3
)
1,518
1,376
1, 270
1,049

1 Data not available.
* Omitted, due to apparent error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.

Indexes of Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s of average num ber of w age earners em ployed and of total
and average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners are show n
in table 106. T h e base is the year 1926. T he indexes cover th e period
during w hich the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics requested reports
from all em ployers of 3 or m ore persons. Indexes are show n for the
m anufacture of m etal and m etal products, other than iron and
steel, as a whole, and for each of 6 industries.

106.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MANUFACTURE OF METALS AND M ETAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND
STEEL, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]
Metals and metal
products, other Brass, bronze, and Clocks, watches, and Copper, tin, and
materials
th a n ir o n an d aluminum products
sheet-iron products
steel1
Year
Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­ Wage Total Aver­
age
age
age
age
earners wage wage earners wage wage earners wage wage earners wage wage
(aver­ and and (aver­ and and (aver­ and and (aver­ and and
age salary
age salary
age salary
age salary
num­ pay­ salary num­ pay­ salary num­ pay­ salary num­ pay­ salary
pay­
pay­
pay­
pay­
ber) ments ment ber) ments ment ber) ments ment ber) ments ment
1924................... 93.7 88.9 94.8 79.3 75.6 95.3 94.5 93.9 99.4 101.9 98.1 96.3
1925................... 99.9 99.9 99.9 98.0 94.9 96.8 42. 5 46.6 109. 5 106.3 109.3 102.8
1926— . ............. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1927.................... 96.5 96.4 99.9 98.7 95.2 96.5 (2)
(2)
(2) 94.3 93.3 98.9
1928— ..........- 99.3 102.9 103.6 108.7 107.8 99.3 49.1 59.3 120.8 94.1 97.2 103.3
1929.................... 116.0 121.2 104.4 123.1 127.9 103.9 55.4 66.9 120.7 109.7 117.0 106.6
1930.................. 98.5 97.3 98.7 96.0 93.5 97.4 38.8 43.4 112.0 109.9 107.8 98. 1
1931.................... 85.7 72. 1 84.1 76.3 64.3 84.3 33.6 33.4 99.4 100.5 80.9 80. 5
1932.................- 77.0 54.6 70.9 74.2 49.2 66.2 19.3 16.4 84.8 85. 5 58.9 68.9
i Indexes not in agreement with study of “Average wage and salary payments in manufactures,” Monthly
Labor Review, March 1934, due to corrections in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics after
publication of March study.
T a bl e

a Omitted due to apparent error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.




132

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

106.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NU M BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
M ANUFACUURE OF METALS AND M ETAL PRODUCTS, OTHER THAN IRON AND
STEEL, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

T a bl e

Year

1924____ ____ _____
1925______________
1926______________
1927_____ _________
1928______________
1929_____ _________
1930_____ _________
1931..................... .
1932............................

Furniture and office
fixtures
Wage Total Average
earners wage wage
(aver­ and
and
age salary salary
num­ pay­
pay­
ber) ments ment
97.7 100.6 103.0
115.7 112.0
96.9
100.0 100.0 100.0
105.8 110.4 104.3
104.6 109.4 104.6
124.0 133.7 107.8
105.4 102.1
96.9
85.3
71.8
84.3
64.1
43.0
67.1

Gas and electric fixtures Jewelry, including reducing
and refining
and lamps and reflectors
Wage Total Average Wage Total Average
earners wage wage earners wage wage
and
and (aver­ and
(aver­ and
age salary salary
age salary salary
num­ pay­ pay­ num­ pay­ pay­
ber) ments ment
ber) ments ment
91.2
84.6
92.8
93.1
92.6
86.3
99.4
98.2
98.6
96.9
91.5
90.9
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0
103.2
97.0 100.1
103.5 106.4 102.8
98.4
104.4 106.5 102.0 122.0 120.0
133.4 130.5
97.8 110.0 112.1
101.9
90.5
90.3
100.2
87.8
92.0 104.8
83.3
68.3
69.0
95.8
81.9
71.9
53.6
65.1
85.9
39.1
73.0
55.9

Considering the industry group as a w hole, the index in 1932 w as
77 for average num ber of w age earners em ployed, 54.6 for total wage
and salary paym ents to w age earners, and 70.9 for average w age and

37.—I n d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a l a r y
PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURE OF METALS AND METAL PROD­
UCTS OTHER THAN IRON AND STEEL, 1924 TO 1932

f ig u r e

salary paym ents. T he indexes for the industry group are not in
agreem ent w ith the stu d y of A verage W age and Salary P aym ents in
M anufactures published in the M onth ly Labor R eview for M arch
1934, due to corrections in the tabulations of the Ohio D ivision of




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

133

Labor Statistics after the publication of the stu d y in M arch. C hart 37
show s indexes for the industry group as a w hole.
T he m anufacture of clocks, w atches, and m aterials show s the low est
1932 index for average num ber of w age earners em ployed and for total
paym ents to w age earners. T he m anufactures of brass, bronze, and
alum inum show th e low est 1932 index for average paym ents to w age
earners and furniture and office fixtures second low est.
M a n u fa ctu re o f T extiles

I n t h e m anufacture of textiles in Ohio the average num ber of
em ployees (wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers and office
clerks; and salespeople— not traveling) declined 26.7 percent from
1929 to 1932, total w age and salary paym ents decreased 48.5 percent,
and average w age and salary payments* decreased 29.8 percent.
D uring the 17 years covered by this stud y the average num ber of
em ployees reached the highest point in 1923 and both total and
average w age and salary paym ents reached the highest am ount in
1926. E m ploym ent reached the low est point in 1932 and both total
and average w age and salary paym ents the low est am ount in 1916.
Table 107 show s by general occupation groups the average num ber of
persons reported em ployed each year. T he highest average num ber
of w age earners and of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
w as em ployed in 1923 and the low est in 1932.
107.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) EMPLOYED IN THE
M ANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1916 TQJ1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

T able

Number of employees
Number of
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
establish­
Year
ments Wage earners stenographers, (not travel­ All employees
and office
ing)
clerks
2, 330
2 385
719
40,336
19161.....................................................
43,051
2 320
41,291
2,535
751
19171___________ _______________
44,146
40, 503
2,486
1918_____ ____ _________________
757
266
43, 255
39,364
1919.......................................................
767
2,786
326
42, 476
810
41,058
2,959
294
44, 311
1920.....................................................
2,661
253
1921____ ______________ _________
680
34,170
37,033
1922................... ...................................
292
2,467
40, 315
689
37, 556
1923...................................................
44, 316
679
3,285
278
47, 879
1924......................................................
40, 234
2,953
687
290
43, 476
41,601
297
44, 965
1925.......................................................
705
3,068
312
43,721
3, 228
47, 261
1926................................................ .
707
259
45, 312
679
2,915
1927........ ................................... .........
42,138
252
44,669
662
1928____ _____ _________________
2,916
41, 500
1929.....................................................
647
43, 272
2,972
235
46,479
223
41, 572
627
38,674
2,675
1930........ ............................................
34,359
2,405
180
1931.......................................................
36,944
587
2,131
170
567
31, 788
34,088
1932......................................................
1 Manufacture of mattresses classified by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics under “ Manufacture of
textiles'* beginning in 1918 and therefore transferred in this study from “ Miscellaneous manufactures"
for 1916 and 1917.
2 Number of salespeople (not traveling) in the manufacture of mattresses and spring beds not known.
Total wage and salary payments $2,488 in 1916 and $8,565 in 1917.

M ore than 90 percent of the em ployees in the m anufacture of
textiles were classified as w age earners in each year of the period
covered. Table 108 show s fluctuation in em ploym ent of w age earners




134

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

from 1930 to 1932. M axim um em ploym ent in the 17-year period
was 45,693 in O ctober 1926 and m inim um em ploym ent w as 27,260
in July 1932. T he m onth of second low est em ploym ent w as January
1921.
T able

108.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES)
IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1930 TO 1932 i
Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employ­
ed in—
1930 1931
1932
40,531 33, 702 31,661
41,216 34,892 33, 757
40,906 35, 235 33, 649
40, 954 35, 024 31,304
40, 317 34,635 30,739
39, 871 34,966 30,255
36,844 33, 780 27,260
37,101 34, 700 ‘ 28,974
37,427 35,857 33,010
37,426 34,509 34,967

Month

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employ­
ed in—
1930 1931 1932
36,314 33,248 34,061
35,183 31,761 31,814
41,216 35,857 34,967
35,183 31,761 27,260

November..........................
December............................
Maximum..........................
Minimum...........................
Variation from maxi­
mum—
Number...................... 6,033
Percent____________ 14.6
Number of establish­
ments----------------------627
1 For years 1916 to 1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

January...
February..
March___
April.........
May..........
June..........
July...........
August___
September.
October__

4,096
11.4
587

7,707
22.0
567

T able 109 show s average w age and salary paym ents to wage
earners, to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and to th e
general occupation groups com bined. A verages for salespeople (not
traveling) were not com puted because of the sm all num ber involved.
T he average w age and salary paym ents to w age earners reached
the highest am ount in 1926 and declined each year since. T he low est
average paid w as in 1916. T he average paym ent to bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks reached the highest am ount in 1921
and the low est in 1916.
T able

109.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF
TEXTILES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS i

Average wage and salary
Average wage and salary
payments to—
payments to—
Num­
Num­
Book­
Book­
ber of
ber of
keepers,
keepers,
Year
estab­
Year
estab­
stenog­ All
stenog­ All
lish­ Wage
lish­ Wage
em­
em­
ments earners raphers, ployees
ments earners raphers, ployees
and
and
office
office
clerks
clerks
$806 4 $562 1925...................
705 $1,069 $1,463 $1,105
3 719 $540
19162.
1917 2.
♦ 610 1926...................
8 751
592
814
707 1,080
1,360 1,107
1,032
724 1927...................
679 1,055
757
700
19181,458 1,087
767
856
1,128
878 1928.................. 662 1,035
19191,417 1,066
1,382 1,081 1929...................
647 1,026
810 1,054
1,449 1,062
1920680 1,043
1,519 1,082 1930.................
627
1921954
1,502
996
967
587
8 689
1,378
998 1931...................
865
1922_.
1,389
904
1,336 1.039 1932...................
567
705
679 1,012
1,303
746
19231,396 1,070
687 1,039
1924i Averages for salespeople (not traveling) not computed, owing to small number involved.
* See note 1 to table 107.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
greater by 5.
4 Amounts indicated in note to table 107 deducted before computing averages.
« Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
less by 3.
fl Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
greater by 2.




MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932

135

Chart 38 show s graphically average w age and salary paym ents to
wage earners.
Industries in the Manufacture of Textiles

S everal of the sm aller industries classified by the Ohio D ivision
of Labor Statistics under the m anufacture of textiles have been com ­
bined in this stu d y under “ T extiles, other.” T he m anufacturing
industries com bined are: B ags, other than paper; buttonholes; car­
pets and rugs; cotton goods, including sm all wares; dyeing, finishing,
and sponging textiles; m en's furnishing goods; hats and caps, other

F ig u r e 38.—A v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y p a y m e n t s t o w a g e E a r n e r s
in t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f T e x t il e s , 1916 t o 1932

than felt, straw , and w ool; horse clothing; oil cloth and linoleum ;
shoddy; and textiles, n o t otherw ise classified.
Table 110 show s average w age and salary paym ents to wage earners
in each of 12 industries and in the group “ T extiles, other.” These
averages should n ot be taken as exact m easures but as approxim ate
figures.
T he highest average w age and salary paym ent dining the period
covered w as in 1920 for w om en's clothing, gloves, and w oolen and
w orsted, in 1921 for m en's clothing, in 1923 for custom tailoring and
m attresses, pillow s, etc., in 1924 for cordage, etc., in 1926 for m illinery
and lace goods, in 1927 for hosiery and knit goods and the group
“ O ther” , and in 1929 for awnings, etc., flags, banners, and regalia,
and silk and silk goods. T he low est average w as paid in 1916 for 9
industries and the group “ O ther” , in 1917 for flags, banners, and
regalia, and in 1932 for gloves and silk and silk goods.




136

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

110.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE
M ANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Awnings, Clothing,
tents, men’s, Clothing, Cordage, Custom Flags,
twine,
and sails, includ­ women’s, jute, and tailoring, banners, Gloves,
Year
men’s
including ing shirts including linen
and
cloth
and
auto and coat corsets goods women’s regalia
fabrics pads
$519
$505
$522
$637
$459
$604
1916_________________________
$450
707
705
1917______________________ ____
569
405
410
0)
0)
686
636
801
722
1918.............................— .................
653
670
510
940
803
1,066
734
936
809
1919____ ___________ ____ ______
578
1,142
1,059
1,296
912
1,226
983
700
1920........................................... ........
1,249
1921............................. ....................
1,018
1.186
753
1,100
915
555
1922_____________ _____ ________ (2)
(2)
(2)
(2)900
(2)
(2)971 (2)
984
1, 054
1,168
1923___________________________
1,389
626
1,053
1,178
956
1,312
953
1924__________________________
629
(3)
1,294
1,083
1,108
937
1,212
977
1925____________ ______________
595
1,036
1,104
1,295
917
1,263
977
1926__________________________
698
1.079
1, 242
929 ' 1,244
1,014
997
693
1927__________ _____ -............— .
1,161
1,003
1,147
872
1,023
1,309
1928______________ ____ _______
C35
1,203
995
1,091
862
1,335
1,037
642
1929___________________ _______
925
1,010
856
1,081
983
1930___________________________ 1,106
545
950
894
870
868
807
985
1931___________________________
469
769
1932__________________________
667
753
841
824
599
346
Millinery
Woolen,
and lace Silk and worsted,
Hosiery Mattres es, goods, in­ silk goods, and wool- Tex­
pillows,
Year
and knit and cotton cluding including felt goods, tiles,
goods
artificial
felts flowers and throwsters including other
fur and
feathers
felt hats
$429
$655
$548
$504
$563
1916.
(2)
467
706
584
650
597
1917.
(2)
565
780
713
925
742
1918.
(2)
665
965
915
894
799
1919.
787
1,165
1,108
1,075 1,017
1920.
763
996
1,000
$ 1,002
887
918
1921.
1922
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
1,187
830
998
1,071
944
930
1923.
864
1,126
1,024
1,173
945
1924.
937
852
1,149
1,047
1,213
965 1,146
1925.
1,171
1,168
878
1,171
869 1,206
1926.
1,184
1,112
913
1,216
926 1,366
1927.
1,130
896
1, 111
1,231
964 1,106
1928.
1,144
886
1,018
1,276
1,013 1,110
1929.
1,133
994
900
1,193
919 1,070
1930.
979
936
792
765
1,027
987
1931.
682
798
733
905
644
854
1932.
1 Apparently some employees classified under custom tailoring should be under manufacture of men's
clothing, but further verification not possible, therefore omitted.
2 Data not available.
3 Omitted due to apparent error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.
T able

8

Indexes of Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
T a b l e 111 show s indexes of average num ber of w age earners em ­
ployed and of total and average w age and salary paym ents to w age
earners. T he base is the year 1926. T he indexes cover the period
during w hich th e Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics has requested re­
ports annually from all em ployers of three or m ore persons. Indexes
are show n for th e m anufacture of textiles and for each of 12 industries.
T he 1932 index for em ploym ent of w age earners w as above 75 for
7 of the 12 industries and below 50 for 3 industries. T he 1932 index
for total w age and salary paym ents to w age earners w as above 50 for
7 industries and below 25 for 2 industries. T he 1932 index for average
wage and salary paym ents to w age earners w as above 75 for 3 indus­
tries and below 60 in 2 industries.




MANUFACTURES—

137

1916 TO 1932

111.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
THE MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

T a bl e

Awnings, tents, and Clothing, men’s, in­ Clothing, women’s,
sails, including cluding shirts and including corsets
coat pads
auto fabrics

Textiles
Year

Wage Total
earn­ wage
ers (av­ and
erage salary
num­ pay­
ber) ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers av­
erage
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­ Wage Total
age earn­
wage ers (av­ wage
and
and erage salary
salary num­ pay­
pay­
ment ber) ments

Aver­ Wage Total
age earn­
wage ers (av­ wage
and
and erage salary
salary num­ pay­
pay­
ment ber) ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

1924__________
1925__________
1926__________
1927__________
1928__________
1929________ __
1930__________
1931__________
1932_____ ____

92.0 88.5
95.2 94.1
100.0 100.0
96.4 94. 1
94.9 90.9
99.0 93.9
88.5 78.1
78.6 63.0
72.7 47.4

96.2
99.0
100.0
97.7
95.8
95.0
88.3
80.1
65.3

80.5
108.5
100.0
102. 6
101.5
118.3
98.2
90.9
78.0

0)
113.0
100.0
106.8
113.6
137.4
104.8
83.4
57.8

84.2 80.3 95.4 117.9 107.2
0)
104.5 94.6 95.0 100.4 96.3 96.2
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
104.2 97.0 87.6 90.3 124.6 119.5
112.1 93.4 84.9 90.9 137.6 121.9
116.1 102.1 92.0 90.1 133.3 112.3
106.8 93.4 78.3 83.8 125.1 97.6
91.7 84.1 66.3 78.8 120.4 80.7
74.2 79.2 47.8 60.4 91.2 53.0

91.0
99.9
100.0
95.9
88.6
84.2
78.0
67.0
58.1

Cordage, twine, jute and Custom tailoring, men’s Flags, banners, and regalia
linen goods
and women’s
Year

Wage
earners
(average
num­
ber)

1924______________
1925____ ____ _____
1926______________
1927................. .........
1928____________
1929______________
1930______________
1931 _____________
1932. ..........................

107. 3
96.8
100. 0
96. 7
99. 1
99.3
84.7
85.2
78.4

Total Average Wage
wage and wage and earners
salary salary (average
pay­
pay­ num­
ments ment ber)
112. 0
99. 0
100. 0
97.9
94.3
93.4
79.1
75.0
72.0

104. 3
102. 2
100.0
101. 3
95.1
94. 0
93.3
88.0
91.7

Gloves, cloth
Year

Wage
earners
(average
num­
ber)

1924.........................
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________
1928______________
1929______________
1930. ............. ...........
1931...___________
1932____________

112. 7
97.1
100.0
111. 2
94.8
101.6
95.8
63.9
56.5

101.5
82.8
100.0
110.4
86.2
93. 5
74.8
42.9
28.0

101. 6
96.9
100.0
65.2
69.4
50.4
21. 7
16. 7
12.0

103. 9
96.0
100.0
98. 5
103. 6
105. 7
85. 6
78. 0
65.2

Hosiery and knit goods

Total Average Wage
wage and wage and earners
salary salary (average
pay­
pay­ num­
ments ment ber)

i Omitted. See note to table 110.




