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HD 80 51 A3 7 sa 196 3 1 ,33 43 B 1,5 the A N V I L and the P L O WV U. S.DepartmentofLabor 1913-1963 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LIBRARIES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR tary W. Wil lardWirtz,Secre OFFICE OF INFOR MATI ON , PUBLIC ATIONS , AN D REP ORTS JohnW. Leslie ,Director t h e A N V I L a n d t he P L O W v A Historyofthe United States ,DepartmentofLabor Pub lications, Officeof Inferinolin , ar liels by : Endhwellandy Matheson MauriceJ. dolin Martin6O.Durban wrarak Learnhlaut JaumPlatelet Authenj eQuer »ung w.WielandWith Forsaleby the Superin tendent ofDocuments,U.S.GovernmentPrinti ng Office Washington25,D.C.-Price$1 SECRETARIES WILLIA M B. WIL SON OF LABOR JAMES J. DAVIS Mar. 5, 1921 Mar.6, 1913 toNov.30, 1930 to Mar. 4, 1921 FRANC ES PERKIN S Mar. 4, 1933 to June 30, 1945 WILLIAM N. DOAK Dec.9, 1930 to Mar. 4, 1933 LEWIS B. SCHWELLENBACH July 1, 1945 to June 10, 1948 (Died in office ) MARTIN P. DURKIN Jan.21, 1953 MAUR ICE J. TOBIN Aug. 13, 1948 to Jan.20, 1953 ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG Jan.21, 1961 toSept. 20, 1962 toSept. 10, 1953 JAMES P. MITCHELL Oct.9, 1953 to Jan.20, 1961 W. WILL ARD WIRT Z t.25, 1962— Sep panRef -tem Stark DE PO SIT ED B Y T HE UNITED STATES OF AMERICO 3-22 to3 HD 8057 1 A37 1963 FOREWORD cterand on, jus t as a person , takeson a chara stituti an in In 50 years tment shitfro m al l others . The Depar h dis tingui tudes whic elops atti dev r years , ns ofitsearl ierandlate ariso ption . Comp or isno exce ofLab ess by the Sec orts to Congr hts e nnual rep e highligofth a ected inthes refl y ticall tedtodrama , how itadap iesof Labor , showhow itmatured retar ciety so . its roleina free ngtimes ,how itgrewtofill changi These pages offer a summary oftheachievements andexperience ofa relatively small organization ,which ,ina relatively short time — 50years isnotlonginthelife ofan institution —hasgrownlarge instature and contribution . TheDepartment hasdeveloped tofit its role . Manymajor functions of theDepartment haveatonetimeoranother beenwithheld or removed - im migration , child welfare ,andmediation andconciliation . Yet ,evenatthe sametime , others havebeenadded - employment security , labor standards , theadministration ofwageandhourlaws andofreporting anddisclosure laws ,international labor affairs ,andmorerecently ,thewhole area ofman > powerdevelopment . Whatever theDepartment's functions , however they change , intheenditismoreimportant that theorganic wholehasmeaning and relevance in a dynamicsociety . The Department ofLabor ,through itsSecretaries and their immediate subordinate officers ,hasachieved full recognition asa significant factor in . American Government . TheSecretary ofLaboristhechief adviser tothe Presi denton labo r matte rsand thecoo rdinat orof allGovern mentlabor acti vities . Work ers bothorga nized andunor ganiz ed looktothe Depa rt mentforinf ormat ionandforhelp andprotect ionthroug h th e variou slaw s andprog ramstheDep artme ntadmi niste rs. Inbusi ness circle s,itiswell establis hedas a trustwor thyand profit able sourc e of accurat e dat a and ass istance . In int ernati onallaboraff airs , itisa worldleader . And in Cong ,itislook ress edupon asan invalua bleaidinthe deve lopmen t and exe cutio n ofnational poli cy. t comp risethe tatio The rec nstha ordis a proud one. Of themanyquo of diatesense provi erwithan imme ,manywill detheread bul k ofthistext faced werenotfardif th atourpredec essors recogni . Thepro blems tion curren In our tproblems . deed , manyof fer wefac ent fromthose etoday . The lier years s ofear solutio outinthereport and their ns— arespelled — theprob ingmen and lemsofwork ,thatthepro blems trut ,of course h is mag. appeara ,their nce s istheir women are ever thesame. Whatchange them. tosolve intrying nitude ,andthemeth odsapplied Totake thetime tolook backover one's past issaid tobea luxury that fewcanafford , andthen onlyon rare occasions . A 50thanniversary is such anevent . Inthis publication theDepartment ofLabor hasindulged itself ina longbackward look . Surprisingly enoughithasfoundthat a recapitulation isnot mere luxury ;it also proves here tobea lesson . Itishoped that the readers ofthis bookwill enjoy with usboth the luxury and thelesson. nt of Labor U.S.Departme i v DEPOSITED BY THE UNITED STATES OF.AMERICA CONTENTS Page Secretariesof Labor .. ii Foreword ... üi In theBeginning,1913.. 3 Bureau of Labor Statistics . 4 Bureau ofImmigr ation. 5 7 7 Bureau of Naturalization . Childr en'sBureau.. Concil iationServic e tar Off y. iceofthe Secre “ IntheInter estof Wage Earners ,” 1913–17. Coordination of Functions. Mediat ion.. ice. Employment Serv Labor Statist ics.. Child ren'sBureau . War Effort , 1917-20 .. MediationCommission President's War LaborAdministration . 7 7 11 13 15 17 19 20 23 25 NationalWar Labor Board.. 25 26 United States Employment Service . 27 War LaborPolicies Board. 29 Service .. Woman inIndustry Division ofNegroEconomics . 30 ingandDil ution Train Service .. 31 32 33 33 ionsService . ngCondit Worki Housin g andTransp ortati on. 34 35 International Labor Conference . Conference . NationalIndustrial 35 Farm Service Division . Child Labor Division . iod. Summary ofThisPer .. Isolation and a BullMarket,1921–30 36 37 Growth ofaPhi losop hy.. 41 41 ScopeoftheDepartment 43 Concil iation. 44 45 Employment Service . Page .. Labor Statistics ation .. Immigr ChildWelfare. Women Workers. The GreatDepression , 1930–33 . Employment Service. 61 62 Labor Statistics. ation. Concili 63 Immigration 65 65 ChildWelfare. Women Workers. New Dealand Recovery ,1933–37 .. Americ a'sLaborPolicy .. Employment.. Farm Labor. entInsuran ploym Unem ce. ions. WorkingCondit LaborStandards . ip.... ticesh Appren ons Labor-ManagementRelati 64 67 71 72 75 77 77 78 80 81 82 Labor Statistics . ChildWelfare.. Women Workers. 87 90 on. ationandNatural izati Immigr 94 95 95 96 al Labor Affa irs. nation Inter PublicContracts. sts. ConsumerIntere Summary ofThisPeriod. al, 1938 –41. ngDemocracy'sArsen Buildi Conciliation ,Unions ,andIndustrial Relations . Wages andHours. PublicContracts. Labor Standards . ChildWelfare. Women Workers. Labor Statistics . Employment... n andNaturali n. ratio zatio Immig d .. Summary of ThisPerio World War II, 1942-45. 92 96 101 102 106 108 109 113 115 117 119 120 123 127 Industrial Relations . Labor Standards.. 129 130 132 s. licCon tract Wages andHoursandPub 135 Organization .. vi 49 51 52 54 Page Labor Statistics .. Women Workers. ChildWelfare.. International Labor Affairs 136 ReconversionObjec tiv es. 137 139 140 141 Organizational Proposals . 143 Postwar Period, 1946–48. ion nizat Reorga 147 147 Reconversion . 148 Industrial Relations 149 151 153 Wages andHours . Employment... Labor Statistics Labor Standards. Child Welfare.... 155 155 157 159 Apprenticeship andTraining . 159 International Labor Affairs Veter ans 'Reemployment Right s 160 161 Departmental Library . 162 Women Workers. Reconversionand Korea, 1949–53 . Manpower International LaborAffairs Employment Security . 165 167 169 171 tics Labor Statis .. 172 Wages and Hours. 173 Labor Standards. Wome n Workers. 174 176 176 Worker Tra ining . Reemployment Rights Federa satio n l Workmen'sCompen 178 178 ThePeace timeEconomy,1953... 183 International Labor Affairs . 184 184 Worker Training.. n Appeal s Board satio ees'Compen Employ Employment Securit y. Labor Standards. Labor Statistics Reemployment Rights . Prosperity and Change,1953-60 .. Admin istra tionand Organiz ation . Manpower ... 185 185 186 187 187 191 196 Employment Security 197 199 Farm Labor . 202 vii Page Workers . 204 Worker Trai ning 205 . Labor Statistics 206 nt Insuran ce. Unemployme Wages and Hours.. Workmen's Compensation 208 210 Employees 'Compensation Appeals Board . Labor-Management Rep orts. 216 217 Women Labor Standards. International Labor Affairs . New Frontiers, 1961-62 214 217 220 225 Col lec ining. tiv e Barga ation Legisl ... 225 tions. ation mmoda andAcco Organiz 228 228 Automation .. Manpower ,Automation ,andTraining . .. Labor Statistics 227 229 230 Wages and Hours. 234 234 235 237 238 Wome n . 240 Labor Standards. Welfareand PensionPlans. 244 246 Labor . -Management Reports 247 249 Employment Security . e uranc Unemployment Ins e Employment Servic Farm Labor .. International Labor Affairs . Employees 'Compensation . Challenge oftheFuture ,1962–63 .. Dealin g WithChange. Jobs.. 250 253 253 254 ProblemsTo Be Met . 255 . Pledge ofOpportunity 255 257 Need forCloserCoordination . Coll ectiv ing. 257 e Bargain Appen dixe s: I.Early History Leading toEstablishment ofDepartment of Labor . II. RosterofAdministrative Officials , 1913–62 .. III. Laws and Orders.. IV. Chronology.. . ofLabor ,1913-62 ofDepartment V. Table : Personnel VI.Table :Appropriations toDepartment ,1913–62 . Index .. viii 259 264 269 275 294 296 299 IN THE BEGINNING 1913 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT LEDA T VE EM 1 1 1 IN THE BEGINNING 1913 There waslittle hint ofpending warinMarch1913 whenWilliam Howard Taft left theWhite House tomakewayforthenewDemocratic President , WoodrowWilson . Theaverage American sawnothing moremomentous in the offing than tariff revisions ,control ofmonopolies ,andanti -injunction laws . The Nation , generally , was inthemidst ofan eraofpolitical andsocial reform . Ridin g thecr estofthereform movementwasanactofCong ress ,spon . soredprimar ilyby Congres smanWil liamB.Wils on of Penns ylvani a and theAmerica n Feder ation of Labor ,which created theFederal Depar tment of Labor. Itwasnotanewidea . Comparable bills hadbeen placed before Congress manytimes before . This time ,however ,both Houses hadacted favorably , andthe bill went tothe President for his signature . Onhis last dayinoffice , March4,President Taftsigned thehistoric document . Itwasleft totheincoming President tocarry outtheintent ofCongress , andWoodrowWilsonquickly appointed theman allgroups favored for thepost ofSecretary -Congressman Wilson . Wilson wasa burly ,friendly Scotch immigrant . As anorganizer forthe United MineWorkers ,hehadforded icymountain streams tovisit remote villages inan effort toorganize theworkers . When hewas 18, hewas a manmarked bythemineoperators asa union leader ,blacklisted andcom pelled tomovefromjobtojobforhislivelihood . In1900hewaselected national secretary -treasurer oftheNational Union ofMiners ,andin1907hewaselected toCongress fromthe15thDistrict of Pennsylvania . Nowtheformer organizer ofminers hadbefore himthetremendous task oforganizing a newFederal executive department . Hisfirst annual reports toCongress showthescope oftheproblem : Thestaff ,including some1,700 intheBureau ofImmigration ,totaled less persons than2,000 . Theappropriation offunds byCongress forthefirst fiscal year wasless than $ 4 million . Initially , thenewdepartment included theBureau ofLabor Statistics , Bureaus ofImmigration andNaturalization ,andChildren's Bureau - all func tioning units movedfromtheearlier Department ofCommerce andLabor . review background A brief oftheir isgiven below : 3 Bureau of Labor Statistics 1 Thisbureau ? wasoriginally created by Congress inJune1884asthe Bureau ofLabor intheDepartment ofInterior . In1888itwasgiven in dependent status astheDepartment ofLabor ,under thedirection ofa Com missioner whoreported directly tothePresident butwholacked Cabinet status. In1903itreturned toits previous status astheBureau ofLabor , with theCommissioner reporting totheSecretary ofthethen newly created Department ofCommerce andLabor . Atthetime ofits transfer totheDe partment ofLabor ,itcomprised nearly 100persons andhadbuilt upa sub stantial reputation for statistical investigation ,research ,andreporting . / Located diagonally northeast oftheTreasury ,this wasthehome ofthe earliest predecessor totheDepartment ,whenitwascalled a Depart ment but had no Cabinet status . Its functions ,asspecified inearlier acts ,were to“collect information upon the subject oflabor ,its relation tocapital ,the hours oflabor ,andthe earnings oflaboring menandwomen ,andthemeansofpromoting their material , social ,intellectual ,andmoral prosperity ” (1884 ); “toacquire anddiffuse among information thepeople oftheUnited States useful on subjects con nected with labor ,inthe most general andcomprehensive sense ofthat word ” 1 For early history , seeSecretary's reports for1913 ,pp.22–23 , and1914 ,pp.56–57 . 4 (1888 );andto"collect ,collate ,andreport ... full andcomplete statistics onthe conditions oflabor andtheproducts anddistribution oftheproducts ofthesame" (1913). Bureau of Immigration Amongthefourbureaus transferred totheDepartment ofLabor ,the Bureau ofImmigration 2wasthelargest , with morethan1,700 employees . 2 Originally itwasadministered by officials ofState governments withfunds controlled bythe Secretary ofthe Treasury fromanappropriation ,knownas the"Immigrant Fund,"whichCongress provided in1882.In1891itwas officially established inthe Treasury Department astheImmigration Service , under a Superintendent ofImmigration ,andtheinspectors became Federal officials . In1895 thetitle ofSuperintendent waschanged toCommissioner General . In 1903theService wastransferred , andbecame theBureau of Immigration intheDepartment ofCommerce andLabor . In1906itwas given administrative charge ofthenaturalization laws ,andbecame theBureau ofImmigration andNaturalization . Wheneventually transferred tothenew Department ofLabor ,itcontinued under a Commissioner General who was responsible totheSecretary ofLabor , butits naturalization function was taken fromitandset bureau up asaseparate . Concerned generally with theadministration oflaws relating toaliens ,it a service included functions significance asa part ofits a ofspecial tothenew Department . Eveninearlier days ,whenimmigration functions wereper officials formedby State , there werelawsregulating theimportation of “ contract laborers ." These werealiens “induced orsolicited tomigrate to country this by offers orpromises ofemployment , orinconsequence of agreements toperform labor inthis country of anykind. 9 3 (1913 :31)3 Thepurpose oftheregulation ofcontract labor wastoprevent this kindofimportation ofcheap labor whichthreatened thewagestandards of Americanworkers . An equally important function fromthepoint ofview ofthepresent De partment ofLabor wasthat performed bytheImmigration Bureau's Division ofInformation . Thiswasestablished in1907“for thepurpose ofpromoting a beneficial distribution ofaliens admitted tothecountry ,bycollecting and disseminating among them trustworthy data concerning advantages offered settlers indifferent parts oftheUnited States .” (1913 :41) Again this objective wastoprevent theemployment andexploitation of cheap alien labor tothedetriment ofAmerican wageearners . As conceived bythefirst Secretary ofLabor ,this function could andshould bebroadened tomaketheservice useful alike “toimmigrants seeking employment ,toem ployers inlegitimate need offairly paid wageearners ,andtothewhole body es." nersoftheUnited Stat ofthewage ear (1913:41–42) y's 28. y,se etar ort yhis tor eSecr rep fr o1913 ,pp.27– ?Forearl 2 *Parenthetical notations of thisnature indicate theyearof theSecretary's annual report andthepageonwhichthereference may befound . 5 N E M T EPAR ) UN IT ED I N A N LA OF BOR . A C I R E M A STATESO F affiony l p M a e o h s sa t a With by Secretary of Laboras approved sealof theDepartment The original W. B. Wilsonand President Woodrow Wilson . 6 Bureau of Naturalization Originally adivision ofthe Bureau ofImmigration andNaturalization ,this organization waspromoted tothestatus ofa separate bureau inthenew Department ofLabor . Itconsisted ofabout130employees , headed by a Commissioner . Its function wastoadminister thelaws forthenaturalization through ofaliens thecourts . Children's Bureau ofCom intheDepartment Established in1912 ,asa bureau byCongress timeof Bureau 4 at the oftheChildren's ,thefunctions merceandLabor andreport ofLabor wereto“investigate tothenewDepartment transfer 4 life among ofchildren andchild tothewelfare matters pertaining uponall mortality , the questions ofinfant ,and[to]investigate all classes ofourpeople , occupations ,dangerous ,juvenile courts ,desertion ,orphanage thebirth rate children affecting ,employment ,legislation ofchildren accidents anddiseases :44) .” (1913 States andTerritories intheseveral TheBureau wasadministered bya Chief ,appointed bythePresident ,by and withtheadvice and consent oftheSenate . At thetimeofthetransfer about 15employees itincluded . ConciliationService Inaddit iontothetransf erofthese fou r burea ustothenewDepart mentof Labor ,theCongr essauthor ized theSecr etary ofLabor "toactasmediato r andtoapp oint commi ssion ersofcon ciliat ioninlab ordispu teswhenev erin his judgmen in tthe terests ofindu strial peac emayrequi reit tobedone... (1914 :99) Thiswasanewfunc tion ,notels ewher espec ifical lyassig nedto ot heragen cies oftheFede ralGovern . Since ment theac tmadenoprovisio n for the est ablis ofaspecia hment lbur eauforthis pur pose ,the func tion becam e a responsi bility oftheOffic e oftheSecr etary . Office of the Secretary Depart established ofthenewly work ,theSecretary himinhis Toassist inhis Secretary asSecretary toact anAssistant wasallowed mentofLabor in ,who could ofJustice by theDepartment assigned absence ; a Solicitor of asSecretary ,actalso ofthePresident ,byorder certain circumstances , andsupplies ofpublications clerk ,chief clerk ,disbursing ;anda chief Labor with a limited wasprovided officers clerk . Eachofthese andappointment Secretary Office ofthe persons inthe . Thetotal ofall ofclerical help amount didnotexceed50. *Forearly history ,see Secretary's report for 1913 ,pp.44-46 . 7 3 1 "INTHE INT ER ES T OFWAGE EARNERS ' 1917 1913 666947—63 # 7 IN THE INTEREST OF WAGE EARNERS " 1913-17 Secretary Wilson waswell equipped toexpress thepurpose ofthenew Department . In hisfirst annual report he stated whathavebecomeits guiding principles : “TheDepartment ofLabor wascreated intheinterest ofwageearners of States declared theUnited . Thisisexpressly bytheorganic act .... “ There isofcourse noauthority inthat declaration tofoster ,promote ,or develop forwageearners anyspecial privileges ;buttheinference isirresist ible that Congress didintend toconserve their just interests bymeans ofan executive department especially devoted totheir welfare . "Noristhere anyimplication that thewageearners inwhose behalf this Department wascreated consist ofsuchonlyasareassociated together in labor unions . Itwascreated inthe interest ofthe welfare ofall wageearners oftheUnited States ,whether organized orunorganized . Inasmuch , how ever ,asitisordinarily only through organization that the manyinanyclass or ofanyinterest canbecomearticulate withreference totheir common needs andaspirations ,theDepartment ofLabor isusually under a necessity ofturning tothelabor organizations that exist andsuch asmaycomeinto existence for definite andtrustworthy advice onthe sentiments ofthe wage earning classes regarding their commonwelfare . ...Manifestly , then , the Department invite ofLabor must theconfidence andencourage thecoopera tion ofresponsible labor organizations ...ifitistosubserve its prescribed purposes through anintelligent andeffective administration ofits authorized functions . “WhiletheDepartment ofLaborsustains friendly relations withlabor organizations ,asintheinterests ofall wageearners andofthegeneral wel fare itought todo,nevertheless this attitude mustnotbeexclusive . Similar relations withunorganized wageearners ,andalso withemployers andtheir organizations totheextent towhichtheythemselves permit , arelikewise a duty oftheDepartment . Thegreat guiding purpose ,however —thepurpose that should govern theDepartment atevery turn andbe understood and acquiesced inby everybody — isthepurpose prescribed interms by the organic act ,namely ,promotion ofthewelfare ofthewageearners ofthe United States . “Intheexecution ofthat purpose theelement offairness toevery interest isofequal importance ,andtheDepartment hasinfact madefairness be tween wageearner andwageearner ,between wageearner andemployer , 11 DEPA RTMEN T OF C OMME RCE OFFICE OF THE SECRETA RY W ASHING TON NT TME R A DEP OF LA Warah7, BO R 1914. MAR O 1994 CH IE ERK FL C Sir : In accordance with section5 of the aot approvedWaroh4, ed that the t of Labor, I bave direct 1913, creatinga Departmen property listed belowbe transferred toyourDopartment : One bayborso(mido"),16 handshigh , weightabout1200lbs. Onemail negon (No. 359). One got of singlewagon, brassmounted , barness . v'Ono street blanket. 6 One stablo blanket. One hitching weight. V One halter and chain. It18respectfully requested thattheproperty mentioned abovebe removedfrom thisDepartment's stablo . Plea80 acknowledge receiptof this lettor . Thiliard L angices Respectrally , Secretary. The Secretaryof Labor. ( The bay horsenamed Mike hauledallof theLabor Department's mailand freight forsometimeafter hisremoval fromtheCommerceDepartment's stablein 1914.) 12 between employer andemployer ,andbetween each andthepublic asa whole thesupreme motive andpurpose ofits activities . Theact ofits creation is construed byitnotonly asalawfor promoting thewelfare ofthewageearn ers ofthe United States byimproving their working conditions andadvancing their opportunities forprofitable employment ,butasa commandfordoing soinharmonywiththewelfare ofallindustrial classes andalllegitimate interests ,andbymethods tending tofoster industrial peace through progres sively nearer realizations ofthehighest ideals ofindustrial justice .” (1913 : 5-7) Coordinationof Functions Under section 10oftheorganic act ,theSecretary wasrequired to“in vestigate and report toCongress a planofcoordination oftheactivities , duties ,andpowers oftheoffice oftheSecretary ofLaborwiththeactivities , duties ,andpowers ofthepresent bureaus ,commissions ,anddepartments , sofarastheyrelate tolabor andits conditions ,inorder toharmonize and unify such...witha viewtofurther legislation tofurther define theduties andpowers ofsuch Department ofLabor ." (1914:99) InJanuary 1917 Secretary Wilson madehis report onthis matter . Theun derlying intent ofthe act ,hepointed out ,wastobring within the jurisdiction oftheDepartment “those administrative agencies oftheFederal Government which are s." or may be des ignedto con servewage-workingin terest redfromtheprovis ionsof theactthat“Con (1917 :94) He infer gressin stsofwageearne rs e departm entin theintere ablish tendedtoest anexecutiv tain ateformforit,had ...left yet ,uncer atthat time oftheultim matic syste l cons ontofut n base itiona tructi ureleg islatio d uponinform ation add which tofLabo rtmen rwasdirec tedtogather ateinto theDepa andformul aplanof nation .” (1917:94) coordi TheSecretary also reported that ,within theDepartment itself ,attention hadbeenturned totheworkofthebureaus “totheendthat contractual rela tionships andpossible overlapping offunctions might beanalyzed andregu lated or corrected iffoundto exist ." (1917 1917:94) Adm rative inist rules onofendea vorandconfl icts pedtoavoi d dup licati ofau hadbeendevelo mental depart lation t,th e “problem ofintra regu offunc ority . Asa resul th y de tionisthus ctuall altwith effe , and itis tions andthescopeofopera l statutor y au t needs itiona vedthat nchof thesubjec add bra notbelie this nic etary orby theorga itybey ondtha talr eady sted intheSecr ofLab thor ve act itself .” (1917: 94) Turning tothecontractual relationships andoverlapping ofactivities be tween theDepartment ofLabor andother governmental establishments ,he difficulty said itwas"obviously a matter ofconsiderable tofix andspecify a boundary administrative inquiry comprehend for that would atonce all those declared purpose matters which might comewithin the set forth inthe organic actcreating theDepartment ofLaborrather thanhaveaa collateral orindirect bearing uponsuch purpose .” (1917 :94) 13 Although a study hadbeenmade,hedeclared ,showing that further legis lation wouldundoubtedly benecessary tocoordinate thescattered adminis trative functions relating tolabor andits conditions ,itwouldnevertheless be“neither feasible noradvisable toplace directly within thejurisdiction of this department someoftheconcurrent authority atpresent conferred upon other branches ofthepublic (1917: 95) service ... Itwasfound that functions ofthePublic Health Service overlapped with those ofthe Bureau ofLabor Statistics inthestudy ofoccupational diseases ; withtheChildren's Bureau inthestudy ofinfant mortality ,birth rates , dangerous occupations ,andaccidents anddiseases ofchildren ;andwiththe Bureau ofImmigration inthe medical inspection ofaliens (although here the relationships werefound tobecomplementary , rather thanoverlapping ). Questions wereraised regarding overlapping functions oftheBureau of Mines andthe Labor Department inconnection with health andsafety ,rescue work ,labor andits conditions intheiron andsteel industry , occupational diseases ,andthe issuance ofpublications onsafety appliances . AstotheDepartment ofAgriculture ,areas ofoverlapping functions were noted with respect tothecollecting andreporting ofwholesale andretail prices andfarmwages . Questions ofjurisdiction also arose inconnection with theCommerceDe partment's issuance oflicenses tomasters ,pilots ,engineers ,andothers ,and its concern with thehiring andwelfare ofseamen . TheInterstate Commerce Commission ,itwaspointed out ,hadthefunction ofsafety inspection on railroads ,andtheBoardofMediation and Concilia tion performed functions similar tothose ofthe Department ofLabor ,though limited railroad operations tointerstate . Without arguing that all ofthese functions should be transferred tothe Department ofLabor ,theSecretary submitted thematter forconsideration bythe Congress . Ithadrepeatedly been shown ,hewrote ,that “other govern mental establishments , acting moreorless directly pursuant tobroadstatu tory powers granted ingeneral terms ,have been ,arenow,andwill probably continue making investigations andconducting active workinfields which should anddo comewithin thepurpose and scope oftheDepartment of Labor asdeclared byits organic law . Theobjects hoped tobeattained may bedifferent ,buttheoverlapping offunctions isitself confusing andtends to reduce the confidence ofthat portion ofthepublic which isrepeatedly called for similar data ,insomewhat altered formperhaps ,butstill thesame .” upon (1917 :100 ) TheSecretary wasconcerned chiefly with theneedforcoordination and clarification offunctions ininvestigative work . He therefore proposed and urged that there should also be "statutory provision requiring that the results ofinvestigative workperformed byother governmental establishments , insofarasthey concern labor andits conditions ,should become immediately accessible andavailable totheDepartment ofLaboruponrequest ,without 14 reference totheproposed ultimate useofsuch material ascollateral tothe mainpurpose forwhich itwascollected .” (1917 :100) Thushelimited hiscomments tothecompilation offactual data ,andmade noproposal forthetransfer ofthebureaus fromother departments tothe Department ofLabor . Although these proposals forcloser coordination between theDepartment ofLabor andother governmental departments weretemporarily suspended during theemergency period ofWorld War I,theSecretary repeated them inhis1920 report attheexpiration ofhisterm ofoffice . (1920 :226–233 ) No further reference ismadetotheminsubsequent annual reports ofthe Department . Theyserve toreveal ,nevertheless ,someoftheproblems of overlapping functions which inevitably occur inoperations conducted onthe tremendous scale oftheFederal Government ,andwhichinmorerecent years werethesubject ofreview andrecommendations bytheHoover Commission ongovernmental reorganization ,leading tocongressional enactments ,some ofwhich affected the Department ofLabor . (Seepp.166-167 .) Mediation Theorganic actconferred ontheSecretary thepowertoactasmediator andtoappoint commissioners ofconciliation inlabor disputes , butmade a bureau no provision fora toexercise these functions onbehalf oftheSecre tary . Therefore ,theSecretary himself initially hadtoassume thefunctions , drawing onhisbureaus forassistance . He appointed theAssistant Secretary andthe Chief Statistician ofthe Bureau ofLabor Statistics asacting concilia tors . Onlyinthethird year ofSecretary Wilson's incumbency weresufficient appropriations available topermit the hiring ofcommissioners ofconciliation and an executive clerk . thephilosophy toexpress necessary early fortheSecretary Itbecame and ofmediation totheproblems approach theDepartment's underlying conciliation . The first ess entials to indust peace rial ,heargued ,wereorgani zatio n of worker s andthepr actice ofcollec bar tive gaini ng. On theneedforcolle c tiv ebargai ,hepointed ning tothehop weakne eless bargai ssofindi vidual : ning familiar factsin orderto seewhat individual “We have but to visualize see itas is ;wemaythus really foremployment bargaining bywageworkers it . Consider harshly feel sooften seeitbutasthey notonly wageworkers for whom he asks faces a foreman wageworker . A solitary thepicture bargainers eager massofindividual worktodo. Backofhima shadowy de livelihood wordhis uponwhose himtheforeman . Fronting for thejob . whom theforeman mustsatisfy a superintendent . Overtheforeman pends ,all ,directors ,stockholders ,managers above both ,rankuponrank Rising to andforeman ,andeachranksubservient bysuperintendent tobesatisfied bargainer fora job ofall butthesolitary it . The interests therankabove dictates for -interest whichinstinctively together a collective self into knitted competi tense with -a market allowmarket will thelabor theleast that wages 15 tion forworkbutslack incompetition forworkers . Eventhis isnotall . Forthat collective interest ispermeated withsimilar onesthrough inter locking directorates andinterlaced stockholding , vitalized itmay be with gentlemen's agreements andbybusiness coercion orfear ofit . Attheouter edge ofall alone wageworker bargains for work ;bargains inaglutted labor market ;bargains individually !” (1916 :48–49 ) Theobvious corrective ,hepointed out ,lies inlabor organization : “Forcollective bargaining purposes alone ,organization isindispensable . Without ittheeconomic independence ofwageearners would beimpossible under existing industrial conditions ,because workers cannot bargain collec tively unless theyaresoorganized astoenable themtobargain through representatives overwhom employers can haveno coercive control .” (1916:49) Underthese circumstances , theneedforimpartial conciliation becomes imperative , hestated . “TheDepartment ofLaborasanexecutive department devoted tothejust interests ofwageearners hasbeen established asoneoftheresults ofgeneral industrial progress . Owingtowell -knowndevelopments inproduction ,the relation ofemployer andwageearner isnolonger personal orindividual . Theirs isnowusually a relationship between groups ofemployers ononeside (such ascorporation stockholders ) andgroups oftheir respective workmen ontheother . Employers actcollectively through their ownchosen agents corporation managers ,factory orminesuperintendents orforemen ,labor brokers ,orthelike — who,inhiring laborers ,represent collective financial interests method necessary . Itisobvious that this ofemployment ,generally forsuccess inmodernindustry , may givetoemployers great contractual advantages wageearners also actcollectively overwageearners . Unless through their ownagents ,they areoften ata practical disadvantage . “Employers whoactcollectively through their agents inhiring wage earners areoften averse todealing with theagents ofwageearners who col lectively offer their services . Theydesire tocontract withwageearners individually . Itisuponthis point that labor disputes frequently spring up andbecomeacute . “Inmostinstances inwhich employers accord toworkmen practical rec ognition oftheright ofcollective bargaining which they themselves exercise , fair relations aremaintained . Evenunder such conditions ,itistrue , un happy disputes arise . Whether thebargaining becollective orindividual , a conflict ofinterest may tempt either party tomakeexactions whichthe other cannot concede . Ifemployers yielded toevery demandofwage earners ,their business would bewrecked ;ifwageearners always accepted theterms that employers offer ,they would suffer great injustice . “Inanycircumstances ,differences mustbeexpected toarise . Insuch cases theDepartment ofLabor ,through public agents experienced incon troversies oflike character ,might possibly find a commonground foragree mentwhich thedisputants ,intheir eagerness foradvantage orintheheat of 16 their controversy , hadoverlooked . Difficulties of adjustment would , of course ,begreatly increased ifeither party refused todeal orbargain with theother . ButtheDepartment ofLabor , fromgrowing experience and accumulated knowledge and skill , mightlearn how, evenin these more difficult cases ,toappeal withpacifying andprosperity -promoting effect , to thegoodcitizenship andthewiseself -interest ofbothparties . And,though no commonground forcompromise werediscovered , theDepartment of Labor might still beable tostimulate such conciliatory spirit asmight exist onboth sides ,sufficiently tobring them ,each nonetheless convinced ofthe righteousness ofhisown cause , toa manlyagreement tosubmit their unreconciled differences toarbitration . “ In any befost ofwag ered ofthe ways ,thewelfare e earne rscould sethree whi ofemplo r ofsocie ty letheprosp erity yersandthepeaceandgood orde them . Amicabl rties atlargewere cons lement n the pa erved e sett s betwee fir selves without med stinorderofpre ferenc iatio estly e. Medi n aremanif . Arbitra thi isprefer ati rd. But any ofthethree able oncome s next tion ) tostrike sorlockout s.” (1913:66–67 e1 Employment Servic 1 The Employment Service of theDepartment of Laborbeganwiththe creation in1907 ofa statutory Division ofInformation within theBureau of Immigration . Theoriginal authority oftheDivision hadbeenprescribed bysection 40oftheImmigration Actof1906.TheDivision inits promotion distribution appropriate ofa beneficial ofaliens wasrequired tofurnish information notonly tothembutalso toothers desiring it . Transfer ofthe BureauofImmigration totheDepartment ofLaborin 1913placed the functions Information Division ofthis underthebroader termsoftheorganic act ,namely ,todevelop opportunities forprofitable employment forworkers . Outofthis conjunction offunctions wasdeveloped theUnited States Em ployment Service ,established in1915.(1916 :51) ,had port ofentry ,themajor New York ,notably Several oftheStates , which information ofemployment programs efficient established already field ,the inthis Federal activities . To centralize could beusedasmodels thedirect tohisOffice ,under Division transferred theInformation Secretary . (1916:72) Secretary oftheAssistant supervision Theproblem wastoconstruct a national employment service inaddition services appro totheexisting State . Itsoperations wouldbeparticularly priate tointerstate relationships , anditwould workincooperation with existing State agencies inthesamefield . Initial successes inattracting farm help for harvests inOklahoma ,Kansas , Missouri ,andSouth Dakota ,andinfinding jobs forshoe workers thrown 1A detailed report ontheearly history oftheEmployment Service ispresented ina special report byT.V.Powderly ,Chief oftheDivision ofInformation ,Bureau ofImmi gration ,inthe1918annual report oftheSecretary ofLabor ,pp.467-470 . 17 outofemployment because ofaa disastrous fire inSalem ,Mass .,resulted in 1914 intheestablishment of18“labor distribution zones ”covering Federal labor exchanges in37major cities . Eachoffice wasunder thedirection ofanimmigration official ,whose jobwas“topromote profitable employment bymeans ofpublicity ,torelieve thecongestion ofindustrial centers ,andto awakeninterest infarmworkandother rural vocations .” (1914 :54) In employment theadministration ofthenewFederal service , “special care [would ] betaken toprevent fraud by giving theutmost publicity toall pertinent facts regarding opportunities foremployment andtoguard against both undue scarcity andexcessive supply ofwageearners insofarasthat canbe doneunderexisting laws ." (1914 :54) Arrangements alsowere information through madefortheexchange oflabor thenational office among thevarious offices across theNation . As theSecretary sawtheproblem ,involuntary unemployment wasdi related disputes rectly tolabor : “Excess inthesupply oflabor over demand for itisa cause oflabor disputes which ranks high inimportance ,ifindeed itdoes notrankasthe cause . Incolloquial terms the 'jobless man’puts all wageworkers atadisad vantage inbargaining with employers . The‘manless job 'isaa corresponding colloquialism . Ifthere werea profitable ‘manless job 'forevery “jobless man’thecomplete remedy forindustrial disputes would betobring thetwoto gether ;butwhether socomplete a correspondence exists ornot ,nooneatall familiar with theproblems ofseasonal employment andofaccidental dis placements ofwageearners candoubt that itexists insomedegree . 2 (1914:95) Whatwasneeded ,hewrote ,was"timely andwidespread information con cerning labor conditions inevery part ofthecountry ” (1914 :95), and heurgently solicited thecooperation ofCongress inattacking theproblem . Headvocated "the development ofaa unified system ofpublic labor exchanges aswidespread within national boundaries astheDepartment ofLaborcan extend it ,ascomplete inits local organization asState andmunicipal offices canconstruct it ,andasefficient ,extensively andintensively ,asall three in cooperation canmakeit . Theearnest desire ofthedepartment isthat this system ,continuing tobeindependent inits original parts ,shall beinthe truest sense cooperative andinterdependent asa whole .” (1915 :32) InApril 1915 ,atthefirst national conference ofpublic employment offi cials ,held atthecall oftheSecretary ,this matter wasdiscussed andap proved ,andanational advisory committee wasappointed . ablish rding theest licies rega grams andpo ntdeve loped pro artme TheDep oadfares n forlowrailr visio house system ,pro alclearing mentof a nation ab entSer vice loym ,theest yment bytheEmp cted toemplo dire forworkers r ls ' e n's and gi zation ofa wom n,th e organi terforseame ntofaregis lishme ision tment ren's depar ,andprov t Servi ce,a child oymen onoftheEmpl divisi r workers. forolde 18 Special consideration wasgiven totheattitude oftheService with regard toindustrial disputes . As stated intheSecretary's 1916report : “Thepolicy pursued bythedepartment with reference tothelabor situa tion where strikes exist orarethreatened involves five elements ,whichmay begeneralized asfollows : (1) Workers whohave hadexperience with the employment inquestion donotlook uponitasbeing profitable ; (2) asthere a isa sufficient supply oflabor already there the problem isnotoneofsupplying labor whereitisscarce ,butofadjusting terms ofemployment where labor is plentiful ; (3) thewageearners engaged inthedispute arequalified , by virtue ofthetraining andexperience they have had ,toperform thekind of workrequired ,andthis would notalways bethe case with persons whowith outprevious experience inthat employment mightrespond tothereported demand ; (4) fortheUnited States Employment Service toconvey informa tion ofemployment offered where a strike exists oristhreatened would be toplace itintheposition ofactively assisting oneside tothecontroversy , whereas ifitdoesnotconvey suchinformation its position iswholly pas sive ; (5) itisa function oftheDepartment ofLabortopromote industrial peace ,notindustrial disturbance .” (1916 :60) creating a a statute thatCongress enact In 1916itwasrecommended wasalso ofLabor . Legislation intheDepartment bureau onemployment en exchanges andlabor agencies "that all employment requiring proposed depart ofthis under thesupervision beplaced business gaged ininterstate ,however . wastaken :124) No action ment.” (1916 Meanwhile ,Terence V.Powderly ,Chief ofthe Information Division ofthe Bureau ofImmigration from1907to1921 ,wasauthorized under“thesys temofemployment anddistribution ofwageearners ” established inthe Department on January 8,1915 ,tosupervise the80 orsofield offices of whatwasthen referred toastheUnited States Employment Service . Labor Statistics Longbefore there wasa Department ofLabor ,in1885 ,theCommissioner ofLabor(Statistics ) hadexpressed thebasic function ofhisbureau as follows : “Itshould be remembered thataa bureauoflabor cannotsolve industrial orsocial problems , norcanitbring direct returns ina material way tothe citizens ofthecountry ; butits workmustbeclassed amongeducational efforts , andby judicious investigations andthefearless publication thereof itmay andshould enable thepeople tocomprehend moreclearly andmore fully manyoftheproblems which nowvexthem .” (1913 :22) From itsbeginning , theBureauissued a regular series ofvoluminous bulletins covering a tremendous range ofsubject ,including prices andcost ofliving , wagesandhours , industrial accidents , labor lawsandcourt de cisions ,foreign labor ,workmen's compensation ,womeninindustry , labor disputes ,andworking conditions . InJuly 1915itpublished thefirst issue ofwhatwaseventually tobecome the Monthly Labor Review . (1916 :87) 19 During theearly years oftheDepartment ,theBureau wasresponsible for administration ofthelawsrelating toclaims by employees oftheFederal Government forinjuries sustained intheservice . Thisfunction wasorig . inally placed with theBureau atthetime ofenactment ofthelawin1908 . In1916 itwastransferred toa newly created independent U.S. Employees ' Compensation Commission . From 1914to 1916theBureauallowed a total ofover 7,500 claims ,andauthorized thepayment ofover $930,000 in compensation . (1916 : 88–89 ) Children'sBureau Shortly after its transfer totheDepartment ofLabor , theChildren's Bureau wasconsiderably enlarged ,increasing from15persons in1914 to 76 in 1915. Its activities covered a widefield ofrelated interests ,anditapproached its problems with vigor andoriginality . Thestudy ofinfant mortality ,conducted incooperation with theU.S. Public Health Service , was concentrated inselected cities . The collected evidence indicated a close relationship between highdeath rate amongbabies andlowearnings ofthebreadwinner , large families ,poorhousing , and maternal drudgery . TheBureau urged a morecomplete registration of births . Theexploitation ofchild labor hadbythis time become a problem of Asa result ofagitation throughout the country ,aFederal national concern . child labor lawwasenacted inSeptember 1916 ,establishing agelimits in theemployment ofyoung people ininterstate commerce . Administration ofthis act wasplaced intheChildren's Bureau . TheworkoftheBureau in analyzing State child labor lawsandtheir administration thereupon ac quired new significance . But adequate statistics on theemployment of children werestill lacking . Studies were also madeofthe extent ofmental deficiency ,illegitimacy ,and delinquency amongchildren . Two significant accomplishments oftheBureau during this period werethe establishment ofa specialized library onchild welfare ,andthepublication ofpamphlets on“Prenatal Care ”and“Infant Care ” (byMrs. MaxWest ), which quickly became Government best sellers . (1914 :85) 2 0 WAR EFFORT 0 1917 192 1 1 WAR EFFORT 1917-20 While theUnited States wasputting its house inorder through legislation action Wilhelm andsocial ,Kaiser ofGermanywasbuilding an armyand worrying his neighbors . OnJune 28,1914 ,aSerbian patriot shot anAustrian archduke ,andthis wasenough toset thetinderbox ofEurope onfire . Two months later theImperial Germany Armymarched into Belgium . Quickly , England ,France ,andother nations were drawn into theFirst World War. Presid entWilso n cal ledon all America ns tobe"imparti alinthought as wel l asaction ,” butlittl eby little ,the Natio n seemedtodrawcloser tothe conflict . Inthe early years ofthewaracross the sea ,Secretary ofLabor Wilson was able toestablish the newLabor Department onasound footing . TheFederal Government ,meanwhile ,wasconcerned about its relations withMexico ,and Brigadier General John“Black Jack ” Pershing waschasing PanchoVilla along theRioGrande border . In the Presidential elections of 1916 Woodrow Wilson was reelected largely because "he hadkept usoutofwar .” Butinspite ofthePresident's efforts ,neutrality wasshortlived ,andin1917waragainst Germanyandher allies was declared . Fortunately ,the newLabor Department hadhad3 years toestablish itself , emergency. "Had anditwasable tomovequickly tosupport thenational theDepartment ofLabor notexisted atthebeginning ofthewar,Congress would havebeenobliged tocreate sucha Department ," Secretary Wilson wrote inhis1918report . (1918 :11) Butby thetimethewarbegan ,the Department organization hadexperienced several years asan integrated , andknewwhatitcould do,andtheprewar years during which theUnited States served asthearsenal ofdemocracy hadprovided opportunity to develop someoftheplans that later were putinto action . “Battles ," astheSecretary pointed out , “arefought notonlybetween armed menbutbetween the factories ,workshops ,andmines ofthe contending nations . ...Theefficiency ofindustry [is ] wholly dependent uponthe efficiency oflabor . Thegreatest essential ,therefore ,forourGovernment [atthat time ofcrisis ] wastheadoption ofa central labor administration labor policy anda consistent .” (1918:11) 23 EFF ,NW .,was building 17thand 18thon G Street between Thisnine -story of Laborin 1917. The of theDepartment built as headquarters . specifications , and the in theoriginal ninthfloorwas not included builder couldnot explainhow thisextrafloor“slippedin." 24 s e From4 bureaus anda conciliation service atthebeginning ofthewar, theDepartment grewto13separate bureaus andservices and2 boards . The Department becamein facttheNation's War LaborAdministration . Although , inthe11/2 years between declaration andtermination ofthe war, theAdministration had insufficient timetodevelop and test itsnew functions ,itnevertheless experimented inprojects that later became part of thepermanent functions oftheDepartment . Someofthemaredescribed here. President'sMediation Commission Initially ofmajor importance wastheproblem oflabor unrest , which broke outinmajor production industries invarious parts ofthecountry during thesummerof 1917.To investigate thegeneral reasons forthis a unrest ,thePresident appointed a mediation commission ,ofwhich Secretary Wilson was chairman , and Felix Frankfurter (later U.S.SupremeCourt Justice Frankfurter ) wassecretary andcounsel . (1918 :28) After a survey onthespot ,andconsideration oftheproblem ingeneral , thecommission inJanuary 1918called forelimination ofprofiteering ,recog . nition ofcollective bargaining aspart ofnational labor policy , preventive grievance adjustment through continuous administrative machinery , an 8 hourdaywithovertime payment , unification ofallGovernment establish ments having jurisdiction over labor problems ,abandonment bylabor of practices restrictive ofmaximumwarproduction efficiency ,andpublicity to contribution labor's inthewareffort . (1918 :28) Partly asa result ofthecommission's report ,Congress madeadditional funds available forconciliation work ,andtheConciliation Service was sub stantially expanded . Its 1918 workload of1,217 cases wasmorethan 3times asgreat as its 378cases in1917. (1918:33) A major reason for the success ofthe Conciliation Service wasits approach totheproblems involved . AstheSecretary commented : “Ithasbeenthepolicy oftheDepartment ofLabornottoendeavor toim pose its viewpoint uponeither theworker orthemanagement inanydispute that mayarise ,butrather tofind somebasis mutually acceptable even though itmaynotbemutually satisfactory . Inother words ,theworkofmediation is nota judicial work ;itisnota judicial function ;itisnottohear both sides determine judg andthen therights andwrongs ofthesituation ,ortopass . mentandthen enforce its decision . Theworkisdiplomatic rather than judicial ,anditisinthis spirit that all ourproblems ofconciliation inlabor controversies areapproached ." (1918 :31–32 ) e War Labor Administration Statutory andappropriation limitations onadaptation oftheDepartment towartime requirements wereinpart surmounted by theestablishment ofa War LaborAdministration ,authorized by thePresident , tocoordinate all ofthe labor functions distributed amongthe various agencies ofGovernment . 666947-63 -3 25 ation ncilof sesofthis nistr outby theCou Thepurpo Admi , asspelled l Defe nse, were: Nationa 1.To furnish an adequate andstable labor supply towar industries . (This wastobedonethrough a system oflabor exchanges ,thetraining of workers , thedilution of skills as needed , and theestablishment of labor priorities .) 2.To adjust labor disputes equitably ,without stoppage ofwork . se of women and luding tho tions , inc ingcondi uardwork 3.To safeg children . 4.To safeguard living conditions ,suchashousing andtransportation . 5.Togather andpublish appropriate information . 6.To promote thenational labor program . (1918:95-96 ) National War Labor Board As headoftheWar Labor Administration , theSecretary ofLabor was advised on labor relations by a National War LaborBoardappointed by thePresident ,on recommendation by theSecretary ,inApril 1918.The Boardwas equally representative of employers (five membersfromthe National Industrial Conference Board ) andemployees (five membersfrom theAmerican Federation ofLabor ). Co-chairmen wereFrankP.Walsh , lawyer , and ex-President William H. Taft . The Boardthusbecame"a bodysuperior toallother adjustment boards thenin existence .” (1918 : 101) Itdidnottakeoverthefunctions oftheConciliation Service ,but acted only inthe event offailure ofthe latter toresolve a dispute . TheBoardoperated inaccordance witha code ,published atthetimeof its inception ,which became popularly knownastheMagnaCarta ofLabor : “Theright ofworkers toorganize ...andtobargain collectively through chosen representatives isrecognized andaffirmed . Thisright shall not be denied ,abridged , or interfered withby theemployers inanymanner employers [A similar clause protected .] “Employers should notdischarge workers for membership intrade -unions , whatsoever . norfor legitimate trade -union activities . ,shall notuse rights toorganize oftheir ,intheexercise “Theworkers their organizations toinduce persons tojoin ofanykind coercive measures ordeal therewith .” tobargain employers nortoinduce Existing relationships between employers andworkers ,whether a shop wasorganized ornot ,would continue . This ,however ,asthereport pointed out ,was“notintended inanymanner todenytheright ordiscourage the practice oftheformation oflabor unions orthejoining ofthesamebythe workers establishments theWar LaborBoardfrom insaid .. norprevent urging oranyumpire from granting ...improvement oftheir situation in . thematter ofwages ,hoursoflabor ,orother conditions asshall be found desirable from timetotime.” 26 ued: contin The report “Established safeguards andregulations fortheprotection ofthehealth andsafety ofworkers shall notberelaxed . “Ifitshall become necessary toemploy womenonworkordinarily per formed bymen,they must beallowed equal payfor equal workandmustnot tasks disproportionate beallotted strength totheir . “Thebasic eight -hourdayisrecognized asapplying inall cases “Themaximum production ofall warindustries should bemaintained and methods ofworkandoperation onthepart ofemployers orworkers which operate todelay orlimit production ,orwhich have atendency toartificially increase ... thecost thereof ,should bediscouraged ... “Infixing wage ,andcon s,hours dition ,reg soflabor ardshould alwa ysbe hadtothela borstanda ,wagescales ,andoth rds erconditi onspre vailin g in theloca affected lities . commonlaborers ,toa living wageis ,including ofall workers “Theright . herebydeclared lished which will llbeestab esofpaysha g wages ,minimumrat “Infixin le ilyinhealth andreasonab eofthewor kerandhis fam istenc thesubs insure 3) fort com .” (1918:102–10 describing the a procedure andpublished The Boardalsoestablished holding hear for complaints ,arrangements inpresenting tobeused methods ofarbitra fortheinstitution ,andconditions adjustments ings andmaking itwould hear that appeal function ,onebeing limits toits . Itspecified tion Service . bytheConciliation been found insoluble that hadnotfirst nocase Inhis report of1918 theSecretary commented :“During thebrief period ofits existence ,theWar LaborBoardhasbeenoneofthemosteffective instruments oftheDepartment inproducing historic anddesirable changes intherelations ofemployers andwageearners intheUnited States . Prob ably themost important ofthese changes isthat involving theright ofwork ers toorganize andtodeal collectively .” (1918 :109) Among its other accomplishments before its dissolution attheconclusion ofhostilities ,theBoard initiated cost -of-living studies ,established minimum wagerates incertain warindustries ,andinsisted onequal payrights for women workers . Unite d StatesEmployment Servi ce Withwarcametheproblem ofindustrial manpower . As theSecretary stated theproblem : de wasanextraordinary manifestations ofwaractivity “Oneofthefirst prepa stimulated by the industries which hadbeen inthose mandforworkers ,and ,munitions ,ordnance ofships amounts ofvast manufacture ration for the demandwas . Muchofthis forourarmedforces necessary other materials relatively atwages forlabor morebyeagerness beeninfluenced found tohave . labor shortage than bygeneral expenses rise inliving tothesharp inadequate establish ofmunition intheneighborhoods ,especially Butinsomeplaces 27 ments which hadbeenserving European wardemands atenormous profits , there wasa genuine scarcity oflabor for less profitable forms ofproduction . On thewhole ,the problem atfirst wasless a problem oflabor scarcity than ofimperfect distribution .” (1918 :201) 2 Theinit ial solut iontothe probl emwas oneofuni formproce dure : private agents for ofusing ofemployers onthepart "... Thepractice concern a matter ofprivate supply waspurely ownlabor maintaining their . workorwarpreparations topublic didnotextend solongasthepractice their agents restricted private assuch serious solong Norwasthesituation , ofthewar. Such totheprosecution notnecessary toindustries recruiting aa labor engaged in. Employers shortage set after ,wasnotthecase however plants be curtailed oftheir the efficiency fearful lest inessential workbecame campaigns uponrecruiting andembarked ofman-power shortage through oftheir actions effect labor supply orthe source oftheir regard tothe without engaged earners , wage . Inconsequence work engaged inlike uponothers nomore other service toaccept weresolicited warservice necessary invery .. Under such circumstances they wereengaged essential that uponwhich than toward theulti should bedirected Department policy that the itwaspatent agencies . Such a move, public recruiting inthe ofthe matecentralization were themselves agencies that thepublic by thefact ,wasdelayed however agencies theFederal tobring together taken weretherefore . Steps notunited , prac . Asa result andbymunicipalities operated bytheStates with those theUnited with wereunited other thanFederal agencies all thepublic tically ) : 203 1,1918. ... ” (1918 toJanuary prior Service States Employment Funds having been madeavailable byCongress “torender such assistance ofwageearners as may be deemednecessary intheemployment ” (1918:207),all emergency employment functions weretransferred fromthe Bureau ofImmigration tothe Office ofthe Secretary . “This wasthe first definite step taken toward the organization ofthe United States Employment Service asa separate branch oftheDepartment's activ ities . Such a course wasnotonly necessary because ofthedifference in character between employment andimmigration workbutalso by reason of thenecessity for payment oftheexpenses ofwaremergent andnonemergent workoutofdifferent funds .” (1918 :208) TheUSESwasimmediately expanded ,with arepresentative inevery State . Within 6 months there were400employment service offices . Special services were established toattend tothe employment needs offarmworkers ,women workers ,Negro workers ,andskilled andunskilled workers . Significant in thelight oflater developments inthe1930's wastheestablishment ofa special branch oftheService tohandle theBoys 'Working Reserve forthe placement ofboys16to21years ofageincivilian warwork ,particularly intheharvesting ofcrops . Similarly significant wastheestablishment of aPublic Service Reserve for the hiring ofprofessional ,technical ,andskilled workers . (1918:680) sors uspr ivate spon ,aWomen'sLandArmy ntwithvario Underanagreeme 28 program became the responsibility ofthe United States Employment Service , buttraining andsupervision weremanaged bythesponsors . (1919 :288) InApril 1919 ,ata national conference ,theproblem ofFederal -State re lationships wasdiscussed ,anditwasgenerally agreed that “athorough and comprehensive public Employment Service (should ] bepermanently estab lished .” (1919 :278) A bill wasdrafted , andwaspresented toCongress byRepresentative Nolan andSenator Kenyon ,butit failed topass . After thewartheService continued asa function oftheSecretary's Office , butwasgreatly reduced insize . Although its authority derived fromthe Immigration ActandtheDepartment ofLabor Act ,ithadnostatutory au thority ofits own. Theneed for specific recognition wasvoiced bytheSec retary inhis report for1919 : "Nottheleast ofthefactors which madefornational efficiency during the war was the properdistribution . Priortothewar itwas ourcustom oflabor employ ofmenwereseeking while large numbers fact that the todisregard forlack hindered wasseriously ,production ofthecountry mentinsomeparts by about wasbrought thewarefficiency . During inothers ofmanpower inproduction factors twovital andcomplementary these bringing together since the Service . Unfortunately States Employment theUnited through the activities curtail drastically forced toso has been wartheDepartment . IftheDepartment ofits purpose itineffective astorender service ofthat not onlymustlegislation it was created for which the purposes istofulfill Service , butitmust theEmployment establishing permanently bepassed :296) .” (1919 appropriations aswell receive liberal War Labor Polici es Board employer inthe oflabor thelargest ThewarmadetheU.S.Government agencies , Federal policies amongthevarious inlabor country . Diversity problems , tonumerous ,gaverise withregard towageschedules especially these interdepartmental . Toreconcile confusion andconflict with resultant appointed policies ofLabor unified ,theSecretary differences andtoachieve . ofFelix Frankfurter thechairmanship Board ,under a War LaborPolicies ,Labor ,and ofWar,Navy werethedepartments ontheBoard Represented , , the Fuel Corporation Emergency Fleet Board ,the ,the Shipping Agriculture Board . , and theWar Industries Administrations Food , and Railway (1918:115) TheBoarddec idedthat , asa meansofelimina tingcompetit iverecruit ment andred ucing lab orturnove r, allunskill edlaborwouldbe obt ained through theUni tedStates Emp loyme ,andskil ntSer vice ledlabor woul d be sorecru ited whene vertheUSEScoul d enlarg fac eits ilities . State labor bureaus wereauthorized toenforce uniform standards inwar production industries withregard tochild labor ,contract labor ,theFederal 8-hourlaw,andarbitration . To obtain sufficient workers inessential jobs inwarindustries ,theBoard arranged withtheProvost Marshal General through thedraft boards for the furloughing ofcertain skilled workers onthebasis ofnational needs . 29 TheBoard also concerned itself with theimprovement oflabor standards andthestabilization ofwages andprices . Theproblem ofequal payfor women workers washanded over tothe WomaninIndustry Service . And studies ofwarindustries were prepared todetermine theextent ofeffective utilization ofmanpower . (1919 : 126-127 ) The Boardwas discontinued inMarch 1919. Woman in Industry Service Even beforethe declaration of war itbecame evidentto a number of patriotic womenthat conditions demanded theuseofsomecentral agency forthemobilization ofwomenworkers . TheNational League forWoman's Service wastherefore privately established andfinanced ,todetermine the needs ofwomenworkers andtomakeavailable a supply ofwomenworkers fortheGovernment andforwarindustries . Withtheoutbreak ofwar,the demandforwomanpowertoreplace drafted men wastremendously in creased . Arrangements weretherefore made , inOctober 1917 , between theDepartment ofLabor andtheLeague tohavetheDepartment assume those phases ofthe workofthe League involving theemployment ofwomen on warproduction contracts . Placement became theresponsibility ofthe women'sdivision oftheUSES . (1917:71-72) Thepromotion oftheemployment ofwomenremained with theLeague until July1918 ,whentheWoman inIndustry Service was established in theDepartment undera congressional appropriation . Itwascharged with the duty ofdeveloping standards andpolicies toinsure the effective employ mentofwomenwhile conserving their health andwelfare ” (1919 :129 ), andtocoordinate the workofother departments inthis field . "... while theproblems ofwomeninindustry during thewardiffered informfromsimilar problems intime ofpeace ,”wrote theSecretary , “the fundamental tasks weresomuchalike that theexperience gained indealing with themduring thewarmayberegarded asa basis foraction intime of peace . [ThewarworkoftheWomaninIndustry Service ] should ,there fore ,benotmerely a history butanintroduction toa program forthework oftheFederal Government on behalf ofwomenwageearners intheperiod ofreadjustment and thereafter ." (1919 :130) 2 TheService ,astheSecretary sawit ,would belargely policymaking and administrative incharacter rather thanexecutive . Specifically its purposes would be: “ 1.Toconsider all general policies with respect towomeninindustry and toadvise theSecretary ofLabor astopolicies which should bepursued . “2.To keep informed oftheworkoftheseveral divisions oftheDepart mentinsofarasthey relate towomeninindustry andtoadvise with the divisions on allsuchwork. “3.Tosecure inf ormati ononal lmatte rsre lating towomeninindust ry, and tocollate such infor mationintousefulform. “4.To est ablish usef ulconnect ionswit h allgov ernme ntaldepartm ents 30 anddivisions onthis subject andwith voluntary agencies andsocieties ." (1919 :131) A council ofwomenrepresenting interested agencies wasappointed ,and Miss MaryVanKleeck wasmadeDirector . Amongsubjects discussed were the recruiting ofwomen for newoccupations ,the development ofstandards governing theemployment ofwomeninindustry ,theemployment ofwomen inhazardous occupations ,theproblem ofnightwork ,State labor lawsaffect ingwomen's employment ,wages andindustrial relations , thetraining of womenandtheir relations with employers andother workers ,andthelack ofstatistics . Soeffective wasthis service that attheendofthewartheSecretary urged Congress tocontinue its activities asa permanent part oftheDepartment of Labor . Hisrecommendation wasapproved byCongress . Public Law259 ofthe66th Congress ,approved June5,1920 ,specified that itshould bethe dutyoftheWomen'sBureau “toformulate standards andpolicies which shall promote thewelfare ofwage -earning women ,improve their working conditions , increase their efficiency , and advance their opportunities for profitable employment .” (1921 :35) TheBureau wasauthorized toinvesti gate andreport totheSecretary ofLabor uponall matters pertaining tothe welfare ofwomen inindustry . Division of NegroEconomics Themigration ofNegroworkers fromtheSouth wasbrought totheatten tion oftheDepartment in1916 ,whenfarmers complained they werelosing their labor supply tonorthern railroads . Thewarintensified this migration , andgaverise toother problems involving thestatus ofNegro wageearners in agriculture and other industries . The Division of NegroEconomics was established tostudy theproblem . Headedby Economics Professor George E.Haynes ofFisk University ,theDivision workedinclose coopera tionwiththeUSES . Earlier ,a study madeattherequest oftheDepartment hadrevealed that part oftheproblem waseconomic : Therenecessarily mustbesomeincrease inwages ,and,on farms 66 andplantations ,better understanding andaccounting between landlord and tenant ,better housing andgardening ,andmoreintelligent adjustment to croprotations , andto necessary changes in methods of agriculture .” (1917: 79) TheDivision concentrated on improving race relations . Itestablished State advisory committees representative ofNegroes andcooperating white citizens ,where such problems existed ,andsought toovercome theproblems bymutual understanding andcooperation . (1919 :123) These committees wereestablished in10States and225local areas . Many talks weregiven throughout theNation ,inwarproduction plants ,inchurches ,andatmass meetings ,andemployers wereadvised on how toimprove theconditions of their Negro employees ,andsoincrease production . 31 y forconti nuance ceafter stoftheSecretar ofthis servi thereque Despite n, andtheserv riatio iceter ressrefu sedtorestore thewar,Cong the approp minatedinMarch 1921. Farm Service Division AstheNation grewinsize andpopulation ,theproblem ofobtaining suffi cient farmlabor ,especially during theharvest season ,became increasingly acute . TheDepartment ofLabor contributed its first service inthis connec tion when ,in1914 ,theDivision ofInformation oftheBureau ofImmigra tion ,incooperation with thepostal authorities ,advertised forandobtained laborers for thewheat harvest . Inthe next year italso helped intheNorth west fruit harvest . Thesetting upoflabor distribution branches throughout theUnited States didmuchtoestablish this service asa continuing function . At thesametime ,theDepartment wasawareoftheneedtoprotect the welfare ofthefarmworkers : "Anticipating the embarrassment ,loss ,andsuffering towhich unemployed wageearners have long been exposed byirresponsibly advertised opportuni ties forfarmworkatharvest time ,thedepartment wascareful . ..toput applicants ontheir guard withreference towages ,totheprobable period of employment ,tothecharacter andcircumstances oftheworkoffered ,andto theresponsibility oftheperson promulgating thecall .... " (1915: 34) Withtheconversion oftheDivision ofInformation intotheUnitedStates Employment Service in1915 ,the farm service program became moredefinite , andwith theurgent food -supply needs ofwarits functions rapidly expanded . Incooperation withState authorities ,therailroads ,andfarming groups , a bushel "nota ofwheat waslost through lack oflabor .” (1919:270) The Farm Service Division was established in December1918. With Kansas City asheadquarters ,andtemporary offices uptheline asneeded ,it directed thousands ofworkers toplaces oflabor shortage ,and ,onthebasis ofaregular series ofbulletins ,kept workers advised astoareas where labor supply wasample . Timely help also wasgiven intheharvesting ofcotton andcorninthe Imperial Valley ,fruit andgrapes inNewYorkState ,andpotatoes inMaine . A special organization , theBoys ' Working Reserve , wasdeveloped in 1917 toarrange for the employment ofyoung mentohelp inlocal harvesting . (1918:212) During 1918theDivision wasentrusted bytheImmigration Service with theduty ofarranging forthetemporary admission offarmlaborers from MexicoandtheBahamas . (1918:216) In March1919theFarm Service Division wascurtailed and returned , with the USES,tothe Bureau ofImmigration . During its 10months ofwar effort ,ithadplaced 221,000 farmworkers ,excluding thethousands placed through theKansas City office . (1919 :289) Oneofthereasons forthesuccess ofthefarmservice program wasthat 32 Division officers kept incontinuous touch with both workers andemployers to adjust supply tolabor needs . Andoneofits mainproblems wasthecost of railroad transportation whencompared with thethen generally prevailing wagerate offrom50to70cents an hour . According tothe1919annual report : “Itistheopinion oftheKansas Cityfield office that withnormal labor conditions prevalent inthecountry during another harvest season ,itwill require either an abnormally highwagescale ora material reduction in railway rates tobring insufficient labor toharvest the crops .” (1919 :292) Child Labor Division InSeptember 1916Congress passed theChild LaborAct. To administer this law ,a Child LaborDivision oftheChildren's Bureau wascreated in January 1917under thedirection ofMiss Grace Abbott . By arrangement with the States ,employment certificates were issued asthe employers 'evidence ofproof ofage ,andState officials were authorized toact asinspectors under the Federalact. In June1918 , however , thelawwas declared unconstitutional on the grounds that the"interstate -commerce clause could notbeinvoked toprevent child labor within therespective States .” (1918 :179) Following this ,theWarandNavyDepartments issued orders prohibiting theemployment ofchildren onreservations under their control . Inaddition , theWar Policies Boardurged that thestandards oftheFederal child labor lawbewritten into all Government contracts ,totheeffect that “thecontractor shall notdirectly orindirectly employ inthe performance ofthis contract any minorunder theageof14years ,orpermit anyminorbetween theages of14 and16years toworkmorethaneight hours inanyoneday,morethansix > days inanyoneweek ,orbefore 6 a.m. orafter 7 p.m. ” (1918 :180) TheBureau continued toprint andpublish agecertificates forStates wish ingto cooperate . TheBureau wasalso deeply concerned with child labor inrural areas . And itconducted a back -to -school drive throughout theUnited States . In1919 , after numerous conferences with interested agencies ,itpublished a set of minimumstandards reference on child labor ,withspecific toage,education , physical condition ,hours ofemployment ,wages ,andsupervision on the 1 job. (1919 : 247) 1 Similar standards werepublished onthehealth ofmothers andchildren , infants andpreschool children ,school children ,andadolescents . Trainingand Dilution Service of totheSecretary fromthePresident ,ina memorandum InJuly 1918 todevelop inwar Service wasestablished andDilution ,theTraining Labor of fortraining andadministration method plants “asatisfactory production Becau se the sestandard s aresub stantia llysimil arto thosepublis hedin195 0,theyare omittedhere . 33 workers ” and“anagency fordilution ofskilled labor asandwhenneeded .” (1918:125) TheSecretary madeitclear that training wastobeinshop methods and notinschool subjects covered byvocational education . He also pointed out 66 that jobdilution consists essentially inareorganization ofworksoastoturn over tounskilled labor alarge part oftheprocesses formerly done byskilled workers ." (1918 :126) departments werein hostilities ,147training ofactive Withthetermination froma dayortwotosev ranged . Training inwarindustries operation full eralmonths . (1919:157) Inaddition ,experts were engaged toprepare pamphlets andplans regard ing :“(a) training ofexisting labor forces forhigher efficiency andwider knowledge oftheir employments ,(b) training ofnewlabor ,and(c) training ofexperienced workers tobe foremen ." (1919:158) manner ,andemployers studied inthis industries were 20major Morethan 2 by wasfound training industrial . Evidently considerable interest showed . service value for peacetime themselves tobeofpractical theindustries A majorfactor inemployer motivation ,apparently ,wastheinterest of competitors their intraining : Employers begantofind that wherea rival had a goodtraining department a better class ofemployees sought hisemployment for thewider opportunities afforded them ;that better grades ofworkwereturned outand better wagesearned ,withconsequent decreased turnover andcheaper pro ductioneven on high n they alsoasked for s. Whereupo er wage scale 0) ...." (1919:159-16 advice Forlack ofcontinued appropriations ,this service terminated inJune 1918 . e ionsServic Working Condit ent's edinth ePresid tions ,asstat ingCondi Service pose ofthe Work Thepur ingcondi y forsaf eguard hiner onsofJul y 1918 ,wastosetup“mac tructi ins als :138) ionofwar essenti .” (1918 nsoflabor intheproduct tio ieswere: fically dut ,its Morespeci 66 ...To examine into thematter ofworking conditions inthewarin dustries ,todetermine thestandards astoconditions whichshould bemain tained ... toadopt rules embodying such standards andexplaining them , todetermine thebest meansofsecuring theadoption andmaintenance of such standards andtocooperate withState authorities fortheabove pur poses ." (1918 :140) TheService wasdivided administratively into three divisions — industrial hygiene andmedicine ,safety engineering ,andlabor administration . Since ithadonly advisory functions ,theService wasdetermined tode velop "abureau whose function andduty itshould betofurnish industries withinformation andsuggestions forthebetterment ofworking conditions ." (1919:190) Itoffered toindustries a "consultant service ofspecialists in employment management , industrial relations ,sanitation , ventilation , illu 34 > mination , medical supervision and service , and accident prevention .” (1919: 191) This service wasconsidered "abusiness proposal based upontheconvic tion that goodworking conditions aregoodbusiness . Goodworking con ditions build up a spirit ofgoodwill toward themanagement andresult in greater efficiency andincreased production .” (1919 : 191) Forlack ofcontinued appropriations ,theWorking Conditions Service terminated attheendofthefiscal yearinJune1919 . Housingand Transportation One ofthefirst problems tocometotheattention ofSecretary Wilson wastheproblem ofhousing large numbers ofwarworkers who hadbeen gathering inindustrial centers insuchnumbers astoexceed housing facili ties . TheDepartment ofLabor wasmaderesponsible fortheindustrial housing andtransportation program . Morethan $100million wasappro priated forthis work . TheSecretary established a Bureau ofIndustrial Housing andTransportation toadminister theprogram . (1918:133) To avoid theproblem oflocal taxation ,theSecretary organized ,inaddi tion ,the U.S. Housing Corporation asanagency oftheFederal Government . Contracts weremadefora numberofhousing projects , andarrangements weremadeforincreased transportation facilities . Wherever possible , the full useofexisting facilities wasexplored before additional buildings could beconstructed . Furthermore ,asa matter ofpolicy aswell asthrift ,these Federal resources were notmadeavailable until every community concerned [had] exhausted itsown resources .” (1918: 137) During its life ofonly 5 months ,theBureau ofIndustrial Housing and Transportation accomplished a great deal ,andaroused the interest ofmunic ipalities everywhere . Withthearmistice itbegan todisband ,maintaining only those projects already completed ,andeven these wereheld only until theycould bedisposed ofata sufficient price . InternationalLabor Conference InAugust 1918theGermangenerals blamed “fresh American troops ” fortheir growing numberofdefeats , andtheysecretly warnedtheBerlin government that the German cause waslost . TheAllied armies were pushing aheadon thewholeFrench -Flemish front ,andon November 9 theKaiser abdicated andescaped into Holland . Twodays later adelegation ofGerman civilians signed an armistice of total submission in Allied railroad -car headquarters . For mostAmericans thearmistice meantan endtothestrains ofmobili zationand theterrors of war. But forPresident Wilsonand hisCabinet officers itbrought thebeginning ofanother grimstruggle —thestruggle to peace winajust andhonorable . Woodrow Wilson decided togotothepeace conference himself andfight for14points ofsettlement . He soonfoundthat he alone oftheBigFour 35 atthatconfer encestoodfor“pea cewithout victo ry." His greates t succes s, afte ,wasinwri rday s ofdeb ate ting into thetre theCoven aty antofa League ofNati . Eventu ons ,the Unite ally d Sta tesSenate woul d rej ectthis . Fromthepoint ofviewofSecretary ofLabor Wilson , oneofthemost significant developments arising outofthepeace treaty wastheestablish ment of the International LaborOffice as partof the League . (1920:199–209 ) , D.C. , washeldinWashington International LaborConference The first details wereworkedoutby theDepart inOctober1919. Administrative . aschairman ofLaborserved . TheSecretary mentofLabor At this meeting ,permanent officers wereelected , andvarious countries wereformally admitted toConference membership . Conventions andrecom mendations kinds ofvarious wereadopted by theConference withrespect unemployment tothe8-hourday andthe48-hourweek , ,employment of womenandchildren ,andcertain safety practices . , in , Italy washeldatGenoa International LaborConference A second conditions working regarding wereadopted ,where conventions June1920 . forseafarers Subsequent tothereport oftheSecretary ofLabor forfiscal year1920 ,no further mention activity wasmadeofthis inreports oftheDepartment until 1934. National IndustrialConference Termination ofthewar endedthefunctions oftheNational War Labor rendered aspects Board ,andatthe same time void the self -denying ofbargain ingagreements between labor andmanagement that hadbeenestablished under thestimulus ofpatriotism andwarurgency . There wasnow needfor "some permanent understanding ... bywhich a newbasis forthefuture conduct ofindustry might bereached .” (1920 :210) The President therefore called fora NationalIndustrial Conference to be held October 1919.Thepersons whoattended wererepresentative ofthe public ,theChamber ofCommerce oftheUnited States ,farmers ' organiza Industrial Conference management tions ,theNational Board ,railroad , in vestment bankers ,theRailroad Brotherhoods ,andtheAmerican Federation represented ofLabor . Thepublic ,employers ,andlabor wereequally . “Fromthebeginning itwasevident that no decision could bereached unless an understanding washadwithregard totheright ofcollective bargaining .” (1920 :213) Adjournment wasdelayed bya written request fromthePresident urging members representatives thereupon the tofind anagreement . Thelabor proposed thefollowing : “Theright ofwageearners toorganize without discrimination ,tobargain collectively ,toberepresented by representatives oftheir ownchoosing in negotiations andadjustments withemployers inrespect towages ,hoursof 36 labor , and relations and conditions of employment is recognized .” (1920:214) Thepublic andlabor groups voted unanimously inits favor ,buttheem ployer group ,bya divided vote ,rejected it . . . Although anoverwhelming majority ofthedelegates wereinfavor ofthis proposal ,itwas ,nevertheless ,notadopted ,since therules already adopted bytheconference required ...a majority ofeachgroup tode clare the judgment oftheconference .” (1920 :214) ce. The ewfromtheconferen esthereu ponwithdr ntativ represe The labor ce was feren n, and thecon c group remai nt askedthatthe publi Preside . closed Thepublic representatives then prepared a substantial report for thePresi dent . Theypointed outthat thesteel strike then going on hadaroused feelings ofantagonism andprevented calmthinking . Theconference ,they argued ,haddemonstrated thefutility ofattempting todeal with theproblem oflabor relations ina piecemeal way. Theyoffered for hisconsideration a comprehensive andsystematically developed program (1920 :215) which hadbeen prepared prior totheconference bytheSecretary ofLabor . A second andsmaller conference tobepresided over bytheSecretary of Labor wascalled bythePresident inJanuary 1920.Itprepared andpub lished a final report recommending “joint organization ofmanagement and employees forprevention ofindustrial disputes ,anda comprehensive plan for adjusting such disputes whenthey occur . “Amongtheparticular matters uponwhich thefinal report ofthecon ference commented werecollective bargaining ,hours oflabor ,womenin industry ,child labor ,housing ,wages ,profit -sharing ,public employees ,agri culture , and unemployment .” (1920 :217) > Summ ary of This Period Inhis report toCongress in1920 ,Secretary Wilson summarized thetrans formation inhisDepartment during its first 7 years asfollows :2 66 No other department oftheFederal Government hasbeenorganized anddeveloped undersuchtrying circumstances . Before this Department hadbeen fairly organized the greatest warinhistory broke out . ... The in dustrial life ofAmerica shifted overnight . To meetthat emergency a virtual reorganization ofthe Department . ..wasforced upon it . ... “Besides those permanent subdivisions oftheDepartment whichwere channels drawninto wider andmoredifficult ofservice bythewar,there were manytemporary subdivisions which itbecame necessary tocreate andhar monize . Interdepartmental complications called foran interdepartmental labor -adjusting agency ;labor disputes inactivities involving warefficiency necessitated a board forspeedy andunprejudiced decisions uponthemerits ofsuch disputes ;the coming ofwomeninto warindustries involved awomen's 2 ?A recapitulation ofthis period ispresented inthe annual report for fiscal year 1920 . 37 subdivision intheDepartment ; therelations ofNegroes toindustry madea Negro subdivision necessary ;the importance ofindustrial training ,ofexpert investigations ,andofkeeping thepublic properly andpromptly informed , demanded subdivisions especially charged withthose responsibilities .” (1920 :53–54 ) TheSecretary said that although manyofthese functions werediscontinued with thecoming ofpeace because they werepurely warfunctions ,others shouldhave been continued : "Itisa matter ofregret .. .that they abandoned [ ]were ,for they areas . needful inpeace asinwar. Itisa matter ofregret inparticular that two agencies which were ofspecial importance hadtobepractically abandoned . Although theorganic act ofthe Department ofLabor specifically charges the Department with improving theworking conditions ofwageearners and advancing their opportunities for profitable employment ,twoservices ofthe Department devoted tothe first object - the Working Conditions Service and the United States Training Service have been ofnecessity abandoned ,while theonedevoted tothelatter object — theUnited States Employment Service hasbeenforced tocurtail its work .” (1919 :2) Inspite ofpostwar cutbacks inthe Department's services ,the first Labor Secretary could look backwithsatisfaction upon77 years of yeoman duty cesin the s se rvi forthe wage earners oftheNation. Wilson completed hi Cabinet atthe end of Woodrow Wilson's second term of officeand returned atestjob was done. s home inPennsylvania. His gre tohi 38 * * * * * ISOLATION AND MARKET A BULL 11921-1930 TUR LOF AN M 1 | ISOLATION AND A BULL MARKET 1921-30 TheRepublican Party rodeinto power in1921 ,following thedefeat of WoodrowWilson's internationalism and“New Freedom ." By a decisive majority ,Warren G.Harding waselected President , andhe soonnamed JamesJ.Davis ofIndiana ashisSecretary ofLabor . Inhis early years Davis hadbeen aniron puddler inthe steel industry but formostofthetime wasdirector -general ofa major fraternal order . An immigrant fromSouth Wales ,helearned theproblems ofwageearners in theprospering Midwest . Davis served asSecretary ofLabor for9 years . He sawtheDepartment through its postwar adjustments andinto theperiod ofbooming investments and eventual stock marketcrash . He was a Cabinet member underthree Presidents . No major changes occurred intheorganization andgrowth oftheLabor Department during thetwenties . Nevertheless ,somesignificant events were recorded inhisreports toCongress whichhadspecial impact on several of the bureaus. phy Growth of a Philoso Experienced intheproblems ofworking men andwomen,well read ,and philosophically inclined ,Secretary Davis 'impress ontheDepartment derived from hisroleas observerand teacher . His comments on thetimesinclude thefollowing : “Thematerial progress ofAmerica isoneofthemostastonishing things recorded in theannalsof nations . Our wealth entire worthof theearth .” (1928:166) . is40 percent of the “The wealth ofourcountry isbeing produced ata farmorerapid rate a than ever before ,andwith a farlighter taxonthetime andtheenergies of Theresult ismorewealth forusall toshare ,moreleisure inwhich toenjoy life . (1927 : 143) "Many striking changes ofvital importance intheeconomic field and m en . throughout industry generally haveoccurred since 1921. .. “There hasbeen a gradual decrease intheworking hours andaabetterment ofworking conditions ,with increases inwages innearly all sections ofour country ,with theconsequent benefits inthewayof ... improved standards ofliving : (1930: 1) 666947–63 -4 41 s of ralforallclasse ty-fiveyears agothe60-hourweekwasgene “Twen tically r week obtains forprac allclasses of Now the48-hou erable er on a 44 and even a 40-hour or, wit h a very consid numb lab labor. .. week... ndardofliv inghasrisen “ Atthesame time... thesta • Com paring the rates ofwages inthe organized trades andtaking the average wage rate of1913asthebasis ,or100,thehourly rates ofwagestosuchworkers haveincreased froman indexof89.7in1907toan indexnumberof259.5in 1927.On thesamebasis thehours ofworkperweekhavedecreased from 102.6 in1907 to92.4 in1927. ” (1927 :138) “OurAmerican workers share inthegreat wealth nowbeing produced , because theyhaveacquired themultiplicity ofwants that formerly dis tinguished only thearistocracy . Thereisvirtually no wantpossessed byan American employer ofourdaywhich isnotshared bythemenwhom he employs . Themeaning ofthis fact tobusiness ought tobeevident toall . Before youcanhaveeconomic progress youmustaccomplish twothings : Thefirst istocreate themultiplicity ofwants [and] theother istoenlarge multiplicity theclass that shares this .” (1928 : 170) “ There isnothing bought andsold inthemarket that a worker ofour time will notbuyifheispaid a wagesufficiently remunerative toenable him to do so. Thenotion that prosperity isproduced bya wealthy class a isantiquated .... Prosperity isnotthe product ofa class ;itis the product . > ofthemass .” (1928 : 169) "... ourhomemarket meansthepurchasing poweroftheworkingman , andhis purchasing power means the relation ofhis wages toproduction and price . Ourrelatively small exports ,whenmeasured inpercentage ofthe whole ofproduction ,mustemphasize ,not . thefactthatinhome market . inexports ,lies thesafety ofAmerican industry andAmerican business . The way toenlarge thehomemarket istoenlarge thepurchasing powerofthe vast majority ofpersons who constitute thatmarket ; thatisto say , the workers .” (1927 :138) 9 lth ducti st rmouspro ... this rik on and wea ingfact[ofour eno our ma of . . if th sse e s mach ] wou anlitt le throu e useof inery ldme ghth :166) .” (1928 peo reitsbenef its ple didnotsha “My only concern isthat weshall study tosee this great wealth asevenly “ But distributed automatic machinery asitshould be. While this ofproduction is a boontomankind ,ithasonetendency that mustbewatched . Itlifts the heavier burdens frommen,butitalso tends torelieve themofthenecessity ofpossessing asmuchskill asformerly . Themachine itself supplies the skill . Oneeffect ofthis might bea gradual reduction ofall labor tothelevel of semiskilled temptation labor ,with a further tosomeemployers topaythe wagesofsemiskilled labor . “Itmustnotbe. To scale downthewageistoscale downthemarket ,and ifthat isdoneourmarvelous machines defeat themselves . ...One ofthe . moreserious social aspects isinthetendency oflabor -saving machinery to 42 displace handworkers ata rate morerapid thantheycanbe absorbed in newpursuits . We mustguard against thegeneral economic loss we shall suffer iflabor -saving machinery istoload usdownwith chronic increases in thenonproductive andunemployed . We all lose something themomenta single worker loses anopportunity foremployment andceases toproduce wealth . We mustnotcurtail ourmarkets inthat way,either .” (1927 :143– 144) a "...weshall bepaying toodearly for theprosperity ofa fewifmachines become soefficient astoimpoverish themanybykeeping themuunemployed .” (1928:173) 66 zetha t thegeni usforinvent ingmechanic al we must recogni s mustbe augm device entedby ways andmeans ofuti lizing themen and . . womenwhichthose ndispl ace devices soofte or-savi ngma . Witheverylab reshou ldbedevi seda wayofusing chine the kerwhos e labor thewor issaved , s ofwhet ardles herornothehasreac hedmiddl e li reg f. e Histrai ning , effi e must notbescrappe erienc d whil ciency ,andexp e ithasyetremain inga rge eofusefu lness la stor .” (1930:4) slar “Ourwell gely erity -being asa Nation depend onthe prosp ofthe work ers . Ourtariff hasbeensodevised astoprotect themfromcompetition withforeign wageearners employed forless wagesandliving underlower standards than ourownworkers . Therestrictive immigration lawhasspared ourworkpeople fromcompetition athomewithanunlimited numberofim migrants who,ifpermitted todoso,would compete with ourlabor forjobs . We haveseen thebeneficial effects ofthese safeguards inthegreat progress of American industry . (1928:177) “... action tolimit the number ofentrants fromforeign lands ,nomatter how worthy theymight be,wasessential inorder tosupply employment to those ofourownworkers whowereunemployed ,aswell astoprevent the importation ofhundreds ofthousands ofaliens who werecoming hereto seek employment only tofind that itwasnotavailable .” (1930 :1) “Ourcountry cannotbewholly prosperous unless theindustrial andagri cultural conditions in the various sections of the Union areuniformly satisfactory .” (1930 :3) ssflows out into ingcircle oflo ryanexpand g indust m anyailin ..fro taff ecting lw ithou dustry can be il y. e great in erindustr No on many anoth l.” (1928 themal :175) Scopeof theDepartment Following World War I,theDepartment wasreduced tolittle morethan wartime employees half its sizefroma gross of6,391 in1919to3,563 in occurred workers 1920.Almost allofthis loss amongwaremergency in Service theEmployment . Itshould benoted that 676ofthe total in1920were employed bytheU.S. Housing Corporation ,which ,although located intheDepartment ofLabor for administrative purposes ,wasnot under civil service . 