View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary


J r-ft
BUREAU OF LABOR ST A T IST IC S/................... llOe HcOV

I S C E L L A N .E





APRIL, 1928


This bulletin was prepared by Estelle M. Stewart, o f the United States
Department o f Labor.



Scope o f investigation_____________________________________________________
Organized systems in operation____________________________________________
Supply o f trainees---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8,9
Apprentice quotas------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------9
Attitude o f contractors_____________________________________________________ 9,10
Attitude o f u n ion s________________________________________________________
Training on the jo b ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 10,11
National program s__________________________________- _____________________11-16
Tile setting___________________________________________________________ 11,12
Marble setting________________________________________________________
Electrical w o r k _______________________________________________________ 14,15
Sheet-metal w o r k _____________________________________________________15,16
Trades having no apprenticeship policy------------------------------------------------------ 16-18
P lastering---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16,17
Painting and decorating------------------------------------------------------------ .--------- 17,18
Reports, by cities------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18-97
Atlanta________________________________________________________________ 18-20
Electrical w o r k __________________________________________________
Plumbing---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18,19
C arpentry________________________________________________________
Bricklaying, etc----------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Other crafts---------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Employers-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19,20
Birm ingham ______________________________________________________ ____23-26
Bricklayers_______________________________________________________ 23,24
P lasterers________________________________________________________ 24,25
Other trades---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 5 ,2tf
Plum bing_____________________________________________________
Electrical w o rk ______________________________________________ 25,26
Sheet-metal w o rk ------------------------------------------------------------------26
Boston_________________________________________________________________ 26-32
Sheet-metal w o r k -------------------------------------------------------------------------29
Plastering-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29,30
Electrical w o rk ----------------------------------------------------------------------------30
Plum bing----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30,31
Other trades-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------31,32
Buffalo________________________________________________________________ 32,33
Plum bing---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32
Bricklaying------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 32,33
Other trades---------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
Charleston, S. C------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 33,34
C h icago_______________________________________________________________34-45
Pipe trades------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34-38
Steam fitting----------------------------------------------------------------------------35,36
Plumbing_____________________________________________________ 37,38
Gas fitting------------------------------------------------------------------------------38




Reports, by cities— Continued.
Sheet-metal w o r k ________________________________________________ 38,39
Electrical w ork___________________________________________________ 39,40
Painting and decorating__________________________________________
C arpen try________________________________________________________
Trowel tra d es____________________________________________________41-44
Brick and stone masonry____________________________________
Tile setting___________________________________________________42,43
Marble settin g_______________________________________________ 43,44
Plasterin g------------------------------------------------------------------------------44
Cement finishing_____________________________________________
Miscellaneous trades_____________________________________________ 44,45
M achinery o f system_____________________________________________ 45,46
Operation o f system---------------------------------------------------------------------- 46,47
Joint apprentice committees_____________________________________
Director o f apprentices___________________________________________
Cleveland Apprentice School_____________________________________ 47-49
Electrical w ork___________________________________________________
Sheet-metal w o r k ________________________________________________
Extent o f application_____________________________________________ 50,51
Record o f completion o f apprenticeship________________ <
_________ 51 ,52
Contractors’ opinions o f plan_____________________________________ 52,53
Apprentice systems in other building trades______________________53,54
L ath in g---------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 53,54
Other c r a fts _________________________________________________
D etroit-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54-60
L ath in g__________________________________________________________
Plumbing and steam fitting-----------------------------------------------------------57,58
Electrical w o r k __________________________________________________
Tile setting------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 58,59
Sheet-metal work_________________________________________________
C arpentry-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
M em phis-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60-64
Pipe trades------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 60-62
Trowel trades_____________________________________________________
Electrical w o rk ___________________________________________________62,63
Other trades______________________________________________________ 63,64
Milwaukee--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64-66
Minneapolis and St. Paul--------------------------------------------------------------------- 66-68
Trowel trades_____________________________________________________
N ew ark _______________________________________________________________
New Orleans----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69-71
Electrical w o r k __________________________________________________ 69,70
Other trades------------------------------------------------------------------------------------70,71
Delgado Trade S ch ool____________________________________________
New York City________________________________________________________ 71-78
School train in g----------------------------------------------------------------------------73
Trades under the commission system--------------------------------------------73-76
Painting______________________________________________________ 74,75
Electrical w o rk ----------------------------------------------------------------------75
Plum bing-------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------75
Bricklaying and carpentry___________________________________
Trades not under the commission system________________________ 76-78
Tile setting__________________________________________________ 76, 77
Metal lathing________________________________________________
Sheet-metal w o rk ____________________________________________ 77,78



Chicago— Continued.
Niagara Falls----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78-80
Carpentry and trowel trades_____________________________________ 78,79
Plumbing and sheet-metal w ork__________________________________
P hiladelphia__________________________________________________________ 80-84
Indentured apprentices___________________________________________
Trade-extension classes___________________________________________
Plasterin g________________________________________________________
Painting and paper hanging______________________________________ 82,88
Electrical w o rk __________________________________________________ 83,84
Sheet-metal w o rk ________________________________________________
C arpentry________________________________________________________
Other trades______________________________________________________
Pittsburgh— _________________________________________________________ 84-90
Sheet-metal w o rk ________________________________________________ 86,87
Electrical w o rk __________________________________________________
L ath in g__________________________________________________________
Carpentry________________________________________________________ 88,89
T ile setting_______________________________________________________
Other trowel trades______________________________________________
Other forms of training___________________________________________89,90
St. L o u is______________________________________________________________90,97
Sheet-metal w o rk ________________________________________________ 90-92
Tile setting_______________________________________________________ 92,93
Brick and stone masonry________________________________________ 93,94
P lastering________________________________________________________
C arpentry________________________________________________________
L athing__________________________________________________________
Pipe trades_______________________________________________________ 95,96
Electrical w o rk ___________________________________________________
Painting and paper hanging______________________________________ 96,97
A ppendix A.— Courses o f study for apprentices_________________________ 98-109
Part-time courses in Cleveland Apprentice School__________________ 98-109
Carpentry_______________________________________________________ 99-102
Electrical w ork_________________________________________________ 102-104
Painting — -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 104,105
Plum bing_______________________________________________________ 105-109
Course for carpenters* apprentices in Niagara Falls_______________
A ppendix B.— Lesson sheets for apprentices_____________________________ 109-118
Plumbing—job sheets: Cleveland Apprentice School_______________ 109-112
Sheet-metal work (w ire edge)— Detail operation sheet: Cleveland
Apprentice School_________________________________________________ 112,113
Washburne School, Chicago, apprentice classes_____________________ 113-118
Electrical work________________________________________________ 116,117
Steam fitting___________________________________________________117,118
A ppendix C.— Indentures and apprentice contracts______________________118-128
Applications and contract— Joint apprenticeship committee system - 118-122
Apprentice indenture and text o f law, W isconsin___________________122-125
Apprentice indenture fo r tile setters— National system____________ 125,126
Apprentice agreement—Union plan_________________________________ 126,127
Letter o f agreement— Union plan__________________________________ 127,128
Appendix D.— Joint apprenticeship agreements____ _____________________128-133
Tile and mantel work------------------------------------------------------------------------128,129
Plumbing, Chicago________ _________________________________________ 129,130
Plumbing and steam fitting, Memphis______________________________ 130,131
Steam fitting, Chicago______________________________________________131-133



no. 459


april, itas

The recent building activity throughout the country has empha­
sized some unwholesome and unprofitable conditions in the building
industry growing out o f the war-time practice of making mechanics
overnight, and has led to a renewed interest in the subject of ap­
prentice training. To determine to what extent apprenticeship is a
factor in the industry, and what effect the agitation for a revival of
the apprentice system is having, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the
United States Department of Labor has made an investigation in 19
cities which are considered representative. Some of these cities were
known to have organized movements for training apprentices in ac­
cordance with provisions of the Federal vocational education law, and
these were studied to determine the operation of the system and the
effect of the movement on the supply of mechanics. The other cities
were visited to determine whether or not anything was being done in
the way of apprentice training by any of the parties at interest.

The bureau limited its study to actual apprenticeship; that is,
actual contract or some equivalent obligation extending over a stipu­
lated period of years, by which a boy is to learn and his employer is
to teach one of the building crafts. Helpers, who are hired and dis­
missed according to the needs at the time, were not considered, even
when they were hoys of apprentice age who might eventually become
Sources on which the bureau drew for information were local
building trades unions, trade associations of employers, builders’
exchanges, school authorities, and representative individual employ­
ers. Among the individual employers visited were union and openshop men, and contractors who do and those who do not employ
The following table shows the crafts and all but one of the cities
covered in the investigation, and the number of apprentices formally
indentured, registered with the unions, or bound in some manner, for
each city and each craft. The letter E signifies that evening-school
work is provided, and theoretically at least, required. The letters
PT mean that part-time school training is an integral part of the
apprenticeship. The expression “ part time” as used in this report
always signifies compulsory day-school work on paid-for time.


|E= Evening school attendance required.





’ 400


St. Louis.....................................









i 1,600

PT 12

PT 260
PT 86

2 200

E U,400
e , :PT 25

Lath­ and deco­ Plastering


a 1,300



PT 24
110 ‘ P T25'








E, PT 13












PT 425


PT 118



PT 60




1 622
‘ 2,370
»i 6,127
u 855




7 2,110



1 Including 98 not indentured.
1 Including 4,690 not indentured,
1 Including 150 not indentured.
1 Including 7,308 not indentured.
* Includes also plasterers and tile setters.
bIncluded under “ Brick, stone, and marble masonry.”
e Includes also tile setters.
4 Minneapolis and St. Paul.
* Includes also plasterers. Night school students not indentured, se® p. 69.


1Not indentured.
*Night school students not indentured, see p. 69.
s Including 2,090 not indentured.
* Including 2,700 not indentured.
6Including 1,950 not indentured.
•Including 80 not indentured.
7including 355 not indentured.
8Including 115 not indentured.
•Including 18 not indentured.




is u.fiflo
E, PT' 16



\Tnw OrlpATlQ

New York
XTja oro.i'o. F a llS
Philarl plnhift


stone, and


B irmingham
Chicago_________________ ________ ____
At ilwaukee
Kf Awarlr N J


PT=Part-time day school attendance required and paid for]



The table thus presents graphically the scope of the investigation
and what it developed. Taking bricklaying for illustration, it is
bhown that bricklayer apprentices were found in every city given
in the table except New Orleans, that evening classes to which they
may go or may be required to go are maintained in Atlanta, Bir­
mingham, Buffalo, Chicago, Niagara Falls, and New York, and
that compulsory part-time school work constitutes part of the train­
ing in Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, Niagara Falls, and Pitts­
burgh. Again, the column headed “ steam fitting ” develops the fact
that apprenticeship in steam fitting is found in only three cities,
Chicago, Detroit, and Memphis, in one of which there is no indenture,
and that part-time school work is required in two. To note the situa­
tion in a given city, Cleveland for example, with a highly developed
system in most crafts, has no apprentices in asbestos work, steam
fitting^ or tile setting. Some apprenticeship exists in all the trades
listed m Chicago. Charleston, S. C. (see p. 33), has no real appren­
ticeship in any trade.
Two other crafts, structural-iron work and elevator construction,
were included in the study, but nothing therein was found in any city
which could be considered as coming within the bureau’s definition
of apprenticeship.
The primary purpose of the investigation was to find out what is
the present trend in producing new mechanics for the building indus­
try, what machinery for training apprentices exists, and how it
functions. Systematic school training was encountered in several
localities, since to a marked degree the Federal vocational educa­
tion law has been the stimulus for renewed interest in craft training
and has indicated the course which training is following. The
bureau did not, however, attempt a detailed study of school work.
Material covering courses of study, specimen lesson sheets, and the
like was readily available in some cases, and, as it is suggestive of
the type of work the apprentice schools are doing, it is presented
as appendixes to the report. School instruction must, in the nature
of the probiem, be wholly individual, since apprentice classes are
made up of boys with varying degrees of basic education, the boys
varying frequently from recent immigrants—who must be sent to the
Americanization classes to learn English in addition to their tradeschool work—to high-school graduates and perhaps to technicalschool graduates.
The apprentice problem is a local one, and the methods of meeting
it vary widely not only as between cities but also as between different
crafts in the same city. Even in cities where the problem is treated
from the standpoint of the industry as a whole, as in Cleveland, cer­
tain crafts in the industry may be acting independent of the general
plan or may be doing nothing whatever. Any attempt to generalize
must be complicated with exceptions and variations. Each city cov­
ered in the bureau’s survey has its own problems and its own ways of
meeting them, or, perhaps, of letting them alone. Because each city
is a story in itseli this report will present separately and in detail the
situation as it was found in each or the localities visited, summarizing
only such systems and such training programs as have a definite
bearing on the subject of apprenticeship in general.



While apprenticeship by formal indenture between employer and
boy is not widely practiced, there is coming into use a system which
amounts to the same thing. That is the joint apprenticeship com­
mittee system. These committees are composed of representatives
of employers and of journeymen and, in some cases, of the city school
boards. Apprentices are under agreement with the committee to
serve their full time and to abide by the laws of the committee, which
on its part takes the responsibility of seeing that the boy has em­
ployment and proper opportunities for training throughout his
Where joint committees do not operate, the union may serve the
same purpose, the apprentice being in effect indentured to the local
union and governed by the terms of the working' agreement between
the union and the employers, with the union acting as placement
agent to keep the boy employed.
Apprentice training has more vitality, is more closely organized,
and is affecting the building situation more definitely in those
centers in which the division of vocational education of the local
school board, usually acting under the Smith-Hughes law, is coop­
erating than in the cities in which the contractors or the unions
are trying to work out the problem alone.
Probamy this condition is not primarily the result of the actual
number of hours spent by the boys in the apprentice classes, since
that is only four hours a week as a rule. More likely it is the result
of the organization and cooperation of the employers and the journey­
men, which is the machinery demanded by the school boards through
which training shall be carried on. The joint apprentice committee
plan, says Prof. Arthur B. Mays in a recent book on industrial
has many desirable features, but it is feasible only where there are genuine
interest and enthusiasm for apprenticeship, and real, whole-hearted coopera­
tion among the three elements represented. Under such a plan the employer
is relieved o f any suspicion of exploitation, labor has a legitimate measure o f
control o f the numbers entering its ranks as w ell as o f the qualifications o f
the entrants, and the school is able to perform fo r the young people entering
the trades the work it is fitted to do and should do as the educational agent
o f society. The apprenticeship committee is the nearest approach thus fa r
made to a complete reproduction o f the medieval master mechanic in his
relation to apprenticeship, yet it is essentially modern in its characteristics
and is fully in keeping with the requirements of modern production methods.
This plan, or some other much like it, seems to be the only way in which
the problem o f training apprentices in the building trades can be effectively
developed .

The various organized systems for promoting and controlling
apprenticeship are set forth in the detailed reports by cities, but
a comparative analysis of the different types may serve to show
strength and weakness in the systems followed. It must be empha­
sized, however, that the following analysis is intended as a compari­
son of plans and methods, not as an appraisal of results under
those methods. There are instances of indifferent results and definite
failures under the most favorable plans, but they can usually be
traced to factors other than the plan itselx.
1 Mays, Arthur B . : The Problem o f Industrial Education.
1927, pp. 246. 247.

New York, The Century Co.,




Apprenticeship systems designed and organized to encompass the
entire building industry are found only in four cities: Cleveland,
Detroit, New York City, and Niagara Falls. In none of them
does the plan actually include all of the building crafts, but the
organization is such that it can be expanded to cover any additional
craft when the craft itself takes the necessary steps. Joint apprentice
committees for individual trades are effective agents in several cities,
where they operate successfully without any centralized machinery.
Cleveland is the outstanding instance of successful operation under
the former plan, while Chicago illustrates the method of uncorre­
lated craft actions.
Because the Cleveland method contains all the elements of system­
atic apprentice training which the bureau’s investigation has found
in any city visited, it will, for purposes of analysis and comparison,
be treated as a standard, deviations from which in other cities will
be pointed out. As already noted, Cleveland has a system structur­
ally so devised as to cover the building industry, but the founda­
tion of the system is the separate crafts, each functioning through a
joint committee of organized workers and organized employers. Co­
operating with these committees, but not actually members of them,
are the trade teachers and officials of the division of vocational educa­
tion of the Cleveland public-school system. These joint apprentice
committees are active working bodies, which meet regularly, monthly
or oftener, and which are the controlling agency of their respective
crafts in all matters pertaining to apprenticeship.
Upon action by the committee a formal indenture is made which
binds employer and apprentice for the full term of apprenticeship.
After the expiration of a probationary period an employer may not
discharge an apprentice and a boy may not change employers with­
out the consent of the committee after a hearing.
One of the fundamental doctrines of the system is continuous
employment throughout the apprentice period, in order to keep
the boy in the trade. If the contractor to whom a boy is indentured
runs so short of work that he can not keep him busy, a transfer to
another contractor is effected through the trade committee until such
time as the original employer can resume his obligation. Respon­
sibility for carrying the boy through his apprenticeship remains
with the original employer.
To facilitate transfer from an idle to a busy contractor when neces­
sary to insure continuity of employment, the Building Trades Em­
ployers5Association, which is a federation of various craft organiza­
tions of contractors, employs a director of apprentices. Additional
duties of the director, who gives his full time to the work, are to act as
truant officer for the contractors, to keep informed of all building
operations, and, on behalf of the contractors, to assist in many ways
in the orderly working out of the apprentice program.
An important factor in that program is part-time school work. All
apprentices in the trades coming under the Cleveland system must
attend school four hours one day a week, or one day of eight hours
every other week, at the time set by the division of vocational edu­
cation. Cleveland is the only city studied by the bureau which has
an apprentice school; that is, an institution distinctively for appren­
tices as such. In other cities apprentice classes are held in the



continuation or manual training schools, or apprentices attend the
regular night schools.
While the division of vocational education is only one component
element in the organized apprentice training system in Cleveland, it
enforces certain regulations which are in fact the principal cohesive
factor in holding the entire scheme together, and it is largely instru­
mental in keeping the “ real, whole-hearted cooperation ” which Doc­
tor Mays refers to as being the prime essential in any successful
Niagara Falls and Detroit are the only other cities covered which
show the same correlation between the public schools and the in­
dustry in the training of apprentices. In each of these cities the
director of vocational education is a member of each trade committee
and is in effect the head of the apprentice system. The plan used
in Niagara Falls is very much the same as Cleveland’s, the only im­
portant difference, beside the one just mentioned, being the amount
of time spent in school. First and second year boys must attend
school eight hours a week—four hours in evening school on their
own time and four hours Saturday morning on the employer’s time;
but pay for day-school work is contingent upon night-school attend­
ance. Third and fourth year boys must attend night school four
hours a week.
The system in both Cleveland and Niagara Falls depends for suc­
cessful operation upon the cooperation of unions and employers and
upon the active participation of the joint apprentice committees. A
Cleveland school official declared in a recent address that none of
the results that have so far been accomplished under the Cleveland
plan “ would have been possible without the untiring efforts of the
members of the joint apprentice committee.” In Detroit the trade
committees are neither so active nor so interested, and formal in­
denture is made in only a few trades.
Apprenticeship in the building trades in Chicago depends solely
on the initiative and diligence of the craft committees representing
organized workers and organized employers. The school system is a
receptive, not an active, agent in apprentice training. Contact be­
tween the apprentice classes and the trade is chiefly through co­
ordinators employed by the committees and through the trade
teachers. Formal indenture is practiced in all cases and in most
trades control and regulation of apprenticeship through joint com­
mittees are provided for in the joint working agreements and include
compulsory part-time school work. In most trades uniform control
is assured by the provision that only those contractors who are
members of their trade associations, and hence parties to the joint
agreements, may have apprentices. This is not true of carpentry, in
which trade there is neither a trade agreement nor a joint apprentice
committee. In the plastering trade a once active apprentice com­
mittee has become moribund and part-time school training for
plastering apprentices has been discontinued because of general lack
of interest.
Under the systems thus far discussed, when a craft participates at
all it does so wholly. That is to say, all the apprentices in a given
trade, with possibly an occasional exception in an open shop, are
included in and regulated by whatever system is followed by that




trade. Only a small percentage of the contractors may be involved,
but such apprenticeship as exists comes under the unified control
of the organized agency.
This situation does not exist in New York City, in which an
apprenticeship commission, founded and fostered by the New York
Building Congress, is the medium for promoting apprenticeship in
the industry. The commission is composed of representatives of the
Building Congress, the Building Trades Employers’ Association, and
those building trades unions which are identified with it. Participa­
tion in the work of the commission on the part of the unions is,
however? determined by each local union of each craft. No craft
in the city is identified with the commission plan to the extent of
having all its local unions cooperating. The Painters’ District
Council of Manhattan and the Bronx, for example, is cooperating
and observing the regulations of the commission with regard to the
apprentices under its control. On the other hand, other local unions
of painters in Greater New York, while having apprentices duly
indentured, have no connection with the commission.
Structurally the New York Apprenticeship Commission is com­
posed of apprentice committees of the component trades. Function­
ally the trade committees are weak and inactive, and the vital agency
is not the craft organization but the superstructure representing the
industry. The commission has no power and the trade committees
exercise none. There is no formal indenture except in painting, no
provision for continuous employment and no machinery for assuring
it, and no part-time school training. The commission is the point of
contact between the school system and those apprentices coming
under the jurisdiction of the commission who are attending the nightschool classes provided, either voluntarily or because 01 whatever
pressure may be brought to bear upon them. Further than that, and
its efforts to promote and encourage apprenticeship, the organized
machinery in New York does not go.
One craft which is not a part of the apprenticeship commission has
a joint apprenticeship committee composed of two representatives of
the union and two of the contractors’ association and exercises com­
plete control over apprenticeship in the trade, that of sheet-metal
work. Apprentices are formally indentured, continuous employment
is assured, and attendance at night school four hours a week is
The New York Apprenticeship Commission system furnished the
pattern on which the Boston Building Congress built its joint
apprenticeship commission in 1923. As in New York, the sheetmetal trade remained outside and regulated its own apprentice sys­
tem through its joint trade committee under its working agreement.
The Boston commission depended upon craft committees for all
activities relating to apprentice regulations and control, including
the enforcement of school attendance, while it undertook to secure
continuity of employment and school training. Indenture was not
stressed. The tendency of the craft committees, however, wa£ to
become increasingly less active and to place more and more of the
burden of carrying out the program on the officers of the com­
mission. Founded as it was on craft support, when the craft sup­
port was completely withdrawn the superstructure collapsed and the



Boston Apprenticeship Commission parsed out of existence four
years after its establishment. Apprentice classes in the city trade
school have ^ince been discontinued for want of pupils, since no
compulsion has ever been exercised.
Joint .apprentice committees composed of representatives of organ­
ized employers and organized journeymen are effectively controlling
apprenticeship in some tradep in cities in which real apprentice­
ship is perhaps not followed in any other trade. The steam-fitting
trade in Memphis, Tenn., is a case in point. The plumbing trade
in Pittsburgh is another illustration of successful prosecution of ail
apprentice system by a committee composed not alone of employers
and journeymen but also of materialmen and the school board—
again the “ three elements” which, according to Doctor Mays, are
essential to any feasible plan of apprentice training.
Apprenticeship in Milwaukee is controlled by law and regulated
by the apprentice department of the Wisconsin Industrial Commis­
sion. Newark, N. J., has an educational movement under the SmithHughes law which involves trade training but which is not actual
apprenticeship in an industrial sense. It seems, nevertheless, to be
working out to essentially the same ends, although it is extremely
doubtful if the large number of boys reported by the various crafts
as being in training both on the job and in school will complete
their training and be absorbed into the industry.
Elsewhere in the field covered by the bureau nothing was found
which could be considered a definite organization working toward a
definite end.

The cry that “ boys won’t go into the trades” is not borne out
by the investigation. On the contrary, it is quit© apparent that the
dearth of apprentices in the building trades is not due to a dearth
of boys interested in entering those trades. The unions everywhere
reported long waiting lists of applicants for apprenticeships, and
joint committees agree that the problem does not lie in finding ma­
terial to train.
The experience of the commission on apprenticeship in one large
city illustrates this vividly. In an effort to arouse interest among
contractors and the general public in the program and the work
of the commission, its secretary broadcast an address through a
local radio station. “ The results,” he said, “ were illuminating and
disappointing. We were flooded with requests from boys and par­
ents for more information, and with applications for apprentice­
ships, but not one contractor came forward with a request either
for the details of the system or for an apprentice.”
Because of the limited opportunities for placing boys with con­
tractors as apprentices, some unions, where they are sufficiently in
control, make a practice of confining apprenticeships to the sons
and other relatives of the men in the trade. This is especially true
in bricklaying and plastering. It is frequently asserted that a boy
has no chance to become a bricklayer unless his father is in the
trade either as contractor or journeyman, and in a number of cases
that is quite true. It has been true also in plumbing in some local­



ities. The Chicago master plumbers have broken up the practice,
followed there for years, of granting apprenticeships only to sons
of the men in the trade. The apprenticeship agreement in Chicago
stipulates that the master plumbers shall make their own selection
of boys to become apprentices, and the union therefore no longer
serves as the recruiting agency. In Pittsburgh the working agree­
ment in the electrical trade provides that the employer shall select
the apprentice one year and the union the next year, and it is tacitly
understood that the union may select sons of journeymen if it chooses
to do so.
The building trades unions in St. Louis have a very definite policy
of “ keeping the trade in the family” and enforce it to such an
extent that one contractor declared that “ a boy has as good a chance
to get into West Point as into the building trades unless his father
or his uncle is a building craftsman.” An officer of a local union in
St. Louis reported that the name of his 14-year-old son has already
been placed on the union’s apprentice waiting list, and that it quite
certainly would not be reached before the boy becomes of apprentice


In practical application, union regulations governing the ratio
of apprentices to journeymen prove to be far less a deterring factor
in apprentice training than is commonly assumed. Where the highly
developed systems prevail union regulations are apt to be abrogated
entirely and the whole question of quota is handled by the joint com­
mittee on the basis o f the number of apprentices the trade can
support in continuous employment.
Where the method is more desultory the union quota is not an
issue for the reason that relatively few contractors have any ap­
prentices at all, and certainly have no disposition to take on more
than the union agreement permits.
I f union regulations were in fact responsible for restricting op­
portunities for apprentices, one would expect to find greater de­
velopment in open-shop centers. Actually, however, it is much
harder to find an apprentice in an open than in a closed shop. Only
three open-shop contractors were encountered in the course of the
investigation who had more apprentices than they would have been
granted under union agreement.

Those most closely in touch with the situation—school authorities,
members of apprenticeship committees, and contractors who are
cooperating in the effort to the limit of their ability—do not hesitate
to declare that the individual contractor is chiefly responsible for the
shortage of apprentices and the absence of a training system. Short­
sightedness, indifference, and selfishness are the charges brought
against their colleagues by the contractors who are carrying the
load of apprentice training for the industry.
It is conceded that the provision for continuous employment, the
one element which is vitally necessary to keep the boy, is the greatest



stumblingblock in the path of the contractor doing a small, or even
a moderately large, business. Accordingly it is the opinion of some
of the men in the industry that the problem of seasonal building will
have to be met before an effective apprentice system can be evolved.
As a rule trade organizations, both of employers and of journey­
men, have at least an appreciation of the needs of their respective
trades in regard to apprentice training, even though they may be
doing nothing constructive to promote it. And while there are ex­
ceptions, taken as a whole it is where union organization is strongest
that apprentice systems function most effectively. Local unions
were found here and there which definitely oppose apprenticeship,
but more instances occur in which the unions are doing all that is
being done to provide new mechanics. In one “ closed-shop ” center,
on the other hand, not only strict limitations as to the number of
apprentices, but dictation as to who may become apprenticed are
enforced by unions strong enough to impose them upon employers.
Instances of wage scales so high that few contractors can afford
to pay them to learners suggest restriction by a method more in­
direct and probably more effective than the ratio system.
Speaking of the attitude of both contractors and unions on the
question, a prominent architect of New York who was instrumental
in establishing the apprenticeship commission of the New York
Building Congress, said:
Recriminations flew thick and fast between the contractors and the labor
men when w e first tried to get together on a program, each side blaming the
other for conditions. But that isn’t going to solve the apprentice problem,
and so fa r as I can see into the situation, both sides are tarred with the
same stick.

While it is generally admitted that an apprentice is at best a
financial liability for the first year, and often longer than that, it
is not that phase of the problem which is objected to so much as it
is the added difficulties on the job when an apprentice is taken on.
The expression most frequently used by contractors is that they
can’t be bothered with boys.” Rapid building makes training on
the job not only unprofitable but well-nigh impossible. Employers
and journeymen agree that it is simply not possible to carry out any
real program of teaching on the job. To this school authorities
and lay opinion, equally interested but not so directly involved, add
that whetner possible or not, there certainly is no training on the
job. The boy merely “ rubs o ff5 what he can while he is working
with journeymen, and where school work is part of his training the
school is expected to supply, in a few hours a week, the technical and
mechanical knowledge which the job can not, or at any rate does
not, provide. One authority made the unequivocal declaration that
“ there simply is no such thing as training apprentices on the
building.” Professor Mays explains that:
The character o f construction work discourages the use o f inexperienced
labor for skilled operations. The building mechanic does not make a small
part o f the whole which later w ill be placed in the finished product, as does the



factory tradesman, but his w ork is performed, in the first instance, on the
building itself. I f a plasterer’s apprentice or a tile setter’s apprentice makes
a mistake, it is made on the finished product and can be corrected only by the
expensive process o f tearing out materials from the building. This character­
istic o f building work makes teaching on the job a very expensive procedure
and explains, in part, the reluctance o f contractors to employ any but journey­
men mechanics.3

As already stated, apprentice problems and methods of dealing
with them vary widely in different localities and crafts, and in the
various crafts in the same locality. At the same time a few craft
organizations have definite national programs which are of fairly
wide application.

The most thoroughly organized machinery for apprentice train­
ing in the entire building industry is that ox the tile trade. A con­
certed program with fixed rules has been drawn up, and in all the
cities visited in which apprentices are being trained for the trade,
that program is followed, except in the jurisdiction of the New
York tile setters’ union.
A national agreement between the Tile and Mantel Contractors’
Association and the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union covers “ general rules and regulations governing the em­
ployment, training, and instruction of apprentices for the tile and
mantel industry,” and provides machinery for carrying out the
terms of the agreement through the joint arbitration boards of the
local contractors’ associations and the local unions.
A formal indenture is drawn up in quadruplicate. The appren­
tice and his employer each keep one copy, while the other two are
filed with the two national organizations. Certificates are issued
jointly by the two trade organizations to each apprentice at the
completion of his term.
One of the requirements of the contract is that “ apprentices shall
be given a thorough training in all work ” classified in the national
trade agreement. The St. Louis joint arbitration board has adopted
an effective method of insuring experience in the various classified
Besides urging at least a minimum of technical school training for
all apprentices, and providing for six months’ credit on the appren­
ticeship term for three months’ intensive trade school work, the
industry supports its own trade school. The National School for
Tile Setters, at Dunwoody Industrial Institute in Minneapolis, is
operated jointly by the Tile and Mantel Contractors’ Association
and the Associated Tile Manufacturers.
The course of study has been worked out by representatives of the
two associations and the teachers, both of whom are practical crafts­
men, with the help of an educational adviser. An intensive course
of 13 weeks’ duration covers “ all basic operations in tile setting,”
and related work in blue-print reading, drawing, and mathematics.
2 Mays, Arthur B . : The Problem o f Industrial Education.
11)27, p. 244.

82713°—28----- 2

New York, The Century Co.,



Classes are limited to 20 students in each 13-week term. Students
are apprenticed tile setters who are sent to the school by their em­
ployers. All of the operating expenses of the school, transportation
of the students to and from Minneapolis, and an allowance of $6
weekly to each boy, are paid by the Associated Tile Manufacturers
and the Tile and Mantel Contractors’ Association. Living expenses
in addition to the $6 allowance are generally met by the employer
to whom the boy is indentured.
In this manner 80 tile setter apprentices each year, from all parts
of the country, are given intensive training as a basis for training
on the job. It is emphatically stated that the course “ does not pre­
tend to prepare journeymen.” But, to quote the sponsors of the
movement, the boy “ starts work for his employer as an economic
asset. He earns his way from the start.”
Whether or not a contractor makes use of the school is left to his
own discretion. The school is recognized and indorsed by the officers
of the international union, and under the national agreement the
three months’ course at Dunwoody counts for six months on the ap­
prentice term. Some local unions, however, notably the Chicago
local, do not recognize the school nor grant the dispensation on the
apprentice term. Hence Chicago contractors make no effort to send
boys to Dunwoody.
In addition to the national school, tile-setting classes are in opera­
tion in the public schools in Milwaukee and Newark. In Pittsburgh
a short-term winter course is provided jointly by the union and the
contractors. School work is on paid-for time in Milwaukee and in
evening classes in the other cities.
The director of Dunwoody Industrial Institute says: “ In my
opinion the tile-setting program is the most effective apprenticeship
system yet worked out.”

Apprenticeship in marble setting follows substantially the same
system as that in tile setting, under a national agreement between the
National Association of Marble Dealers and the Bricklayers, Masons
and Plasterers’ International Union. The marble dealers operate a
school in Knoxville, Tenn., which gives a three months’ intensive pre­
liminary course of training similar to that at Dunwoody.

The National Association of Master Plumbers has an apprentice
committee which is the medium for active propaganda for the estab­
lishment of a uniform apprentice system in the heating and plumbing
trades. “ The problem of creating trained workers,” the association
declares, “ is essentially an employer’s problem. The training of
apprentices is a duty no employer can conscientiously escape.” The
objective of the committee is declared in its slogan, “ At least one ap­
prentice in each shop.”
This is entirely a movement of master plumbers, in which the jour­
neymen plumbers’ union as a national organization has taken no
part. Locally, jbhe plumbers’ union is cooperating in some cases and



opposing the program in others. However, the plumbers’ union is
exclusively a journeyman organization, attempting no control of ap­
prenticeship beyond a fixed training period and the number of boys
allowed in union shops. Hence the master plumbers have a fairly
free hand in formulating an apprentice program. As a matter of
fact, the employment and training of apprentices are more apt to be
the practice in open shops than in union shops, and it frequently
happens that the master plumbers who are most active in promoting
the program advocated by the national association are the open-shop
men. St. Louis and Birmingham are cases in point. Except in Chi­
cago, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh the school-training program is pro­
moted wholly by the master plumbers without cooperation from the
union. In some instances master plumbers are running the appren­
tice classes without help from either the unions or the local school
boards. In Birmingham they meet all the expenses of their plumb­
ing school, and in St. Louis they pay the boys’ tuition in a private
trade school.
In addition to its promotion activities, the apprenticeship commit­
tee of the National Association of Master Plumbers conducts a cor­
respondence school for apprentices for whom classroom work is not
available. The association also gives annually to sons of master
plumbers five scholarships at Carnegie Institute of Technology in
Pittsburgh. That effort is, of course, directed toward creating sani­
tary engineers for the contracting side ojf the business rather than
In most of the cities visited the master plumbers are making some
effort to promote an apprentice system and to produce qualified
mechanics. This does not apply to Atlanta, New York City, Niagara
Falls, or Minneapolis. In New York and Niagara Falls what little
is being done to encourage apprenticeship and school training is the
work of the unions and not of the employers. Master plumbers of
Minneapolis started an ambitious program a few years ago but it was
Systems in which organized plumbing employers, organized jour­
neymen, and the school boards are cooperating are in force in
Chicago, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh, and are among the really ef­
fective apprentice plans in present operation. Part-time day-school
courses on paid-for time, either for all or for part of the apprentice
term, are found in Baltimore, Buffalo, Detroit, and Milwaukee, as
well as in the three cities just mentioned.
Three cities, by joint action of employers and journeymen, have
substituted a well-developed apprenticeship for the “ helper ” system
in steam fitting. In Chicago and Detroit part-time school training
is given. In Memphis, while night-school work is available, it
does not constitute part of the apprentice-training program, as in the
other two cities. Elsewhere the custom of one helper to a fitter is
practiced, although some effort is being made in Philadelphia and
St. Louis to institute apprenticeship.

The bricklaying trade presents a contrast to the plumbing trade,
in which it is the employers who are interested and active in pro­
moting apprenticeship and the unions which, on the whole, are in­



different or openly hostile. The indenture of apprentices is the
policy and the practice of the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’
International Union, a practice in which contractors, by and large,
merely acquiesce. Recognizing it as “ impossible for the interna­
tional union to formulate and maintain a general apprentice law
within its jurisdiction,” the international office “ grants to each sub­
ordinate union the power to regulate its own apprentice laws,” sub­
ject to definite restrictions imposed by the constitution of the inter­
national. Nevertheless practices are quite uniform, and apprentice­
ship of bricklayers by indenture exists in some degree in nearly
every city visited. In fact, the opinion was freely expressed in
several cities, not only by union officials but by representatives of
building-trades employers’ associations and by individual contrac­
tors, that apprenticing to the bricklaying trade is being decidedly
overdone. Apprentice bricklayers are in the majority of cases son?
of journeyman bricklayers. Often, instead of being indentured to
contractors in the customary way, they are apprenticed to their
fathers by formal contract with the union, and move with them from
job to job. That practice is prohibited in some cities but is the
custom in others. Where it is the custom, as in New York, the
complaint of overcrowding is most apt to be heard. At the same
time, the employment of apprentices by contractors is more general
in masonry than in any other craft.
National control is felt most effectively in the matter of keeping
apprentices in the trade and compelling the observance of indenture
contracts and the completion of apprenticeship. Every bricklayer
apprentice is registered by the international union and is under cer­
tain obligations to it. Violation of an apprentice contract in any
jurisdiction is punished by withdrawal of registration by the inter­
national office. By what might be called a blackballing process
an apprentice who willfully breaks his indenture is debarred by
the international from becoming a union bricklayer in any local
Indentures are practically uniform, a printed form furnished by
the international office being frequently used. School training is a
national policy and is nearly always mentioned in the apprentice
contract. In nine cities0 school attendance in bricklaying classes,
either on paid-for time or at night school, is required under the in­
denture, either for the entire term or for some part of it. The unions
in two other cities6 require night-school courses in blue-print reading,
drawing, and mathematics, although this provision is not always
rigidly enforced. The Chicago union operates a school of its own for
Local control is in all cases exercised through a joint apprenticeship
committee or the joint arbitration board acting as an apprentice

While the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers has
no apprentice program, apprenticing boys to the local union is a
practice which is followed in nearly every instance in which any
“ Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, New York, Niagara Falls,
and Pittsburgh.
* Birmingham and St. Louis.



organized effort is being made to train mechanics. In inside wiring,
as in bricklaying, the machinery is in the hands of the unions, and
the contractors are rarely actively a part of the system. Variations
and differences are too many and wide to discuss briefly, but the
various plans are treated in detail in the reports on the separate
cities. Basically, however, the plan is to make the apprentice a
member of the organization and to assign him to one contractor
for the first year. During that year he is required to remain in the
same shop, acting as stock clerk or “ locker boy,” in order to become
familiar with materials and tools. After that his obligation is to
the union, which serves as placement agent to keep him employed
throughout the remainder of his term. In this way his training and
experience can be made so diversified as to cover the entire field.
From the contractors’ point of view these trainees are helpers, with
whom they have no contractual relations except, perhaps, through
a working agreement. The union, on the other hand, attempts re­
sponsibility for continuous training and fairly continuous employ­
ment. The boys are classified as first, second, third, and fourth year
helpers and are sent out on jobs calling for their respective degrees
of advancement.
Supervision over the work of apprentices and actual teaching on
the job are carried out better in the electrical trade than in others,
especially in localities where the union, in its working agreement,
guarantees the work of its members. Periodic examinations are given
by some unions, and all of them give a final examination for admis­
sion to journeyman membership. It was asserted in several instances
that these examinations are more difficult and comprehensive than
those given for city licenses, where such are required.
School work on paid-for time was found only in Chicago and
Cleveland, and for the first-year apprentices in Pittsburgh. Evening
school work is obligatory for the advanced apprentices in Pittsburgh,
and is “ required ” or “ encouraged ” in New Orleans, New York,
and Philadelphia.
Various disciplinary devices are undertaken by the unions, but,
owing to the popularity of the trade, they are not particularly
needed. Some unions insure completion of apprenticeship by re­
quiring in advance annual installments on the initiation fee, the
money to be forfeited if the boy leaves the trade. In spite of the
lack of contract or obligation on the part of employers to keep an
apprentice, the record of completed terms is as high in the electrical
trade as in any of the building crafts.

The National Association of Sheet-Metal Contractors has drawn
up an apprentice training plan following closely that of the National
Association of Master Plumbers. It includes a detailed course of
study in shop work and related subjects. This is so far merely a
plan and has no active promotion behind it. The Sheet Metal Work­
ers’ International Association declares in its constitution that it
“ favors the adoption of a sound system of apprenticeship which will
give the fullest opportunity to apprentices to learn the trade of



sheet-metal worker in the various branches of the industry in a
thorough manner.”
However, very little real apprentice training exists in the trade.
It seems to be the least popular of all the building trades, with the
possible exception of painting. It attracts fewer entrants and loses
a far larger percentage of those who do enter than does any of the
crafts with a more widely practiced apprentice plan.
In 13 of the 19 cities visited sheet-metal apprenticeship is planless
and haphazard even where some attempt is made to do more than
follow the helper system. On the other hand, well-developed train­
ing methods, operating through joint committees and including for­
mal indenture and school work, obtain in Boston, Chicago, Cleveland,
New York, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. The Pittsburgh method is
the plan of the national association in actual operation and includes
school work on paid-for time at Carnegie Institute. The Chicago
and Cleveland plans also embrace school work on the employer’s
time. In all three cases school courses cover shop practice and re­
lated work in pattern drawing and mathematics. Compulsory
attendance at evening schools for courses in pattern drawing, mathe­
matics, and applied physics is the practice in the other three cities.
In New York and Boston joint apprentice committees of unions
and employers’ associations are working bodies definitely controlling
all phases of apprenticeship in the sheet-metal craft. The system is
less closely coordinated in Chicago, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis, al­
though there, too, control is by joint action o f unions and organized
contractors under an apprentice agreement. In Cleveland the sheetmetal trade has only very recently become identified with the general
program of apprentice training followed by the building industry
of that city.

Thus far only the positive side of the picture of apprenticeship in
building construction and what actually is being done have been pre­
sented. There remains the negative side, the story, as it developed
during the survey, of what is not being done. That story, too, is a
local one, but just as the trades already discussed show trends toward
the development of fairly uniform apprentice systems, others show a
definite tendency, as crafts, to disregard the whole matter of appren­
ticeship and trade training. Always admitting the exceptional iso­
lated cases found in the reports by cities, the three remaining impor­
tant organized trades in building construction—carpentry, plastering,
and painting and decorating—have no apprentice policy and no
apparent interest.