97.8
100.0
66. 2
67.0
47. 8
25.4
21.4
18.4
101. 0

Total Average Wage
wage and wage and earners
salary salary (average
pay­ pay­ num­
ments ment ber)

90.1
85. 2
99.3
91.0
92.0
78.1
67. 2
49.6

100. 0

101. 5
106. 7
100. 0
96. 2
95.6
98. 5
90.4
75. 2
91.9

130.4
129. 8
100.0
122. 0
141. 7
145.8
126.4
110. 2
86.7

99.9
103. 4
100.1
97. 5
99.4
92. 6
65. 6
71.3

98.4
97. 0
104. 0
102.1
100. 9
102. 5
87.1
77.7

100. 0

127.2
129.8
100.0
126. 5
148.3
154. 7
128.9
100.8
53.1

97. 5
100.0
100.0
103.8
104. 7
106.1
100.6
91. 5
61.3

Mattresses, pillows, and
cotton felts

Total Average Wage
wage and wage and earners
salary salary (average
pay­ pay­ num­
ments ment ber)
100. 0

Total Average
wage and wage and
salary salary
pay­ pay­
ments ment

76.9
86. 2
79. 9
79.4
87.8
66.3
56.1
47.1

100. 0

Total Average
wage and wage and
salary salary
pay­ pay­
ments ment
73.9
84. 6
80. 8
76. 7
85. 8
64.1
46. 9
32.1

100. 0

96. 2
98.1
100.0
101.1
96. 5
97. 7
96.8
83. 6
68.1

138

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

111.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
THE M ANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

T able

Millinery and lace goods, Silk and silk goods, includ­ Woolen, worsted, and woolincluding artificial flow­
felt goods, including fur
ing throwsters
ers and feathers
and felt hats
Year

1924............................
1925______________
1926______________
1927_________ ____
1928______________
1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932______________

Total Average
Wage wage wage Wage
earners and
and earners
(average salary salary (average
number) pay­ pay­ number)
ments ment
85.5
85.8
100.0
92.0
80.6
55.7
48.3
35.6
38.8

75.0
76.9
100.0
87.5
76.7
48.5
41.1
28.5
24.3

87.7
89.6
100.0
95.2
95.1
87.2
85.1
80.1
62.8

65.7
82.4
100.0
88.8
90.7
91.1
90.4
90.5
78.6

Total Average
wage wage Wage
and
and earners;
salary salary (average
pay­ pay­ number)
ments ment
65.8
85.3
100.0
92.2
95.3
99.2
92.1
79.4
60.8

100.2
103.6
100.0
103.8
105.1
109.0
101.9
87.7
77.3

97.4
93.6
100.0
95.7
81.3
100.1
96.5
75.6
71.3

Total Average
wage wage
and
and
salary salary
pay­ pay­
ments ment
105.1
104.0
100.0
102.0
90.2
116.7
102.1
68.9
52.9

107.8
111.0
100.0
106.6
110.9
116.6
105.8
91.1
74.1

Custom tailoring shows the lowest indexes for employment of wage
earners and total wage and salary payments. In that industry, the

39.— in d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a l a r y
PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, 1924 TO

f ig u r e

1932

1932 index for em ploym ent was 18.4, for total w age and salary p ay­
m ents 12, and for average w age and salary paym ents 65.2.
Chart 39 shows graphically the indexes for the m anufacture of
textiles.




139

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
M a n u fa ctu re o f T o b a cc o

I n t h e m anufacture of tobacco the highest average w age and salary
paym ent in all occupations com bined during the 17 years w as $957
in 1920 and the low est w as $457 in 1916. T he average paym en t in
1932 w as $525 w hich w as the low est since 1917. In this industry
group em ploym ent and total and average w age and salary paym ents
have declined each year since 1926.
T h e average num ber of persons reported em ployed in each of the
three general occupation groups is show n in table 112. T he highest
average w as reported in 1920 and the low est in 1932. There w as a
decline each year since 1926.
T

1 1 2 . — AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS

able

Number of employees
Number
of estab­
lishments

Year

1916____________ __________ ____
1917__________ ____ ____________
1918_ ____________ _____ _________
1919___________________________
1920_____ ____ __________________
1921____________________________
1922................... .......... .......................
1923_______________ __________
1924____ ____ ____ ____ _________
1925____________________________
1926___________________________
1927_____________ ______________
1928____________________________
1929_____________________ ______
1930____________________ _______
1931____________________________
1932___ _____ __________________

242
239
246
249
269
226
210
213
191
175
172
160
157
137
144
133
127

Wage
earners
12,065
13,405
12,991
13,211
15,725
13,400
12,756
12,995
12,667
10,680
11,071
10,631
10,079
8,930
8,250
7,245
6,334

Bookkeepers, Salespeople
stenogra­
travel­
phers, and (noting)
office clerks
185
185
190
217
247
202
203
219
203
192
216
198
191
171
143
133
122

24
20
21
32
22
29
0)
(l)
(4
0)

&

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

All
employees
12, 273
13, 610
13, 203
13, 459
15,994
13, 631
12,959
13, 213
12, 870
10, 872
11, 287
10,830
10, 270
9,101
8,393
7, 378
6,457

i Carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified” in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics.

M ore than 95 percent of the em ployees in the m anufacture of
tobacco were classified each year as w age earners. T able 113 show s for
th at occupation group fluctuation in em ploym ent from 1930 to 1932.
M axim um em ploym ent reported during the 17-year period was 16,259
in June 1920 and m inim um em ploym ent was 5,644 in June 1932.

1 4 0 4 4 6 °— 31




-10

140

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 113.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES)
IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO, 1930 TO 1932 i
Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—

Month

1930
January...............................
February...........................
March.................................
April....................................
May
June............... .....................
July......................................
August...............................
September. ............. ..........
October................................

1931
5,740
7,181
7,945
7,748
8,318
7,718
7,258
7,109
6,954
7,180

6,452
6,748
6,705
6,917
6,597
5,644
5,963
6,290
6,492
6,064

Month

1932

7,926
8,674
8.241
8,421
8,151
8,318
7,974
8,271
8.242
8,404

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930

November__ r............ .......
December...........................
Maximum_____________
Minimum_____________
Variation from maxi­
mum—
Number. ....................
Percent.......................
Numberof establishments.

1931

1932

8,158
8,219
8,674
7,926

7,013
6, 773
8,318
5,740

6,109
6,029
6,917
5,644

748
8.6
144

2,578
31.0
133

1,273
18.4
127

1 For years 1916 to 1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Average wage and salary payments in the manufacture of tobacco
are shown in table 114. The highest average payment was reported in
1920 and the lowest in 1916. There was a decline each year since 1926.
Table 114.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN THE M ANUFACTURE OF
TOBACCO, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS i

Year

1916............. ........... .
1917............................
1918...........................
1919—. ....................
1920.......................—
1921...........................
1922...........................
1923............................
1924___________ _

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments
242
239
246
249
269
226
2 210
213
191

Average wage and
salary payments
to—
Wage
earners
$448
492
558
645
948
690
693
741
553

$457
499
571
657
957
705
3 705
3 752
3 562

Year

All em­
ployees
1925.........................
1926—........................
1927—. ......................
1928............. ..........—
1929______________
1930............................
1931...........................
1932..........................

Number
of estab­
lishments
175
172
160
157
137
144
133
127

Average wage and
salary payments
to—
Wage All em­
earners ployees
$713
717
688
676
660
627
599
507

3 $725
3 729
3 701
3 691
3 676
3 643
8 614
3 525

1 Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks—averages not computed owing to small number in­
volved. Salespeople (not traveling)—1916 to 1921, average not computed owing to small number involved;
1922 to 1932, carried with “ Manufactures, not otherwise classified” in tabulations of Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics.
2 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 4.
3 Total wage and salary payments to salespeople (not traveling) deducted before computing average, as
average number in that group could not be determined from detailed tabulation.

Table 115 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners
in each of the 3 industries each year, 1918 to 1932. These averages
should not be taken as exact measures but as approximate figures.
The highest average payment was reported in 1920 in 2 indus­
tries and in 1930 in 1. The lowest (omitting 1924 for chewing and
smoking tobacco and snuff) was reported in 1918 in 1 industry and
in 1932 in 2.




141

MANUFACTURES— 1916 TO 1932
T

a ble

115

—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN THE
MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO, 1918 i TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Chewing
and smok­ Cigars Tobacco
ing tobacco and ciga­ rehan­
dlers
and snuff rettes

Year
1918___________
1919___________
1920......................
1921___________
1922___________
1923___________
1924______ ____
1925___________

$681
742
964
877
(2) 903
(3) 004
1,

$546
643
975
673
(2) 743
570
696

$506
575
754
628
(2) 597
623
581

Year
1926_....................
1927 .................
1928...................
1929___________
1930___________
1931_._________
1932......................

Chewing
and smok­ Cigars Tobacco
ing tobacco and ciga­ rehan­
dlers
and snuff rettes
$999
990
1,000
987
1,011
1,003
811

$682
658
637
617
579
518
413

$631
561
556
530
519
573
493

1 Data by industries not available for 1916 and 1917.
2 Data not available.
3 Omitted due to apparent error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.

Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I
of average number of wage earners employed and of total
and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown in
table 116 for the manufacture of tobacco as a whole and for each of the
3 industries. The base is the year 1926. The indexes for each of the
three items in the manufacture of tobacco as a whole and in cigars
and cigarettes show a decline each year since 1926, except for a slight
increase in one item in 1928.
ndexes

INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
THE MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

T able 1 1 6 —

Chewing and smoking tobacco
and snuff

Manufactures of tobacco
Year

1924________ _______________
1925__............................................
1926...............................................
1927..............................................
1928................................................
1929............................................
1930................................................
1931.............................................
1932............... ...............................

Average Wage earn­ Total wage Average
Wage earn­ Total wage wage
wage
ers (average and salary salary and ers (average and salary salary and
pay­ number) payments
pay­
number) payments
ment
ment
114.4
96.5
100.0
96.0
91.0
80.7
74.5
65.4
57.2

88.3
96.0
100.0
92.2
85.8
74.3
65.2
54.7
40.5

77.1
99.4
100.0
96.0
94.3
92.1
87.4
83.5
70.7

81.2
78.6
100.0
96.5
89.4
87.6
76.0
73.3
87.6

(0
78.9
100.0
95.6
89.5
86.5
77.0
73.6
71.1

* Omitted due to apparent error in’reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.




0)

100.5
100.0
99.1
100.1
98.8
101.2
100.4
81.2

142

AVEKAGE AN NUAL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

1 1 6 —INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
THE M ANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES-Continued

T able

Year
1924_______________________
1925_______________________
1926_______________________
1927_______________________
1928_______________________
1929_______________________
1930_______________________
1931_______________________
1932_______________________

Cigars and cigarettes
Tobacco rehandlers
Average Wage earn­ Total wage Average
Wage earn­ Total wage wage
wage
ers (average and salary- salary and ers (average and salary salary and
pay­ number) payments
pay­
number) payments
ment
ment
126.8
102. 7
100.0
97. 1
97.3
80.9
70.9
69.0
54.7

106.0
104.8
100.0
93. 6
90.9
73. 5
60.2
52.4
33.1

83.6
102.1
100.0
96. 5
93. 4
90. 5
84.9
76.0
60. 6

90.8
85.3
100.0
91. 4
66.8
74. 1
88. 2
44. 7
43. 0

89.7
78.6
100.0
81.4
58.9
62.3
72. 5
40. 6
33.7

98.7
92.1
100.0
88.9
88.1
84.0
82.3
90.8
78.1

M iscella n eou s M a n u fa ctu res

I n miscellaneous manufactures in Ohio during the 17 years, 1916
to 1932, the highest average wage and salary payment to all occupation
groups combined was $1,458 in 1926 and the lowest $759 in 1916. The
average in 1932 was $1,043 which was the lowest since 1917.
The decline in average wage and salary payments from 1929 to
1932 was $439, or 31.8 percent, for wage earners; $297, or 16.3 percent,
for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; and $398, or 27.6
percent, for the 3 general occupation groups (including salespeople,
not traveling) combined.
The Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classified the manufacture of
mattresses and spring beds and the manufacture of airplanes and
parts and ship and boat building under miscellaneous manufactures
during the first years of the period covered. Beginning with 1918,
the manufacture of mattresses was classified by the Ohio division
under the manufacture of textiles and beginning with 1919 the other
two industries were classified under the manufacture of vehicles. In
order to secure in this study as far as possible a comparison of the
same groups throughout the period from 1916 to 1932, all data con­
cerning the three industries enumerated above (except as noted in table
117) have been transferred from miscellaneous manufactures to the
manufacture of textiles and the manufacture of vehicles. The figures
in this study, therefore, will not be in agreement in 1916 to 1918 with
the study of Average Wage and Salary Payments in Manufactures
published in the Monthly Labor Review for March 1934.
Table 117 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups.
The highest average number of wage earners was employed in 1918
with 1929 second in order. The lowest average was reported in 1921.
The highest average number of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks was employed in 1929 and the lowest in 1916. For the three
general occupation groups combined, the highest average was reported
in 1929 with 1918 second in order and the lowest was reported in 1921.




M ANUFACTURES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

143

AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN MISCELLANEOUS M ANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION
GROUPS
[Figures for 1916 to 1918 will not be in agreement with the study of Average Wage and Salary Payments
in Manufactures, Monthly Labor Review for March 1934, due to transfer of industries. See statement
in text]

T able 1 1 7 .—

Year

Number of employees
Number of
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
establish­
stenog­
ments Wage earners raphers, and (not travel­ All employees
ing)
office clerks

152, 328
i 483
4,401
604
47,444
1916___________________________
2 50. 758
2 467
4,826
45,466
649
1917____ _______________________
fi 74,514
4 470
2 7,168
690
66,876
1918____ ______ _________________
56, 365
308
6,195
694
49,861
1919____________________________
60, 241
302
52,949
6,990
776
1920____ ______________________
37,816
306
5,757
31,754
686
1921____________________________
43,666
270
5,596
1922______________________ _____
37,800
700
314
48,058
5,842
41,902
1923____________________________
733
60,854
6,444
317
44,093
1924____________________________
798
56,100
391
48, 764
6,946
1925__________ _________________
878
63,302
7,952
355
54,994
1926_______________ ____ ________
898
367
63,001
54, 682
7,951
946
1927____ ___________ ____ _______
67,744
8,596
347
949
58,801
1928______ _____________________
76,410
9, 685
406
66,319
1929_____________ ______________
959
64,139
982
347
55,063
8,729
1930_____ ______________________
329
53, 350
44,971
8,050
950
1931_____ ______________________
44,510
1932._____ _____________________
884
7,203
348
36,959
1 Includes few salespeople in the manufacture of mattresses and spring beds and ship and boat building.
Number could not be determined. Total wage and salary payments $2,488 and $7,200, respectively, and
those amounts were added before computing the average shown in table 119.
2 Includes few salespeople in the manufacture of mattresses and spring beds and ship and boat building.
Number could not be determined. Total wage and salary payments $8,565 and $2,600, respectively, and
those amounts were added before computing the average shown in table 119.
2 Includes bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in the manufacture of airplanes and parts.
Number could not be determined. Total wage and salary payment $48,627 was added before computing
the average shown in table 119.
4 Includes few salespeople in the manufacture of airplanes and parts. Number could not be determined.
Total wage and salary payment $2,700.
eAmounts shown in 2 preceding notes added before computing average shown in table 119.

More than 80 percent of the employees in miscellaneous manufac­
tures were classified each year as wage earners. Table 118 shows for
that general occupation group fluctuation in employment from 1930
to 1932. Maximum employment for the 17-year period was 76,308
in November 1918, and minimum employment was 29,872 in January
1922, which was a reduction of 46,436, or 60.9 percent, in a period of
3 years and 2 months following the World War armistice.
T able 1 1 8 .—

FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT OF WAGE EARNERS (BOTH SEXES)
IN MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES, 1930 TO 1932 i
Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930 1931
1932
55,989 44,629 39,688
56,633 45,000 40,534
59,388 46,294 39,681
61,174 47,450 38,181
60,525 48,073 38,175
58,427 47,959 37,771
54,928 46,173 35,684
53,440 44,742 33,877
52,008 44,392 34,167
50,385 42,650 35,215

Number of wage earners
(both sexes) employed
in—
1930 1931 1932
January______________
November.......................... 49,181 41,662 35,718
February______________
December......................... 48.678 40.625 34,820
March________________
April._________________
Maximum.......... .............. 61,174 48,073 40,534
M inim um ________________ 48.678 40.625
M ay............................. .......
33,877
Variation from maxi­
June.................... ........ —
July......................................
mum—
August....... ........................
Number....................... 12,496 7,448 6,657
September........ .................
Percent........................ 20.4 15.5
16.4
October..............................
Number of establish­
884
ments...................... ....... 982
950
* For years 1916 to 1929 £00 Buroau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.
Month




Month

144

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E P A Y M E N T S IN OHIO

Average wage and salary payments in miscellaneous manufactures
are shown in table 119.
The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners was
in 1920 with 1926 second in order, and the lowest was in 1916. The
highest average payment to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks was in 1925 and the lowest in 1916. The average payment to
the three general occupation groups combined was highest in 1926
and lowest in 1916. The average payment in 1932 to wage earners
and to the general occupation groups combined was the lowest since
1917. Chart 40 shows graphically average payments to wage earners.
119.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN MISCELLANEOUS M ANU­
FACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS 1
[Figures for 1916 to 1918 will not be in agreement with the study of Average Wage and Salary Payments
in Manufactures, Monthly Labor Review for March 1934, due to transfer of industries. See statement
in text]
T able

Average wage and salary
payments to—

Average wage and salary
payments to—

Year

1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924

1

Num­
ber of
Book­
estab­
lish­ Wage keepers, All
stenog­ em­
ments earners raphers,
and office ployees
clerks
*604
* 649
690
694
776
700
733
798

4686

$745
799
1,090
1,161
1,432
1,206
1,166
1,224
1,309

1,$891
021
1,151
1,262
1,437
1,436
1,441
1,504
1,566

$759
824
1,099
1,176
1,435
1,247
1,204
1,273
1,347

Year

1925____ _____
1926_________
1927_________
1928_____ ____
1929_________
1930_________
1931...................
1932.......... ........