43 Lacking statutory legislation ,theemployment ,conciliation ,andhousing functions wereadministered aspart oftheOffice oftheSecretary . By 1930theDepartment comprised 4,925 persons ,mostofthenetincrease over 1921being intheBureaus ofImmigration andNaturalization . Somemeasure ofgrowth isalso supplied interms ofspace occupied . In 1921 thetotal occupied area was93,000 square feet ,which included thede partmental headquarters at1712G Street , NW .;offices oftheChildren's Bureau ,Women’sBureau ,andEmployment Service inTempo4 at20thand D Streets ,NW .; andthe Housing Bureau at1330 G Street . By 1930theDepartment had overflowed this space , and needed still . more . Total occupied area was120,000 square feet . Headquarters were still at1712G,andtheChildren's andWomen'sBureaus inTempo4. USES andImmigration were located inTempo1 at18th andD Streets . Publica tions andSupplies andparts ofImmigration andNaturalization wereinthe Labor Annex ,behind themainbuilding . Naturalization hadoffices inthe Walker Building ,462Louisiana Avenue ,NW . Housing hadrecently moved totheInvestment Building at15th andK Streets ,NW . Concil iatio n Inthehistory oftheDepartment ofLabor ,theworkoftheFederal Con ciliation Service was conducted withskill and without fanfare . Even though someofits accomplishments weremajorcontributions toindustrial peace ,andordinarily would have been given dramatic publicity ,themenand womenintheService claimed little public credit ,preferring tolet theresults functions oftheir efforts speak forthemselves . Their werediplomatic ,not administrative stated position . AstheDirector their : ... inthefunctio n ofconcilia tion inlabor disputes ,a point dev eloped 66 isthefact th attoomuch public itynotonly af fects theworkof ouroffic , ials but often di sastr af ously fects therel ations ofthose hips concern ed, even after th e contro hasbeen versy termina . As inthediplo ted service matic be tween nat ions notall there alnegoti ations canbepub lished ,sothi smightbe designat edasthediploma ticserv iceof Ameri canindust ry,andinits wor k, attimes ,neithe the ne r gotiat nor all ions oftheres ults ofmedia toryef forts canbegiven anypu blicit ybec ause oftheten of feelin sity gexi sting andthe necessi tyfo r a peri odof'coolin gtim e'inwhich thefe elings eng endere d in theactual breac h may lose all thei rbitterne ss . Foraf terall ,humanpride is acommon attribu teofbothempl andempl oyers oyees , andmustalwa ysbe take n intoacco unt .” (1930:38) measure ofthe provide statistics alone aninadequate Forthis reason representatives acted inan its contribution ofcases Service's . Inhundreds capacity . advisory orconsultative ... Manyofthese (cases ] would have resulted instrikes ordeveloped a degree ofunrest whichwouldhaveinterfered withtheprogress ofthe plants oroperations . Thus ,byquiet butnonetheless effective methods ,mat ters werearranged without anycredit coming totheservice other than that 44 known tothe directly interested parties . Andbythis means scores ofstrikes prevented havebeen .” (1930:38–39 ) Thereputation oftheService spread bywordofmouth . Increasing num bers ofemployers andemployees whose relationships hadbecome involved indispute called ontheDepartment forits goodoffices . Theresults were reflected ina “gradual reduction inthenumber oftrade disputes .” (1930:39) Inthe event offailure tosettle adispute ,the conciliators usually suggested submitting the matter toarbitration whenboth parties had“previously volun tarily agreed uponthematters tobesubmitted ”andwould"accept thedeci sion andconclusion ofthe arbitrator orarbitrators .” (1927 : 15) Experience showed"that American employers and employees arenot favorable totheprinciple ofcompulsory arbitration inlabor disputes . Neither legal enactment norcompulsion seems tobepracticable andproper asa meansofbringing about industrial peace . Theremedy lies notin governmental orother interference between employer andemployee but , rather , indirect negotiation andmutual understanding . Thisobjection , however ,does notapply tovoluntary arbitration whenboth parties ,inthe beginning , haveagreed upontheformandthemethods tobeusedin arbi trating their differences ,andthat they will accept asbinding the opinion or conclusion ofanarbitration board ,madeupinaccordance andfunctioning mutual wishes inaccordance withtheir atthetimetheyagree uponsucha plan assatisfactory approach tosettlement .” (1927 :15) TheService also established cooperative relations with the States : sted inthe ionwhichhaveexi ciliat antaspects ofcon "Among thepleas tion opera which rong bond of co smedia tory f orts is found a st ment' e depart onServ iceand iliati nthe Conc Federal lycomeinto beingbetwee hasgradual ng neryforhandli eswheremachi sofsomeofthe Stat orial agencie themediat ation onship and cooper putes . Outofthisrelati dis trade hasbeencreated k pre edthrou amwor een State re plish gh te betw much goodhasbeenaccom 0:38) 1 tionService .” (193 l Concilia esandthe Federa ntativ se 1 ce Employment Servi Shortly after thearmistice theemployment offices oftheseveral States wereturned backtotheStates arrange that hadbeenabsorbed . Cooperative mentswereentered into between theFederal Employment Service andthe offices that wereretained by someoftheStates . Accordingly , theEmploy . ment Service became “aclearing house with buta skeleton organization .” (1930 :)7) Itcontinued atthat level oforganization throughout thedecade covered chapter inthis . *An interesting note appears intheSecretary's report for1926 : “Congress , by act approved May 20, 1926 , created theUnitedStates BoardofMediation fortheprompt disposition ofdisputes between carriers andtheir employees . I believe ,andI feel that this belief isshared by membersofthatboard ,that itsactivities areinsuchclose rela tion tothose oftheDepartment ofLabor that itshould behoused intheDepartment of LaborBuilding .” (1926 :4) 45 Having no statutory authority ofits own,theEmployment Service was administered bytheOffice oftheSecretary ofLabor . Itoperated on an appropriation oflittle morethan $200,000 a year ,andofthis amount ,the Director estimated ,about a third wasdistributed assmall grants toenable various State and municipal public employment offices to continue in business . (1923: 35) Thepattern ofFederal -State cooperation , which hadbeenestablished during thewaryears ,wascontinued . Establishing andconducting public employment services wasregarded asaState responsibility : employment service , or, wherea headofeachState ... The official employ ofa local representative ,theauthorized service didnotexist State States Employment oftheUnited Director became theFederal mentbureau offices a year ; theemployment ofa dollar salary Service ata nominal orlocal oftheState over tothecontrol turned ]successively [which hadbeen withthe ,together andequipment withthemthefurniture authority carried necessary to asweredeemed andforms privilege blanks franking andsuch reports ;and, ofuniform office totheWashington facilitate thetransmission a coop inwhich toeach oftheStates finally ,a sumofmoneywasallotted fortheadditional toprovide service wasmaintained employment erating :145) entailed .” (1920 such cooperation service which clerical > , thesalary orinpart pays ,wholly theservice "... Insomeinstances funds are sufficient State workwhere onits needed tocarry ofemployees andpur isbothnecessarily participation financial ,butsuch notavailable ) :27–28 limited .” (1929 posely In1921theEmployment Service detected evidence ofaneconomic depres sion . In 1922theSecretary reported : “Confronted withpractically an unprecedented period ofunemployment during thepast yeartheUnited States Employment Service hasdemonstrated its usefulness andtoitmuch credit should begiven inlessening theburden ofthedepressed industrial . situation .... During thepeak oftheunemployment period ...between :28) .” (1922 were outofemployment wageearners andsix million five continued asa major function Service oftheEmployment Thefarmlabor contributions in successful because ofits earlier oftheDepartment service . were needed toplaces where they directing workers seasonal labor workisnecessarily an interstate activity . Since itinvolves themovementofvastarmies oflaborers overgreat areas covering manyStates itcanbeaccomplished effectively only byproper coordination ofthevarious labor districts through a highly specialized seasonal labor organization that isthoroughly familiar with cropacreages andconditions throughout theentire territory tobeserved . Naturally ,therefore ,itisa Federal function . Having inmindthewhole territory tobeserved this labor mustberecruited ,anditmustbesodirected astobring about ,sofar aspossible , an equitable distribution . One agricultural district mustnot essentially emergency labor befavored tothedetriment ofanother . Itisall andits distribution mustbebased upontheactual needforsuchlaborers . 46 Thiscanbeaccomplished best by an impartial Federal organization . The various States andseasonal labor sections mustbesolinked together as toresult inasfewandasshort gaps aspossible between employment periods . Thesuccess inmeeting seasonal labor requirements rests uponabsolutely square dealing withthelaboring men aswell asthefarmers . Againa Fed eral agency canmeet this condition best ,asitplays nofavorites andrealizes that upontheconfidence ofthelaboring mendepends thesolution ofthe immediate problem andtheability torecruit anddistribute therequisite number ofmen infutureseasons .' (1925 :35) Thesuccess ofthedivision's operations depended onthecooperation of numerous other groups : farmers , State andlocal labor officials , thenews papers ,the railroads ,post offices ,chambers ofcommerce ,agricultural county extension agents ,andbusinessmen . Itdepended also onintelligent planning . operations Inthewheat -belt ,forexample : a “Ithasestablished a daily reporting system bywhich thecentral office or thefield headquarters receives a record ofthedaily activities together with reports ofshortages ,surpluses , labor needs ,wages ,andall facts necessary totheintelligent handling ofmenintheharvesting ofthecrop . Itissues a summary ofconditions ,which ismailed practically every daytothefield menandall cooperating agencies . Ithasinformation astodates whenre leases willoccurand ofthenumberofmen thatwillbe available forusein demanding thefields farther north . Itisable toannounce tothesections labor whether itwill beavailable atagiven time ,andit proceeds tomovethe labor tomeetthose demands . Itcontrols themovement oflabor already inthefield ,holding itinemployment inthreshing oronthefarms ,ifimme diate demandsinthelineof theharvest tothenorthwillnotabsorbthe available supply . Ifthe available supply isnot adequate tomeet the ap proaching needs ,ithasdeveloped this information sufficiently inadvance to enable suchadditional labor ittorecruit asmayberequired .' (1927:34) Fromthewheatbelt ,services wereexpandedtoother croparea s:“tothe cot tonproduc ersofTexas ,Arkansa s,Oklaho ma,Mississ ,andLou ippi isiana ; topro duce secti onsofsouthe rnTexas ,Col orado ,Was hingt on,and Orego n; tothegre atstraw distric berry tsofnorthwe Arkansa stern s and southw ester n Misso ; tothepot uri atoprodu cersoftheRed River Valley ; to thefruit orchard s andberry fie lds ofWash ingto n andOrego n;andtothecornpro duc ersofIowa ,Nebrask a,Missour i,and Kansa s,par ticula inthe harvest rly ingofth ese crop s,butasyetithasnotbee n able toapp lythesam e effecti ve org aniza tothe tion secrops asintheWheatBelt .” (1927 :34) offices inKansas hadpermanent decade thedivision Bytheendofthis , , Sioux Falls ,Fargo ,Sioux City , SanAntonio , Denver , Fort Worth City located atstrategic offices 100temporary ,andover ,andShreveport Spokane . points inbetween Two particularly interesting observations weremadetoward theendof period this : “A newproblem hasgrown outofthechanged modeoftravel ofharvest 47 laborers fromrail toauto ,which this year required morecareful checking andgreater organization inproportion tothe number ofmenhandled than in anyprevious year . At this timeitisapparent that thefuture small -grain harvest will behandled largely bylaborers using auto transportation . This means that the machinery forrecruiting ,directing ,andmoving meninto the fields will have tobereorganized . ..." (1926 :35) "Inthelast fewyears revolutionary changes have taken place inthein vention oflabor -saving devices for the harvesting ofseasonal crops ,andin no branch ofagriculture havethenewermethods beenmorefelt thanin wheat harvesting , thenew machine being abletoharvest approximately 50 acres perdayandreducing thenumber ofmenformerly required for wheat machine complicated harvest . Thewideintroduction ofthis hasattimes theplacement workofthefarmlabor division . Seasonal conditions which occasionally arise render theuseofthis machine impracticable . At such harvesters times thedivision ispressed totheutmost tosupply for theemer gency ." (1928 :29) Thejunior division oftheEmployment Service dealt with youth ofboth > working sexes "between legal ageand 21. ” (1921 :17) Itspurpose was "toaidtheschools ofthecountry inassisting boys andgirls toselect and prepare for somedefinite occupation inwhich they maybeefficient ,produc tive , and constructive workers , and to offer employers thebestpossible facilities employees fortheselection oftheir junior .” (1921 :17) Thiskindofservice was needed because: "... Thegreat armyofboysandgirls , having finished their required schooling ,are unprepared toenter into industry orbusiness . Manyofthem havenodefinite plan astowhatworkthey desire toundertake fora life's vocation ."” (1926 :36) Initially the program wasexperimental ,todetermine the best wayofpro viding guidance andplacement services . Thenational office coordinated the work ,anddeveloped uniform policies andprocedures . Inpractice thedi vision worked inclose cooperation with the vocational guidance departments ofthepublic school system . Everyindividual applicant wasconsidered as a special case : "... No junior officer fails tofind outwhythe junior has left school ,and ifhisreason isnotimperative anattempt ismadetopersuade himtoreturn by showing him how serious a handicap islackof education > (1924 : 41) andguidance theplacement service wasthat behind this Thephilosophy , should follow thejunior thevocation todictate should notattempt officer assistance totheapplicant . . . whenhe valuable could "render butrather job ,may his first ,whenseeking job . A junior their first for orsheapplies , fitted for ofworkheisbest todecide whatline orbeable notfind himself demands of tomeettheexacting fails direction intelligent andwithout from guidance wouldsavemanyapplicants business andindustry . Proper . .” (1930:57) -alley jobs into blind entering 48 Bythe endofthe decade cooperating junior placement divisions hadbeen established placements in31cities in16States ,andannual ofjuniors had reached atotal of31,400 . (1929 :30) Theindustrial employment information service wasinitiated asa result ofa survey ofunemployment in1921.Itpublished a monthly statistical analysis , by industry andgeographical division , covering "general and specific industrial employment conditions ;the distribution oflabor ;andthe fluctuations inemployment .” (1921 :16) Thedata werecompiled from reports submitted by Employment Service district directors containing fig . 2 uressupplied by identical firms ofover500workers on thepayroll in65 oftheprincipal industrial centers . data were the functions andpublishing ofanalyzing 1923 the InDecember . (1924:42) transferred totheBureauofLaborStatistics Inthelast year ofthis decade ,1930 ,special services were established for veterans ,andarrangements werebeing madeforemployment services to Indians. Labor Statistics A A veryadequ eworkandpro gre ssoftheBureauofLabor atesummary ofth Depar St t: atis entedbytheCommiss tme tic ionerinthe nt's1930repor sispres "... inattempting tocarry out[theDepartment's ] obligation andduty toward the wageearners ofthe country itisessential that there shall beavail able atall times accurate information uponwhich action maybebased . The gathering ofthis information isthefunction oftheBureau ofLabor Statistics . Itisthefact -finding agency ofthedepartment . Itfurnishes through its various statistical activities unrolling picture andresearch a continuously of the essential facts regarding theworking andliving conditions oftheAmeri canwageearner — his wages ,hishours oflabor ,hisemployment ,hisstandard ofliving ,his opportunity forimprovement ,etc. Thuswearekept informed astothegoodspots andthebadspots inthelabor life ofthecountry ,and accordingly we cantakeappropriate measures forthemaintenance ofthe goodandtheremoval ofthebad. Without such information all labor policies ofthedepartment wouldbeadopted indarkness andwouldalmost certainly be futile . "... During the last 9-year period there hasbeen a very marked increase inthevalue oftheworkdonebythis bureau . Someofthechanges forthe better areconcerned with thequality ofthework ,andthis istoointangible afactor topermit ofanalysis . Other changes ,however ,areentirely tangible . subjects ofinquiry all ofthevarious tocover hascontinued “ Thebureau of manynewlines ,hasundertaken initiated prior to1921and,inaddition newavenues scope ,developed research widened its statistics . It has labor and ,and facts storehouse ofaccumulated ,added toits toits problems ofapproach powers to withlegal intensified experience . While itisnotevenendowed its itcollects ,ithassowon thecon data ofthestatistical thefurnishing compel itnolonger that andemployees andoftheemployers fidence ofthepublic 49 experiences anydifficulty insecuring voluntarily anyinformation itmay seek. per onbuilding ofcurrent data beganthecollection “ In1921thebureau cities . ... issued inprincipal mits “ Thework ofthebureauinthefield of accident statistics hasalsobeen greatly improved bytheinauguration ofa series ofannual reports on acci dentstatistics in thevariousStates . “Themonthly reports onvolume ofemployment andonwholesale prices havebeengreatly expanded andimproved . "Perhaps the most important addition ofrecent years tothebureau's work hasbeentheenlargement oftheannual survey ofunion wages toinclude reports fromall trade -unions andnotmerely froma selected group .... “Another significant departure ...hasbeenthemaking oftheLabor Review into theprincipal mouthpiece ofthebureau forallits research • work. ... “Ofthenewlines ofresearch ,particular mention should bemadeofthe series ofstudies oflabor productivity invarious industries . "Another recent andvery important undertaking ofthebureau isthat of . compiling current statistics on labor turnover . (1930:22-25) m ay be Someidea ofthebroad scope oftheBureau's interests atthat time . supplied inthe list ofitems reported bytheCommissioner ofLabor Statistics in his1930annualreport : Employment andunemployment statistics Volume ofemployment statistics ofemployment Weekly onvolume oflabor Wagesandhours Industrial wagestudies Unionscale ofwages andhours oflabor Entrance wage rates ofcommon labor Railroad wagedata Salaries offiremen andpolicemen Recent wagechanges The5-dayweek Labor survey ofTerritory ofHawaii ,1930 Industrial accidents The ironand ste elindustry Safetycodes Industrialhealth g labor in ionand decisionsofcourts aff ect at isl Labor leg Workmen's compensation Cost ofliving International survey ofstandards ofliving Retail prices Wholesale prices Industrial disputes 50 Labor turnover Buildi tie e UnitedState ati cip softh s ngoper onsinprin alci award Col lec eem tra s tiv entsandarbi tion eagr Results ofarbitrat ioncase s Product oflabor ivity Labor pr incar oduct gohand ling ivity Productivity oflabor insheet -iron andtinplate industry Cooperative movement Special studies andreports Old -age pensions andinsurance inforeign countries Latin-Americanlaborlaws Activities ofgovernmental labor agencies Personnel research agencies Handbook ofAmericantradeunions Directory ofhomesfortheaged Directory oflabor agencies Bibliographies Editorial division Labor Review Bulletin s Immigration Until 1882 ,whentheOriental Exclusion Actwaspassed ,there hadbeen no Federal regulation ofimmigration into theUnited States . And until 1917 noother exclusion laws were enacted except tobarthe mentally ,morally , andphysically unfit . At no timehadlegislation beenenacted withthe specific purpose oflimiting thenumber ,asdistinct fromthequality ,of admissions . Consequently thenumber ofimmigrants reached flood proportions . In numbers occurred century deed thelargest inthebeginning ofthepresent , andprobably would havebeeneven greater inthesecond decade , butfor theworld war: “... Inpre -waryears thevolume ofourimmigration wastoa consider able extent affected byprevailing industrial conditions intheUnited States , butintheyears (immediately after World WarI] itwasvery evident that thelawofsupply anddemandinno wiseinfluenced themillions ofwar stricken people whoweredetermined tofind refuge intheUnited States regardless of employment conditions here ." (1930 :12) sentiment immigration Evenbefore thewar,public torestrict was grow > ing . Then ,after thewar,asimmigration figures rose from24,600 in1919 to246,000 in1920andto652,000 in1921 ,"there camea widespread and unmistakable demand that the gates beatleast partially closed .” (1930 :13) Congress thereupon enacted thefirst numerically restrictive immigration lawinMay 1921.Thislawdidnotbecome fully effective until June1924 , butinits major provisions applied immediately . Itset a nationality quota 51 forEuropean immigration . Thisdidnot ,however , apply toimmigrants fromCanada andMexico ; consequently , although there wasa substantial decline innumbers directly fromEurope ,theimmigration ,particularly of temporary residents ,fromCanada andMexico increased substantially . Commenting ontheobjectives andeffects oftheimmigration laws , the Secretary argued thatthelawshould be made notonlymorerestrictive butalso moreselective : “Underexisting law,” he wrote , “we exclude the obviously unfit ,butwedonotgive preference totheobviously best fitted .” (1930 :18) He therefore urged “that nonewandunattached immigrants comingforthepurpose ofseeking employment should be admitted tothe country unless ithadbeenpreviously determined ...that there wasan . actual needforthekindofservice they arequalified torender inthis country . Iwould apply this rule toall immigration ,whether itissubject toquota -limit control ,asinthecase ofnatives ofEuropean countries ,oroutside such control ,asisthecase withnatives ofNew Worldcountries .” (1930 :17) While discussing the problems ofimmigration ,theSecretary pointed toa fact whichisfrequently overlooked , namely , thattheNation alsohad a considerable emigration problem . Between 1918and1929 ,forexample , a nearly half a million American citizens left toreside insomeother country . > Thetwomovements ,however ,wererelated : "Ourliberal immigration laws permitted andlowsteamship fares madeit possible andprofitable foralien workers totake advantage ofhigher wages inthis country fortwoorthree years orevenshorter periods andthen return homesandfamilies emigrants werelargely totheir inEurope . ..These migratory workers ...." (1929 :59)) Usually single men,these workers competed with permanently resident workers ,a large part ofwhom “haddependent families which must becared for inseasons ofindustrial depression aswell asintimes ofactivity .” (1929 :60) TheSecretary used this point asa further argument for selective immigration . Child Welfare promotional ,it Bureau wasessentially Because theworkoftheChildren's decade here the1921–30 during its accomplishments isdifficult tomeasure activities of its of the major fields a merelisting . Nevertheless under review : ofits influence someindication yields Maternaland infanthealth anddependence Delinquency Childlabor facilities Recreational agencies withState Cooperation tochildren relating Legislation cooperation International ofinformation anddissemination , andcompilation Research 52 ,theSecretary contributions over thedecade Summarizing theBureau's report : wrote inhisconcluding “Direct responsibility for(child ) care andprotection rests first with the parents andthenwiththeStates ,butfor18years theFederal Government , through theChildren's Bureau , hasalsobeenconcerned withadvancing standards care ofchild . “Ascompared with conditions existing 10years ago ,infants to -dayhave a muchbetter chance tosurvive ;greatly increased resources forthecare of maternity ,infancy ,andthepreschool period areavailable ;marked progress hasbeen madeinregard tothemental hygiene ofchildhood ...; educa tionofparents inmethods ofchild careand training hasbeennotably developed ; .. .andpublic child -welfare programs have expanded . ... . “The Chi ldren' s Bure au hascontribu tedtomany ofthe sedevelo pments thro ughscienti stu ,corre fic dies sponde mother ncewithindiv idual s,prepara ti onanddist ributi onofpopula reducatio nalmat erial ,andfi nancia laidand techni lea cal dershi pmadeposs ible bythemat ernity andinfa ncyact ,whic h wasinoperati onfrom 1922 un tilJune30, 1929 .” (1930 :26) Withjustifiable pride theSecretary drewattention tothefact that during his incumbency morethan 71/2 million copies hadbeen sold ordistributed of theBureau's bulletins onprenatal care ,infant care ,child care ,andchild management . (1930 :26) Asregards child labor ,theChildren's Bureau fought toimprove thework ingconditions ofchildren ,toprohibit the employment ofchildren inhazard ousoccupations orwhentheyshould beinschool ,andtoestablish a mini mum wageforemployed minors . welfare , , family on thework,schooling In 1922theBureaureported ; in1923on farmworkers ofmigrant conditions ofthechildren andliving . opportunities ;andin1925onvocational trades employment instreet child , minors handicapped ofmentally work histories on the it reported In1927 14and16 between forchildren certificates andontheuseofemployment years of age. In192 on minimum wagesformino 9 itrep orted rs,andon compen forwork acc tochildre sation idents n. TheBureau summarized State laws affecting child labor ,developed from themgeneral standards forconsideration byStates seeking toimprove their legislation , andcoordinated fortheuseofinterested groups whatever in formation wasavailable tosustain the argument for improved legislation and . practices with respect tochild labor . Itpublished bulletins ,pamphlets ,legal nceforth ries sponde nment summa ,andcorre e enlighte e public ofth . Significant amongits efforts inthis field wasthefight fora child labor amendmenttotheConstitution . The first Federal child labor law,theKeat ing -OwenAct ,waspassed in1916 ,butwasfound unconstitutional in1922 . Ineach case inwhich child labor legislation wasintroduced ,resistance in volved States 'rights . Therefore ,in1924 ,Congress submitted totheStates forratification a proposal empowering Congress “tolimit ,regulate , and prohibit thelabor ofpersons under 18years ofage .” However ,only 28 53 States hadratified theamendment by thetimetheFairLaborStandards Actwaspassed in1938.2 “Stimulated bythe discussion ofthe proposed amendment ,unusual popular interest inthesubject ofchild labor hasbeenmanifested ,” theSecretary wrote inhis1925 report ,“asisindicated bya greatly increased demand for thepublications ofthebureau andanunusually large number ofinquiries 6 regarding theextent ,conditions ,andlegal regulation ofchild labor inthe different States andinforeign countries .” (1925 :66-67 ) Women Workers Inhisconcluding report of1930 ,Secretary Davis commented : “Theprogress madebythe Women's Bureau ,theyoungest organization in thedepartment ,isa matter ofmuchpersonal gratification tome. In effi ciency ,output ,andrecognized authority it hasgone far . Its field isextensive andofgreat humaninterest . Theimportance ofwomenasa labor supply , the rate ofwages paid them ,the hazards ofcertain jobs asindustrial processes change ,thedifficulties ofthedouble jobofwageearner andmother ,these arematters ofspecial concern totheAmerican people .” (1930 :27-28 27–28 ) By1930 the Bureau staff hadincreased toonly 44,ascompared with 30in shortage 1921.However ,this ofpersonnel andtheinadequacies ofappro priations wereoffset byzeal andcompetence . Theprogram which theBureau hadsetforitself in1922derived fromits workduring thewaryears ;namely , tostudy : ofwomen. legislation upontheemployment “(a) Theeffects ofspecial “(b) Wages , hours ,andworking conditions forwomeninindustry in different sections ofthecountry . "(c) Theeffect onwomeninindustry ofcertain conditions suchasthe piecework system , posture atwork , thelifting of weights , and industrial poisons . “(d) Critical compilation ofexisting statistical material relating towomen inindustry . “(e) Codification oflaws regulating conditions forwomeninindustry .” (1922 :115-116 ) ,but studies ,asinthepast continued withits State therefore TheBureau urgent ofcertain by thenature , determined variations withsignificant : problems ... One ofthemostconspicuous ofthese problems whicharearousing muchinterest andconcern atthe present time istheeffect ofminimum -wage legislation onthe earnings andopportunities ofwomenandonthefinancial condition oftheindustries towhich such legislation applies . Therelation between hours andoutput ,theeffect ofshort orlong hours onabsenteeism *Inher1939 report thethen Director ,Katherine F.Lenroot ,wrote :"Favorable action by only8 morestates isneededinorder toobtain the36 ratifications required forthe adoption ofthe amendment aspart ofthe Constitution .” (1939 :159 ) 54 andaccidents , arealso subjects ofno small momentinthepresent dayof increasing legislation regulating hours ,andofkeener industrial competi tion .... " (1922 :61) gtonto encemetinWashin s Indus trial 3 a Women' Confer Early in192 ensive and y anout line oftheext e countr e be fore thewomen ofth "plac y, mentofwomen inindustr satten ding yincre asing theemploy problem steadil ed dswhic h arebeingadopt dsandstandar cate andtoindi someofthemetho e pro blems :78) tomeetthes ." (1923 in order Withthat endinview , representatives wereinvited fromallwomen's organizations whichwerenational inscope , and fromallother national organizations interested inthesubject ofindustry which included womenin membership their . The conference discussed therelations between women and industrial work ,health standards ,wages ,labor legislation ,andthe need for lawenforce ment . Well attended andwell publicized ,themeeting served tobring about a commoninterest andawareness ofunity ofpurpose amongthevarious interested groups . Further support fortheBureau's program camefromState departments special information aspects oflabor ,whichsupplied on various ofwage earning women ,andwhich recognized theBureau asthenational clearing house onactivities affecting womeninindustry . Incooperation with State officials ,theBureau prepared andpublished "digests ofspecial andState reports on hours ,wages ,working conditions ,industrial accidents ,andlaw violations asrelated towomen..” (1924 : 133) ed A list ofspec tedby theWomen'sBure au, asreport ialstudi esconduc in1925,indicate inte atthat time : peofits rests sthesco Women inthefruit -growing andcanning industries intheState of Washington Fact s abou tworkingwomen Absenteeismincotton mil ls Minimum wagelaw s Women workersand fam ily support Trendofemployment Effe eci gis ctofsp alle lati onontheemploymentofwomen ort Effe yment opp uni lie arch upon the emplo tie ctsofapp d rese s of American wome n Foreign-bornwomen inindustry Nightwork Women inGovernment service Research and educat ionalwork Inaddi tion ,other stud werecontem ies plate d: Homeandcommu nityfaciliti esandfamilyoblig ations of empl oyed w omen Elimin ati onofunneces sar y fati gue Indu str ialpoisons 55 State minimumwagelegislation persisted astheproblem ofmajorcon In1927a report summarizing theBureau's findings inthis connection waspublished . Itwasprimarily a report of“thewaysinwhichthevarious c ern . States haveworked outthe machinery forcarrying onthis newtype oflaw rather thana report ontheresults ofthelaw. . . “Inthediscuss ionofthelaw's adm inistr ation ,themostapp arent poin t istha t every actcon necte d withth eselawshasbeenin thenatur e ofan experim . OneState ent wil lhandle a give n problem inoneway; ano ther State will trya methodexac tlyoppos edtothefirst . Withina State ,a si tuation will be met inoneway atonetim e andinano therway ata later date . Moreover ,thecommiss ionshavehadtolearnslow ly,through act ual experien ,just whatmust ce bedonetocarry outthe law .... "Amongtheinteresting points brought outbythereport isthefact that theactivities ofthebodies administering thelaws seemtoshowthat a mini mum wagelawgenerally ismostcarefully andthoroughly applied by a commission organized especially totakecareofthis law,andparticularly whensucha commission hasa woman member. . (1927:128) In1928 theBureau published its recommended standards fortheemploy ment of women :3 Hours: . A daynotlonger than8hours ay. fholiday onSaturd A hal Oneday's rest . inseven t30minutesallowed At leas forameal. n eofeach houtlengthe e rest odinthemiddl half daywit A 10-minut peri ingtheday. No employment ofwomenbetween midnight and6 a.m. Wages : Rates basedon occupation andnoton sexor race ,theminimumto cover cost ofhealthful anddecent living andtoallow fordependents . Working conditions : Cleanl iness . ing . Goodlightin ilatio g,vent n,andheat fordrawing offloo ,devices condit rs ,handrai ions Machi rds ls,safe negua offdustand fumes. Fireprotecti on. nt. First -aidequipme A cha irforeachwoman. Changeofposture - neith erconstan t stand ingnorconstant sitting . 3These standards wereoriginally developed during 1918.Theywere ,however , “sub mitted before adoption ... toState departments oflabor ,representative employers , and leaders of workingwomen. Almost all[oftherecommendations ] originated withforward -looking employers ,and ... hadbeenthoroughly tried ,someofthemeven toinclusion inState labor laws ,before their adoption by thebureau .” (1931 :12) 56 Prevention ofoverstrain andofoverexposure todust ,fumes ,poisons , extrem ture . esoftempera andwashingfaciliti es. Sanit nking arydri rooms Dre rooms ,lunch rooms. ssing ,rest lt earrangements— 1to Adequatetoi ie lttoeach15workers. General: A personnel department ,responsible fortheselection ,assignment ,and transfer ordis charge ofempl oyees . Women insup erviso andasempl ryposi tions oyme ntexec utives where d. women areemploye t. sofempl oymen dition stoshareincontrol ofcon sion r worker Provi fo ted nsforwhichbestadap . eocc upatio ties kerstochoos ortuni forwor Opp No prohibition ofwomen's employment except inoccupations proved tobemoreinjurious towomenthantomen. No worktobegiven outtobedoneathome. Application toandcooperation with Federal andState agencies dealing with labor andconditions ofemployment . (1928 :111) At theend of thedecadetheBureauwas concerned withtheneedfor studies on,forexample ,the“controversial question ”oftheemployment of marriedwomen and of thewoman over30 or 35 who isunableto securein dustrial employment onaccount ofherage- part ofthebroad subject ofthe effect onthewageearners ofchanged methods inindustry andtheextent of unemployment directly traceable tosuch changes . Italso felt theneed —but a lacked the facilities — for studies onpiecework ,posture ,fatigue ,anda number ofother important matters that awaited its investigation . (1930 :29) On November 30,1930 ,Secretary ofLabor Davis resigned hislong -held post intheCabinet ,buthisretirement fromservice totheNation was short lived . In1933hewaselected totheU.S. Senate fromPennsylvania , and therehe serveduntil 1945. 666947—63 -5 57 ! THE GREAT DEPRESSION 930 1933 i ! THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1930-33 "Boomsandpanics were once regarded asanorder ofnature ," Secretary Davis hadstated in1927.“We do notnow believe this tobetrue ;we be lieve itiswithin ourownhands towipeoutdepression andmakeprosperity permanent .” (1927 :137) Thisexpression ofbelief accorded withthat of mostthinkers ofDavis 'day . However ,a little morethana year after he wrote these words , themostdamaging economic depression inits history descended upon the United States . Theburden offacing this challenge inits initial bewildering manifestations fell totheAdministration ofPresident Herbert Hoover andthethird Secre tary ofLabor ,William N.Doak , formerly acting president andnational legislative representative oftheBrotherhood ofRailroad Trainmen . Thehistory ofDoak's secretaryship isbrief ,buthisreports reflect the essence ofthetremendous problem facing theNation : "... theefforts ofthedepartment ,intheface ofeconomic trials ,have beendirected , primarily , topreserving theopportunities forworkthat remainto our citizens andtoextend these opportunities whenever and wherever itwaspossible todo so. “Wageearners andtheir families arethechief buying power oftheland . Itfollows necessarily that with thegreat numbers now unemployed , the purchasing power ofourpeople hasbeendrastically curtailed ,thuscheck ingtheflow ofthestreams into thechannels oftrade ,reducing theproducts ofmanufacturers andtheconsumption oftheproducts ofthefarm . “Rents have decreased ,values ofproperties have beenaffected ,anddivi dends rates appreciably andinterest havebeenlowered . Thewageearner , however ,hasbeenandissuffering morethanothers because depression's weight falls first uponhim. “Thefin di tt isconditionistaxing theminds of all ngofmeans tobe erth ourpeople, and th e ener giesofourNation. .. “TheFedera mentisexpan dingjudi ciousl pow l Govern y its ersina way thatitneverbefore hasdoneintimesofpeace. Ithas been alert tocreate employment bya broad program ofconstruction ofpublic build ings ,and... ithasprovided workthat otherwise could notbeattempted . inthesetimes . “ The ceis soto adva nce e behi nd allofthe seefforts purpos and assistan ntcan bestimula tedandmade tsofthepeop lethat loyme theinteres emp secure . (1932:1-3) 61 Thespecter ofpoverty andunemployment hungover thecountry ,and thefear itaroused retarded thereturn ofbetter times andconditions . “These recurrent periods ofunemployment seem tome tobeanindictment ofourcivilization ,”Secretary Doaktold Congress . “ A newindustrial con cept appears tobedemanded ,onewhich will makesuch times aswe have beenpassing through impossible orexceedingly rare inthefuture . The wageearner should besafeguarded ,andwhether this will bebrought about spread bya reduced workweekwith a consequent ofemployment ,accom panied bysomeuniversal system ofunemployment compensation insurance , orotherwise ,isanimmediate problem ,butthere isevery reason tobelieve that the solving andremoval ofthese recurring cycles ofunemployment will notbeimpossible toanenlightened andaroused Nation ,onewhich possesses all theelements andrequisites for theproper support andgeneral well -being ofits people .” (1932 :1-3) “Aside fromtheabnormal amountofunemployment occasioned by the financial andeconomic depression ... istheability ofmanyofourmajor industries toproduce . ..moregoods andproducts thanthepurchasing powerofthecountry canabsorb Thissituation will remain , even a solu whennormal conditions return ,unless anduntil we areable todevise a tion oradjustment oftheattendant problems ;such astheabsorption ofthe surplus ofcommodities ora decrease inproduction [with ]reduced hours or standard days ofwork....[A ]high ofwages isnecessary fora resump tion ofcommodity purchases on a large scale ... (1932 :20) Commenting onthe effects ofthe depression onthe workofhis department , . legislators theSecretary told : “ To no otherbranchof the Governmentare the unfortunate con ditions ofunemployment sofully andintimately known ,anditisthis de partment whichkeepsitshandon thepulseof developments inmatters particularly affecting thelabor of men, women , andchildren ofthe country .... " (1932: 19-20) vice Employment Ser experience ,that the waremergency ,inviewofearlier Onewould expect have would during thedepression function departmental mostsignificant the taken during ,measures Service . However oftheEmployment been that The full . piecemeal andhesitant were ofthedepression fewyears first thaneventhemost and moreacute was greater impact oftheproblem imagined . hadatfirst perspicacious Additional funds wereappropriated byCongress in1931andsucceeding years ,andtheService wasreorganized . IneachState a director wasap pointed ,to“represent the Federal Employment Service inmatters pertaining tocooperation with the State andmunicipal employment offices (andto]keep intouch with ... employers andemployees ,with civic organizations ,andwith all other individuals andgroups that canassist inperforming [their ] duties .” 62 (1931 :37) Supplementary appropriations permitted theestablishment of sections new offices invarious ofthecountry . placement consisted of101general ,theService BytheendofJune1932 place offices ,and22farmlabor veterans 'placement offices ,30specialized , 2million . Nevertheless year exceeded for the . Total placements ment offices fluctuation trends "showedlittle employment andagricultural industrial .” asnormal farbelowwhat(was] recognized generally andremained :43) (1932 Itwasnotuntil theenactment oftheWagner -Peyser Act,inJune1933 , commensurate that theService began tofunction ata level with thescope oftheunemployment problem . This actprovided fortheestablishment of a cooperative Federal -State employment system ,based ontheallocation of grants inaidtocooperating States . Labor Statist ics Before passage oftheWagner -Peyser Act,themostsignificant contribution toanunderstanding oftheunemployment situation wasmadebythefact collecting agencies . AstheCommissioner ofLabor Statistics stated inhis report for1931: “During thepast several months interest inlabor statistics probably has been moreintense than ever before inthehistory ofthecountry . This in . terest primarily hasbeendirected tomatters ofemployment andunemploy ment ,butbynomeans exclusively so,asdiscussions ofemployment problems inevitably lead toquestions ofwages ,hours oflabor ,cost ofliving ,produc tivity oflabor ,theolder worker inindustry , labor turnover ,andsimilar topics .” (1931 :76) TheCommissioner deplored the popular misuse ofcost -of-living data based onconditions in1918. Hepointed out that according tothe Wholesale Price Index thedollar wasworth $1.43 — afigure used toshowthat thecost of living ofworkers hadbeenreduced inproportion towages . Interms of retail prices ,however ,itwasworth only $1.16 . Inother words ,thefacts were being misrepresented . Hetherefore pleaded that conditions should be studied bymenwhose mental training hasbeen industrial rather thancom mercial anddiplomatic .” (1931 :99) He also pleaded fortheappointment ofattachés tobelocated abroad ,who would betrained investigators inlabor matters ,“thoroughly equipped and acquainted withthelabor men andlabor methods , labor policies ,andlabor ideals andpractices (inthose countries ] tobe able tomakea thoroughly competent andtrustworthy report ” ofuseasmuchtotheDepartment of State astotheDepartment ofLabor . (1931 :99) A problem ofspecial interest towhich theBureau turned its attention wasthat ofso-called "technological " unemployment : “Therapid development ,especially during the past fewyears ,inmachinery andinthetechnique ofmanagement hasresulted inenormous increase in theaverage output peremployee inpractically all lines ofindustry , fewer 63 workers being needed toproduce thesameoutput asformerly . Because of this , andentirely aside fromthematter of thepresent depression , there necessarily displacement increasing would result a serious oflabor ,unless demand forthecommodities affected orthedevelopment ofnewindustries should powerdisplaced besufficient toabsorb thelabor bytheincreasing use oflabor -saving devices andmethods . Itisevenpossible that thepresent depression hasstimulated still further theuseofsuch machinery andmethods . Inanycase ,the problem raised isclearly oneofvery great importance .... (1932 :57) To meeta Senate inquiry ,a special study of“all theknownplans forthe payment ofunemployment benefits orforguaranteed employment inthis country and of unemployment -insurance systems in foreign countries ” (1932 :59)wasalso initiated . Another special study wasmadeofthe5-day weekinAmerican industry , inwhichitwas foundthata considerable number temporarily ofthose plants which arenowworking five days orless perweekwill ,whenthe depression haspassed ,readjust their working sched ules onapermanent 5-dayweek basis .” (1932 :63) TheBureau conducted its third survey ofold -age pension laws . (1932 :69) A major project described inthe 1932 report wasthe proposed dictionary ofoccupations : “Inconnection with its surveys ofwages andhours oflabor intheprin cipal American industries ,thebureau hascompiled periodically a glossary ofoccupations andoccupation terms found inthese industries ,together with a detailed description oftheduties performed . This isessential ,as,tobe ofgreatest usefulness , wagedata mustbe reported by occupation . The bureau isnowengaged inbringing together , supplementing , andrevising these various industry glossaries ,with theintention ofpublishing ina single volume a general glossary ordictionary ofoccupations covering atleast the major industries oftheUnited States ." (1932:69) TheBureau's monthly survey ofemployment wasconsiderably expanded . Using asa jumping -off point a questionnaire onunemployment included in theFederal census forthefirst timein1930 ,theBureau projected a series ofmonthly employment estimates based uponaslarge a sampling aspossible ofall major industries . Attheendof1930 thesurvey covered some40,000 establishments . Bytheendof1933itcovered 70,000 . Conciliation In1931theCongress enacted theDavis -Baconprevailing -rate law ,the administration ofwhich wasplaced bytheSecretary with theConciliation Service . This lawprovided that "therate ofwages forlaborers andme chanics employed onpublic buildings oftheUnited States ...shall benot less than theprevailing rate ofwages forworkofa similar nature [inthe area )inwhich thebuildings arelocated .” (1931:7) Theprinciple upon whichthelawwasbasedwasthat"inorder tobe potential buyers itis necessary that ourworkers receive wages sufficiently high topermit notonly 64 thepurchasing ofthenecessities oflife ,but ,aswell ,manyoftheluxuries created byouramazing productive genius .” (1931 :7) > Immigrati on Subsequent toenactment ofthenumerical restrictive immigration lawof a 1924 ,which caused a considerable dropinimmigration statistics ,theBureau ofImmigration concentrated morethoroughly onits program forthede portation ofpersons "whose expressed purpose istobring about theover throw ofourinstitutions byviolence ." “Ofcourse ," thereport continued ,"ourlack ofdiplomatic relations with thecountry towhich mostofthese alien enemies ,using thetermliterally , belong ,continues toreduce thenumberofthis class who might beremoved . There should beno roominthis country foroutsiders who abuse ourhos pitality byadvocating thechange ofourGovernment byviolent means . Thealiens , ignorant orotherwise , who participate intheworkofthese branches ofa foreign andinimical organization ,have forfeited anyright to theprobationary residence inthis Nation which law -abiding aliens enjoy ." 0 (1932:7-8) Child Welfare Fiscal year lybus en's au, icular y oneforthe Childr Bure 1931wasa part nceonChild thandProt ection ized Heal theWhiteHouseConfere whichorgan r 1930 pated ingNov embe sopa rtici intheSixth Pan open , and whichal canChi gressatLima,Peru,inJul Ameri ldCon y ofthe sameyear . “The Children's Charter ,which embodies thefindings oftheWhiteHouse gives asoneoftherights ofevery child 'theright togrow upinafamily with anadequate standard ofliving andthe security ofaastable income asthe surest safeguard against social handicaps .' Evidence that this Conference . ‘right isfundamental tothewelfare ofchildren hasaccumulated .. "Atthetimeoftheindustrial depression of1921and1922theChildren's undertook Bureau a careful study oftheeffect ofunemployment uponlocal problems ofchild welfare . Thefindings ofthis report indicated that children suffer nottemporary butpermanent losses asa result ofaa period ofindustrial depression . Evidences ofthesuffering ofchildren during thepresent de pression havecomefrommanysections ofthecountry wherelocal relief has been inadequate orpoorly organized . Inorder tohave a moreaccurate pic Bureau requests from ture ofconditions ,theChildren's ,inresponse tourgent thePresident's Emergency Committee forEmployment ,undertook toassemble monthly statistics persons ofrelief tofamilies andtohomeless andtransient incities of50,000 population andover ,andtomakebrief studies incertain especially depressed areas outside the large urbancenters . (1931 :103) As theSec retar ycomment ed inhis1932repor t: “Thepast year orsohave notbeensoencouraging because ofprevailing conditions amongourpeople ,which undoubtedly havebrought about special health hazards tothechildren through widespread undernourishment . This 65 unfortunate andunpreventable condition hasbeen anespecial concern ofthe bureau anddepartment ,andthe demands onthebureau forinformation ,for local surveys , and foradvice haveovershadowed and subordinated other activities . Every effort mustbemadeadequately toprotect thechildren in this emergency forourownbest interests .” (1932 :15) Thesteady economic decline ofthecountry during theearly thirties was notencouraging . In October 1929President Hooverhad declared : "The fundamental business ofthecountry .. .ison a sound andprosperous basis .'" In January 1930he said there were"definite signs ” that the Nat ionhad“tur nedthecorne . ” I r nMarchhepred that icted thehig h point ofunemp loyme bepas ntwould sedin60 days . InMay heanno :“We unced havenowpas sedtheworst andwithconti uni nued tyofeffort weshall rapidly recov er.” His wordswerebravebutfutil e. Attheendof1930there were 3 mill ionunempl . By 1933there oyed were15 million . Fivethousa nd banksclose d the ir door s. Private con struction came toan end. majorpropor employment ,assumed ,rather than Theproblem ofrelief : year1932 report forfiscal totheLaborDepartment's tions . According “... As thecensus hasnotcollected subsequent figures ,theChildren's Bureau isnowtheonly Federal agency compiling reports relating tounem ployment relief . In January , 1932 , withtheapproval ofthebureau's advisory committee on social statistics , an agreement wasreached [by] which Bureau assumed responsibility theChildren's .” (1932: 90) , unem ef iedStateaidforunemployment reli TheChil dre n'sBureau stud s ien ploy inarea ems oftrans t boy ief s ofextre medepres sio mentrel n,theprobl ,andtheeffe cts elves ertofendforthems whowereleavi irhomesinord ngthe ,the Chiefofthe . As regardsthi s last of th e depre d labor ssi onon chil , commentedas fo llo ws: Chil eau,Grace Abbott dre n' s Bur "... Thattoomanychildren enter gainful employment ata time when millions brothers offathers andolder andsisters arevainly seeking work isa tragic paradox . Somecities ,largely through theefforts ofvocational guidance andplacement bureaus ,haveachieved notable success inconserv ingschool opportunities forchildren andkeeping themfromcompeting numberof jobsavailable withadults forthelimited . The social cost involved inchildren leaving school atanearly agetotake jobs that should go toadults ortosuffer thedemoralization ofunemployment farexceeds training facilities hold young people thecost ofmoreadequate that will in school homecommunities conditions point directly andintheir . Economic tothenecessity ofincreasing thelength oftheschool termandofadding plant tothenumber ofhours a daytheschool isinuse ." (1932 :93) Andinher1933re she wrote port atgreate rlength : itbecame moreandmoreevident yearofthedepression “Withthefourth inrelation considered bebroadly ofchildren should that theemployment ... called Bureau therefore . The Children's crisis totheemployment ofchild labor . question toreview thewhole conference anemergency 66 depres trial sionupon chil d empl oy. “Evide nceof the effe ctsoftheindus mentasreflect shop , in low wagesand long rn ofthesweat edintheretu hours , and intheshifts inthe typesofjobsava ilable forchi ldren was prese . ... To meet the second ition encerecom mende nted s, theconfer d embod thataneff yingth ort bemade tosec urethepas sage ofStat e laws e minimum age of 16 years followi for employ ndard ngsta s: (1) A basic minimum age for work ment, atle school hours astduring ,witha higher inhaz ardou patio orsof16and s occu ns; (2) shorte r workhoursformin thanforadults ,and workhour 17years s nottoexce ed8 perdayinany eve nt; (3) minimum wage forwor kersunde r 18 yearsofage; and (4) wh employed . ileill egally ext s injured racomp ensat ionforminor (1933 :67) Nevert heless , theimm ediat e problemshowe d no sig nsofimprove ment : "Reports from many State sleav eno doubt thatinthehyst eria ofecon omy there hasbeena reckle ssdisregar d ofobligati onsthat thecommun ityhas assum edtowardchild ren . St ategovern ments ,muchpres sedforfunds ,have made verydrastic cuts inthe appro priati ser onsof manyState vices ; some timesthereduc tionsforwelfa reand healt h ser vices forchil drenhavebeen dispr oport ionate ge.” (1933 :75) lylar W ome n Worke rs of preoccupied withtheeffects itself Bureau also found TheWomen's thedepression : ...Thewage -earning womanispeculiarly unfavorably affected in times like these . Always ata disadvantage incomparison with malework ersbecause ofthedouble standard ofcompensation ,hercondition inthe past year hasbeen oneoftrial andgreat uncertainty . Theplight ofthe womanworker isnotsospectacularly presented orobvious asisthat ofthe opposite sexinthese distressing times . Theydonotgather inbread lines and infrequently participate inunemployment demonstrations ; buttheir distress isequally acute although notsoapparent onthesurface . “Thesitu ation regar ding themar riedwoman inempl oymen t ispart icu larly a matter ofgrav econcer nandinteres t. Heremploy mentises pecial ly prejudic edinthes e times because ofa prevale ntbe lief that she isunne ces sarily supp lantin g thesin glewoman in position s, or eventhemen. In many instan ,howeve ces r,her contri bution tothesupp ortofthefami lyand hold ingittogeth eris essenti . Itwouldbe an id al ealcond ition ifour economi c sys temorcondi tion weresuchthat the emplo yment ofmarri ed womenouts idethehomewouldnotbethematter ofactua lnec essity that it now is ,speaki nggenerall y. Thedischa ofwomen just rges bec ausethey are married isregr ettabl e anduns cienti , and suchdis fic charg esshou ldfo llow only careful inve stigat , inju ion stice tothemar riedwomen who arecom pelled towork . Inthese time s itisnotuncommo a husba n tofind ndjob less andthewife supp ortin g thefamily . ... [There ] alway s hasbeena sharing oftheeconomi c res ponsib ofthefamily ility bythemen andwomen . 67 within its circle . Iftheheadofthefamily isunable tobeartheload ,itis necessary forthewifetocontribute by outside employment .” (1932 : 16-17 ) “Men outofworkorganize anddramatize their misfortunes morestrik houses ingly thando women. Crowdedflop ,breadlines ,unemployment demonstrations — these drawdirect attention tourgent needs . Itisnotso with women. Scattered stories ofjobless womenwhosechildren areunder fedand insufficiently clothed , whosehomesarewithout fuelin winter , public reach ears sort ofpoverty hasalways existed toa greater . Butthis orless degree . These things havenotthepower tostir themassimagina tion asdoes theplight ofunemployed men. “Theproblems ofwomenwageearners that havearisen outofthepres enteconomic crisis mustbestudied inconjunction withthose ofmen wage earners and industrial and financial conditions . The doublewage stand ard ,thecompulsion ofwomentoaccept jobs with a payscale below that ofmendoing similar work ,hasproved particularly serious inthepast two years ,with considerable cuts inwomen's paytending todragmen's wages tolower levels thanbefore . We haveseentheworkers ' wages — thatim portant keystone inthearchofprosperity — dealt a serious blow ,andwe havewitnessed an inevitable toppling ofourwhole economic structure . “As we look forunderlying causes ofthecrisis ,itisapparent that there hasbeeninthepast moreinterest inmachines thaninmen andwomen . Progress inhumanrelations inindustry haslagged considerably behind technical progress . There isa growing realization oftheneedtodevelop a moresocial procedure forcombining increased production with thegreat est welfare ofthehumanelement .” (1932: 119) 68 NEW DEAL AND RECOVERY 1933 – 1937 3 6 NEW DEAL AND RECOVERY 1933-37 Inthe4 months between Franklin D. Roosevelt's election tothehighest office intheland andhisinauguration ,March4, 1933 , theUnited States experienced continued economic decline . On February 14theGovernor of Michigan proclaimed a “banking holiday ,”andother States followed suit . OnInauguration Dayevery bank inthe country wasshut against its deposi tors ,andworkers waited inbread lines andsoupkitchens forrelief . Shortly after oneo'clock that afternoon , thevoice ofthenew President washeard fromthesteps oftheCapitol inWashington . Hiswords stirred thepeople ofthecountry . “Iam certain ,”hesaid ,"that my fellow Americans expect that onmy induction into thePresidency I will address themwitha candor anda de situation cision which thepresent ofournation impels . ... Nor need we conditions shrink fromhonestly facing inourcountry today . Thisgreat nation will endure asithasendured ,will revive andwill prosper . So,first ofall ,let me assert my firm belief that theonly thing wehave tofear isfear itself -nameless , unreasoning , unjustified terror whichparalyzes needed efforts toconvert retreat intoadvance . primary task istoput , “Ourgreatest heemphasized Later inhisaddress ifweface itwisely andcour problem . This isnounsolvable people towork by theGov recruiting in part bydirect . Itcanbeaccomplished ageously of a war. t reat the emergency aswe would thetask ernment itself ,treating Inits famous “first hundred days ”President Roosevelt's “NewDeal ”began struggling with the primary task ofputting people back towork . Inabold , unprecedented action ,the President namedthefirst womanCabinet member , Frances Perkins ,asSecretary ofLabor . Frances Perkins was a formerindustrial commissioner fortheState of New Yorkandwell prepared byeducation andexperience forthetremendous taskbefore her. Shehadthefull support ofthePresident . And sheserved asoneofthe chief focal points intheAdministration fortheideas andconstructive pro posals ofnumerous outstanding thinkers throughout theworld ,andpar ticularly intheUnited States ,seeking tobring about social reforms affecting thewelfare ofworking men,women,andchildren . Examined critically , itisevident that theSecretary's thinking wasnot initially concerned with theDepartment ofLabor ,its functions andadminis > 71 tration . Herinterests covered a farlarger realm ofdiscourse . Shethought oftherole ofgovernment asa wholeastheavenue through whichpeople might bring about the changes they desired . Consequently shewasasmuch concerned with legislative enactment aswith legal interpretation ,asmuch with thedevelopment ofgovernmental agencies outside oftheDepartment of Labor aswith strengthening theDepartment itself ,asmuchwith whatthe individual States might beable tocontribute aswithwhattheFederal Gov. ernment shoulddo. Herapproach toproblems ,certainly during theearlier years ofhersecre taryship ,wasfunctional rather thanadministrative :social security , Federal State cooperation ,the resolution ofconflict through the give andtake ofcon broader concepts ference , thestabilization ofemployment . Onlyasthese weresuccessfully driven homeandgiven administrative formandauthority wasshewilling todiscuss theminterms oftheorganizations established to practice puttheminto . Itistherefore imperative ,fora proper understanding ofhercontribution totheDepartment ofLabor ,that herideas atthis higher andbroader level of thinking should bedescribed inconsiderable detail ,inaddition tothose that Department relate moreparticularly totheoperations ofthe . America's Labor Polic y “AsaaNati onwe arerec ogniz ingthatprog ramslongthou ghtofasmer ely laborwelfa re,suchasshorter hours,highe r wages,andaa voice inthe terms andcondit ionsof work , are really esse ntial econ omicfacto rsforrec overy andfo r thetech nique mana ofind ustrial gemen t ina mass-product ionage. Thetest ofadjustin g ourindustr ialli fetothepat tern ofdemocrac y andthe needs ofanewmec hanic alperi odmarkbotha gain inthe standa rdsof life andworkforwageearn ersandalso a new respo nsibil ityforconstru ctive leaders hiponthepart oflab or.” (1933:1-2) “ The idea isnowgenerally held that employers have a certain public social responsibility intheconduct oftheir industries . Wageearners should bea factor informulating these policies ofpublic responsibility andthey should contribution beinvited andpermitted tomakea constructive insolving the economic problems that confront usontheindustrial side ofournational life ." (1933 :1) “Inaa successful democracy there must beacertain minimum unity ofpur pose andsomecontribution fromthe citizens asawhole tothe idea andprac tice ofthegeneral welfare . Wherethelives ofmillions ofpersons arein volved ...there mustnecessarily bea multitude ofcomplications ,sharp difference ofopinion ,friction atmanypoints . Always ,however ,there re mainsthepermanent idea that through accommodation , through under standing ofthehumanproblems involved , a sane andsensible adjustment canbecreated . These aretheconceptions which haveguided theDepart . . . . Ithassought mentofLabor . tosolve themultitude ofproblems that y y tionar es. ... Oppo rtunit havearisen along lin revolu , a chancetode 72 3 i tercond lyunderbet gup a fami e togrow,a chancetobrin velop , a chanc ry. s inour count nsofworker ofthe millio searethedesires ons — the ti a mum ywill have amini rance that the ty ,someassu ondthat they seeksecuri Bey rs . .. tobeproduce n when they cease c pro tectio economi “Inconcrete formthese desires areexpressed as:(1) Shorter hours ; (2) adequate annual income ; (3) safe andhealthful working andliving condi tions ; (4) social security ; (5) recognition ofwageearners asanintegral andsignificant part ofthecommonlife with anopportunity tocontribute to andplay apart infurthering thesocial andeconomic welfare .” (1937 :1-2 ) “Isthere anAmeri polic canlabor y? , one toithastobeaqualified isoften asked . Theanswer “Thisquestion generic termfora buta loose isnota commodity because labor qualified who are and reactions natural humanemotions o f human beings with group astowhether or . Discussions ofa great democracy members self -directing or ofvertical requires theformation labor policy nottheGovernment's bargain collective will force theGovernment unions , orwhether horizontal policy ina , academic . Labor permit it ,are ,onthewhole ingormerely of . Itisaprogram conceived byaGovernment isnota program democracy who earners andthose living aswage whoearn their the people action which ina mustworkouttogether -making enterprise themina profit employ life that they doandthe work outofthe which develops naturally society agent asastimulating istoserve ofGovernment lead . Thefunction that they to and fair w ill bejust a policy , which ofsuch tofacilitate theformation progress . andinthe line people ofhuman all the "Hand inhandwiththegrowthofourinstitutions a labor policy is developing . Itisinsomewhat morethan a rudimentary stage . Itis ,like allsocial institutions , a growing living thing ,subject tosuchchange and revision astheeconomic andpolitical consciousness ofthewage -earning and employing groups ,theexperiences oflife , ora growing sense ofjustness inake possible . “Amongthefirst items that onesees inthis growing labor policy ofthe American Government arethefollowing : “1.That theGovernment ought todoeverything inits power toestablish minimum basic standards below which competition should notbepermitted toforce standards ofhealth ,wages ,orhours ; “ 2.ThattheGovernment ought tomakesucharrangements anduseits influence tobring aboutarrangements whichwill makepossible peaceful settlements ofcontroversies andrelieve labor ofthenecessity ofresorting tostrikes inorder tosecure equitable conditions andtheright tobeheard ; “3.Thattheideal ofgovernment should be through legislation and through cooperation between employers andworkers tomakeevery jobthe best that thehumanmindcandevise astophysical conditions ,humanrela tions ,andwages; "4.Thatgovernment should encourage suchorganization anddevelop inent ofwageearners aswill give status andstability tolabor asarecognized 666947—63 6 73 iontomaketo econom icand tantgrou p ofcitiz enshav inga cont ribut impor allife unity itical ofthe comm ; pol thought andtothecultur or playitspartinthe ngethatlab mentoughtto arra “5.Thatgovern d reoftheUnite cies forthefutu t ofanyeconomic poli opmen study anddevel d, ates ;an St "6.ThattheGovernment should encourage mutuality between labor and employers intheimprovement ofproduction andinthedevelopment inboth groups ofa philosophy ofself -government inthepublic interest . Iflabor's rights aredefined bylawandbygovernment ,then certain obligations will , ofcourse ,beexpected ofwageearners ,anditisfor thepublic interest that those obligations should bedefined bylabor itself andthat such discipline as isnecessary should beself -imposed andnotimposed fromwithout . This isthebasis of allprofessional codes of ethics in modernsociety .” (1934:11-12) “The specific objectives onbehalf ofworkers into which thepurpose ofthe Department hasbeen translated ...concern themselves with thefollowing : “I.Employment : a.Stead rprise yworkinpriva teente . ency workonpublic proje b.Emerg -works cts . c.Adequat jobs e faciliti esforsecuring d.Adeq uatefaciliti esfortraini ng tions ment “II . Condi ofemploy : a. Reasonably short hours oflabor . annual income fromwages b.Adequate . c.Safe andhealthful physical conditions ofwork . industrial relations basedon : d. Practical cti gai (i) Colle vebar ning. (ii ) Co nci lia iat tio ion,andarbi tra n,med tio ghGover nment n throu agenc ies. e. Elimin ationofchil d labor. securi ty: “III . Social a.Adequate provision asamatter ofright whenincapacitated toearn (as a result of] accident , industrial disease , unemployment , or oldage. conditions : “IV. Social andliving co -earner withwage designed andbuilt housing low-cost a.Practical operati on. pla b.Adu lteduc ation nnedandconducte nercoopera d withwage-ear tion. loy n ofthevicti m oftheunemp itatio inary andord rehabil c. Relief mentcri sis wage-earn with ercooperat ion . d.Communityli fe(civic ,social , cultural ) desig nedtoinclud e wage pation earner partici . n oftheforeign on of ilatio rs by theadmini strati e. Assim -bornworke the naturalization acts for this purpose .” (1936 :2-3) 74 Employment issue continued ,asthemajor ,ofcourse Theproblem ofunemployment succeeded amplitude ofincreasing . Federal organizations policy ofnational works onpublic workforthejobless ,all aimed atproviding oneanother . These projects — FERA,CWA ,PWA,WPA,NYA,CCC,TVA,andothers ,but ofLabor oftheDepartment control theadministrative notunder were intheDe . Chief agency themincooperation worked with theDepartment by Service , revitalized , wastheEmployment , inthis connection partment . -Peyser ActofJune1933 theWagner with"theresponsi ofLaborwascharged acttheDepartment Underthat ofa national system andmaintenance theestablishment ofpromoting bility qualified whoarelegally ,andjuniors offices formen,women ofemployment United that the further stipulates . Theact occupations toengage ingainful sys andmaintaining inestablishing Service shall assist States Employment . Inaddition ,theact States offices intheseveral employment temsofpublic em. tobedevoted tosecuring of‘aveterans 'service the maintenance requires employment service ,anda public ,'a farmplacement forveterans ployment of Columbia ." (1938:16) service fortheDistrict Commenting ontheprobable effect oftheact ,theSecretary wrote : s State rsofthefac ilities oftheUnited andemploye “Usebywageearners tesshould aid ionwiththeSta pedincooperat entServ icedevelo Employm n placed ona soundbasis ryasawhole . Ithasbee s andthecount h group bot oped ssandisbeingdevel under r-Peyser ActoftheCongre e Wagne byth t ers and the o ymen , work , ing ders of empl d tstand lea isory boar of ou anadv t ofthe entire e thelabormarke nedtoorganiz ic, and isdesig publ general iesforwork , rtunit ,whenitexists smay findoppo tryso that wage earner coun c em tedsys temofpubli tive -coordina t,mosteffec way. A well intheeasies rjobs . kerstothei y part ofwor ntoffic esisa necessar inthe return ployme n,of matio esofpublic infor s oflabor ionofemployer ,ofagenci Thecooperat ding ncies inbuil cial service age zedlab or,andofso d anduno rgani organize e like ices will hav . Alloff emwi llaidinrecovery ngthissyst up andusi ghthemandthe rcanflowthrou ives oflabo ards . Thesupply stand and object erywil lbe athand ed s canbeci rculat . Thus ,machin dsofemp loyer deman edareas se y fromdepress totho rspromptl iontotran sfer worke andinoperat t absorbthem.” (1933:2) whichcanbes Tostrengthen those areas where State services wereinadequate ,a special division , theNational Reemployment Service , wasestablished under the Wagner -Peyser Act. Innoinstance wasa reemployment service permitted tooccupy the sameterritory asa State office . [lt ] wasoperated separately asa distinct andsupplementary unit inareas notcovered bytheState employment of .... " (1934:21) fices ) As theSecretary remarked : 60 A large organization hasbeen putinoperation inanunbelievably short time bytheUnited States Employment Service andits correlated Na . 75 tional Reemployment Service . These services werebuilt up hastily but soundly tomeet the emergency andtoinsure theorderly transfer ofpeople to the jobs which were available onPublic Works ,onCivil Works ,intheCivil ianConservation Corps camps ,aswell asinprivate employment . This has been anenormous task ,onewhich wasfull ofthe hazard offailure ,andwhich hasbeen performed with hardly a complaint astothetechnique orthefair nessoftheplacement work . Inother words ,we havebeenabletomove hundreds ofthousands ofpeople into jobs ,following therules laid downby thelaw .” (1934 :10) To promote public employment services andtoprovide guidance tothe Department onemployment problems , a Federal Advisory Council wasap pointed by theSecretary ofLabor . (1934 :26) Corresponding councils wereestablished byStates cooperating with theFederal Government under theWagner -Peyser Act . An occupational research program wasset upinthe USES“toprovide em ployment offices with accurate jobspecifications andimproved classifications ofoccupations asa better meansofselecting individuals forreferral .” (1935 :6) Fromthis study ,dictionaries ofoccupational titles invarious industries wereprepared andpublished . A majo r st atistic alprob lemwasthat ofdeterm ining how manypers ons wereactuall yune mploy ed,andhow manywer e being place dinjobs: “Unemployment remains amajor national concern despite the unceasing efforts oftheGovernment andtheexpanding activity ofbusiness recovery . Theneedy have beencared for ,however ,andthat bycreating emergency activity rather than through direct relief . TheUnited States Employment Service hasbeen the chief medium through which the unemployed have been placed uponWwork -relief andpublic works jobs . This hasbeenanexercise ina fundamental service which hasbeen invaluable totheService andleaves equipped function itmuchmorerationally toperform its future . “The precise extent ofunemployment attheclose ofthefiscal yearis not completely known . There are ,ofcourse ,the estimates ofprivate agencies whichappear fromtime totime . TheEmployment Service isoperating on a national scale , butits records do notgo beyondthose who apply atthe (1935:16) employment offices affiliated with theService . Improvement instatistical reporting resulted fromanExecutive order of June1935which provided that “all persons employed onprojects financed inwhole orinpart under theEmergency Relief Appropriation Actof1935 , otherwise exempted agencies unless ,shall becertified byemployment desig Employment Service nated bytheUnited States ,andthat atleast 90percent ofthepersons soemployed shall betaken fromthepublic relief rolls .” (1935:40) , substantial signs ofimprovement statistics showed In 1936employment 42States were affiliated time . Bythat still greater improvement andin1937 system , , anda nationwide -Peyser plan withtheUSES undertheWagner employment offices ,wasinopera offices involving and811local 591district 76 ti on. (1937 :18) The Feder al-Stat e sys temwas opera tingon a gro ss annual appr opria ofover $18million tion . F arm Labor A significant note onagricultural labor wasincluded intheSecretary's report for1934: “TheDepartment ofLabor hasreceived manycomplaints andreports on unfortunate andunfavorable conditions amongagricultural workers , and amongwageearners doing workclosely allied toagriculture , suchasthe sorting andpicking offruits andvegetables . A number ofstudies ofthe agricultural -labor situation have been madebythe Department incooperation withtheDepartment ofAgriculture , notably thestudy oflabor inthebeet sugar fields ,with special attention tothelabor ofchildren andyoung people . Thisstudy wasmadeasa basis fortheNational Recovery Administration codeinthesugar -beet industry . Outofthese studies andoutoftheactivities a resulting from theneed tosettle a number ofstrikes intheagricultural field , itseemed wise torecommend totheDepartment ofAgriculture that itshould join inacontinuing study oftheconditions ofagricultural labor inaneffort tobring about improved conditions . TheSecretary ofAgriculture hasac a cepted this suggestion andhasattached tohis staff asmall group cooperating with theDepartment ofLabor inthestudy ofagricultural -labor problems , with a vieweventually tosetting upproper andpractical standards inthis mostdifficult field .” (1934 :6) rance Unemployment Insu Inherreport for1933 ,theSecretary wrote : "Someformofunemployment reserves should be setup inthedifferent States sothat inthefuture itmaytake theplace ofthebread line orother charities asa systematic ,honorable method oftiding over a slump period forthose whowantworkandlack it . No onehasyetfound a cure forun employment , although we areexperimenting inthatdirection underthe National Recovery Act . Inurging unemployment reserves I realize that its adoption would notmeanthethrowing upofeconomic bulwarks forall wage earners . Properly safeguarded ,itwill ,however ,constitute a certain definite measure ofsecurity formanyworkers andtheir families . Thisisa social aswell asanindustrial problem andthecost should bespread aswidely aspossible . Thefundshould becollected fromfair butnotexcessive pre miumsandshould besafeguarded sothat itwill beadequate fortheheavy drains ofa possible widespread period ofunemployment . There should be a definite and fairly longwaiting period . The numberof weeksof benefit should be limited to beara definite relationship totheamount madeorthepremiums ofthecontributions paid . Premiums maybepaid wholly bythe employer ,orbythe employer andemployee contributing ,orby Government participation where States desire it , butthecost should be assessed asoneoftheindustrial hazards forwhichindustry itself must provide . 77 rybuil dsup reserves for payment ofdivid ust "Ind endstotideinvestme nt overlean years ldbe lookedtotoprovide , and itshou al ement forsuppl ontobepaidtoworke nsati compe rsoutofjobs hnofault throug rown ofthei e. Economi cinsecu inthe futur rity isoneofthemajorsocial ards haz ofour life inthe UnitedState s ofAmerica dualfami , a hazardfortheindivi ly, a hazard unity for the comm hmustmai whic ntain ityorapoverty themonchar level rdtothetota ,a haza lindust rial itution inst because ofthedryingupof ngpower." (1933:3) chasi pur InJune1934thePresident appointed a Cabinet committee todevelop a national social security program . TheSecretary ofLaborwasappointed chairman . Utilizing the technical andresearch staffs ofall interested Federal agencies ,thecommittee setup a small staff toworkoutthedetails ofthe program ofsocial security "whichshould embrace andcover thehazards of oldage ,unemployment ,handicapped children ,andmakesomereport upon health .” (1935 :2) CG TheSocial Security Actwaspassed in1935.However ,theconferences , public hearings ,andcontinued research workforCongress ,aschanges were indicated ,continued tobedonethrough thecooperation oftheDepartment Emergency organization ofLabor andtheFederal Relief .” (1935 :2) Secretary Perkins said atthat time : ,forthepresent -agepensions forold nowprovides ..Thelawwhich age , unem now ofworking forthose , old -ageinsurance agedandindigent , ,State cooperation participation ofState onthebasis insurance ployment onthe totheStates ,cooperative assistance taxprogram witha Federal fortheblind care ,andcare inprograms ofmaternal basis ofcooperation undoubtedly country andstands lawofthe children isnowbasic andcrippled generation ,having ofthis pieces oflegislation asoneofthemostsignificant inthe uponthelives ofwageearners effects inestimable andbeneficial inthefuture working menandwomencanexpect future . TheAmerican economic fromthemostunpreventable andprotection a definite security disasters ." (1935:2) Those sections oftheSocial Security Actrelating tomaternal andchild health services , services to crippled children , and child welfare services wereadministered by theDepartment ofLaborthrough theChildren's Bureau . (1936 :11) Theunemployment insurance provisions wereadmin istered bythenewly established Social Security Board . Working Conditions One ofthefirst actsofthenew administration was theestablishment of theNational Recovery Administration . Partoftheactestablishing this agency dealt withlabor relations andpart withworking conditions . As regards thelatter : “ A full year ofexperience with theNational Industrial Recovery Actand theadministration thereof hasmadeitquite evident that theoperation of that act has led toimprovements inworking conditions for labor ,andthat 78 throu ghtheadmi nistr ation ofth atact there havecom equa e about llyimpor tant impr oveme ntsinthestatus oflab or. TheNat ional Indu strial Reco very Act isthemostcompre hensi ve atte mpttoimpro ve workin g conditio nsin comp etitiv eindus trythathaseve r beenunde rtake n byany nation . Throug h Nationa l Recover y Adm inist ration codes theregul ation ofhour s oflabo r ofmenandwomenalik ehasbeenunderta kenforthefirst timeinourhist ory . Wherea s Sta regulate telaws d thehoursoflab orofwome n only,someState law s permi tting hour s up toasmuch as12 a day , undertheNationa l Recov eryAdmini strat ionmos t ofthecod espresc ribe 40 hour s a wee k as the standa rd,and abou t 25perce ntofthemreq uire a limi t of8 hou rsor less asthenumbe r ofhourstobeworkedinanyoneday.... work , ; andnight every code inpractically “Child labor isprohibited These are . disappeared ,haspractically industries inthe continuous except substantial gains . .. O . > (1934 :1-2) “... Forthebest part ofthe year theAssistant Secretary ofLabor has acted asa direct labor assistant totheAdministrator oftheNational Indus trial Recovery Administration ,thus making theliaison between thelabor policy oftheN.R.A. andtheLabor Department's activities a close andhar monious one. Fromthebeginning ,almost all codes havebeenreferred tothe Labor Department for analysis oflabor provisions andfor technical comment upontheir practicability andenforceability . Inmanycases theskilled and experienced people intheChildren's Bureau ,Women's Bureau ,andinthe Bureau ofLaborStatistics proved theonlyresource oftheGovernment for getting these codes onasound ,workable ,practicable basis . Themethods of determining whoaresubstandard workers andthemethods ofdetermining howhours might beaveraged overweeks ormonths wereworked outbythe people inthe Department ofLabor andsubmitted tothe N.R.A. for adoption . Thesafety standards for the prevention ofindustrial accidents were prepared by theDepartment ofLaborandrecommended totheN.R.A. ,andinlarge part havebeenincluded inthecodes asadopted . Methods ofenforcement andcompliance based onthelong experience oftheStates inenforcing labor laws wereworked outintheLabor Department andrecommended tothe N.R.A. ,butithasnotbeenpossible fortheN.R.A. toadopt thesuggested methods ofenforcements up tothepresent time .” (1934:7) InMay 1935theSupreme Court declared certain provisions oftheNa. tional Industrial Recovery program Actunconstitutional ,andthewhole of improving working conditions hadtobereconstructed on a different basis . Theexperience gained during the life ofthe act ,however ,wastoprove useful . Atthetime oftheSupreme Court's decision : completed , wasover90 percent codeprogram ... thecontemplated industries of andsmaller ofboth themajor a large preponderance covering toappraise tothis experience still tooclose . We aredoubtless thecountry even . Although objectivity iswarranted maximum butsomeestimate itwith that ,itisapparent variations andwages codes involved astohours particular for both wageandmaximumhours toward a minimum progress substantial 79 menandwomenwasmade. Child labor bythose under 16waseliminated in coded industries . Overa hundred codes contained provisions against home work ,a practice that spells child labor aswell asthelowering ofwageand hour levels . Satisfactory working conditions were notoverlooked . Impetus wasgiven themovement formoreadequate safety andhealth standards in industry by general coderequirements and safety and sanitation codes drafted toassist code authorities inmeeting code provisions . “Theimpact oftheN.R.A. uponState policy was ,ofcourse ,very substan tial . Seventeen States enacted lawsdesigned toeffectuate thelabor law a policy ofthenational act ,anumber ofwhich provided for a State codesystem involving minimum labor standards .. ." (1935: 7) Now lacking thesupport ofmandatory lawinhersearch fortheestab lishment ofstandards regarding working conditions ,Secretary Perkins was forced toturn tothemoretedious ,andundoubtedly moredifficult ,task of attaining those standards bypersuasion . “Itbecame apparent ,” shewrote inherreport for1935 ,“that a national agency todischarge thedutyof promoting improvements inlabor standards wasneeded .” (1935 :9) She turned todevelop further thefacilities ofherowndepartment ,with special emphasis onhernewly created Division ofLabor Standards ,established in 1934. Labor Standards Lacking legislative establishment ,theDivision ofLabor Standards was setupbytheSecretary , aspart ofherown office ,in1934.Its purpose ,as calpro blemsand ,was “to stud ecif shethe y sp icandlo n concei vedofit , s , se afe cur sa ,h eal d ty ity of ind n it than make recomme ust ati ria on l ndati ons ,community cat tio ion wages,workinghours,housin naledu g,adultandvoca e liv esof our tor oppo s which bearupon th rtu nit y, and many other fac workers".” (1933:6) report for formall ry's edintheSecreta y includ TheDivisi onwasfirst congr riatio its first ession n in 1937. 