The attitude of the plasterers’ unions is often frankly one of re­
striction of apprenticeship, and the practice of apprenticing only
sons of journeyman plasterers is quite general. On the other hand,
the seasonal nature of the work encourages the “ hire and fire”
method on the part of contractors, who feel that continuous employ­
ment under an apprentice contract is impractical in their line. They
deplore, however, the scarcity of skilled men in ornamental work,



for which there is a rapidly increasing demand. It was frequently
reported that the average age of plasterers in the different cities was
40 and over, and that the number of young men in the trade even
as helpers was inadequate to keep the ranks filled with men com­
petent to do ordinary plastering. Apprentices as a rule are being
trained in ornamental work, but the ratio of apprentices to journey­
men is very low, even in cities where systematic training is under­

Several elements seem to enter into the apprentice situation in
the carpentry trade which make any definite development difficult.
One is the changing character of the work itself and the pronounced
tendency toward specialization, a change in which substitution of
materials in large building operations plays a considerable part.
Another is the fact that there is no serious need for apprentices in
the trade, since it is so readily recruited from semiskilled laborers,
helpers, and “ handy men ” who have had enough experience to do
much of the work required in ordinary building. Still another phase,
noticeable in many of the cities visited, is the absence of contact be­
tween the union and the contractors through a working agreement.
It was a common occurrence throughout the investigation to find gen­
eral contractors who keep bricklayer apprentices as a matter of
course but never have a carpenter apprentice.
Formal indenture is rare in the carpentry trade outside a few
cities, and no policy of continuous employment is undertaken. The
apprentice is not required to serve his full time with one employer
and there is no control of his wage scale, so he shifts from job to job
and frequently is receiving journeyman’s pay long before his four
years’ apprenticeship has expired.

Conditions in the painting and decorating trade with regard to
apprenticeship are chaotic. In the opinion of various old established
contractors the chief difficulty is the instability of the trade. Both
employers and workers, they say, are largely floaters. On the con­
tracting side, men with no capital set up small shops, get a few con­
tracts, operate for a short while, and then go out of business, to be
followed shortly by other small operators who, in turn, probably
never gain any footing in the trade. The employees of men operat­
ing in that manner are also, as a rule, floaters with very indifferent
ability. An organization of that nature, it is pointed out, has neither
room nor time for an apprentice, and even if it had, the boy himself
would have no chance to become a skilled worker. Another objec­
tion raised by contractors is to a long term of apprenticeship in a
trade in which, except in high-class decorating, a long learning period
is not necessary. Where carefully regulated apprentice training is
found it is largely confined to the decorating branch of the work, in
which skill is required and there is a demand for workers. On the
whole, the supply of painters is such that no real need of new material
is felt*



Another important deterrent in apprenticing to the painting trade
is its unpopularity among boys. It is difficult to interest boys in
the work, and even more difficult, apparently, to hold the small
number who take it up. This is as true where there is organized
machinery and school work as it is of cities in which the whole trade
is haphazard.

The bureau’s study of apprenticeship in the building trades was
begun in June, 1926. From June to December, inclusive, nine cities
were covered—Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit
Milwaukee, Newark, Niagara Falls, and Philadelphia. Other work
then intervened and the study was postponed until July, 1927, be­
tween which time and October 15 the other cities—Atlanta, Bir­
mingham, Charleston, S. C., Chicago, Memphis, Minneapolis, New
Orleans, New York, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis—were investigated.
The report for each city is of conditions as they were found at
the time the bureau’s representative visited it. In the case of Bos­
ton revision was necessary, as the system on which the original report
was based collapsed three months later. An expansion of the system
in Cleveland has taken place recently and is incorporated in the
report. Enrollment figures must of necessity change constantly, as
daily some apprenticeships are begun and others are ended.

Actual apprenticeship is not practiced in Atlanta except in the
work controlled by the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers Interna­
tional Union. Other trades follow the helper system, and while in
the plumbing, carpentry, and electrical trades some oi these helpers
are called apprentices, they are not such in fact.

The practice of indenturing boys to the electrical workers’ union,
which is frequently found in other centers, is not followed in Atlanta.
Twelve boys were reported as being electrical apprentices, but they
are free lances so far as concerns any obligation either to the union
or to their employers. They change jobs as they see fit, and the
union does not attempt to find new jobs for them. It was reported
that less than 5 per cent of the boys undertaking to learn inside elec­
trical work finish the required term and qualify as journeymen.

The plumbers’ union reported 12 apprentices working, with a much
larger number who had entered the trade idle because of slackness in
the industry. No contract or indenture system obtains in the plumb­
ing trade, and it was stated that the boys in question are in fact help­
ers who are allowed to handle tools. Admission to membership in
the union as journeymen is by examination and demonstration of
practical working knowledge of the trade.
According to union officials, there is always an adequate supply
of boys interested in the plumbing trade, and because of the laxity



m requirements for journeymanship the market is flooded. After
taking up the trade the tendency is to remain in it in spite of dull
seasons and lack of work, and accordingly, 90 per cent of those enter­
ing fulfill the union conditions of five years in the trade. By passing
the union examination they qualify as journeymen, regardless of the
amount of actual time put in on the job during their probationary

The carpenters’ union reported only two apprentices, in both cases
the boys being related to foremen and to some extent apprenticed to
them. It is a personal relationship in which the union is only in­
directly involved. The local as such has no apprentice policy or
system, and is not in a position to control such a system, even if it
were interested in the subject.

The policy of the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ Interna­
tional Union regarding apprenticeship is practiced by the Atlanta
local. The local covers all four of the trades in the international
jurisdiction—bricklaying, stone masonry, plastering, and tile setting.
In all four crafts there are reported 43 apprentices indentured throufpi
the union to contractors. Practically all of the master masons em­
ploy apprentices, a maximum of three to a contractor being permitted
under union rules.
Apprentices are required to attend evening classes at the Georgia
School of Technology. Courses consist of blue-print reading, archi­
tectural drawing, arithmetic, and estimating, and some manual work
in high grade and special masonry and ornamental plastering. The
instructor is a practical mechanic and the term is 16 weeks in each
of the four years covered by the indenture.
At least 90 per cent of the boys entering the trade complete their
apprenticeship, it was stated.

Organization among the other building crafts in Atlanta is negligi­
ble. The operative plasterers have a local composed almost en­
tirely of negroes, with a varying membership. The painters’ union
is weak and the sheet-metal workers are not organized. Nothing
that can be called an apprentice system exists in any of these trades.

Building-trades employers in Atlanta are not organized to any
extent. There is a builders’ exchange, and the Atlanta branch of
the Associated General Contractors is now trying to promote active
organization and cooperation among both the general contractors
and the subcontractors.
Neither organization, however, has any policy or program with
regard to apprentice training. Most contractors run open shops, in
which the helper system is practiced entirely. In the union shops
the matter of apprentices and their training is left in the hands of
the local union and the contractor knows very little about it.



The subject does not appear to be one of vital interest to the con­
tractors, as the supply of skilled mechanics seems to meet actual
needs, and the helper and laborer ranks are readily filled with negro
workers when needed. At the time of the investigation there was
very little building going on, a condition which, it was reported, had
existed since the first of the year, with consequent unemployment in
the building trades.
Evening classes under the Federal vocational education act were
started in the technical high school a few years ago, but they were
not successful and the movement died out. Both employers and
union officials said that they “ did not know what was the matter,
but the idea didn’t seem to take hold at all.”

The building industry in Baltimore is made up of an unusually
large number of small contractors in the various crafts and a few
general contractors who operate on a large scale. Three of the large
general contractors run strictly union shops; the small concerns are
probably fairly evenly divided into open and closed shops. Such
apprenticeship as exists in any of them is haphazard, and in most of
the crafts no program or system is attempted.
From all that could be learned through interviews with union offi­
cials and building-trades employers, both union and nonunion, the
entry of a boy into the building industry in Baltimore is chiefly the
concern of the boy himself. The only requirement he is called upon
to meet is the age limit of 16 imposed by State law. I f he takes up
carpentry or electrical work he must be 17 before he can register
with the union as an apprentice. He finds his own job with a con­
tractor willing to hire him as an apprentice. I f the contractor is
working under agreement with the union, he sends the boy to union
headquarters to register formally.
The bricklayers’ union requires that an agreement be entered into
between the employer and the apprentice, with the consent of the
boy’s parents or guardian, covering the full term of three years.
Electrical workers include apprentice regulations in their working
agreement with employers. In other crafts, except plumbing, there
is no contractual relation of any kind between the boy and his em­
ployer, and he is free to go or stay as he pleases. Employers inter­
viewed did not know what year of training their apprentices were
serving—their only record was the length of time the boys had been
in their employ. Union records show only the date on which the
boy entered his name as being apprenticed to his first employer.
There is no program of training and no agency whose duty it is to
insure competent instruction. As an officer of one of the large con­
tracting concerns expressed it, “ There is wholesome disregard of
anything that could be called systematic training.”
In carpentry and painting the boy is not required to remain with
one employer. An apprenticed bricklayer or stonemason, on the
other hand, must serve his full term with the employer to whom he
is indentured. Exceptions to this rule may be made by action of the
union. Many of the apprenticed bricklayers in Baltimore are inden­
tured to their fathers. I f a father is not able to complete the full



training, the union undertakes to insure completion by placing the
boy wherever it can for the remainder of his term. It may not be
possible always to achieve this through the same employer, so that
not infrequently even the bricklayer apprentice receives his training
from various employers.
The term of apprenticeship for electrical workers is only one year,
which must be served with one employer. Thereafter the boy be­
comes a helper, in which capacity he serves three years before he
becomes a journeyman. As a helper he is a free agent, and may
change employers and kind of work as he chooses.
The sheet-metal workers’ union does not register apprentices until
they have reached their third year of training. The union has no
control over and very little knowledge of the boy during his first
two years. It is not stringent in its requirement that the boy remain
with one employer during his third and fourth years. According^,
the sheet-metal worker’s training also is largely on the “ catch as
catch can ” principle.
In two crafts, bricklaying and sheet-metal work, an apprentice is
admitted to journeyman membership in the union upon the certifica­
tion of two members under whom he has worked that he is a com­
petent mechanic. I f his competency is later questioned by an em­
ployer, the union subjects him to a test of fitness. I f the demonstra­
tion supports the employer’s contention of poor work, the boy is
ordered by the union to serve an additional year as an “ improver.”
Carpenter, plumber, and electrical apprentices must pass a satis­
factory examination before a committee of the union to become
journeymen. The painters’ union admits to journeyman member­
ship without examination or formality of any kind after three years
in the trade.
The sheet-metal workers’ union was the only one which reported
any material dropping off during the term of apprenticeship. Since
it does not register the boys who enter, it has no figures showing
how many take up the trade or how many of the entrants remain.
The business agent of the union believes the turnover to be great
during the first two years. In the last few years, during which the
boys in the union shops have been registered by the union, about 50
per cent remain and become journeymen.
The carpenters’ union had no definite figures of entrants who
become journeymen, but the union officials, interviewed stated that
most of them complete their training. The percentage of brick­
layer and electrical apprentices who complete their training was
reported as 100; of plumber apprentices, 98; and of painter appren­
tices, 85. Present enrollment of apprentices registered with their
respective unions is: Bricklayers, 150; carpenters, 48; electrical work­
ers, 22; painters and paper hangers, 8; sheet-metal workers, 50.
All union contractors employing apprentices are required, under
the terms of their agreements with the union, to keep the boys on
the pay roll and during dull seasons to endeavor to keep them busy
at something in line with their training. In nonunion shops the boys,
while not laid off in the same sense as the journeymen, are not paid
for idle time.
Except in the plumbing trade, scant attention is paid to technical
training or to school work. Some of the union officials said that



they try to “ encourage ” the boys to take drawing and arithmetic
at night school or by correspondence, and some of the registered
apprentices are enrolled in the night classes at the Polytechnical
Institute. Other union representatives were definitely opposed to
the trade school idea.
A clause in the apprentice agreement of the bricklayers and
masons’ union reads that the “ employer, in conjunction with (father
or guardian) also agrees to require the said apprentice to attend a
technical school so that he may become proficient in handling and
understanding drawings.” In this connection the official of the large
contracting firm already quoted said: “ I f any attention is paid to
that provision by any of the parties to the agreement, I never heard
of it.”
One nonunion contractor had not had an apprentice “ for a couple
of years,” but “ might take one on this year,” and the head of another
nonunion concern, general contractors specializing in painting, did
not know what was meant by the word “ apprentice.”
In contrast to the attitude of indifference toward apprenticeship
and a steady supply of skilled mechanics shown by the building in­
dustry as a whole is the present policy of the Master Plumbers’
Association of Baltimore City. Through their association the
plumbers have inaugurated a program of apprentice training on the
job and in school which is promising to prove a successful venture
and to fill what the more progressive of the master plumbers have
considered an acute need.
Adopting as completely as possible the apprenticeship program of
the national trade extension bureau of the National Association of
Master Plumbers, the Baltimore organization began by securing the
cooperation of the city board of education and equipping a work­
shop. The training school is now part of the vocational division of
the city school system, and is under the supervision of an advisory
committee composed of master plumbers, journeyman plumbers, and
supply manufacturers and dealers. Technical studies are taught by
a vocational teacher of the city staff, and shop practice work by a
journeyman plumber. The technical and academic subjects are
mechanical drawing, mathematics, and applied science. Shopwork
covers installations and repair jobs, and the different forms of pipe
work and joint wiping. Equipment is adequate. Lack of space has
been a handicap, but the school will soon move to better quarters.
The reported enrollment in the part-time school is 23, and all stu­
dents are formally indentured to registered master plumbers, who
arc under obligation to furnish regular employment at stated rates
per week for a four-year period. One full day each week is spent in
school. Work on the job follows as closely as is practicable an
outline prepared by the trade-school teacher.
This is chiefly a movement of certain master plumbers. It is fos­
tered and supported by the association, but is followed by less than
10 per cent of the member contractors. It is, however, the only effort
that is being made in part-time school training for apprentices in the
city of Baltimore.
Although the supply of boys who could be apprenticed and trained
in the building trades seems to be ample, most of the people inter­
viewed on the subject feel that more adequate and systematic train­



ing is needed. This is more a desultory opinion than a conviction,
however, and there seems to be no disposition to take any active
steps to develop apprenticeship. Employers are not organized to any
extent, and except among the plumbers the apprentice question is
receiving no attention from contractors. Judging from the attitude
of both contractors and journeymen it is not a matter of either
concern or interest.

Apprenticeship by indenture is fairly well developed and quite
generally followed in the bricklaying and carpentry trades in Birm­
ingham. These two trades are well organized, most of the established
contractors running union shops, and there seems to be friendly rela­
tions between the unions and the employers which make possible a
workable apprentice policy. Nonunion contractors interviewed re­
ported no apprentices and no policy of apprentice training. Helpers
are taken on when needed and dropped when a job is completed.

The local union of bricklayers follows the policy and regulations
of the international union with regard to apprenticeship in most
respects. Boys are under formal indenture to their employers, and
may change employment only with the consent and under the direc­
tion of the joint arbitration board. The jurisdiction of the local
covers bricklaying, stone masonry, and tile and marble setting, and
apprentices work at any or all branches of the craft.
The enrollment of apprentices was 52, which in a membership of
450 was considered too heavy. Accordingly, at the July, 1927, meet­
ing of the union a resolution barring further indentures for one year
was adopted. It was explained in this connection that practically all
of the union contractors were carrying their full quota of two ap­
prentices, and the amount of building being done by the established
general contractors was not extensive enough to insure employment
for the boys already in the trade.
This position was supported by the president of the Birmingham
branch of the Associated General Contractors, who said:
Just at present Birmingham is in the hands o f the speculative builders.
W e are pretty well built up in office and industrial buildings, as a result o f the
building boom o f the last several years, and the real estate crow d has all the
residential work. All that is, o f course, nonunion, and there is no time for
apprentice training in that game. The old-line contractor, whose interest it
is to train boys, is keeping his apprentices if he can. The association stands
squarely fo r a policy and program o f real apprentice training, and the respon­
sible and farseeing contractor recognizes it as a duty and does his share.
Just now, however, he is lucky if he breaks even, and he can’t load himself
down with an ironclad obligation to apprentices, who, after all, are a liability
to a very large extent.

School training for bricklayer apprentices is provided by the night
schools, consisting of blue-print reading, estimating, and architec­
tural drawing; and by classes in manual and technical work
sponsored by the contractors’ association outside the public-school
system. This work is in the experinfental stage, but has u met with
a good response.” Boys are expected but not required to attend the



public-school classes, and for those who do attend the apprentice
term is shortened from four to three years. No supervision 01 school
work or attendance is undertaken by the union, however, and it seems
to be left to the boy himself whether or not any advantage is taken of
such academic opportunity as is available.
On the job, the boy is under the supervision of the journeyman to
whom he is assigned, the shop steward, and the foreman, and is
subject to discipline by the joint arbitration board.

Practically the same system is practiced by the carpenters. Es­
sential differences* are, first, the number of apprentices allowed under
union regulations; and, second, no school training enters into the
program in the case of the carpenter apprentices. Under the rules
of the bricklayers’ union no contractor may have more than two
apprentices; the carpenters’ union grants one apprentice to every
seven journeymen, with no fixed maximum to a shop. In practice,
however, this difference is slight, since few contractors have more
than two carpenter apprentices, irrespective of the size of their force.
Most contractors, however, have one and many have two.
An apprenticeship committee of the carpenters’ district council
has control and general supervision over the indentured apprentices
but, according to a union official, this committee “ is not as active as
it should be.” Continuous employment is secured by contract with
the employers, but where adjustments are necessary for any reason
the business agent of the union undertakes to place boys in other
jobs so that their training will not be interrupted.
The district council reported 50 apprentices under contract, and
stated that about 75 per cent of the boys who enter the trade complete
their terms. Admission to journeyman membership in the union is
by examination and demonstration of practical ability in the trade.

There are few white plasterers in Birmingham. The white local,
however, represents the most highly skilled men in the trade. With
a membership of only 54, and a theoretical ratio of 1 apprentice
to every 10 journeymen, there are 8 apprentices in the local. Three
of these boys are employed by one firm which is extensively engaged
in ornamental work.
Continuity of employment and training is secured by formal
indenture. The largest contractors are carrying practically a full
quota of apprentices, and the feeling is general that apprenticeship
is being rather overdone in the union shops. However, the union
does not attempt to maintain a wage scale for trainees. While this
is resulting in some dissatisfaction among the advanced apprentices
who are doing essentially journeyman work at much less than the
union scale, it seems not to affect materially the record as to comple­
tion of apprenticeship, which is given as 6 90 per cent or better.”
Apprentices now in the trade are largely sons of union plasterers.
Plastering work outside the shops controlled by the union is chiefly
unskilled work. Negro plasterers are organized into a separate local,



but are doing nothing in apprentice training, due to the kind of
work and the usual uncertainty of colored labor.

Apprenticeship by contract or indenture is not found in any of
the other building trades in Birmingham. Systems which operate
to essentially the same end, however, obtain in plumbing and elec­
trical and sheet-metal work.

An active interest in apprentice training in the plumbing trade
seems to be resulting from differences between the union and the
master plumbers. Up to a few years ago the union definitely opposed
apprenticeship and according to a union official “ there hadn’t been
a plumber apprentice in Birmingham for 27 years, until last year.”
In 1926 the master plumbers’ association, composed of both union
and nonunion employers, undertook to put into operation the ap­
prentice program of the National Association of Master Plumbers.
To that end the local association required each of its members to
take on an apprentice. It then started a school, for which the Boys’
Club of Birmingham gave a classroom, and instituted training in
both practice and theory, under the courses furnished by the trade
extension bureau of the national association. Fifteen apprentices,
some employed by men not members of the master plumbers’ asso­
ciation, attended these classes throughout the school year. Not all
the master plumbers in the association, on the other hand, sent their
boys to the school. Some of the large employers have several
In the meantime the plumbers’ union reversed its policy and insti­
tuted an apprentice system for the union shops, granting an appren­
tice to a shop in which two journeymen are steadily employed, and
two apprentices where seven or more journeymen are steadily em­
ployed. Boys are not permitted to change jobs except with the con­
sent of the business agent.
There are at present seven apprentices under the control of the
union. Owing to union opposition they are not attending the plumb­
ing school.
The system is too new, of course, to show results or to indicate to
what extent the boys now in training will remain and qualify. Ac­
cording to both factions, however, the number of boys anxious for
the opportunity is great enough so that “ we won’t need to bother with

A modified helper system by which the union undertakes control
of the beginner in electrical work, and at the same time undertakes to
keep him employed at various branches of the trade, takes the place
of actual apprenticeship in inside electrical work in Birmingham.
The boy is in effect indentured to the union, since he can not secure a
transfer or clearance card until he has served his full term under the
jurisdiction of the Birmingham local.



After six months’ probation he is eligible to examination as a
6 junior journeyman.” If successful therein, he becomes practically a
free lance so far as his work is concerned, the union acting as place­
ment agent by which he is kept in employment and is given oppor­
tunity to learn the various kinds of work.
This is essentially a program of the union, with which the em­
ployers have no connection. From the employer’s point of view these
boys are helpers, hired and discharged according to his own needs
Hence it is difficult to secure for the boys the preliminary six months
training which will put them, in the “ junior journeyman ” class. A
few of the contractors can be depended upon to give this opportunity
to a limited number of boys, and the union makes a point of taking on
only as many as can be kept busy throughout the four-year term.
The record of completed terms is almost a perfect one, according to
the business agent of the union, only two boys in five years having
failed to complete their time. Journeyman membership is attained
by examination.

Twelve sheet-metal workers are registered with the local union as
apprentices. All of the union shops in the city employ apprentices,
and the boys are required under union regulations to serve their full
time in one shop, although there is no formal contract. The term is
four years as an apprentice with a fifth year as “ advanced appren­
tice.” The shop steward is responsible for the training and oppor­
tunity for advancement which the boy receives. Frequently the most
promising among the helpers is given first choice when selecting
new apprentices. At least 90 per cent of the trainees complete their
training and qualify as journeymen, it was stated. An examining
board passes upon the qualification of the apprentice for journeymanship at the end of his term. No schooling is provided, but in
accordance with the law of the international union any apprentice
who can not read and write English must attend the elementary
night-school classes. The helper system alone is followed in the non­
union sheet-metal shops.

Because of lack of demand for apprentices on the part of the
iainting contractors, the painters’ union has no system or policy,
t reported four apprentices in the union, indentured to decorating
firms, chiefly through personal relationship. The union makes a
point of complying with any requests for apprentices, but such
requests are extremely rare.
The attitude of the employers is that, except in the decorating
line, the trade does not call for any extended learning period and
that, owing to the tendency of workers in the craft to drift from job
to job, the keeping of a staff large enough to make an apprentice
practicable under union rules is out of the question. Moreover, there
is little organization in the craft, and the “ hire and fire ” helper
system prevails.



As the result of efforts put forth by the Boston Building Congress
to stimulate apprentice training and to correlate such systems as were



being practiced at the time, a commission on apprenticeship for the
building industry was established in Boston in 1923. Nine men con­
stituted the commission, the Building Trades Employers’ Associa­
tion, the United Building Trades Council, and the Boston Building
Congress each having three representatives. The commission “ was
designed to be a general steering committee to stimulate and direct
along consistent lines the efforts of the joint craft committees in
each craft,” and “ to cooperate with the public-school authorities
for the development of the necessary theoretical and other related
instruction required by the apprentice system of each craft.”
As originally contemplated, the commission was to have furnished
machinery by which craft committees could establish contact with
the industry and with the school system, and by which apprentice
training could be assumed by the industry rather than by individual
contractors. It was intended that the joint committee composed of
representatives of employers and unions in each craft would remain
the active agent in immediate control of apprenticeship in that craft.
Such committees were provided for in worldng agreements, and,
as the commission declared, the commission “ existed to help the
craft committees, not to supplant them.”
Nevertheless the craft committees soon became moribund, and the
work of carrying out the plan devised by the various representative
bodies in the industry devolved more and more upon the commis­
sion, through a paid executive and an assistant field worker.
Six trades were incorporated in the commission system—briddaying, carpentry, marble and stone masonry, tile setting, and cement
finishing. Apprentices were not indentured to employers. Subject
to craft regulations, apprentices were placed with contractors through
the commission office, and each contractor who was cooperating in
the movement agreed to keep his boys busy so long as he had work.
When he ran out of work the commission was obligated to place
his apprentices with other contractors to assure continuous employ­
ment so far as possible. The commission maintained the theorv that
apprentice training was the problem of the craft and not 01 indi­
viduals in the craft, and in the matter of continuous employment it
“ recognized that the apprentice should not be entirely protected
against the effects on the building industry of the major swings of
the general business situation.”
Evening-school work was established through the city school sys­
tem. The commission was chiefly instrumental in securing teachers
and formulating the course of study. Class work dealt only with
related subjects—mathematics, blue-print reading, drawing, applied
science, and English—except in bricklaying, in which a practical
course in manipulative work was given in the first six months, and
special instruction in ornamental work and specialized processes
during the closing months of the apprentice term.
The regulations of the commission called for compulsory school
attendance four hours each week, two evenings of two hours each.
Craft committees were expected to take measures to enforce that
In November, 1926, when the bureau representative visited Boston,
the system was in active operation for the six crafts mentioned, and
82713°— 28------ 3



classes were held at Boston Trade School for all except the cement
finishers. Practically all of the union marble and stone master
masons and the tile contractors were cooperating and employing
apprentices, and an estimated 70 per cent of the bricklaying con­
tractors were also participating in the program. On the other hand,
carpenter contractors were indifferent and took but a very small part
in the effort. Craft committees, not really active in promoting
any phase of apprenticeship, were especially lax with regard to
requiring the boys to attend school, and no discipline in the matter
was attempted. The paid representatives of the commission acted
as attendance officers and were almost wholly responsible for the
degree of morale maintained in the apprentice classes. The school
enrollment on a given day in November, 1926, was: Bricklayers, 213;
carpenters, 344; marble and stone masons, 33; tile setters, 21.
From its inception the commission on apprenticeship met not only
indifference and apathy from craft committees and employers, but
hostility and active opposition on the part of some of the leaders in
the organizations of both employers and journeymen. Dissension
grew to the point of withholding funds to continue the w
rork and
the commission on apprenticeship went out of existence on March 1,
The passing of the machinery for unified control in the industry
threw apprenticeship regulation back onto the craft organizations.
Nine months later the bureau agent again visited Boston to ascertain
the effects on apprentice training of the collapse of the commission.
The result to date is that the craft committees remain inactive,
although in the masonry trades labor representatives assert that it is
the intention of the committees to assume active control and to require
school attendance of the boys who are now indentured. Very few
new indentures have been made, as it is generally held that more
boys entered the trade under the commission plan than could be
properly cared for. Building is much less active than in the preced­
ing few years, and the present effort is directed toward enabling the
apprentices already indentured to finish their time.
However, nothing positive is being done in either bricklaying or
carpentry, and school work has been entirely discontinued. Officials
of the Boston Trade School report that a few survivors of last year’s
apprentice classes enrolled in the night school this fall, but personal
interest and ambition are the motives in each case. xVpprentice classes
as such have passed out of existence, so far as the school is concerned,
and doubt of their revival was expressed by the school men.
The number of apprentices reported in November, 1926, and in
November, 1927, does not differ materially; but while in 1926 the
figure was a definite one, in 1927 there was no accurate information
available from any source, there being no definite check on the boys or
their whereabouts. The bricklayers’ union has indentured the boys
who had entered the trade, so far as that has been possible, but the
carpenters’ union has not attempted to do so.
The commission on apprenticeship, in its formal statement that it
had ceased to function, declared:
Responsibility for carrying on a system o f apprenticeship in each craft, ac­
cording to trade agreements now in force, lies wholly with the joint craft
committees which the trade agreements provide for. The responsibility will
remain with them in the future, as in the past.



The commission plan was undertaken because the craft committees
were inactive and indifferent. It has failed, apparently for the same
reason. Organized apprentice training in the building industry in
Boston ends just where it began four years ago, but according to the
president of the commission the net gain has been the interest of
the boys themselves in systematized school training. It is hoped
that pressure from them will result in some form of organization
within the crafts that will bring about what the commission tried to

A system of cooperation between the employers and the local union
through the medium of a joint committee of two members from each
side controls apprenticeship in the sheet-metal trade. The committee
meets monthly and attends to all matters pertaining to the appren­
tice system as a whole and to individual cases which may require
The sheet-metal trade never identified itself with the commission on
apprenticeship for the industry, as the men in the trade felt that
they had a more efficient system, through closer cooperation, at con­
siderably less expense than that involving paid agents and an office
Indenture is through the joint committee. When apprentices are
assigned to the contractors “ it is with the understanding that the
apprentice shall be steadily employed for the full term or balance
thereof ” and “ no apprentice shall be permitted to leave the shop
at which he is employed or accept employment in another shop
without the consent of the apprenticeship committee.” 3
The apprentice term is five years, at least 24 months of which must
be given to shopwork. The usual practice is to alternate shopwork
and erection, giving six months at a time to inside and to outside
School attendance is compulsory and apprenticeships are canceled
for failure to abide by that rule. Classes are held two nights a week,
two hours a session, at both Boston Trade School and Wentworth
Institute, and are devoted principally to mathematics, drawing,
blueprint reading, and applied physics.
There are 58 apprentices reported in the sheet-metal trade, and
probably 65 per cent of the contractors are engaged in their training.
Some of the large concerns carry their full quota of four. All of
the persons interviewed reported that boys invariably complete their
apprentice terms and become journeymen.

The joint arbitration board of plasterers, representing the employ­
ing plasterers’ association and the two local unions of the Operative
Plasterers and Cement Finishers of Greater Boston, controls appren­
ticeship in their trade. The working agreement calls for formal in­
denture and continuous employment over a period of four years. The
joint board determines the number of apprentices allotted to a
contractor, within the maximum of four fixed by the agreement.
•A rticles o f apprenticeship.



However, only the largest concerns keep a full quota of apprentices
and many of the leading contractors have none at all. The president
of the employers’ association finds them “ too much bother,” even
while he deplores the lack of interest in the problem displayed by the
contractors. It is generally conceded that there is an acute need for
better trained men, and an actual shortage of skilled men in orna­
mental work. There is no school training provided for the appren­
tice plasterers, of whom there are 90 indentured through the joint
arbitration board.

The electrical trade in Boston is now in a period of transition from
the helper to the apprentice method. An apprentice system had been
incorporated in the current working agreement between the Electric
Contractors’ Association and the local union, but it had attained no
vitality up to the time of the bureau’s study. An apprentice com­
mittee is to be created consisting of three contractors and three jour­
neymen, the duties of which are 4 to make rules governing the eligi­
bility of apprentices ” and 4 to keep records and to examine them
from time to time as to their progress and fitness.” School work is
not mentioned in the printed rules and regulations, but the applica­
tion form stipulates that “ all apprentices must have a high-school
education or its equivalent, or agree to go to school during apprentice­
ship. The school attended, however, must meet with the approval
of the commission.”
There is no suggestion of indenture or assured employment in the
agreement. In practice, it will amount merely to a supervised helper
system, and, as already noted, it has not yet been applied.
Several electrical contractors were visited, no one of whom had an
apprentice. Only one indicated a friendly attitude toward an ap­
prentice system. The feeling was that the trade does not require
actual apprenticeship, as the helper system is generally found more
economical and efficient, while attaining the same end in the long run.
Some of the shops in Cambridge engage the part-time services of the
boys in the trade school. These boys are not in any sense apprentices.
They are schoolboys whose shop and laboratory work is done in the
shops of the contractors who offer them the opportunity of practical
work on the job. This practice, needless to say, is vigorously opposed
by the union, and it is only in the open shops that it is followed.

Practically all of the master plumbers of Boston and Cambridge
employ apprentices under a modified indenture that implies rather
than states an obligation on the part of the employer to keep the boy
throughout his term and on the part of the boy to remain with the
same employer. Specifically, the provision covering that point
reads: 4 It is agreed that any master plumber may, during the first
12 months of an apprenticeship, discharge without question any
apprentice, and upon request shall then be entitled to another appren­
tice.” But 4 it is hereby agreed that an apprentice who has served
more than 12 months of his apprenticeship in any shop shall not be
discharged except for good and sufficient reasons as determined by
the joint conference board.”



Moreover, it is mutually agreed among the master plumbers that
they will not reemploy as an apprentice “ a boy who has been an ap­
prentice to a master plumber unless he can show a proper discharge
from his last employer or a recommendation from the joint con­
ference board.”
Except for these provisions and the regulations governing the num­
ber allotted (1 apprentice to a shop, 2 apprentices to 4 journeymen,
3 apprentices to 6 journeymen, and a maximum of 4 to a shop), regu­
lation and training are the province of the individual employers, and
no real program prevails. The union does not favor school training,
but makes no active opposition. Whether or not the apprentices
attend the night classes in plumbing held at the Boston Trade School
and Wentworth Institute seems to depend chiefly on the attitude
of the employer. One of the important contractors of Cambridge
does not keep an apprentice who does not go to school. His position
is that there is so much technical and scientific knowledge required of
a first-class plumber which can not be taught or “ rubbed off ” on the
job that he can not afford to permit a boy to pass into journeyman
ranks, whether he afterwards keeps him himself or sends him out as
having been trained in his shop, unless he has at least the technical
knowledge available to any Boston or Cambridge boy who cares to
make the effort to get it. The union has no control over apprentice
wages, so the contractor in question makes wage rates and advance­
ment on the job contingent on school attendance and standing in both
school and shop.
The apprenticeship term for plumbers is five years. The trade is
almost entirely organized and the union reported 225 apprentices in
training. That is even more than the nominal ratio called for in the
agreement and bears out the statement that practically all of the
master plumbers keep up their apprentice quotas. The union official
gave 75 per cent as the average record of completed terms; individual
contractors place the figure much higher, so far as their personal
experience goes.

In the remaining crafts in the building industry in Boston, ap­
prenticeship is either very haphazard or does not exist at all. The
painters’ district council is on record as opposing the system fol­
lowed by the commission on apprenticeship, although it has no policy
or program of its own. Such system as is followed in the painting
trade is governed through the working agreement. Under that
agreement an employer must keep an apprentice for the three-year
term, the union refusing the contractor permission to take on a boy
unless his business is such as to make continuous employment possible.
Only 22 apprentices in the union were reported, and with two or three
exceptions they were found in four large shops doing, chiefly, interior
decorating. Most of the contractors show no interest in the question
of training boys for the trade.
On the other hand the wall-paper dealers’ association is the motive
power behind such efforts as are being made to train paper hangers.
This organization reports a need for trained men in the craft so acute
as to amount to distress. It has a committee which is cooperating
with a committee of wall-paper manufacturers to stimulate interest



in a training system. The committee of the wall-paper dealers’ as­
sociation supervises the paper-hanging class work at Boston Trade
School and Wentworth Institute and tries to encourage appren­
ticeship in the craft. But it has no definite program, and no inden­
ture system is followed. About 30 boys were attending the night
classes in paper hanging, but the employers have no definite hold on
them and it was generally reported that an inconsiderable percentage
of the boys continue in the trade after being induced to take it up.
Steam fitters, elevator constructors, and ironworkers follow the
helper system entirely.

Formal apprenticeship exists in only three of the building trades in
Buffalo—plumbing, bricklaying, and plastering. In all three trades,
however, there is a well-developed system with which practically all
of the responsible contractors are identified. The joint apprentice­
ship committee plan, with written indenture and school training, is
followed in all three trades.

The allotment of apprentices to contractors in the plumbing trade
is one to a shop and one additional to every three men employed, but
not more than three to any one shop. Practically all of the master
plumbers “ doing a *substantial business ” keep their quota full or
nearly so. Interchange of apprentices among employers is resorted
to if necessary to insure continuous employment.
First-year apprentices attend school four hours a week during
working hours on the employer’s time, and attendance is compulsory
for the full term of 45 weeks. Classes are held at McKinley Voca­
tional School.
Second and third year apprentices attend night classes. The re­
quired class work is a minimum of 96 hours a year. School work
is not demanded of fourth-year apprentices.

It was reported that there is an apprentice on the force of every
mason contractor in Buffalo who is entitled under union regulations
to an apprentice. Not more than two are allowed to a contractor.
One hundred boys are indentured through the joint arbitration com­
mittee of the union and the employers, as well as through individual
contract. The working agreement and the contract call for contin­
uous employment. As a rule the employers manage to keep the boys
occupied on work coming within the terms of the agreement, but if
lost time is unavoidable it is paid for at the regular apprentice rate.
School training is available through the evening classes at Mc­
Kinley Vocational School three nights a week. Practical and tech­
nical work are not correlated in the apprentice classes. The first
two years are given to manual work; the last two to technical studies
and drawing.
According to the union representative, school attendance is re­
quired of all indentured apprentices. Some of the contractors visited,


(S . C .)


however, reported that so far as they know their boys are not in
school, and so far as they are concerned there is no such requirement.
An official of the building contractors’ association made the state­
ment that the most important work in apprentice training in the
masonry line was being done by the open-shop contractors, who are
not restricted by the limitation of two apprentices to a contractor
imposed by the union agreement. The bureau agent visited the two
leading open-shop mason contractors. One has no apprentices, em­
ploying helpers as needed and dropping them when he is through
with them. The other concern has a well-worked-out apprentice
policy and program, and reports 13 bricklayer apprentices at the
present time. The boys are kept on the pay roll and kept busy all
the year round, and are under the supervision and training of a
member of the firm who is especially interested in producing skilled
mechanics for the firm and the trade as a whole. Ninety per cent
of their apprentices complete their terms and continue in the trade.

The 24 apprentices reported by the operative plasterers’ union
have only just been brought under the control of the joint appren­
ticeship committee, under a recent agreement. The agreement calls
for formal indenture and employment at least nine months a year
for the four-year apprentice term. School training is made avail­
able through the McKinley Vocational School, and attendance will
be compulsory. Thus far all of the contractors are cooperating in
the new movement.

The helper system prevails in all other building work in Buffalo.
The sheet-metal workers’ union reported 18 apprentices, and the
carpenters 24, but their status does not differ from that of helper,
since there is no obligation anywhere either to teach the trade or to
serve or furnish employment for a definite term.

The building industry is exceedingly inactive in Charleston, and
actual apprenticeship does not exist. Residential building is almost
entirely remodeling of old houses. New work is chiefly piers, ware­
houses, and the like, largely in concrete. There are half a dozen
general contractors in the city, but in every case they reported that
they keep only a skeleton organization of skilled men, taking on
helpers and laborers wherever they can find them when they have a
large contract. The principal mason contractor has only negro
bricklayers and plasterers, and the most skilled and reliable car­
penters are also negroes.
The building-trades unions are not very well organized. The
plumbers have a fairly powerful union, but there is only one union
dumbing shop. There are two so-called apprentices in this shop,
but they are not indentured, and all boys learning the plumbing trade
are free to change employers at any time. To some extent thi-f are
apprenticed to the union, at least for the third, fourth, and fifth



years of training. After the third year the union controls their rates
and gives examinations for promotion from grade to grade.
While there is an industrial school under the Charleston school
system, it teaches none of the building trades.

Apprenticeship through formal indenture, and in most cases under
the direction and control of joint apprentice committees composed of
representatives of the organized employers and the unions, prevails
in practically all of the building trades in Chicago. There is, how­
ever, 110 medium through which the industry as a whole acts. Each
craft follows its own plan and makes its own regulations, although
in a general way the systems are identical.
Only those employers who are members of their trade associations
and parties to the agreements are permitted to take on apprentices.
In other words, unless an employer is subject to the regulations of
the joint apprentice committees with reference to apprentices, the
unions will not place a boy with him. The underlying principle of
cooperative action between the two groups is joint control, requiring
both the boy and the employer to live up to all the rules and regula­
tions governing apprenticeship. The union is the medium of dis­
cipline and control of the boy, and it demands that similar control
be kept over the employer by the association. This is, however, not
true in those trades in which there is no joint agreement and no
apprentice committee.
Except in the trowel trades, part-time day-school training, operat­
ing under the Smith-Hughes Act, constitutes part of the apprentice­
ship in the most important crafts. Two unions, the bricklayers’ and
the asbestos workers’, are conducting their own apprentice classes,
furnishing quarters and paying the expense of teachers for evening
instruction. The public schools are used for the day classes in the
trades which are following the paid-for part-time system.
The closest cooperation between the unions and the associations of
employers, and hence the most effective system of apprentice train­
ing, is found in the pipe trades. In addition to joint committees in
both plumbing and steam fitting, each trade employs a coordinator
who gives his entire time to furthering the interests and progress of
the apprentices both in school and on the job.
Omer building trades in which the employers and the unions are
cooperating in apprentice training under the part-time school plan
are sheet metal work, electrical work, painting and decorating, and
carpentry. Only in sheet-metal work, however, is there a joint ap­
prentice agreement operating through a joint board such as is
found in the pipe trades. While there is a joint working agree­
ment between the master electrical contractors’ association and the
electrical workers’ local union, the apprentice provisions are general
in their terms, and actual control of apprenticeship matters lies with
the executive board of the union. A contractor desiring an appren­
tice makes formal application to the executive board of the local and
agrees in writing to keep him employed throughout his apprentice­
ship, leaving it to the union “ to see that the apprentice does not
leave my employment and go to work for another contractor unless



it is proved that the apprentice was compelled to leave my employ­
ment because of unjust treatment.”
In the painting and decorating line and in carpentry all agree­
ments between unions and employers are individual, and although
the painters’ union employs a coordinator to look after the appren­
tices interests there is no unified control in either craft.
It is interesting, perhaps significant, to note that in the crafts in
which apprenticeship and training are actively promoted through
joint agreement and joint boards, whatever the quota, the number
of apprentices averages approximately 10 per cent of the number of
journeymen in the union—which, in Chicago, is tantamount to say­
ing the number of men in the craft. Even in so frankly restrictive
a trade as tile setting, the ratio is precisely 1 to 10. On the other
hand, where there is no active apprentice policy to which employers
as well as the unions are committed, we find conditions such as de­
veloped in both carpentry and painting, with 1 apprentice to 60
journeymen in the first-mentioned trade, and 1 to 70 in the second.
Business agents, coordinators, and school officials agree that there
is no scarcity of boys anxious to learn the building trades, and that
trainable material will always be available to meet any reasonable
demand. Union records show, furthermore, that trainees almost
without exception become journeymen. There is of course some turn­
over during the probationary period, but that is merely a wholesome
elimination of misfits upon whom it would be poor judgment to ex­
pend time, effort, and public funds.
Criticism has been directed against the apprentice school because
of its policy of accepting only registered apprentices, which means,
in actual practice, union apprentices. Experience with free-lance
apprentices, responsible to no one but their employers and perhaps
not even indentured to them, soon proved, however, that with no
definite agency whose business it was to keep both boy and boss in
line with a concerted policy, school time and per capita cost were
merely being thrown away. The school take:# the position that it is
immaterial to it as a public institution what the coordinating me­
dium may be, but it must insist on having some assurance that it is
spending public funds and employing the time of city teachers to
some purpose, an assurance which can not be successfully under­
taken by other than an organized agency of some sort.