Num­
ber of
Book­
estab­
lish­ Wage keepers, All
stenog­ em­
ments earners raphers,
and office ployees
clerks
878 $1,341
898 1,420
946 1,387
949 1,373
959 1,379
982 1,285
950 1,196
SS4
940

$1,835
1,676
1,785
1,783
1,823
1,798
1,825
1,526

$1,410
1,458
1,443
1,431
1,441
1,361
1,297
1,403

Average for salespeople (not traveling) not computed, owing to small number involved.
* Number of establishments ieporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 9.

4

Industries in Miscellaneous Manufactures
T h e Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classifies under miscel­
laneous manufactures several industries which employ comparatively
large numbers of persons and also a number of industries employing
but few people. In this study the manufacturing industries listed
below have been combined under “ Miscellaneous manufactures,
other”: Artists’ materials; belting and hose; brooms and mops;
brushes; buttons; dairymen’s, poulterers’, and apiarists’ supplies;
enameling and japanning; fancy articles; fire extinguishers, chemical;
fireworks, flares, and signals; foundry supplies; fur goods; hair work;
hand stamps, stencils, and brands; instruments, professional and
scientific; jewelry and instrument cases; mucilage and paste; optical
goods; paving materials; pens, fountain, stylographic, and gold;




M A N U FA C TU R ES—

1916

TO

1932

145

photographic apparatus and supplies; soda-water apparatus; stationery
goods; steam packing; surgical appliances and artificial limbs; um­
brellas and canes; upholstering furniture (not manufacturing furni­
ture); washing machines and clothes wringers; window shades and
fixtures; and miscellaneous manufactures, not otherwise classified.
Average wage and salary payments to wage earners in each of the
16 manufacturing industries and in the group “ Other” are shown in

F ig u r e 40.—Av e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e
E a r n e r s in m is c e l l a n e o u s M a n u f a c t u r e s , 1916 t o 1932

table 120. These averages should not be taken as exact measures but
as approximate figures.
As far as data are available, the highest average wage and salary
payment to wage earners was reported for 1 industry (munitions)
in 1919, for 4 in 1920, for 1 in 1925, for 2 in 1926, for 1 in 1926 and
1927, for 2 in 1927, and for 6 in 1929. The lowest average was
reported in 1916 for all industries for which data are available for the
whole period except in manufactures of pianos, organs, and materials
where the lowest average was reported in 1932. The lowest average
was reported in 1932 for 4 industries for which data are not available
for the whole 17-year period.




146
T able

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E P A Y M E N T S IN O HIO
120.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TOWAGE EARNERS IN MIS­
CELLANEOUS M ANUFACTURES, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

Year

Electrical HouseModels
machin­ furnish­ Ice, man­ and pat­
terns,
ery, ap­ ing goods,
ufac­
other
paratus, miscella­
tured
than
and sup­
neous
paper
plies

Coke

D en­
tists’
sup­
plies

$878
1,170
1,423
1,675
2,260
1, 616

Agricul­ Batteries,
tural im ­ dry and
plements storage

$580
588
772
899
1,232
1,137

$743
803
1,048
1,186
1,465
1,217

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

$866
946
1,139
1,347
1,637
1,605

$816
961
1,300
1,610
1,945
1,507

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

0)
1,570
1,620
1,651
1,602
1,590

(0
1, 603
1,615
1,748
1,808
1,754

1,583
1,539
1,515
1,613
1,407

1,865
2,111
1, 692
1,720
1, 253

1916___ ____ _____
1917______________
1918______________
1919______________
1920______________
1921______________

$728
848
1,081
1,239
1,471
1,149

1922______________
1923______________
1924______________
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________

0)
1,267
1,322
1, 308
1,376
1, 382

0)
(0
0)
$1, 334
1,469
1,422

0)
1,703
1,825
1,834
1,817
1,862

0)
1,142
1,179
1,163
1,254
1, 259

C)
1

1928______________
1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932______________

1,282
1,358
1,275
1,150
879

1,476
1, 504
1,333
1,183
992

1,860
1, 864
1,979
1,637
1, 504

1,313
1,338
1,213
1,379
1,205

1,406
1, 352
1,257
1,147
870

Musical in­
struments
and mate­
rials, other
than pianos
and organs

Year
1916______________
1917______________
1918______________
1919______________
1920_____________
1921_____________
1922______________
1923______________
1924______________
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________
1928___________
1929______________
1930_____________
1931______________
1932_____________

0)
0) $988
1,219
1, 340
1,067
(0
1,166
1,131
1,151
1,315
1, 455
1,379
2 1,789
1,513
1,459
882

0)
C)
1

0)
0)
0)
0)

Mu­
ni­
tions

1,165
1,318
1, 378
1,464
1,425

$1, 559
1,633
1,493
1,382
1,004

$834
848
1, 217
1,246

Miscel­
Pianos, Radios Roofing Signs and Sporting Toys laneous
organs,
and
mate­ advertis­ and ath­ and
manu­
and ma­ parts
ing nov­ letic
rials
terials
elties
goods games factures,
other
$815
867
992
1,156
1, 223
1,197
0)
1,191
1,248
1,335
1,338
1,305
1,312
1,358
1,241
1,109
702

(0
(0
0)
C
1)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$977
1,051
1,182
848
877
928
866
744

$688
875
1,105
1,342
1,953
1,583
0)
1,797
1,816
1,659
1,724
1, 601
1,677
1,855
1,516
1, 540
1,116

$551
590
664
742
1,159
1,106
0)
1,073
1,146
1,041
1,270
1,270
1,259
1,247
1,239
1,073
895

$625
701
842
995
1, 289
1,165
0)
1,224
1,244
1, 253
1,347
1,312
1,305
1,297
1,268
1,084
930

$561
580
745
858
1,005
924
0)
1,000
956
1,063
1,066
1,085
1,061
1,065
990
879
692

$617
691
845
956
1,229
1,081
0) •
1,173
1,221
1,238
1,346
1,260
1,254
1,308
1,207
1,082
881

* Data not available.
2 In accord with compilations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics but possibly some error in reporting
or tabulating.

Indexes of Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s of average number of wage earners employed and of total
and average wage and salary payments to wage earners are shown in
table 121. The base is 1926. The indexes cover the period during
which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics has requested reports
from all employers of three or more persons. Indexes are shown for
miscellaneous manufactures as a whole and for each of the 14 indus­
tries for which data are available.
Considering miscellaneous manufactures as a whole, the index in
1932 was 67.2 for average number of wage earners employed, 44.5
for total wage and salary payments, and 66.2 for average wage and




M A N U F A C T U R E S — 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

147

salary payments. Chart 41 shows graphically the indexes for wage
earners in miscellaneous manufactures.
Of the 14 industries, 2 (batteries and radios) are of comparatively
recent development or have had a remarkable expansion in business
and the increase in average number of wage earners employed and in

F ig u r e 4 1.—I n d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d W a g e a n d S a l a r y
P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in M is c e l l a n e o u s M a n u f a c t u r e s , 1924 t o 1932

total wage and salary payments since 1926 (the base year) produces
extremely high indexes for the later years of the period covered.
Considering the 12 other industries, the 1932 index of average
number of wage earners employed was below 50 for 6 and above
90 for 1. The 1932 index of total wage and salary payments to wage
earners was below 50 for 7 of the 12 industries and the index for
5 of the 7 was below 25. Considering the 14 industries, the 1932
index of average wage and salary payments to wage earners was below
75 for 11 industries but none was below 50.




148

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E P A Y M E N T S IN O HIO

131.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MISCELLANEOUS M ANUFACTURES, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
fl926=100.0]

T able

Miscellaneous man­ Agricultural imple­
ufactures
ments
Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Batteries, dry and
storage
Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Coke

1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

80.2 73.9 92.2 84.1
..................... ..................... ..................... 80.8 96.1 0)
<*)
0)
___ 88.7 83.7 94.4 93.4 88.8 95.1 102.0 92.7 90.8
__________ __________ 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0
___ 99.4 97.1 97.7 98.7 99.2 100.4 203.7 197.2 96.8
___ 106.9 103.4 96.7 68.5 63.8 93.2 220.7 221.8 100.5
___ 120.6 117.1 97.1 74.5 73.6 98.7 211.7 216.8 102.4
___ 100.1 90.6 90.5 57.3 53.1 92.7 169.3 153.6 90.7
___ 81.8 68.9 84.2 35.0 29.2 83.6 157.4 126.8 80.5
___ 67.2 44.5 66.2 22.1 14.1 63.9 170.5 115.2 67.5

Year

110.0
107.8
100.0
98.6
91.7
101.4
72.8
27.4
28.2

110.4
108.8
100.0
101.0
93.9
104.0
79.1
24.7
23.3

100.4
100.9
100.0
102.5
102.4
102.6
108 9
90.1
82.8

Total
wage
and
salarypay­
ments

Dentists’ supplies
Year

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Electrical m a c h in ­
and
ery, apparatus, and Ice, manufactured Models thanpatterns,
other
paper
supplies
Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

..................... ..................... ..................... 67.3
87.5 82.2 94.0 74.8
...... 99.0 91.8 92.7 78.3 73.7
..... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
... 87.8 88.1 100.4 90.8 88.4
...... 90.4 94.7 104.7 83.6 80.2
..................... ..................... 102.6 94.8
107.8 115.0 106.7
..................... ..................... ..................... 69.6
104.0 100.6 96.7 81.0
104. 1 114.5 110.0
..................... ..................... 63.9 50 1
.. 84.0 80.7 96.1 52.8 31.3

1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

90.0
94.1
100.0
97.3
96.0
92.3
85.9
78.3
59.4

106.0
123.9
100.0
98.8
100.0
105.0
106.7
115.6
97.8

107.2
127.7
100.0
98.0
98.8
100.9
101.0
116.4
85.9

101.1 72.6 64.9
103.1 87.2 84.3
100.0 100.0 100.0
99.3 97.2 94.3
98.8 91.1 93.9
96.1 127.0 148.2
94.6 107.7 100.8
100.7 58.3 55.5
87.8 38.6 26.7

89.3
96.7
100.0
97.0
103.2
116.8
93.6
95.1
69.3

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Musical instruments
and materials, Pianos, organs, and
other than pianos
materials
and organs
Year

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Radios and parts
Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

...... 100.2 86.2 86.0 98.7 92.0 93.3 0)
1924
0)
1925
...... 93.6 81.9 87.5 96.4 96.2 99.8 82.3 76.5
1926
...... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
91 3 101.0 110.6 91.3 89.1 97.5 131.8 148.2
1927
..................... .....................
1928
___ 108.4 113.6 104.9 66.9 65.6 98.1 306.9 247.5
1929.................... 28.5 38.8 (2) 47.1 47.8 101.5 454. 5 379.2
30.3 .
1930
..................... —34.8 115.1 39.7 36.8 92.8 436.3 385. 2
1931
...... 22 4 24.9 111.0 31.2 25.8 82.9 316 5 260.9
1932
...... 22.2 14.9 67.1 24.4 12.8 52.5 230.9 163.4
i Data not available.

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Roofing materials
Wage
earn­
ers
(aver­
age
num­
ber)

Total
wage
and
salary
pay­
ments

Aver­
age
wage
and
salary
pay­
ment

84.7 89.2
0)
93.0 92.3 88.8
100.0 100.0 100.0
112.5 105.0 97.5
80.7 89.4 86.9
83.4 87.8 94.5
88.3 90.4 79.5
82.4 86.0 76.8
70.8 79.4 51.4

105.3
96.2
100.0
92.9
97.3
107.6
87.9
89.3
64.7

3Omitted, due to possible error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.




149

M A N U F A C T U R E S — 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED AN D
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYMENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
MISCELLANEOUS M ANUFACTURES, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

T able 1 2 1 .

Sign and advertising
novelties
Year

Wage
earners
(aver­
age num­
ber)

1924______________
1925______________
1926______________
1927______________
1928............................
1929______________
1930______________
1931______________
1932____ _________




98.7
104.8
100.0
81.3
114.8
123.7
114. 4
82.3
81.0

Sporting and athletic
goods

Total Average Wage
wage wage earners
and
and
(aver­
salary- salary age num­
pay­ pay­
ments ment ber)
89.1
85.9
100.0
81.3
113.8
121.4
111.6
69.6
57.1

90.2
82.0
100.0
100.0
99.1
98.2
97.6
84.5
70.5

95.5
97.9
100.0
108.4
120.5
120.6
135.9
113.2
87.3

Toys and games

Total Average Wage
wage wage earners
and
and (aver­
salary salary age num­
pay­ pay­
ber)
ments ment
88.3
91.1
100.0
105.6
116.8
116.2
128.1
91.1
60.3

92.4
93.0
100.0
97.4
96.9
96.3
94.1
80.5
69.0

104.1
94.1
100.0
105.3
105.7
114.3
78.8
31.7
25.8

Total Average
wage wage
and
and
salary salary
pay­ pay­
ments ment
93.4
93.9
100.0
107.2
105.3
114.2
73.2
26.2
16.8

89.7
99.7
100.0
101.8
99.5
99.9
92.9
82.5
64.9

I

Chapter S.— Wholesale and Retail Trade, 1916 to 1932

N WHOLESALE and retail trade in Ohio during the 17 years, 1916
to 1932, the highest average annual wage and salary payment to
wage earners was $1,293 in 1928 and the lowest $671 in 1916. The
highest average wage and salary payment to bookkeepers, stenog­
raphers, and office clerks was $1,405 in 1930 and the lowest $723 in
1916. The highest average wage and salary payment to salespeople
(not traveling) was $1,238 in 1927 and the lowest $656 in 1916. For
the three general occupation groups combined, the highest average
was $1,273 in 1927 and the lowest $675 in 1916. The average wage
and salary payment in 1932 was the lowest since 1919 (with data for
1922 not available) for each of the three general occupation groups.
The highest average number of persons reported employed was
149,224 in 1929. The average in 1932 was 122,738, which was less
than in any year since 1924.
The decline from 1929 to 1932 was 17.7 percent in average number
of persons employed, 32.6 percent in total wage and salary payments,
and 18 percent in the average wage and salary payment.
The Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classifies under wholesale
and retail trade, three trade groups—wholesale and retail stores;
coal, lumber, and scrap yards; and retail delivery of milk, ice, and
water. A fourth group “ offices” was included prior to 1925 but
beginning in that year, that group has been classified by the division
of labor statistics under the industry group “service.” In order to
secure in this study a comxmrison of the same trade groups through­
out the period from 1916 to 1932, all data concerning “offices” have
been eliminated from the wholesale and retail group for 1916 to 1924,
except in table 123 as noted. With the elimination of data concern­
ing “offices” the figures for wholesale and retail trade in this study will
not be in agreement, during the earlier years, with the study of Aver­
age Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio, published in the Monthly
Labor Review for January 1934.
The average number of employees reported in the trades grouped
by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics under wholesale and retail
trade was almost exactly one-ninth of the average reported to the
division by employers in “ all industries” (manufactures, wholesale
and retail trade, service, transportation and public utilities, construc­
tion, agriculture, and fisheries) from 1922 to 1929. During the
period 1916 to 1920, the percentage varied from 8.7 to 9.8. The
150




151

W H O L E S A L E A N D R E T A IL T R A D E -----1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

percentage was 12.2 in 1921,12.5 in 1930,14.2 in 1931, and 15.0 in 1932.
Similar computations for total wage and salary payments show a
general upward trend from 6.6 percent in 1918 to 14.5 percent in 1932.
The higher percentages during periods of slackened activities arise
in part from the greater stability of employment and pay rolls in
principal lines of trade than in some other lines of industry. Table
122 shows percentages for each year from 1916 to 1932. The three
general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks; and salespeople (not traveling) are included. The
data are for both sexes combined as employers are not requested to
show separately total wage and salary payments to males and females.
T a bl e

123.—PERCENT EM PLOYMENT AND PAY ROLL IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE FORM OF THOSE IN ALL INDUSTRIES IN OHIO, 1916 TO 1932
Percent
employ­
ees in
trade
form of
employ­
ees in all
indus­
tries (av­
erage)

Year

1916................ .......................
1917________ ____ __________
1918________ ______________
1919________________ ____
1920________________________
1921........... ..................................
1922_______ ________ ______
1923_____ _________________
1924__________ __________ _

Percent
pay roll
in trade
forms of
that in all
indus­
tries

Percent

Percent

8.8
8.7
8.9
9.7
9.8
12.2
11.4
10.7
11.6

7.7
7.4
6.6
7.5
7.5
11.3
0) 8.9
9.9

Year

1925..............................................
1926 ........... ........................... .
1927_____ _____ ____
1928.................. ................
1929...................... .......... ..........
1930
1931............................
1932......................................

Percent
employ­ Percent
ees in pay roll
trade in trade
form of forms of
employ­ that in all
ees in all indus­
indus­
tries (av­ tries
erage)
Percent

11.3
11.3
11.9
11.8
11.7
12.5
14.2
15.0

Percent

9.6
9.9
10.4
10.1
9.7
11.1
13.3
14.5

i Data not available.

Table 123 shows total wage and salary payments to each of the
three general occupation groups in wholesale and retail trade. Pay­
ments to superintendents and managers are also shown in this table
but data for that group are not included in any other table or com­
putations in this study.
In preparing annual reports for the Ohio Division of Labor Sta­
tistics, employers were instructed to classify employees as follows:
W a g e earn ers: Include mechanics of all kinds, factory employees, shop fore­
men, laborers, laundry employees, cleaners and caretakers in buildings, employees
of alteration departments and delivery departments in stores, cash girls, check
boys, farm hands, etc.
B oo k k eep ers sten o g ra p h ers a n d office clerks: Include bookkeepers, typists,
stenographers, copyists, timekeepers, draftsmen, filing clerks, sales office em­
ployees, cashiers, etc.
S a le sp e o p le (not tra v elin g ): Include the selling force in stores and other estab­
lishments. Do not include traveling salespeople.
S u p erin ten d en ts a n d m an a g ers: Include all superintendents and managers but
not shop foremen. Do not include salaries of officials.