1936and rece ived alapprop Amongthemostimportant activities oftheDivision wasthelaying ofa foundation forcooperation between theState governments andtheFederal Government inmatters ofstandards ofharmonious labor legislation : 66 ... Looking tothis end ,a general conference oflabor commissioners fromthevarious States appointed , aswellasdelegates by thegovernors , including delegates representing organized labor ,washeld inWashington inFebruary 1934. This conference attempted todevelop andrecommend a practical anddesirable program oflabor legislation that could be recom mendedand endorsed foralltheStates . Theserecommendations covered a broad field , dealing withworkmen's compensation laws ,physical condi tions ofworkplaces ,hours oflabor ,minimum -wagelaws ,child -labor laws , home -worklaws ,aswell aslaws relating tounemployment insurance . The standards wereworked outingreat detail and ,after having beenformally agreed uponbythedelegates ,weretransmitted through themtothevarious 80 States . Since that time they havebeenconsistently recommended by the United States Department ofLabor tothevarious States asa basis for planning their own legislation . Thisisperhaps thebroadest programof labor legislation ever recommended inthis country . ManyoftheStates havesuchlegislation , butfewofthemhaveallofthelegislation recom mended . Theconference also requested theDepartment ofLaborregularly toconduct regional conferences on matters oflabor legislation and from time totime tocall other national conferences inorder that standards might bekept up todate ,andtheexperiences ofthevarious States pooled and compared .. (1934:8) These national andregional labor legislation conferences metannually until 1955 , when theywerediscontinued . Theywerereinstituted on a regional basis in1959. Atquite anearly stage inthemeetings ,various standards wereagreed uponasdesirable . Amongtheitems whichearly andclearly emerged were : “1.Generous workmen's compensation insurance against thecause ofin dustrial accidents . “ 2.Strict laws with regard totheguarding ofmachinery toprevent ac cidents . sand ldiseases nofoccup ationa bytheremoval ofnoxiou entio “3.Theprev t and by othe r oymen s fromplaces ofempl ousdus ts,gases ,andfume poison methods. “4.Thebuilding andarrangement ofbuildings toprevent loss oflife and accident byfire . “5. Shorter hoursoflabor . "6.Prevention ofchild labor under16 andtheregulation ofthelabor ofyoung people betwen 16and21.... “7.A sound minimum wagelawwith aprocedure toprevent theexploita tion ,particularly ofwomenandminors ,whoare themost easily exploited . “8.Someprovisions forthecollection ofwages forthose towhom,after a period ofwork ,wagesaredenied through fraud ,carelessness , or other wise." (1935:4-5) A majorcontribution ofthis division thenandsince hasbeenits annual digest ofState andFederal labor laws . Appr entic eship Employers pointed outthat they could notafford toemploy apprentices andcertain other workers intraining status attherates prescribed under the NRA codes . Inview ofthe importance ofapprentice training inpreparation fortheskilled trades ,andtopermit its continuance ,though underproper regulation : ... thePresident issued an Executive Orderon June27, 1934, confer 66 ring powers upontheSecretary ofLabortosetup a Federal Committee on wasgiven thepowertomake Apprentice Training . ..Thiscommittee 81 rules andregulations whereby apprentices might beemployed atless than the minimum rates specified inthecodes .... Inthecourse ofthe first year ofwork Statecommittees were established in 43 States . ... Afterthe Schechter decision thequestion ofcontinuance oftheworkoftheFederal committee wasdefinitely brought tothefore . Because theprogram had gained somuchheadway ina comparatively short time ,andbecause itsrep resentative character hadenabled ittoavoid thedangers andabuses that areoften found inpseudo apprenticeship schemes ,itseemed desirable to a continue the program onaspermanent a basis aspossible . Accordingly ,the National YouthAdministration designated theFederal Committee on Ap prentice Training astheagency tocarry ontheapprentice phase ofits pro gram . . ." (1935 :17-18 ) 17–18 InAugust 1937theFederal Apprenticeship Actwaspassed ,authorizing theSecretary ofLabor toformulate andpromote theextension oflabor standards necessary tosafeguard thewelfare ofapprentices . A number of States enacted somewhat similar legislation ,butinmoredetail , establishing standards equal orsuperior tothose recommended bytheFederal Committee onApprenticeship . Foradministrative purposes the apprenticeship function waslocated inthe Division ofLaborStandards . Labor -ManagementRelations every that Industrial Recovery Actprovided Section 7(a) oftheNational toor ofemployees guarantee theright should NRA codeandagreement , interference without representatives through collectively ganize andbargain relations ,industrial . Inmanyindustries byemployers ,orcoercion restraint as"akind ofinformal . Theyserved agreements upbycode were set boards and organized employers organized between agency bargaining collective than rather industry ofthewhole with regard totheconditions employees industry boards ) Manyofthese .” (1934 :6–7 plant those ofa particular ,thus notonly conciliators ofLabor oftheDepartment utilized theservices the , butalso avoiding mediators ofexperienced theassistance obtaining . field staffs ofemploying necessity InAugust 1933thePresident appointed a National Labor Board ,headed by Senator Robert F.Wagner , toactinan investigative andadjustment capacity instrike situations . ..This Board wascalled uponfrequently topass uponclaims ofdis crimination for union activities andtoset upa method ofmaking itpossible byconciliation toarrange forcollective bargaining between employers and employees that the lawanticipated .” (1934 :5) InJune1934 ,byresolution ofCongress ,themembership oftheBoardwas changed from bipartisan tononpartisan ,andits title waschanged toNational Labor Relations Board . Commenting onthis first year oftheBoard's his tory ,theSecretary wrote : “During this period employers frequently challenged theright ofcertain 82 unions torepresent theworkers intheir plants , andforthefirst timethere arose theconception ofdetermining whoshall represent workers forcollec tive -bargaining purposes bya vote oftheworkers themselves . This wasa newandwhat wastoprove asignificant step inthe history ofAmerican labor policy . Itcameabout through experience with situations which hadproven a difficult . On thesuggestion oftheBoard that a vote betaken intheplant and ontheacquiescence oftheemployers ,elections were held under theauspices oftheLaborBoard . Suchelections wereconducted fairly ,intelligently ,and intheway inwhichordinary elections areheld . Itwastaken forgranted inthe original elections that the group orcommittee that hadthelargest num ber ofvotes would represent all the workers inthe plant . Several such elec tions were held andboth employers andemployees accepted theresults . In somecases ,however ,theright ofthose elected torepresent theminority who hadnotvoted forthemwasquestioned . Itwasoutofthis practical expe rience that therulings ,atfirst informal ,andlater formalized into anexpres sion oftheright ofthemajority soelected todeal with employers onbehalf ofall the employees inthe plant ,cameinto being . This wasknownlater as theright ofmajority rule . "Industrial relations established on a newbasisby section 7(a) ofthe National Industrial Recovery Acthave gradually evolved into the beginnings ofa code . TheAmerican policy inthis field will beundoubtedly a gradual growth based onexperience andontheconcepts ofthefree right oflabor to organize without interference byemployers ,the wisdom ofcollective bargain ingbetween employers andtheir freely organized employees ,andtheencour > agement oftheprinciples ofmutual cooperation bytheimprovement of production andworking conditions outofsuchassociation .” (1934 :5) Then ,inMay 1935 ,theSupreme Court declared section 7(a) unconstitu tional . InJuneCongress passed theWagner -Connery Labor Disputes Act , which defined andstrengthened therights tofreedom ofassociation and bargaining collective . Commenting onthe2-year history oftheNational Industrial Recovery administration wrote Actandits ,theSecretary : “Despite thecontroversies concerning interpretation which clouded the career ofsection 7(a) ...andthewantofadequate sanctions ,itdidmuch toadvance its object ,assuring tolabor theright toenjoy self -organization andcollective bargaining . This type oflegislation ,itshould beobserved , wasnotentirely new. TheRailway LaborActof1926 ,whichwasamended in1934 byanact establishing theNational Mediation Board inplace ofand withbroader jurisdiction thantheUnited States BoardofMediation ,sought todomuchthesamething forrailroad employees . Thedeclaration ofpolicy intheNorris -LaGuardia anti -injunction lawof1932gave expression tothe principles offreedom ofassociation andcollective bargaining . Therailroad reorganization amendment ofMarch 3,1933 ,totheBankruptcy Actandthe Actof1933 ,establishing a Federal Coordinator ofTransportation ,embody labor provisions ,which protect theworker's right tofreedom ofassociation . 83 "Thenominal right oflabor toorganize ,nowlong conceded inthis coun try ,isa far cryfromassuring collective bargaining . Section 7(a)sought freedom toestablish actual ofassociation ,which isessential torepresentative action . Butmuchremained tobemarkedoutinpractice . Questions were bound toarise astovarious aspects ofrepresentation . Theconception ofa right tocollective bargaining wasjust emerging asa legal idea andassuch its precise meaning remained tobeworked outinapplication . Doubtless the most conspicuous andimportant issue wasthe question whether collective bargaining should proceed ontheprinciple ofmajority rule orproportional representation . Majority rule prevailed andhasbeen specifically approved byCongress inthe Wagner -Connery Act . Such questions were inthemselves enough toprovoke controversy . New ground isnotbroken withminimum difficulty . Itwastoprovide animpartial machinery ofadjustment that the various labor boards with 7(a) jurisdiction wereestablished . " Theconducting oflabor elections todetermine representation forcollec live bargaining isoneofthenewest contributions ofthelabor boards . The device isdemocratic incharacter andaffords a dignified basis forrepresenta tion . Significantly enough ,such elections have definitely conduced tofruitful bargaining collective . 03 Th St. i tut sti n o C In 1915a powerstation stood wheretheDepartment ofLaborBuilding now stands . Facing itwereDepartment of Agriculture greenhouses . 84 33 1 3 8 28 completion wasnearing Construction of theLaborand ICCBuildings in the springof 1933. . pursuant LaborRelations ] Boardwascreated The new [National toestab thePresident ,which authorized ofCongress resolution toa joint in andfacts theissues toinvestigate empowered lish oneormoreboards 7(a). Thisresolution undersection arising or complaints controversies ,ofconducting Labor Board ,begun bytheNational thepractice continued bargaining ,where forcollective representation todetermine labor elections became thecoordinating . TheBoard would beserved interest thepublic byExecu boards . Asrequired andregional special thevarious for agency weremadethrough oftheBoard andrecommendations reports tive order all .... ofLabor theSecretary . “The Supreme Court decision ofMay 28, 1935 ,invalidating certain sec Industrial Recovery brought tions oftheNational Act ,substantially toan endthediverse butinstructive experience withlabor boards whichthe country hadhadfornearly 2 years inconnection withtherecovery program . We arenowina muchbetter position todetermine theproper organization andjurisdiction oflabor boards . Light hasbeen shed upontheusefulness ofspecial andregional boards ,andtherelative effectiveness ofnonpartisan andbipartisan boards . Theneeds forpowers ofenforcement becamecon spicuously pressing . 85 “Uponthis background a newagency takes upits work . Just before the close ofthefiscal year theCongress enacted theWagner -Connery Labor Disputes Act ,which established a National Labor Relations Board togive enduring sanction tothecollective bargaining principle . Unlike its pred ecessors ,this Boardhascertain powers ofenforcement comparable tothose oftheFederal TradeCommission. “Neither section 7(a) northeLaborDisputes Actwereconceived tobe Utopian short -cuts toindustrial harmony . Theyweredesigned ,however , tomakecollective bargaining a reality ,andthelatter actprovides a new impartial bodytofacilitate this . Theultimate sanction behind themeasure is ,asisalways thecase ,its good -faith acceptance bythose whoaretobe governed by it .” (1935 :11-12 ) Thenumber andscope ofindustrial disputes continued toincrease . In 1 1937there were3,743 strikes involving 1,745,000 workers ." InSeptember 1936theexecutive council oftheAmerican Federation of Labor suspended 10unions banded together astheCommittee forIndustrial Organization andhaving astheir avowed objective theorganization of production workers into industrial unions . Theseparation involved con siderable contention andstrong feeling . However : ryof ficer andbureauinithascon entofLaborandeve “The Departm ty rsorpa rtiali inganyfavo edfro m taking anypartorshow ntly siste refrain t. There can be no doubt r movemen eaval ternal uph in thelabo inthis in rely t lyand since tha desfeeldeep tmen onboth si t theable and hones tha t ofLabo r has at alltimes rtmen t one. The Depa tion istherigh eirposi th s psofworker ersandgrou ices toall work ation serv nished inform andits fur ips edits tionshnot ntain rela ion raffiliat ,andithasmai outregard tothei with onsofbothcampsbutwiththe widemember. ficials ofuni y withtheof onl tthecoun try." (1937 :8) ughou p ofboththro shi nt rel ations -manageme s in the fieldof labor pment wingdevelo Revie te: ryPerkins wro tion nistra ,Secreta tper iodofheradmi hthi searlies throug “Thegrowth oforganized labor inmembership andinpublic significance inthelast 2 years hasbeenremarkable . Therecognition onthepart of manyemployers ofthewisdomofclose andactive partnership inworking outwiththeir organized workers theproblems oftheindustry hasbeen moststimulating toeveryone who hasinmindtheorganic lawwhichset up the Department ofLabor . “Clearly this increase innumbers andimportance brings toorganized labor great obligations andresponsibilities . These obligations aretoindus tryandtothecountry aswell astoits members . There isevery indication that they canandwill bedischarged faithfully . Timeandexperience are necessary tofull performance . Iftheright balance istobepreserved , if lasting progress istobemade ,there mustbea spirit ofgive andtake ,of In this year ,too , theConciliation Service reported “thefirst sitdown strike inthe United States ,”amongrubber -goods workers atAkron ,Ohio . (1937:14) 86 erest ofthe intheint ,always ,now ontheother omisenow ononeside compr ryasawhole . count “Labor problems cannot besolved solely bylaws . There mustbemutual agreement ,goodfaith , andunderstanding andcooperation by employers andworkers . Thousands ofemployers accept theworker asa partner ;only a relatively small number ofemployers refuse todeal with them . I repeat whatI havesaidon several occasions ,there mustbe industrial peace but justice with . “The workers 'desire forstability ofincome andjobandtheindustries ' equal needforthebest useofplant andmachinery indicate that thenext great step inindustrial management inthis country will bemadebymanage mentandlabor working together intheconscious development ofscientific methods ofstabilizing bothproduction andworkinAmerican industries . “These methods mustvary with theindustries ,butthefurther expansion ofproductive capacity sodesirable canbeaccomplished moresafely along withtheincreased stability sonecessary bothsocially andeconomically . Neither ofthese canbeeffectively accomplished without theinformed and vigorous participation oforganized workers .” (1937 :11-12 ) Labor Statistics Fundamentally themainobjective ofa bureau devoted tothecompilation , analysis ,andpublication ofstatistics istomaintain incontinuous series the reports forwhich itisresponsible . Itmustalso ,however ,addadditional series astheneedforthemdevelops ,andbeready toconduct anyspecial studies ofanemergency nature that itmaybecalled upontoperform inan swer tocurrent problems . Above all ,itshould ,ifalert tohistorical develop ments ,anticipate future inquiries anddemands forinformation andmake studies andcollect thenecessary data well ahead ofthetime they will be needed. As theleading organization intheUnited States forthecollection and study offactual information onthewelfare ofworkers ,theBureau ofLabor Statistics ,throughout its long life ,hasbeensubject tothese requirements . During theperiod under review inthis chapter theBureau completed its 50th year ofservice tothe people ofthe United States . Itistherefore ofinter esttonote whattheCommissioner ofLaborStatistics ,Isador Lubin ,hadto sayconcerning theworkofhisbureau . "[Recent ] reports oftheBureau .. pointed outtheamount ofreor ganizing andexpanding that wasnecessary innearly every phase ofBureau activity tomeet the greatly increased demands for ourservices byemployers , employees ,andGovernment agencies . Theeffects ,notonly immediate ,but cumulative ... arereflected inthis accounting .... During theyear the reorganized machinery ofthe Bureau ranmore smoothly ,andactivities which hadbeen postponed orsubordinated because oftheurgency ofother workwere again brought within thescope oftheBureau's normal functions . 87 “These function s,astheworkin g oftheorganic actmakesappare nt ,cov er anextr emely wide field . Asthefir stFedera l agency devot edtolabor int er ests andactivit ies theBureau hadtobreaknewground ,sur veyitsown field , andest ablish its ownprecede . Allthework oftheBure nts auofLaborSta tistics hasa bearin gupo n thelivin gand workin gconditio prepon nsofthat derant elem entinthenati onal popula classed tion broa dlyas 'worke rs,'and a noworkisunde rtaken unless it hasadefin laboraspe ite . Howev ct er,thedata assemb ledbythe Burea u foritsownpurposes cons titute sourc e mat erial which,wit h ashift ofemphasi s and a diffe rent viewpo ,becom int esofalmost equalvalu e toother agencies whosefunction inrelated slie field s. Thusthe Burea u ofLaborStati stics istheprim arysource ofinf ormati onforgovern men talbodie stha t needdat a on build ingactivit ies ,prices ,and earni ngs . “At thesametime ,activities ofother Federal agencies that seemtolie in covered directed fields bytheBureau areinfact toward aspects andemphasis other than those concerned with workers interests surveys andtheir . Price oftheDepartment ofAgriculture , forinstance , dealnotwithliving costs butwith such factors asthespread between wholesale andretail prices and prices paid tothefarmer . TheBureau seeks atall times tocooperate with agencies inrelated fields , while keeping itsown boundaries free of over lapping ." (1936 :70) “Throughout the years 1933–36 the Bureau ofLabor Statistics ,incommon with other units oftheDepartment ofLabor andindeed all governmental agencies ,putits resources andits efforts into thegreat drive toward national recovery . The demands madeupontheBureau tomeettheneeds ofthat drive carried ittoa considerable degree outside ofthefield ofits normal functions . Inconsequence manyoftheBureau's usual activities hadtobe either curtailed seriously orstopped entirely . u d,th e Burea lylessene terial ncyworkma reofemerge e pressu “Withth mary work emos t of its custo –37 to resum ly ear 1936 the fisca wasable during s ntact ivitie mostimporta ources ,toexpandits mits ofits res theli and,within greq uests for reasin onand with inc alexpansi dustri in bothwith tokeeppace 7 59 ) d lds . ” ( 193 : ognize fie ce thin its rec servi wi “... itisofutmost importance toemphasize that theBureau ofLabor Statistics isnota finished machine ,grinding outstatistical andresearch data year after year inthesamepatterns . Itisdealing with theactions andre actions ofhumanbeings ina constantly changing world . Thus ,usefully to fulfill its functions itmustbeprepared constantly tochange notonly the patterns ofits workbutthemachinery through which itoperates . oftheBureauover thepublications whenonereviews " This fact isevident ,itisdifficult attimes . When this isdone existence century ofits thehalf covered and . Thesubjects the sameagency with that oneisdealing torealize often constantly and t o be shifting themarefound oftreating themethods ofpolicy onthepart change wasnotduetoanyarbitrary radically . This during this that . Itwasduetothefact oftheBureau oftheadministration asour aswell place inourindustrial changes took century fundamental half 88 social life . Manylabor problems ofacute importance inthe1890's gradually passed from the picture andnewones entered . “Takethecaseof workmen's compensation forindustrial accidents . Thirty years agothere wasnoeffective legislation inthis field intheUnited States , but ,anticipating thedrift ofsocial thinking , theBureau waseven then busycompiling extensive reports onthenumber andcost ofindustrial accidents andbringing totheattention ofAmericans thepractice ofother countries inthis matter . Asa result ,whenthetime wasripe forlegislative action a massofinformation wasavailable fortheguidance ofthose con cerned with thedrafting ofpublic laws . Today workmen's compensation is anaccepted principle ,andinterest hasshifted toa still morefundamental question — thereduction , and , ifpossible , theelimination , ofindustrial accidents . Itistoassist inthis veryworth -while campaign that theBureau isnow seeking toexpand its research workinthefield ofaccident statistics . “Again less than5 years ago ,unemployment insurance , asa matter of legislative policy ,wasalmost unknown inthis country . But ,asinthecase ofworkmen's accident compensation , those close tothelabor field could a live anticipate that itwould bea issue inthe notdistant future . TheBureau ofLabor Statistics realized this ,andsought tocollect andcompile all the available material pertinent tothesubject ,withtheobject ofhaving itready when theneedforitshouldarise . " Inother cases , changes intheBureau's workhavebeeninmethods rather thaninsubject matter ,andthus still less observed . Forinstance thesubject ofwages hasalways occupied a prominent place intheBureau's program . Until recently , however ,wagesurveys wereconcerned mainly with average hourly earnings . During thepast fewyears changing con ditions have madeitimperative tosecure data onannual earnings . “Innoneofthese instances ,ofcourse ,andatnotime ,hastheBureau been àproponent for anyparticular course orpolicy . Its jobhasbeen toassemble andpresent thefacts ofoureconomic life astheyaffect theworkingman . Ifthese facts indicate thedesirability oflegislation orofother remedial action ,that isthejobofother agencies . Buttheimportance oftheprelim gathering inary fact cannot beoveremphasized .. Inmanyrespects itmay be regarded asthemostimportant workdonebythe Bureau inits efforts ... 'topromote thewelfare oftheworkers 'ofthis country . “Thetask oftheBureau ofLabor Statistics is ,therefore ,notonly todowell whatitisdoing nowbuttobeconstantly preparing forwhatwill bede mandedtomorrow . Itmust, ofcourse ,do a considerable amountofmore orless routine collecting andcompiling ofcurrent data . Butinaddition it mustbeina position todopioneer workinnewfields . Inthis respect it must perform functions analogous tothose performed intheresearch labora lories ofprivate industry . Inother words ,itmustbeable ,insomedegree atleast ,toanticipate theproblems oftomorrow ,andtodo thenecessary exploratory workinpreparation for furnishing thefactual basis fordealing with new‘problems 'when they become “live issues . ” (1937 :77–79 ) 666947-63 -7 89 Atthis point theCommissioner addeda list ofitems inneedoffurther research . Inviewoflater events , theywereprophetic , andsupported his argument . Needing study ,hesaid ,weretheregulation ofwages andhours insubnormal enterprises ; groups ontheborderline between employability andself -support ; whattodo withworkers whom private enterprise no longer needs ; farmlabor ; migratory labor ; therange ofworking hours andearnings ; annual earnings ; theearnings ofsalaried and professional workers ; personnel policies ,including benefit plans ,vacations ,andhousing ; causes ofandremedies forlabor turnover ; andolder workers inindustry . Child Welfare Reviewing thesituation forchildren intheUnited States in1934 , Chil dren's Bureau Chief Grace Abbott pointed outthat “while asa result of therecovery program already initiated ,there havebeensomeimportant gains forchildren ,manystill suffer serious andpreventable handicaps .” (1934:92) Shetherefore urged several improvements . Shepleaded forFederal cooperation with theStates ina child health pro gramroughly along thesamelines asthat previously developed through the Maternity andInfancy Actof1921 . “Thereis... no reas on fo r consi dering ourprese ntprogra m ade For mostSt ates ,exceptforlarg e urbancenter s and a few quate. . counties ... chil d-health conf erence s andtheeducati onalwork withpar entsand studen tshavebee n reduce d almosttothevanish ingpointata timewhentheyare espe cially need ed... “Inaddition toa preventive health program ,medical care isneeded for manychildren who arenow on relief orwhosefathers areunemployed but arenoton relief ,andformanywhosefathers areinthelow-income groups and cannot payfor adequate medical services .... “Facilities for maternal care are[also )sadly inadequate inmanysections ofthecountry ...." (1934 :92-93 ) Inthefield ofsocial welfare ,sheargued forFederal grants -in -aidfor State mothers 'assistance ormothers 'pension funds ,andurged that “the costs ofadequate ,long -timecare forthese children should beshared by governments Federal ,State , andlocal .” (1934:93) Asregards juvenile delinquency ,shewrote : “It isclear after 30years ofexperience that wecannot expect the juvenile courts asnoworganized toprevent delinquency . Evidence hasaccumulated year after year that failure tomeetfundamental community needs explains muchdelinquency andunhappiness amongchildren andcrime and in efficiency amongadults . Because ofthelack ofeconomic security inthe family life ,because ofourfailure toprovide adequate homesforthelow est -income group through a public housing program andincreased recrea tional resources aswell asmoreandbetter social andpsychiatric services forchildren ,wearemaking little headway inpreventing delinquency among children .” (1934 :93) 90 Astochild labor ,although shecommented favorably onimprovements inthegeneral ageforentering employment asa result oftheNRA codes : 66 Mostschools unfortunately arenotfully prepared tomeettheir needs , andschool budgets havebeencutsoseriously inrecent years that provision for these boys andgirls whoarereturning toschool orremaining longer inschool mightseemtobeattheexpense oftheother children ...." (1934 :93) “While muchprogress hasbeen madeineliminating andregulating the employment ofchildren undertheN.R.A. codes , theimportance ofgiving toCongress theclear constitutional right tolegislate inthis field isevident ." (1934 :94) Until theSupreme Court's decision in1935invalidated theNRA codes , standards child labor hadbeenhigher inmanyrespects thanever before . Thereafter itwasapparent that a general slackening oflabor standards occurred inindustry . Thepassage oftheSocial Security Act , however , offered proposed improvements a newmeans bywhich someofthese could be effected : “When fund s sha llhavebeenmade availa bleby Congressforcarryin g out thepurp oftheSocial oses Sec Actmeans urity will havebeenprovi dedfor carr ou ying tthe reco prev annual mmend ious repor to ation trela ting s ofthe Fede ralcooperat theStat -health ionwith esina ch ild prog ram,Federal aid inprovid ingtre atment andconv alesce forcrip chi , demon ntcare pled ldren st ration services sofmater nalnursing inrural distr ,andFed icts grants eral inaidformoth ers 'aidormoth ers 'pension s...." (1935 :119) TheChildren's Bureau remained responsible fortheadministration of maternal andchild health services ,child welfare services ,andservices for crippled children ,anditalso cooperated closely with thenewly established Social Security Board andother agencies responsible forother portions of theSocial Security Act . To insure effective liaison ,thestaff oftheBureau wassupplemented with“experienced representatives oftheprofessions of pediatrics , obstetrics , orthopedic surgery , public health nursing , medical social work, nutrition , social services to children , industrial economics , statistics andsocial .” (1936 :109) tments and tyAct forallo l Securi nsunde r theSocia iatio tappropr Thefirs esweremade to thservic ernal andchildheal tesformat entstotheSta paym e,while the ding decad entofLaborin1936. Forthesuccee theDepartm vecont roloftheDepart strati nedwithin the admini s Bureauremai ldren' Chi a year e than $11million ually tomor s ris ingevent ,amount mentofLabor d totheStates under e,and weredisburse edforthi spurpos opriat wereappr proxi u. A sum ap n's Burea hildre d t with the C mentsworke ou arrange u edto he Burea lwasallow t tota ntoftheState -grants hly5 perce matingroug ative inistr s. expense foradm Thebasic publications oftheBureau continued tobebest sellers . By the end of 1937their distribution since dateofpublication was asfollows : 91 “Prenatal Care ,”312million copies ;“Infant Care ,”8 million ; and“The Child FromOnetoSix ,”3 million . Women Workers During thedepression theWomen's Bureau continued tostress particularly theneed for recognition ofthe claims ofwomenworkers onemployment ,the desirability ofminimum wage legislation for women ,the problem ofwage inequalities between menandwomendoing thesamekind ofwork ,andthe incidence ofindustrial diseases andother ailments amongwomenwhichare attributable tothelimitation oftheir employment totheless desirable job categories . Theresults oftheBureau's efforts during the5-year period here under review arerecorded intheannual reports oftheBureau Director : Problems of Women Workers “Theproblems confronting themarried womanworker have beenmany, particularly inthepast year . Thevast majority ofmarried womenwork forthesamereason that married men work , because their families need their earnings . Investigations reveal striking discrepancies between men's a health earnings andfamily budgets necessary forthemaintenance ofa and decency standard ofliving . Sowives become breadwinners tohelp tosupport thefamily ortoraise ittoa higher level ofliving ,anditisduring a period ofsevere unemployment that their responsibilities arethegreatest . More over ,marital status asa basis foremployment ordismissal isnotsound . a A womanwhoisdischarged today because shehasa husband tosupport her mayfind herself widowed ordeserted tomorrow . Asaprinciple ,jobs should beawarded onqualifications . “Theurgent need for markets calls for increased purchasing power forthe millions ofworkers toenable themtobuygoods andthus keep thewheels of industry turning . Morethan twothirds ofthegoods disposed ofinthis coun try arebought bythose whose incomes areless than $2,000 a year . Asthe domestic market islargely dependent upontherank andfile ofworkers ,ex panding andcontracting with the rise andfall ofwages andwith the increase spending anddecrease inemployment ,andaswomenarea large part ofthis power , lowwagestowomenhavetheeffect ofdepressing themarket .” (1933 :93) Wage Differentials women's are wagesordinarily that "Itisa matter ofcommonknowledge :126) ofmen.” (1935 below those considerably “Itisa well -knownfact that employed womenusually havemuchless to live onthan menhave ,andthere areindications that they arepaid less even whenonthe same work . Though the jobs ofwomen andofmenordinarily differ ,the major employment ofwomenalong particular lines hasled certain worktobepaid ataalowstandard onthe assumption that itis'women's work , regardless ofthefact that itmayrequire considerable skill ,dexterity ,ora 92 fine handling peculiarly suited towomen's capabilities andworthy ofbetter pay. Thisisa subject uponwhichinformation ismuchindemand . (1936:142) “Thesubstitution ofwomenformenatlower paystrikes a real blowat men's wages . Itbrings all wages downtoa lower level andseriously re duces theconsumers 'purchasing power —that purchasing power whose high standard issonecessary toourwhole economic structure . Forthese reasons , investigation into thewages paid toworking womenisofprimary importance , anditmustbecontinued sothat eventually we may eliminate forall timethe tendency toreturn ourwomenworkers tosweatshops instead oftofactories with good standards ofwages ,hours ,andworking conditions .” (1936 :148) MinimumWages “ A major activity oftheWomen's Bureau lies inresponding todemands foraidinminimum -wageprogress . Thisisreasonable ,asmorethan6 million wage -earning womenintheUnited States maypotentially have their earnings improved by suchmeasures , over31/2 million oftheminStates already having minimumwagelaws . din ityhavebeenfollowe ctli nesofactiv eedistin ghout theyearthr “Throu veprob lemshavebeen strati veservi cesin admini ltati ection this conn :Consu entohelp giv onofmany types has been rmati es;info shed totheStat furni in nt,this insome cases ingtheentire minimum wagemoveme indevelop t con forfrequen auhasstood sponsor ;and theBure lving field surveys vo lems . msonspeci alminimu wageprob oritie esofState auth ferenc “Manyrequests forassistance have comefromStates desiring toorganize minimumwagemachinery under newlegislation ,fromthose with established organization ,butfacing a newvariety ofproblems ,andfromthose desiring tosetinmotion measures toenable themtofixbottom levels towages .' (1936:138) “Themajoractivities oftheBureau havebeenits continued service inthe field ofminimum wages forwomenandits assistance intheadministration bytheDepartment ofthe Public Contracts Act ,which provides for theregula tion ofhours andwages inemployment oncertain Government contracts . “The first ofthese wasgreatly increased bytherenewed activity invarious States following thedecision oftheUnited States Supreme Court upholding theconstitutionality oftheminimum -wagelawoftheState ofWashing ton . . “Thisaroused public interest hasadded greatly tothedemands onthe Field surveys toprovide data forthe Women'sBureauforassistance . ... purpose oflegislation havebeenmade. ... Women'sorganizations have beenassisted intheir joint efforts tosecure legislation ; frequent consulta tion hasbeengiven newadministrators ofminimum -wagedivisions asto themostsuccessful investigatory andadministrative procedures ; andthe Bureau hasserved ingeneral asa clearing houseofexperience ofState of ficials on methods ofminimum wageadministration andasa consultant service forsuch officials andother interested groups . 93 “Much oftheBureau's timeandenergy overa period ofseveral months wasgiven toparticipation intheDepartment's administration ofthePublic Contracts Act. (1937:129) Improvements Resulting From NRA Codes "Almost immediately after organization ofthe N.R.A. ,the Women's Bureau began systematic study ...ofevery proposed code ....No stone hasbeen left unturned intheeffort tohave codes contain adequate labor provisions , especially affecting women.... “TheBureau haspointed out the undesirability ofa minimum wage dif a ferential bysexorbylocality orsize ofcommunity ;ofstill lower wages to learners handicapped workers averaging andthe ,lowwages for office ,the of hours , andcertain exemptions fromhourandwageprovisions . Ithasad vocated the shortening ofhours ofwork ;the prohibition ofovertime except forextreme emergencies ; time -and -a-half payforovertime where allowed ; prohibition ofhomework ;provision toprotect workers 'health andsafety ." (1934 :99) “The industrial codes sought tofix certain minimum wages andcertain maximumhours ofwork . Theestablishment ofsuch labor standards wasof enormous benefit tomanyofthewomenunder thecodes ,even though the minimum fixed forwoman -employing industries often represented fartoo lowawagefor decent living .. (1935 :123) ion on and Natura lizat Immigrati ByExe cutiv e orde r inJune1933,theseparat e Bureaus ofImm igrat ion andNatural izatio n wereconsoli as theImmi dated grati onandNatura liza tio n Servic e. Atthesametime ,theannua l budgetofthecombinedserv ices wasredu cedby approx imate /2mill ly$11 . Thismadenecessa ion ryaradica l red uctio n infor ce. Nevert heles s,thecombinedserv icescontin uedto consti tut ethelarges tbur eaugroup inthe Departm entofLabor. Since the enactment oftheimmigration laws oftheearly 1920's ,immigra quantities tion haddropped tonegligible . “Asa result ,theproblem ofcaring fortheunemployed hasnotbeenag gravated byaninflux ofaliens tocompete inthe labor market with those born inthis country orpreviously admitted . Infact , beginning with1931the number ofaliens leaving theUnited States hasineachyear exceeded the number arriving .... After flowing constantly inonedirection formore than 300years ,thetide ofmigration hasturned . Quantitatively andfor the present ,atleast ,wehave noimmigration problem . approved by the restriction isgenerally “Thepolicy ofimmigration that theUnited recognized States . ... Itisgenerally people oftheUnited ofimmigrants ofthousands hundreds annually absorb States cannolonger re thepresent dislocations . Certainly serious economic andsocial without and areunemployed ofworkers millions while cannot berelaxed strictions :48) expense .” (1934 maintained atpublic 94 International Labor Affairs Thedecision ofCongress after WorldWar I toavoid direct andactive participation intheworkoftheInternational LaborOrganization accounts fortheabsence ofanyreference tointernational labor affairs activities inthe annual reports oftheSecretaries ofLaborfrom1920to1934 , whenthe United States , undercongressional authorization , formally accepted an in vitation tojoin theILO. Inthesummer of1933andthespring of1934 ,a small delegation ofob servers hadbeensent bytheLabor Department totake part unofficially in theconferences ofthat organization . “The growing thought that theco operation oftheUnited States wouldbeofgreat assistance bothinthe development oflabor standards inthis country andinharmonizing the labor practices ofother countries withours ,forthemutual benefit ofall , became a conviction tothose who tookpart inthese important confer ences. (1934:7–8) WhentheUnited States joined theILO,theDepartment ofLabor was designated astheliaison agency . First official participation wasatthe Conference held inJune 1935.Commenting onthis ,theSecretary wrote : "...Itisexpected that theaffiliation oftheUnited States will further legislation forimproved labor standards inthis country by requiring the competent legislative authorities here topass uponthequestion ofratifying international standards ,andthereby inducing other nations toabandon such competitive advantages as may accrue fromless advanced laborcondi tions .” (1935 :3-4 ) Public Contracts InJune1936 ,Congress passed theWalsh -Healey Public Contracts Act . purposes Theprimary oftheact were : "One,tocorrect theunfortunate situation inwhich theFederal Govern mentfound itself ,ontheonehandtrying toencourage higher labor stand ards forAmerican industry ,andontheother hand ,because ofthestatutes under which itmadeits purchases ,forced toaward contracts tothelowest responsible bidder regardless ofhislabor policies ,which amounted tothe subsidization oftheworst practices inindustry by theGovernment ; and theother ,thesetting up ofa practicable standard forprivate industry so that theFederal Government ,byits example inpatronizing only employers whoweremaintaining fair labor conditions ,could encourage theadoption a s." si voluntary ba generally of thosestandards by industry on a (1937:34) Administration oftheact wasplaced ina newdivision intheDepartment ofLabor byorder oftheSecretary . Theact applied topublic contracts in excess of$10,000 forsupplies forGovernment use . Itprovided forthe payment oftime anda half forworkinexcess of8 hours a dayor40hours a week . Itprohibited homework , convict labor , and“oppressive ” child labor on thecontracts . In addition , itauthorized thedetermination of 95 edGovern mentwork,and requir ling prevai minimum wagesfortheGovern s. g d ition ful con stomai ntain safe , health workin mentsupplier ra inist t,theAdm ience ac r ofexper withthis ssing e first yea Indiscu th toroftheactwrote: Itwould seem . that themainreason forthewidespread com pliance withthestatute hasbeenthat thelabor standards imposed are reasonable inthelight ofmodern industrial conditions ,andarerecognized bythegreat bulk ofemployers notasa repressive hardship butrather asan actual protection against theravaging effects ofunfair competition from sweatshop employers .” (1937 :35) Consumer Interests Although notreferred tointheannual reports oftheSecretary ,there was atthis timeintheDepartment ofLabora unit knownastheConsumers ' Division . The Division had beencreated within theNational Recovery Administration inJuly1935.ItsDirector wasadviser tothePresident on consumers 'problems andreported tohimdirectly . However ,byExecutive order ofDecember 21,1935 ,theDivision wasmadeapart oftheDepartment ofLabor ,remaining there until transferred totheDepartment ofAgriculture inAugust 1938 . Thefunctions oftheDivision wereto“stimulate interest intheproblem of theconsumer ;toreview public policy insofar asitrelates totheconsumer ; tosuggest waysandmeans topromote larger andmoreeconomical produc tion ofuseful goods ; andtofacilitate themaintenance andbetterment of American standards of living ." 2 d Summary of This Perio Secretary ofLabor Perkins , inherannual report of1939 ,summarized briefly the accomplishments ofthe 1933–38 period ,specifically with regard totheproblem ofunemployment . Inthis listing ,oneofherreferences isto theWageandHourAct ,which istreated early inthenext chapter . She wrote : besome in1933that there recommendation early “First . An immediate and toassist theStates appropriations quick relief inthewayofFederal who werethen needs ofthepeople relief localities inmeeting theprimary of fora longtimeintheemergency unemployed andhadbeenunemployed . general depression “Second . A program ofstraight public works . Therecommendation for itandthejustification forit ,andthebasic figures andinformation cameout oftheLabor Department . Theconception offinding special workforthose 2 Sources : U.S.Government Organization Manual , appendix A, “Consumers ' Agen cies ”; andWalter H.Hamilton ,“Protecting theInterests oftheConsumer ,”U.S. Labor Department's Labor Information Bulletin ,January 1936 ,pp.1-3 . 96 sprang froma works also onstraight public notbeabsorbed whocould intheDepartment officers ,andothers ,government oflabor leaders meeting . ofLabor early in1933 “Third . TheWagner -Peyser Act ,which established well -equipped free public employment offices ,also camefromrecommendations ofthis Depart mentasamethod oftaking care ofthe effective placement ofpersons looking forworkwhere there wasworktobehad,soreducing theloss andwaste ofpoorplacement ofthejobhunting . “Fourth . Thelabor sections oftheN.I.R.A. werecontributed by this Department advisors employment opportunities andits inan effort tooffer protection andlabor industry inprivate . "Fifth . ThePublic Contracts Act ,whichrequired notover40hours and a fair minimum payonGovernment contracts inmanufacturing . This act sprang outoftherecommendations oftheDepartment ,advised bya confer ence committee ofState labor department officials andlabor leaders . “Sixth . TheWageandHourAct,which wasthefirst effort toestablish on a Federal basis a floor towages anda ceiling tohours . This grewdirectly outoftherecommendations ofthis Department ,advised again bya confer ence ofState labor department officials andlabor representatives following theabandonmentof N.I.R.A.3 “Seventh . Unemployment compensation ,which isanadjustment forthe loss ofwages duetothe accident ofunemployment . Again this hadits origin inthe studies andrecommendations ofthe Labor Department andits advisory committees . "Eighth . Contributory old -ageinsurance forthefuture andFederal as sistance providing persons totheStates for old -ageassistance toaged needy . Theseprogr ethelabor leth eelderly toleav amswer e adopted toenab partly adofthe ir enttopers onsatth e peaklo t andsooffer e employm marke mor lities ponsibi res . tion under16years “Ninth . Limita ontheemploym entofyoungpersons ofageinthe N.I.R. inthePublic Contract A.Actandlater s Actand Wage provis andHourAct. These ions were aimed part ature lyatkeep ingtheimm workers outofthe labo morejobs rmar ketandsooff ering tothose inmidd le life . forthedevelop information andrecommendations . Thebasic " Tenth employment for educational asa formofconstructive mentoftheC.C.C. .” ofLabor Department inception inthe ,hadits . This ,too young persons (1939 :2–3) Andinher1938 report Secretary Perkins thus summarized achievements in theareaoflaborstandards : 66 thepicture oflabor andsocial legislation intheUnited States has changed considerably governing . Standards hours ,wages ,child -labor terms 8 withthenextchapt *See discussio n ofthisdevelopm entbeginning er. 97 ofemployment ,andphysical working conditions have been set inmanynew legislation fields andmaterially raised inothers byState labor ;compensation diseases foraccidents andindustrial hasbeenextended andcompensation for other types ofincome loss such asunemployment andoldagehave beenin troduced application andgiven wide .” (1938 :3) > 98 BUILDING S DEMOCRACY' ARSENAL 1938. L 1941 i BUILDING DEMOCRACY'S ARSENAL 1938–41 During the early thirties theNation hadexperienced drought ,dust storms , unemployment andsevere . "I seeonethird ofa nation ill -housed , ill -clad , and ill -nourished ," said President Roosevelt . Inthefield oflabor -management relations ,newandmomentous develop ments occurred . JohnL.Lewis ,president oftheUnited MineWorkers ,led a revolt against theAmerican Federation ofLaborinhisdetermination to organize industrial workers under section 7(a) oftheNational Recovery Act . By1937 the Congress ofIndustrial Organizations formed byLewis andseven other union presidents hadenlisted 3,718,000 members andwasmaking most oftheNation's labor news . TheAFL,too ,began tomoveoutinan aggres organizing campaign sive . In1937the“sit -downstrike ”wasa shortlived phenomenon oftheauto mobile industry . On Memorial Day, 1937 ,Chicago police charged CIO pickets atthe Republic Steel plant near the Windy City ,and10workers were killed . Inspite ofthese occurrences ,theNation wasmovingsteadily downthe road torecovery . Expressing the widely accepted belief that theNation wasbythat time fairly well outofthedepression ,Secretary ofLabor Perkins inherreport stated these asherobjectives : Highwages onanational basis ,continuity of income , stability ofemployment , reasonable profits , opportunity forin vestment ofsavings inexpanded industries andinnewindustries , andthe "conservation andadequate utilization ofnatural resources ,including human life andhappiness .” (1938 :6-7) Hermainconcern atthat time wastherecent cleavage intheranks of organized labor between theAmerican Federation ofLabor andthenewly created Congress ofIndustrial Organizations . Herchief source ofsatisfaction wastheenactment ofa Federal wage-hourlaw. Warpreparations inEurope hadnotyet directly involved the United States , butthecountry wasbusily engaged intheproduction ofgoods foruse abroad. Two years later ,inJuly 1940 ,theNation wasengaged ina tremendous program ofnational defense , inpreparation against possible attack . The 101 Secretary's problem hadchanged , butsheexamined itstill through the perspective ofthepurposes defined intheorganic act oftheDepartment : ... Now weare embarking onagreat program inthe interest ofnational defense . This program ,uponwhich the American people aredetermined for thesafety ofAmerica ,finds theDepartment ofLabor better equipped and 66 better informed thanever before tomeettheneedsofwageearners ,their troubles ,andtheir problems . “Insucha situation theDepartment mustbeadministered infairness between worker andemployer ,between employer andemployee ,andbetween each andthepublic asa whole ifitistoaccomplish its purpose asdefined bytheCongress . Itisrecognized that only bydoing soinharmony with thewelfare ofall workers andwith legitimate business canthebest interests ofthecountry be served ." (1940 ::1) > Conciliation , Unions , and Industrial Relations Inhercomments on theworkoftheConciliation Service , theSecretary wasquick tonote that industrial relations wereshowing improvement over theyears .. Causing hermost concern during this period wastheconflict between union andunion — the internecine conflict intheranks oforganized labor that hadledtotheseparate organization oftheCIO. Thetwo aspects ofthelabor -relations situation arediscussed hereseparately . putona moreand relations theSecretary ,"arebeing ,"wrote "Industrial today more inexistence areprobably basis . There andpractical morestable thanatanytime workers andtheir between employers contracts voluntary have been contracts 75percent ofthese . About history ofourcountry inthe stoppage ofwork .... arrived atwithout “Eighty -five percent ofall theagreements negotiated bythis Department carry a clause toprovide fortheadjustment ofanydispute during life of contract bysomeagreed method without stoppage ofwork . Forty -five per cent ofthemprovide forarbitration through theDepartment ofLabor . TheConciliation Service oftheDepartment iscalled uponbyemployers as well asworkers andtheprocedure issoinformal astomakeithelpful ina widevariety ofproblems . (1938:5) “Labor nowhasacertain security against unfair interference andcoercion byemployers andhasinturn a desire todevelop responsibility forinformed participation with employers andthe country generally toachieve andstabilize anexpanding national prosperity . Laborunions canbuild up self -disci plined ,self -educated organizations for this purpose . Itisa part ofa labor union's jobtodevelop a broad understanding onthepart ofall workers of theproblems andpattern oftheindustry . (1938:7) Partly because oftheworkoftheConciliation Service ,labor -management 79 . relations intheUnitedStates wereatthis timeina farmoreadvanced and sophisticated stage than they hadbeen 20years earlier . AstheDirector of commented: theService “Years agoa labor dispute wasmainly a local matter . Duetotheclose 102 Department ofLaborBuilding in1938,3 years after its opening . The smallmagnoliatrees nexttothebuilding arenow overtwo stories high. relationship between labor andindustry andinpart totherecent increase ofFederal andState regulatory statutes ,we arefinding theplant ina small townnolonger isolated andoperating ona purely local basis . Today labor andmanagement arefamiliar with labor conditions inother plants andin other areas . OurCommissioners ,therefore ,properly tohandle a situation , whether ina small townorina larger industrial center ,find that facts are essential experience . Inother words ,inaddition todrawing uponhis inthe field ofindustrial relations ,a Commissioner ofConciliation mustbefully cognizant ofcompetitive conditions inthe industry . Inorder totake full ad vantage ofthis changing trend weareendeavoring ... tosupply eachCom missioner withfactual data andmaterial that will behelpful tohim. conditions ,wages ,and theworking that "Inreviewing ourworkwefind in written agree embodied aremoreandmorebeing ofemployees hours de moreclearly areincreasingly agreements . Thedetails ofthese ments ofbuta consisted agreement a typical collective formerly fined . Whereas the precisely clauses defining some20major ,today itcontains fewsections owes each andtheobligations andmanagement between labor relationship theother ." (1938: 11) Otherinsti tutions werealso con tribu improve ting tothis ment : “ The impro vemen t in indust rialrel ations isduetotheincreas ingski ll 103 andintelligence with which both employers andlabor groups are conducting their negotiations andapproaches tooneanother . Theexistence throughout thecountry ofbranches oftheNational Labor Relations Board hascontrib uted inmanyinstances toa stabilization ofthese situations ,andtheworkof mediation carried onnotonly bytheFederal Government butbyan increas ingnumber ofstate officials andcity officials with understanding ofthe labor problem andwith patience iscontributing also . "Inspite ofmuchexasperation ,which hassometimes beenvigorously ex pressed ,itconstantly becomes clearer that themenandwomen ,both onthe labor side andontheemployer side ,arebecoming self -disciplined andself educated withregard totheproblem oforderly industrial relations ...." (1939 :7) Theemphasis incollective bargaining wasalso changing : “ [Theevidence draws ] attention tooneofthemostpromising trends of thepast fewyears — atrend which theService hasstriven unremittingly to encourage . This isthe marked shift fromthe former emphasis onmediation asa remedy tothenew,growing ,andmorepractical concept ofpreventive conciliation asa positive instrument ofindustrial peace .” (1940 :18) Disagreement intheranks oflabor ona major question oforganization distressed Secretary Perkins andwassomething which she hoped would soon beresolved . Shenoted inherreport : yearhave disputes inthepast andtroublesome The mostdifficult inintroducing unions ofL.andC.I.O. both A.F. that involved beenthose theemployer of this sort In cases a dispute . differences into standing their -will ofthepublic ,andthegood position isplaced ina mostunjustifiable toward . labor isimpaired “Ifthetwogroups cannot presently makea general peace between them they will atleast havetomakea truce withregard toprecipitating and aggravating disputes amongthemselves whensound relations toanemployer is[sic ] imperiled . There isoverwhelming evidence that thevast majority ofunion membersofbothfactions wantpeace anddesire tocooperate with Whenthis behavior established inthefield issowell ,peace between theofficers andatthetopcannot befarbehind .” (1938 :5) eachother . Two years later ,theproblem seemed no nearer resolution , though the Secretary wasstill hopeful : tounity ora movement no closer labor yearsawthedivided “ Thefiscal and conversations atpeace ,aimed settlement . Informal real ofdifferences by an invita ,werefollowed ofLaborin1938 initiated by theSecretary negotiating forbothgroups tonamea joint tion ...fromthePresident positive wereheld[butwithout A numberofmeetings . committee result ]. “However ,this year hasbeen marked byanincreased inclination onthe part groups throughout thecountry oftheunions inboth tocooperate onnon controversial jurisdictional matters andtoreduce disputes amongthem . This 1 04 tendency will become moreandmoremarked asthe needs ofthe defense pro gram increase .” (1940 :4) In1941 ,ata major turning point inthe history oftheUnited States ,the Secretary ofLabor reviewed thestatus oftheAmerican organized labor movement : “A great change hastaken place inthestatus ofAmerican labor inthe recent years . Itisnowanestablished practice fortheGovernment tocon sult with trade unions andindustrial management about affecting matters their interests inmuchthesamewaythat itconsults withfarmgroups and professional groups . Theadvice oflabor issought notonly onquestions of wages andworking conditions buton thebroad social problems ofour national life . Infact trade unionism istoday anAmerican institution . .. “[But] American trade unionism , inbecoming an established American institution hasimplicitly accepted certain definite social responsibilities , andits policies inthefuture mustbepredicated notonly uponthewelfare ofits own members , butalso onthewelfare ofall thepeople oftheUnited States . “Probably theNational LaborRelations Actwhichfrees labor fromthe fears ofdiscrimination inemployment because ofmembership ina trade union hasdonemorethananyother onething toestablish trade unionism firmly asanAmerican institution . Thenewstatus isbased onlegal pro tection bystatute struggle . Labor's fortheright toorganize ,forthepurpose ofcollective bargaining ,ispractically over ....This statutory protection gives totrade unionism anenormous prestige andagreat responsibility . “Itplaces trade unions andthelabor movement also inthesameexposed position asanyofthe other great American private associations charged with public responsibilities ;responsibilities forthewelfare andimprovement of circumstances ofthemembers oftheunion certainly ; responsibilities also for thewelfare andimprovement ofthecircumstances ofall working people ; responsibilities for cooperation inthe development andprosperity ofmodern industry ,responsibilities tothe whole people ofthe United States for sound , intelligent ,economic ,social ,political ,andmoral purposes ,andfor the selec tion ofleaders andofficers who aretrusted ,notonlyby their members but byemployers ,byGovernment ,andbypeople ofthe United States . Italso places uponlabor responsibilities toavoid excessive action andtoregard therights ofothers ,whether inagreement ornot ,considerately andpunc tiliously . “The private affairs andactivities andservices ,thepublic attitudes andthe private methods oftrade unions aretoday matters ofpublic interest and significance . Collective bargaining procedures , strikes , trade -unionfunc tions ,internal trade -union affairs andpolitics , become thesubject ofdis cussion inthe press ,onthe radio ,andinthe open forum . “Trade union s wi llnow bekeptconstan tlyunderwhatwe may termsoci al icanpublic The Amer inevi demand tably s ofthe seAmeric an ins titutio nscert ainstanda rds , some sur veilla nceasoth erAmeric an inst itutio nsare. 6 66947 -63 8 105 t,perhaps , thepublicex rstandforemos . Fi ofthemveryoldand simple arypro ostorder andexempl ions rcise theutm icein stitut toexe cts its serv pe ople's money.'... ling r pe resinhand othe cedu cted ations llbecondu ac ... wi icexpects that all labororganiz “Thepubl crules blydemo crati . ... ngtoreasona cordi “ Thepublic expects theofficers oftrade unions tobechosen bythemem bership inthe fairest andmost open way. “ There isanother ancient anddeep -rooted American belief . Itisthebelief inthesanctity ofcontracts . . “Thepublic sometimes charges labor with excessive practices . These are , Iknow,sometimes buttheexcess ofzeal ,buttrade unions with their stability protected bylawdonotneed touseexcessive practices ,which aresometimes thought a trend toward thepractices ofmonopoly . Thepractice ofclosed memberships andhigh dues ,combined with theclosed shop , [has ] beenef fective insecuring very highwages forparticular groups ,butthepublic asks today that someofthese practices berestudied by [the ] trade -union move . mentwitha viewtothepublic welfare andtotherights andliberties ofall thecitizens of theUnitedStates . “Excessive methods ofpicketing anddemonstration ,theraiding by one union crowdofthemembership ofanother ,stoppages ofworkduetojuris dictional disputes ,boycotting ofgoods produced bythelabor ofother unions andthesecondary boycott areall practices deemed bythepublic tobeexces (1941:8-10) sive andnotinthepublic interest . Wages and Hours Especially significant totheDepartment of Laborin 1938wasthe passage oftheFair Labor Standards Act ,which stipulated minimum wages andmaximumhours forworkongoods ininterstate commerce orthepro duction ofgoods therefor . Theactwasadministered bytheSecretary of Labor through anAdministrator whowasincharge oftheWageandHour Division . Child labor provisions oftheactwereadministered andenforced bytheChildren's Bureau . (1940 :221 ,fn.) , " isbasedon Act," wrotetheAdministrator " The FairLaborStandards 2 ofthe inanypart standards oflowliving that theexistence therecognition throughout the lowstandards ofequally Nation toforce thespread tends ,that lowliving ,inaddition out totheactpoints Nation . Thepreamble , disputes ,lead tolabor method ofcompetition anunfair constitute standards ] act , [this . Through marketing ofgoods withtheorderly andinterfere conditions .. these andtoeliminate tocorrect seeks Congress orinthepro engaged incommerce onlytoemployees “ Theactapplies activ . toreplace State . Itwasnotintended duction ofgoodsforcommerce acts forsupplementary opentheopportunity inthis field , butleaves ities ) :197 activities .” (1939 inpurely intrastate toworkers engaged applying Itwasestima over12mill tedthat ionwor kerswereemploy ed inoccupa tion sandcommerci alestabli shmen redby theact tscove . 106 Theobjectives oftheact ,itwasprovided ,were tobeachieved gradually : "...Since it wasreasonable tosuppose that certain traditionally low wageindustries would require a period ofyears inwhich toadjust their operations r equirements provided tothe40-cents and40hours ,itwas that for thefirst year after the effective date oftheact the minimum wageshould be 25 cents an hourand themaximum workweek44 hours . Forthenext6 years theminimum wagewastobe30cents anhour . Forthesecond year themaximumworkweek wasset at42 hours , andforthethird year and thereafter 40 hours. . (1940:221) dtime a befo reth e allotte , tries erwageminim Forindus able topayhigh iate stry tobe ance indu wageorders vided ofappropr theactpro fortheissu ionofthere veindus endat specti ryontherecomm edbytheSecreta publish ees. trycommitt To assist employers inanunderstanding oftheact ,theAdministrator published interpretations , together withthecaution , however , “that only the courts canmakebinding interpretations ofthe statute ,andthat employers areperfectly free toreject the Administrator's interpretations ,ifthey choose , andincur suchrisks asmay beinvolved should thecourts later hold the Administrator's interpretations tohavebeencorrect .” (1940 :224) Thepurpose inissuing these interpretations wasnottoimpose additional burdens onemployers ,buttomakeavailable information astotheappli . cability ofthelawandthus protect employers frompenalties that might result fromunwitting violations . Indeed ,oneoftheDivision's major functions was educational . Onlywhere explanation andpersuasion failed ,didtheDivi sion engage inlitigation . TheDivision wasconcerned far morewith obtain ingmaximum compliance than with penalizing violations after they occurred . Millions ofcopies ofpamphlets explaining thelawweredistributed to employers ,unions ,andemployees ;andnewspaper releases andposters were employed extensively . Whereviolations didoccur ,andwerenotwillful or > flagrant , theoffending employer wasrequired topayrestitution ,without further prosecution forpunishment . And a discriminating system of in vestigation andinspection wasestablished . (1940 :224-225 ) “Ithasbeeninteresting tonote that employers ,andespecially thetrade associations of manufacturers , havebeenmuch moreinsistent thanthe employees uponroutine inspections . Suchactivity gives thecomplying employer theonlyassurances itispossible tooffer that hiscompliance will notbepenalized through underselling bycompetitors whose lower prices aremadepossible by wagerates below theminimumrequired by law .” (1941 :146) On thequestion ofwhether thewage -hourlawshould berelaxed during thedefense period ,Secretary Perkins said the40-hour limitation wasflexible could wages inthesense that(1) overtime beworked ,though atpremium , and(2) itapplied totheindividual andnottotheestablishment ,which could operate continuously . Shepointed out ,however ,that experience during the First WorldWar hadshownthat production decreased with longhours . Thussheargued forcontinuance oftheact . 107 Public Contracts Inview oftheincrease inboth number andsize ofsupply contracts let by theGovernment asthedefense program developed ,itisofinterest tonote the operations oftheDivision ofPublic Contracts incomingtoits decisions : "Whenevidence astothe minimum wages prevailing inanindustry has been assembled ,a hearing inthematter ofprevailing wages inthesubject industry isheld before thePublic Contracts Board . Notices ofhearings are sent toall knownmembers oftheindustry ,totrade publications andlabor unions inthefield , toState officials , andtoother interested parties . The public hearing affords toallinterested parties full opportunity tointroduce anypertinent evidence andtocontradict orexplain thebasic wagedata presented atthehearing . TheBoardmakesfindings offact ontheevidence intherecord astothewagestructure intheindustry ,andmakesrecom mendations astotheminimumwageprevailing intheindustry . rec withthepublic , together findings andrecommendations "The Board's minimum -wage makes thefinal reviewed before theSecretary ,arefully ord subject inthe industry byall contractors must bepaid decision ,which then ." (1938:46) totheact Asthe Administrator pointed out ,the policy ofconstant consultation with labor andmanagement inthesetting ofminimum wagestandards “imparts inameasure the safeguards ofcollective bargaining notspecifically provided forinthestatute byaffording anopportunity forconflicting views tobe ex pressed andreconciled before action hasbeentaken . ...Government must retain thefinal decision ,ofcourse ,butthat decision ismoreapttobesound ifitdoes notrest onwhat maytheoretically seembest butonwhatthose who experience will beaffected bythedecision feel sure ,fromtheir andclose con nection with theproblem ,will work .” (1938:47-48) Itwasinevitable that thejurisdictions ofthePublic Contracts Division andtheWage-HourDivision should overlap . To resolve this theDivisions consulted with eachother before giving "consideration torequiring minimum wages inanindustry which hasnotbeen considered before .” (1939 :37) "... There isalmost daily checking between representatives ofthe twodivi sions tosee that there isnoduplication andthat twosets ofinspectors from thesameDepartment donotvisit thesameestablishment . Inthis wayboth divisions ...candivide the workupbetween themandinsure themaximum benefit fromtheworkofeach .” (1940 :36) Whena committee appointed by theAttorney General suggested ,even commending procedure perhaps while theDivision forthefairness ofits ,that itwasbeing overcautious andoverscrupulous , theAdministrator decided nevertheless procedure tomaintain hisadministrative ,suchas,forexample keeping separate thefunctions oftrial examiner andtrial attorney . He commented: “Thewholefiel trati dof adminis velawisanimp ortan t oneand arapid ly growin g one,andthepublic atlarge will havethereq concep uisite t inth e usefuln essand fairnes nistra s ofadmi tive agenci esifthe y donotoff endpres 1 08 ent conceptions ofthe legal proprieties even though they mayberegarded by themore advanced thinkers of todayas formalities rather thansub stance. . (1940:39) : process administrative strongly favored the Henevertheless “...Oneofthe most effective arguments for the use ofthe administrative technique asdistinguished fromthecourt technique intheadjudication of matters isthegreater speed andefficiency andabsence oftechnicalities which have caused thecourt tobesobitterly assailed bylaymen .” (1940 :39) Labor Standards Thenewly established Division ofLaborStandards wasimmediately plunged into aprofusion ofproblems . initiated Its major function then wastoservice andtoworkonprograms bytheSecretary's National Conference onLaborLegislation . Heldoncea year ,this conference ,representative ofState labor departments ,labor unions , andother interested groups ,examined anddiscussed thedevelopment of labor standards governing such matters ashours ,wages ,child labor ,terms of employment , andphysical working conditions . Itsought particularly to improve labor legislation intheStates ,andwherever possible tobring about uniformity ,within thelimits oftheparticular interests ofeach State ,along thelines ofthestandards sodeveloped . Summarizing theworkofthese conferences ,theSecretary wrote : “Within thelast 6 years 14States enacted minimum -wagelaws ;8 States enacted the16-yearbasic minimumageforemployment ; 8 States andthe District ofColumbia adopted the8-hourdayforwomen;and7 States the48 hourweekorbetter ; 2 States havepassed workmen's compensation laws ; 10States adopted occupational disease compensation ;8 States have moved toward theabolition ofindustrial homework;5 States havebylawprovided themachinery forpromoting thetraining ofapprentices under thegeneral standards setby theFederal Committee on Apprentice Training . Insix States thelabor commissioners havebeengiven theauthority toaccept as signment towageclaims inorder toassist theworkers incollecting wages fromdefaulting employers ; nineStates havereorganized andmaterially strengthened their agencies foradministering these andother types oflaws , andnowhavethevery great advantage ofFederal minimum standards on wages ,hours ,andchild labor uponwhich canbebuilt morefirmly theState regulatory structure . “ Itwouldbe toomuch toclaimfortheseconferences allofthecredit forall ofthis progress ,butasa matter offact all ofthese newlawswerediscussed inembryonic form inthese conferences ,andtheagreement oftheconference representatives uponthe needs for such legislation aswell asuponthestand required ardsandformsitshould take hasfurnished much oftheimpetus forenactment . “The general acceptability ofthe labor legislation adopted inrecent years isdueina great measure tothefact that inthese conferences theinitial pro 10 9 posals were well thought out ,realistically discussed ,both astogeneral prin ciple andthesalient features ofapplication . Moreover ,through its standing committees ,which havebeen set upfromtime totime ,there hasbeenrendered important technical service bycharting specific patterns for various types of legislation , allthemorevaluable because thecommittee membership em braced practical andexperienced persons whohave madespecial studies of minimum wageandhourlegislation , wagepayment laws , industrial home work ,andother measures .” (1938 :3–4) A merelisting ofthevaried interests oftheDivision could notconvey the extent ofits coverage . Theprincipal items ,therefore ,areoutlined inmore detail below. Indust rialHealthand Safety of toward theprevention workisdirected oftheDivision's “Thisphase activ related , twoclosely disease accidents andofoccupational industrial committees , industrial aidslegislative theDivision ities . In bothfields associations , groups , employer , labor boards laborcommissioners , State for providing laws andcodes upbasic indrawing agencies andFederal fortheenforcement ofinspectors ,assists inthetraining safety andhealth of anddevelopment intheplanning , aids standards ofsafety andhealth widely safety field inthegeneral ,andmakesliterature conferences safety ) available :55-56 .” (1939 inspectors , and programforsafety provided a training The Division variousStatesin the devel maintaineda manual fortheiruse. Itassisted studies inoccupational field codes , andconducted safety opment oftheir pamphlets interested groups ,itprepared numerous diseases with . Working of andtheprevention ofsafety inthepromotion aids material andother totheInterna served assecretary oftheDivision . TheDirector accidents AccidentBoards and Commissions of Industrial tionalAssociation andsecretarial theadministrative also performed (IAIABC ). TheDivision body Safety Council , an official Interdepartmental workoftheFederal pertaining tothesafety inmatters order toadvise established byExecutive operated as ,theDivision . Ingeneral employees andhealth ofgovernment . health andsafety onindustrial clearinghouse anational ation Labor Legisl State Thedescription in1938oftheDivision's activities relating toState labor legislation maybeused asa prototype ofevery year since that date . The digest ofState andFederal labor legislation there referred toispublished annually . 66 theDivi sionconti nuedtorece ivemany reque stsfrom State labor comm ission ers, labororgan izatio , Sta ns te Gover norsand legis lators , and others forsug gesti ,recomme ons ndatio ns,andapp raisa lsofexis ting labor laws ,bill spending inStat gislatu e le res ,and futu reprogra ms. Act ingon specific requ ,bills ests weredraf ,andthesuggest ted edlang uageforSta te 110 bills prepared bytheSecretary's advisory committees were adapted tolocal requirements ; suggestions wereoffered ,again onrequest ,astotheinade quacies ofexisting labor legislation , andastowhichmeasures mightbe given emphasis . Inconnection with these consultative andadvisory serv ices ,information wascompiled astoexisting types oflegal provisions found inthevarious States ,astotheneedforcertain kinds oflegislation ,andas decisions types tocourt onlaws ofcertain . “Allimportant labor bills introduced inState legislatures areanalyzed . The... digest andprogress ofprincipal labor bills pending inState legislatures wasissued ... andistobefollowed ... bya bulletin digest ingtheState andFederal laws enacted [during theyear ].” (1938 :61) red n al soprepa ,andhas ized ,theDivisio uest oforgan labor At thereq ies . ookonFederal laws and agenc lly dper iodica ,a handb cerevise sin StateLabor Departme nts Labor legislation isoflittle value unless effectively administered . The Division therefore concentrated on promoting theestablishment oflabor departments ,orthe equivalent ,inall States lacking them ,andonstrengthen ingthose already inexistence . l Problems cia Spe ionworkeddur emson whichtheDivis cial probl Among some ofthespe ers entofolderwork , in lating totheemploym dwer e those re isperio ingth ers ryfarm work . n, andmigrato satio n'scompen k,workme alhomewor dustri ine s s o determ : r wa t m gards olde worker as re Theproble andare employers andjudgments influence 'decisions whatfactors 1 work toward older attitudes unfavorable the widely prevalent for responsible ormere arebasedonfact attitudes whether these todetermine ersandfurther of interms tothefirm a greater expense workers . .. . Areolder prejudice , employer's con premiums ,group life premiums compensation workmen's ? decline withage plans ? Doesefficiency pension tocompany tributions ? To fields ofwork inrelated workers tonewjobs areolder How adaptable is ,based uponem one— that a psychological istheproblem whatextent ofthe aretheattitudes thanfacts ? To whatextent beliefs rather ployer a :65) ? ..." ((1938 situation afactor inthe themselves older workers TheSecretary's committee investigating this problem concluded that : . "Any policy , private or governmental , whicharbitrarily discriminates against employees orapplicants on thebasis ofa fixed ageisundesirable fromthepoint ofview ofemployees ,employers ,andthepublic asa whole , andisnotjustified bythefindings ofthis committee .” (1939 :53) Asrega rdsworkme nsati n'scompe on: “The size ofbenefits andmethods ofprocedure underthevarious State acts have become ,with thepassage oftime ,hallowed bytradition . Progress inrevising thelaws istherefore slow andaccomplished only by continual amendments tobring themmoreinto line with thefundamental purposes of 111 workmen's compensation . TheNational Conference on Labor Legislation haspromulgated definite anddetailed standards forworkmen's compensa tion legislation .” (1940 :61) programs , -insurance compensation istheoldest ofoursocial “Workmen's of introduction . Thegradual toState fromState mostwidely butitvaries that meant over a period ofyears another after inoneState thesystem which has -widepublicity never hadtheNation compensation workmen's com andunemployment -ageinsurance ofold theenactment accomplished inlegal technical rather isnecessarily compensation . Workmen's pensation thanit moretechnical procedures — sometimes andadministrative provisions (1940 :62) needstobe. > TheDivision received manyrequests toappraise thecompensation laws , help intheresolution ofconflicts ,prepare andpresent evidence regarding proposed changes inthe laws ,andinother wayshelp toimprove the operation oftheexisting lawsandtointroduce legislation toimprove them . Theproblem ofmigratory agricultural labor cameinforvigorous discus Conference sion attheNational in1940. “Unfair methods ofrecruiting labor ,”itwasreported ,“lower the migrant workers 'wages andstandards ofliving ,andthreaten thelabor standards complained already built up intheareas into which they come . Farmers stealing oflabor bycontractors androwbosses . "Housing ofmigratory workers andtheir families ispitiful . Lackof sanitary facilities andlack ofmedical carecreate a health menacebothto themigrant families andtothecommunities inwhich they maybeliving . Children gowithout schooling ,andmanyofthemworkinthefields . The Secretary ofLaborwasasked , incooperation withother Federal agencies ,toworkwiththeStates ontheassembly ofthenecessary factual information ,andtoplan definite programs ofaction .” (1940 :63) 9 TheDivision helped toconduct special conferences on this problem , collected material forpresentation tocongressional committees ,andassisted inthepreparation ofbills toregulate theoperation ofprivate employment agencies andfarmlabor contractors . Wage-Hour Division Itwasinevitable that theLaborStandards Division ,concerned withthe administration ofwageandhourlawsintheStates ,should also bedirectly concerned Department's administration enacted with the Labor ofthenewly Federal wage -hourlawof1938 . 66 '...Because ofits knowledge ofthepolicies underlying similar State legislation andoftheadministrative methods found effective intheenforce mentofState wageandhourlaws ,the[Labor Standards ] Division wasin a position toassist informally intheinitial stages ofthenewadministrative agency. 66 By arrangement withtheWageandHourDivision andtheChil dren's Bureau ,theDivision ofLabor Standards hasagreed toundertake to 112 assist State agencies tomeetthe requirements specified inthe regulation ... (1939 :55) Apprenticeship A major development intheDivision ofLabor Standards during the years here under review wasthegrowth oftheworkdonebytheFederal Com mittee onApprenticeship under theFederal Apprenticeship Act . “During[1938 ] thestaff oftheFederal Committee on Apprenticeship wastransferred fromtheYouthAdministration ,by congressional action ,to the Divisionof Labor Standards . ... “Fromthebeginning the[Committee ] hasfelt that ifits aims were tobe achieved ,its activities would have tobeimplemented bymore concentrated attention onthe problem ofapprenticeship bytheStates . .. "Inits capacity asa clearing house forapprenticeship ,theFederal com mittee hasdistributed widely certain publications prepared fortheguidance oflocal andnational trade groups intheir attempts tosolve their apprentice shipproblems ...." (1938:63-64) onal defense loomedlarger ,sotheneedforappren Asthedemandsofnati s, iesandoccup ation ipandtraini ng, espec ially enseindusrt ticesh indef became more urgent: 66 As theprogram gathered momentum , manyplants experienced difficulty inexpanding because oflack ofskilled workers andsupervisors . Inmanycases these critical shortages prevented theplant fromputting in additional adequate shifts . Butfirms which hadmaintained orinaugurated training programs sometimeagofoundtheproblems ofexpansion much simplified .” (1941 :57) : The apprenticeship staff advised on thedeferment of apprentices in essential trades ,andcooperated with theTraining -within -Industry Section , atthat timeintheOffice ofProduction Management ,insetting up training programs . Itwasfound that the existing apprenticeship committees provided an excellent established nucleus forthedevelopment ofgeneral industry programs training . Difficulties insatisfying defense demands underscored thefact ,however , that thetraining ofskilled craftsmen takes time :"We neglected the training ofskilled workers during thedepression years . We arepaying thecost of ihat failure today ;sothat we mustnowmakeupforlost time ,aswell as build forthefuture .” (1941:62) InApril 1942 the apprenticeship functions were transferred totheFederal Security Agency , andthence inSeptember 1942totheWar Manpower Administration . Child Welfare As thefiscal year1938drewtoa close , thethird anniversary ofthe passage oftheSocial Security Actwasapproaching ,andtheFair Labor Standards Actof1938hadjust beensigned . 113 66 By these twomeasures ,eachofwhich included far -reaching pro visions affecting the health andwelfare ofchildren ,the responsibilities ofthe Children's Bureau havebeenextended beyond research ,consultation service , and dissemination of information , to include thedevelopment withthe State agencies ofhealth , welfare , andlabor ofjoint undertakings forthe 2 advancement ofthewell -being ofchildren andyouth .. 0 O 2 (1938:114) Programs under theSocial Security Actrested upontheprinciple of Federal aidtotheStates . UndertheFairLaborStandards Actthey rested upona different principle — theestablishment oflegally enforceable stan dards —but“the approach tothe States inprotecting children fromindustrial exploitation and occupational hazards will be developed on a basis ilar to thatunderlying the administration of Federal aid.” not dissim (1938:114) Intheadministration ofthechild labor provisions oftheFair Labor Standards ActtheBureau concentrated ontheproblems ofage-certification , inspection , theprotection ofchildren fromhazardous occupations and in industrial homework ,andenforcement ofthelaws involved . Itcooperated closely with theWage-HourDivision andthePublic Contracts Division in theDepartment ofLabor ,andwith theSocial Security Board . Oneofits mostdifficult avenues ofexploration wasinthefield ofchild employment in agriculture . Theoutbreak ofwarinEurope gave rise toconsiderable heart -searching : “Between thetime ofthewriting ofthemainbodyofthis report andthe preparation ofrecommendations , thelong -dreaded general warinEurope hasbecome a reality . Though wehave profound faith that thechildren of America will bespared theterrors andtragedies ofarmedconflict ,we know that wemust prepare themtolive inaa world that maybehard anduncertain foryears . What ,then ,canwe dotoencourage thegrowth intheir minds andhearts ofthethoughts andthecourage offree citizens associated for the pursuit ofcommon ends andthe expression ofcommon faith inthedignity andworthofman ? .” (1939:179) TheBureau Chief suggested thefollowing : Savelives , prevent sickness , andpromote health amongmothers andchildren . Savemorehomesfor children threatened byadverse homeconditions . Extend educational oppor tunities forchildren . Insist ontheretention ofchild labor standards already achieved . Strengthen services tochildren atall levels ofgovernment . And: “We ourselves canlive with bravery andact inthe conviction that children canbeprepared fortheresponsibilities ofcitizenship ina democracy dedi cated totheprinciples offreedom andequal justice forall .” (1939 :180) Inher1940report ,theChief submitted an interesting historical sum events thatcharacterized theworkoftheBureauorhave mary of“thechief been closely associated with it ": "1912–15 :Organization ofresearch andinformational activities ; publica tion ofPrenatal CareandInfant Care ;development ofcooperation withof ficial agencies groups andlay . 114 “1916–20 : Cooperation inNational defense measures ,Children's Year campaign , andsecond White House Conference ; administration , 1917–18 , ofthefirst Federal child -labor law;research activities extended ; plan for public protection ofmaternity andinfancy with Federal aiddeveloped . “1921–29 :First Federal -aidactformaternity andinfancy adopted and administered by Children's Bureau , 1921–29 ; child -labor amendment sub mitted byCongress totheStates ;research andreporting activities extended andcurrent statistics incertain fields developed ; studies ofeffects ofunem ployment onchild welfare ,1921–22 ;beginning ofcooperation with League of Nations and International LaborOffice , and continued Pan American work. "1930-34 :Third White HouseConference ;extension ofcurrent child -wel fare statistics ; studies ofeffects ofdepression onchildren andstudies of transient boys ; conferences on child health and dependent children ; de velopment ofChild Health Recovery Program incooperation with Federal Administration Emergency Relief WorksAdministration andCivil ; coopera tion indeveloping child -labor provisions ofNational Recovery Administra codes tion .... “ 1935–40: Administration of Federalaidformaternaland childwelfare under Social Security Act ;administration ofchild -welfare provisions ofFair Labor Standards Actof1938 ; cooperation indeveloping National Health Program ; Conference ofBetter CareforMothers andBabies ; fourth White House Conference ;further development ofresearch andstatistical activities andofinternational cooperation ....” (1940 :126–127 ) Throughout this period theinfant andmaternal mortality rates forthe United States diminished . thewar, into wasprecipitated theUnited States report before Inherlast theChiefwrote: Bureau .. have been basedupon oftheChildren's “The activities the ,forin oned can errupt ofchil notbeint edorpostp premis care dren e that for thefutur weareprov e iding ,andhapp iness he ,nurture guardi alth ngtheir . Theobj ective ofourNation s ofthe ,andthestre ngth ofour ownpeople e ofmany Child Burea ren's u, whichhavebeenheldincommon withthos , hav initia e beenthree tive of Governm othe entandofprivate r agencies ofpro measure tectio n :To supp rypossibl e way thefullest fold ortineve may live andhow -beingofch ildre erthey and well n,wherev ofthehealth affec ense may beatpresent tedby def eve lythey r imme diate lyorremote eofdisloca tions uponchil dlif theimpact tocus hion ; (2) tohelp activi ties . of ection defens ;and (3)toinsu retheprot associ with eeffo rts ated andst rains ad equat , thr e dange childre tial r from overtattack ough n inareasofpoten :92) adv anceplanni ng.” (1941 W ome n Worke rs in1938,"has had an impor “The Women'sBureau,"wroteitsDirector withthevery thepublic about andinacquainting tant part inbringing 115 real progress that isapparent inshorter hours ofwork ,improved working conditions ,andtheacceptance oftheprinciple ofa minimum wage . That adequate wages ,andequal payfor equal work ,arestill far fromrealization ; thatindustrial accidents and disease remainuncontrolled ; thathousehold employment andagricultural labor arealmost wholly unregulated ;that sea sonal employment ,homework ,lack ofvocational training ,areproblems un solved ;that women's organization andparticipation inthelabor movement isextremely backward ;that there still arecitizens whoconsider that mar ried womenshould notbegainfully employed nomatter how lowthefamily income m ay be— these and other s too numeroustobecited arematter s press ingforatte ntion iftheWomen's Bureauistobewhol lysuccessf ulinit sjob ofpro motin g thewelfare ofwage-earning women. (1938:162) Theeffe ctsofthenat ional defen seprogra m mer elyintensi depende fied nce ontheWomen 'sBureau astheclear inghou seforall type s ofinfo rmatio n con cern employ ing edwomenandthei rprobl . However ems : “Underemergency conditions women's workbecomes increasingly im standards portant ,andtheir ofemployment ,inconjunction with those ofmen, mustbeguarded very closely . Ina time ofcrisis there isalways a danger that such improved conditions ofemployment ashavebeenbrought about will besetaside ; theclamor forabrogation ofall labor standards wasvery great during thewarof1914–18 . "IftheEuropean hostilities cause anupturn inAmerican business ,there will beaa considerable demandforlabor . Much ofthis demandwill befor machine tenders ,andlarge numbers ofthese will bewomen . Thusthere will arise a condition similar tothat which brought theWomen's Bureau into existence ,namely ,anurgent necessity fortheFederal Government toseethat womenarenotexploited intheemergency .. ." (1939:195) forwarpro ofwomenavailable pointed ,thenumber out AstheDirector tosupply ,butalso into theService toreplace mencalled ,notonly duction .” unlimited ,was“almost ofwarmaterial increase inproduction the necessary :204) (1940 From variousindications itisestimated thatnot farfrom 2 million womenareavailable immediately foremployment indefense industries ; probably half a million others haveonly part -time jobs ;andanother large groupareinjobsless skilled thanthose theyhavefilled inthepast .” (1940 :204) The Director therefore recommended , forimmediate investigation and research ,a study oftheavailable supply ofwomanlabor ,its capacity , loca tion ,andeffective use ;ananalysis ofoccupations suitable forwomen; co operation with groups concerned with thetraining ofwomenworkers ; and a study oftheworking conditions likely tobethemosteffective inobtaining maximumoutput fromwomenworkers . The 1940census showed that a women atthattimeconstituted a fourthoftheNation's laborforce . TheBureau wasverybusyabout this time ,consulting withandadvising industrial plants onthepossibilities andrequirements ofwomen's employ 116 ment . The Director waspleased tonote , in1941 , that “two outstanding developments ...forworking womenare ,first ,themarked employment in creases industries occupa that haveoccurred ,bothindefense andinother tions ,andsecond ,theadvances inwomen's wages that have taken place in moreandmoreoccupations .” (1941 :142–143 ) Labor Statistics Continuing with his instructive report ofprevious years ,the Commissioner ofLabor Statistics recounted theproblems andaccomplishments ofthepre waryears ,1938–41 ,inthefollowing excerpts : Ithascometobemoreandmorerecognized that ourindustrial structure isclosely integrated . Theworkers arepaid wages fortheir work ; such wages areclearly within thefield oflabor statistics . Buttheworkers spend their wages - collectively ,indeed ,they constitute thelargest part ofthe total consumer body . Asconsumers they want prices tobeaslowaspossible . Theyarethus immediately andimmensely concerned that industry asa whole should function efficiently ,totheendthat productivity should beas highaspossible andthat thebenefits ofincreased productivity should be reflected inprices . “The workers ,therefore ,arejust asconcerned asarebusinessmen , econo mists ,andthepublic generally withknowing fromdaytodayjust how well industry isfunctioning . This concern isthe basic justification forsound andcomprehensive industrial statistics . Theyarenecessary notonly asa means ofmeasuring industry's progress toward its proper goal butasessen tial totheproper guidance ofthewholeeconomic machine ...." (1938 : 91–92) “[During these years ] there hasbeenanenormous expansion intheuse oflabor statistics . Itisprobably noexaggeration tosaythat thenumber of persons ,organizations ,andagencies seriously interested intheresults ofthe Bureau's workhasincreased a hundredfold during thepast twodecades . (1939 :85) The Commis to explai sione redsev eralreasons r offe n theawakene d in terest inlab orst atistic incl employ s. These uded erandunioninter estin wage and hour condit , attrib tothe ena ions utable ctmen t of Federa l and Stat ; proble e wageandhourlaws , inten by msofecono micwelf are sified therecent depre ; a broa ssion denin ” to includ g of theconce ptof"labor e worker concer white -coll price arand pr ofessi s;andpublic n with s, in onal dustr ialaccident s,andlabo tions . r-managemen t rela And then ,withtheacce lerati onoftheNatio n'sdef ense progr am : “Astheprincipal Federal fact -finding agency inthefield oflabor ,the Bureau ofLabor Statistics wasnaturally looked toasthesource formostof thedesiredinformation in the field of labor . . (1940 :79) “The mainproblem confronting theBureau wasoneofadjusting its worktomeettheincreasing demands forspecial information incident tothe national defense program without interfering unduly with its regular 117 activities . So farasconcerns thecharacter ofthework itself there was no conflict . Indeed ,theexperience ofthepast 18months hasshown that there areveryfewtypes of laborinformation needed in connection withthe defense program which hadnotalready been atleast explored aspart ofthe regular peacetime workof theBureau . . ..Thisexperience hasalso shown that there werepractically nolines ofinquiry previously carried on . by theBureau whichhavenotbeenofdefinite service tothose associated with carrying defense program out the . “Inmanycases ,however ,thedefense needs called forfarmoredetailed data than hadpreviously beengathered andalso required a veryconsider expansion able .... 