The apprentice agreement between the Chicago Master Steam
Fitters’ Association and the steam fitters’ union calls for continuous
employment by the party to whom the apprentice is indentured for a
period of five years. After 60 days’ probationary period both em­
ployer and apprentice sign articles agreeing to all the regulations of
the joint arbitration board covering apprenticeship. All applica­
tions are handled by the joint board, which passes on the qualifica­
tions and acceptibility of applicants, and makes assignments to such
members of the master steam fitters’ association as fulfill the require­
ments of the agreement. Apportionment is 1 apprentice if 2 journey­
men are regularly employed, 2 to shops employing 4 journeymen for



at least 10 months in the year, and so on up to 5 apprentices to shops
employing 13 or more journeymen. Arrangements can be made for
the temporary or permanent transfer of an apprentice to an employer
other than the one to whom he was originally assigned, but it was
reported that such transfer is rarely made.
Actual records kept by the coordinator over a period of seven years
show less than 2 per cent elimination after the brief probationary
period. Even during that period there is little turnover, it was said.
The board has complete discretion in accepting the application of a
candidate, and hence is in a position to select the most promising
material. While there is no educational requirement for applicants,
most of them have some high-school education, and a considerable
number are college and technical-school students. The reported en­
rollment is 425, with practically all eligible contractors carrying
their full quota.
After the first six months, during which the apprentice does not
attend school, attendance at school one full day every other week is
compulsory. This time is paid for at the same rate as time on the job.
Failure to attend class and tardiness are penalized. All lost time
must be made up. I f the employer fails to release the boy on his
regular school day, he must send him on another day and pay him
for that time. I f the boy misses class he must make up the work
on his own time.
Washburne Continuation School is used for the steam fitting
classes. The staff is composed of four men, and the course covers
four subjects, each with two-hour sessions—drawing, mathematics,
physics, and laboratory. English is taught only indirectly, as an
incident to the physics and related science courses.
The shops are elaborately equipped with a wide variety of material
which has been donated by manufacturers of heating, refrigerating,
and power equipment. The shops are chiefly laboratories, the equip­
ment being used for demonstration and experiment. Very little
actual manipulative work in connection with practical steam fitting
is done in school.
By arrangement between the various employers and the coordi­
nator, apprentices are taken on at stated intervals throughout the
year, and they start school as a group. Classes are divided according
to period of training, thus making group instruction possible
throughout the course. The complete course is 4y2 years of 25 weeks
each, 8 hours a week, making a total of 900 school hours.
Full school credits and a satisfactory school record are necessary
before an apprentice may take his final examination for journeymanship. This examination is given by the joint arbitration board and is
the last of the annual examinations given. If an apprentice fails in
the final examination, he is continued as an apprentice until he makes
a satisfactory grade.
During his first year as a steam fitter the graduate apprentice re­
mains under the jurisdiction and supervision of the joint arbitration
board, which has full power to act if the “ conduct or ability ” of the
new journeyman is questioned.
The initiation fee of the journeyman is paid in annual payments
during apprenticeship, and the wage scale of the apprentices is fixed
by the agreement.




The apprentice agreement between the plumbing contractors’ asso­
ciation and the journeyman plumbers’ association is essentially the
same as that in the steam fitting trade. An important difference is
that in the plumbing trade the controlling committee is devoted to
apprentice matters entirely, while in steam fitting the joint arbitra­
tion board acts as an apprentice committee. The plumbers’ ap­
prentice committee meets monthly, and the instructor of the appren­
tice classes is ex officio a member of the committee and refers to it
matters dealing with school training. Apprentices are registered
and given working permits by the union, but are not members
of the organization during apprenticeship, and while all appli­
cations are passed upon by the committee, employers “ shall select
their own apprentices.” That provision, it is said, has broken up
the former practice of limiting opportunities to learn the trade to
relatives of the journeymen, and has made possible careful selection
on the part of the contractors from the plentiful supply of appli­
cants. School records show that 60 per cent of the apprentices
are high-school graduates or have had some high-school educa­
tion, and that the number who have not completed grammar school
is negligible.
Any master plumber who is a member of the association and who
employs two or more journeymen may take an apprentice. Large
shops employing 12 or more men may have two apprentices. After
the eligibility of the boy is passed upon by the committee the em­
ployer must keep him for the entire five years. Disagreements or
difficulties are brought before the committee for adjustment, and
reassignments can be made through the committee if necessary to
insure proper training and opportunity for the boy. I f an em­
ployer is found guilty of violation of the apprentice agreement
he may be refused an apprentice.
This system has been in operation since 1911. For several years
past an average of 150 new journeymen has been produced annually
under the agreement. Less than 1 per cent of the trainees fail to com­
plete their time. Practically all of the master plumbers coming
under the agreement are contributing to the apprentices’ training.
The agreement covers nearly all the employing plumbers in the city,
as the association includes all the master plumbers except the oneman shops and the jobbers. It was stated that association members
“ employ 95 per cent of the journeymen and do 90 per cent of the
School work is required of the plumbing apprentices during the
first three years of their training. They attend one day a week.
Because plumbing classes are held at Lane Technical High School
instead of at the continuation school, they are in session only 6
hours a day and 40 weeks in the year. The aggregate time which
a plumbing apprentice spends in school is 90 eight-hour days.
The school day is divided into three periods of two hours each,
covering drawing, shop, and mathematics and applied science. Shop
time is devoted entirely to work which the boy does not get on the
job, consisting chiefly of leadwork—lead soldering and joint wiping.
It was explained that practically no leadwork is done in Chicago,
but because some knowledge of that branch of the work is necessary,



if for no other reason than to pass the State board examinations
for licensed plumbers, the school must furnish the opportunity
which the job does not afford.
The head of the plumbing staff is a practical plumber, and the
technical work is given by trained teachers. Material is furnished
by the union. A quarterly report upon attendance, progress, and
deportment is made by the teachers to the joint apprentice committee,
and the committee visits the school at least twice a year. All ques­
tions of attendance and school discipline are handled by the coor­
dinator. The master plumbers’ association awards an annual prize
to the apprentice making the best school record.

Gas fitters are organized into a separate local union in Chicago,
and are just beginning to work toward the establishment of a defi­
nite system in apprentice training. It has not yet developed ma­
terially, owing chiefly, it was said, to the instability of the trade.
There is no effort to indenture a boy to an employer. That system
would be a detriment, it is believed, because continuous employment
under a contract would be impracticable. Under the present ar­
rangement the boy is apprenticed to the union rather than to an
employer, and the union makes itself responsible for continuous
training and employment, acting as placement agent and making
the journeymen and the business agent the supervising agency in
training. Only 14 apprentices were reported as in training, each con­
tractor being allowed one with the exception of the two largest con­
cerns, each of which has two.

The joint arbitration board is nominally the agency controlling
apprenticeship in the sheet-metal trade. Indentures are made
through the board with individual contractors, and the working
agreement provides that apprentices “ shall be subject to the c,ontr<3
of the joint arbitration board.” In actual practice, however, it does
not appear that the board is an active agency. The indenture, not
the working agreement, imposes the terms of apprenticeship and
provides for school training on paid-for time. The extent to which
the terms of the indenture are observed seems to be largely the indi­
vidual concern of the contractor.
While the record of completed terms is as high as in any of the
crafts, there is not the same degree of coordinated effort which dis­
tinguishes some. The business agent of the union receives reports on
school attendance and progress from the trade-school instructor and
fulfills the duties performed by the coordinator in other trades.
Sheet-metal apprentices attend school one day each week. Classes
are held at Washburne Continuation School, where the school day
consists of 8 hours and the school year of 50 w
reeks. The reported
enrollment is 106, of whom about 75 are engaged in construction and
the rest in manufacturing. Classes include apprentices in both lines,
and are made up of boys in all periods of training. Since the con­
tractors send the boys on any day they choose, it is not possible to
form classes corresponding to the specific year of training, as is



done in other crafts. Hence a class may be composed of beginners
and fourth-year apprentices. The instruction must therefore be
wholly individual.
There is only one instructor in sheet-metal work. The school day
is divided into three periods ,giving three hours to drawing and three
to shop work, while the remaining two hours are divided among
English, mathematics, and applied science. Drawing and shopwork
are closely related, the boy drawing the pattern first and then making
the article afterwards in the shop. Lesson sheets are used in mathe­
matics, and English, which is class work, is taught by a staff English
teacher. The building does not afford opportunity for practice work
in erection, but it is felt that the job provides sufficient training in
that line.

The ratio of apprentices to journeymen provided for in the joint
working agreement in the electrical trade is one to five or less, and one
additional apprentice for each five additional journeymen, with a
maximum of five apprentices to any one contractor. While few
contractors have the maximum quota, the employment of apprentices
under written agreement is a general practice. Contractors select
their own apprentices, and because of popular interest in the trade
and the high wage scale, it is reported that apprenticeship in electri­
cal work is attracting a very desirable type of applicant. Most of
those now in training have some high-school education, and highschool boys are given preference.
Apprentices attend classes at Washburne Continuation School one
full day every other week. Under the agreement the employer i*
to pay “ at least the sum of $1 for attendance at school, provided
the apprentice furnishes satisfactory evidence of such attendance
to the contractor.” It was stated by an official of the contractors’
association that all but a very few employers are paying the regular
apprentice rate for time spent in school. “ Satisfactory evidence ”
is furnished by means of attendance cards which are signed by the
head of the department.
Classes in electrical work are divided according to the year of
training and previous academic education, a plan made possible
because classes are spread over a two-week period. First-year ap­
prentices attend school on Monday, second year on Tuesday, third
year on Wednesday, and fourth year on Thursday. One week classes
are composed of the apprentices who are high-school boys or ad­
vanced academic pupils; the following week the group consists of
apprentices with less than first year high-school education. Friday
classes are made up of pupils from the other groups who can not keep
up with the class work and who need individual and rudimentary
The school day is divided into four periods of two hours each,
covering mathematics, electrical layout, laboratory work, and English.
Layout work includes drawing, with estimating for the advanced
classes. The laboratory is adequately equipped with apparatus, and
is used only for demonstration and experimental work. No manipu­
lative work of any kind is done in school, except an occasional in­
stallation of new apparatus, or when a practical demonstration is



necessary in connection with theory. As the head of the depart­
ment said, “ The school does not attempt to teach anything that can
be taught better by the journeyman on the job.”
The instructors agree that the system is attracting and keeping a
fine type of workers, and they are enthusiastic about the method and
the results obtained.

Chicago is no exception in the general indifference to apprentice
training in the painting trade, an indifference shared equally, appar­
ently, by contractors and boys. However, the part-time school sys­
tem, introduced into the trade two years ago, is taking hold and is
resulting in a steady increase of indentures. The number of in­
dentured apprentices has increased from 152, when the school opened,
to 260. Even that number represents only one apprentice to every
12y2 contractors eligible, under union rules, to an apprentice. Union
regulations provide that a contractor, to be entitled to an appren­
tice, must employ at least five men for at least six months in the
year. No contractor may have more than two apprentices, and then
only if he employes 20 or more men. Most of the big decorating
firms have two. The indenture calls for continuous employment
with the same employer for three years, any idle time to be paid
for “ the same as though the apprentice had been regularly em­
ployed,” and obligates the employer “ to see that said apprentice
attends the trade school.” Working agreements in the painting trade
are individual only, and do not provide any medium for joint con­
trol in apprentice matters. The contractor is supposed to choose his
apprentice from the register of the painters’ district council and to
take him on 30 days’ probation, after which, if agreeable to both
parties, the indenture is executed. “ No boy will be allowed a trial
with more than two contractors, or a contractor with more than two
boys consecutively.” It was reported that only a small percentage
of trainees are sons of journeyman painters. An official of the union
who is also a teacher in the school acts as coordinator and discipli­
narian for the school.
School attendance one day in the week is compulsory. Four sub­
jects, of 2-hour periods each, are taught, and classes are divided
according to the year of apprenticeship and subdivided according
to previous academic training. The subjects are painting, which
includes preparation of walls; paint and color mixing; paper hang­
ing; decorative art and designing; and an academic course in
English and related mathematics. The decorative art course has
just been inaugurated. The unions opposed it, but it has been
started at the insistence of the interior decorating contractors. It
has not been operating long enough yet to prove its value, but the boys
are interested. Paper-hanging is of course wholly manipulative
work, the boys working in twos, one at the bench and one on the wall
alternately. For ordinary practice work the paper is torn off
at the end of the period, but each advanced class decorates some
part of the school building each year, either with wall paper or
designing. All wall paper and paste used in practice work is
donated by wall paper manufacturers.




The carpenters’ district council inaugurated a forma] apprentice
system in 1923. Prior to that there had been no control of any
sort over learners for many years. Now the system is dependent
upon the cooperation of individual employers, as there is no joint
action on the part of the contractors. Moreover, the various local
unions comprising the district council, of which there are 12, act
more or less independently in the matter of control and discipline
of the apprentices coming within their jurisdiction. While the
secretary of the district council is the head of the apprentice system,
absence of correlation between the council and the separate locals
makes unified control extremely difficult. It was admitted that fre­
quently an apprentice is taken on by a contractor in the jurisdiction
of one local union at a time when perhaps half a dozen indentured
apprentices in other jurisdictions are out of work. The indenture
requires that the apprentice be paid full time even if he is not
working, but that provision can not be enforced, according to the
secretary of the council. The result is that the large contractors
are carrying a disproportionate share of the burden of apprentice
training by taking on the boys whom other contractors have to drop
for lack of work. While under the rules of the union no employer
may have more than two apprentices, as a matter of fact some of the
large operators have four or five.
The carpentry classes are the largest in the apprentice department
of Washburne School. While numerically the enrollment of elec­
trical apprentices is as large, they come only every other week, while
the apprenticed carpenters attend school weekly. Seven instruc­
tors make up the carpentry department and the subjects taught are
drawing, both free hand and mechanical; mathematics, including
some estimating in advanced classes; shopwork; and English. Prac­
tical work in the shops is all done in miniature, both for want of
space and because the appropriation under which the department
operates does not provide for sufficient lumber for full size operations.
About 125 new mechanics a year have been trained under the new
plan, and at least 95 per cent of the apprentices, it is said, complete
their time and become journeymen. No system of progressive train­
ing on the job has been undertaken, and except for reliance on the
journeymen there is very little check upon the boy on the job. “ We
never know anything about that end of it unless there is a formal
complaint brought before the council by the boy or the employer,”
the secretary of the council said. “ The business agents give the
matter what attention they can, but that is very little.” There is
no coordinator in carpentry, and reports of school attendance and
work go to the secretaries of the local unions, who enforce the penalty
of extended time for failure to attend school or not as they see fit.
The reported enrollment of carpenter apprentices is 600, some of
whom are in shops and mills.

Control of apprenticeship in all the trowel trades is vested in the
respective joint arbitration boards, under joint agreements between



the unions and the organized employers. While functioning in
practically the same way, the results and the proportionate numbers
of journeymen produced show considerable variation.

The use of apprentices is a generally accepted practice among
mason contractors, and while it was reported that probably not
more than half of the legitimate contractors in Chicago carry their
quota of apprentices, it was also stated that the practice is growing
to a point where they are training all the trade can absorb. In fact,
in the opinion of the secretary of the associated builders, Chicago
has altogether too many bricklayer apprentices.”
The training period is three years, and for several years an average
of 300 mechanics annually has been added by the apprenticeship
route. Contractors who are party to the joint agreement between
the union and the associated builders may take on one apprentice
each year. There is a provision in the agreement allowing for trans­
fer ox a boy from an idle to a busy contractor, but according to the
secretary of the association, that problem has never come up within
his knowledge, for “ the contractor who carries his full quota of ap­
prentices is not the kind who runs out of work, and even the little
fellows can keep one boy going.”
The bricklayers5 union operates its own apprentice school. It
employs six instructors and holds classes in its own hall. Appren­
tices residing in Chicago are required to attend one night each
week for two hours during the school term, from October 1 to March
31. The reported enrollment is about 200. That is less than onefourth of the total number of indentured apprentices, but it was ex­
plained that since the jurisdiction of the union covers Cook County,
a large proportion of the boys live and work at points too far from
the city to make compulsory attendance at the union’s night school
practicable. They are “ supposed ” to go to school in their own
neighborhood, but quite apparently that matter is not pressed. The
courses taught at the union’s school are blue-print reading, drawing,
and mathematics, with estimating in the third year. The union op­
poses teaching practical bricklaying “ on the school floor ” with the
assertion that “ the place to learn bricklaying is on the wall.”
An apprentice secretary is employed by the joint arbitration
board to look after the boys, their interests and training, and all
disputed points are brought before the board for adjustment. Fully
95 per cent of the trainees become journeymen.

Apprenticeship in tile setting is regulated by hard and fast rules
embodied in a joint agreement and administered by the joint arbitra­
tion board of the union and the associated dealers. Only members of
the tile dealers and contractors’ association are granted apprentices.
This means, in practical application, that 70 per cent of the con­
tractors are training apprentices for the industry, and, moreover,
that the large shops which carry the full quota of three are doing a
considerable part of that training.



All apprentices are taken from the tile setters’ helpers. Fairly
wide latitude is given in choosing which helpers are to be given
opportunity to become apprentices, aiid a helper must have 18
months’ experience before he becomes eligible to an apprenticeship.
He then serves two years. This system really works better, in the
opinion of the chairman of the joint arbitration board, than taking
wholly inexperienced boys as apprentices, because in 18 months a
good helper can pick up much valuable experience, and “ he comes
to us with the rough edges pretty well worn down. Of course, it
would be very much to our advantage if we had more voice in the.
selection of helpers, but as it is we get fairly promising material.”
The union regulations allow one apprentice to five journeymen,
two apprentices to seven journeymen, and not more than three ap­
prentices to a shop. All of the contractors in the association and
covered by the agreement carry their full quota. According to the
chairman of the joint board and other tile contractors, the quota
is entirely too small to meet the demands of a rapidly increasing
business. “ There are never enough mechanics,” one contractor stated.
4 In serious emergencies 4permit men ’ are taken from the helpers’
union. At the present rate of training it will take at least six years
to create a sufficient number of mechanics to meet the demand.”
Union quota, however, is only one restrictive element, an official of
the tile dealers’ association pointed out:
The dealers who are not members o f the association are holding down the
number o f mechanics as effectively as does the union limitation. The ruling
that only parties to the agreement may have apprentices can be defended on
the ground that only in that way can control be exercised, but it certainly
lets the nonmembers out o f any obligation or responsibility. And they have
the same chance to hire the new mechanics after they are trained as the em­
ployer who trained them has.

The joint apprentice plan has been in operation three years and
has turned out 150 new mechanics in that time. There were 45 ap­
prentices in training when reported. There is no school work con­
nected with tile-setter apprentice training. Dunwoody Institute is
not recognized by the Chicago union and the contractors make no
effort to use it. As technical work is not regarded as an essential
in tile setting, apprentice training is confined to actual work on the
job during the 18 months’ preliminary experience as a helper and two
years as an indentured apprentice. Trainees invariably complete
their time and become journeymen.

Except that the demand is not so great, the situation in marble
setting is very much the same as in tile setting. Very few appren­
tices are taken on, and most of them are sons or other relatives o f men
in the trade. The reported enrollment of trainees is 13, which is one
apprentice to every 20 journeymen in the union.
The only school work available is that provided by the National
Association of Marble Dealers at Knoxville, Tenn. Ten of the 13
indentured apprentices have taken a three months’ intensive course
at the school, at the expense of the employers.
82713°— 28-------4



The apprenticeship term is three years as an apprentice and one
year as junior journeyman with the same contractor. The record of
completion is given as 100 per cent.

Apprentice regulations are incorporated in the joint working
agreement of the contracting plasterers’ association and the local
union of operative plasterers, and provide for formal indenture and
control by the joint arbitration board. Any plastering contractor
covered by the agreement may have two apprentices irrespective of
the number of journeymen employed, but he must provide continuous
employment over a four-year period.
While there are many apprentices indentured, and contractors as
a rule have at least one at all times, the organized system which
obtained a few years ago has collapsed, apparently through lack of
interest on the part of all concerned. The joint arbitration board
does not function actively in apprentice matters, and, judging from
report, the present administration in the union is not interested in
the subject.
A part-time school system was in effect in the plastering trade for
several years, plastering being one of the first trades to take advan­
tage of public-school cooperation. But through laxity and waning
interest the plan has been abandoned entirely. “ Everybody had a
hand in killing it,” an official of the contractors’ association said.
“ The contractors found it inconvenient to let the boys off, the boys
were perfectly willing not to go, and the union did not press the
There is some talk now of reviving school work and providing for
workable penalties such as the other crafts use for noncompliance,
but, as one man put it, “ Some one who really means business will
have to take it in hand if it is to be put over properly.” It was
stated that most of the apprentices now in training—the last sur­
vivors of the active movement of several years ago—have about
finished their time, and that new ones are not coming up to take
their places.

The statement of the cement finishers’ union with regard to ap­
prentices was—
W e have a good apprenticeship clause in our agreement, but no apprentices.
It seems impossible to find any young fellow s nowadays to take up the work—
it’s too hard work.

Two other trades have joint agreements with contractors’ associa­
tions already discussed. These are the lathers, with whom the con­
tracting plasterers’ association has a contract, the apprentice terms of
which are practically identical with the agreement covering plas­
tering except in the matter of quota; and the roofers, with whom
the sheet-metal employers’ association has an agreement. Neither
indenture nor continuous employment is provided for in either case,
however. In roofing the agreement stipulates the nature of the work
that may be performed by first, second, and third year apprentices,



and the business agent of the union places them on jobs calling for
their respective stages of advancement. Helpers are promoted to
apprenticeships as needed. Twenty-six are serving as apprentices at
the present time.
Asbestos worker apprentices are not under formal indenture, but
serve their full time generally with the same employer. The work­
ing agreement calls for one apprentice to each five journeymen, and
this quota is always kept. The joint arbitration board directs the
training of the boys both on the job and in the school which is oper­
ated jointly by the employers5association and the union. This school
is an evening class in blue-print reading, drawing, and mathematics,
held one night each week during the fall and winter months, which
apprentices are required to attend. It was reported that there are
always more applicants for apprenticeships than can possibly be
accepted, and that the boys all finish their time and become journey­
Structural-iron workers, elevator constructors, and hoisting engi­
neers follow the helper system entirely, the helpers becoming jour­
neymen or not as conditions determine.

One of the most highly developed apprentice systems in present
operation is that of certain of the building trades in Cleveland, Ohio.
Cleveland is a “ closed shop ” city in building construction. Except
for a negligible amount of repair and remodeling work handled by
small shops, all building in Cleveland is done by union labor. The
statement was made by representatives of employers’ associations
and by large contractors that the erection of new buildings, even on
the smallest scale, by nonunion men would be impossible. Con­
tractors in the various building lines are also pretty well organized
in trade associations. Hence there existed sufficient organization to
provide the machinery through which a program could be worked
out and launched. Owing to the degree of organization also, the
system adopted is of fairly wide application, so that a report on the
apprentice situation in Cleveland can be made with fewer of the
exceptions and modifications and reservations which confuse the
issue in other communities.
Not all the building crafts are identified with the system, how­
ever. Thus far it is confined to bricklaying, carpentry, electrical
work, painting, paper hanging, and decorating, plumbing, and sheetmetal work.

The Cleveland apprentice system operates through committees of
contractors and workers cooperating with each other and with the
department of vocational education of the Cleveland public schools.
Each craft has its own trade apprentice committee, which is the
administrative agency for that craft. Two members from each trade
committee, one chosen by the employers and one by the union, and
two representatives of the general Building Trades Employers’ As­
sociation, form the “ General Advisory Committee on Apprentice
Training in the Building Trades.” Seated on this general committee



also are two members representing the department of vocational
education of the city board of education, which is identified with the
State and the Federal boards for vocational education.

The guiding tenet of the system in operation is to “ establish a
training program in response to the demand of those in a position
to guarantee continuity of employment for those receiving the train­
ing,” 4 and to guarantee continuity of employment. To that end
one of the chief functions of the trade committees is to determine
the extent of the demand and the number of apprentices which the
trade can support.
In practical operation the plan works thus: The contractor and the
candidates for apprenticeship make written application to the aprentice committee of the trade in which they are interested; in the
rst instance for a boy to place, in the second, for placement. Tenta­
tive selection of candidates is attempted through interviews and the
enforcement of certain requirements which boys applying for ap­
prenticeship must meet. The age limit varies somewhat for different
tiades, the minimum of 18 set by the State compensation law being
the influencing factor in bricklaying. The regulations imposed by
the department of vocational education, which include a grammar
school education or its equivalent and a satisfactory physical examina­
tion, also act as an eliminating agent. Only those contractors who
fulfill certain requirements of the committee in the matter of length
of time in business, reliability, and so on, are granted apprentices.
Placement of the boy desiring training with the contractor apply­
ing for an apprentice follows acceptance of the applications by the
committee. Then comes a probationary period of from one to six
months, during which either side is free to end the relation. At the
conclusion of a satisfactory probation, however, an agreement is
entered into between the employer and the boy, the parent or guardian
of the boy acting as “ the party of the third part.” This agreement
is for the full term of apprenticeship, dating from the beginning of
the probationary period. In plumbing the apprentice agreement is
governed by the joint agreement between the associated plumbing
contractors and the journeyman plumbers’ union and the rules of the
joint apprentice committee instead of by contract between the em­
ployer and the apprentice. In bricklaying, carpentry, painting and
decorating, and sheet-metal work an individual conti act is made.
In general, these agreements cover wage rates for the term of the
indenture, and bind the boy to “ serve his employer faithfully and
honestly,” to “ remain faithfully in the employ of the party of the
second part,” and “ to attend the apprentice school ” during his term
of apprenticeship. The employer is obligated to pay the wage rates
specified, “ to permit attendance of the party of the first part at the
apprentice school,” to “ pay said first party for such designated hours
as he attends school at his established rate per hour,” and “ to provide
party of the first part with employment at his trade during his term
of apprenticeship if possible, or to make an effort to secure employ­


Cleveland Board o f Education. D ivision o f Vocational and Practical A rts Education,
Cleveland Plan fo r A pprentice Training, Cleveland [1 9 2 6 ?]. p. 1.



ment for said party of the first part with some other bona fide con­
tractor ” at the trade. All parties “ agree to comply with all the
rules and regulations formulated now or hereafter by the apprentice

The apprentice committees are working bodies responsible for the
apprentices and the successful administration of the apprenticeship
agreements. They meet regularly and act on all matters pertaining
to the apprentice system. They are the trial board and the means
of disciplining both boys and bosses for infractions or violations of
the apprentice rules and agreements.
An employer can not discharge a boy indentured to him except
with the consent of the committee after a hearing before the com­
mittee. If a boy leaves the employer to whom he is indentured he is
brought before the trial board and discipline is determined on the
merits of the case. Generally, through the cooperation of the union,
a boy who willfully breaks his contract is denied any further oppor­
tunity to get into the trade.
All disagreements and difficulties on the job are adjusted by the
committees and occasionally the school instructors bring cases before
them for discipline.
The committees act as the placement medium when it is necessary
to transfer apprentices from their employers to other contractors on
account of lack of work. Sometimes a committee is called upon to
effect transfers of apprentices between contractors when prejudice
or incompatibility is jeopardizing a boy’s chances for success.

Because continuity of employment is absolutely necessary to hold
the boy and hence to the success of the movement, the matter of
transfer from idle to busy contractors is a vital one. For this reason
the number of trainees is kept at a figure which in the opinion of
the trade committee and of the school authorities is justified by the
building outlook. To facilitate necessary transfers and to keep close
track of building operations and of the boys themselves, the building
trades employers’ association employs a director of apprentices. This
official acts as a placement officer and recruiting agent (recruiting
contractors, however, rather than apprentices), and as a truant
officer for the employers. His is a full-time job devoted to the
progress of the boys on the job and the orderly working out of the
whole plan. His work parallels somewhat, on behalf of the employ­
ers, the work of the coordinator representing the school. In addi­
tion to these two full-time officials, the carpenters’ district council
employs an extra business agent whose sole duty is the supervision
of the apprentice carpenters on the job and the enforcement of all
the rules and regulations governing them.

All apprentices indentured to the carpentry, bricklaying, electrical,
painting and decorating, plumbing, and sheet-metal trades must
attend the apprentice classes of the department of vocational educa­
tion of the public-school system at the time set by the department.



The apprentice goes to school during working hours and is paid by
his employer for this time in school just as if he were on the job.
Carpenter and bricklayer apprentices attend school four hours each
week. The complete course is four years of 48 weeks each—768
hours. Painter apprentices attend school a full 8-hour day every
other week, 48 weeks in the year, for 3 years. Plumbing, sheet metal,
and electrical classes are also 8 hours every other week, with a fouryear term of 48 weeks a year.
The vocational teachers are and, under the rules of the board of
education must be, practical craftsmen in recognized standing in
their trades. In addition they are required to take the professional
teacher-training courses under the Cleveland Board of Education as
provided in the Federal vocational education program through the
Smith-Hughes Act.
Following a trade analysis by representatives of the trade working
with the shop teacher and the teacher trainer, a course of study is
established. The teaching method is chiefly by instruction sheets
and demonstration and close supervision of actual operations.
Every effort is made in the school to duplicate actual working conditions
Mathematics, blue-print reading, etc., are not taught as separate subjects, Int.
are definitely tied up to the trade operations upon which the pupil is receiving

In September, 1926, the apprentice school moved to new quarters,
affording more room with improved facilities and equipment. In­
structors expressed themselves as being generally well satisfied with
equipment and materials for class work, although some of the expen­
sive equipment necessary in the plumbing and electrical shops “ comes
slowly5 through school-board channels. Much of the equipment has
been contributed by dealers and contractors, and the materials used
in the carpentry, painting, paper hanging, and decorating classes are
donated by the material dealers and the trade associations.
Coordination between class work and the job is undertaken through
the services of the coordinator employed by the department of voca­
tional education. There is difference of opinion as to how far corre­
lation of the two forms of training is either practiced or possible.
Some contractors say that correlation is not possible, that the only
practical course is for the boy to go along with the journeyman on
the job, doing whatever is required of him, regardless of previously
acquired experience, and leave to the school the technical and theo­
retical work which can not be acquired on the job. Others take the
position that the only way they can realize any return on the invest­
ment of paid-for time in school is to confine the boy to applying suc­
cessively on the job the technical knowledge and practical experience
acquired in school. This point of view seems to be more applicable in
painting and decorating than in other lines.
Both apprentices and employers are responsible for school attend­
ance. Lost time must be made up. If the absence is chargeable to
the boy he must make up the work on his own time. I f the employer
is to blame—through failure or refusal to release him from work to
attend class—he must pay the boy his regular scale while he is making
up the lost class work. Some of the unions have fines and other
disciplinary devices in addition to extended time.
5 Cleveland Board o f Education. Division o f Vocational and Practical Arts Education.
Cleveland Plan for Apprentice Training, Cleveland (1 9 2 6 ?), p. 5.



Attendance, however, is remarkably good, according to the in­
structors. Their most difficult problem, they say, is that of dealing
as a group with the diversity of material presented by boys some of
whom are high-school graduates and others of whom must be sent
to night school to learn to read and write English.
Pupils of the apprentice classes are graduated upon the comple­
tion of their terms, just as are the pupils of the other departments
of the public schools. Their diplomas are a prerequisite to becoming

The electrical trade presents a number of differences from the
general plan. The system is newer and not so well organized, and
a depression in the trade since its inauguration in 1925 has prevented
its successful development.
So far apprentice contracts such as are used in the other trades
have not been drawn up for the electrical apprentices. The boys
are in effect indentured to the union. During their first year they
are assigned to stock room and warehouse work, learning the various
kinds of apparatus and its uses and care, and ordinarily remain with
the same contractor for that year. After the first year, when they
are put on construction work, the union becomes the placement me­
dium, the contractors applying to the union for the apprentices needed
on a certain job and releasing them when the work is finished. Allot­
ment is made on a basis determined by the joint committee.
Two recent strikes in Cleveland, first the strike of the building
laborers and later that of the painters, have delayed construction and
dislocated electrical work materially. In consequence apprentice
training has been interrupted and steady employment difficult to
maintain. As a result of this uncertainty, the joint apprentice com­
mittee has closed the trade entirely to beginners for the present.

The sheet-metal trade is the latest to become identified with the
Cleveland system. School work in this craft was begun as recently
as February, 1927. Prior to that time there was no real apprentice
system, and what little training there was seemed to be the result
of the interest and efforts of a few men in the trade. A persistent
effort to inaugurate a system was made by some of the officials of
the contractors’ association, and in spite of opposition and lack of
sympathy from some of the members they have succeeded to the
point of securing a committee and an agreement and starting school
training. It is reported that probably 85 per cent of the sheet-metal
contractors are now actively participating in the training program.
School work is of course not so well developed as in the older
classes. A tentative course of study has been prepared and is being
tried out. At present the school period of one full day of eight
hours every other week is being divided equally between shop work
and related subjects. The intention, however, is to spend more time
in the shop than on related work. The shop includes in its excellent
equipment the unusual feature of an oxyacetylene apparatus.



Cooperation with the apprentice system on the part of the building
contractors in Cleveland is quite general. Comparative figures show­
ing what proportion of all the contractors in a trade employ appren­
tices would not be significant because a fair percentage of the total
number are small operators who under union rules would not be
entitled to apprentices and who could not qualify under the buildingtrades employers’ association requirements of stability and business
standing. The general contractors (carpenter and mason contract­
ors, chiefly) are about equally divided between those who do and
those who do not employ apprentices. But the group employing
apprentices represent at least 80 per cent of the reputable, established
contractors, and do about 80 per cent of the business. Most of the
painting and decorating contractors come within the system in nor­
mal times, but at the time of the investigation the painting trade was
seriously disrupted by a prolonged strike. The largest plumbing
contractors are strong supporters of the system, but probably a
smaller percentage of eligible master plumbers are participating than
contractors in other trades. The master plumbers’ association em­
braces about one-third of the master plumbers of Cleveland, and
about one-half of its members employ apprentices under the system.
Members of the electrical contractors’ association are required by the
rules of the organization to employ apprentices and to assist in their
training. While the membership of the association is not large, it
includes the important contractors handling the big jobs. All sheetmetal contractors running union shops are now employing appren­
tices under the new plan.
The latest reported enrollment figures in the six trades under dis­
cussion are given as follows: Bricklaying, 227; carpentry, 218; elec­
trical work, 109; painting, paper hanging, and decorating", 86; plumb­
ing, 143; sheet-metal work, 75. These figures are as of a given day.
The number varies, of course, as apprenticeship terms are ended and
As already suggested, the basis for determining the number of
apprentices to be taken into the respective trades is not a theoretical
or arbitrary ratio of apprentices to journeymen as set forth by union
rules. Kather it is the number which the trade can absorb and
support and, of equal importance, the number which the school
can care for properly with its present facilities of equipment and
staff. In fact, the department of vocational education is largely
the determining factor with respect to the number of trainees taken
on. It insists upon continuous employment, and also upon keeping
the number down to the actual requirements of the tracle, as nearly
as that can be determined. As the director expressed it :
The city o f Cleveland can not afford to put a boy through four years o f
training for a trade, and at the end o f it find him running a delivery truck
because he can’t get work at the trade for which the city has trained him.

Indifference to the system on the part of the carpenter, brick
mason, and decorating and electrical contractors is being rapidly
overcome and many of them carry the full quota of apprentices
allowed them by the rules of the union and the committee. This



is not so true of the master plumbers. Two of the largest operators
commented thus on the situation in the plumbing trade:
I f every contractor in the city would keep his quota filled w e could train
plenty o f plumbers to take care o f new business and fill vacancies le ft by
death and other causes, even as fast as business is increasing in Cleveland.
There should be 225 apprentices instead o f 120 as at present. That many
could be absorbed and trained adequately. The union is doing its part— the
fault lies w ith shortsighted contractors who are afraid o f losing money.
Under the present system an employer is practically assured o f the boy’s serv­
ices fo r fou r years at learners’ wages. Maybe he does lose money the first
year, possibly even the second, but he is not losing anything after that.
The union regulations as to the ratio o f journeymen to apprentices is fair
and would keep the journeyman ranks filled if contractors would do their
share. The union has always been liberal in the matter o f letting an apprentice
remain w ith the employer after his journeymen have fallen below the required
number, i f the falling off w as due to trade conditions and the boy him self
was getting a square deal. The real difficulty is with the contractor, who
can’t see any advantage in using apprentices— which in most cases means he
can’t see any profit in using them.

^One contractor gave this as his reason for not employing appren­
tices in his large plumbing business:
The men don’t like to work with apprentices, and we find it pays us much
better to defer to them.

On the other hand, in other trades there was some criticism of
the limitations imposed by unions and apprentice committees on the
number of trainees. One general contractor, employing on an aver­
age, 40 masons and 75 carpenters, said that he was allowed only two
bricklayer and two carpenter apprentices, although he could use
eight. Just at present he has two extra bricklayer apprentices,
“ borrowed ” from another contractor.
Dissatisfaction is strongest among electrical contractors, especially
the small operators who under the present arrangement can not have
a first-year apprentice at all. Under the agreement a first-year ap­
prentice is permitted only in shops employing an average of 10 men
during the year. This rule, of course, means that only the largest
contractors can put a boy in their shops and stock rooms. While it
is defended by the committee as being necessary at present, it will
mean, the contractors contend, that after the present large class of
senior apprentices graduate into journeymen, there will be for several
years practically no apprentices in the city. The committee replies
that the rule can be changed and new classes started at any time a real
need arises.

After the preliminary weeding out of misfit, dissatisfied, and in­
competent entrants during the probationary period and the first few
months following indenture, practically 100 per cent of the appren­
tices complete their terms and become journeymen. On this point
some of the unions reported 95 and some 98 per cent completion.
The electrical workers claimed 100 per cent in their trade. School
records are more exact than those of the unions and support the
statement of union officials that there is very little dropping out
during apprenticeship.



The carpentry instructor has an elaborate record of four years’ ex­
perience with the apprentices, which shows less than 5 per cent
elimination over an indenture period. More than half of those who
left before their time was up did so because their families left Cleve­
land—in most cases going to Florida. All of these boys took appren­
tice clearance cards with them, expecting to complete their terms
in their new homes. Three others went into the Navy, and ill health
forced out another three. Only two simply “ cut ” classes and broke
their contracts.
Contractors make similar reports, most of them saying that in
their own shops they “ don’t remember a case where a boy has just
dropped out. Once in a great while they find they are physically
not qualified, and sometimes conditions at home make it necessary,
but most of them stay.” Employers told of cases where boys have
returned to complete their terms after long absences for illness, and
not infrequently after adventuring in fields offering far more money
at the time.
The bureau representative had an opportunity to find out some­
thing of the effect on the system of a serious trade dislocation. At
the time of the investigation a strike of the painters had been in
progress for 2Q weeks. Enrollment in the painting school before the
strike was called was 88. Most of the apprentices were called out
with the men, although several were left in shops where they worked
only in the shops and no outside work was attempted. School at­
tendance fell off, but to just what extent seemed to be a matter of con­
siderable dispute. Fifty-six of the 88 were in school, and the union
officials stated that they were insisting that the boys attend class as
usual. The director of apprentices for the building trades employers’
association reported that a considerable number had taken other jobs.
T aether or not they would return to the trade after the strike was
settled remained to be seen. It was generally felt, however, that there
would be no serious disruption in the long run.

Enthusiasm over the practicability of the system and the definite
ood accomplished was universal among the contractors interviewed,
fchool training, they feel, is bridging a gap between practical and
technical knowledge which can not be crossed in any other way, and is,
moreover, proving a means of discipline and assimilation which
the employer can not maintain; while the indenture system is pro­
ducing a stability that is going far toward insuring a steady supply
of good labor. Many contractors said that the best mechanics on
their force were the apprentices who had been trained unde? the
Cleveland system, and a number of them said, substantially, that
“ apprentice training by the Cleveland method is not only making
better mechanics, it is making first-class foremen, who in their turn
will know how to train the apprentices under them.”
Even the contractors who do not employ apprentices made no
criticism of the system and its results. They merely do not see the
necessity or the value to them individually of cooperation with the




Some contractors and one of the teachers feel that better material
could be obtained and better results achieved with a raising of the
age limits. Their position is that boys of 16 and IT are too immature
and irresponsible to be expected or required to take on the obligations
of apprenticeship. As the teacher put it:
The boys o f 16 and 17 come to school and drift through the first tw o years.
About the third year, at 18 or 19, they wake up, and then they are all eagerness
to learn the things they should have been learning all along. So it all has to
be done over again. I f they were older when they begin they would get
more out o f it.

There is no system of apprentice training and no definite organiza­
tion governing apprenticeship in any of the other building trades
in Cleveland. In fact, conditions are more or less chaotic.

As related by the secretary of the operative plaster'ers’ local union,
a few years ago there were no plasterer apprentices in Cleveland,
and complaint was general that union restrictions were practically
closing the field at a time when workers were seriously needed, par­
ticularly in ornamental work. The union accordingly removed all
restrictions and permitted contractors to register and indenture as
many boys as they felt they could keep in employment and absorb
into the trade. There were at the time of the investigation 64 reg­
istered plasterer apprentices, and, according to the men, the contrac­
tors were experiencing considerable difficulty in providing steady
work. One contractor with a big job on hand was providing employ­
ment for boys apprenticed to two other contractors in addition to his
own. There were 160 plastering contractors on the union’s “ fair
To meet an urgent need for training, especially in the ornamental
line, the contractors founded their own school, sending their appren­
tices one day a week for class instruction. The school ran for nine
months, but the expense was prohibitive and it was given up.
The plastering contractors’ association which, its secretary states,
“ represents 20 per cent of the contractors and controls 80 per cent
of the work,” requires its members to employ one or more apprentices.
The use of ornamental plaster is growing enormously, and the need
for skilled operatives is acute. A committee of the association has
been studying methods and results in plastering schools elsewhere,
preliminary to going on with their program of school training in
the Cleveland apprentice school. To date, however, the trade has
not become part of the system.