,




,

152

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E P A Y M E N T S IN O H IO

In their annual returns to the division of labor statistics, employ­
ers were requested to report for the year total wage and salary pay­
ments in dollars, including bonuses and premiums and value of
board and lodging furnished.
The division of labor statistics did not tabulate total wage and
salary payments for the year 1922 by individual industries and
trades and it was, therefore, impossible to eliminate data for “offices”
for that year.
In wholesale and retail trade, total wage and salary payments to
the three general occupation groups (omitting superintendents and
managers) increased each year from 1916 to 1920, decreased $10,422,719 in 1921, increased each year from 1923 to 1929, and decreased in
1930, 1931, and 1932. The greatest increase in a single year was
$31,609,848 from 1919 to 1920 and the greatest decrease was $35,610,526 from 1931 to 1932.
Total wage and salary payments to wage earners reached the highest
amount during the 17 years in 1927; to bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks in 1930; and to salespeople (not traveling) in 1929.
During the 9 years, 1924 to 1932, in which reports were requested of
all employers of 3 or more persons, total wage and salary payments
to each of the 3 general occupation groups reached the lowest point
in 1932.
T able

123.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Year

Estab­
lish­
ments

Wage
earners

1916_______________
1917_______________
1918_______________
1919_______________
1920_______________
1921_______________
19221______________
1923_______________
1924_______________
1925_______________
1926_________ _____
1927............ ..................
1928_____ ____ _____
]929_______________
1930..............................
1931_______________
1932_______________

4, 056
4,425
4, 815
5,063
5,786
4,962
6,031
5, 497
6,707
7,277
7,867
8, 526
8, 916
9, 524
10, 022
10, 111
9, 716

$24,980, 288
31,212,896
34, 922, 511
43, 359, 687
58,837, 839
52, 203,124
55, 724, 935
59, 354,971
64, 715, 087
67,929, 464
72, 366, 350
74,471, 388
73, 571,115
72,980,211
72, 844, 362
67, 505, 063
52, 243, 081

Bookkeep­
Superin­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople Total of pre­ tendents
raphers, (not trav­ ceding
and man­
and office eling)
agers
clerks
$10,159,344
12, 460, 593
14, 323, 442
18,892, 259
25, 512, 300
23,802, 292
37,310,729
26, 453, 941
28,011, 605
28,828, 086
31, 231,010
32,032,811
31,704,191
33. 268,959
34, 396, 203
28, 548, 605
21, 934, 553

$19,699, 259
23,402, 760
26, 379,860
34, 693, 649
44, 205, 304
42,127, 308
44,403,951
49,846,849
55, 619, 297
58,611, 692
63, 490, 776
71, 337, 704
73, 229,892
78, 338, 716
67, 848,122
64, 051, 911
50, 317, 419

$54,838,891
67,076, 249
75, 625, 813
96, 945, 595
128, 555, 443
118,132, 724
137,439, 615
135,655, 761
148, 345, 989
155, 369, 242
167, 088,136
177,841, 903
178, 505,198
184,587,886
175, 088, 687
160,105, 579
124, 495, 053

$5,919,182
7,605, 098
9,619, 073
12, 282, 299
15,917, 877
15, 729, 323
20,162,319
19, 384,463
20,594,823
22,965, 987
24,120, 423
25,718,819
31,854, 439
28, 532,443
32, 256, 244
26, 096, 282
20,821, 876

Grand
total
$60, 758, 073
74, 681, 347
85, 244,886
109, 227,894
144, 473, 320
133, 862, 047
157, 601, 934
155,040, 224
168,940,812
178, 335, 229
191, 208, 559
203, 560, 722
210, 359, 637
213,120, 329
207,344,931
186, 201,861
145, 316, 929

1 Data are not available to compute total wage and salary payments for wholesale and retail trade (not
including offices).

Table 124 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in wholesale and retail trade, and in each of the three trade groups
classified by the division of labor statistics under trade, each year
from 1916 to 1932.




WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

153

In wholesale and retail trade as a group the highest average number
of wage earners was reported employed in 1927, and of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks, and salespeople (not traveling) in
1929. Eor the three general occupation groups combined, the highest
average number was employed in 1929 and the average number
employed in 1932 was lower than in any other year since 1924.
In wholesale and retail stores, the highest average number of wage
earners was employed in 1930, and of bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks, and salespeople (not traveling) in 1929. The highest
average for the three general occupation groups combined was in 1929
and the average in 1932 was lower than in any other year since 1924.
In coal, lumber, and scrap yards, the highest average number
employed for the three general occupation groups combined was in
1928 and the lowest average number during the 17 years was in 1932.
In retail delivery of milk, ice, and water, the highest average num­
ber reported employed for the three general occupation groups
combined was in 1931 and the second highest was in 1932.
134.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE, 1916 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL
OCCUPATION GROUPS

T able

Trade— wholesale and retail

Establish­
ments

Year
1916___________________________________
1917_____________ _____________________
1918___________________________________
1919___________________________________
1920___________________________________
1921___________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925___________________________________
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928___________________________________
1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932___________________________________

4,068
4,420
4,815
5,063
5, 786
4,962
5,354
5,497
6, 707
7,277
7,867
8,526
8,916
9, 524
10,022
10, 111
9, 716

Wage
earners
37,237
40,304
41,539
43,843
49,494
42,910
45, 593
49,805
51,967
53,759
56,536
58,368
56,884
56,971
57,845
55,482
49,087

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople All em­
raphers, (not travel­ ployees
and office
ing)
clerks
14,049
30,010
81, 297
15,622
32,551
88, 477
16,448
34,331
92, 318
18,208
100, 434
38,383
19,904
41,126
110, 524
18, 547
37,360
98, 818
19,083
39,408
104,083
20,850
43,473
114,128
21,380
48,724
122,071
22, 263
50,907
126,928
23,055
53,179
132, 770
23, 721
57, 631
139,720
23,887
60,009
140, 780
24,973
67, 280
149, 224
24,482
59,959
142, 286
22, 267
59, 555
137,304
19, 545
54,106
122, 738

Stores— wholesale and retail

1916___________________________________
1917___________________________________
1918___________________________________
1919___________________________________
1920___________________________________
1921____ _____ _________________________
1922___________________ ____ __________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925___________________________________
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928___________________________________
1929___________________________________
1930__________ ___________ ____________
1931____________ ______________________
1932____________ ____ __________________




3,366
3,695
4,021
4, 271
4,932
4, 218
4, 526
4,634
5,666
6,107
6,603
7,195
7,485
8,061
8,494
8, 553
8,155

29, 611
31,639
32,882
35,910
41,112
36, 237
38, 215
41,161
42,235
43,357
45, 622
47,139
45,442
46,395
49, 204
46,498
41,000

12, 681
14,052
14, 754
16, 576
18,161
16,992
17,441
19,006
19,453
20,221
20,906
21,462
21, 689
22, 835
22,289
20, 254
17, 791

29, 768
32,298
33,999
38,093
40,840
37,058
39,120
43,146
48,293
50,328
52, 597
57,078
59,441
66, 777
59,617
59,134
53, 722

72,060
77,989
81, 636
90, 580
100,113
90,286
94,876
103, 313
109, 981
113,906
119,125
125, 678
126, 573
136, 007
131,109
125, 886
112, 513

154

AVERAGE A N NU AL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

124.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EMPLOYED
IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE, 1916 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL
OCCUPATION GROUPS—Continued

T able

Yards— lumber, coaly and scrap

Establish­
ments

Year
1916___________________________________
1917___________________________________
1918___________________________________
1919___________________________________
1920___________________________________
1921___________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925___________________________________
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928___________________________________
1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932___________________________________

667
673
730
728
788
682
764
791
949
1,066
1,157
1,224
1,299
1,326
1,389
1,394
1,390

Retail delivery—

1916___________________________________
1917___________________________________
1918___________________________________
1919_______________________ ___________
1920___________________________________
1921___________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923__________________________ --_______
1924___________________________________
1925_____________ _____________________
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928___________________________________
1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932___________________________________

Wage
earners
7,184
7,903
7,843
7,058
7,436
5,585
6,341
7,417
8,277
8,887
9,185
9,566
9,639
8,597
6,578
6,445
5,943

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ .Salespeople All em­
raphers, (not travel­ ployees
and office
ing)
clerks
1,326
1,492
1,608
1,532
1,645
1,436
1,504
1, 709
1,781
1,884
1,962
2,074
2,004
1,920
1,963
1,709
1, 513

226
238
211
220
223
227
273
273
379
410
436
435
479
444
307
392
359

8,737
9,632
9,662
8,809
9, 305
7,247
8,118
9,399
10,437
11,181
11, 582
12,075
12,122
10,961
8,848
8, 547
7,814

16
16
121
70
63
76
16
55
51
169
146
118
89
59
34
29
24

501
856
1,020
1,045
1,106
1,284
1,189
1,416
1,653
1,841
2,063
1,967
2,085
2,256
2,328
2,871
2,411

milky icey and water
35
52
64
64
66
62
64
72
92
104
107
107
132
137
139
164
171

443
762
814
875
946
1,089
1,037
1,226
1,455
1,514
1,730
1,664
1,803
1,979
2,064
2,538
2,145

42
78
85
100
97
120
137
135
146
158
187
185
193
218
230
304
241

F luctuation in em ploym ent in w holesale and retail trade, for the
three general occupation groups com bined is show n in table 125. The
least fluctuation from m axim um w ithin a year w as 8.3 percent in
1918 and the greatest w as 19.8 percent in 1922. T h e fluctuation
was in excess of 15 percent in 9 of the 17 years. M axim um em ploy­
m ent reported during the 17 years w as 168,839 in D ecem ber 1929,
and the m inim um w as 76,183 in February 1916. In the 9-year
period, 1924 to 1932, during w hich reports have been requested from
all establishm ents em ploying 3 or m ore persons, m inim um em ploy­
m ent reported w as 116,929 in A ugust 1932, w hich w as 51,910, or
30.7 percent, below the m axim um for the 9 years in D ecem ber 1929,
and 30,893, or 20.9 percent, below the num ber reported em ployed in
the corresponding m onth (A ugust) in 1929.




155

W HOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE— 1916 TO 1932

135.—FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT (BOTH SEXES) IN WHOLESALE AND
RETAIL TRADE, 1916 TO 1932
[This table includes the 3 general occupation groups—wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks; and salespeople (not traveling)]

T able

Month
January_____________________
February________ ________ _
March— ______ _____________
April-----------------------------------May________________________
June________________________
July________________________
August______________________
September___________________
October_____________________
November____ ______________
December..................................
Maximum___________________
Minimum_________________ _
Variation from maximum:
Number______ _____ _____
Percent...................................
Number of establishments____
Month
January-------------------------------February___________________
March______________________
April...............................................
M ay.-______ _______________
June____________ ___________
July..______ ________________
August____________________
September__________ ________
October________ ______ ____
November__________________
December________ __________
Maximum__________________
Minimum___________________
Variation from maximum:
Number— ........... .............
Percent--------------------------Number of establishments. .. .

1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
77,009 86,037 90, 513 93,296 107,807 99,638
76,183 84, 893 90, 306 93,061 106, 034 97,409
78,026 87, 454 92, 619 94, 561 108, 404 98, 575
81,027 88, 417 92,176 97,058 109, 483 98,913
80,349 88,268 91, 866 97,903 109,641 98, 221
80,112 88,146 92,662 99, 740 110, 403 98,731
79,193 87, 837 91, 462 100, 648 111, 093 96, 572
78, 065 86, 514 90, 508 101, 399 110, 256 95,470
81, 714 88, 788 91, 587 103, 396 111, 331 96, 642
84, 874 89, 726 92, 425 104, 687 111, 559 99, 317
86,920 90, 686 93,171 107, 597 113,015 100, 367
92,092 94,958 98, 517 111, 859 117, 262 105,982
92,092 94,958 98, 517 111, 859 117,262 105,982
76,183 84,893 90,306 93,061 106,034 95,470
15, 909 10,065 8,211 18, 798 11,228 10,512
17.3 10.6 8.3 16.8
9.6
9.9
4,068 4,420 4,815 5,063 5,786 4,962
1925
1926
1928
1927
1929
122, 243 127, 854 134, 570 133,135 139, 904
121, 441 126, 651 133,883 132, 598 139, 981
123,010 128, 273 135, 728 135,172 143, 364
125, 419 130, 275 138,802 137, 278 146,154
125, 329 130, 830 138,361 138,022 147,133
125, 509 130, 511 138,600 139,173 148, 505
123, 598 129, 534 136,802 138, 533 147, 296
124, 047 129, 402 136,908 137, 787 147, 822
126, 068 133, 517 138, 770 142,182 151,122
130,185 136, 336 142, 306 145,124 155,118
132, 703 139,169 144,117 147, 324 155, 454
143, 589 150,883 157,791 163,029 168, 839
143, 589 150,883 157,791 163,029 168, 839
121,441 126,651 133,883 132,598 139, 904
22,148 24,232 23,908 30, 431 28. 935
15.4
16.1
15.2
18.7
17.1
7,277 7,867 8, 526 8,916 9,524

1922
98,071
96,477
98, 252
102,046
101, 684
103, 076
103, 376
102, 267
104, 340
107,431
111, 714
120, 267
120, 267
96, 477
23,790
19.8
5,354
1930
140, 361
139, 685
141,836
145,993
143,854
143,088
138, 799
136,844
139,151
141, 065
142, 765
153,985
153,985
136,844
17,141
11.1
10, 022

1923
107, 756
107, 511
110, 448
111, 807
112, 275
113, 919
112, 848
111, 900
115, 302
116, 521
120, 327
128,921
128,921
107, 511
21,410
16.6
5,497
1931
134, 622
133,540
135, 958
139,181
138, 620
138, 022
134, 852
134, 243
137, 429
137, 085
136, 635
147,458
147,458
133, 540
13, 918
9.4
10, 111

1924
117, 819
117,917
119,928
122, 266
120,965
120,406
119,420
118, 547
121, 451
123, 356
126,110
136, 664
136, 664
117, 819
18, 845
13.8
6,707
1932
122,470
121,311
123,385
123,928
124,323
122, 579
118, 746
116,929
120,176
123,830
123,167
132,010
132, 010
116,929
15,081
11.4
9, 716

A verage w age and salary paym ents in w holesale and retail trade to
wage earners, to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, to sales­
people (not traveling), and to the three general occupation groups com ­
bined are show n for 1916 to 1932 (except 1922) in table 126. The av­
erage w age and salary paym ent, as previously explained, w as com ­
puted by dividing the total w age and salary paym ents for a given year by
the average num ber of persons em ployed. These averages should not
be taken as exact m easures but as approxim ate figures. D a ta con­
cerning total w age and salary paym ents for 1922 were not tabulated
by the division of labor statistics for individual industries and trades.
In the group w holesale and retail trade and also in w holesale and
retail stores, the highest average w age and salary paym ent to wage
earners w as in 1928; to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in 1930; and to salespeople (not traveling) and to the three general
occupation groups com bined in 1927. T he low est average for each
of the occupation groups w as reported in 1916. T he average for each
group in 1932 was lower than in any other year since 1919.
1 4 0 4 4 6°— 35------- 11




156

AVERAGE A N NU AL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

126.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
TRADE, 1916 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS

T able

Trade— wholesale and retail

Establish­
ments

Year
1916— ________________________________
1917___________________________________
1918___________________________________
1919________________________ __________
1920_________________________________
1921___________________________________
1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925______ ____ ____ ___________________
1926___ ____________________________
1927________________________ __________
1928________________ ____ ______________
1929.......— ______ ______________________
1930.___ ______________________________
1931....... — .................-....................................
1932---------------- ------------------------------------

i 4,068
4,420
4,815
5,063
5,786
4,962
(3)
5,497
6,707
7,277
7,867
8,526
8,916
9,524
10,022
10, 111
9,716

2

Wage
earners

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople All em­
raphers, (not travel­ ployees
and office
ing)
clerks

$671
774
841
989
1,187
1,217
(3)
1,192
1,245
1,264
1,280
1,276
1,293
1,281
1,259
1, 217
1,064

$723
798
871
1,038
1,282
1,283
(3)
1,269
1,310
1,295
1,355
1,350
1,327
1, 332
1,405
1,282
1,122

$656
719
768
904
1,075
1,128
(3)
1,147
1,142
1,151
1,194
1, 238
1,220
1,164
1,132
1,076
930

$708
772
865
1,013
1,253
1, 258
(3)
1, 248
1,286
1, 266
1, 333
1, 327
1,302
1, 310
1, 392
1, 274
1,115

$652
714
761
898
1,067
1,121
(3)
1,138
1,133
1,139
1,183
1,228
1, 210
1,155
1,124
1,068
925

$675
758
819
965
1,163
1,195
(3)

1,189
1,215
1,224
1,258
1,273
1,268
1,237
1, 231
1,166
1,014

Stores— wholesale and retail

1916___________________________________
1917_________________________ _____ ____
1918_________________ _____ ____________
1919___________________________________
1920___ _______________________________
1921--------- ----------------------- -------------------1922___________________________________
1923___________________________________
1924___________________________________
1925___________________________________
1926___________________________________
1927___________________________________
1928.........— --------- --------- ----------------------1929___________________________________
1930___________________________________
1931___________________________________
1932____________________ ____ _________

4 3, 366
3,695
4,021
4,271
4,932
4,218
(3)
4,634
5,666
6,107
6,603
7,195
7,485
8,061
8,494
8, 553
8,155

$667
723
845
954
1,142
1,204
(3)
1,166
1,224
1,247
1,264
1,255
1,279
1, 258
1, 216
1,217
1,077

$668
728
814
941
1,132
1,180
(3)
1,169
1,195
1.203
1,240
1,255
1, 250
1, 215
1,204
1,156
1,011

Yards— lumber, coal, and scrap

6 667
$682
$872
1916___ _______________________________
$724
(5)
7 673
886
1,051
1917___________________________________
925
(5)
730
778
918
1918_______________________ ___________
823
(5)
728
1,123
1,305
1919___________________________________
1,171
(5)
788
1,379
1,608
1920______________ ____________________
1,442
(5)
682
1, 562
1,208
1921-------------------- -------------------------------1,305
(5)
1922_____________________ _____________
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
1923___________________________________
791
1,253
1,493
1,328
(5)
949
1924___________________________________
1,265
1, 565
1,348
(5)
1,066
1,269
1,590
1925___________________________________
1,363
(8)
1,157
1,267
1,583
1926____________ ______________________
1,363
(5)
1, 224
1,582
1,288
1927-------------------------------------------------1,378
(5)
1,299
1,592
1928___________________________________
1,276
1,374
(5)
1929________________ ____ ___________ _
1,326
1,274
1, 576
1,376
(5)
1930____________ _____ — ............................
1,389
1,552
1,418
1,484
(«)
1, 394
1931______________________ ____ ________
1,053
1,343
1,160
(s)
1,390
852
1932- ______________________ ____ _______
1,183
950
(5)
1 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 12.
2 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 5.
3 Information concerning total wage and salary payments not available.
4 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 11.
* Not computed, owing to small number involved.
6 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
^ Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 3,




W HOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE—

1916

TO

1932

157

T able 1 2 6 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE A N D RETAIL
TRADE, 1916 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Contd.
Retail delivery— milk, ice, and water

Bookkeep­
ers, stenog­ Salespeople All em­
raphers, (not travel­ ployees
and office
ing)
clerks
35
$764
$752
1916__ ____ _________ __________________
(5)
(5)
o 52
1,732
1,612
1917___________ ____ __________________
0)
(5)
64
1,269
1918_______________ __________________
1,233
(5)
(5)
64
1, 354
1,326
1919__________________________________
(5)
(5)
66
1,725
1920___________________________________
1,677
(5)
(5)
62
1,668
1921__________ ________________________
1,638
(5)
(5)
1922___________________________________
(3) 72
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)
1923___________________________________
1,689
1, 663
(5)
(5)
92
1924___________________________________
1, 742
1,719
(5)
(5)
104
1,713
1925___________________________________
1,711
(5)
(5)
1926___________________________________
107
1, 763
1, 720
(5)
(5)
107
1,786
1927__________________________________
1, 753
(5)
(5)
132
1928___________________________________
1, 750
1, 725
(5)
(5)
1929___________________________________
137
1,860
1, 831
(5)
(5)
1930___________________________________
139
1,782
1,752
(5)
(5)
164
1931___________________________________
1,628
1,612
(5)
(5)
1932___________________________________
171
1,410
1,400
(5)
(5)
3 Information concerning total wage and salary payments not available.
6 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 2.
Year

Establish­
ments

Wage
earners

Charts 42 and 43 show in graphic form average wage and salary
paym ents in w holesale and retail trade and in w holesale and retail
stores.
It is possible to m ake only lim ited com parisons of this study, based
upon reports to the Ohio D ivision of Labor Statistics, and the U nited

F ig u r e

4 2 .—

A v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s in W h o le sa l e
AND RETAIL TRADE, 191 6 TO 1932

States Census of D istribution in 1929. T he Bureau of the Census
separates w holesale and retail establishm ents and apparently classifies
under “ T rad e” som e activities n o t so classified b y the Ohio D ivision
of Labor Statistics. T he census also includes a great num ber of sm all




158

AVERAGE AN NUAL WAGE PAYM ENTS IN OHIO

establishm ents w hich w ould n ot be covered by the Ohio D ivision of
Labor Statistics w hich requested reports only from those em ploying
3 or m ore persons (5 or m ore prior to 1924). T he census report covers
in Ohio 8,077 w holesale establishm ents and 83,717 retail establish­
m ents for 1929 w hich is th e first census report on distribution. V ol­
um es 2 and 3 of th e C ensus R eport on D istribution have n o t y e t been
published in final form. V olum e 1 relates to retail trade and show s
for Ohio 229,870 full-tim e and 41,163 part-tim e em ployees. The
total annual pay roll to full-tim e and part-tim e em ployees w as
$318,273,446 and the total annual pay roll to part-tim e em ployees
w as $10,100,969. Of the 83,717 retail establishm ents, 71,361 re$1400

1200

1000

600

6 00

1916

1918

1920

1922

1924

1926

1928

1930

1932

F ig u r e 43.—A v e r a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in W h o le sa l e
a n d R eta il S t o r e s , 1916 t o 1932

ported annual sales of less than $50,000 and 33,350 reported annual
sales of less th an $10,000.
* T he Bureau of th e C ensus com putes an average annual salary in
retail trade in Ohio per full-tim e em ployee in 1929 of $1,341. T he
average annual w age and salary p aym en t in w holesale and retail trade
according to the reports to the Ohio D ivision of Labor S tatistics for
1929, including full-tim e, part-tim e, and overtim e workers, was
$1,237 which is $104, or 7.8 percent, less than the census average for
full-tim e em ployees.
Indexes for Employment and Wage and Salary Payments
I n d e x e s for average num ber of persons em ployed (wage earners,
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and salespeople, n ot
traveling) and for total and average w age and salary paym ents in
w holesale and retail trade and in each of the trade groups classified
under th at industry are show n in table 127. T h e base for the




WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE— 1916 TO 1932

159

indexes in this table is 1926. The years covered are 1924 to 1932
during which period reports were requested each year by the Ohio
Diyision of Labor Statistics from all establishments employing three
or more persons.
In the wholesale and retail trade, the index for average number of
persons employed exceeded the base year (1926) each year from 1927
to 1931 and fell to 92.4 in 1932. The index for total wage and salary
payments exceeded the base year in 1927, 1928, 1929, and 1930, and
fell to 74.5 in 1932. The index for average wage and salary payments
exceeded the base year in 1927 and 1928 and fell to 80.6 in 1932.
In wholesale and retail stores, the index for average number of
salespeople (not traveling) employed exceeded the base each year
since 1926 and stood at 102.1 in 1932. The index for total wage and
salary payments exceeded the base in 1927 to 1931 and fell to 79.9 in
1932. The index for average wage and salary payments exceeded the
base in 1927 and 1928 and had fallen to 78.2 in 1932. The index for
the three general occupation groups combined in 1932 was 94.4 for
average number of persons employed, 77.0 for total wage and salary
payments, and 81.5 for average wage and salary payments.
127.—INDEXES OF AVERAGE NUM BER EMPLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVER­
AGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE IN
OHIO, 1924 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
[1926=100.0]

T able

Trade— wholesale and retail

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks

Wage earners
Year

1924............................. ..................
1925_________ ______________
1926_______________________
1927_________ ______________
1928--_____ _____ _________
1929. — _________ __________
1930.................. ...........................
1931__________________ _____
1932___________ _____ _______

Average
Average
Number Total wage wage and Number Total wage wage and
(average) and salary- salary
(average) and salary salary
payments payments
payments payments
91.9

95.1
100.0
103.2
100. 6
100.8
102.3
98.1
86.8

89.4

93.9
100.0
102.3
101.7
100.8
100.7
93.3
72.2

97.3

98.8
100.0
99.7
101.0
100.0
98.4
95.1
83.1

92.7

98. 6
100.0
102.9
103.6
108.3
106.2
96.6
84.8

Salespeople (not traveling)
1924_________________ ______
1925..................................... .........
1926— _____ ________________
1927_______ ________________
1928___________ _____ _______
1929...........................— ............
1930...............................................
1931________________________
1932________________________




91.6

95.7
100.0
108.4
112.8
126.5
112.7
112. 0
101.7

87.6

92.3
100.0
112.4
115. 3
123.4
106.9
100.9
79.3

89.7

92.3
100.0
102.6
101.5
106.5
110.1
91.4
70.2

96.7

95.6
100.0
99.6
97.9
93.3
103.7
94.6
82.8

All employees
95.6

96.4
100.0
103.7
102.2
97.5
94.8
90.1
77.9

91.9

95.6
100.0
105.2
106.0
112.4
107.2
103.4
92.4

88.8
93.0
100.0
106.4
106.8
110.5
104.8
95.8
74.5

96.6

97.3
100.2
101.0
100.8
93.3
97.9
92.7
80.6

160

A V E R A G E A N N U A L W A G E P A Y M E N T S IN O H IO

1 2 7 —IN D EX ES OF AVERAGE NUM BER EM PLOYED AND TOTAL AND AVER­
AGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE IN
OHIO, 1934 TO 1932, BY TRADES AND BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS—Con.

T able

Stores— wholesale and retail

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks
Average
Average
Number Total wage wage and Number Total wage wage and
and salary salary
(average) and salary salary
payments payments (average) payments payments
92.6
89.6
96.8
93.0
89.8
96.5
95.0
93.7
98.7
96.7
91.9
95.0
103.3
99.3
102.7
99.5
99.6
103.7
101. 3
97.7
101.7
99.5
109.2
107.3
98.3
107.9
103.8
96.2
106.6
111.3
104.4
101.9
98.1
96.3
92.6
96.9
95.6
89.9
76.6
85.2
85.1
71.2
83.6
Salespeople (not traveling)
All employees
91.8
87.9
95.8
92.3
96.4
89.0
95.7
92.1
96.3
95.6
92.7
97.0
108.5
112.7
103.8
105.5
106.8
113.0
115.6
102.3
106.3
107.1
127.0
124.0
97.6
114.2
111.9
98.0
113.3
107.8
95.0
106.9
97.1
112.4
90.3
101.5
105.7
98.5
93.2
79.9
78.2
94.4
77.0
81.5
Wage earners

Year
1924______ ____ ____________
1925..............................................
1926________ _____ _________
1927..________________ _____
1928........................................
1929______ _________________
1930___________ ____________
1931_______ _____ __________
1932...............................................
1924________ ____ _________
1925___________ _____ _______
1926__________ _____________
1927______________________
1928........— ____ ____________
1929_____ _____ ____________
1930_____________________ __
1931_________________ ____ _
1932..........................................

100.0

100.6
102.0
100.8
101.2

100.0
101.2

100.0

100.0
102.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.2
101.0
100.8

110.1

102.1

Yards— lumber, coaly and scrap

Wage earners
1924___________ ____ ________
1925________________________
1926.......................................
1927________________________
1928 _________ ____ _________
1929________________________
1930 _______________________
1931________________________
1932.......................................... .
1924______ ____ ____ ____ ___
1925________________________
1926________________________
1927________________________
1928________________________
1929________________________
1930_______________________
1931_____________________
1932________ ____________

90.1

96.8
100.0
104.1

104.9
93.6
71.6
70.2
64.7

89.9

96.9
100.0
105.9

105.6
94.1
80.1
58.3
43.5
All employees
90.1
89.1
96.5
96.5
105.4
104.3
104.7
105.5
95.5
94.6
83.1
76.4
73.8
62.8
67.5
47.0

100.0

100.0

99.8
100.2
100.0
101.7
100.7
100.6
111.9
83.1
67.2

Bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks
90.8
89.7
98.9
96.0
96.4
100.4
105.7
105.6
99.9
102.7
97.9
97.4
99.6
98.1
98.0
87.1
73.9
84.8
77.1
57.6
74.7

100.0
102.1
100.1

100.0

100.0
100.6

98.9
100.0
0
100.1
101.8
100.0
101.

108.9
85.1
69.7

Retail delivery— milk , ice , and water

1924________________________
1925__________ _____________
1926________________________
1927________________ _______
1928________________________
1929________________________
1930________________________
1931_______ _______________
1932___________ ____________




Wage earners
84.1
83.1
87.5
85.1
96.2
97.4
103.5
104.2
114.4
120. 7
119.3
135.5
146.7
99.1
124.0

100.0

100.0
120.6

98.8
97.2
101.3
99.3
105.5
92.3
80.0

100.0

101.1

All employees
80.1
80.1
89.2
95.3
97.2
101.4
109.4
116.4
114.9
139.2
130.5
116.9
95.2

100.0
101.1
112.8

88.8
100.0

99.9

99. 5
100.0
10LO
10013
106'. 5
101.9
93.7
81.4

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE— 1916 TO 1932

161

Charts 44 and 45 show in graphic form indexes for wholesale and
retail trade and for wholesale and retail stores. The data are for the
three general occupation groups combined.
Table 128 provides a comparison of indexes of the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics for employment and pay rolls in wholesale
trade and in retail trade in the United States and of indexes for aver­
age number employed and total wage and salary payments in whole-

F ig u r e 44.—In d e x e s fo r A v er a g e N u m b e r e m p l o y e d a n d T o ta l a n d A v e r ­
a g e W a g e a n d s a l a r y P a y m e n t s in W h o lesa le a n d r e t a il T r a d e , 1924
TO 1932

sale and retail trade in Ohio computed from reports of the Ohio Divi­
sion of Labor Statistics for 1929 to 1932. The Bureau of Labor
Statistics indexes for trade cover only the period beginning in 1929
and the average for that year is used by the Bureau as the base. It
is therefore used in this comparative table.
For employment the Ohio index for wholesale and retail trade is very
slightly lower than the Bureau’s United States indexes for wholesale
trade and for retail trade in 1930, considerably higher than either of
the Bureau’s indexes in 1931, and also somewhat higher in 1932. For
pay rolls, or total wage and salary payments, the Ohio index was
lower than either of the Bureau’s indexes in 1930, slightly higher than




162

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

45.

F ig u r e
— In d e x e s f o r A v e r a g e N u m b e r E m p l o y e d a n d T o t a l a n d A v e r ­
a g e W a g e a n d s a l a r y Pa y m e n t s in W h o l e s a l e a n d R e t a i l S t o r e s ,
to

1932

1924

either in 1931, and slightly lower than the retail trade and a trifle
higher than the wholesale trade index in 1932.
128.—COMPARISON OF INDEXES OF THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR
STATISTICS FOR EM PLOYM ENT AND PAY ROLLS IN WHOLESALE TRADE AND IN
RETAIL TRADE IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN DEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER
EMPLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN WHOLESALE AND
RETAIL TRADE IN OHIO COMPUTED FROM REPORTS OF THE OHIO DIVISION OF
LABOR STATISTICS, 1929 TO 1932
[1929=100.0]

T able

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Year

Wholesale trade
Employ­
ment

1929 ______ ______________
1930................................... ..........
1931
________ _______1932
________________




Ohio reports—Whole­
sale and retail trade

Retail trade

Pay rolls

Employ­
ment

100.0
96.0
86.6
78.2

100.0
95.9
83.6
67.0

100.0
95.9
89.4
80.9

Total wage
Pay rolls Employees and salary
(average) payments
100.0
96. 2
86.6
69.4

100.0
95.4
92.0
82.3

100.0
94.9
86.7
67.4

Chapter 6.— “ Service” Industries, 1916 to 1932

wage
T HE highestinaverageduring and salary payment intothe “service”
industries Ohio
the 17 years, 1916 1932, to all

occupation groups combined was $1,384, in 1929; the lowest was
$646, in 1916. The average in 1932 was $1,074, which was the
lowest since 1919.
The decline in average wage and salary payments from 1929 to
1932 was $241, or 20.4 percent, for wage earners; $367, or 21.2 per­
cent, for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks; $982, or 48.4
percent, for salespeople (not traveling); and $310, or 22.4 percent,
for the three general occupation groups combined.
The Ohio Division of Labor Statistics classified “offices” under
“ Wholesale and retail trade” prior to 1925, but beginning with that
year “offices” have been classified under “service.” In order to
secure in this study a comparison of the same groups, as far as pos­
sible, throughout the period from 1916 to 1932, all data concerning
“ offices” have been transferred from “trade” to “service”, except
for 1922, in table 129, as noted, and, therefore, the figures in this study
are not in agreement, for the earlier years, with the study of average
wage and salary payments in Ohio, published in the Monthly Labor
Review for January 1934.
The industry group “service” contains a number of activities
seldom covered in statistical studies of employment and wage and
salary payments. The reporting lists in some of such activities
necessarily have been developed slowly, and, therefore, increases in
employment and in total wage and salary payments are accounted
for in part by more nearly complete coverage during the later years
of the period. This should be borne in mind in using figures in this
study for comparative purposes.
Table 129 shows total wage and salary payments reported in
“service” for the 17 years, 1916 to 1932. Payments to superintendents
and managers are included in this table, but data for that group are
not included elsewhere in this study. In their annual reports to the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, employers were requested to
report for the year total wage and salary payments in dollars, includ­
ing bonuses and premiums and value of board and lodging furnished.
Employers were instructed not to include salaries of officials.
Total wage and salary payments to the three general occupation
groups combined reached the highest amount in 1929, while the total
in 1932 was lower than in any year since 1925.




163

164

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

129.—TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN “ SERVICE 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
[Figures for the earlier years are not in agreement with study of Average Wage and Salary Payments in
Ohio, Monthly Labor Review for January 1934, due to transfer of “ offices” from “ trade” to “service”]
Bookkeepers,
stenogra­ Salespeople Total of Superintend­ Grand
Estab­ Wage
(not
lish­
Year
total
earners phers, and traveling) preceding ents and
managers
office
ments
clerks
1916___________ 2,153 $19, 652,032 $6,929,190 $1,231, 512 $27,812,734 $2,831,003 $30, 643, 737
42,894,967
38,625,880
1917___________ 2, 595 26,609, 508 9,913,932 2,102,440 49,562,888 4, 269, 087 54, 743,454
180, 566
2,698,080
1918___________ 3,071 30, 516, 708 16,348,100 3,555, 612 61, 607, 669 1; 053, 211 68, 660, 880
35, 598, 590 22,453, 467
1919___________ 3,157
1920___________ 4,650 52,601, 409 36, 426, 294 4,845,853 93, 873, 556 10, 297, 669 104,171, 225
1921___________ 3,499 53, 671, 210 35,368,928 4, 637, 305 93,677,443 11,059,427 104, 736,870
7,
80,
19221__________ 3,034 50,008,110 19, 645, 610 3, 504, 463 73,158,183 14, 589,873 127, 748,056
204, 573
960,847
1923___________ 4,120 65,361, 822 40,017, 329 8,377,123 113, 756, 274 19,617, 426 153,114, 973
133, 497, 547
1924___________ 5, 215 77,458,058 46, 763, 611 9, 275,878
1925____ _______ 5,971 86,197,038 48, 314,102 10, 948, 449 145,459, 589 21,959, 639 167,419,228
1926___________ 6,761 94, 622,091 53,930,013 13, 078, 376 161, 630, 480 21,849,163 183, 479, 643
1927___________ 7,598 105,462,147 59,000, 261 10,809, 448 175,271,856 21,607, 204 196,879,060
205,961, 707
1928___________ 8,210 102,061, 685 65,040, 343 13,801, 649 180,903,677 25,058,030 238, 291, 343
1929___________ 9, 335 118,959, 260 76,873, 897 16,074,147 211, 907, 304 26,384,039
1930___________ 10, 241 111, 692,103 83, 742, 536 6, 998, 762 202,433,401 27, 932, 230 230, 365, 631
1931___________ 10, 452 103, 607,067 75,869,112 6,060, 877 185, 537,056 24, 510, 860 210,047, 916
1932___________ 10, 357 85, 957, 730 58, 630,191 4, 093, 525 148, 681, 446 19, 735, 297 168, 416, 743

T able

i Not including “offices.” Data not available to compute total wage and salary payments for service
including offices.