9 (1941 :71) ofa werethecompletion this period contributions during Two major -of a cost prices — essentially budgets andretail study offamily nationwide Service in ofan Occupational Outlook study — andtheestablishment living theBureau . Theobjectives ofthelatter project weretodetermine which occupations wereovercrowded ,which wereinneedoftrained workers ,andwhichwould offer thelargest number ofopportunities inthenext 5 years . Broadly conceived manpowerrequire ,itamounted toa procedure forforecasting mentsandavailability . Inaddition , itwouldsupply guidance information foryoungpeople preparing toenter thelabor force . opportunity mustalways ofoccupational ofthetrends long views “While ,thedefense Service Outlook oftheOccupational function be an essential prob andimmediate withpressing this division ... presented program on the engaged ofworkers ofworkwouldthemillions lems . Whattypes ? tocomefrom ? Wherewerethey bedoing program defense Was there program ? training needfora large On theonehandwereagencies responsible fortheprompt execu tion ofa production program that called fortremendous increases inthe production ofairplanes ,ofnaval vessels ,ofordnance items ,andthethou . sandsofsupplies purchased by thequartermaster . Theywereforced to viewtheneedforlabor6 months , 1 year, and even 2 years hence. ... On theother handweremillions ofworkers ... with experience butwithout jobs ....These people who wereseeking worksawtheproblems ofthe Nation notinterms ofnext year's needs butinterms ofthepressing prob lemoftheir needforemployment . Inthis difference ofpoint ofviewthere might havebeen ground forserious conflict with reference topublic policy training program andtoserious delay intheinauguration ofa wise for national defense . .Thebackground ofunderstanding ofthe problem wasachieved ... by virtue oftheworkoftheOccupational Outlook Service andother agencies .... (1940:81–82) Pearl Harbor lay still inwaiting over a year away ,buttheNation wasal ready actively engaged inpreparations for apossible conflict : “One ofthemostimportant tasks placed upontheBureau bythevarious 118 defense activities hasbeenthepreparation ofestimates astothelabor re quirements incident tosuch activities .... [For ] most ofthedefense activ ities itwasnecessary tosetup a new section knownastheDefense Labor Requirements unit , tocarry on special inquiries inthis rather new field .” (1941:82) Amongthenewactivities werea study oflabor requirements inconstruc tion ,covering both housing andshipbuilding ;anda study todetermine how best toallocate Government buying “insuch a manner astoabsorb unem ployment totheutmost andatthesametime toavoid overloading other areas with contracts that would create acute labor shortages anddislocations .” (1941 :83) Special studies weremadeoflabor requirements intheair craft manufacturing andmachine -tool manufacturing industries andinthe shipyards . Employment Forthefirst 2 years ofthis period theEmployment Service continued in theDepartment ofLabor . InJune1939— atthat timeoperating over1,600 regular offices inall States andTerritories — itwastransferred totheSocial Security Board . Itdidnotreappear asabureau intheDepartment ofLabor until1946. Inthe6 years fromtheenactment oftheWagner -Peyser ActinJune1933 tothetransfer oftheEmployment Service totheSocial Security Board ,the placements Service hadmadeover 26million injobs . As theSecretary com mented :“This function isoneofthemostimportant services toworkers in complex modern industrial society ." (1939 :8) TheNational Reemployment Service ,which hadbeen established in1933 primarily toregister andrefer workers topublic works andworkrelief proj ects ,wasconducted ona temporary basis asa Federal function until the several States wereable , using their own appropriations , toassume these functions . Bythe endof1938 ,the employment function hadbeen relinquished entirely to24States ,andwithin another year the reemployment program asaFederal operation hadterminated . Itshould benoted that during the 4 years ,1934 to1937 ,forwhich relevant statistics werereported ,this service ,located in almost every State , madenearly twice asmanyplacements (some1242 million ) asdidall ofthe then -existing State employment offices combined (7 million ). Atthe time ofthe passage ofthe Social Security Act ,theadministration of unemployment compensation wasplaced withtheSocial Security Board . Thetask offinding jobs forworkers andworkers forjobs ,however ,remained Employment withtheUnited States Service was adminis . Eachprogram tered provision andfinanced inits own way,without anylegal forcoordina tion . Nevertheless ,atthelocal level ,theworker who wasoutofa jobhadto provetotheofficial who determined ifhe waseligible forunemployment compensation notonly that hewasunemployed ,butalso that hewaswilling 119 l it leve nt. Inoth erwords,atthe local t oth ersuitable employme toaccep swith whom the ssary ,thatthe official e,ifnot indeednece lydesirabl washigh nt com loyme ymentandunemp tionwithemplo erhadtodeal inconnec work tedin work tso closely rela ice ,oratleas n shoul d beinthe sameoff satio pen fect . tive tion ef nistra direc astohavethat andadmi Toovercome theabsence oflegislative instructions regarding cooperation between the twoagencies involved ,theSecretary ofLabor andtheSocial Security Board entered into anagreement ofcoordination bywhich ,withre spect toall matters affecting a State employment service they would act asif a single agency . (1938 :18-19 ) And attempts weremade toadjust the problems ofdivergent fiscal administrations . dous llyinviewofthetremen ment ,especia fect ofthis arrange ef The gross am, ation thenewprogr mentcompens under ploy ants forunem eofapplic surg nt oyme eser vices ofthe empl ailabl ledrainonthe av olerab anint wastocause offices : “Officials oftheUnited States Employment Service andtherespective State employment services havebeenconcerned since theinception ofthe joint program lest theactivities oflocal employment offices besubmerged intheroutine detail ofbenefit -claim work. A tremendous massofclaims , andconsequently ofnewregistrations foremployment ,wasanticipated at thebeginning ofthebenefit -paying period ineachState . Thenumberof suchclaims and registrations was accentuated by thebusiness recession which developed late in1937 . "...Theclaims load ofmany local offices ...forced analmost com plete cessation ofregular employment -service activities andentire preoccupa tion withtheunemployment -compensation program .” (1938 :21) Itwasunder these circumstances that theEmployment Service wastrans ferred totheSocial Security Board ,andplaced under thesameadministrative direction astheunemployment compensation function . Conservation Corpsasa relief oftheCivilian Since theestablishment for the hadhadtheresponsibility Service in1933 ,theEmployment measure init . By thetimeitleft oftheyoungmen who wereemployed selection 2 million nearly hadselected ofLabor in1939 ,theService theDepartment . (1938 :37) forenrollment ion on and Natura lizat Immigrati : reported in1938 andNaturalization ofImmigration TheCommissioner ... while immigration declined sharply during thefirst 3 years ofthe present decade ,duetounfavorable economic conditions intheUnited States , theflow ofimmigration inmorerecent years hasbeenontheincrease [and] disturbed conditions justify numbers inEurope theanticipation ofgreater of immigrants andfewer emigrants intheimmediate future .” (1938 :96) ofa steady attention tothephenomenon year hecalled Inthefollowing annexation since theGerman Europe fromcentral inimmigration increase attributable imposed by tothepressure ...largely ofAustria inMarch1938 120 certain European governments todrive into exile elements oftheir popula tion uncongenial totheruling group ." (1939 :89-90 ) As a result ,"itwasincreasingly necessary tocheck withutmost care the travel documents ofaliens whosedepartures fromtheir homecountries has beenpractically inthenature ofanexpulsion . Inhandling suchcases ,this Service hasdone its duty thoroughly andconscientiously ,instrict conformity with the requirements ofthe law.” (1940 :102 ) He pointed outthat theoccupational characteristics ofimmigrants coming inatthat time showed that they wereinnowaya serious challenge incom petition with American labor andbusiness . Ina statistical analysis , healso showed that ,asa result ofdepartures , naturalizations ,anddeaths ,thenumber ofaliens inthepopulation between theyears 1925and1938haddiminished by almost 51/2 million persons , leaving an estimated total ofaliens still inthecountry atsomewhat more than 312million . (1939 :108-109 ) Just before the endoffiscal year 1940 ,the Immigration andNaturalization Service wastransferred ,asa national defense measure ,fromtheDepartment ofLabortotheDepartment ofJustice . At that timeitconstituted 60 per cent oftheDepartment's personnel ,sotheloss totheDepartment wassub stantial . Ithadserved a splendid purpose ,controlling theflow ofimmi grants ,andserving asthenucleus fortheestablishment oftheUnited States Employment Service , including itsverysignificant farmlabor branch . Despite aggravating difficulties ,ithadwon a reputation forimpartiality and understanding intheadministration oftheimmigration laws . Ithadedu cated millions ofnewarrivals andrecently adopted citizens intheprinciples ofAmerican citizenship . Manynaturalized citizens looked backwith both respect andappreciation totheImmigration andNaturalization Service as their first contact withtheU.S.Government. Itisproper topresent here a brief summary ofthe accomplishments of theNaturalization Service during its existence asanindependent unit . Prior to1906 there hadbeen noconcentrated supervision ofnaturalization proceedings noranycentralized record ofnaturalizations . Frauds were consequently prevalent , and evidence of admissions , rejections , and non application wasoften difficult tosecure . After the establishment ofaGovern mentagency toadminister theprogram ,these defects werecorrected : 66 Whether any alien hassince thattimemade a declaration of intention or not , or beennaturalized or not , and no matter in which ofthe2,527courts overthewholeUnitedStates thathavebeenor arenow doing naturalizing work ,thefact canbeconclusively andeasily proved by reference tothese records . Andover the proceedings themselves the Bureau ofNaturalization maintains continuous scrutiny . Itinvestigates thecir cumstances respective ofeachapplication andsubmits tothecourts ontheir naturalization dayssuchevidence asitisable todiscover relative tothe 2 merits thentobe decided ofcases ." (1914:75) 8 66947 —63—4 9 121 n was perh apsbest izatio seofnatural ingth e purpo itunderly Thespir lmomentinheradmin yofLabor kins ata crucia sedbySec retar Per expres rative ist career : “... topromote the assimilation orAmericanization ofsuch foreign -born people aslawfully become permanent residents ; andtodemonstrate tosuch foreign bornwho,together withtheir families , arelikely soontobecome ourfellow citizens , that ourAmerican institutions operate without fearor favor andinthespirit offair play tothestranger within ourgates aswell astothenative born . Itisoutofthis demonstrated capacity ofourinstitu tions that isborn that confidence ,that hope ,that self -discipline ,that admira tion ,which hasresulted inthepassionate love ofcountry anddevotion toits 1 wayoflife which characterizes both native andforeign -born Americans .... ” (1939 :220) Onevery helpful service performed bytheBureau through thecourts and thepublic school system wasthat ofcitizenship training . Andtheoccasion ofthefinal granting ofcitizenship papers wasinvested withappropriate ceremony: “Thepublic hasshown anincreasing interest indignifying the proceedings admitting aliens tocitizenship . Impressive ceremonies havebeenheldin manycourtrooms . Inother places celebrations ofadmission tocitizenship havebeencombined withpublic -school graduating exercises ..., (1924 :130) Inits program toeducate new citizens inthenature ofAmerican demo cratic processes ,andtoeliminate illiteracy ,the Bureau received the coopera. tion authorities ofschool ,social groups ,andemployers ,manygiving their services free toprovide thenecessary instruction . Forthey realized that the benefits ofsuchinstruction redounded tothebenefit notonlyoftheimmi grants butofthe people wholived with themasneighbors orwhoemployed them. Beginning in1926 ,judges were empowered todesignate naturalization examiners toconduct preliminary hearings ofa judicial nature ,whosefind ings andrecommendations were ,however ,tobesubmitted tothecourt for arrangement final action . This speeded uptheprocessing ofnaturalization admissions action ,andmadepossible moredignified : “Inall ofthe secasestheappli appeare cants d intheopen -cour t ses sions . Thosefav orabl y reco mmend ed wererequi redonlyto taketheoathof al legi inthe presen ance ceofthejudge,who sig nedoneorder forthe admis sio n ofthegro upappeari ngforth e final action . ... App roxima tely15 min utesessio all tha nswere twere neces toaccompl sary ishthefor malad missi onbya judge ofhundr edsofap plican recomm tsfavo rably . ended Statement oftheSecretary ofLabor before theHouse Judiciary Committee ,Febru impeachment proceedings ary8, 1939 , withreference tounsuccessful brought against herinconnection withtheexercise ofherduties . 122 . theproceedings .. .weremarked by dignity andorderliness ,in definite contrast previously to thecrowding ,pushing , anddisorder pre vailing inthecourt rooms , wherea great numberweretobe natural ized . ..." (1927:115) Itistheatmosphere ofgoodwill andequality before thelawwhichin habits these ceremonies that makesthegreatest impression inthehearts ofthose whohavecometotheUnited States seeking a newhome .? Summary of ThisPeriod of summarized theaccomplishments Secretary Perkins Inher1941report program defense : withtheNation's ofLaborinconnection theDepartment “[TheDepartment ]developed anapprentice training unit andbuilt upthe standards forassisting within industry program inthetraining sonecessary fortheupgrading ofworkers already inindustry andfortraining ofnew expanding industries comers intherapidly . “[It ] brought much -needed safety engineering services toplants through outthecountry . .. “[Standards ] intheemployment ofwomenwereadopted andapplied bytheWarDepartment intheletting oftheir defense contracts inwomen employing industries . “[Itestimated ] inadvance with great precision thenumber ofworkers classification ofeach needed ineach month fortheperformance ofthecon tracts let under theappropriations ofCongress [and ] madeitpossible to proceed intheorganization ofthedefense industrial production [and ] to supply industry bring upthe labor inevery andinevery part ofthecountry asitwas needed. ... Renewed emphasis wasplaced on theprevention ofstrikes and stoppages ofwork ,forprompt settlement ofindustrial disputes without loss ofworking time. . “TheDepartment prepared itself tocontribute technical ,economic , ex pertand information services . . . and to sustain these contributions con tinuously ,which information hasbeen largely determining intheselection ofareas ofavailable labor supply fordefense plants ,vocational training , stabilization ofwageprograms ,etc. “[Itmade] plans formeeting thenecessities ofmaternal andchild welfare services andnutrition services forchildren inthedefense areas ." (1941: 2-4) Inanove rall comme nt the Secre tarypoint edoutthat : oftheDepartment fields andservices inthese ofstaff “Theexpansion trained at staff ofa technically a nucleus illustrates thevalue ofhaving . 2A short history oftheImmigration andNaturalization Service ispresented in“Our Immigration ,” pamphlet M -85,published in1957by theU.S.Department ofJustice , 9 Immigration and Naturalization Service . 123 workon basic problems ,thematerial assembled andsomeoftheplans thought through inadvance ofpressing need . Thenwhena critical need arises orwhenthere ispublic recognition ofa long standing needthejob canbe handled effectively without loss oftime .... (1941:4) 99 Thiscritical needbecame manifest on December 7, 1941 ,Pearl Harbor Day. 124 WORLD RI WAI 5 1942– 194 1 1 i 1 WORLD WAR II 1942-45 TheDepartment's warreports arebrief andpointed — less than 200pages cover thefour mostdramatic years intheNation's history . There waslittle time for discursiveness ,andnoplace for detailed appendices . Consequently ,itisofmorethan passing interest tonote frequent references towhatshould bedone“after thewar.” Itistrue that ,asa result ofseveral reorganization steps taken shortly before Pearl Harbor ,someimportant func tions hadbeenremoved fromtheDepartment's administrative control ,and whatremained hada relationship moreindirect than direct with waropera tions . TheDepartment , nonetheless , wasdeeply involved inday -by-day activities oftheGovernment - itwascertainly no backwater —andwas busily engaged infulfilling its assigned role ofpromoting andprotecting thewelfare ofwageearners . Secretary Perkins told Congress afewweeks after the Pearl Harbor attack : “Since my last report wehavepassed through thestages ofdefense activities tothose ofall outwarproduction . Inthese ,millions ofAmerican menand womenarenow engaged . Thisindustrial army,withseveral million more people working inindustry thanatanytimeinourhistory , iscarrying successfully materials through thetask ofproviding the andweapons needed bytheArmyandNavyonthefighting fronts . Thecapacity ofAmerican industry andAmerican labor toorganize quickly andeffectively forthis aspects warproduction hasbeenoneofthemostencouraging oftheyear . Theskill ,the high efficiency ,andgreat speed ofAmerican workmen hasmade possible a large part ofthis production , andthecapacity ofAmerican em programs ployers andworkers tocooperate inthese isamatter ofcongratula tion country for thewhole .” (1942:1) . . One cannot butrecall withsatisfaction thefact thatasa Nationwe arebetter equipped than ever toprotect ourpeople onthehomefront while waging a waronmanyfronts . This hasbeenbrought about by (1) anef fective pattern ofsocial legislation andadministration emanating fromorde veloped Department fromtheworkofthis inrecent years ,beginning with systematic relief ofpoverty duetounemployment ,oldage ,anddependencydisabilities working greviously fromwhich people suffer ; (2) thedevelop national employment necessary mentofaneffective service forwarproduc tion ,equally necessary indemobilization ; (3) theestablishment ofcodesof 1 *A recapitulation ofits developments during thewaryears ,however ,waspresented byeach bureau intheDepartment's annual report for 1946 . 127 fair practice ,ofindustrial codes ,ofsanitation ,accident prevention ,andoc cupational disease protection ,all aimed atpreventing thebreakdown ofour working people ;(4) unemployment compensation ,old -ageinsurance ,limita tion ofthehours oflabor ,minimum wage ,development ofmethods ofpre venting andsettling industrial disputes andthedevelopment ofcompetent State administration oflabor andsocial laws . Allthis hasserved toput thepeople ofthis country ina position where they canfight thewarthrust uponus,not[only ] with courage andvigor ,butwith assurance that the major social needs are apermanent concern tothe whole people ofthe United States ." (1942:14) smadebyworkers: A year la ion but tri teofthecon ter shewro ion and rat ce,coope ted sk tra d,andenduran ill rdemons ,spee "Americanlabo d swer rte rie e conve ust oninpla nningworkduringtheyear. Wholeind visi g n s kin tio hod f or t swi era bor o w duc thth e op of la . New met w ro co tone p g devi ces ion ofwor kers. Labor-savin rat lcoope ucedwiththeful rod were int were worked outona large scale . Skilled labor wasdiluted with unskilled labor andskilled mentaught theunskilled howtodoa part oftheworkwhich they hadlearned through apprenticeship andyears ofexperience . “TheNation's wageearners notonly worked continuously infactory ,on assembly lines ,inshipyards ,arsenals ,mines ,andonthefarms tohelp the United Nations winthewar. Theybought 300millions ofdollars worthof warbonds permonth outofunion treasuries andbyindividual subscription . Theyalso madeadditional savings towardoff inflation andthus spare them selves andtheir country fromtheconfusion ofaneconomy inchaos . They gave2,000,000 oftheir members ofmilitary agetothearmedforces .” (1943: 1 ) Thewarimposed manyduties on theDepartment ofLabor ,whichoften worked incollaboration with other agencies having a moredirect involve mentintheproduction ofmaterial : charged by agency ofLabor ,which istheGovernment “TheDepartment ,hadmany ofthewageearners thewelfare thedutyofpromoting statute with demands of the warenterprises duties placed uponitbythe newanddifficult tobe re proved services oftheDepartment theyear . Thetechnical during and forfacts onbywaragencies andwererelied inthis emergency liable field . foradviceinthelaborand industrial per needed inmanufacturing ofpersons ofthenumber “Theestimating thewarproduc contracts ,a figure needed inplanning ofGovernment dollar of andexperience the ingenuity tobeavailable through tion program ,proved industrial accidents ofretarding . Problems ofLaborStatistics theBureau duetothetech possible ofsolution proved largely ofabsenteeism andrate . ofLaborStandards oftheDivision andservices nical knowledge “Thequestion ofhowtousewomenwith effectiveness andinsafety in heavy industries andforskilled production wasworked outbytheWomen's Bureau ,onthebasis oflong experience . "Specialized inspection toreport tovarious waragencies onproblems nec 128 essary fortheir planning andtheir check -upwasintrusted tothe regular in spection staff ofthe WageandHourDivision ,which ordinarily enforces only theFairLaborStandards Act. “Thenewemergency andinfancy care program forthewives andbabies ofmen inthearmedservices was turned overtotheChildren's Bureaufor administration . “Laborandmanagement cooperated withtheDepartment ofLaborinall this work . Both arecooperating intheDepartment's efforts toincrease the efficiency oflabor byproviding those humanadjustments which aresoneces sary tothehighest production . Continued high production levels areneces saryinorder toshorten thewar,andall who haveworked infactories and mills andshipyards knowthat inorder tohavesustained effort andsustained output ,theworking conditions havetobeconditions which arefavorable for humanactivity anddrive .” (1943:2) Towardtheendof thewar ,th e Departm entwasalr eady plann inga pro gramofrecon versio stat n. AstheSecret ary ed: “The outstanding achievements oftheDepartment during thepast fiscal yearare: “ 1.Theintensive preparatory workon postwar employment problems andpostwar workstandards . “2.Theprompt settlement of80percent ofall theindustrial disputes of theUnited States which by reducing thetime element reduced thedegree ofinterference with warandnecessary civilian production . “3.Theextension toall interstate industries ofthe40-cent minimumwage during theperiod ofgeneral highwages andbytheIndustry Committee method. , in oftemporary waragencies servicing ofa variety “4.Theeffective Board ,theWar Commission ,theWar Labor theWarManpower cluding . ofPrice Administration Board ,theOffice Production “5.Thepreparation anddocumentation fortheState Department for theSanFrancisco andDumbarton Oaksmeetings ofUnited States materials relating tolabor standards andlabor economic problems intheworld settle ments. "6.Thepreparation ofprograms forthepostwar employment ,working standards forwomen, andplans forsuitable reabsorption into peacetime industries . “The Secretary andother officers oftheDepartment haveserved on a great variety ofinterdepartmental committees , suchasEconomic Stabiliza tion Board , War Mobilization andReconversion , Retraining andReem ployment , and theWar ManpowerCommission .” (1945: 1) ion nizat Orga TheDepartment madeits mostuseful contribution towartime activities by cooperating withtheactivities ofagencies moredirectly concerned with warproduction : 129 “The necessity oftheclosest cooperation between theDepartment of Labor , theWar ManpowerCommission , theWar Production Board , the War LaborBoard , isobvious andcontinuing . Allofthese emergency agencies havefunctions that impinge closely uponactivities longcarried onbytheDepartment ofLabor . IntheArmytheService ofSupply also hasactivities whichfrequently runparallel tofunctions regularly per formed bytheDepartment . IntheNavya considerable corps oflabor ad visors andlabor inspectors also arefaced withproblems forwhich the Department ofLabor hasatleast someoftheanswers . A conscientious effort hasbeen madeforfull cooperation with all ofthese agencies . ... “... TheDepartment ofLaborexpects tobethewheel horse andtogive service tothese agencies whicharecarrying on almost on combatlines . This close cooperation hasmadenatural theadoption ofpolicies looking to theenlightened useoflabor by theArmy , Navy , andother procurement > agencies . ... (1942: 13) “During wartime ithasbeen a settled policy intheDepartment ofLabor toexpand its regular functions fortheaidandbenefit ofthetemporary war agencies andinaddition tomakeavailable its trained supervisory staff and facilities asa nucleus forrapid expansion inthose emergency branches of theGovernment . Thishasproved economical , efficient , andplausible .” (1945:25) IndustrialRelations InMarchof1941thePresident appointed a National Defense Mediation Board toact asasort ofcourt ofappeals ,accepting cases oncertification from theSecretary ofLabor that theDepartment's conciliators werenotable to effect asettlement . (1941 :22) Pearl Harbor imposed astricter reckoning a withtheestablishment ofaa national board ofstronger powers . TheMedia tion Boardwasdisbanded and inJanuary 1942thePresident established by Executive order theWar LaborBoard ,whichtookoverthepersonnel of theMediationBoard. Established procedures required that ,iftheCommissioners ofConciliation a oftheDepartment ofLabor should beunable toeffect a settlement ,the prob . lemwould becertified tothe Board bytheSecretary ofLabor ,andthe Board would makesuch final decision asit thought fit . “TheDepartment ofLabor andits Conciliation Service have been working inevencloser cooperation withtheWar LaborBoard thanwith theDefense Mediation Board . This wasmade possible partly bythe removal ofthe War building LaborBoardtotheactual oftheDepartment ofLaborandthe assignment totheWar LaborBoardasliaison officers ofa numberofexperi enced Department ofLabor conciliators andeconomists . Theworkofthis Board hasproved ofgreat value instabilizing industrial relations ,andits functions agency asacourt ofappeal ,afact -finding ,andanagency ofarbitra tion ,either formal orinformal , whenaccepted bytheparties tothecontro versy ,isinvaluable . . 130 “Itwasanticipated that manymorecases would besettled through the Conciliation Service thanbefore theWar LaborBoard , andthis hasproved tobethefact . There is ,however ,norivalry ,theWarLabor Board being regarded by theconciliators andby theDepartment , andby thegeneral public asbeing the agency towhich anappeal canbetaken whenthe process ofnegotiation between theparties with theassistance ofa conciliator ora mediator havenotbeensuccessful . TheBoardhasbeenobliged todevelop policies ascases arose andtoapply these with such regularity asitcan . The Conciliation Service merely assists theparties inreaching anagreement ,and inseeing that there isfair treatment all around .” (1942 :7) The success oftheConciliation Service throughout thewarperiod isre flected inthereport for1945 : “During this mostintensive ofall years ofthewar,theprinciples and practices ofvoluntary settlement ofworkdisputes wereupheld by theCon ciliation Service together witha continual emphasis onfree negotiations and customary methods ofcollective bargaining . Thewaywaskept openfora full return tothevoluntary methods ofdisputes settlement which constitutes characteristics oneofthechief economy oftheAmerican . 66 “Although thenumber ofstrikes andlockouts during thepast yearex ceeded that ofanyprevious year ,Commissioners ofConciliation didtheir workwithsuchdispatch andeffectiveness that time lost inthis waywas less thanin any yearforwhichinformation isavailable . Withmore maximumefficiency worktodo theService reached intheperformance of dutyandsettled moredisputes than inanyother year . Eighty percent of industrial disputes all [were ] settled inthis way. On thepreventive side , Commissioners continued touphold their record ofpreventing workstop pages in95percent ofthecases which they entered before a stoppage had occurred .” (1945: 18-19) record industrial disputes during Theremarkable ofsuccess inresolving thewar was in no smallmeasuredue to theinfluence of theleaders of organized labor , andtheSecretary recognized andacknowledged their contribution : movement fully withtheGovernment hascooperated -union “The trade ,inpromoting production forthewareffort employers inincreasing andwith workmenforhazardous work,bothathomeand ofskilled thevolunteering produc offull tomeettheneeds ofits activities cverseas ,andinreorientation working ,not employment time require ,full which thefull terms tion under market . inthe labor not ordinarily but ofpeople ownmembers only oftheir practices forthe manyoftheir long -established have modified Trade unions industry andof into ofnewpeople theentrance offacilitating purpose of agreed totheabolition . Laborhasgenerally preventing absenteeism that ofthefact andweekendsbecause forSundays premiumwagerates days . Sometrade onthenonpremium sometimes developed absenteeism their initia requirements ,relaxing membership modified their unions have members . duesfornewortemporary tion fees andtheir Many estab 131 mem developed toprotect practices which wereoriginally lished trade -union have ,andunemployment conditions ,poorworking against lowwages bers made it been setasideor modifiedfor the durationwhen circumstances .” (1942 :9) necessary program intheinterests ofthewarproduction aside rules werelaid “Union andthe andlabor amongemployers ,under agreements toa markedextent who hadmadethe ofthose there wouldbenoexploitation that Government . sacrifice pledge ofmanage leaders andno-lockout pledge oflabor “ Theno-strike . .. 90 percent than ata rate ofbetter waskept mentfortheduration responsi because duration wereofshort andlockouts Mostofthefewstrikes stoppages backtowork those onwildcat ordered promptly bleleadership industrial dis bywhich provided themachinery Government andbecause movement ofthelabor . Theleaders fairness inall could beadjusted putes oftheDepartment Service Conciliation with the cooperated themost part for about settlement War LaborBoardinbringing ofLaborandtheNational .” (1943:1-2) of differences As theSecretar y comm entedin her1944repor t: “Labor intheUnited States hasa status today never before enjoyed in any nationintheworld . ... “American trade unionism isanestablished American institution resting on thewill ofthepeople . ..." (1944:4-5) Labor Standards Early inthewar,representatives ofthemajor warproduction agencies metincommittee andagreed oncertain desirable standards forefficiency in war production work: “These minimumwartime labor standards ...reiterate theneedfor securing round -the -clock ,7-dayweekoperation ofplants andtools . The . committee report emphasizes goals theurgency ofmeeting theproduction , attention butitfocuses uponexperience both inAmerican andinEuropean factories efficiency ,which shows that the waytoincrease andmaintain ofthe humanfactor inproduction istoobserve thefollowing labor standards : : Onescheduled every 7 days forall employees , dayofrest inapproximately a production whether workers orsupervisors ;atleast a 30-minute mealperiod inthe middle ofeach shift ;notmorethan an8-hour dayandaa48-hourweek on mostoperations ; anda brief vacation period . war bothinthis byexperience standards asshown ofthese “Disregard , and ,sickness inaccidents ,leads toincreases ,hereandabroad andthelast off . If ,inthe ,output falls increase andrejections absenteeism . Spoilage 'health im ruined andworkers have been up,machines ofspeeding process .” as itfell againas quickly curve doesnotrise , theoutput paired (1942:2-3) 132 Themorespecific detailing ofthese objectives andthereasons forrecom mending themarecontained inthe1943report : “1.Weeklydayofrest : One scheduled dayofrest fortheindividual , approximately every 7 days ,should bea universal andinvariable rule . The 7-dayworkweek forindividuals isinjurious tohealth ,toproduction ,andto morale . Itslowsdown production because ofthecumulative effects of fatigue ,whennotbroken bya period ofrest andrelaxation ,anditleads to increased absenteeism . Onlyinextreme emergencies andfora limited period oftime should workers orsupervisors forego the weekly dayofrest . “2.Mealperiods :A 30-minute mealperiod inmidshift isdesirable for menandwomenfrom the standpoint ofthe worker's health andfrom the standpoint ofproductivity . Inoccupations that involve contact with poison oussubstances workers musthavetime towashbefore eating ,asan elemen tary health precaution . “3.Daily andweekly hours :Daily andweekly hours ofemployees inwar production plants should be reexamined toassure those schedules which will maintain maximum output over a long warperiod . Hours nowworked insome plants are inexcess ofthose which canbesustained without impairing thehealth andefficiency ofworkers andreducing theflow ofproduction . “Whendaily andweekly hours aretoolongtherate ofproduction tends , after a period ,todecrease ,andtheextra hours addlittle ornoadditional output ,thequality ofworkmaydeteriorate during thewhole period ofwork , notonly during thehours ofovertime ;absenteeism rises sharply ;theloss oftimedue toaccidents and illnesses tendstoincrease . Effects upon the healthandmorale oftheworker may beslow inappearing butare cumula tiv ow ofproduction because einnature. Irreg upt ula sthefl r attendance disr f . Inorder toconserve c f a b of tr or cer op al or al a c e l a in es tai nce ed n rations man , un irr s and su pervisory epl ll power economical schedules ed acea ble ki shouldbe revised. "Whenplants drawing onthe samelabor market compete for labor through thedevice ofoffering heavy overtime payment theresulting unrest and turnover interferes with warproduction . Inorder tostop this type oflabor pirating there should beuniformity inthehours schedules ofplants inthe same industrial area. “Whilea 40-hourweekisgenerally accepted inpeacetime there isa wide spread andincreasing agreement asa result ofactual experience ,bothin this country andabroad ,that for wartime production the 8-hourdayand48 hour weekapproximate thebest working schedule forsustained efficiency in mostindustrial operations . Whilehoursinexcess of48-hoursperweek have proved necessary insomeinstances duetoalimited supply ofsupervisory andskilled manpower ,there hasbeensometendency tocontinue longer schedules after sufficient opportunity hasbeenafforded totrain additional keyemployees . “Plants which arenow employing individual workers longer than48 hours a weekshould carefully analyze their present situation withrespect to 133 output andtime lost because ofabsenteeism ,accident ,illness ,andfatigue . Theyshould reexamine thepossibilities oftraining additional workers now, inorder tolessen theneedforexcessive overtime during thelong pull ahead . As rapidly asisfeasible these plants should introduce thehours schedules that will maintain thebest possible rate ofproduction for theduration . “4.Vacations :Thepolicy ofproviding opportunity forrestoration of energy ofemployees byavacation period awayfromthejobisdemonstrated tobeconducive tosustained production andiseven moresound under emer gency conditions ofindustry today than inpeacetime . Experience demon strates that ...providing regular opportunities formentohavea limited period oftimeawayfromthejobmakesiteasier tocontrol sporadic . absenteeism . “Industry inplanning vacation programs mustexert theutmost ingenuity toobtain thebenefits without paying anoverbalancing cost inproductive hourslost . “Vacations should bestaggered andspread over the longest possible period . Vacations should notbe permitted toexcuse anyshut -downofanyde partment ofanywarproduction plant except wheresuchshut -downwould notcurtail production .” (1943 :4-5) Theproblem ofmaintaining suitable standards wasone ,however ,which every plant would havetoworkouttosuit its ownrequirements within the limits allowed bylaworrecommended asdesirable . Safety wasa major problem inall plants : “During th isperi odofworl d co nflict ,inc reasin g manp owershorta ges througho utthecountry reve aled theneedformeeti ngacceler war out ated putschedule s wit h theexis ting workfor ce . Onetra gicsourc e ofwaste ,of bot h men andmat erial s,isworkacci dents . “ A glance atthecountry's record for1943shows theproblem — 18,000 workmen were killed ,109,700 received permanent disablements ,and2,270 , 900wereinjured seriously enough tolose working time . The lossrepre sents 274,000,000 man-daysofproduction , ora year's workby 914,000 workers . “Conseq uently theDivis ion’s ‘tailor -made'safet yprogra msfo rwarplan ts , designe d to fiteachpla nt'sneed , wer aggres e sively push ed... (1944:11) Close working rela tionsh ipswith th e States werenecess arytoth e succe ss ful oper ation ofthe Bur eau's prog rams . Inpart the sewere ach ieved thro ugh theannu alconfere nces onState lab orlegislat ion : > “Formanyyears ,"wrote theSecretary ,"those interested inlabor legis lation andadministration haverecognized thedesirability ofa certain amount ofuniformity butrecommended a variety ofpatterns tomeetthespecial problems ofa particular State . Tofurther this principle ,Ihave for12years conferences legislation called annual onlabor .. “ Theconfere nces havemade itpossi blefo comm r labor issio ners andrep resen tative s oftrad orga e union nizat ions from all theStat estoworktogeth er 134 i toencourage public support for sound andvigorous legislative programs and tostrengthen efficient administrative procedures .... “Aseries ofcommittees growing outoftheconferences have recommended legislative andadministrative standards fortheStates . Particular stress hasbeengiven torecommendations that labor departments should have jurisdiction ,without exception , over every labor law-wages ,hours ,child labor ,safety regulations ,industrial hygiene , workmen's compensation , un employment compensation , theregulation ofprivate employment agencies and theoperation ofpublic employment agencies . Integration of these responsibilities within a single administrative agency isvital andade quate appropriations arefundamental .” (1945 :16) "Itisimportant topoint outthat this hasbeen essentially a State andnot a Federal program ,even though this Department hastaken theinitiative in bringing together State representatives anddoing theresearch forthede. velopment ofaaprogram ofmutual interest . Thejoint Federal -State program ofexploration carried onbymeans ofannual conferences onlabor legisla tionhas demonstrated theneedforFederallawsin fields in which theStates havenojurisdiction .” (1945 :17) Wagesand Hoursand Public Contracts WrotetheSecretar ort : y inher1942rep “Early in1942 ontheresignation oftheAdministrator oftheWageHour Division Iappointed thethenDirector ofthePublic Contracts Division tobe Contracts theheadofboth WageHourandPublic . Thepurpose indoing this wastobring about a consolidation ofthetwoactivities within theDe partment ofLabor . An historical reason ,namely that thePublic Contracts Actwaspassed 2 years before theWageHourAct ,hadbeenthecause ofthe existence oftwodivisions . Thepreliminary workofeach ofthese divisions being well established ,thedifferences between thetwolaws clearly under stood ,itseemed asthough the appropriate time hadcometobring about the economies that werepossible through consolidation ,economies notonly of moneybutoftime ,effort ,andpublic understanding .” (1942 : 11) And theAdministrator ofthecombineddivisions remarked: “Theproblem presented the newly merged divisions wasa formidable one . Itwasfirst necessary totrain [inspectors ineach division intheworkofin spections inthe other ]. Simultaneously there wasaconstant drain oftrained personnel into thearmed services fromboth Divisions . TheWar Produc tion Board wasutilizing anincreasing number ofinspection personnel insur veys andaudits while theWageStabilization program oftheWar Labor Board wassoon toabsorb thetotal efforts ofhalf theDivision's normal in spection force whichwas temporarily thrown into thebreach until added personnel could berecruited . Altogether ,bythe endofthe fiscal year ,it was necessary toabsorb almost 1,600 newinspectors . ..." (1943 :36) . 135 Somemeasure oftheaccomplishments ofthecombined divisions isre flected intheAdministrator's report fortheyear 1944 : "Threefacts stand outinregard toenforcement :A substantial increase in restitution despite the lower number ofinspections ;the continued high pro portion ofmonetary violations cases where ,despite prevailing high wages , there wasfailure topaytheminimum ...;andthecontinued upward trend of child -labor violations . .. “Inthe5 years and9 months that theFair LaborStandards Acthadbeen inforce through theendofthefiscal year ,about $70,000,000 inrestitution ofillegally withheld wages hadbeenagreed toorordered paidtoalmost 3 2,000,000 workers inabout 90,000 establishments . . “The tremendous increase inourwar labor force , whichhasseenthe employment ofalmost 3,000,000 children 14through 17years ofage ,hasled toa marked upturn inchild labor violations ....” (1944 :62–63 ) In1945theminimumwagespecified forworkers employed ininterstate commerce wasautomatically raised fromtheearlier level of25cents toa new level of40 centsan hour. TheDivisions cooperated closely throughout thewarwith thevarious war production agencies ,particularly theWarLabor Board ,the WarManpower Commission ,andtheOffice ofPrice Administration . Labor Stat istics Inhiswarreports theCommissioner ofLaborStatistics wrote : “Itisa matter ofconsiderable pride andsatisfaction that theBureau of enterprises LaborStatistics hasbecome oneofthemostuseful inthewhole Government . Ithasdeveloped atechnique ofestimating andjudging the hours necessary oflabor ,thenumberofworkers ,thecharacter ofskills and required tocarry outthedollar value ofeachGovernment contract . This developed workhasbeen over aperiod of3 or4 years inaneffort tomeet Congressional demand outlook production compar the foranoccupational able totheagricultural crop outlook production . Itdoes oneofthemost exacting anddifficult techniques ofeconomic andstatistical analysis with great success . Theworkofthis Bureau hasbeenvital totheprocurement agencies oftheGovernment ,theArmy,theNavy,theWar Production Board , andnow totheManpowerCommission . “Fortunately each ofthese agencies recognizes the unique character ofthe workhere done andrecognizes also that itisdone byparticular humanproc esses ,andnotbymachine techniques . There hasbeen ,therefore ,noeffort 7 toduplicate this service intheagencies named ,butrather anintensification of thedesire tolean uponthis service forinformation ofthis nature . This in itself hasbrought about a natural coordination which issatisfactory toall a kind concerned . TheBureau ofLaborStatistics hasbecome a ofa jobshop character orders agen inthis ofwork ,taking fromavariety ofGovernment cies ,including theOffice ofPrice Administration . Inrecent months the Selective Service personnel heavily oftheArmy andtheArmy's haverelied 1 136 on of the armed uti nningforthe dist rib upon the same source inpla l and measurement economists who haveworked tua forces. The fac t areamong themostusef s pro jec ulmen in the Unite d Sta on thi tes ." (1942: 11) "Itisgenerally recognized that during thewarperiod majornonmilitary problems include (1) industrial production andthemostefficient utilization ofmanpower ,(2) prices andprice regulation , (3) thestabilization ofwages onanequitable basis ,and(4) theimprovement ofindustrial relations toin surecontinuity ofemployment . TheworkoftheBureau wasincreasingly focused onsupplying toCongress andtoadministrative agencies thebasic in formation required for formulating andcarrying outthe national policies in these closely interrelated fields . “Bearing particularly on theproblems oflabor demand , labor supply , utilization statistics andlabor was theworkinthefields ofemployment , labor turn -over ,hours ofwork ,accidents , absenteeism ,labor productivity , incentive wage systems , industrial relations , and housing construction . Similarly the extension oftheareas ofprice control andcontrol oftheflow ofproduction through rationing gave increasing importance inpublic policy tothestatistics ofwholesale prices ,retail prices (including rents andvarious services ),andcost ofliving ." (1943 : 17) “TheBureau's three -fold problem during thewar(was ] themaintenance ofits standard statistical series ,thefocusing ofits workontheneeds ofwar agencies ,andtheplanning ofits worktomeet reconversion andearly post war needs . .. 9 4 : 18) (194 Women Workers Ina warsituation ,inwhich menareshifted fromtheir normal occupa tions to thearmed services and thedemand foradditional workersfor war production isurgent , theprimary source of necessary labor isthe supply ofunemployed women: “Women workers aretheprimesource of thenew laborsupply now demanded .. Women areurgently needed tomakewarsupplies andto conduct thecivilian services required torelease manpower andtosupport thearmed forces . “Thiswomanlabor supply mustbeutilized inthemosteffective way on jobswomencando well ,andunderconditions knowntobe necess ary for r bes ei t work. To assure a minimum ofwasteful tr th l and error, war ia 2 l fora highdegree ofcompetentadvice bypersons experiencedin needs cal mattersofwoman employment.... (1942:31) Withits quarter century ofexperience , including service during World War I, thebestinformed source of information inthis respect was the Women'sBureau . And this fact wasfully recognized by thenewlyestab lished waragencies . Two problems ofmajorimportance werethesafety andhealth ofwomen workers , particularly inplants producing warmaterial wherewomenhad 6 66947 -63 -10 137 notpreviously beenemployed insignificant numbers , andthefact that manywomendoing workequal tothat ofa manwerenotreceiving wages 1 atthesamelevel . Many ofthewomenworkers werethemselves headsof families ortaking care ofdependent children orolder people , andmany others were independently earning aliving . A particularly difficult problem wastheemployment ofmanywomenin this emergency workwhohadhadno previous industrial experience ,or families who hadbeenoutofthelabor market solong ,raising , astobe virtually inexperienced inindustrial requirements . To bring these womenworkers into thelabor market ,totrain themin duties strange tothem ,toaccommodate themintheir domestic problems as housewives aswell asproduction workers ,andtoinsure that their needs as womenworkers weresuitably recognized bythemanagements andunions towhichtheywererelated during their employment — these wereproblems of serious consequence , in which the Women's Bureauwas best equipped toadvise . Thedemand fortheservices oftheBureau specialists byall procurement agencies oftheGovernment wasacute ,especially dur ingtheearlier years ofthewar : 66 ... thelabordemands have added more than21/2million women tothe ranks of workers in industry in this country, the tota l including nearly 17 million women Unfore seenproble ms alw ays accom panysuch a . rapidabsorp ofan enorm tion ousnew labor forc e. The myri adwaysin whichtheacc umula and reso tedknow ledge of theWomen'sBureau urces couldbeofuseinth e warpro ductio n prog ramoftheGover nmen t have been keenly recog ;andwit nized h theprogr essofth e war,call sforservi ce ofonesor t oranoth erhavebeen in creasi numero ngly usandpressing .. "The urgent wardemands forWomen'sBureau workcontinue tofocus ontwomajor objectives : “(1) To meetrequirements forexpanded labor forces :Analyses ofjobs suited to women invarious war industries ; a consideration of thebest methods forselecting women;theinteresting ofwomenintheneed fortheir services andthekinds ofworktheycando; andrecommendations asto means ofarranging plant schedules for part -time use ofwomen . “ (2) Inresponse tocalls fordata on thebest methods forutilizing a womanlabor force :Obtaining anddisseminating scientific data astoeffects onwomanworkers ofnewtechniques andnewsubstances inindustry ;vary . inghours ofwork ; relaxing established standards forwomen's work ; and a multitude ofparticular health andsafety situations tobemetifwomen ,in manycases unaccustomed toindustrial surroundings ,aretogive maximum performance for employers unfamiliar ontheir part with women's jobcapa bilities andneeds .” (1943 :31–32) Of interest wasthefact that during thewarthenumberofwomenmem bers oforganized labor unions greatly increased . By theendof1945it was estimated thattherewere312 million women in tradeunions . (1945 :22) 138 1 Child Welfare “Theproblems confronting children inwartime areingeneral those which havecaused concern inpeacetime ,butthey areenlarged andintensified ,” wrote theChief oftheChildren's Bureau inher1944report . Therefore : “Theactivities oftheChildren's Bureau... havebeendeveloped with thepurpose ofdirecting all possible effort toassuring tochildren underwar O time conditions ,thenearest possible approach tonormal homecare ,educa tional opportunity ,andcreative experience inthecommunities inwhich they live .” (1944 :31) As early asMarch1942theBureau's Commission onChildren inWar timeadopted a “Children's Charter inWartime ” declaring that "children mustbesafeguarded —andthey canbesafeguarded — inthemidst ofthis total war.” Thecharter called uponcitizens young andoldtojoin together “toguard children frominjury indanger zones ; protect children fromneglect , ex ploitation ,andundue strain indefense area ; strengthen thehomelife of children whose parents aremobilized forwarorwarproduction ; andcon serve ,equip ,andfree children ofevery race andcreed totake their part indemocracy .” (1942 :28) Initially , emphasis wasplaced on "theimportance ofdeferring active recruitment ofmothers ofyoung children for warworkuntil all other sources oflabor supply were exhausted .” (1942 :28) Following its adoption ofthechildren's charter ,thecommission adopted a 10-point program ofState action based onthecharter . Inthefiel d of child lab or,"effor t hasbeendire cted towar d maintain ing chil d-labor pro tectiv emea sures whe rever possi bleandtowa rdrestate of ment essen tial princi ples ofyouth employ mentworkedoutinthelight ofwar time demandsandyouthnee ds.” (1943 :29) Thecommis siontherefo reissu eda “Stateme ntofPolicy onth e Employ ment ofYouthUnder 18 Years ofAge”whichcon stitut esa nat ional polic y onthe place ofyou thinthelabor marketdurin gwar time andset sstanda rds for th eir empl oymen that youth t. Itstates under 18can bestcont ribute to the warpro gram bycont inuin ginschoo land,whenthei rservice needed sare , byacce vacatio pting p nand art -time employ ,andsets ment up10basic safe guar dstogovern theemp loyme ntofyou ngAmeric ansinind ustry andagri culture ." (1943:29) The excit ementandgene ralconfus ionof wart ime activit ies , however , res ulted incons idera bleneg lect of these prin ciples . In1944theDire ctor rep orted : Manyboysand gi between rls theages of15and 18year s arelivi ng entirely unsup ervis towhich edinpl aces they have gone wit the hout irfa milies employm totake entin warindust ries ortobenearwar camps . An increas e inthenumberofdelin quency case sdis posed ofbyjuven ilecour ts(rou ghly higher 51percent in1943than in1940 ) ... isanind icati onofthewaysin . 139 whichin ourwar effort we havefailed to meettheneedsofchildren and young people .” (1944 :32) Despite failures inthis respect ,muchuseful workwasdonetomaintain andimprove theconditions ofemployment ofyoung people inwartime in dustries ,asisreflected intheaccomplishments oftheChildren's Bureau ,the Wage-HourDivision ,theWomen'sBureau(concerned about standards for minors aswell aswomen),andtheDivision ofLaborStandards . TheChil > dren’s Bureau issued several orders onthe employment ofchildren inhazard ousoccupations ,andhadgreat success inits annual return -to-school cam paigns andinpromoting the useofcertificates ofageasevidence that young applicants forjobs were ofproper ageforemployment . Inspections under theFair Labor Standards Act ,planned jointly bytheChildren's Bureau and theWage-HourDivision , resulted inimprovement intheemployment con ditions ofthousands ofchildren . International Labor Affairs LaborOrganiza States became a memberoftheInternational TheUnited thewar, actively p roceedings . During ,andparticipated inits tion in1934 . Western Hemisphere from Geneva tothe were moved ILOheadquarters Atthe 1941 meeting inNewYorkCity ,theSecretary ofLabor ,whoheaded theUnited States delegation ,waselected president ofthe ILOConference . “...An important resolution wasproposed bytheAmerican delegation (representing labor ,employers andGovernment ). Itwasadopted . Itseeks loassure ILOparticipation inthepeace conference andintheplanning and application ofmeasures ofreconstruction ,specifically : Feeding people in countries need ;reconstruction ofdevastated ;providing andtransporting the rawmaterials andequipment whichwill beneeded torestore economic ac tivity ;reopen trade ; resettle workers andtheir families ; change industries over toa peacetime basis ;maintain employment andraise standards ofliving throughout theworld .” (1942 :9) Theaims andpurposes oftheILOhadthefull concurrence oftheDepart mentofLabor ;namely ,“that (a)labor isnotacommodity ; (b) freedom of expression andofassociation are essential tosustained progress ;(c)poverty anywhere constitutes adanger toprosperity everywhere ; (d)thewaragainst want requires tobecarried onwith unrelenting vigor within each nation .” (1944:2) Itsobjectives weretofurther programs amongthenations oftheworld which would achieve “(a) maximumemployment andtheraising ofstand ards ofliving ; (b) theemployment ofworkers intheoccupations inwhich they canmaketheir greatest contribution tothecommonwell -being ; (c) the provision . offacilities fortraining andthetransfer oflabor ,including migration foremployment andsettlement ; (d) policies inregard towages andearnings ,hours andother conditions ofworkcalculated toinsure a just share ofthefruits ofprogress toall ,andaaminimum living wage...(e)the effective recognition oftheright ofcollective bargaining ... (f) theex 140 tension ofsocial -security measures toprovide a basic income ...andcom prehensive medical care ; (g) adequate protection forthelife andhealth of workers inall occupations ; (h) provision forchild welfare andmaternity protection ; (i)theprovision ofadequate nutrition ,housing ,andfacilities for recreation . (j) theassurance ofequality ofeducational andvocational opportunity .” (1944 :2) Reconversion Objectives Evenduring thedepths ofthe wartheSecretary wasgiving thought tothe problems ofpostwar reconversion ,andhadrecommended various organiza tional changes involving thereabsorption ofthelabor functions ofvarious waragencies . Although these thoughts andproposals properly belong tothe next chapter , they are included here aspart ofthe waryears . Theprimary problem wasthe probable effects ofpeace uponemployment . “Infacing the possibilities ofsudden economic changes attheclose ofthe occupations warandthechange -overfromwarindustry topeacetime ,itis well tokeepinmindthat we haveintheUnited States today certain pre a better liminary preparation . We stand ina position totake theshock ofthe change than ever before . We have asamatter oflawandpractice unemploy mentcompensation , old -ageinsurance and old-ageassistance forthosenot eligible forinsurance ;a maximumhours program of40hours which tends toinclude morepeople inwhatever production andemployment actually exists . We have a public works program fairly well planned ,andits value asa stimulant toemployment andbusiness atthebeginning oftheperiod of decline understood well bythe public . We have also a large well -experienced system offree public employment offices all over thecountry . We havea higher agelevel forthelabor ofyoung people ,that is ,16years ,than ever before ,andwehave protection against the fall ofwages tounspeakably low levels through thenormal operations oftheFairLaborStandards Act ." (1945:2) “... Theproduction ofwarmaterials ina plant canbestopped ina matter ofdays toweeks . Building upanewline ofproduction for peacetime markets will require weekstomonths . Furthermore , evenwithamplejob opportunities there will notbeasmanyjobs intheheavy industries asthere aretoday . Several million workers atleast will find jobs inother industries , sometimes inother locations . Whenmasstransfers ofthis kind occur ,there isusually a lagbetween thetimea man ora woman loses a jobandthe timehe findsa new one. . (1945:5) under beextended should benefits unemployment Inthese circumstances should . Youngpeople ,itwasbelieved unemployed toall liberal provisions -age on liberal old toretire workers andolder toschool beurged toreturn wouldwelcome ofex-servicemen provisions . Many ofthewives retirement vet husbands weregiven iftheir tohomemaking toreturn anopportunity should bemadeto effort . Andevery injobs ,itwasstated preference eran's employment . policy offull maintain anational 141 e from t effo rtsto exclud ldbetakentoguardagains r,careshou Howeve n . In t to remai in it rned the righ pswhich have ea rket grou he labor ma t videanexample : ction conne this ,womenpro ... We mustremember that eventodaywelloverthree -fifths ofthe women inthelabor force areunmarried andthat intheUnited States before thewaritwascustomary andnecessary formostsingle womentosupport themselves . Thenumberofmarried womeninthelabor force islarger than itwasbefore thewar. Mostofthis group whosewarjobwastheir first and only jobwill choose toretire iftheir husbands have jobs . Buttoestablish a rule after thewarthat married womenshould notbeemployed wouldwork extreme hardship onthat relatively small number whoinsist oncontinuing inthelabormarket . Before thewar mostmarried women who workeddid sobecause they hadtohelp support thefamily . We should never permit a needstest tobe administered before an individual isoffered a job .” (1945:6) Inthenecessary workofdistributing theNation's manpower properly , thepublic employment service isthecore . Regardless of whatDepart ment itislocated in: ... Itshouldnever againbeabandon ed. Itshouldbea permanen t in stitut ionin Ameri can life . Itshou ld not be burie d under thefunc tionof dis tribut ingreli eforcomp ensati on, but should bea vit alaggres fo sive rce whos e primaryaimistofi ndworker s forthe jobswhichare neces sary ,to hel p create wor k during sla ckperiod s,and tohelp todi stribu tesuchwork asthere isbet weentheunemploy edwork ers . Itisasnece ssary inpeac etime asinwar timeandperiods offull employm . Itmus ent t bemain tained and develope dduring slack per iods .” (194 2:10) Amongtheactions which should betaken promptly after thetermination ofhostilities ,theSecretary recommended : “Revocation ofall permits which havebeenissued fortheemployment ofminors formorethan 8 hours a day ,ortheemployment ofminors in ordinarily prohibited occupations . “Revocation of allpermits forthework of women beyond8 hoursand for the workofwomeninthegraveyard shifts . tion of hours of labor under the FairLabor Stand “Promote the reduc a thework. saweek tospread sActto40hour ard rtimework as faras daywork, and ove ish] Sundaywork , holi “[Abol e. possibl “Unfreeze labor ... and reestablish the freedomand mobility of . Americanlabor . ent ctive ymentService andeffe instrum a strong “Make the U.S.Emplo ies iesandintoci vilian . industr outofwarindustr formovingworkers ent loym theU.S.Emp d whichmight be loanedthrough "Setup a fun h togetbackhome,or icetohel p wor kerswho haveno funds withwhic Serv mentin unityforemploy t be opport e where there migh to reacha plac tions civilian occupa . 142 “Encourage theimmediate retirement ofthose over 65intheir old -age benefits . “Encourage thereturn toeducation ofanyperson under 20,toschool orcollege orvocational training institutes . “Adviseand assist women who aremerely pin-money worke rswho came int othelabor market only because ofthe warneedtoleav ethelabor market andmakeopportu for girls nity whomustwork re gularl y. “Provide for proper Government assistance for loans tobusinesses which canreconvert quickly forthemanufacture ordistribution ofcivilian goods forwhichthere isa market andwhich will provide large employment . “Encourage andrevive theluxury , transportation , andamusement in dustries andtrades which arehealthy andgoodforthepublic judged by normalstandards . “Develop Government aidforsettling certain qualified groups onthe program planning land with ascientific ofassistance incrop andmarketing andsupervision . eswher e th ereap s inthoselocaliti edpublic work e plann “Openup th leforwhom nently sident peop rable re s tobea conside pool of perma pear e. mentis ailabl atepriv ate av employ noimmedi “Renewallthetechniques ofstabilized employment whichwerepartly developed during thelast depression ,suchasorders inadvance ; extension ofrural electrification ,manufacturing ,Government andother capital industry orders onaregular basis ,etc. “Release the housing programs nowfound tobenecessary andgive appro priate Government assistance toprivate construction ,aswell astopublic programs for housing improvements . “Encourage normal purchasing bythepublic through useofwarsavings ona regular andsystematic basis rather than speedy ,reckless spending . “Encourage purchasing ofpermanent consumers 'goods ,like refrigerators , vacuumcleaners ,furniture ,kitchen utensils , automobiles ,necessary textiles , etc. “Encourage cultural andrecreational activities asa means ofemployment aswell asa methodofachieving a soundsociety andbalanced economy .” (1943 :9-10 ) Organizational Proposals Planning the postwar organization oftheDepartment ofLabor ,theSecre tarywrote: “Irecommend after thewara consolidation intheDepartment ofLabor ofvarious ministerial functions having todowith labor matters which are now scattered through a variety of agencies of theGovernment . . . (1942:14) Andinher194 5 rep ort sheout lined proposa herspec ific ls: Employment States oftheUnited thetransfer “... theplanrecommends autonomy . bureau with Department ofLabor tobeestablished Service tothe 143 Italso expresses theopinion that while theunemployment compensation function might ormight notbeputintheLabor Department , itshould ,if placed inthe Department ,beestablished asaseparate bureau andthat neither the work ofthe Employment Service nor that ofUnemployment Compensation position bepermitted tosubordinate theother . Bothhaveanimportant . TheEmployment Service ,however ,isvital totherealistic development oftheDepartment . "Theplanalso recommends thetransfer oftheNational LaborRelations -judicial Board totheDepartment ,but...thequasi andfact -finding func tions ...should remain independent andnotreviewable bytheSecretary ofLabororsubordinate officers . “... Theplan proposed would immediately return theApprenticeship Section oftheDivision ofLaborStandards totheDepartment ofLabor . Likewise andatthesametime ,the training -within -industry program should be included fortransfer . “Istrongly urged that workoftheNational War LaborBoardbereduced toaminimum bya general return asquickly aswarconditions would permit tothesystem ofsettling labor disputes andadjusting wagesthrough the mechanics ofcollective bargaining .. . “Ialso suggested that such workasthat ofthe Labor Division ofthe War Production Board. . . should be immediately transferred ... mainlyto beabsorbed bytheDivision ofLaborStandards andtheUnited States Con . . ciliation Service . “Ialso believe that theLaborForce Project carried on bytheBureau of on more economi theCensus isatypeofworkwhich.. couldbe carried cally andbetter coordinated withtheworkoftheBureau ofLaborStatistics ifitweretransferred totheDepartment ... and ] theImmigration [transfers amongthese notinclude “... I would to orno relation ofwhich ] havelittle Service [thefunctions Naturalization ...." (1945:28–30) this Department > To allofwhichtheChief oftheChildren's Bureauaddeda note : "Ithasbeensuggested attimes that thefunctions oftheChildren's Bureau might becarried on moreeffectively ifthat Bureau wereremoved fromthe Department . I do notsubscribe tothat belief . Moreover ,itismy convic tion that once removed fromtheDepartment ofLabor thefunctions ofthe disintegrated Bureau would bedissipated andthe Bureau .” (1945 :20) 144 1 POSTWAR PERIOD 8 1946- 194 LONG SORROW 1 1 1 1 1 POSTWAR PERIOD 1946–48 A shockedworldlearned on April12, 1945, thatthePresident of the United States — just a fewmonths after election tohisfourth termofoffice was dead. Death cametoFranklin D.Roosevelt atWarm Springs ,Ga.,wherehehad received treatment polio manyyears before . forparalytic . Vice President Harry Trumanhadjust dropped into Speaker Sam Ray burn's office intheCapitol whenheheard thenews . Later ,ashisfamily , members oftheCabinet andCongress ,andChief Justice Harlan Stone gath ered around him,Mr.Trumanwassworninto office asthe32dPresident of theUnitedStates . Standing inthe group wasFrances Perkins ,Secretary ofLabor since 1933 . Secretary longer person Shehadserved asLabor than anyother inhistory . Shewastocontinue inhervital post until theendofWorldWar II ,aa few months later . Thenshetendered herresignation andwasappointed Chair man oftheCivil Service Commission . colleague ,Lewis Trumannameda former Senate ,President Tosucceed her . B.Schwellenbach Mr.Schwellenbach wasfaced almost immediately withthetremendous reconvert pursuits task ofhelping theNation topeacetime andofreadjust strenuous ingtheactivities tempo ofhisdepartment toa less . Reorganization During Secretary Schwellenbach's term ofoffice ,theApprentice -Training Service wastransferred fromtheWar Manpower Commission with full bureau status . TheUnited States Employment Service also wastransferred fromthe WarManpower Commission . Itremained inthe Department until 1948 ,when itwastransferred totheFederal Security Agency ,andthere combined with the unemployment compensation function toform the Bureau ofEmployment Security . In1949thecombined service wastransferred totheDepartment ofLabor. TheChildren's Bureau remained intheDepartment ofLabor until 1946 , whenitwastransferred ,except forthechild labor division ,totheFederal Security Agency . Initially located asa branch intheDivision ofLabor Standards ,thechild labor function waslater transferred totheWageand Hour Division . 147 TheU.S. Conciliation Service wasseparated fromthe Department ofLabor in1947 ,andsetup asan independent agency ,theFederal Mediation and Conciliation Service . In1947 theBureau ofVeterans 'Reemployment Rights wastransferred to theDepartment ofLabor . Thefollowing waragencies were briefly located inthe Department ofLabor , andwere then disbanded :National WageStabilization Board ,Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee ,WageAdjustment Board ,andRetraining andRe employment Administration . Theonly bureaus that carried over fromthepast andcontinued into the future without reorganizational changes were theBureau ofLabor Statistics , theWomen's Bureau ,theBureau ofLaborStandards ,andtheWageandHour Divisions and PublicContracts . In1947Secretary Schwellenbach established intheDepartment anOffice ofInternational Labor Affairs . This waspart ofareorganizational step ,au thorized by Congress in 1946. The actalsoestablished one position as Under Secretary (corresponding inpractice with theearlier position ofFirst Assistant Secretary ) andthree Assistant Secretaries ofLabor . Reconversion Themajor problem after the warwasreconversion : “The extent ofconversion ofthe economy towarproduction suggests the magnitude oftheproblem ofrestoring theeconomy toa peacetime basis ; butreconversion wasundertaken without theunifying stimulus ofan im mediate external danger . Farmoredifficult thanthephysical aspects of reconversion weretheproblems ofreadjustment oftheworking popula tion toapeacetime basis . These included thedemobilization andreemploy mentofthearmedforces ; theshifting ofmillions ofworkers tonew jobs and industries and intodifferent areas ; adjustment of wagesand price policies totransitional conditions ; reconciling oftheconflicting ideas of workers ,employers , andother groups ;andtheadaptation ofpublic agen cies andfunctions tomeetthenewconditions .. . . (1946 :5) To maintain thestability oftheeconomy wastheprincipal objective of the Government . Inthis connection Mr.Schwellenbach voiced a warning re iterating themessage ofhis predecessors inoffice : “... Thisstability mustbeachieved ata highlevel ofoutput , andthe products ofindustry must beequitably distributed amongthose who cooper ate intheir production . Increased emphasis should beplaced ontheviews that theinterest oftheeconomy asa whole requires a maximumflow ofin cometourbanandrural workers asthemajorconsuming group forsustain ingdemandandfull production andemployment . We needa clearer un derstanding ofthefact that farmincome andthewelfare offarmers isin separably linked withtheearnings andreal income ofcity workers .... (1946 :12) 1 48 Insomerespects progress wasrapid andadequate ;inothers itdragged : “While the physical aspects ofreconversion were virtually completed early infiscal ... 1947 ,making possible thehighest level ofcivilian employment 2 andproduction inourhistory ,thewelfare ofthewageearners oftheUnited States wasvitally affected by ourinability toachieve fully theeconomic phases ofreconversion . ... “Within thelimits oftheauthority granted toitby lawandtheextent ofits facilities andpersonnel ,theDepartment ofLabor madesignificant contributions tofull employment andhigh -level production ofcivilian goods , andtoa wider understanding ofthereal impact oftheprice -wagerelation ship onoureconomy andontheeveryday problems oftheNation's wage earners .” (1947:1) But ,throughout this period ,theproblem persisted : “Despite thefull employment and highwagesof thecurrent postwar economy ,thesteep andcontinuing upwardmovement ofprices through the past fewyears hasrepresented serious inflationary dangers totheeconomy asa whole andhasheld downtheliving standards forwageearners by constantly diminishing the real value ofthe wagedollar . there was “Ifthismovement continues — and attheend of thefiscal year every indication that itwould continue— notonly the wages of industrial employees wil ll l be undermined but the stab ilit re economy wi y of the enti be threatened. o “Control ofthe inflationary spiral continues tobea matter ofparamount importance totheAmerican people .” (1948 :6) Industrial Relations During thewar,production wasmaintained undera voluntary no-strike pledge agreed tobyboth labor andmanagement ,onthecondition that labor disputes would behandled expeditiously bya tripartite agency . Thisfunc tion wasperformed by theNational War LaborBoard ,assisted bytheU.S. Conciliation Service . Withtheendofthewar,theservices oftheBoard terminated ,andtheno-work -stoppage agreement ceased tohave effect : "... TheGovernment ,with theagreement ofthemajority oflabor and management representatives ,announced a return tofree collective bargaining . “Theresult wasthe heaviest year's work inthe33years ofthe Conciliation Service .... " (1946:105) d,andmor tesweremorecomp lex e pro longe e dif ficult Dispu ,mor tosolve d. Many mino r dispu tesweresettled of thewar perio thanwerethose t assista outGovernmen nceof any kind. But, of thosein with ich the ewascalled t ofthethreat ened rike Servic inbefore a st ,morethan89 percen ages ted stopp wereaver . a The Conciliation Service wasreorganized and various factfinding boards wereappointed . Congress gaveconsideration tothepossibilities oflegisla tion onlabor -management relations ,butwithno immediate specific results . ation nalcondit ions melydiffi cult nsitio , theConcili r the extre tra “Unde 1 49 Service , thefact -finding boards , andother agencies without compulsory powers rendered strenuous andultimately effective service inbringing toan 92 endthedangerous industrial conflicts ofthefirst year ofreconversion .. . . (1946:8) Inmarkedcontrast tothis hectic year , 1947wascharacterized forthe mostpart by peaceful negotiation : “Perhaps themostimportant single factor intheresumption ofmore peaceful andstable relationships between labor andmanagement ,following period peace theturbulence ofthereconversion ,wasthereturn tonormal timebargaining practices basedon theusual processes offreecollective bargaining . Inthis successful return toourtraditional prewar system of direct negotiations between representatives ofworkers andemployers , the Department's Conciliation Service played animportant role .” (1947 :5) Withthepassage ofthe Taft -Hartley ActonJune 23,1947 ,thefunctions , personnel ,andrecords oftheU.S. Conciliation Service weretransferred to a newindependent agency ,theFederal Mediation andConciliation Service.1 TheService hadbeena part oftheDepartment ofLabor under thesuper vision anddirection oftheSecretary ofLaborfor34 years . (1947 :62) An area inwhich theexercise ofspecial stabilization functions wasfound necessary intheperiod immediately after thewarwastheshipbuilding in dustry . Formerly anagency ofthe WarProduction Board ,theShipbuilding Stabilization Committee wastransferred tothe Department ofLabor in1945 , andwasabolished attheendoffiscal 1946.Itestablished wagerates and labor disputes dealt with . Withthetermination of itsactivities , itschairman published thefol lowing statement atthe endofhis report for the year 1946 : “Stabilization ismorethana setofrules imposed fromthetop . Inits broader meaning ,itisacontinuing living relationship between management a andlabor onterms generally acceptable toboth . Itmustrest ona mutual willingness onthe part oflabor andmanagement tocooperate notonly with eachother ,butwiththeGovernment aswell intheattainment oftheobjec tives conceived interest inthepublic . " Thebasis forcooperation between management andlabor isthecollec tive bargaining relationship without whichthepioneering venture inship building stabilization would nothavebeenpossible . Collective bargaining agreements represent constitutional government in industrial relations . Theypermitorderly , democratic ,and mutually responsible procedures and standards governing conditions ofwork . Inthemselves a reconciliation of conflicting interests ,theyfoster a recognition ofa larger commoninterest andestablish a joint authority forthemaintenance ofindustrial discipline andorder derived fromtheconsent ofthegoverned . Theyafford an op portunity forevery workmantoseek , inan effective way, redress ofa *A short history oftheFederal Mediation andConciliation Service during theperiod 1947–57 , subsequent toitsestablishment asan independent agency ,ispresented inthe 10th annual report oftheDirector ,forthefiscal year1957 . 150 grievance , real orfancied . In short , theyarethefoundation of friendly industrial relations andproductive . To theGovernment theyarean ave nueforobtaining themaximumconsent totheprogram ofstabilization .” (1946 :155) Wages and Hours Within a year after thewar ,theearlier interstate commerce minimum wagelevel of40 cents an hourhadbecome obsolete . TheDepartment therefore proposed legislation toraise thelevel to75cents . Italso asked that thechild labor provisions oftheFair Labor Standards Actbestrength ened ,that coverage beextended ,andthat exemptions beeliminated . Atthe sametime theSecretary tooksteps toterminate theexemption ofcertain minors andlearners fromtheapplication ofthePublic Contracts Actthat hadbeenallowed underthestress ofwarconditions . Inother words , the Wage-HourandPublic Contracts Divisions werebackintheir regular peacetime administration ofthelaws under which they operated ,withrecog nition ofthefact ,however ,that meanwhile thegeneral level ofwages inthe considerably Nation hadrisen . economic charter century Act , a twentieth “ TheFairLaborStandards inthelowest income forthose ofAmerica ,especially forthewageearners 24,1946.Inthose onOctober for8 years ,will havebeenineffect groups 8 years, ithas come of age ; ithasbee n acc eptedbywor kersasaninstru ,andasa meanstowa mentde cur sig rd ity ant ne eea measureofse d toguar attainm vin ate, decen t li g stand ard yer entofadequ s, andby emplo s asa fairpiec . Inthewords ofPresi e of legi sla dit tio ion n intheAmerican tra dentTruman, how ever, ‘ithas now beco me obso let pec e' withres t to its modes vis t statu tor e y minimum wageof40 centsanhour,and itistimetore thecha rte e wit h prese aden the r inlin nteconomic condi tio nsso astobro sco peoftheAct and aff ordcov ere kersearni d wor ngswhichwouldmore near ,andfood." (194 lyprov ide adeq uateclot hin ter 6:196) g,shel Itwasnot until 1949 ,however ,that this legislation wasenacted . Mean while ,thestaff oftheDivisions wascutfrom2,518 attheendoffiscal 1944 to966in1946 ,fromwhich lowithadrisen to1,123 in1948 . Considerable adjustment inpublished interpretations became necessary after theenactment byCongress ofthePortal -to -Portal Act . Torelieve em ployers andtheGovernment frompotential liability inclaims arising from thedecision oftheSupreme Court inthis context ,theDepartment hadto “issue interpretations oftheapplication ofthenewlawtothePublic Con tracts ActandtheFair Labor Standards Act . Forguidance ofemployers who may seek torely onthem ,this makesnecessary thereexamination ofall interpretative bulletins ,releases , opinion letters , andother statements , and madedesirable theissuance ofanover -all bulletin interpreting thePortal -to Portal Actitself .” (1947 :97) Inthis way,ina somewhat dramatic instance ,theDivisions demonstrated again their services toemployers aswell asworkers . 151 Atthe beginning offiscal 1948 ,all administrative functions relative tothe child labor provisions ofthe Fair Labor Standards Actwere transferred from theBureau ofLabor Standards totheWageandHourandPublic Contracts Divisions . A special section onchild labor wasestablished ,andthewelfare ofchildren received close attention : "To extend thelaw's control overtheevil ofchild labor ,theAdministra torurges that theact's child labor provisions beextended toapply tothe employment commerce ofchildren inindustries that engage ininterstate although notproducing goods forinterstate commerce ,andthat a direct prohibition beplaced ontheemployment ofunder -ageminors . Atpresent , the act's provisions inthis respect apply only toemployment ofyoung work ers inestablishments producing goods for commerce ,andmerely prohibit the shipment ofgoods produced insuch establishments inviolation ofthechild labor provisions without actually prohibiting the employment ofunder -age minors. provisions ofthe labor recommends that thechild also "TheAdministrator ,and during school hours inagriculture tocover child labor bebroadened act labor is . Now,child onindustrialized farms atanytime tocover child labor toattend islegally required whenthechild only restricted inagriculture school ." (1948:92) TheFederal warconstruction program ,which terminated attheendof the war,wassucceeded byanaccelerated building program designed tomeet peacetime needs . Forthese andother Federal projects ,prevailing wage de terminations wereissued undertheDavis -BaconAct,administered through the operations ofthe WageandHour andPublic Contracts Divisions andthe Office oftheSolicitor ofLabor , inaccordance withstabilization controls established Boardcontinuing bytheWageAdjustment fromthewaryears , whenitwasappointed bytheSecretary ofLabor . Although this Board wasabolished inFebruary 1947 ,the argument justi fying its existence andoperation regarding Federal construction contracts remained applicable . The determination ofprevailing rates continued tobeadministered under theDavis -BaconActbytheOffice oftheSolicitor of Labor. “ Astabilization bodyforthebuilding industry mustdeal withconsidera tions affecting all ofthe unions inanarea ,whereas inthe vertical type indus trial uniononebargaining agency represents theemployees of an entire plant ,asa rule ,andstabilization maybeeffected onthis inclusive basis . “Industry ingeneral offers continuity ofemployment andthis factor inand ofitself provides a firm foundation fortheadministration ofstabilization principles . Theconstruction industry ,however ,must depend upon migratory workers forthecompletion oflarge projects often located inremote areas andisalso subject tointermittent employment duetoweather conditions , delays indelivery ofmaterials ,shortages ofmechanics inparticular classifi cations causing lay -offs ofworkers inother classifications ,andother condi tions peculiar totheindustry . Moreover ,workers intheconstruction indus 152 trydonotenjoy theadvantages ofso-called fringe benefits suchasvacations with pay ,promotions ,upgrading ,orincentive payofanykind . “It canbeseen that the problems ofthe construction industry under stabili zation could beminimized only through the creation ofaseparate commission ; also that theeffective functioning ofa wageadjustment board forthis in dustry ... required an adaptation ofstabilization principles toexisting practices intheindustry .. . (1946 :168) Someidea ofthescope ofcoverage oftheDavis -Bacon Actisprovided in abrief statement contained inthe Solicitor's report for 1947 : TheFederal program [after thewar] involved theconstruction , alteration ,andrepair ofpost offices ,ofclinics andhospitals ,ofother public buildings andofresearch facilities relative toatomic energy ,aeronautics ,and agriculture ;theconversion ofsoldiers 'barracks into classrooms anddormi tories inconnection with theGI educational program ;thereconversion of arsenals andplants topeacetime needs ;theconstruction andrepair ofFed eral roads andhighways ;theconstruction oflevee ,flood control ,river and harbor improvements andreclamation projects ;theconstruction ,alteration , andrepair ofCoast Guard andNavyinstallations andofaids toairnaviga ..." (1947 :39) tion. Employment process : year ofthereconversion During thefirst “Unemployment remained atmoderate levels ...buttheshifting ofvet erans back tocivilian jobs andthedisplacement ofmillions ofcivilian war workers created grave problems ofreadjustment andtemporary unemploy ment . ... "Ingeneral , however ,boththecivilian warworkers whosewartime jobs disappeared andthemillions ofreturning veterans achieved a remarkable degree ofsuccess insolving their problems ofreemployment andreadjust ment ... Their success isa tribute notonly totheir owningenuity and resourcefulness butalso totheforesight anddiligence ofsuchagencies of Government astheUnited States Employment Service andtheRetraining andReemployment Administration .” (1946 :5-6) The Retraining andReemployment Administration wasestablished in 1944 ,andtransferred totheDepartment ofLabor inSeptember 1945.At theendoffiscal year1946itwasabolished . During its period ofoperation itserved tocoordinate thefunctions oftheGovernment inrestoring people topeacetime employment . InFebruary 1946 ,Congress passed theFull Employment Actinwhich it was stated thatthedeclared policy of theFederal Government shall be "touseall practical means...tofoster andpromote ...maximumem ployment ,production ,andpurchasing power .” Toeffect this objective , Con gress established a Council ofEconomic Advisers toassist thePresident inpreparing hisannual economic report on national conditions andFed eral programs affecting economic developments . Italso established a Joint 666947—63—11 153 Economic Committee ofthetwoHouses toguide legislative proposals in volving economic development . The Employment Service wasreturned totheDepartment ofLaborat theendofthewar,after several years intheSocial Security Boardand theWar Manpower Commission . Atthetimeofits transfer itwasadminis tratively independent oftheunemployment insurance function , whichre mained with the Social Security Board . Shortly thereafter : "Ina rider attached totheDepartment ofLaborappropriation bill , Congress provided fora joint Federal -State administration ofthepublic Employment Service after November 15,1946.Management ofthelocal Employment Service offices on thatdatereverted to direction of State government agencies . e a Federal -State e thu s becam mentServic nally izatio , theEmploy “Organ ionand de bleforth e promot entres ponsi l Governm e Federa with th system ieve mentof fices . To ach oflocal employ ntofa Nation -widesystem velopme h and main edtoes tablis entisob ligat alGovernm veth e Feder this objecti ions ntserv iceoperat ;engagein ards employme minimum stand forState tain ainthebest cur ntoftheservices ; obt oveme pment ramdevelo forimpr prog ates e pro mptly toall St ; nceofeac h State and makeitavailabl rent experie tingsystem and ormrepor e; mai ntain a unif istanc e tec hnical ass provid iewand l offices ; rev tionamong loca t informa ngeof labormarke excha s of iture t expend atefunds andaudi ion s of operat ;alloc e St ateplan approv s ofper ivenes s todete rmine effect ration teState ope ; and evalua moneys 4) ce." (1946:163-16 forman Within a year after theendofthewar,thereconversion problem ofem ployment hadbeenvirtually solved : “...Thestream ofdischarged veterans ,which hadreached spectacularl high proportions inearly 1946 ,hadbeenreduced toa trickle .... Vet erans represented thebackbone oftheNation's rise tonewproduction and employment heights .... [The ] vast majority ofthemenandwomenwho hadexchanged service uniforms forcivilian jobs hadbeenabsorbed into gainful employment . "[A big ] task remained tobeaccomplished incementing theveterans ' temporary jobadjustments into permanent employment andindeveloping jobopportunities for the approximately 2,000,000 veterans inschools orcol leges orstill unemployed . ButtheNation ... could look with pride upon whatithadaccomplished . ..." (1947:87-88) InJanuary 1948 the public employment service resumed theplacement of farm workers whentheEmergency FarmSupply Program oftheUnited States Department ofAgriculture wasterminated . TheUSESfarmlabor program wasgiven newimpetus ,providing fortheorganized recruitment ofworkers inlocal areas andfacilitating themovement ofmigratory work erstofarmjobs . Theagreement withtheMexican Government regarding the importation offarmworkers into the United States wasrevised . 