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- 3 . 3 :

Area
Wage
Survey




Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth,
Virginia—North Carolina,
Metropol itan Area, May 1978

Preface
T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s r e s u lt s o f a M a y 1978 s u r v e y o f o c c u p a t io n a l
e a r n in g s in the N o rfo lk —V ir g in ia B e a ch — o r ts m o u th , V ir g in ia - N o r t h C a r o lin a ,
P
S ta n da rd M e tr o p o lit a n S t a tis tic a l A r e a .
T h e s u r v e y w a s m a d e as p a rt o f
the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ' annual a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m .
It w a s
c o n d u c te d b y the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e in P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., u n d e r the
g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f Irw in L . F e ig e n b a u m , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l C o m m is s io n e r
f o r O p e r a t io n s .
T h e s u r v e y co u ld not h av e b e e n a c c o m p lis h e d w ith ou t the
c o o p e r a t io n o f the m a n y f ir m s w h o s e w a g e and s a la r y d a ta p r o v id e d the
b a s is f o r the s t a t is t ic a l in fo r m a tio n in th is b u lle tin .
T h e B u re a u w is h e s to
e x p r e s s s in c e r e a p p r e c ia tio n f o r the c o o p e r a t io n r e c e i v e d .

M a t e r ia l in this p u b lic a tio n is in the p u b lic d o m a in and m a y b e
r e p r o d u c e d w ith ou t p e r m is s io n o f the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t.
P le a s e c r e d it




the B u rea u
p u b lica tio n .

of

Labor

S t a tis tic s

and

c it e

th e

n am e

and

num ber

of

this

Note:
C u rre n t r e p o r t s on o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s a r e a v a ila b le f o r the
c o m b in e d N o rfo lk —V ir g in ia B e a ch —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N ew s—H am pton
a r e a s f o r the m o v in g and s t o r a g e (M a y 1978) and la u n d r y and d r y c le a n in g
(M a y 1978) in d u s t r ie s .
A ls o a v a ila b le f o r th e N o r f o lk a r e a a r e lis t in g s o f
u n ion w a g e ra te s f o r b u ild in g t r a d e s , p r in tin g t r a d e s , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a t in g
e m p lo y e e s , l o c a l t r u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s , and g r o c e r y s t o r e e m p lo y e e s .
F r e e c o p ie s o f th e s e a re a v a ila b le f r o m th e B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .
(S ee b a ck c o v e r f o r a d d r e s s e s .)

Area
Wage
Survey

Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth,
Virginia—North Carolina,
Metropolitan Area, May 1978

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

C o n ten ts

P age

Page

July 1978
Bulletin 2025-20

I n t r o d u c t io n _________________________________________

2

T a b le s :
A.

E a rn in g s , a ll e sta b lish m en ts:
A - l . W eek ly ea rn in gs o f o ffic e w o r k e r s __ 3
A - 2 . W e e k ly ea rn in gs o f p r o fe s s io n a l
and te ch n ica l w o r k e r s ______________
5
A - 3 . A v e r a g e w e ek ly earn in gs o f
o f fic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and
te c h n ica l w o r k e r s , by s e x _________ 6
A - 4. H ou rly ea rn in gs o f m a in ten a n ce,
to o lr o o m , and pow erp la n t
w o r k e r s ______________________________
7
A - 5 . H ou rly ea rn in gs o f m a te ria l
m o v e m e n t and cu stod ia l w o r k e r s __ 8
A - 6. A v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in gs o f
m a in ten a n ce, to o lr o o m , p o w e r plant, m a t e r ia l m ov em en t, and
cu sto d ia l w o r k e r s , by s e x _________ 9
A - 7 . P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s in a vera ge
h ou rly ea rn in g s, adjusted fo r
em p loy m en t s h ifts, fo r s e le c t e d
o ccu p a tio n a l g r o u p s _________________ 10

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, ll.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington. D C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.




A p p en d ix A .
A p p en d ix B .

S cop e and m eth od o f s u r v e y _________ 11
O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ___________ 14

Introduction
T h is a r e a is 1 o f 75 in w h ic h th e U .S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r 's B u re a u
o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s c o n d u c ts s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d
b e n e f it s . (S ee lis t o f a r e a s on in s id e b a c k c o v e r . ) In e a c h a r e a , o c c u p a t io n a l
e a r n in g s data ( A - s e r i e s t a b le s ) a re c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly . In fo r m a tio n on e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e b e n e fit s ( B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) is
o b ta in e d e v e r y th ir d y e a r . T h is r e p o r t h as n o B - s e r i e s t a b le s .

E a c h y e a r a ft e r a ll in d iv id u a l a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s h a v e b e e n c o m ­
p le t e d , tw o s u m m a r y b u lle tin s a r e is s u e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s t o g e t h e r data
f o r e a c h m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s u r v e y e d ; th e s e c o n d p r e s e n t s n a tio n a l and
r e g io n a l e s t im a t e s , p r o je c t e d f r o m in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a d a ta , f o r
a ll S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s in th e U n ited S t a te s , e x c lu d in g
A la s k a and H a w a ii.

A m a j o r c o n s id e r a t io n in th e a r e a w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m is th e n e e d
to d e s c r i b e the le v e l and m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s in a v a r ie t y o f la b o r m a r k e t s ,
th ro u g h th e a n a ly s is o f (1) th e le v e l and d is t r ib u t io n o f w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n ,
and (2) th e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s b y o c c u p a t io n a l c a t e g o r y and s k ill le v e l. T he
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p s in fo r m a t io n that m a y b e u s e d f o r m a n y p u r p o s e s , in clu d in g
w a g e and s a la r y a d m in is t r a t io n , c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g , and a s s i s t a n c e in
d e t e r m in in g p la n t lo c a t io n . S u r v e y r e s u lt s a ls o a r e u se d b y th e U .S . D e p a r t­
m e n t o f L a b o r to m a k e w a g d d e t e r m in a tio n s u n d er th e S e r v ic e C o n tr a c t A c t
o f 1965.




A - s e r i e s ta b le s
T a b le s A - 1 th rou g h A - 6 p r o v id e e s t im a t e s o f s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly
o r h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r w o r k e r s in o c c u p a t io n s c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y o f
m a n u fa ctu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s . F o r th e 31 la r g e s t s u r v e y
a r e a s , ta b le s A - 8 th ro u g h A - 13 p r o v id e s i m i l a r data f o r e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e m p lo y in g 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e .
T a b le A - 7 p r o v id e s p e r c e n t ch a n g e s in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s
o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g w o r k e r s , in d u s t r ia l
n u r s e s , s k ille d m a in te n a n ce tr a d e s w o r k e r s , and u n s k ille d pla n t w o r k e r s .
W h e re p o s s ib le , data a re p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s and f o r m a n u fa c ­
tu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g s e p a r a t e ly . D ata a r e n ot p r e s e n t e d f o r s k ille d
m a in te n a n ce w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g b e c a u s e th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d in th is o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g is t o o s m a ll to
w a rra n t s e p a ra te p r e s e n ta t io n .
T h is ta b le p r o v id e s a m e a s u r e o f w a g e
tr e n d s a ft e r e lin im a tio n o f ch a n g e s in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s c a u s e d b y e m p lo y ­
m en t s h ifts a m on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts as w e ll as t u r n o v e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
in c lu d e d in s u r v e y s a m p le s . F o r fu r t h e r d e t a ils , s e e a p p e n d ix A.
A p p e n d ix e s
A p p en d ix A d e s c r i b e s th e m e th o d s and c o n c e p t s u s e d in the a r e a
w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m and p r o v id e s in fo r m a t io n on the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
A p p en d ix B p r o v id e s jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s
m is t s to c la s s ify w o r k e r s b y o c c u p a t io n .

u s e d b y B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o ­

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth, Va. —N.C., May 1978
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Average
weekly

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f ---S

$

s

ALL

of
workers

$

$

$

$

s

%

*

$

$

*

$

%

t

%

s

%

$

s

(standard)

100

11 0

120

130

14 0

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

2 20

230

240

2 50

27 0

290

3 10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

O ccu pa tion and in d u stry d iv isio n

110

12 0

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

24 0

2 50

2 70

2 90

31 0

33 0

350

37
33
4
i

4
i
3
1

8
5
3
1

17
17
15

3
-

3
2
1
1

2
2
-

2
1
1

1
1

1

_

-

_
-

-

-

4
4

1
1

1
1

90
Mean 2

Median 2

Middle range 2

and
under

330

WORKERS

SECRETARIES ----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

46 5
178
287
62

39.5
39.0
3 9.5
39.0

$
1 83 .50
1 92 .00
1 78 .00
216 .00

$
$
$
1 70.50 1 5 0 . 0 0 - 2 1 3 . 0 0
188.00 1 5 5 .0 0 -2 2 6 .5 0
1 68 .00 1 5 0 .0 0 - 2 0 0 .0 0
2 06 .00 1 7 5 .5 0 - 2 7 3 .5 0

-

-

4
3
1
"

20
7
13
~

34
9
25
”

32
12
20
1

63
18
45
2

69
22
47
7

37
8
29
7

27
13
14
1

21
7
14
8

35
6
29
12

30
22
8
3

19
8
11

SE CR ET ARI ES. CLASS B --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------

88
29
59

3 9.5
39.5
40.0

178 .50
1 85.00
1 75 .50

1 70 .00
2 00 .50
165.00

1 5 0 .0 0 -2 1 0 .0 0
1 5 0 .0 0 -2 1 6 .5 0
1 5 0 .0 0 -2 0 0 .0 0

-

-

-

5
5
“

1

22
5
17

2
1
1

5

1

11
~
11

5

7
2
5

3
1
2

9
5
4

10
6
4

6
1
5

3
2
1

SEC R ET AR IE S. CLASS C --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------

188
72
116

3 9.5
39.0
4 0 .0

183 .00
2 0 6 .00
169 .00

175.00
202.50
1 61.00

1 60 .00 -2 06 .00
1 7 4 .0 0 -2 3 6 .5 0
1 5 3 .0 0 -1 8 5 .0 0

-

-

1
1

6
4
2

17

39
7
32

22
8
14

14
7
7

13
4
9

15
1
14

5
2
3

4
2
2

26
25
1

-

-

8
2
6

21
4

-

8
8

secretaries,

158
73
85

39.0
39.0
39.0

1 7 8 .50
175 .50
1 81 .00

165.00
164.50
168.00

1 41 .50 -2 16 .00
1 4 5 .5 0 -2 1 6 .0 0
1 3 6 .0 0 -1 9 4 .5 0

-

-

3
3

7
2
5

25
7
18

13
8
5

20
9
11

28
14
14

8

4
4

2

14
14

5
5

-

5
2
3

5
4
1

1
1

i
i
-

15

STENOGRAPHERS -----------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

117
106
30

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

168 .50
1 65 .50
222 .50

1 40.00 1 3 6 . 0 0 - 1 8 8 . 0 0
140.00 1 3 5 .0 0 - 1 7 3 .0 0
2 17.00 1 7 7 . 0 0 - 2 8 2 . 0 0

-

-

-

15
15

20
20

7
7
1

3
3
3

14
14
i

6
4
3

1
1
1

9
3
3

3
-

2
2
2

-

-

-

24
24
3

2
2
2

11
11
11

STENOGRAPHERS. GENERAL ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

90
87

4 0 .0
4 0.0

1 64.00
1 63 .00

1 40.00
140.00

-

■-

_

7
7

1
1

i
i

2
1

5
3

2
2

_

_

-

20
20

_

-

24
24

-

-

15
15

-

-

2
2

11
11

c l a s s 0 --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------

1 3 5 .0 0 -1 7 0 .0 0
1 3 5 .0 0 -1 5 7 .5 0

“

8

-

"

2

-

3
2

1

-

-

-

~

~

15

2

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

SENIOR -------------------------

27

40.0

1 84 .00

1 76.00

1 7 3 .0 0 -1 9 5 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

13

4

1

4

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T YP I ST S --------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

22 9
64
165
54

39.0
3 9.0
38.5
39.0

1 48 .50
1 65 .00
142 .50
1 62.00

142.00
1 64.00
1 40.00
151.00

1 20 .00 -1 65 .00
1 3 7 .0 0 -1 9 8 .5 0
1 2 0 .0 0 -1 5 0 .0 0
1 46 .00 -1 87 .50

-

4
~
4

36
7
29
5

31
5
26
3

35
13
22
4

33
2
31
15

28
2
26
8

13
5
8
2

5
2
3
3

-

27
24
3
3

6
4
2

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

-

-

“

11
11
11

“

~

A -------------------------------------

52

3 9.5

1 73.50

185.00

1 3 8 .5 0 -1 9 8 .5 0

-

-

-

-

14

1

1

8

2

-

24

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T Y P I S T S . CLASS B ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

177
146
48

3 8.5
3 8.5
39.0

1 41 .50
140 .00
1 62.50

1 39 .00
139.50
1 48.00

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 5 0 .0 0
1 2 0 .0 0 -1 5 0 .0 0
1 45 .00 -1 90 .50

-

4
4

36
29
5

31
26
3

21
16
3

32
31
15

27
25
7

5
~
~

3
1
1

-

3
3
3

4
-

11
11
11

-

-

-

-

-

-

”

~

F IL E CLERKS ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

1 44
138

39.5
39.5

114 .50
1 13 .50

109.00
109.00

1 0 6 .0 0 -1 1 9 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0 -1 1 9 .0 0

-

76
73

34
33

16
16

14
14

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

”

~

~

“

~

FILE CLERKS. CLASS C --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

1 22
120

39.5
3 9.5

1 1 2 .50
1 13 .00

107.50
10 7 . 5 0

1 0 6 .0 0 -1 1 7 .5 0
1 0 6 .0 0 -1 1 7 .5 0

-

70
69

26
25

12
12

14
14

ME SS EN G ER S ------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------

29
25

39.5
4 0 .0

1 19 .00
1 21 .00

1 10.00
110.00

1 1 0 .0 0 -1 2 6 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0 -1 2 8 .0 0

-

7
4

13
12

4
4

1
1

3
3

-

-

-

-

i
i

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

61
52

3 9.5
39.5

132 .50
1 30.50

130.00
129.50

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 4 8 .0 0
1 2 0 .0 0 -1 3 7 .5 0

2
2

3
3

9
7

15
14

15
13

7
6

1

4
4

3
3

i

1

SWITCHBOARO OPE RA T O R- RE CE P TI O NI S T S MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

157
36
121

3 9 .5
3 9.5
39.5

1 33.50
1 49 .50
1 28 .50

1 26.00
1 42.00
1 25.00

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 4 2 .0 0
1 3 1 .5 0 -1 5 7 .0 0
1 1 0 .3 0 -1 2 7 .0 0

-

32
1
31

5
2
3

62
2
60

15
12
3

13
10
3

10

4
4

-

5
2
3

8
6
2

3
1
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

STENOGRAPHERS.

TYPISTS.

CLASS

See footnotes

-

-

-

at end o f t a b l e s .




3

-

“
“

”

2

“

*

10

“

~

-

-

-

~

-

-

”

-

-

-

Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1978— Continued
Weekly earnings1
(standard)
Number
of
woiken

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings of—
*

s

*

90

$

%

$

s

S

s

S

s

$

s

$

%

*

%

*

$

%

%

Mean2

Median2

Middle range 2

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

1 80

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

270

290

31 0

330

100

O ccu pa tion and in d u stry d iv is io n

110

120

130

140

150

16 0

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

2 70

290

310

330

350

4
3

6
6

1
1

11
11

1

13
7
6
1

10
5
5
2

14
11
3
3

4
2
2
2

11
11

-

~

~
-

-

~

~

11
11
-

-

-

~
-

-

-

-

and
under

ALL. WORKERS—
CONTINUED
74
70

ORDER CLERKS -------------NONMANUFACTURING

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

$
1 15.50
1 13.00

S
106 .00
106 .00

$
$
1 0 6 .0 0 -1 2 4 .5 0
1 0 6 .0 0 -1 2 0 .0 0

12
12

37
37

2

CLASS B -------------------------

57

4 0 .0

118.00

106 .00

1 0 6 .3 0 -1 2 9 .0 0

-

35

4

4

1

11

1

-

-

1

ACCOUNTING CLERKS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

482
15 9
323
74

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9.5

1 53.00
1 5 6 .00
151.00
1 56 .50

1 47.00
139 .00
151 .50
1 50.00

1 25 .50 -1 71 .00
1 2 0 .0 0 -1 8 6 .0 0
1 2 8 .0 0 -1 7 1 .0 0
1 3 8 .0 0 -1 6 7 .0 0

-

69
24
45
5

59
23
36
7

54
23
31
11

57
15
42
14

53
11
42
12

40
2
38
11

42
5
37
1

19
9
10

-

16
10
6
-

-

21
1
20
5

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

131
53
78
34

39.5
3 9.5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

183.50
205.00
168.50
1 78 .00

176 .00
2 15.50
1 67 .00
167 .00

1 5 4 .0 0 -2 1 5 .5 0
1 7 8 .5 0 -2 2 6 .0 0
1 4 9 .0 0 -1 8 6 .0 0
1 5 4 .0 0 -2 0 0 .0 0

-

-

5

-

-

3
-

-

-

5
-

3
-

3
1
2
-

15
3
12
6

15
5
10
7

10
1
9
7

20
4
16
1

10
5
5
-

6
1
5
5

7
4
3
1

8
5
3
2

14
11
3
3

4
2
2
2

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

351
106
245

3 9.5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

1 41 .50
1 31 .50
1 45 .50

1 36 .00
124 .00
141 .50

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 5 9 .0 0
1 1 7 .0 0 -1 4 0 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0 -1 6 5 .0 0

_
-

16
10
6

64
24
40

56
23
33

51
22
29

42
12
30

38
6
32

30
1
29

22
1
21

9
4
5

15
15

6
3
3

2
2

-

~

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

BOOKKEE PING-MACHINE O P E R A T O R S -----------

27

39.5

1 55 .50

146 .00

1 3 8 .0 0 -1 7 2 .5 0

-

-

-

2

6

6

1

5

-

7

160 .00
1 61.00
140 .00

1 3 0 .0 0 -1 8 3 .5 0
1 3 6 .0 0 -1 8 6 .0 0
1 2 1 .5 0 -1 7 9 .0 0

2

-

9
4
5

9
7
2

5
1
4

1
1
“

13
10
3

2
2
~

4
2
2

6
5
1

4
2
2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2

3
3

2

“

138 .00

1 2 5 .0 0 -1 8 8 .5 0

-

4

6

10

4

-

1

-

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17

10

10

9

ORDER CLERKS.