Table 130 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups. Employers, in their
annual reports to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, show the
number of persons employed in each of the three general occupa­
tion groups on the 15th of each month. The average was com­
puted by dividing the sum of the number employed on the 15th of
each month by 12.
The highest average number reported employed was in 1930.
The statement made earlier in this study concerning the more nearly
complete coverage during the later years of the period should be
borne in mind in using this table.

130.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN “ SERVICE”. 1916 TO 1932. BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
[Figures for the earlier years are not in agreement with study of Average Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio
Monthly Labor Review for January 1934, due to transfer of “ offices” from “ trade” to “ service”]
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
Establish­ Wage
All
stenogra­
Year
(not
ments
earners phers, and traveling) employees
office clerks
1916_______________________________
2,157
33,433
8,334
1,292
43,058
1917_______________________________
2,599
40,490
10,735
1,784
53,009
1918____ ___________________________
3,071
14,813
40, 301
1,899
57,014
1919_______________________________
3,157
42,086
18, 685
2,386
63,157
1920_______________________________
4,650
48, 662
25,993
2,397
77,052
1921___________________:............ ..........
3,499
48,537
23,418
2,896
74,850
1922_______________________________
3,745
51, 517
24,644
3, 277
79,438
1923_______________________________
4,120
59,082
27, 641
4,045
90, 767
1924_______________________________
5,215
66, 937
32, 219
4,939
104,095
1925..............................................................
5,971
34,124
73,399
5, 523
113,046
1926_______________________________
6,761
82,072
35,664
6,688
124,424
1927_______________ _____ __________
7,598
87,132
37, 934
5,459
130, 525
1928_______________________________
8, 210
91,160
40,181
7,202
138,542
1929______________________________
9,335
100, 805
44, 374
7,930
153,109
1930____ ____ _____________________
10,241
99, 427
51,162
4, 423
155,012
1931_______________________________
10,452
97,184
48, 590
4,348
150,122
1932_____ ___________________ ____
10, 357
91, 523
42,964
3,918
138,405

T able




165

“ SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932

Average wage and salary payments in “service” are shown in table
131. The average was computed by dividing the total wage and
salary payment by the average number (sum of the number employed
on the 15th of each month divided by 12) reported employed each
year.
The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners was
in 1927; to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, in 1929; to
salespeople (not traveling), in 1923; and to the three groups combined,
in 1929. The average in 1932 was lower than in any year since 1919
for the first two occupation groups and for the three combined.
AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916 TO 1932, BY
GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
[Figures for the earlier years are not in agreement with study of Average Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio,
Monthly Labor Review for January 1934, due to transfer of “offices” from “ trade” to “ service”]
T a bl e 1 3 1 .—

Year
1916_______________________________
1917_______________________________
1918_______________________________
1919___________ ____ _______________
1920_______________________________
1921_______________________________
1922____________ __________________
1923_______________________________
1924_______________________________
1925_______________________________
1926_______________________________
1927_______________________________
1928_______________________________
1929_______________________________
1930_______________________________
1931_______________________________
1932_______________________________

Establish­
ments
i 2,157
i 2, 5J99
3, 071
3,157
4,650
3,4$9
(2)
4,120
5,215
5,971
6,761
7, 598
8, 210
9,335
10, 241
10,462
10, 357

Wage
earners
$588
657
757
846
1,081
1,10.6
(2)
1,106
1,157
1,174
1,153
1, 210
1,120
1,180
1,123
1,066
939

Bookkeepers, Salespeople
All
stenogra­
(not
employees
phers, and
office clerks traveling)
$831
924
1,104
1,202
1,401
1,510
(2) 1, 448
1, 451
1, 416
1, 512
1, 555
1,619
1,732
1, 637
1, 561
1,365

$953
1,178
1,421
1,490
2,022
1,601
(2)2,071
1,878
1,982
1, 955
1 980
1, 916
2,027
1, 582
1, 394
1,045

$646
729
869
975
1,218
1, 252
(2)
1, 253
1,382
1, 287
1, 299
1, 343
1, 306
1,384
1,306
1,236
1,074

1 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 4.
2 Data not available.

Chart 46 shows graphically the average wage and salary payments.
Industries or Activities Classified under “ Service ”
I n s t u d y i n g individual industries or activities under “ service” ,
consideration is given only to the tw o num erically im portant occupa­
tion groups— wage earners; and bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks.
In the tables relating to wage earners the follow ing industries or
activities have been com bined in this stu d y under “ service, o th e r” :
H om es for aged and children, laboratories, m ausoleum s and cem eter­
ies, photographers, professional, recreation cam ps for boys and girls,
shoe repairing, undertakers, and service, n o t otherw ise classified. In
the tables relating to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, all




166

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

of the industries enumerated above and all except seven of the indus­
tries in table 132 are included in “Service, other.”
I t should be em phasized th at m ore nearly com plete coverage during
the later years is an im portant factor in several of the industries
or activities, to be borne in m ind, in consideration of increases in

F ig u r e 46.—A v e r a g e a n n u a l W a g e a n d S a la r y P a y m e n t s in “ S e r v ic e ”
In d u s t r ie s , 1916 t o 1932

total wage and salary paym ents and in average num ber of persons
em ployed.

Tables 132 and 133 show for wage earners and for bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks, the number of establishments report­
ing, average number reported employed, and total wage and salary
payments each year.




167

“ SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932

133 .—AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS REPORTED EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916
TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Advertising
Banks
Barbers and hairdressers

T able

Year

1916......................
1917___________
1918____ ____ —
1919 3______ _____
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923______ _____
1924___________
1925 _____ ______
1926-.............
1927.......................
1928-.....................
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

Estab­
lish­
ments
0)
0) 36
38
46
42
40
46
57
45
47
55
47
58
65
65
69

Wage
Wage
Wage
earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
lish­
(aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary
age) payments
age) payments
age) payments
(0
<l)
296
421
495
451
503
676
742
499
471
703
652
949
1,060
1,005
926

(2)
0)
$292,087 0)
188
506,097
192
771,073 4 1,073
334
724,500
385
0)
830,046
401
1,085, 516
579
920 877
599
943, 030
606
632
1,465, 327
1,199,016
636
1,239,331
908
1,263, 572
920
1,055,326
821
781,888
787

Bowling alleys and parks
892
5 45
55 1,117
67 1,104
867
59
70 1,026
66
917
71
946
88 1,136
116 1,398
138 1, 702
164 1,753
195 2,079
223 2,244
217 2, 538
311 2,812
265 2,323
231 1,858

1916.......... ............
1917.......... ............
1918_ .....................
1919 3__________
1920.....................
1921___________
1922___________
1923___________
1924___________
1925....................1926___________
1927. ............. — .
1928___________
1929___________
1930.......... ............
1931_____ ____ 1932___________

$608, 258
1,035, 566
777,473
851,150
1,253,538
1,242,253
0)
1,338,218
1,702,493
2,110, 797
1,919,194
2,265,471
2,493,337
2,652,999
2,747,409
1,989,162
1,499,999

Churches
0)
0)
(0
0)
0) • 0)
(*)
0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
C
1)
0)
0) 11 0)
125
28
276
49
446
65
587
78
601
941
113
138 1,077
160 1,182

Garages, including auto­
body repairing
1916. ............. — 1917.......................
1918......................
1919 3................ ..
1920.......................
1921___________
1922......................
1923-,-.................
1924.......................
1925.......................
1926......................
1927............ ..........
1928......................
1929.......................
1930.......................
1931......................
1932.......................

295
7 420
505
576
795
674
711
802
1,062
1,242
1,468
1,624
1,771
1,921
1,947
1,820
1,618

2,857
4,195
4,466
5,543
7,141
5,957
6,160
7,965
9,412
10,623
12,729
11,821
12,692
14,447
12,933
10,920
8,976

$2,333,190
3,878, 736
4,736,077
6,980,756
10,969,979
8,795,155
(0
11,484,236
14,207,772
16,165,183
18,740,425
18,177,235
19,574,658
22,139,131
19,431,205
13,977,910
9,101,898

0)
0)
0)
0)
328 $258,484
412
362,915
701
555,267
847
923,640
898
0)
970 1,064,120
1,461 4 2,647,145
1,491 1,508,163
1,646 1,853,147
1,646 1,851, 244
1,725 1,759, 501
2,093 2,108,744
2,069 2,181,032
1,891 1,781,042
1,794 1,656,890

0)
0)
0)
0)
C
1)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$93,124
235,852
401,219
526,589
557,528
822,300
1,102,937
1,120,129

24
25
24
31
27
30
35
57
66
73
95
100
108
119
142
168

0)

395 $169,876
209,750
487
602
306,714
766
448,660
926,442
1,156
3,735 3, 787,440
4,343
0)
4,968 4,177,744
5,652 4,729,461
6,337 5,781,399
7,116 6,022, 306
8,007 7,388,279
8,790 4 4,928,136
9,989 9,029,611
10,073 9,153,476
10,008 8, 701,021
9,406 7, 619, 766

$148,606
(2)
189, 719
217,084
318,930
277,900
C
1)
367,789
492,894
570,459
625, 358
824,320
872,484
1,000,929
1,032,939
1,072, 291
990,197

Clubs (athletic, country,
and yacht)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
140
152
184
167
194
225
267
288

Hospitals
18
21
27
37
47
85
96
110
125
136
146
173
176
189
217
192
191

229
0)
199
214
247
230
289
285
403
475
498
627
707
749
910
1,013
1,129

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
2,625
2, 734
3,158
2,907
3,028
3,088
3,099
2, 714

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
$2,863,320
2,898, 647
3,353, 507
3,177,443
3,230,437
3,438,932
3,175,811
2,230,787

Hotels
6 300
6 351
356
330
352
318
303
348
390
340
364
360
411
406
390
383
356

8,680
9,924
9,923
10,700
10,914
10,470
10,561
11,444
11,725
10,753
11,613
10,933
11, 819
12.597
12, 289
11,441
9,808

$4, 220, 219
5,194,887
5,617,439
7,528,522
8,932,948
8,975,429
0)
9, 588, 675
10,230,997
8,558,784
9,764,422
9,133,790
9,824,079
10,300,526
10,539,727
8,914,610
6, 711,585

1 Data not available.
2 Combined with “service, other.”
3 Total of average number of wage earners by industries 1,346 less than service industry group total;
no further verification possible.
4 In accord with compilations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, but possibly some error in reporting
or tabulating.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
6 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
less by 2.
7 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments was
l;ss by 1.




168

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

132.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS REPORTED EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916
TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

T able

Laundries, dry cleaners,
and renovated
Year

1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919 3__________
1920___________
1921___________
1922___________
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

Estab­
lish­
ments
7 281
7 295
294
281
332
291
287
305
344
368
405
449
478
526
537
555
534

Wage
Wage
Wage
earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
lish­
(aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary
payments
payments
age)
age)
age) payments
8,439
8,627
7,765
7, 837
8,325
7, 308
7,172
8,890
9, 717
10, 589
11,642
12, 664
13, 318
14, 487
14, 571
13, 428
11,915

$4,237,075
4,738, 564
4,619, 590
4,984, 771
7, 623,998
6,751, 435
0)
8,177,447
9,342,840
11,463, 041
12, 229, 747
14,358,044
14, 000, 370
15,447, 090
14, 798,966
12, 537, 847
9, 212, 019

7 369 1,224 $1,375,090
7 488 2,070 2,669,187
515 1,925 2,872,853
594 1,911 3,085,599
803 2,242 4,797,864
676 2,374 5,028, 786
713 2, 771
0)
779 2,858 6,366,611
982 4,103 7,978, 013
1,088 4 2,934 7,872,357
1,252 3,644 8,040, 702
1,403 4,927 10,376, 576
1,601 4,445 10, 257,752
1,826 4,728 11,365, 212
2,145 2, 502 4, 358,195
2, 301 3, 281 5, 605, 232
2,501 8 5, 972 8 9,909,947
Saloons

Restaurants
1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919 3__________
1Q?D
1Q
9I1
1922
1Q23
1924
1025
1026
1027
1028
1020
1930
1931
1932
____

7 272
7 280
327
406
440
365
421
465
615
758
850
1,004
1,011
1, 207
1,365
1,336
1,159

4,003
4,699
5,177
5,860
7,368
6, 306
7,803
8, 076
8,825
10,351
10,986
11,868
11,943
13, 731
14,438
13,496
11,404

$1,989, 311
2, 574, 035
3,363,482
4,191, 304
6,453,133
5,367,496
(0
6,661,751
7,783, 419
8,815, 289
8,860, 737
11,190, 694
10,424, 751
12, 033, 885
12,153,193
12,415, 063
7, 586, 438

115
190
201
78

0)
(0
(0
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
0) 36
83
118
169
228
310
403
458

0)
0)
(0
(0
0)
(0
(0
0)
0)
107
344
563
849
1,050
1, 520
1, 739
1,844

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(1)
0)
0)
$93,962
341, 298
606,143
974,921
1,169,635
1, 682,058
1,826,861
1, 646, 731

1,300
1,606
1,543
269

fi 186
7 198
210
217
243
235
239
250
286
326
372
421
454
502
575
612
653

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(0 51
46
70
77
93
109
121
133
139
138
148

(0
0)
0)
(0
0)
(0
692
504
687
912
1,118
1,170
1,408
1,473
1,703
1,937
2, 396

2,938 $1,776,903
3,396 2,374,342
3,351 2,388,929
4 2,009 2,776,782
3,583 3, 522,274
3,366 3,344,352
3,359
0)
4,078 4,277,149
4, 225 4, 547,692
4,485 4,991, 289
5,176 5, 601,481
5,214 5,872,279
5,101 4 3,114,405
5,981 6,602, 726
6,304 7,056,866
6, 549 7,013,842
6, 768 6,334,047

Schools and colleges
$965,353
1, 300,194
1, 771, 493
274, 240

(0
(0 24
6 26
55
70
66
79
94
89
92
99
107
130
126
132
132

Social agencies

Servants in private homes
1916.....................1917___________
1918— .................
1919 3____________
1920___________
1921___________
1922_________ _
1923___________
1924___________
1925___________
1926.......................
1927___________
1928___________
1929_____ ____ 1930___________
1931___________
1932___________

Office buildings, including
window cleaning

Offices

0)
0)
0)
(0
(9
V
1)
0)
$443,547
714,936
986,871
1,219, 748
1,222, 621
1,384,855
1,511,435
1,851, 448
2,079,074
2, 315,997

0)
0)
385
440
1,127
2,525
2,416
2,737
3,329
3,137
3,360
3, 707
3,988
4,539
4, 767
4,877
4,915

0)
0)
$381, 726
392, 545
1,109,114
3,327,965
(!)
4, 313,978
4,352,631
4, 691,187
5,448,979
6,076, 644
6,578, 697
7, 512, 060
8,479,988
8, 510,027
7, 731,907

Theaters
7 122
136
152
154
188
171
161
179
207
231
261
275
308
291
274
278
279

1,508
1,982
2,223
2,363
3,001
2,903
2,378
3,124
3, 540
3,618
4,131
4,369
4,523
4, 217
3, 605
3, 775
3,028

$1,052,645
1,537,396
1,880,181
1,844,825
3,426, 547
3,803,841
0)
4, 514,921
5,405,084
5, 517,574
6,468,096
6,947, 769
7,079,818
6, 768,936
5,875,370
6,013, 291
4,072,324

i Data not available.
3 Total of average number of wage earners by industries 1,346 less than service industry group total; no
further verification possible.
4 In accord with compilations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, but possibly some error in reporting
or tabulating.
6 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
7 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
8 Increases probably due largely to change in classification of employees, in certain types of offices, by
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.




160

‘SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932
T

1 3 3 .— AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS REPORTED EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916
TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

a ble

Y. M. C. A. and
Y. W. C. A.
Year

Estab­
lish­
ments

1916_____________________________________
1917_____________________________________
1918_____________________________________
1919 3____________________________________
1920____________________________ ________
1921_____________________________________
1922_____________________________________
1923_____________________________________
1924_____________________________________
1925_______ ____ _____________________
1926_____________________________________
1927_____________________________________
1928_____________________________________
1929_____________________________________
1930_____________________________________
1931_____________________________________
1932_____________________________________

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0) 25
28
34
39
47
44
41
37

Service, other

Wage
Wage
earners Total wage Estab­ earners Total wage
lish­
(aver­ and salary ments (aver­ and salary
age) payments
age) payments
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
785
784
748
907
947
874
1,024
904

0)
0)
0)
0)
C
1)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$687, 707
681, 514
685,904
796, 640
888, 671
722, 516
811, 348
667,146

130
968
165 4 2,390
144 1,013
7 145 1,128
175 1,338
145 1,148
171 1,226
187 1,370
231 1,721
256 1,853
277 2,054
319 2,484
326 2,557
366 2,663
419 2,969
563 4,304
608 4,583

$775, 506
1,096, 851
1,060,461
1,153, 340
1,940,302
1,321, 018
0)
1,755, 590
2, 237,165
2, 505,655
2,727,408
3, 265,081
3,094, 233
3,400, 374
4,102,912
5,024, 371
4, 768, 035

1 Data not available.
3 Total of average number of wage earners by industries 1,346 less than service industry group total; no
further verification possible.
4 In accord with compilations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, but possibly some error in reporting
or tabulating.
7 Number of establishments reporting employees; number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
T

1 3 3 —AVERAGE NUM BER OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE
CLERKS REPORTED EM PLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO
BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916 TO
1932, BY INDUSTRIES

a ble

Banks

Year

Garages, including auto­
body repairing

Hospitals

BookBookBookkeep­
keep­
keep­
ers,
ers
ers,
stenog­ Total
stenog­ Total
stenog­ Total
Estab­ raph­ wage and Estab­ raph­ wage and Estab­ raph­ wage and
lish­ ers,
lish­ ers,
lish­ ers,
salary
salary
salary
ments and payments ments and payments ments and payments
office
office
office
clerks
clerks
clerks
(aver­
(aver­
(aver­
age)
age)
age)

1916____ _______
0)
0)
1917___________ 0)
0)
0)
1918____ _______ 0)
188 4,945 $5,675,894
1919___________
192 5,955 7,285,573
1920___________ 1,073 9,896 14,282,902
19213__________
334 9,200 14,915,129
1922___________
385 9,419
(0
1923___________
401 10,207 14,871,217
1924___________
579 12,019 16,653,801
1925___________
599 12,228 16,125,118
1926___________
606 12,476 19,065, 585
1927___________
632 12,623 19,694, 310
1928___________
636 12,841 20, 548,868
1929___________
908 14,149 22,436,897
1930___________
920 14,283 22,426,543
1931___________
821 12, 249 18, 314,158
1932_______ _ 787 11,161 16,222, 488
See footnotes at end of table.