1 54 Labo r Statisti cs During thewarthepopulation andthe labor force hadgrown ,experience with theproducts oftheBureau ofLabor Statistics hadestablished such a reputation demands information services that forits hadconsiderably ex panded ,anda substantial number ofnewactivities hadbeeninitiated . These developments suggested further growth rather than a cut . Nevertheless ,by 1948theBureau prewar hadbeencutbackby Congress toits size . As a a result , theextent ,ifnotthequality , oftheBureau's services during the immediate postwar years wassubstantially reduced . TheBureau wasresponsible formaintaining records oftheNation's economic welfare services , andatthis timeofmarkedchange its werein great demand . Its maincontributions wereinthefields ofemployment , wages ,prices , productivity ,andhousing (an especially urgent problem in viewofthelaginhousing asa result ofwar neglect ). Withwhatfacilities andpersonnel ithad , theBureau concentrated on improving its techniques ,andontheservicing oftheother agencies inthe Department ofLabor. Itappointed twoadvisory committees --onerepresenting labor interests , andanother representing employer interests - onthequality oflabor statis tics . Inaddition ,ittookan active partinsupplying dataforuseofthe President's Council ofEconomic Advisers andthecongressional Joint Com mittee ontheEconomic Report ,established tostudy theNation's economic health asindicated intheEmployment Actof1946.Thisact ,asdescribed bythePresident ,hadthefollowing objectives : will employment andopportunity full about that all thefacts “Assurance . periodically fortheuseofall begathered “Assurance ofstability andconsistency inpublic policy ,sothatenter prises canplan better by knowing whattheGovernment intends todo. “Assurance that every government policy andprogram will bepointed to promote maximumproduction andemployment inprivate enterprise . “Assurance that priority will be given todoing those things first which stimulate employment normal most .” (1946 :14) During this period the Bureau completed a major project ofseveral years ?' duration ,namely , a special study ofcity workers 'family budgets . Labor Standards Basically thefunctions oftheLaborStandards Division remained "the sa me in peaceandwaraswhenthey wereestablished in1934. ” Thesefunctions were“topromote industrial safety and health , sound labor legislation andadministration ,andlabor education .” Asstated inthe 1946 annual report ,theDivision served as theSecretary's arminmaintaining harmonious Federal -State relationships ,andinacting 66 asa national clearing house ofsoundexperience throughout thecountry in thefields ofits activity . Itworked tostrengthen State labor departments , 155 andservice labor organizations ,industrial management , civic , andother ..." (194 6:116) groups A pro blemofmajo rsign ifi warwasthemark can iatel erthe ceimmed ed y aft increaseinindustrial accidents: “[Victory ] ended thewartime safety effort . Emergency safety agencies wereterminated . What theexperts feared beganto occur . Industrial accidents started tocreep up. ughits gency tystaff olved ownemer safe hadbeen diss ,theDivision “Altho n jobhasbeentoforg nt's r Stand ards ersio e theGov ernme ofLabo 'reconv t toll ncein imetools to peacet to stem the rising acciden war experie anew . (1946:117) The Bureau concentr 2there fore atedontheprom otion ofsafety prog rams 2 amongtheSt atelabor depar tment s, “whichbyvirtu e ofth eirday-by-day contact s withmana gemen areinthe bestposi t and labor todissemin tion ate sa fety inform andguidan ation cetosmal l employer s.” (1948:71) Thenational conferences onlabor legislation continued asbefore . During thewartherelaxation oflabor laws rather than their repeal oramendment hadbeenconsidered thewiser policy . These laws nowonce again became operative infull measure , andState officials wereinterested inmeeting to exchange viewsand consider improved legislation . The Bureaufounditself swampedwithrequests forinformation and advice on labor legislation problems . TheBureau also sought togive point tolabor legislation byencouraging thedevelopment ofState labor departments adequately equipped toadmin ister thelawsand make them effective : “Thetendency toward placing theresponsibility forthe administration of certain laws affecting theconditions ofemployment inindependent commis outside departments sions theState labor hasresulted inrequests from many State labor commissioners forinformation about a coordinated approach to theadministration oflabor laws . Theyareparticularly interested inlearn ingthe current practices intheother States . “TheBureauhasthe refore plac edsp ecial empha sis...on obta ining up-to date informa onth tion e organi ofthe zation State agencies resp onsib the lefor enforcem entoflaborlawsandon their admi nistra tiveprac tices andpro cedu res.. .." (1948:67) The Bureau continued withitsanalysis andsummarization oflabor legislation asaservice toState administrators andthepublic . A significant development arising outofthewarexperience wastheestab lishment ofaa branchintheBureau“toassist unions and universities inthe training anddevelopment ofcapable union leadership andamembership well informed intherights andresponsibilities ofunionism .” (1946 :126) Itwaspointed outasdesirable "that theunion leadership befully in formed andtechnically trained inthe principles andprocedures ofcollective 2In1948 ,withfewexceptions ,all operating subdivisions oftheDepartment became known asbureaus . 156 bargaining aswell asthe many union andcommunity problems with which they areconfronted .” (1946 :127) movement wasintended tobe oneof“setting role inthis TheBureau's .” ofinformation foranexchange house asa clearing andacting standards . Spe forthis work amount a small appropriated : 126) Congress (1946 andextension “toaidinthedevelopment wastobeused cifically ,themoney ,schools , ,universities with unions incooperation education standards oflabor activities ; to educational inlabor engaged agencies andother civic groups ; andto experience andmethods house forsuccessful a clearing establish educational andprivate topublic uponrequest assistance render technical :85) ” (1947 andothers .... programs ,unions ,community institutions However ,theappropriation wasnotcontinued insubsequent years . By congressional action thechild labor program ,except workon child labor legislation ,wasseparated from thegeneral labor standards program of theBureau ,andtransferred toanewly created child labor branch oftheWage andHour Division . In 1948theSecretary established a UnionRegistration Division inthe Bureau ofLaborStandards tomeettherequirements oftheLaborManage mentRelations Actconcerning the filing ofunion financial andorganizational data . Theworkofthis division wasclosely coordinated with that oftheNa tional Labor Relations Board . (1949 :72–73 ) W ome n Workers Thewarbrought about tremendous changes inthestatus ofwomeninthe Nation's labor force . Withwar's end ,manywomenretired fromthelabor force ,butalso manyremained . Now a larger proportion weremarried . ageofwomen workers Now the average had increased . Now farmore of themwereinthelabor market tosupport themselves ortheir dependents . (1947 :104–105 ) Charged with the duty ofpromoting the welfare ofwomen workers ,the Women's Bureau waschallenged with the major problem ofwhat washappening towomenworkers inthe reconversion period : “... Traditionally aneconomically disadvantaged segment ofthework ing population ,women -manyofwhomcarried the double responsibility of jobandhomemaking ,often unaided — have beenthehardest hit bytheloss of wartime wages andincreased cost ofliving ...." (1946 :208–209 ) Thefirst order ofbusiness fortheBureau ,then ,wastourge theestablish mentofaa minimumwagelevel . Towardthis objective itsought toestablish theprinciple ofequal payforequal work . ... Themostobvious means ofprotecting those millions ofwomennot covered byFLSA,conspicuously those inintrastate trade andservice indus tries ,isthrough alegal floor towages .” (1946 :209) . Theywere suchlegislation werehelped tofurther A numberofStates bill ,though a Federal paylegislation ofequal inthewording also helped Congress . topass having failed thesamepurpose 157 “Performance bywomenofmen's workfocused attention during thewar onwomen's rates ofpayfor such work . Ofcontinuing direct concern toall working womenarediscriminatory payrates notonly towomenperforming jobs identical tothose ofmenbutalso towomenwhose jobs though different from those ofmen,nevertheless contribute workofcomparable orequal value . An equitable determination ofthevalue ofthejobrequires that thewage rate beset without reference tothesexoftheworker . “Theelimination ofwageinequities ,amongwhich iswagediscrimination against women ,isafundamental problem confronting manyindustries .... " a (1947 :109) Closely related tolabor legislation isthecomplex oflaws affecting civil andpolitical rights . Women'swelfare isinfluenced "by their right topar ticipate inthefunctioning ofgovernment (suchasfranchise ,public office , jury duty ,taxliability );bytheir special position insociety arising from the family relationship (husband andwife ,parent andchild ,responsibility for family support );andbytheir right toacquire ,hold ,anddispose ofproperty , tomakecontracts ofvarious types ,andtocontrol their individual earnings .” factors sought (1947 :112 ) These theBureau toimprove . Inlarge measure this aspect oftheBureau's workrelating towomen's rights tied inwith its participation intheendeavors ofinternational agencies ,such astheCommission onHuman Rights ,theInternational LaborOrganization , andthe United Nations Commission onthe Status ofWomen,toimprove the conditions ofwomen inall countries oftheworld . Ata national conference in1948 thefollowing recommendations were endorsed : "Granting towomenworkers theopportunity forpart -timeworkasan accepted practice . "Consideration asapublic policy ofthe need for grants for maternity under proper safeguards . "Improvement ofthestatus ofhousehold workers andthestandards for their working conditions ,andtheprovision ona dignified well -paidbasis for trained womenwhoeither onawholeorpart -time basis canqualify asfamily workersand domestic assistants . “Encouragement towomenmembers toparticipate inthe councils ofunion management ,andallowance towomenastrade -union members offull rights ofmembership “Development ofsecurity andsufficiency ofincome ,provision formater nity leave ,provisions forcare ofyoung children ofworking mothers ,and consideration ofother special problems that mayconfront womenworkers . providing legislation standards ofworkunder ofadequate “Establishment on conditions ,andhealthful ,equal pay hours wage ,maximum for minimum thejob. "Greater participation bywomenincivic andpolitical life ,both local and national .” (1948:102) 158 Child Welfare 3 Withthefiscal year 1946 ,theChildren's Bureau completed 34years of service inthe Department ofLabor . Under the Reorganization Plan of1946 , theBureau wastransferred totheFederal Security Agency ,except forthe Industrial Division andtheBureau's functions relating tochild laborad ministration undertheFairLaborStandards Act. The Industrial Division wastransferred intheDepartment ofLabortotheDivision ofLaborStand ards. The1946annual report oftheChief oftheChildren's Bureau presents a historical summary ofits work ,anda plea forcontinuation ofa coordi nated program for thewelfare ofchildren andyouth . TheDirector ended herreport ofthat year with these words : ... There mustbeno barriers ofrace ,color ,creed ,or economic status between a child andtheservice required forhishealth andfull develop ment . .” (1946 :104) Apprenticeship and Training TheApprentice -Training Service ,which hadbeentransferred fromthe Department ofLabor totheFederal Security Agency inApril 1942 , and thence totheWar Manpower Commission inSeptember 1942 , wasre turned totheDepartment ofLabor inSeptember 1945 . Its maintask during thereconversion period wastorevive andstrengthen theapprenticeship system inthebuilding trades . Notonly wasthere a serious shortage ofhousing ,butalso manyoftheyounger veterans were seeking employment inthebuilding trades where wages werehigher than inmanufacturing . In coll abora tionwithuni ons and contra ctorassocia tions , ways were deve to speed loped uptrai ning ,such asadvanc ingcre ditintheappre ntice ship per iodforrelat edexperie ncegai nedwhile inthearm edservice sorat vocat school ional ,andprovidi ngbegi nning appren ,inthebric tices klayin g tra defor exampl e, withaninte practica nsive l cours e inthe elemen tsofthe tradewhileinthefi rst fewmonthsoftrainin g. Standards approved by national representatives oftheunions andem ployers associations werepublished fora number oftrades , again chiefly industry intheconstruction . And programs forthepromotion ofappren . ticeship inmajorindustries throughout thecountry weredeveloped . A system fortherecording ofallapprenticeship contracts andthestatistical analysis ofapprenticeship agreements wasdeveloped incooperation with apprenticeship agencies the State . A short history of theChildren's Bureaufrom1903to1955ispresented in"Four Decades ofAction forChildren ,” U.S.Department ofHealth , Education ,andWelfare , Children's Bureau publication No.358 , Government Printing Office , 1956.Seealso "History ofFederal Regulation ofChild Labor ,”U.S. Department ofLabor ,Bureau of LaborStandards ,Leaflet No.5,1959 . 159 , the withapprenticeship dealing ofallagencies Fortheinformation of , appointed by theSecretary Committee on Apprenticeship Federal ": "criteria ofapprenticeability thefollowing ,published Labor "An apprenticeable occupation isone: “1.Whichcustomarily hasbeenlearned ina practical way through training onthejob; “2.Whichisclearly identified andcommonly recognized throughout the industry ; "3.Whichrequires 4,000 ormorehours ofworkexperience tolearn ; “4.Whichrequires related instruction tosupplement thework experi ence(144hours ofsuch instruction during each year oftheapprenticeship isusually considered theminimum); “5.Whichisnotmerely part ofan occupation already recognized as apprenticeable bytheFederal Committee onApprenticeship ; “6.Whichinvolves thedevelopment ofskill sufficiently broad tobe ap plicable inlike occupations throughout anindustry , rather thanofrestricted application totheproducts ofonecompany ; “7.Whichdoes notfall inanyofthefollowing categories : (a) Selling , retailing ,orsimilar occupations inthedistributive field , (b) Managerial occupations ,(c) Clerical occupations ,(d) Professional orsemiprofessional occupations (this designation covers occupations forwhich entrance re quirements customarily include education ofcollege level ),(e) Agricultural occupations (this designation includes those engaged inthegrowing of crops , fruits , nuts , etc. , andtheraising of livestock , poultry , etc. ).” (1947:44-45) InternationalLabor Affairs The expanding role oftheUnited States inworldaffairs andtheever increasing importance oflabor inthepolitical ,economic ,andsocial life offoreign countries create conditions andproblems whichmakeexpert knowledge offoreign labor affairs vitally important totheGovernment and thepeople oftheUnited States . These developments were reflected intheexpanded international activities oftheDepartment ofLabor . In1947all international activities oftheDe partment wereplaced underthedirection of one of thenewlyestablished positions ofAssistant Secretary ofLabor . “ Thusthere wasestablished ,within theOffice oftheSecretary , a small high -level staff toformulate thepolicies oftheDepartment oninternational labor affairs ,tocoordinate andsupervise all international activities ofthe primary various bureaus andoffices oftheDepartment ,andtoprovide liaison withother agencies oftheGovernment , theCongress ,theAmerican labor movement , and thepublic ingeneral on international labor matters ." (1948:11) Secretary Schwellenbach appointed a Trade UnionAdvisory Committee onInternational Affairs ,composed oftopofficials oftheAmerican Federa 160 tion ofLabor ,theCongress ofIndustrial Organizations ,theRailway Labor Executives 'Association ,andtheBrotherhoods ofLocomotive Engineers and Railroad Trainmen. Advisers weresupplied asneeded tovarious international bodies inter ested inproblems affecting labor . Delegates attended meetings oftheIn ternational Labor Organization . TheDepartment also participated invarious governmental organizations intheUnited States dealing with foreign affairs inwhich labor problems wereinvolved . AstheSecretary stated : “ Abroad andfirm foundation hasbeen laid forcarrying outtheinterna tional responsibilities oftheDepartment ofLabor . TheCongress ,theAd ministration ,theDepartment ofLabor ,andtheAmerican people arefully aware that theeconomic andsocial activities ofworking menandwomen theworld over areanessential part ofthelife ofthemodern community . In a great many countries , labor exerts a strong and direct influence on domestic andinternational policies . TheDepartment ofLabor isthat agency oftheGovernment which hastheprimary responsibility forpresenting to theAmerican people ,theGovernment ,andthelabor movement analyses and information concerning international labor affairs . ..." (1947:16) O Vetera ns' Reemployment Rights edorhavebeenin e enlist onswhohav rvists ,pers erans ,rese igible vet El itary ected formil minedandrej nswho havebeenexa ted duc , and perso servicemay beenti tled to reemp loyme ntrights . General lyspea king , pro vid edtheysatis fyce rtain legal requir ,they ements ar e entitle d tothe job inwhichtheywer eemploy edbefore they ent ered milita ryse rvice ,orinwhic h they wouldhavebeenemploy edhadthey notentered theArmedForces ,orto oneequ altoitinseni ority ,status ,andpay. Todetermine what these rights maybe,theBureau ofVeterans 'Reemploy mentRights wasestablished byCongress during thewar. InMarch1947 theBureau wastransferred totheDepartment ofLabor . Although immediately after thewarthemainproblem encountered bythe Bureau wasthat ofhelping returned veterans ingetting backtheir oldjobs , toward theendofthereconversion period thenature oftheproblem shifted to"morecomplex questions ofseniority ,improper discharge ,vacation pay , promotions ,transfers ,status ,andhours ofwork ." (1948 :82) Mostofthecases involved rights after reinstatement : “Theimportance ofthese cases toveterans ,employers ,andlabor organiza tions isshown bythelarge number ofveterans whomaybeaffected bysettle mentofa single case . Onevacation -rights case resulted intheextension of these benefits toseveral hundred veterans hired by thesameemployer . A single caseofseniority rights will often involve allunionagreements ina > particular industry .” (1948 :82) TheBureau sought toresolve problems through amicable settlement . In connection negotiators extensively this itusedtheassistance ofvolunteer . 161 Few cases reached thecourts . Question -and -answer handbooks weremade available toservicemen aswell astoagencies andvolunteers cooperating with theBureau . A great deal ofpreventive workwasdonethrough con sultative service toemployers andunions . Departmental Library Although theorganic actoftheDepartment ofLaborconsolidated the then existing libraries oftheBureau ofLabor Statistics andtheChildren's Bureau ,theactual consolidation didnottake place until 1917 ,whenspace facilities becameavailable . At thattimethecollection totaled lessthan 55,000 volumes . These , however ,hadbeenmostcarefully selected , andin manycases represented material notelsewhere available . Within 10years thecollection hadincreased toover118,000 volumes , inaddition toextensive subject files ofsmall pamphlets , circulars , and mimeographed reports . Itthen wasreceiving over 1,800 labor ,statistical , andsocial welfare journals from46 different countries . Withits wealth ofreports ofspecial investigations byboth official andprivate organizations covering a widerange ofproblems connected withlabor andchild welfare , itcametobegenerally recognized asoneofthe most important collections of research material inthesocial andeconomic sciences inthe country . Many acquisitions were obtained through library exchanges with other departments , private organizations ,andforeign countries . Ithasmaintained continuously theaimofbeing a selective library ,andisofparticular help tothebureaus intheDepartment . Itisalso available asa public reference library . (1927 :11) In1947 ,with thetransfer oftheChildren's Bureau totheSocial Security Administration ,some7,000 volumes were transferred outoftheDepartment . By thattime , however , thelibrary had increased tomorethan300,000 volumes ,85cases ofpamphlets ,etc. ,andabout 500rolls offilm recording foreign periodicals . Thefile ofpublications oflabor organizations , going back inmanyinstances tothe formation ofthe union ,wasprobably unique in itscompleteness . Together withother unionmaterials itrepresented a detailed documentary history oftheorganized labor movement intheUnited States . (1947:26–28) 162 RECONVERSION ANDKOREA 1949– 195 3 O S RECONVERSION AND KOREA 1949–53 An anticipated postwar slump ofthelate forties didnotcometopass . Infact ,a construction andmanufacturing boomstarted soonafter wartime restrictions werelifted ,andAmericans soonhadmorethanthe60 million jobs once predicted byformer Vice President Henry Wallace . Inthis period ofnational growth ,theNation wassaddened bytheuntimely death ofSecretary Schwellenbach inJune1948 . To take hisplace intheCabinet ,President TrumannamedMaurice J. Tobin ,a former mayorofBoston andgovernor ofMassachusetts , a man well -knownby labor andindustry alike . Secretary Tobin's major task attheonset ofhisadministration wasone ofcentralizing andfirming up a comparatively small departmental organi zation. Attheendoffiscal 1948 ,theDepartment ofLabor haddropped toatotal of4,332 employees throughout theNation - except fora period in1940 , thesmallest total since beforethedepression . Despite thefact that thenumberofits functions hadincreased through thedepression andthewar,manyprograms hadbeentransferred toother departments oftheGovernment ,orhadbeenestablished asseparate and independent administrative organizations . A need for athorough review ofthe place andfunctions oftheDepartment executive ofLaborasa branch oftheFederal powerwasindicated . Secretary Tobin determined torebuild theDepartment toa strength com mensurate with its assignment fromCongress . Aspart ofhispredecessor's last annual report ,hewrote : “Thetrend toward dispersing thelabor functions oftheFederal Govern menthasbeenopposed by theDepartment ofLaborasadministratively unsound. “Alllabor functions should ,asfar aspracticable ,beinthe Department ofLabor. “TheDepartment ofLabor supported the transfer oftheChildren's Bureau Security Agency urged totheFederal in1946butvigorously . .. perma nently placing theUnited States Employment Service intheDepartment of Labor andtransferring tothe Department theBureau ofEmployment Se curity ofthe Federal Security Agency . These agencies ,which assist workers 165 ingetting jobs andemployers inobtaining workers andalso administer the Federal function oftheunemployment compensation system ,areprimarily concerned with thelabor force ,manpower ,andproblems ofemployment . “These are appropriately within the statutory function ofthe Department ofLabor ,andthefunctions ofthese agencies should becoordinated with other functions Department labor bybeing placed inthis ." (1948 :5) He pointed outthat theappropriations fortheremaining bureaus inthe Department hadbeen cut toanalarming degree ,prohibiting their continuing their regular functions : “Oneofthemost damaging trends inGovernment during the past 2 years hasbeenthefalse economy practiced incutting appropriations forcarrying outtheexisting functions oftheDepartment ofLabor .” (1948 :5) On topofthis ,inJuly1948 ,theEmployment Service wastransferred to theFederal Security Agency . InFebruary 1949 the Commission onOrganization ofthe Executive Branch oftheGovernment submitted a report “inwhich itstated that anyeffort to improve theorganization andadministration oftheGovernment mustcreate a moreorderly grouping ofthefunctions oftheGovernment into majorde partments andagencies underthePresident .'” (1949:7) > Ina later report ontheDepartment ofLabor theCommission "spoke of theDepartment ashaving been'steadily denuded offunctions andofthe ‘growing tendency toset upspecialized labor services outside oftheDepart ment... thuscausing a diffusion oflabor functions throughout theGov ernment. Thereport concluded that theDepartment hadlost muchofits significance andshould have transferred toitcertain agencies . (1949 :8) Recommended for transfer tothe Department were :Bureau ofEmployees ? Compensation ; Employees 'Compensation Appeals Board ;Bureau ofEm ployment Security ,including bothUnited States Employment Service and Unemployment Insurance Service ; Selective Service System ; enforcement of laborstandards in Governmentcontracts ; determination of minimum wages forseamen ;Division ofIndustrial Hygiene ; and"prevailing wage " research (tobeconducted byBureau ofLabor Statistics ). TheCommission madeno recommendation regarding theConciliation Service ,because ,asitsaid ,theCongress “is engaged inrevising labor poli cies which will affect ”this agency . TheSecretary thought , however ,that it ,too ,should bebrought back into theDepartment . Within thenext year ,according toSecretary Tobin's report for1950 ,the following transfers hadbeen madetotheDepartment ofLabor :Bureau of Employment Security (USES andUI);Bureau ofEmployees 'Compensation andEmployees 'Compensation Appeals Board ;andauthority tocoordinate andenforce legislation onwages andhours onfederally financed orassisted construction projects . (1950 :9–10 ) A significant addition wasthetransfer totheSecretary ofLaborofall functions ofall other officers ,employees , andagencies oftheDepartment of Labor . This decision ,under Reorganization Plan No.6 of1950 ,madeall 166 bureau chiefs responsible directly totheSecretary . Thus ,for example ,posi tions formerly held ascommissions fromthePresident were nowplaced ad ministratively under theSecretary's control . Thesameplan established the position ofAdministrative Assistant Secretary ofLabor . TheSecretary urgedduring this yearthat theDepartment also begiven jurisdiction over theestablishment ofwagerates for all Federal employees in theungraded andunclassified groups . Withtheoutbreak oftheKorean war,thecenter ofinterest shifted ,sothat nothing further wasaccomplished inreorganization during this period . Sev eral items remained ,therefore ,asunfinished business . Manpower Apart fromtherebuilding oftheDepartment , which , fromthepoint of view ofits history ,wasofimmediate concern ,the major development during this period from 1948 to1953 wasthe Korean conflict andits implications for labor intheUnited States . Starting asaninternational police action ,theconflict began inJune1950 , butquickly swelled tomajor proportions involving the armed manpower and full war-production activities oftheUnited States . Thequestions regarding manpower raised atthat time havepersisted inoneformoranother ever since ,andhavebeendirectly related totheinternational situation . “Thenewsituation wasimposed onaneconomy which ,inthemiddle of 1950 ,wasutilizing a great manyofits resources atornear capacity . The gross national product [was ] higher than atanyprevious timeinhistory . Production ofsteel ,automobiles ,andhouses wassetting newrecords . Non agricultural employment wasneartheall -timehighfortheseason ,and unemployment wasbecoming less ofa problem . Consumer incomes and expenditures werealso atrecord levels andprices ofmanyimportant com modities werebeginning torise .” (1950 :1) , period ,therefore reports forthis partoftheSecretary's A substantial which ourem problems manpower andother themostsignificant reflects have been called Government unions ,andthe andtheir ployers ,ourworkers .” (1951 :ix) ofmobilization the requirements tomeet tosolve inorder upon wereto ofLabor ,theproblems ofview oftheDepartment point Fromthe 9 available and all ofthe skills labor force ,atilizing largest possible develop the loss ofman-hours ;tokeep toaminimum the where needed training providing by giv theworkers turnover ;tostrengthen andlabor duetoworkstoppages ofworking standards security andhigh ofeconomic ingthemtheassurance States in oftheUnited theintegrity conditions ;andtomaintain andliving communism . its fight against Allmanpower activities oftheDepartment werecoordinated through a single administrative head . Acting inaccord withtheninemajorpolicy objectives published bytheNational Manpower Policy Committee ofthe Office ofDefense Mobilization ,set upbythePresident toplan overall mobi 167 concentrated ontheman ,theDepartment policies lization fortheNation needs . production civilian anddefense foressential powerprogram Itgavespecial attention tothetraining anduseofworkers having specialized skills essential todefense mobilization . Itsought tocreate a demandforlabor through decisions affecting produc inlabor -surplus areas tion ,procurement ,andthelocation offacilities andmaterials . Thepublic employment offices wererecruiting morepeople andencouraging themto transfer tojobs where they could contribute moretothedefense effort . By intensive programs ofrecruitment ,training , upgrading ,andutilization , it relieved manpowershortages incritical occupations , and sought tomeet thespecial manpower requirements ofmilitary -production industries . It stimulated programs ofindustrial safety andhealth . Statistics regarding prices andwages weremadeavailable tothestabilization boards . Numerous studies andreports weremadeonspecial manpower problems . Datafor useintheNation's international programs wereincontinuous preparation . Inaddition ,considerable workwasdonetoprovide labor attachés abroad withinformation useful tothemincountering Communist propaganda . (1952 :4-5) Specifically ,theadministration andoperation ofthemanpower mobiliza tion program weredeveloped onthefollowing basic policies : “ (1) The sizeof theArmed Forceswillbe determined in accordance with requirements tomeet strategic plans with full information ontheman powerrequirements fordefense production , agriculture ,civil defense , and essential purposes other . ed ingcritic alskill s will tribut y ofpersons bedis possess “ (2) Thesuppl bute s ina mann er whichwill contri aryand civ ilian tivitie among milit ac ces tive e ArmedFor ation gram rela needofth ttoth emobiliz pro ,andthe mos t s willbe takenintoaccountinthe recrui ialcivi lianactivitie and ofessent als ionofindividu ves uals l-up ofreser ,andtheinduct ,thecal mentofindivid under Selective Service . “(3) Provision will bemadefordeferments frommilitary service ofa sufficient numberof individuals in educational and training institutions toprovide a continuing supply ofprofessional andhighly skilled man power . “ (4) Recruitment , placement , distribution , training , andutilization of civilian labor primarily measures the force will bebased uponvoluntary for manpowermobilization . “ (5) Government manpower controls will beusedonlywhenandto theextent they arenecessary toassure successful execution ofthemobiliza . tion program. “ (6) Manpowerprograms will be geared totheneeds andproblems of specific areas . “(7) Fullusewillbe made of domest ic manpower resourc es bef ore bringin . ginforei gnworkers 168 “(8) Whenever feasible , production facilities andcontracts will be al located atthesources oflabor supply inpreference tomoving thelabor supply . “(9) Thefull understanding andassistance oflabor organizations , em ployer associations ,professional societies ,civic andcommunity groups ,and State andlocal governments will besought incarrying outmanpower func tions ." (1951:24–25) n armis tice lksin s quiet eddown aft erthe Korea ta aryope ration As milit d. Someofthe groun amrece dedint otheback progr 3,sothemanpower 195 ngathigh er tion sed theneedforeduca and traini stions que whichithadrai ies onoftheprodu ctive gniti workcapacit re;theneed for reco levels than befo ion's tygrou psaspartoftheNat work rs,women,andminori worke of older ional r nsiveprog ramofinternat labo prehe force ; the needfora more com oped d,expla ined . d tobeunde rstoo ,and devel tions seremaine rela — the International Labor Affairs Writing before theoutbreak oftheKorean War, andreferring toWorld War II,theSecretary commented ontheinternational relations aspects ofthe Department's work: “Oneofthemoststriking developments since thewarhasbeen theemer gence oflabor asa majorpolitical factor throughout theworld . InWestern Europe ,for example ,labor parties play major roles inmanycoalition govern ments ,andinsomecases there arelabor governments . Theimportance of labor abroad politically , coupled with its tremendous social andeconomic significance , makesexpert knowledge offoreign labor developments an essential element intheconduct ofUnited States foreign policies . Interna tional affairs canno longer beconsidered asseparate anddistinct from domestic affairs ; thetwoareinseparable . Domestic policies havea direct bearing onforeign affairs andconversely foreign developments affect the domestic situation . Consequently , theDepartment ofLabor ,which isre sponsible for the labor policies oftheUnited States Government ,isconcerned > withtheinternational as wellasthedomestic aspects oflaboraffairs ." (1949:14) Fouryears later ,with fuller appreciation oftheCommunist menace ,and mindful change events oftherapid ofrecent ,hewrote : "Today's growing appreciation ofthevital significance ofthelabor factor inourcountry's foreign relations isofsurprisingly recent origin . Thefirst American attaché labor wasappointed but10years ago. Onlyin1946was anassistant secretary appointed toassume responsibility for theinternational activities oftheDepartment ofLabor , andin1947theOffice of Interna tional LaborAffairs wasestablished . , affairs hasexpanded uponforeign attention tolabor's impact “As this ininternational andactivities functions however , sohavetheDepartment's 666947-63-12 169 of years . Thepersistence inrecent invariety andscope affairs grown both around labor communismtofree international ofSoviet -dominated thethreat inproviding ofthe Department accented the role naturally world hasvery the :6) policy advice .... ” (1953 Inthe Department itself ,problems related tothese matters were handled by theOffice ofInternational LaborAffairs , located intheOffice oftheSecre tary ofLabor . A brief butrelevant description ofthe workofthis Office was presented intheannual report for1952 : "...theLabor Department ,with thecooperation ofother Federal Depart ments ,prepared theofficial papers setting forth theUnited States Govern ment's point ofview for use at... meetings ofthe International Labor Organ ization ,andarranged for theselection ofworker ,employer ,andGovernment representatives those meetings toattend . “Of recent years theUnited States Government hasadded toits foreign anddiplomatic service a special group ofmentrained inlabor problems . These attachés embassies arethelabor ,assigned tomanyofourimportant , whokeep the United States Government informed onforeign labor situations . worked onthe Department jointly Department andtheState “TheLabor foreign labor programintheForeign development oftheGovernment's Service . “ TheDepartment ofLabor keeps abreast ofdevelopments intheinter national trade -union activities in both the freeand the Communist-domi. nated sections ofthelabor movement ,andsupplies information asneeded byother government agencies inthe United States . Italso does a great deal tokeep non-Communist workingmen andworkingmen's organizations abroad informed conditions inquiries onlabor intheUnited States . Some30,000 fromabroad wereanswered concerning labor -management andother labor problems andconditions intheUnited States . “Laborexperts areselected bytheDepartment andsent abroad toadvise foreign groups on suchthings asindustrial training , productivity , labor statistics ,labor lawadministration , and industrial safety . ... Observers andtrainees from other countries arebrought into this country tolearn about labor intheUnited States .... This program iscarried on through the various offices andbureaus oftheDepartment . “TheDepartment also participated intheachievement ofa revised trade . ofits regular responsibilities agreement : ..aspart under the Trade Agree ments Act . "Inall ofthis worktheDepartment hasreceived excellent cooperation fromtrade unions ,employers ,universities ,government agencies ,andinter ested individuals intheUnited States . “The Secretary ofLabor isadvised oninternational labor affairs by a committee representing theAmerican Federation ofLabor ,theCongress of Industrial Organizations , andtheRailroad Brotherhoods .” (1952 :19-21 ) 170 EmploymentSecurity On July1, 1948 , “ a rider toan appropriation bill stripped theDepart mentoffurther functions byeffecting thetransfer oftheUnited States Em ployment Service tothe Federal Security Agency .” (1949 :7) There theUSESwastied administratively totheUnemployment Insur ance Service ,towhich inoperating details itisclosely related . InAugust 1949 ,however ,under theGovernment's reorganization plans ,thetwoagen cies were transferred totheDepartment ofLabor ,where they became iden Security tified astheBureau ofEmployment . A thorough review oftheir services andfunctions wasmadebytheBureau's Federal Advisory Council ,a public bodyappointed bytheSecretary toad vise onmatters connected withtheworkofthis Bureau : "... TheCouncil reviewed theBureau's employment service policies andprograms withrespect tocommunity employment planning , veteran placement problems ,the collection anduseoflabor -market information ,em ployer relations andjobdevelopments ,andtheemployment ofMexican na tionals inagriculture . Itsmajorattention , however , was directed tothe consideration ofthelegislative proposals onunemployment insurance which hadbeendeveloped bytheSecretary ofLabor . TheCouncil appointed a subcommittee tomakea comprehensive study oftheaccomplishments ofthe present unemployment insurance program ,its purposes ,andits shortcom ings . TheCouncil's conclusions included recommendations forexten . sion ofcoverage toemployers ofoneormorepersons , increases inthe amount severity andduration ofbenefits ,less insomedisqualification pro visions ,better protection ofandprompter payment tointerstate workers , earmarking oftheFederal unemployment taxcollections foradministrative costs andFederal assistance toStates whosebenefit funds runlow. ... >> (1950 :113–114 ) Toprevent disruption ofthe labor market asaresult ofthe commencement ofmilitary activities , theSecretary ofLaborappealed todefense produc tion employers toadopt the following hiring practices : "1.Prompt consultation with the local office manager oftheState employ mentservice regarding immediate andanticipated manpower needs . . “2.Obtain fromthelocal office manager oftheState employment service all available pertinent information concerning thelabor market situation . "3.Examine manpower requirements carefully inorder toassure that the numbers requested specifications ,thetimeneeded ,andtheoccupational are realistic . “4.Makefull useoflocally available manpower before taking action to recruit workers fromoutside thecommunity . Ifoutside recruitment does be comenecessary ,the local State employment office can ,through anestablished Nation -widesystem oforderly clearance , assist inlocating theworkers re quired . However ,asanaidinavoiding outside recruitment ,thelocal State employment service office maybehelpful concerning job dilution ,upgrading , training andin-plant . 171 “5.Review carefully with the local office manager ofthe State employment service themanpower situation before undertaking advertising for purposes advertising becomes necessary ofrecruitment ofworkers . Intheevent that , itisurged that such action becoordinated with theactivities ofthelocal State employment service office .” (1951 :31-32 ) TheSecretary also urged that “thefollowing disruptive hiring practices ” be avoided : “1.Hiring workers fromoutside the community before full useismadeof locally qualified manpower andavailable . “2.Pirating workers fromother essential activities . indiscriminatingly "3.Advertising formanpower . “4.Establishing specifications forworkers whicharehigher thanthe minimumrequirements ofthework . “5.Hiring agreater number ofworkers than needed orthan canbereadily a absorbed within areasonable period oftime .” (1951: 32) TheFederal -State system ofpublic employment service wasoverhauled and strengthened tomeettheneeds oftheemergency . Thestaff oftheFederal office wassubstantially increased . employ wasproviding problems atthis time biggest OneoftheBureau's ,of veterans wereover19million . In1950there forveterans mentservices 2 million the year nearly WarII . During were fromWorld whom15million , and about i n finding jobs for help employment service tothepublic applied dis attention wasgiven made . Special were million veteran placements 1.2 oftheUSES cooperated Employment Service ; theVeterans abled veterans Handi ofthePhysically on Employment Committee withthePresident's . (1950 :121) ofEducation service oftheOffice capped andtherehabilitation Farm placement was another majoractivity , requiring special services . During placements reported 1950 ,nearly 9million farm were . “Special programs toencourage optimum utilization ofourmigratory labor force ofseveral million persons werereemphasized throughout this period . Interstate information stations were operated seasonally atstrategic locations onprincipal highways commonly traveled bythese workers asthey movebetween crop areas .... -production “Thesystem for exchanging timely andaccurate crop andlabor market in formation between States andproduction areas through useofbulletins and wire communications wasimproved ...” (1950 :122–123 ) 1 Labor Statistics Oneofthe toughest problems faced bytheGovernment during thedefense period following theoutbreak oftheKorean War,andduring the subsequent period whenwartension wasrelaxed ,wastheproblem ofstabilization :the stabilization ofmanpower ,thestabilization ofwages ,thestabilization of prices ,andofrents . Inthis work , inwhich ,before enforcement could 2 172 proceed ,thefacts ofthecase wereneeded ,theBureau ofLabor Statistics played animportant part . "Facts bearing onthestabilization ofprices andwages havereceived more attention tabulations than usual . Manyspecial andreports wereprepared for Stabilization ceilings theuseoftheOffice of Price insetting price and developing material pricing policies . . .. “Regional WageStabilization Boards wereprovided withinformation concerning theprobable effects ofproposed wageincreases andfringe benefits , and of wagedeterminations on special manpowerrecruitment problems . . numerous prepared , theDepartment program “Aspart ofthedefense , requirements andsupply manpower reports -statistics ontheNation's labor . andindustries tocritical occupations reference withspecial . “Manpower estimates ofvarious kinds were provided attherequest ofthe Defense Manpower Administration ,theSelective Service ,theNational Pro duction Authority ,theJoint Committee ontheEconomic Report ,theNational Security Resources Board , and theWage Stabilization Board .. . > (1952 :6–7) theBureauwas keptbusy: controls wererelaxed Even after “Although expiration ofcontrols affected thevolume ofspecial workper formed bytheBureau ,defense andmobilization agencies andtheEconomic Adviser tothePresident continued tomake extensive useof theBureau's fact -finding services ,particularly those relating toprices ,wages ,employment , andproductivity ... (1953:57) Amongtheseveral newprojects undertaken bytheBureau during this period ,mention should bemadeoftheconsiderable expansion andimprove mentofthecontinuous study ofconstruction statistics ,a substantial revision oftheConsumer Price Index ,anda moreprecise andextensive study of productivity ,with special development ofinterindustry relations intheuseof laborand materials . Wages and Hours InOctober 1949thePresident signed thefirst major amendment tothe Fair Labor Standards Act . This involved major changes intheact . Asthe annual report stated : “... Inmanyrespects ,thechanges inthelawareassignificant asthe provisions oftheoriginal lawitself . Theinterpretative ,regulatory ,policy , procedural , administrative , andoperational aspects oftheamendments are. . . far -reaching . .. . (1950 :193) Thechanges increased thestatutory minimum wageto75cents anhour , strengthened thechild -labor provisions ,authorized theDepartment ofLabor tosupervise wagepayments andtosueinbehalf ofemployees incaseof default ,andclarified the overtime provisions . Thechanges madenecessary certain adjustments inthe Department's program andincreased the workload . Therise inprices during theKoreanwar period madethis advance in 173 theFederal minimum wagenecessary . Italso increased tremendously the numberofsupply contracts withtheFederal Government , andsoincreased theamount ofworkneeded intheadministration oftheWalsh -Healey Pub licContracts Act: “As moreandmoreoftheNation's producers undertake thesupplying of Federal Government needs ,theimportance oftheWalsh -Healey Actwill increase . Firmsthathad discontinued workfortheGovernment after World War IIwill again have employees within theact's protection asthey resumeproduction forFederal agencies . Otherplants thathavenever supplied theGovernment ,including manynewfirms ,will find itnecessary forthefirst timetoobserve theact's labor standards ,iftheywanttoobtain awards ofcontracts .” (1950 :257) Labor Stand ards Withtheonset oftheKorean conf lict ,theDepart mentpublish edapol icy state onstandar ment ds,whichwasrecomme ndedbya confere nceofSta te laborcommi ,totheeff ssion ers ectthat"the rebe no gener alrelaxati onof lab or standa rdsfor themob ilizat ionemergency . If the time comes when thena uir icati tio ens rlyreq es some modif naldef e clea on of labor ref y unde r ca ulsafeg uar sta uldbe permitt dsandfor nda edonl rds,suchsho tempor ds.” (1951:62) ary perio Thepolicy statement covered thefollowing fields : “Overtime pay,hours formaximumproduction ,agricultural manpower ,relaxation oflabor laws , employment ofschool -ageyouth ,child labor onmilitary installations ,and employment ofthe physically handicapped .” (1952:70) To promote industrial safety ,theDepartment planned andcoordinated theactivities ofthePresident's Conference on Industrial Safety ,a confer encewhichhasbeenheldevery 2 years since . “... Outofthisconference ,thefirst suchassembly everconvened , camea “call toaction 'bytheStates tohold similar Governors 'conferences onindustrial safety ,toreview andadapt thenational program forapplica tion totheworkplaces oftheland . Forparticipants atthePresident's meeting recognized notonly the legal responsibility butthe greater opportu nity oftheStates toreach thethousands ofsmaller establishments where at least 70percent ofall workaccidents occur . (1949:60) Transferred fromtheWage andHourandPublic Contracts Divisions by theSecretary ofLabor under authorization fromCongress ,thechild labor research andyouth employment programs werereturned totheBureau of Labor Standards provisions in1950.Enforcement ofthechild labor ofthe FairLaborStandards Act,however ,remained intheWage andHourand Public Contracts Divisions . (1950 :149) and tochildren ofservice 'program “The BureauofLaborStandards em frombeing tokeepchildren . Itseeks hastwoaims workers young with badwork jobs ,orinjobs anage ,inunsuitable attooyoung ployed ofyouth theopportunities forwaystoimprove . Itsearches ingconditions 174 forsuitable employment when theyareoldenoughand readyfor work. 9 . (1950 :155) A problem faced bytheDepartment atabout this time wasthefact that "young men arebeing rejected by someemployers because they may be liable formilitary service within a short period oftime . Yetmosthigh school graduates arelikely tohave 6 months toa year ormorebefore being called toservice .” (1951 :41) during World ,wasthat oftheabove problem ,buttheobverse A related working age old- oflegal numbers 16and17years ofyouths War II“large . jobs warproduction totake outofschool age - dropped ofschool butstill increased very again outofschool under18dropping Thenumberofyouths under 18 andgirls Korea . Theworkofboys period since rapidly during the bothin andwasteful health andeducation totheir detrimental istoooften toprepare themfor oftraining manpower utilization andinloss effective :42) andservice .” (1951 future responsibilities legislation toestablish intheDepart TheDepartment hadlongadvocated of proposal failed program ,butthe labor extension assisted menta federally : recommended . AstheDepartment acceptance congressional and program ,theinstruction conceived extension labor “Underasoundly and themselves oftheworkers totheexperience would berelated discussions have meaning terms which would insimple andpractical would bedeveloped face whichconstantly tomeettheproblems wouldlearn . Workers forthem communi unions ,andtheir jobs ,their -daylives ,intheir every themintheir , in basic labor law receive training , they could . Under such a program ties , parlia h andling of grievances ,the methods ,contract negotiations trade -union collec speaking . Harmonious ,andpublic ,economics mentary procedures and agreements bya study ofsuccessful would bepromoted tive bargaining labor anddemocratic . Moreresponsible industries operation invarious their with sufficient membership informed result fromabetter would organizations .” (1949 :7) seizing control from subversive elements toprevent knowledge tion cesforthephysi edreha bilita servi ntalso urgedexpand TheDepartme yment nful emplo . edtohelp themtogai icapp restore llyhand ca nued to s,theBur eauconti tment ordepar lab ngclosely with State Worki vestand ards : strati veandadmini lele gislati ate formul desirab r lawintheNationisthat oflabo geof the50-oddsystems “Oneadvanta tion rlegisla eas inlabo atory for newid yacts rritor asalabor ate andTe each St ction e fun erienc , abasic dS tate exp on ht of teste strati . In the lig and admini tionon alinforma cefor technic nalresour as a natio oftheBureauistoserve ingde es,toreview chang ive cedur istrat pro ects oflabor lawandadmin all asp ons ngconditi ,to mentof worki ation andimprove ntsinth e regul velopme tion onand regula ,andtogivead islati dards forleg roved stan imp develop rested in entsand other groupsinte e labor departm y ser vices toStat visor n. The Bureaualso tratio dardsand adminis t of lab or stan vemen impro psandworkswith theStates ionshi eFeder al-St ate relat nscoope rativ engthe str 175 intheimplementation ofinternational standards through State action .” (1949 :64) Attheendofthis period ,thethree topics ofmajor concern totheannual conference onlabor legislation were :strengthening State labor departments , State minimumwagelegislation , and State service tomigratory workers . (1953:49) Women Workers Inherreport for1949theDirector oftheWomen's Bureau pointed out thechanges inwomen's status asworkers during thehistory oftheBureau , andproblems still inneedofcorrection : “ Thenumberofwomenwho workhasmorethandoubled since Congress established theWomen'sBureau 30 years ago. The broad ,general prob lems - economic andsocial -originally associated withtheir employment havedeveloped into problems ofmuchgreater complexity . These women arenow almost a third oftheworkers intheUnited States .... “New,oratanyrate greatly accentuated ,social andeconomic problems arepresented inthis country by thefact that almost half ofthewomen workers now aremarried women. "Perhaps evenmore significant tothewelfare of theNation arethe effects ofsogreat a number ofmarried womeninemployment onthe growth andhealth ofthepopulation .... "Urgent also aretheproblems oftheolder womenworkers ,accentuated population expectancy by theaging ofthegeneral ,bythegreater life of womenthan ofmen,andbythefact that theservices ofolder womenareoften dispensed with inperiods ofemployment stress . "Theproblems cited above ...areunique towomen ,andrevolve about thefact that womenarenewer toindustry than men,have less assured status init ,andhave the dual function ofworkers andofmaternity andcare ofthe > home...." (1949:97-98 ) Undertheimpact urged oftheKore anWar,theBureau incre oppor asing tunitie hous s for ewives inpart employm -time ent ,theemplo yment ofwomen inhigh erlev eljobs,equalpayforwomen,improve mentofminimumwage lawsintheState s,andthetrain ingand employ mentofolde r women. Altho ughseveral States repor tedimprov edle gislat ionduring thi sperio d, theFederal Gove rnmen t didnotenact legisla tion affecti ngthestanda rdsof women partic ularly ,regard less ofthefact tha tagreat manybill srelati ngto one oranoth eras pect ofwomen's emp loyme ntandst atus wer e introd uced . Worker Training Withtheshift inemphasi s toproblem s ofnational defe nse , theBureau ofApprenti ceshi p concentr ated ,though notexclus ively ,on“the traini ngof appren tices intrades andin dustri eswhichwould direc support tly securit the y progra m . The refor e,theconstru industr ction y nolonger wasgivenpriori ty 176 ofattention .... Previously priority hadbeen given tothe building trades because oftheacute shortage ofskilled workers andtheemphasis onthe housing program .” (1949 :49) Themajor industrial fields inwhich training progams were needed were : textiles , machine tools , airtransport , railroads , foundries , construction , graphic arts ,andautomotive service . Theproblem involved morethan apprentices ,essential asthey werefor thefuture performance ofskilled work . There wasa demandforworkers of allkinds: “Large numbers ofworkers whoshift fromnondefense todefense produc tionwillof coursecontinue to work atthesame machinesand on the same product . Others , while turning outa different product , will be working require atthesamemachine andwill little ornotraining . Also , many skilled men,while actually shifting jobs ,will beperforming thesametype ofworkandwill require only minor training ifany . Butthemajority of those shifting todefense jobs andthose whoenter thelabor force anewwill require someorconsiderable training . Older persons andsomewomenmay may need return tothesametypes ofjobs they once pursued ,buteven these somerefreshing oftheir skills togetadjusted tothetechnological changes that haveoccurred intheinterim .” (1951:49) Most ofthis kind oftraining would have tobegiven onthejob . The Bureau therefore developed a program ofhelptoemployers in establish training ingsuitable in-plant . into requirements , taking analysis ofthetraining includes “... This experience , and recruitment conditions ,past market consideration thelabor needs tothetraining asthey relate personnel additional for therequirements to needed types oftraining inthespecific employers . Itassists oftheplant ofwork thesupport andinsecuring oftheplant conditions meetoperating :50) .” (1951 program the training for ers andsupervisors TheBureauit didnotrainin self g: “[In] cooperation with State andother Federal agencies ,itencourages employers andlabor tosetup training programs ,helps themtoanalyze their training problems ,andshows howtraining isdoneelsewhere . Where labor unions areinvolved ,thefield staff assists inthenegotiation ofagree between management training programs ments andlabor sothat sound may beconducted inaccordance with objectives satisfactory toboth ofthem . ited alservice arelim esandtechnic ional ent's activiti promot "The Departm n pects oftheir work. Trai dper sons inthejobas gofemploye etrainin toth on tructi oyedpersons ,orcovertheins ceunempl esdo not embra tiviti ingac srel ated tothejob . nsinsubject oyedperso ofempl (1952:12) Consistently , whether or notunderthedrive ofa national emergency , theBureau sought toconvince both labor andmanagement "that training isanindustrial function which should receive adequate supervision anddi rection ,andthat only inthis waycantraining beassured theattention and expertness ofhandling that itdeserves .” (1953:26) 177 Reemployment Rights TheBureau ofVeterans 'Reemployment Rights hadbeentransferred tothe Department ofLaborin1947.Itconsisted then of44persons ,andmadeuse volunteer cooperating representatives oftheservices ofalmost athousand . “Thereemployment -rights program isanindustrial -relations activity which hasbeen ,andcontinues tobe,animportant factor inthe readjustment ofex servicemen intheir civilian occupations . Because ofthewideoccupational range ofex-servicemen ,their reemployment hasrequired this Bureau tobe concerned withalmost every phase ofeconomic life asitrelates toemploy . ment ,including the personnel customs andpractices ofbusiness andthe pro fessions , andthecollective bargaining between process management and labor . “Reemployment rights involve morethan thesimple reinstatement ofex servicemen intheir old jobs . Theyinclude certain benefits towhich veterans may beentitled after reinstatement ,suchasseniority , working conditions , promotions ,payincreases ,vacations ,bonuses ,insurance ,andother benefits .” (1949 :79) Thepolicy oftheBureau wastoinvite compliance with thelawsinvolved , without recourse tolitigation : “Through a program ofeducation andinformation ,the Bureau hassought toacquaint employers with their obligations andex-servicemen with their rights under thestatutes . Thiswasdesignated toprevent controversies from arising under the acts aswell astoeliminate misunderstandings between em ployers andex-servicemen whichmightresult inhardship toveterans and sometimes increased liabilities toemployers .... " (1949 :84) Commenting onthegeneral effect oftheprogram ,theDirector wrote in his1953report : nedto nshaveretur ionvetera rswhensome20mill ngthepast 13yea “Duri rtant part animpo tutes have played yment sta rights lian life thereemplo civi y rtunit mantheoppo ment . Theyhavegiventheex-service readjust in their merwayoflife withfam ty,toresume his for muni shomecom tohi toreturn ance that he wsbest withassur tothejobhekno iends ,and toreturn ily andfr e saff ord him th e tatute . Thess d because ofhisabsence stgroun hasnotlo n cap ableof con ting citize f-suppor minga sel tyofqui ckly beco ortuni opp s untry' for his co s,and taxes needed e goods ,service uting his bit toth trib ) welfare :69) ...." (1953 Federa l Workmen's Compensation Every State hasa lawbywhich workers arecompensated forinjuries re ceived which arise outofthejob . Forpeople employed by theFederal Government andother groups towhomFederal coverage hasbeen extended , there isa similar lawenacted bytheCongress . Inaddition ,since 1950the Secretary ofLabor hashadthe jobofadministering workmen's compensation laws relating tomaritime workers andcertain other groups ofworkers inpri 178 vate industry . Altogether about 21/2 million Federal workers and1 million other United States workers invarious parts ofthe world arecovered bythese laws. “Federal Workmen's Compensation maybedivided conveniently into two separate categories . Thefirst refers tooccupations carried on by civilian Federal workers ,suchaspost office employees andthose who workforthe Veterans Military Establishments 'Administration , National ,Treasury , In terior ,Agriculture , andsimilar Government agencies . Thesecond group comprises certain private employment ofa maritime nature ,private employ mentintheDistrict ofColumbia ,andalso construction workatoutlying de fense bases . Inthis second group are thousands oflongshoremen ,harbor workers ,andship repairmen . ... TheGovernment provides medical ,mone tary ,andother remedial relief forits ownemployees fromdirect appropria tions madebyCongress . Fortheothers ,itsupervises operations toensure that suchrelief isgiven promptly andinaccordance withlawthrough the usual channels ofinsurance paid for bythe employing concerns .” 1950 :94) that manyareengaged beremembered employees itshould OftheFederal occupations : inhazardous “Mostpeople think ofFederal employment asrelatively nonhazardous . Theyforget thehundreds ofthousands ofFederal workers doing construc tion work ,foundry work ,lumbering ,quarrying ,woodworking ,marine ,ware housing ,andsimilar operations . Overlooked also isthe vast armyofmainte nance workers , themailhandlers , fleet operators ,,laundry workers , fire fight ,electri ers ,meatinsp cians ectors ,mel ,andpri ters ,toment nters iononly a fe w. Thesepeop leco nstitu tea good85perc entofall Fede ralaccide nt cases . The y arelarge oneswhosu lythe ffer theago nizin gandcrippli ngwork injur ieswhichoften endindeath . Thenurse ,theof fice work er,thepost man, thecha uffeur eachhas hisownaccident prob lem." (1950 :96-97 ) 99 TheBureau ofEmployees ' Compensation therefore conducts a vigorous accident -prevention campaign amongthegroups forwhich ithasresponsi bility . 179 ) TIME THEPEACE ECONOMY THE PEACETIME ECONOMY 1 953 In1953theNation hada Republican Administration forthefirst timein 20years . Thepersonal appeal ofGeneral Dwight D.Eisenhower resulted in a landslide election inhisfavor . a President Eisenhower madeitclear that hisgreat hopewastounite his party ,unite thecountry ,andunite theWestern nations . A man schooled worked hard peace newpost inwarfare for inhis . HisCabinet appointments wereofmentoa great extent identified with business ,finance ,orcorporation law . Onlyonemanwasclearly identified with labor -Martin P.Durkin ,president oftheUnited Association ofJour neymenandApprentices ofthePlumbing andPipeFitting Industry , and thenewSecretary ofLabor . Secretary Durkin wasthefourth trade unionist tobecome Secretary of Labor . Histenure intheCabinet wasbrief . He resigned attheendof8 months asa result ofa majorpolicy disagreement withtheAdministration over proposed changes intheTaft -Hartley Act . Hisprincipal contribution totheDepartment wasinhisclarification of thelines ofauthority intheLabor Department . This waseffected through general orders andcovering memoranda ,thecontents ofwhich might be briefly summarized asfollows : TheSecretary ofLabor isgenerally recognized asthePresident's principal adviser andspokesman onlabor policies andprograms . Heisresponsible for taking thelead indeveloping andpromoting national andinternational policies andprograms inthe labor field . He determines theobjectives , poli cies ,andprograms oftheDepartment within theframework oflegislation andAdministration policies . He determines thebasic organization ofthe Department ,selects andappoints orrecommends the appointment ofkeyoffi cials ,andreviews andapproves budgets tocarry out the Department's policies andprograms . He insures that all the resources oftheDepartment areeffec tively marshaled anddirected toachieve these policies andprogram objec tives ,andthat the legislation forwhich theCongress andthePresident have given himresponsibility isproperly administered . TheUnder Secretary performs theduties oftheSecretary inhisabsence , shares the duties ofoffice with him ,andisresponsible for thegeneral manage mentoftheDepartment . 183 Todayfour Assistant Secretaries areresponsible forfuctional areas of theDepartment's activities :international labor ,labor standards andwomen's affairs , labor -management relations , and development and research . In addition , a Manpower Administrator supervises all oftheworkoftheDe partment relating toemployment and training . The Assistant Secretaries provide leadership anddirection ,maintain thenecessary liaison ,establish program objectives , develop plans andprograms , review appropriation requests , andrepresent theDepartment before congressional committees withtheir specific fields inconnection ofoperation . Secretary hascharge oftheDepartment's Assistant TheAdministrative . functions budget andmanagement International Labo r Affairs ional ernat Labor s wit h theInt t'sre lation rtmen rdstheDepa As rega tion aniza : Org “[The Department ]hasbeen governed bythe basic United States objec tives of(1) strengthening theeconomic andsocial fabric ofthefree world andsoencouraging thealleviation ofthose conditions ofmisery andfrustra tion uponwhich communism breeds ,(2) improving labor standards andliv ingconditions around theworld sothat international trade ,including the development of foreign markets forAmerican goods , isexpanded and America's high labor standards areprotected frominternational trade com petition based uponunreasonably lowlabor standards abroad ,and(3) seek ingeffective forums inwhich topresent economic andsocial concepts ofthe United States totherest ofthe world .” (1953 :9) Asregards its program oftechnical cooperation andtheexchange ofper s ons : oftheworkoftheDepartment concernedthe “Themajorportion visitors . Special forforeign intheUnited States ofprograms arrangement training ,but these experts notonlywithtechnical toprovide care wastaken relationships existing democratic understanding ofthe alsowitha broad life ofthe andsocial theeconomic groups within labor andother between unions , fromtrade wasreceived cooperation endvaluable . To this country agencies ,colleges anduni government firms andState industrial ,Federal country . Inaneffort communities around the versities asindividual ,aswell made efforts were ’America ,special of'grass roots understanding topromote ." communities andmedium-sized ofthesmaller thecooperation tosolicit (1953:10-11) Worker Training Commenting onits experience inthepromotion oftraining intheUnited reported response States ,theBureau ofApprenticeship that ,“although the of industry totheneed for training isstill notasvigorous anddirected asthe 184 obser vedneedsindic ate ,the recanbelittle que stion durin that g thepast yea r si gnific antprog ress hasbee n made . The Nation ismore awaretoday than everbefor e oftheneedfortra ined men andwomen,andisestabli the shing progra wi msthat llyield re . Thetrai sults ning progr am,howeve r,isgetting resul tsnotonlybeca usetheneed fo rtrainin gisbei ngsowidely discus ,but sed also and chiefly beca useindustr yits elf isconvi and isdemons nced trati ngthat train ingisagoodinvestme .” (1953:30) nt Employe es' Compens ationAppeal s Board to reports ,reference comment inthedepartmental ofsubstantial Forlack . present work chapters ofthe omitted fromearlier hasbeen this organization reviewed beappropriately maytherefore andaccomplishments Its functions atthistime. of totheDepartment Established in1946 , theECAB wastransferred of members ,appointed bytheSecretary ofthree Laborin1950.Itconsists fromad appeals indeciding -judicial function . Itperforms a quasi Labor . Follow ' Compensation o f Employees of the Bureau decisions ministrative oftheparties insupport , ithears oral arguments procedures inginformal the andthelawandexplain theevidence decisions discuss . Its indispute ofitsopera thefirst 4 years reached . During reasons fortheconclusions ,closed 869 , newcases 1,225 ofLabor ,itaccepted tion intheDepartment 585. decisions regarding andissued As stated inan earlier report : “The purpose behind theestablishment oftheBoardobviously wastogive employees oftheUnited States thesame administrative dueprocess oflaw(that is ,theright toappeal their cases ) whichother (nongovernment ) employees haveunderState workmen's compensation laws .” (1950 :110) y* Employment Securit Services toveterans continued asa major function oftheDepartment . Theendofhositilities inKorearesulted ina substantial increase inthis work: “During thefiscal yearended June30, 1953 , approximately 1,000,000 veterans returned tocivilian life . “Because approximately one -third oftoday's labor force ismadeup of veterans ,measures havebeenundertaken tostrengthen all phases ofvet arrangements agencies erans 'services . Cooperative withFederal andState serving veterans have been reviewed andstrengthened . Increased emphasis hasbeen placed uponpromotional workcarried outbypublic employment offices incooperation withveterans ' organizations ,especially inrelation to problems ofthedisabled veteran . (1953 :38) *A short his tory oftheworkofthe Federa l-Stateemploy mentser vice isprese ntedin “ThePublic Employme ntServi ceSystem ,1933–5 3,”publ ished in Emplo ymentSecurity Revie .20,no.6,June1953,U.S. w,vol Depa rtmen . tofLabor 6669 47—63 —13 185 However , economies intheadministration oftheGovernment itself re sulted inthedisplacement of an unusually large numberofFederal em ployees : “Inorder toassure continuing employment assistance toindividuals being laid offby Government agencies , andtodirect them , whenever pos sible ,into employment which will utilize their best skills intheinterests of national security , theEmployment Service hasdeveloped , through State agencies ,aprogram ofspecialized placement assistance . This program will continue so longassignificant numbers ofworkers arebeing discharged > bygovernmental agencies .” (1953 :39) prog place ram: farm ment Asregard sthe “Gratifying improvements havebeenmadeover thepast year infarm worker housing andincommunity services tomigrant families . While not a a direct responsibility oftheemployment service ,farmworker housing and general welfare arean important factor intherecruitment offarmlabor . Forthat reason ,local employment offices inmanyareas haveexercised leadership inencouraging these improvements .” (1953 :40) Theunemployment insurance program gaverise tosomeconcern : " TheFederal Advisory Council hasbeenmuchinterested inproblems of unemployment insurance ; its committees on benefit adequacy ,on benefit financing ,andondisqualification frombenefits havebeenvery active dur ingthepast year . TheCouncil hasbeenparticularly concerned about the role ofunemployment insurance benefits inmeeting claimants 'needs andthe adjustments intheir expenditure patterns while unemployed andthetrend toward restrictive disqualification provisions which tend todefeat thepur poseoftheprogram . (1953 :43–44) Labor Standards Since its establishment in1934 ,the Bureau ofLabor Standards hadproved its value asa source ofinformation totheStates with regard tothedevelop mentoflabor standards andState legislation onlabor matters : “When public support develops ina State fora labor laworwhenbills areintroduced ina State legislature ,advice isneeded indrafting legislation tomakeitworkmostefficiently andeconomically . Since theBureau is theonly place intheNation whereall State andFederal labor legislation is collected administrators organizations andmadeavailable ,State ,employer , labor unions ,public andprivate organizations , andFederal agencies turn toitasa resource onlabor lawmatters . Inthepast year 38States and3 Territories wereadvised onthebest State experience inlawsonworkmen's compensation ,child labor ,labor relations ,wagepayment andwagecollec tion ,andregulation ofprivate employment agencies . Themajority ofthe 500State labor laws enacted inthelast year's legislative sessions contained standards which theBureau hadassisted inpromoting inthemanner de > scribed ." (1953:47) 1 86 “The inclusion ina growing number ofState labor laws oftherecom mended standards developed through theBureau's consultative methods is an indication oftheusability andpracticability ofthestandards . (1953 :49) Labor Statistics Therelaxation ofdefense program controls during 1953 ,with thecessa tion ofactive military operations inKorea ,substantially affected thework oftheBureau ofLabor Statistics . Itreduced thevolume ofspecial work , butincreased thedemands on itforinformation onprices ,wages ,employ ment ,andproductivity . (1953 :57) During this year theBureau published its findings froma 1947study oftheeconomic interdependence of190different industrial sectors inthena tional economy ,andalso a complete revision oftheConsumer Price Index basedupon amorerecent study ofconsumer purchasing habits . ReemploymentRights Thereturn ofmanyveterans frommilitary service greatly increased the workofthe Bureau ofVeterans 'Reemployment Rights . Considered asfactors indetermining theextent towhichanex-serviceman might beentitled tore employment rights werethefollowing : “1.Hisstatutory right toreemployment with his former employer where all oftheconditions ofeligibility havebeen met. “2.Hisright tocount hismilitary service astime intheemploy ofhis former employer forseniority purposes . "3.Hisright uponreinstatement toall oftheemployment advantages accruing tohisoldjobduring hisabsence inmilitary service ,suchaspay increases ,better working conditions ,andfringe benefits (pensions , insur ance ,vacations ,etc. ). onthebasis ement ismade solely tion where advanc httopromo “4.Hisrig e been n hewouldhav eswhereitcanbeshow rity orinsomeinstanc ofsenio ary ervice . tered milit s o ted had he not en prom “5.Hisright tocompensatory damages forwages lost duetohisem ployer's failure toproperly reemploy ortocover anyunreasonable period ofdelay inaffecting his reemployment . “6.Hisright toanother joboflike seniority ,status ,andpayortosome 9 other jobinthe employ ofthe employer ,the duties ofwhich hecan perform , ifheisdisabled while inmilitary service tosuch anextent that heisunable toperform theduties ofhis oldjob.” (1953 :74) Someidea oftheextent ofapplication ofthereemployment rights legisla tion isgiven inthefollowing statistics : “1.Morethan 50percent ofall persons whoenter military service by what ever means ,leave gainful employment inorder todoso. “2.Morethan 15million persons entered the armed services shortly before andduring WorldWar II. 187 “3.Morethan 5 million persons haveentered theservice between theclose ofWorldWarIIandJuly 1,1953 . “4.Tomaintain anarmed strength of3.6 million ,approximately onemil lion persons enter military service eachyeartoreplace those separated . persons replacements each year ,some300,000 onemillion “5.Inobtaining will berejected . “6.Tomaintain the reserve training program ,some400,000 reservists will perform training duty each year. entRights s'Reem ploym was u ofVeteran ,when theBurea “7.From 1947 llion ex d re han 214 mi timate that mo t , it is es ished o July 1 , 1953 establ ,t d eeshav e returnetotheir ists cemen ining dutyreserv and reject servi , tra ntbenefit alemployme to d some addition ersorhavereceive eremploy form ) mentstat utes :74–75 mploy .” (1953 tled bytheree y wereenti which the 188 PROSPERITY AND CHANGE 1953– 1960 | 1 PROSPERITY AND CHANGE 1953-60 Thecountry wasgrowing inwealth andpopulation inthefifties . By 1956registrations incolleges and universities hadpassed the3 million level . Television hadmadeits mark ,surpassing movies andradio inpublic attention . Laborunionshad increa sedinpowerand resourc es. In 1952George Meany ,a former leader ofthePlu and Pip Union,became mbers e Fi tters preside ntoftheAmer icanFed eratio ,foll thedeathofWil n ofLabor owing liam Gree ofth n. Walt erReu ther eAutoWorke Phil rstook ipMurray' splace asheadoftheCIO. Plans forthemerger ofthetwoorga nizati onsmoved along ,and in1955theybecameone,with a total enrol ofapp lment roxim ately 15 millio n members. InOctober 1953President Eisenhower namedJamesP.Mitchell ,aa former personnel adviser toprivate business and totheDefense Department , as Labor Secretary ,succeeding Martin Durkin . Secretary Mitchell wasaccepted by bothmanagement andlabor asa capable administrator . Hisapproach tohisnew tasks isexpressed inhis report toCongress of1959 : “It hasbecome increasingly evident during recent years that oursurvival asa nation isgoing todepend farmoreontheskills ofourworkforce than on ourwealthofnatural resources . “Forover 100years theUnited States hasbeenable toproduce goods moreefficiently than anyother nation inhistory . Ourpreeminence inthis connection ,however , isabout tobeseriously threatened by a dictatorship over a nation ofconsiderably larger population . We areunder increasing pressure todevelop inasmany workers aspossible thehighest skills of which they arecapable ,especially those skills that strengthen ourability tosurvive . “Accepting thefact that inthelong runproportionately fewer American workers arenow producing proportionately moregoods andservices , it becomes also necessary toconsider a substantial increase inemployment , inimprovement ofthequality ofourlabor force ,andinthemoreeffective utilization ofexisting skills . We need moreworkers ;weneed moretrained workers trained workers ;weneedmorehighly . We mustplan ourmanpower future . “Inthepast we havetoooften taken theeasyway. We havetraded the long -termvalue ofintelligent manpower planning forwasteful expediency . 191 Notonlyhavewe limited theopportunities oftheminority worker ,theolder workers ,the womanworker ,butwehave also neglected the proper training of workers whose skills arenecessary tothecontinuing day -to-dayefficiency > ofindustry . "No longer canwe afford thehighcost ofprejudice . Thereisneither excuse norjustification fordiscrimination inemployment . Itisclear that asa nation we areinjured both domestically andinternationally by intoler a ance . Whoever isbest fitted for a given jobshould begiven employment in handicap that job ,regardless ofrace ,religion ,physical ,age ,orsex . “Atthesametime wemusttrain forversatility . These arerevolutionary times ;weexperience a revolution every day. Discoveries ,inventions ,andthe intensive application oforganized knowledge tothesolution ofproblems together haveaccelerated tremendously thetempoofourliving andhave increased the power offorces making for change . Theessential requirement forsurvival intoday's worldisadaptability . Wholeindustries disappear , yielding place tonew. Occupations become obsolete ,andnewones take their place . Tokeep upwith the times ,ourworkers mustbeable notonly tomove toother jobs ,butalso toacquire newskills . Theworld iscurrently ina fer ment ,andnophase ofquiet andrelaxation isyet insight . Toargue that such a prospect isunpleasing andevenunworthy istotilt atwindmills . Itexists , andfor thewhile must beaccepted asaninevitable stage inthedevelopment ofmankind. “Planning theskills oftheworkforce ,wemustdetermine moreprecisely ourrequirements . We must concentrate onthe education andguidance ofour young people . We must develop andusemoreefficient waysofselecting and training ourworkers andtheir supervisors . We mustprovide theretrain ingnecessary foradaptation tochange . And we mustexplore andapply moreadequately theskills ofpotential workers currently excluded fromthe workforce because ofprejudice . Theendresult ofthese measures should be that every worker will beable torealize his orhergreatest potential . “Thisfull intelligent exercise oftheskills ofourworkforce will insure in large measure the economic growth andstability oftheNation . Itwill help toimprove ourstandard ofliving ." (1959 :5-6) On wagesandincome maintenance ,Secretary Mitchell said : “Byitself andwithout qualification ,a drive forfull development anduse workforce would objective without purpose oftheNation's beblind --ableak . Inthemidst oftechnological change ,ourtoughest problem istoinsure the self -expression , theself -satisfaction , thedignity , andmotivation ofthe individual . “There isgrave danger that these individual values ,which arethefounda tion uponwhich humanbeings build their lives ,maybeseriously weakened bythesheer weight ofourindustrial structure andourinsistence onindus trial production . Twoaspects ofthis qualification onourmajor objective , therefore ,should begiven consideration . On theonehand ,adequate provi sion mustbemadetoinsure theprotection oftheindividual during employ 192 mentandwhen ,byforce ofcircumstances ,heorsheisunemployed . On the other ,care must betaken tosee that inourinevitably increasing massorgani zation theidentity oftheindividual isnotlost . Thefirst ofthese isa prob lemofincomeandofincome maintenance . “One oftheobjectives ofa democratic society isthat all workers should haveopportunity andthemeanstoenjoy a reasonable level ofincome . This iseffected inpart byestablishing aminimum level ofwages ,andinpart by establishing insurance against workinjury andunemployment . Although by nomeansadequate asanavenue totheobjective ,these steps nevertheless con tribute attainment toits . “Organized groups ofworkers havedeveloped their own waysofattaining wagelevels conducive tobetter living . Theunorganized aremoreliable to exploitation andlowwages . Through their Federal andState governments , United governing minimum thepeople ofthe States have set uplaws wages , thehoursofwork,andtheconditions ofemployment toprotect low-wage workers against oppressive exploitation . Thatmanyofthese lawsarein adequate isevident . Large numbers ofworkers arestill excluded fromtheir protection . Because oftheinadequacies ofthese lawsandtheir irrational differences between jurisdictions , manyworkers intheUnited States are deprived ofeconomic protection despite their acceptance ascitizens inthe commonwealth . Thispatent injustice should be corrected . Itnotonly places theindividual worker ata disadvantage relative tohis morefortunate companions ; italso gives toemployers who areexempt fromreasonable minimum wages standards anunfair advantage over their competitors . “Asregards workinjuries andunemployment , considerable legislation , bothState andFederal ,iscurrently inoperation . Old-ageandsurvivors insurance ,unemployment insurance ,temporary disability insurance ,work men's compensation ,andpublic assistance areall tosomedegree ineffect underoneorother oftheseveral jurisdictions intheUnited States . But here again deficiencies incoverage ,qualifications ,andstandardization among the jurisdictions militate against the full enjoyment ofbenefits byall workers , andmanifest theseeds ofinjustice . “Substantial improvements areneeded toshield all workers against eco nomic reversals . Notonly asa matter ofproviding greater dignity and decency tothewageearner ,butalso tomaintain him asa consumer and buyer inthe m Nation's markets and ,improvement inthese income -aintenance economic -security laws arenecessary . Thepayment ofinsurance benefits toworkers intime ofneedhelps toprevent economic downturns frombe coming widespread andserious ,andcontributes tothe moreorderly operation ofthelabormarket .” (1959:10–11) Discussing labor -management relations ,theSecretary pointed out : “Although notmeasurable indollars andcents ,thepossible effects ofmass organization on theidentity oftheindividual worker arenevertheless im portant . Inourdesire toproduce ,whether forsurvival orfortheenjoyment ofhigher economic standards ,wetend toemphasize bigness andcentraliza 193 tion . As a result , thechannels of communication betweentheindividual andthesources ofexecutive power inthesocial groups towhich hebelongs tend tobecome increasingly tenuous . Sofarastheworker isconcerned , this incipient danger isequally invidious whether inregard tolabor organiza tions corporations ,employing ,orgovernment . "Itistherefore desirable that safeguards beestablished torefer whatever action needs tobetaken --whether inarriving ata decision ,giving itthe force ofaction ,orreviewing andregulating theappropriate executive body capable tothesmallest unit oftransacting it . Atthesametime ,sothat the autonomy oflocal units maynotbeabused ,itisnecessary that thecentral authority should remain vigilant , everresponsible forthewelfare ofthe individual group asamemberofthelarger . “Foralarge proportion ofourworkers intheUnited States ,labor unions effective formoforganization through which aretheonly they canexpress relationships employers their wishes asworkers intheir withtheir . The point ofactual contact with theemployer orhisrepresentative isthrough union thelocal . Itisatthis point ,therefore ,that themostpromising work may bedonetoretain andstrengthen theindividuality oftheworker . Ina dynamic democratic social andeconomic system , suchaswe haveinthe United States ,the local labor -management relationship hasthe significance ofa nerve center inthehumanbody . No opportunity todevelop and im proveits functions should beoverlooked . "A strong ,free , responsible labor movement isgoodforAmerica . To encourage collective bargaining between employees andtheir employers is soundpolicy . Butthat movement andthat policy mustrest ontheexistence oflocal unions free tofunction intheir members 'interests ,responsive to their interests ,andresponsible also tothecommunity asa whole ofwhich they area part . Their freedom ofexpression andaction iscontingent on freedom fromthetyranny ofcorrupt officials , whether they beinpublic office ,union office ,orthe office ofthe employer . “Because local decisions aresoimportant asa reflection ofthewishes of theindividuals concerned ,itisdesirable that therole ofgovernment with respect tolabor -management relations should involve aslittle interference as iscompatible withthepublic welfare . Goodindustrial relations cannot be created bylaws . Atbest ,government canonly provide theframework in which management andlabor operate . Government's sole interest should be that ofprotecting thepublic andtheindividual participant inthedispute , andnotofacting astheadvocate ofeither workers oremployers . Ifgov ernment remains impartial , either party tothedispute ortocontemplated agreement isthemorelikely toapproach theother ina spirit ofequality andcooperation ,without thesuspicion that theother party may beable toenlist government support ofits position andthus gainunfair advantage . 66 “Although themaintenance ofindustrial peace isnota direct operating responsibility oftheDepartment ofLabor ,itisnevertheless implied inal 194 partofnearly , anditisan indirect does theDepartment mosteverything ) .” (1959 :14–15 intheDepartment responsibility vested every TheSecretary madethefollowing comments on Federal -State relation ships : “Inaccord with the general principle that workers 'interests canbest be served through responsible organizations local incharacter ,itisdesirable wherever possible that thepromotion andadministration oflegislation affecting thewelfare ofworkers should reside inState governments rather thanintheFederal Government . The Federal Government isfurther re movedfromtheindividual worker , and thusnecessarily less likely tobe responsive tohiswishes . Also , although there aresomebroadareas in whichFederal lawsarenecessary and effective , there areothers where Federal centralization tends tobreed duplication between Federal andState efforts ,with theresult that thetaxpayers 'moneyiswasted . Sofaraspos sible ,theresponsibility forlabor standards legislation should beexercised bytheStates . Theyexperience theproblems atfirst hand ; they arebest equipped tosolve them . Inthevariety oftheir experiences they provide a valuable testing ground forthedevelopment andpromotion ofnewideas andpractices . "Admittedly this approach usually takes moretime andrequires more effort andmorepatience thanFederal action would . Itbuilds a sounder structure ,however ,andonethat islikely tolast longer . Furthermore ,State legislatures are able tomakethose variations andspecial provisions required toaccommodate thelawtothelocal situation andtheneeds ofthepeople > affected . “Itiswell tonote ,however ,that intheabsence ofadequate State action , theresponsibility oftheFederal Government persists . Asregards economic security andminimumwagelegislation ,forexample ,theconditions ofinter state economic competition ,themobility oflabor ,andtheFederal Govern ment's responsibility forthewelfare ofits wageearning citizens place it , governments vis -a-vis State ,inaquasi -competitive role . “Totheextent that State andlocal governments fail totake positive and well -considered steps tomeetthedemands oftheir owncitizens fortheper formance ofnecessary functions ,pressure persists ontheFederal Govern . menttodowhat thelocal governments could dobuthave notdone . As in thepast ,such pressures encourage thefurther expansion ofFederal regu lation andcontrol . s isclearl yevi dent . A State tment ityofstr onglabordepar sirabil "Thede also provide ister laws . Butitshould mentshouldadmin labor labordepart gtheobje ctives ofa ievin ipthat toach g andlea dersh are vital theplannin g plac es, and the ards y - goo d laborstand , safeworkin growingeconom ts rtmen ghst rong labor depa s. Onl y throu gofindu strial mizin dispute mini nging ity ired by our cha e xibil requ ves ained with the fl ese beatt can th objecti 7) ts.” (195 9:16-1 ldevel opmen ustria social andind 195 Labor's increasingly important role innewly developing countries and Communist efforts tocontrol unions werediscussed : important crucially inmany isbecoming ,labor "More thaneverbefore countries industrialized inthemorehighly . Labor's role foreign countries now ,labor isalso ina different manner . Though beenrecognized haslong role inthe a decisive andinsomecases toplayan important beginning America wherethe , andLatin , Africa countries ofAsia newlydeveloping work ofthetotal component small force isa relatively industrial labor unions trade donotresemble organizations ofthese labor force . While most toexercise signifi arecoming Europe ,they orWestern States intheUnited . influences inmanycountries andeconomic , evencritical , political cant ,in labor organizations tosubvert andcontrol efforts Determined Communist threat tothe , present a growing Communist doctrine line withorthodox ofsov ofa system andtothedevelopment countries independence ofthese seeks to policy ,whichtheU.S.foreign states within theFreeWorld ereign encourage. "Manpowerdevelopment problems arealsoofkeysignificance inthe efforts ofnewly developing countries toachieve their national aspirations andraise their living standards . Indeed becoming ,itisrapidly apparent that development ofhumanresources andtraining inskills arenoless im portant than theacquisition ofinvestment capital for economic progress and modernization .” (1959 : 19) Admin nizat istra ion tionand Orga TheDepartment wasstrengthened during Secretary Mitchell's administra tion bytheaddition ofseveral functions . "Administration oftheWelfare andPension PlansDisclosure Act (Public Law85–836 )andthe Safety Amendment totheLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Compensation ActmadebyPublic Law85–742 wasdelegated to theBureau ofLaborStandards . Administration oftheLabor -Management Reporting andDisclosure Actof1959wasestablished ina newbureau . “TheAss istant Sec retari es were givenlin e responsi bility , es pecial lyin . . themoni torin gofprogr amsinvolv differen ing tbur eaus . Conti offunc nuity tion was improv ed by theappo intme nt oftopcareeremplo yeesasDeputy Unde r Secretar yand DeputyAssi stant Secr etarie s,notonlybeca useof their te chnic alcompete ncebut also toprovide thenec essary linka gebetwee n suc cessiv ofadmini eper iods strati on. ""A permanent program fortheorientation andtraining ofthedepart mental staff asa whole wasintroduced ,which notonly improves thequality operating p rovides greater flexibility ofthe staff butalso for intransferring selected employees fromonebureau toanother , thusenlarging their ex. perience andbackground andqualifying themforpositions ofbroader re sponsibility .” (1959 :2) 196 Manpower Duringtheincumbency of Secretary Mitchell itbecameincreasingly evident that the problem ofmanpower would constitute the major issue ofthe 1960's. resources available manpower ,efficient useofits Whether inwarorpeace war . During faced by theNation problems isoneofthemostimportant orenlistment bythedrafting resolved problem isinpart time theimmediate . The occupations uniformed force into ofthelabor large segment ofavery , needs ,however tomilitary conversion ofmanpower bythis vacancies caused ,that ofinducting problem supplementary moreembarrassing create aneven women,mostofwhom ,chiefly millions ofworkers labor force thecivilian into tobecome needtraining andtherefore experience lack recent employment ofthe , awareness activities ofpeacetime . Withtherestoration productive ofcon onechiefly becomes isrelaxed ,andtheproblem forefficiency need andeffec training for oftheneed employers workers andtheir both vincing normally available . force utilization ofthelabor tive r thedev elopm entand prepare a newDepartm entwi deprogramfo ofspec ialist a sma p s (was] workforce llgrou utilizat ion's ionoftheNat “To establis hed . “This group wasdirected toreview theDepartment's activities inthearea ofmanpower utilization anddevelopment , tomakerecommendations for strengthening andcoordinating these activities ,andtosuggest newprojects or activities which would contribute toskill development andfuller utilization . “The broadproblem wastodetermine how theNation could achieve an adequate ,skilled , andversatile workforce tomeetcurrent andanticipated economic conditions considerations security andneeds ,including ofmilitary . As part ofthesameproblem itwasalso necessary toconsider howto increase thejobopportunities ,earning ability ,andeconomic security ofthe individual worker regard ,without torace ,creed , sex , age , orphysical handicap . “Thefirst step wastoidentify theproper role oftheFederal Government . Thiswasdonethrough meetings withrepresentatives ofindustry ,labor , education ,andgovernment . Recognizing theresponsibilities ofnumerous other groups ,the role oftheDepartment wasconsidered tobeinthese areas : Fact -finding andthedissemination ofinformation concerning theneedfor trained workers ; helping workers select , prepare for ,andobtain jobs in occupations training programs suitable ; andpromoting moreadequate .” (1956:8-9) Fromthe point ofview oftheDepartment ofLabor ,the problems ofman powerareofperpetual urgency . Itisconcerned notonlywiththeuseof available resources today , butalso withtheneedforandavailability of labor inthefuture . Special studies aretherefore madeseveral years apart todetermine both gross anddetailed estimates ofthedemand forlabor and thekindsoflaborwhichwill be neededasmuch as10 oreven20 years in the future. 