PAYROLL CLERKS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

61
35
26

3 8 .5
3 9.5
37.5

158.50
1 6 5 .50
1 49 .50

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS:
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

39

3 9 .0

153.50

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS.

See fo otn otes

CLASS A --------

80

3 9.5

154.00

150 .00

1 2 6 .5 0 -1 7 5 .5 0

2
15

2

at end o f t a b l e s .




4

4

5

2

-

3

-

-

“

~

“

-

1

2

1

2

~

Table A-2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Norfolk—Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va. —N.C., May 1978
^"weekl^arnlng^^™
(standard)
Number
O cc u p a tio n and in d u str y d i v is i o n
woxkers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f ---s

*

Mean2

Middle range2

Median 2

s

$

s

s

*

$

s

s

s

$

%

S

$

$

s

$

s

s

130

140

150

160

17 0

180

200

220

240

26 0

28 0

300

3 20

340

360

380

4 00

420

440

460

140

150

16 0

170

18 0

200

220

240

260

28 0

300

320

340

360

380

4 00

42 0

440

460

48 0

10

~

~

2

2

7

14

24

20

3

6

3

12 0

*

10

a

2

6

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

an d
under
13 0

ALL WORKERS
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B U S I N E S S ) ----------------------------------------------------

$

$

$

91

3 9.5

318 .50

3 23 .00

3 0 2 .0 0 -3 4 8 .5 0

COMPUTER SYSTEMS a n a l y s t s
( B U S I N E S S ) . CLASS A --------------------------

3 2 3 .0 0 -3 8 2 .0 0

$

~

32

3 9.5

3 54 .00

3 52.00

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
( B U S I N E S S ) . CLASS C --------------------------

33

39.5

2 75.00

3 03 .00

1 9 5 .0 0 -3 1 9 .5 0

-

-

COMPUTER OPERATORS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

187
40
147

4 0.0
39.0
4 0.0

179 .00
2 0 4 .50
172 .00

1 68 .00
1 90 .00
167.50

1 5 2 .0 0 -1 9 5 .0 0
1 6 5 .0 0 -2 0 1 .0 0
1 5 2 .0 0 -1 8 8 .5 0

1
1

5
1

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

80
56

39.5
4 0.0

194 .00
190 .00

1 86 .50
1 89 .50

1 6 5 .0 0 -2 0 2 .0 0
1 7 0 .0 0 -2 0 1 .0 0

-

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS C -------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

92
83

4 0.0
4 0.0

1 5 9 .00
1 5 4 .50

152.00
1 52.00

1 4 4 .0 0 -1 6 8 .0 0
1 4 2 .5 0 -1 6 7 .0 0

DRAFTERS ----------------------------------------------------------

4

1
*

1

a

“

4

2

2

2

2

2

1

5
2
3

8
1
7

2
2

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

1
1

-

3
3

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

_

_

_

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

~

”

“

“

-

10

-

29
2
27

30
11
19

14
1
13

16
10

11
10

21
19

10
9

3
1

19
17

17
17

5

_

_

-

-

-

6

25
25

20
20

-

-

1

~

35
8
27

3
2

2

-

26
6
20

-

28
1
27

1

2

6
5

“

“

ELECTRONICS

165

39.5

248.50

2 39 .50

2 1 0 .0 0 -2 9 6 .0 0

1

5

1

4

-

5

17

24

28

8

20

15

CLASS B --------------------------------

91

3 9.5

2 57 .00

2 42 .00

2 1 0 .0 0 -3 3 0 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

5

10

13

17

5

9

7

TECHN ICIA NS.

33

39.5

3 16 .00

311 .50

2 9 9 .0 0 -3 2 2 .5 0

CLASS

A—

14

S e e f o o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b l e s .




5

12
-

9

20

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

20

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

~

1
'

DRAFTERS.

'

7

2

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex.
in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1978
Average
(mean^)
Sex, 3 o ccu pa tio n ,

OFFICE

and in du stry d iv is io n

OCCUPATIONS -

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

WOMEN

SECRETARIES ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------

464
178
286

39.5
3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 9.0

$
183.50
192.00
178 .00
2 16.00

SE CR ET ARI ES. CLASS B ---------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONHANUFACTURING ----------------------

29
59

39.5
39.5
4 0 .0

1 78.50
1 85 .00
175.50

SE CR ET ARI ES. CLASS C --------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------

187
72
1 15

3 9.5
3 9.0
4 0 .0

1 83 .00
206.00
168.50

SE CR ET ARI ES. CLASS 0 --------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------

158
73
85

3 9 .0
39.0
3 9.0

1 7 8 .50
1 7 5 .50
1 81.00

STENOGRAPHERS -----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------

111
100

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

162 .50
1 58.00

STENOGRAPHERS. GENERAL ----------NONHANUFACTURING -----------------------

84
81

4 0 .0
40.0

1 55 .50
154.00

STENOGRAPHERS.

SENIOR --------------

27

4 0 .0

184.00

TYP IS TS --------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -------------------

22 6
61
165
54

39.0
39.0
38.5
39.0

1 4 9 .00
166.00
142 .* 0
1 62 .00

A --------------------------

49

39.5

176 .00

T Y P I S T S . CLASS B -------------------------NONHANUFACTURING ----------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -------------------

177
14 6
48

38.5
38.5
39.0

1 41 .50
1 4 0 .00
162.50

FIL E CLERKS -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------

143
138

39.5
39.5

1 1 4 .50
1 1 3 .50

FILE CLERKS. CLASS C ---------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------

121
120

39.5
3 9.5

Sex, 3 o ccu p a tio n ,

an d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

workers

CLASS

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

Sex, 3 o cc u p a t io n ,

a nd i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

60
52

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS
NONMANUFACTURING - SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

3 9 .5
39.5

$
1 3 2 .50
1 30 .50

157
36

39.5
3 9.5
3 9.5

1 33 .50
149 .50
128 .50

121

39.0
39.0

ORDER CLERKS --------------NONMANUFACTURING
CLASS

Weekly
houre
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

116 .50
1 1 4 .00

40.0

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
(B U SI N ES S) -----------------------------------------------------

78

4 0 .0

$
3 19 .00

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
( B U S I N E S S ) • CLASS A ---------------------------

27

39.5

358.50

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
( B U S I N E S S ) . CLASS C ---------------------------

29

4 0 .0

2 74 .00

118 .00

------

40

39.5

256 .00

COMPUTER OPERATORS ------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

1 22
26
96

4 0 .0
3 9.0
4 0 .0

1 85 .50
2 27 .00
1 7 4 .50

B -----------

44

3 9 .5

211 .00

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS C ----------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

67
61

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

162 .50
156.50

DRAFTERS ------------------------------------------------------------

1 54

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS
ORDER CLERKS.

Number
of
workers

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN

B

57

ACCOUNTING CLERKS -------MANUFACTURING ---------NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S

469
15 4
315
69

3 9.5
3 9.0
4 0 .0
39.5

1 51.50
1 5 4 .50
1 50 .50
1 52.50

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. C
MANUFACTURING ---------NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S

122
48
74

3 9.5
3 9 .5
3 9.5
39.0

180 .50
2 04.00
165 .50
171 .00

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B
MANUFACTURING -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

34 7
1 06
241

3 9 .5
39.0
40.0

1 41.50
1 31.50
146 .00

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS

39.5

PAYROLL CLERKS ---------MANUFACTURING ----NONMANUFACTURING

38.5
39.0
3 7 .5

158 .00
164 .50
149 .50

3 9.0

1 53 .50

3 9 .5

154 .00

(BUSINESS)

1 5 5 .50

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS.

COMPUTER OPERATORS.

CLASS

CLASS A ------

6

39.5

254 .50

CLASS B ----------------------------------

89

3 9 .5

2 5 8 .50

TECHN ICIA NS.

A------

33

3 9.5

316 .00

COMPUTER OPERATORS -----------------------------------NONM ANUF A C T U R I N 6 ----------------------------------

65
51

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

166 .50
167 .50

COMPUTER OPERATORS. CLASS B ----------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

36
26

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 73.50
1 77.50

COMPUTER OPERATORS.

MANUFACTURING ----------

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e s .




Weekly
hours
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED

1 13 .00
1 13 .00

TYPISTS.

Average
(mean2)

Average
(mean2)
Number
of

25

4 0 .0

1 4 9 . 5U

DRAFTERS.
ELECTRONICS

CLASS

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

CLASS

C -----------

Table A-4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1978
Hourly earnings *

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f—

O cc u p a tio n and in d u stry d i v is i o n
workers

Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

*
3 .4 0

s
3 .5 0

$
3 .6 0

*
3 .8 0

%

4 .0 0

S
4 .2 0

S
4 .4 0

s
4 .6 0

t
4 .8 0

t
5 .0 0

*
5 .2 0

> .40

*
5 .6 0

.00

!
6 .40

6 .80

5
7 .20

s
7 .6 0

*
8 .0 0

S
8 .40

i
8 .8 0

*
9 .2 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

> .60

6 .0 0

.40

.80

.20

7 .60

8 .0 0

8 .4 0

8 .80

9 .2 0

9 .6 0

2
2

5
5

12
12

3
3

12
8

4
4

19
17

9
i

2
2

22
1

_

2
2

12
12

3
3

12
8

2
1

a
8

_

-

4
4

3
1

37
37

5
5

29
29

22
22

6
2

45
44

12
“

”

5
5

4

S
3 .3 0

Number

1

-

-

14

43

-

-

-

12
12

14
14

43
30

and
under
3 .4 0

ALL WORKERS
EL ECT RI CI AN S ----------------------m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------

130
95

$
7 .8 6
7 .7 7

$
7 .8 2
7 .2 3

$
6 .7 5 6 .4 0 -

$
9 .5 8
9 .5 8

HAINTENANCE MACHINISTS ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

50
43

6 .5 3
6 .4 0

6 .5 8
6 .4 3

5 .8 9 5 .8 9 -

7 .2 3
7 .2 3

HAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------nonmanufacturing:
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

1 86
150

6 .4 5
6 .0 9

6 .2 4
5 .9 7

5 .5 0 5 .2 4 -

6 .9 1
6 .9 1

34

7 .9 3

7 .8 2

7 .8 2 -

8 .5 7

HAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES) --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

1 93
53
140
111

6 .4 7
6 .1 5
6 .5 9
6 .5 7

6 .5 0
5 .6 0
6 .8 5
6 .7 0

5 .6 0 4 .7 0 6 .3 1 6 .3 1 -

7 .0 7
6 .0 5
7 .0 7
7 .0 7

-

-

BOILER TENDERS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

31
31

5 .5 7
5 .5 7

4 .5 4
4 .5 4

3 .9 4 3 .9 4 -

6.0 1
6 .0 1

6
6

-

maintenance

~
“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“
-

-

_

-

-

“

“

”

_

_

-

-

_

-

-

_
-

18
-

-

1
1

-

“

1
1

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e s .




~

i
i

7

2
2

4
4

-

6
6

-

8
8

18
18
_

11
9
2

-

-

_

-

-

7
5
2

-

6
6

3
3

4
4

_

-

-

-

-

19
13
6

-

-

-

-

_

_

1
1

29
2
27
27
4
4

_

-

_

17
-

2

-

17

-

12

_

_

-

-

“

39
39

-

-

~
-

_

26

2

-

26
22

2
“

“

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

Table A-5. Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1978
H ourly earnings

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g str a igh t-tim e h ourly earnings o f—
s

Mean 2

Median2

Middle range 2

S

2 .7 0

*
2 .8 0

S
2 .9 0

S
3 .0 0

S
3 .2 0

*
3 .40

1
3 .6 0

s

2 .6 0

3 .8 0

$
4 .0 0

S
4 .4 0

S
4 .8 0

*
5 .2 0

$
5 .6 0

S
6 .0 0

S
6 .4 0

S
6 .8 0

*
7 .2 0

S
7 .6 0

$
8 .0 0

$
8 .4 0

S
8 .8 0

2 .7 0

O ccu pa tion and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .2 0

3 .4 0

3 .60

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .4 0

4 .8 0

5 .2 0

5 .6 0

6 .0 0

6 .4 0

6 .8 0

7t?0

7 .6 0

8t<?9

8 .4 0

8 .8 0

9 .2 0

9 .6 0

1 26

22
22
“

68

2

68

2

152
6
14 6
-

1 21
121
-

34
2
32
-

135
8
127
-

6
5
1

95
68
27

7
3
4

25
22
3

3
3
-

249
249
156

-

2
2
-

16
-

-

-

149
97
52
2

26
16
10

-

193
25
1 68
122

-

-

105
105

19
19

_

9
8

_

_

_

6

_

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

127
-

12 1

23
1
22

86
8
78

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

and
under

*
9 .2 0

-

ALL WORKERS
TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

1 . 5 38
25 4
1 .2 8 4
38 5

$
4 .7 4
4 .8 0
4 .7 2
6 .6 9

$
4 . 25
4 .8 0
3 .7 5
6 .8 5

$
3 .2 5 4 .5 6 3 .0 0 4 .2 5 -

$
6 .3 5
4 .8 0
6 .8 5
9 .3 5

TRUCKORIVERS. LIGHT TRUCK --------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

22 8
221

2 .8 3
2 .7 8

2 .6 5
2 .6 5

2 .6 5 2 .6 5 -

2 .8 8
2 .8 8

1 19
119

15
15

60
60

-

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

654
64
590

4 .2 5
5 .0 3
4 .1 7

3 .6 4
4 .5 6
3 .6 4

3 .2 5 4 .4 0 3 .1 0 -

5 .0 0
6 .3 5
4 .7 5

7
7

7

8

2

7

8

2

127

12 1

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
( TRAILER ) -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

37 6
61
315
1 96

5 .6 1
4 .7 7
5 .7 7
5 .2 8

5 .1 1
4 .7 3
6 .8 5
4 .2 5

4 .2 5 4 .2 0 4 .2 5 4 .2 5 -

6 .8 5
5 .4 1
7 .0 0
6 .8 5

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

TRUCKORIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
(OTHER THAN TRAIL ER) -------------------------

16 9

4 .3 7

4 .8 0

3 .6 3 -

4 .8 0

-

SHIPPING CLERKS ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

81
74

4 .1 9
4 .1 1

4 .6 3
4 .2 9

3 .5 0 3 .5 0 -

4 .7 5
4 .6 3

-

RECEIVING CLERKS ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

91
52

5 .7 9
4 .4 6

5 .6 0
4 .6 3

4 .6 2 3 .7 4 -

7 .7 4
4 .7 6

-

3
3

2
2

CLERKS -----------

67

4 .2 3

4 .6 0

3 .2 5 -

5 .0 0

5

-

WAREHOUSEMEN -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

286
16 6
120
67

5 .2 1
4 .6 1
6 .0 5
7 .1 4

4 .5 3
4 .4 6
4 .8 5
7 .0 4

4 .4 6 4 .4 6 4 .2 5 4 .2 5 -

4 .9 5
4 .6 8
9 .3 5
9 .3 5

1

ORDER FILLE RS ------------------------------------------------

210

4 .8 4

4 .7 3

4 .4 5 -

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS -----------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

1 .0 2 6
41 1
615

4 .2 0
4 .0 7
4 .2 8

3 .6 0
3 .9 4
3 .3 8

FORKLIFT OPERATORS -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

45 7
317
1 40

5 .0 1
5 .1 6
4 .6 6

4 .6 3
4 .8 0
4 .6 0

SHIPPING

AND RECEIVING

12 6

1

25
2
23

9
1
8

1
1
“

22
22
~

3
3

106
1 06

11
11
-

39
10
29

17
15
2

6
2
4

3

_

143

3

~

-

49

-

-

29

85

17
16

-

2
2

32
32

_

“

1
1

2
2

5
5

2
2

23
21

_

5

1

5

-

9

6

1

2

_

38

2

6

1

2
-

-

38
24

12 8
127
1
-

-

11

-

6

-

-

-

64

6
6

40
27
13

13 8
107
31

23
16
7

12
12
-

45
37
8

14 3
74
69

2
2

10
4
6

14
11
3

40
16
24

3
3
~

_

_

_

“

6
6

_

~

-

14
14

3
2

16

10

-

“

18
16

3
1
2

66
9
57
2

46
6
40
1

25
20
5
~

88
73
15
7

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

15
15

3
3

-

-

2
2

5
5

-

-

5

12

1

-

1

2

1

1
"

-

1

6 .2 2

19

6

3

2 .8 5 3 .3 0 2 .8 5 -

4 .8 8
4 .4 3
6 .1 2

51
13
38

89
10
79

15 7
3
15 4

4 .1 8 4 .2 3 3 .7 5 -

5 .4 5
5 .4 5
6 .2 7

4
4
“

12
2
10

3
1
2

-

_

_

_

-

91
89

4 .7 5
4 .7 2

4 .0 6
4 .0 6

4 .0 1 4 .0 1 -

4 .9 8
4 .9 8

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

233
88

3 .5 4
4 .1 1

3 .2 5
4 .1 5

2 .7 5 3 .6 7 -

4 .1 7
4 .5 6

26
4

55

18

-

-

J AN IT ORS . PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

720
204
516
36

3 .3 1
4 .1 1
3 .0 0
4 .5 7

2 .8 9
3 .6 0
2 .6 5
4 .5 2

2 .6 5 3 .6 0 2 .6 5 3 .7 0 -

3 .6 0
4 .5 8
3 .0 1
4 .8 0

32 8
8
32 0

15
15
2

17
3
14
1

”

at end o f t a b l e s .

8

*

49
22
27

“

“

5
5
~

-

55
7
48

13 6
18
11 8
11 8

~

_




_

-

~

POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS (OTHER
THAN FOR KLI FT) ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

See fo otn otes

-

1

"

~

16

'

"

-

2
_

_

143
78

~

16

“

~

_

_

“

-

_

-

16
~

105

”

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
2

-

1
1

2
2

-

_

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

3
3

3
3

_

_

_

_

“

-

37
-

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

18

-

1

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

42
32
10

1

3

10

9

-

-

-

-

33

1

3

10
“

9
9

~

-

8
7
1
1

33
33

4

32

-

65

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30
29
1

58
44
14

8

24

20

5

14 4

-

_

-

-

8

24

20

5

14 4

-

33
33
"

-

"

67
*9
18

130
10 0
30

64
64

-

43

~

_

_
-

63
63

_
-

_
-

2

”

~

43

“

"

”

52
52

_

16
16

_

.