295
543
e 420
834
505
961
576 1,130
795 1, 592
674 1,459
711 1,591
802 1,946
1,062 2, 455
1,242 2, 650
1,468 2, 998
1,624 2,903
1,771 3,105
1,921 2, 794
1,947 3, 054
1,820 2, 521
1, 618 2,017

$391,059
677,185
1,154,983
1,315,265
2,251,762
1,932,757
0)
2,962, 034
3,464,682
3,860,093
4, 277, 577
4,222, 545
4,432, 215
4,734,176
4,240, 297
3,146, 707
2,167,971

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)

85
96
110
125
136
146
173
176
189
217
192
191

0)
(0
(0
0)
0)

294
329
456
437
522
599
759
697
907
907
918
882

(2
)

(2)
(2
)
(2)
(2
)
$317,193
0)
462,951
4 656, 017
617, 229
634, 228
888, 549
4 671, 334
1,040,455
1,071,853
1,076,010
839,910

170

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 133.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE

CLERKS REPORTED EMPLOYED AND TOTAL WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO
BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916 TO
1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued
Laundries, dry cleaners,
and renovators

Hotels

Year

1916___________
1917___________
1918___________
1919___________
1920___________
19213__________
1922___________
1923___ ________
1924___________
1925___________
1926___________
1927___________
1928___________
1929___________
1930___________
1931___________
1932___ ________

BookBookBookkeep­
keep­
keep­
ers,
ers
ers,
stenog­ Total
stenog­ Total
stenog­ Total
Estab­ raph­ wage and Estab­ raph­ wage and Estab­ raph­ wage and
lish­ ers,
lish­ ers,
lish­ ers,
salary
salary
salary
ments and payments ments and payments ments and payments
office
office
office
clerks
clerks
clerks
(aver­
(aver­
(aver­
age)
age)
age)
5 300
7 351
356
330
352
318
308
348
390
340
364
360
411
406
390
383
356

786
846
949
1,147
1,160
1,169
1,126
1,248
1,356
1,377
1,308
1,135
1,249
1,408
1,279
1,188
1,068

$560,497
699,761
817,617
1,036,169
1, 332,932
1,387, 779
0)
1,350,096
1,402,794
1,363,065
1,446, 348
1,477, 587
1,461,432
1,654,474
1,486,832
1,285, 726
1,056, 351

6 281
6 295
294
281
332
291
287
305
344
368
405
449
478
526
537
555
534

Schools and colleges
1916 _________
1917
1918
______
1919
1920
____
19213 _______
1922 . ____
1923
1924
____
1925
1926
____
1927 _ _____
1928
___
1929
1930 _ _____
1931 . _____
1932
______

Offices

(0
(i)
24
7 26
55
70
66
79
94
89
92
99
107
130
126
132
132

0)
0)
517
429
394
489
482
609
694
501
529
551
570
637
676
678
610

912
0)
(i)
s 1,045
$642,167 1,189
525,044 6 1,158
523,417 1,240
631,884 1,051
0)
1,184
804,836 1,296
861,757 1,639
641, 603 2,109
667, 672 2,428
750, 679 2,858
797,185 3,030
958, 449 3,429
932,343 3,959
921,133 4, 248
799, 009 4, 238

703 $382, 558
373,944
625
390, 265
597
610 4 807,685
632,056
645
599 4 946,803
598
0)
713,708
665
796,982
731
769
858,369
826
918,125
986 1,039, 550
945 4 2,065,651
1,021 1,177,130
1,083 1,293,668
955 1,037, 528
892
835,958

6 369
6 488
515
594
803
676
713
779
982
1,088
1,252
1,403
1,601
1,826
2,145
2, 301
2, 501

5,389 $4,975,171
7,537 7,447,713
5,856 6,644,321
8,430 10,449,361
11,002 16,031,468
9,230 13,944,327
9,818
0)
10,989 16, 705,632
12,691 20,420,468
13, 718 21,987,567
14,316 23,338,357
16,075 26,848,769
18,207 31,654,279
20,495 41,246,320
26,536 47,821,356
26,194 45,201,813
22,445 32, 361, 719

Service, other
913
892
988
984
1,304
986
1, 282
1, 521
1,837
2,359
2,612
2,903
2, 567
2,964
3, 345
3,889
3,890

$619,905
715,329
1,022 853
1,034,370
1,371,757
1,293,056
0)
2,146,855
2, 507,110
2,861,058
3, 582,121
4,078,272
3,409,379
3, 625,996
4,469,644
4,886, 037
4,346,785

1 Data not available.
2 Combined with “ Service, other.”
3 Total of average number of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, by industries, 8 greater than
“service” industry group total.
4 In accord with compilations of the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, but possibly some error in report­
ing or tabulating.
« Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 2.
e Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 1.
7 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.

Average wage and salary payments in each of the industries or
activities are shown for wage earners in table 134, and for bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks in table 135. The average wage and
salary payment, as previously explained, was computed by dividing
the total wage and salary payment for a given year by the average




171

“ SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932

number employed. These averages should not be taken as exact
measures but only as approximations.
As far as data are available, the highest average wage and salary
payment to wage earners was reported for 1 industry or activity in
1920; for 2 in 1921; for 1 jn 1924; for 2 in 1926; for 4 in 1927; for 2 in
1928; for 3 in 1929; for 3 in 1930; and for 1 in 1931. The lowest
average was generally reported for the earliest years for which data
are shown, although in three instances the average was lowest in
1932. Comparatively few reports are received from employers of
servants in private homes, and those are doubtless from the wealthier
households.
Average wage and salary payments to bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks are shown for seven industries or activities and for
the group “Other.” The highest average was reported in 1921 for 2
classifications; in 1923 for 1; in 1929 for 3; in 1930 for 1; and in 1925
and 1930 for 1. The lowest average was reported for the earlier
years except in one classification where the lowest average was paid
in 1932.
T able 1 3 4 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
“ SERVICE”, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES

Laun­
Clubs Garages,
dries,
Barbers Bowling
Adver­ Banks and hair alleys and Churches (country, including Hos­ Hotels dry
Year tising
athletic, auto-body pitals
cleaners,
dressers parks
and repairing
and reno­
yacht)
vators
1916____
1917____
1918........
1919........
1920____
1921____
1922____
1923____
1924____
1925____
1926____
1927____
1928____
1929____
1930____
1931____
1932____

0)
0)
$987
1, 202
1, 558
1,606
0)
1,228
1,463
1,845
2,002
2,084
1,839
1,306
1,192
1,050
844

0)
0)
$788
881
792
1,090
0)
1,097
(2)
1,012
1,126
1,125
1,020
1,008
1,054
942
924

$649
0)953
1,014
1,291
1,208
0)
1,290
1, 223
1, 201
1, 256
1,315
1,234
1,336
1,135
1,059
877

1 Data not available.

140446° — 3!




-12

$682
927
704
982
1, 222
1,355
0)
1,178
1, 218
1, 240
1,095
1,090
1, 111
1,045
977
856
807

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$745
855
900
897
928
874
1,024
948

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$1,091
1,060
1,062
1,093
1,067
1,114
1,025
822

$817
925
1,060
1, 259
1, 536
1, 476
0)
1,442
1, 510
1, 522
1, 472
1,538
1, 542
1, 532
1, 502
1, 280
1, 014

$430
431
509
586
801
1,014
(0
841
837
912
846
923
(2)
904
909
869
810

i

2 Omitted, see note 4 to table 132.

$486
523
566
704
818
857
0)
838
873
796
841
835
831
818
858
779
684

$502
549
595
636
916
924
0) 920
961
1, 083
1,050
1,134
1,051
1,066
1,016
934
773

172

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 1 3 4 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
“ SERVICE”, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES—Continued

Year

Office
Serv­
Y.M.C.A.
Schools ants Social
buildings,
Offices including Restau­ Saloons and col­ in pri­ agencies Theaters and Service,
Y.W.C.A. other
window rants
leges
vate
homes
cleaning

1916______ $1,123
1917______ 1,289
1918______ 1,492
1919______ 1, 615
1920______ 2,140
1921______ 2,118
1922______
1923______ 2,0)
228
1924______ 1,944
1925______ (2)
1926______ 2,207
1927______ 2,106
1928______ 2,308
1929______ 2,404
1930______ 1,742
1931______ 1,708
1932______ 1,659

$605
699
713
(2)
983
994
0)
1,049
1,076
1,113
1,082
1,126
(2)
1,104
1,119
1,071
936

$497 $743
548
810
650 1,148
715 1,019
876
851
0)
825
882
852
807
943
873
876
842
920
665

0)
0)
$991
892
984
1,318
0)
1, 576
1,307
1,495
1, 622
1,639
1, 650
1, 655
1,773
1,745
1, 573

0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)
$878
992
1,077
1,148
1,114
1,107
1,051
893

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
$880
1,041
1,082
1,091
1,044
984
1,026
1,087
1, 073
967

$698
776
846
781
1,142
1,310
0)
1,445
1, 527
1,525
1, 566
1, 590
1,565
1, 605
1, 630
1,593
1,345

0)
0)
0)
0)
(0
0)
0)
0)
0)$876
869
917
878
938
827
792
738

$801
(2)
1,047
1,022
1, 450
1,151
0)
1,281
1,300
1,352
1,328
1,314
1, 210
1,277
1,382
1,167
1,040

2 Omitted, see note 4 to table 133.

1 Data not available.

T able 1 3 5 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO BOOKKEEPERS, STENOG­
RAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN “ SERVICE”, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Year

Banks

1916____________
1917____________
1918____________
1919____________
1920____________
1921____________
1922_______
1923____________
1924____________
1925____________
1926____________
1927____________
1928____________
1929____________
1930____________
1931____________
1932____________

0)
0)
$1,148
1, 223
1,443
1,621
0) 457
1,
1, 386
1,319
1, 528
1,560
1, 600
1,586
1, 570
1,495
1, 453

Garages,
Laundries,
including
dry clean­
auto-body Hospitals Hotels ers, and Offices
repairing
renovators
$720
812
1,202
1,164
1,414
1,325
0) 522
1,
1, 411
1,457
1, 427
1,455
1, 427
1,694
1, 388
1,248
1,075

1 Data not available.

0)
0)
0)
0)
0)
$1, 079
0)
1,015
(2)
1,182
1, 059
1, 171
(2)
1,147
1,182
1,172
952

$713
827
862
903
1,149
1,187
0)
1,082
1,035
990
1, 106
1,302
1, 170
1,175
1,162
1, 082
989

$544
598
654
(2) 980
(2)
0) 073
1,
1,090
1,116
1,112
1,054
(2)
1,153
1,195
1,086
937

$923
988
1,135
1,240
1, 457
1,511
0) 520
1,
1,609
1,603
1,630
1, 670
1,739
2, 013
1,802
1, 726
1,442

Schools Service,
and
colleges other
0)
0)
$1, 242
1,224
1, 328
1,292
0) 322
1,
1,242
1,281
1,262
1,362
1, 399
1, 505
1,379
1, 359
1,310

$679
802
1,035
1,051
1, 052
1,311
0)
1,411
1, 365
1,213
1,371
1, 405
1,328
1, 223
1,336
1,256
1,117

2 Omitted, see note 4 to table 133.

Indexes for Average Wage and Salary Payments

I n d e x e s have been computed in this study for average wage and
salary payments only. The base is 1926. The indexes cover the
period during which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics has re­
quested reports annually from all employers of three or more persons.
Table 136 and chart 47 show indexes for the industry group “serv­
ice” by general occupation groups. In 1932 the index for wage
earners was 81.4; for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
90.3; and for the three general occupation groups combined (including
salespeople, not traveling) 82.7.




173

“ SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932
T able 1 3 6 —

INDEXES FOR AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN “ SERVICE”,
1924 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
[1926=100.0]

Year
1924__________
1925__ ____
1926__________
1927
___
1928
___

Bookkeepers,
Wage
stenogra­ All em­
earners phers, and ployees
office clerks
100.3
101. 8
100.0
104.9
97.1

96.0
93.7
100.0
102.8
107.1

98.7
99.1
100.0
103.4
100.5

Year
1929__________
1930 ________
1931_________
1932__________

Wage
earners
102.3
97. 4
92. 5
81.4

Bookkeepers,
stenogra­ All em­
phers, and ployees
office clerks
114.6
108.3
103.2
90.3

106.5
100.5
95.2
82.7

Tables 137 and 138 show indexes for average wage and salary pay­
ments to wage earners and to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office

F ig u r e 4 7 .— i n d e x e s f o r A v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d s a l a r y P a y m e n t s in
“ S e r v i c e ” In d u s t r i e s , 1 92 4 t o 193 2

clerks. For wage earners, the index in 1932 was above 100 for 1 of
the 19 classifications, between 90 and 100 for 3 classifications, and
below 80 for 8. For bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, the
index in 1932 was above 100 for 1 of the 8 classifications and below 8Q
for 1 classification.




174

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Table 137.—INDEXES FOR AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE
EARNERS IN “ SERVICE”, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

Barbers Bowling
Year Adver­ Banks and hair alleys Churches
tising
and
dressers parks
1924........ 73.1
1925____ 92.2
1926____ 100.0
1927____ 104.1
1928____ 91.9
1929____ 65.2
1930____ 59.5
1931____ 52.4
1932____ 42.2
Year

97.4
95.6
100.0
104.7
98.2
106.4
90.4
84.3
69.8

0)
89.9
100.0
99.9
90.6
89.5
93.6
83.7
82.1

(2)
87.1
100.0
105.3
104.9
108.5
102.2
119.8
110.9

(2)
102.9
100.0
100.2
103.1
100.7
105.1
96.7
77.5

Garages,
Laun­
includ­ Hos­
dries, dry
ing auto­ pitals Hotels cleaners,
body re­
and reno­
pairing
vators
102.6
103.4
100.0
104.5
104.8
104.1
102.0
87.0
68.9

103.8
94.6
100.0
99.3
98.8
97.3
102.0
92.6
81.3

98.9
107.8
100.0
109.1
0)
106.9
107.4
102.7
95.7

91.5
103.1
100.0
108.0
100.1
101.5
96.8
89.0
73.6

Office
buildings, Restau­ Schools Servants Social
Y.M.C.A. Service,
including rants
and in pri­
Theaters and
vate
Y.W.C.A. other
window
colleges homes agencies
cleaning

Offices

1924 _______
1925 _______
1926_____
1927 _______
1928________
1029________
1930________
1931________
1932________

111.2
113.2
100.0
99.5
101.5
95.4
89 2
78.2
73.7

Clubs
(country,
athletic,
and
yacht)

88.1
0)
100.0
95.4
104.6
108.9
78.9
77.4
75.2

99.4
102.9
100.0
104.1
0)
102.0
103.4
99.0
86.5

109.3
105.6
100.0
116.9
108. 2
108.6
104.3
114.0
82.4

80.6
92.7
100.0
101.0
101.7
102.0
109.3
107.6
97.0

(2)
88.5
100.0
108.6
115.7
112.3
111.0
105.9
90.0

i Omitted, see note 4 to table 132.

95.4
99.2
100.0
95.7
90.2
94.0
99.6
98.4
88.6

97.5
97.4
100.0
101.5
99.9
102.5
104.1
101.7
85.9

(2)
100.8
100.0
105.5
101.0
107.9
95.2
91.1
84.9

97.9
101.8
100.0
98.9
91.1
96.2
104.1
87.9
78.3

2 Data not available.

Table 1 38.—IN DEXES FOR AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO BOOK.
KEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN “ SERVICE”, 1924 TO 1932
BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]
Year

B anks

1924......... ...................
1925......... ...................
1926............. ...............
1927.............................
1928_____________ _
1929...........................
1930............................
1931............................
1932.......................

90.7
86.3
100.0
102.1
104.7
103.8
102.7
97.8
95.1

Garages,
including
auto-body H ospitals H otels
repairing
98.9
102.1
100.0
102.0
100.0
118.7
97.3
87.5
75.3

i Omitted, see note 4 to table 132.

(0
111.6
100.0
110.6
0)
108.3
111.6
110.7
89.9

93.6
89.5
100.0
117.7
105.8
106.2
105.1
97.8
89.4

Laundries,
d ry clean­
ers, and
renovators

Offices

98.0
100.4
100.0
94.8
0)
103.7
107.5
97.7
84.3

98.7
98.3
100.0
102.5
106.7
123.5
110.6
105.9
88.5

Schools
and col­ Service,
other
leges
98.4
101.5
100.0
107.9
110.9
119.3
109.3
107.7
103.8

99.6
88.5
100.0
102.5
96.9
89.2
97.4
91.6
81.5

Conclusion

I n t h e industry group “service”, considering the three general
occupation groups combined, there was only a very slight decline
from 1920 to 1921 in average number of persons employed (2.9 per­
cent) and in total wage and salary payments (0.2 percent), with an
increase of 2.8 percent in the average wage and salary payment.
From 1929 to 1932, the decrease was 9.6 percent in average number
of persons employed, 29.8 percent in total wage and salary payments,
and 22.4 percent in the average wage and salary payment.



175

“ SERVICE” INDUSTRIES— 1916 TO 1932

Table 139 shows the amount and percent of decrease from 1929 to
1932 in average wage and salary payments to wage earners and to
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks by industries or
activities.
The average wage and salary payment to wage earners increased
slightly for 1 of the 19 classifications, decreased less than 15 percent
for 4, and more than 25 percent for 5 classifications. The average
payment to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks decreased
less than 15 percent for 3 of the 8 classifications and more than 25
percent for 2 classifications.
Table 1 39 —AMOUNT AND PERCENT OF DECREASE IN AVERAGE WAGE AND

SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS AND TO BOOKKEEPERS, STENOG­
RAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN "‘SERVICE”, FROM 1929 TO 1932
Industry

Amount Percent
of de­ of de­
crease crease

Wage earners

Advertising._______ _________
Banks
Barbers and hair dressers__
Bowline* allays an<i pa.rks
Churches_____________________
Clubs—country, athletic, and
yacht_______________________
Garages, including auto-body
repairing____________________
Hospitals_____________________
Hotels _____________________
Laundries, dry cleaners, and ren­
ovators—
Offices.. ________________
Office buildings, including win­
dow cleaning____ _______ _
Restaurants.. ...............................
Servants in private homes______
Social agencies_________________
Theaters--------------------------------Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A__„
S n h n o l s n.nrl n n lla g a s

1Increase.