197 These studies ,published asreports totheNation ,emphasize the need for further education andtraining ,theextent towhich womenareentering the labor force ,andtheextent ofreplacement ofolder orretired workers with youngsters newly entered into thelabor force . During Secretary Mitchell's > incumbency ,projections through 1970werepublished . Onaa current basis ,treatment ofthe problem takes ona different slant : “Discri minat ioninempl oyme nt,whethe rdir ected again strac e,sex ,age ,or phys ical handi ,iswasteful cap ofmanpowe r,dest ructiv eofnatio nalmorale andchar acter ,andcontribu toslum tory s and delinq . Thereisneithe uency r excuse norjustific forprejudi ation ceanddiscrim inatio . n inemploy ment Itisclea rtha tasanation ,bot h domest andinterna ically ,we arein tional ly jured bypre andintol judice . erance “[Therefore ] theDepartment hasbeen engaged intaking a fresh look at today's employment problems ofolder workers andyouth ,ofwomenworkers , ofthe physically handicapped ,ofworkers inareas ofpersistent labor surplus , ofmembers ofminority groups ,andofjobseekers wherever they maybe, looking toward newaction programs toimprove their lot . Atthesametime , the Department isstudying population andlabor force trends andthe possible impact ofautomation ,atomic energy ,andother technological development on requirements future labor .” (1956 :8) In1956theDepartment published a series ofstudies describing thecharac teristics ofolder workers ,their workexperience andreliability ,thebarriers totheir employment ,andthe unscientific nature ofpopular prejudices against employment their . Italso stepped upits program for theemployment ofyouth . TheDepart ment's mostpopular publication , “Occupational Outlook Handbook ," was given congressional approval andfunds for continuous revision ona biennial basis ,with supplementation tokeepituptodate between editions through publication oftheOccupational Outlook Quarterly . The“JobGuide for YoungWorkers ”wasalso revised ,andcommunities wereurged todevelop cooperative school andworkexperience programs fortheir youth . Andthe Department issued thefollowing statement ofobjectives regarding young people 14to17years ofage : (1) To keep youth atschool aslong andasregularly aspossible , compatible with thedevelopment oftheir abilities ; (2) tohelp those who leave school at16and17years ofagetoget jobs offering useful employment experience ; (3) toprotect employed youth against exploitation andemploy mentinhazardous occupations ; (4) toadvise communities onthedevelop mentofprograms for theguidance ofyouth whoare nolonger inschool and have notyet established themselves injobs ;and(5)toadvise employers on theneeds andpossibilities ofyouth asworkers ,andthelaws governing their employment .” (1956 :12) Asregards areas ofpersistent labor surplus ,theDepartment promoted a 66 . number ofactivities togive assistance ,centering onthe local public employ . ment offices . Theseincluded : 198 ... (1) Encouraging andassisting thecommunities todevelop local organizations responsible foreconomic rehabilitation ; (2) pilot efforts to assist a limited number ofareas inorder todemonstrate howeffective pro gramoperations canbeundertaken through thecooperation ofFederal ,State , andlocal agencies , bothprivate andpublic ; (3) economic andlabor force analyses which provide the necessary basis forthe manpower aspects ofplan ning andoperations ; (4) increasing employment service efforts torelieve local unemployment byproviding guidance andinformation onjoboppor tunities inother areas ;and(5) emphasizing theimportance ofskill training , andassuming leadership inassisting suchareas todetermine realistic training needs .” (1956 :14) EmploymentSecurity repor t: Asstated inthe1957annual “Thestory ofemployment security iswritten intheintimate personal experience ofeach andevery individual whowashelped bya local (public ] employment office :thehighly trained engineer onhis waytoa newand better joba thousand miles awaybecause hislocal office knewaboutsuch opportunities alloverthecountry ;thephysically handicapped worker who hasa jobtoday because ofthepersistent jobdevelopment efforts ofthelocal office interviewer ;thehighschool senior who hasfound theroadtotheright jobbecause he's learned about his aptitudes andoccupational prospects from thelocal office youth counselor ;the family whodoes nothave toseek charity because unemployment insurance benefits aretiding themover a period of unemployment ;theemployer who foundoutwhattodo about histurnover a andabsenteeism problems ina BESpublication given tohimbyalocal office employer relations representative . “Theemployment security program helps tostrengthen personal security fortheworkers notonly through its services toindividual workers butalso through thecontribution itmakestonational employment stability and economic growth . Through its countrywide operations , ithelps topromote andconserve theskills ofthelabor force . Through its unemployment in surance programs ,itbolsters community andnational purchasing power and acts asfirst line ofdefense against a possible recession .” (1957 :86) Thetraining a worker receives ,regardless ofhowgooditis ,iswasted unless hecanfind a jobwhich gives himsatisfaction , bothfinancial and personal . “Finding a jobisa difficult task . Itrequires that the jobseeker have information available which isnoteasily obtained by anindividual . He mustknow,forexample ,whatjobsareavailable ,notonly inhisown com munity ,butall over the country . He also must knowwhat these jobs require intraining ,experience , andgeneral skills . Finally ,hemustknowhimself . Thelatter isnomeantask . Itisdifficult fora person toanalyze objectively hisown abilities andtalents ,andfurther ,toknowhow those abilities may bedeveloped . 199 "An important function ofthepublic employment offices istogather this information ,inorder tofind jobs forworkers andworkers forjobs . This entails notonlya placement service butalso guidance activities ; thecollec tion ,analysis ,andcirculation oflabor -market information toemployers , laborgroups and other organizations concerned withemployment ; and providing special services toveterans andothers who havetrouble finding their place economy inthenational . "Congress ,recognizing theinterstate nature ofmanyeconomic andlabor . market problems ,established a Federal -State system ofpublic employment services . Administration isvested intheStates . TheFederal Government is responsible for prescribing standards ofefficiency for andcoordinating these services . TheDepartment ofLabor istheFederal partner inthis system . “Basically ,thePublic Employment Service isa community organization . Thelocal office concerns itself withtheemployment needs oftheemployers , labor groups ,andworkers inits community . “The services available toworkers areprovided free ofcharge . What arethese services ? “The worker's qualifications arematched withtheemployer's needs . Theworker isthen offered interviews with theemployers whoseneeds match hiscapabilities . to cometoit , doesnotwaitforemployers , however office “The local are workers . Employers ofavailable theskills forworkers . Itpublicizes office . the local with tolist their jobopenings solicited "Interviewing oftheworkers isdoneby trained personnel inthelocal office . Theworker's experience ,skills ,aptitudes ,andpersonal preferences analysis receive careful . “When nojobopenings exist ina community fortheparticular skills of a worker ,public employment offices inother areas may becontacted to assist him ifhe wishes . “Fortheemployer , thepublic employment office provides thelargest single source ofmanpower available inthecommunity . Whena joborder isreceived , workers matching theemployer's jobperformance require ments areselected andsent totheemployer forconsideration . Theactual hiring ofworkers ,ofcourse ,isdoneby theemployer himself . information aboutoccupa furnishes Service Employment “ ThePublic , etc. , andhours ,prevailing wages conditions , working tions ,employment his manpower a factual basis forplanning with the employer which provides :42-43 ) .” (1954 requirements Steadily continuing its general day -by-dayservices totheunemployed— in1959 alone theFederal -State system ofpublic employment offices filled 15 million jobopenings — theBureau ofEmployment Security introduced dur ingtheperiod underreview several measures ofparticular interest . Intheprocess ofrevising the“Dictionary ofOccupational Titles ,”the standard reference workinthis field ,studies weremadeofworker traits : 2 00 “Ordinary workers ,like actors ,get'typed bywhatthey happen tohave donerather than bywhatthey cando. Placement interviewers knowthis , andtrytorefer their applicants tothewidest variety ofjobs — butinso doing theyarelimited totheir own knowledge andimagination . Present systems designed tomatchworker qualifications withjobrequirements are essentially based onsimilarities ofworker experience onspecific jobs . They arejob -centered rather than work-centered . “Sixyears ago ,theBureau undertook todevelop anadditional classifica tion system which wouldrelate suchcomponents asinterests , aptitudes , training time , temperaments , physical capacities , andworking conditions tospecific sets of jobrequirements . The purpose istocreate a system which will enable thelocal office torefer applicants tothemaximumnum berofjobs they cando,andalso tomakeavailable toemployers themaxi mum numberofworkers fromwhichtomakeselections .” (1956 :91) Toward theendofthis period this newclassification structure wasin process ofbeing tested before being published for general use . Fromits earliest daysthepublic employment services hadbeenhandi capped bytheerroneous popular impression that they wereintended primar ily , ifnotexclusively , fortheconvenience of semiskilled and unskilled workers . Inpart this reputation developed out ofthe depression years ofthe 1930's ,when public employment offices constituted theofficial centers for relief payments ,andinpart tothe fact that ,with very limited appropriations , they were usually located indrab buildings indingy parts ofthe towns near theindustrial areas ,andthus wereavoided byunemployed workers inpro fessional andsupervisory occupations , whonotonly felt itincumbent on themtofend for themselves butalso felt outofplace insuch surroundings . To overcome this reputation ,andtoshowthat public employment offices wereasable toserve theprestige occupational levels aswell asthemore humble ones ,during thelate 1950's theEmployment Service established and successfully conducted a network ofspecial public employment offices for professional workers . Often these offices weretemporarily located atthe registration desks ofnational conventions ofprofessional associations . All a such offices ,however ,were tied together inaclearance procedure which made itpossible tomatch applicant andjobinevenremotely separated areas in theUnitedStates . "... As a result ,theemployment service wasenabled toexpandoccu pational coverage inplacement service andtoencourage development of year -roundplacements tomembersoftheprofessional societies . Definite gains inunderstanding andacceptance bylarge groups ofprofessional em ployers andapplicants alsoresulted .” " (1958 :108) l as ers es,andteac hers help ,aswel ,nurs wereinthis way given Engine sand manag ementoffici als egeinst ructor . coll A third development ofconsiderable value wasthepublication ofa com prehensive “Area Manpower Guidebook ,”prepared with the cooperation of theState employment security agencies ,presenting background data , com 666947 --63 -14 201 parative labor market statistics , andsummary labor market facts about theeconomic andmanpower resources of174oftheNation's moreimportant labormarketareas . “Thispublication brought together ina single volume basic manpower information areas industrial characteristics forlocal — their , manpower sources ofemployment , skills oftheworkforce , long -termlabor market trends , and related items . The bookfacilitates theworkoftheBureauand theState agencies inserving workers ,employers andthe public ,andinplan ning national manpower programs andpolicies .” (1958 :128) In 1959theBureaupublished a significant volumeon chronic labor surplus areas ,inwhich itdiscussed theproblem oflocalized unemployment andtheimpact ofrecession developments ontheir experience ,andindicated theoutlook fortheseareas . Farm Labor During this period special attention was given totheproblems offarm labor . TheDepartment's first efforts inthis connection were reported inthe department days ofthefirst WorldWar. Since that time ,nomatter which ofGovernment hadattempted tohandle them ,theproblems hadbecome ,if anything ,moreacute . Technological improvements ,especially offarmma chinery ; theintroduction ofpowerful chemical insecticides andfertilizers ; properties theconsolidation offarmlands into large ,manyownedby cor porations ; andtherelative attractiveness ofcity employment —these factors brought about a considerable reduction infarmpopulation andfarmem ployment . Atthesametime they reduced theduration ofcrop -harvesting seasons ,thus shortening theduration ofemployment ofseasonal farmwork ers . To meettheurgent needs ofplanting andharvesting ,farmers explored the employment offoreign nationals ,butthis development wastosomeextent checked importa bytheintroduction ofborder patrols toprohibit theillegal tion of“wetback ” Mexican laborers ,andthesubordination ofthis source of labor toregulation andgovernment control . entof itions ofemploym rable cond ally deplo thegener Formany years secom s e to adver d given ri t ed tates ha kers intheUni S ntfarmwor migra a ivelegisl tedcorrect shadenac ncedState ment,andsomeofthemoreadva pinthematter hadbecome llead ershi tion . TheneedforsomeformofFedera ch nated ,inwhi entofa coordi plan elopm tive . Thedev singly impera increa aries andemploy edtheitiner schedul yandlabor demandStates orsuppl lab eries of viate themis t deal toalle s,haddone a grea atory crew ment ofmigr neededtobe done. theseworkers. But much still During theperiod under review theDepartment ofLabor gave consider able attention totheproblems offarmlabor ,andsought tobring about im provements . InOctober 1954thePresident created a Cabinet Committee onMigratory Labor ,with theSecretary ofLabor aschairman . In1956 , attherecommendation ofthis committee ,Congress authorized theInterstate Commerce Commission toregulate theequipment andoperation ofvehicles 202 usedintheinterstate transportation ofmigrant farmworkers . Suggested language forState regulation ofintrastate transportation ofmigrants and for their housing wasprepared andmadeavailable tothepublic . A begin ning wasmadeonpromotion fortheappointment ofState migratory labor committees . Programs fortheemployment oflocal “day -haul ”labor ,con sisting chiefly ofhousewives ,school children onvacation ,andtemporarily unemployed persons ,werestrengthened . In 1959theDepartment issued asa major publication the“FarmLabor FactBook ," bringing together in onevolume a wealth ofscattered information onthis important segment of a committee theNation's labor force . At aboutthesametimea ofconsultants called inbytheSecretary madea report withrecommendations onwhat should bedone toalleviate theconditions ofemployment ofmigratory farm workersintheUnitedStates . Someindication ofthe type ofservice provided bythe FarmLabor Service intheBureau ofEmployment Security , andoftheproblems encountered , maybeobtained from the following excerpts from the annual report for1959 : “Farmlabor comprises about 10percent oftheNation's total employ ment . TheBureau's FarmLaborService hastheresponsibility forguiding andcoordinating programs toassist both growers andfarm laborers ,includ ingdomestic migratory workers andforeign farmlabor . Chief function oftheoperation istobring together agricultural workers andtheir employ . ers Howe ver, suchdiv erse butrelated activ ities asesti mating crop . yield todetermi nemanpow errequir ements , acti ngineme rgenci estoavert cro p loss ,makingpreva iling wag e determ inati onsandinspect inghousin g facil ities forMex icanagric ultura l worke rs,findin g liv e-in jobson farms for youngpeo ple from urban ar eas ,orref erring grai n combin estofarmer s ready toharvest areamongtheresp onsibi oftheFarmLaborService lities . The operat ioniscarr iedoutthrou ghth e State employm entsec urity agenc ies andthe irlocal employm entoff ices ,eac h ofwhich inagricul areas tural has inden tifiabl e farmplaceme ntservice with farmlab orfield re presen tative s. , production years outstanding year1959wasoneofagriculture's "Fiscal prob difficult posed toagriculture available ofworkers andrecruitment quickly hadtobechanged plans inmanycases Recruitment ofthe ofthecharacteristics because emergencies labor shortage toavoid were technological theproblems . Complicating -weather pattern year's crop forculti useofmachines andtheincreasing inagriculture developments the historical disrupt acting to —both ofmanymorecrops andharvest vating decline oftotal with thecontinued force - coupled ofthefarmlabor pattern lems . farmlabor .” (1959:105) Monthly farmlabor employment averaged 5,881,000 . Hired worker em ployment for the year averaged 1,711,000 . As thefiscal year ended ,theSecretary announced plans forpublication ofproposed amendments tothe regulations inthe Federal Register . Hesaid thepurpose oftheamendments was“toprevent theuseoftax -supported prevailing wages conditions ,working , andtrans facilities inundercutting 203 s from out uitworker -of e farmersrecr on prac tices wher in areas portati 9:106) esou rces Stat .” (195 Women Workers Itisrecognized today that women's employment isessential tothe national economy . “Morethan nine -tenths ofall nurses ,telephone operators ,dietitians , ste nographers ,typists ,andsecretaries arewomen;morethan three -fourths ofall textile spinners ,cashiers ,bookkeepers ,schoolteachers ,andthose whoserve foodinrestaurants arewomen;andhalf ormoreofallsales workers in retail trade andoffactory operatives ina dozen important manufacturing industries arewomen . a “Atpresent ,about athird ofall womenofworking ageareintheNation's labor force . Mostwomenareemployed atsometimeintheir lives . More a than half ofall womenworkers aremarried ,andabout a fourth ofthose have children under18years ofage. “The process bywhichwomenspearheaded themovement foran 8-hour day ,aliving wage ,andimproved working conditions isblueprinted inmany Department bulletins . “Inrecent years ,asstandards forhours ofwork ,minimum wages ,and industrial safety andhealth haveadvanced , theDepartment hasturned its attention toincreasing theeffectiveness ofwomen's contribution tothelabor force andtoequality ofopportunity andequitable treatment formen and womenworkers .” (1954 :20) “There isnoFederal lawapplying specifically towomeninthe labor force . Theadvisory services oftheDepartment ,however ,aregiven onrequest to authorities working State and to civic , labor , and women'sgroups to strengthen equal -paylaws inmanyofthe13States where they arealready onthestatute books ,orforthepassage ofequal -paylaws invarious other States . “As part ofits function ofpromoting the interests ofwage -earning women , theDepartment furnishes technical assistance toState labor departments andcivic andwomen's organizations on State minimum -wagelawsfor women.” (1954 :26) A conference ontheeffective useofwomanpower washeld inWashington during 1955 “toconsider thecontribution ofwomentothenational economy andwaysofraising thelevel ofskill ofworking women.” (1955 :93) In theDepartment itself ,women's affairs wereestablished asa major overall program coordinated bytheDirector oftheWomen's Bureau acting asas sistant Secretary tothe . A series ofreports waspublished on occupations forwomen,including teaching ,law ,medical technology ,banking ,engineering ,accounting ,beauty service ,mathematics andstatistics ,nursing ,secretarial work,office machine operation ,andtheFederal service . 204 To helpmature womeninsearch ofwork ,theBureau initiated and con ducted ,with thecooperation ofwomen's groups inmajor cities ,a series of one -dayearnings opportunities forums inwhich community leaders metwith thewomenthemselves anddiscussed their problems . (1956 : 16) Inthis waymanywomen were helped either tofind jobs ortoprepare themselves moreadequately foremployment . Themeetings were"helpful ingiving confidence andpractical suggestions tothewomenwhodesire work ,instimu lating projects for training orretraining those whoneed it ,educating employ ersonthecapabilities ofolder womenworkers , andpromoting increased cooperation amonglocal agencies ." (1957 :257–258 ) TheWomen's Bureau isresponsible fortheanalysis ofState legislation onminimum wages andhours andconditions ofwork . Itpublishes con tinuing revisions ofits analyses andgives technical assistance toState au thorities inimproving their minimumwagelaws . In manyStates the promotion ofthis legislation forwomenandchildren hasalso resulted in improvements formen. During theperiod here under review theBureau conducted a series of annual studies ontheemployment status ofcollege womengraduates . Con siderable information waspublished bytheBureau onthe legal andpolitical status ofwomen ,onwomeninjury service ,andonthe civil rights ofwomen . In1957theCongress authorized theappointment ofaa small field staff for theWomen'sBureau . Theseofficials travelled allovertheUnited States , working with Federal agencies involved intheemployment ofwomenand numerous groups andpublic agencies interested inwomen's welfare . Con siderable workalso wasdonewith groups ofwomenvisitors fromforeign countries government auspices who cometotheUnited States under . Worker Trainin g Functions performed bytheBureau ofApprenticeship andTraining were outlined inthe1954report ,which said theBureau : “1.Promotes thedevelopment andoperation ofeffective apprentice programs training . “2.Helps management andlabor toestablish basic standards fortheem ployment andtraining ofapprentices . “3.Ass istsnation al employ er asso ciati onsandlab or organiz ations to devel opandimple mentnational sta trade ndards ofappr entice ships . “4.Assis tslocal emp loyers orgroupsofemploy ersandemploy eesto dev elop progr amsoftrain ingforappre . Provid ntices escontinu ingtec hni calinf ormat ionandservices con cernin g theoperati onofsuchprogr ams . “5.Prov as istan ides ceonmethods oforg anizin g andcarry ingouton-the jobtrain ingforal employe lkinds ofindus trial es. “6.Develops andmakes available toindustry technical material ontrain training programs ingsuchasreports onsuccessful andhow todo'type pamphlets .” (1954 :34) 205 Findin g that th enumberofappr entice year scomplet ingtraini ngeach was cons idera than thenumberofnewcraf blyless needed tsmen torepl losses ace dueto retire ment and death andtoallowforexpans ionofthelaborforce , De the partm entplann ed a more vigor ouspro motio nalcampa ign. ofnational developments wastheemployment Oneofthemoresignificant international ,hired jointly bythe directors ofapprenticeship orcoordinators inthemajorbuilding associations ofcontractors unions andthenational assessment on each by a small involved :37), andfinanced trades (1954 The funds :58) . (1956 foreachman-hourworked participating employer :64) . (1959 taxexempt wereconsidered Special surveys were madeoftheneed forapprenticeship inseveral ofthe major manufacturing industries :foundries , electric power ,machine tools , etc. -oper incontract ofcraftsmen attention wasgiven tothetraining Special . Commission the Atomic Energy serving ated establishments Surveys offormerappre ntices showe d verylarg employe e percent ages d trades intheski lled inwhichtheyweretraine d orinclosel yrel ated occup a tion s,andmos t ofthemreported that thekindoftra ining they hadreceiv ed dur ingtheir appr entice wasreaso ships nably appr opriat e. (1957:62) Somemeasure oftheactivity oftheBureau isreflected intheDirector's report for1958: to programs wasgiven training up orimproving insetting “Assistance . More committees apprenticeship and6,800 joint 145,000 establishments . programs forjourney uptraining insetting wereassisted firms than18,000 , registrations 35,000 apprentice . Nearly andmethods meninnewprocesses neworrevised recorded ,andsome5,000 were completions ,orcancellations certificates . Completion programs werereviewed apprenticeship written were service ofmeritorious apprentices ,andcertificates to8,500 were issued of training development i n the voluntary help giving awarded to250persons :20) programs ." (1958 Labor Statistics In1954 ,under instructions fromthe President ,theDepartments ofLabor andCommerce begantoissue a joint monthly release on employment and unemployment . This release combined what ,prior tothat time ,hadcon sisted ofthree separate anduncoordinated sets offigures ; butthepublic found themconfusing . (1954 :56) Thereconciliation ofdata became the responsibilities oftheBureau oftheCensus ,theBureau ofLaborStatistics , andtheBureau ofEmployment Security ,acting together under thecoordi nating chairmanship oftheBureau oftheBudget . Attheendof1959the responsibility foranalysis andpublication ofthese labor force dataarising from theCensus Bureau's Current Population Survey wastransferred tothe Bureau ofLabor Statistics . Atthe same time responsibility for the collection andpublication ofconstruction statistics andforthepublication ofConstruc tion Review wastransferred totheDepartment ofCommerce . (1959 :195) 206 Fundsgranted bytheFordFoundation totheWharton School ofFinance andCommerce oftheUniversity ofPennsylvania weremadeavailable in 1955 ,permitting a comprehensive analysis oftheBureau's 1950survey of consumer expenditures andits extensive research studies ofconsumer income , spending ,andsavings intheUnited States . By1957 theanalysis wascom pleted ,comprising 18large volumes ofstatistics andanalysis . In1959the Bureau prepared andtheDepartment published a bookon"How American Buying Habits Change ,”inwhich thefindings fromall previous studies of consumer buying habits from1875werebrought together incompact form inasingle small volume . Thecomputation ofboth the Consumer Price Index andthe Wholesale Price Index wasconsiderably facilitated by theintroduction ofan electronic data computer obtained bytheBureau in1958.(1959 :192) UseoftheCPIforwageescalation inlabor -management contracts did muchtoconcentrate attention on theindex asa measure ofinflationary pressures . wereunderway ,projects here under review Toward theendoftheperiod to1960 data relating survey toobtain expenditures fora further consumer oftheConsumerPriceIndextobe introduced and1961,andfora revision 1964 . forJanuary into theindex Intheareaofwages andindustrial relations ,majordevelopments in cluded :studies required byCongress ontheeconomic effects ofthe$1-an hourFederal minimum wage ,effective 1956 ,inlow -paying industries and areas ;thepublication ofa layman's "GuidetoLabor -Management Relations 2 intheUnited States ”;a special revision ofthe “Directory ofLabor Unions ” resulting fromtheAFL-CIOmerger in1955 ;andthepublication ofback ground statistics bearing ontheprolonged steel dispute of1959 . Considerable workwasdoneduring this period indeveloping studies of productivity andtheeffects ofautomation . Indexes forthemeasurement ofproductivity were developed with respect toboth physical value andnet valueadded. “... Thereception oftheBureau's productivity andtechnological re ports wasespecially pronounced . Thisresulted inpart fromthenational concern overrising prices andwageswhichareintimately related topro ductivity growth . Inaddition ,thedramaofnewtechnology continued to capture the attention ofmanysegments ofourpopulation ,raising fears in someandhopeinothers .” (1957 :181) Aspart ofthis general area ofstudy theBureau published in1958anex tensive bibliography onproductivity ,andcompleted a report onthe effects ofautomation on olderworkersincertain industries . In1954theBureauofLaborStatistics celebrated its70thanniversary . Atthat time theMonthly Labor Review ,issued bytheBureau ,wasinits 40th year ofpublication . 207 Unemployment Insurance “The Unemployment Insurance System provides immediate anddirect community help toworkers ,business ,andtheentire . insurance a replaces ,unemployment unemployed workers “Foreligible a short wait . Itisavailable after ,asa matter ofright ofthewageloss part for ,andother essentials ,housing theworker buyfood . Ithelps ingperiod unemployment benefits arepaid atpublic himself . Since andhisfamily of havethebenefit claimants insurance offices ,unemployment employment . service facilities employment , insurance a sense ofsecurity gives workers ,unemployment “Foremployed someincome will have jobs ,they they lose their that ,should ofconfidence . unemployment ofinvoluntary during periods “Unemployment insurance helps maintain markets forbusiness through its contribution tothepurchasing power inthelocal community ,theState , and theNation. ofsecondary prevents therise purchasing power oflocal “ Themaintenance . theworkers which serve - inthebusinesses inthecommunity unemployment ofthe helps theproducers power also purchasing oflocal Themaintenance in experience effect of this cumulative buy . The these communities products economy . oftheentire various communities isabolstering “Unemployment insurance helps individual employers maintain their own labor forces during seasonal unemployment ortemporary interruptions of employment ,suchasforretooling ; itkeeps skilled workers inthearea where theywill beneeded ina fewweeks . “The direct benefits ofunemployment insurance toindividual workers andindividual employers indirectly benefit theentire community . Unem ployment insurance hassustained communities while their principal indus trial establishments wereclosed down. “Unemployment insurance spreads the cost ofunemployment . Employers contribute both ingoodyears andbadyears tomeetthecost ofunemploy ment inbadyears . Without such reserves ,anyunemployment relief extended would have tobefinanced byraising local taxes inemergencies . Unemploy becomes mentthus abudgeted charge onindustry ,rather thananemergency cost tothecommunity . “ Thecashbenefits ofunemployment insurance arepaidtotheworkers by theState employment security agencies ; however , theSocial Security Actcommits the Federal Government tospecific responsibilities inconnection with theprogram ." (1954:46–47) During 1958 and1959 theefficacy oftheunemployment insurance system wasputtoastringent andrevealing test : . . theunemployment rise wasfirst felt inthe1,800 local employment offices oftheFederal -State system ofunemployment insurance . Theunem ployed first sought jobs ,butifjobs were notimmediately forthcoming ,they called toclaim their unemployment insurance benefits . 208 "Inmostlocalities thenumber seeking jobsfarexceeded thejobopenings listed . “Fortunately for theNation andits newly unemployed ,theunemployment insurance program hadbeengreatly strengthened since thelast recession , eventhough serious shortcomings persisted . Theamount ofweekly benefits andtheduration ofthose benefits hadbeenincreased , thusputting more dollars into thepockets oftheunemployed . Unemployment insurance pro tection also hadbeenextended tomanymillions ofworkers ,sothat almost 80percent ofthenonfarm wageandsalary workers were covered .... Obviously , themostimportant task was"toprovide income promptly tothose whocould notbeplaced injobs . Official records showthat the Federal -State system metthis challenge byworking overtime ,byexpanding . local office facilities , by cutting redtape , andby putting theinterests of theunemployed above every other consideration .” provided programs insurance Records showedthat"theunemployment asofthe income aswell personal oftotal inthemaintenance a bulwark . Thus , benefits for whoqualified workers ofunemployed incomes individual recogni national won unprecedented security theyear ,employment during and stabilizer economic quickest andmostautomatic astheNation's tion hardship personal .” against ofdefense its first line Although "undoubtedly manysuffered because unable tomeettheir finan cial obligations ,therestorative impact ofthese payments onthemorale of therecipients andintheeconomic resuscitation oflocal business wasgreat ." (1958: 11-13 ) A major problem arose outofthediscovery that manyworkers quickly reached theendofthebenefits towhich theywereentitled ,andhadnothing further to go on. Recommendations forremedial action weresenttoCon gress ,which inJune1958enacted emergency legislation “extending dura tion ofbenefits by50percent forclaimants exhausting benefit rights under regular programs . Thanks tothis legislation providing longer duration of benefits , millions ofworkers who normally wouldhavebeencutofffrom all income whenthey drewall benefits towhich they wereentitled under permanent legislation wereprovided incomeuntil theycouldfind jobs . About 22percent ofall benefits paid outduring the year were received by claimants who qualified forbenefits undertemporary legislation ." (1959 :88) in , theunemployment , however of thisemergency Underthestrains : tobeinadequate proved insomerespects surance system “The rising proportion ofexhaustees wasevidence that theduration of benefits provided byState laws wasnotlong enough toprotect against un employment during even arelatively short recession .... . “Anothe r weakn esswas thefac t tha t theunemp loyme nt ins uranc e pro gram did notcove wor should all k ers wh pro r o have tectio n. Natio nally , about work 13mill ion ers ,compri sing 20per cent ricult wage ofthenonag ural 209 andsalary workers andvirtually all agricultural workers ,areexcluded from the protection ofunemployment insurance . “Manyfinancial weaknesses andpotential trouble areas wererevealed also . .. “Thedramatic rise inbenefit costs putheavy strains on theState benefit reserve systems ,providing theseverest test yetoftheir adequacy . Mostof theweaknesses revealed werehighly technical inna re. Butthey added up tofailure tocollect enough excess taxes orcontributions inyears oflow benefit costs tosupport heavy payments inrecession years . Most of > theStates involved arealready taking someremedial action . (1959 : 117-118 ) Wages and Hours 1 Fiscal 1955 wasthe last full year inwhich the WageandHourandPublic Contracts Divisions administered the75-cents -an-hourminimumwageunder theFairLaborStandards Act. Amendments totheact ,effective March1, 1956 ,increased theminimumwageto$1anhour . “... No changes were madeinthecoverage andexemption provisions ofthe act ,norinits overtime payandchild labor standards . “Theamendments , however , substantially changed theprocedures for establishing minimum wages inPuerto Rico andtheVirgin Islands [and ] required that theannual report totheCongress by theSecretary ofLabor should contain anevaluation andappraisal ofthe minimum wages established bytheact ,together withanyrecommendations oftheSecretary withrespect tothelaw." (1956:185) “Funds wereprovided for283newinvestigator positions andtheneces sary additional supervisory staff aswell asfor theopening of29additional field offices and110moreitinerant stations . ... (1956:186) “The greater dispersion offield offices anditinerant stations provides better service toemployers andemployees by makingpersonnel moreac cessible toconsultation , andthus affords a meansforachieving better com expenses pliance in particular areas . Italsocutsdown travel . (1956 :187) to madeitnecessary totheminimumwageprovisions “The amendment statements of bulletins , andpublic , interpretative allregulations review wage . Allsections minimum tothenew$1-an-hour forconformance policy -an-hourminimumwageor 75-cents totheformer whichmade reference $1 werere than rates ofless onhourly based contained examples which 9 vised :206) .” (1956 "Itwasnecessary torevise thespecial minimumrates provided forlearn ersunder all supplemental industry learner regulations , andtodevelop ap propriate revised learner standards formiscellaneous industries . (1956 :210) *A brief 20-year history ofthe operation ofthe Fair Labor Standards Actwasincluded inthedepartmental report for1958 ,pages 208–223 . 210 Raising theminimummeant ,however ,that manymoreestablishments andemployees would beinvolved intheadministration ofthelaw . “The Divisions [therefore ] undertook a major educational campaign toinform employers ,employees ,andthegeneral public about theincrease inthemini mum wageandtoremind themoftheother requirements oftheFairLabor Standards Act . Theprogram wasbegun well inadvance ofthenewmini mum'seffective date ,sothat business andindustry could prepare tomake adjustments thenecessary . ... "Earlyin January , theNation's 800,000 establishments withcovered employees weresent a circular whichcalled attention tothebasic statutory provisions . Attached wastheposter which all covered firms mustdisplay anda coupon onwhich theemployer could send hisownquestions tothe Divisions . . . . Alsodistributed wasa ' marker ,' designed ‘payroll toshow > management howtofigure theregular rate ofemployees ininstances where theeffective date ofthenewminimumwould notcoincide with thefirst dayof theemployer's ownworkweek . "Fourtee n ill ustrat edpamp hlets ,writte n inlayman's lan guage , werepre pared . The mostcom prehe onewastheHandyReferen nsive ceGui detothe FairLabor Standards Act. .. Among the other leafle tswerethose deal ingwith suc h matter sashow tocompu teovertim ,howtokeep epay timeand pay roll record s,and what con stitut . Explan eshour swor ked ation sofhowto app lysomeofthemajorexempt ,suchasthos ions efor retail esta blish , ments agri cultur e,and'whi teco llar 'emp loyee present s,were languag edinconc ise e. Seve ralpamphl etsdea ltexclu withthechildlabor sively provi . Also sions > publis hedwasthefirst dig estof thePubl icContrac tsAct,and answe rsto someofthemostfrequen tlyaske dquestion that sconce rning law . ... “Tocall theattention ofmanagement inmajor industries totheamended articles provisions law ,theDivisions wrote ontheapplication ofthestatutory tospecific businesses andelicited thecooperation ofeditors whopublished theminleading trade magazines . These articles weresofavorably received byemployers that manytrade associations ,including those forbanks ,gar mentmanufacturers , textiles , andnewspapers , reproduced themfortheir individual members. placed were inpost new$1 rate referring tothe posters illustrated “Small govern Federal ,andlocal ,State Nation andonvarious offices throughout the offices and ofcommerce asinchamber boards ,aswell bulletin mentoffice unionhalls . “Radio ,television ,andthepress enthusiastically supported theDivisions ' advertising efforts . ... Theuseofaneducational insert intheclassified section ofnewspapers ,stressing theminimum wage ,wasaneminently suc cessful technique inbringing thestatutory provisions tothenotice ofboth prospective employers andemployees . for intherequests intheamendedlawwasreflected “Public interest andem. ofemployer received frommanytypes theDivisions which speakers . ,andservice clubs ,conventions organizations ,civic andtrade ployee groups 211 Regional directors ortheir representatives reported that their talks were well received andevoked manyquestions fromtheaudiences . m “Wage-Hourofficials tookpart inmeetings withveterans ' organizations , service clubs , civic societies , andlocal chambers ofcommerce . Atthere quest oftheUnited States Chamber ofCommerce ,theDivisions developed a standardized format for conducting formal clinics which thenational cham berdesired tosponsor incooperation with local chambers andtheDivisions ' representatives .” (1956 :204–205 ) programs reach specific segments “Whileeducational andinformation of industries with compliance problems aswell aswidecross sections ofman agement andlabor ,andwhile their general effect istoalert andremind the public about theacts andinduce affected firms orpersons tomakefurther inquiries astotheapplication ofthelawingiven situations offact ,they do notfulfill the samefunctions asinvestigations . Physical investigations must beundertaken inorder todetermine ifindividual firms areincompliance and tocorrect violations where found . A sound investigation program isthe mosteffective deterrent against violations ofthelaw,whether duetocare lessness , misinterpretation of thestatutory provisions , or willfulness .” (1958 :231) uncovered by investigations ofemployment Someideaoftheconditions found inwhich minors were ofoccupations froma summary maybederived 1957 : illegally employed during “Although nochild under 14years ofagemaybelegally employed ,unless specifically exempt fromthechild labor provisions , manysuchchildren were found working ina wide variety ofjobs . Amongthedangerous jobs these very young children weredoing ,forwhich an18-year minimum age hazardous occupations hasbeenset inthevarious orders ,wereskidding logs , cutting ,loading ,andhauling pulpwood ,driving atractor tohaul logs tothe sawmill ,operating a freight elevator ata wholesale beer concern ,operating & scrap -paper baling machine ,andacting ashelpers onmilkandsoft -drink delivery trucks . “Children under 14years ofagewere also found engaged inmanykinds of workforwhicha 16-yearminimumageisrequired . Thesechildren were shaking outhides ata meatpacking plant ,tending a cotton -braid machine , sorting metal scrap ata junkyard ,operating a buttonhole machine ,and packing candy inamanufacturing plant . Someofthese young children were helping their mothers do industrial homeworksuchas stringing beads , making holly wreaths andhooked rugs ,andlacing moccasins andleather purses. “The actprovides fortheemployment of14-and15-year -oldchildren in occupations other than manufacturing ormining atperiods which will not interfere with their schooling andunder conditions which will notinterfere provisions withtheir health andwell -being . Theseprotective arenotal waysadhered to,andmanychildren inthis agegroup wereemployed at manufacturing andmining occupations andathours whichwouldinterfere 212 weredof e th ildren were doing fing inth jobs esech withheal th. Someofthe boy s inclot hing ,acti ngasbundle spinn ,finish ingdresses ingroom ofaa mill cat c hicke a , and c hing nsfor factorie on oilrigs kingasrousta bouts s,wor mid pla to night . ntfrom7p.m. poultr ssing y-proce > ldren wereempl oyedatjobs -oldchi “ Anumbe r ofthe14-and15-year orders . The uded whic t tohazard ousoccupat ions sejob s incl h weresubjec mini ngofcoal andmang aneseore ,cutti ngtimbe r foraa coalmine,operati ng pl paperc ,boning meatand a power -driven aten pre lotine utter ssanda guil butche of a meatp ,and workinwoo onthekilli ackin ds ring ngfloor gplant ope tree dinglogs , opera tinga buck sawand ration s,skid s suchas limbing offb earin :208) gfroma rips aw.” (1957 amendment caused intheDepart inactivity that this theincrease Despite applica satisfied with thelaw's ofLaborwasnotentirely ment ,theSecretary (of tobothsubcommittees "recommendations tion . In1957he presented having inenterprises thecoverage oftheacttoemployees Congress ]toextend commerce . engaged ininterstate andsubstantially 100ormoreemployees employees ,covered ,withsomeexceptions recommended that ... He also having 100employees inenterprises . .. whoareemployed nowexempt . An estimated undertheminimumwageprovisions ormore,be brought ,would be stores ,mostoftheminretail employees additional 2.5million . Onlya underthe$1 minimumwageby bothrecommendations brought theovertime under would bebrought ofthese employees proportion small , notaffect theagricultural would . Therecommendations payprovisions ,orexecutive ,administra ,newspaper carrier ,fishing processing agricultural , how :202) Congress .” (1957 exemptions salesman tive , and outside proposals . toactonthese ever ,failed Theconcluding remarks tothe 20-year history ofthe Fair Labor Standards Act ,published inthe1958report ,offer a present -dayappreciation ofthe social andeconomic meaning ofthis significant law: “Ina highly industrialized anddiversified economy such asthat ofthe United States ,a minimum wagelawperforms a somewhat narrow butim portant economic function .. The Federal minimumwage , like theother r market,asdo Statemini sa sta ndardinthelabo sionsoftheact,set provi idethe s of emp loymentth atare outs chapplytotype mum wage laws whi tstha men ish thave abl rallaw. Such lawstendtoprodest scopeofthe Fede y,andal yees. log espai dthe iremplo dinmanagement hno soinwag ,intec lagge s arestar ent shm tedeve ryyea r, nds ofestabli usa Ina dynamic economy,tho s only e can stayinbusines ris ess erp dsgo outofbusin . Ifan ent andthousan rs d app ngequal lytoit etito , g wagesbelow thele dar lyi scomp gal bypayin stan oyees y andaburdenonit sempl str . it isadragontheindu “When theCongress sets a newminimumwage , itsets thelowest wage that canlegally bepaidforworktowhich thelawapplies . Adjustments mustbemadesothat theworkthat isdonecarries that wage. If the pay mentofthewagemeansa somewhat higher price fortheproduct ,outofthe manythat thepeople buy,then that price should bepaid ,soconsumers will 213 notbenefit fromexploitation oftheworkers andtheindustry . Ifthein creased wageiscovered byimprovements inmanagement orinproductivity , society gains ,aswell asthe worker . Ifanemployer canpaythewagewith no change inhismethods ,thenhe isbeing brought into line withwhatthe bulk ofhis competitors are already paying .” (1958 :222) Workmen's Compensation Theyear1958marked the50thanniversary ofFederal workmen's com pensation intheUnited States . Asthedepartmental report noted : "... Theoriginal Federal actproviding limited benefits tocertain civilian Federal employees injured atworkwaspassed in1908.By 1916aa uniform system forall civilian Federal employees wasdesigned bylegislative enact ment . In1927a separate actestablished benefits foremployees inprivate offshore stevedoring pursuits andalso forshipyard repairmen . “Later legislation hasencompassed private employees intheDistrict of Columbia ,defense base workers ,Outer Continental Shelf lands activities ,and civilian workers employed by nonappropriated fundinstrumentalities of theGovernment . Other acts administered by theBureau ofEmployees ' Compensation require continued benefits for injuries sustained byemergency relief workers ,civilian warrisk casualties ,military reservists ,andwarclaims cases . "Despite this necessarily complex network oflegislation andheterogeneous coverage ,the basic purpose ofthe Federal workmen's compensation system is a verysimple andspecialized one. Itistoprovide immediate care forthe injured employee . Theessential elements ofthis care aretimely first aid , adequate medical attention ,compensation forloss ofearning capacity ,and rehabilitation . impetus provided great compensation venture ,workmen's “As a pioneer social ofother inthefield expansion andsignificant prevention toaccident Govern bytheFederal arepaid benefits . Compensation benefit legislation funds ; those to through appropriated employees owninjured menttoits orsuper insurance bycommercial andpaid areprovided private employees arecovered workers 3.5million ,probably . Altogether self -insurance vised injuries . Bothtraumatic ofa workinjury intheevent under thesystem ,Fed 1958 . During compensable areordinarily diseases andoccupational medical ,amounted benefits ,including forcompensation disbursements eral :71) year .” (1958 fromtheprevious , up 6.2percent to$59.6million Theadequacy ofworkmen's compensation intheStates ,however ,became a major question forimprovement : “ Theworkmen's compensation laws[ofthevarious States ] usually base compensation ontwo -thirds oftheworkers 'average weekly wages . They also setmaximumdollar limitations on weekly andtotal benefits . When compensation laws wereoriginally passed ,thedollar limitations onbenefits weresufficiently highsothat theworkers usually received thepercentage specified . 2 14 years bene inrecent different . Although isentirely "Today,thepicture andtotal ofweekly somewhat by liberalizations fits havebeenincreased . costs wages andincreased with rising pace ,they havenotkept maximum this operate tonullify payments usually limitations onmaximum Thedollar ofhiswageloss theproportion . Farfromreceiving percentage statutory that theworker indicate , ithasbeenestimated would thepercentage that . The wageloss one -third ofhis only usually receives disabled temporarily by relief .” must be supplemented benefits that often gets so little worker (1954:19) a matter became ofcoverage benefits andextension Theneedforimproved beginning in1954.Thepromotion totheDepartment ofmajorconcern ofthethenUnderSecre a majorobjective standards became ofimproved recognized , hadbeena nationally assuming office tary ,who,evenbefore : inthis field specialist “Amod elworkm en'scomp ensat ionbill isbeingprepa redby theDep art menttohelp th e States ,by makin g av ailabl etothemthebest though t and exper ience inco rporat edinthevarious Stat eworkme n'scompe nsati . onlaws Thefir stdraft ofth isbill hasbeendeve loped bytaki ngth e mostsuc cessfu l featur esofmany ofthe State act s. Thisdisc ussio n dra ft'hasbeen com plet ,and2,5 ed 00copie s ofithav e beencirc ulated amonginteres tedgroups andspec ialist s inth e field ofwor kmen' s compens ation forcomm entsand sugges tions . A final draft will be prepa redon thebasi s ofthecomment received . Itwill be availab leas a pract ical guide toassist Sta tesinthei r effor tstoimpro veworkmen 'scompens ation laws .” (1955 :10) Leaders inCongress wereconvinced that suchaa bill wouldbeopposed by employers andothers . Themodel bill wastherefore shelved . Asregards workmen's compensation for Federal employees ,a study made during 1957showed that betwen 1951and1955there hadbeenanoverall reduction of7.5 percent indisabling nonfatal workinjuries ,andaa50percent reduction rate inthefatality . (1957 :68) Theseimprovements wereat tributed ,certainly inpart ,tothe drive toeradicate unsafe acts andhazardous workconditions amongFederal employees ,manyofwhomareengaged in hazardous work. Inthefield ofprivate employment still covered byFederal law ,particular > attention wasgiven totheplight ofstevedores : "Undoubtedly themostinherently hazardous workcovered bythevarious employment acts administered by theworkmen's compensation bureau of theDepartment [ofLabor ] isthat ofoffshore stevedoring . Itisoften con sidered moredangerous than coal mining ,logging , orheavy construction . About 100,000 longshoremen areyearly exposed toits hazards . Theywork forsome1,200 employers in100ports throughout theNation . Thework these longshoremen perform iscomplex andarduous . Theydo dangerous rigging , crack openhatches , climb downdungeonlike holds , sling bulky treacherous loads ,runwinches ,handle hatch beams ,gangways ,andmaneuver cargo ofall kinds toandfromship . Their workisseasonal andmarked by 215 frequent shifts fromoneemployer toanother . Their workplace changes fromship toship . Inclement weather andever changing workconditions addtothehazards . Frequency , severity , andcostofsuchinjuries runs high.... " (1957 :69) Although ,inregard tomedical care forlongshoremen injured onthejob , Federal benefits hadbeenmoreliberal thanthose extended under workmen's compensation legislation inother areas ofprivate employment , itwasfelt that greater effort wasnecessary toreduce safety hazards . Congress there legislation foreenacted in 1958"authorizing theSecretary of Laborto prescribe andenforce safety standards tobemaintained by employers of employees covered bytheLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Compensa tion Act." (1958:8) Employees ' Compensation Appeals Board Federal regarding 'Compensation ofEmployees Decisions oftheBureau Appeals Employees ' Compensation by the to review aresubject employees 1958 report : inthe Board operates isdescribed Board . Howthis “TheEmployees 'Compensation Appeals Board consists ofthree members appointed bythe Secretary ofLabor . Itisseparate anddistinct from the Bureau ofEmployees ' Compensation . Theadministration oftheFederal Employees ' Compensation Actisvested solely intheBureau . The Board isa quasi -judicial body ,whichwasestablished by Congress in1946 , with exclusive jurisdiction toconsider anddecide appeals by Federal employees from final decisions of theBureau . ... Priortothattimethere was no provision forreview . A decision oftheBoardisfinal andnotsubject . tocourt review . Thejurisdiction oftheBoard extends toquestions offact , aswell aslaw ,andtoquestions involving theexercise ofdiscretion . Board review islimited tothecase record uponwhich theBureau rendered its decision ;newevidence may notbesubmitted totheBoard. hin onforreview isfiled wit licati r ofrig ht,iftheapp alisamatte “Appe rd] mayextend on. [TheBoa au's decisi e of theBure 90days fromthedat nttobe ing essary foranappella to l year .... Itisnotnec thetimeforfil . sented before theBoard. ... repre “When anappeal isdocketed ,theBureau isfurnished with a copyand ispermitted 30dayswithin whichtofile withtheBoardtheoriginal record Since eith ertheBureauorappe may llant ofthecaseandits reply . demand oralargument theBureau memorandumstates whether oral argument is ,orisnot ,requested . The applicant thenisfurnished witha . . copyoftheBureau memorandum andisgiven anopportunity torespond thereto . led ngisschedu . The ent s ora l argum , a heari quest r party re "Ifeithe ties 10 tices tothepar at least no stobe heard and sends stheissue Boardset rmal dureisinfo . ringproce ing ceof thehear . . . .The hea s inadvan day . senta d orby repre oretheBoar arin person bef ntmay appe An appella tive. 216 “Ineach appeal reviewing themerits ofa claim ,theBoard's decision is accompanied by a written opinion setting forth thesalient facts ,thecon clusions ,thelaw ,andthereasoning uponwhich theBoard based its action . “[Ineach case ] theBoard enters a formal order disposing ofthematter onappeal . Theorder mayaffirm orreverse thedecision oftheBureau or mayremand thecase totheBureau forfurther proceedings astheBoard may direct . “Allfees forlegal servic es . . requi rethe approv al oftheBoard . ... “The opinions oftheBoard arecomprehensive andconstitute a valuable fundofprecedent which serves notonly toguide theBureau intheadjudica tion ofclaims ,butalso asanimportant source ofreference toinjured em ployees ,attorneys ,andothers concerned with problems ofworkmen's com pensation . (1958 :83–85 ) ManagementReports LaborTheLabor Management Reporting andDisclosure Actof1959 ,designed improper activities toeliminate bylabor ormanagement ,waspassed bythe Congress andsigned into lawby thePresident on September 14. Theact provides certain protection fortherights oflabor organization members ; provides for thefiling ofreports describing theorganization ,financial deal ings ,andbusiness practices oflabor organizations ,their officers andem ployees ,certain employers ,labor relations consultants ,andunions intrustee ship ; safeguards union election procedures ; sets standards forthehandling ofunionfunds ; amendstheTaft -Hartley Law toeliminate the"no -man's land ” inNLRBcases ;closes previously existing loopholes inthe protection against secondary boycotts ; and limits organizational and jurisdictional picketing , the of thelaw forwhichitisresponsible thosesections To administer Reports . -Management a Bureau ofLabor established LaborDepartment Actareadministered -Hartley ofthestatute whichamendtheTaft Portions Board . LaborRelations bytheNational Under this act ,thereceiving ofunion financial andorganizational data , previously assigned totheBureau ofLabor Standards ,became anactivity ofthenew bureau . Labor Standards “Many people cometotheBureau [ofLaborStandards ] forinformation , advice ,help ,ortechnical assistance onState labor legislation andadmin istration . “Their requests ranged through the entire spectrum oflabor law . A labor commissioner ina Midwestern State asked forhelp instrengthening his mediation facilities workmen's compensation commission . A southern re quested help inimproving procedures forprocessing andfiling claims . A special legislative commission ina large eastern industrial State needed information on therehabilitation procedures followed inother States . A 666947–63—15 217 member ofthehouse ofrepresentatives ofa Southwestern State ,preparing a tointroduce a minimum wagebill ,asked for help indeveloping its substan tive provisions . A State civic group working with the State labor department toprevent breakdown inchild labor standards asked forhelp inrevising theamendments that hadbeenoffered . The Council ofIndustrial Health oftheAmerican Medical Association wanted toknowhow second -injury fundscouldbe usedtohelphandicapped workers getjobs . The labor adviser ofthegovernor ina State cameinforadvice andrecommendations fordeveloping a coordinated labor department intheState . A professor froma large university cametotheBureau togetinformation fora chapter onlabor legislation ina sociology textbook . Reporters representing news papers , wireservices , andmagazines called , came, or wrotefornewsof State industrial relations legislation . Thechairman ofa State migratory labor committee asked forhelp indrawing uptheagenda ofa conference onmigratory labor . State labor organizations asked for assistance indevel opingamendments totheir workmen's compensation laws . The daughter ofa man killed onthejobwrote foradvice onhermother's rights under the 9 workmen's compensation law .” (1956 :137) Ofspecial concern totheDepartment during recent years have beenprob lems relating tothe workmen's compensation aspects ofatomic energy andthe growing danger connected with radiation exposure amongAmerican work . ers . Earliest efforts were reported in1956 :“ Abeginning hasbeen madein determining changes needed inworkmen's compensation standards ...and groundwork hasbeenlaid fora study ofcoverage ofradiation exposure under present State laws .” (1956 :139) ion gislat : The htto work” le eadint erest was"rig m ofwidespr A proble s inguni onac tivitie ting sofbill srestric orsupervis tion roduc insomeState int ononbot h right to rmati ests forinfo rease inrequ hta markedinc “broug on.” (1957 :159 ) ctive gislati n-restri le unio work 'and other Other reports fromtheStates indicated “progress inimproving housing formigrants ina number ofareas andaction inimproving regulations gove erning labor camps . A fewStates haveestablished regulations forintra slate transportation and forregistration of crewleaders . Efforts have increased togetmigrant children enrolled inlocal schools while they arein a number thearea ,anda ofnewexperimental schools havebeenestablished .” (1958 :162) During 1959 ,thelegislatures of47States andPuerto Rico metinregular session . “Some3,500 bills andacts relating tolabor wererecorded and indexed bysubject ,with themoreimportant ofthese analyzed . Significant advances inlegislation made during 1959included lawsinthefields of workmen's compensation ,migratory agricultural labor ,minimum wages ,and discrimination inemployment .” (1959 :172) As regards child labor andyouthemployment theBureau reconstituted its Advisory Committee , which recommended anintensive effort tohelp youth complete high school ,aawider understanding ofthe purpose andactual 218 provisions ofState andFederal child labor laws ,andthecirculation ofre ports oncreative programs serving school dropouts ,suchassummer jobs andcommunity services tocorrect physical ,emotional ,andsocial disabilities that makeithard foryouth togetandhold jobs . (1956 :140) Labor force analyses showed that :“Young people will beanincreasingly important segment ofourlabor force asthemanpower shortages intheage group born inthe thirties are felt . By1965 there will beover 4million more young workers (14–24 years old ) intheworkforce thanthere werein1955 . Their education ,training ,andinduction into employment mustnotbeleft tochance .” (1958 :163) Inconnection with these problems ,theDepart mentpublished chartbooks predicting trends andindicating theproblems thatwould be involved . TheBureau's safety programs wereconsiderably strengthened by an amendment tosection 41oftheLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Com pensation Act ,which charged the Bureau with theresponsibility fordevelop ingthenecessary organization , programs , andregulations toimplement effectively the provisions ofthis law .” (1959 :167) “Longshoremen working aboard a ship ,andshipyard workers making repairs ona ship either indrydock orafloat ,arecovered by theFederal workmen's compensation lawrather thanState law . Their safety isalso a Federal ,rather than State ,responsibility . That responsibility hasbeendele gated bylawtotheDepartment ofLabor ,andrests with theBureau ofLabor Standards . Safety inoilwell drilling offtheContinental Shelf ofMexico to Bureauinvestigation is also subject and recommendations .' (1958 :168-169 ) TheBure aucontinu edtoas sist States ,unio ns,andotherinteres tedgro ups inthetechnic alas pects ofdeve lopin code gsafety s,andinest ablish ingclo se coordin wit ation h suchorg aniza astheAmeric tions anSta ndards Assoc ia tio n. Italso con tinued toprovi dethe staffin gforthebienn ialPreside nt's Conf erenc e on Occu patio nalSafet y, andfo r theFed eralSafet y Cou ncil , whichadvi sestheSecre taryofLaboronthedev elopm entand mainte nance ofeffectiv or esafe ty ganiza andprogram tions sinFeder alagencie s. Under theLabor Management Relations Actof1947 theBureau ofLabor Standards maintained a system fortheregistration oflabor unions wishing tousetheservices oftheNational LaborRelations Board . Withtheen actment oftheLabor -Management Reporting andDisclosure Actof1959 , however ,this function waschanged andtransferred toa newbureau inthe Department . In1958 , after considerable investigation ofcharges ofcorruption and inept administration inhandling ofemployee benefit plans inindustry ,the Congress passed theWelfare andPension Plans Disclosure Act ,having as itsobjective thepublication ofandmakingavailable toparticipants and beneficiaries under anysuch plan a description oftheplan andits financial operations : 21 9 The actisprimarily a self -administering measure ; thepolicing of thedisclosure andpublication requirements oftheact rests with thepartici pants andbeneficiaries covered bytheplan . TheSecretary ofLabor hasno investigative orenforcement functions . Hehasnoauthority tointerpret the statute nortoissue rulings designed toclarify thelaw. Undertheact ,the Secretary hastwobasic responsibilities : (1) tomakeavailable forexamina tion ,inthePublic Documents Room oftheDepartment ofLabor ,copies of theplan descriptions andannual reports which theact requires tobefiled , and(2)toprepare forms for the descriptions ofplans andthe annual reports required bytheprovisions oftheact — andtomakesuch forms available to plan administrators uponrequest .” (1959 :163–164 ) InternationalLabor Affairs "Withrespect tointernational affairs ,theDepartment hasa number of important responsibilities . These include advising theDepartment ofState andother agencies regarding labor developments abroad that affect United States foreign policy objectives . Itassists intheselection andtraining of attachés Foreign Service personnel labor andother ,participates informing United States policy regarding international agencies andforeign economic policy , andoperates an exchange -of -persons program . Ithasa primary responsibility forleadership inUnited States participation intheInterna tional Labor Organization .” (1957 :22) es gnla borissu arch onforei d forrese ryea rs,thenee g thepostwa “Durin h e he i s growt ar t forth nsely . Among themanyreasons hasgrownimme iesand cttothepolic calare assubje graphi sion ofthegeo uous exten contin or nceofthelaborfact g sig nifica edSt ates ,thegrowin onsoftheUnit operati ggle with anceintheworld -widestru gicimport ts,itsstrate ntinen inall co sof ggle inthefield edfo rthis stru cesdevelop enewdevi unism ,andth Comm tion icinforma . nce calassista ,and publ n aid e,foreig ,techni trad foreign ntains zes edcoll ects ,andmai y con stitut ,analy m aspr esentl “The progra onsinaa stituti in , andlabor ions laws ,labor ationon labor condit inform ional ternat labor ies antfor eign countr ,andonin r ofsignific ited numbe lim ngre ports s ofprepari am consist ions nizat . The progr ties activi and orga ed for nalser vices need matio er infor ringanyoth s and rende and analyse alfield nation , ign inter nal vities in the fore and eratio acti policy -makingandop ." (1954:76–77) onofdome sticlaborissues ficati andfortheclari To obtain this information ,“theDepartments ofLaborandState jointly administer thelabor attaché program ,which isa component ofthe'unified Foreign Service 'asestablished bythe Foreign Service Actof1946. These officers intheAmerican Embassies throughout theworldprovide allofthe interested Washington agencies andparticularly the Department ofLabor with factual analytical reporting concerning pertinent economic andpolitical aspects offoreign labor .” (1957:37) “Theworkofthelabor attachés , whencombined withtheworkofthe Department's Washington personnel , havemadepossible a widerange .of 2 20 overseas opera concerned with officials tounion andmanagement services tions :78) .” (1954 “American trade unions ,with heavy stakes inforeign union developments , havebeen eager toobtain detailed facts about trade -union developments in various parts oftheworld . TheDepartment hasmadeavailable toAmerican labor organizations lists ofnational trade -union centers andinternational labor organizations andtrade secretariats andtheir affiliates throughout the world . Thus ,ifa particular union inAfrica orAsia ,forexample ,writes to anAmerican union ,theAmerican union hasavailable someinformation on theforeign union's background .” (1954 :76) By 1959theForeign Service Labor Corps consisted of48full -time labor officers andover 100part -time labor reporting officers ,located particularly in“theunderdeveloped areas oftheworld where labor isplaying a major political andeconomic role .” (1959 :40) isa series contributed bytheDepartment addition toknowledge A useful bytheDepart organizations ,bycontinent ,published oflabor ofdirectories groups . ,andworker ,employers bygovernments used ment ,andextensively ,andeffec ,functions studies ofthestructure also publishes TheDepartment . tradesecretariats of international tiveness Commencing in1957 ,"area specialists were assigned tostudy andanalyze labor andmanpower problems anddevelopments country bycountry ,formu late departmental policy toward thecountry ,and ,after appropriate review andapproval ,present these policies for inclusion inoverall American foreign policy .” (1957 :37) TheDepartment's relationships with theInternational Labor Organiza tion ,with headquarters inGeneva ,Switzerland ,have been consistently very close . The Director -General ofthatorganization during the1950's was formerly Under Secretary ofthe U.S. Department ofLabor . Furthermore , theAssistant Secretary ofLabor forInternational Labor Affairs ,oreven theSecretary ofLabor himself ,usually heads theAmerican delegation to meetings oftheILO. Consequently ,whentheSoviet Union decided in1954 torejoin theILO,precipitating discussion over theseating ofSoviet worker andemployer delegates ,theU.S. delegation wasamongthefirst toquestion whether delegates properly representative agencies these were ofindependent oroftheSoviet government . TheU.S.delegation also ledinpromoting the convention adopted in1957onforced labor . In1957 the question arose astowhether theUnited States should continue toparticipate inILOactivities . “Since thereentry oftheSoviet Union andeastern European satellite countries into theILOin1954 ,theissue of continued United States participation ,andthenature ofsuch participation intheILO,hasbeenthesubject ofdebate - principally by United States employer organizations . TheSecretary ofLabor has ,onanumber ofocca sions ,expressed theviewthat theUnited States should notonly continue its membership inthe ILO,butshould play a major role inthe shaping of 221 > its program .” (1957 :35) After careful study andnationwide discussion , it wasdecided toadopt theSecretary's point ofview . “Thelargest operating program oftheLabor Department intheinter national field isthe foreign visitor program .” (1959 :36) Thepurpose of this program istoprovide training andexperience tovisitors fromabroad whoseek anunderstanding oflabor conditions intheUnited States andto study labor problems . “TheDepartment's objectives inproviding training tothose whocome fromabroad havebeen ,first ,toshare withthemindustrial methods which have brought about increased productivity ,moremechanization ,anda high standard ofliving forthewageearners ofAmerica . Second ,theDepart mentseeks toimpart anunderstanding ofthepractical workings ofAmerican democracy byenabling foreign trainees tovisit workers 'homes ,factories , andunion andcivic meetings ,togain first -hand knowledge ofhowAmerican workerslive . "TheDepartment's workinproviding technical training toforeign visitors isnotdonebypre -arranged orconducted tours . Eachvisitor (orgroup ) worksouttheprogram hewants tofollow on thebasis ofwhathewants to trained program officers learn . Hedoes this incollaboration with whoknow ourcountry's resources for training .” (1954 :74) “Thesuccess ofthese activities isingreat part duetothecontinuation of theexcellent cooperation received fromAmerican trade unions , industrial establishments , educational institutions ,State andmunicipal agencies , and numerous community andprivate organizations . Theseorganizations spend a great amount oftime indiscussions with foreign visitors ,provide access totheir staff andfacilities ,andarrange considerable hospitality forthevisi tors inprivate homesorelsewhere . Thishelpisimportant insatisfying interests thetechnical andprofessional ofthevisitor ,aswell asinhaving friendship himexperience thewarmth ofAmerican andgain a goodinsight into thelife ofourcountry . (1958:35) LaborAffairs wassupplanted ofInternational Attheendof1959theOffice of an LaborAffairs , underthedirection by theBureauofInternational Assistant Secretary . 2 22 NEW FRON TIERS 1961 1962 NEW FRONTIERS 1961-62 Arthur J.Goldberg ,former general counsel fortheUnited Steelworkers ofAmerica ,wassworninasninth Secretary ofLaboronJanuary 21,1961 . adviser As labor toPresident JohnF.Kennedy ,hisscope ofservice em braced notonly theadministration oftheDepartment butalso problems of broader significance , especially those dealing with collective bargaining at thehighest level ofnational interest . Collective Bargaining wrote : ,theSecretary aspect ofhis work with this Inconnection “Itisobvious that the Department ofLabor hasprimary concern inthe state ofcollective bargaining inthecountry . “There is incre r asingeasonfor Amer icanlaborand manag emen t to ackn owled geandprovide forthepublic inter estin their rel ationsh ip- and increas ingcause forconfide ncethat they wi lldoso. “A fundamen acteri talchar stic ofthelab or-manage mentrela tions hipis that itresponds ,oft enmorequickly than isrealize d,tochanges inecon omic li f. e Furthe r,publicpolicy adj usts forits partto new cir cumsta ncesthat requ irenew acco mmoda tionsofthegen eralwelfa re. "Itisbecoming clear that weareentering anerainwhich both thelabor mangement relationship andpublic policy face thekindofrapid change them that inturnchanges . measure . table inincreasing isfelt atthebargaining “The weight ofchange tosomedegree hasreflected session inrecent years bargaining Almost every shift processes ,theaccelerating mechanization ofindustrial theincreasing 'jobs ,the collar skilled and'white toward thehighly balance inoccupational , thejobsecurity movement ,and,mostimportantly geographic ofindustry changes . mostclosely affected by these ofthose “We havesee n the scopeof barga widenedsi ining ncethewarfrom pro posals deali ngalmo stexclusi withwage vely s and hours andconditi onsto theestab lishme pitali ntofhos zation ement ,retir ,supple menta l unemplo yment insura nce , andoth erbenefits , andbeyon d the setotheconcept s ofthejob aspropert y anda man 's sta kein hisemploy mentassim ilar to a prope rty rig ht. barga “Collect ining ive has ,onthewhole ,served itspartici pants well ,and m wil rem b echan l ainth e asic ismbywhi chpa rties prise fr toanenter eely determinetherewardsofthei . r eff ort 225 “ This democratic institution nowfaces challenges ofa profound nature . Thesespring fromtheeconomic realities oftheworldaroundus, char acterized bythree vast forces :theneweconomic unity ofEurope ,which presents us withtheneedfora decision thatmay change thecourse ofour history ,however wemakeit ;thedeveloping power ofthecommunistic eco nomic world andtheuseofthat power toserve political purposes ;andthe struggle ofnewnations toaccumulate capital ,develop their manpower ,and laythebaseforanactive economic role inworldaffairs . “Inthe light ofthese forces ,the labor -management relationship inAmerica finds itself inextricably involved withthenational welfare , toa degree unprecedented . Forexample ,there isnoquestion inmy mindthat American industry mustautomate andincrease its efficiency ,andworkers andmanagers alike mustundertake every reasonable effort tostep upproductivity . The challenge ofworld markets ,especially theCommonMarket ,will shake out the inefficient andthe laggard . Thetest ofcollective bargaining inthis area conditions efficiency ishowtoprovide for thebest inwhich apartnership for canexist ,andatthesametimeprovide forthesometimes profound human problems ofadjustment that will arise . “Another example oftheimpact ofnational interest uponlabor and management bargaining isinthewages andprices area . Our commitments fordefense aid ,along with resurgent economies ina number ofcountries , havepresented uswitha balance -of-payments problem that requires close andcalmattention . Atthesametime ,thesoundness ofthedollar isa pre condition for economic growth that ismeaningful andnotmerely areflection economic ofinflation . Ingeneral ,overall gains bylabor andmanagement mustbeparalleled byincreases inproductivity . Price stabilization ,forits part ,isessential tothesuccess ofourpolicies . There isnoquestion wecan earnwhatwe needandwantinAmerica . “Thegoals before usare ,Ithink ,clear : "To prevent inflation andmaintain price stability . “Toincrease productivity sothat labor ,management ,andthepublic can rightfully share all inthefruits ofprogress . “Toremain competitive inworld markets . “Toexert oureconomy toachieve a rate ofgrowth that will provide the meansfor meeting ourdomestic andinternational needs . “Theattainment ofthese goals isclearly inthenational interest . The implications forlabor andmanagement seemequally clear , especially in lerms oftheabandonment ofrestrictive policies that impair efficiency ,inthe exercise ofstatesmanship inmeeting thesocial consequences ofchange ,and inthe formulation ofwageandprice policies . "Allofthese challenges arealso opportunities ; change brings notonly problems butpromises . Iam confident asIhave always been inthewisdom offree men. AndI believe we arebeginning tomoveforward together in a great commoneffort inwhichprivate policy andpublic policy bothserve theultimate purpose ofthesurvival andsuccess offreedom .”(1961 :9-10 ) 226 Asthe Secr etary point edoutinhisrepor tfo r1961: philo sophy thebasic ofthe Admini strati onhasbee n topreserve collect , nottoint bydi ivebargai ning ervene ctatin gtheter msofsettlem ent buttousethegoodoffice softheGovern avert orendstri ." menttohelp kes (1961:5) Toimplement this philosophy ,thePresident created inFebruary 1961 ,an Advisory Committee onLabor -Management Policy tostudy andadvise on "policies whichwill promote free andresponsible collective bargaining , in dustrial peace ,sound wageandprice policies ,higher standards ofliving , productivity andincreased .” (1961 :5) n latio Legis The87th Congress enacted several bills ofmajor concern totheDepart ment ,including ,in1961 : 1.TheTemporary Extended Unemployment Compensation Actof1961 , Public Law87-6 ,which provides forthepayment ofadditional unemploy mentcompensation toworkers who haveexhausted their State benefits . 2.TheAreaRedevelopment Actof1961 ,P.L. 87–27 ,which authorizes a Federalprogram ofeconomic andtechnical assistance toareas ofsubstantial andpersistent unemployment andunderemployment , including retraining programs andallowances forunemployed workers insuch areas . 3. The FairLabor Standards Act Amendmentsof 1961, P.L.87-30 , which ,inaddition toincreasing theminimum wageto$1.25 ,forthefirst timesince theactwaspassed in1938extended theprotection oftheactto some 3.6million additional workers . 4.Amendments totheLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Compensa tion Act,P.L. 87-87 ,increasing benefits under that act . (1961 :34) During 1962theDepartment wasgiven responsibility fortheadministra tion oftwo"toppriority " acts — theManpower Development andTraining 9 Act ,P.L. 87-145 ,andtheWelfare andPension Plans Disclosure ActAmend. ments 87-420 annual report of1962 ,P.L. . According totheDepartment's : Insigning theManpower Development andTraining Act ,thePresi . dent praised this lawasmaking possible thetraining ofhundreds ofthou employment sands ofworkers whoaredenied because they donotpossess the skills required byourconstantly changing economy . ' Theamendments to strengthened Plans Disclosure theWelfare andPension Actgreatly that act investigative by granting andenforcement powers totheDepartment of Labor andproviding effective procedures ,bothcivil andcriminal ,tosafe guard thewelfare andpension funds ofalmost 100million workers andtheir beneficiaries . “Otherlegisl include ation d theWork HoursAct,passe d sho rtly after the endofthefiscal year ,andamen dmen of Colum tsto theDistr ict biaUnem plo Comp yment ensat ionAct ,imp rovin ploym g theunem entinsur ancepro gram in theDis trict . 227 hearings ofcongressional measure was thesubject important "Another law into Expansion Act(signed —theTrade year during the1962fiscal exports its andtoprovide toenlarge this nation October 11,1962 ) toenable affected andworkers whomaybeadversely forfirms assistance adjustment to equal paybill o n the were also held Hearings imports . by increased by ofwages ofsexinthepayment discrimination on thebasis prohibit .” (1962) commerce engaged ininterstate employers Theequal paybill waspassed bythe House ofRepresentatives onJuly 28, 1962. Organization and Accommodations Asa result oflegislation andnewprograms begun during Secretary Gold berg's administration ,various readjustments andreorganizations were made inthe Department . The1962 annual report stated : “Asthe first measure undertaken toimprove organization ,theresponsibil ities ofthetopstaff oftheDepartment wereredefined , clarified , andre allocated . Following this action ,additional organization studies ,reviews , andassistance were provided inthe areas listed below : “1.A thorough andcomprehensive analysis oftheDepartment's existing manpowerresponsibilities and ofitsnew responsibilities undertheMan powerDevelopment andTraining Actof1962 . “2.Establishment oftheOffice ofManpower ,Automation ,andTraining tocarry outassigned responsibilities fornewmanpower programs . “3.Establishment oftheOffice ofWelfare andPension Plans toadminister theadditional responsibilities assigned totheDepartment under theWelfare and PensionPlanAct as amended in 1962. “4.A recasting ofthestaff andservice functions oftheOffice oftheAdmin istrative Assistant Secretary ,with certain oftheorganization realignments being placed during ineffect theyear . “5.A complete reorganization oftheBureau ofEmployment Security . “6.Lessextensive reorganizations inmostoftheother bureaus toassure utilization existing resources thefullest oftheDepartment's andcapabilities , particularly withrespect toassignment ofresponsibilities formanpower programs . (1962 ) Of major concern wastheproblem ofspace . Departmental operations werehoused in20widely separated buildings intheDistrict ofColumbia metropolitan area ,with a consequent major problem incommunication and administration adjustments madebyrenting building space . Shortrun were Spring consideration innearby Silver ,Md . As alongrun ,plans werepro posed forthe acquisition ofoneortwobuildings inthedowntown D.C. area orpreferably theconstruction ofa newbuilding capable ofaccommo dating the entire headquarters staff .” (1962 ) Automation Almost every Secretary ofLabor ,asindicated intheexcerpts quoted in chapters volume earlier ofthis , hasexpressed someconcern over theprob 228 lem oftec hnolog changeandit ical s effect s on emplo yment . And the need fora lab orsuppl y sk illed inthetechni ques ofmode rnindustr ialprodu c tion has beena problem ofmajo r conside ration eversinc rldWar eWo II. Itissignif icant ,therefo re,tonotetheincreas ingattenti ongiventothes e pro blems bytheSec retar iesduring thepas tdecad e. As Secre Goldber tary annua gnoted inhis1961 l repor t: “During thepast decade , recurring economic recessions havebeencon centrated inthehardgoodsindustries whereautomation andtechnological change have been taking place rapidly . This hasleft large numbers of workers ,frequently with high butnowobsolete skills ,confronted with long termunemployment . "Whilenew technol ogycontribu testothecontin uedgro wthof prod uc tivi tyunderly ingourhighstan dard ofliving ,itcreates soci aland econom ic probl ,such ems aslabordisp laceme ntandobsolesc ofskills ence ,whi chtake timetoreso . For this lve rea ,andbeca son useofdeeppub licinteres tinthe progr essoftechn ologic ,theBureau alchange iscon cerne th d with e prob lemsofadjustm enttosuchchang es. changes , technological ,andother equipment andprocesses “Newautomatic and ofemployment onthelevels effect tohavea pronounced arebelieved precisely , effect isdifficult tomeasure ofthis . Theextent unemployment areen byautomation caused ofemployment because changes inthelevel inthe tastes ,fluctuations consumer bychanging those created tangled with competition , materials , foreign ofsubstituted business cycle , development factors . ,andmanyother inpopulation shifts “Iftheprecise measurement ofautomation's impact ontheworkforce is notavailable ,theimplication ofextensive improvements intechnology for theNation's occupational structure isnevertheless clear . Existing jobs are undergoing significant modification inmanyindustries , while new oppor tunities arebeing created invarious fields such aselectronic data processing , atomic development ,andspace exploration ." Manpower , Automation , and Training single ,thegreatest ofLabor oftheDepartment of view Fromthepoint March was the passage incumbency Goldberg's during Secretary development by Act . Described andTraining Development 15,1962 ,oftheManpower area in the significant legislation of themost Kennedy as"perhaps President ,"theactprovides Actof1946 Employment since thehistoric employment and , training oftheunemployed shortages ofmanpower foridentification ofresearch . program ,andacomprehensive underemployed Under thisact: “The Office ofManpower ,Automation ,andTraining wasestablished in theDepartment ofLabor June15,1962 ,todeal generally with theemploy ment problems created byautomation andother technological developments , andspecifically tocarry outtheresponsibilities assigned totheSecretary of Labor under theAreaRedevelopment Actof1961andtheManpower De velopment andTraining Actof1962 . 229 “Thenewoffice supplanted the Office ofAutomation andManpower which , responsible since April 1961 ,hadbeen the unit intheOffice oftheSecretary forcoordinating theDepartment's workinthefield ofautomation and manpower. “Primary emphasis inthe manpower field during the major portion ofthe a hard implications fiscal year wasdirected at“taking a look ”atthemanpower ofautoma andother types oftech tion nologi ge,andmakin g recom calchan mendat manp ions foradepart mental owerprog ram. of (1) goals indicated thattheDepartment's “The recommendations andeffective useofnew industry tomakeimaginative American encouraging ofauto theadverse effects andmitigating ,and(2) minimizing techniques four major byaprogram which followed beaccomplished could best mation . ,andamelioration ,prevention ,communication pathways :information , the andManpower ofAutomation of theOffice “Underthestimulus in year 1962 during fiscal inthese four areas Department madea beginning ofLabor bytheBureau case studies conducted theformofautomation Service Employment sponsored bytheU.S. projects Statistics ,demonstration progress technological , torapid action inadjusting community tostimulate broad thatemphasize programs by BAT oftraining andthepromotion techno asa cushion against specialization rather thannarrow preparation change logical . , com andManpower Committee onAutomation Advisory “ TheNational ,and ,andtraining ,education ,management oflabor ofrepresentatives posed and plans theyeartodiscuss during ingeneral , mettwice ofthepublic , deliberations . Intheir andmanpower ofautomation inthefield programs De andtheManpower theAreaRedevelopment considered theCommittee States and activities intheUnited ,manpower Acts andTraining velopment ofthe ,andtherole year for thecoming ofLabor plans ,Department Canada ) .” (1962 Committee Advisory National Labor Statistics In his1962report , theCommissioner of LaborStatistics outlined his bureau's plans toexamine anticipated problems ofthefuture : “Inviewofthecomp lexity andrapidly chan gingnatu reof theeco nomy ofthe Uni tedStates ,al lproduc ersofecono micdata mus t regular lyreasses s thereq uirem entsfo r inform ationofourcha ngingsoci ety . To thi s end, andinres ponse toareq uest bytheBur eauoftheBudg et,theBur eauduring thelas tyear dev eloped a se t ofprogr amideas des igned toindi cate howthe Bureau' s futu reactivit iessho uldbeshape d tomeetthese new requ ireme nts . Insomeinsta ,these nces projecte dnee dswill ent ail only ashift inemphasi s with incu rrent prog rams ,butinot herinst ances whol lynew progr amsmust be planned . “Theprogram proposals developed bytheBureau forthecoming 5-year period donotinanysense represent a program which hasbeenapproved oradopted . Itis ,rather ,a blueprint forprospective economic andstatis 230 tical research workwhich appears tobenecessary inthelight oftheprob lems ofthedecade ofthe1960's . Inanycase ,plans forfuture programs mustnecessarily be scrutinized annually forconsiderations ofpracticality resources inthe light ofavailable . "IftheAmerican economy istomeetthegrowing needs ofoursociety , thenext fewyears will bea period ofeconomic expansion ,aswell asa period ofmanychanges intheutilization oftheresources ofmanagement , capital ,andlabor . “Onearea which will feel theimpact ofthese events islabor management relations . A greater knowledge ofproblems andpractices inthis field at all levels ,asthey relate toplants andunions ofall sizes ,will berequired tomeetnewandcomplex situations astheyarise . New programs oflabor . management relations analysis , aswell asextended statistical programs in thefields ofwages ,annual earnings ,trends ofwages ,andfringe benefits will beneeded ;these areembraced intheBureau's suggestions forfuture activities ." (1962) Theabove objectives would call for acarefully coordinated research plan : “As a result ofthegrowing concern with thelonger range problems of economic growth andemployment opportunities intheAmerican economy , a broad program ofresearch hasbeeninaugurated . Since theproblems ofeconomic growth areofgreat interest tomany agencies oftheGovern ment , an interagency committee hasbeenestablished to develop thefull potentialities of thestudyand coordinate theefforts of theinterested agencies . Within this broadframework , theBLS hasthemajortaskof providing a central project staff which hasboth research andcoordinating functions . “Thevarious aspects ofeconomic growth covered intheresearch program are quite broad inscope ,including trends inpopulation ,labor force ,employ . ment ,occupations ,hours ofwork , productivity , factor payments and in comedistribution , prices , consumer expenditure patterns , capital stock , investment expenditures , industrial capacity , Government expenditures , foreign trade ,etc.The interaction ofthese factors on eachotherand their implications foroverall economic growth andemployment opportunities aswell asgrowth incomponent sectors andindustries , istraced through interindustry andrelated methods ofanalysis . “Workonmanyofthese items intheresearch program wasstarted during the year . Workonother aspects will bestarted infiscal year 1963. The ultimate objective istoincorporate theresults ofthese studies into consist entandintegrated economic projections , underalternative assumptions re garding rates andpatterns ofeconomic growth ,which will provide guidance ontheimplications ofeconomic growth foremployment opportunities . “Major technical improvements wereincorporated into thedata . All series were adjusted tonewbenchmarks ,andaaplan providing for estimating procedures which would adequately reflect large ,medium ,andsmall estab lishments . Representation bysize ,byregion ,orbya combination ofboth 231 wasdeveloped inorder toimprove the reliability ofthe estimates ,particularly those relating toearnings . “As a partofthis majorrevision ,theBureau expanded thenumberof series forwhichemployment , hours , andearnings arepublished on a national level . Thenumber ofindustries forwhich employment data are published wasincreased from246to365.Hoursandearnings data are published fornearly all ofthese industries . Thepublication oflabor turn overdatawas increased from121to223 industries . Overtime hoursdata , whichwerepreviously published foronly24 manufacturing categories , arenowavailable for144.TheBureau iscurrently engaged inexpanding its publication program toinclude data on employment ofwomenfor70 nonmanufacturing industries . Previously ,publication ofdata on employ mentofwomenhadbeenlimited tothemanufacturing industries .” (1962 ) Automation and new technological developments will havea profound impact onourchanging society ,itwasnoted . “Here ,too ,theBureau's program ideas aredesigned toprovide themaxi mum possible assistance tothepublic ,labor , andmanagement inthearea ofanalysis oftheeffect oftechnology upontheNation's economy . “Theutilization ofthelabor force remains asa challenging butunsolved problem ofcontinually growing importance . Itisthecrucial considera tion inmeasuring thesuccess ofoureconomy inattaining a satisfactory rate ofgrowth . Theproblem points totheneedforanalysis ofthechang ingstructure ,size andcharacteristics ofthelabor force ,bothingeneral andwith respect toparticular groups ;thechanging occupational require mentsoftheeconomy under theimpact oftechnological progress and automation ;andstudies oftheneeds for training inthevarious occupations tomeetfuture requirements . These features , together withgreater em phasis ondetailed statistics regarding thelabor force ,arethebasic program considerations inthe manpower andemployment field . “Asindustry becomes morecomplex , theneedforavoiding thehuman waste and misery caused by industrial injuries becomes morevital than ever before . TheBureau plans torespond tothis needthrough intensi fication ofstudies onworkinjuries andaccident causes ,andthrough in participating creased technical services toStates programs incooperative toproduce studies andstatistics ;aswell astoindustry andlabor . “Theexpanding andchanging economy should ,asanendresult ,provide benefits toAmerican workers andtheir families intheformofanimproved standard ofliving . Toshed light onthis andrelated questions ,theBureau hasunder active consideration a program ofstudies ofactual living condi tions ofAmerican workers . Italso plans toimprove andextend its work andretail price areas inthewholesale . “Theaccelerated andexpanding interests oftheUnited States ininter national social and economic developments influence policies of labor , management ,andGovernment . This hassuggested totheBureau theneed formoreintensive workonfeatures oftheeconomic scene inforeign nations , 232 involving more work in country studies , in international comparisons , andinlabor situations intheSino-Soviet bloc . “Finally ,theBureau's program ,inits manysubstantive fields , provides an excellent foundation forresearch directed attheproblems associated with economic growth ,asubject ofcontinuous concern tothemanyagencies ofGovernment . TheBureau plans continuing workinthearea ofeconomic growth .”(1962 ) Inlaying outits plans andconducting its research ,theBureau seeks the advice ofadvisory committees : "TheLabor Research Advisory Council continued toprovide advice on theBureau's immediate andlongrun programs , on thenumerous basic technical problems whichconstantly arise in theBureau's activities , andon meanstoinsure understanding oftheBureau's statistical series and analytical reports . The Council consists of 12 membersnominated bytheAmerican Federation ofLaborandCongress ofIndustrial Organiza Allresearch directors of international unions represented inthe AFL -CIO and theRailway LaborExecutives ' Association areinvited to attend thegeneral meetings oftheCouncil . TheCouncil heldonemeeting during thefiscal year ,andall ofthecommittees oftheCouncil metatleast a once ,foratotal of11committee meetings . “During fiscal year 1962 the Business Research Advisory Council consisted of40 members appointed by theCommissioner uponnomination by the National Association ofManufacturers andtheU.S.ChamberofCommerce. Therearealsosixex-officio members(formerchairmen of theCouncil ). TheCouncil metwithBureau officials three times during theyear . In addition toCouncil members , 77 other individuals served on committees withsubstantive interest inthemeasurement oftotal construction employ ment , economic growth , foreign laborconditions , manpowerand employment statistics ,consumer andwholesale prices , productivity and technological developments , wagesand industrial relations , and work injuries .” (1962) Theeffects ofrecent technological change arereflected intheBureau's operations ways: intwostriking “The Bureau undertook during theyear a comprehensive andsystematic review ofits probable future dataprocessing requirements andhow these requirements could mostefficiently bemetinterms ofthetypes ofequip mentnowbeing offered . A program forthegradual introduction ofmore powerful and efficient dataprocessing equipment hasbeenadopted . (1961:202) employment and occupational of industrial “The Bureauprojections by educators widely usedasa tool whicharebeing trends forthe1960's programs ,were training andfacilities responsible forplanning andothers as a direct revised on thebasisof more recentdatawhich became available onthechanging program . Information outlook result oftheoccupational training formorerealistic isessential needs oftheeconomy occupational 666947-63 16 233 programs andcancontribute toa better alignment between manpower needs andsupply . TheBureau iscurrently preparing a series ofstudies onthe effect oftechnological developments onthe occupational structure invarious industries ,including railroad transportation ,electronics manufacturing , air transportation ,andbanking .”(1962 ) EmploymentSecurity “Since it sincept ioninthe1930 's,theemp loym entsec urity prog ramhas been expande dand streng thened tomeet the changi ngemploym entne eds of workers andemploye rsandtose rveclai mants forunemplo ins yment uranc e bene . From 1948throug fits h April1961 , th e Feder al-Sta teempl oymen t secu rity syste m had accep tednew and enlarg edrespons ibilit ieswitho ut commen sura teaddi tions toits staf f. In 1960 ,whenthelab orforce to taled more than 73mi llion ,emp loyme ntserv ices intheStat e agenci eshad1112 per centfewerst affmembersthanin1948 when thelaborforc e totale d about 63 millio n. “President Kennedy ,soon after his inauguration ,inhis State oftheUnion Message , inhisEconomic Message totheCongress ,andininstructions to theBureau oftheBudget andtheSecretary ofLabor ,urged that steps be taken toimprove theEmployment Service . The Congress responded , and appropriations madeinfiscal year1962provided urgently needed resources which enabled theemployment security system toprepare itself tomeet the demands ofan expanding labor force — a labor force whoseneeds were becoming morecomplex asthe population increased ,asmore older workers andmoreyounger workers were added toit ,astechnological changes reduced labor needs ontheonehandandonthe other required newandhigher skills ofworkers ,andastheNation changed froma predominantly rural ,toan urban ,population . “TheBureau madea thorough study ofits functions ,organization , and administration . As a first moveinitsreorganization tomeetnewandex panded responsibilities ,theBureau reconstituted theUnited States Employ mentService as an organizational unitalong withtheUnemployment Insurance Service strengthened . Italso its twomainprograms -employ mentservice andunemployment insurance —sothat all resources ofa pro gramarea could bechanneled tomeet anyparticular problem .” (1962 ) UnemploymentInsurance "The Federal -State unemployment insurance system provides insured workers with partial compensation for wages lost during periods ofinvolun taryunemployment . In doingthis , itacts as an economic stabilizer , main taining income andpurchasing powerandthus serving asan important weapon inthe arsenal ofeconomic policy . “About46. wor 6 million kersincomm erce , indus try , andgovern ment , includin g theArmedFor ces , arecovered und erFede raland Stat e laws.1 In addition ,about 900,000 railroad workers arecovered underan unemployment insurance program administered by theRailroad Retirement Board . 234 unemploy andState employers weresubject toFederal About2.3million billion . $2.360 infiscal year 1961about ,contributing laws mentinsurance in as wellasemployers paidby employees taxes Thisamountincludes . ,andNewJersey Alabama ,Alaska , withproblems wasbeset ,during whichtheeconomy year1961 “Infiscal insurance moreunemployment workers drew oneor insured 8.1million . million weeks ofunemployment totaling for111.6 benefit checks $3.7billion “Pools ofunemployment havedeveloped intheNation resulting from automation andother changes inproduction processes andlocation of industry inception program . Now,morethan anyother time since the ofthe , theeconomy isfaced with theprospect ofa steadily increasing number of workers who,intheabsence ofremedial action ,seemdestined tospend a large part oftheir working lives unsuccessfully seeking jobs . Eachofthe last tworecessions began with a volume andrate ofunemployment higher than attheoutset ofthepreceding recession . Included amongthevarious remedial proposals area numberinvolving theunemployment insurance program ,suchaspayment ofbenefits during theretraining ofdislocated workers , coverage ofgroups notnowprotected , andimprovements inthe sufficiency andduration ofbenefits .” (1961 :98–99 ) EmploymentService “TheU.S. Employment Service wasreconstituted within theframework oftheFederal -State employment security system .... Its reorganization reflected a recognition ofthenational character ofmanyemployment and unemployment problems andtheconcern ofthepublic employment serv icenotonlywithjobplacement activities butalsowithdevelopment of manpowerresources and withraising theskill levels of theworkforce through training andretraining . “Infiscal year 1962 ,the Employment Service faced complex manpower problems . Thehighbirth rates ofthepostwar years combined with the resulted increases lowrates ofthe1930's indisproportionate intheyoungest andoldest agegroups inthelabor force — those that typically experience thegreatest jobseeking difficulties . Technological changes andshifts in population andindustry hadleft manycommunities stranded andmany workers with obsolescent skills . Industry wasundergoing a scientific and technological revolution whichwasreflected inits occupational composition andinmorerigid hiring specifications ,especially withrespect toeducation andskill requirements . Massunemployment haddisappeared butwassup planted by specific unemployment problems encompassing older workers , younger workers ,members ofminority groups ,agricultural workers , un skilled workers ,andthose long -term unemployed living ingeographic pockets ofchronic unemployment orunderemployment . “Whenthepresent Administration took office ,the1960–61 recession was touching bottom ,andtheneed forremedial action wasapparent . Highon President Kennedy's list ofpriorities wasthe proposal ':..toexpand the . services Employment ofthe United States Offices ...toredevelop ourareas 235 ofchro niclab orsurplus ... andtotake other steps aim ed atinsurin ga promp t recov eryandpaving theway forincre long-range ased gro wth.' “The Congress appropriated additional funds , andtheEmployment Service movedrapidly structure torealine its toachieve thefollowing pro gramgoals : 1.Establishing theprimary function oftheemployment office as providing placement andother jobmarket services . 2.Improving services inlarge metropolitan labor markets where greatest employment potentials exist . 3.Providing morelabor market services tourbanandrural areas of unemployment persistent . 4.Identifying changing occupational requirements toanticipate and alleviate theimpact ofautomation andother technological changes on employment . 5.Facilitating thejobplacement ofout -of-school andout -of -work youth andofyoung people whoareentering thelabor force inlarge numbers eachyear . 6.Introducing newadministrative machinery andoperating methods tofacilitate geographic mobility ofworkers . problems , employment toworkers withspecial 7.Increasing service with workers , andthose of minority groups , older members including skills . feworobsolete 8.Directing moreeffort tothesolution offarmlabor market prob lems andtoassisting migratory farm workers .” (1962 ) “Forthefuture ,thegreatest percentage ofgrowth isexpected inpro fessional andtechnical occupations . Opportunities forclerical andsales personnel ,skilled workers ,andproprietors andmanagers arealso expected toincrease significantly . An expanding population withhigher living standards will probably cause another greater than average rate ofincrease occupations inservice . requirements occupational ofchanging totheproblem “Twoapproaches fordisplaced opportunities reemployment forimproved areprograms . legislation and training development and broadmanpower workers , Actandofthelatter istheAreaRedevelopment oftheformer Typical whose skills havebe persons unemployed toprovide proposed legislation be which areorwill inskills forretraining theopportunity comeobsolete permit wouldalso market . Thisnew legislation indemandinthelabor or whoneedtraining ofmanyworkers theskills andupgrading improving > ) :69–70 .” (1961 tobefully productive retraining TheAreaRedevel opment Act“isdes igned tostim ulate grow thofempl oy mentopportu nities inarea s ofsubst antial andpersist entunempl oyme nt and undere mplo thr yment ough apro gramofloans tocommer cial andind us trial enterpr ises andloan s andgra ntsforcomm unityfacilit and urba ies n renew al. Inadditio n,th e actprov ides forthetraining andre train ingof 236 unemp loye d andunderemp loyedresident s ofthes e areas ,and forthepay. mentofsubsist allowanc ence eswhi leintrain ing . empl “The Federa l-State oymen t securit y syst em,withexp erienc e ofthe U.S.Empl oymen t Service and the State Employme nt Servic es indealin g withmanpowerprogram s attheloc alle vel ,was assig nedres ponsibi lities under the AreaRedevel opmen t Act whichincl ude : (1) obtai ningfac ts need ed fordetermin ingeligi bility ofareas ; (2) pro viding guida nceand review wit h res pect tothemanpoweraspect s ofth e overall eco plans nomic oftho ; (3) deter seareas minin traini g areaand indiv idual ngneed s; (4) selecti ngand referrin g indiv iduals to traini ng; (5) provid ingforpayment ofsub sisten ceallowa ncestoel igible traine es; (6) job develo pment ; and (7) plac .” (1962) ement TheManpower Development andTraining Actprovides “occupational training for unemployed andunderemployed persons whocannot reasonably beexpected toobtain appropriate full -timeemployment without training . Manpower responsibilities for implementing this act inthe States andlocali ties arecarried outthrough thepublic employment service . No training under this actwasconducted during fiscal year1962butisexpected tobegin early infiscal year 1963. ” (1962 ) a During 1962 amajor publication ,“Impact ofAutomation andTechnologi calChange on Employment andUnemployment ,” wasprepared tosum marize material available onthe effects ofautomation andother technological change intheUnited States . “Projects were then undertaken (1) togather information onprocedures used by employers intheUnited States atthe establishment level toeffectuate workforce adjustments toautomation and other technological changes ,and(2) toprovide information onprograms inother countries that have eased theimpact oftechnological change onthe workforce .” (1962 ) Farm Labor Shortly after assuming office , Secretary Goldberg commented on another recurring problem that hasreceived increasing attention during recent years : agency ofthenational , 'every ,' he said timeinhistory “ 'Forthefirst . in agri labor conditions the . .. to improve isworking administration “ tomove ahead Federal effort timethereisa united culture . For thefirst hasbeenbased a labor system that ,andtoimprove neglected field inthis , and , unemployment uponunderemployment ofa century fora quarter essential is Public understanding . ... a t home andabroad both poverty , wherepoverty world migrant into theshadowy istocast ifanylight life .” ofeveryday arethestuff ,andilliteracy ofopportunity privation ,lack > (1961:87) “Emphasis [therefore ] wasplaced oninsuring preference inemployment fordomestic farmworkers ,eliminating adverse effect fromuseofforeign labor on wagesandworking conditions ofdomestic farmworkers , and re ducing needforsupplemental foreign -worker employment . To carry out 2 37 these objectives , efforts weremadetoimprove theselection ofworkers , utilizing local labor tothegreatest extent possible ; toexpand theannual worker planandclearance activities asa meansofobtaining out -of-area workers atpeakseasons ; toimprove farmworking conditions (housing , wages ,transportation ); andtokeepabreast ofchanging technology andits effects onthefarmlabor market .” (1962 ) Someidea ofthesize ofthedomestic farmlabor program , asconducted through a combined Federal -State operation , was presented in the1961 > report : “ Traditionally , inthespring , farmlaborers in three majormigratory movements worktheir waynorthward fromsouthern fruit ,vegetable ,cotton , andcitrus crops ,fanning outeast andwest . Inthefall these workers return over thesamegeneral routes ,working late vegetables ,fruits ,nuts ,andcotton . Theannual migration involves several hundred thousand people whotravel inbuses , trucks , and individual cars , infamilies or inworkcrews . In individuals 1960 , a total of162,563 , 132,310 over16 years ofage,were scheduled through theannual worker plan in7,346 groups from30States . The scope ofthis program isconstantly being expanded bytheparticipation States ofadditional .”(1921 :89–90 ) Wages and Hours The year1961"markeda milestone inthehistory oftheFairLabor Standards Act. The FairLaborStandards Amendmentsof 1961, effective September 3, 1961 , increased theminimumwageforsubstantially allof the24million workers already covered by theact ,andextended thebenefits ofthelawto3.6million additional workers . As a consequence ofthese andother far -reaching changes madebytheamendments ,this wasa year oftransition aswell asachievement fortheWageandHourandPublic Contracts Divisions portion intheadministration oftheact . A significant oftheDivisions 'resources wasdirected todeveloping policies forthesuc administration cessful ofthe1961amendments andtoplanning andexecut ingprograms forthevigorous enforcement oftheamended act . “The Divisions 'activities resulted inrecord back -wagedisclosures and back -wagepayments under theFair LaborStandards ActandtheWalsh Healey Public Contracts Act . Theamount ofbackwagesrevealed due under theminimum wageandovertime provisions ofeither orbothlaws , andtheamount ofbackwages employers agreed topayworkers ,increased forthesixth consecutive year . More than$34 million was due some 213,000 employees , andemployers agreed topayalmost $16.2 million to employees about 137,000 . “Mostofthebackwages owedandpaid weredueunder theFair Labor Standards Act . Prior toSeptember 3,theact's minimum wagehadbeen $1 an hour , applicable toemployees individually engaged ininterstate commerce orintheproduction ofgoods forinterstate commerce ,unless specifically exempt . The1961amendments increased theminimum wage forsuchemployment toatleast $1.15 an hour ,this rate being effective 23 8 until September 3,1963 ,whena minimumwageof$1.25 anhourwill take place its . “Foremployment newly subject tothepayprovisions oftheact ,the1961 amendments seta minimumrateof atleast $1 an hour , effective until September 3,1964 ,whena minimum of$1.15 will apply ,tobeincreased oneyear later to$1.25 . Theamendments extended theacttoall employees ofcertain large enterprises engaged ininterstate commerce orintheproduc tionof goodsforinterstate commerce , and removedor narrowed some previous exemptions . . “Themaximum hours provisions ,requiring compensation ofnotless than 11/2 times theemployee's regular rate ofpayforall hours worked over 40 inany workweek , remain applicable toworkcovered before theamend ments . This standard will beattained ,bysteps ,fornewly covered employ ment . Beginning September 3,1963 ,employees engaged insuch workmust bepaid notless than time andone -half forall hours worked over 44ina workweek ,andbeginning September 3,1964 ,forhours over 42aa week . As ofSeptember 3,1965 ,a minimum wageofatleast $1.25 anhourandover timecompensation ata rate ofnotless than11/2 times theemployee's regular rate ofpayforall hours worked over 40ina workweek will bein effect forall employees within thecoverage oftheamended act ,unless an exemption applies . "Itwasestimated that inthefirst year ofits application , theincreased minimum wagewould add$336million totheannual income of1.9million ofthe24million workers covered bytheact prior totheamendments ,and $200million totheannual income of663,000 workers amongthe3.6 million newly subject tothe payprovisions ofthe act .”(1962 ) r of ent trato lishm g on this ative , theAdminis entin legisl accomp Comm l rep ort rdsActstat edin hisannua : LaborStanda theFair “ The1961amendments markthe first major expansion intheact's cover agesince thelawwasenacted in1938.Ingeneral , theacthasapplied to employees engaged ininterstate commerce orintheproduction ofgoods forinterstate commerce ,unless specifically exempt . Retaining this cover age ,theamendedactwill also apply toother employees ofcertain large enterprises engaged ininterstate commerce orintheproduction ofgoods commerce. forinterstate Mostofthese newly covered employees — about 2.2million of them work in retail or service trades . Some additional workers will bebrought under thelawbecause theamendments narrow or al ts als o givethe Feder ndmen eliminate a fewexemptions . The The ame amend ionsof theact , n to rest rainviolat l juris dictio tiona ictcourts addi distr ent of minimum wagesor overtime ldingof paym ingthe withho includ ees :230) .” (1961 onfoundbythecourtto beduetheemploy nsati compe Intheadministration ofthePublic Contracts Act ,themostsignificant development during Secretary Goldberg's termofoffice was"theissuance , forthefirst timeinthehistory oftheactsince its enactment in1936 ,ofa 239 minimum wagedetermination forevery employee engaged intheperform anceofa covered contract towhom no higher rate isapplicable . The minimumwagerate contained inthis determination is$1.15an hourfor suchemployees .” (1962 ) Itshould benoted that ,underthis act : onsofth e esasa res ultof violati y toemploye yersowingmone “Emplo nt fortheamountsof theunder Governme totheFederal [act] areliable loyer ldfrom money owedtheemp s. Suchamoun tsmay be withhe payment yofill egally nment e recover nment Gover may sueforth ,ortheGover by the isions lected the prov rts thus col under wages inthe cou . Backwages withheld oyees uteddir ts Act are distrib ectly to theempl licContrac of thePub d.” (1962) involve W ome n Significant recognition ofwomanpower asa national asset occurred in thespring of1961whenthePresident sent totheCongress a bill toprovide a new Assistant Secretary ofLabor —tohelptheDepartment ofLabor “meetits increasing responsibilities inconnection withthegrowing role ofwomen”intheNation's workforce . Thatresponsibilities inthis area increase estimate will isimplicit intheLaborDepartment's that thenumber ofwomeninthelabor force will rise by 25percent inthedecade ofthe 1960's witha 15percent rise ,compared formen. (1961:287-8) pointed outin1961: on theWomen'sBureau As thereport “... mostworking womenareengaged inteaching , nursing ,clerical , occupations offering little andservice ornocompetition tomen,and(more occupational fields over ] moreworkers areneeded inthese . Figures on working income wives showthat moreofthemworkwhenthehusband's is under than whenitishigher year 1960 $5,000 . Forcalendar ,theaverage annual income womenwho worked timewas$3,296 ofall full ,ascompared womenreceived incomes with $5,435 formen. Negro evensmaller ,their $2,289 average showing their disadvantaged position intheworkforce . These figures reflect primarily the concentration ofworking womeninlower paid occupations ,butalso differences inovertime ,seniority ,andinequitable paypractices ,amongother factors . “Toanswer queries about working mothers andtoprovide a factual base fordiscussion attheNovember 1960Day CareConference , theBureau issued a leaflet entitled “Who AretheWorking Mothers ?” Thisreported that there areover8 million working mothers withchildren under18 years ofage — about one -third ofall themothers with children inthis age group . However ,only 1 outof6 mothers with children under 3 years of ageworks ,compared with 2 outof5 mothers with children 6 to17years ofage . Mostmothers withveryyoungchildren prefer tostayathome rather than goouttowork ;nonetheless ,there areabout 3 million working mothers information prompted withchildren under6. Demandforthis a second printing oftheleaflet ,near the endofthefiscal year .” (1961 :289) 240 A furth erstudy dealtwith thequest ionofwhy moth erswork: “Persist entunemplo yment inaperiod ofri sing eco nomic activ ity ,concer n overjuven iledelinq ,andtheneedforpro uency percareofchi ldren raise d questio nsregardi ngthe emplo yment ofwome n,especial lymarrie d women who are mothe rs. The Women's Bureau therefo re underto ok, througha publ ic statem entent itled “Why Do MothersWork?”, tointe rpret their > rea sons forwork ingandtheeff ect ofamother's emp loyme ntuponherhome andfam ilylife . Thi s statemen t wasbaseduponth e findi ngsofpertin ent studie s and supplem entedthe inf ormati on pre viousl y publ ishedby the Burea u in "Who Are theWorkingMothers ?” andin“AreWomen Taki ng Men'sJob s?” A revi ewoftrend sshowsthat thepercen tage ofmothe rswho wereinthe workfor cerose somewha t more rapid lyduringWorl d War II , and again duringtheKore anconflic t,when worke rswereneed edindi fferen t warprodu activiti ction esandvacanc existed ies inman y occup . Aside ations fromthese peri ,the ods prop ortion ofmothe rswho workou tside their homes hasgrownquite st eadily butslo . Ithasgrow wly n eve n moreslo wlyamong mothers with youngchildr en. “Nonetheless , thenumberof working mothers reached 8.7million by 1961.Of these ,over3 million hadchildren under 6 years of age . And the numbers arestill growing . " A fact which stands outinallstudies which showfactors influencing mothers toworkisthat mothers keeptheneeds oftheir families inmindin making their decisions . Through their paidwork ,they strive toimprove opportunities fortheir children by helping provide better education ,recre ation ,andmedical care ,andtoimprove their family life byhelping provide better homes ,food ,clothing ,orfamily vacations . While data arestill scarce andfurther study isneeded ,nostudy todate establishes themother's employ mentalone asharmful tothechildren ,tothefamily ,ortothehome. Where behavioral problems exist thesituation iscomplicated byother conditions . However ,thefact that moreandmoremothers arejoining the Nation's work force meansthatmoreattention mustbe giventoseeing thatadequate day careisavailable totheir children , thatcounseling aidisavailable when needed inmaking their decisions ,andthat adequate training inhomeman agement isavailable tohelp themcarry their dual roles moreeasily and moreeffectively . “ Thequestion ofhow womenworkers arebeing affected by accelerated technological changes taking place inmanyoffices ,plants ,andstores received special attention during the year .” (1962 ) Significant improvement intheworkoftheWomen's Bureau resulted from theestablishment ofa small field force : “The establishing ofthese regional offices hasmadeitpossible toextend theservices oftheBureau . There hasbeenincreased activity withwomen's organizations , State departments oflabor ,employer groups ,labor unions , andother governmental andpublic agencies . There areindications inthose areas wherefield offices arelocated ofa wider understanding oftheimpor 241 tance ofthewomanworker intheeconomy ofthecommunity andofher needs andproblems . Interest ingoodlabor legislation andlabor standards hasbeenstimulated , andhelp hasbeengiven incoordinating theefforts of local ,State ,andregional groups inthese areas .” Themajor field activity ,inwhich both theWashington staff andthefield directors participated centered around conferences onthe problems ofwork ingwomen. “General objectives ofthese conferences were(1)toreview andassess the present status ofwomenworkers asreflected inlegislation andpractices relating tominimum wages ,equal pay ,hours ,andworking conditions ; (2) toanalyze woman's dual role ashomemaker andwageearner ,with particular emphasis on theneedsof children ofworking mothers ; (3) to develop guidelines fortherole that organizations attheState andlocal level can play inmeeting theneeds ofwomenworkers through legislative improve ments ,support oflocal workandtraining projects ,andimproved informa tion tothegeneral public .” (1962 ) As Assistant Secretary ofLaborEsther Peterson pointed outinher1962 report onwomen'saffairs : "Theincreasing participation ofwomen inthelabor force andinthe national economy during thedecade ofthe1960's isgiving rise toa wide a range ofproblems that present a challenge totheWomen's Bureau ,charged asitisbythe Congress with the responsibility “to formulate standards and policies whichshall promote thewelfare ofwage women,improve -earning their working conditions ,increase their efficiency ,andadvance their oppor tunities forprofitable employment ." “During thepast year ,theparadox ofcontinuing unemployment while jobs vital toourtechnical andscientific advancement gobegging ,pointed up theurgent needforbetter education , training , andutilization ofthe country's humanresources ,including its womanpower . A period of fluc tuating employment opportunities andeconomic uncertainty highlighted the fact that wagedifferentials basedon sexconstituted a threat tothegeneral wagelevel andadded urgency tothelong recognized need for equal payfor comparable work . Asmoremothers ofsmall children found itnecessary to workoutside thehome ,day -care services fortheir children ,part -time work , oradjustment ofworkschedules became pressing needs . Theadverse effects upontheeconomy ofa sizable corps ofunskilled workers ,receiving less than subsistence wages ,demanded extension ofminimum wagelawcoverage ;and remaining areas ,inwhich poor working conditions andlong hours ofwork prevailed , emphasized theneedforfurther workin improving labor standards . problems problems werecommunity that manyofthese “On thepremise , the Bureau -spot assistance foron-the requests tonumerous andinresponse groups , program andservice tocivic service , taking its expanded its field at agencies , andGovernment organizations , women's labor , management a series of wasmadethrough levels . A new approach andregional State 242 ofworking women,their explored theproblems conferences which regional . training needs problems ,andtheir employment “Another avenue for determining the needs andresources ofwomenhas beenthePresident's Commission ontheStatus ofWomen The Wom Bureau program en's hassupplemented andcooperated intheCommission's , , e. igativ invest whichislargely “An area ofparticular concern totheWomen's Bureau hasbeenthat of thelow -wage , disadvantaged groups ,such ashousehold workers ,migrants , andlaundry workers ,whoarenotprotected byState orFederal legislation . Preliminary study oftheemployment conditions andtraining needs ofthis group wasbegun . TheBureau sees a need ,intheyear ahead ,toexplore problems these further andformulate meansofupgrading thelow-wage groups. “ThePresident's Commission ontheStatus ofWomenwasestablished by Executive order on December 14,1961.Itisresponsible forstudying and making recommendations oneliminating discrimination against womenin Government andprivate employment andonproviding services which will enable women tocontinue their roleashomemakersandmothers andatthe a maximum contribution sametimemakea tonational life . “ThePresident asked that theCommission seek waystomaketheFederal service a model ofequal employment opportunity . Bytheendofthefiscal year ,several noteworthy achievements hadresulted fromCommission recom mendations General interpretation . TheAttorney ,byreversing anearly of permitted hiring officer womenoronly alawwhich aFederal toappoint only men,removed thelast legal barrier toequal opportunity forwomeninthe Federal service . This action wasfollowed by a directive fromthePresi dent that appointment orpromotion intheFederal career service shall be madewithout regard tosex . “TheDepartment ofDefense hastaken under consideration theCommis sion's recommendation that the separate statutory restrictions onthe number ofcolonels ,captains ,lieutenant colonels ,andcommanders inthewomen's components oftheArmedForces beremoved . An inequity regarding serv ice ofwomenintheSPARSwascorrected byabill signed bythePresident ." (1962) Theextension ofcoverage andimprovement intheminimum wagelevel through periodic revision ofindustry wageorders under State minimum wagelaws have always been ofmajor concern tothe Bureau —because ofthe large numbers ofwomeninoccupations notcovered by theFederal Fair continues importance LaborStandards Act. Thissubject toretain , since extended coverage theFLSAamendments of1961 ,which insomeareas ,did notextend coverage toa number oflow -wageindustries employing large numbers ofwomen ,especially nonwhite women . The women not covered bytheFLSA—whoareemployed inretailing ,hotels ,restaurants ,laundries , and otherservice establishments have a vital interest in State minimum wagelaws . (1961 :293 ) 243 An interesting remark inthereport oftheWomen's Bureau for1961 re flects thechanges inthestatus ofworking womenduring thepast half century : “Requests for Bureau services reflected increased public interest inhours ofworkandWworking conditions ofwomen. On theonehand ,thepreponder anceinthelabor force ofmarried womenandwomenintheextreme upper andlower agebrackets hasdirected increased attention totheneedfor insuring theadequacy ofbasic standards andprotective legislation which will meettheparticular needs ofthese groups . On theother hand ,the growing employment ofwomenworkers andtheincreasing recognition of women's important contribution tothenational economy havegiven rise to demands forgreater flexibility inlaws governing their hours andconditions ofemployment , consistent withmaintaining thehealth andwelfare of indi vidualwomen workers . “Both aspects werereflected inthemanybills dealing with special labor laws forwomenintroduced inthevarious State legislatures . Digests ofState legislation on women's hours andworking conditions whichwasenacted in 1961wereprepared by thestaff oftheWomen'sBureau anddistributed ,on request ,togovernmental andvoluntary groups . " A bill introduced inoneState wouldhaverelaxed itsmaximumhour , provisions without establishing anysubstitute standards . Inthis case ,the auwas reque Bure sted shtec tofurni hnical tiononrela informa xation pro visions inlaws rStates ofothe tothe ment State labordepart ,whichsuppo rted thebill s organi nsandunions ,and towomen' zatio ,which opposed i.t Al h thebill thoug onwasdefeat inquesti ed,thefacts on brought outincon necti tive withlegisla ingson this hear r similar and othe esindic atewide measur dneedofreview sprea s le ioninthelight ofhour gislat nt's ernme oftheGov rated sepro accele defen gram . To meetthese s,theBureau need hasbegun s for women fromtwoaspect y ofexisting a stud hoursstandard s: (1) the uacyofsuchstanda adeq rdsforsafeg g wome uardin n'sheal th, and (2) the ityto permit needforflexibil tment adjus rdsinan eme y." ofstanda rgenc (1961:295) Labor Standards In this challenging ageofscience andtechnology , new anddifficult problems confront State aswell asFederal agencies responsible foradmin istering labor laws andprograms for the improvement ofworking conditions . TheStates ,particularly ,arethefirst toexperience thesharp impact ofthe modernadvances intechnology including automation ,theincrease inmobil ity ofthelabor force ,decentralization ofindustry ,theshift inmanyStates fromanagricultural toanindustrial emphasis ,andthegrowth ofan increas ing number ofareas offrictional andstructural unemployment . Forthese reasons theworkoftheBureau ofLaborStandards ,whichhas thespecial duty ofmaintaining departmental relations with State labor de partments ,takes on addedsignificance . 2 44 In 1961 : assista “Advic e andtech nical given ...topractic ncewere St ally all ates aswellas to Members ofCongre ss, Federa l agenc ies , management ,lab or orga , civic nizati group ons s, inte rnatio ,college , and nalbodies s, librari es ot herinteres grou ted psandindi vidual ,includ sinmanyfields ingwor kmen' s compe nsati on,migrato ry labor ,wages andhours ,wagepayme nt andwage co llecti ,child labor andscho ,industri on olattenda , discr nce alrelatio ns imi nation inemploy , occup ment ation lthand safety ,andregula of alhea tion privat eemployme ntagencie s.” (1961:163) And in1962: “Current economic andsocial needs caused theBureau tostress several aspects employment ofits work . Services inthefield ofyouth ,forexample , wereexpanded anda community project launched tocombat theschool dropout problem andtoassist youth inmaking a successful transition from school training programs towork . Thescope oftheBureau's jobsafety , originally designed forState factory inspection personnel , wasenlarged sothat others ,particularly labor union representatives andmaritime per sonnel , might profit fromsuchtraining . TheBureau's accident prevention staff intheport areas wasexpanded topermit ittodischarge its functions under recent legislation involving thesafety ofmaritime workers . The eighth President's Conference onOccupational Safety wasorganized bythe Bureauandheldin1962. ” (1962 ) A special report wasprepared attherequest oftheExecutive Committee oftheInternational Association ofGovernmental LaborOfficials , showing theappropriations , organization , andfunctions ofState andProvincial labor agencies . Prior reports onthis subject weremadein1950 and1955 . information presented comprehensive Theupdated inthis report should serve asa factual basis formeasuring theprogress madeoverthepast 6 years instrengthening theState andProvincial labor departments . (1962 ) Undertheauthority invested intheSecretary ofLaborby Public Law 85–742 amending theLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Compensation Act ,themaritime safety program oftheBureau wascarried forward in100 ormoreports throughout theUnited States . Toimprove service tooutlying ports andreduce travel expenses incertain portions ofthecountry ,5 new offices ,inaddition totheoriginal 17,wereestablished inProvidence ,R.I. , Ft.Lauderdale , Fla .,Detroit ,Mich .,St.Louis ,Mo.,andHonolulu ,Hawaii . artmen talrep ort : Asst ated inthe1962dep “Allphases oftheBureau's maritime safety activities inthefield show marked increases over theprevious year except inthenumber ofviolations better compliance cited . Violations werereduced ,indicating asknowledge andacceptance oftheregulations became morewidespread . Thefield staff wasalso able todevote sometimetocompanies (railroads ,dredging and marine construction contractors ) whoseactivities areincluded underother harbor work.” .(1962) 245 increasing , the employability issteadily ofyouth Since theproblem theneedfororganized tostress effort during theyear madeevery Bureau helping toward fundamentally wasdirected effort action . This community and intoday's forsuccess preparation needed thebasic youth who lack promotional programs andsupporting market . Action tomorrow's labor community committees , local andoffered materials havebeendeveloped , gathered . TheBureau organizations agencies , andprivate governmental programs in nowoperating youth onsuccessful analyzed data ,andadapted of material pertinent totheproblems communities andcollected certain infor this . Itpassed opportunities andemployment youth employability agencies , and ,national ,State governments communities on tolocal mation ) . ( 1962 other organizations A newapproach toimprove theworking andliving conditions ofmigra incoopera tory workers andtheir families wasinitiated bytheBureau tion with theBureau ofEmployment Security . A staff consultant explored thefeasibility ofpilot community programs formigrants inNorth Carolina . Following initial contacts ,twopilot projects ,endorsed bytheNorth Carolina State Committee onMigrant Labor ,were started inElizabeth City andHen programs represent dersonville during season theharvest . Thesecommunity a concerted effort byall ofthepublic andprivate agencies ,voluntary organ izations , andindividuals thatareconcerned withtheimprovement ofthe migrant worker situation inworking andliving conditions ,particularly with respect toeducation , recreation , community acceptance , andchild care . Eachprogram functions through a citizens 'committee whose members rep resent thevarious participating agencies andorganizations ,andall activities arecoordinated byanexecutive secretary . A State services staff consultant maintains close liaison with theprojects through correspondence ,weekly and monthly reports ,andpersonal visits . Itisanticipated that thereports and evaluations ofthese twoprojects will serve asuseful guides toother com munities intheir efforts tocopewiththeproblems ofmigrants . (1962 ) Welfare and Pension Plans President Kennedy's approval on March20, 1962 , ofamendments to theWelfare andPension Plans Disclosure Actmarked a major advance in theDepartment's program designed toinsure adequate andaccurate dis closure oftheoperations andfinances ofemployee welfare andpension > benefit plans . Theoriginal law ,ineffect since January 1,1959 ,resulted fromdisclosure ofabuses which , ifcontinued unabated ,constituted a threat tothewelfare andfuture security ofmillions ofworkers andtheir families . “Thebasic objective ofthe1959 law ,” according tothe1962 annual report oftheDepartment ,"wastomakeavailable information ontheterms ,condi tions ,andfinancial operations ofthese plans . To this end , theCongress provided that planadministrators furnish copies ofdescriptions ofplans andadequate summaries ofannual reports toplanparticipants and bene 246 ficiaries onwritten request ;that copies ofdescriptions andannual reports be made available intheplanadministrator's office forexamination by participants andbeneficiaries ; andthat copies ofdescriptions andannual reports befiled with the Secretary ofLabor ,whointurn wasrequired tomake them available for examination inthe Department's public document room . “The 1958lawwasprimarily self -administering ; theSecretary hadno investigatory orrulemaking powerorauthority toissue binding inter pretations . Theburden ofpolicing thepublication anddisclosure require ments wasleft ,essentially ,toparticipants andtheir dependents . “Weaknesses inthe1958 lawwere apparent fromthestart andsteps were taken almost immediately tostrengthen the legislation toprovide theadminis trative flexibility andadditional legal remedies needed toenable theDe partment tocarry out fully the basic purposes ofthe law . "Following adoption ofthe1962amendments , overall responsibility for directing theDepartment's functions underthat legislation wasassigned to theAssistant Secretary forLabor -Management Relations , andthere was created a new Office ofWelfare andPension Plans . The Division ofWelfare andPension Reports , whichhadadministered the1958lawaspartofthe Bureau ofLabor Standards ,became thenucleus oftheneworganization . "Tocarry outthenewandenlarged responsibilities andimplement the statute asdirected bytheCongress ,several regulations werepromulgated . These continued theuseoftheexisting reporting forms ,either without change or withonlyminormodification or supplementation , until suchtimeas revised formswereprescribed ; setforth theinformation required tobe furnished toplanadministrators by insurance carriers andservice organiza tions ;andestablish procedures under which variations fromcertain general reporting requirements could berequested . “Since itwasdecided that theOffice ofWelfare and Pension Plansshould notatthis time develop its ownfield staff ,arrangements were madewhereby investigations under thelawwould beconducted bytheDepartment's Bureau ofLabor -Management Reports asrequested bythe Office . racts Cont onoftheWage andHour and Public erati arly ,thecoop “Simil ion's d offices would be anizat fiel t thatorg ained so tha isions was obt Div ilar lets leases , pamph , and sim ution , re of forms lized in thedistrib uti rialson the amended law. mate “Ofmajor significance wastheappointment ofanadvisory council com posed of 13 representatives ofthepublic , industry , insurance carriers , trust companies , service organizations , and labor . The council was authorized bythe1962amendments to'advise theSecretary with respect tothecarrying outof hisfunctions underthis act , and submit to the > Secretary recommendations with respect thereto .'” (1962 ) Labor -ManagementReports As theCommissioner ofLabor -Management Reports commented atthe endofhisfirst year ofoperation ,theexperience oftheBureau "affirmed thefact that mostpeople inthelabor -management field desire tocomply " 247 withtheLabor -Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. “The vast majority ofthose affected bythelaw ,” hewrote ,"displayed a cooperative attitude . Thisisevidenced by thefact that 98percent oftheviolations of theactuncovered . ..weresettled through voluntary compliance ." . (1961 :153) entonhar d work: s,however ,wasconting Succes “ TheBureau's extensive technical assistance program wasestablished to help people understand rights andresponsibilities under thenewandcom. . plicated law Theseaidsinclude personal consultation , technical aids , almaterials ,andseminarsandworkshops. truction ins “Much oftheBureau's tech nical assis tance activ ityduring the yearwas direc tedat helpin g unionoffi ,many of whom holdfull cers -time jobsin add ition totheir union pos ts— fill outthesecond roun d of annua l fin ancial reports . Examina tionofthefirst roundoffin ancial repo rtsin 1960indi cate d thata gr eatperc entag e req uired addi tional cor respo ndence with the unio nstoobtai nalltheinfor matio nrequir edbylaw. "An extensive 'workshop ' program wasdesigned tocorrect this prob lem— andtosave considerable timeandmoneyforbothunions andthe Government . Thiswas a new technical assistance methodwhichsprang upinevery BLMR areafollowing anexperimental program inGeorgia last fall . Nearly 300workshops wereconducted in220cities throughout the United States . Theworkshops wereattended by almost 9,000 persons representing approximately 4,500 unions . Theywereheld chiefly under the auspices ofcentral labor unions . A step -by-step explanation ofeach entry required on theform , with‘do'sand don'ts ,' wastheusual methodof presentation ." “BLMRalso participated innumerous clinics for financial officers . These weresponsored by international unions fora large numberoflocals inan area . "The needfortechnical assistance had beendemonstrated earlier , when BLMR representatives visited several hundred unions that failed torespond totwoletters sent bytheBureau toobtain correction ofsignificant defects intheorganization reports submitted . Itwasfound then that mostofthese unionshad no office and two-thirds of theofficers had to be contacted at their homes ; 85percent hadnosecretarial help atall infilling outtheforms ; andonly5 percent hadlegal oraccounting help . Mostofthese union officers disclaimed anyknowledge oftheletters which theBureau hadsent , possibly asa result ofthehigh turnover intheir posts . Themajority of these locals wereverysmall ,apparently having fewer than100members . Itwasapparent that a large numberofthelocal officers didnotunderstand allthereporting requirements ; 90 percent saidtheywereunaware that assistance with thereporting requirements wasavailable atthearea office ; andonlyabout 1 outof5 evenknewwherethenearest BLMR office could be found. 2 48 “Another technical assistance technique developed bytheBureau during the year wastheoffice hours 'program . Letters weresent notifying local unions ofthehours whena BLMR representative would beavailable inthe union's city toanswer questions andgive advice . This approach wasvery a successful inareas located a considerable distance awayfromBLMR offices . “A ‘visit program 'also wasinitiated . Under this plan ,BLMR representa tives visit thenational headquarters ofunions tooffer technical assistance services tothe union's subordinate bodies . Ifaninternational union author izes Bureau representatives tocall onlocal unions andprovide themwith help ,aa BLMR areaoffice informs thelocal unions oftheavailability ofthe 2 assistance . Thearea offices try toget a district council oflocals oftheinter national ,orsometimes a central bodycomposed oflocals ofdifferent inter nationals ,tosponsor a workshop orclinic . Ifa union wishes , a BLMR representative personally visits theoffice oftheuniontoadvise thelocal officers . “ Toreduce theworkload andexpense toboththeGovernment andunions by assisting theunions tocomplete their reports correctly , BLMR also designed and mailed 49,000 unionfinancial reporting “kits . Thesecon tained reporting forms andan instruction bookon how they should be filled out ,a 'Reminders CheckListpointing outthemostcommonerrors a found inthefirst roundofreports ,andforms onwhich a union mustreport certain changes intheinformation provided intheone -time organizational report submitted during thefirst 90 daysafter theactbecameeffective . Thekits also provide onefolder where all records relating toLMRDA can bekept .” (1961 :154-5 ) reports had ofa million ,aboutonequarter fiscal 1962 By theendof labor organizations Bureau the —mostofthembythe52,237 filed with been , , employers consultants by labor relations subject totheact ,butsomealso . (1962 ) individuals andother covered The workoftheBureau received comment ,particularly fromtheAFL CIO,which spoke favorably about its simplified reporting forms andits campaign oftechnical assistance inmaking thereports . State andcentral bodies cooperation oftheAFL -CIOalso gavefull . (1962 ) InternationalLabor Affairs “Foreign labor isa vitally important factor inthepolitical andeconomic foreign policies oftheUnited States . Throughout theworld , Communist elements areseeking tocontrol unions andworker organizations . Improving theliving andlabor standards ofthemasses ofworkers intheless developed countries oftheworld isanoverriding goal ofall oftheeconomic andtechnical assistance programs oftheUnited States .” (1962 ) “To anincreasing extent ,thebasic foreign affairs problems areworker oriented . Throughout theworld ,unions andworker organizations arean increasingly important battleground oftheEast -Westconflict . Raising theliving and laborstandards of themassesof workers in theless 666947-63_ -17 249 nggoal of of all d hasbecomeanoverridi esoftheworl pedcountri develo d St ates . ms of th e Unite tance icalassis progra c and techn theeconomi emshavecaused micprobl mentand otherU.S. econo esticunemploy Dom edStates in onofthe Unit tive positi ingtherela ernregard eased conc incr y ective polic r moreeff duptheneedfo e pointe naltra deandhav rnatio inte ete ieswhichcomp igncountr ards infore g lab orstand n reg ardin and actio s for world trade . withthe United State ion n and inten sificat eratio ly ... therehas been an accel quent "Conse onalfield ernati .” entof Labor doesin theint of the worktheDepartm (1961:145) As an effective attack on these difficult problems , theDepartment has developed (1) anoverseas staff which provides expert factual andanalytical reporting concerning thepolitical ,economic ,andorganizational aspirations andproblems offoreign labor ; (2) research ,bya competent Washington staff ,onworld -widelabor developments which affect U.S. foreign policies andoperations anda publications program toacquaint interested govern mental andnongovernmental officials with these developments ; (3) formu lation ofeffective foreign policies ,responsive totheparticular labor situa tions incountries andregions ;and(4) effective utilization ofa variety of specific governmental action programs . (1962 ) Employees ' Compensation Asa direct result oflegislature changes madeintheFederal Employees ' Compensation Actasamended by P.L. 87–767 , benefits weregreatly ex tended . But ,tobring hometoFederal establishments andagencies the needforgreater attention tofinancial cost ofaccident injuries ,andillnesses , these agencies arenow,forthefirst timeinhistory , required toreimburse Employees expenditures theFederal 'Compensation Fundforsomeofthese . (1961:49) employe In ad ditio es'compe nsati ntoitsFederal onprogr am,theDepart mentadmin a compe provi isters nsati ramwhich desbenefi tsforthe onprog followi ofempl : (1) pers nggroups oyees ons(othe r thanseam en) inthe empl enga oyofpriva teempl oyers gedincerta inmari timeemp loyme nton wat thenavi gable ersoftheUnitedStates , (2) private employ eesinthe Distr the ictofColum bia,(3) employ eesemploye d atmilitar y basesoutside United States withtheUnitedSta ,(4) employ eesofcontrac tors tesengaged States theUnited ,includi inpublic workoutside ngcontrac tsapprov edbythe 2 Agency Develo undertheMut Act , (5) forInterna ualSec urity tional pment anAmeri prov wel empl engag sfor canempl oyer iding fare oyees edinservice serv ices fortheArmed For cesout side theUni tedSta tes , (6) employme nt on theOut tinent ectio erCon alShel f inconn n wit h the explorat ionand de vel emp oping ofnatur alreso urces , (7) ci vilian loyee appro s ofnon priate d activi exch fund ties (post anges ,motio ces ,etc. ). (1962 npictur eservi ) 250 CHALLENGE OF THEFUTURE 1962 1963 T O CHALLENGE OF THE FUTURE 1962-63 On September 25,1962 ,W. Willard Wirtz wassworn inasthe10thSec retary ofLaboroftheUnited States . Some3 months later ,theDepartment ofLaborbegantheanniversary observance ofits 50thyear . Itwasanapt time fora consideration ofthechanging character oftheDepartment and emerging undergoing fora confrontation oftheproblems inaneconomy technological change rapid . Surprisingly enough , asthereports inthis volume haveindicated , the problems were notdifferent inkind from those that hadoccupied every other Secretary . Secretary Davis inthe1920's hadcast worried glances atman's evolving technology andits effect uponjobs . Some40years later ,Secretary Wirtz foundtheAmerican economy laboring underthesamechange , with an increasing toll ofemployment opportunity loss fortheunskilled and inexperienced anduntrained . During thefirst months ofhistenure ,andasthe50th anniversary year began ,theSecretary identified thecorrelation ofalmost every activity of hisDepartment with theoverriding challenge ofchange - industrial , occu pational , scientific , and geographic --that was remaking modernAmerica faster than thelives ofgenerations andcausing eachmantoconsider his working lifetime a many-staged progression through a variety ofskills and jobs . Thespecial programs andpolicies toturn change toman's benefit were being established -toenddiscrimination ,toimprove educational andem ployment opportunity , tobetter thestatus ofwomen ,toconvince young people tostay inschool ,toupgrade theEmployment Service with its job matching capability ,andsodownthe long list ofdetailed responses tospecific aspects ofchange . Asthefirst half -century ofservice cametoanend ,thewords ofSecretary Wirtzwerebotha summation anda mandate forthefuture . DealingWith Change "Iam sureitisanoversimplification , andyetI am equally sure that the presiding fact inourtimeandinanyother times isthefact ofchange ,and that the commondenominator ofall ofourdifficulties isdealing with change honestly andwisely andconstructively . “Iam nottalking about a matter ofadjusting tochange ,because that begsthequestion ,andbegsit ,inmy judgment ,thewrongway. Itisnota matter ofhowtobeonthedefensive against change . Itisa matter ofhow totake theoffensive with change andtomakeittheinstrument fora man's 253 deliverance ,instead ofpermitting ittobecome the instrument ofhisdestruc tion . .. “Now,ajob used tobe—andthis wastrue not very long ago—ajob used tobesomething that a man expected tohaveall ofhislife . And our trouble today isthat that iswhathestill expects . Butitisnolonger true . “Itwasnotvery long agothat a manonajob ,particularly onacraftsman job ,thought interms ofpassing itontohis son . He had inherited itfrom hisfather ,andheexpected topassitontohisson . Itwas likethefamily which camefromthe craft which wasbeing performed — Smith ,Mason , Chandler ,whatever it mayhave been . grewupandwentto whena boyinthecountry "That wastheperiod name , . rest ofhis life probably workforthe hewould fields which school past ora a mineora mill grewuparound inwhich mostsons Itwasa period thinking family's . economic ofevery center ,which wasthe plant “Andcollective bargaining ,whenit emerged ,asitdid inmost places ,about 25years ago ,wasalso built up around theidea ofprotecting a man's par ticular jobandhis rights toaprogression toanother job . “Isuggest toyouthat today this isno longer true ; that inthis eraof accelerated change ,anageoftechnology triumphant ,ofexploding popula tion ,wheremapschange asfast aswomen's fashions andwherecontinents arenowcloser together intime than county seats seemtobe,inthis agea man's jobisalso theuncertain product ofunpredictable butalmost certain change . “ Ajobisnolonger something which most people canreasonably expect to haveortoperform therest oftheir lives . There isgoing tobea change .” Jobs . underlies (our)problems that "Ithink there isoneanswer “And that right answer issimply that this economy hasgottobeputon a basis which will supply workopportunities forall ofthose whowantto workandwhohavesomething tooffer . “Imakeclear only thepoint that these other things which we react so strongly toarebyandlarge posings oftheissue ,andweought togetdown totheoneanswer which would bring a complete solution tothese problems . We would notbestaying upnights intheLabor Department working out particular disputes ifthere werea full employment economy inthis country . Featherbedding would still beanirritation andanaggravation ,butitwould not bethe terrible problem that it istoday . ifthere werefull problem woulddisappear “The35-hourworkweek would ofcompulsory arbitration opportunities . Theproblem employment ways , because there wouldbe other again into thebackground bepushed would not problem insurance problems . Theunemployment ofsolving those problem itis . that betheserious “Imake ,then ,only the general suggestion that the principal problem we situation problem have inthis inthis area ofpublic affairs isthe ofchange , 2 54 that itrequires ourconstructive ,honest ,straightforward ,wise answer tothe problems which itpresents ,andthat we should advance asquickly aswe problem cantotheheart ofthis . of concern along a course ofa going toguide theaffairs “Itisnothard contented ,intheir people ,ifyouwill other ortorepresent conduct previous today all along . Thedemands been areorhave asthey ofthings enjoyment ofusin anduponthose andindustry labor ofAmerican upontheleaders change bemet demand that ,tough isaa hard ,challenging public government itwill ,sothat itbemademan'sservant andthat on its ownterms squarely . notbecomehismaster “Ifthis isa grimprospect forthelazy ,thescared ,thesatisfied ,itisan exciting prospect forthose whobelieve that growth isthedistinguishing characteristic oflife andthat the future isagoodidea . Ido." Problems To Be Met factories rise toheightened - giving inAmerica's today "What ishappening crisis iswhathas economic asa national unemployment about concern discovery farms . Scientific sometime nowonAmerica's for been happening power productive sorapidly man's individual aremultiplying andinvention . And innewdoubt isbeing cast ofthings inthescheme ownplace that his ,thedifficulties isonly oneofreadjustment thequestion though weknowthat . andwaste ofhumancosts interms acutely painful it presents are “The scientific revolution maybeinmaturity onourfarms ,butits final moment assault ontheagricultural workforce isa matter ofpresent . If thegreatest gain we cananticipate fromanacknowledgment ofthese facts isa determination toseek a wiser path inthedevelopment ofourindustrial life ,that isofunquestioned benefit . Butofevengreater benefit would be public acceptance oftheunity ofourmanpower andeconomic problems . Inits mostimportant consequence ,theattrition offarmemployment has laid theburden onoureconomy tocreate jobs toreplace those lost onthe land ,asthey arebeing lost inthemines andthefactories andontherail roads . We arechallenged attheleast todevise thewaysandmeansby whichthedispossessed cantranslate their aspirations and transfer their abilities toa newenvironment ofmeaningful workanduseful lives .” Pledgeof Opportunity “Letusbeclear inourrecogni tion that th eAmer icaneconom y isasucc ess beyond paral inhistory lel ;tha tithasprodu cedastanda formost rdofli ving ofus whichistheenvy,andnow thegoal ,ofall thewor ld's peopl e;th at we define pov erty nowinthi scountr y byincomelevel srat herthansta rva tionanddeathin thestree ts;thatmostoftheunem ploye d inAmer icacan sati moreoflife's sfy needsthanthemajority oftho sewho workfromdawn todark inmuch oftheworld. "Butthese comparisons , too , areincomplete . The measure ofwhatwe areiswhatwe could be,andwhatwe propose tobe. Everyindividual per 255 soninthis country whowant s ajobandisdenied itre presen tsapro perand unsat isfied claim again stdemocra pledge cy's ofequ alopportun ityforall .... closest serious towarrant issufficiently thesituation "First ,itisclear that isthat theunem vigorous action . Part ofthedifficulty attention andmost in pockets of economic is concentrated exists is scattered , and which ployment isnot economically that there sowell aredoing distress . People ingeneral unemployment tobeabout there ought andoutrage ofindignation thesense asa though itissapping ourstrength don't seeeven which mostAmericans whole. unemployment asessentially this that werecognize "Second ,itisimportant growing pains . It weakness , butofeconomic notofeconomic a problem the andfrom inourpopulation ofgrowth part fromthefact results inlarge lead ,inmeeting competence . We must increase intechnological phenomenal . challenge butfromstrength ,notfromweakness this “Third ,itiscl earnow thatthis sit uation isnotself -cor rectin g. Thepre conceiv ednotions that improvi hnolo ngtec gyauto matica llycrea tesasmany jobsasitdest ,sothat roys th ereisnoproblem ofemp loyme nther e,leave outsomekeyfacts . “Thosepreconceptions weretrue totheextent that theysuggested that eachnewtechnological development increases thenational economic poten tial ,including its potential forfull employment . Whatthey left outisthe fact ,clear nowfromexperience ,that the effect ofsuch technological develop mentisuneven throughout theeconomy ,interms ofgeographical areas , different adjustment problems skill levels , andsoforth . Itcreates which havetobe met. point : corollary significant ofthepreceding “Fourth , andasa crucially today ,butrather country inthis problem There isnotoneunemployment twospe problems andparticularly unemployment different several very problem ofunem acute istheincreasingly problems cific . Oneofthese of acute problem is the increasingly . The other workers ployed younger racial groups . unemployed members ofminority “Onedifficulty here isthat these twoproblems aredirectly traceable toa situation factor inthis whichhasnotbeenthesubject ofenough plain talk . “Technological development isanattractive ,fascinating idea . Itisalso essential tothegrowth oftheeconomy . “Technological development is also thereason that theunemployment rate intheUnited States asa whole isapproximately twice ashigh for younger workers than for the work force asa whole ,andtwice ashighforminority group members asfortheentire group. “Thecon nectio n isclear . Rapidly adv ancin g tech nology is incre asing thedema ndforskilled andse miski wor lled kers ,andisreducin gthedemand forunskill edwork ers . Itisamong theyounge r workers ,especi ally those whohav e dropp edoutofscho olprematu ,andamon rely g the membe rsof minorit ,that y gro ups the reisth e highes tper centa worker geofuns killed s. 256 "Itcould very properly besaid that what wecall the problem ofunemploy mentisinlarge measure a reflection ofthemorebasic problems ofinade quate education andracial disadvantage . “Thisisnotanargument against automation . Itisanargument fora degree of social engineering whichwill keepup withourprogress in scientific engineering . Itisanargument fortheadjustment ofour educa tional system tothenewdemands oftheworkforce ,andfortheelimination ofracial disadvantage . Itisanargument ,indeed , that these needs must bemetifthewayistobecleared forthat degree oftechnological develop ment which isessential toasufficiently rapid rate ofgrowth inthe economy . “This isinnosense aninsuperable problem . Itonly requires recognizing itforwhatitis ,andmoving tomeetit . YearsagoGladstone cautioned us nevertounderestimate theresources of civilization against itsenemies . Neither should we underestimate theresources ofoursociety against the forces that accompany theaccelerating technology ofourage .” Need for Closer Coordination onthanthere inati a muchc loser coord rtant be a isthatthere “What isimpo tepartsofwhat are c andthepriva enthepubli hasbeeninthepastbetwe ms. lycommonprogra ilyandinherent necessar “Oneofthe most significant current developments indemocratic capitalism isthebreaking downoftheoldidea that public andprivate activity , especially intheeconomic field ,mustbekept separate andapart fromeach other . There aretoday numerous andsignificant illustrations ofnewforms ofcoordinated public andprivate action inmeeting developing labor rela problems tions ." Bargaining Collective “Iconclude then with this picture ofthefuture ofcollective bargaining : that itwill necessarily ,ifitistopreserve its meaningfulness ,take a larger account oftheresponsibilities whichthenewforces loose intheworld have thrust upontheNation ; that theprocedures ofcollective bargaining are already developing along newlines which makeita morereasoned sort of process ,andthat anessential part ofthis development will bea converging anda coordination ofpublic andprivate decisionmaking inthewhole areaoflaborrelations . “We stand today atwhathistory will probably markasa fairly clear fork inthedevelopment oflabor -management relations inthis country . traditional collective bargaining procedures Neither the northepresent labor dispute lawsareworking tothepublic's satisfaction ,atleast sofarasmajor labor controversies areconcerned . “Iassert ,however ,along with thepublic interest inavoiding crippling shutdowns incritical industries ,the ...equal public interest inpreserving practicable decisionmaking totheultimate extent theprivate process . And I am convinced that free ,private collective bargaining canbemadetowork so thatitwillmeetthisdemand upon it . 257 a ina t fully served cint erest will bemos that thepubli “Itiseasy toagree t ties tosubmi iring thepar nga str ikeandrequ ibiti cular parti casebyproh est epublic inter inleaving ereisalso th . Butth pute party dis toaathird their esses etoprivate proc onsaspossibl . asmanydecisi depends bargaining ontwonecessary collective offree “Thepreservation developments . “One ofthese , extraneous tocollective bargaining assuch , hasto do withthehealth oftheeconomyasa whole . dispute recent emergency ofthese that most ,again ,thefact “Thisinvolves , fromthedisplacement issues arising anddifficult serious cases haveinvolved . orbynewworkmethods ,ofmenbymachines displacement orthreatened ofthis large scale problems whether seriously to question There isreason byfree collective industries inmajor dealt with kind canbesatisfactorily dis will give which ata rate isdeveloping unless theeconomy bargaining jobs . to find other assurance ofanopportunity reasonable placed employees their bargaining p robably deny they will assurance isnotthat Ifthere . discard fortheir tonegotiate theauthority representatives "Beyond this ,thefuture ofcollective bargaining - free oftheweakening effects ofstatutory arbitration procedures — depends uponthedevelopment ofprivate procedures whichwill permit andvirtually assure thesettlement ofmajordisputes incritical industries without crippling shutdowns . “There issignificant evidence that this development istaking place today inahighly meaningful degree andata rapidly accelerating pace . “Therehasbeenonefea ture common tomostofthe serecent emerg ency dispu tecase s whichhasrece ivedal l toolittl . Thisisthat e not ice the settlem ents invi rtuall y all ofthemhav arr e include d signif icant angeme nts formeeting ,and hopefu ,anothe llyavo iding . r crisis “Nothing I havespoken ofhereissuggested asdogma . Itisplainly notthe product ofanydivine revelation ,butissubject rather tothefutility oftrying toseeahead ,a privilege which is— fortunately - denied tomen. Iurge only theimperative ofrecognizing thenewdemands today's ferment of progress and change places on theadministrators and architects of Americanlaborrelations — thecrucial needthatman'sadministrative in vention keep upwith hisscientific genius .” 258 APPENDIX I EARLY HISTORY LEADING TO ESTABLISHMENT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Thefirst public declaration oflabor's desire fortheestablishment ofa Federal department oflabor wasmadebytheNational Labor Union ,meeting inconvention inNewYorkCity during September 1868. Its president , William H.Sylvis ,proposed ,anditwasagreed , that apetition besubmitted toCongress requesting thecreation ofa new department atWashington ,to becalled a department oflabor . This department would have“charge of thepublic domain ,theregistration andregulation ,under a general system ,of trade unions ,co-operative associations ,andall other organizations ofwork ingmen andwomenhaving fortheir object theprotection ofproductive in dustry ,andtheelevation ofthose whotoil .”2 Atits next convention ,inPhiladelphia during August 1869 ,theNational Labor Union expressed itself morespecifically inthe following terms : aslabor isthe foundation andcause ofnational prosperity ,itisboth thedutyandtheinterest ofgovernment tofoster andpromote it . Itsim portance ,therefore ,demands the creation ofanExecutive Department ofthe Government atWashington ,tobedenominated theDepartment ofLabor , which shall aidinprotecting itabove all other interests .”3 cedinto etts sachus introdu e F.Hoar ofMas ssman Georg In1871Congre r. Al ission on labo comm s lt o create a tative a bil e ofRepresen theHous were thatthey made itplain orted hisbill ,they supp unions thoughtrade tinue ld“con t theywou nt,”andtha ryexpedie y “asa tempora doingsoonl ll ) The bi , 462) mentofLabor .” ((1918 1918::462 ofa Depart ireffort inbehalf the tment e ppoin tives ovided for th a esenta ,pr vedbyth e HouseofRepr as appro ision rsoflabor andthediv ect ssion subj ofwagesandhou on the ofacommi 9 *Thereissomeevidence suggesting thattheproposal wasfirst madeby Sylvis inhis capacity aspresident oftheInternational Moulders ' Unionasearly as1864 ; butthe evidence isasyetunsubstantiated . Evenifconfirmed , thefactremains thatthefirst organized expression oflabor's desire wasthis resolution of1868 . n Indust rialSoci ety aryHist oryof America ," 2Commons,JohnR. (ed),“ A Document -225 .IX,pp.224 . eland ,Ohio ,1910,vol ,Clev A.H.ClarkCo. *Workingman's Advocate ,Chicago ,September 4, 1869 . 2 59 ofprofits between labor andcapital intheUnited States . Thebill ,however , failed topass theSenate .* Creation ofa BureauofLabor A tactical pushthenbegan fortheestablishment ofaa bureau oflabor sta tistics . In1873 theIndustrial Congress held atCleveland adopted thefol lowing declaration : “ Toarrive atthetrue condition oftheproducing masses intheir edu cational ,moral ,andfinancial condition ,we demand fromtheseveral States and theNational Government theestablishment of bureausof laborsta tistics ." (1918:463) This partway policy wasaffirmed in1874bythesameindustrial bodyat its second meeting ,held inApril inRochester ,N.Y.On that occasion the Industrial Congress laid aside a resolution forwaging a campaign infavor oftheestablishment ofa national department oflabor ,doing so,however , with theunderstanding that thewiser course forsecuring such a department layinthedirection offirst creating bureaus oflabor bothatWashington andintheseveral States . Thisaction wastaken atabout thebeginning oftheindustrial depression ofthe1870's during whichthere waslittle orno active labor movement in theUnited States . During these hard times ,theIndustrial Congress ,which bythen hadchanged its nametotheIndustrial Brotherhood ,wentoutofex istence ,ashadtheNational LaborUnionbefore it . But ,with thereturn of normal conditions ,a newlabor group — the Knights ofLabor –became and forsomeyears remained theprincipal labor organization ofthecountry . (1920:13) Atits first general assembly ,inJanuary 1878 ,theKnights ofLaborad vocated theestablishment oflabor bureaus . Itdecided asa matter ofpro ntinthe Fed vepolic ynottodema ndanexe cutive artme eral gressi dep Gov. edinSta aushad been est ablish teswhere indu strial laborbure ernmentuntil dla sofskille dwageworke rs. nts tracte rge pla hadat number That samepolicy waspursued bythe Federation ofOrganized Trades and Industrial Unions ,which wastobecome theAmerican Federation ofLabor . The Federation in1881 ,atits first convention , favored inthese terms the establishment ofanational bureau . we recognize thewholesome effect ofa bureau oflabor statistics ascreated States inseveral ,andwe urge uponourfriends inCongress the passage ofan actestablishing a national bureau oflabor statistics , and 4 *Between 1864and1902 ,morethana hundred bills andresolutions anticipating the present Department ofLaborwereintroduced intheCongress . (See"Organization and LawsoftheDepartment ofCommerce andLabor ,”published 1904 bytheGovernment Printing Office .) Mostofthemwerenoteven debated . However ,onMarch21,1867 , theHouseofRepresentatives established a Committee onEducation andLabor(split intotwoseparate committees on December19, 1883 ) and theSenate on February 14, 1883 ,enlarged its Committee onEducation byredesignating ittheCommittee on Edu cation and Labor . 2 60 recommend for its management the appointment ofaproper person identified with laboring classes ofthecountry .” (1918 :464) Thenceforth ,thefriends oforganized labor united inpersistent efforts to secure a national labor bureau . Thedemand wasbrought totheattention ofCongress in1879 ,whenthe Massachusetts legislature sent aresolution toCongress asking that itestablish a national bureau oflabor . Appropriate bills wereintroduced by Repre sentative Murch of Maine and SenatorHoar. However , no action was taken. Then ,during the 48th Congress ,various bills wereintroduced for a de partment ofindustry ,fora labor bureau intheBureau ofAgriculture , for a bureau ofstatistics oflabor andindustry ,andfora department oflabor statistics . This last proposal wasintroduced inDecember 1883by Representative JamesH.Hopkins ofPittsburgh ,Pa. After amendment bytheSenate and aJoint Conference ,the bill waspassed . OnJune 27,1884 ,President Chester A.Arthur signed anact creating a Bureau ofLabor intheDepartment ofthe 2 Interior(1920:14) Thus , “ Twenty years ofagitation overthecountry and ofeffort had passed before Congress hadbrought thewageworkers thus fartoward a realization oftheir demands foranexecutive department with a member of thePresident's Cabinet atits head . Thirty moreweretopass before they realized original their proposal .” (1920 :14-15 ) Independent Status persisted . oflabor agitation fora department Labor's Terence V. Powderly , thegeneral master workman oftheKnights of Labor ,renewed thedemandforanexecutive department . Inhisannual address before Assembly theGeneral ofthat bodyatMinneapolis in1887 he stated : ofCongress labor toaskatthehands “Ibelieve thedayhascomeforunited ofthe ofLaborattheseat a Department thepassage ofa lawcreating on legisla askofthecommittee National Government . I wouldrespectfully . atthenextsession ittoCongress andintroduce tion toprepare a bill oflabor . shoulders rests onthebroad ofthewhole country Theprosperity world as the Nation and the before the nowsoprominently There isnothing orhis taken nowbytheExecutive . Nearly every action question oflabor . Its ramifica thequestion oflabor with inonewayoranother Cabinet deals isnow ,andits usefulness everywhere ,its powerisfelt tions extend everywhere the just that true ,itisnomorethan being everywhere . Allthis recognized more aman whorepresents should haveasamemberofhisCabinet President everywhere it is and a class ,for . Laborcannotbecalled than... a class con whom hecould . [With] a man inhisCabinet ofeverything atthebase position to would beinabetter ,the President question oflabor sult onthe 261 deal with thequestion ofcapital . Labor today isentitled tofar moreatthe seatofGovernment thana merebureau . Butitwill notreceive any more unless itasksforit . I recommendthatitaskfortheestablishment of a Department ofLabor .” (1918 :465-6 ) A bill foranexecutive department wassubsequently introduced inCon gress ,but“upon assurances that congressional assent toplacing a representa tive ofwageworkers inthePresident's Cabinet could notbeobtained , the supporters ofthis bill arrived ata compromise .” (1920 :15) In1888con gressional action wastaken topromote theBureau ofLabor toindependent status asa department oflabor , butwithout executive rank ; theCommis sioner ,although reporting directly tothePresident ,wasnottoattend Cabinet meetings . Recognition Partial Cabinet depart ofanindependent continued forthecreation Bills tobeintroduced a toestablish respectively bills status . Amongthemwere with Cabinet ment attained of Agriculture andlabor(theBureau ofagriculture department oflabor , andbureau ),a department ofindustry status in1889 full Cabinet andindustry ,anda ofagriculture ,a department ofindustries a department General byRepresentative wasintroduced oflabor . This last department tothecommercial related weremoreintimately Weaver . Someofthebills -earning side . Others tothewage affairs than side ofindustrial andbusiness , ofLabor . Nonewasenacted Department thepresent distinctly anticipated . Department creation ofthepresent a part intheultimate played butall Atabout thesametime ,bills were being introduced toestablish a Depart mentofCommerce . Asa compromise ,thetwoendeavors wereblended by the 58th Congress into anact creating a Department ofCommerce andLabor , inwhich the formerly independent Department ofLabor wasmadeaBureau ofLaborStatistics . Thisactwasapproved on February 14, 1903 , by President Theodore Roosevelt . Full Cabinet Status Establishing a Department ofCommerce andLabor ,however ,entrusted department designed thewelfare ofwageearners to“anexecutive torepre sent also ,ifnotindeed primarily ,theinterests ofemployers . Thisamal gamated representation ofindustrial interests ofa kindthat areoften conflicting infact ,whether soinessential principle ornot ,proved unsatis department factory .. An executive intheinterests ofwageworkers , such asthey hadurged uponCongress fornearly half a century ,therefore , wasdemanded with greater popular emphasis than ever before .” (1920 :16 ) Thedemandfinally foundfavor inthe62dCongress . Inthewinter of 1913 ,anactwaspassed ,separating thedivergent jurisdictions oftheDepart mentofCommerce andLabor bywithdrawing fromitsuch functions ashad reference especially towage -earning interests ,andplacing themunder anew department — aDepartment ofLabor . Commercial functions remained with 262 theformer department , thenameofwhich wasaltered toDepartment of Commerce. TheDepartment ofLaborActwassigned by President William Howard a Taft onMarch 4,1913. Itplaced the Department under aSecretary ofLabor , appointed bythePresident . By virtue ofhisrank asheadofanexecutive department ,theSecretary isa memberofthePresident's Cabinet . 263 APPENDIX II ROSTER OF ADMINISTRATIVEOFFICIALS , 1913-62 SECRETARIES 1913-21 WilliamB.Wilson 1921-30 JamesJ.Davis 1930–33 WilliamN. Doak 1933-45 FrancesPerkins 1945–48 LewisB.Schwellenbach * 1948 1948–53 MauriceJ.Tobin 1953 MartinP.Durkin 1953 LloydA. Mashburn(Actg .) 1953-61 JamesP. Mitchell 1961-62Arthur J.Goldberg DavidA.Morse(Actg .) UNDER OF LABOR 1962- SECRETARIES W. Willard Wirtz OF LABOR 1 1913-21 Louis F. Post (The Assistant 1946–47Keen Johnson(Under Secre Secretary) tary) 1921-25 Edward J.Henning 1947-48 DavidA.Morse 1949-53 MichaelJ.Galvin 1925–33 Robe C. White (Fi rs t Assist ant Secr 1953 etary) LloydA.Mashburn 1954-56 Arthur Larson 1933– 37 EdwardF.McGrady 1957–60 James T. O'Connell 193 8-4 lesV. McLaughlin 1 Char 1941-46 Danie l W. Tracy 1946 JohnW. Gibson (Actg.) DEPUTY 1955 UNDER 1961-62 W. Willard Wirtz 1962- JohnF. Henning SECRETARIES Millard Cass ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 1922-25 Robe C. White (Second Assist 1950–5 2 Rober t T.Cre asey 1925-34 WilliamW. Husband 1953-57 RoccoC.Sicili ano 1953–54 HarrisonC.Hobart 1934–35Arthur J.Altmeyer 1953– ,Jr. 54 Spen cerMiller 1939–40 Marshall E.Dimock 1940–41 DanielW. Tracy 1945 Edward C.Moran 195 7-60 JohnJ.Gilhool ey 1946–47DavidA.Morse(Assistant Sec retary) 1946–47Philip Hannah 1960–61 WalterC. Walla ce antSecretary ) 1946–50 JohnW. Gibson 1947-48 JohnT.Kmetz 1948–53RalphWright 1949–53Philip M. Kaiser 1954-5 8 J.Ernes t Wilkins 1957-60 NewellBrown 195861 Geor geC.Lodge 196162 Jerr yR.Holleman 1961JamesJ.Reynolds 1961GeorgeL -P Weaver 1961- Esther Pete rson 1Titles ofearlier officers performing comparable duties areenclosed inparentheses . Prior toApril 17, 1946 , theseappointments by thePresident werenotsubject to confirmation by theSenate . 2 Priorto April17, 1946 , Assistant Secretaries wereappointed by thePresident without beingsubject to Senate confirmation . Between 1935and1939 andbetween 1941and1945 , comparable functions wereper . formed byvarious special assistants totheSecretary . *Died in office . 264 DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 1953–59 Leo R. Werts 1956– 1959– 1962 CharlesStewart 1957–59Aryness JoyWickens 1957–59Robert K.Salyers 1959–62Seymour L.Wolfbein 1959–60HenryW. Wiens(Actg .) 1962 1962 1962 SOLICITORS Nelson M. Bortz HarryWeiss John W. Leslie MorrisWeisz David E. Christian 3 1913–18 JohnB.Densmore 1918-21 JohnW. Abercrombie 1921-32 TheodoreG.Risley 1945–53 WilliamS.Tyson 1933–35Charles E.Wyzanski 1936–37Charles O.Gregory 1953-59 Stuart Rothman .) J.Levy(Actg 1942-43Irving 1943–45Douglas B.Maggs 1953 .) (Actg 1959-61Harold C.Nystrom 1937-41 GerardD.Reilly 1941-42 WarnerW. Gardner 1961CHIEF 1941-42Jesse C.Watts(Actg .) 1942–52JamesE.Dodson 1918-41Samuel J.Gompers ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT SECRETARIES 1952-62 JamesE.Dodson 1962 ADMINISTRATIVE 1959 V.S.Hudson 1962 EdwardJ.McVeigh Donahue Charles CLERKS 1913–18 RobertWatson DEPUTY * HarryN.Routzohn ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATIVE Leo R.Werts ASSISTANT SECRETARIES ASSISTANT SECRETARY PERSONNEL ) 1936-46Robert C.Smith(Director 1946-47 RobertM. Barnett 1947–51Harris P.Shane 1951-62EdwardJ.McVeigh INFORMATION 1935–45JamesV.Fitzgerald (Director ) 1945-46Leslie P.Eichel (Actg .) 1954–58GeorgeC.Lodge 1946–54 HerbertLittle 1959- 1958–59Rog erG.Kenne dy John W. Leslie LIBRARY 1912–47 Laura Thompson (Librarian ) 1951 tt cke Margaret F.Bri 1947-50 HelenM. Steele * INTERNATIONAL LABOR AFFAIRS 1948–49PhilipM. Kaiser(Executive 1950-5 9 Arno ldZempel Director ) APPRENTICESHIP AND TRAINING 1961Edward E. Goshen 1945–56William F.Patterson (Director ) 1956-60 W. C.Christensen 8Prior toJune1933 ,on assignment fromDepartment ofJustice . •Acting until 1950 . *Died in office . 666947-63 -18 2 65 EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 1931-3 3 Joh n R. Alp ine (Superv ising 1915-18 Terence V.Powderly (Chief ,in Director ) ationServi ce) Immigr 1918-21John B. Densmore (Director 1933–39 W.Frank Persons (Director ) 1945-49 RobertC. Goodwin General ) 1921-31 Francis I.Jones EMPLOYMENT 1949 SECURITY ) Robert C.Goodwin(Director DEFENSE MANPOWER 1951–53FrankP.Graham(Administrator ) VETERANS EMPLOYMENT EdwardL.Omohundro 1 955 1949–55Perry Faulkner (Chief ) EMPLOYEES ' COMPENSATION 1950 William McCauley (Director ) EMPLOYEES ' COMPENSATION 1950 HenryC.Iler (Chairm an)* 1951–55JohnE.Lawyer 1955– LABOR -MANAGEMENT 1960 APPEALS BOARD TheodoreM. Schwartz REPORTS JohnL.Holcombe (Commissioner ) LABOR STANDARDS 1934–46VerneA.Zimmer(Director )* 1946–47Clara M. Beyer(Actg .) 1954–57 PaulM. Gurske 1947–54 William L.Connolly 1958– LABOR 1957-58Clara M.Beyer(Actg .) Arthur W.Motley STATISTICS 1884–1905 Carroll D.Wright(Commis 1932–33 Charles E.Baldwin (Actg .) sionerofLabor) 1905–13 CharlesP.Neill 1933–40 Isadore Lubin 1941–46A.F.Hinrichs (Actg .) 1946–54EwanClague 1913–20Royal S. Meeke r (Commis sioner ) 1954–55 Aryness JoyWickens (Actg .) 1920-32 Ethelbert Stewart 1955- EwanClague MANPOWER , AUTOMATION , AND TRAINING 1962 SeymourWolfbein VETERANS REEMPLOYMENT 1947–5 7 RobertK.Saly ers(Directo r) *Died in offico . 266 1957 RIGHTS HughW. Bradley WAGE AND HOUR 1938-39ElmerF. Andrews(Adminis 1940–41Philip B.Fleming trator ) WAGE AND HOUR AND PUBLIC CONTRACTS Stuart Rothman(Actg .) 1942–47L. Metcalf Walling(Adminis . 1955 trat or) 1947-55 William R. McCom b 1955-57 NewellBrown 1958– WOMEN Clarence T.Lundquist 5 1953-6 0 Ali ceK. Leopo ld 1918–19Mary Van Kleeck(Director ) 1961EstherPeters on 1919-44MaryAnderson 1944–53 FriedaS.Miller CHILDREN 1934–46Katherine Lenroot 1912-21 Julia C.Lathrop (Chief ) 1921-34 GraceAbbott CONCILIATION 1917-37HughL.Kerwin(Director ) HowardT.Colvin (Actg .) 1937 an 5 John R. Steelm 1937-4 n 47 EdgarL.Warre 1945- IMMIGRATION 1913-21 AnthonyCaminetti (Commis sioner General ) 1925–32HarryE.Hull 1932–33Daniel W. MacCormack 1921-25 WilliamW. Husband NATUR ALIZA TION K. Campbell (Commis 1913-22Richard General ) sioner st (Commis 1923–33Raymond F. Cri ) sioner IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 1933-37Daniel W. MacCormack(Com. missioner )* 1937–40JamesL.Houghteling INFORMATION AND EDUCATION SERVICE 1918–19RogerW. Babson(Chief ) INVESTIGATION AND INSPECTIONSERVICE Stewart(Director ) 1918–19 Ethelbert NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD 1918-19 WilliamH. Taft irmen Co -chairm Frank P.Walshº ) o Woman in Industry Division until June1920 . & Succeeded by Basil M. Manly . *Died in offico . 267 NEGRO ECONOMICS 1918-21 George E.Haynes (Chief ) RETRAINING AND REEMPLOYMENT 1945–47Maj.Gen.G.B.Erskine (Administrator ) TRAINING AND DILUTION SERVICE (Director ) 1918–19Charles T.Clayton U.S.HOUSING CORPORATION ? 1918 OttoM. Eidlitz (Director ) 1929–31 LulaT.Andrews 1918–19LeroyK.Sherman 1931–32Theodore W. Risley 1920-2 7 RobertWatson 1933-37 Turner W. Battle 1928–29 Lewis E. Reid WAR LABOR POLICIES BOARD 1918-19 Felix Frankfurter (Chairman ) WORKING CONDITIONS SERVICE 1918-19Grant Hamilton (Director General ) ?BureauofIndustrial Housing andTransportation until incorporation inJuly1918 . 26 8 APPENDIX LAWS AND III ORDERS (PUBLICLAW 426-62D CONGRESS ) (CHAPTER 141-3D SESSION ) (H.R. 22913) An Acttocreate a Department ofLabor Beitenacted bytheSenate andHouse ofRepresentatives oftheUnited States ofAmerica inCongress assembled , Thatthere ishereby created an executive department intheGovernment tobe called theDepartment of Labor ,with a Secretary ofLabor ,whoshall betheheadthereof ,tobeap pointed bythePresident ,byandwith theadvice andconsent oftheSenate ; andwhoshall receive a salary oftwelve thousand dollars perannum ,and whosetenure ofoffice shall be like thatoftheheadsoftheother executive departments ;andsection onehundred andfifty -eight ofthe Revised Statutes ishereby amended toinclude such department ,andtheprovisions oftitle four oftheRevised Statutes ,including all amendments thereto ,arehereby madeapplicable tosaid department ; andtheDepartment ofCommerce and Labor shall hereafter becalled theDepartment ofCommerce ,andtheSecre tary thereof shall becalled the Secretary ofCommerce ,andthe Actcreating thesaid Department ofCommerce andLabor ishereby amended accordingly . Thepurpose oftheDepartment ofLabor shall betofoster ,promote ,and develop the welfare ofthe wageearners ofthe United States ,toimprove their working conditions ,andtoadvance their opportunities for profitable employ ment . Thesaid Secretary shall cause aseal ofoffice tobemadefor the said department ofsuchdevice asthePresident shall approve andjudicial notice shall be takenofthesaidseal . Secretary of department anAssistant be insaid shall SEC.2.Thatthere offive a salary receive ,whoshall bythePresident Labor ,tobeappointed beprescribed such duties asshall perform . Heshall dollars ayear thousand clerk and shall also beonechief . There bylaw orrequired Secretary bythe ,andspecial ,inspectors clerical assistants clerk ,andsuchother a disbursing > . TheAuditor forbyCongress beprovided totime agents asmayfromtime all accounts andexamine shall receive Departments andOther fortheState ofLaborand oftheSecretary oftheoffice expenses andincidental ofsalaries toall accounts relating ,andall under hisdirection andoffices ofall bureaus ,andcertify ofLabor Department jurisdiction ofthe within the other business 26 9 thebalances arising thereon tothedivision ofbookkeeping andwarrants andsend forthwith a copy ofeach certificate totheSecretary ofLabor . SEC.3.Thatthefollowing -namedofficers ,bureaus ,divisions ,andbranches of thepublic service now and heretofore underthejurisdiction of the Department ofCommerce andLabor ,andall that pertains tothesame ,known astheCommissioner General ofImmigration ,theCommissioners ofImmi. gration , theBureau ofImmigration andNaturalization , theDivision of Information , theDivision ofNaturalization , andtheImmigration Service atLarge ,theBureau ofLabor ,theChildren's Bureau ,andtheCommissioner ofLabor ,be,andthesamehereby are ,transferred fromtheDepartment of Commerce andLabor totheDepartment ofLabor ,andthesameshall here after remain under the jurisdiction andsupervision ofthe last -nameddepart ment . The Bureauof Immigration and Naturalization ishereby divided into twobureaus ,tobeknownhereafter astheBureau ofImmigration and theBureau ofNaturalization ,andthetitles Chief ,Division ofNaturalization andAssistant Chief shall beCommissioner ofNaturalization andDeputy Commissioner ofNaturalization . The Commissioner of Naturalization or inhisabsence , theDeputyCommissioner ofNaturalization , shall be the administrative officer incharge oftheBureau ofNaturalization andofthe administration of thenaturalization lawsundertheimmediate direction of theSecretary ofLabor ,towhomheshall report directly uponall naturali zation matters annually andasotherwise required , andtheappointments shall ofthese twoofficers bemadeinthesamemannerasappointments to competitive classified civil -service positions .. TheBureau ofLabor shall hereafter beknownastheBureau ofLabor Statistics ,andtheCommissioner oftheBureauof Laborshall hereafter be known as theCommissioner of Labor Statistics ;andall thepowers andduties heretofore possessed bythe Commissioner ofLabor shall beretained andexercised bytheCommissioner ofLaborStatistics ; andtheadministration oftheActofMay thirtieth , nineteen hundred andeight ,granting tocertain employees oftheUnited States theright toreceive fromitcompensation forinjuries sustained in employment thecourse oftheir . SEC.4.ThattheBureau ofLaborStatistics , underthedirection ofthe Secretary ofLabor ,shall collect ,collate ,andreport atleast once each year , oroftener ifnecessary ,full andcomplete statistics oftheconditions oflabor andtheproducts anddistribution oftheproducts ofthesame ,andtothis endsaid Secretary shall have power toemploy anyoreither ofthebureaus provided forhisdepartment andtorearrange such statistical workandto distribute orconsolidate thesameasmaybedeemed desirable inthepublic interests ; andsaid Secretary shall also haveauthority tocall uponother departments ofthe Government for statistical data andresults obtained by them ; andsaid Secretary ofLabor maycollate ,arrange ,andpublish such statistical information soobtained insuch manner astohimmayseemwise . 270 inandpertaining nowonfile records andpapers theofficial Sec.5.That of ,department , orbranch ,office ofanybureau tothebusiness exclusively ,together ofLabor tothe Department inthis Acttransferred the public service ,department ,orbranch bureau ,office nowinuseinsuch with thefurniture ,transferred totheDepartment are ,shall be,andhereby service ofthepublic ofLabor. Sec .6.ThattheSecretary ofLabor shall havecharge inthebuildings orpremises occupied byorappropriated totheDepartment ofLabor ,ofthe library ,furniture ,fixtures ,records ,andother property pertaining toitor hereafter acquired foruseinits business ;heshall beallowed toexpend for periodicals andthepurposes ofthelibrary andforrental ofappropriate quarters fortheaccommodation oftheDepartment ofLabor within theDis incidental expenses trict ofColumbia ,andforall other ,suchsumsasCongress mayprovide fromtime totime :Provided ,however ,Thatwhere anyoffice , bureau ,orbranch ofthepublic service transferred totheDepartment of rented buildings Labor bythis Actisoccupying orpremises ,itmay still continue todosountil other suitable quarters areprovided for its use :And provided further ,Thatall officers ,clerks ,andemployees nowemployed in anyofthebureaus ,offices ,departments ,orbranches ofthe public service in this Acttransferred totheDepartment ofLabor areeachandall hereby transferred tosaid department attheir present grades andsalaries ,except whereotherwise provided inthis Act:And provided further ,Thatall laws prescribing theworkanddefining theduties oftheseveral bureaus , offices , departments ,orbranches ofthepublic service bythis Acttransferred toand madea part oftheDepartment ofLabor shall ,sofar asthe samearenotin conflict withtheprovisions ofthis Act,remain infull force andeffect ,tobe executed under thedirection oftheSecretary ofLabor . Sec .7.Thatthere shall bea solicitor oftheDepartment ofJustice for theDepartment ofLabor ,whose salary shall befive thousand dollars per annum . Sec.8.ThattheSecretary ofLaborshall havepowertoactasmediator andtoappoint commissioners ofconciliation iniabor disputes whenever in his judgment theinterests ofindustrial peace mayrequire ittobedone ;and all duties performed andall powerandauthority nowpossessed orexercised bytheheadofanyexecutive department inandover anybureau ,oflile ,offi cer ,board ,branch ,ordivision ofthepublic service bythis Acttransferred totheDepartment ofLabor ,oranybusiness arising therefrom orpertaining thereto ,orinrelation tothe duties performed byandauthority conferred by lawuponsuch bureau ,officer ,office ,board ,branch ,ordivision ofthe public service , whether of an appellate or revisory character or otherwise , shall hereafter Department bevested inandexercised by theheadofthesaid of Labor. 271 Sec.9.That theSecretary ofLabor shall annually ,attheclose ofeach fiscal year ,makea report inwriting toCongress ,giving anaccount ofall moneys received anddisbursed byhimandhisdepartment anddescribing theworkdonebythedepartment . He shall also ,fromtime totime ,make suchspecial investigations andreports ashemay berequired todo by thePresident ,orbyCongress ,orwhich hehimself maydeemnecessary . Sec. 10.That theSecreta ryofLaborsha llinvest igate andrepor t to Congres s a planofcoo rdinat ionoftheactiviti ,duties es ,and power s ofthe office oftheSecr etary ofLabo r withtheac tivitie s,dutie s,andpow ersofthe present bure ,commis aus ,anddep sions artmen astheyrelat ts,sofar etolabor and its condi tions ,inord ertoharmon and u ize nify suc h activi ,duties ties , andpow ,with ers a viewtofurt herlegisla tofur tion ther define the dut and ies powersofsuch Departm entofLabor. Sec. 11.Thatthis Actshall takeeffect Marchfourth , nineteen hundred andthirteen , andall Actsorparts of Actsinconsistent withthis Actare hereby repealed . edMarch4,1913 . Approv June 30, 1922. [S.3396. ) [Public ,No. 260.) CHAP .254.-An ActCreating thepositions ofSecondAssistant Sec. retary andprivate secretary intheDepartment ofLabor . Beit enacted bythe Senate andHouse ofRepresentatives of Department ofthe United States ofAmerica inCongress assembled ,Thatthere Labor . Second Assistant shall beintheDepartment ofLaboranadditional Secretary , who shall beknownanddesignated asSecond Assistant Sec Salary anddu . retary ofLabor . He shall beappointed bythePresident and ties. Secretary tobe ap. pointed . shall receive a salary of$5,000 a year . He shall perform such duties asshall beprescribed bythe Secretary ofLabor ,or required bylaw ,andincase ofthedeath ,resignation ,absence , orsickness oftheAssistant Secretary ,shall until a successor isappointed orsuchabsence orsickness shall cease ,perforn theduties deevloping upontheAssistant Secretary byreason of R.S. ,seco .177 ,section 177 ,Revised Statutes ,unless otherwise directed bythe , 179, p . 28. Privatesecretary. Appropria tionfor salaries . Post, p . 1051. Statutes . by section 179,Revised President ,asprovided ofLabor one beintheDepartment shall SEC.2. Thatthere ofLabor Assistant Secretary totheSecond secretary private at asalary of$2,100ayear . pri ishere horize Sec.3. Tha byaut d tobeappro t there ated ,outofanymoneyintheTreasury nototherwise appro priated ,thesum of$8,283.34 ,orsomuchthereof asmay be of theSecondAssistant Secre necessary , to pay thesalaries tary ofLabor andtheprivate secretary totheSecond Assist antSecretary forthefiscal years 1922and1923 . ved, June 30,1922. Appro 272 [CHAPTER 140] AN ACT To establish an office ofUnderSecretary ofLabor , andthree offices of April17, 1946 (S.1298 ] Assistant Secretary ofLabor ,andtoabolish theexisting office ofAs [Public Law 346) sistant Secretary ofLabor andtheexisting office ofSecond Assistant Secretary ofLabor . Be itenac tedbytheSenateandHouseofRepresen tative s of theUnite d St ates ofAmer icainCongr essassem ,That bled ther e ishereb y est ablis hedintheDepart mentof Laborthe Departmentof office of Unde r Sec retar y of Labor , whichshall be filled Labor . byapp ointme ntbythePreside ,by andwith nt theadvic eand Under Secre tary . con sent oftheSena te. TheUnderSecre tary shall rec eive com Compensation ; pensa tion attherate of$10,00 0ayearand shall per formsuchduties . dut iesasmay be prescr ibed bytheSecr etary ofLabor or re quir edbylaw. TheUnd erSecreta rysh all(1) incase ofthe de ath , res ignati , or remov on alfromoffi ceoftheSec retar y, perf ormthedutie s oftheSec retary unti l a succ essor isap poi nted , and(2) incaseoftheabsence orsic kness ofthe Secre tary ,perf ormthedutie s oftheSecr etary unti lsuchab senc e orsickne ssshalltermi nate . AssistantSecre. Sec.2.There arehereby established intheDepartment of taries . Labor three offices ofAssistant Secretary ofLabor ,which shall befilled by appointment bythePresident , by andwith the advice andconsent oftheSenate . EachoftheAssistant Secre Compens ation ; taries ofLabor shall receive compensation atthe rate of$10,000 duties . a a year andshall perform such duties asmaybeprescribed by theSecretary ofLabor orrequired bylaw . 37 Stat . 736. Sec.3.Theoffice ofAssistant Secretary ofLabor established 5 U.S.C. 8 612. by section 2 oftheActentitled "An Acttocreate a Department ofLabor ”,approved March 4,1913 ,ishereby abolished ,and such section 2isamended bystriking outthe first twosentences thereof . Theoffice ofSecond Assistant Secretary ofLabor established bythe Actentitled “AnActcreating the positions of Second Assistant Secretary secretary andprivate intheDepart42 Stat. 766 . mentofLabor ”,approved June 30,1922 ,ishereby abolished , 5 U.S.C.88 613, > andsuch ActofJune30,1922 ,isrepealed . ed April 17,1946. Approv 614, 2 73 U.S.DEPARTMENTOF LABOR, , OFTHESECRETARY OFFICE Washi ngton . General OrderNo. 86 PRESCRIBING THE ORDER OF SUCCESSION OF OFFICERS TO ACT AS SECRETARY OF LABOR By virtue ofandpursuant totheauthority vested inme bytheActof March4,1913(37Stat .736;5 U.S.C. 611),R.S. 161(5 U.S.C. 22) and Executive Order 10513 ofJanuary 19,1954(19F.R. 369),andtoprovide fortheorder ofsuccession ofofficers toactasSecretary ofLabor incase oftheabsence ,sickness ,resignation ,ordeath oftheSecretary ofLabor and the UnderSecretary ofLabor ,itisordered : I.Designation ofOrderofSuccession A. Incase oftheabsence , sickness , resignation , ordeath ofboththe Secretary ofLabor andtheUnderSecretary ofLabor ,theincumbents of the following positions shall act asSecretary ofLabor intheorder indicated : 1.Assistant Secretary ofLabor forEmployment andManpower . 2.Assistant Secretary ofLaborforStandards andStatistics . 3.Assistant Secretary ofLabor forInternational Labor Affairs . 4. Solicitor of Labor. B.Theindividual assuming the duties oftheSecretary ofLabor pursuant toparagraph A.above shall usethetitle Acting Secretary ofLabor ,andin that capacity mayexercise thepowers ,duties ,andauthorities vested inthe Secretary ofLabor . II .Incase ,for anyreason ,the Presidential appointees listed above are unable toact asSecretary ofLabor ,then the twotopcivil service officials of theDepartment ofLabor shall serve inthefollowing capacities : 1.The Admi nistra tiveAssistan t Secre taryofLaborshall berespon sible forbud ,manag get ,fisca ement l,and admini . strati ters vemat 2.TheDeputy UnderSecretary ofLaborshall beresponsible for policies all ,operations ,andprograms . III . Effective Date This General Order iseffective thedate ofissuance . ryofLabor. eta Secr WASHINGTON , D.C. ,May 2, 1955 . 274 APPENDIX IV CHRO NOL OGY 1840 employees on 10-hour day forFederal President Van Burenestablishes public works . 1842 Massachusetts highcourt holds that labor unions arenotillegal , that conspiracy requires a "criminal orunlawful purpose " with “criminal or unlawful means ,"andthat attempted closed shop isnotunlawful (Common wealth v.Hunt ,4 Metc .111,38Am .Dec. 346). 1867 House ofRepresentatives establishes Committee onEducation andLabor . 1868 Congress passes first Federal 8-hour -dayactforU.S. Government laborers andmechanics (15Stat .77). National LaborUnionurges creation ofa Federal department oflabor . 1869 Massachusetts establishes first State bureau oflabor statistics . 1870 Senateestablishes Committeeon Educationand Labor. 1878 Knights ofLabor advocate establishment ofbureaus oflabor statistics in allStates . 1881 Federation ofOrganized Trades andLabor Unions urges establishment of a national bureauoflaborstatistics . 1884 President Arthur signs theHopkins bill toestablish theBureau ofLabor intheDepartment oftheInterior under a Commissioner appointed bythe President (23Stat .60). 275 1886 President Cleveland recommends toCongress that functions oftheBureau ofLabor beenlarged toinclude investigation ofcauses oflabor disputes . 1887 Knights ofLabor urge Congress tocreate a Federal department oflabor withCabinetstatus . Bureau ofLabor publishes first report onindustrial disputes . 1888 President Cleveland approves theO'Neill bill toestablish a "department ” oflabor(though without Cabinet status ) (25 Stat . 182). Commissioner Carroll D.Wright ismadedirectly responsible tothe President . Congress passes first lawdealing with railway labor matters . Thelawpro boards causes vides for ofarbitration toinvestigate ofdisputes intheindustry . Commissioner ofLabor ismadeaamember ofsuch boards (25Stat .501). 1889_94 , womenincities publishes first reports onworking "ofLabor “Department ,etc. (1889 ); ,occupations ,living conditions , expenditures their earnings onrail conditions andworking (1889 ); earnings anddivorce marriage a nd foreign ; con , U.S. , labor andother );cost ofproduction roads (1890 ) ; consumer , etc. ( 1891 , steel , coal ofU.S. workers :iron expenditures sumer );labor laws ofthe (1892 indollars monthly expressed prices andwages earnings , and annual prices , hours (1892 ); wholesale States andTerritories schools oftraining andtechnical ,thestatus education (1893 ); vocational age insurance sickness andold );compulsory andEurope (1893 intheU.S. countries European andother inGermany compensation andworkmen's ofbuilding (1894 ); andoperations ,theslums ); living conditions (1893 (1894). andloanassociations 1895 n ag rmsinj unctio ainst remeCourtaffi , 158U.S.564.Sup In reDebs entonthe unds atth estrike inter tedbyGovernm gro th lman rike reques Pul st feredwith movement ofthemails. “Department ”ofLabor publishes first reports onhousing ofworkers and public andprivate debt . 1896 ns gcon ditio ,the tsonworkin ishes repor ment publ first ”ofLabor “Depart t,anddebt . lwea lth ,produc ingsystem ;andnationa sweat 1897 “Department ”ofLabor publishes first reports onconciliation ,mediation , andarbitration ,methods andprinciples ; conditions ofNegroes incities ; factory inspection ,safety laws . 276 1898 Holden v.Hardy ,169U.S. 366.Supreme Court upholds constitutionality ofState 8-hourlawapplicable tounderground minesandorereduction plants , asvalid exercise ofpolice powersince legislature hadreasonable grounds forbelieving that"these employments wheretoolongpursued [were ]detrimental tothe health "ofthe employee (169U.S. at395). “Department ” ofLaborpublishes first reports on mechanization , pro ductivity ofhandandmachine labor ; andbenefit features oftrade unions . 1900 “Department ofLabor publishes first reports oncosts andprices under public andprivate ownership ofpublic utilities ; effects oftrusts andin dustrial combinations onproduction andprices . 1902 “Department ”ofLabor publishes first report onwholesale prices . 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt signs bill creating Department ofCommerce andLabor(32 Stat .825). The new Department includes , amongothers , theBureau ofImmigration fromtheTreasury Department andtheformer “Department "ofLabor . 1904 u ofLaborpubl Burea ishes s,work sumer diture rst expen fi reports oncon s; consume r price ers 'familie onandrestri index ction forfood; regulati of tby rsan outpu employe duni ons . 1905 Lochner v.New York , 198U.S.45. SupremeCourtholds New York maximumhours lawforbakery workers toviolate Fourteenth Amendment asanundue interference with liberty ofcontract . Burea u ofLaborpublis hesfi occupa rst tiona l wagesurvey ,byindus try : wagesandhoursoflabor . 1907 Congress authorizes Secretary ofCommerce andLabor toinvestigate and report onindustrial ,social ,moral ,educational ,andphysical conditions of womenandchild workers intheUnited States (34 Stat .866). Congress adds asa function oftheBureau ofImmigration andNaturaliza a authorized distribution tion aDivision ofInformation topromote " abeneficial ofaliens ... bycollecting anddisseminating data and to assist in theplacement ofworkers ”(34Stat .898). employment offices . publishes ontheworkofpublic Bureau report ofLabor 277 1908 Executive Committee ofAmerican Federation ofLaborurges theestablish mentofa separate Department ofLabor . Bureau ofLabor publishes first report onworkinjury statistics ,inselected industries . January 6:Howardv.Illinois Central R.R.Co. ,207U.S. 463. Supreme Court holds Federal Employers ' Liability Actunconstitutional because its coverage included intrastate employees ofinterstate carriers . Congress authorizes Secretary ofCommerce andLabor toprovide compen sation forcertain Federal employees killed orinjured onthejob(35Stat . 556). Administration assigned toBureau ofLabor . January 27:Adair v.United States ,208U.S. 161.Supreme Court holds unconstitutional section 10ofErdman Actprohibiting railroads fromrequir ing"yellow dog " contracts asa condition ofemployment ,finding that this provision violates theFifth Amendmentby invading liberty of contract . Itholdsfurther thatthereis“no suchconnection betweeninterstate com merce andmembership ina labor organization astoauthorize Congress to makeita crime against theUnited States foranagent ofaninterstate carrier 9 todischarge anemployee because ofsuch membership onhis part .” 208U.S. at 179. February 3:Loewev.Lawlor (Danbury Hatters case ), 208U.S.274 . Supreme Courtfirst applies treble -damageprovisions oftheShermanAnti Trust Acttoa labor union , holding a secondary boycott toconstitute a restraint oftrade . Individual union members areheld responsible forthe union'sacts . February 24:Muller v.Oregon ,208U.S. 412.Supreme Court upholds constitutionality ofOregon 10-hour lawfor womeninindustrial work ,finding the“wide -spread belief that woman's physical structure ,andthefunctions sheperforms inconsequence thereof , to] justify special legislation restrict ingorqualifying theconditions under which sheshould bepermitted totoil .” 208 U.S. at 420. 1909 First WhiteHouseConference on Children recommends thecreation ofa children's bureau. Bureau ofLabor publishes first report onworkinjury statistics iniron industry andsteel . 1911 Representative William B. Wilson of Pennsylvania , former secretary treasurer oftheUnited MineWorkers Union , becomes chairman ofthe House Committeeon Labor. Bureau ofLabor publishes first report onconsumer budgets : minimum standardand fairstandard . 278 dsun meCourthol bama ,219U.S.219.Supre yv.Ala y 3:Baile Januar eto rform ies or failur pe inal penalt f iding crim alStat e lawprov tution consti nthAmendment. icting withThirtee ract ,asconfl laborcont May 15:Gompers v.Bucks Stove & Range Co. ,221U.S. 418.Supreme Court upheld injunction against AFL's “We Don't Patronize ” list ,holding freedom secondary that ofspeech didnotprotect boycott . 1912 Congress creates Children's Bureau inDepartment ofCommerce andLabor (37 Stat . 79). January 15:Second Employers ' Liability Cases ,223U.S. l. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality ofFederal Employers ' Liability Act , on ground that injuries sustained while engaged ininterstate commerce have a substantial connection commerce with such . Bureau ofLabor publishes first report oncollective bargaining ,covering thewomen's clothing industry ,New York . 1913 Congress extends powerofCommissioner General ofImmigration toestab lish andmaintain immigration stations atsuchinterior places asmay be necessary toaidinthedistribution oflabor (37Stat .682). President Taft approves theSulzer bill creating anexecutive Department ofLabor (37Stat .736). Constituent bureaus :Immigration ,Naturalization , Labor Statistics ,andChildren's Bureau . Secretary ofLabor authorized to mediate disputes inlabor . William B.Wilson sworninbyPresident WoodrowWilson asfirst Secre tary ofLabor . Departmental headquarters located inWillard Building . Congress approves first appropriation for the expenses ofcommissioners disputes ofconciliation inlabor (38Stat .225). BureauofLaborStatisti cspubl ishes fir prevent streports onacc ident ion measure and steel s,iron ;union wag andhour e sca les s,sel ected trade s. 1914 Departm entofLabortransf erred toMillsBuild ingatcorner ofPennsyl vaniaAvenue and 17thStre et ,NW . NewsRele blishe aseOffi ceesta d inOff ice oftheAssistan tSecretar y. publishes of inter hisstatement Wilson report ,Secretary Inhisannual ofthe thefunctions policy regarding act andofhis oftheorganic pretation equally toserve isintended that theDepartment ,stating Department ofLabor astheem aswell ,theemployer aswellastheorganized theunorganized . asawhole oftheNation ployee ,for thebenefit 1915 Depa rtmen announ ici abl t off ally ishme cesest era ntof a fed llyorga niz ed syste eepub loyme . Fir m offr licemp fic ion ntof es stnat alconfe ren ceisheld ofFede ral,Stat e,and cityoffi cial eepubl soffr icemploymentservi . ces Depart ment publi fi compendi shes its rst gulati andonly umofre ons . 279 1916 esspasses r Act(39Stat Congr Child Labo .675). tofLabor rred rtmen ation ction fromDepa ees fun transfe 'compens Employ n (39Stat dent issio .742). comm toanindepen BLSpublishes first reports onprofit sharing andonemployees andearn ings inselected industries . 1917 Secretary ofLabor submits toCongress ,asrequired bylaw ,a report on whatreorganizations areneeded tocomplete thefunctions oftheDepartment (Doc.1906of64th Cong.,2dsess .). Congress authorizes transfer ofDivision ofImmigration with its employ mentfunctions fromBureau ofImmigration toOffice ofSecretary ofLabor (39 Stat .874). War with Germany declared . Secretary establishes U.S.Boys ' WorkingReserve forboysaged16 or older orover school agetoworkonfarms ,andU.S. Public Service Reserve fortheregistration ofpersons offering their services totheGovernment for warpurposes . Department assumes a part oftheworkdoneduring previous 6 months by National League forWoman's Service ingetting womento workinwarindustries . Department ofLabor moves into new“Department ofLabor Building "at 1712-22 G Street ,NW . Departmental library created byconsolidation of formerlibraries ofChildren's BureauandBureauofLaborStatistics . Congress provides funds andauthorizes Secretary ofLabor toassist inthe employment ofwageearners asmay benecessary intheprosecution ofthe wa r . Secretary ofWar issues orders prohibiting employment ofminors on military reservations except asallowed byChild Labor Act. President appoints Mediation Commission ,headed bySecretary ofLabor , toadjust wartime labor disputes . March19:Wilson v.New,243U.S. 332.Supreme Court upholds Adam son8-hourlawapplicable torailroad employees engaged inthemovement of trains . December 10: Hitchman CoalandCokeCo.v.Mitchell , 245U.S.229. Supreme Court holds a union's efforts toorganize workers covered by "yellow dog "contracts tobeunlawful andenjoinable . 1918 President creates a War Labor Administration ,with Secretary ofLabor asAdministrator . Functions include furnishing adequate supply oflabor forwarindustries ;establishing machinery forsettling labor disputes ; and safeguarding labor conditions , including housing andtransportation for workers inwarindustry areas . He also creates ,onrecommendation ofSec 280 retary ofLabor ,aNational WarLabor Board equally representative oflabor andemployers . Secretary ofLabor appoints anAdvisory Council fortheWarLabor Ad ministration . IntheDepartment heestablishes a Bureau ofHousing and Transportation ,a Division ofNegro Economics ,anInformation andEduca tion Service ,aaWorking Conditions Service ,aTraining andDilution Service , a Woman inIndustry Service ,andan Investigation andInspection Service . On recommendation ofhis Advisory Council ,healso appoints a WarLabor Policies Board , including representatives ofallFederal agencies directly concerned intheuse ofmanpower for warproduction . Heamends immigra tion rules topermit importation ofMexican labor onfarms ,railroads ,and mines ,andobtains Presidential approval ofpolicy that all recruiting ofun skilled labor connected with thewarshall bethrough methods authorized byU.S. Employment Service . Congress passes Department ofLabor WarEmergency Services Act ,appro priating funds andauthorizing theSecretary ofLabor to"carry outthe workofthewar-labor administration ,including mediation andconciliation inlabor disputes ,the working conditions ofwage earners inthe most essential warindustries ,theacquiring anddiffusing ofinformation onsubjects con nected withlabor ,theemployment ofwomeninindustry , andthetraining anddilution oflabor " (40Stat ,695). TheImmigration Actisamended to provide forthedeportation of“anarchists ” by order oftheSecretary of Labor(40Stat .1012). BLSmakes a survey offamily budgets andofliving conditions ofwar workers . June3:Hammerv.Dagenhart ,247U.S.251. Supreme Court holds that Congress didnothave power toenact theChild Labor Act ,which prohibited theshipment ininterstate commerce ofgoods manufactured bytheuseof child labor . (This decision wasexpressly overruled in1941 inUnited States v.Darby .) However ,theWar LaborPolicies Boarddirects theinclusion ofFederal minimumstandards inevery Government contract . 1919 Withtheconclusion ofthewar ,manyofthewaractivities oftheDepart mentcease forlack ofappropriations . However ,Congress provides funds for continuance oftheU.S. Employment Service ,the U.S. Conciliation Serv ice ,andthe U.S. Housing Corporation (41Stat .55). All field offices ofthe USES areturnedovertotheStates . Inthe Revenue Actof1919 ,Congress imposes atax onthe employment of child labor . (This ,however ,wasdeclared unconstitutional in1922onthe ground that a taximposed onestablishments employing children ison its face apenalty andnotatax .) 666947-63 19 2 81 The President convokesaa National Industrial Conference underthechair . manship oftheSecretary ofLabor ; itterminates without agreement . A report representatives later ispublished bythepublic . TheInternational Labor Organization ,created bythe Treaty ofVersailles , holds its first meeting inWashington , D.C. , under thechairmanship of Secretary Wilson . BLS publishes first report on fringe benefits ,health ,vacation ,pension , family welfare ,etc .;andits first report onConsumer Price Index forall commodities andservices (backto1913). 1920 Congress creates theRailway LaborBoardtosettle disputes between carriers andtheir employees (41Stat .456),andpasses a lawrequiring the deportation ofundesirable aliens under certain conditions (41Stat .593). Congress creates the Women's Bureau inthe Department ofLabor (41Stat . 987),andprovides funds forcontinuation oftheUSES,including its farm labor services (41Stat .935). 1921 President Harding appoints JamesJ.Davis assecond Secretary ofLabor . Congress imposes numerical restrictions on immigration based on the quota system (42Stat .5),andprovides grants -in-aidforthepromotion of thewelfare andhygiene ofmaternity andinfancy (42Stat .224). January 3:Duplex Printing Press Co.v.Deering ,254U.S. 443.Supreme secondary boycotts Court holds that theClayton Actdidnotlegalize . > December 19: Truaxv.Corrigan , 257U.S.312. SupremeCourtholds unconstitutional theArizona lawforbidding injunctions inlabor disputes andpermitting picketing , asinviolation ofFourteenth Amendment . 1922 Congress establishes intheDepartment ofLabortheposition ofSecond Assistant Secretary , whose mainfunction istospeed upadministration of theimmigration laws(42Stat .766). May 15: Bailey v.Drexel Furniture Co. , 259U.S.20. SupremeCourt holdschild labortaxlaw unconstitutional on thegroundthatthetaxon establishments employing child labor isapenalty andnotatax . April 9:Adkins v.Children's Hospital ,261U.S. 525.Supreme Court holds unconstitutional theDistrict ofColumbia's minimumwagelawfor womenasinterfering with liberty ofcontract . 1924 Congress revises andtightens theimmigration laws(43 Stat . 153), andinitiates thechild labor amendment totheConstitution (43 Stat .670). BLSpublishes first report onemployment consequences oftechnological change . 282 1925 BLSpublishes first report onworkinjury statistics ,byindustry . 1926 First national conference onaccident prevention andworkmen's com pensation . BLS publishes its first directory ofU.S.trade unions ; first report on productivity oflabor invarious industries . 1927 Congress passes theLongshoremen's andHarbor Workers 'Compensation Act ,providing compensation for private employees subject tothe Federal maritime jurisdiction (44Stat .1424 ). 1928 Congre sshol dsextensi vehearings onunemploy ment . 1929 President Hoover appoints anEmergency Committee forEmployment . TheNew Yorkstock market crashes . 1930 Congress approves appropriations for the emergency construction ofpublic works tostimulate employment (46Stat .1030 ),authorizes theDepartment ofLabor tocollect unemployment statistics (46Stat .1019 ),andprescribes , > asa special function oftheUSES,employment services forveterans (46 Stat .110). . Fire destroys a large part oftheequipment andrecords oftheChildren's andWomen's Bureaus located inatemporary building . President Hoover appoints William N.Doakasthird Secretary ofLabor . May26:Texas & N.O.R. Co.v.Brotherhood ofRailway Clerks ,281U.S. 548.Supreme Court upholds power ofCongress toprohibit employer from interfering with employees 'choice ofbargaining agents inRailway Labor Act . 1931 The President pocket -vetoes a bill providing fortheestablishment ofa national employment system incooperation with theStates . Withprivate assistance ,demonstration public employment offices aredeveloped invarious industrial cities . Congress passes theDavis -Bacon(Prevailing Wage) Act ,which provides that therate ofwages for laborers andmechanics employed onpublic build 2 83 ings oftheUnited States shall benotless thanthose prevailing forworkof asimilar nature inthearea (46Stat .1494 ). 1932 Congress passes theNorris -LaGuardia Act ,which restricts theauthority ofFederal courts intheissuance ofinjunctions inlabor disputes (47Stat . 70), andtheEmergency Relief andConstruction Actof1932 ,tocreate employment through a public works program (47 Stat .709). ThenewLabor Department Building ,atcorner ofConstitution Avenue and14th Street ,isdedicated . 1933 President F.D.Roosevelt appoints Frances Perkins asfourth Secretary of memberinU.S. Labor . Sheisthefirst womanCabinet history . Congress passes theNational Industrial Recovery Act(48 Stat . 195), theFederal Emergency Relief Administration Act(48Stat .55),andthe Wagner -Peyser Act ,which provides for thefinancing onamatching basis of anationwide Federal -State public employment system (48Stat .113 ). The President creates a Civil Works Administration (E. O. 6420-B), authorizes consolidation ofImmigration andNaturalization ina single serv ice ,andtransfers theSolicitor ofLaborfromtheDepartment ofJustice to theDepartment ofLabor(E.0.6166 ). 1934 Congress passes theSugar Act ,which authorizes theSecretary ofAgri culture toregulate child labor andestablish minimum wages inbeetsugar farming (48 Stat .674);an actwhichauthorizes theSecretary ofLaborto issue regulations regarding prohibition ofwagereturns byemployers (48 Stat .948); andthe(Copeland ) Anti -racketeering Act ,which protects trade against interference fromviolence (48Stat .979). Italso approves United States representation in theInternational LaborOrganization (48 Stat . 1182). Security , Council on Economic establishes anAdvisory ThePresident program ofun ,todevelop a national aschairman Secretary ofLabor with ),and (E.0.6757 -ageinsurance care ,andold insurance ,health employment under NRA codes ofapprentices the employment governing issues provisions islocated Training onApprentice Committee 6750 -C). TheFederal (E.O. of Standards intheDepartment ofLabor Division established inthenewly Labor. BLSpublishes first daily spot market price index . 284 1935 . its newbuilding ofLabor movesinto TheDepartment Legislation . Conference onLabor National thefirst calls TheSecretary research . of occupational begins a program TheUSES ThePresident creates a WorksProgress Administration (E.O.7034 ) and a National YouthAdministration (E.0.7086 ). Congress passes theWagnerNational Labor Relations Act ,establishing Security a National LaborRelations Board(49 Stat .449);theSocial Act, part ofwhich provides thebasic Federal -State framework fora system of unemployment insurance (49 Stat .620); andtheRailroad Retirement Act (49 Stat .967). May 6:Railroad Retirement Boardv.Alton R.Co. ,295U.S.330. Su preme Court holds unconstitutional the provision intheRailroad Retirement Actestablishing compulsory pension system forinterstate carriers ,since “a pension plan... isinnoproper sense a regulation oftheactivity ofinter state transportation .” 295U.S.at374. May 27:Schechter Poultry Corp. v.United States ,295U.S. 495.Su premeCourt holds title IoftheNational Industrial Recovery Act ,guarantee ingorganization andbargaining rights toemployees , tobe unconstitu tional asanunlawful delegation oflegislative power without adequate stand ardsandasanattempt toregulate intrastate transactions affecting interstate commerceonlyincidentally . Withtheresulting termination ofNRA ,theConsumers 'Division istrans ferred tothe Department ofLabor (E.0.7252 ). 1936 First official representation oftheUnited States atannual conference of International LaborOrganization . Supreme Court upholds constitutionality ofNew YorkState unemploy ment insurance law. Congress passes Public Contracts (Walsh -Healey ) Act,requiring payment ofprevailing wages andtime anda half forovertime onFederal supply contracts inexcess of $10,000(49 Stat .2036). Public Contracts Division established inDepartment ofLabor . Congress also passes (Byrnes ) Anti strikebreaker Act ,making itunlawful totransport strikebreakers ininter state commerce(49 Stat . 1899 ). Secretary establishes position ofDirector ofPersonnel . 1937 U.S. Housing Corporation istransferred toDepartment ofTreasury . Congress creates Civilian Conservation Corps(50 Stat .319), authorizes a special census ofunemployment (50Stat .883),andpasses theFitzgerald 285 ofapprenticeship thedevelopment Actauthorizing Apprenticeship National inthe established Training Service Apprentice .664). (50Stat standards . Divisionof Labor Standards Secretary ofLabor andSocial Security Board agree that local offices of Insurance theUSES andtheBureau ofUnemployment shall actinlocal op erations asthough a single agency inorder toachieve integrated Federal action . First meeting ofthe Federal Interdepartmental Safety Council ,established bythePresident under thechairmanship oftheSecretary ofLabor . March 29:West Coast Hotel Co.v.Parrish ,300U.S. 379.Supreme Court upholds constitutionality ofWashington State minimum wage law for women , expressly overruling Adkins v.Children's Hospital . Virginian Railway Co.v.System Federation No.40,300U.S.515. Su preme Court upholds constitutionality ofRailway Labor Act . April 12:NLRB v.Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. ,301U.S. 1. Supreme Court holds National Labor Relations Acttobeavalid regulation ofinterstate commerce "because the stoppage ofoperations byindustrial strife would have a most serious effect upon interstate commerc e .” 301 U.S. at41. May 24:Stewa rdMachin e Co. v.Davi s;Hel verin g v.Davis,301U.S.548 and 619.SupremeCour t uphol dscons titu tio nal oyment-ins ur ityofunempl anceand ol d-age ben efi t prov isi onsofSocialSec uri tyAct. 1938 Congress passes FairLaborStandards Act, providing , withrespect to interstate commerce activities ,minimum wagerates ,overtime provisions ,and limitations onchild labor ,andestablishes intheDepartment ofLaborunder anAdministrator a WageandHourDivision (52 Stat .1060 ). Child labor provisions placed inChildren's Bureau . 1939 FLSAAdministrator creates Advisory Committee onSheltered Workshops tohelp develop standards foremployment ofhandicapped clients atspecial minimumrates under theact ; Secretary issues first hazardous occupations order pertaining totheemployment ofminors . Unsuccessful impeachment proceedings in Houseof Representatives against Secretary ofLabor regarding heradministration ofdeportation laws . U.S. Employment Service publishes first edition of“Dictionary ofOccupa tionalTitles .” Congress authorizes appropriations foradministration ofState unemploy mentinsurance laws (53Stat .581),andintheInternal Revenue Codepre scribes anemployment taxforunemployment insurance (53Stat .1). 286 TheU.S.Employment Service istransferred totheSocial Security Board (53 Stat . 1423). WorldWar IIbegins inEurope . President proclaims limited state of emergency . 1940 Congress transfers theImmigration andNaturalization Service toDepart mentofJustice (54Stat .1238 ),andtransfers totheDepartment ofLabor theauthority toregulate wagepayments incontracts forpublic construction (54Stat .1236 ). Itpasses theSelective Training andService Actof1940 , establishing Selective Service System reemployment the andproviding rights forex-servicemen (54 Stat .885). Secret aryofLabor est ablish esOffi ceoftheSo licito r asa separate unit , and author izes theSoli citor todirect theworkofal l perso nnelengag ed in lega l workintheDepa rtmen t. April 29:Perkins v.Lukens Steel Co. , 310U.S.113.Supreme Court upholds the power oftheSecretary ofLabor tomakedeterminations ofpre vailing wages inalocality ,under the Public Contracts (Walsh -Healey ) Act . May27:ApexHosiery Co.v.Leader ,310U.S. 469.Supreme Court holds a sitdownstrike not to be in violation of Sherman Anti-TrustAct in the absence ofanintent toimpose market controls . 1941 InOpp Cotton Mills v.Administrator , theSupreme Court upholds the delegation ofcongressional wage -setting powers totheFLSAAdministrator committees andFLSA industry . President creates Committee onFair Employment Practices (E.O. 8802 ). Wardeclared with Japan andGermany . February 3:United States v.Hutcheson ,312U.S. 219.Supreme Court holds that ,inthelight ofNorris -LaGuardia ActandClayton Act ,union action ina jurisdictional dispute didnotviolate Sherman Anti -Trust Act. United States v.Darby ,312U.S.100. Supreme Court holds FairLabor Standards Actconstitutional aswithin thecommerce power ,expressly over ruling Hammerv.Dagenhart ,1918 . 1942 President establishes National War LaborBoard(E.O.9017 ) andWar ManpowerCommission (E.0.9139 ). Federal -State employment system federalized . President transfers USES andApprentice Training Service fromFederal Security Administration to WarManpower Commission (E.O. 9247 ). 287 Secretary combines operations ofPublic Contracts Division andWages andHours Division into a single administration with headquarters inNew YorkCity (A.O.103 ),andsets upintheDepartment a WageAdjustment Boardintheconstruction industry (A.0.101 ). Congress provides benefits relating towar -risk hazards ofemployees on Government contracts outside theUnited States (56 Stat .725),andpasses a Wage Stabilization Act(56 Stat .765) andan Emergency Price Control Act(56Stat .23). Thefirs abroadby Sta tlaborattaché s areass igned teDepartm ent. 1943 Execut ivehold-the-line orde r res tricts prices andwag es (E.O.9328). Presiden t estab lishes Office ofWar Mob iliza tionand Reconve rsion(E.O. 9347). Congress passes WarLabor Disputes Act(57Stat .163 ). 1944 Congress establishes Re-employment andRe-training Administration (58 Stat . 785), and directs USES toprovide jobcounseling andplacement services forveterans (58 Stat . 284). 1945 Endofwarwith GermanyandJap an. President HarryS.Trumanappoints Lewis B.Schwellenbach asfifth Secretary ofLabor . Waragencies liquidated . U.S. Employment Service ,Apprentice Training Service , Re-training and Re-employment Administration , Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee ,andNational Roster ofScientific andProfessional Personnel are transferred toDepartment ofLabor (E.0.9617 ). National War Labor Board terminated andreplaced byNational Wage Stabilization Board inDepartment ofLabor (E.0.9672 ). occupational outlook report . BLSpublishes first 1946 President ends nearly all price andwagecontrols (E.O. 9801 ). Children's Bureauistransferred toFederal Security Agency(60 Stat . 1095 ),andU.S. Employment Service local offices arereturned totheStates , whicharegiven grants -in -aidtomaintain thefunction (60 Stat .679). 288 Employment Actof1946 creates Council ofEconomic Advisers ,establishes Joint Committee ontheEconomic Report ,andcommits theGovernment to take allpractical measures topromote maximumemployment ,production , andpurchasing power(60Stat .23). Congress abolishes positions ofFirst andSecond Assistant Secretaries of Labor andestablishes position ofUnderSecretary ofLabor andthree posi tions ofAssistant Secretary ofLabor (60Stat .91). Copeland Anti -Kickback Actispassed (60Stat .37). Secretary ofLabor establishes Trade Union Advisory Committee on In ternational Affairs (TUAC), andassigns coordination ofallinternational labor affairs ofthe Department toanAssistant Secretary . (G.0.22 ). InAnderson v.Mt.Clemens Pottery Co. ,theU.S. Supreme Court defines "hoursworked ” inFairLaborStandards Act. 1947 Congress abolishes U.S. Conciliation Service andtransfers functions to independent Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (61 Stat . 136). Farmplacement service transferred fromDepartment ofAgriculture back toDepartment ofLabor ,U.S. Employment Service (61Stat .55). Re-train ing andRe-employment Administration terminated for lack ofappropriations . s'reemp ntright loyme Veteran s functio nstransf erred veSer fromSelecti vice tment toDepar ofLabor(61Stat .621). Congress passes Taft -Hartley (Labor Management Relations ) Actof1947 , which includes provision forfiling by unions oforganization information with theSecretary ofLabor(61Stat .136). Rights (G.O. Division ofVeterans 'Reemployment establishes Secretary ActfromBu ofFairLaborStandards labor provisions child 28),transfers Divisions Contracts toWageandHourandPublic ofLabor Standards reau LaborAffairs (G.O.33), an Office ofInternational (G.O.31),establishes registration Standards labor union Bureau the ofLabor andassigns tothe ). Act(G.0.32 Taft -Hartley under the prescribed functions , toWashington returns fromNew YorkCity office WHPC headquarters D.C. March6 :Unite d Statesv.Unite d Mine Workers , 330 U.S.258,Supreme Courthold s that thepro hibiti on intheNorris -LaGua rdiaAct against in junc tioninlabordisput esisnotapp licabl e tothegover nmentasemploye r. 1948 Congr esstransfe rsU.S . Employ mentService toFed eral Secur ityAgency (62Stat .446). Smi th-MundtActprovide s forexchang e ofpersons betw een UnitedStates andothe rcountrie s (62Sta t.6). 289 Namesofall constituent units oftheDepartment arechanged toconform tostandard procedure (G.0.39 ). Secretary Schwellenbach dies inoffice ; Under Secretary David A.Morse becomes Acting Secretary ofLaborby law . President Trumanappoints Maurice J.Tobin assixth Secretary ofLabor . BLSpublishes first monthly reports oncurrent wagedevelopments ;num. berofemployee benefit plans covered under collective bargaining ;chronol . ogyofchanges inwages andfringe benefits inkeycollective bargaining situations ;performance ofhandicapped workers inmanufacturing . 1949 Congress amends FLSA,increasing minimum wageto75cents anhour , clarifying various terms ,revising coverage ,andstrengthening child labor provisions (63Stat .446). U.S. Employment Service andUnemployment Insurance Service aretrans ferred fromFederal Security Administration asBureau ofEmployment Security inDepartment ofLabor (63Stat .1065 ). President establishes President's Committee onNational Employ thePhy sically Handicapped Week,andholds first President's Conference onOccupa Safety tional . BLS publishes first edition of“Occupational Outlook Handbook ," and first labor market survey (selected office andmanual occupations ). AFL,CIO,andUnited MineWorkers ofAmerica participate infounding International Federation ofFree Trade Unions . 1950 Under various reorganization plans ,Bureau ofEmployees 'Compensation andEmployees 'Compensation Appeals Board aretransferred fromFSA to Department ofLabor(64Stat .1271 ),Secretary ofLabor isauthorized to enforce labor standards under certain acts (64Stat .1267 ) andtoassume thefunctions ofall other offices intheDepartment ,andtheposition ofAd ministrative Assistant Secretary isestablished (64Stat .1263 ). President's Committee onMigratory Labor isestablished (E.0.10129 ). BLSpublishes first report ,with tables ,onworking life formen. Koreanwarbegins . 1951 BLS publishes first casestudy on productivity andfactory performance inmanufacturing . June2:Youngstown Sheet andTubeCo.v.Sawyer , 343U.S.579. Su premeCourtholds that thePresident exceeded hisconstitutional authority 29 0 inordering theseizure oftheplants ofthesteel industry following thein dustry's rejection oftheWageStabilization Board's recommendation foran increase inwages . 1953 Martin P. Durkinisappointed by President DwightD. Eisenhower as seventh Secretary ofLabor . Secretary establishes departmental field staff committees (G.O.60),places Office of International Labor Affairs under direction of an Assistant Sec retary of Labor(G.O.64), and establishes an Office of Manpower Administration . BLS publishes first report on labor force adjustments totechnological changes within plants . Secretary Durkin resigns . Under Secretary L.A.Mashburn becomes Acting Secretary bylaw . James P.Mitchell isappointed byPresident Eisen hower aseighth Secretary ofLabor . 1955 Secretary establishes position ofDeputy Under Secretary andthree posi tions asDeputy Assistant Secretary , all tobefilled by career employees ; appoints Director ofWomen'sBureauasAssistant totheSecretary , and prescribes order ofsuccession inabsence ofSecretary andUnderSecretary . Congress amends Fair Labor Standards Act ,andraises minimum wage to$1anhour(69 Stat .711). 1956 Supreme Court upholds Secretary's authority toprescribe a uniform in dustry minimum wageunder Walsh -Healey Act . May 20:Railway Employees v.Hanson ,351U.S. 225.Supreme Court holds that under the Railway Labor Act ,asamended in1951 ,union -shop agreements inrailroad industry arevalid evenwhere State lawforbids such agreements . 1957 Secretary establishes Office ofLegislative Liaison (G.O. 70rev .)andOffice ofResearch andDevelopment (G.0.94 ). June 3:Textile Workers Union v.Lincoln Mills ofAlabama ,353U.S. 448 . Supreme Court holds that theFederal courts havejurisdiction under section 301(a)ofthe Taft -Hartley Acttoenforce anagreement toarbitrate grievance disputes andthat thesubstantive lawtobeapplied insuch cases is“Federal law ,whichthecourts mustfashion fromthepolicy ofournational labor 9 laws." 353 U.S.at456. 291 1958 osure n Pla nsDiscl Act,tobeadminis e and Pensio s passes Welfar Congres edtoLabor onsassign .997). Functi tary ofLabor(72 Stat d by Secre tere s Bureau (G.O.97). Standard 1959 osure . ngand Discl Act of1959 mentReporti sspasses Labor -Manage Congre t of rtmen ionofa majo r por tion oftheactin theDepa istrat admin Places nt u ofLabor -Manageme lishes Burea etary estab .519). Secr Labor(73Stat . 102). (G.O Reports BLSpublishes first national survey ofsalaries inprofessional ,administra tive ,technical ,andclerical occupations . Secretary establishes Bureau ofInternational Labor Affairs (G.O. 64rev .). ,361U.S.39. Supreme Steelworkers v.United States November7:United strike undersec steel off ” injunction inindustrywide affirms "cooling Court section . ofthat constitutionality -Hartley Act ,upholding tion 208oftheTaft 1960 Secretary issues safety andhealth regulations forworkon contracts sub ject toWalsh -Healey Act. 1961 President JohnF.Kennedy appoints Arthur J.Goldberg asninth Secre taryofLabor . Secretary establishes Office ofAutomation andManpower . Congress authorizes appointment ofaafourth Assistant Secretary ofLabor . sition . tsDirec tor tothis po retary ofWomen'sBureau Sec appoin President Kennedy appoints a committee ofspecialists toevaluate the Government's employment andunemployment statistics . He also appoints employment acommittee onyouth . President Kennedy signs theAreaRedevelopment Act(P.L. 87-27 ), au thorizing appropriations forplant development andworker retraining in areas ofpersistent unemployment . cover FairLaborStanda 87nding age rdsActisamende d (P.L. 30),exte tosome2.5 million worker inret trade . Italso raises minimu iefly ail s— ch m ofwor to$1.25in kersalre adycover edto $1.15(withfurth erraise Septem ber1963). wage 1962 President's Committee on Labor -Management Policy submits itsfirst re port ,oneffects ofautomation . 2 92 President Kennedy signs theManpower Development andTraining Actof 1962 ,providing fora program ofoccupational training forunemployed persons . He alsosignsthe Welfareand PensionPlansDisclosure Act Amendments of1962(P.L.87–420 ), considerably strengthening theau thority oftheSecretary ofLabor inadministering theact . Secretary ofLaborannounces that farmers unwilling topaythestipu lated minimumwage($1 anhour ) forGovernment -recruited Mexican farm labor would not besupplied with such workers . President signs theWorkHours Standards Actof1962(P.L. 87–581 ) re placing numerous earlier laws relating totheworkweek andovertime payof blue -collar employees ofthe Federal Government . Secretary ,replacing Secretary ofLabor sworn inas10th W.Willard Wirtz . Court totheSupreme Goldberg ,whowasappointed 293 6 0 7 3 67 0 1 5 , 73 , 1 4 3 7 1 9 82 4 3 3 7 6 8 1 8 8 8 8 50 6 6 3 1 6 6 8 0 3 6 6 6 36 5 5 6 4 6 2 1 3 63 2 62 6 5 s n o i t t n l a e i 2 m n r d 6 t u n p e – r l a o r a 3 o r e s . h c 1 b a r S c p v s y 9 o a e u . p f i a e f y b 1 , D o L c P U X I D N E P P V A w e N t c a m o r I F B 7 2 0 5 7 7 5 5 0 3 2 4 4 9 9 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 9 5 5 1 4 0 3 7 6 4 3 5 3 2 1 2 6 9 4 5 9 9 1 3 0 0 7 5 7 3 3 7 6 6 0 0 7 4 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 5 6 9 5 4 3 4 5 5 7 0 1 0 3 45 9 2 1 9 4 1 8 4 3 0 0 7 7 7 3 7 4 8 5 32 3 7 4 5 9 7 6 5 5 6 1 1 7 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 0 , 3 9 3 2 2 2 53 2 5 4 3 , 3 6 5 1 0 0 3 1 33 3 1 7 , 4 1,4 5 , 5 ,1 3 , 43 , 3 6 0 6 8 3 4 3 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 7 0 0 1 8 6 0 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 0 77 0 4 7 2 4 0 0 8 4 73 0 4 4 9024 9 2 4 0 9 5 6 5 1 4 8 0 0 44 , , 4 2 , , 3 8 1 1 8, 2 , 11 1 , 2, , 7 , 1 1 1 7 , 8 1, 12, 0 21 3 , 32 2 1 1 5 3 2 1 6 4 4 4 4 0 0 9 9 9 1 1 m o r F y c e S 3 2 0 9 3 9 4 4 2 2 8 3 8 2 4 9 7 8 7 1 4 1 1 6 7 2 4 5 7 8 6 6 7 6 7 7 3 3 3 4 9 8 9 9 7 7 0 2 8 0 1 9 1 1 1 8 8 6 3 3 4 4 4 2 1 7 4 4 7 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 8 0 0 0 , 2 0 0 0 , 2 3 73 9 0 2 3 1 6 7, 3 5 1 9 ,2 2 , 9 , 2 6 4 1 8 2 , 21 | 2 , 0 1 9 0 1 9 , 6 , 3 3 67 7 52 8 , ,3 8 , 2 32 5 2 78 2 3 2 79 4 7 4 9 0 8, 5 3 5 1 ,5 , 24 1 2 2 3 4,3 7 7 , 4 ,3 3 3, 0 1 8 , 3 3 1 9 1 2 94 4 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 6 1 9 1 7 1 9 1 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 0 2 9 1 1 2 9 1 4 5 9 21 8 9 0 7 3 97 0 8 7 , 6 0 8 , 9 5 6 , 1 4 2 3 , 5 , 4 , 43 3 7 , 5 5 , 49 5 9 7 9 2 10 9 7 02 , 3 8 7 4 0 ,3 6 , 5, 5 6 4 , 3 8 2 2 9 1 3 2 9 1 4 2 9 1 5 2 9 1 6 2 9 1 7 2 9 1 8 2 9 1 9 2 9 1 0 3 9 1 1 3 9 1 2 3 9 1 3 3 9 1 4 3 9 1 9 7 8 , 7 4 3 4 7 , 4 2 8 4 , 8 7 5 5 0 02 , ? 2 15 0 35 54 3 8 11 11 7 m o r F 7 9 0 , A 7 1 | R & | 2 1 m w o e 0 r F 6 N m o r F B 4 4 B6 S 4 7 8 9 7 9ot S 1 8 5 0 L 7 , 1 8 S 7 6 4 8 3 0 6 6 4 1 9 n p o i i h t s a e r c t y i l s t a i n n r e e i u r d m c p e d p o . 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P 8 o C A oS 2 T F 1 ( ) J D S U Manag 1 ts Reporement 7ureau - 7 02 6 5 L f5o abor 2B 8 4 79 7 8 0 0 6 4 2 5 0 5 9 67 1 9 0 0 05 5 9 9 9 0 0 5 6 7 ,5 1 8 7 0 , 27 5 0 8 , , , , 43 3 6 5 7 , 1 2 1 1 , 7 12 , , 1 , 1 2 35 3 , 7 1 13,1 0 1 , , 21 , 1 1 , 19 1 1 19 1 S C 1 M 4 1 5 0 5 0 4 9 S 8 , 4 4 9 9 2 U 2 4 2 4 3 9 1 8ot 0 , 1 y 9 c 3 7 e 8 5 S 6 3 2 t n e m y l o g s a l n e n p i d r o c m s o r i r i e u d a b 7 t l a e n o 1 H 4 L a W P B R 2 , N ; t n e y m s c d 0 e t y s l n o e au re Bu a e n 5 t l e y d t a n e c g p o u n m i m r l v i y e e d Affairs Labor p c t r m c o n a x s m e s n y l e R a e ( S N E 3 a International d o p c 0 2 1 r u i m l r 9 u 5 . 2 3 6 v l e i p s 4 3 c S r t 6 5 5 m n 9 e . f a . 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H a T d e e t c a 0 i m 0 v i 5 r t , e s S 1) , e ( . 6 3 , 4 7 2 5 9 1 3 5 9 1 4 5 9 1 5 5 9 1 67 55 99 11 8 5 9 1 9 5 9 1 0 6 9 1 1 6 9 1 2 6 9 1 L D s e S l i . U f 2 95 2 9 6 o5 N I a n c t r i e o a n s ea l o fI n g u rd s a t n r t si a l f o rR we c i o v v e se r o fy A s d e m r i v n i i c es t m r e na .t i o n . 4 C h i e f l y l a b o r r e l a t i o n s b o a r d s . 3* HW oa ur s ie nm ge .r g e n c y e m p l o y m e n t . i n s1 uI rn a nc l c eu d i a fn t g e rM 1e x 9i 4c 5a .n f a r m l a b o r p r o g r a m . U . S . E m p l o y m e n t S e r v i c e u n t i l 1 9 3 9 ; i n c l u d e s u n e m p l o y m e n t 1 9 6 2 1 1 1 111 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 9 9 9 999 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 9 9 9 99 9 9 6 6 5 555 55 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 44 4 3 3 3 3 3 33 3 3 3 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 22 1 1 1 0 9 876 54 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 21 0 9 8 7 6 5 43 2 1 0 9 87 6 5 4 3 2 10 9 8 1 9 1 7 1 9 1 6 1 9 1 5 1 9 1 4 1 9 1 3 1 , 0 4 0 , 8 5 3 1 , 51 , 1 2 7 01 75 , ,9 , 0 3 1 56 1 2 43 1 , 14 3 8 7 5 , , 5 3 9 70 3 4 7 1 , 4 4 0 4 4 8 , 7 1 9 3 5 4 , 0 0 2 22 95 66 ,, 71 30 25 2 3 3 , 8 6 5 2 2 4 , 0 5 5 2 0 0 , 2 6 2 1 5 , 4 2 4 1 1 2 , 8 9 5 7 0 , 8 2 9 7 2 , 0 3 6 2 5 , 3 3 1 2 4 , 9 1 3 22 44 ,, 6 1 9 4 58 3 0 , 9 3 6 33 1 0 , 5 1, 8 3 1 1 3 9 , 6 5 0 321 226 ,,, 226 2 52 7 93 7 5 , 3 5 3 5 8 , 1 8 7 4 2 , 8 3 5 3 83 6 ,, 2 1 3 66 4 3 2 , 6 3 6 2 7 , 8 1 5 2 8 , 0 2 8 33 23 ,, 27 89 81 3 1 , 1 9 3 2 6 , 2 6 9 2 1 , 7 6 7 1 5 , 4 2 4 3 0 , 3 8 8 2 4 , 6 6 5 1 5 , 8 3 6 1 4 , 1 3 1 1 3 , 7 1 3 11 23 ,, 94 4 9 57 2 1 , 2 5 5 1 7 , 1 8 2 1 8 , 5 7 5 3 3 , 4 7 1 22 80 ,, 89 0 20 9 1 4 7 1 , 1 6 5 1 , 6 6 5 1 , 6 0 9 1 , 5 2 2 1 , 7 4 5 22 ,, 11 67 40 2 , 0 0 2 1 , 1 1 4 1 , 3 3 3 0 7 4 2 1 2 2 8 8 7 87 45 7 1 32 45 39 6 3 2 33 27 9 8 5 4 77 8 27 8 8 0 3 8 1 114AT4 9 3 2 4 3 0 1 0 1 8 5 6 3 9 5 1 6 95 1 3 3 1 7 3 2 4 8 , 3 3 5 1 0 4 , 0 0 0 ( 8 ) 1 , 5 8 3 1 , 1 6 1 1 , 5 9 7 1 , 4 8 0 1 , 7 7 5 1 , 6 7 8 1 , 3 5 1 1 , 3 7 9 1 , 7 4 4 1 , 7 7 7 1 , 6 3 0 1 , 3 2 8 43 ,, 13 1 6 62 2 , 6 9 5 2 , 6 3 2 2 , 3 2 1 2 , 3 2 1 1 , 8 1 2 1 , 4 8 0 1 , 4 6 8 1 , 7 7 1 1 , 7 1 3 1 , 7 2 1 1 1 1 1 , , , , 3 1 0 2 8 8 8 8 8 9 1 2 2 2 3 3 5 5 7 1 9 8 7 5 5 5 5 0 9 1 , 7 9 6 1 4 , 7 6 7 1 2 , 4 4 0 1 0 , 7 5 0 5 , 7 7 5 5 2 , , 0 0 1 10 7 , 9 9 0 7 , 2 0 0 66 ,, 84 70 57 5 , 4 4 1 5 , 4 8 0 5 , 7 7 7 9 9 9 6 76 , ,, 7 64 8 18 4 45 4 , 5 7 9 8 , 2 0 8 7 , 6 8 3 7 , 3 0 7 6 , 6 7 4 6 , 8 6 0 8 , 2 5 9 7 , 9 2 6 5 , 7 0 8 5 , 4 0 4 5 , 7 6 1 1 0 , 1 9 0 9 , 5 3 7 9 , 1 8 5 8 , 6 7 5 7 , 9 1 3 7 , 4 8 4 6 , 6 7 7 6 , 6 6 1 6 , 9 4 4 5 , 5 7 5 33 ,, 69 14 11 3 , 9 1 8 2 , 3 3 1 1 1 1 5 6 3 , , , 6 0 5 1 5 9 70 0 1 2 , 8 9 7 1 1 , 3 2 2 1 0 , 4 4 4 9 , 1 4 8 8 , 5 8 7 8 , 2 3 5 7 , 7 0 5 6 , 7 2 2 6 , 2 4 3 6 , 1 8 6 6 , 6 6 1 6 755 , , ,, 9 945 7 4 4935 33 , 6, 9 14 11 3 , 9 1 8 2 , 3 3 1 1 4 , 2 4 0 6 6 , 4 9 3 03 2 , 4 9 6 2 , 2 1 4 2 , 1 7 3 1 1 , 8 8 3 3 2 2 4 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 , 2 4 32 8 25 8 7 0 5 91 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 9 0 0 7 5 5 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 00 4 9 3 0 5 2 598 7 3 3 3 8 2 6 82 75 75 50 4 , 2 1 8 6 , 8 2 6 4 , 2 7 3 3 , 9 8 4 2 , 6 7 7 2 , 2 0 8 12 3 1 12 ,, , , ,, 8 15 3 7 1 6 8 11 8 1 96 0 5 45 Gros s total Regu excl grant . lsar war and Miscellaneous 8 7 , , 5 2 1 6 7 8 4 7 7 1 1 ,, 545 4 4 4 2 3 7 2 21 7 5 5 8 0 3 1 3 29 82 28 4 42 24 42 2 9 92 21 02 0 71 18 5 2 0 0 0 8 96 9 0 0 4 5 8 2 2 2 8 2 3 3 1 6 3 5 4 Bure u nt of Laboa Mana rgeme 1 111 0 9 91981 International Labor 1 ,1 , 1 1 , 6 0 , 0 9 00 5 9 7 9 1 1 0 6 6 7 8 6 1 1 , 3 1 2 1 1 , 5 0 1 2 , 5 8 2 Bureau Affairs 9 , 4 7 2 1 1 , 3 2 2 4 1 3 0 1 1 , 6 6 4 1 2 , 8 9 7 1 1 , , 2 2 2 5 55 55 54 41 38 63 45 36 34 35 82 2 2 1 1 7 12 0 2 1 1 21 2 18 18 18 18 41 14 14 14 2 5 8 8 60 8 6 7 6 5 7 0 0 04 7 9 4 4 9 9 2 8 6 4 8 5 7 7 00 6 2 0 0 3 3 07 96 8 7 29 8 Reports 5 3 0 7 0 8 1 3 , 6 6 8 1 , 5 0 2 11 35 ,, 50 71 15 Fisca yea rl 0 , 0 6 0 2 ,,,0 , 797, 0 6458 3 1388 13 , 3 0 5 , , 9 7 8 8 4 1 1 , 0 1 0 7 6 6 5 3 6 7 9 5 5 3 0 9 3 6 1 , 0 3 0 4 , 6 9 2 1 8 , 2 3 5 1 5 , 3 2 2 9 , 3 9 5 1 8 6 0 9 7, , ,,,9 4544 7 886 0 4 2677 6 , 5 9 8 64 ,, 06 30 32 4 , 2 0 9 4 , 2 9 9 4 , 5 9 2 4 , 6 6 5 43 ,, 06 15 10 4 , 7 4 2 2 , 8 9 3 33 ,, 24 67 14 2 , 0 8 5 3 3 39 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 36 31 27 27 2 6 3 21 1 1 47 6 2 4 7 4 6 2 1 46 6 8 0 6 8 50 4 64 6 1 1 1 1 8 0 3 74 5 5 6 56 2 2 3 6 , 0 9 9 4 2 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 3 4, 8 6 3 5 4 1 00 0 2 1 2 2 5 00 9 5 9 0 0 7 0 5 5 4 0 5 9 0 03 2 2 1 , 3 2 5 12 A p p r o p Secretary r i a t i Solicitor o n s t o Conciliation U . 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Statistics Bureau of Labor D e p a Im Bu of and migrati reaur ton Natural ization m e n t o Children' s Bureau f L A a b P o Employment of Bureau P r 1 Security , E b y N b u D l o y m e n t 6 6 6 9 4 7 – 6 3 — 2 0 2 9 7 * 0 D1 uA er e a t or e r d o e u v n e d l i n p go m , e s n o t m a ec t r i o v w t si i e d os . n o t e x a c t l y e q u a l t o t a l s . 98 7 A I n bW a c s g l o u e r d bS e se t a Cd b i ob ny l i sb z uu a mr t ee i ra o n u P sB r o . i c a r e d I a n n d d e x R r e e v i t s i r a o n i n i . n g a n d R e e m p l o y m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 6 6 8 3 , 2 5 8 1 7 , 3 0 7 4 , 9 7 6 1 3 , 6 6 8 1 1 8 7 7 66 9 1 1 , , 8. 7,9 ,5 5, 5, , , , , , , 4 6 78 0 6 6 2 2 7 4 7 1 2 0 68 3 7 3 6 4 2 2 8 3 7 4 0 59 6 08 04 61 5 5 4 2 , 5 2 2 1 2 , 2 6 1 4 , 3 2 9 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 15 1 41 1 1 15 51 1 61 18 1 10 01 10 1 1 1 5 0 1 1 0 7 7 4 4 0 0 0 0 8 4 1 0 0 4 47 5 5 0 4 62 03 71 55 05 50 79 98 4 8 35 0 9 4 5 6 5 05 5 5 7 3 6 34 2 7 0 0 8 8 80 0 5 7 5 0 7 5 0 0 9 3 , 8 8 9 2 , 4 8 8 1 1 , 4 8 9 4 , 0 4 7 ) 3 , 1 3 2 1 , 7 2 9 1 1 , 3 7 1 4 , 0 0 9 3 3 , , 4 1 8 0 7 6 66 5 5 3 8 39 3 22 6 3 , 6 0 0 9 8 1 6 26 ) 8 9 , 9 1, 8 84 3 3 3 , , 3 3 9 95 1 2 , 8 3 8 2 2 , 4 3, 2 61 8 9 8 5 1 0 , 6 0 0 7 7 4 0 60 6 6 , , 2 2 3 53 5 3, , 12 3 6 00 2 2 , , 0 0 62 5 8 3 5 33 33 0 4 88 6 2 33 02 88 7 64 28 9 55 39 7 73 ) 65 78 8, , ,, 4 , 002 72 811 2 45 2 85 | 33 3 22 ,, ,, , 35 1 75 27 19 9 8 0 4 33 22 1 1 ,, , , 0 76 23 2 85 7 9 16 7 | 22 2 2 98 2 7 5 03 8 1 4 9 1 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 1 8 1 4 , , , 6 0 92 3 5 0 23 8 7 , , 2 4 5 1 6 7 8 77 5 3 1 3 53 8 4 0 51 5 45 4 4 , , , 4 5 5, 4 1 91 5 0 2 92 3 1 5 4 , 8 9 8 2 9 1 6 , 6 7 4 2 , 3 5 9 2 , 2 5 7 4 0 8 0 6 ] 5 , 3 6 2 5 2 7 ] 6 , 0 4 5 3 2 5 , 6 0 0 2 9 2 , 8 1 4 22 55 00 ,, 00 00 00 2 2 9 , 5 0 0 2 0 4 , 3 0 5 1 9 7 , 1 1 0 1 8 6 , 0 6 0 1 7 2 , 1 3 9 1 7 4 , 0 0 0 6 4 , 0 0 0 6 3 , 0 0 0 6 1 , 2 0 0 7 1 , 9 0 0 5 7 , 6 4 7 55 60 ,, 7 1 3 3 97 4 1 , 4 2 7 3 6 , 2 5 4 3 0 , 5 3 2 2 3 , 7 8 6 1 1 7 4 7 7 , , 0 0 0 0 00 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 4 8 43 ,, 4 7 1 46 9 | 1 2 7 57 ,, 4 9 9 0 0 0 / 1 7 , 5 0 0 3 5 4 00 ,0 , 0 0 0 00 0 1 6 0 , 8 0 0 6 1 7 , 9 2 8 | 1 7 7 00 5 6 , 0, 0 8, 0 6 00 0 27 5 53 4 , ,3 , 4 00 0 00 00 0 6 6 5 , 7 0 0 2 5 , 9 0 7 1 7 8 , 4 9 5 1 , 3 4 1 5 6 5 0 0 4 5 5 2 1 86 5 4 66 ,, 12 0 6 40 3 1 5 , 8 1 9 2 1 1 1 4 2 2 7 1 10 5 5 2 5 7 9 , 2 4 5 1 1 , 2 0 0 1 1 , 2 0 0 1 1 , 2 0 0 1 1 , 2 0 0 9 , 6 5 5 8 , 0 0 0 9 , 8 2 9 4 3 , , 1 9 7 5 05 3 9 4 1 , 33 5 93 6 , 1 7 0 3 , 3 9 2 6 0 0 3 3 3 1 8 4 1 5 1 , 0 5 8 1 1 , ,1 4 0 9 9 9 1, 9 4 5 5 6 92 1 0 0 8 04 0 0 3 1 , 3 2 5 Employ Burea u of S ecurity a b o r , b y ment A P P E N b D u I r e X a u dards Stan bor of La Bureau V s I , f and Publi Hour a nd c i Wage s c ss sion Divi act Contr a l y Bureau and of Apprenticeship e a Training r s ' Com . reau loyees Emp Bu of 1 ion 9 pensat 1 3 Veterans Bureau ' Reem of – nt ployme Rights 6 2 ( t Miscellan eous h o u s a n Child ren' s S G d t r a Bureau s a t n e st o s f f rt Bureau d Employm entom ot o h l Security e l a r s ) Bu benefits Compensation , Women' s Bureau 5 7 3 , 2 6 2 43 07 48 ,, 5 09 02 4 2 3 1 ] 3 , 6 2 2 1 2 3 59 6 , , 3, 0 9 93 45 24 21 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 4 , 3 2 58 2 2 9 0 05 05 24 10 25 29 50 00 3 9 56 9 0 0 7 0 3 6 0 , 0 6 0 C .om s* ' of reau Employee pensation compensation Unemployment veterans for compensation Unemployment employee for Federal s ment ry unemploy Tempora compensation INDE X Bureau . (For entries listin g nam es of Abbott ,Grace ,33,66,90 AdamsonAct(8-hourlaw;railroads ),280 bureaus ,seekeyword.) Cabinet Committee on Migratory Labor , Advisory Council on EconomicSecurity , 284 202 , Dep .,7,154 Agricul artmen ture t of, U.S ,206 Censu s,Bureauofthe , The,92 Child fromOne toSix American Fede rationof Labor (AFL ): Childlabor: . Se . Agri bor e Far m labor cultura lla Organi Committe ustrial zation , e forInd ion ,86 suspens Constitu amend for ,53, ment,fight tional entofLab or(U.S .),establi sh Departm Depressionaffecting ,66-67 d,278 menturge l labor affairs ationa Intern committee, 170 Jointly foundsIFFTU,290 e,36 lConferenc alIndustria Nation esen War LaborBoard,repr tat ionon,26 American Federat ion of Labor and Con gress ofIndustrial Organizations (AFL CIO),191 ,207,233 Anti -Injunction (Norris -La Guardia ) Act, 284 Anti-Kickback Act,289 g Act,284 teerin i-Racke Ant r (Byrn ebreake es)Act,285 Anti -Strik an)Act,287 Anti -Trust (Sherm e Training rentic App alCommit tee ,Feder on,81-82 Apprentice -Training Service ,transfers of functi ons ,1942 ,194 5,147,159 Appr entice ship : entice “Cri teria ofappr ability ,” 160 Feder itteeon , 113,160 alComm p andTrai eshi tic ren g,Burea App nin u of, 06 ,205–2 176–177 k,201 Area Manpower Guideboo nt Act of 1961, 227, elopme Area Redev 236-237 Arthur ,Chest erA. (U.S.Preside nt),261, 275 54 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. See under thattitle . Minimumstandards ,1919 ,33 Prohibition of: Military reservations ,1918 ,33 NRA codes ,79 Violations : 13 1957,212–2 World War II,136 SeealsoChildwelfare , Children's Bu reau . Child Labor(Keating -Owen) Act: Enactment ,33,53 Unconst itution al,53,281 Childwelfare : Security for ,91 Actproviding Social affecting ,65 Unemployment Seealso Child labor ,Children's Bureau . Children's Bureau: Activities : 1912-40 , 114-115 30,52-54 1921- WorldWar II. See tha t titl e, thi s ion. sect Child Labor Division,33 ion1946 izat gan Reor ,159 fers ,7,147 Trans s,66 stic fstati Unemploymentrelie World War II,129,139-140 Seealso Child labor ,Child welfare . n Atomi gy Commissi on, craftsme c Ener ing ,206 train Children's CharterinWartime,The, 139 n,191 AutoWorkers'unio Chronology ,labor events 1840–1961 ,275– al Ad Automationand Manpower,Nation visory Committee on,230 Automation andManpower ,Office of,292 Children's Charter (1931 ),The,65 293 , 115 CivilWorks Administration Conservation Corps ,76,120 Civilian 2 99 Clayton Act,282 eland Clev ver(U.S. ent ,Gro Presid ),276 Emergency FarmSupply Program ,154 Emergency Price Control Act,288 g: tive Collec bargainin Emergency Relief andConstruction Act > New directions ,257 of 1932,284 Peacetime practices ,return to,149–150 ionAct of, ncy ReliefApp ropriat Emerge 1935,76 Under National Industrial Recovery Act,82 Employees'CompensationAppeals Board, 166 ,185 ,216 Commerce and Labor, Department of, .,262 U.S ion es'Com sat oye pen eauof ,Bur ,166 , Empl 179,216 Commissionon Organization of the Execu tive Branch oftheGovernment , 166 Employees'Compensation Commission,20 Employment: Committee forIndustrial Organization ,86 Commons,JohnR.,259n . ications of Technological change, impl 253–257 Conciliation Service : Labor -management relations ,effects on, for ,56,57 Women,standards 9 Youth : 102-103 Secretary ofLabor's responsibility ,7 Separated fromLabor Department ,148 Emergency periods ,175 Placement of,48–49 WorldWar IIandafter amfor,198 Progr ,130–131 , 149– 150 mentSecu rity au SeealsoEmploy , Bure ; Employ Congress of Industrial Organizations of; EmploymentService (CIO ) : mentstatistics ; Unemployment . Format ion,101 Employment Act of 1946 , 155 , 289 ' committee, Internat ionallaboraffairs 170 Jointly foundsIFFTU,290 n, 96 Consumers Divisio Council of Economic Advisers,153 ional Defense,26 Council ofNat –293 ns io ,275 rtdec is . InChronology Cou Current Population Survey,206 Davis, James John (U.S. Secretary of Labor , 1921–30 ), 41-57 > Davis -Bacon(Prevailing Wage) Act ,64, 4 152,283–28 tion seManpower Admi nistra Defen ,173 on,Off lizati DefenseMobi iceof,167 seprogram: Defen Koreanconflict : ymentpra ctices Emplo , recommenda s,171-172 tion ng,177 nttra ini In-pla 9 ities Manpoweractiv ,167–16 'sactivitie s, 123–1 24 rtment Labor Depa ncy tmentof Labor War Emerge Depar Services Act,281 ,200 Titles Dictionary ofOccupational ,207 Directory ofLabor Unions of Doak, WilliamN. (U.S.Secretary Labor , 1930–33 ), 61-68 Durkin ,Martin Patrick (U.S.Secretary of ,1953 ),183 Labor ation Educ ,Office of,172 sident ), ower Eisenh ,DwightD. (U.S.Pre 183,291 300 Employment offices ,public . SeeEmploy mentService ,public . Employment Security ,Bureauof: FarmLaborService ,203 Federal Advisory Council ,171,186 Formation of,147 Transfer toLaborDepartment ,165 Worker-trait studies ,200-201 See alsoEmployment Service , public , mentService andEmploy ,U.S. nt Secu rityRevie w, 185n. Employme ymentService Emplo ,public : Farm labor program, 154 Federal -State system , 154,172,200 Professional workers ,201 Veterans ,172 Seealso Employment Service ,U.S. ,and mentSecuri ty, Bureauof. Employ nt Ser viceSystem Employme c, , The Publi 1933–53 , 185n. t Servi ce,U.S.: Employmen g Reserv e,28,32 Boys 'Workin t, 17-1 ntand deve 9, lopmen blishme Esta 27–29,235-237 on,32–33,46–48 ceDivisi Farm Servi ry Coun al Adv cil, 76 iso Feder t, 48–49 r placemen Junio lic employment off ices Pub , Federal e,75–77 Stat e,28 ceReserv icServi Publ Transfer s of,119,171 Women' s LandArmyprogra m ,28 See als o Employm ent Servic e, publ ic, andEmployment Security ,Bureau of. Employment statistics ,49,64,76 Equalpay: National War LaborBoardrequirin g,27 Women' s Bureaupromotin g,157–1 58 FairLabor StandardsAct of1938: Amendmentsto: 1949,173 1956 ,210 1961 ,227,238,239 ,243 Foreign Service LaborCorps ,221 Frankfurter ,Felix ,25 Goldberg , ArthurJ. (U.S.Secretary of Labor ,1961-62 ),225–250 Governmental Labor Officials , Interna Association of,245 tional ,191 Green,William Relations in -Management GuidetoLabor the UnitedStates , 207 Hard ),41, ing,WarrenG. (U.S.Pre sident 282 Haynes ,George E.,31 Hoar ,George F.(U.S. Congress ),259 Hoover,Herbert(U.S.President ),283 Childlaborprovisions , administration of,114 Hopkins ,JamesH. (U.S. Congress ), 261 Hoursofwork: sion recommended, 213 Coverage, exten Enactment of,106,286 Decrease ,1907–27 ,42 FairLaborStandards Act,106-107 Hoursofwork,maximum,106,107 Standards for ,WorldWar II,132–133 eases,136,173,210– Minimum wageincr 211 Women,standards for ,56–57 Housing ,WorldWar Iworkers ,35 Socia l and economic meaning of, 213– 214 Housing Corporation ,U.S. ,35,43 How American Buying Habits Change ,207 SeealsoWage and HourAct,Wage and Immigration ,Bureau of,5,17,32 Hour Division , and Wage and Hour and PublicContracts Divisions . Immigration and Naturalization , Bureau Farm labor : of,3 Immigration and Naturalization Service , Conditions ,studies of,77 Employment statistics ,fiscal 1959 ,203 Migratory : Problemsof, efforts to resolve , 112, 246 Programs toencourage useof,172 Federal Apprenticeship Act,113 Federal Eight -HourDay Act, 1868 , U.S. , Government laborers and mechanics 94,120-121 Immigration laws ,1906 ,1921 ,17,51 Industrial Brotherhood ,260 Industrial Congress ,260 Industrial disputes . See Conciliation Service . Industrial Housingand Transportation , Bureauof,35 Industri al relation s. See Labor -manage ns. ment relatio Administration , Federal Emergency Relief 78,115 ntCare Infa ,20,92 t of, U.S ., Burea u of efAdministration Interior , Departmen FederalEmergencyReli Laborcreated ,261 Act,284 Affai , TradeUnio n Ad Intern ral Employees' Compensation Act, rs ational Fede visory Committee on,160 216,250 International Association of Industrial s Liabi l Employer lity Federa Act,278,279 Acciden t BoardsandCommissio ns, 110 mental depart eral Inter Fed tyCounc il, Safe 275 110 Serv and Conciliation Mediation Federal ice,148,150 y Agency, 147, 159, 165, al Sec urit Feder 171 Federal Workmen'sCompensat ion,179 Federatio of Organ n izedTradesand In dustria l Unions,260,275 Ford Foundatio n,207 Foreign Service Actof1946 ,220 Intern ationa l Federa tion of Free Trade Unions ,290 irs , staffestab ionalLabor Affa Internat lished ,160 tional Interna Labor uof Af airs ,Burea ,222 alLabor Affair nation s,Of Inter fice of: Activities ,169–170 ,220 Establishment ,148 International LaborOffice ,Children's Bu on,115 reaucooperati 301 Intern ational LaborOrga nizatio n: LaborDepartmen t'srel ationsh , 184, ips 220,221-222 41 ves cti ,140-1 Obje ion liat U.S. affi ,95 U.S.delegation,1941,140 pation ,95,220,221–222 U.S.partici s' Union, 259n. tionalMoulder Interna ,198 JobGuideforYoung Workers c Report, e on theEconomi Joint Committe U.S. Congress ,155,173 Justice ,Department of,U.S. ,121 Kennedy ,JohnF. (U.S.President ),292 Kenyon(William S.) (U.S.Congress ),29 Knights ofLabor ,261,275,276 Koreanconflict . SeeunderDefense pro gram . Labor,Bureauof,U.S. ,4,260–261 Laborbureaus , State , establishment of urged,260 Labor,Departmentof,U.S.: ns,1913 –62 riatio ,296–297 Approp n period ressio , problemsin,61-62 , Dep 96-97 s (Taft ementRelation -Hart LaborManag ley ) Actof1947: Amendments,1959,217 nt,289 Enactme Unionregistration ,219 Labor -Management Reporting and Dis closure(Landrum-Griffin ) Act of 1959: Enactment ,217 New bureau established ,196 ,217 ns,217 Provisio mentRepo rts eau of, , Bur Labor -Manage 217,247,249 Labor movemen t : r Depart AFL-CIO split (1936 ),Labo rtial mentimpa ,86 s,104 naldispute nizatio Orga 06 tus Sta ,new,105–1 WorldWar II,131-132 Laborpolicy ,America's ,72–74 LaborResearch Advisory Council ,233 Labor Standards ,Bureau of: Labor education encou couraged , 156–157 , 175 Policy statement ,Korean conflict ,174 Earlyhistory leading toestablishment , programs Safety : 259–263 Establishment of,3 Expansion : 0,43-44 1919–3 3,166 1949-5 WorldWar I,25 Functio ns,proposa lsforcoordina tionof, 1917,13-15 g,263,269 ioncre atin lat Legis ry,162 Libra Purpose,269 on,147 ati 7 niz –148 –16 ,165 Reorga Scope . Seealso specific bureau of . Labordepartments ,State (Seealso Labor sionof), ds,Bureauofand Divi Standar 111,155–156 s (Wagner y) Act, LaborDispute -Conner 83 Laborforce : 1953–60 ,219 ,156 labordepartments State ,217–219 ,244–246 Services ,155–157 Division ,157,219 UnionRegistration ,132–134 Wartimestandards Welfareand PensionPlansDisclosure Act,196 Youth, employment program policy, 174–175,218–219 Labor Standards,Divisionof: Establishment ,80 ns,109– 112 Functio ntofnationa l istics lishme Laborstat ,estab d,260–261 bureau urge u of,U.S.: tistics ,Burea LaborSta st,1930,50–51 Fields ofintere s, 4-5, 49, 117 Function y,4 Histor ities , al defenseactiv , 117–119 Nation tionof,WorldWar II,128 Coopera –138 Women in,137 ,204,240 Objectives ,87–90 ,230-233 tesof,219 Youthin,estima Statistical series , 49–50 , 206–207 , 231 SeealsoManpower programs. Labor-Management Pol ,Advis icy oryCo m mittee on,227 : Labo r-managemen ions t relat tsin,102– men 104 ove Impr rial nalInd ust Recovery Act,82–85 Natio ng. ivebarga ini lect Col See also 302 172–173 233 Techniques developed,155 ivities 137 War period act ,136, Labor l,63,117 statistics ,genera ns. See Unions Labor unio o , labor; als Labor move ment . Laws,publ ic. Seetitl esofspecific acts . ,115 LeagueofNations National economy ,objectives 1961 ,1962 , slation : Legi 226,230-231 l Ind ustrial Nationa Conference ,36–37 tion , al-Statecoopera ,80–81 Labor,Feder 175-176 Labor,State : nceBoard,26, alConfere nalIndustri Natio 36 Industrial Recovery Act ,78–79 , Federal advisory services , 110–111 , National 217-219 Program recommended ,80 Progress 1959 ,218 Standards reflected in,186–187 82–85 ,284 a ialReco veryAdministr Industr National tion (NIRA),effect onworking condi s,78–80 tion Seealso specific nameofact andsubject NationalLabor Board,82,85 National Labor Relations Act,285, 286 (e.g. ,Unemployment insurance ). Lenroot ,Katherine F.,54n. Lewis ,JohnL.,101 l Labor RelationsBoard: Nationa Establ ishment ,82 Laborelectio ns,85 Locomotive Engineers ,Brotherhood of ,161 -managem son, Labor s,effect Longshoremen , workmen's compensation , entrelation 215-216 Longshoremen's and HarborWorkers ' Compensation Act,216,219,283 103-104 Taft -Hartley Act,asamended1959 ,ad ministration of,217 National LaborUnion ,259,275 Committee ManpowerPolicy ,167 National Safety Amendment ,196 ,219 Mediation Board National ,83 Lubin ,Isador ,87 Authority National Production ,173 Manpower , Automation and Training , National Recovery Act,77 Office of,228,229-230 National Recovery Administration ,78–80 , Manpower Development andTraining Act , 96,115 227,228,229,237 Benefits increased under ,227 Manpowerprograms (See alsoLabor 99 , 197-1 force , 167–169 ,291 burn ,Lloyd A.,264 Mash alwelfare Matern ,90-91 yActof1921,90 nityandInfanc Mater ,191 Meany,George Mediation:15-17 aryof ed by Secret ctionfirst assum Fun Labor,15 n Service iliatio . SeealsoConc onal ation Board ,83 Medi ,Nati ional se,130 Defen Mediation Board ,Nat 's, n, The President n Commissio Mediatio 25 Migratory labor . SeeunderFarmlabor . Minimumwages . Seeunder Wages . Mitchell , JamesP. (U.S.Secretary of Labor ,1953-61 ),191-222 Monthly LaborReview ,19 Morse ,David A.,264,290 Murch[ThompsonHenry ] U.S.Congress , 261 Murray,Phi ,191 lip Natio ren nal App tic eshi ger ) p (Fitz ald Act,285-286 e onLaborLegislat ion National Conferenc , 109–110 , 112 , 134-135 National DefenseMediation Board,130 ional Reemployment Se e,75, 119 Nat rvic ty Resources Board, 173 ional Securi Nat National Union ofMiners, 3 ionBoard, 148 at liz bi National Wage Sta , 173 National War Labor Board: WorldWar I,26,36 WorldWar II, 130-131 , 135, 144 Naturalization ,Bureau of,7 Naturalization Service ,121 NegroEconomics ,Division of,31 Nolan[JohnI. ) (U.S. Congress ),29 Occupational Outlook Handbook ,198 Occupational Outlook Quarterly ,198 Occupational Outlook Service ,118 Office listing namesof of. (Forentries fice of , seekey wordin title .) r work ers,111,176,198 Olde talExclu sionAct(1882 Orien ),51 th,65 ldCongress ,Six Chi PanAmerican s (U.S. aryofLabor s,France Secret Perkin , > 1933–45 ),71-98 > Personnel ,LaborDepartment ,U.S.: 1913,staff total ,3 Officials , administrative , 1913-62 , 264– 268 Orientat ionand trainin g,196 Statistics ,1913-62 ,294–295 Portal -to-Portal Act,151 303 Powderly ,Terence V.,19,261-262 Prenatal Care ,20,92 Roosevelt , Franklin D. (U.S.President ), 71,284 President's Commissionon the Statusof Women ,243 Roosevelt, Theodore (U.S. President), ymentof nt'sCommit teeon Emplo Preside thePhysically Handicapped ,172 y programs. See underLaborStand Safet ards ,Bureau of. Schwellenbach , LewisB. (U.S.Secretary ofLabor ,1945-48 ),147-162 Secretary ofLabor ,Office ofthe ,i,7,160 President's Conference o n Industrial ty,174 Safe al tion ce on Occ upa ren 's Confe dent Presi h),245 (Eight Safety ion iceof,136 nistrat , Off Admi Price on,Office ilizati of,173 Price Stab onManag ement,Office of,113 Producti racts Cont (Walsh-Healey)Act: Public ent Enactm ,285 esimprove d,97 rtuniti Joboppo ners Minors' andlear 'exemptiontermi ed,151 nat ng t eff ecti lic e riseinKorean conf Pric administration of,173-174 Purposes andprovisions ,95 Public Contracts Board ,108 Public Contracts ,Division of: Consolidation withWage andHourDi n,135 visio ns,108 sio Minimumwagedeci Seealso Wage andHourDivision . employment Public offices . See Employ mentService ,public . Public worksprojects ,76 Brotherhoods Railroad , 36, 170 Railroad Retirement Act,285 Railroad Trainmen ,Brotherhood of ,161 Railway Executives Association ,161 Railway LaborAct,83 Reconversion ,post WorldWar II: Employment : Probable effects on andrecommenda tions ,141-143 erans Vet ,154 nt, chan ges recom Labor Departme mended,143,144 Shipbuilding industry ,150 Women workers ,157 Workeradjustment to,148–149 ,153 Reemployment rights ,veterans '. See Vet erans 'Reemployment Rights ,Bureau of. Reorganization PlanNo.6 of1950 , 166– 167 n Planof1946 izatio Reorgan ,159 ngandReem ent Admini ploym s Retraini ion,148 trat Reuther,Walter,191 Revenue Actof1919,281 304 262,277 Succession GeneralOrderNo.86,274 Selective Service System ,166 ,173 Selective Training andService Act,287 Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee ,148 Smith-Mundt Act,289 Social Security Act: welfare for ,91 ,significance Child , 78, Bureauresponsibilities Children's 91 Constitutionality ,286 Enactment , 285 Program under ,78 Social Security Board ,119,120,154 Solicitor ofLabor ,Office ofthe ,152 State ,Department of,U.S.: Foreignlaborprogram , development withLaborDepartment ,170 ,220–221 Laborattaché program ,170,220–221 State labor departments . SeeLaborde partments,State. Strikes : Prevention of. SeeConciliation Service . Sit -down strike , first , 86n. Volume ,1937 ,86 Sugar Act,284 Sylvis ,WilliamH.,259 Taft , William Howard (U.S.President ), 26,263 Temporary ExtendedUnemploymentCo m onActof1961,227 pensati Tobin , MauriceJ. (U.S. Sec retaryof Labor,1948–53 ), 165-179 TradeAgreemen tsAct,170 TradeExpa Act ,228 nsion andLa . SeeUnio Tradeunions ns,labor bor movement . Trainin g and Dilution Servic e,33-34 Transp ortati on, World War I workers , 35 Truma n ,HarryS. (U.S. Presi ),288 dent Unemplo yment : Economic depression (1932 ),62 Machine introduction affecting ,42–43 See alsoEmployment ; Unemployment insurance . Unemployment insurance ,77–78 Adminis tratio n and eff ects , 119-12 0, 208–210 extended ,209 Benefit duration ,Monthly Release ,U.S.De Unemployment tsofLaborandCommerce ,206 partmen emsinre oyment tistics ,probl sta Unempl ting por ,76 or: Unions,lab ision : WageandHourDiv actsDi. ationwith PublicContr Consolid on,135 visi FairLabor StandardsAct,106-107 ctsDivisionand See alsoPublicContra ts icContrac Wage andHour andPubl Divisi ons. Wageearn ers: Welfar e of,Depar tmentofLabo r cre Leadership training ,156–157 ated for ,11,269 . War production program , cooperation SeealsoLaborforce in, 131-132 Wage Stabilization Act,288 WageStabilization Board (s),148 ,173 asein World Women members, incre Wages: War II,138 SeealsoLabormovement. UnitedAssociation of Journeymen and Minimum : FairLaborStandards Actproviding for ,106-107 Apprentices ofthePlumbing andPipe Fitting Industry ,183,191 es in, 136 Increas , 151 ,210,213-214 , UnitedMine Workers: FormsCIO,101 Jointly founds IFFTU,290 UnitedNations 'Commissionon theStatus ofWome n ,158 Unite d Natio ns Commission on Human hts Rig ,158 es Chamber of Commerce, 36, United Stat 212 Employme . See Unite d States nt Service Employment Service ,U.S. UnitedStates BoardofMediation : LaborDepar tmentrelations hip ,45n. Natio nalMediation Boardsup ersedi ng, 83 UnitedStates Training Service , 38 290 Prevailing ,Government contracts , 108 , 152 Wagner,RobertF.(U.S . Congres s),82 Wagner-Pey serAct: Employment serv icesprovi ded, 75–76, 97 Enactment of,63,284 Wallace ,Henry ,165 Walsh,FrankP.,26 War (WorldWar I),Labor Departme nt ionduri ng,25 expans ent War (WorldWar II),LaborDepartm 9 tivities ac ,127-12 n,25-26 tratio War LaborAdminis nalWar La War LaborBoard. See Natio bor Board. University of Pennsylvania , Wharton War LaborDisputes Act,288 SchoolofFinan ce,207 Vacat ions , war (WorldWar II) produc tion pla nts ,134 VanBuren,Martin (U.S.Pre side nt),275 Van Kleeck,Mary,31 Veterans. SeeunderEmployment Servi ce, public . Veterans Employment Service ,172 Veterans Rights ' Reemployment , Bureau of: ,161 Program andpolic ,178 ,188 yof Transfe r toLabo r Departmen t,148 ,161 WageAdju Board ,148 stment ,152 Wage andHour Act. (SeealsoFai r La bor Standar ds Act.) 96, 97 Wage and Hour and Pub Di. licCont racts visions ,151,210,238 (Seealso Wage andHourDivision .) War LaborPolicies Board ,29-30 War ManpowerAdministration ,113 War ManpowerCommission : etran sferred tice ining Servic Appren -Tra to, 159 LaborDepartmen t cooper ation ,129,130 War Productio n Board,129,130,135 Weaver, Genera l [James Baird ] (U.S. ss),262 Congre on Plans Welfareand Pensi e of,228, ,Offic 247 Welfar e and Pensio n Plans Disclosu re Act : Adminis tratio n of, 196 Amendments to,227,246 Enactment ,219,292 West,Mrs.Max ,20 White HouseConference on ChildHealth andProtection ,65,115 3 05 of , WilliamB. (U.S.Secretary Wilson Labor ,1913–21 ),3–38 Wilson ,Woodrow(U.S. President ),3 Wirtz , W. Willard (U.S.Secretary ofLa bor, 1962- ), 253–258 Woman inIndustry Service , 30–31 Wome n workers: oymentproblems Married , empl , 67–68 , 92 es,157,176,205 tuschang Sta ntials ,92-93 Wage differe 1 WorldWar I,30–3 WorldWar II,116–117 SeealsoWomen's Bureau. Women's Bureau : 5 ms,54–57 ,204–20 Progra WorldWar II,137–138 Seealso Women workers . Women'sIndustrial Conference ,55 Work HoursAct,227 Workertraining : m ,prom otion Progra of,184–185 War plants (WorldWar I),33-34 Working conditions : Improvements underNational Industrial yAct,78–79 Recover dardsfor, 56–57 Women, stan See alsoChildlabor. ,34–35 Conditions Service Working ,Federal : compensation Workmen's Assistant Secretary ofLabor ,legislation Coverage , 178–179 , 214 , 215 ,216 ,250 ngfor providi ,240 ent stand ards , women, 1918– Employm 28, 56 ent,31 ishm abl Est ce,241–242 Field for tespromoting, tivi Minimum wages, ac 56, 93–94 ,204 n,215– 216,219 horeme Longs n,Stat en'scomp ensatio e,111-1 12, Workm 5, 218 214-21 t ; Labor Youth . See under Employmen ds, Bureauof. Standar al,82,113 ion,Nation nistrat YouthAdmi 13137 'duq 2191 16910 Tra il 881 . får 819 tu :: T 536V 05 iv .?) 306 1 1 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 3 9015 00935 9 9 54 Thisvolumecompiled andedited by Dr.O.L.Harvey , Chief of Publications , U.S.Department ofLabor(now retired ),withthe assistance ofSylvia G.Miller ,Roger Sheldon ,Joseph R. Judge , DennisChurch ,and JohnW. Leslie . Layout andillustrations by JohnJ.Kennelly ,Chief ofVisual Services , andRichard Mathews . LA ES TAT DEPARTMENT O BO S F R ED IT UN DI TH GN E I13 19T 50 Y ET I C SO 1963 EE AFR YEARS OF PROGRESS OF LAB O R IN A