2

-

-

3
1

28
27

30
18

_

-

_

“

-

-

8
3
5
1

32
22
10
2

47
41
6
3

18
1
17
10

2

1

2

1

-

2

~

-

"

-

_

_

_

-

3

-

-

7
~
7
7

-

17
17

15
15

-

-

-

9
6

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

"

_
_

-

"

-

~

-

"

_




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom,
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers, by sex,
in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., May 1978
Sex, 3 occupation,

and i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
woikers

A vera ge
(m ea n 2 )
hourly
earnings4

MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS
MANUFACTURING ----------MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY* MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------n on m a nufac tur ing:
PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S -----------------------------

Number
of

A verage
(m e a n 2 )
hourly
earnings *

13 0
95

7 .8 6
7 .7 7

(SHIPPING CLERKS ------NONMANUFACTURING

75
74

$
4 .1 3
4 .1 1

50
93

6 .5 3
6 .9 0

(RECEIVING CLERKS ---NONMANUFACTURING

87
52

5 .7 0
4 .4 6

1 86
150

6 .4 5
6 .0 9

SHIPPING

39

7 .9 3

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES* -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S -----------------------------

193
53
140
1 11

6 .4 7
6 .1 5
6 .5 9
6 .5 7

BOILER TENDERS --------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

31
31

5 .5 7
5 .5 7

AND RECEIVING

CLERKS

49

4 .0 6

286
166
120
67

5 .2 1
4 .6 1
6 .0 5
7 .1 4

ORDER FIL L ER S ----------------------------

210

4 .8 4

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS
MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

1 .0 1 3
400
613

4 .1 7
4 .0 0
4 .2 8

4 49
309
140

5 .0 0
5 .1 5
4 .6 6

POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS (OTHER
THAN FORKLIFT* ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

88
86

4 .6 6
4 .6 2

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

2 15
85
130

3 .5 7
4 .0 7
3 .2 4

J AN IT O RS . PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S -----------------------------

388
12 2
2 66
29

3 .5 4
4 .2 5
3 .2 1
4 .8 0

332
82
250

3 . 05
3 . 89
2 . 77

WAREHOUSEMEN -----------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ----------

FORKLIFT OPERATORS
MANUFACTURING —
NONNANUFACTURING

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN

TRUCKDRIVERS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S --------------

1 .5 1 4
250
1 .2 6 4
385

4 .7 6
4 .8 1
4 .7 5
6 .6 9

TRUCKDRIVERS. LIGHT TRUCK
NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

207
2 01

2 .8 2
2 .7 7

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK
MANUFACTURING ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------

654
64
590

4 .2 5
5 .0 3
4 .1 7

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
(TRAIL ER* -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S ------------

376
61
315
196

5 .6 1
4 .7 7
5 .7 7
5 .2 8

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK
(OTHER THAN TRAILER) -------

166

4 .3 6

S e e f o o t n o t e s at end o f t a b l e s .

an d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED

MAINTENANCE* TOOLROOM. AND
POUERPLANT OCCUPATIONS - HEN
MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS
MANUFACTURING ----------------

Sex, 3 occu pation ,

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

JANI TO RS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING

Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts,
for selected occupational groups in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va.—N.C., for selected periods
M a y 1975

A ll in dustries:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ________ _____________________ _____ ___
E l e c t r o n i c da ta p r o c e s s i n g ________ _____ ___________
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s __________________________________________
.Skilled m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s
U n s k i l l e d pl a n t w o r k e r s _____________________ ________

M a y 1976

to

to

to

M a y 1976

Industry and occ u p a tio n a l g rou p 5

M a y 1977

M a y 1978

6.4

7.7

7.7

(* )
(6 )
7.5
7.0

(?)
n
6.2
7.3

(?)
(6 )
9 .2
8.2

(M
( >
(6 )
5.3
9.3

(‘ )
(‘ >
(6 )
10.0
8 .7

7.3

7.8

(‘ )
(6 )
6.3

(* )
(6 )
8.2

M anufa cturing:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l . __________________________________________
E l e c t r o n i c da t a p r o c e s s i n g _____________________________
Industrial n u r s e s
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s _____________________________
U n s k i l l e d pl a nt w o r k e r s _________________________________

(6 )
(6 )
(6 )
8.3
10.4

Non m anufactu rin g:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l _____________________________________________
E l e c t r o n i c da t a p r o c e s s i n g _____________________________
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s _____________ __________________________
U n s k i l l e d pl a n t w o r k e r s

6 .0
(6 )
(6 )
5.5

Se e f o o t n o t e s

M a y 197 7

at end of ta bles.

Footnotes1
2
1 S tan dard h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e
s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a t r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d
to these w e e k ly hours.
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y t o t a l i n g th e e a r n i n g s o f a l l w o r k e r s a n d d i v i d i n g b y
the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .
T h e m e d i a n d e s i g n a t e s p o s i t i o n — -half o f t h e w o r k e r s r e c e i v e th e s a m e o r
m o r e an d h a l f r e c e i v e t h e s a m e o r l e s s than, t h e r a t e s h o w n .
T he m id d le ra n g e is defin ed b y two
r a t e s o f pa y ; a f o u r t h o f th e w o r k e r s e a r n the s a m e o r l e s s t ha n t h e l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s a n d a
f o u r t h e a r n the s a m e o r m o r e t ha n th e h i g h e r r a t e .




3 E a r n i n g s da ta r e l a t e o n l y t o w o r k e r s
w hose
sex id en tification w a s
p r o v i d e d b y the
establishm ent.
4 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a nd l a t e s h i f t s .
5 E s t i m a t e s f o r p e r i o d s en d in g p r i o r t o 1 97 6 r e l a t e t o m e n o n l y f o r s k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e and
u n s k i l l e d pl a n t w o r k e r s .
A ll other e stim ate s r e la te to m e n and w om en .
6 D at a d o n o t m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a o r d a t a n o t a v a i l a b l e .

10

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
In e a c h o f th e 75 1 a r e a s c u r r e n t ly s u r v e y e d , th e B u re a u o b ta in s
w a g e s and r e la t e d b e n e fit s d a ta f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in
s ix b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa ctu rin g ; tr a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
and o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a le t r a d e ; r e t a i l tr a d e ; f in a n c e , in s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s .
G o v e rn m e n t o p e r a t io n s and th e c o n s t r u c t io n
and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s a r e e x c lu d e d .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts h av in g f e w e r than
a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e a ls o e x c lu d e d b e c a u s e o f in s u ffic ie n t
e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d .
A p p e n d ix ta b le 1 s h o w s th e n u m b e r
o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s e s tim a te d to be w ith in th e s c o p e o f th is
s u r v e y , as w e ll a s th e n u m b e r a c tu a lly s tu d ied .
B u r e a u f ie ld r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o b ta in data by p e r s o n a l v is it s at
3 - y e a r i n t e r v a ls .
In e a c h o f th e tw o in te rv e n in g y e a r s , in fo r m a t io n on
e m p lo y m e n t and o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s o n ly is c o lle c t e d b y a c o m b in a tio n o f
p e r s o n a l v i s i t , m a il q u e s t io n n a ir e , and te le p h o n e in te r v ie w f r o m e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts p a r t ic ip a t in g in th e p r e v io u s s u r v e y .
A s a m p le o f th e e s ta b lis h m e n ts in th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y is
s e l e c t e d f o r stu d y p r i o r to e a c h p e r s o n a l v is it s u r v e y .
T h is s a m p le , l e s s
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h go ou t o f b u s in e s s o r a r e no lo n g e r w ith in th e in d u s t r ia l
s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y , is r e t a in e d f o r the fo llo w in g tw o an n u a l s u r v e y s .
In
m o s t c a s e s , e s t a b lis h m e n t s n e w to the a r e a a r e not c o n s i d e r e d in th e s c o p e
o f th e s u r v e y u n t il th e s e l e c t i o n o f a s a m p le f o r a p e r s o n a l v is it s u r v e y .
T h e s a m p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d e ta ile d s t r a t ifi c a t io n o f a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f an in d iv id u a l a re a s u r v e y b y in d u s tr y
and n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s . F r o m th is s t r a t ifie d u n iv e r s e a p r o b a b ilit y s a m p le
is s e l e c t e d , w ith e a ch e s ta b lis h m e n t h av in g a p r e d e t e r m in e d c h a n c e o f
s e le c tio n .
T o o b ta in o p t im u m a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o ­
p o r t io n o f la r g e th an s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s e le c t e d .
W hen da ta a r e
c o m b in e d , e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t is w e ig h te d a c c o r d in g to it s p r o b a b ilit y o f
s e l e c t i o n s o that u n b ia s e d e s t im a t e s a r e g e n e r a te d . F o r e x a m p le , if o n e
out o f fo u r e s t a b lis h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d , it is g iv e n a w eigh t o f 4 to r e p r e s e n t
i t s e l f p lu s t h r e e o t h e r s .
A n a lte r n a te o f th e s a m e o r ig i n a l p r o b a b ilit y is
c h o s e n in th e s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n if data a r e n ot a v a ila b le
f r o m th e o r i g i n a l s a m p le m e m b e r .
If no s u ita b le su b s titu te is a v a ila b le ,
a d d itio n a l w e ig h t is a s s ig n e d to a s a m p le m e m b e r that is s im il a r to the
m i s s in g u n it.

1 Included in the 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are
Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, Ala.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, V a.—N .C .;
Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .; and Utica—Rome, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more
lim ited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of
the U. S. Department of Labor.
1




O c c u p a tio n s and e a rn in g s
O c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu dy a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y o f m a n u fa c ­
tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s , and a r e o f th e fo llo w in g ty p e s :
(1)
O f fic e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l; (3) m a in te n a n c e , t o o l r o o m ,
and p o w e r p la n t ; and (4) m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t and c u s t o d ia l.
O ccu p a tio n a l
c la s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n if o r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d to ta k e
a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e jo b .
O c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e lis t e d and d e s c r i b e d in a p p en d ix B .
U n le s s o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d , th e e a r n in g s data fo llo w in g th e jo b
t i t le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d .
E a r n in g s da ta f o r s o m e o f th e
o c c u p a t io n s lis t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u stry d iv is io n s w ith in the
s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y , a r e n ot p r e s e n t e d in th e A - s e r i e s ta b le s b e c a u s e
e it h e r (1) e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ough data
to m e r it p r e s e n t a t io n , o r (2) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n t d a ta .
S e p a r a te m e n 's and w o m e n 's e a r n in g s data a r e not
p r e s e n t e d w h en th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s n ot id e n tifie d b y s e x is 20 p e r c e n t
o r m o r e o f th e m e n o r w o m e n id e n tifie d in an o c c u p a t io n .
E a rn in g s data
n ot sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly f o r in d u s t r y d iv is io n s a r e in clu d e d in data f o r a ll
in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d . 'L i k e w i s e , f o r o c c u p a t io n s w ith m o r e than on e le v e l,
da ta a r e in clu d e d in th e o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w hen a s u b c la s s if ic a t io n is
n ot sh ow n o r in fo r m a tio n to s u b c la s s if y is not a v a ila b le .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e sh ow n f o r f u ll- t i m e
w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le .
E a rn in g s
data e x c lu d e p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
and la te s h ift s .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s and in c e n t iv e b o n u s e s a r e in c lu d e d .
W e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f i c e
c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s r e f e r to the sta n d a rd
w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e
r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s ( e x c lu s iv e o f p a y f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r
a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s a r e
ro u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o ll a r .
V e r t i c a l lin e s w ith in th e d is tr ib u tio n o f
w o r k e r s on s o m e A - t a b le s in d ic a t e a ch a n g e in th e s iz e o f th e c la s s in te r v a ls .
T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s in an a r e a
at a p a r t ic u la r t im e .
C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s o v e r
t im e m a y n ot r e f l e c t e x p e c te d w a g e c h a n g e s . T h e a v e r a g e s for in d iv id u a l jo b s
a r e a ff e c t e d by ch a n g e s in w a g e s and e m p lo y m e n t p a t t e r n s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y h ig h - o r lo w -w a g e f i r m s m a y ch a n g e , o r
h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y a d v a n c e to b e t t e r jo b s and b e r e p la c e d by n ew
w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a t e s .
S u ch s h ifts in e m p lo y m e n t c o u ld d e c r e a s e an o c c u ­
p a t io n a l a v e r a g e e v e n th ou gh m o s t e s t a b lis h m e n ts in an a r e a in c r e a s e w a g e s

11

d u rin g th e y e a r .
C h a n g e s in e a r n in g s o f o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s , sh ow n in ta b le
A - 7 , a r e b e tt e r in d ic a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s th a n a r e e a r n in g s ch a n g e s f o r
in d iv id u a l jo b s w ith in th e g r o u p s .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s r e f l e c t c o m p o s i t e , a r e a w id e e s t im a t e s . In d u s tr ie s
and e s ta b lis h m e n ts d if f e r in p a y l e v e l and jo b s ta ffin g , and th u s c o n tr ib u te
d if f e r e n t ly to th e e s t im a t e s f o r e a c h jo b .
P a y a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e ly th e w a g e d if f e r e n t ia l a m o n g jo b s in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s
sh ou ld n ot b e a s s u m e d to r e f l e c t d if f e r e n c e s in p a y o f th e s e x e s w ith in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s .
F a c t o r s w h ic h m a y c o n tr ib u te to d if f e r e n c e s
in clu d e p r o g r e s s i o n w ith in e s t a b lis h e d ra te r a n g e s (o n ly th e r a te s p a id
in cu m b e n ts a r e c o lle c t e d ) and p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c d u tie s w ith in th e
g e n e r a l s u r v e y jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d to c l a s s i f y e m p lo y e e s
in t h e s e s u r v e y s u s u a lly a r e m o r e g e n e r a liz e d th an t h o s e u s e d in in d iv id u a l
e s ta b lis h m e n ts and a llo w f o r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in
s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r f o r m e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e to t a l in a ll e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e stu d y and n ot th e n u m b e r a c t u a lly s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e s a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts d i f f e r , e s t im a t e s o f
o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m th e s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s stu d ie d
s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e th e r e la t iv e im p o r t a n c e o f th e jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h ese
d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e do n ot a ff e c t m a t e r ia lly th e a c c u r a c y
o f th e e a rn in g s d a ta .

E le c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g

S k ille d m a in te n a n c e

C om p u ter s y s t e m s
a n a ly s t s , c l a s s e s
A , B , and C
C om p u ter p r o g r a m m e r s ,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C
C o m p u te r o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s e s A , B , and C

C a rp e n te rs
E le c t r ic ia n s
P a in t e r s
M a c h in is t s
M e c h a n ic s (m a c h in e r y )
M e c h a n ic s (m o t o r v e h ic le )
P ip e f i t t e r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e r s

In d u s tria l n u r s e s

U n s k ille d pla n t

R e g is t e r e d in d u s tr ia l
n u rses

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and
c le a n e r s
M a t e r ia l h a n d lin g l a b o r e r s

P e r c e n t ch a n g e s f o r in d iv id u a l a r e a s in th e p r o g r a m
as f o llo w s :

a r e c o m p u te d

1.

A v e r a g e e a rn in g s a r e c o m p u te d f o r e a c h o c c u p a t io n f o r
the 2 y e a r s b e in g c o m p a r e d .
T h e a v e r a g e s a r e d e r iv e d
f r o m e a rn in g s in t h o s e e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h a r e in
the s u r v e y b oth y e a r s ; it is a s s u m e d that e m p lo y m e n t
r e m a in s u n ch a n ged .

2.

E a ch o c c u p a t io n is a s s ig n e d a w e ig h t b a s e d on its p r o ­
p o r tio n a te e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p in th e
base y ea r.

3.

T h e s e w e ig h ts a r e U sed to c o m p u te g r o u p a v e r a g e s .
E a ch o c c u p a t io n 's a v e r a g e e a r n in g s ( c o m p u t e d in s te p 1)
i^ m u lt ip lie d b y its w e ig h t.
T h e p r o d u c t s a r e t o t a le d to
ob ta in a g r o u p a v e r a g e .

4.

T he ra tio o f g ro u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t iv e y e a r s is
co m p u te d b y d iv id in g th e a v e r a g e fo r th e c u r r e n t y e a r b y
the a v e r a g e for th e e a r l i e r y e a r . T h e r e s u lt — e x p r e s s e d
as a p e r c e n t — l e s s 100 is th e p e r c e n t c h a n g e .

W a ge t r e n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s
T h e p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s p r e s e n t e d in ta b le A - 7 a r e b a s e d on ch a n g e s
in a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f m e n and w o m e n in e s ta b lis h m e n ts r e p o r t in g th e
tr e n d jo b s in b oth th e c u r r e n t and p r e v io u s y e a r (m a tc h e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s ).
T he data a r e a d ju s te d to r e m o v e th e e f fe c t s on a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f e m p lo y ­
m en t s h ift s a m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s and tu r n o v e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s in clu d e d
in s u r v e y s a m p le s .
T h e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s , h o w e v e r , a r e s t i l l a ff e c t e d b y
f a c t o r s o th e r than w a g e i n c r e a s e s .
H ir in g s , l a y o f f s , and tu r n o v e r m a y a ffe c t
an e s ta b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e f o r an o c c u p a t io n w h en w o r k e r s a r e p a id u n d er
p la n s p r o v id in g a r a n g e o f w a g e r a t e s f o r in d iv id u a l jo b s .
In p e r io d s o f
in c r e a s e d h ir in g , f o r e x a m p le , n e w e m p lo y e e s m a y e n te r at th e b o tt o m o f
the r a n g e , d e p r e s s in g th e a v e r a g e w ith ou t a ch a n g e in w a g e r a t e s .
T h e p e r c e n t c h a n g e s r e la t e to w a g e ch a n g e s b e tw e e n th e in d ic a te d
d a te s .
W h en th e t im e sp a n b e tw e e n s u r v e y s is o th e r th an 12 m o n th s , annual
r a te s a r e sh o w n .
(It is a s s u m e d th at w a g e s in c r e a s e at a co n sta n t ra te
b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .)

F o r a m o r e d e ta ile d d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e m e t h o d u s e d to c o m p u te t h e s e
w a g e t r e n d s , s e e "I m p r o v in g A r e a W a g e S u r v e y I n d e x e s , " M o n th ly L a b o r
R e v ie w , J a n u a ry 1 9 7 3, p p . 5 2 -5 7 .