Union regulations governing apprentices to the lathing trade allow
1 apprentice to the local union and 1 to each 10 members of the local.
Apprentices are indentured to the union, and allocation to con­
tractors is controlled by the joint conference board of journeymen
and employers. The usual practice is to allow one apprentice to a
contractor, but by transfer through the board contractors with large



jobs frequently take over the boys who are not kept busy by their
own employers.
At the time of the investigation the number of apprentices (38) in
the Cleveland local exceeded its normal quota. The explanation
given was that it is the practice for apprentices to pay their initiation
fees in installments out of their earnings, and that as the past season
had been a very poor one there were seven or eight boys who had
completed their time but had not met the financial requirements for
journeyman membership. They were therefore still carried on the
rolls as apprentices, although as a matter of fact they were at the
time not working at all. It was reported that many of the appren­
tices were idle.
The executive board of the local union is the governing body in
all matters pertaining to apprentices. The only contractual relation
between the apprentice and his employer is through the working
agreement of the union. The shop steward is responsible to the
executive board for the training and progress of the boys, and the
boys themselves appear before the executive board once every three
months throughout their term for rating on competency and adjust­
ment of their wage scales. Competency is determined by vouchers
from the journeymen under whom the boy is working. The appren­
ticeship term is two years for wood lathers and three for metal
lathers, but metal lathers must spend the first six months working
in wood. The secretary of the union stated that all of its appren­
tices finish their terms and become journeymen. He also said that
there is a long list of applicants awaiting openings.

Koofing apprentices were found only in the slate and tile branch,
and even there they were confined to two or three large operators,
only six apprentices being listed by the union. The union has no
apprenticeship policy or program of training. Evidently such ap­
prenticeship as exists grows out of the desire of individual helpers
in the craft to become journeymen. In composition roofing no
apprentice system is followed, and the local union is, in fact, opposed
to any system. It is a limited-membership organization. When
more men are needed to meet an emergency of rush work the union
gives temporary permits to the “ handy men” among the roofers’
helpers or in the building laborers’ union.
Elevator constructors employ the helper system instead of the
apprentice system, because, it was stated, the work is too heavy for
boys and not difficult to learn. Practically the same situation exists
among the structural and ornamental iron workers, whose union
reported 12 apprentices, principally in ornamental work. The system
is so casual as scarcely to justify calling it apprenticeship, however,
and not more than half of those who enter serve the required two

Detroit has an apprentice school under the Smith-Hughes Voca­
tional Education Act, in which six building trades are participating—
bricklaying, plastering, metal-lath erection, plumbing, steam fitting,
and electrical work. With the exception of plastering, class work is



given one-half day (four hours) weekly. Plastering apprentices
attend school one full day of eight hours every other week.
Joint apprentice committees composed of representatives of the
employers and of the journeymen are the controlling agency in all
trade matters, while a representative of the board of education is an
ex officio member of all committees.
The instructors are employed by the school board after being
selected by the joint apprentice committee of each trade. They must
be skilled craftsmen at the trade they are engaged to teach and must
attend the teacher-training classes outlined by the State university
under the State supervisor of vocational education.
No formal courses of study for the apprentice classes are prepared
or followed. Textbooks are used to some extent in bricklaying, but
instruction is chiefly in manual work. Drawing, mathematics, and
other technical subjects are taken up in their relation to the practical
work, not as separate subjects.
A boy desiring to become apprenticed to one of the trades men­
tioned, who meets the school board’s requirement of ability to speak,
read, and write English and one year s residence in Detroit, may
appear before the joint apprentice committee of the trade he elects
to follow. After a satisfactory interview he is registered by the
committee and given permission to find a job with an employer
willing to apprentice him. I f successful, he appears again before
the committee and is put on one month’s probation. The school
subjects him to a physical and mental examination “ if obviously
needed.’’ At the end of the month he becomes a regularly indentured
apprentice under the rules of the committee and the school.
In bricklaying and plastering the boy is formally indentured to
his employer under a contract which binds him to remain with the
employer for the entire apprenticeship term at a specified scale of
wages and to attend the apprentice school as required by the regula­
tions; while the employer agrees to keep the boy for the entire
term, pay him the specified wages, send him to school during working
hours, and pay him his regular scale for his time in school.
The joint apprentice committee for each trade is the administra­
tive body in all matters pertaining to apprenticeship and the enforce­
ment of agreements, and is a trial board for disciplining violations
of rules and regulations on the part of either apprentices or em­
ployers. Contractors can not discharge boys indentured to them
except with the consent of the committee after a hearing of both sides
to the dispute. Similarly, the committees have been successful in
bringing sufficient pressure to bear, through the unions and the boy’s
family, to force boys who break their contracts to return to their
employers, even to the extent of bringing back to Detroit boys who
had run away to other cities.
Theoretically this system applies to all building contractors and is
open to all of them. Actually its use is confined largely to union
contractors, and the representatives of the workers on the joint ap­
prentice committees are union officials. The system is most highly
developed and perfected in bricklaying and plastering, in which
lines the school has been operating since March, 1924. Union organ­
ization is also strongest in these crafts.



There are three trade associations of mason contractors in Detroit,
the smallest of which, the General Builders’ Association, is composed
of contractors who may also hold membership in one of the other two.
The membership of the other associations includes union and openshop contractors, the division being one of race, not of economic
policy. The Master Masons’ Association is composed of Jewish con­
tractors ; the Mason Contractors’ Association, of Gentiles. It is stated
that 80 per cent of the reputable, established contractors are repre­
sented in the two associations. The master masons report that all of
the member contractors employ apprentices under the joint committee
plan, and 4 a large majority ” of the members of the Mason Contrac­
tors’ Association are also identified with the system.
Nevertheless there is general complaint that the number of brick­
layer apprentices is insufficient. Union regulations allow one ap­
prentice to each five journeymen, with a maximum allowance of five
to any one contractor. Average enrollment for the school year end­
ing in 1926 was 239 apprentices. The number in training was sub­
stantially smaller in the fall of 1927, when 176 were reported, indi­
cating that new boys are not being taken on as the older ones are
The secretary of the Mason Contractors’ Association expressed the
opinion that there should be twice as many in training, and that
eventually, as more contractors become interested in the movement,
there will be. A strict construction of the union ratio of 1 to 5 would
allow for well over 500, he pointed out.
Only one contracting firm among those visited employs the maxi­
mum of five apprentices. An official of that company said:
I t isn’t a question o f union restrictions at all. W e have never yet reached the
point where the demand for apprentices on the part o f the contractors approxi­
mates the number the union is willing to grant.

The largest open-shop construction concern in Detroit employs no
apprentices. Contractors operating on a smaller scale than the
one previously referred to point to the requirement of continuous
employment as their reason for not filling their quota. They take on
as many as they can keep permanently employed, and they feel they
are doing their share when in addition to keeping that many they
occasionally take onto their own force boys whose employers are
temporarily idle.
Dissatisfied with the small increase in the number of journeyman
bricklayers by the long apprenticeship method, and faced with an
actual shortage, the General Builders’ Association established its own
bricklaying school in 1922. It is an intensive six-month trade course,
not an apprentice school. It was started chiefly as a protest against
the maximum age limit of 21 imposed by the bricklayers’ union.
Men of any age or any calling are admitted. Day and night classes
are held and a large proportion of the students are factory workers
who desire to get into the trade. Tuition is, of course, charged.
It is admittedly chiefly a “ feeder” for the open-shop contractors,
although it was reported that while the association makes no attempt
to place its graduates directly with Detroit contractors, they work
back into the trade in Detroit after acquiring some experience in
small towns throughout the State.




The Detroit plastering apprentice class is regarded by contractors
generally as following an excellent system and producing excellent
results. It is one of the models chosen for study by apprentice com­
mittees in other localities. As expressed by a union member of the
allied apprentice council, the program “ aims at making every ap­
prentice not only a good practical man but a skilled ornamental
plasterer as well.”
An acute shortage a few years ago, especially in the ornamental
and molding line, compelled the adoption of a recruiting and training
program. Since the school was started, in 1924, about 50 apprentices
have been graduated and there are now 65 in training. That is not
enough, according to both union and trade association officials.
While the supply of applicants for training is more than ample, not
more than half the contractors are cooperating in the movement. As
is the case everywhere, a small percentage of the large operators are
carrying the heaviest part of the burden, keeping their quota full
and keeping the boys in school and employed throughout their terms,
and frequently relieving contractors who may be unable to keep their
own apprentices busy. Several of the important contractors oper­
ating under union agreements have not yet been induced to take
apprentices, although they admit the need of more skilled men, par­
ticularly in ornamental work.

Classes in metal-lath erection have been added recently to the
Detroit Apprentice School, apparently at the insistence of the plaster­
ing contractors. The present enrollment is 12, an average of four
a year having been graduated since the class opened. The unions,
of which there are two, are not enthusiastic about apprenticeship in
the trade. According to officials of both locals, the trade is already
flooded, is not a skilled trade at all, and in Detroit is not well enough
organized to control trade conditions.

Organized apprentice training in plumbing and steam fitting is
still in the formative and experimental stage. Classes were started
in the apprentice school in February, 1926, through a joint apprentice
committee composed of representatives of the unions and of the
Heating and Piping Contractors’ Association. The system is still
tentative, and although the matter has been the subject of repeated
conferences between the unions and the organized employers, no
definite system of indenture or trade training has been adopted.
The heating and piping contractors’ association, it was stated,
contains most of the big contractors, employing about 50 per cent
of the journeyman plumbers and steam fitters, and includes both union
and open-shop employers. A second association of master plumbers,
the Detroit Association of Sanitary and Heating Contractors, is
the plumbing section of the American Plan Association. It em­
braces and is spokesman for the open-shop employers. To some
extent, the two associations cover the same membership, and both
state that “ most of the big contractors” are members. A third



association is composed of Jewish master plumbers. Through the
medium of the board of education each of these three associations
has appointed an apprentice committee to cooperate with the school
in an apprentice-training program. The plan is for the committees to
take the responsibility For the progress and training of the appren­
tices employed by the member contractors.
The reported enrollment is 80 in the plumbing classes and 18 in
steam fitting. School work is confined almost wholly to theory and
to related subjects.
As nearly as could be developed in the investigation, the use of
apprentices is more general, and more nearly a policy, in the open
shops than in the union shops. The apprenticeship period is, how­
ever, materially shorter, as tne open-shop contractors recognize as a
mechanic “ a man having two and one-half years’ experience at the
trade,” and generally give apprentices a journeyman rating after
three years’ apprenticeship.
The head of a large plumbing and heating concern employing only
union men said :
Skilled mechanics are scarce, very scarce. But our experience with appren­
tices as a solution has been disastrous. W e used to try to train boys in our
shop, but we always found that labor costs ran too high when w e put an
apprentice on the job, and we decided they were a liability instead o f an asset.
Now we follow a policy o f keeping a staff sufficient to handle our work, pay
enough to keep them with us all year round, and depend upon the union to do
the best it can fo r us when w e need extra men fo r rush work.

One open-shop employer, a small jobber who was a union member
when a journeyman, was found who sends his apprentice to the
apprentice school. “ I can easily afford to do it,” he remarked. “ He
is practically out of his time, and I ’m getting a good mechanic for
$30 a week.”

Beginning in March, 1927, the inside electrical trade in Detroit
adopted an apprenticeship program embracing formal indenture
and part-time school work. Required class work is one-half day eacli
week and covers both theory and practice. Shop equipment is very
The reported enrollment is 243. The apprentice term is four years,
but provision is made for shortening it in certain cases. If, at the end
of his third year, and upon recommendation of his employer, a boy
can successfully pass the examination for journeymanship, his ap­
prenticeship is terminated. I f he attempts the examination and fails
to pass he may not try again until he has served four months of his
fourth year.

Tile setting is a thoroughly organized craft in Detroit, and the
union and the tile and mantel contractors’ association are cooperat­
ing, through their joint arbitration board, in the training of appren­
tices to the number of 1 to each 10 journeymen, with a maximum of
3 to a contractor. Two contractors contended that the allowance is
too low, inasmuch as shortage of skilled tile setters is serious



throughout the country. At the same time they agreed that it was
true that three were as many as they individually could keep steadily
There are 28 indentured tile-setter apprentices in Detroit. It is
the custom to choose apprentices from the helpers, selecting the most
promising and ambitious for training, thus having the advantage of
semiskilled workers at the start.
For several years classes were held at the apprentice school for
tile-setter apprentices, who attended one-half day a week on the em­
ployer’s time. Last year it was decided to use the national tile school
at Dunwoody Institute for all tile-setter apprentices in Detroit, giv­
ing them the 13 weeks’ intensive training instead of carrying school
work throughout the three-year term. The local tile setting classes
have been discontinued and contractors are required by the rules of
their association to send their boys to Dunwoody.
Judging from reports, contractors in this line in Detroit practice
systematic training on the job to an extent not ordinarily found.
Two firms reported that apprentice training is a hobby of their
superintendents, and they make it their special business to insure
intelligent, progressive training under their most skilled mechanics.
The first year’s training is usually on minor operations such as ordi­
nary floor jobs, the apprentice serving more or less as helper to the
mechanic. In his second year the apprentice is given a helper and
works under the direction of a mechanic on higher grade floors and
walls. During his third year he is still under the direction of the
journeyman in highly specialized work and in installation of expen­
sive materials, such as mantels, but works independently on the
ordinary run of work.
Both the union officials and individual employers report that
apprenticeship terms are invariably completed.

The business agent of the painters’ district council reported 150
apprentices registered in the council. Investigation, however, failed
to locate any indentured apprentices employed in any of the large
union shops. On the contrary, many contractors are definitely
opposed to the employment of apprentices.
A committee o f the master painters’ association, which is com­
posed largely of open-shop employers, has been at work on a train­
ing program. While it has met with much apathy, it has developed
its plans to a point where classes are being enrolled in the Detroit
Apprentice School and school training will shortly be conducted in
painting in the same manner as in the other crafts.
An official of the association, an open-shop employer who makes a
practice of keeping two or three apprentices, says that the trade is
suffering from lack of properly trained workers.
The contractors are apathetic and indifferent, and it is almost impossible
to interest Detroit boys in a trade requiring long training at learners’ wages
because o f the competition with manufacturers paying high wages,
82713°— 28------ 5



Apprenticeship in the sheet-metal trade is methodless and in­
differently followed. The union contemplates establishing classes
in the apprentice school but has made little progress toward that end.
Most of the shops are small one-man affairs. One large sheet-metal
and roofing contractor employing as high as 50 tinners and 30 roofers
at a time stated that in both lines the work is too seasonal to keep
boys busy or interested, and that the workers are almost entirely
floaters. The roofing trade is unorganized and one employer said
that u so far as I know there isn’t a roofing apprentice in Detroit.”

The statement of the secretary of the carpenters’ district council
Detroit carpenters are too poorly organized and too weak econom ically to
attempt an apprentice policy or program. W e have no regulations and we
couldn’t enforce them if we had them. There isn’t a carpenter apprentice in
the union. The bosses take boys on as handy men and helpers, pay them so
much per hour, increasing the amount when the boys begin to learn something
about the work and ask for more money.

It was said that apprentices were employed on some building op­
erations, but that Cleveland contractors had the jobs and had brought
the boys from Cleveland.

While an apprentice system by formal indenture and a definite
program is found only m steam fitting and the trowel trades in
Memphis, some other trades are following a plan of cooperation
between the union and the employers which is serving practically
the same purpose as a formal contract. Night-school work is avail­
able in the city technical high school for all of the crafts. These
classes are not exclusively apprentice classes, of course, but offer
technical and practical work to such of the building tradesmen and
apprentices as care to take the courses offered. From the reports
made by union officials, the unions do not stress school attendance—
in fact, in some cases they are indifferent, if not actually unfriendly.
School attendance thus becomes a matter to be determined by the
boy himself.
Unfortunately, school authorities could not be interviewed, as
Memphis was covered during the summer vacation, and all of the
trade-school staff were out of town. Figures of enrollment and an
estimate of the popularity of evening class work among building
trades apprentices can not therefore be given.

The steam fitters, by joint agreement with the heating and piping
contractors’ association, have abolished the helper system entirely
and substituted an apprentice system under the direct control of a
joint apprentice committee.



xlpplications both for apprentices and apprenticeships are acted
upon by the committee and assignments are made through the com­
mittee/ A boy is given a probationary period of six months, after
which the employer, if he keeps the boy, must sign an agreement to
keep him for the entire four-year term. Similarly the boy agrees
to serve the employer throughout his apprenticeship.
All questions of discipline, disagreements between the boy and his
employer, and difficulties of any nature, are handled by the com­
mittee, and in case it becomes necessary, through lack of work or
other legitimate cause, to transfer an apprentice from one shop to
another, the committee acts as placement agent.
School attendance is not provided for in the agreement. Nightschool work is available in the city technical high school, but the
union is apparently not greatly in sympathy with the movement,
and is doing nothing to encourage attendance. It was reported that
the heating classes are “ not popular or well attended.”
The reported enrollment of apprentices under the joint agreement,
which covers all the shops doing a substantial business, is 27. The
large contractors on commercial, or “ downtown,” work carry their
full quota of 3.
It is reported that fully 98 per cent of the trainees finish their time
and qualify as journeymen. Journeymanship is attained after four
years’ apprenticeship by passing successfully the examination given
by the joint apprentice committee. The fiftn year is served as junior
journeyman before the full union wage is paid.
Cooperation between the union and the employers is not so close
in the plumbing trade as in steam fitting, and there is no actual
indenture of apprentices. The master plumbers’ association indorses
the plan and program of the National Association of Master Plumb­
ers with regard to apprentices, and is endeavoring to put it com­
pletely into effect in Memphis.
In plumbing the initiative in acquiring and training apprentices
is always taken by the employer. The union is strictly a journey­
man’s organization and attempts no control over apprentices beyond
regulation of the number that may be employed in a union shop.
The secretary of the Memphis Master Plumbers’ Association stated
that practically all of the employing plumbers doing a business large
enough to justify keeping an apprentice are doing their share to­
ward the training of new men and are making every effort to produce
good mechanics. As a rule a boy stays for his entire term with one
employer, a system which the masters plumbers’ association is trying
to make obligatory. Both the association and the union encourage
school attendance. Evening school work is under the direction of a
master plumber and the course as outlined by the trade extension
bureau of the National Association of Master Plumbers is used.
School enrollment was not obtained. Neither, in fact, is there an
exact figure of the number of apprentices now in training. The
union reports 44 in the union shops; the association gives 36 as the
number employed by member firms. Of course a considerable num­
ber of this 36 is included in the 44 reported by the union. Both
organizations agree that 60 is probably a very close estimate of the
total number.



A few of the large union shops are carrying their full quota;
two, at least, of the shops entitled to a maximum of five apprentices
are keeping that number in steady employment. The apprentice
committee of the master plumbers endeavors to see to it that the
open shops do not take on more boys than they keep in continuous
employment, and to prevent boys from changing from shop to shop.
Fully 95 per cent of the trainees complete their time, it is stated.

The plasterers5 union reported 12 apprentices indentured to con­
tractors by formal agreement signed by the employer, the union, and
the apprentice and his legal guardian. This agreement calls for con­
tinuous employment over a four-year term. Contractors who can live
up to the terms of the agreement are permitted to take on two ap­
prentices if desired. A few of the leading contractors have two.
The union reported that while it “ encourages ” attendance at night
school on the part of the apprentices, it does nothing definite in pro­
moting school work. It was stated that apprentices invariably com­
plete their terms.
In open shops a casual “ hire and fire5 system is the rule, with no
obligation on either side. One exception was found, in which an
open-shop contractor had trained an apprentice in ornamental work.
He was in his third year, but had never been indentured nor obligated
in any manner, being held rather through mutual advantage.
The bricklayers’ union reports 30 apprentices in training, two of
whom are tile-setter apprentices. Under the rules of the union a
contractor is granted an apprentice every two years. However, it
is generally conceded that the trade has reached saturation point for
the present, and the apprentice rolls have been closed until some of
those now in training finish their time, or until increased building
justifies further expansion. Both the union and the contractors
stated that the trade is oversupplied in view of the “ continuous em­
ployment” provision in the agreement. Practically all the master
masons have their quota of apprentices and as building has slowed
down materially from the high peak of the past few years, they
anticipate difficulty in continuing their training.
Part-time school training was in effect for two years, contractors
sending the boys to school on Saturday morning on paid-for time,
and the boys on their part attending one evening session during the
week. This plan has collapsed, apparently through a general lack
of interest, and no attention is now being paid to school work save
by a few individual apprentices who take advantage of night work
at the technical high school on their own initiative.

The working agreement between the electrical workers’ union and
the electrical contractors allows one apprentice for each journeyman.
Present conditions in the trade, however, do not permit carrying the
full quota, and apprentices are not now being taken on. Seventyfive are reported as in training, which is about 25 less than the full
allotment. These apprentices are not under contract, and while it is



the desire of the union to have apprenticeships served under one em­
ployer, there is no requirement to that effect. The union takes the
responsibility of furnishing continuous employment, and the business
agent undertakes a general supervision over the training and the
opportunities for diversified work which the boys receive. About
80 per cent, according to his figures, complete their training.
Journeyman status is acquired after four years’ apprenticeship by
passing successfully a technical examination which is said to be more
comprehensive and difficult than the examination for city license,
which is also necessary. The union is considering starting an even­
ing school in theory and applied science for both journeymen and

Other crafts in the building industry in Memphis, whether organ­
ized or not, have no apprentice systems and apparently no program
toward that end.
In sheet-metal work the workers are pretty well organized, the
contractors not at all. The union reported “ five or six ” apprentices,
but they are not under any sort of contract, and are in fact skilled
helpers who have remained in the trade long enough to acquire ;some
stability. The union does not take a helper into membership “ until
he can earn $5 a day.” According to the contractors the process
of arriving at that status is to jump from job to job and from shop
to shop until a smattering of the trade is picked up.
One of the leading contractor^ said:
It is a question o f a very short time until there won’t be a mechanic left
in the tinning business. Contractors are too busy underbidding each other
to get together on a program, and they don’t seem to realize where the present
situation is going to put all o f us if something isn’t done.

The painting trade seems to be in about the same situation. Con­
tractors u don’t rwant to be bothered with boys ” and on their part
boys are not interested in the painting trade. According to the
business agent of the painters’ union, apprentice^ are needed, par­
ticularly in paper hanging and the more highly skilled interior deco­
rating lines, but there is no interest in developing the trade among
either the contractors or the boys.
The carpenters’ union reported that it put on apprentices whereever it could, but that there is slight demand for them by con­
tractors, and no assurance of work when they are taken on. Boys
are used on the big jobs, but they are helpers in reality, not appren­
tices. The union has no control over their wage scale, and very
little over the kind of work performed.
Apprentice training is not a pressing problem in Memphis, in the
opinion of the seceretary of the associated general contractors. The
supply of mechanics is ample, he believes, to meet the normal needs
of the city. The rapid growth of the past few yeart in building
was handled adequately, with no scarcity except in common labor.
Should that condition change “ we can work out an apprentice
system to meet the condition. What Memphis needs worse than
education of mechanics is education of its contractors. A building
can be put up cheaper in Memphis than anywhere else in the coun­



try, according to the bids on big jobs. But contractors can’t keep
on indefinitely building beautiful monuments to their business

Formal apprenticeship in Milwaukee is governed by the State ap­
prenticeship law, which requires: First, an indenture signed by the
boy and his parent or guardian, the employer, and the State acting
through the Wisconsin Industrial Commission; and, second, part-time
school instruction during working hours for the first two years of
the indenture, time to be paid for at the regular rates.
Administration of the law is through the apprenticeship depart­
ment of the industrial commission, which “ supervises the training,
arbitrates differences arising between the apprentice and the em­
ployer, passes upon schedules of training, assures proper instruction
in the part-time school, determines what is good cause of annulment
of contract, and enforces all indenture.” 6 The policy of the de­
partment “ is not so much to make great numbers of journeyman me­
chanics, but rather to develop better trained men and good citizens,”
and its aim is “ to insure a square deal both to the apprentice and to
the employer.” 7
Trade training is founded upon standard trade schedules “ drafted
by trade committees composed of representatives of employers and
journeymen of the particular craft.” The Milwaukee Continuation
School, a very fine new trade school efficiently equipped, is the medium
through which class instruction is given the apprentices. There is
no hard and fast rule requiring instructors to be craftsmen. Pro­
fessional training of trade teachers is carried on through the Depart­
ment of Vocational Teacher Training of the Milwaukee Vocational
The apprenticeship department of the industrial commission is the
principal recruiting and placement medium. Boys interested in a
given trade, perhaps through the prevocational work in the grade
schools, or through the promotion activities of the apprenticeship
department, enroll with the department and are guided and assisted
in finding work.
In its practical application to the building trades, however, the
plan is not encouraging apprenticeship or materially affecting the
supply of trained mechanics, except, perhaps, in the plumbing and
bricklaying trades. The attitude of the contractors is that it works
a hardship on them in its requirement of steady employment and
pay for school time; that it makes no allowance for trade conditions;
and that it is superimposed and does not provide for the reciprocal
features that are the backbone of cooperative apprentice systems
which are succeeding elsewhere. The unions reported that it was
about equally difficult to sign up boys and contractors. The wages
stipulated in the agreements are low as a rule. The State minimum
wage laws specifically do not apply to apprentices, “ on the theory
that the apprentice is receiving part of his compensation in instruc­
tion.” 8 This exemption, according to some union officials, creates the
6 Wisconsin Industrial Commission.
son ], 1921, p. 2.
TIdem, p. 10.
8 Idem, p. 7.

The Apprentice Law, with Explanations.

[M adi­



impression in the mind of the boy that he is placed at a disadvantage
by becoming an indentured apprentice—is, in fact, penalized for
learning the trade—and he refuses to sign up. Boys over 18 are not
subject to the compulsory continuation school law, and hence are
more desirable as employees, from the contractor’s point of view,
than boys of apprentice age. The result is that the helper system
and not the apprentice system is the prevailing practice in the
building trades in Milwaukee.
There are two exceptions to that general statement. Plumbing and
mason contractors are to a large extent cooperating with the State
apprentice system and executing formal indentures. Bricklaying
and tile and marble setting are the only building trades in Milwaukee
with a sufficiently powerful organization to control trade conditions
successfully. Union officials and contractors are working together
under the State plan to encourage apprentice training. The union
reported 54 bricklayers, IT tile setters, and 11 marble setters under
indenture. The school reported 80 bricklayers, 7 tile setters, and
8 marble setters. The discrepancy in the first instance is probably
due to enrollment in the training classes of boys apprenticed to non­
union employers. In the second instance the difference in length of
training—two years in the school and four in the trade—probably
accounts for the difference in enrollment. These apprentices attend
school for a full day every school day during January and February,
thus taking advantage of the idle season for intensive training, in­
stead of breaking into the working-day during the building season.
The situation is quite different in the plumbing trade, in which it is
almost entirely the open-shop employers who are using the system.
The union reported 65 apprentices enrolled under the State system
and attending school, and 57 not indentured. Enrollment in the
plumbing school was given as 204. That means that about 140 boys
are indentured to open-shop employers. One nonunion plumbing
contractor visited had 23 apprentices, 18 helpers, and 6 journeymen.
Most of the union plumbing shops visited had no apprentices at all.
Union officials, the secretary of the master plumbers’ association,
and others conversant with the situation, agree that the saturation
point is rapidly being reached in apprenticing to the plumbing trade
in Milwaukee, as there is another avenue to journeymanship which
is also producing a large supply. That is the State law which per­
mits a plumber’s helper, after two years’ experience, to take the
examination for State license under the State board of health. The
trade has become overzealous, the secretary of the master plumbers’
association thinks, as the result of a serious shortage five and six
years ago.
In painting and plastering union officials declared it to be ex­
ceedingly difficult to secure indenture of apprentices under the State
law. Painting apprentices, of whom the union reports 30, are found
almost exclusively in the high-grade interior decorating shops. Most
of the contractors in ordinary painting and paper-hanging work
visited by the bureau representative employ only journeymen.
The plasterers’ union has 46 registered apprentices, allowing one
to a contractor and rather insisting on preference being given plas­
terers’ sons. The contracting plasterers’ association regards the
allowance as insufficient to insure a supply of skilled men. The



association is largely composed of union contractors and “ most of
them are operating under the State apprentice law.” The employ­
ing plasterers are, however, dissatisfied with the school instruction.
The plastering classes are held in the bricklaying shop and taught
by the bricklaying instructor. They want their own classroom and
a skilled craftsman better qualified to teach ornamental work.
Officials of both the carpenters5 district council and the master
carpenters agree that “ the trade is seriously handicapped for want
of apprentices, but it is equally difficult to interest boys and con­
tractors in the present scheme.
The Master Carpenters’ Associa­
tion of Milwaukee and the Master Builders’ Association of Wisconsin
are vitally interested in the formation of a workable program, but
they feel that “ the State law is a hindrance rather than a help.”
It is contended that the trade can not stand the financial burden of
carrying boys on the pay roll under any and all circumstances for
the full four years. To get around that obstacle they simply hire
helpers as they need them and lay them off when work is slack. The
union is not strong enough to influence the situation in the slightest.
It reports only 10 apprentices.
Officials of the unions in the sheet-metal, steam-fitting, electrical,
and structural-iron trades report that so far as union shops are con­
cerned apprenticeship is negligible and the helper system is followed.
One large sheet-metal shop run on an open-shop basis reported five
apprentices indentured under State law. Not only are these boys
attending the sheet-metal class at the continuation school four hours
weekly but the foreman is holding classes one-half hour each day in
drafting and arithmetic and explaining points raised in the course
of the day’s work. The shop works nine hours, during eight
of which the apprentices are actually employed. One half of the
ninth hour is given to the class work just mentioned, and during the
other half the boys are free to make anything they choose out of shop
The following table gives the number of apprentices to the dif­
ferent crafts registered in the unions and in the industrial commission:




1 24

Marble setters___________________________________________
Painters, paper hangers, and decorators____________________
Sheet-metal workers__________________________ ___________
Tile setters______________________________________________

“As dead as King Tut” was the characterization given formal
apprenticeship in the Twin Cities by one in close touch with the sit­
uation in the building industry. Except for a few indentures in
the trowel trades, so lew in fact as scarcely to affect the situation,
and operating largely because of the attitude and needs of individual

8 Helper system.

“ Chiefly from open shops.



contractors, the helper system on a “ hire and fire ” basis governs
wholly in building construction.
Minneapolis and St. Paul are both open-shop centers and the
unions are weak. There is not a union trade agreement in the juris­
diction, and the unions are not in a position to enforce apprentice
contracts even where they exist. Apprentice wage scales are not con­
trolled by the unions, and the provision for continuous employment,
where indenture exists, is unenforceable.
A pronounced reduction in building activity since the beginning of
1927 has resulted naturally in indifference to the problem of creating
new mechanics since there is no present need. A few years ago,
however, there was an active apprentice movement in some of the
trades. For a couple of years prior to 1920 the associated builders
and the bricklayers5 union were working under a joint agreement
containing a definite apprentice system with part-time school work at
Dunwoody Institute in Minneapolis, one of the important trade
schools of the country.
In 1920 the building trades of the Twin Cities called an unsuc­
cessful general strike for a 44-hour week, and in the resulting collapse
of union strength the apprentice systems then operating, including
that of bricklaying, went down completely. The organized general
contractors of both cities then started a short-course school of their
own, which was discontinued in April, 1926.
In 1923 the master plumbers instituted a formal indenture
system with part-time training at Dunwoody, and contributed the
material to equip the shops. This movement died for lack of support
and concerted observance of the terms of the agreement, and now
“ there probably isn’t an indentured plumbing apprentice in the
In the opinion of the builders’ organization spokesman, the build­
ing season in Minnesota is too short to make apprenticeship by inden­
ture, with its requirement of continuous employment, a possible
Some work, both active and passive, is however being done in the
line of encouraging better workmanship. Day classes in bricklay­
ing, painting, and paper hanging are held at Dunwoody Institute
during the winter months, when most building-trades men are idle.
Courses are given in both related technical work and practical oper­
ations. The Builders’ Exchange of Minneapolis has adopted a
policy of urging its member contractors to do all in their power to
“ encourage ” attendance at these day classes by both journeymen
and beginners during the dull season. Evening classes are held
throughout the year in practically all of the building crafts except
Participation in the work offered by Dunwoody is at the present
time determined by the initiative of the individual craftsmen.
While the classes are large and school authorities feel that it is
in its very limited field offsetting to some degree the lack of train­
ing by the apprenticeship method, there is no concerted movement
anywhere toward an organized training system. It is only a make­
shift at best, the director of the school thinks, since “ there is no sub­
stitute for real apprenticeship administered jointly by organized
workers and organized employers.”



Dunwoody Institute has, of course, definite apprentice work in its
tile-sctting department, but that is a national institution in which the
industry locally has no part at present, although it has up to this,
year been identified with it.
In addition to the day and evening classes at Dunwoody, two
groups of associated contractors in St. Paul have endeavored to pro­
duce a higher degree of skill among their workmen by holding evening-trade classes. These groups are the master painters and the
master plasterers. Both these associations financed the undertakings
themselves, and classes are attended frequently by contractors as
well as by journeymen and helpers. Class work in painting and
paper hanging has been provided during the winter months by the
master painters, and while the painting work was to be discontinued
in the winter of 1927 because no longer needed, the paper-hanging
classes were to be held. The plastering school has specialized in
ornamental plastering,

Only in the trowel trades is there any effort to indenture appren­
tices, and as already stated, the indenture agreements are indifferently
observed except in tile setting.
The tile dealers and contractors’ association of both cities subscribe
to the apprentice program of their national association, and they are
carrying their full quota. Ten apprentices were reported as inden­
tured and in training in the two cities, and it was stated by both
union officials and contractors that the quota was sufficient to keep a
normal balance. Apprentices are taken only from the ranks of the
The plasterers’ union of Minneapolis has 24 apprentices working
under a form of indenture which obligates the employer to keep the
boy for four years, the union on its part undertaking to keep the boy
at the trade. A contractor may have only one apprentice. There is
a conspicuous lack of interest or enthusiasm on the part of both union
and contractors concerning apprenticeship, the union frankly declar­
ing that “ there are plenty of plasterers now.”
In St. Paul only two plastering apprentices were reported, and in
this case the personal interest of the contractor in training his own
men seems to be the occasion for there being any at all.
In bricklaying, the Minneapolis local reports 48 and the St. Paul
local 20 indentured apprentices. Their training and status are un­
certain, as the whole system is rather haphazard. The Minneapolis
local reported that of the 48, only 8 were working at the time of the
last meeting.
Considerable divergence of opinion developed as to whether the
local situation really demands systematic training of new material.
Some contractors were as sure that more and better-trained men
are needed as others were that Minneapolis and St. Paul have as good
workmen as can be found, and are adequately equipped to meet local
needs. All agreed that building is too inactive now to worry about
the need of mechanics. In any case, there is not the organized
machinery on either side to prosecute a successful training system.




Apprentice training in Newark revolves about the Essex Count}
vocational schools, and seems to be a community educational move­
ment rather than an industrial program. The indenture system is not
followed and continuous employment is maintained through trade
committees “ in so far as it is possible to do so and trade conditions
Apprentice courses in carpentry, masonry, plastering, and electri­
cal and sheet-metal work are given in the evening at the Boys’ Voca­
tional School in Newark. Classes meet twice a week for two-hour
sessions. Attendance is required of boys who are termed apprentices.
The unions “ shall exclude from membership ” and employers “ may
discontinue the employment of ” a boj “ who does not fulfill his obli­
gation in so far as school attendance is concerned.”
The number of registered apprentices in each trade as given by rep­
resentatives of the unions is: Carpenters, 1,300; bricklayers, masons,
and plasterers, 400; electrical workers, 200; sheet-metal workers, 115.
Plumbing apprentices are required to go to school only in their
fourth and fifth years. One two-hour session each week is given to
shop practice and one to technical and related work. Two hundred
and seventy-five apprentice students were reported as being in the
last two years of training. No record was available of the number
in first, second, and third years. It was stated that of those who
reach their fourth year of apprenticeship, 95 per cent complete their
terms and become plumbers, but there was no record of mortality up
to the fourth year.
The percentage of elimination in the various trades was difficult to
determine, as union officials frankly “ guessed ” in answer to ques­
tions on that point. The carpenters’ union estimated 50 per cent
elimination; in sheet-metal work “ about 80 per cent ” finish their
time; while in masonry and electrical work 95 to 98 per cent was the
estimate of completed terms.
The painters’ union has a register of 80 apprentices, for whom
classes are now being organized. As in the other trades, these boys
are not indentured and are practically free lances.
Tile setters have no apprentice system. They do, however, pro­
mote to journeymanship as needed the helpers who complete the
two-year apprentice course for tile setters’ helpers given by the Essex
County vocational schools.

Except in cases in which the terms of apprenticeship are incor­
porated in working agreements between employers and unions, ap­
prenticeship by contract or indenture does not exist in New Orleans.
Two trades, electrical work and plastering, have such agreements.

Apprentices in electrical work are under the control of the union,
being in effect indentured to the union for four years. The ratio
is 1 apprentice to 2 mechanics, and this quota is kept full at all
times. Apprentices hold full membership in the union, and the union



makes itself responsible for their training and for continuous em­
ployment. The full term is not served in one shop, the policy of the
organization being to change from shop to shop to secure the greatest
possible diversity of training.
A w,ide latitude is allowed in the matter of age at admission, 30
years being the maximum. Available material is more than ample,
according to a union official, who said, “ I could find a hundred boys
to-morrow who would go into the trade if there was room for them.”
He estimates that between 82 and 85 per cent of the trainees complete
their terms and qualify as journeymen. Promotion to journeymanship at the end of the four-year apprentice period is by examination.
The union controls the apprentice wage scale, and all matters per­
taining to the regulation and discipline of apprentices are handled
by the joint governing board composed of journeymen and employers.
Apprentices are “ encouraged ” and “ expected ” to attend night
trade-school classes. This is in effect a requirement, and practically
all boys do attend trade school two evenings a week. The union pays
the cost of textbooks and incidental expenses.

Terms of apprenticeship are incorporated in the working agree­
ment of the operative plasterers’ union, allowing one apprentice to a
contractor. According to the most reliable information available,
however, that is largely a paper provision. Only plasterers’ sons are
taken on as apprentices, and, while the contractor is obligated to fur­
nish continuous employment over a four-year period, there is no
equivalent obligation on the boy’s part to serve four years.
The general feeling among contractors is that apprenticeship as
applied to the trowel trades is a misnomer, as there is no definite
system or obligation, and the worker who is called an apprentice is in
reality a semiskilled helper. The trowel trades are exclusively negro
in New Orleans. No school work is available.

Practically all of the master plumbers doing a business of any
proportion have apprentices. Open shops often have three and four.
Here again there is no contractual relation, and both boys and
employers are free to continue or to end the relation at will. This
is equally true in the union shops, as the union has no control over
apprentices. It registers them in the union and has a restrictive
ratio in its agreements, but it does not control wages or terms of
Plumber apprentices in most instances attend night classes at the
Delgado Trade School. In addition to large night-school classes, the
regular day classes in plumbing have about 100 pupils. In the opinion
of the secretary of the local master plumbers’ association, there are
enough plumbers in the making in New Orleans to swamp the trade
in the next few years.

Trade training in the other building crafts is haphazard and
planless. There is nothing that can be called an apprentice system.



The carpenter’s union has no apprentices, and none of the open-shop
contractors visited reported having a carpenter apprentice. Painting
is poorly organized, and the “ hire and fire ” policy prevails. While
in all lines, and particularly in sheet-metal work, an occasional con­
tractor may make a practice of training an apprentice or apprentices,
he trains them in specialized lines from which the industry as a
whole derives no benefit.

New Orleans has one of the finest trade schools in the country,
the Isaac Delgado Trade School. Buildings and equipment were
donated to the city by Isaac Delgado; maintenance is by appropria­
tion by the city of New Orleans and from the Smith-Hughes fund.
It is essentially a trade school for boys of high-school age, but
it has evening classes for boys and men of all ages both within and
without the trade.
Of the building crafts, only plumbing and electrical work are
now being taught in the night school. Sheet-metal work has been
given, but has been discontinued for want of pupils.
In the opinion of the director of the school, part-time trade school
training to supplement training on the job will have to be the next
development to meet the requirements of a rapidly expanding com­
munity which is changing from a solely commercial one to one indus­
trial as well. As it is now the trade school is meeting the need
for trained mechanics, in so far as it is being met, at no expense
to industry. The cost of training, he believes^ will have to be equal­
ized through an apprentice program which will require the industry
to carry that part of the training which bears directly on the indus­
try, leaving to the schools the technical and related work.
So far the building industry in New Orleans has been able to meet
the demands made upon it by postwar expansion. It is the general
opinion that that condition will not hold true five years from now.
Building tradesmen of to-day are past middle age, and there is little
influx of a permanent nature of younger men. Hence, as the leading
contractors see it, New Orleans will have to find some means of train­
ing its own boys in the industry, or face a serious shortage when it
most needs help. However, they have no program, and the tendency
is to let the public schools take the responsibility. One contractor
even suggested that it was “ Uncle Sam’s duty ” to interest boys in
the trades.
Apparently there is less disposition among boys in New Orleans
to go into the building crafts than is usually found in other

Machinery for dealing with the problem of training mechanics for
the building industry in New York was established in 1922, when,
through the medium of the New York Building Congress, the joint
apprenticeship commission was organized. The commission is com­
posed of representatives of the various elements associated with build­
ing—architects, engineers, and material dealers as well as contractors
and journeymen. The executive director of the commission is also



employed by the board of education as director of apprentice train­
ing. In its relation with the various trades the commission works
through joint apprenticeship committees maintained by those trades
which are part 01 the system.
The sheet-metal trade has a thoroughly organized apprentice sys­
tem which has been in successful operation for nine years, but which
is distinct from that of the building congress.
Building trades now cooperating with and coming under the direc­
tion of the joint apprenticeship commission are: Bricklaying, car­
pentry, electrical work, granite cutting, painting and decorating,
plastering, and plumbing. That does not mean that all the appren­
tices in all those crafts are under the control of the commission.
That is far from the case.
To begin with, there is no formal apprenticeship in the sense of
contracts obligating boys and employers for a definite number of
years in any trade except painting. In this trade a formal agree­
ment has just been introduced by which the contractor covenants
with the union to keep and train the boy, but there is no equivalent
obligation on the boy’s part to stay. Rather, the union undertakes
to keep the boy in the trade in the employ of the original contractor.
This system has been introduced so recently that no conclusions as to
continuous employment under the agreement can be reached. The
other trades coming within the jurisdiction of the commission have
no policy of indenture or continuous employment. In carpentry,
bricklaying, and plastering the status of the apprentice is practically
that of a helper who is hired and laid off according to the demands
of the industry. A beginner in electrical work is required to stay in
one shop for the first year, after which he is free to change his job
either immediately or at any subsequent time in the four succeeding
years, during which time he is known as a helper. In plumbing, the
helper system is followed and designated as such except in one local
union in Queens Borough, which selects certain of the helpers to train
for journeymanship under a form of apprenticeship.
The joint apprenticeship commission concerns itself solely with
training in school. It is the medium through which apprentice
classes are established in the public night schools; it helps to secure
teachers, keeps attendance and work records of the pupils, and has
formulated courses of study for the various crafts. None of the
other aspects of apprenticeship—recruiting, indenture, continuity of
employment, or relations between employer and boy—comes within
its province. Moreover, it can not compel school attendance, but
must depend upon the local unions for discipline. As each com­
ponent local union is largely a law unto itself in its relation to
apprentices and the schools, and as there is no coordinating medium
anywhere, the commission serves, in effect, as an agency through
which to secure effective school training for those boys in the building
industry who attend school, either voluntarily or through pressure
from the union or the employer.
The following statement gives the number of apprentices registered
with the respective trade organizations and the number enrolled in
the apprentice classes under the direction of the commission at the
close of the school year, April, 1927. It must be borne in mind,



however, that the number registered includes boys who are not in
any way bound to the trade or sure of a continuous opportunity to
learn the trade.

Plumbers1 ______________________________________________
Granite cutters__________________________________________


1, 690
1, 400
1, 600
1 260


1 793
1 340

The joint apprenticeship commission is authority for the state­
ment that “ taking the building industry as a whole, not 10 per cent
of the contractors employ apprentices.”

About 75 apprentice classes, exclusive of the sheet-metal classes,
are held in 12 of the city night schools located at various points
throughout greater New York. The boy attends the school located
most conveniently for him.
Two weekly sessions of two hours each, for a term of 30 weeks,
constitute the year’s work. The course of study in bricklaying,
granite cutting, and plastering is related work only—drawing, math­
ematics, and whatever applied science may be required. In car­
pentry and painting the work is manipulative, related instruction
being applied directly to shop work. In plumbing one session is
given to theory and the sanitary code, and one to practical bench
Some of the schools are inadequate makeshifts. In one case an
abandoned school building was reopened for trade work. In other
instances apprentice classes are held in the well-equipped manual
training school buildings. On the whole, equipment seems to be
inadequate. One instructor in joinery reported that as he can not
have the proper tools for shop work he frequently borrows from
dealers and friends in the trade the machinery and tools he needs
for demonstration, and keeps them until he feels that the boys are
familiar with them and their use.
The course of study in electrical work is part theory, part related
work, and part practical installations. House wiring is taught by the
use of a skeleton structure representing a 16-room house, in which
all of the operations in inside wiring are carried out.
Painting and decorating apprentices are taught paint and color
mixing, treatment of walls and floors, paper hanging, designing, and
decorating. Small booths partitioned off the classroom afford wall
space for practice work.

Always excepting the sheet-metal trade, no statement of the ap­
prentice situation even within the commission’s jurisdiction can be
1 Not all in public schools.
1 Fourth-year helpers do not go to school.
1 Manhattan and Bronx locals only. Brooklyn, with 106 apprentices, not yet identified with system.
h One local only; others have no apprentices.



made applicable to an entire craft, because the commission deals
only with local unions, and in no trade are all the locals cooperating
with the commission, while several crafts are not identified with the
movement in any way.

Probably the most effective system among the crafts operating
through the commission is that of the painters and decorators of
Manhattan and the Bronx. Apprentice matters are delegated to the
district council, which is represented on the joint apprentice com­
mittee for the trade.
Apprentices are recruited only through the employers, who send
to the district council for registration any boys whom they may select.
After a probationary period of two weeks the employer enters into a
formal agreement with the district council covering terms and con­
ditions of employment of the apprentice. The boy himself is not a
party to the agreement. Only 1 apprentice is allowed unless a con­
tractor employs more than 10 men steadily, and in any case not
more than 2 apprentices may be employed at one time.
The agreement does not specifically require an employer to keep
the boy throughout his entire term. Instead “ it shall be the duty
and responsibility of the joint apprenticeship committee to provide
continuous employment,” which may be done by interchange through
the medium of the committee. The system was inaugurated in
January, 1926, and no positive information is yet available as to
the extent to which interchange is necessary, or as to the record of
completed terms.
School attendance is compulsory and is checked by means of an
attendance card which must be signed by the instructor at each
session. The monthly working card must show a clear school record
before a new one is issued, and the employer “ agrees to discontinue
the employment of any apprentice who does not fulfill his obliga­
tions so far as school attendance is concerned.”
The agreement provides that “ the employer shall allow the ap­
prentice one-half the regular hourly wage rate in addition to his
time at work for time spent in school.” It was reported that while
the union does not attempt to enforce that provision, probably half
the employers are paying their apprentices for their school time.
Disputes and violations are adjusted by the joint committee, and the
district council offers cash prizes for superior work in school.
It was reported by the district council that about 60 per cent of
the eligible contractors are employing apprentices and cooperating
in the work in an encouraging manner. An employer member of
the committee, when asked if boys were available for the work,
There are plenty o f boys. The shoe is on the other foot now and the real
trouble is to induce the reliable established contractors who are j fixture in
the business to do their share toward training new men. The “ mushroom ”
operators are always ready to take on boys, but that isn’t what we want. We
want to stabilize both the employing and the working ends o f the business
and do away with both the incompetent contractor and the incompetent
mechanics. Results so far are gratifying, but, o f course, w e’ve ju st started.

The Painters5 District Council, of Brooklyn, covering the Long
Island jurisdiction, has the same apprentice rules as the New York



council, and reports 106 apprentices. Employers sign an agreement
with the council. School work, under the direction of the joint
apprenticeship commission, is contemplated for the winter school
term. So far nothing is being done in school training.

Another trade which has very recently readjusted its apprentice
policy and is tightening up its school requirements is the electrical
trade. While the system used in that line in New York is not ap­
prenticeship it is nevertheless an organized effort to train mechanics.
During the trainee’s first year in the trade the union has no control.
In order to be registered as a recognized helper the first year must
be spent under one employer, the boy acting as warehouse or stock
clerk in order to become familiar with materials and tools. At the
end of the year, at the discretion of the employer, the boy is regis­
tered as a helper, in which capacity he must serve for four years
before becoming eligible for examination for journeymanship. Dur­
ing his four years he is subject to the same conditions governing em­
ployment as those affecting journeymen, shifting from job to job
and experiencing lost time according to the run of work.
School work under the joint apprenticeship commission was begun
in 1926, but during that year it met with very indifferent success.
The next year the joint board of the various local unions began a
concerted effort to make school work a positive factor in trade train­
ing. To that end a coordinator has been employed, who has drafted
a course of study, systematized the registration records of helpers,
and who is now working in the office of the commission. It is
intended to demand a minimum of school attendance before issuing
working cards of all except the fourth-year helpers. The various
local unions have agreed to enforce that provision.

A beginning has been made in one locality toward getting away
from the helper system in the plumbing traae. The Queens locals,
while not actually abolishing the helper system, are selecting certain
of the helpers, apprenticing them by agreement between the local
and the employer, and sending them to school. This practice had
obtained for two years, during which 15 apprentices had been grad­
uated. They were really a picked group of boys, and the results
created much enthusiasm among the supporters of the plan.
School work is designed to supply necessary training which can
not be had on the job, and deals almost wholly with applied science
and the sanitary code, and lead work. At each graduation three
prizes a^e awarded to the best pupils, the awards being dispensations
of $100, $50, and $25, respectively, on the new journeyman’s initiation
Plumbing is taught in several of the evening trade schools
throughout the city. Classes are attended by journeymen, helpers,
and men outside the craft, and are reported to be among the most
popular in the system. One school reported that it always has many
more applicants for the plumbing classes than it can accommodate.
82713°— 28------ 6



Working rules in the plastering trade require that the entire four
years of apprenticeship be served under one employer. The employer
agrees, in a letter to the local union, to keep the boy whom he hires as
an apprentice throughout his term. While it is customary for the
contractor to do so the rule is not strictly enforced. Sometimes boys
are transferred from one contractor to another, and at times they
may be altogether idle through a dull season. There is no hard and
fast rule governing the number of apprentices a contractor may
have, but relatively few have any at all.
Both the contractors’ association and the unions are working
on a plan for a day school on paid-for time for the plastering
apprentices. The school board has agreed to make provision for
these classes if a teacher can be obtained. Rapid building in the
city has produced mechanics who confine themselves to a specialized
field, and it is felt that some plan must be adopted to afford more
general training for the boys coming into the trade. Day school is
expected to meet this need.

Applying the strict definition of apprenticeship which this report
has followed, neither the bricklaying nor the carpentry trade in New
York has an apprentice system. There is no continuous employment
except in the case of large operators who prefer to keep and train
their own men. One of the very large contractors doing business on
a national scale reported that he had to resort to a bonus plan to
keep boys throughout their term. More than two-thirds of the
bricklayer apprentices are indentured to their fathers and move with
them from job to job.
Control of the trainees, both at work and in school, varies with the
attitude of the individual local unions. Some are wholly indifferent,
and others, notably some of the carpenter unions, are trying to
enforce school attendance, although no policy of continuous employ­
ment is undertaken.
Apprentices in both crafts are almost entirely relatives of journey­
men, and there is no stipulation as to the number of boys allowed to
a contractor or a job. Officials of both unions and employers’ asso­
ciation in both lines assert that the industry is overrun with boys
and that there is no real training. Practically all of the boys who go
into the trade serve the four years, but control over them is negligible
and they are little more than helpers.

Apprenticeship in tile setting, which in other centers investigated
is generally very strictly regulated, is handled quite differently in
New York. The term “ improver” is used, an improver being a
helper selected for special training. Helpers may also become
mechanics after a certain period of time, and it was said that in
practice the only advantage which an improver has over a helper
is the assurance of continuous employment “ as long as one journey­



man is employed,” and a slightly higher wage scale. The high wage
scale militates against the use of apprentices by contractors, as
mechanics can be hired for very little more.
No school work is provided for tile-setter apprentices except in
Newark, N. J., which is included in the New York jurisdiction.

Apprentices in metal lathing, to the number of 100, are indentured
to the union and distributed by the union among the various con­
tractors desiring them. Under the agreement an employer taking
an apprentice must keep him for the two-year term, and the boy
must stay or leave the trade. In this case the boy is a party to the
agreement. Trainees are generally related to the men in the trade,
and, according to report, they always complete their time and become
journeymen. It was said that the number in traiming, which is kept
fairly constant, is all that the trade can absorb.

Since 1918 an organized apprentice system has been in opera­
tion in the sheet-metal trade in New York City. A joint apprentice
committee composed of two members of the union and two of the
contractors’ association has#complete control. The active agency
through which the committee works is a subcommittee composed of
the secretaries of the two organizations. All matters pertaining to
apprenticeship—the registration of boys, working conditions, adjust­
ment of disputes, transfer when necessary, issuance of periodic ap­
prentice cards, school attendance, and school work—are handled by
the committee.
To become a registered apprentice a boy must first be selected and
employed by a contractor who agrees to keep him in continuous em­
ployment for the four-year term. He is then registered by the
joint committee and becomes subject to its rules and control. He
has no membership nor standing in the union. Every six months
he appears before the committee and his term and rating are ad­
vanced to the next higher grade, with a corresponding increase in
wage scale. Working cards are issued for each period of employ­
ment, for which a fee increasing from $3.50 for the first period to
$8 for the eighth, or last, is charged. This money is used to defray
the expenses of the committee. Before a card is issued for the en­
suing six-month period, the card for the current period must show
attendance at 90 per cent or more of the school sessions during that
period. Where attendance has fallen below the required minimum,
lost time must be made up, even though the boy may have been tempo­
rarily employed out of the city. An apprentice is dropped if he
fails to conform to the school regulations.
School sessions are two evenings each week, two hours per session,
with a total of 120 school hours each year. Classes are held in six
public schools throughout Greater New York, and work is so unified
that the courses are practically identical in all of them. Thus a boy
can change schools if necessary without interrupting his school course.
Equipment in the various classroom shops varies from makeshift and
inadequato to excellent, but the same teaching standard is maintained



throughout. The teachers are craftsmen with long experience in
Shopwork in sheet-metal cutting and fabrication with pattern
drawing and mathematics applied directly to practical problems com­
prise the method followed in teaching.
About 75 per cent of the reported enrollment of 400 are in building
construction, while the remainder are in manufacturing, chiefly in
the institutional kitchen equipment line.
According to the secretary of the employers’ association about 60
per cent of the reliable contractors in the trade are employing ap­
prentices and cooperating actively in the training program. In­
cluded in the other 40 per cent are some of the large operators who
refuse to 4 bother ” with boys. The allotment is one apprentice to
each five mechanics. The reported enrollment is considerably less
than that ratio, however, and the chairman of the committee stated
that the full quota would produce more mechanics than the trade
can use. The average number of apprentices graduated at the annual
school commencement is 75.
During the nine years ending December 31, 1926, 898 apprentices
were registered and 311 cards were canceled, either because the
boy had dropped out of the trade of his own accord or because of
insubordination. Actual records, then, show 35 per cent elimination,
but afford no details as to causes. School-attendance records show
pcrfect attendance for approximately 80 per cent of the pupils.
Graduation is a notable event for the industry, it was reported.
Prizes and medals are awarded by the contractors’ association for
superior work, and diplomas are presented to all completing the four
years’ work. A school diploma is a prerequisite to journeymanship
and membership in the union.
Differences and disputes between employer and boy must be
brought before the apprentice committee, and both sides must abide
by its decision. I f the employer refuses to accept an adverse de­
cision the boy is taken out of his shop. A refractory boy may be
transferred to another employer and given another chance to make
good, failing which he is removed from the trade.
The most serious defect in the machinery of the system, the chair­
man of the committee feels, is the lack of a coordinator or some full­
time official whose sole business would be to look after the boys both
in school and on the job. “ When we get that,” he said, “ I think we
will have come about as close as is possible in New York to an intelli­
gent and efficient apprentice system.”

Apprentice training in carpentry and the trowel trades in Niagara
Falls is carried on through a cooperative tripartite movement em­
bracing the employers, the unions, and the division of vocational
education of the city schools. It is essentially the same system as
that in Cleveland, operating, as does the Cleveland system, through
active working committees of employers and journeymen.



The two systems differ in some details. In Niagara Falls the
trade committees are composed of one employer and one journeyman
in the trade and the director of vocational education. Thus the
school representative is the third member of all committees, and is in
effect the head of the system.
All matters pertaining to the system—relations between boy and
employer, the boy’s record in school and on the job, and the course
of study in school—are regulated and controlled by the trade com­
Apprentices are indentured under a written agreement binding
upon 1’ e employer, the boy, and his parent or guardian. Apprentice­
ship is for four years. During the first two years boys are required
to attend the vocational school eight hours each week—four hours at
evening school and the other four on Saturday morning. Saturday
morning school work is on paid-for time, but pay is conditioned
upon having attended the two 2-hour sessions of evening school dur­
ing the week. Third and fourth year apprentices are required to
attend night school four hours a week.
The reported enrollment is 16 bricklayers, 25 carpenters, and 13
plasterers. At the time of the bureau’s study, December, 1926, the
system was in its third year, during which time only two indentures
had been canceled for incorrigibility and less than 10 per cent of the
beginners had dropped out.
Commenting on the effectiveness of the system a union official said:
Before the present plan was adopted we had about h alf as many apprentices
as we have now, and less than 50 per cent o f them finished their time. Now, the
boys, the union, and the employers are getting along much better and the whole
scheme is working out to everyone’s satisfaction.

Criticism of the system by one of the leading contractors, who is
one of its strongest supporters, was directed against two phases,
more or less related. He believes that the insistence of the unions on
placing sons and other relatives of members is hampering.
The field ought to be a wide open one to get the best material available. As
it is now the contractor has to take pretty nearly just what he can get.
Needless to say it isn’t all good material. The poor material is a smaU
minority to be sure, but it has to be accepted. Exactly the same amount o f
time, effort, and money is put into training this small minority o f poor material
as is expended on the boys who are making first-class mechanics. And the
grade o f work that these mediocre boys are equipped to do even after four
years o f training can be taught in six months.

His other objection, which he insisted also applied only to a small
minority, is that with a fairly high wage rate and the assurance of a
job for four years “ the boys are getting too much for too little effort.
They feel that they are fixed for four years and will have a good
trade at the end of that time, no matter what they do.”
He believed, however, that that attitude has undergone consider­
able change since the inception of the system and that school at­
tendance and general application to business show marked improve­
ment. Disciplinary measures directed the year before against a
fourth-year bricklayer apprentice who had practically finished his
time and was receiving journeyman’s wages, but who was laid off
for several months for insubordination, had had a steadying effect
on the boys, it was said.



Apprentice evening classes are held four hours a week for plumbers
and sheet-metal workers, but in these two trades only the unions and
the school authorities are directly concerned. The employers are not
a part of the system as in the trades just discussed, and the boys are
not under contract. School attendance is accordingly encouraged by
the unions as a benefit to the individual, rather than required by both
union and employer as part of the job.
School enrollment in these trades is 27 in plumbing and 25 in sheetmetal work. So far as their jobs are concerned, however, these
workers are free agents, and efforts to commit their employers to an
indenture system have not been successful.

There are eight apprentice painters in Niagara Falls. They would
like to have a course installed in the trade school for them, but owing
to the small number and the absence of indenture that has not been
done. The director of vocational education stated that whenever
enough contractors could be interested in the movement to afford a
sufficient number of boys, a painting class would be organized.
Speaking of building-trades employers as a whole and not of any
particular craft, the director said:
The principal difficulty in carrying out an apprentice-training program is not
in getting boys to train, or in getting the cooperation o f the unions. It is in
getting the contractors interested in the problem and in persuading them to take
on apprentices. W e never reach the quota the unions agree to because so many
contractors won’t use apprentices at all.

It was conceded that the requirement of steady employment com­
plicates the issue in Niagara Falls, because interchange between idle
and busy contractors is not so readily effected as in the large cities.
There is a tacit understanding among the contractors who are part
of the organized system that “ the apprentice will be kept as long
as one journeyman is employed.” There is in fact no serious loss of
time by the number who are now serving their time. The secretary
of the joint apprenticeship committee stated that as a rule the boys
had 11 months’ work a year.
In Niagara Falls, as elsewhere, there are plenty of boys available
and ready to take up building trades apprenticeships, both the brick­
layers and the carpenters reporting “ a desk full ” of applications.
u There is no difficulty about getting our boys interested,” the director
of vocational education said, “ and we are getting an increasingly
better grade of boys—frequently high-school graduates.”

The Building Trades Employers’ Association of Philadelphia has
recently undertaken active agitation for the establishment of an
organized program for the training of building-trades apprentices
in that city. The statement was made that “ the need for appren­
tices and sound training is acute. Philadelphia does not get good
workmen, but it is only just beginnning to move toward the develop­
ment of a system that will secure and train its own boys for the build-



ing trades.” Efforts so far put forth are characterized as pioneer
work. Emphasis has been placed on plumbing and the trowel trades,
outside of which little has been accomplished.

The indenture system is practiced in bricklaying, stone masonry,
tile setting, and plastering controlled by the local unions of the
Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union. Stone­
mason and tile-setter apprentices are under individual contract to
their employers; bricklayer and plasterer apprentices are indentured
through the working agreement between the union and the con­
The unions reported apprentices to the number of 204 in brick­
laying and plastering, 40 in tile setting, and 26 in stone laying.
Most of the established contractors in these lines employ apprentices.
Except in tile setting the unions do not maintain a fixed ratio of
apprentices to journeymen. Allotment is made instead by the joint
boards on the basis or the number of apprentices each contractor can
train properly and keep in continuous employment for the entire
apprenticeship period. The term is four years for bricklayers and
three for the other two trades.
In the fall of 1926, by agreement between the bricklayers’ union
and the employing masons, and in cooperation with the division of
school extension of the Philadelphia Board of Education, night
classes for bricklayer apprentices were begun, with an enrollment of
82. The movement was too new at the time of the bureau’s investiga­
tion to admit of a report, but compulsory attendance is contemplated
by the conference board, which is planning the class work. Previous
to this time the more progressive of the contractors had encouraged
their apprentices to attend night classes at the various trade schools
and had paid tuition for the more ambitious boys who had taken
advantage of the courses offered by Drexel Institute, Spring Garden
Institute, and the Y. M. C. A.
One of the leading mason contractors, who has seven bricklayer
apprentices, reported that his own experience has been that there is a
plentiful supply of pretty fair material and that less than 2 per cent
of the boys who enter fail to complete their terms.
School training is not required of the stonemason and tile-setter
apprentices, and none is provided.

The indu^trial-education program of the division of school exten­
sion in the city schools includes courses in bricklaying, carpentry,
electricity, painting, plastering, plumbing, and sheet-metal work.
Clashes are held at night, three 2-hour sessions a week, and are
trade-extension classes open to both apprentices and journeymen.
A start has been made in what can be more accurately considered
apprentice classes. At the beginning of the fall term, 1926, day
clashes in painting, paper hanging, and plastering were opened for
the apprentices in those trades. Classes are from 8.15 to 12.15
Saturday mornings, two hours being given to manipulative work
and two to theory and to related subjects.



Both of the international unions holding jurisdiction over p e ­
tering have locals in Philadelphia. The apprentice situation as ob­
taining in the local of the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ Inter­
national Union has already been discussed. The operative plasterers’
local union has an apprentice system which, while not actually
an indenture system, operates essentially the same way.
There are 80 apprentices registered by the local union of the oper­
ative plasterers. They are not under contract to their employers,
but by transfer among the various contractors, with the union acting
as the placement agent, practically continuous employment is main­
tained. Plasterer apprentices in shops controlled by the Operative
Plasterers and Cement Finishers’ International Union attend school
Saturday mornings on the employer’s time, and forfeit a full day’s
pay for unexcused absence. The apprentice school course covers
only two of the four years of apprenticeship, and three months are
deducted from the term for satisfactory completion of the school
course. Sixty of the 80 apprentices are enrolled in the Saturday
morning trade school.
Union officials stated that in normal times 90 to 95 per cent of
the boys who become apprentices finish their time satisfactorily.
However, activity in building at that time, especially the enormous
amount of plastering work required in building the Sesquicentennial
Exposition, had resulted in an oversupply of apprentices. These boys
had not finished their terms and the union and the contractors were
experiencing considerable difficulty in finding work enough to hold
them in the trade until they have completed their apprenticeships.

Only one session of day school for painter and paper-hanger ap­
prentices had been held when the bureau agent visited Philadelphia.
Enrollment was 24 in painting and 20 in paper hanging.
Unlike that in the trowel trades, this movement comes solely from
the master painters through the building trades employers’ associa­
tion, and the unions are not cooperating. The unions reported no
apprentices, and probably most of the boys attending the school
come from open shops. They are not under contract to the em­
ployer, and the employer is under no obligation to keep a boy after
he starts to work. The master painters cooperating in the effort just
started have agreed to pay the boys for Saturday and to send them
to school Saturday morning. Failure to attend school in the morning
means the loss of a day’s pay, a provision by which it is presumed the
boys can be disciplined sufficiently to assure the successful operation
of the school.
This effort has grown out of a need for trained men which had
become so acute as to demand some concerted action on the part of
the contractors. An apprentice committee of the master painters
had been working for two years to organize a system and launch a
workable program, and the new day-school course is the immediate
result of its efforts. The former chairman of the committee was
interviewed and stated that while some progress had been made
toward arousing the contractors to a realization of the need for a



definite program the larger part of the problem, that of attracting
boys to the trade and keeping them in it, had yet to be met. He
estimated that not 5 per cent of the boys who enter training for
the trade ever qualify for journeymanship.

Apprenticeship by indenture or agreement does not exist in the
plumbing trade in Philadelphia. The union reports that the helper
system is used exclusively in the union shops. There is, however,
a very large enrollment in the plumbing classes in the city night
schools, and many of the students are boys who are learning the trade
in the open shops. An official of the master plumbers’ association
Philadelphia is training all the plumber apprentices it can absorb. The
master plumbers’ association believes that better results can be obtained
through the night-school system than through continuation classes on paid-for
time. The tendency o f the boys is to “ play h ook ey ” from the trade school,
just as they did from grammar school. When advancement in the trade is
made conditional on their own ambition it is only the earnest, capable ones who
make the effort to attend night school. For that reason we get more reliable
material to train and are making better mechanics in the long run.

The master plumber quoted runs an open shop and has three
apprentices, to whom he gives his personal attention in the matter
of training on the job. There is no indenture, but the boys are kept
busy and paid during their entire apprenticeship period if they
remain. He states that about half the boys taken on complete their

Apprenticeship in the electrical trade in Philadelphia, as else­
where, is a compromise between the indenture system and the helper
system. The boys are, in effect, apprenticed to the union for the first
year of training and are practically obligated under the union agree­
ment to serve one employer. After that year, while still under the
supervision and subject to the discipline of the union, they are free
to choose their own jobs and to come and go as they see fit. They are
really helpers rather than apprentices, and are allotted to the con­
tractors as called for on a basis of two to each five journeymen
employed on the job. They are subject to periodic examination by
the executive board and are admitted to journeyman membership
upon passing a final examination at the end of four years. Attend­
ance at one of the city trade or private technical schools is advocated
but not required.
There were 210 apprentice members reported in Philadelphia, and
the usual percentage of completed apprenticeships is 85.
The open shops visited by the bureau representative employ only
helpers. One large open-shop employer stated that he had tried in
the past to apprentice boys and to train them in his shop, but the
venture was never successful:
There is no w ay to hold the boys. You get no help from their parents in
keeping them in a job where they get only learner’s wages, and they quit as
soon as they think they have learned enough to get more pay elsewhere. In
electrical w oik mistakes and bad workmanship cost money, and it is the con­
tractor who tries to take on beginners who has to pay for mistakes, and he



finds that after all he is only paying fo r breaking in a boy fo r some other
employer to get after the rough edges have been worn off at his expense.
Now we employ only helpers with some experience and make journeymen o f
them the best we can.

The system practiced by the sheet-metal workers is similar to that
of the plasterers, except that school work is taken at night instead
of on the employer’s time. The boys are not indentured but are
responsible to the union and report to the executive board of the
union every six months. The union in turn is responsible for keep­
ing the boys at work and serves as the placement medium through
which continuous employment is maintained if possible. School
work in the trade extension course is six hours a week, three of which
are given to shop practice and the other three to drawing and to
related work. For poor attendance apprentices are disciplined in
various ways by the executive board. Added time is imposed if
necessary and in extreme cases the working permit is revoked.
The apprentice ratio in sheet-metal work is one to every three
journeymen. In a membership of 500 engaged in building construc­
tion, however, there are only 30 apprentices. The union official
stated that “ probably most of them finish their time,” but he had
no actual figures on which to base an accurate statement.

The secretary of the carpenter’s district council, after reporting
that helpers and not apprentices are the rule in Philadelphia, said:
“ We are urging the contractors to help us build up an apprentice
system, but they have not been willing to cooperate with us to that
end, and we can’t do it alone.” A few of the important building
contractors try to encourage apprenticeship, frequently taking sons
of their employees into training, but there is no formality and no
program, and the number of boys who actually serve an apprentice­
ship in carpentry is negligible. Most of the contractors refuse to
“ bother ” with raw material, preferring to take on as helpers un­
skilled men with some experience who can be dropped when no longer

The steam fitters’ and the asbestos workers’ unions are attempting
to introduce an apprentice system into their next working agree­
ments to replace the helper system at present in vogue in both
trades. Officials were not hopeful of success.
The bridge, structural, and ornamental iron workers’ union has
what is called an apprentice system, but it is so loosely constructed
as not to differ materially from the helper method.

Like most “ closed-shop ” cities, Pittsburgh has a well developed
apprentice system, except in a few crafts. The exceptions are paint­
ing and decorating and steam fitting. In steam fitting the old prac­
tice of one helper to a fitter is still followed; and in painting, while



all agree that trade training is a serious need of the craft, no system
and no agency for developing a system exist at present. The very
few apprentices now in training—12, as reported by the painters’
district council—are employed by contractors who have a personal
interest in the boys or a policy of training their own men in their
own shops.
Elsewhere the joint apprentice committee system, with formal
indenture for a definite term, controls apprenticeship in Pittsburgh.
While the distribution of apprentices and allotment to shops follow
various rules and plans, the ratio of apprentices to the number of
men in the trade is 1 to 6 in plastering, electrical work, and plumb­
ing; 1 to 8 in bricklaying, tile setting, cement finishing, and sheetmetal work; 1 to 10 in lathing; and 1 to 27 in carpentry.
The general opinion and experience of contractors indicate that
these ratios are satisfactorily maintaining the labor supply, except
in tile setting, in which craft Pittsburgh, in common with all large
centers, complains of scarcity of men. Apprentice regulations are
part of the working agreements, and these agreements cover the en­
tire trade except in electrical work, where individual agreements are
signed with the local union. Contractors’ associations in all crafts
except electrical and sheet-metal work reported that practically all
of the contractors entitled under the agreements to employ appren­
tices are doing so, and in a considerable number of instances the full
quota is carried.
The most interesting phase of apprentice training in Pittsburgh is
the development of school work. Beginning with the plumbers a
decade ago, each local union has fought consistently and determin­
edly for school training for its apprentices, first in night school and
then in part-time day school, until now some day-school work is
found in every trade except carpentry; and as an official of the
school system remarked, “ the carpenter contractors will fall in line,
just as the master masons have finally done.”
The journeyman plumbers’ union established a night school for
its apprentices in 1917, furnishing the equipment and material and
paying the teacher. Later this school became part of the city nightschool system, and was attended by journeymen as well as appren­
tices. Still later, in 1924, the three-year joint agreement between
the plumbers’ union and the master plumbers established part-time
school training on paid-for time. The Pittsburgh Industrial Com­
mission for the Training of Plumbing Apprentices, which is com­
posed of representatives of the manufacturers and jobbers, of the
plumbing contractors’ association, of the journeyman plumbers’ union,
and of the board of public education, sponsored the movement and
established the school. Equipment was acquired through a contri­
bution of $5,000 from the trade organizations, and the furnishing of
materials and teachers and the maintenance of equipment were under­
taken by the school board, under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes
law. Apprentices attended school one-half day each week.
Under the 1927 agreement school time has been extended to one
full day a week on paid-for time for first, second, and third year
apprentices. Boys in fourth and fifth years must attend school in
the same way, but are not paid for that day.



School attendance and discipline of both apprentices and em­
ployers for infractions of the regulations are taken care of by the
business agent of the union and the secretary of the master plumbers’
Related work—theory and applied science, sanitary code, drawing
and mathematics—occupies six of the eight hours’ school work, the
remaining two hours being spent on shop work. That program is
not necessarily a fixed one, as on occasions, and with certain groups,
more time is spent on shop work than on related subjects, and shop
mathematics is taken up in relation to practical work as well as
A roughed-in frame structure representing a three-story building
is used for installations, which begin with soil pipes in the “ base­
ment ” and are carried up through the building with all the various
equipment connected with fitting up a dwelling. One part of the
structure is made to represent an office building, with appropriate
equipment. This work is done and redone repeatedly throughout
the year. After each installation the work is formally inspected by
a city plumbing inspector and criticized exactly as if it were a real op­
eration, and all corrections must be made and passed upon by the
city official.
Enthusiastic support of the Pittsburgh program was found
throughout the trade, and real cooperation is producing a smoothly
working plan, which has advanced gradually but logically from the
initial undertaking of the union to a school operating 8 hours a day
48 weeks in the year. The secretary of the master plumbers’ associa­
tion reports that there are not enough journeyman plumbers in the
city, but that, he said, “ is due to mistakes and short-sightedness in
the past. We are training to-day all we can handle successfully, and
we are making good mechanics of them.” Of the school program he
said, “ We weren’t getting anywhere with night-school work. The
day plan was then tried and made good. But the half-day system
allowed loopholes for evasions and excuses by both employers and
boys. Probably the full-day plan will prove as much better as the
half-day plan was better than night school.” The teacher agrees that
the full day was “ the next forward step in a real training system.”
The night school for journeymen continues in operation.

Only one other trade gives apprentices a full day a week in school
on pay—the sheet-metal trade. The apprenticeship period for sheetmetal workers is five years, for the first year of which no school work
is required. This provision is designed to take care of the problem
of elimination, which is always greater in this craft than in any
other. After the first year the boy is required to attend school one
6-hour day a week for a term of 25 weeks. In this case, it is not the
public schools but Carnegie Institute that is furnishing the train­
ing, the teachers, and the equipment, and the boy pays his own
tuition of $32 a year. The course of study used is that outlined by
the National Association of Sheet-Metal Contractors. Mathematics,
which covers elementary arithmetic, applied shop mathematics, and
algebra, is taught by academic staff teachers and occupies two of the



six hours. Four hours are given to sheet-metal pattern drawing and
actual construction in the shop under a practical craftsman. When
a pupil or a group has finished the prescribed course in mathematics
all remaining time is spent in the shop.
This system was inaugurated in 1922. During the first five years
about 50 mechanics were turned out. Detailed reports of school
attendance and progress are made to the joint apprentice committee,
through which all apprentice questions are handled. While a con­
siderable number of sheet-metal contractors do not employ appren­
tices at all, those who do are carrying out fairly the requirement of
paid-for time in school, and are cooperating with the teacher and the
committee. Occasionally an employer who is indifferent to school
training will reply to complaints against his boy’s attendance or
record with the statement that he finds the boy entirely satisfactory
on the job and hence sees no occasion for bringing pressure upon
him, but such cases are the exception.

The electrical trade followed plumbing in the establishment of
part-time school training in the city schools. In the negotiation
of the 1925 agreement the union and some of the contractors tried
to institute an apprentice system patterned after that of the plumb­
ers. They met with very limited success, however. Apprentices
were already attending night school under compulsion of the union.
The only step away from school on the apprentice’s time which has
so far been taken in the electrical trade is a provision in the 1925
agreement for one 4-hour session weekly on paid-for time for the
first year of apprenticeship. Second, third, and fourth year boys
are still required to attend night school for two 2-hour sessions
each week.
Theory and applied science, mathematics, and laboratory work
make up the course of study. The equipment is elaborate and com­
plete, as classes are held in one of the trade schools, and apprentices
nave the use of the equipment provided for the day pupils.
It was generally believed that the tendency would be toward a
more liberal attitude on the part of the contractors in the matter of
paid-for time in school. That it is unquestionably an advantage to
the employer is the position taken by some of the contractors. One
of the employers interviewed made the statement that his schooltrained apprentices, even in their second year, know more about the
work that is required of them than any or his old journeymen.
“ They may lack the practical experience, but they know what it is
all about—which is exactly what the old line mechanic does not
The principal difficulty in the way of an effective apprentice sys­
tem, in the opinion of some in the trade, is the fact that the field is
overcrowded already.
After the first year of apprenticeship the boy is not required to
remain with the same employer, although it is customary for him
to do so. Apprentices are chosen alternately by the employer and
the union.



Night-school work has been required of bricklaying apprentices
by the union for several years. Until 1927 the union had been un­
able to interest the contractors in part-time school work, but begin­
ning in September of that year the master masons agreed to parttime school training, one-half day each week, for the first and sec­
ond year boys. Class work in the day school will be chiefly
manipulative, the attitude of the employer being apparently quite
utilitarian and expectant of immediate returns on his investment of
paid-for school time. Third and fourth year boys are still required
to attend night school. The course of study for the older boys is
largely related work, plan reading, drawing, and estimating, with
shop instruction in the finer or specialized points in the craft which
seldom come in an apprentice’s experience. Shopwork of that
character covers fire-brick work and fireplace and mantel erection.
Development of the part-time system will, of course, depend upon
the success of this experiment, but school authorities and some of
the men in the trade feel that it will move along the course already
traveled by the plumbing trade.

Carnegie Institute offers a course in metal-lath erection which
lathing apprentices are required to take. This work is both even­
ing and day school work, and apprentices attend one evening class
during the week and a four-hour session on Saturday morning. The
morning work is not on paid-for time, since the trade works only a
five-day week.
This is also in the experimental stage. The school term had not
opened at the time of the investigation in Pittsburgh and definite
information about school work and the success of the plan was not

School work for carpenter apprentices is entirely night work, two
evenings a week during the school year for the entire four-year
apprenticeship period. Attendance is compulsory and the regula­
tions are rigid, involving fines and withheld pay for unexcused
absences. Forfeit of pay, of course, depends upon the employer, and
some of the contractors are not so closely in sympathy with the
school idea as to make any effort to enforce discipline to that extent,
but they are in the minority.
The carpenters’ district council jurisdiction covers Allegheny
County and even extends beyond it. Accordingly there are ap­
prentices subject to its rules who live a considerable distance from
Pittsburgh, but the requirement of school attendance applies also to
them. A school official reported that—
There are many boys in the carpentry apprentice department who travel 20
miles each w ay twice a week after their day’s w ork is done. That is a real
hardship. I think if the compulsion were removed about three-fourths o f our
carpenter apprentices would drop out. But they are coming now, and after
they get here are interested and attentive and are making good. The con­
tractors w ill line up eventually with the part-time program— it is bound to come.



Now o f course they are getting the advantage o f technical training fo r their
boys without contributing one thing to the method which, they admit, is pro­
ducing better mechanics.

Plan reading, drawing, mathematics, and theory make up the
major courses in carpentry, with some shop work, and estimating for
the advanced pupils.

The remaining trade which has any school work at all for its
apprentices is tile setting, in which classes are held in the evening
during the winter months. This school is maintained by the craft
itself, the dealers furnishing the material and the union the teacher.
Only members of the tile dealers and contractors’ association, of
whom there are 12, are granted apprentices, and each of them ha*
one. As apprentices are taken from the helpers, the apprentice term
is only two years. Selection of helpers to become apprentices is on
a competitive basis.

In both the building trades not previously mentioned, plastering
and cement finishing, a strict indenture system obtains and quotas
are reported as being practically full.
The movement toward school training for plastering apprentices
has been gathering strength and a committee has been at work making
plans for a class at Carnegie. The plan contemplates Saturday
morning classes, which, because of the five-day week in the trade,
will be somewhat of a compromise between night school and paidfor time. While at the time of the investigation nothing had been
definitely accomplished, both employers and the union were inter­
ested in the movement and it was thought that classes could be
started during that winter semester.

Nonunion building tradesmen in Pittsburgh are confined, except
in isolated individual instances, to the maintenance and repair de­
partments of the large manufacturing plants and the transportation
companies. Some of the concerns of this character are training boys
in a number of crafts, including building, in the city trade schools
through the cooperative part-time system of two weeks in school
and two weeks on the job alternately. School officials report that in­
cluded in this group ox trainees are some building-trades apprentices,
principally plumbing and electrical, but that the number is very
small and that, so far as the industry is concerned, while they are
bona fide apprentices, they are in maintenance work and not in
The contract has just been let for the erection of a $1,100,000 trade
school for the city of Pittsburgh, to be ready in January, 1929. With
the opening of this institution, school men look for a decided ex­
pansion both in apprentice training and in cooperative part-time
work, as well as in prevocational trade education.
The director of the College of Industries of Carnegie Institute of
Technology reported that of 3,600 night-school students at this insti­



tution, 1,500 are enrolled in the building trades. These students are
journeymen, contractors, and men not connected, in their major
activities, with the building industry.

The building trades in St. Louis are thoroughly organized, and
except in the plumbing line all operations outside the speculative
building field employ union labor. Associations of contractors are
found in several trades, representing chiefly the large employers,
who, with few exceptions, run union shops.
Apprentice systems in varying degrees of effectiveness are found
in all the important crafts. In most of them the practice is to limit
contractors to one apprentice in each craft, and to a very large extent
St. Louis contractors are employing and training apprentices. In­
denture or some form of obligation is required by some unions, but
an informal understanding or agreement takes the place of actual
indenture in most cases.
Two crafts, sheet-metal work and tile setting, have definitely
organized apprentice systems operating through joint apprentice
committees of employers and journeymen.
School work is required of apprentices in sheet-metal work and
plumbing and is available for apprentices in some other crafts.
With the exception of the two trades mentioned, school work is only
such as is given in response to popular demand in the city night
schools. Classes are open to journeymen, apprentices, helpers, and
persons not employed in the trade, and are subject to discontinuance
at any time if the attendance falls below a fixed minimum. There
is no school training on paid-for time for apprentices in any of the
building trades in St. Louis.
These night-school classes teach only technical subjects—drawing,
blue-print reading, mathematics, estimating, and the like. Practical
work is not available for any of the building crafts, with the excep­
tion of painting and paper hanging. The class in that trade was
not a success, however, and may not reopen. Some unions, par­
ticularly those in the trowel trades, require their apprentices to attend
night school for work in mechanical drawing and blue-print reading
for the first two years of apprenticeship. In other crafts the unions
are indifferent or are opposed to trade school work.
The most highly organized apprentice systems are found in sheetmetal work and tile setting.

An apprentice committee composed of three members of the sheetmetal workers5 union and three members of the sheet-metal con­
tractors’ association control apprenticeship in that trade. After six
months’ probation, during which both boy and employer are free to
end their association, an agreement is signed by both sides through
the medium of the committee. The agreement obligates both ap­
prentice and employer for four years and fixes the wage scale and
other working conditions, all the terms of which are enforced by the



One provision of the agreement is that “ apprentices must attend
evening classes ” at a school designated by the committee “ during
their entire term of apprenticeship.”
By arrangement with the board of education classes in sheet-metal
pattern drawing and mathematics are held four nights a week in one
of the city high schools. These classes are attended by the registered
apprentices from the union shops, apprentices and helpers from open
shops, and some journeymen. Attendance of the registered appren­
tices, which nominally is compulsory, is very good on the whole, ac­
cording to the instructor. “ There are some chronic absentees,” he
reported. “ In nearly every case, however, the boys are indentured
to employers who are not cooperating with the committee, and who
refuse to bring any pressure to bear on the boy or even to encourage
his attendance at school.”
The school makes monthly reports of attendance, progress, and
general attitude and aptitude of each boy to the apprentice commit­
tee. Every six months these reports, together with a written report
from the employer and the shop steward, are used by the committee
in passing the apprentice into the next higher term, carrying with it
a substantial wage increase. Apprentices are not advanced to the
next higher grade except through the committee. Advancement is
withheld as a disciplinary medium, the committee sometimes adding
a few weeks to the current term as a penalty for nonattendance at
school, poor work, or other irregularities.
The school course is 4 years of 37 weeks each, 4 hours a week,
divided thus: For first-year apprentices, 4 hours of sheet-metal pat­
tern drawing; second year, 2 hours drawing, 2 hours mathematics;
third year, 4 hours drawing; fourth year, 2 hours drawing and blue­
print reading, 2 hours heating and ventilating theory and mathemat­
ics. Instruction is wholly individual, the lesson-sheet plan being used
entirely, so that each pupil progresses as rapidly as his own capacity
permits. Practical shop work in school has not been undertaken
so far, but is being considered and will probably be introduced on a
part-time basis as soon as facilities are made available through the
vocational school.
The ratio of apprentices to journeymen under1 the union agree­
ment is 1 to a shop, 2 where 5 to 7 men are employed, with a maxi­
mum of 3 to any one shop. Sixty apprentices in union shops were
reported. Several of the large shops keep their maximum quota
filled. According to the chairman of the apprentice committee,
“ practically all union shops use apprentices and, generally speaking,
employers are carrying out association and committee regulations
While there is considerable elimination during the six months’
probation, there is very little among the entrants who finish their
probation and sign the agreement. Boys who have been in the
business as helpers are frequently given preference for apprentice­
In the opinion of the chairman of the committee, “ the present
system is working successfully and is giving good training to as
many mechanics as the trade can absorb—probably more:—as the
industry is a disappearing one in building operation.”
82713°— 28------ 7



Open-shop apprentices are not under any form of agreement
with their employers and may change jobs at will. While some
of them attend the evening school, attendance is not required, and is
usually determined by the interest and ambition of the individual

The training of mechanics in tile setting is a national policy
of the National Tile Dealers’ Association, and in St. Louis the local
branch of that association has the full cooperation of the tile setters’
union in carrying out the policy. The system works through a joint
board composed of three representatives from each organization.
This is an active working committee which meets twice a month and
deals with all matters pertaining to apprentices and their training.
A contractor is allowed 1 apprentice if employing 5 tile setters, 2 if
employing 7 setters, and 3 if employing more than 7. No contractor
may have more than 3 apprentices. While the maximum of 3 is
seldom carried, contractors who are members of the association are
required under its rules to keep 1 apprentice at all times. An officer
of the association made this comment on that ruling:
W e had to figlit several years ago to make the union recognize apprenticeship
and put on boys. Having forced the issue, consistency demanded that the
contractors also be required to do their part toward training the mechanics
the trade so seriously needed.

While the association is small, it represents most of the business.
Boys who are beginning the trade as apprentices must be grammarschool graduates and be or become American citizens. They serve a
three-year term. When tile setter helpers are taken on as apprentices,
a practice followed by some contractors and permitted under the rules
of the committee, half the apprentice period is allowed for previous
training. Three years as a helper must be served before a helper
can become an apprentice.
Because of the advantage of making apprentices of the helpers,
the maximum age limit of 25 is not strictly adhered to.
School work in connection with training on the job is left to
the discretion of the individual contractor. Some of them send
their boys to Dunwoody Institute in Minneapolis for three months’
intensive training. This course counts for six months’ credit on
the full apprentice term. The expenses of the student are paid by
his employer and the National Tile Dealers’ Association.
Contractors who do not avail themselves of the intensive training
at Dunwoody may send their apprentices to night school, either
the city high schools or Washington University, for architectural
drawing and mathematics. In some cases no attention is paid to
school work by either the employer or the apprentice.
Training on the job, while not following any progressive plan,
is assured by a system of checking the various kinds of work on
which the apprentice has been engaged during the month. A score
card is used, on which is listed all the different operations involved
in tile setting. The apprentice checks daily the operations on
which he has been engaged. This card is presented to the apprentice
committee once a month. I f it shows that the apprentice is being
kept too closely on one line of work the matter is taken up with
his employer.



Apprentices must meet with the joint board once a month to an­
swer roll call and to present their cards. Any grievances on the
part of employers or boys are considered at these meetings. Fail­
ure to attend meetings is penalized by an extension of time.
The system has been in operation since 1923 and in the first four
years 45 mechanics were graduated. According to the chairman
of the board, this number—an average of about 10 a year—will
keep up a supply of tile setters sufficient to meet the normal demand
in St. Louis. In 1926 tile setters were brought in from all over
the country, but that was a peak period. In 1927 some members of
the local union were idle because of a decided slowing down in
building since the first of the year.
Even under those conditions, the chairman of the joint board
thinks that 10 new mechanics yearly will not create a surplus “ if we
can judge by our experience last year. Five of our men died and two
were incapacitated, so that we are not materially ahead of the normal
number now. And even now it is the mediocre setters who are out
of work. The better trained men are busy enough.”
The number of trainees who fail to complete the term is negligible.
Registered tile setter apprentices reported numbered 14, with 2 more
to be taken on at the beginning of the next term at Dunwoody

Apprenticeship in bricklaying and stone setting is by agreement
and custom rather than formal indenture. The trowel trades are
quite thoroughly under union control, however, and when a con­
tractor takes on an apprentice the arrangement has all the force of a
Brick contractors are allowed one apprentice every two years; stone
contractors one every four years. They are required to keep their
apprentices for the full four-year term and to keep them continuously
employed. Occasionally there is an interchange of apprentices by
transfer from an idle to a busy contractor, but this practice is not
encouraged by the union.
The joint arbitration board of the bricklayers5union and the mason
contractors’ association acts as a joint apprentice committee on all
matters affecting apprenticeship, and apprentice problems figure
largely in the monthly board meetings. Permission to become and
to employ an apprentice is given by the board in regular sessions
after formal action upon the applications.
While apprentice bricklayers are expected to attend night school
for work in mechanical drawing, blue-print reading, and estimating
for the first two years of their apprenticeship, the matter is not
stressed by the union and the contractors showed no especial interest
in school work. One, in fact, was definitely opposed to the idea of
school training.
It was reported that all members of the mason contractors’ associa­
tion who under union regulations are entitled to an apprentice
employ one, and many of the large contractors keep their quota of
two at all times. The reported enrollment of apprentice bricklayers
is 168, approximately one to every seven journeymen. In stone
masonry the ratio of apprentices to journeymen is much lower, being



about 1 to 25. Only 12 apprentices were reported by the stone
masons’ union, less than half of the active stone contractors em­
ploying themConsiderable dissatisfaction was expressed by general contractors
and master masons at the restrictive regulations of the trowel unions,
not because of the number of apprentices allowed, but because of the
policy of “ keeping the trade in the family.” The opinion is gener­
ally held that while the allotment of one, and at most two, appren­
tices in the trowel trades appears restrictive, in actual operation it
does not prove so because enough contractors make a practice of
training apprentices to make the supply of new mechanics ample for
normal needs. But contractors do object to having their choice of
boys limited to the relatives of the men in the craft. Contractors
may, of course, apprentice their own sons, but beyond that they have
to take boys from the union lists, to which only relatives of journey­
men are eligible.

The contracting plasterers’ association has no part in apprentice
training and no policy with regard to it. However, most of the
responsible contractors keep one apprentice, which is all the union
grants. The 62 apprentices on the union roster represent approxi­
mately 1 to every 8 union journeymen. There is little nonunion
plastering except in speculative residential work.
Opinions varied as to the adequacy of the number of trainees, one
large contractor contending that, at least for the big operators in the
ornamental line, one apprentice every four years is absurdly low.
Others felt that with every contractor doing his share, the supply
of new mechanics would easily take care of mortality and increased
business in the trade, and, as one of the leading contractors remarked,
“ there are always plenty of floaters to take care of peak periods, and
we don’t have to worry about them when the peak is passed.”
Very little dropping out of trainees was reported, either by the
union or by the employers. Apprentices are supposed to attend
night school, but the business agent of the union said that “ we don’t
have much success in keeping them in school.”

With an allowance of 1 apprentice to a contractor and 160 boys
in training, the carpenters’ district council reports that all con­
tractors who are entitled to an apprentice are employing one, and
they are training all the trade will support at present. Carpenter
apprentices are under indenture, the agreement calling for employ­
ment as steadily “ as work will warrant.” While there seems to be
considerable lost time for carpenter apprentices, it does not materi­
ally affect the completion of training. According to a union official,
90 per cent or more of the entrants complete their time. As in the
trowel trades, carpenter apprenticeships go almost without exception
to the sons or other relatives of the men in the craft, both journey­
men and contractors.
No school training is provided, and so far as could be determined
no particularly definite or effective system designed to create qualified
mechanics is followed.




Still another trade which limits contractors to one apprentice and
gives preference to sons of members is lathing, in which 12 appren­
tices are indentured. Apprentices are under the direction and con­
trol of the executive board of the union, which examines and rates
the boys every six months. Attendance at the night-school classes
in mechanical drawing and blue-print reading is nominally compul­
sory for six months of the two-year apprentice period. As lathing
is a piecework trade requiring speed rather than mechanical skill,
apprenticeship is really a device for keeping the boy at the trade.
Wage rates are adjusted at the end of each six months’ period. After
two years’ apprenticeship in wood lathing, any boy desiring it may
have an additional year as an apprentice in metal lathing. Two of
the 12 boys reported are working on metal-lath erection. Ninetyfive per cent of the entrants complete their training, the union

Plumbing work in St. Louis is about evenly divided between union
and open shops. The master plumbers’ association includes both
union and open-shop men, and while its membership covers less than
half the total number of registered master plumbers in the city, most
of those outside the association are one-man shops and small repair
The national program of apprentice training promulgated by
the National Association of Master Plumbers is the basis of the sys­
tem which the local association is trying to carry out. This program
contemplates an apprentice in each plumbing shop, continuously em­
ployed for the full period of five years, and trained in technical as
well as manipulative work.
There is no actual contract or indenture between an apprentice
plumber and his employer. The union employers have an informal
agreement to keep their apprentices for five years, and as the secre­
tary of the master plumbers put it, “ we expect the employer to keep
the boy and make a mechanic of him.”
The union insists upon limiting the shops to one apprentice. In the
large open shops two or three are generally found, and one openshop contractor doing an extensive business outside of St. Louis
has five. Apprentices were found in practically all the plumbing
shops visited, the exceptions being small jobbing shops, generally
nonunion and run by a father and son. Several union employers
contend that the restrictive policy of one to a shop is unfair and
unwise, but that view is not a general one.
For two of the five years trainees are required to attend evening
classes at Ranken Trade School. This is a private school, and tuition
is paid by the employers.
The course is four hours a week—two evenings of two hours each.
The well-equipped shop rooms of the regular day school are used
for the apprentice class work. Equipment includes, besides wellfitted benches, a two-story-and-basement skeleton structure which is
used for roughing-in, soil pipe work, and installation of fixtures in
wide variety. Bench work covers all forms of pipe work and joint
wiping. Shop lectures on technical and related subjects occupy



about one-fourth of the total time, the rest being given entirely to
manipulative work under individual instruction.
While the provision that apprentices are “ required ” to attend
school becomes are “ supposed 5 to attend school in actual practice,
still attendance is satisfactory on the whole, according to a school
official. About 80 registered apprentices were enrolled in the even­
ing plumbing classes in the school year reported. The number of
plumber apprentices in both union and open shops in the city was
given as 125. Not all of this number would be in school, of course,
as the school period covers only two years of the apprentice term.
On the other hand, not all employers are conforming to the school
The percentage of completed terms was given as 70 by the union,
and variously from 85 to 100 by the individual employers inter­
The local organizations of steam fitters and heating and piping
contractors are negotiating an agreement establishing an apprentice
system to operate through their joint arbitration board. The terms
provide for continuous employment with the same employer for the
full five-year period, and for school work.
At present, however, the helper system is used in pipe fitting.
Classes in applied science and mathematics are available in the city
night schools for both journeymen and helpers. The secretary of
the union, a heating engineer, is the head instructor.

While there is no formal indenture of apprentices by the electrical
contractors^ the local union reports 150 helpers who are assured more
or less continuous employment until they have completed their train­
ing, and it was reported that 95 per cent of the boys finish the fouryear term and become mechanics.
A large percentage of the helpers registered are sons or nephews
of union members. The business agent says that the union makes
every effort to train its own mechanics adequately, and that “ we’d
rather make our own men in our own shops than go outside for them;
we have less trouble that way.” The quota is one apprentice to four
journeymen, which, it was said, is all the business justifies at present.
There is a long waiting list and boys are registered years in ad­
vance. Even though there is no formal contract, the employer under­
stands that he is to keep the helper until his training is completed,
and new working rules now being drawn up make continous employ­
ment compulsory.
School work is optional, but a considerable number of boys are
taking night-school courses in theory and applied mathematics.

Apprenticeship in the painting and decorating craft, while under
formal agreement where it exists at all, is rather casual in actual oper­
ation. An employer who takes on an apprentice is required, under
the working agreement between the master painters and the union, to
keep him for the full term. Few contractors take on any at all,
and while continuous employment is guaranteed to the apprentice



in the union shops, the record indicates that boys do not stay in
the trade to complete their terms. Open-shop contractors almost
without exception report that boys will not stay in the business. As
one of them said, “Apparently the work itself does not interest young
fellows any more so that they want to stay in it and learn it, and the
business doesn’t warrant paying wages that will hold them.”
It is generally felt that more apprentices and a more effective
method of training are needed in the trade, but no concerted effort is
being made to meet the need. A school has been started, but it was
not very successful and it is uncertain whether or not it will be
The 90 apprentices reported by the painters’ district council are
employed by only about 35 per cent of the union contractors of the
city. Several large union shops visited reported having none at all,
for various reasons—“ don’t want to bother with them,” chiefly, and
in one case the point was made that the grade of boys available
through the union is so unsatisfactory that it is not worth while to
try to train them. Another contractor, in interior decorating, while
deploring the lack of a training system, insisted that it was altogether
impractical to put untrained boys in his line of work, which is work
in private homes mostly and calls for a high degree of skill. No
open shop visited had any apprentices, and two was the largest
number found in any union shop visited.


The material presented as appendixes to this report on apprentice­
ship in building construction is in no way exhaustive. It aims
merely to supplement the report with specimen material on subjects
referred to in the text which could not be treated in detail.

Outlines of the courses of study followed in the Cleveland Appren­
tice School and in the carpentry apprentice classes in Niagara Falls
are here given.

Plan for training.— The bricklayers’ apprentice school was organized in
1921 through the join t efforts o f the local bricklayers’ union, the mason con­
tractors’ association, the building-trades employers’ association, and the Cleve­
land Board o f Education. Representatives of these bodies meet biweekly to
determine policies and handle details concerning apprenticeship.
The school year extends over a 48-week period. Each student attends
one-half day (fou r hours) each week, for which time he is paid his regular
salary by the contractor. After a four-year training, combining work on the
job with instruction in the school, the apprentice becomes a journeyman brick­
layer and receives a diploma.
Entrance requirements.— Any youth regularly employed who is working as
an apprentice bricklayer may enroll subject to the policies set up by the
Aims of course.— 1. T o assist in training competent bricklayers by pointing
out the best practices in the trade. Technique is emphasized so that the stu­
dent may develop proper skill on the job.
2. The school aims to teach the related knowledge necessary in bricklaying;
that is, science, blue-print reading and sketching, mathematics, etc., as well
as continuously to point out artistic and aesthetic values.
3. To develop a proper social and economic realization o f the importance o f
bricklaying and to point out its relationship to building trades and" progress in
general. This training is fundamental fo r citizenship.
Course content
First-year jobs— bon d s:
1. Spreading mortar.
2. Building a 4-inch wall.
3. Building an 8-inch wall.
4. Building an 8-inch wall with 4-inch pilaster.
5. Building a 13-inch w all with 8-inch pilaster.
6. Building a 13-inch common bond corner,
7. Building a 13-inch common bond wall with Flemish header.
8. Building a 13-inch Flemish bond corner.
9. Building a 13-inch Flemish bond wall with 8-inch pilaster.
10. Building a 13-inch English bond corner.
11. Building a 13-inch English bond wall with 8-inch pilaster.
12. Building a 13-inch English cross bond corner.
13. Building a 13-inch English cross bond w all with 8-inch pilaster.
14. Building a 13-inch Dutch bond corner.
15. Building a 13-inch Dutch bond wall with 8-inch pilaster.
16. Building a 13-inch diamond bond corner.
17. Building a 13-inch diamond bond wall with 8-inch pilaster.
18. Building a 13-inch garden wall bond.




Second-year jobs— special applications o f bonds:
1. Building all-rolok walls, 8-inch and 13-inch.
2. Building face brick walls with rolok backup.
3. Building interlocking tile walls, 8-inch and 13-inch.
4. Building brick sills.
5. Building brick piers, common bond.
6. Building brick piers, Flemish bond.
7. Building brick piers, battered bond.
8. Cutting bull’s-nose brick.
9. Cutting bull’s-nose mitered corners.
10. Underpinning, heavy walls.
11. Underpinning, steel structure walls.
12. Laying up belt courses, soldiers.
13. Laying up belt courses, waiter tables.
14. Building weathering or intake patterns.
15. Building octagon corners, special and pigeonhole.
16. Building fireplaces, openings and throat.
17. Building fireplaces, damper and flue.
Third-year jobs— arches, special jo b s :
1. Building arches, segment.
2. Building arches, releaving.
3. Building arches, semicircle.
4. Building arches, bull’r-eye.
5. Building arches, camber.
6. Building arches, Gothic (modified and lancet).
7. Building arches, ellipse (true m ethod).
8. Building arches, ellipse (G oth ic).
9. Building arches, groined.
10. Building circular walls, cisterns.
11. Building circular walls, manholes.
12. Building disposal plants, incinerators.
13. Building disposal plants, septic tanks.
14. Constructing fireplaces and flues, firebrick.
15. Fireproofing, floors.
16. Fireproofing, partitions.
17. Terra-cotta work, building jam bs and lintels.
18. Terra-cotta work, building cornices.
Fourth-year jobs— ornamental panels, special jo b s :
1. Building ornamental panels, running bond.
2. Building ornamental panels, diagonal bond.
3. Building ornamental panels, herringbone bond, 45°.
4. Building ornamental panels, herringbone bond, 90°.
5. Building ornamental panels, diaper bond.
6. Building ornamental panels, basket bond.
7. Buttering face brick.
8. Building porch and entrance step.
9. Stone, w all bonds (discussions).
10. Marble, walls and floors (discussion o f varieties).
11. Building windows, jambs, casement.
12. Building windows, jambs, basement.
13. Building windows, jambs, double hung.
14. Building windows, jambs, steel sash.
15. Special layout work.
16. Simple floor plans and elevations.

Plan for trakiing.— This w ork was organized October, 1923, through the joint
efforts o f the carpenter contractors’ association, the carpenters’ district council,
the building trades employers’ association, and the vocational department o f
the public schools. Representatives o f these groups compose the join t appren­
ticeship committee. The school year covers a period o f 48 weeks, each appren­
tice in Cleveland attending fou r hours, or one-half day each week. The
apprentice is paid his regular wage during the period o f attendance and receives
a diploma at the completion o f the four-year course. This training, together



with the four-year apprenticeship, is considered by the carpenters’ district
council as fulfilling the requirements in training fo r journeyman standing.
Entrance requirements.— Any individual who is regularly employed as an
apprentice in carpentry is eligible fo r enrollment, subject to the regulations o f
the school.
Aims of course.— The committee responsible fo r establishing the school had
in mind the follow ing objectives:
1. Training o f competent, skilled journeymen well qualified to perform the
various jobs in the trade through a study o f the most efficient methods o f
2. Developing an essential knowledge o f tools, materials, and related subject
matter which is necessary for a complete mastery o f the trade.
3. Promotion o f an economic and social appreciation o f carpentry and allied
trades in order to develop the highest type o f craftsman and citizen.
Course content.— The job method is used in organizing instruction content.
Special ways o f doing work are pointed out in order to develop the best tech­
nique in practice. Much o f the shopwork is carried out with full-size materials.
Some work is done with models to develop ability in planning and laying out
work. W here models are built, all cuts are transferred to full-size stock.
This provides for the double advantage of planning and laying out cuts on
full-size stock and at a great saving in materials. These jobs were selected
not because they represent the m ajor part o f the work in carpentry, but rather
because they form a suitable basis for teaching the fundamental operations
and related knowledge necessary to develop competent, skilled craftsmen.
First-year jobs— fram ing floors and w a lls:
1. Laying a simple wall plate.
2. Framing and placing a solid beam.
3. Building up and placing a built-up beam.
4. Setting joist.
5. Framing and setting plain studs.
6. Setting studs where shoe rests on joist.
7. Setting studs directly on wall plate.
8. Building up corner posts.

9. Setting corner posts.
10. Nailing on the plate.
11. Cutting and placing bridging.
12. Framing an opening in a floor.
13. Framing a door opening.
14. Framing a window opening.
15. Laying horizontal subfloor.
16. Laying diagonal subfloor.
17. Applying horizontal sheathing.
18. Applying diagonal sheathing.
19. Framing a plain interior partition.
20. Framing special interior partitions.
21 Applying furring.
22. Applying grounds.
23. Setting columns.
Second-year jobs— fram ing roofs (jobs 1 to 18 refer to square-cornered build­
ings) :
1. Making a plumb cut on a common rafter.
2. Correcting length of common rafter for the ridge board.
3. Laying out the rafter to length by the step system.
4. Making the seat cut on a common rafter.
5. Cutting a bird’s mouth on a common rafter.
6. Erecting a roof framed with common rafters.
7. Making the plumb cut on a hip rafter.
8. Correcting length o f hip rafter for the ridge board.
9. Making the cheek cut on a hip rafter.
10. Laying out the hip rafter to length by the step system.
11. Making the seat cut on the hip rafter.
12. Making the seat cut on a valley rafter.
13. Backing-off a hip rafter.
14. Framing a ridge board for a hip roof.
15. Making the plumb cut on a jack rafter.



16. Correcting length o f jack rafter:
(a) Hip jack.
(&) Valley jack.
(o) Cripple jack17. Making the cheek cut on a jack rafter.
18. Laying out the jack rafter to length by the step system.
19. Square-root methods o f obtaining length o f rafters.
20. Framing hips and valleys for uneven pitch roofs.
21. Framing jacks for uneven pitch roofs.
22. Framing a roof o f any polygon.
Third-year jobs— timber framing, exterior finish:
1. Framing a solid sill with a half-lap joint.
2. Framing a solid post, using mortise and tenon joint.
3. Framing a brace, using:
(а) Oblique butt joint.
( б ) Bridge or saddle joint.
4. Framing a splice in a beam :
(a) Fished splice.
(ft) Halved splice.
(c ) Beveled splice.
(d) Keyed splice.
5. Framing a trestle bent.
6. Framing a king truss.
7. Framing a queen truss.
8. Building a plank truss.
9. Shoring walls o f buildings:
(a) Dead shore.
(&) Raking shore.
10. Constructing a scaffold.
11. Making an exterior door frame.
12. Setting an exterior door frame.
13. Making a window fr a m e :
(а) Single sash.
( б) Double hung.
(c ) Casement.
14. Setting a window frame.
15. Applying corner boards.
16. Applying baseboards and belt courses.
17. Putting on novelty siding.
18. Putting on clapboard siding.
19. Applying roof sheathing.
20. Shingling a r o o f:
(a) Plain roof.
(&) Hips and valleys.
21. Shingling an outer wall.
22. Constructing open corn ice:
(a) Framing rafter ends.
(&) Applying cornice to gable.
(c ) Cutting miters on raking moldings.
23. Constructing closed corn ice:
(a) Applying frieze board.
(&) Applying lookouts and plancher.
(c ) Applying fascia and moldings.
24. Constructing a porch floor.
25. Building a porch roof and cornices.
26. Setting porch posts and rails.
27. Building lattice and trellises.
28. Building store fronts.
f o u r t h - y e a r jobs— interior finish, building and setting stairs, concrete form
w ork :
1. Laying flooring.
2. Insulating floors.
3. Putting on base.
4. Casing a door.
5. Casing a window.
6. Making and setting inside door jambs.


7. Applying moldings.

8. Making returns on moldings.

Applying interior cornice and beam ceilings.
Fitting and hanging windows.
Fitting and hanging doors.
Building kitchen cupboards.
Building a drawer.
Installing a mantelpiece.
Building a window seat.
Framing a stringer or horse in a straight flight basement stairs using
clea ts:
(а ) Determining the rise and run o f a stairs.
( б) Determining the width o f treads and risers.
(c ) Laying out a stair string or horse.
17. Building a straight flight o f stairs using housed stringers:
(a) Framing the stringer.
(&) Making the treads and risers.
(c ) W edging and blocking.
18. Building a straight flight stairs with a cut stringer.
19. Fastening a stairs in a building.
20. Setting a newel post.
21. Making and placing the skirting board.
22. Splicing and erecting a handrail.
23. Locating and setting the balusters.
24. Laying out a platform or landing stairs
25. Laying out a winder.
26. Laying out a circular stairs.
27. Building and bracing concrete form s:
(а ) Block footing.
( б) W all footing.
(c ) Light wall.
(d) H eavy wall.
28. Building and erecting form s for colum ns:
(a) Regular.
(&) Special.
29. Supporting form s:
(a) For beams.
(&) For arch decks.
(c ) F or flat decks.

Plan for training.— In February, 1925, the school fo r electrical apprentices
came into existence. The organization was perfected through the cooperation
o f the electrical contractors’ association, Local Union No. 38, and the Cleveland
Board o f Education. The join t apprentice committee is composed o f three mem­
bers from each o f the contractors’ and union organizations, together with the
coordinator and director o f vocational education o f the public schools. The
instructor is an ex-officio member o f the committee which meets once each month
and outlines and plans the necessary details for carrying on the school. The
apprentice attends a full day every other week fo r a school year o f 48 weeks.
At the end o f four years a diploma is awarded for the successful completion
o f the school work. This, together with the satisfactory completion o f the four
years o f apprenticeship which parallels the school work, entitles the apprentice
to journeyman standing.
Entrance requirements.— Apprenticeship in the trade is necessary for enroll­
ment in the school. The committee is perfecting plans so that in the near
future only the highest type o f student w ill be admitted for apprenticeship.
Aims of course.— The electrical w ork requires a very high degree o f mental
ability. Much o f the work involves a comprehensive insight into modern
science. For this reason much emphasis is placed on related knowledge.
The electrical course (1 ) enables the student to acquire the technique o f trade
practice through jobs carried on in the sch ool; ( 2 ) establishes a basis fo r ap­
prentices to receive a thorough grounding in the principles underlying the
practices o f their trade; (3 ) makes possible the rounding out o f a fu ll and com­



plete training in all related subject material necessary to establish in the mind
o f the apprentice the economic and social importance o f his w ork and lays
the foundation fo r efficient citizenship.
Course content
First-year jobs— simple circuit, signal and house w irin g :
1. Making a primary cell.
2. Building a Lech an che cell.
3. Building a Daniel cell.
4. Rebuilding a storage battery.
5. Connecting cells in series, parallel and multiple series.
6 Rewinding the coils o f bell or buzzer.
7. Rewiring an annunciator.
8. W iring for open and closed circuit burglar alarms.
9. W iring fo r return call bells.
.10. Installing bell wiring in houses.
11. W iring fo r simple station two-line phone.
12. Making, soldering, and taping joints.
13. W iring tw o lights controlled from one, two, and three points.
14. Roughing in a knob and tube job.
15. Finishing a knob and tube job.
16. Installing meter boards and services.
17. Installation o f wiring system in an old house.
18. Cutting and threading conduit.
19. W iring o f single and double garages.
Second-year jobs— apartment house and commercial w iring:
1. Bending conduit.
2. W iring a suite in conduit.
3. Pulling and finishing w iring in a suite.
4. W iring a suite in “ B. X .”
5. Laying out a meter board fo r an apartm ent
6. Laying out o f exit and public lights fo r an apartment.
7. Laying out a combination store and suite job, tw o story.
8. Making a factory layout.
9. Making a store layout.
10. W iring a store in w ire mold.
11. W iring a store in concealed condu it
12. W iring a store in exposed conduit.
13. Making a feeder layout fo r 2 per cent drop on 110-volt, tw o-w ire service.
14. Making a feeder layout for 2 per cent on three-wire Edison service.
15. Connecting lamp banks on three-wire system.
16. Layout and connection o f four-suite to vestibule phone system.
Third-year jobs— direct-current motors, controls and power w irin g:
1. Connecting and testing an induction coil.
2. Reassembling a simple magneto.
3. Winding a simple direct-current motor armature.
4. W inding field fo r direct-current motor and assembling complete.
5. Classify and differentiate types o f direct-current motors.
6. Assemble a series motor.
7. Assemble and connect a series starter.
8. Assemble a shunt motor.
9. Tear down and assemble a three and four point starter.
10. Connecting a shunt motor and starter.
11. Assembling a compound motor.
12. Connecting a compound motor.
13. Installing a reversing switch on a motor.
14. Making a power feeder layout for a commercial job.
15. Layout o f pull boxes and cabinets.
16. Inspection and testing o f ammeters and voltmeters.
17. Inspection o f recording watt-hour meters.
18. Connecting a direct-current generator complete.
19. Making efficiency tests on motors and generators.
20. Connecting a variable-speed motor.
21. Connecting a “ Carpenter type ” remote control.



Fourth-year jobs— alternating-current motors, controls, and power w irin g :
1. Energize a bell transformer on alternating current and direct current.
2. Connect lamps in series with coil and condenser.
3. Connect and reverse a single-phase split phase motor.
4. Connect and reverse a single-phase repulsion motor.
5. Classifying three-phase motors.
6. Reassemble a squirrel cage induction motor.
7. Reassemble an auto starter or compensator.
8. W iring fo r induction motor and compensator.
9. Reassemble a slip-ring motor.
10. Connect a slip-ring motor.
11. Connect a primary battery remote control.
12. Make a schematic diagram and study principles o f synchronous motor.
13. Inspect alternating-current ammeter and voltmeter.
14. Inspect watt-hour meter.
15. Inspect power-factor meter.
16. Inspect balancing coil and transformer.
17. Wind a simple bell transformer.
18. Make a feeder layout for a three-phase power installation.

Plan for training.— The painters’ apprentice school was organized in January,
1925. The Painters’ D istrict Council, No. 6, the Master Painters’ Association,
and the vocational department o f the Cleveland public schools have provided a
plan whereby every painter’s apprentice attends school one fu ll day every
other week, for which time h,e is paid his regular wage by the contractor. The
course covers a period o f three years o f 48 weeks each year.
The joint apprentice committee is composed o f tw o members from each o f the*
follow ing organizations: The district council, the Master Painters’ Association,
the Builders’ Exchange, and the board o f education. The instructor is a mem­
ber ex officio of the committee. All policies and questions concerning the school
come up before this committee, which meets every week during the school year.
All painters’ apprentices in Greater Cleveland are in attendance at the school.
Successful completion o f the prescribed course entitles the apprentice to a
diploma. This together with the satisfactory completion o f the three years’
work in the trade entitles the apprentice to journeyman standing.
Entrance requirements.— Anyone regularly employed as an apprentice painter
is entitled to enter the school subject to the regulations o f the school.
Aims of course.— The committee is aiming to accomplish the follow ing ob­
jectives through the w ork in the school:
1. Produce better journeymen through emphasis on technique w hich w ill
result in the development o f correct methods and higher skill through practice
on the job.
2. Round out the training o f apprentices since present specialization makes
it difficult fo r the employer to provide opportunity for experience in all phases
o f the craft.
3. Furnish the opportunity for a more thorough study o f materials, equip­
ment, and underlying reasons for present practices.
4. T o develop a well-rounded craftsman through a study o f the artistic,
economic, social, and civic values represented by the trade and through this
development round out the training for citizenship.
Course content
First-year jobs— exterior and interior painting:
1. Preparation o f softwood exterior surface fo r priming.
2. Preparation o f materials for exterior priming.
3. Priming a new wood exterior.
4. Preparation o f interior woodwork for priming.
5. Sanding and puttying o f primed woodwork.
6. Preparation o f smooth walls for priming.
7. Sizing o f smooth walls including killing o f stains and hot spots.
8. Preparing and sizing o f rough finish walls.
9. Putting on exterior finish coat.
10. Painting woodwork flat coat.



11. Tainting smooth walls second coat.
12. Preparing and priming metal work.
IB. Preparing and priming cement and brick walls.
14. Staining and dipping shingles.
15. Painting and stippling walls.
16. Tinting paint with colors.
17. Enameling walls and woodwork.
Second-year jobs— frescoing, stenciling, paper hanging, and hardwood finish:
1. Preparation and sizing o f walls for frescoing.
2. M ixing water colors with binders.
3. Spreading colors on walls.
4. W ashing surfaces for refrescoing.
5. Applying a stencil to a wall.
6. Running a two-plate stencil.
7. Laying out a stencil— locating keys and ties.
8. Cutting out a stencil.
9. Using the lace-curtain stencil.
10. Laying out a wall for diaper and spot stencils.
11. Shading and veining a stencil pattern.
12. Paneling with stencil patterns.
13. Preparation and sizing o f walls for paper.
14. Cutting paper for ceiling and walls.
15. Making and applying paste to paper.
16. Trimming paper by different methods.
17. Hanging paper on different surfaces.
18. Preparing and hanging canvas.
19. Preparing and hanging sanitas.
20. Preparing and hanging velours and flocks.
21. Staining and filling o f woods.
22. Surfacing o f woods.
23. Rubbing and polishing a varnish finish.
24. Finishing surfaces with lacquers.
25. W axing woodwork.
xnird-.vear jobs— graining, gilding, plastic relief, and estimating:
1. Use o f groundwork for graining.
2. Grouping and spacing o f figures.
3. Overgraining.
4. Combing out in graining work.
5. Matching natural colors o f woods with gylp.
6. Using the check roller.
7. Treating o f surfaces for gilding, sizing, or priming for metal leaf.
8. Applying gold or metal leaf.
9. Lining bronzed or leafed surfaces.
10. Varnishing or lacquering gilded surfaces.
11. Preparation o f walls for relief work—using pounce pattern.
12. Preparation o f plaster for the bulb.
13. Using the relief bulb.
14. Sizing completed relief work.
15. Preparation, application, and decoration o f prepared relief finishes.
16. Repainting and reflnishing.
17. Measuring surfaces.
18. Gauging amount o f materials required.
19. Figuring cost o f materials needed.
20. Estimating cost o f labor.
21. Determining costs o f preparing materials and surfaces.
22. Figuring overhead expenses.
23. Cost accounting in job work.

Plan for training.— The school fo r plumbers’ apprentices was organized in
1918 through the efforts o f the Journeymen Plumbers’ Union and Associated
Plumbing Contractors o f Cleveland, who met with public-scliool officials and
worked out a plan fo r establishing a part-time school. The school year covers
a period o f 48 weeks, each apprentice attending a fu ll day every other week for
fou r years. Graduation from this course together with the satisfactory com-



pletion o f fou r years’ practical work in the trade carries with it the rank o f
journeyman. The school is administered by a join t advisory board composed
o f the chairman o f the joint apprenticeship committee and the director o f
vocational education o f the public schools.
Entrance requirements.— Any individual who is employed as an apprentice
in the trade may be enrolled in the course, subject to the regulations set up by
the committee.
Aims of course.— The follow ing are among the more important aims for
which the course was established:
1. Training to increase proficiency in the manipulative processes o f the plumb­
ing trade through emphasizing the best methods in technique.
2. Acquiring necessary related knowledge for intelligent, thoughtful, and
•.•fficient workmanship.
3. Development o f an economic and social appreciation o f the importance o f
4. Promotion o f an ethical appreciation o f the industrial and applied arts
through the teaching o f plumbing and its relation to other fields o f activity,
thereby laying a better foundation fo r citizenship.
Course content.— The jobs have been arranged with tw o thoughts definitely
in m in d :
1. The order in which the apprentice will be required to assist in new job s so
that the instruction can be tied up with the w ork which the apprentice is doing
on the job.
2. The learning order— each job contributing a knowledge o f tools and proc­
esses necessary in the succeeding lessons.
The follow ing is the grouping o f jobs in the course o f study by y e a rs:
First-year jobs— simple iron, brass, and lead pipe work, such as cutting off,
threading, making connection, bending, measuring runs, e tc .:
1. Constructing an all-wood pipe bench.
2. Cutting off iron pipe to length.
3. Cutting off brass pipe to length.
4. Cutting off O. D. tubing to length.
5. Reaming pipe.
6. Threading iron pipe.
7. Threading brass pipe.
8. Threading O. D. tubing.
9. Making a nipple holder.
10. Cutting a nipple.
11. Screwing fittings on iron pipe.
12. Screwing fittings on brass pipe.
13. Screwing fittings on O. D. tubing.
14. Screwing valves on pipe.
15. Measuring straight runs o f pipe.
16. Cutting out pipe and screwing same together, using pipe diagram.
17. Making up right and left coupling connections.
18. Making up union connections.
19. Making up flanged union connections.
20. Making up long-screw connections.
21. Bending iron pipe.
22. Bending brass pipe.
23. Cutting soil pipe.
24. Preparing oakum and yarning a joint.
25. Filling and lighting a gasoline furnace and torch.
26. Repairing a gasoline furnace.
27. Pouring and calking vertical joints.
28. Pouring and calking inclined and horizontal joints.
29. Making a calked joint, using lead wool.
30. Cutting lead pipe to length.
31. Dressing lead pipe.
32. Cutting sheet lead to dimensions.
33. Dressing sheet lead.
34. Tinning and care o f soldering iron.
35. Tinning brass ferrules and bushings.
36. Preparing and soldering a straight seam.
37. Making and preparing a lead cap.
38. Preparing pipe and soldering in lead cap.
39. Cutting sheet-iron pipe.
40. Cutting tile sewer pipe.



Second-year jobs— making up and hanging up all kinds o f pipe, pouring and
calking soil pipe, leadwork, including wiping o f various join ts:
1. Making up a 90° offset.
2. Making up a 45° offset.
8. Application o f 45° ells to 90* change o f direction.
4. Changing position o f piping from a horizontal to a vertical center line.
5. Hanging up pipe with separate hangers.
G Hanging up pipe with cradle.
7. Making a pipe railing.
8. Constructing a pipe fram e for hot-water boiler installed vertically.
9. Constructing a pipe fram e for hot-water boiler installed horizontally.
30. Constructing frames fo r laundry trays.
11. Pouring and calking horizontal runs o f soil pipe.
12. Pouring and calking vertical runs o f soil pipe.
13. Calking vertical runs o f soil pipe in recess.
14. Making soil pipe offsetting.
15. Calking roof flashings in hub.
16. Calking in lead closet bend.
17. Calking join t near ceiling.
18. Inserting fittings in an old soil-pipe stack.
19. Relining closet tanks with sheet lead—
(a) Laying out pattern.
(&) Forming up lining.
(c ) Preparing and soldering seams.
20. Making a lead sleeve flashing.
21. Installing a lead sleeve Hashing.
22. Making wiping cloths.
23. Conditioning o f wiping solder.
24. Preparing a round joint fo r wiping (lead to lea d ).
25. W iping a round join t (lead to lea d).
26. Preparing a round joint fo r wiping (lead to brass).
27. W iping a round join t (lead to brass).
28. Preparing flange join t fo r wiping.
29. W iping a flange joint.
30. Preparing branch joints fo r wiping.
81. W iping branch joints.
32. Bending lead pipe.
33. Supporting lead pipe.
34. Making a lead drum trap.
Third-year jobs— installation o f cold and hot w ater supply, roughing-in, in­
stallation o f boilers and connections, special installations:
1. Installing water supply from street main to building—
(а) Connections from street main to curb.
( б ) Connections from curb to building.
2, Installing sewer from street main to inside o f building—
(a ) Building connection.
(b) Building sewer.
(e) Building drain.
(d) The main trap.
8. Roughing-in for fixtures—
(a) Reading plans and specifications.
(&) Roughing-in measurements.
(c ) Locating soil and waste stack.
( d) Locating and spacing o f fixtures.
( e ) Checking up material on job.
( f ) Installing soil and waste stacks.
( g ) Roughing-in for closets.
( h) Roughing-in fo r urinals.
( i ) Roughing-in fo r lavatories.
( j ) Roughing-in fo r bathtubs.
(ft) Roughing-in for showers.
(I) Roughing-in fo r kitchen sinks.
(m) Roughing-in for wash trays.
4. Testing roughing-in—
(а) W ater test.
( б ) Smoke test.
(c ) Air test.




5. Installing water supply inside of building—
(а) Connections for water meter.
( б) Mains.
(c ) Branches from mains.
6. Installing hot-water supply—
(а ) Mains.
( б ) Circulating mains.
(c ) Branches from mains.
7. Installation o f hot-water boilers and connections—
(а) Vertical.
( б ) Horizontal.
8. Installing street washers and hydrants.
9. Installing lawn-sprinkling and irrigation systems.
10. Installing auto-washing apparatus.
11. Installing pumps and connections for boosting city water pressure.
12. Installing subsoil drains.
13. Installing subsoil drain sumps.
14. Installing catch basins—
(а) Kitchen.
( б) Yard.
(c) Garage.
15. Methods o f supplying water for country dwellings.
16. Methods o f sewage disposal for country dwellings.
Fourth years jobs— installing, testing, and regulating fixtures, planning layouts
for various buildings, special jobbing w ork:
1. Installing water-closet combinations—
(a) W ith flush tank.
(&) W ith flushometer.
2. Installing urinals—
(а) Wall.
( б) Pedestal.
3. Installing lavatories—
(а) Wall.
( б) Pedestal.
(c ) Pedestal leg.
4. Installing bathtubs—
(a) Common with legs or base.
(ft) Built-in.
5. Installing showers—
(а) As a separate unit.
( б) Over bathtub.
6. Installing kitchen sink.
7. Installing laundry trays.
8. Testing and regulating finished fixtures.
9. Layout for single dwelling—
(a) Basement piping plan.
(b) Isometric elevation o f stacks.
(c ) Plan and elevation o f bathroom layout.
id) Listing material required for job.
10. Layout for apartment house—
(а ) Basement piping plan.
( б ) Isometric elevation o f stacks.
(c ) Typical plan and elevation o f bathroom layout.
(d) Typical plan and elevation o f kitchen sinks and connections.
(e ) Typical plan and elevation o f refrigerator traps and connections.
if) Plan and elevation o f hot-water tank, heater, and connections.
( g ) Plan and elevation o f laundry trays and connections.
(h) List o f materials required for job.
11. Jobbing—
(а ) Repairing leaks in water pipes.
( б ) Thawing out pipes. .
(c ) Rem oving stoppages in soil and waste pipes.
id) Repairing valves.
(e ) Repairing leaks in hot-water tank.
( f ) Cleaning and regulating coils and burners in hot-water heaters.



(g) Connecting gas appliances.
( h) Draining a plumbing system.
( i ) Making out a time and material charge slip.
The jobs are carried out as nearly as possible to present plumbing practice.
Construction.— First period, 6 months: Simple types of form construction,
methods o f fram ing and principles involved, scaffold construction, short cuts in
cutting sills, joists, studding, and plates to dimensions.
Second and third periods, 12 m onths: Shingling, flashing, bridging, special
reinforced concrete forms, framing openings, lay-out o f rods, setting frames,
lay-out and cutting simple rafters, fitting and hanging sash.
Fourth period, 6 months: Methods o f construction and erection o f exterior
finish, preparation o f walls for stucco, veranda construction, putting on interior
Fifth and sixth periods, 12 months: Simple stair building and principles in­
volved, hanging doors and putting on hardware, installing cabinetwork (china
closets, mantels, bookcases, etc.), putting on moldings, laying fancy flooring.
Seventh and eighth periods, 12 m onths: Laying out and cutting jack, hip, and
valley rafters involving the principles o f the steel square. Truss construction
and principles involved.
Mathematics.— Fundamental operations, square root, simple geometrical prob­
lems, problems o f scaling, drawing, problems involving the use o f the steel
square, estimating quantities o f material, mensuration problems, problems in­
volving the use o f builders’ handbooks, use o f builders’ lever, use o f formulas,
builders’ trigonometry, bills o f materials.
Drawing.— Simple representation by means o f two and three view sketches,
interpretation o f working drawings, builders’ geometrical drawing, reading of
house plans, detail sketching, full-size detail layout, rod layouts, making framing
plans, estimating bills o f materials from plans.
Tools and material.— Care, use, and condition o f tools; protection and sea­
soning o f lum ber; kinds, uses, characteristics, and standard sizes o f lum ber;
stock sizes o f m illw ork ; kinds and uses o f builders’ hardware roofing
Safety, and accident prevention.— Occupational hygiene, trade hazards, and
Trade information.— Trade terms, relation o f apprentice to fellow workers
and employer, possibilities o f the trade, State labor department regulations.