$462
84
459
238
i 20
245
518
94
134
293
745
168
82
59
260

211
221
200

35.4
8.3
34.4
22.8
i 2.2
23.0
33.8
10.4
16.4
27.5
31.0
15. 2
24.1
5. 0
19.8
5.8
16.2
21.3

Industry

Amount Percent
of de­ of de­
crease crease

Wage earners—Continued
Service, other______________
Total___________ _______

$237
241

18.6
20.4

,
,
Banks__________________
Garages, including auto-body
repairing______ ____________
Hospitals_____________ _____
H otels.....................................
Laundries, dry cleaners, and
renovators.......... .......................
Offices_____________ ____ _____
Schools and colleges___________
Service, other_________________
Total__________________

133
619
195
186
216
571
195
106
367

8.4
36.5
17.0
15.8
18.7
28.4
13.0
8.7
.2

Bookkeepers stenographers and
office clerks

21

Chapter 7.—Transportation and Public Utilities, 1916 to 1932

I

N TRANSPORTATION and public utilities in Ohio during the 17
years, 1916 to 1932, the highest average wage and salary pay­
ment to all occupation groups combined was $1,438 in 1928, the
second highest was $1,429 in 1929, and the lowest was $727 in 1916.
The average in 1932 was $1,241 which was the lowest since 1919.
This study does not include reports from companies engaged in
interstate transportation nor from activities owned by Government
units.
The decline in average wage and salary payments from 1929 to
1932 to wage earners was $207, or 14.7 percent; to bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks $122, or 8.2 percent; to salespeople
(not traveling) $331, or 15.1 percent; and to the three general occu­
pation groups combined $188, or 13.2 percent.
Table 140 shows the average number of persons reported employed
in each of the three general occupation groups as far as covered by
reports to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
The year 1930 shows the highest average number of persons em­
ployed during the 17 years in each of the general occupation groups.
The lowest average number of wage earners was reported in 1932.
The lowest average number of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks and of persons in all groups combined were reported in 1916.
T

140.—AVERAGE NUM BER OF PERSONS (BOTH SEXES) REPORTED EM PLOYED
IN TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPA­
TION GROUPS

a ble

Year
1916.--______ __________________
1917____ _______________________
1918__________ ____ — ............ .
1919_____________ ______ ____ — .
1920. .......................... .......................1921______________ ______ -............
1922____________________________
1923.........................-..................-.........
1924.......................................................
1926................................ ......................
1926.......... ......................................—
1927___________________________
1928____ ______ ____ ____________
1929______________ ______ _______
1930______________ _________ _ ....
1931____________________________
1932.___________________________

Number of
establish­
ments
1,137
1,149
1,134
1,081
1,146
1,048
1,071
1,129
1,271
1,353
1,463
1,561
1, 625
1,674
1,741
1,776
1,742

Wage
earners
50,098
53,084
52,037
53,357
56,115
51,368
51,462
56,877
59,320
59,345
67,671
66,999
68,126
66,862
68,358
54,303
47,021

Number of employees
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
stenograph­ (not travel­
ers, and
ing)
office clerks
5,439
6,257
7,205
7,633
7,915
7,372
7,830
8,701
9,331
9,584
11,728
12,546
12,999
14,297
14,969
13,231
12,279

191
236
205
181
224
179
181
298
446
498
609
617
725
978
1,123
847
803

All
employees
55,728
59,577
59,448
61,172
64,254
58,919
59,473
65,876
69,096
69,426
80,008
80,162
81,849
82,137
84,450
68,382
60,103

Table 141 shows for the three occupation groups combined the
fluctuation in employment from 1930 to 1932. Maximum employ­
ment during the 17-year period was 87,540 in July 1930, and minimum
employment was 49,143 in February 1916.
176



TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2
T

able

177

1 41 —FLUCTUATION IN EM PLOYM ENT (BOTH SEXES) IN TRANSPORTATION

AND PUBLIC UTILITIES, 1930 TO 1932 i
[Includes three general occupation groups—Wage earners; bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks;
and salespeople (not traveling)]
Month

Number (both sexes) em­
ployed in—
1930

January.............. .............
February______________
March...... ..........................
April______ ___________
May_____ ___________
June______ ___________
July__________________
August________________
September_____________
October_______________

84,419
83,465
83,182
84, 716
86,730
87, 217
87, 540
87,131
85,843
84,083

Month

Number (both sexes) em­
ployed in—
1930

1931

1932

70,325 62, 758 November. __________ 80,966
69, 255 62,122 December________ _____ 78.107
68, 532 61,401
69, 515 61, 562 Maximum........................... 87, 540
69, 703 60,913 Minimum_____________ 78.107
69, 767 60, 599 Variation from maximum:
68,948 60,144
Number___________ 9,433
Percent____________ 10.8
68,831 59, 245
68, 579 58,813 Number of establish­
67,482 58, 789 ments_________ ______ 1,741

65,491
64.154
70,325
64.154
6,171
8.8
1, 776

57,664
57.231
62,758
57.231
5,527
8.8
1,742

1931

1932

1 For years 1916 to 1929 see Bureau of Labor Statistics Bui. No. 553.

Table 142 and chart 48 show average wage and salary payments in
transportation and public utilities as far as covered by reports to the
Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
The highest average wage and salary payment to wage earners, to
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks (omitting 1924), and to
the general occupation groups combined, was made in 1928. The
lowest average was paid in 1916. The 1932 average payment to wage
earners and to the occupation groups combined was the lowest since
1919, and to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks the lowest
since 1923.
T

able

142.—AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS IN TRANSPORTATION AND
PUBLIC UTILITIES, 1916 TO 1932, BY GENERAL OCCUPATION GROUPS
Year

Average wage and salary payments to—
Number of
Bookkeepers, Salespeople
establish­
stenog­
ments Wage earners raphers, and (not travel­ All employees
ing)
office clerks

1916.......................................................
$790
11,137
$718
$727
(2)
1917.......................................................
s 1,149
814
817
814
(2)
1918.......... ..................................... .
969
1,134
879
959
(2)
1919.......................................................
1,144
1,081
971
1,124
(2)
1920.......................................................
1,146
1,401
1,183
1,385
(2)
1921......................................................
1,318
1,309
1,048
1,318
(»)
1922.......................................................
1,252
< 1,071
1,444
1,281
(2)
1923____ ____ __________ ________
1,129
1,316
1,298
1,316
(2)
1924_______________ ____________
1,350
1,271
1,417
(*)
(2)
1,341
1925___ _____ __________ ________
1,353
1,436
1,359
(2) 203
$2,
1926................ ..................................
1,424
1,453
1,385
1,397
2,243
1927..................................... ...........
1,374
1,423
1,561
1, 388
2,210
1928_________________________
1,413
1,526
1,625
1,438
1929......................................................
2,199
1,674
1,406
1,485
1,429
1930..................... ...............................
1,402
1,741
1,461
1,997
1,420
1,909
1931__________ _________________
1, 343
1,479
1, 776
1,377
1932.......................................... ............|
1,742
1,199
1,363
1,868
1, 241
i Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 8.
a Not computed owing to small number involved.
3 Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was less by 7.
* Number of establishments reporting employees; the number reporting total wage and salary payments
was greater by 1.
* Omitted due to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.




178

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Industries in Transportation and Public Utilities
t h i s study the following transportation and public utility
industries have been combined under “ Transportation and public
utilities, other”: Gas, illuminating and heating; steam railroads;
stock yards; water works; and transportation and public utilities, not
otherwise classified.
Table 143 shows average wage and salary payments to wage earners
and to bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, by industries.
In

F ig u r e 48.—A v e r a g e A n n u a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y P a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s
in T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d P u b l ic u t il it ie s , 1916 t o 1932

These averages should not be taken as exact measures but as approxi­
mate figures.
Considering wage earners only and omitting 1921 data for dray age
and storage and 1920 data for transportation by water (see notes to
table 143), the highest average wage and salary payment was made in
1920 in 2 industries, in 1927 in 1, in 1928 in 3, in 1929 in 1, in 1930 in 1,
and in 1932 in 1. The lowest average payment was made in 1916 in
8 industries and in 1917 in 1.




TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES— 1 9 1 6 TO 1 9 3 2

179

T able 1 4 3 —AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS AND TO
BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN TRANSPORTATION
AND PUBLIC UTILITIES, 1916 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
Drayage and
storage, in­
cluding liv­
ery stables
Year

1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922.
1923.
1924.
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
1929.
1930.
1931.
1932.

Bookstenog­
Wage raphers,
earners and
office
clerks
$693 $781
791
778
922
926
1,100 1,139
1,411 1,434
1,627
(9
(9

(9

Electric light
and power

Electric rail­
roads

Natural gas

Book­
Book­
Book­
keepers,
keepers,
keepers,
stenog­
stenog­
stenog­
Wage raphers, Wage raphers, Wage raphers,
earners and earners and earners and
office
clerks
clerks
clerks
$796 $784 $742 $702 $731 $985
836
926
932 1,079
940
795
1,115 3 899 1,083 1,183
(9
)
1,292 1,035 1,345
964 1,115 1,263
1,618 1,777 1,570 1,240 1,470 1,512
1,457 1,529 1,482 1,316 1,367 1,549

0

(9

Pipe lines
(petroleum)
Book­
keepers,
stenog­
Wage raphers,
earners and
office
clerks
$857 (9
933
1,034 ((9
9
1,234
1,407
1,079 (9

8

(9

(9
(9
(9
(9
1,523 1,316 1,435 1,417 1,442 1,489 1,230 (9
1,588 1,455 1,492 1,416 1,454 1,570 1,217 (9
1,576 1,463 1,467 1,458 1,228 1,630 1,278 (9
1,533 1,411 1,588 1.425 1,182 1,562 1,369 (9
1,563 1,409 1,647 1.425 1, 229 1,481 1,294 (9
(9
1,539 1,519 1,660 1,466 1,240 1,840 1,339
1,589 1,466 1,589 1,296 1,338 1,709 1,256
1,580 1,427 1,600 (9
1,307 1,443 1,501 (9
1,538 1,449 1,498 1,126 1,358 1,384 1,518 (9
1,413 1,355 1,344 1,050 1,159 1,429 1,595 (9
Telegraph and tele­ Transportation by Transportation and
Taxicab and bus
phone, including water, including public utilities,
service
messenger serv­ stevedoring
other
ice
Book­
Book­
Book­
Book­
Year
keepers,
keepers,
keepers,
keepers,
stenog­ Wage stenog­ Wage stenog­ Wage stenog­
Wage
earners raphers, earners raphers, earners raphers, earners raphers,
and
and
and
and
office
office
office
office
clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks
7 $762
$614
$984
1916__________ _____
$766
(9
(9
(6)
(9
982
$749
694
1917_______________
616
1,175
(9
(9
(9
1918_______________
684
742
1,511
1,256
978
(9
(9
(9
1919_______________
819
1,333
1,049
861
1,648
(9
(9
(9
1920_______________
1,002
794
1,731
1,123
(9
(9
(9
(9
1921_______ ________ 1,208
1,033
1,387
1,443
1,079
(9
(9
(9
1922_______________
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(9
(8)
1,640
1,651
1923_______________
1,166
1,065
1,127
(9
(9
(9
1,831
1,701
1924_______________
1,094
1,151
(9
(9
(9
(9
1,344
1,317
1,824
1,703
1,108
1925___________ ____
(9
(9
(9
1,422
1,856
1,691
1926_______________
1,117
1, 270
(9
(9
(9
1,655
1,364
1,016
1,287
1,819
1927...............................
(9
(9
(9
1,829
1,770
1,430
1,166
1,333
1928..........— ...............
(9
(9
(9
1,931
1,710
1,364
1,195
1,391
1929........................— .
(9
(9
(9
1,442
1,855
1,551
1,206
1930.............................. 1,072
(9
(9
(9
1,500
1,194
1, 520
1,627
1,067
1931_________ ______
(9
(9
(9
1,114
1,368
1, 256
1, 213
1932.............................
760
(9
(9
(9
1 Not computed owing to small number involved.
2 Included with electric railroads in tabulations of Ohio Division of Labor Statistics.
8 Includes electric light and power.
4 Omitted due to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.
8 Data not available.
«Data tabulated by Ohio Division of Labor Statistics with transportation and public utilities, not
otherwise classified.
7 Includes taxicab and bus service.




1,338
1,340
1,412
1,490
1,547
1,422
1,487
1,506
1,365
1,190

1,451
1,547
1,511
1,633
1,649
1,681
1,648
1,681
1,608
1,392

8

180

AVERAGE ANNUAL WAGE PAYMENTS IN OHIO

Indexes of Employment and of Wage and Salary Payments

I
of average number of wage earners employed and of
total and average wage and salary payments to wage earners, are
shown in table 144. The base is 1926. The indexes cover the period
during which the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics has requested
reports from all employers of three or more persons (except Govern­
ment employment and interstate transportation). Indexes are
shown for transportation and public utilities as a whole, as far as
covered by reports to the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, and for
each of eight industries.
ndexes

T

1 4 4 —INDEXES FOR AVERAGE NUM BER OF WAGE EARNERS EM PLOYED AND
TOTAL AND AVERAGE WAGE AND SALARY PAYM ENTS TO WAGE EARNERS IN
TRANSPORTATION AND PUBLIC UTILITIES IN OHIO, 1924 TO 1932, BY INDUSTRIES
[1926=100.0]

able

Transportation and public Drayage and storage, in­
utilities
cluding livery stables
Year

1924 ________ ____
1925______________
1926 _____________
1927______________
1928 _____________
1929_____________
1930______________
1931______________
1932................. ..........

Wage Total Average
earners wage and wage
(average salary- and
num­ pay­ salary
ber) ments payment
87.7
87.7
100.0
99.0
100.7
98. 8
101.0
80. 2
69.5

85.5
84.9
100.0
98.2
102.7
100. 3
102.3
77.9
60.1

97.5
96.8
100.0
99.2
102.0
101. 5
101. 2
97.0
86.6

Wage
earners
(average
num­
ber)
59.9
65.9
100.0
105.4
138.0
111. 2
107.1
98. 2
89.5

Electric railroads
1924______________
1925____ ____ _____
1926______________
1927................... .........
1928_____ _________
1929______________
1930______________
1931..................... .......
1932............................

104.0
87.6
100.0
92.1
89.1
0)
80.5
41.6
34.4

97.7
80.9
100.0
95.5
93.2
0)
81.1
39.3
29.1

94.0
92.4
100.0
103.7
104.5
100.0
100.8
94.3
84.6

Taxicab and bus service
1924............................
1925............................
1926......... .................
1927............................
1928____ _____ ____
1929______________
1930______________
1931 ___________
1932 _________ ___

76.1
74.0
100.0
102.1
93.1
114.5
157.2
141.3
127.2

61.6
70.0
100.0
98.0
93.6
109.8
118.5
106.0
67.9

80.9
94.5
100.0
95.9
100.6
95.9
75.4
75.0
53.4

Total Average
wage and wage
salary and
pay­ salary
ments payment
53.8
62.4
100.0
109.4
131.7
111.0
108.2
90.0
71.4

89.9
94.8
100.0
103.8
95.4
99. 8
101.1
91. 6
79.9

94.3
92.5
100.0
106.8
114.1
134.7
128.0
90.0
68.9

Wage Total Average
earners wageand wageand
(average salary salary
num­ pay­
pay­
ber) ments ment
72.8
87.7
100.0
97.7
100.6
108.9
98.1
91. 7
79.5

75.4
90.2
100.0
99.6
101.0
112.9
101.1
92.0
73.3

123.0
103.9
100.0
104.0
104.9
113.2
110.6
114.9
98.1

142.1
117.3
100.0
115.0
119.5
137.6
109.9
95.6
69.4

126.3
109.5
100.0
108.7
116.9
126.3
120.4
106.1
80.9

88.9
93.4
100.0
94.5
97.8
91.7
109.6
110.9
116.5

Telegraph and telephone, Transportation by water,
including m esse n g e r including stevedoring
service
93.8
95.4
100.0
99.7
92.7
110.4
104.2
89.3
75.3

91.9
94.6
100.0
90.6
96.7
118.1
112.4
95.4
75.0

97.9
99.2
100.0
91.0
104.4
107.0
108.0
106.9
99.7

105.8
90.1
100.0
106.3
97.7
108.8
97.0
76.3
56.1

104.3
88.5
100.0
104.2
96.3
113.1
97.0
66.9
38.0

l Omitted due to probable error in reporting or tabulating; no further verification possible.




103.6
102.8
100.0
101.9
100.4
103.7
103.1
100.3
92.2

Pipe lines (petroleum)

Natural gas
76.7
89.1
100.0
102.7
108.7
119.0
115.7
78.4
70.2

Electric light and power

98.7
98.3
100.0
98.0
98.5
104.0
100.0
87.7
67.7

Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s — i 9 i 6 t o

1932

181

Considering the general industry as a whole, the index in 1932 was
69.5 for average number of wage earners employed, 60.1 for total
wage and salarjr payments to wage earners, and 86.6 for average
wage and salary payments.
Of the industries covered, electric railroads show the lowest 1932
index for average number of wage earners employed and for total

F i g u r e 4 9 . — In d e x e s o f W a g e E a r n e r s E m p l o y e d a n d T o t a l a n d A v e r a g
W a g e a n d s a l a r y p a y m e n t s t o W a g e E a r n e r s in T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d
p u b l ic Ut il it ie s , 1 9 2 4 t o 1 9 3 2 (1 9 2 6 = 1 0 0 )

wage and salary payments to wage earners, and taxicab and bus
service the lowest index for average payments to wage earners. The
1932 index of average wage and salary payments to wage earners was
above 100 in 1 of the 8 industries and above 90 in 3 others. Chart
49 shows graphically the number employed and total and average
wage and salary payments to wage earners in transportation and
public utilities.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102