O c c u p a tio n s u s e d to c o m p u te w a g e t r e n d s a r e :
O f f ic e c l e r i c a l

O f fic e c l e r i c a l — C o n tin u ed

S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e ra l
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r
T y p is t s , c l a s s e s A
and B
F il e c l e r k s , c l a s s e s A ,
B , and C
M essen gers
S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

O rd er c le r k s ,
c l a s s e s A and B
A c c o u n t in g c l e r k s ,
c l a s s e s A and B
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B
P a y r o ll c l e r k s
K e y e n tr y o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s e s A and B




E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is io n s
T a b u la tio n s on s e le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y
w a g e p r o v is io n s ( B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) a r e n ot p r e s e n t e d in th is b u lle tin .
In fo r ­
m a tio n f o r th e s e ta b u la tio n s is c o l l e c t e d at 3 - y e a r in t e r v a ls .
T h e se ta b u ­
la tio n s on m in im u m e n tr a n c e s a la r ie s f o r in e x p e r ie n c e d o f f i c e w o r k e r s ; s h ift
d if f e r e n t ia ls ; s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s ; p a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t io n s ;
and h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in th e B - s e r i e s
t a b le s ) in p r e v io u s b u lle tin s fo r th is a r e a .

12

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied
in Norfolk—
Virginia Beach —Portsmouth, Va.—N.C.,‘ May 1978
Industry division 2

ALL

DIVISIONS

M inim um
em ploym ent
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f st u d y

W i t h in s c o p e o f st u d y 4
W i t h in s c o p e
o f st u d y 3

Number

Percent

114

71.3 35

100

4 0.434

-

87
297

31
83

21.7 76
49*559

31
69

15.502
2 4.9 32

50
50
50
50
50

42
59
104
33
59

17
11
25
9
21

8 . 8 38
4 .6 6 5
23.7 76
5 .9 8 6
6 .2 9 4

12
7
33
8
9

6 .5 0 9
1 .0 1 3
1 1.6 15
3 .1 8 4
2 .6 1 1

50

1 T h e N o r f o l k —V i r g i n i a B e a c h —P o r t s m o u t h S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l
A r e a , a s d e f i n e d b y t h e O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t and B u d g e t t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y 1 97 4,
c o n s i s t s o f C h e s a p e a k e , N o r f o l k , P o r t s m o u t h , S u ff o lk , and V i r g i n i a B e a c h C i t i e s ,
V a . ; and C u r r i t u c k C o u n t y , N . C .
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h i n s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s
s h o w n in t h i s t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s i z e and
c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e i n c l u d e d in t h e s u r v e y .
E s t i m a t e s a r e no t in t e n d e d ,
h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t
t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1) pl a n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t da ta
c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f t h e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d , and (2) s m a l l
e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 197 2 e d i t i o n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d
in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
H o w e v e r , all g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y .




Studied

Studied

38 4

---------------------------------------------------------------

MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------------------------------TRANSPORTATION. COMMUNICATION. AND
OTHER PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 5 -----------------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE 6 ------------------------------------------------------------RETAIL TRADE 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------FINANCE. INSURANCE. AND REAL E S T AT E6 --------------SE R V IC E S 6 7-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

N u m ber of establishm ents

3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m
lim ita tion .
A l l o u t l e t s (w i th in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as t r a d e ,
fin an ce,
au to r e p a i r s e r v i c e , a n d m o t i o n p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1
establish m en t.
4 I n c l u d e s a l l w o r k e r s in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t ( w i t h in the
a r e a ) at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m l i m i t a t i o n .
5 A b b r e v i a t e d t o " p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s " in t h e A - s e r i e s
tables.
T a x i c a b s and
s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e e x c l u d e d .
6 S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f da t a is no t m a d e f o r t h is d i v i s i o n .
7 H o t e l s and m o t e l s ; l a u n d r i e s an d o t h e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ;
a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r , r e n t a l , an d p a r k i n g ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p
o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s and c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ; and e n g i n e e r i n g
and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

13

Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e
B u r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its f ie ld s t a ff in c la s s i f y i n g into
a p p r o p r ia t e o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w ho a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie t y o f
p a y r o ll t i t le s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s ta b lis h m e n t to
e s ta b lis h m e n t and f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is p e r m it s th e g ro u p in g o f
o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a te s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b co n te n t.
B ecau se
o f th is e m p h a s is on in te r e s t a b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y o f
o c c u p a t io n a l c o n te n t, th e B u re a u 's jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d if f e r s ig n ific a n t ly
f r o m t h o s e in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r
o th e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p ly in g t h e s e jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s , th e B u r e a u 's f ie ld
e c o n o m is t s a r e in s t r u c te d to e x c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t ic e s ;
and p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y ,
a n d p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .
H a n d ica p p e d
w o r k e r s w h o s e e a r n in g s a r e r e d u c e d b e c a u s e o f t h e ir h a n d ic a p a r e a ls o
e x c lu d e d .
L e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , and t r a i n e e s , u n le s s s p e c i f i c a l l y in c lu d e d
in th e jo b d e s c r i p t i o n , a r e e x c lu d e d .

Office
SECRETARY

S E C R E T A R Y — C on tin u ed

A s s ig n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a lly to on e in d iv id u a l. M a in ­
ta in s a c l o s e and h ig h ly r e s p o n s iv e r e la t io n s h ip to the d a y - t o - d a y w o r k o f the
s u p e r v is o r .
W o r k s f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n tly r e c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d e t a ile d
s u p e r v is io n and g u id a n c e . P e r f o r m s v a r ie d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l d u tie s ,
u s u a lly in c lu d in g m o s t o f the f o llo w in g :

M a y a ls o p e r f o r m o th e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l ta s k s o f c o m p a r a b le
n a tu r e and d iffic u lt y . T he w o r k t y p ic a lly r e q u ir e s k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e ro u tin e
and u n d e r sta n d in g o f the o r g a n iz a tio n , p r o g r a m s , an d p r o c e d u r e s r e la t e d to
the w o r k o f the s u p e r v is o r .

E x c lu s io n s
a . R e c e i v e s te le p h o n e c a l l s , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and in c o m in g m a il,
a n s w e r s r o u tin e in q u ir ie s , and r o u te s t e c h n ic a l in q u ir ie s to the p r o p e r
person s;
b.
c.
in s t r u c t e d ;

E s ta b lis h e s ,

m a in ta in s ,

and r e v i s e s the s u p e r v i s o r 's f i l e s ;

M a in ta in s th e s u p e r v i s o r 's

c a le n d a r and m a k e s a p p o in tm e n ts a s

N o t a ll p o s it io n s that a r e t itle d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s th e a b o v e c h a r ­
a c t e r i s t i c s . E x a m p le s o f p o s it io n s w h ic h a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the d e fin it io n a r e
as f o llo w s :
a . P o s it io n s w h ich
d e s c r ib e d above;
b.

d.

R e la y s m e s s a g e s f r o m

s u p e r v i s o r to s u b o r d in a t e s ;

e . R e v ie w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d a , an d r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y
o t h e r s f o r the s u p e r v i s o r 's s ig n a tu r e to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and t y p o g r a p h ic
a ccu ra cy;
f.

P e r fo r m s




s t e n o g r a p h ic and ty p in g w o r k .

14

s io n a l,

do

not

m eet

the " p e r s o n a l "

secreta ry

S te n o g r a p h e r s n o t f u lly tr a in e d in s e c r e t a r i a l - t y p e

con cept

d u tie s ;

c . S te n o g r a p h e r s s e r v in g a s o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t s to a g r o u p o f p r o f e s ­
te c h n ic a l, o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n s ;

d.
S e c r e t a r y p o s it io n s in w h ic h th e d u tie s a r e e it h e r s u b s ta n ti
m o r e r o u tin e o r s u b s ta n tia lly m o r e c o m p l e x and r e s p o n s i b l e than t h o s e c h a r ­
a c t e r i z e d in the d e fin itio n ;

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

SEC R ETA R Y— Continued
C la s s C

E x c l u s io n s — C o n tin u e d

e.
A s s is t a n t - t y p e p o s it io n s w h ich in v o lv e m o r e d if f ic u lt o r m o r e
1. S e c r e t a r y to an e x e c u t iv e o r m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n ­
r e s p o n s ib le t e c h n ic a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , s u p e r v is o r y , o r s p e c ia liz e d c l e r i c a l
s ib ilit y is n ot e q u iv a le n t to on e o f the s p e c if ic le v e l s itu a tio n s in the d e fin itio n
d u tie s w h ich a r e n ot t y p i c a l o f s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k .
f o r c l a s s B , but w h o s e o r g a n iz a t io n a l unit n o r m a lly n u m b e r s at le a s t s e v e r a l
d o z e n e m p lo y e e s and is u s u a lly d iv id e d in to o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n ts w h ich a re
o fte n , in tu rn , fu r t h e r s u b d iv id e d .
In s o m e c o m p a n ie s , th is le v e l in c lu d e s a
N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u sed in the l e v e l d e fin itio n s
w id e ra n g e o f o r g a n iz a t io n a l e c h e lo n s ; in o t h e r s , o n ly on e o r tw o ; o r
f o llo w in g , r e f e r s to t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w ho have a s ig n ific a n t c o r p o r a t e w id e
p o lic y m a k in g r o l e w ith r e g a r d to m a jo r c o m p a n y a c t i v it ie s .
T h e tit le " v ic e
2 . S e c r e t a r y to th e h ead o f an in d iv id u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . (o r
p r e s id e n t , " th ou gh n o r m a l l y in d ic a t iv e o f th is r o l e , d o e s n ot in a ll c a s e s
o th e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l o f o f f ic i a l ) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, f e w e r than 5 ,0 0 0
id e n t ify su ch p o s i t i o n s .
V ic e p r e s id e n t s w h o s e p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y is to
person s.
a c t p e r s o n a lly on in d iv id u a l c a s e s o r tr a n s a c tio n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r den y
in d iv id u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ; a d m in is t e r in d iv id u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y
C la s s D
s u p e r v is e a c l e r i c a l s ta ff) a r e n ot c o n s i d e r e d to be " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r
1. S e c r e t a r y to the s u p e r v is o r o r h ead o f a s m a ll o r g a n iz a tio n a l unit
p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g th e fo llo w in g le v e l d e f in it io n s .
( e . g . , f e w e r th an a bou t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ); o £
C la s s A
1. S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t o f a c o m p a n y
th at e m p l o y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but f e w e r than 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

2 . S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s t a f f s p e c ia lis t , p r o f e s s io n a l
e m p lo y e e , a d m in is t r a t iv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is t a n t , s k ille d te c h n ic ia n , o r e x p e r t.
(N O T E :
M an y c o m p a n ie s a s s ig n s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a th e r than s e c r e t a r i e s as
d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , to th is le v e l o f s u p e r v is o r y o r n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)
STENOGRAPH ER

2 . S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r (o th e r than th e c h a ir m a n o f the
b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but f e w e r
th an 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3. S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w the c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r
l e v e l , o f a m a j o r s e g m e n t o r s u b s id ia r y o f a co m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll,
o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .*
1

C la s s B

P r im a r y du ty is to ta k e d ic ta tio n u sin g sh o rth a n d , and to t r a n s c r ib e
th e d ic ta tio n .
M a y a ls o ty p e f r o m w r itte n c o p y .
M a y o p e r a t e f r o m a s te n o ­
g r a p h ic p o o l.
M a y o c c a s i o n a l l y t r a n s c r ib e f r o m v o ic e r e c o r d in g s ( if p r im a r y
du ty is t r a n s c r ib in g f r o m r e c o r d i n g s , s e e T r a n s c r ib in g -M a c h in e T y p is t ).
N O T E : T h is jo b is d is t in g u is h e d f r o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that a
s e c r e t a r y n o r m a lly w o r k s in a c o n fid e n t ia l r e la t io n s h ip w ith o n ly on e m a n a g e r
o r e x e c u t iv e and p e r f o r m s m o r e r e s p o n s ib le and d is c r e t io n a r y ta s k s as
d e s c r i b e d in th e s e c r e t a r y jo b d e fin itio n .

1. S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t o f a c o m p a n y
th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r (o th e r than th e c h a ir m a n o f the
b o a r d o 'it jp r e s id e n t ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 100 but f e w e r
th a n 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3. S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w th e o f f i c e r l e v e l , o v e r
e it h e r a m a j o r c o r p o r a t io n w id e fu n c tio n a l a c tiv ity ( e .g ., m a r k e t in g , r e s e a r c h ,
o p e r a t io n s , in d u s t r ia l r e l a t i o n s , e t c .) o £ a m a jo r g e o g r a p h ic o r o r g a n iz a t io n a l
s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g io n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ; a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a co m p a n y that
e m p l o y s , in a ll, o v e r 5 ,0 0 0 but f e w e r than 2 5 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s ; o r
4 . S e c r e t a r y to th e h ead o f an in d iv id u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . ( o r
o t h e r e q u iv a le n t l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p lo y s , in a ll, o v e r 5, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r
5. S e c r e t a r y to th e h ead o f a la r g e and im p o r ta n t o r g a n iz a t io n a l
s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a m id d le m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v is o r o f an o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t
o ft e n in v o lv in g a s m a n y a s s e v e r a l h u n dred p e r s o n s ) o r a c o m p a n y that
e m p lo y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s .




S ten ogra p h er, G en era l

keep

D ic t a t io n in v o lv e s a n o r m a l ro u tin e v o c a b u la r y .
M ay m a in ta in f i l e s ,
s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r f o r m o th e r r e la t iv e ly r o u tin e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
S t e n o g r a p h e r , S e n io r

D ic t a t io n in v o lv e s a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l d r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch
a s in le g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t if ic r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o se t up and
m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .
OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h ic d u tie s r e q u ir in g s ig n ific a n t ly g r e a t e r in d e ­
p e n d e n c e a nd r e s p o n s ib ilit y th a n s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l, as e v id e n c e d by the
f o llo w in g :
W o rk r e q u ir e s a h igh d e g r e e o f s te n o g r a p h ic s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ;
a th o r o u g h w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s in e s s and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e ; and
o f th e s p e c i f i c b u s in e s s o p e r a t io n s , o r g a n iz a t io n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e d u r e s , f i l e s ,
w o r k f lo w , e t c .
U s e s th is k n o w le d g e in p e r f o r m in g s te n o g r a p h ic d u tie s and
r e s p o n s ib le c l e r i c a l ta s k s su ch a s m a in ta in in g fo llo w u p f ile s ; a s s e m b lin g
m a t e r ia l f o r r e p o r t s , m e m o r a n d a , an d le t t e r s ; c o m p o s in g s im p le le t t e r s
f r o m g e n e r a l in s t r u c t io n s ; r e a d in g and ro u tin g in c o m in g m a il ; and a n s w e rin g
r o u tin e q u e s t io n s , e t c .

15

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E T Y P IS T

M E SS E N G E R

P r i m a r y du ty is to ty p e c o p y o f v o i c e r e c o r d e d d ic ta tio n w h ich d o e s
not in v o lv e v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch as that u se d in
le g a l b r ie f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t if ic r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o ty p e f r o m w r itte n
cop y.
M a y m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s , o r p e r f o r m o th e r r e la t iv e ly
ro u tin e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
(S e e S te n o g r a p h e r d e fin itio n f o r w o r k e r s in v o lv e d
w ith sh o rth a n d d ic ta tio n .)

P e r fo r m s v a r io u s ro u tin e d u tie s s u ch as ru nn ing e r r a n d s , o p e r a t in g
m in o r o f f i c e m a c h in e s su ch a s s e a le r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g and d is t r ib u t in g
m a il, and o th e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
E x c lu d e p o s it io n s that r e q u ir e o p e r a ­
tio n o f a m o t o r v e h ic le as a s ig n ific a n t du ty.

T Y P IS T
U s e s a t y p e w r it e r to m a k e c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls o r to m a k e
ou t b i l l s a ft e r c a lc u la t io n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o th e r p e r s o n . M a y in c lu d e
ty pin g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r s im il a r m a t e r ia ls f o r u s e in d u p lic a tin g p r o c ­
esses.
M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g lit t le s p e c ia l t r a in in g , s u c h as
k e e p in g s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t in g and d is t r ib u t in g
in c o m in g m a il.
C la s s A . P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the f o llo w in g :
T y p in g m a t e r ia l
in fin a l f o r m w hen it in v o lv e s c o m b in in g m a t e r ia l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r
r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r c o r .r e c t s p e llin g , s y lla b ic a t io n , p u n c tu a tio n , e t c ., o f t e c h ­
n ic a l o r u n u su a l w o r d s o r fo r e ig n la n g u a g e m a t e r ia l; o r p la n n in g la y o u t and
ty p in g o f c o m p lic a t e d s t a t is t ic a l ta b le s to m a in ta in u n if o r m it y and b a la n c e in
s p a c in g . M a y ty p e ro u tin e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y in g d e t a ils to su it c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : C o p y ty p in g f r o m
ro u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ; o r ro u tin e ty p in g o f f o r m s , in s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c .;
o r s e ttin g up s im p le s ta n d a rd ta b u la tio n s ; o r c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x ta b le s
a lr e a d y s e t up and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

F IL E C L E R K
F i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s , and r e t r i e v e s m a t e r ia l in an e s t a b lis h e d filin g
s y s t e m . M a y p e r f o r m c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l ta s k s r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in f i l e s .
P o s it io n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in to l e v e ls on the b a s is o f the fo llo w in g d e fin it io n s .
C la s s A .
C l a s s i f i e s and in d e x e s f i l e m a t e r ia l su ch a s c o r r e s p o n d ­
e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h n ic a l d o c u m e n t s , e t c . , in an e s t a b lis h e d filin g s y s t e m
co n ta in in g a n u m b e r o f v a r ie d s u b je c t m a t t e r f i l e s .
M a y a ls o f ile th is
m a t e r ia l.
M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p e s in c o n ju n c t io n w ith the f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a ll g r o u p o f l o w e r l e v e l f ile c l e r k s .
C la s s B.
S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c la s s ifi e d m a t e r ia l b y s im p le
(s u b je c t m a t t e r ) h e a d in g s o r p a r t ly c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r ia l b y f in e r s u b h e a d in g s .
P r e p a r e s s im p le r e la t e d in d e x and c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s .
A s req u ested ,
lo c a t e s c l e a r l y id e n t ifie d m a t e r ia l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a t e r ia l.
M ay
p e r fo r m
r e la t e d c l e r i c a l ta s k s r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C la s s C .
P e r f o r m s ro u tin e filin g o f m a t e r ia l that h a s a lr e a d y b e e n
c l a s s i f i e d o r w h ich is e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s im p le s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
s y s t e m ( e . g . , a lp h a b e tic a l, c h r o n o lo g ic a l, o r n u m e r ic a l) .
As
req u ested ,
lo c a t e s r e a d il y a v a ila b le m a t e r ia l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a t e r i a l s ; and m a y
f i l l ou t w ith d r a w a l c h a r g e .
M a y p e r f o r m s im p le c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l ta s k s
r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .




16

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
O p e r a te s a te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e u s e d w ith a p r iv a t e
b r a n c h ex ch a n g e (P B X ) s y s t e m to r e la y in c o m in g , o u tg o in g , and in t r a s y s t e m
c a lls .
M a y p r o v id e in fo r m a tio n to c a l l e r s , r e c o r d and t r a n s m it m e s s a g e s ,
k e e p r e c o r d o f c a lls p la c e d and t o l l c h a r g e s .
B e s id e s o p e r a t in g a te le p h o n e
s w itc h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e , m a y a ls o ty p e o r p e r f o r m ro u tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k
(ty p in g o r rou tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y o c c u p y th e m a jo r p o r t io n o f th e w o r k e r 's
t i m e , and is u s u a lly p e r fo r m e d w h ile at th e s w itc h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e ) .
C h ie f
o r le a d o p e r a t o r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than o n e o p e r a t o r a r e
e x c lu d e d .
F o r an o p e r a t o r w ho a ls o a c t s as a r e c e p t io n is t , s e e S w itch b o a rd
O p e r a t o r - R e c e p t io n is t .
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
At a
an o p e r a t o r —
w o r k in v o lv e s
b u s in e s s and
p r ia t e p e r s o n
a r r a n g in g an

s in g le -p o s it io n te le p h o n e s w it c h b o a r d o r c o n s o l e , a c ts b oth as
s e e S w itch b o a rd O p e r a t o r — and as a r e c e p t io n is t . R e c e p t io n is t 's
su ch d u ties as g r e e t in g v i s i t o r s ; d e t e r m in in g n a tu r e o f v i s i t o r 's
p r o v id in g a p p r o p r ia t e in fo r m a t io n ; r e f e r r i n g v i s i t o r to a p p r o ­
in th e o r g a n iz a tio n o r c o n ta c t in g that p e r s o n b y te le p h o n e and
a p p oin tm en t; k e e p in g a lo g o f v i s i t o r s .

ORDER CLERK
R e c e iv e s w ritte n o r v e r b a l c u s t o m e r s ' p u r c h a s e o r d e r s f o r m a t e r ia l
o r m e r c h a n d is e f r o m c u s t o m e r s o r s a le s p e o p le .
W o r k t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s
s o m e co m b in a tio n o f th e fo llo w in g d u t ie s :
Q u otin g p r i c e s ; d e t e r m in in g a v a i l ­
a b ility o f o r d e r e d ite m s and s u g g e s tin g s u b s titu te s w hen n e c e s s a r y ; a d v is in g
e x p e c te d d e liv e r y date and m e th o d o f d e li v e r y ; r e c o r d in g o r d e r and c u s t o m e r
in fo r m a tio n on o r d e r s h e e ts ; c h e c k in g o r d e r s h e e t s f o r a c c u r a c y and
a d e q u a c y o f in fo r m a tio n r e c o r d e d ; a s c e r t a in in g c r e d it ra tin g o f c u s t o m e r ;
fu r n is h in g c u s t o m e r w ith a c k n o w le d g e m e n t o f r e c e ip t o f o r d e r ; fo llo w in g -u p
to s e e that o r d e r is d e liv e r e d b y th e s p e c if ie d d a te o r to le t c u s t o m e r know
o f a d e la y in d e liv e r y ; m a in ta in in g o r d e r f i l e ; c h e c k in g sh ip p in g in v o ic e
a g a in st o r ig in a l o r d e r .
E x clu d e w o r k e r s p a id on a c o m m i s s i o n b a s is o r w h o s e d u tie s
in clu d e a n y o f the fo llo w in g : R e c e iv in g o r d e r s f o r s e r v i c e s r a th e r than f o r
m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e ; p r o v id in g c u s t o m e r s w ith c o n s u lt a t iv e a d v ic e
u sin g k n o w le d g e g a in ed f r o m e n g in e e r in g o r e x t e n s iv e t e c h n ic a l tr a in in g ;
e m p h a s iz in g s e llin g s k ills ; h an dlin g m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e a s an in t e g r a l
p a rt o f th e jo b .
P o s it io n s
d e f in it io n s :

are

c la s s ifie d

in to

le v e ls

a c c o r d in g

to

th e

fo llo w in g

C la s s A . H an d les o r d e r s th at in v o lv e m a k in g ju d g m e n ts s u ch as
c h o o s in g w h ich s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t o r m a t e r ia l f r o m th e e s t a b lis h m e n t 's p r o d u c t
lin e s w ill s a t is fy th e c u s t o m e r 's n e e d s , o r d e t e r m in in g th e p r i c e to be
q u oted w hen p r ic in g in v o lv e s m o r e th an m e r e l y r e f e r r i n g to a p r i c e l i s t o r
m a k in g s o m e s im p le m a t h e m a tic a l c a lc u la t io n s .

O R D E R C L E R K — C o n tin u e d

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R — C ont Lnued

C la s s B .
H a n d le s o r d e r s in v o lv in g it e m s w h ich h av e r e a d ily id e n ­
t i f i e d u s e s and a p p lic a t io n s .
M a y r e f e r to a c a t a lo g , m a n u f a c t u r e r 's m a n u a l,
o r s im il a r d o c u m e n t to in s d r e that p r o p e r ite m is s u p p lie d o r to v e r if y
p r i c e o f o r d e r e d it e m .

c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in v e n to r y c o n t r o l, e tc .
o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r i a l b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l
th e a c c o u n tin g d e p a r tm e n t.
M A C H IN E B IL L E R

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K

P r e p a r e s s ta t e m e n ts , b i l l s , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e o th e r than
an o r d in a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t i c t y p e w r it e r . M a y a ls o k e e p r e c o r d s a s to b illin g s
o r sh ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o th e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n ta l to b illin g
o p e r a t io n s .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a ch in e b i l l e r s a r e c la s s if i e d b y ty p e
o f m a c h in e , a s f o l l o w s :

P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e a c c o u n tin g c l e r i c a l ta s k s s u ch as p o s t in g to
r e g i s t e r s and l e d g e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g bank a c c o u n t s ; v e r ify in g th e in te r n a l c o n ­
s i s t e n c y , c o m p l e t e n e s s , and m a t h e m a tic a l a c c u r a c y o f a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n t s ;
a s s ig n in g p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n t in g d is t r ib u t io n c o d e s ; ex a m in in g and v e r if y in g
f o r c l e r i c a l a c c u r a c y v a r io u s t y p e s o f r e p o r t s , l i s t s , c a lc u la t io n s , p o s t in g ,
e t c . ; o r p r e p a r in g s im p le o r a s s is t in g in p r e p a r in g m o r e c o m p lic a t e d jo u r n a l
vou ch ers.
M a y w o r k in e it h e r a m a n u a l o r a u tom a ted a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m .

B illin g - m a c h in e b i l l e r .
U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a ch in e (c o m b in a tio n
ty p in g arid add ing m a ch in e ) to p r e p a r e b ills and in v o ic e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s '
p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in t e r n a lly p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d a , e tc .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n o f p r e d e t e r m in e d d is c o u n t s and sh ip pin g c h a r g e s
and e n try o f n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y not b e c o m p u te d on
th e b illin g m a c h in e , and t o t a ls w h ich a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a ccu m u la te d by
m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p ie s
o f th e b i l l b e in g p r e p a r e d and is o fte n d o n e on a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .

T h e w o r k r e q u ir e s a k n o w le d g e o f c l e r i c a l m e th o d s and o f f i c e p r a c ­
t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h r e la t e s to th e c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s i n g and r e c o r d in g
o f t r a n s a c t io n s and a c c o u n t in g in fo r m a tio n .
W ith e x p e r ie n c e , th e w o r k e r
t y p i c a l l y b e c o m e s f a m i l i a r w ith th e b o o k k e e p in g and a c c o u n t in g t e r m s and
p r o c e d u r e s u s e d in th e a s s ig n e d w o r k , but is not r e q u ir e d to h a v e a k n o w le d g e
o f th e f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e s o f b o o k k e e p in g and a cco u n tin g .
P o s it io n s a r e
d e f in it io n s :

c la s s ifie d

into

l e v e ls on th e b a s is o f

th e

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e b i l l e r . U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (w ith o r
w ith ou t a t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ' b i l l s as p a rt o f th e
a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o p e r a t io n . G e n e r a lly in v o lv e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n try o f
f ig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . T h e m a ch in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te s
fig u r e s on a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s and c o m p u te s and u s u a lly p r in ts
a u t o m a t ic a lly th e d e b it o r c r e d it b a la n c e s .
D o e s not in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e
o f b o o k k e e p in g .
W o r k s f r o m u n ifo r m and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f s a le s and
c r e d it s lip s .

fo llo w in g

C la s s A .
U n d er g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s a c c o u n tin g c l e r i c a l
o p e r a t i o n ! w h ic h r e q u ir e th e a p p lic a tio n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m e n t, f o r
e x a m p le , c l e r i c a l l y p r o c e s s i n g c o m p lic a t e d or n o n r e p e tit iv e a c c o u n t in g t r a n s ­
a c t i o n s , s e le c t in g a m o n g a s u b s ta n tia l v a r ie t y o f p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n tin g c o d e s
and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , o r t r a c in g tr a n s a c t io n s th rou g h p r e v io u s a c c o u n tin g
a c t io n s to d e t e r m in e s o u r c e o f d is c r e p a n c i e s .
M a y b e a s s i s t e d b y on e o r
m o r e c l a s s B a c c o u n t in g c l e r k s .

P A Y R O LL CLERK
P e r f o r m s th e c l e r i c a l ta s k s n e c e s s a r y to p r o c e s s p a y r o lls and to
m a in ta in p a y r o ll r e c o r d s .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : ^ P r o c e s s in g
w o r k e r s ' t im e o r p r o d u c t io n r e c o r d s ; a d ju s tin g w o r k e r s ' r e c o r d s f o r ch a n g e s
in w a g e r a t e s , s u p p le m e n t a r y b e n e f it s , o r ta x d e d u c t io n s ; ed itin g p a y r o ll
lis t in g s a g a in st s o u r c e r e c o r d s ; t r a c in g and c o r r e c t i n g e r r o r s in lis t in g s ;
and a s s is t in g in p r e p a r a t io n o f p e r i o d i c s u m m a r y p a y r o ll r e p o r t s .
In a n o n a u to m a te d p a y r o ll s y s t e m , c o m p u te s w a g e s .
W o r k m a y r e q u ir e a p r a c t ic a l
k n o w le d g e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l r e g u la t io n s , c o m p a n y p a y r o ll p o l i c y , o r th e
c o m p u te r s y s t e m f o r p r o c e s s i n g p a y r o lls .

C la s s B .
U n d er c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , fo llo w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c tio n s
a nd s ta n d a r d iz e d p r o c e d u r e s , p e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e ro u tin e a c c o u n t in g c l e r ­
i c a l o p e r a t io n s , s u ch a s p o s t in g to l e d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o r k s h e e t s w h e r e
id e n t ific a t io n o f it e m s and lo c a t io n s o f p o s t in g s a r e c l e a r l y in d ic a te d ;
c h e c k in g a c c u r a c y and c o m p le t e n e s s o f s ta n d a r d iz e d an d r e p e t it iv e r e c o r d s
o r a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n t s ; and c o d in g d o c u m e n ts u sin g a fe w p r e s c r i b e d
a c c o u n t in g c o d e s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (w ith o r w ith ou t a t y p e w r it e r k e y ­
b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .

K EY E N T R Y O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a k e y p u n ch m a c h in e to r e c o r d o r v e r i f y a lp h a b e tic a n d /o r
n u m e r ic data on ta b u la tin g c a r d s o r on ta p e .

C la s s A . K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n o w le d g e o f and
e x p e r ie n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g p r i n c i p l e s , and f a m ilia r it y w ith th e s t r u c t u r e
o f th e p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m u s e d .
D e te r m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s and
d is t r ib u t io n o f d e b it and c r e d i t it e m s to b e u s e d in e a ch p h a s e o f the w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o l id a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , and o t h e r r e c o r d s b y hand.

P o s it io n s
d e fin itio n s .

a re c la s s ifie d

into

l e v e ls on th e b a s is o f the

fo llo w in g

C la s s A .
W o r k r e q u ir e s th e a p p lic a tio n o f e x p e r ie n c e and ju d g m en t
in s e le c t in g p r o c e d u r e s to be fo llo w e d and in s e a r c h in g f o r , in te r p r e tin g ,
s e le c t in g , o r c o d in g it e m s to b e k e y p u n ch e d f r o m a v a r ie t y o f s o u r c e d o c u ­
m e n ts .
On o c c a s i o n m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e ro u tin e k e y p u n ch w o r k .
M ay
t r a in in e x p e r ie n c e d k e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s .

C la s s B . K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t io n s o f a
s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g lit t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o ll, c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n t s
(n o t in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r i b e d u n d er m a c h in e b i l l e r ) ,




M ay c h e c k
s h e e ts f o r

17

K EY E N T R Y O P E R A T O R — C on tin u ed

C O M P U T E R SY STE M S A N A L Y S T , BU SIN E SS— C o n tin u e d

C la s s B . W o r k is r o u tin e and r e p e t it iv e .
U n d er c l o s e s u p e r v is io n
o r fo llo w in g s p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s o r in s t r u c t io n s , w o r k s f r o m v a r io u s s ta n ­
d a r d iz e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s w h ic h h a v e b e e n c o d e d , and fo llo w s s p e c if ie d
p r o c e d u r e s w h ich h a v e b e e n p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a il and r e q u ir e lit t le o r no
s e le c t in g , c o d in g , o r in t e r p r e t in g o f da ta to b e r e c o r d e d .
R e f e r s to s u p e r ­
v i s o r p r o b le m s a r is in g f r o m
e r r o n e o u s it e m s o r c o d e s o r m i s s in g
in fo r m a tio n .

ty p e s o f r e c o r d s , f i l e s , and d o c u m e n ts to b e u s e d ; o u tlin e s a c t io n s to be
p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l and c o m p u t e r s in s u f f ic ie n t d e t a il f o r p r e s e n t a t io n
to m a n a g e m e n t and f o r p r o g r a m m in g ( t y p ic a lly th is in v o lv e s p r e p a r a t io n o f
w o r k and data flo w c h a r t s ) ; c o o r d in a t e s th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t e s t p r o b le m s
and p a r t ic ip a t e s in t r i a l ru n s o f n e w and r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; and r e c o m m e n d s
eq u ip m en t ch a n g e s to o b ta in m o r e e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l o p e r a t io n s .
(N O T E :
W o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g b oth s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g s h o u ld b e
c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a ly sts i f th is is th e s k ill u s e d to d e t e r m in e
t h e ir p a y .)

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s o n e o r a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e t a b u la t o r , c a l c u ­
la t o r , c o l l a t o r , in t e r p r e t e r , s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n c h , e t c .
E x c lu d e d f r o m
th is d e fin itio n a r e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s .
A ls o e x c lu d e d a r e o p e r a t o r s o f
e le c t r o n ic d ig ita l c o m p u t e r s , e v en th ou g h th e y m a y a ls o o p e r a t e e l e c t r i c
a c c o u n tin g m a c h in e e q u ip m e n t.

D o e s not in clu d e e m p lo y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e m a n a g e ­
m en t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g e m p lo y e e s , o r s y s ­
t e m s a n a ly s ts p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith s c ie n t i f i c o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .

P o s it io n s a r e
d e f in it io n s .

C la s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s in v o lv in g a ll p h a s e s o f s y s t e m s a n a ly s is .
P r o b le m s a r e
c o m p le x b e c a u s e o f d iv e r s e s o u r c e s o f input da ta and m u lt ip le - u s e r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts o f output data. ( F o r e x a m p le , d e v e lo p s an in te g r a t e d p r o d u c t io n s c h e d ­
u lin g , in v e n to r y c o n t r o l, c o s t a n a ly s is , and s a le s a n a ly s is r e c o r d in w h ich
e v e r y it e m o f e a ch ty p e is a u t o m a t ic a lly p r o c e s s e d th r o u g h th e fu ll s y s t e m
o f r e c o r d s and a p p r o p r ia t e fo llo w u p a c t io n s a r e in itia te d b y th e c o m p u t e r .)
C o n fe r s w ith p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m in e th e da ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b le m s
and a d v is e s s u b je c t -m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n th e im p lic a t io n s o f n e w o r r e v i s e d
s y s t e m s o f data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t io n s .
M a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , if n e e d e d ,
f o r a p p r o v a l o f m a j o r s y s t e m s in s t a lla t io n s o r ch a n g e s an d f o r o b ta in in g
e q u ip m e n t.

c l a s s i f i e d in to l e v e l s on

th e

b a s is o f th e

fo llo w in g

C la s s A . P e r f o r m s c o m p le t e r e p o r t in g and ta b u la tin g a s s ig n m e n t s
in clu d in g d e v is in g d iffic u lt c o n t r o l p a n e l w ir in g u n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e a v a r ie t y o f lo n g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s w h ich
o fte n a r e i r r e g u la r o r n o n r e c u r r in g , r e q u ir in g s o m e p la n n in g o f th e n a tu r e
and s e q u e n c in g o f o p e r a t io n s , and th e u s e o f a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in e s .
Is
t y p ic a lly in v o lv e d in t r a in in g n ew o p e r a t o r s in m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s o r tr a in in g
lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s in w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s and in th e o p e r a t in g s e q u e n c e s
o f lo n g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n ot in c lu d e p o s it io n s in w h ich w ir in g
r e s p o n s ib ilit y is lim it e d to s e le c t io n and in s e r t io n o f p r e w i r e d b o a r d s .
C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s w o r k a c c o r d in g to e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s and
u n d e r s p e c i f i c in s t r u c t io n s .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e c o m p le t e but r o u ­
tin e and r e c u r r in g r e p o r t s o r p a r t s o f l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
O p e r a t e s m o r e d iffic u lt ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e s s u ch as
the ta b u la to r and c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d itio n to th e s im p le r m a c h in e s u s e d by
c la s s C o p e r a t o r s .
M a y b e r e q u ir e d to do s o m e w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s .
M a y t r a in n e w e m p lo y e e s in b a s ic m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s .
C la s s C . U n d er s p e c if ic - in s t r u c t io n s , o p e r a t e s s im p le ta b u la tin g
o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h in e s s u ch as th e s o r t e r , in t e r p r e t e r , r e p r o ­
d u cin g p u n ch , c o l l a t o r , e tc .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e p o r t io n s o f a
w o r k u n it, f o r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o r t in g o r c o lla t in g r u n s , o r r e p e t it iv e
o p e r a t io n s .
M ay p e r fo r m
s im p le w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s , and do s o m e
filin g w o r k .