Samples of lesson sheets used in different schools and crafts are pre­
sented, as being suggestive of the kind of instruction given appren­
tices in the part-time schools.

The dies used for threading brass pipe are the same as those used for thread­
ing iron pipe. The method o f holding brass pipe is shown in lesson 3, and
also on the illustration sheet with this lesson. Some workmen do not use
friction TJlamps for holding plain brass pipe because the surface is not finished.
Friction clamps should be used for threading all brass pipe regardless o f
whether its surface is polished or not.
Do not allow the pipe to project through the vise any more than sufficient
fo r easy working. The less projection the better. It makes the pipe stiffer
in resisting the threading strains.
Good dies should be used because the threads are easily stripped, and the
pipe is subject to splitting or twisting owing to the abnormal amount o f force
required to cut the thread. When good dies are used the chips are not torn
up and snarled, but stay together and come out o f the chip space in the form
o f spirals.



The finished thread should not extend through the face o f the die. When
such threaded pipe is screwed home in the fitting no threads w ill show. This
practice should apply especially to finished work, such as polished and nickelplated brass pipe.
B efore slipping the guide over the pipe to be threaded— if the pipe is polished
or nickel-plated brass— cover the surface o f the pipe where the guide rotates
with a tough piece o f paper. This prevents the scratching or marring o f the
finished surface o f the pipe, and presents good plumbing practice.
Some workmen use oil as a lubricant in threading, while others use none.
Good threads can be cut on brass pipe without the use o f oil, but it is advisable
to use oil as it assists in cooling the dies.
T ools a n d M a t e r ia l s


Piece % inch plain brass pipe.
Piece % inch nickel-plated brass pipe.
Armstrong stock and dies.
Small monkey wrench.
Small pliers.
Oil can.
Vise installed.
Pipe clamps as illustrated in job sheet No. 3.
S t a n d a r d P r a c t ic e I n s t r u c t io n s


Insert one-half o f friction clamp in bottom jaw o f vise.
Sprinkle a little powdered rosin on the inner surface o f clamp.
Insert the one-half inch nickel-plated pipe in the section o f clamp.
Allow to project the proper distance fo r threading.
Sprinkle a little powdered rosin on the inner surface o f the other h alf o f
6. Place on top o f pipe, directly over the lower half.
7. Close vise and tighten so that the pipe will not turn when threading.
8. Cover the surface o f pipe where guide o f stock rotates with tough Manila
paper, and hold in place until the stock ’is slipped into position for
9. Thread as instructed fo r threading iron pipe.
10. Run the dies on the pipe until its surface is ju st flush with the end o f pipe.
11. Rem ove the dies as described in threading iron pipe.
When considerable brass pipe is to be threaded, a vise with ja w s o f special
design fo r holding brass pipe is used. There are several designs on the market,
any one o f which is practical to use. I f the pipe to be threaded is small, a
canvas strap vise * * * is sometimes used. [A suggestive friction clamp
is shown in the illustration sheet o f this lesson.]
Q u e s t io n s to T h i n k A bo u t

1. W hy should good sharp dies be used fo r threading brass pipe?
2. O f what value is the use o f oil fo r threading brass pipe?
3. W hat is liable to occur if the pipe projects too far out from the vise when
4. H ow long should a thread be cut for brass pipe? W hy?
5. W hy should friction clamp® be used for threading all brass pipe?
6. W hat is Manila paper? Rosin?
7. H ow can the rosin be removed from the surface o f the pipe after threading?
j u s t a f e w w o r d s to l o o k over








In lessons 2 and 3 we learned to cut off iron and brass pipes. These were
standard pipes and were designated by their inside diameters.
There is another kind o f pipe used to connect the fixtures with the rough-in.
This does not need such heavy walls, for there is only the pressure o f the
flow o f water in the pipe. This thin brass pipe is called O. D. tubing because
it is measured by its outside diameter.
Since this pipe is very thin, much more care must be exercised in working
with it or it w ill be crushed. The purpose of this lesson is to study special
methods in cutting off this kind o f pipe.
A w ood clamp * * * is frequently used. When this method is followed
it is necessary to have a flat-jaw vice. The pipe is inserted in the block and a
small amount o f powdered rosin sprinkled on the block where it engages the pipe
to keep it from slipping. This lessens the amount o f pressure necessary to keep
the pipe from turning if it is threaded. I f it is not threaded, rosin need not be
used, fo r most O. D. tubing is cut off with the hack saw. There is no tendency
for the pipe to turn when the hack saw is used to cut it off.
D. tubing may be held in a canvas-strap vice. * * * Care must be taken
not to draw it too tight if the pipe is o f light gauge. The use o f the canvas-strap
vise is recommended, because through its use marring and scratching are less
liable. It is necessary to use powdered rosin on the strap if the pipe is to be
Some O. D. tubing is not threaded, and it is often cut by placing the end of
the tube over the corner o f the bench or any other convenient corner. * * *
The hack-saw blade used should have 32 teeth per inch. I f a coarser blade is
used the thin walls o f the pipe will destroy the teeth o f the blade. A fine
file should be used to square the end and remove the sharp edge so that it
will be in proper condition for installation.
T ools a n d M a t e r ia l s


Pieces o f 1% -inch and 1%-inch O. D. tubing.
Bench with canvas-strap vise and flat-jaw vise installed.
W ood clamp block.
Hack saw.
Fine flat file.
Can o f powdered rosin.
S t a n d a r d P r a c t ic e I n s t r u c t io n s

1. Open the hinged clamp block * * * and sprinkle a small amount o f rosin
on curved inner surface o f % -inch opening. (Omit rosin if tubing is not to
be threaded.)
2. Mark off %-inch from the end.
3. Place 1% -inch O. D. tubing in the block and close the pieces o f the block
together. Allow tubing to project in order to cut off conveniently.
4. Place the block (w ith the tubing inserted) in the flat-jaw vise and tighten
ju st enough to hold it firmly.
5. Saw off the same way as standard brass pipe in the preceding lesson.
6. I f canvas-strap vise is to be used, open strap o f vise and sprinkle rosin
on inner surface if the pipe is to be threaded.
7. Tighten tubing so that it will be held firmly in the canvas grip o f the
8. I f not using vise or clamp, place end of tubing over the corner o f bench,
holding the tubing firmly in the hand and at the same time pushing it
toward the corner so that it w ill not slip off.
The earliest method o f fixture installations was the inclosure in w ood o f
all pipes. The connections from fixtures to waste pipes were made o f lead
and, being inclosed, the appearance o f the pipe was unimportant, except to
the plumber who took great pride in the neatness and exactness o f the work.
About 35 years ago, we changed our methods o f installation and these pipes
were not inclosed. The appearance then became an important item generally.



Plated brass tubing soon came into universal use. The lasting qualities o f
this tubing are very satisfactory and, being cheaper and o f better appearance
than lead, it has almost entirely replaced the use o f lead pipe.
Tubing is made in various sizes, 1%, 1% , and 2 inches being the sizes
most commonly used in plumbing. It is measured entirely by its outside
diameter. The thickness o f the walls o f the tubes vary, and State and city
authorities have passed regulations called codes which specify the thickness
o f the material o f which the tubing is made when used for any specific purpose.
The thickness is determined by its “ gauge,” the “ A m erican ” or “ Brown
& Sharpe ” gauge commonly known as the “ B. & S. gauge,” being the standard
most commonly used for brass tubing. This is the standard used in designat­
ing the weight o f sheet brass used for manufacture. Exposed waste pipes
from traps to floor or wall 2 inches or smaller size outside diameter may be
No. 14, B. & S. gauge. For flush pipes, ventilating pipes, and exposed inlet
connections to traps No. 18, B. & S. gauge, may be used.
Most o f the brass tubing is nickel plated to improve its appearance. This
plating is very thin, from 0.0004 to 0.04 inch and is done by a process called
electroplating. Some tubing is made from a white metal usually composed
o f copper, zinc, and nickel, or small quantities o f other meta,ls added to give
it the desired qualities and color. This tubing does not need to be plated.
Tubing presents a sharp edge after being cut off. Many cases o f blood
poisoning have developed from cutting or scratching the hands on this sharp
edge. Use precaution and avoid this danger.
1. W hy are thinner tubes used for waste connections o f fixtures to rough-in
than for water supply?
2. W hy is O. D. tubing measured by the outside diameter?
3. W hat is the advantage in using a hack saw with fine teeth for cutting off?
4. W hy should a file for squaring and smoothing the ends be used? What kind
o f a file should be used? W hy?
5. Is the wood clamp made o f hardwood or softw ood? W hy?
6. W hich is the most convenient for working, the w ood clamp or canvas-strap
7. W hy did plumbers discontinue to inclose the connections from the fixtures
to the waste pipes?
8. W ould there be any advantage in making the walls o f O. D. tubing
9. W hy should the walls o f O. D. tubing not be made still lighter?
10. One and one-quarter-inch seamless brass tubing (No. 12 gauge) weighs 1.08
pounds per foot. One and one-quarter-inch standard brass pipe (I. P. S.)
weighs 2.577 pounds per foot. How much heavier is the standard brass
pipe than the tubing?
11. I f brass is worth 8 cents per pound, what is the saving per foot in material
in manufacture o f tubing instead o f standard size?




Describe in detail the method o f cutting off O. D. tubing.
One o f the very common operations among sheet-metal workers is that o f
placing on various articles a w ire edge.
T o construct a good w ire edge there are about three principal things to
kn ow : (1 ) H ow to make the necessary allowance fo r the w ire; (2 ) how to
set machines to turn the necessary edge; (3) how to work the wire in so as
to make a nice piece o f work.
In answer to the first need— there are two or three rules in common practice
fo r this allowance— one is to use two times the diameter plus fou r times the
thickness o f the metal. This is probably the most accurate.



T o apply this rule one must first know the diameter o f the wire to be used,
and second, he must know the thickness o f the metal he is to work with.
These measurements may be obtained from most any sheet-metal workers’ hand­
book or any sheet-metal catalogue.
It may be well to call to students’ attention that there are several steelw ire gauges and sheet-iron gauges fo r w ire used. The “ United States steelw ire gauge ” fo r sheet-iron use, the “ Standard United States gauge o f sheet
Following is a part o f tables on wire and sheet-iron gauges, including the
gauges most likely to be needed:
Wire (thickness)

of inch










. 15625

Sheet iron (thickness)

20............ 22..............

of inch



. 109375

Rule. 2 X diameter o f w ire + 4 X thickness o f metal.
The Lufkin Rule Co. manufactures a scale which has the standard wire gauge
on one side and decimal equivalents on the other, which is very convenient to
carry in a tool box.
The other rule in common use is to allow two and one-half times the diameter
o f the wire about three-fourths o f the circumference o f the wire. A fter edge
has been determined this amount must be added to the pattern.
To set the bar folder to fold or turn edges it w ill be necessary to drop the
folding bar down about the diameter o f the wire to be used and set the gauge
to take about two-thirds o f the amount o f material allowed for the wire edge.
It is best to try the edge on a piece o f metal before proceeding with your work.
A fter edges have been turned and wire cut to suit, the work should be placed
on a stake or slab o f iron and worked over carefully to secure the wire with
a wooden mallet (do not use a steel hammer). A fter this the operation may
be completed with the wiring machine or on small delicate w ork the burring
machine may be used. In some cases it may be advisable to place the work
back on the stake, finish with a mallet to care for any roundness that may be
caused by the bar folder or wiring machine.
In cases where the edge, to receive the wire, is turned on the turning ma­
chine set the gauge back about two-thirds o f the amount o f material allowed
for the wire edge. This machine must be used on rounded work, and when a
perfectly straight surface is wanted on round articles— that is in case o f the
wire edge being turned after the article has been formed.

Boarb M easure
A board foot.— A foot in board measure, or a board foot, means a piece o f
lumber having an area o f 1 square foot on its flat surface and a thickness o f 1
inch or less.
Feet.— The term “ feet ” is generally used for “ board feet,” except in places
where it is likely to be misunderstood, when “ board feet,” “ square feet,”
“ linear feet,” etc., are designated.



Allowance for dressing; i. e., planing.— I f lumber is dressed, it loses in size
the amount taken off in shavings. Usually for stock IV2 inches or more in
thickness the loss is about one-eighth inch on each surface planed. Hence a
piece 8 inches wide and 2 inches thick when rough becomes 7% inches wide
and 1% inches thick when dressed, if planed on all rour surfaces.
For lumber less than iy 2 inches thick the amount taken off in planing is
usually about one-eighth inch fo r both surfaces. This varies, however, accord­
ing to the size and nature o f the stock.
In ordinary lumber the loss o f size due to planing is not taken into consid­
eration when the lumber is sold. The purchaser expects to lose the difference
between the rough and dressed lumber, and orders enough to make up this
Width of rough lumber.— In measuring the width o f common rough lumber
a fraction o f an inch equal to or greater than one-half is counted as a w hole
inch, while a fraction less than one-half is neglected. For example, a board
6% inches wide would be called 7 inches wide, a board 6% inches wide would
be called 7 inches wide, and one WA inches wide would be called 6 inches
Surfaced.— The term “ surfaced ” is usually applied to boards or planks that
are planed on one or both sides.
Jointed.— The term “ jo in te d ” has reference to lumber planed on its edges.
It is also used to designate pieces that are made straight on the edges
Allowance in cutting logs.— Logs are supposed to be cut a few inches longer
than the length actually required to allow for bruising and other damage done
to the ends in the lumbering operations. The amount allowed is usually suffi­
cient to permit o f squaring the ends o f the lumber and still have the pieces
long enough. However, it is well to make sure o f the lengths when purchasing
or to make a small allowance, when planning certain kinds o f work, by
reducing the dimensions a trifle.
Lumber.— The term “ lu m ber” is generally applied to pieces not more than
4 inches the smaller way, usually thickness.
Timber.— The term “ timber ” is applied to pieces more than 4 inches the
smaller way. It is also applied to trees standing in the forest, as “ 100 acres o f
timber.” It is sometimes used in speaking o f the quality o f wood, as “ a piece
contains good timber.”
Board and plank.— Any piece o f lumber under 1% inches thick is usually
called a “ board ” ; any piece from 1% inches to 4 inches thick is called a
“ plank.” The use o f these terms differ, however, in various localities.
Rule for finding board feet.— T o find board feet multiply length in feet by
width in feet by thickness in inches.
Exam ple: Find the number o f board feet in a board 8 feet long, 10 inches
wide, and V /2 inches thick.

8 ©X 1 badfet
X I= 0 o r e

Standard lengths of lumber.— In selecting lumber it should be borne in mind
that in most sections the standard lengths are 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 feet, etc. I f it
is cut to a special length it always costs more.
I 1 the Adirondacks one o f the standard lengths o f spruce is 13 fe e t
P roblem s

1. H ow many board feet in a piece o f lumber 1% inches thick, 11 inches wide,
and 16 feet long?
2. EK)w many board feet o f stock are required to construct a platform 8 feet
6 inches square if the stock is 1% inches thick and w e allow 3 board feet
fo r waste in squaring up the ends o f the boards?
3. How many board feet in a piece 18 inches long, 7*4 inches wide, and 1%
inches thick?
4. A board % inch thick, 8 inches at one end, 12 inches at the other, and 13%
feet long contains how many board feet?
5. A stack o f lumber 7 feet 5 inches wide and 9 feet long is composed o f 90
layers o f boards 1 inch thick, placed edge to edge. How many feet does
the stack contain?



6. A platform 12 feet wide and 36 feet long is constructed o f 1% inch by 9%








inch hemlock planks (dressed). I f we add 1% per cent for waste in
squaring, how much lumber must w e buy fo r the platform ?
H ow many planks (dressed) are required to construct a solid girder 49
feet long, 9% inches deep, and 8% inches wide, if the planks are 1%
inches thick, 9% inches wide, and 14 feet long, and are spiked together
flatwise? H ow many board-feet does the girder require i f w e add 1
board foot to every 100 for squaring? (Use 2 by 10 inch rough stock.)
A covered box is constructed o f 1-inch stock. Its outside dimensions are
as follow s: Height, 14 inches; width, 24 inches; length, 42 inches. At
$70 per M what will be the cost o f lumber fo r the box, allowing 1 square
foot fo r waste in squaring?
H ow many feet o f lumber w ill be required for every 12 feet o f fencing
constructed o f 1-inch stock, the fence to be 7 feet high, allowing 2 posts
4 inches by 4 inches by 10 feet long, and 2 scantlings 2 inches by 4 inches
by 12 feet long for each 12 feet?
The inside dimensions o f a box without a cover are 9% inches deep, 2 feet
9% inches wide, and 2 feet 10 inches long. State, first, what size of
boards you would select; second, how many feet they would contain;
third, how many feet o f lumber the box would actually contain when
finished, the lumber to be surfaced and to be % inch thick?
A man wishes to build a picket fence on the side o f his lot. The distance
between the tw o ends o f the fence, if measured on a level, is exactly 150
feet. Because o f a hill in the middle o f the lot over which the fence
must pass he finds its length to be 204 feet. H ow much w ill the fence
cost according to the follow ing specifications? Pickets 3 inches wide and
placed 3 inches apart (cost 5 cents each). Tw o rails on which to nail
pickets, 2 by 4 inches (cost $24 per M ). T w o posts every 12 feet (a t 25
cents each ). Each picket to receive 4 nails ( 8d. w ire; 95 nails in a pound,
at 5 cents per pound). The rails to have 2 spikes in each post (20d. w ire;
28 spikes in a pound, at 4 cents per pound). Labor to cost $12.
As an aid to solving this problem, it is suggested that the student draw
a diagram o f a fence running over a hill, and also o f one on the level
between the same two points, and compare the number o f pickets.
Pickets are placed plumb.
A load o f lumber consists o f 1% -inch boards 12 inches wide and 16 feet
long, placed edge to edge. H ow many feet does the load contain if it is
36 inches wide and 30 inches high? (Use a short method.)
A class in manual-training makes 36 ink trays out o f ash, each trav
being constructed o f two pieces, the base and the top. When finished the
base is }|-inch thick, 5 % -inches wide, and 8% -inches lon g; and the top
tk-inch thick, 3 % -inches wide, and 5 % -inches long. Allowing 1 inch on
the length and % inch on the width o f each piece for rough stock, how
much will lumber for the trays cost at $80 per M for % -inch stock and
$50 per M for %-inch stock?
The foundation o f a house is 22 feet 4 inches by 40 feet 6 inches. How
much %-inch surfaced lumber w ill it take fo r the lower subfloor, if we
cut out a place for the cellar stairs 3 feet 3 inches by 7 feet 7 inches,
making no allowance for waste?
The distance from the bottom o f the sill to the top o f the plate on a cot­
tage is 16 feet 10 inches. I f the house is 25 feet 6 inches long and we
deduct one-eighth fo r openings (w indows and doors), what will be the
cost o f sheathing one side w ith %-inch surfaced lumber at $45 per M?
P r o b l e m s o n R oof F r a m i n g

In calculating the amount o f material for the roofs in the follow ing prob­
lems, it is our purpose to correlate the mathematics w ith the problems the
student is having in drawing and shop.
B y working one or more problems o f the various type roofs, we are en­
deavoring to avoid repetition yet give sufficient drill to enable the student to
become thoroughly fam iliar with figuring the amount o f lumber needed in
any given roof.
Detail specifications will be given with each problem. However, for the sake
o f uniform ity o f work and to facilitate checking or marking, the student should

Each problem is to be checked by the

of rafter

Name of rafter


No. 1
No. 2
No. 3


Common_________ _______________ ___ __________

of rafter

Run of

F t.

of stock

in .

11 10

F eet



tabulate his results as shown below,



After the length o f the individual rafters are found, make out a list o f
material you would need to order from the lumber y a rd ; also, for your own
convenience, note what rafters can be cut from the various stock, as per
example b elow :

Rafters cut therefrom



3 2 by 6 inches by 14 feet_________ _
34 2 by 6 inches by 12 feet___________
6 2 by 6 inches by 10 feet___________

No. 14, No. 5, No. 7.............................
No. 1, No. 2, No. 13.............................
No. 3, No. 6, No. 8, No. 9, No. 10, No.





L a y o u t of 12-S t o r y H o tel a n d S tore B u il d in g , A. C. D is t r i c t , C o rn er L o t 100
F e e t b y 125 F e e t

First floor o f building consists o f entrance hall, restaurant, office o f building,
and other stores; also receiving room.
Second floor shall consist o f lounging room, lobby, and recreation room.
From third floor up to and including the eleventh floor shall consist o f single
rooms, bath, and toilet.
The top floor shall consist o f ballroom, lounging room, check rooms, and toilets.
The basement shall be divided into the following spaces: Boiler room, meter
room, coal bin, bowling alley, billiard and pool room.
Include the follow ing appliances in your installation:

1 fire pump----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 refrigeration plant for entire building______________________
2 elevator motors at 15 horsepower each______________________
1 water pump-------------------------------------------------------------------------2 sewer pumps at 1 horsepower each-------------------------------------1 vacuum cleaner------------------------------------------------------------------1 boiler return feed pump------------------------------------------------------Ventilating fans fo r bowling alley, billiard room, ballroom,
and restaurant. Figure change o f air every five minutes
to get size o f fans needed----------------------------------------------------



Make separate floor plans fo r basement, first floor, second floor, and top floor.
Third to eleventh floors, inclusive, w ill be the same as third floor.
Indicate on drawing or specification sheet the follow ing th in gs:
1. Size o f wire, conduit, fuses, and switch for power service.
2. Size o f wire, conduit, fuses, and switch for lighting service.
3. Size o f wire, conduit, fuses, and cut outs fo r m otors and light.
4. Location o f distribution center.
5. Locations o f meters fo r stores and building proper.
You are to turn in to your instructor the follow ing seven sheets:
1. Floor plan o f basement.
2. First-floor plan.
3. Second-floor plan.



Third-floor plan.
Top-floor plan or riser plan.
Specification sheet.
Answers to the follow ing questions.

1. What clearance on building must be maintained between service head and
telephone bracket?
2. State total load in watts fo r entire building. Show figures used to get this
(a ) W ill service be 110 or 220 volts on lighting?
(b) State size o f lighting service.
3. State power load in horsepower.
(a ) State size o f power service.
4. W hat size ground on this lighting installation?
5. I f any for power, state size.
6. Give size o f service switch fo r power. Also lighting service switch.
(а) Fuses for power.
( б) Fuses fo r lighting.
7. Give size o f fuses, wire, switch, and conduit for each m otor installation.
8. W ill current transformers be necessary on lighting and power? I f so, w hy?
9. W hat lights shall the emergency system control? W here shall emergency
lights be located? Mark these in your drawings.
H eads

1. W hat is the weight o f a column o f water 1 inch square in cross section by
5 feet high? I f a gauge is placed in the bottom or on the side at the
bottom o f a pipe or tank holding 5 feet o f water, what pressure w ill it
2. What is the pressure on each radiator and on the boiler in the sketch shown
[on lesson sheet]?
3. I f city water pressure is 35 pounds per square inch, how high w ill water be
delivered from a faucet?
4. A t 10 feet to the story, how many stories high w ill water be delivered?
Does your answer correspond to your experience? I f not, where is the
5. A tank holds water at no gauge pressure. I f 15 pounds per square inch is
exerted by a pump against the water in the tank, how high w ill the water
rise in a pipe extending up from the tank?
6. A round tank 48 inches in diameter is filled with water and a pressure o f 80
pounds per square inch is placed on the water. W hat is the total pressure
on the heads o f the tank?
7. Tank “A ” is an air tank with air at a pressure o f 50 pounds per square inch.
Tank “ B ” is full o f water and the pump at “ C ” pumps up a pressure of
75 pounds per square inch in tank “ B.” How high w ill the water rise in
the pipe “ D ” ? H ow high a pressure per square inch w ill be necessary to
pump water into the tank “ A ” against the 50 pounds pressure? [Diagram
shown on lesson sheet.]
E x p a n s io n
m a t h e m a t ic s

Allowance fo r expansion and contraction is o f great importance in running
pipe lines, mains, branches, or risers. In mains, provision must be made by
allowing sufficient clearance at ends o f runs. Hangers o f proper design are
used and, if necessary, expansion joints or long-turn bends must be installed.
In branches, the length should be sufficient to allow the pipe to spring the
required amount or by use o f swivel connections. In risers, the place and kind
o f anchorage and supports depend upon the amount o f expansion and contrac­
tion in the line. The amount o f expansion o f an object depends upon the kind



o f material, its length, and its change in temperature. Tables are prepared
which give us the amount o f expansion for different materials, per unit length,
per degree change in temperature. These figures are called “ Coefficients o f
linear expansion/’ For steel pipe this figure is 0.0000067, which means that
1 inch o f pipe will increase 0.0000067 ineli in length when heated 1° F., or 1
foot o f pipe w ill increase 0.0000067 foot in length when heated 1° F. Thus,
to find the amount o f expansion for any length of pipe, multiply the length o f
pipe in inches or feet by 0.0000067 and the result by the number o f degrees
difference in temperature and the result w ill be, in inches or feet, the amount
o f expansion on the line.
Example.— A steam main is 125 feet long. It is erected in place at 60° F.
and is to carry 150 pounds steam pressure. W hat w ill be its expansion or
change in length? (Steam at 150 pounds is heated to 365°.)
Solution.— The expansion equals 125 X 0.0000067 X (365— 60) which equals
0.2544.foot. To change this to inches multiply by 12 and the result w ill bo
3.053 inches. ( N o t e . — The usual rule o f thumb is to allow 3 inches clearance
fo r expansion fo r every 100 feet o f pipe.)

1. The normal temperature o f a basement is 60° F. at which temperature a
3-inch main is 50 feet long. W ith 15 pounds steam pressure in the sys­
tem, what is its length? (15 pounds steam= 25 0° F.)
2. A steam main and a return main are o f the same length when erected at
a temperature o f 32° F., each being 140 feet long. W hat w ill be the d if­
ference in length under working conditions when the steam pressure is
15 pounds and the hot-water returns show 150° ?
3. A riser 75 feet long is anchored at its middle point. H ow much o f a drop
w ill it cause in the steam main when 15 pounds o f steam is being carried?
The temperature o f the building is 65° F.
4. A steam radiator is directly connected to a 45-foot riser anchored at the
bottom. W ith 10 pounds o f steam in the line how much w ill one end o f
the radiator rise? The radiator stands level at 65°. (10 pou n d s= 240°.)
5. How much w ill an 18-foot boiler change in length in a change o f tempera­
ture from 40° F. to 225 pounds steam? (225 pounds steam =397° F .)


Appendix C presents types of formal indentures, apprentice con­
tracts, and agreements on the part of employers to engage a boy for
a full apprentice term.





Indentures to which both employers’ associations and unions are
parties, through their joint apprentice committees, are similar to
those used in the painting and decorating trade in Cleveland and
bricklaying trade in Detroit, shown below. The provision for paidfor time in school in contracts is found only in places in which dayschool work is recognized as part of the apprentice training. Where
school work is confined to evening classes, some contracts mention it
as a requirement in training, but make no binding provision, and
other contracts do not refer to school work.
The three forms used in apprenticing to each of the building trades
in Cleveland—the applications of contractor and apprentice to the
apprenticeship committee, and the formal indenture covering the
apprentice term—are essentially the same as those shown below,
which are used in the painting trade.




(Must be filled out in Ink in applicant’s own handwriting)

N a m e __________________________________ D a t e ----------------------------------------------A d d r e s s ________________________________ Telephone N o . _____________________
Place o f b i r t h _________________________
D ate o f b i r t h ---------------------------------I f yon w ere not born in this country, how long have you been h e r e ? ___________
H ow long in this cou n try ?______ Parents’ n ationality: M oth er_____F a th e r__
Father or guardian’s n a m e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Address_________________ ___________Is he a c it iz e n ? ----------------------------------------Have you completed the seventh grade o f school, or its equ ivalent?___________
L a s t T h r e e O c c u p a t io n s

From (month
and year)

To (month
and year)




Your position

Present o ccu p a tion ----------------------------------------------------------- Schools attended:
Name o f s c h o o l________________________ _C i t y _________________
Number o f years a tte n d e d ------------------- --Day or night school .
Name o f s c h o o l________________________ _C i t y _________________
Number o f years a tten d ed _____________ _D ay or night school
Name o f s c h o o l________________________ _City
Number o f years atten d ed _____________ _D ay or night school
R e l a t iv e s E ngaged i n

C o n t r a c t in g or A n y


B u il d in g T rad e





Recommended b y : ___________________




Name o f contractor who will give you a t r i a l -----------------------------------------------------A d d re s s ________________________ _____________________
Do you understand that you w ill be on a 30-day trial, if your application is
approved, and that after the 30-day trial, i f you are satisfactory, this applica­
tion will become part o f your indenture c o n t r a c t ? ____________________________
Are you willing to work for the established wage scale for painting and decorat­
ing apprentices throughout your in den tu resh ip?_____________________________
Have you ever worked at painting and d ecora tin g ?--------------------------------------------I f so, w h e n ? _______________ w h e r e ? ________________ from w h o m ? ________________
W ill you obey all rules and instructions o f the apprentice eom m ittee?_________
Are you willing to serve an apprenticeship o f at least 156 weeks?_____________
W ill you place yourself under the jurisdiction o f the apprentice co m m itte e ?____
D o you understand that it is compulsory for you to attend the apprentice
school during the hours designated by the apprentice committee, and that
you will be accountable to the teacher during that tim e?___________________
T o B e S ig n e d B y F o r m e r E m p l o y e r s or T e a c h e r s , O t h e r T h a n

R e l a t iv e s

I have known----------------------- for two years or more, and certify that he is o f
good character and habits.






(Must be filled out with ink)

Name o f firm-------------------------------------------------------------- Date_______________________
A dd ress----------------------------------------------------------------------- Telephone No_____________
Number o f years in contracting business under the above name (im mediately
preceding this d a te )___________________________________________________________
Apprentice applicant’s n am e_____________________________________________________
Address____________________________ Is he a relative______________________________
I f so, what relationship--------------------I f not, how long have you known him _____
Is he now in your em p loy ___________I f so, how lo n g ______________________________
In what position_________________________________________________________________
Average number o f painters and decorators employed by you throughout the
y e a r ___________________________________________________________________________
Number o f painters and decorators now in your employ________________________
Principal type o f painting and decorating you do________________________________
List four jobs, each year. The last tw o years and location.

How long w ill your present jobs continue--------------------------------------------------------- --W ill you keep this apprentice in your employ as long as you have painting and
decorating w ork o f any kind---------------------------------------------------------------------------D o you understand that applicants are started with a thirty-day trial
From whom do you buy material?
__________________________________________Monthly average_______________________
__________________________________________Monthly average_______________________
_______________________________ Monthly average -------------------------Do you intend to interest yourself in the progress o f this apprentice and comply
with the rules and regulations o f the apprentice committee_______ ____________
Are you willing to pay an apprentice the established rate o f wage fo r time
spent at school during the hours designated by the committee_______________
D o you feel that you do sufficient w ork to keep an apprentice employed fo r at
least 156 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I f this applicant is rejected, would you be willing to take another----------------------Have you ever had a painting and decorating apprentice serve his time with
you____________________________________________ H ow many_____________________
Has your application fo r a painting and decorating apprentice ever been
denied— ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------Have you previously appeared before this committee-----------------------------------------Do you know that this application will become part o f the indenture contract
i f the apprentice is satisfactory at the end o f the 30-day trial period------------(S ign ed )-------------------------------------------------(Must be signed by a member of firm)

Name o f representative o f the firm appearing before the committee-------------------Date o f appearance--------------------------------------------------------R em arks:
(To be attached to apprentice application form and delivered by applicant to paintin? and
decorating apprentice committee)





This indenture, made in triplicate this______ day o f-------------------- A. D., 192—,
at Cleveland, Ohio, witnesseth that--------------------------------- (apprentice) party o f
the first part, o f______________________in the county o f Cuyahoga and State
o f Ohio, now the age o f______ years, with the consent o f____________________
(parent or guardian), party o f the third part, his------------------------------ hereon
indorsed, does o f his own free will, bind himself to serve______________________
(contractor), party o f the second part o f----------------------------------in the County



o f Cuyahoga and State o f Ohio, as an apprentice in painting and decorating
to said------------------------------------- (con tractor), party o f the second part fo r the
term o f at least 156 weeks, to w it : From the date thereof until the______ day o f
___________________ _ A. D., 192__, provided, however, that said apprenticeship
shall not be concluded until said apprentice has completed the required appren­
tice school course o f study and complied fully w ith all requirements o f the
apprentice committee, during all o f which time the said apprentice shall serve
his employer faith fully and honestly, and obey his law ful directions connected
with said trad e; that he w ill keep all the secret processes and protect and
preserve the property and goods o f the said contractor; and w ill not engage
in said art or trade on his own account during the term o f his apprenticeship,
and will remain faithfully in the employ o f said party o f the second part
fo r the purpose herein mentioned, unless sick or unable to work, and further
agrees to attend the apprentice school at such times as the apprentice commit­
tee designates. Party o f the first part voids this contract by his absence from
his w ork or apprenticeship school for a period o f 30 days, or if he fails to
return to the employer to whom he is indentured within 10 days after due
notification, if in the opinion o f the apprentice committee said absence has
been w illful and unnecessary.
Party o f the second part hereby agrees to pay said party o f the first part
no more and no less than the follow ing sums o f money for pay or w a g es:
Per cent
Per cent
First 3 months_____
30 Eighth 3 months_____
Second 3 months_____ ___»
____ 35 Ninth 3 m o n th s --------- _________
Third 3 months—
. ______ 40 Tenth 3 months----------- __________
Fourth 3 months________ _____ — 45
Eleventh 3 m o n th s ------ ________ 80
Fifth 3 months____ ______ _________
50 Tw elfth 3 months and to expira­
Sixth 3 months________ _________ 55
tion o f c o n t r a c t - __ ___________ 85
Seventh 3 m o n th s _____ ______ 60
These rates are based on journeyman painters* and decorators’ rates per h o u r ;
any change in said rates w ill make a proportionate change in these rates.
Party o f the second part further agrees to permit attendance o f the party o f
the first part at the apprentice school during the hours designated by the ap­
prentice committee, and to pay said first party fo r such designated hours as he
attends school at his established rate per hour. Party o f the second part also
agrees to provide party o f the first part with employment at his trade during
his term o f apprenticeship, when possible, or to make an effort to secure em­
ployment for said party o f the first part with some other bona fide painting and
decorating contractor at the trade herein mentioned.
I f said party o f the second part has not furnished said party o f the first part
with employment fo r a period o f 30 days and if in the opinion o f the apprentice
committee said party o f the second part has not made a determined effort to
secure employment fo r said party o f the first part, this contract may be declared
null and void.
It is understood and agreed that the applications filled out by the parties o f
the first and second parts become a part of this indenture contract if the
apprentice is satisfactory at the end o f the 30-day trial period.
No transfer or release o f an indentured apprentice w ill be made unless both
contractors, parties to the change, the apprentice, and the parent or guardian
appear join tly before the apprentice committee, and after proper hearing, the
consent o f all parties is obtained.
All parties further agree to comply with all the rules and regulations form u­
lated now or hereafter by the apprentice committee.
All prior contracts o f indentureship between the parties o f the first, second,
and third parts are hereby revoked and declared null and void.
In witness whereof, the parties hereto have set their hands and seals the day
and year first above written.
Parent or Guardian.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence o f :




This indenture, made this----------day o f___________A. D. 192__, witnesseth that
--------------------------------- (apprentice), party of the first part, o f-----------------------------in the County o f W ayne and State o f Michigan, now the age o f _____________
years, with the consent o f----------------------------------- (parent or guardian), party of
the third part, his----------------------- hereon indorsed, does o f his own free will
bind himself to serve----------------------------------(contractor), party o f the second
part, o f---------------------------------------- in the County o f W ayne and State o f Michigan.
as apprentice in bricklaying to said----------------------------------(contractor), party of
the second part, fo r the term o f--------------------years to w it : From the date thereof
until the----------------------------------day o f----------------------------------A. D. 192__, during
all o f which time the said apprentice shall serve his employer faithfully and
honestly, and obey his law ful directions connected with said trad e; and will
not engage in said art or trade on his own account during the term o f his
apprenticeship, and w ill remain faithfully in the employ o f said party o f the
second part fo r the purpose herein mentioned, unless sick or unable to work,
and further agrees to attend the apprentice school at such times as the ap­
prentice committee designates. Party o f the first part voids this contract by
his absence from his w ork for a period o f 30 days, or if he fails to return to
the employer to whom he is indentured within 10 days after due notification,
if in the opinion o f the apprentice committee said absence has been willful
and unnecessary.
Now, therefore, that said party o f the second part has agreed to accept said
party o f the first part as apprentice to learn the said trade o f bricklaying
upon the follow ing terms and conditions, which are agreed to by said first and
third parties, as follow s:
(1 )
Party o f the second part hereby agrees to pay said party o f the first
part compensation based on journeyman bricklayers’ rates per hour. The
percentage o f journeymen’s rates to be paid are as follow s:
Per cent

First 6 months_____________________32
Second 6 m on th s.-------------------------- 36
Third 6 months------------------------------ 42
Fourth 6 months_________________ 48

Per cent

F ifth 6 months____________________52
Sixth 6 months___________________ 62
Seventh 6 months_________________ 80

Party o f the second part further agrees to permit attendance o f the party
o f the first part at the apprentice school during the hours designated by the
apprentice committee, and to pay said first party for such designated hours as
he attends school at his established rate per hour. Party o f the second part
also agrees to provide party o f the first part with employment at his trade
during his term o f apprenticeship, when possible, or to make an effort to secure
employment for said party of the first part with some other bona fide mason
contractor at the trade herein mentioned.
I f said party o f the second part has not furnished said party o f the first
part with employment fo r a period o f 30 days, and if in the opinion o f the
apprentice committee said party o f the second part has not made a determined
effort to secure employment fo r said party o f the first part, this contract may
be declared null and void.
All parties further agree to comply with all the rules and regulations
formulated now or hereafter by the apprentice committee.
In witness whereof, the parties hereto have set their hands and seals the
day and year first above written.
Parent or Guardian.
Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence o f :


This is the legal form of indenture required by law in Wisconsin
for all apprentices. Terms and conditions are enforced by the indus­
trial commission, which administers the State apprenticeship law,



The indenture used by the joint apprenticeship committee of Niag­
ara Falls is similarly worded, but is a voluntary agreement without
the legal force which, nominally at least, attaches to that in use in

This indenture, made in triplicate t h i s ______ day o f ---------------------- , 19—,
b e tw e e n ------------------------------------------------------ - hereafter called the first party, and

--------------------------------- , a minor b o r n ---------------------------, o f ______________________,
(Date of birth)

(Street and number)

_____________, Wisconsin, a n d ____________________________ , hereafter called the

(Name of parent or guardian)

second parties:
Witnesseth, That the first party agrees to take the said minor into its employ
and service as an apprentice to teach him the trade o f---------------------------------------- ,
as per Exhibit A .
That the said second parties agree that the said minor shall diligently and
faithfully work for and serve the said first party during the full apprenticeship.
The apprenticeship shall begin on t h e ______ day o f ----------------------, 19__, and
shall be fo r a period o f ___________years. The length o f year, the compensa­
tion fo r the term o f apprenticeship, and the processes, methods, or plans to be
taught shall be as per Exhibit A.
It is mutually agreed that the total number o f hours’ w ork in any one week
shall not exceed 55, and that at least 4 o f such hours or its equivalent 2 shaU be
devoted by said minor to school instruction. I f the apprenticeship is for a
period longer than tw o years, the total hours o f instruction shall not be less
than 400.
(This clause shall not be construed to prevent school instruction after the second year if
both parties agree to the continuation of same)

Any indenture may be annulled by the Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin
upon application o f either party and good cause shown.
A t the completion o f the apprenticeship the said minor shall receive a certifi­
cate stating the terms o f his indenture.
In witness whereof the parties have caused this indenture to be signed as
required by chapter 106 o f the Laws o f Wisconsin.*
______________________________________ [ s e a l .]



(Name of firm or corporation)


(Parent or guardian)

[s e a l.]



B y -----------------------------------------------------

E x h ib it A

Notice.— No apprenticeship indenture will be legal which does not have this exhibit filled
out as indicated below. (Section 106 of the Statutes)

Extent of period of apprenticeship.— (H ere must be stated the length o f time
to be served, and, wherever the trade can determine, the exact length o f each
apprenticeship year.)
Schedule of processes to ~ e worked.— (H ere must be stated the processes,
methods, or plans to be taught, and the approximate time to be spent at each
process, method, or plan— to conform to the character o f the individual trade.)
Compensation to be paid.— The apprentice shall receive in w a g e s : _________
Special provisions.— These to be stated here or on follow ing page.

(Section 106 of the Statutes, as amended by the Laws of 1919 and 1923)
A p p r e n tic e D e fin e d

Sec. 106. 1. The term “ apprentice” shall mean any minor, 16 years o f age or
over, who shall enter into any contract o f service, expressed or implied, whereby
1 Exhibit A is to be filled out on page 3 of this form.
2To meet the peculiar requirements of certain trades, special arrangements for schooling
may be made through the Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.
8A copy of the law forming the basis upon which this indenture is made and governing
all matters not expressed in this contract is hereto attached.