F o r w a ge stu dy p u r p o s e s , s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :

M a y p r o v id e fu n ctio n a l
w ho a r e a s s ig n e d to a s s i s t .

d ir e c t io n

to lo w e r l e v e l

sy ste m s

a n a ly s ts

C la s s B . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on
p r o b le m s that a r e r e la t iv e ly u n c o m p lic a t e d to a n a ly z e , p la n , p r o g r a m , and
op erate.
P r o b le m s a r e o f lim it e d c o m p le x it y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f input data
a r e h o m o g e n e o u s and th e output d a ta a r e c l o s e l y r e la t e d .
( F o r e x a m p le ,
d e v e lo p s s y s te m s f o r m a in ta in in g d e p o s it o r a c c o u n t s in a b a n k , m a in ta in in g
a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le in a r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t , o r m a in ta in in g in v e n t o r y
a c c o u n t s in a m a n u fa ctu rin g o r w h o le s a le e s t a b lis h m e n t .)
C o n fe r s w ith p e r ­
s o n s c o n c e r n e d to d e t e r m in e th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b le m s and a d v is e s
s u b je c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l on th e im p lic a t io n s o f th e da ta p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s
to be a p p lie d .
OR

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS

W o r k s on a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p le x da ta p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m ,
as d e s c r i b e d f o r c la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o n r o u tin e a s s ig n m e n t s and
r e c e i v e s in s t r u c tio n and g u id a n ce on c o m p le x a s s ig n m e n t s . W o r k is r e v ie w e d
f o r a c c u r a c y o f ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith i n s t r u c t io n s , and to in s u r e p r o p e r
a lig n m e n t w ith th e o v e r a l l s y s t e m .

A n a ly z e s b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s to fo r m u la t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o lv in g
th e m b y u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c da ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t.
D e v e lo p s a c o m p le t e
d e s c r i p t i o n o f a ll s p e c if ic a t io n s n e e d e d to e n a b le p r o g r a m m e r s to p r e p a r e
r e q u ir e d d ig ita l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
A n a ly z e s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t io n s to b e a u to m a te d and id e n t ifie s c o n d it io n s
and c r i t e r i a r e q u ir e d to a c h ie v e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s ; s p e c i f i e s n u m b e r and

C la s s C . W o r k s u n d e r im m e d ia t e s u p e r v is io n , c a r r y i n g out a n a ly ­
s e s a s a s s ig n e d , u s u a lly o f a s in g le a c t iv it y .
A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d to
d e v e lo p and expand p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e in th e a p p lic a t io n o f p r o c e d u r e s and
s k ills r e q u ir e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a ly s is w o r k . F o r e x a m p le , m a y a s s i s t a h ig h e r
l e v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly st b y p r e p a r in g th e d e t a ile d s p e c if ic a t io n s r e q u ir e d b y
p r o g r a m m e r s f r o m in fo r m a tio n d e v e lo p e d b y th e h ig h e r l e v e l a n a ly s t .

Professional and Technical




18

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSINESS

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BU SIN ESS— C on tin u ed

C o n v e r t s s ta t e m e n ts o f b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s , t y p ic a lly p r e p a r e d b y a
s y s t e m s a n a ly s t , in to a s e q u e n c e o f d e t a ile d in s t r u c tio n s w h ic h a r e r e q u ir e d
to s o lv e th e p r o b l e m s b y a u t o m a t ic data p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t. W o r k in g f r o m
c h a r t s o r d ia g r a m s , th e p r o g r a m m e r d e v e lo p s th e p r e c i s e in s t r u c t io n s w h ic h ,
w h en e n te r e d in to th e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in c o d e d la n g u a g e , c a u s e th e m a n ip u ­
la tio n o f da ta to a c h ie v e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
A p p lie s k n o w le d g e o f c o m p u t e r c a p a b ilit ie s , m a t h e m a tic s , l o g i c e m p lo y e d b y
c o m p u t e r s , and p a r t ic u la r s u b je c t m a t te r in v o lv e d to a n a ly z e c h a r ts and
d ia g r a m s o f th e p r o b l e m to b e p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s s e q u e n c e o f p r o g r a m
s t e p s ; w r it e s d e t a ile d flo w c h a r t s to sh ow o r d e r in w h ic h da ta w i l l be
p r o c e s s e d ; c o n v e r t s t h e s e c h a r t s to c o d e d in s t r u c tio n s f o r m a c h in e to f o llo w ;
t e s t s and c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ; p r e p a r e s in s t r u c tio n s f o r o p e r a t in g p e r s o n n e l
d u r in g p r o d u c t io n ru n ; a n a ly z e s , r e v ie w s , and a lt e r s p r o g r a m s to i n c r e a s e
o p e r a t in g e f f i c i e n c y o r adapt t o n ew r e q u ir e m e n t s ; m a in ta in s r e c o r d s o f
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p m e n t and r e v i s i o n s .
(N O T E :
W o r k e r s p e r f o r m in g b oth
s y s t e m s a n a ly s is and p r o g r a m m in g sh ou ld be c la s s if i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a ly s ts
if th is is th e s k ill u s e d to d e t e r m in e th e ir p a y .)

input data w h ich a r e r e a d ily a v a ila b le .
W h ile n u m e r o u s r e c o r d s m a y be
p r o c e s s e d , th e da ta h a v e b e e n r e f in e d in p r i o r a c tio n s s o that th e a c c u r a c y
and s e q u e n c in g o f data can b e t e s t e d b y u s in g a fe w ro u tin e c h e c k s . T y p ic a lly ,
th e p r o g r a m d e a ls w ith r o u tin e r e c o r d k e e p in g o p e r a t io n s .

D o e s n ot in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s in g e m p lo y e e s , o r p r o ­
g r a m m e r s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w ith s c ie n t if ic a n d /o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

p r o g r a m m e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s fo llo w s

C la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on
c o m p le x p r o b le m s w h ic h r e q u ir e c o m p e t e n c e in a ll p h a s e s o f p r o g r a m m in g
c o n c e p t s and p r a c t i c e s .
W o r k in g f r o m d ia g r a m s and c h a r t s w h ic h id e n tify
th e n a tu r e o f d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , m a jo r p r o c e s s i n g step s to b e a c c o m p lis h e d ,
and th e r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n v a r io u s s tep s o f th e p r o b le m s o lv in g r o u tin e ;
p la n s th e fu ll r a n g e o f p r o g r a m m in g a c tio n s n e e d e d to e f fic i e n t ly u t iliz e th e
c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in a c h ie v in g d e s ir e d end p r o d u c t s .

A t th is l e v e l , p r o g r a m m in g is d iffic u lt b e c a u s e c o m p u t e r eq u ip m e n t
m u s t b e o r g a n iz e d to p r o d u c e s e v e r a l in t e r r e la t e d but d i v e r s e p r o d u c t s f r o m
n u m e r o u s and d i v e r s e da ta e le m e n t s .
A w id e v a r ie t y and e x t e n s iv e n u m b e r
o f in te r n a l p r o c e s s i n g a c t io n s m u s t o c c u r .
T h is r e q u ir e s s u c h a c t io n s as
d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o m m o n o p e r a t io n s w h ich ca n b e r e u s e d , e s ta b lis h m e n t o f
lin k a g e p o in ts b e tw e e n o p e r a t i o n s , a d ju s tm e n ts to data w hen p r o g r a m r e q u i r e ­
m e n ts e x c e e d c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c it y , and s u b s ta n tia l m a n ip u la tio n and
r e s e q u e n c in g o f d a ta e le m e n t s to f o r m a h ig h ly in te g ra te d p r o g r a m .

M a y p r o v i d e f u n c t io n a l
a r e a s s i g n e d to a s s i s t .

d ir e c t io n to lo w e r le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s w ho

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r on ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on
r e l a t i v e l y s im p le p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s ( o r s e g m e n t s ) u s u a lly p r o c e s s in fo r m a tio n to p r o d u c e da ta in tw o
o r t h r e e v a r ie d s e q u e n c e s o r f o r m a t s .
R e p o r t s and lis t in g s a r e p r o d u c e d b y
r e f in in g , a d a p tin g , a r r a y in g , o r m a k in g m in o r a d d ition s to o r d e le t io n s f r o m




OR
W o r k s on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r i b e d f o r c la s s A) u n d er c l o s e
d ir e c t io n o f a h ig h e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r .
M a y a s s is t h ig h e r
le v e l p r o g r a m m e r b y in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m in g l e s s d iffic u lt ta s k s a s s ig n e d ,
and p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt ta s k s u n d e r f a i r l y c l o s e d ir e c t io n .
M a y g u id e o r in s t r u c t lo w e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .
C la s s C . M a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a t io n s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t ic e s
and c o n c e p t s u s u a lly le a r n e d in f o r m a l tr a in in g c o u r s e s .
A s s ig n m e n ts a re
d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p c o m p e t e n c e in th e a p p lic a tio n o f s ta n d a rd p r o c e d u r e s to
ro u tin e p r o b le m s . R e c e iv e s c l o s e s u p e r v is io n on new a s p e c t s o f a s s ig n m e n t s ;
and w o r k is r e v ie w e d to v e r i f y its a c c u r a c y and c o n fo r m a n c e w ith r e q u ire d
procedu res.
COM PUTER O PERA TO R
M o n it o r s and o p e r a t e s th e c o n t r o l c o n s o l e o f a d ig it a l c o m p u te r to
p r o c e s s data a c c o r d in g to o p e r a t in g in s t r u c t io n s , u s u a lly p r e p a r e d by a p r o ­
gram m er.
W o r k in c lu d e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : S tu d ies in s t r u c tio n s to
d e t e r m in e eq u ip m en t setu p and o p e r a t io n s ; lo a d s eq u ip m e n t w ith r e q u ir e d
it e m s (ta p e r e e l s , c a r d s , e t c .) ; s w it c h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x ilia r y eq u ip m en t into
c i r c u i t , and s ta r t s and o p e r a t e s c o m p u t e r ; m a k e s a d ju s tm e n ts to c o m p u te r to
c o r r e c t o p e r a t in g p r o b le m s and m e e t s p e c ia l c o n d it io n s ; r e v ie w s e r r o r s m a d e
d u rin g o p e r a t io n and d e t e r m in e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b le m to s u p e r v is o r o r
p r o g r a m m e r ; and m a in ta in s o p e r a t in g r e c o r d s .
M a y te s t and a s s is t in
c o r r e c tin g p r o g r a m .
F or

w a g e stu dy

pu rposes,

c o m p u te r

op era tors

are

c la s s if i e d

as

f o llo w s :
C la s s A . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n ,
a c o m p u t e r ru nn ing p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r is t ic s :
N ew p r o g r a m s a r e fr e q u e n tly t e s t e d and in tr o d u c e d ; s ch e d u lin g r e q u ir e m e n ts
a r e o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to m in im iz e d o w n tim e ; th e p r o g r a m s a r e o f
c o m p le x d e s ig n so that id e n tific a t io n o f e r r o r s o u r c e o fte n r e q u ir e s a w o rk in g
k n o w le d g e o f th e t o t a l p r o g r a m , and a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s m a y not be a v a ila b le .
M a y g iv e d ir e c t io n and g u id a n c e to l o w e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r s .
C la s s B . O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n tly , o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n ,
a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g p r o g r a m s w ith m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ;
M o s t o f th e p r o g r a m s a r e e s ta b lis h e d p r o d u c t io n r u n s , t y p ic a lly run on a
r e g u la r ly r e c u r r in g b a s is ; t h e r e is lit t le o r no t e s t in g o f n ew p r o g r a m s
r e q u ir e d ; a lte r n a te p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v id e d in c a s e o r ig i n a l p r o g r a m n e e d s
m a jo r ch a n g e o r ca n n ot b e c o r r e c t e d w ith in a r e a s o n a b ly s h o rt tim e .
In

19

C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — C on tin u ed

D R A F T E R -T R A C E R

c o m m o n e r r o r s itu a tio n s , d ia g n o s e s c a u s e and ta k e s c o r r e c t i v e a c tio n .
T h is
u s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p ly in g p r e v io u s ly p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s , o r u sin g
s ta n d a rd c o r r e c t i o n t e c h n iq u e s .

C o p ie s
c lo t h o r p a p e r
in c lu d e t r a c in g
la r g e s c a le not

p la n s and d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p la c in g t r a c in g
o v e r d r a w in g s and t r a c in g w ith p e n o r p e n c il.
(D o e s not
lim ite d to p la n s p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t in g o f s tr a ig h t lin e s and a
r e q u ir in g c l o s e d e lin e a tio n .)

OR

A N D /O R

O p e r a t e s u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e r v is io n a c o m p u t e r ru n n in g p r o g r a m s o r
s e g m e n ts o f p r o g r a m s w ith th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d f o r c la s s A .
M ay
a s s i s t a h ig h e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r b y in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m in g l e s s d iffic u lt ta s k s
a s s ig n e d , and p e r f o r m in g d iffic u lt ta s k s fo llo w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s and
w ith fr e q u e n t r e v ie w o f o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d .

C la s s C .
W o r k s on r o u tin e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n .
Is
e x p e c te d to d e v e lo p w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f th e c o m p u t e r eq u ip m e n t u s e d and
a b ilit y to d e t e c t p r o b le m s in v o lv e d in ru nn ing r o u tin e p r o g r a m s .
U s u a lly h as
r e c e iv e d s o m e f o r m a l tr a in in g in c o m p u te r o p e r a t io n .
M a y a s s i s t h ig h e r
le v e l o p e r a t o r o n c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
DRAFTER
C la s s A .
P la n s th e g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t io n o f c o m p le x it e m s h av in g
d is t in c t iv e d e s ig n fe a t u r e s that d if f e r s ig n ific a n t ly f r o m e s ta b lis h e d d r a ftin g
p reced en ts.
W o r k s in c l o s e s u p p o rt w ith th e d e s ig n o r ig i n a t o r , and m a y
r e c o m m e n d m in o r d e s ig n c h a n g e s .
A n a ly z e s th e e f fe c t o f e a c h ch a n g e on th e
d e t a ils o f f o r m , fu n c tio n , and p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s o f c o m p o n e n t s and
p a r t s . W o r k s w ith a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s i s t a n c e . C o m p le t e d w o r k is
r e v ie w e d b y d e s ig n o r ig i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith p r i o r e n g in e e r in g d e t e r ­
m in a tio n s . M a y e it h e r p r e p a r e d r a w in g s o r d i r e c t t h e ir p r e p a r a t io n b y lo w e r
le v e l d r a f t e r s .
C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u tin e and c o m p le x d r a ftin g a s s ig n m e n t s
that r e q u ir e th e a p p lic a t io n o f m o s t o f th e s ta n d a r d iz e d d r a w in g te c h n iq u e s
r e g u la r ly u s e d .
D u tie s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e su ch w o r k a s :
P r e p a r e s w o r k in g
d r a w in g s o f s u b a s s e m b lie s w ith i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s , m u lt ip le fu n c t io n s , and
p r e c i s e p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h it e c t u r a l
d r a w in g s f o r c o n s t r u c t io n o f a b u ild in g in clu d in g d e t a il d r a w in g s o f f o u n ­
d a t io n s , w a ll s e c t i o n s , f l o o r p la n s , and r o o f .
U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u la s and
m a n u a ls in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y c o m p u ta tio n s to d e t e r m in e q u a n titie s o f
m a t e r ia ls to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s , s t r e s s e s , e t c .
R e c e iv e s
in itia l in s t r u c t io n s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , and a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v is o r .
C o m p le t e d
w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n ic a l a d e q u a c y .
C la s s C .
P r e p a r e s d e t a il d r a w in g s o f s in g le u n its o r p a r t s f o r
e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , m a n u fa c tu r in g , o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s .
Types of
d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d in c lu d e i s o m e t r i c p r o je c t i o n s (d e p ic tin g t h r e e d im e n s io n s
in a c c u r a t e s c a le ) and s e c t io n a l v ie w s to c l a r i f y p o s it io n in g o f c o m p o n e n t s
and c o n v e y n e e d e d in fo r m a t io n .
C o n s o lid a t e s d e t a ils f r o m a n u m b e r o f
s o u r c e s and a d ju s ts o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e a s r e q u ir e d .
S u g g e s te d m e th o d s o f
a p p r o a c h , a p p lic a b le p r e c e d e n t s , and a d v ic e on s o u r c e m a t e r ia ls a r e g iv e n
w ith in itia l a s s ig n m e n t s .
I n s t r u c tio n s a r e l e s s c o m p le t e w h en a s s ig n m e n t s
recu r.
W o r k m a y b e s p o t - c h e c k e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s .




20

P r e p a r e s s im p le o r r e p e t it iv e d r a w in g s o f e a s ily v is u a liz e d it e m s .
W o r k is c l o s e l y s u p e r v is e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s .
E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N
W o rk s on v a r io u s ty p e s o f e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t and r e la t e d d e v ic e s
b y p e r fo r m in g on e o r a co m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g :
I n s t a llin g , m a in ta in in g ,
r e p a ir in g , o v e r h a u lin g , t r o u b le s h o o t in g , m o d if y in g , c o n s t r u c t in g , and te s t in g .
W o r k r e q u ir e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a tio n o f t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e o f e l e c t r o n i c s
p r i n c i p l e s , a b ility to d e t e r m in e m a lf u n c t io n s , and s k ill to put e q u ip m e n t in
r e q u ir e d o p e r a tin g c o n d itio n .
T h e eq u ip m en t— c o n s is t in g o f e it h e r m a n y d if f e r e n t k in d s o f c ir c u it s
o r m u lt ip le r e p e titio n o f th e s a m e k in d o f c i r c u i t — in c lu d e s , but is n ot lim it e d
t o , th e fo llo w in g :
(a) E le c t r o n ic tr a n s m it t in g and r e c e iv in g e q u ip m e n t ( e . g . ,
r a d a r , r a d io , t e l e v is io n , te le p h o n e , s o n a r , n a v ig a tio n a l a i d s ) , (b) d ig ita l and
a n a lo g c o m p u t e r s , and (c ) in d u s t r ia l and m e d ic a l m e a s u r in g and c o n t r o llin g
e q u ip m e n t.
T h is c la s s if i c a t io n e x c lu d e s r e p a i r e r s o f s u ch s ta n d a rd e l e c t r o n i c
eq u ip m en t as c o m m o n o f f i c e m a c h in e s and h o u s e h o ld r a d io and t e l e v is io n
s e t s ; p r o d u c tio n a s s e m b le r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y duty is
s e r v ic in g e le c t r o n ic t e s t in s t r u m e n ts ; t e c h n ic ia n s w h o h a v e a d m in is t r a t iv e
o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y ; and d r a f t e r s , d e s i g n e r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l
e n g in e e r s .
P o s it io n s
d e fin it io n s .

are

c la s s ifie d

in to

l e v e ls on th e b a s is o f th e fo llo w in g

C la s s A . A p p lie s a d v a n ce t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to s o lv e u n u su a lly
c o m p le x p r o b le m s ( i . e . , t h o s e that t y p ic a lly ca n n o t b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y r e f e r ­
e n c e to m a n u fa c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k in g on e l e c ­
t r o n i c eq u ip m en t.
E x a m p le s o f s u c h p r o b l e m s in c lu d e lo c a t io n and d e n s ity o f
c i r c u i t r y , e le c t r o m a g n e t ic r a d ia t io n , is o la t in g m a lf u n c t io n s , and fr e q u e n t
e n g in e e r in g c h a n g e s .
W o r k in v o lv e s :
A d e t a ile d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e i n t e r ­
r e la t io n s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s ; e x e r c i s in g in d e p e n d e n t ju d g m e n t in p e r f o r m in g su ch
ta s k s a s m a k in g c ir c u it a n a ly s e s , c a lc u la t in g w a v e f o r m s , t r a c in g r e l a t i o n ­
sh ip s in s ig n a l flo w ; and r e g u la r ly u s in g c o m p le x t e s t in s t r u m e n ts ( e . g . , du a l
t r a c e o s c i l l o s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d e v ia tio n m e t e r s , p u ls e g e n e r a t o r s ) .
W o r k m a y b e r e v ie w e d b y s u p e r v is o r ( fr e q u e n t ly an e n g in e e r o r
d e s ig n e r ) f o r g e n e r a l c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s .
M a y p r o v id e
t e c h n ic a l g u id a n ce to lo w e r l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .
C la s s B . A p p lie s c o m p r e h e n s iv e t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e t o s o lv e c o m ­
p le x p r o b le m s ( i . e . , t h o s e that t y p ic a lly ca n b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y p r o p e r l y
in te r p r e tin g m a n u fa c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k in g on

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

M A IN T E N A N C E E L E C T R IC IA N

e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s : A f a m ilia r it y w ith th e in t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s ; and ju d g m e n t in d e t e r m in in g w o r k s e q u e n c e and in s e le c t in g
t o o l s and t e s t in g in s t r u m e n t s , u s u a lly l e s s c o m p le x than t h o s e u s e d b y th e
c l a s s A t e c h n ic ia n .

P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e fu n c tio n s s u ch as the in s t a l­
la t io n , m a in te n a n c e , o r r e p a ir o f e q u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t io n , d is t r ib u t io n ,
o r u t iliz a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e f o llo w in g : In s ta llin g o r r e p a ir in g any o f a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip ­
m en t su ch a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c ir c u it
b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h ea tin g u n its , co n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o th e r tr a n s m is s io n
e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t s , o r o th e r s p e c i f i ­
c a t io n s ; lo c a t in g and d ia g n o s in g tr o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip ­
m e n t; w o r k in g s ta n d a rd c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g
o r e l e c t r i c a l eq u ip m e n t; and u s in g a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n 's h a n d to o ls and
m e a s u r in g and te s t in g in s t r u m e n ts .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n ce
e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h
a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

R e c e i v e s t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n , and w o r k is r e v ie w e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o m p lia n c e w ith a c c e p t e d
p r a c t i c e s and w o r k a s s i g n m e n t s .
M a y p r o v id e t e c h n ic a l g u id a n ce to lo w e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n s .
C la s s C . A p p lie s w o r k in g t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e to p e r f o r m s im p le o r
r o u tin e ta s k s in w o r k in g on e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t, fo llo w in g d e t a ile d i n s t r u c ­
t io n s w h ic h c o v e r v ir t u a lly a ll p r o c e d u r e s .
W o r k t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s s u ch
ta s k s a s :
A s s is t in g h ig h e r l e v e l te c h n ic ia n s b y p e r fo r m in g s u ch a c t i v it ie s as
r e p la c in g c o m p o n e n t s , w ir in g c i r c u i t s , and ta k in g te s t r e a d in g s ; r e p a ir in g
s im p le e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t; an d u sin g t o o l s and c o m m o n t e s t in s t r u m e n ts
( e . g . , m u lt im e t e r s , a u d io s ig n a l g e n e r a t o r s , tu b e t e s t e r s , o s c i l l o s c o p e s ) .
Is n o t r e q u ir e d to b e f a m i l i a r w ith th e in t e r r e la t io n s h ip s o f c i r c u i t s .
T h is
k n o w le d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y b e a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a s s ig n m e n t s d e s ig n e d to
i n c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c e (in c lu d in g c l a s s r o o m tr a in in g ) s o that w o r k e r ca n
a d v a n c e to h ig h e r l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r
l e v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
W o r k is t y p i c a l l y spot c h e c k e d , but is g iv e n d e t a ile d r e v ie w
w h en n e w o r a d v a n c e d a s s ig n m e n t s a r e in v o lv e d .
R E G IS T E R E D IN D U S T R IA L N U R SE S
A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g iv e s n u rs in g s e r v i c e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d ic a l
d i r e c t i o n to i l l o r in ju r e d e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e i l l o r
s u f f e r an a c c id e n t o n th e p r e m i s e s o f a f a c t o r y o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f th e fo llo w in g :
G ivin g f i r s t a id to th e i l l o r
in ju r e d ; a tte n d in g to s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s ' in ju r ie s ; k e e p in g
r e c o r d s o f p a t ie n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r ts f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r
o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s i s t in g in p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n s and h e a lth e v a lu a tio n s o f
a p p lic a n t s and e m p lo y e e s ; an d p la n n in g and c a r r y in g out p r o g r a m s in v o lv in g
h e a lth e d u c a tio n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a tio n o f plan t e n v ir o n m e n t , o r
o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a ff e c t in g th e h e a lth , w e lf a r e , and s a fe ty o f a ll p e r s o n n e l.
N u r s in g s u p e r v i s o r s o r h e a d n u r s e s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than
o n e n u r s e a r e e x c lu d e d .

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant

M A IN T E N A N C E P A IN T E R
P a in ts and r e d e c o r a t e s w a lls , w o o d w o r k , and f ix t u r e s o f an e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s th e f o llo w in g : K n o w le d g e o f s u r f a c e p e c u lia r it ie s
and ty p e s o f pa in t r e q u ir e d f o r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a t io n s ; p r e p a r in g s u r fa c e fo r
p a in tin g b y r e m o v in g o^.d fin is h o r b y p la c in g pu tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o le s and
i n t e r s t i c e s ; and a p p ly in g pa in t w ith s p r a y gun o r b r u s h .
M a y m ix c o l o r s ,
o i l s , w h ite le a d , and o th e r p a in t in g r e d ie n ts to o b ta in p r o p e r c o l o r o r
c o n siste n c y .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e p a in te r r e q u ir e s
r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A IN T E N A N C E M A C H IN IST
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s and n ew p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a ir s o f
m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o r k
in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : In te r p r e tin g w r it te n in s t r u c t io n s and s p e c i ­
f ic a t io n s ; p la n n in g and la y in g out o f w o r k ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in is t 's
h a n d to o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ; s e ttin g up and o p e r a tin g
s ta n d a rd m a c h in e t o o l s ; s h a p in g o f m e t a l p a r t s to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g
s ta n d a rd sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , t o o lin g , f e e d s ,
and s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ; k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f th e c o m m o n
m e t a ls ; s e le c t in g s ta n d a rd m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , and e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d fo r th is
w o r k ; and fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t. In g e n e r a l,
th e m a c h in is t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a r o u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p
p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r eq u iv a le n t
t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E C A R P E N T E R

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M a c h in e r y )

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u ties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t and m a in ta in
in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k and eq u ip m en t su ch as b in s , c r i b s , c o u n t e r s ,
b e n c h e s , p a r t it i o n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a i r s , c a s in g s , and t r i m m a d e o f w o o d
in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
P la n n in g and
la y in g out o f w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ;
u s in g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d t o o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , and s ta n d a rd
m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g s ta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to d im e n ­
s io n s o f w o r k ; and s e le c t in g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s s a r y f o r th e w o r k .
In g e n e r a l,
th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tr a in in g and e x p e r i ­
e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g
and e x p e r ie n c e .

R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m e n t o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : E x a m in in g m a c h in e s and m e c h a n ic a l
eq u ip m en t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is m a n t lin g o r p a r t ly d is m a n tlin g
m a c h in e s and p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that m a in ly in v o lv e th e u s e o f h a n d to o ls in
s c r a p in g and fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t iv e p a r t s w ith ite m s
o b ta in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r in g th e p r o d u c tio n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a rt b y a
m a c h in e sh op o r s e n d in g th e m a c h in e to a m a c h in e sh op f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s ;
p r e p a r in g w r it te n s p e c if ic a t io n s f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s o r f o r th e p r o d u c tio n o f
p a r t s o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e s h o p s ; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m a k in g a ll
n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts f o r o p e r a t io n .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f a m a c h in e r y
m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly




21

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M a c h in e r y )— C on tin u ed

M IL L W R IG H T — C on tin ued

a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r i ­
en ce.
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u tie s
in v o lv e s e ttin g up o r a d ju s tin g m a c h in e s .

w o r k ; in te r p r e tin g b lu e p r in ts o r o th e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d t o o l s and r ig g in g ; m a k in g s ta n d a rd s h o p c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to s t r e s s e s ,
s tre n g th o f m a t e r ia ls , and c e n t e r s o f g r a v it y ; a lig n in g and b a la n c in g e q u ip ­
m e n t; s e le c t in g s ta n d a rd t o o l s , e q u ip m e n t, and p a r t s to be u s e d ; and in s ta llin g
and m a in ta in in g in g o o d o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t su ch a s d r iv e s
and s p e e d r e d u c e r s .
In g e n e r a l, th e m i llw r ig h t 's w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a
rou n d ed tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

M A IN T E N A N C E M E C H A N IC (M o t o r V e h ic le s )
R e p a ir s a u t o m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and t r a c t o r s o f an e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : E x a m in in g a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip ­
m en t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g e q u ip m e n t and p e r fo r m in g
r e p a ir s that in v o lv e th e u s e o f s u ch h a n d to o ls a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s ,
o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n
o r d e f e c t iv e p a r t s f r o m s t o c k ; g rin d in g and a d ju s tin g v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g
and in s t a llin g th e v a r io u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h ic le and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n t s ; and a lig n in g w h e e l s , a d ju s tin g b r a k e s and lig h t s , o r tig h te n in g
b o d y b o lt s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m o t o r v e h ic le m a in te n a n c e m e c h a n ic
r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s not in c lu d e
t o m e r s ' v e h ic le s in a u t o m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s .

m e c h a n ic s

w ho

r e p a ir

cu s­

M A IN T E N A N C E P I P E F I T T E R
In s ta lls o r r e p a ir s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o th e r ty p e s o f p ip e and
p ip e fitt in g s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : L a y in g
out w o r k and m e a s u r in g to lo c a t e p o s it io n o f p ip e f r o m d r a w in g s o r o th e r
w r itte n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s o f p ip e to c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith
c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e t o r c h o r p ip e -c u t t in g m a c h in e s ; th re a d in g
p ip e w ith s t o c k s and d ie s ; b en d in g p ip e b y h a n d -d r iv e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n
m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g p ip e w ith c o u p lin g s and fa s te n in g p ip e t o h a n g e r s ;
m a k in g s ta n d a rd s h o p c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to p r e s s u r e s , f lo w , and s iz e o f
p ip e r e q u ir e d ; and m a k in g s ta n d a rd t e s t s to d e t e r m in e w h e th e r fin is h e d p ip e s
m eet s p e c ific a tio n s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e p ip e fit t e r
r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
W o r k e r s p r im a r ily
e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n ita tio n o r h e a tin g s y s t e m s
a r e e x c lu d e d .
M A IN T E N A N C E S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R
F a b r i c a t e s , in s t a lls , and m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a ir th e s h e e t -m e t a l
e q u ip m e n t and f ix t u r e s ( s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s , s h e lv e s ,
l o c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n t ila t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o fin g ) o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
P la n n in g and la y in g out a ll ty p e s o f
s h e e t -m e t a l m a in te n a n c e w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c i f i ­
c a t io n s ; s e tt in g up and o p e r a t in g a ll a v a ila b le ty p e s o f s h e e t -m e t a l w o r k in g
m a c h in e s ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d to o ls in c u tt in g , b e n d in g , f o r m in g , sh a p in g ,
fitt in g , and a s s e m b lin g ; and in s t a llin g s h e e t -m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u ir e d .
In
g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d
tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M IL L W R IG H T
I n s t a lls n e w m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t, and d is m a n t le s and
in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w hen c h a n g e s in th e p la n t la y o u t a r e
r e q u ir e d .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
P la n n in g and la y in g out




22

M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S H E L P E R
A s s is t s on e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k ille d m a in te n a n c e t r a d e s , by
p e r f o r m in g s p e c if ic o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k ill, su ch a s k e e p in g a
w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r ia ls and t o o l s ; c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a , m a c h in e ,
and eq u ip m en t; a s s is t in g jo u r n e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r ia ls o r t o o l s ; and p e r ­
f o r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y jo u r n e y m a n .
T h e k in d o f w o r k
th e h e lp e r is p e r m it te d to p e r f o r m v a r i e s f r o m t r a d e to t r a d e :
In s o m e
t r a d e s th e h e lp e r is c o n fin e d to s u p p ly in g , lif t in g , and h o ld in g m a t e r ia ls and
t o o l s , and cle a n in g w o r k in g a r e a s ; and in o t h e r s he is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m
s p e c ia liz e d m a ch in e o p e r a t io n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e that a r e a ls o p e r f o r m e d
b y w o r k e r s on a f u l l - t i m e b a s is .
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R (T O O L R O O M )
S p e c ia liz e s in o p e r a t in g o n e o r m o r e than o n e ty p e o f m a c h in e
t o o l ( e . g . , jig b o r e r , g rin d in g m a c h in e , e n g in e la th e , m illin g m a ch in e ) to
m a c h in e m e ta l f o r u s e in m a k in g o r m a in ta in in g j i g s , f i x t u r e s , cu ttin g t o o l s ,
g a u g e s , o r m e t a l d ie s o r m o ld s u s e d in sh a p in g o r fo r m in g m e t a l o r
n o n m e t a llic m a t e r ia l ( e . g . , p l a s t i c , p l a s t e r , r u b b e r , g l a s s ) .
W o r k t y p ic a lly
in v o l v e s : P la n n in g and p e r fo r m in g d if f ic u lt m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n s w h ich
r e q u ir e c o m p lic a t e d setu p s o r a h ig h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; s e ttin g up m a c h in e
t o o l o r t o o l s ( e . g . , in s t a ll cu ttin g t o o l s and a d ju s t g u id e s , s t o p s , w o r k in g
t a b le s , and o th e r c o n t r o ls to h a n d le th e s i z e o f s t o c k to b e m a c h in e d ;
d e t e r m in e p r o p e r f e e d s , s p e e d s , t o o l in g , and o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e o r s e le c t
t h o s e p r e s c r i b e d in d r a w in g s , b lu e p r in t s , o r la y o u t s ); u s in g a v a r ie t y o f
p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts d u rin g
m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n to a c h ie v e r e q u is i t e d im e n s io n s to v e r y c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s .
M a y b e r e q u ir e d to s e le c t p r o p e r c o o la n t s and cu ttin g and lu b r ic a t in g o i l s ,
to r e c o g n iz e w hen t o o l s n e e d d r e s s i n g , and to d r e s s t o o l s .
In g e n e r a l, th e
w o r k o f a m a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r ( t o o lr o o m ) at th e s k ill le v e l c a lle d f o r in
th is c la s s if i c a t io n r e q u ir e s e x t e n s iv e k n o w le d g e o f m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o l ­
r o o m p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h c o n s i d e r a b le o n - t h e - j o b t r a in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e .
F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s not
in clu d e m a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s ( t o o lr o o m ) e m p lo y e d in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g
shops.
T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R
C o n s tr u c ts and r e p a ir s j i g s , f i x t u r e s , cu ttin g t o o l s , g a u g e s , o r
m e t a l d ie s o r m o ld s u s e d in s h a p in g o r fo r m in g m e t a l o r n o n m e t a llic
m a t e r ia l ( e .g ., p la s t ic , p la s t e r , r u b b e r , g l a s s ) .
W o r k t y p ic a lly in v o l v e s :
P la n n in g and la y in g ou t w o r k a c c o r d in g to m o d e l s , b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , o r
o th e r w ritte n o r o r a l s p e c if ic a t io n s ; u n d e r s ta n d in g th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f
c o m m o n m e ta ls and a llo y s ; s e le c t in g a p p r o p r ia t e m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , and

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R — C on tin u ed

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

p r o c e s s e s r e q u ir e d t o c o m p le t e ta s k s ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y sh o p c o m p u ta tio n s ;
s e tt in g up and o p e r a t in g v a r io u s m a ch in e t o o l s and r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; u sin g
v a r io u s t o o l and d ie m a k e r 's h a n d to o ls and p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ;
w o r k in g to v e r y c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; h e a t -t r e a tin g m e ta l p a r t s and fin is h e d t o o l s
and d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a lit ie s ; fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s to p r e ­
s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s and a llo w a n c e s .
In g e n e r a l, th e t o o l and d ie m a k e r 's
w o r k r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e
u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and
e x p e r ie n c e .