82713°— 28------ 9



he is to receive from or through his employer, in consideration fo r his services
in whole or in part, instruction in any trade, craft, or business.
I n d e n t u r e D e f in e d

2. Every contract or agreement entered into by an apprentice with his em­
ployer shall be known as an indenture; such indenture shall be in w riting and
shall be executed in triplicate, one copy o f which shall be delivered to the ap­
prentice, one to be retained by the employer, and one to be filed with the
Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin at Madison.
W h o M a y B e I ndentured

3. Any minor, 16 years o f age or over, may, by the execution o f an indenture,
bind himself as hereinafter provided fo r a term o f service not less than one year.
W h o M u s t S ig n I n d e n t u r e

4. Every indenture shall be sign ed:
(1 ) By the minor.
(2 ) By the fath er; and i f the father be dead or legally incapable o f giving
consent or has abandoned his fam ily, then
(3 ) By the m other; and i f both the father and mother be dead or legally
incapable o f giving consent, then
(4 ) B y the guardian o f the minor, i f any.
(5 ) I f there be no parent or guardian with authority to sign, then by tw o
justices o f the peace o f the county o f the residence o f the minor, or by a mem­
ber o f the Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin or a deputy thereof.
( 6) By the employer.
C on ten ts of I nden tu re

5. Every indenture shall contain:
(1 ) The names o f the parties.
(2 ) The date o f the birth o f the minor.
(3 ) A statement o f the trade, craft, or business which the minor is to be
taught, and the time at which the apprenticeship shall begin and end.
(4 ) An agreement stating the number o f hours to be spent in work, and the
number o f hours to be spent in instruction. During the first tw o years o f his
apprenticeship hia period o f instruction shall be not less than fou r hours per
week or the equivalent. I f the apprenticeship is fo r a longer period than tw o
years, the total hours o f instruction shall be not less than fou r hundred hours.
The total number o f hours o f instruction and service shall not exceed fifty-five
per w eek ; provided, that nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to forbid
overtime work as provided in subsection 7 o f this section.
(5 ) An agreement as to the process, methods, or plans to be taught, and the
approximate time to be spent at each process, method, or plan.
( 6 ) A statement o f the compensation to be paid the apprentice.
(7 ) An agreement that a certificate shall be given the apprentice at the con­
clusion o f his indenture, stating the terms o f indenture.
P r o v is io n for S c h o o l in g

6. The employer shall pay fo r the time the apprentice is receiving instruction
at the same rate per hour as for services. Attendance at school shall be certi­
fied by the teacher in charge, and failure to attend school shall subject the ap­
prentice to a penalty o f loss o f compensation fo r three hours for every hour such
apprentice shall be absent without good cause.
O v e r t im e

7. An apprentice over 18 years o f age may be allowed to w ork overtime not to
exceed thirty hours in any one month. Overtime shall be considered all time
over ten hours in any one day, and in case the hours o f labor are limited in the
particular craft, industry, or business, and as to the particular employer, to less
than ten hours, overtime shall be figured as all time in any one day in excess o f
such limitation. F or overtime the apprentice shall receive one and one-half
times the rate per hour provided in his contract for regular time.



P e n a l t y fo b V io l a t io n o f C o n t r a c t

8. I f either party to an indenture shall fail to perform any o f the stipulations
thereof, he shall forfeit not less than one dollar or more than one hundred dol­
lars, such forfeiture to be collected on complaint o f the Industrial Commission
o f W isconsin and paid into the State treasury. Any indenture may be annulled
by the Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin upon application o f either party
and good cause shown.
A d m in i s t r a t io n

9. It shall be the duty o f the Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin, and it shall
have power, jurisdiction, and authority, to investigate, ascertain, determine, and
fix such reasonable classifications and to issue rules and regulations and gen­
eral or special orders as shall be necessary to carry out the intent and purpose
o f section 106 o f the Statutes. Such investigations, classifications, and orders,
and any action, proceeding, or suit to set aside, vacate, or amend any such order
o f said commission, or to enjoin the enforcement thereof, shaH be made pursuant
to the proceeding in sections 101.01 to 101.28,1 inclusive, o f the Statutes, which
are hereby made a part hereof, so fa r as not inconsistent with the provisions o f
section 106 o f the Statutes; and every order o f the said Industrial Commission
o f Wisconsin shall have the same force and effect as the orders issued pursuant
to sections 101.01 to 101.28,1 inclusive, o f the Statutes, and the penalties therein
shall apply to and be imposed fo r any violations o f section 106 o f the Statutes,
excepting as to the penalties provided in subsection 8 o f section 106.
D e t e r m in a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t io n

10. It shall be the duty o f all school officers and public-school teachers to
cooperate with the Industrial Commission o f Wisconsin and employers o f ap­
prentices to furnish, in a public school or any school supported in w hole or in
part by public moneys, such instruction as may be required to be given
L i m i t s o f A p p l ic a t io n

11. The provisions o f section 106 shall not be construed as invalidating any
contract o f apprenticeship entered into before July 1, 1915.

The following is the form universally used in apprenticing tile
setters under a national agreement between the national association
of contractors and the international union. The terms of the agree­
ment, which constitute part of the indenture, will be found on
page 126, while a discussion of the national system of apprentice
training in the tile trade is given on page 11.

This indenture, made this --------- day o f --------------------, 192__, between
_____________ , hereafter called the first party, a n d -------------------- , o f ___________
(Street and

______ _______________ _______________ , hereafter called the second party.



Witnesseth, That the said first party agrees to employ s a i d -------------------- as
an apprentice and to provide him with the necessary training and instruction
whereby he may learn the trade o f tile and mantel setting.
That the said party o f the second part agrees to diligently w ork for and
faithfully serve the party o f the first part during the fuU term o f apprenticeship.
The apprenticeship shall begin on t h e --------- day o f --------------------- , 192__, and
shall be fo r a period o f ______ years. The length of, and the compensation
for, the term o f apprenticeship, and the methods o f training and instruction
1 Industrial commission law.



shall be as stipulated in the general rules and regulations printed on the
reverse side hereof, said rules and regulations being hereby made a part o f
this agreement.
In witness whereof, the said parties o f these presents have hereunto set their
hands and seals the day and year first above written.
_________________________________ [Seal..]
________________________ [Seal.]



B y --------------------------------------- [Seal.]



This form must be filled out in ink or typewritten and must be made in quadruplicate.
Copies to be delivered as stated in Article 7 of General Rules on reverse side.

The individual agreement entered into between contractor and
apprentice, through the union, is represented in the following form.
This is the type of agreement generally found where apprenticeship
is controlled either by the union alone, or through joint-working
agreements, without provision for school work or participation in
any way by school authorities or other agencies outside the craft
itself. Frequently this kind of agreement is more detailed, including
as part of its terms the apprentice regulations embodied in the trade

The follow ing apprentice agreement made this______ day o f _____________ _
19— , b e t w e e n ____________contracting plasterer o f _____________ a n d ___________
a duly registered apprentice o f Journeymen Plasterers’ Union, Local No. 31, o f
Pittsburgh, Pa., shall be considered legal and binding by the above association
on the contractor, and apprentice or his parent or guardian, during the life
o f this agreement, which shaU not be nullified or set aside by parties hereto,
fo r any reason, until brought before the proper join t committee o f Contracting
Plasterers7 Association and Journeymen Plasterers* Union L ocal No. 31, fo r
their consideration.
E m ployer’ s A greem ent
1 . I , _____________contracting plasterer, hereby agree to e m p lo y ____________
as apprentice plasterer fo r a period o f fou r consecutive years, or as may be
mutually agreed upon by parties to this agreement, h e , _____________ to remain
with me and to be under my supervision and instructions. F or the faith fu l
compliance o f the requirements stated in the apprentice obligation as a part o f
this agreement, I w ill use all legitimate and honorable means to have him
taught the trade o f plastering, so that at the expiration o f his apprenticeship
he w ill be qualified as a mechanic to command the established scale o f wages
o f this jurisdiction.
2 . I w ill keep the said apprentice,--------------------, steadily employed during his
apprenticeship, except in case o f strike or lockout.
3. I agree to pay said a p p ren tice,--------------------, wages at the follow ing rate
per day, figured on a basis o f journeymen’s w ages; apprentice’s wages to be
raised or lowered in accordance with scale paid journeyman plasterers o f Local
No. 31.

Per cent of journey­
men’s wages

Per cent of journey­
men’s wages

♦First 3 months___________________ _16
Second 3 months-------------------------- -- 20
Second 6 months----------------------------- 24
tThird 6 months---------------------------- -- 28
Fourth 6 months---------------------------- -- 36

F ifth 6 months___________________ _44
Sixth 6 months___________________ _56
Seventh 6 months________________ _68
Eighth 6 months_________________ _80

A p p r e n t ic e O b l ig a t io n
1 . I , ______________.__apprentice, hereby agree, with consent o f my parent or
guardian, as hereinafter named, to serve an apprenticeship at the trade o f
plastering w i t h _____________ , contractor, and to remain with and be under



his supervision and instructions fo r a period o f fou r consecutive years, or as
may be mutually agreed upon by interested parties, including Journeymen
Plasterers’ Union, L ocal No. 31.
2. I shall be prompt in discharging the duties required o f me while learning
the trade o f plastering. I w ill be faithful, industrious, and courteous in my
conduct to those whom I may be associated with as an apprentice, so that the
best interest o f my employer may be served. I w ill not absent m yself from
m y employer's work during working hours without permission, except in case
o f sickness, disability, or other valid reason.
3. I agree to accept as a minimum the scale o f wages agreed to by Journey­
men Plasterers’ Union, Local No. 31, and Contracting Plasterers’ Association,
and to be bound by and comply w ith the laws, rules, and regulations o f Jour­
neymen Plasterers’ Union, Local No. 31, o f Pittsburgh, Pa., and w ill subject
m yself to the penalties provided therein for any violation o f this apprentice
agreement, or o f said laws, rules, or regulations o f Local No. 31.
P aben t’s


G u a r d ia n ’s C o n s e n t

I , --------------------(parent or guardian), on behalf o f ______________ _ a minor,
consent to and approve o f the binding o f s a i d _____________ as an apprentice to
--------------------to learn the trade o f plastering, the apprenticeship to be for a
period o f four years, or as may be mutually agreed upon by the interested
In witness w hereof we, the parties to the aforesaid agreement, have affixed
our signatures and seals t h i s ______ day o f _______ _ 19__
Witness fo r Local No. 31:
--------------------------------------Parent or Guardian.
Given under the charter and seal o f Journeymen Plasterers’ Union, Local
No. 31, Pittsburgh, Pa., o f the O. P. & C. F. I. A.
Executive board chairm an:
Subscribed and sworn to before me t h i s ______ day o f ______________ , 19__
My commission e x p ir e s ______ day o f ______________, 19__



Informal letters, such as the one here reproduced, are used in
situations where the agreement covering the employment of an ap­
prentice is between the employer and the union, a transaction in
which the boy is not directly a party. This practice is widely fol­
lowed in the electrical trade, in which the union rather than the
employer takes the responsibility for keeping the boy in the trade.
Letters of this type are used almost entirely in New York instead of
formal indenture.


C h ic a g o , I I I . , ____________ _


To the Executive Boa/rd, Local No. 184 International Brotherhood of Electrical
D e a r S ir s : I desire to e m p lo y _____________ as a _______ year apprentice, and
agree to employ him during the life o f his apprenticeship, and a sufficient
number o f journeymen to ju stify employing the above-mentioned apprentice as
pro rata o f apprentices to journeymen, agreed on between the Electrical Con­
tractors’ Association, and Local Union 134, I. B. o f E. W .



In consideration o f the above, Local 134, I. B. o f E. W., agrees to see that
the above-mentioned apprentice does not leave my employment and go to
w ork fo r another contractor who is working under the jurisdiction o f Local
134, unless it is proven to the satisfaction o f Local 134, I. B. o f E. W., that the
apprentice was compelled to leave my employment on account o f unjust


Where apprenticeship is better developed, it is sometimes controlled
by joint agreements negotiated and executed by agencies distinct from
those which draw up general working agreements. Agreements of
this character are few. As a rule, regulations controlling apprentice­
ship, where they exist at all, are incorporated in the general working
agreements. Examples of the more important apprenticeship agree­
ments are presented below. The first one, for the tile and mantel
industry, is national in scope.
1. Applicants fo r apprenticeship must be at least 16 years o f age and not over
21 and must be duly indentured. Applicants fo r apprenticeship shall be ap­
proved by the local joint arbitration board o f the Bricklayers, Masons and
Plasterer’s International Union o f Am erica and the TUe and Mantel Contractors*
Association o f Am erica and be registered at the Bricklayers, Masons and
Plasterers’ International Union o f America headquarters.
2. Apprentices shall serve a term o f three years o f continuous employment at
the tile trade, including school instruction if provided. The first three months
o f the apprenticeship term shall be recognized as a probationary p eriod; dur­
ing this period the apprenticeship indenture may be annulled by either party
3. {a) All apprenticeship terms shall, wherever possible, include technical
school instruction o f a minimum period o f one month per year fo r the first
tw o years o f the apprenticeship, and the regulation o f schooling may be op­
tional; that is, either a continual period o f one month per year or a certain
period each week, aggregating the equivalent o f at least one month per
Graduates o f fu lly accredited schools recognized by the Tile and Mantel
Contractors’ Association o f America and the Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers*
International Union o f America, either public or private, giving a three months’
course o f instruction and technical training, shall receive six months’ credit fo r
such schooling.
(c )
Applicants fo r apprenticeship who have served some time in connection
with the tile trade shall receive such credit as the join t arbitration board in any
locality may determine.
4. Apprentices shall be given a thorough training in all work pertaining to the
preparing for and setting o f all work as is classified in Article I I [o f the na­
tional trade agreement].
5. The rate o f wages shall be as fo llo w s : First year, 40 per cent o f the
mechanic’s w a g e; second year, 60 per c e n t; third year, 75 per cent.
6. Supervision o f apprentices and the enforcement o f a faith ful perform ance
o f the apprenticeship agreement by both parties hereto shall be as follow s:
(a) In States and Provinces having laws pertaining to apprentices, by the
laws o f the State or Province.
In cities having no State or provincial apprentice laws, the regulation
o f apprentices shall be by the joint arbitration board o f the local tile con­
tractor and the local union.
7. All indentures must be executed in quadruplicate, one copy delivered to
the apprentice, one retained by the employer, the third to be filed with the
party o f the first part, and the fourth with the party o f the second part o f
this agreement.



8. Apprentices upon completion o f their term shall be furnished w ith a suit­
able certificate upon application for same to be issued by the Tile and Mantel
Contractors’ Association o f Am erica and the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plas­
terers’ International Union o f America, accompanied with recommendations
and certifications o f qualifications by the supervising boards.
9. Apprentices shall w ork with a mechanic for the first year o f their appren­
ticeship. I f they have graduated from a fu lly accredited school recognized
by the Tile and Mantel Contractors’ Association o f America and the Brick­
layers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union o f America, they shall
w ork with a mechanic for the first six months o f their apprenticeship.
Under the agreement entered into between the Plumbing Contractors’ Asso­
ciation o f Chicago and the Chicago Journeymen Plumbers’ Protective and
Benevolent Association, a joint apprenticeship committee is provided for, com­
posed o f tw o representatives from each o f the above-named organizations.
The joint apprenticeship committee w ill meet on the third Thursday o f each
month for the purpose o f passing upon the qualifications o f applicants for
apprenticeship cards to learn the plumbing trade and to take up all matters
relating to apprentices.
For the purpose o f carrying out the object o f the join t agreement, all regis­
tered apprentices now learning the trade w ill be required to be registered and
obtain a new card.
All applications by master plumbers for a registered apprentice w ill be made
on form provided by the joint committee.
Boys applying for apprenticeship cards shall prior to card being issued be
required to make application on form provided and appear personally before
the joint committee who w ill pass upon the applicant’s eligibility to learn the
trade, and i f satisfactory w ill authorize the issuance o f card.
A temporary or probationary card or permit may be issued for a period o f
one month to applicants for apprenticeship cards pending the meeting o f the
joint apprenticeship committee.
A list o f boys now learning the trade to whom apprenticeship cards havo
been issued together with name o f employer and date o f apprenticeship expira­
tion shall be kept by the joint committee and a copy o f same furnished to each
Boys who have been registered by the joint committee shall remain in the
first assignment until the end o f their apprenticeship and no change from first
assignment w ill be made except by mutual agreement between employer and
Should a disagreement occur between employer and apprentice where the
principles o f the join t agreement have been violated, the same shall be referred
to the joint committee whose decision shall be final and binding.
Apprentices shall be under the jurisdiction o f their employer. They shall
perform their duties faithfully and to the best o f their ability and no appren­
tice shall be required to do work other than that legitimately connected with
the trade.
All apprentices shall be subject to the rules and regulations o f the joint
committee. For the first three years o f their apprenticeship apprentices will
be required to attend the plumbing class one day each week at such school as
may be designated by the join t committee.
Upon repeated failure to attend school or fo r such other cause as the joint
committee may deem sufficient, apprentices may have their cards revoked.
The joint committee w ill visit the trade school at least once a semester.
It shall be the duty o f each party to this agreement, namely, the Plumbing
Contractors’ Association and the Chicago Journeymen Plumbers’ Protective and
Benevolent Association, to encourage the employment o f a sufficient number
o f apprentices to learn the plumbing trade.
Apprentices shall be subject to rules as hereinafter set forth o f a joint com­
mittee o f two from each association o f which the respective presidents shall be
members ex officio.
W ithin 10 days follow ing the consummation o f this agreement, and at least
once a month thereafter, the join t apprenticeship committee shall meet to take
up all matters relating to apprentices and enforce the provisions o f this agree­
ment, and shall visit the trade school once a semester.
Employers shall select apprentices and present their applications to the joint
committee herein provided. A printed form shall be used fo r this purpose.



Any shop employing tw o or more journeymen shall be entitled to an appren­
tice. Shops continuously employing 12 journeymen shall be entitled to two
apprentices. The quota o f apprentices heretofore mentioned is subject to
revision at any time by the join t arbitration committees.
The term o f apprenticeship shall be five years, as fo llo w s :
Three years shall be under the supervision o f journeymen. Fourth-year
apprentices shall begin rendering service with the tools under supervision o f
the employer.
All apprentices are required to attend the regular trade-school classes one day
each week during the school year, with fu ll pay fo r such time fo r the first
three years of his apprenticeship.
Student apprentices shall conform to school discipline, subject to expulsion
by principal in charge, and they shall be amenable to the rules and regulations
o f this agreement, subject to decision o f join t committee.
When an employer is assigned an apprentice he shall sign an agreement in
conform ity with these rules, copy o f which shall be on file with both associa­
tion s; and should there be any violations, he shall be denied the privilege o f
any apprentices when, in the opinion o f the joint committee, same is justified.
The wages o f apprentices shall be as fo llo w s :
First six months, $12 per w eek ; next six months, $15 per w eek ; second year,
$18; third year, $20; fourth year, $30, and fifth year, $40 per week.
A r t ic l e 1. The join t arbitration board w ill act as the join t apprentice com­
mittee, which committee shall have complete and final control o f all apprentices
registered with it.
A r t . 2. When an employing master fitter desires to employ an apprentice he
shall make application upon the form furnished by the join t apprenticeship
committee. Applications not so made shall not be accepted by the committee.

Art. 3. Each shop, party to this agreement, shall be entitled to one apprentice.
Each shop shall be allowed two apprentices where the average of four steam
fitters are employed throughout the year; and three apprentices where seven
steam fitters are employed throughout the year.
Art. 4. The applicant, if accepted by the joint apprenticeship committee, shall
receive from it a probationary permit card, which shall entitle him to work for
the employing master fitter for six months from the date of issuance of such
Art. 5. Applicants, to be eligible to apprenticeship, must be at least 16 years
and not over 25 years of age.
Art. 6. If, after the expiration o f six months, the applicant proves satisfactory
to the master fitter employing him, he shall receive an apprentice card bearing
the date o f the probationary card. The employer in such case shall cause the
apprentice to appear before the join t apprentice committee, with application fo r
apprenticeship card upon the form prescribed by the committee.

Art. 7. All apprentices shall be registered with the joint apprenticeship
committee, and shall at all times be governed by the rules of the joint appren­
ticeship committee.
A r t . 8 . Each apprentice shall be furnished with an apprenticeship card
setting forth (a) Apprentice’s name and address; (Z>) by whom em ployed;
(c ) date o f entering employment; (d) date o f expiration o f apprenticeship; and
(e ) transfers o f employment, if any.

A r t i c l e 1. Apprentices shall serve fou r years as apprentices. Beginning yrith
the fifth year the apprentice shall have the privilege o f working as a junior
steam fitter, the wages o f such juniors to be a matter to be decided upon between
said ju n ior and his employer. Said apprentice, when handling tools, must have
a permit from Local 614. There w ill be no charge for this permit. There shall
be only one junior steam fitter allowed to work in each shop and said junior
fitter w ill no longer be considered as an apprentice.
Art. 2. A fter the apprentice has served three years, the join t apprentice
committee may issue permit for said apprentice to w ork as a steam fitter, pro­
viding no fitters can be furnished by Local 614, and shall receive the wages o f
a journeyman steam fitter.



A bt . 3. The apprentice’s hours o f employment shall be the same as those o f
the journeyman fitter.
A rt. 4. An apprentice summoned to appear before the join t apprenticeship
committee must answer such summons upon the date set. Failure to respond,
without reasonable cause, to such summons, shall cause the apprentice’s card
to be revoked.
A r t . 5. The apprenticeship rules hereby adopted shall supersede article 7,
page 16, under helpers’ rules in present agreement adopted August 1, 1923.
A r t . 6 . When the apprentice is not available the journeyman steam fitter
w ill w ork without helper with the follow ing exceptions: (1 ) Employer w ill
have the right to furnish white laborers to help set boiler, place radiators, and
on any pipe w ork larger than two inches; (2 ) the journeyman steam fitter
w ill have the right to ask fo r labor on any work on which, in his judgment, he
may need help.
S e c t i o n 1. Each party to this agreement shall teach the trade to apprentices
in the manner which w ill result in their becoming efficient journeymen and as
hereinafter more clearly and definitely provided. The apprentice shall receive
such instructions as hereinafter provided and be taught such subjects as may
be deemed necessary in the opinion o f the joint board and fo r such attendance
at schools, classes, or lectures and general deportment, credit w ill be given ap­
prentices upon their final examination fo r promotion to journeymen.
Sec. 2. Application fo r apprenticeship shall be filed in duplicate with the
joint arbitration board on blanks furnished by them and applications must be
filled out completely by applicant in his own handwriting and must be recom­
mended by three acceptable individuals.
Seo. 3. Employer being entitled to and desiring an apprentice may make ap­
plication for said apprentice to the join t arbitration board. The employer, how­
ever, shall have the option to accept or reject any and all apprentices offered
him by said board.
Sec. 4. Apprentices during the entire period shall be under the jurisdiction
and control o f the join t arbitration board and the board has authority to pro­
tect their w elfare and also to instruct, direct, and discipline them.
Sec. 5. An applicant for apprenticeship shall not be over 21 years o f age at
the time o f making application, unless the applicant has good and sufficient
reasons for acceptance, which may be considered by the joint arbitration board.
Seo. 6. Applicant, before assignment to employer, w ill copy the follow ing
obligation in his own handwriting a^td file it with the joint arbitration b o a rd :
the undersigned, having made application to be enrolled as an apprentice
with the joint arbitration board, and having read the rules formulated by said
board providing fo r training o f apprentices, and understanding same and all
conditions therein contained, do hereby agree to serve such time and perform
such manual training and study such subjects as the board may deem necessary
to become a journeyman steam fitter.
Seo. 7. Employer assigned an apprentice may take him on trial fo r 60 days
but thereafter shall undertake to keep him at w ork at the trade fo r not less
than 10 months in each year, except in case o f strikes, lockouts, sickness, or
other unavoidable causes, or by action o f the join t arbitration board. Employer
in discharging an apprentice during the 60-day trial period or at any
time thereafter shall immediately notify the joint arbitration board in writing,
giving the name o f the apprentice and the reason fo r said discharge, and dis­
position o f such apprentice shall be made by the board within 30 days o f re­
ceipt o f notice o f discharge.
Seo. 8. The employer shall agree that the apprentice w ill be worked under
such conditions as will result in normal advancement and endeavor to have
him attend classes or do the requisite amount o f study or manual-training
w ork as prescribed by the join t arbitration board and, if required, shall submit
p roof to the board o f such attendance to studies or lectures. Employer shall
also agree that apprentice w ill not be employed in a manner that may be con­
sidered by the joint arbitration board as unfair to either party to this agree­
Sec. 9. Arrangements shall be made by the joint arbitration board fo r the
attendance o f apprentices in classes where subjects w ill be taught or lectures
given as deemed necessary to assist them in becoming proficient workmen.



The apprentice w ill not attend school during the probation period and fo r
the fou r months thereafter, i. e., fo r the entire first six months from date o f
first assignment.
S ec . 10. The apprentice shall serve and complete his apprenticeship w ith the
employer with whom he is apprenticed, except as herein provided.
Sec. 11. The joint arbitration board may issue a permit for apprentice to
w ork either temporarily or permanently fo r another contractor party to this
agreement than the one to whom he is apprenticed, in which case the em­
ployer to whom the apprentice is assigned w ill assume all the obligations o f
the original employer.
S ec . 12. The employment o f apprentices shall be limited to regular members in
good standing o f the Chicago Master Steam Fitters' Association and such
associate members as the Chicago Master Steam Fitters’ Association may elect
who employ at least 2 steam fitters fo r 10 months o f the year. I f 4 steam
fitters are employed fo r the same time, the employer may have 2 apprentices;
and i f 7 steam fitters are employed fo r the same time the employer may have
3 apprentices; and i f 10 steam fitters are employed fo r the same time, the em­
ployer may have 4 apprentices ;and if 13 steam fitters are employed for the
same time, the employer may have 5 apprentices. The placing o f apprentices
to be employed by any one employer in excess o f five w ill be a matter o f dis­
tribution as decided by the join t arbitration board to the end that the total
number o f apprentices specified in the agreement w ill be properly proportioned
among regular members o f the Chicago Master Steam Fitters’ Association and
such associate members as the Chicago Master Steam Fitters’ Association m ay
select. Temporary disarrangement o f the above schedule w ill be reported to the
board by the employer and w ill not be considered a violation.
S e c . 13. The apprentice w ill be examined by the join t arbitration board at
such times and periods as may be determined by said board, but not less than
once each year. Said examination shall be for the purpose o f determining
whether apprentice is making proper progress in the trade and his studies.
Failing to find apprentice progressing properly, the board may take such action
as they consider necessary, to correct this condition, and their decision shall be
S e c . 14. An apprenticeship shall be for a period o f five years, at the expira­
tion o f which his employer or employers during this period shall prepare a
statement for consideration by the joint arbitration board, which statement
shall set forth the deportment, experience, and general knowledge o f trade that
the apprentice has acquired. An apprentice w ill then be eligible as a journey­
man, provided that he has received sufficient credit at such schools selected by
the board, and provided his knowledge o f the trade, after a final examination,
is such as w ill satisfy the board that he is a good and efficient journeyman. I f
the apprentice should fa il to pass the final examination, the board may order
him to continue as an apprentice fo r such additional time as in the opinion
o f the board is necessary and at the end o f such time another examination w ill
be given him, and so on until he shall have passed the examination.
The joint arbitration board w ill hold final examinations o f apprentices dur­
ing the months o f April, July, and October o f each year. Meetings fo r final
examination o f apprentices at other times than herein provided shall be at the
discretion o f the join t arbitration board.
S e c . 15. The join t arbitration board having examined and passed an appren­
tice as journeyman, shall so certify in writing to the Steam Fitters’ Protective
Association, and on payment by said apprentice o f initiation fee to the Steam
Fitters’ Protective Association, they will issue him a journeyman’s card.
For one year after graduation from apprenticeship class to steam fitter, all
apprentices are under the supervision o f the joint arbitration b o a rd ; if in this
time his conduct and ability as a steam fitter should prove unsatisfactory to
the board, they may take such action as they may deem advisable.
S ec . 16. The rate o f wages fo r apprentices will be as follow s: First year,
45 cents per h ou r; second year, 50 cents per h ou r; third year, 65 cents per
h o u r ; fourth year, 70 cents per h o u r ; fifth year and all additional time, if any,
80 cents per hour, until apprentice has been passed and certified by said board
to the Steam Fitters’ Protective Association. This rate to go into effect Janu­
ary 1, 1927.
S e c . 17. Apprentices shall carry working card signed by the chairman o f the
join t arbitration board and the secretary o f the Steam Fitters’ Protective Asso­
ciation and this card shall designate the employer to whom the apprentice is as­
signed and the year o f service. The apprentice shall pay fo r this card to the



Steam Fitters’ Protective Association quarterly the dues provided fo r steam
fitters in the constitution o f the Steam Fitters’ Protective Association fo r the
five years or more o f apprenticeship. During the 5-year period, the sum o f
$250 as an initiation fee to the Steam Fitters’ Protective Association shall be
paid at the rate o f $50 per year. Apprentice shall have the same rights and
benefits as a journeyman steam fitter, except that they w ill not be permitted to
attend meetings or vote.
W here an apprentice is permanently disabled, causing his inability to con­
tinue at the steam-fitting trade, the join t arbitration board shall have pow er
to direct the Steam Fitters’ Protective Association, party o f the second part, to
return the initiation fee paid by him into the association.
S e c . 18. The joint arbitration board shall conduct its meetings and transact
all the business in connection with the apprenticeship rules, in the same manner
as provided fo r elsewhere in this agreement. Between meetings o f the board,
routine matters may be handled by the chairman and secretary o f the join t
arbitration board, acting jointly, and their action shall be subject to approval
or revision by the join t board. In all cases affecting* the apprentices in which
there may be a tie vote o f the join t arbitration board, the deciding vote w ill
be cast by the umpire, as provided in this agreement, and the decision thus
arrived at w ill be final.
S ec . 19. Expenses incurred by the joint arbitration board in carrying out the
provisions o f this agreement w ill be borne equally by the Chicago Master
Steam Fitters’ Association and the Steam Fitters’ Protective Association.
S ec . 20. These apprentice rules shall not be amended, altered or suspended
except by a two-thirds vote o f the joint arbitration board, and then only upon
BO days’ notice in writing to all members o f the board o f the proposed change.


The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since July,
1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the bureau
only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1921, as well as the bulle­
tins published smce that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*)
are out of print.
Conciliation and Arbitration (including strikes and iockouts).

♦No. 124. Conciliation and arbitration in the building trades of Greater New York.
♦No. 133. Report of the industrial council of the British Board of Trade in its inquiry
into industrial agreements. [1913.]
♦No. 139. Michigan copper district strike. [1914.]
♦No. 144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt industry of New York City.
No. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of
New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 191. Collective bargaining in the anthracite coal industry. [1916.1
♦No. 198. Collective agreements in the men’s clothing industry. [1916.]
No. 233. Operation of the industrial disputes investigation act of Canada. [1918.]
No. 255. Joint industrial councils in Great Britain. [1919.]
No. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919.
No. 287. National War Labor Board: History of its formation, activities, etc.
No. 303. Use of Federal power in settlement of railway labor disputes. [1922.]
No. 341. Trade agreement in the silk-ribbon industry of New York City. [1923.]
No. 402. Collective bargaining by actors. [1926.]
No. 448. Trade agreements, 1926.

No. 313. Consumers’ cooperative societies in the United States in 1920.
No. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and in foreign countries. [1922.]
No. 437. Cooperative movement in the United States in 1925 (other than agricul­
Employment and Unemployment.

♦No. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices in the
United States. [1913.]
♦No. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y. [1915.]
♦No. 183. Re^larity of employment in the women’s ready-to-wear garment industries.
♦No. 195. Unemployment in the United States. [1916.]
No. 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference held at Minneapolis,
Minn., January, 1916.
♦No. 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers’ Association of
Boston, Mass., held May 10, 1916.
No. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. [1916.]
♦No. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers’ Conference, Philadelphia, Pa.,
April 2 and 3, 1917.
No. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers’ Association. [1918.]
♦No. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. [1918.]
No. 247. Proceedings^^of Employment Managers’ Conference, Rochester, N. Y., May
No. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causcs.
No. 409. Unemployment in Columbus, Ohio, 1921 to 1925.
Foreign Labor Laws.

♦No. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European
countries. [1914.]

♦No. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people in foreign
countries. [1914.]
No. 263. Housing by employers in the United States. [1920.]
No. 295. Building operations in representative cities in 1920.
No. 449. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States, 1926.
Industrial Accidents and Hygiene.

♦No. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary
ware factories. [1912.]
No. 120. Hygiene of the painters’ trade. [1912.]
♦No. 127. Dangers to workers from dusts and fumes, and methods of protection.
♦No. 141. Lead poisoning in the smelting and refining of lead. [1914.]
♦No. 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
♦No. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. [1914.]
♦No. 179. Industrial poisons used in the rubber industry. [1915.]
No. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger in the use of
lead in the painting of buildings. [1916.]
♦No. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation-insurance cost of the
International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commis­
sions. [1916.]
♦No. 207. Causes of death by occupation. [1917.1
♦No. 209. Hygiene of the printing trades. [1917.J


Industrial Accidents and Hygiene— Continued.
No. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives.
No. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. [1917.1
No. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. [1917.]
♦No. 231. Mortality from respiratory diseases in dusty trades (inorganic dusts).
No. 234. Safety* movement in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1917.
♦No. 236. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. [1918.]
No. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Muni­
tions Workers’ Committee. [1919.]
♦No. 251. Preventable death in the cotton-manufacturing industry. [1919.1
No. 256. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. [1919.]
No. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [1920.]
No. 276. Standardization of industrial-accident statistics. [1920.]
No. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates.
No. 291. Carbon monoxide poisoning. [1921.]
No. 293. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. [1922.]
No. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents in the iron and steel industry, 1916
to 1919.
No. 306. Occupational hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairments to be
looked for in hazardous occupations. [1922.]
No. 339. Statistics of industrial accidents in the United States. [1923.]
No. 392. Survey of hygienic conditions in the printing trades. [1925.]
No. 405. Phosphorus necrosis in the manufacture of fireworks and in the prepara­
tion of phosphorus. [1926.]
No. 425. Record of industrial accidents in the United States to 1925.
No. 426. Deaths from lead poisoning. [1926.]
No. 427. Health survey of the printing trades, 1922 to 1925.
No. 428. Proceedings of the Industrial Accident Prevention Conference, held at
Washington, D. C., July 14-16, 1926.
Industrial Relations and Labor Conditions.
No. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. [1917.]
No. 340. Chinese migration with special reference to labor conditions. [1923.]
No. 349. Industrial relations in the west coast lumber industry. [1923.]
No. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous-coal field. [1924.]
No. 380. Postwar labor conditions in Germany. [1925.]
No. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [1925.]
No. 384. Labor conditions in the shoe industry in Massachusetts, 1920 to 1924.
No. 399. Labor relations in the lace and lace-curtain industries in the United States.
Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor).
No. 211. Labor laws and their administration in the Pacific States. [1917.]
No. 229. Wage-payment legislation in the United States. [1917.]
No. 285. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States. [1921.]
No. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional. [1922.]
No. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. [1923.]
No. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
No. 370. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto.
No. 408. Laws relating to payment of wages. [1926.]
No. 434. Labor legislation of 1926.
No. 444. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor. [1926.]
Proceedings of Annual Conventions of the Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the
United States and Canada.
No. 266. Seventh, Seattle, Wash., July 12-15, 1920.
No. 307. Eighth, New Orleans, La., May 2-6, 1921.
♦No. 323. Ninth, Harrisburg, Pa., May 22-26, 1922.
No. 352. Tenth, Richmond, Va., May 1-4, 1923.
No. 389. Eleventh, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 411. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 13-15, 1925.
No. 429. Thirteenth, Columbus, Ohio, June 7-10, 1926.
No. 455. Fourteenth, Paterson, N. J., May 31-June 3, 1927.
Proceedings of Annual Meetings of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards
and Commissions.
♦No. 210. Third, Columbus, Ohio, April 25-28, 1916.
No. 248. Fourth, Boston, Mass., August 21-25, 1917.
No. 264. Fifth, Madison, Wis., September 24-27, 1918.
♦No. 273. Sixth, Toronto, Canada, September 23-26, 1919.
No. 281. Seventh, San iTancisco. Calif., September 20-24, 1920.
No. 304. Eighth, Chicago, 111., September 19-23, 1921.
No. 333. Ninth, Baltimore, Md., October 9-13, 1922.
No. 359. Tenth, St. Paul, Minn., September 24-26, 1923.
No. 385. Eleventh, Halifax, Nova Scotia, August 26-28, 1924.
No. 395. Index to proceedings. 1914-1924.
No. 406. Twelfth, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 17-20, 1925.
No. 432. Thirteenth, Hartford, Conn., September 14-17, 1926.
No. 456. Fourteenth, Atlanta, Ga., September 27-30, 1927.
Proceedings of Annual Meetings of International Association of Public Employment Services.
No. 192. First, Chicago, December 19 and 20, 1913; Second, Indianapolis, September
24 and 25, 1914; Third, Detroit, July 1 and 2, 1915.
No. 220. Fourth, Buffalo, N. Y., July 20 and 21, 1916.
No. 311. Ninth, Buffalo, N. Y., September 7-9, 1921.
No. 337. Tenth, Washington, D. C., September 11-13, 1922.

(H )

Proceedings of Annual Meetings of International Association of Public Employment Services—

No. 335. Eleventh, Toronto, Canada, September 4-7, 1923.
No. 400. Twelfth, Chicago, 111., May 19-23, 1924.
No. 414. Thirteenth, Rochester, N. Y., September 15-17, 1925.

Productivity of Labor.

No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 360. Time and labor costs In manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1924.]
No. 407. Labor cost of production, and wages and hours of labor in the paper boxboard industry. [1925.]
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 441. Productivity of labor in the glass industry. [1927.]
Retail Prices and Cost of Living:.

♦No. 121.
•No. 130.
♦No. 164.
No. 170.
No. 357.
No. 369.
No. 445.

Sugar prices, from refiner to consumer. [1913.]
Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consumer. [1914.]
Butter prices, from producer to consumer. [1914.]
Foreign food prices as affected by the war. [1915.]
Cost of living in the United States. [1924.]
The use of cost-of-living figures in wage adjustments. [1925.]
Retail prices, 1800 to 1926.

Safety Codes.

No. 331.
No. 336.
No. 338.
No. 350.
No. 351.
No. 364.
No. 375.
No. 378.
No. 382.
No. 410.
No. 430.
No. 433.
No. 436.
No. 447.
No. 451.

Code of lighting factories, mills, and other work places.
Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries.
Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
Specifications of laboratory tests for approval of electric headlighting
devices for motor vehicles.
Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders.
Safety code for the mechanical power-transmission apparatus.
Safety code for laundry machinery and operation.
Safety code for woodworking plants.
Code of school lighting buildings.
Safety code for paper and pulp mills.
Safety code for power presses and foot and hand presses.
Safety codes for the prevention of dust explosions.
Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels.
Safety code for rubber mills and calenders.
Safety code for forging and hot-metal stamping.

Vocational and Workers’ Education.

♦No. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners and a factory school experiment.
♦No. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. [1915.]
No. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. [1916.]
No. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States.
Wages and Hours of Labor.

♦No. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in
the dress and waist industry of New York City. [1914.]
♦No. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry.
No. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913.
No. 163. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad
cars, 1907 to 1913.
♦No. 190. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1907
to 1914.
No. 204. Street railway employment in the United States. [1917.1
No. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture indus­
tries 1915
No. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919.
No. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry. 1920.
No. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. [1924.]
No. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry. 1923.
No. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. [1924.]
No. 365. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry, 1923.
No. 394. Wages and hours of labor in metalliferous mines, 1924.
No. 407. Labor cost of production, and wages and hours of labor in the paper boxboard industry. T
No. 412. Wages, hours, and productivity in the pottery industry, 1925.
No. 413. Wages and hours or labor in the lumber industry in the United States, 1925.
No. 416. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining, 1922 and
No. 421. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry,
No. 422. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1925.
No. 434. Wages and hours of labor in the men’s clothing industry, 1911 to 1926.
No. 438. Wages and hours of labor in the motor-vehicle industry, 1925.
No. 442. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1925.
No. 443. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing,
1910 to 1926.
No. 446. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1926.
No. 450. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1906 to 1926.
No. 452. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear industries, 1907
to 1926.
No. 454. Hours and earnings in bituminous-coal mining in 1922, 1924, and 1926.
No. 457. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1927.

(IH )

Welfare Work.

♦No. 123. Employers’ welfare work. [1913.]
♦No. 222. Welfare wfork in British munitions factories. [1917.]
♦No. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United
States. [1919.]
No. 458. Health and recreation activities in industrial establishments, 1926. (In
Wholesale Prices.

No. 284. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign coun­
tries. [1921.]
No. 440. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1925.
No. 453. Revised index numbers of wholesale prices, 1923 to July, 1927.
Women and Children in Industry.

No. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in
selected industries in the District of Columbia. [1913.]
Prohibition of night work of young persons. [1913.]
Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. [1913.]
Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. [1913.]
Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. [1913.]
Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile
establishments and garment factories. [1914.]
♦No. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries.
♦No. 175. Summary of the report on conditions of woman and child wage earners in
the United States. [1915.]
♦No. 176. Effect of minimum-wage determination in Oregon. [1915.]
♦No. 180. The boot and shoe industry in Massachusetts as a vocation for women.
♦No. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of
Boston, Mass. [1916.]
No. 193. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. [1916.]
No. 215. Industrial experience of trade^school girls in Massachusetts. [1917.]
♦No. 217. Effect of workmen’s compensation laws in diminishing the necessity of
industrial employment of women and children. [1918.]
No. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war.

♦No. 117.
♦No. 118.
♦No. 119.
♦No. 122.
No. 160.

No. 253. Women in lead industries.


Workmen’s Insurance and Compensation (including: laws relating thereto).

♦No. 101.
♦No. 102.
♦No. 103.
No. 107.
♦No. 155.
No. 212.
No. 243.
No. 301.
No. 312.
No. 379.
No. 423.

Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. [1912.]
British national insurance act, 1911.
Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland. [1912.]
Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. [1913.]
Compensation for accidents to employees of the United States. [1914]
Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the Interna­
tional Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions,
Washington, D. C„ December 5-9, 1916.
Workmen’s compensation legislation in the United States and foreign
countries, 1917 and 1918.
Comparison of workmen’s compensation insurance and administration.
National health insurance in Great Britain, 1911 to 1920.
Comparison of workmen’s compensation laws of the United States as of
January 1, 1925.
Workmen’s compensation legislation of the United States and Canada.

Miscellaneous Series.

♦No. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor
Statistics up to May 1, 1915.
No. 208. Profit sharing in the United States. [1916.]
No. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917.
No. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. [1919.]
No. 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. [1920.]
No. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington,
D. C. [1921.]
No. 299. Personnel research agencies. A guide to organized research in employment
management, industrial relations, training, and working conditions.
No. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization.
No. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics.
No. 342. International Seamen’s Union of America: A study of its history and
problems. [1923.]
No. 346. Humanity in government. [1923.]
No. 372. Convict labor in 1923.
No. 386. The cost of American almshouses. [1925.]
No. 398. Growth of legal-aid work in the United States. [1926.]
No. 401. Family allowances in foreign countries. [1926.]
No. 420. Handbook of American trade-unions. [1926.]
No. 439. Handbook of labor statistics, 1924-1926.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102