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e i v e s and is r e s p o n s ib le
f o r in c o m in g s h ip m e n ts 01 m e r c h a n d is e o r o th e r m a t e r ia ls .
Sh ipping w o r k
in v o lv e s : A k n o w le d g e o f sh ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le
m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t io n , a nd r a t e s ; and p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e g o o d s
s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t in g w e ig h t and sh ip p in g c h a r g e s , and
k e e p in g a f i l e o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d ir e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g th e
m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o lv e s ; V e r ify in g o r d ir e c t in g
o t h e r s in v e r if y in g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n ts a g a in st b ills o f la d in g ,
in v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g f o r s h o r t a g e s and r e je c t in g d a m a g e d
g o o d s ; ro u tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a t e r ia ls t o p r o p e r d e p a r tm e n t s ; and m a in ­
ta in in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s and f i l e s .

F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu dy p u r p o s e s , th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d o e s not
in c lu d e t o o l and d ie m a k e r s w h o (1) a r e e m p lo y e d in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g
s h o p s o r (2) p r o d u c e f o r g in g d ie s (d ie s in k e r s ) .

For

O p e r a t e s a nd m a in ta in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e o p e r a t io n o f
s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s and eq u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n ic a l o r e le c t r ic a l) to s u p p ly th e
e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h ea t, r e f r i g e r a t i o n , o r a i r c o n d it io n in g .
W o r k i n v o lv e s :
O p e r a tin g and m a in ta in in g e q u ip m en t s u ch as
s t e a m e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila tin g
and r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t, s te a m b o i l e r s and b o i l e r - f e d w a te r p u m p s ;
m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; and k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y ,
t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d f u e l c o n s u m p tio n .
M a y a ls o s u p e r v is e t h e s e o p e r a t io n s .
H e a d o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g m o r e than on e e n g in e e r
a r e e x c lu d e d .

pu rposes,

w ork ers

are

c la s s ifie d

as

fo llo w s :

W AREHOUSEM AN
A s d i r e c t e d , p e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s w h ich r e q u ir e
an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t 's s t o r a g e p la n . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e f o llo w in g : V e r if y in g m a t e r ia ls ( o r m e r c h a n d is e ) a g a in st r e c e iv in g
d o c u m e n t s , n o tin g and r e p o r t in g d is c r e p a n c i e s and o b v io u s d a m a g e s ; ro u tin g
m a t e r ia ls to p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e lo c a t io n s ; s t o r i n g , s ta c k in g , o r p a lle t iz in g
m a t e r ia ls in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e m e t h o d s ; r e a r r a n g in g and
ta k in g in v e n t o r y o f s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls ; e x a m in in g s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls and
r e p o r t in g d e t e r io r a t io n and d a m a g e ; r e m o v in g m a t e r ia l f r o m s t o r a g e and
p r e p a r in g it f o r sh ip m e n t.
M a y o p e r a t e hand o r p o w e r t r u c k s in p e r fo r m in g
w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s .

B O IL E R T E N D E R
F i r e s s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s to fu r n is h th e e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r , o r s te a m .
F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y hand o r
o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o i l b u r n e r ; a nd c h e c k s w a te r and
s a fe t y v a lv e s .
M a y c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r r o o m eq u ip m e n t.

E x c lu d e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u t i e s
in v o lv e sh ip p in g and
r e c e iv in g w o r k ( s e e S h ipp in g and R e c e iv in g C le r k and Sh ipping P a c k e r ),
o r d e r f illin g ( s e e O r d e r F i l l e r ) , o r o p e r a t in g p o w e r t r u c k s ( s e e P o w e r - T r u c k
O p e ra to r).

Material Movement and Custodial

O R D E R F IL L E R
F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m s to r e d
m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c if ic a t io n s on s a le s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s '
o r d e r s , o r o t h e r in s t r u c t io n s .
M a y , in a d d itio n to f illin g o r d e r s and in d i­
ca tin g it e m s f i l l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u tg o in g o r d e r s , r e q u is itio n
a d d itio n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s to s u p e r v i s o r , and p e r f o r m o th e r
r e la t e d d u tie s .

T R U C K D R IV E R
D r iv e s a t r u c k w ith in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t m a t e ­
r i a l s , m e r c h a n d is e , e q u ip m e n t, o r w o r k e r s b etw een v a r io u s ty p e s o f e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s su ch a s : M a n u fa c tu r in g p la n ts , fr e ig h t d e p o ts , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o l e ­
s a le a n d r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e tw e e n r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts and
c u s t o m e r s ' h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s in e s s .
M a y a ls o lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w ith
o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n ic a l r e p a i r s , and k e e p t r u c k in g o o d
w o r k in g o r d e r . S a le s r o u t e and o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r iv e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .

S H IP P IN G P A C K E R
P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r sh ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e by p la c in g th e m
in sh ip p in g c o n t a in e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g d e p en d en t
u p on th e t y p e , s i z e , and n u m b e r o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , th e ty p e o f c o n ta in e r
e m p lo y e d , and m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t.
W o r k r e q u ir e s th e p la c in g o f it e m s in
sh ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f th e f o llo w in g : K n o w le d g e
o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r to v e r i f y c o n te n t; s e le c t io n o f a p p r o p r ia t e
ty p e and s iz e o f c o n t a in e r ; in s e r tin g e n c lo s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u sin g e x c e l s i o r
o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c lo s in g and s e a lin g c o n ­
t a in e r ; and a p p ly in g la b e ls o r e n te r in g id e n tify in g data o n c o n ta in e r . P a c k e r s
w h o a ls o m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r iv e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s iz e and
ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t, as f o l l o w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r sh ou ld b e r a te d on the b a s is
o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y .)




stu dy

S h ipp in g c l e r k
R e c e iv in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k

S T A T IO N A R Y E N G IN E E R

T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

w age

lig h t t r u c k (u n d er 1 V 2 ton s)
m e d iu m t r u c k ( I V 2 to and in clu d in g 4 ton s)
h e a v y t r u c k ( t r a ile r ) ( o v e r 4 ton s)
h e a v y t r u c k (o th e r than t r a i le r ) ( o v e r 4 to n s )

23

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G L A B O R E R

GUARD AND W ATCHM AN

A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, s t o r e , o r
o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u tie s in v o lv e o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o llo w in g ;
L o a d in g and u n lo a d in g v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls and m e r c h a n d is e on o r f r o m fr e ig h t
c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o th e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g
m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; and t r a n s p o r t in g
m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d tru c k , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on gshore
w o r k e r s , w h o lo a d and u n loa d s h ip s , a r e e x c lu d e d .

G u a rd .
P e r f o r m s ro u tin e p o l i c e d u t ie s , e it h e r at f ix e d p o s t o r on
t o u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r , u sin g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .
In clu d e s
g u a rd s w h o a re s ta tio n e d at g a te a n d c h e c k o n id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and
o th e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .
W a tch m a n . M a k e s ro u n d s o f p r e m i s e s
p r o p e r t y a g a in st f i r e , th e ft, and i l l e g a l e n tr y .

p e r io d ic a lly

in

p r o t e c t in g

P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , OR C L E A N E R
O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o l i n e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d t r u c k
o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r ia ls o f a ll k in d s a b ou t a w a r e h o u s e ,
m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t, o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.

tru ck ,

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f p o w e r as f o l l o w s :
F o r k lift o p e r a t o r
P o w e r - t r u c k o p e r a t o r (o th e r than fo r k lift )




24

C le a n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d it io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g a r e a s and
w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r i c a l
o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o llo w in g :
S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b in g , and p o lis h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g c h ip s , t r a s h ,
and o th e r r e fu s e ; d u stin g e q u ip m e n t, f u r n it u r e , o r f ix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l
f ix t u r e s o r tr im m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s a nd m i n o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ;
and c le a n in g l a v a t o r ie s , s h o w e r s , a nd r e s t r o o m s .
W o r k e r s w ho s p e c i a l i z e
in w in d ow w a sh in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

Area Wage
Surveys
A l i s t o f th e la t e s t b u lle tin s a v a ila b le is p r e s e n te d b e lo w .
B u lle tin s
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m a n y o f th e B L S r e g io n a l o f f i c e s sh ow n on th e b a c k
c o v e r , o r f r o m th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , U.S. G o v e rn m e n t P r in tin g
O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D .C . 2 0 4 0 2 .
M a k e c h e c k s p a y a b le to S u p erin ten d en t o f
D o c u m e n ts .
A d i r e c t o r y o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a ge s u r v e y s , c o v e r i n g th e y e a r s
1970 th ro u g h 1 9 7 6 , is a v a ila b le on r e q u e s t .

A rea

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r i c e *

A k r o n , O h io , D e c . 1 9 7 7 ........................................................................... 1 9 5 0 -7 0 , 80 ce n ts
A lb a n y —S ch e n e cta d y —T r o y , N .Y ., Sept. 1977 ------ ------------------- 1 9 5 0 -5 2 , 80 ce n ts
A n a h e im —Santa A na—G a rd e n G r o v e ,
C a lif ., O c t . 1 9 7 7 ________________________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -6 0 , $ 1 .0 0
A tla n ta , G a ., M a y 1 9 7 7 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -1 7 , $ 1 .2 0
B a l t i m o r e , M d ., A u g . 1 9 7 7 --------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -3 9 , $ 1 .2 0
B illin g s , M o n t ., J u ly 1977 1 ------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -4 0 , $ 1 .0 0
B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1 9 7 8 --------------------------------------------------- 2 0 2 5 -1 5 , 80 ce n ts
B o s t o n , M a s s . , A u g . 1977 ---------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -5 0 , $ 1 .2 0
B u ffa lo , N .Y ., O c t . 1977 . . ---------- ----------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -5 8 , $ 1 .0 0
C a n to n , O h io , M a y 1977 1 ------------------------------------------------------------ 1 9 5 0 -2 8 , $ 1 .1 0
C h a tta n o o g a , T e n n .—G a ., S ep t. 1977 ---------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -4 4 , 70 ce n ts
C h ic a g o , 111., M a y 1977 1________________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -4 1 , $ 1 .4 0
C in c in n a ti, O h io — y.—In d ., J u ly 1977 1 —--------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -4 5 , $ 1 .2 0
K
C le v e la n d , O h io , S ep t. 1977 1 __________________________________
1 9 5 0 -5 3 , $ 1 .4 0
C o lu m b u s , O h io , O c t . 1 9 7 7 _____________________________________
1 9 5 0 -6 4 , $ 1 .0 0
C o r p u s C h r is t i, T e x ., J u ly 1977 1 _____________________________ 1 9 5 0 -3 5 , $ 1 .0 0
D a lla s —F o r t W o r t h , T e x ., O c t . 1 9 7 7 _________________________ _ 1 9 5 0 -6 5 , $ 1 .2 0
D a v e n p o rt—R o c k Is la n d — o lin e , Iow a—111., F e b . 1 9 7 8 ______ 2 0 2 5 - 6 , 70 ce n ts
M
D a y to n , O h io , D e c . 1 9 7 7 1_______________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -7 1 , $ 1 .1 0
D a y to n a B e a c h , F l a . , A u g . 1977 1______________________________ 1 9 5 0 -4 3 , $ 1 .0 0
D e n v e r—B o u l d e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1977 1__________________________
1 9 5 0 -7 4 , $ 1 .4 0
D e t r o it , M i c h ., M a r . 1 9 7 8 ______________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 1 , $ 1 .2 0
F r e s n o , C a l i f ., June 1977 ______________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -3 0 , 70 ce n ts
G a in e s v il le , F l a . , S e p t. 1977 1--------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -4 6 , $ 1 .0 0
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u ly 1 9 7 7 ------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -3 6 , 70 c e n ts
G r e e n s b o r o — in s t o n -S a le m — ig h P o in t,
W
H
N .C ., A u g . 1977 1 ___________ ___________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -4 2 , $ 1 .1 0
G r e e n v ille —S p a r ta n b u r g , S .C ., June 1977 ------------------------------ 1 9 5 0 -3 3 , 70 ce n ts
H a r t f o r d , C o n n ., M a r . 1978 1___________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 4 , $ 1 .2 0
H o u s to n , T e x ., A u g . 1977 1 --------------------------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -4 8 , $ 1 .4 0
H u n t s v ille , A l a . , F e b . 1 9 7 8 ------------------------------------------------------- 2 0 2 5 - 4 , 70 ce n ts
I n d ia n a p o lis , In d ., O c t . 1 9 7 7 ------------------------------------------------------ 1 9 5 0 -5 6 , $ 1 .0 0
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan . 1 9 7 8 ______________________________________ 2 0 2 5 - 1 , 70 ce n ts
J a c k s o n v il le , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 7 7 __________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -6 7 , 70 ce n ts
K a n s a s C it y , M o .—K a n s ., S e p t. 1 9 7 7 ---------------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -5 4 , $ 1 .0 0
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f ., O c t. 1 9 7 7 -------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -6 1 , $ 1 .2 0
L o u i s v i l l e , K y .- I n d ., N o v . 1977 1______________________________ 1 9 5 0 -6 6 , $ 1 .2 0
M e m p h is , T e n n .—A r k .—M i s s ., N o v . 1 9 7 7 -------------------------------- 1 9 5 0 -6 3 , 70 ce n ts




A rea

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r i c e *

M ia m i, F l a . , O c t . 1 9 7 7 _________________________________________
1 9 5 0 -5 7 ,
M ilw a u k e e , W i s ., A p r . 1978 1__________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 8 ,
M in n e a p o lis —St. P a u l, M in n .— i s . , Jan. 1978 1_____________ 2 0 2 5 -2 ,
W
N a s s a u -S u ffo lk , N .Y ., June 1977 _____________________________
1 9 5 0 -2 7 ,
N e w a r k , N .J ., Jan. 1978 1 ______________________________________
2 0 2 5 -7 ,
N ew O r le a n s , L a ., Jan. 1 9 7 8 __________________________________ 2 0 2 5 - 5 ,
N ew Y o r k , N .Y «— .J ., M a y 1 9 7 7 ______________________________
N
1 9 5 0 -3 1 ,
N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r t s m o u t h , V a .—
N .C ., M a y 1978 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 0 2 5 -2 0 ,
N o r fo lk —V ir g in ia B e a c h -P o r t s m o u t h and
N e w p o r t N ew s— a m p to n , V a .— .C ., M a y 1 9 7 7 ____________
H
N
1 9 5 0 -2 1 ,
N o r th e a s t P e n n s y lv a n ia , A u g . 1977 1__________________________ 1 9 5 0 -3 8 ,
O k la h o m a C ity , O k la ., A u g . 1977 1 ___________________________
1 9 5 0 -4 9 ,
O m a h a , N e b r .- I o w a , O c t . 1 9 7 7 1 ______________________________
1 9 5 0 -5 5 ,
P a t e r s o n —C lifto n —P a s s a i c , N .J ., June 1977 ________________
1 9 5 0 -3 4 ,
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a .—N .J ., N ov . 1 9 7 7 ___________________________
1 9 5 0 -6 2 ,
P it ts b u r g h , P a ., Jan. 1 9 7 8 ................................................................... 2 0 2 5 -3 ,
P o r t la n d , M a in e , D e c . 1 9 7 7 __________________________________
1 9 5 0 -6 9 ,
P o r t la n d , O r e g .—W a s h ., M a y 1977 1__________________________
1 9 5 0 -3 2 ,
P o u g h k e e p s ie , N .Y ., June 1977 _______________________________
1 9 5 0 -2 5 ,
P o u g h k e e p s ie -K in g s t o n —N e w b u r g h , N .Y ., June 1 9 7 6 _______ 1 9 0 0 -5 5 ,
P r o v id e n c e— a r w ic k —P a w t u c k e t, R .1.—
W
M a s s ., June 1977 1 ___________________________ _________ _______ 1 9 5 0 -2 2 ,
R ic h m o n d , V a ., June 1977 1 ___________________________________
1 9 5 0 -2 3 ,
St. L o u is , M o . - H L , M a r . 1978 ................. ......................................... 2 0 2 5 -1 3 ,
S a c r a m e n t o , C a lif ., D e c . 1977 1_______________________________
1 9 5 0 -7 2 ,
S a gin a w , M ic h ., N o v . 1 9 7 7 ------------------------------------------- --------- 1 9 5 0 -5 9 ,
1 9 5 0 -6 8 ,
Salt L a k e C ity—O g d e n , U tah, N o v . 1 9 7 7 ______________________
San A n to n io , T e x ., M a y 1978___________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 7 ,
San D ie g o , C a lif ., N o v . 1977 1_________________________________
1 9 5 0 -7 3 ,
San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d , C a l i f ., M a r . 1978 1________________
O
2 0 2 5 -1 0 ,
San J o s e , C a l i f ., M a r . 1978 1__________________________________ 2 0 2 5 - 9 ,
S e a ttle —E v e r e t t , W a s h ., D e c . 1977___________________________
1 9 5 0 -7 5 ,
South B e n d , In d ., A u g . 1977 1 __________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -5 1 ,
T o le d o , O h i o - M i c h ., M a y 1 9 7 7 ________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -1 8 ,
T r e n t o n , N .J ., S ep t. 1 9 7 7 ______________________________________
1 9 5 0 -4 7 ,
U tica r-R o m e , N .Y ., Ju ly 1977 1 ________________________________ 1 9 5 0 -3 7 ,
W a s h in g to n , D .C .— d .—V a . , M a r . 1978 1_____________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 2 ,
M
W ic h it a , K a n s ., A p r . 1978_____________________________________
2 0 2 5 -1 6 ,
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., A p r . 1978 1________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 9 ,
Y o r k , P a ., F e b . 1 9 7 8 1__________________________________________ 2 0 2 5 - 8 ,

Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .0 0
$ 1 .2 0
70 cen ts
70 ce n ts
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .1 0
70 ce n ts
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .1 0
70 ce n ts
$ 1 .2 0
70 ce n ts
55 ce n ts
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .1 0
$ 1 .2 0
$ 1 .0 0
70 ce n ts
80 ce n ts
70 ce n ts
$1.10
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .2 0
80 ce n ts
$ 1 .1 0
80 ce n ts
70 ce n ts
$1.10
$ 1 .4 0
80 ce n ts
$ 1 .1 0
$1.10

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (AreaCode617)

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (AreaCode212)

Region lit
3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (AreaCode215)

Region IV
Suite 540
>371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone:881-4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V
9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-1880 (AreaCode312)

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions VII and VIII
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (AreaCode415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII
Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
Nebraska

IX
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Nevada

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin




VIII
Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X

X
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington