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32d CONGRESS,

'

'•2d Session.

[SENATE.]

A5'£i

^

,

Ex. DOG.

•

No. 22.

REPORT

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY,
' '

•"

O N

'

The state of the Finances.
JANUARY 20, 1853.—Referred to the Committee on Finance^—except somuch thereof as re^
lates to light-houses and marine hospitals, which is referred to the Committee on Commerce—and 10,000 copies in addition to the usual number, ordered to be printed; 500 of
which for the use of the Light-house Board.
.
FEBRUARY 8, lSb3.—Ordered, That 1,250 additional copies of that part of the Report of the
Secretary of the Treasury relating to the fisheries be printed for the use of the Senate, 250
of which for the author of tlie report.
;

':
TREASURY D E P A R T M E N T , Ja?iwari/15, 1853
The Secretary of the Treasury reports :
RECEIPTS AND EXI^ENDITUI^ES. -

The receipts for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852, were—•
From customs
»_ »
. . . . $47,339,326 62
"From public l a n d s . . .
..' 2,043,239 .58
From miscellaneous sources
J. —
345,820 69
: .• ,
.
Add balance in the treasury Juty 1, 1851

• 49,728,386 89
10,911,645 68"

The expenditures for the same fiscal j^^ear were

..

Leaving a balance in the treasury July 1, 1852

60,640,032 57
46,007,896 20
14,632,136 37^:

(As appears in detail by accompanying statement A.)
ESTIMATES.

\

The estimated receipts and. expenditures for the fiscal year ending
June 30, 1853, are—
'
.
Receipts from customs 1st quarter, by
.
'
< actual returns
$15,728,992 25'
Receipts from customs 2d, 3d,, and
4th quarters, as e s t i m a t e d . . . . . . . . 33,271,007 75
'
-$49,000,000 00
Receipts fiom public lands
'. - . , V . . . .
2,000,000 00
Receipts from miscellaneous sources
------ 300,000 00
Total receipts.
Add balance in the treasury July 1,1852
Total means, as estimated . ,




L .
......

51,300,000 00
14,632,136 37

. . . . . . . a...

65,932,136 37

S. ,Doc. 2 ^ . ,

2

Expenditures, viz:
. >J .^
The actual expenditures for the.qoar' ter ending Sept. 30, 1852, w e r e . . . $13^440,587 m
(As appears; by accompanying
gtaternentB,).
.
The estimated expenditures duririg the other three quarters, from Oclober
1, 1852, to June 30, 1853, are-r—
;
Civil list, foreign intercourse, and mis. '
. cellaneous . . . . . . .
13,214,330 17
Expenses of collecting the revenue
from c u s t o m s . . . ,
...........
1,575,000 00
Expenses of collecting the revenue
/
fi-om l a n d s - . . . . . . - . '
.-...'..
192,646 28
Army proper, &c. 8,689,530 2 1 .
Fortifications, ordnance, arming mili^
tia,:&c...
.^.-......,........ .
705,620 18
Internal improvements, &c.
1,318,963 77
Indian department
,\....
1,973,313 50
Pensions . . . . . . . .
1,070,686 53
Naval establishment, including dry-'
docks and ocean steam mail conUacts.^.......:...-.:..........
7,454,300-66
Interest on the pubfic debt.
3,725,600 10
Redemption of stock'of the loan of '
1843
: ..
5,922,931 35
Purchase of stock of the loan of 1847.
1,276,546 42
$60,560^056 86
Leaving an estimated "unappropriated balance in jthe .
treasury July 1, 1853, of
5,372,079 51
This balance, it will be observed,, exists after the application of
$7,199;477 77 to the redemption of the public debt.
The estimated receipts; arid expenditures for the fiscal yea:r commencing July 1, 1853, and ending, June 30, 1854, are-^
\r
Receipts frorii customs... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . $49,00,0,000 00
Receipts from public lands
:.....
5,000,0.00 00
Receipts from miscellaneous sources.
,
206,000 00
Total estimated receipts . . . : , . .
...
51,200,000 00
Add estimated balance in the treasury July 1,1853.." '. 5,372,079 51
' Total means as estimated.

:-.---

56,572,079. 51

The.expenditures for the same period, a.s estimated by the several
Departments o:f State, Treasury, Interior, War, and Nayy, tod Postmaster General, are—
. ^
Balances of former appropriations which will be required to be expended this y e a r , . . . . . . . - . _ . „ . . . . $6,879,883 28



•',

S. Doc.-' 2 2 ; .

..

•

3.

. Permanent arid mdefinite appropriations . . . . . . . i , L '$9jl72j829 68
Specific appropiiatidns asked for this year./, . i . . . . .1 30,151,040 64
' ,

T o t a l : . - . . . / . v . ^ . . . w ; . < - i . : ^ : , - : . . . : . . . . . . / .46^^

60

This sum is composed of the following particulars, viz:
Civil list, foreign intercourse, and miscellaneous.,.-.. $11,213,430
Expenses of collecting revenue from c u s t o m s . . . , . i . .
2,1()(),00()
Expenses of collecting revenue from lands .
. . . . . ;^, 204,520
Army proper, & c . . . . . , . - - . . . . . - . . . .> . . . . . . . . . . .
9,311,808
Fortifications, ordnance, arming militia, " f e e . . . . . . . .
2,191,647
Internal.improvemerits, &c.
.
...•.....>
v
895,205
Indian depaitmerit . - - . - , . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .^ . .
'.....
1,612,137
Pensions . . . . . . w . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
............
2>023,512
Naval'establishment,'including .dry-docks and ocean'
^
steam mail contracts... — . . . . - ' . - . . . . .
12,664,222
Interest on pubfic debt . . . >.
:...
3,400,638
Purchase of stock of the loan of 1 8 4 7 ; . . , , - . - -> . . .
586,631
, '

74
00
00
64
48
70
45.
00
fid
54
00

46,203,753 60

Leaving an estimated balance in the treasury July 1,
1854, of . . . . . . ; .
$10,368,325 91
X It will be seen, by reference to the foregoing statement, that the total '
cash receipts and means in the treasury for the year ending on the 30th
June, 1852, ^vere $60,640,032 57, Ojf >vhich there were received
from customs,..$47,339,326 62; from larids and miscellaneous sources,
$2,389,060 2 7 ; and a balance in the treasury at the commencement- of
the year of $10,911,645 68.
^
.'
' ;
The expenditures for the same period were $46,007,896 20, which.
includes trie following pa;ymeats on account of the public debt, viz: '
For interest, including that on $5,000,000 of 5 per cent.. : •
stock issued to T e x a s . . . . . . . . . . - : . . . . . .
. . . - . $4,006,297 80
For the redemption of the principal of various loans
1,986,1§0 66
Reimbursement of revolutionary d e b t . . .
.... .0... .
1,460 31
Reimbursement of outstariding treasury riotes V — . . . .
300 00
Reimbursement of stock for the fouitli aiul; fifth instalmerit'of the'Mexican i n d e m n i t y . . . . - - - - - . . , . - . . . ^ .
287,596 7(>
, ". . • •' Total . • . . . .--.^...... .• - . ' ; . .^V.'. •-. •-. ..- - ^ -.,.-'•.. • 6,275,815 5a-.
. Besides which there v^as paid the iristalmerit o f t h e
' .,;^='
.'debt cf thccities of the District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ' 60;p00 00-'
The last iristalment due to Mexico under the treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . - . . .
3,18a,OO0 00 >
Awards to American citizens under the same t i ' e a t y . . . .
521,980 78 ^
Making a total of . . . .
.'. . . . . . . . . 10,045,79.6 31.
' included in the expenditures of the last fiscal year on account of the


S. Doc. 22.

4

principal and interest, of the funded and unfunded public debt,
which, ' deducted Irom IheV above sum, reduces the"expeiiditure to
$35,962,099 89.
-'
From this latter .sum,, however, .may, be still further, deducted the following.; items, which form no portion of the regular expenses ofthe government, viz;
Repayment to importers of the excess of deposites on
unascertained duties.
..,. ^ . . .
$846,918 86
Repayment of drawbacks, allowances for damages, on
,
imported merchandise^ fishing bounties, & c . . . . .
.544,452 ,38
Refunding duties under the aet.of 8th-August, 1846..-.
138,08,6 41
Refunding duties under the decisions of the Supreme
Court, acquiesced in by the department.
.... .
. 221,9.85 87
Debentures and other charges refurKled under various
. acts of C o n g r e s s . . . . . . : . . . . . . . : . : . . . . .
113,307; TjS
A still further reduction may be rriade for the ocean mail
servfce, which more • properly belongs to the Post
.
OfficeDepartment, therevenue and expenditures of
which are entirely distinct from the general expenses
•
of the goverriment, and which: departnient collects all
the revenue from this ocean mail service.
^ 865,555 55
The experises attending the sevisnth census is an expenditure accruing only once every ten years, and the
amount under this head in the expenditures of the
.
last year is . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . ' . . . .
. 54.7,385 02
Making together . , . . . . . . , . . , .
....;
: . . . 3,277,691 82
Ifto this are added the expenses of collecting the revenue
; .
fromcustoms and lands, which,, previous to the year . \
,
1849, were deducted from the gross receipts,'and the
net revenue only paid into the treasury, but which
formitems of expenditure during the last year to the.
extent of L . . . .^.'...
................,..:..
2,240,715 38
There wiU be altogether;... •..-

. . . . . . . . : . . : .5^527^07, 20

..Which, rdeducted from the preceding sum of $35,962,099 89, would
leave $30,434,692 69 as the regiilar and ordinary, includirig,some considerable items of extraordinary,^expenditures of the government for the
last fiscal year. .
'
.
.
'
I t wall be observed that the whole ambunt of the last instalment to
Mexico IS included in the expenditure qf the year; but the sum of
$66,465^ 42 has since been refunded into, the treasury, arid will appear
- in the miscellaneous receipts for the current fiscalyear, being the profit
accruliig to the Uriited States from gain in exchange, in consequence of
the saifimstalmerit having been paid iri. the City of Mexico.
.. The balance remaining in the treasury on the 1st'of July, 1852^ it
will lie seen, was $14,632,1^6 37.
; '^
i
' By iithe last annual report from this department, the estimated total
receipts and means from aU sources for the year ending 30th June,



S. Doc 22.

5

1852, were $62,411,645 68. The estimated total expenditures for the
same period were $50,952,909 59; leaving an estimated unappropriated balance in the treasury on the 1st of July last of $11,458,743 Q^.
The actual balance in the treasury at that date was
F r o m . w h i c h d e d u c i the balance of appropriations
already made for the sanie fiscal year undrawn,
but subject to draft, on the 1st of July last, o f . . . .
T o the payment of which the • actual balance In the
treasury on that date of $14,632^136 37 was fiable, and the actual unap2:)rop7'iat€d halance in the
treasury on the 1st of July last w a s . . . . . . . . . . .

$14,632,136 37
.•
6,108,315 48

8,523,820 89

The estimated riscelpts for the current fiscal "year, as submitted in
becember, 1851, were $51,800,000 00: The actual receipts, so far as
returns have been received, for the five months ending.the 30lh November, being $22,220,299 20, iridic ate- the then estimates of receipts to
have been nearly correct.
The then estimated expenditures, as submitted to Congress, for the,
current fiscal year were $42,892,299 19; and the unappropriated
balance in the treasury on the/1st July, 1853, provided no additional
appropriations beyond the estimates then submitted should be rriade
by Congress, was estimated at $20,366,443. Congress, however, in
its appropriations,'exceeded the estimates submitted by.this department
(including provision' for ariy deficiency iri the income of the post office
in consequence of the reduction in the - rates of postage) about ten
millions of dollars.
'
. \
The actual expenditures for thc current fiscal year, as appropriated
and authorized by' Congress, (excluslvie of the sunii, to h e applied to the
redemptlpn of the public debt,) therefore .amount to $53,360,579 09,
in place of $42,892,299 19, as estimated by the department; and the
balance in the treasury at the end ofthe current fiscal year is estimated
at $5,372,079 51, after allowing the sum of ;S7,199,477 77, as applicable tothe redemption of the pubhc debt.
This, however, it iriust be observed, is the unappro'priated, and not the
actual balance which will be in the treasury at the'date specified. -The
actual balance undriawn at that date, provided Corigress creates no unexpected demands upon the treasury to be liquidated prior to July.next,
may be estimated at about $10,O'O0,000, after having redeemed, during
the yearjmorelhan $7^000,000 of the debt.
;
;^
For the fiscal y^ar ending on the 30th of June, 1854, the total receipts
are estimated at $51,200,000, which, with the estimated balance in the
treasury on. the I s t of July next, will give as the estimated total rneans
for the year the 3um of $56,572,079 51. ' .
;,
The estimated total experiditures for that period are $46,203,753 60;
leaving an estiniated unapprbpriated balance iri the treasiiry ori the 1st of
July, 1854, pf ,$10,368,325 91, without other deduction from the available rrieans of the year, towards the reduction of the public debt, except
the sum of $586,631 for the purchase from the land fund of the loan of
1847., :.•
i \
/^
• ^• •
•...,;'" •:



S. Doc. 22.
PUBLIC

DEBT.

. The pubfic :debt on the 20th November,, 1851, was.$62,560,395 26,
exclusive of the stock authorized to be delivered to Texas b y act of
Congress of 9th September, 1850, amounting to $10,000,00,0, of which
.$5,000,000 of cerfificates were ready and awaiting the deniand of that
State at the date of my last annual report. That apiqunt has. since been
delivered to the authorizedagent of the State of Texas; thus increasirig
the aggregate registered debt to $67,560,395 26. The following reduc-,
tions have beeri made since the last annual exhl.tiit of the public debt,
up to'the 1st January:
;
.
. . .
On accqurit of the debt of.the District cities,.> . . . . . . : .
$60,000 00.
On account of the old funded and unfunded d e b t . . . - . . .
2,143 39;
On account .of the loaii pf 1 8 4 3 . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 1,711,400- 00;
On account of the loan of 18,46 . . . . . ; . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 9 74,
Ori account ofthe loa.h qf 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . , :^,.......;
650,100 OOi
Qn account .of the loan .of 1848 ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 5,^00, 00
Treasury notes paid in specie or receiyed as s u c h . . . .
50 00
Making a total o f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , - . . . . .

2,428,703 13;

, The public debt on t h e 1st January, 1853, was $65,131,692 13, (as
per statement E,) exclusive of the rerpaining $5,0b0,t)00 dehverable,
to Texas under the act of ,9th.Septeniber, 1850, when the provisions of
that la>y are fully complied with.
Sirice the above date, an additional amount ofthe public debt has been
redeemed, to the extent of about $250,000. •
'•'''- ^ .
- '
The department possesses no authorItyto.purchase,at arateabove par
value, any portion of,the 6 per cent. loan.of 1,847, and which is drily
redeemable in 1867, except to the extent qf what balance may, remain in
the treasury frorri the receipts from the sale'qf public lands, after thein-.
terest on that loan has first been paid from such receipts. As the amountof that stock forms so^large a portion of the public debt, it would be de-'
sirable that Congress should remove that restriction by authorizing.its
purchase at the current market .value. By'thus giving a rnore extended'
scope to the applicatlGn of any surplus funds Inthe treasury for the purcha;"se of the public debt,it w.ould-probably enable the department to
prqcure it on more favorable tei ms.
'
,
^ : . ' .'
Some doubts have existed as to the direct and positive authority of the
departinent to purchase some ofthe other stocks at rates, abqvethe.ir*pctr^
value; and in order to remove all uncertainty on the subject, I would,
recommend that express authority should be vested inlhe department to
purchase, at its discretion, at their current; market vahie, any,portion of
the existing public debt, to. the extent of any surplus means on hand,! provided the available balance in the treasury should never be reduced
below five millions of dollars.
' .
. .
'."."•

. •' W A . Y S ' A N p

MEANS.

'

•

'The receipts from duties on foreign merchandise for the last fiscal'
year exhibit a decrease, as compared with the preceding year, of



Si Doc. 22.

7

$1,678,241 30, This is deemed but a temporary decline of the receipts from that source, while it shows how unstable is the reliance
placed upon the large -amounts which in' times of high prosperity are
expqcted from that branch of the revenue.
^
'
The slightest disturbing causes felt iri the channels of trade at once
unfavorably affect the treasury; so any favorable Impetus given to
comnierce, from causes often accidental, tends for the time to a sud(?cen
expansion of its revenues, ^Thls Is observable'to sorne extent In the
receipts from duties on foreign goods for the periods above meritloned.
The acquisition of our new territories on the Pacific, followed by the
developnient of their immense inineral resources, gave a corresponding
extended basis for commercialopera:tions. The sudden.drain of foreign
merchandise from the Atlantic ports to the Pacific left a vacuum to
be filled b}^ fresh and larger impoitations of foreign dutiable goods—
which, of course, was followed by a cqrresponding increase of receipts
into the national treasuryi
T h e repeated and disastrous conflagrations at the principal port of the
Pacific, destroying millions of property in foreign goods, tended to a
still further increase of foreign importations. The channel'^ of trade,
however, having once more accommodated themselves toihese new
circumstances, w e find a gradual diminution in the year of nearly
$2,00.0,000. A new discovery of mineral wealth, though- not within
the boundaries of oui: own country, yet within the reach of its enter
prise,' is followed by increased buoyancy in trade, and a corresponding
increase in the revenues arising from it. By referring to my former
annual reports, the" views of this department may be found, somewhat
in detail, of the results which, in my opinion, may be expected to flow,
sooner or later, from a legislation which tends so injuriously to affect,
if not to a great exterit destroy, "some of the prominent manufacturing
interests of the ^country, by giving to the foreign producer the control'
of the supplies of our home market. ' The iron interest was cited to
show the effect, of permitting, the surplus foreign productions, iri all
their various stages of manufacture, to be thrown upon our markets at
almost nominal prices, and consequently upon the payment of comparatively nominal duties. Iniportatlons of bar, pig, and other iron!
for the year ending June 30,-1845,' were 102,723 tons,' producing duties
amounting. to?$l,794,784 ;, and for the year ending June,30, 1852,; the
imports were 435,149 tons,, producing duties amounting to $3,272,812v
Thus it is seen that, while the quantity imported has increased about
four and a quarter times over that of 1845, the aggregate duties received are less than/double the amount received from that source in
1845—and that, too, under a heavier rate qf duty at the latter period.
This enorriious increase in the importations of iron, at prices so far.
below the fair or usual cost of production, both here and abroad, while
it produced no corresponding benefit to the treasury, destroyed, in a
.good degree, the competition of our own producer and manufacturer.
The result then foretold is now partially realized. .The foreign producer, by a reductipn of prices on his part, and qf duties on our part,;
havirig possessed himself of the control of pur market,'raises the prices
ofiron,. it is believed^ beyond the remunerating point, and certainly




8

S. Doc. 22.

far be}^ond the rates ruling during the period of the late hopeless struggle
of our own manufacturer to sustain himself.
.
^ The effects of this state of things are felt, in the very large increase
of duties consequent upon the suddenly enhanced prices of iron, which
niust be paid by our consumers, and with the most unfavorable influences upon pur numerous railroad enterprises now in progress;.while
i t i s attended with no, corresponding benefit to those whose capital,
embarked in this branch of manufacture, has been totally, lost. On the
other hand, by this rise in the prices of iron, it may be expected that a
new stimulus will be given to that branch of American labor, which
rnay a.gain be met by similar-consequences when it shaU have become
a formidable competitor with the foreign-producer, ending in a d©.structive reductipn In price and a redundant supply..
While the foreign cornriierce of the country and the forelgii market
for its prpductions are undoubtedly of great importance, yet they both
probably receive an undue share of consideration; for they respectively
sink into relative insignificance when compared with our internal and
coastwise commerce, and with the home market.
' There are no records which will enable the department to give the
correct amount of our internal and coastwise trade. But some idea may
be formed of its vast extent when it is recpllected thai the annual value
ofthe agriculturaLl, mineral, and manufacturingprdductions ofthe country Is noteless than three thousand millions of dollars, ($3,000,000,000,)
as shown by the statistical returns of. the late census—ra large portion
of which is transported by, river, canal, or coasting yessels, or on rail-^
roads, and which, in the course of trade, changes hands several times
before reaching the domestic consumer, making, in the aggregate, an
amount of traffic counting, by thousands of rnillions; w;hire the whole
amount shipped to foreign countries Is. but $150,000,000—being only
one-twentieth'^art of the, entire production of the country which thus
finds an outlet i n foreign markets. ,
, ' .
The single article of coal annually transported coastwise, and in
canal boats or on railroads, is of sufficient bulk to, furnish full cargoes
for four times the quantity of all the American tonnage employed in
foreign commerce, and probably affords the. means of livelihood to.;a
greater number of persons thari the latter.
.
\
The coastwise trade to and from the American ports in the Gulf of
Mexico Is of itself probably nearly equal, iii poirit of value, to the' entire export of American prdduction to foreign nations.:
A striking difference between thefinagriitude;and importance.of the
home market and the foreign one is' to-be found i n t h e statistics of
exports of what is familiarly called, the famine year of 1847. There
was some difficulty at the time in procuring sufficient shipping, including
bpth American^ and foreign j to convey our breadstuffs to the famishing
nations of Eurppe.; and yet our entire exports during that year of the
two principal articles of food, Indian corn (maize) and fiour, were only
abput three per cent, of the forrner, and-about ten per cent, of the
latter, cjstlmated on the whqle crop produced In the United States,
leaving ninety-seven per cent, of the Indian corn, and ninety per cent,
of the wheat crop, for the supply of the home market, where it was
actually consumed. Our exports of breadstuffs at present are Only .



S; Doc. 22.

9

about one-third of what they were during the above year of unusual
demand—exhibiting, in a still more striking cpntrast, the immense difference'betvv^een the home and foreign markets, in favor of; the former.
The mere tolls .collected by the canals and railroads^ on the transpdrtatlpn of merchandise, for the internal trade of the country exceed
in amourit the total value of all the breadstuffs purchased froni us by
foreign nations.
.
The annual value of the crop of Indian corn;' of wheat, and of hay,
each respectively, is fully, equal to the entire value of our prpductions
exported to" foreign' couritiies. The annual amount of the. manufa'ctures
in the States of New York and Penrisylyania, or in either of .those
States, greatly exceeds the value of such exports;' ,and eyeri those ol
the comparatively sniall State qf Massachusetts are fully equal to all the
productions of the country consumed by,foreign nations.
The latter State probably consumes breadstuffs that are produced in
theiriiddle and western'States to'a-greater amount than is shipped to^
all Europe, v(^ith the great additional advantage of this being a regular
and uniform demand, not deperidlng on European crops or the caprices
of fbreigri goyerriihents in the regulation of their commerce and the
assessment of arbitrary and ever-varying duties, according to their own
actuafwants and circumstances. "Yet all these immense agricultural,
rrilneral, and manufacturing interests, "which are almost exclusively
connected with the internal trade of the country and the home market,
receive greatly less attention and consideration fiorii; the community
than the coriiparatively small amount of our foreign commerce.
- My views of the beneficial results which would follow a tariff with
fixed and reliable, rather than with sliding and consequently uncertain,
rates of duties, have undergone n c change. I now recur to them as a
duty imposed upon me by the/ acts establishing the Treasury Departrrierit.
,;
,
• :
•
The importations of foreign merchandise (table H) for the fiscal
year ending 30tli June last amounted to $207,109,738.
The exports for the sam^e peripd were—
•
Of dpmestic merchandise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . -. - . . . . $154,930,447
Foreign merchandise re-exported
. " . . . . . . . L . . . . . . , 12,037,043
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Total e x p o r t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

1.66,967,490

The imports of specie . during the same, period \Were $5,503,544;
and the exports of the same, $42,674,135.
^
In tpbaccP, (table S,) the exports-show an Increase In quantity oi
41,152 hogsheads, and in value ;of $812,032-—having been in 1851
. 95,945 hogsheads,, valued at $9,219,251 ,• 1852, 137,097 hogsheads,
yalued at $10,031,283. .
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The exports of rice were 119,733 tierces, valued at $2,470,029-—
being ari increase in.quantity of 14,143 tierces, and in value of $299,102.,
as compared with the previous year.
.' The exports of breadstuffs and provisions amourited to ,$25,856,337,
belng.ari.iricrease of $3,907,686.
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v. The a;ggregate exports of domestic merchandise show a decrease^ as
cbnipared with the previous year, of $24,349,585.



S. Doc. 22.

10

The exports pf specie show an Increase of $13,201,383, and an,.
excess of exportatiori over irnportation of $37,170,591. (See table K.)
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M I N T . .

The operations of the mint—particularly at Phila.delphia, at which
point the greater portion of all gold dust and- bullion concentrates for,
assay and coinage—have been conducted with a remarkable degree of
promptness and despatch, such as tp remove all cause of complaiint on
the part of depositors, notwithstanding the enormous amounts of gold
dust which have been" and still continue to be received at that institu-:
tion.;,

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The coinage at the mint for the' year ending 31st JDecember, 1852,
was as follows:
Gold, 6,094,765 pieces, of the, valueof . . . . . . . . , , , . . . ,:$51,505,638 50-;
Silyer,. 27,549,505 pieces, of the value of . . . . . : . . . . : . 847,310 00
Copper, 5,162,094 pieces, ofthe value of . . . . • . . . . . . .
51,620 94
Total............ ....... i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . .
52,404,569 44
The full returns for the last quarter of the year have notbeen receivedfrom the branch mints; but the probable amount of their-coinage will
be about $4,700,000, of which the proportion o f t h e branch mint at
New Orleans will be. $3,800,000, arid the reriiainder about equally
divided between the branch at Charlotte, North Carolina, and Dahlonega, Georgia. ,
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In accordance with the act of last session, proposals. have been invited by public advertisements, bpth here and in Califbrnia, for the
erectiqn of a mint at San Francisco, m accordance withv.plans prepared
with great care under the direc tiori pf this department.' I, however,
have great doubts whether any proposals will or can be made for the
erectipn of a suitable building, arid the supply ofthe needful machinery,
for the sum of $300,000, to which amourit Congress has restricted the
expenditure, including both these objects. Even, hov^ever, should pro- •
posals be n:i;ade which would be satisfactpry and could be acceptedb}^ the department, no' progress could be made with the wprk until
Congress authorizes i h e purchase of a site, and makes the needful' ap-""
prop riation therefor, as, from the best informatipn now in possession of
the department, none of the, public reserves in that city affbrd proper
and elegible Ipcations for this building.,
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:
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By the act of the 30th September, 1850, rnaking appropriations for
the civil and diplomatic expenses ofthe government for the year end-.
ing 3:0th June,. 1851, Congress" authorized the appointment of a United?
States assayer for California, arid directed a.contract to be riiade by
this department with the. proprietprs of some well-esta:blished assayirig
works for assaying gold and formingit intp bars and ingots, under the
supervision of the assayer. A contract was concluded,^and ample secu- •
rity required for its faithful |)erformance; and the cohtractors were lim-,
ited in their charges for the services rendered by them to the rate fixed
by thejegislature of California in establishing a State, assay office.
The department was induced,'with a. view to furnish, so far as it had
the power, a,safe andiconvenient.,currency to the people of Galifornia,.;



a Doc, 22.

II

tp authprize the receliit of the issues of the assay office thus established for.public.dues, especially as they have all the essential .requisites
of coin, and as this was believed to be thp object of Congress. "
Thp general appropriation act of the last session contained a pro^
vi_sion by which the.further receipt of these issues was prphibited, and, •
in obedience thereto, the instructipns under which they \vere received
were revoked.
' The department has reasons to belieye, froni petitions addressed to It
by a public meeting of the merchants of San Francisco, and from information received through other reliable sPurces, that much inconvenience and embarrassment haye" resulted froin this leglsiation. It^re-,
mains with Congress, however, to say what relief shall be extended;
arid the subject is submitted tp its consideratipn. '
^
' The inconvenience arising froni the scarcity of silver coinage still ^
continues, and to such an extent as ca.lls loiidly for spme legislative
action to remedy the,evil. Whether the present premium which silver
bears. In comparison with gold, SLrlses frpm the continued heavy influx
o f t h e latter, and its consequent depreciated yalue, or from a special
and unusual demand in Europe lor silver, or from both causes combmed, is not very material to discuss at present; for if it arises from
either or both of these cafuses, there is no reason for believing that there
is any present pfospectoof either being removed, so as to create any.
reduction in the ya:lue of silver.
If, a s I believe is the fact, this difference in the relative value of the
two metals arises from the immense and increased supply of gold which
has been furnished from^Cahfornla arid Australia, there can b e but little
doubt such differerice will cqntinue to. increase, as there is no present
ludlcatlon that there willbe a reduced supply from those sources, but,
ari;the^cpntrary, every prqspept of a still further increase. This state
of .things has banished almost entirely frorii circulation, all:silver coin
of full weight; and what little remains in the hands of-the community
cprisists principally of the wprri pieces of Spanish coinage of the frac-.
tipnal parts pf'a dollar, all of which a;re of light weight, and many o f
them ten or twenty per cent, below their npriiinal value.
I see;-no remedy for this .great e^flsting evil but the adoption of ah e
principle embraced In the bill which passed the Senate during the last
sesslori, makinga newiss.ue of 'silver cpinage "of such reduced weight
as wijl allow it to circulate with the-gold coinage of established vveight
and
fineness.
^
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The principal objection y^hlch has been urged againstlhe proposed;
new silver coinage is, thaf it could not, without a violation of cdntracts,
be made a legal tender fpr the payment qf debts, and that gold would,
therefore,-, hereafter be the only legal tender. It Is true that heretofore
the laws of the United States .have recpgiiised the coin of either rnetaf
as a legal tender; and if it .was at the option of the creclitor to select
y^hich he wpuld receive, there wpuld be a. very serious objection to
ehariging either the weight "br standard fineness pf any portion pf^the
cpin. But this Is not the fact, as it res;ts with the, debtor to say with
which description of coin he will pay his debts; and.the natural and
Inevitable consequences, of the preniium which silver now. bears have
been.td establish, practically,.gold as the only legal tender. . Nor can



12

S. Doc. 22.

any legal or equitable objection be advanced to continuing gold as a
legal tender, as it is not proposed to reduce either the weight or the
fineness qf that description of coin; so thatbvery creditor will continue
to receive precisely the same quantity of gold, for anygiveh surii, as at
the time he may have riiade his contract. Nor does the pre serit or any,
future increased depreciation in the value of gold form any just reasori
against its being continuedas a legal tender at its present weight and
fineness; for such depredation In its actual value. If not in its relative
one as regards silver, has been progressing gradually for some centuries.
^And all that can fie said is, that the depreciation is more rapid at this ^
time than formerly; and it is but a natural result of the uncertainty
and want of stability in human affairs. ^ .
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In the present state of things, as connected \yith this subject, not orily
the public service, but also the wants and convenience of the entire
.community, require that some measure shquld be adopted to furnish a •
silver currericy; and the subject is therefore respectfully, but earnestly,
recommended to the prprript attentipn of Congress.
I would again call the attention of Congress to the subject of makirig
mint certificates receivable in all dues to the government, and dispehsing
with the present bullion fund, which is maintained atan annual expense
.of from $350,000 to $400,000, which niight be saved In interest by the
application of that fund to the .redeinption ofthe public debti^ besides
the great advantages tp the business community, and the general trade
l)f the country by throwing the amount pf that fund into circulation,
instead of keeping it coristantly as dead capItaVin the' vaults of the riiint. ^
The amount of the bulliqn fund during the lasf year has beeri nearly
$7,000,000, arid it has been applied to the immediate redemption of
mint certificates,- so soon as the deposites of gold dust were, assayed
and their value ascertained, which has generally been in from twentyfour tp forty-eight hours after such deposites.were rnade; and the bullion
fund was then made good so soon as such assayed gold could be worked
intd coin, to be again employed in the redemptlpn of other certificates.
The plan which the: department would recommend would be, to
issue certificates, under the authority of Congress, tp be duly Tegistered
and signed, at the treasurv, to the needful amount;—say;six or seven
millions^ of .dollars—in sum^s of $100, $500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000
-each, payable to the order ofthe treasurer of the inint, to be distributed
i n due proportions to the mint and its respective branches, and, so soon
as any deposite of gold bullion was assaj^ed, and its value'ascertained,
to pay the amount to the depositor i n the above certificates, except the
fractional part of $lpO, which would^ always be pa:id in coin. These
certificates, being.receiyable in payment, of dues to the United .States,
would at all tiines commarid their full par value, and,would prorriptly
and cheerfully be received qn deposite as-cash by the bariks, and held
-by them as specie capital, until their customers required them for i h e
payment of duties or lands. They would accumulate principally at the
great marts of-commerce in the Union, andcouldbe transmitted by ihail,
by the different receiving oflicers, ;to such points as the treasury might
direct, avoiding all the risk .and expense which now attend the transfer
of public funds in specie from points where it is collected arid not required for public expenditures.



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R--^Doc^ -22.

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As these certificates,were paid.In at the large commercial seaports, thp
gold,'so. soori as ^coiried, could be'seiit to such points from the mint or
the branch which may have issued the certificates,; and the latter would
then be returned to the mint or its branch, fbr the purpose of being again
issued tp new depositors; The expense of transmitting gold coin to the
points where it might be required In order.to redeem the certificates which
had been received by the public officers would of course be paid b y t h e
Unlte.d States, and wquld require but a small sum—-probably riot the
twentieth part of the amount which Avould be ajiriually sa,ved in interest
by applying the present bullion fund to the redemption of Ihe public debt.
No objection could-be urged tolhis plan on the ground thatitwo.uld
be a paper currency; for it is merely a certificate fbr ari amount of gold
already actually in possession of the governinent. These certificates
would not be intended for circulatipn, nor would they circulate from
harid to hand, but would remain with,banks, bankers, or individuals, until
required for a pa.3^ment to the government; and the receiving officer
should not be'permitted to reissue, but only to hpld them until they
are replaced with the gold in legal coin from the bullion for which they
were originally issued.
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^ These certificates should likewise always be redeemable at the mint,
after a reasonable, time being allowed for the coinage of the gold bul;lion, which might be fixed at not exceeding twenty days after the bullion had been assayed. _
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It is not proposed that the certificates-thus issued b^^the mint and
its different branches should be Indiscriminately and generally received
at all points of the Union, as in^ such case the fluctuations and the great
.cliffereilces in the rates of exchange between different places would
cause them to be used as remittances, and throw a heavy expense upon
the tireasury fpr the transportatiqn between! distant points of large
amounts in specie, sufficient to equalize exchanges, at least to the
extentyof the issue of such'certificates. In Cahfornia, for instance, the
.exchange, pn the.Atl'antic'States is usually-at about four per cent.
. premium; and consequently all the issue of mint certificates there
would be immediately forwiarded to New York,lo be used at this lat^ ter point in paynient of duties, and, the United States would be obhged
^ to transfer,, at a heavy expense, all the coinage of the branch mint at
San Francisco^ in order to redeem'Its certificates in New York.
, The reriiedy for this-would be, to make the issues ofthe mint and
. its existing or any neSv branches in the Atlantic States to be receivable
only at-the Atlantic seaports, those issued by the branch mirit at New
Orleans to be receivable pnly at the pqrts on the Gulf of Mexico, and
all the above at any pf the land offices In the Atlantic and western
States; while the issues ofthe branch, iriirit at San Francisco, so soon
as it is put into operation, shall be receivable atall the custom-houses
andlarid offices on the Pacific.
.
if the present system, is to be continued, and a bullion fund df seven
rnillions is to be maintained, the balance in the treasury cannot conyeniently be reduced below twelve mlllioris of dollars, as the sy stern of
an independerit treasuiy,cannot be conducted with a less ayailable
balance than five millions so as to haye the needful amount at;all times
at the numerous points where the public expenditure is made.



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-SURVEY OF^'THE^dy^feTr'^ • '
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It'glvep riie gre,afct,I pleasure to refer to the progress of this Importa^nt
w^ork duririgj.the la.st four years. The whole coast is divided into eleven
sectipiis; and in ten, active operations have been carried on during this
whole period. With only one link of twenty-six miles, south of the
Chesapeake, to be filled up,, an unbroken triangulatipn now extends
from the mouth of the Kennebeck riyer,^ in Maine, to the harbor of
Beaufort,' in North .Carolina. The topography arid .hydrpgrapHy have
made corresporiding progress. The harbors of Portsmquth, New Hampshire, Newburyport, Ipswich, Gloucester, §alem, and Wellfleet, Massachusetts, arid others,^bave been surveyed. New shoals have beeri dis' covered and: sdunded put in the vicinity of Nantucket. The darigefous
shoals along the seacoast of Deiaware, Maryland, and Virgiriia, Hat^
teras shoals and Fryingpan shoals, have been made known to the riavigator in^excellerit preliminary charts." The survey, of the.Chesapeake
bay is now nearly coriipleted,, and that of the rivers flowing into it has
been cdmmenced. Some of the most important harbors pn the southern
coast—ras Hatteras inlet, Ocracoke inlet, Beaufort harbor, Cape Fear
entrance, Roman, shoals, Charleston harbor. North Edisto river, Tyber
entrance, and the Savannah river—have been surveyed, and the charts
are, or soon will be, published. The surveys of Georgetown harbor, in
Sputh Carolina, and of the.entrance of St. John's river, .Florida, haye
been commenced. The triangulation and reconndissance of the vicinities of Cape Fear'eHtrance,G.eorgetdwri.harbor,:Cape Rorriari, Charleston,. North Edisto, Savannah, and entrance to the St. John's,' are grad-r
ually and steadily advancing. , In a few years, an unbrpken series, with
points well determined by astronomical and other qbservations, wiU
cover the coast from the Penobscot river, in Maine, to the St. Mary's,
in Florida. The progress of the survey on the Florida reef ari'd the
shores ofthe penirisula is entirely, satisfactpry, in view of the limited
appropriations, compared with the vast extent and variety of the .whole
work. ,The entire reef and western shpte have been examiried.in a preliminary way-, and -nearly one-half of the survey of the reef has. been
made. The important harbor of-Cedar Keys, on the western shore,
has. been examined. A reconnoissance has been made pf about pnehalf of the distance between.St. Mark's.and Mobile .ba}^ and an exami- '
natlpn of St. .Mark's river. .The,;tiiarigulatiqri and topography now
extend from Mobile bay to Lake Pontchartrain, and neaiiy all the hydrogVaphy has been,completed, an and examination made of the delta
of.the Mississippi." Galveston bay has been survej^ed, excepting a small
portion of the hydrography ; an^. the triangulation now extends to the
^
vicinity of Matagorda'ba,y. .Preliminary charts have, been published of
Galveston andiVlobile bays, of the Mississippi delta,- St. Mark's, Cedar
Keys, Key-West, Cape Canaveral, Mosquito inlet, and St..Andrew's
shoals.; and these will soon be follpwed by others. ' ..On the western
coast, in consequence ofthe extraordinary difficulties in securing harids
.and riieans,' owing to the .discpveries of gold, the survey did not fairly
get under way till about three years since. , A very good .prelimiriary..
reconnoissarice has been made of the whole coast from 'San Diego tothe straits of San Juan de Fuca> and of nearly every important harbor.



S. Boc. 22.. ..

' 15

embracing San Diego, San Simepn, Santa. Barbara, San Pedro, Point
Conception, the harbor of Coxo, San Luis Obispo, Point Pirios, and
the harbor of Monterey, Santa Cruz, Catalina island, (including both
anchorages,)-Cuyler's harbor. Prisoner's harbor,'San Clemente, Mare •
Island straits, Trinidad and. Humboldt bays, and entraricepf the CdIumbia river. Charts of all these harbors have beeri furnished arid''^
distributed, excepting,the. harbor of Santa,Barba
hand's of the engraver., Charts of the coast from Montereylo;. the mouth
of the Columbia river, published two years:;since^arid^that frorii ,Sa!ri
Diego to San Francisco, are,nqw undergoing: the, last revisip^^^^ The
charts of the surveys north pf the mouth of the-Columbia rivpr are daily
expected, and will be pubfished as early, as practicable. Besides the
cPa:st, several of the harbors have^lie'eii ca:refully examiripd. ^ In add it ion
td'thls, gPod progress has been made^
survey pf the waters'.Bf'San
Francisco bay. '.A plan df We city has been published, to' which will
spon be added the adj'adentV topography. The triangulation. embraces
the Avaters of San Ffaricisco and Suisun,bays,,extSriding from Mare
Island straits to the entrance, and for seveml iniles up and down the
coast. Topography .has been completed, form; chart of San. Fraricisco
bay, and the hydrography will be executed, the coming winter.' The
triangulation of the Columbia river,\has been extended thirty-three miles
from its mouth.
A commencement ^has alsp been made in the survey of the Santa
Barbara isla:nds, including' the land-surveys by the' geodetic riiethpd.
In connexion with this rapid .progi'ess of .the survey on this coast, observations, have been made for latitude and IonGfltude and the mao;netic variation. The geogra.phical position of the, coast from the
straits^^of San Juan de Fuca to-San Diego has been established, the
latitude arid longitude of the most important head-larids having been
deterriiiiied.by sufficiently numerous and reliable.preliminary observations. The latitude of seventeen stations, and the longitude of nineteen stations, and the magnetic variations of seven statipiis, have been
thus determined. Onlhe-Atl.a,ntiQ and Gulf:coast the usual 'attention
has been given to the same subject. Magnetic observations have been
made at thirty-three, stations. Sixteen' longitude and seventeen latitude
station^ have been occupied, andlen baselines-measured., A great extension has been given to the method of determining the longitudes of
cardinal points by usirig the electric-magnetic telegraph—a method
admitting of a degree, of .precisipn not hitherto attainable by other •
means. The exploratipn of the Gulf Stream has been continued. Great
progress has been made in pubhshing the results ofthe survey. Forty.t^yo .charts,, elaborate and highly finished, and forty-two .preliminary
charts, have alreadybeen published; arid twenty-seven sheets are in ,
various stages of engraving. The geographickl positions deterrnlned
by the survey,-from its cpmmenceriient to .July, 1851, have been published. , The latitude and longitude of over.-3,200 points have thus
been giveri tq the public,-furnishing information of.great value for
general, and. local purposes. Many special examinations have been
.madetocletermlne the proper sites for lights, llght-bpats, beacons, and
buoys, along the. whole coast from Maine to Texas; and as regards the
y^estern coast, the entire duty of selectlrig sites has devolved upon and



161

S. Doc, 22.

been perfornied by the coast survey. It gives me great pleasure to
acknowledge the promptitude with which this duty has been performed, and my confidence In the result thus reached.
, It has been an arduous and responsible duty, requiring in each case a
personal examination,' arid in^ many cases accurate surveys, of the localities., Much valuable inforiiiatidn has also been furnished, in connexion
with the river arid, harbor improvements, greatly expediting the plans
for prPseciiting. these,works, a.nd making available the results of the
surveys and the personal examination of the superintendents l o this
branch of the public service. .
. In view of-the very extensive :GOiTespdndence which necessarily appertains to such extended and yaried, operations, it Is respectfully recommended that the same authbi-ity, as..td,receivirig or sending official cPmmuriications connected with the ^survey, now exercised by the several
.bureaus qf. this departnient, may be extended, to the Superiritendent qf
the Coast Siiryqy and to the assistant iri ^charge ofthe survey office^ the
Superintendent being necessarily absent in the field much of his time.
The duties of frariklrig now thrown upon this department are extremely
onerous, while it produces delay incompatible withthat.;prqmpt despatch
.of the. business of the survey always tq be desired. , v,
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MISCELLANEOUS.

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Tn pursuance ofthe act ofthe 31st August last authorizing, the formation of a Light-house Board, one oflicer of erigineers of the army arid
one of the topograpical engineers, twP naval officers of high rank, arid
twociyiiians of distinguished scientific acquirements, have been designated by the Piesideritto form this board, and one'officer of the riavy
and one of i h e engineers as secretaries. The board so constituted immediately organized and^entered uppn the duties assigned it by law.
The clerks employed upon-the light-house buslness^belng^one temporary clerk from the office of. the Secretary; df the Treasury, and four
from the Fifth Auditor's bureau—were, as required by law, transferred
to the.office of the Light-house.Board.
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The board has been assiduously engaged in the proper duties assigned it. Frqm the practical knpw;ledge and high scientific and prPfesslonal attaininents combined in the eminent gentlemen comprising it,
there is no reason.to doubt that all the benefits contemplated by this new
organization of that branch^ of the public service will be fully realized.
;A detailed report of the operations of the board, comprising such
changes and improvements ^ in the present system as in its iiidgment
have become necessary, is submitted with the present report.
Under the act pf 31st Augustlast, providing for the constructiori-ut
not less than six revenue-cutters, the department advertised for proposals
fbr tfie buildingof six vessels of designated size and finish. Proposals
have accordirigly beeri received, and'the contract for the whole number
has been awarded to the lowest bidder, under' arnple security for its
faithful execution. ' The appropriation made will be sufficient for-the
construction df said vessels and their perfect equipment for service.
Of the "severalcustom-houses authorized or incqrirse of construction,,
that at New Orleans has progressed as fast as circumstanc'es would



m Doc. 23.

17

permit. That at Savannah has beeri completed and occupied. At
Charleston, the foundation is progressing with all pPssible. despatch.
Sites have been purchased,, and proposals publicly;invited, for the
:erection of customliouse buildings at Mobile; Norfolk, Bangor, .Louisville, St. Louis,, and Ciricinnatl.- Sites ha.ve been /selected at Bath and
Waldbbpro', Maine, and .Wilmington, in Delaware, and their purdhase
wiir.be coriipleted vvhpn the cession of jurisdiction shall have been pb-'
tained froni the St'ates in v^^hich they are respect!vely situated, in accordance with the requirements of the jpint resolution of September, 18.41.'
A site has been selected for'the- bullcling authorized at Richmond,
Virginia.; So"riiuchof the appropriation, hdwever, .will be absorbeAby
its .purchase that it has been deemed advisable to delay, for the present,
. any .steps towards, the erection of the buildiiig, ^yithvthe view of requesting from'Congress anfaiiditlpnalappr^opriatiqn and the-removal of the
existing restriction as to,the amount of experjd^^
Contracts have been made.fo.r. the erectipn'of custom-hpuse buildings .
at San Francisco, in California, and Pittsburg, iri Perinsylyanla,' and
the buildings will,be prosecuted to completion'with the utmost possible
despatch., The restrictions' irriposed upon the department' b}^ limited
appropriatioris in the various acts authorizingthecoristruction of customhouses and postqffices forbid, in riiariy, the erection of fire-proof buildings,, orthe adbption of plans ernbracirig a style pr material comparable '
with many of the local public or private buildings in the same places.
., Within these, limited -appropriations, in many cases, accpmmodations
mu'st.be provided for the custom-house, post office. United States courts^
offices'lor\United'Slates mar.sha:ls; and clerks qf the United States courts.
The great value of the; papers which must necessarily collect within the
• b.uiidings embracinglheab.ove-mentioned offices demands that every
precaution ^should; be taken on the part of the government to prevent
their destruction by.fire. Some.of the appropriations at the control of
the departnient have beeri reduced b y the"'purchase of the .net-essaiy
v-sites, or were originally so. limited as td render it doubtful if the con-teinplated buildirigs, with .proper accommodatioris, * can, be. erected
without" additional apprppflations being made. Special commurilcationsIri relation to some of these will be made to Congress as soon as specific
.irifprmation can be qbtalried.*
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' The contract for the extension and rebrgariizaLtipn of thcv Baltimore
custonirhouse building/has been cpncluded, in cdnfdrniity \vith the act.
qf the last ses.sion.'.
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The great distance and consequent difficulty and delay jii' communicating with Oregori have prevented any definite progress;being made in
. the erectiqn of the proposed building af Astoria.
.
.
' -The operations of the .department.arising out of the, proyisloris' liiade
for sick and disabled seamen are becbming daily niore. onerous 'and extended.
"
,
. ' ' '
;
';
.:
In.consequence of the rapid expansion qf our comriierce,. both fpreign
and 'domestic;; the funds arising from ^ the" monthly cPritributioris of
twenty cents from the parties'for whose benefit, this truly beneficent
systeni has-been established, 8U*e insufficient for their relief, without
the addition of direct apprppria:tioris hy>Congress. .^ . . ' \
^ '

•

••

2 . .

'

•

,"




" ; ' - .

'.

'"•

\

•

•

• , • . • •

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i " , . ; . . :

,•

,

•

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• , . - „ • • ;

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,18

• B.. «Doc, 23..

•.

The previous appropiiatioris from the treasury for the relief of slick
seamen have amounted to $969;069 34, besides $928,319 20 for the
purchase df sites, the brectidriof hqspital buildingSj furniture, repairs, &c.
The. department recommends the coritiriuaiiQe of the appfqpriatioris
for the relief of sick seamen and boatmen to the needful extent of supplying the deficiency iri the amourit receiyed frpm.the hospital fund;
but it is riot at present prepared to advise the erectiqn of mprP. rifiaririe
hqspitals. ,The .experience of the: dep.artment induces, me to believe
."that it is in every way preferable to make an arrangement, for the earn:of
sick seainenSvith-local hospitals of high standing,,which.are urider .trie
immediate and vigilarit supervision.of citizeris of the highest rqspectability at the respective places. •.S,uch'arrangeriierits: exist at New York,
Philadelphia, Cincinnati,' and at some other points, at a fixed weekly
- rate for each seamaiiT—the cost pf which is greatly less than it \Vpuld be
in a public hospital, arid where the care and a;ttention,which the patients
receive are fully, equal to .what; the}^ could p'ossibly'qbtaiii in a gbvernment inst-itutipri,\and their medical treatment js. also; under i h e direction
of • the.inqst eniinent professional talent .and experience., Iri rill: pMces
w-here a similajr aiTangement can be made, I am of opinion it should, be
preferred, rather thari.erect other maririe.-hospitals.in addition to those
already • authorized, as L,belie ye both the comfort pf .the sick arid economy of expenditure would be 'prompted by tlie adoptipn of the fbririer
." Urider the systeni which has bebn .so' long and ,so steadily pursued by
the gove'riiment' a;S i;egards this useful but generally improyidenf class:df
' inen,^there is probably rib instance where so ixiuch relief is.granted, arid;so
generally distributed, arid ^yith;Sp rriuch advantage.to the parties interested, as that, by the; riiarlne ,hospitaLlfund,:under its present regulations.
, While the benefit of this fund is" extended to almpst alfthe cdllectiqn
districts of the United ;States^ hqspitals are completed.and in full operatipri at Chelsea, near..Boston, Massachusetts ; Norfolk, Virginia; Oqracbke,, Nbrth Garoliria| Cleveland, .'Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; Pittsburg,
Pennsylvania'; Louisville and Paducah., Kentucky;, Natche^z; JVIissis- sippi:;/New Oiiea;ris,,Louisiaria;^ Mobile, ;Alabama; and' Key West,
vFlorida-i Appropriations have been made and •buildings authbrized. to
be erected at Napoleon,-Arkansas; St. Louis, Misspuri; Sari" Franplsco;
Evarisville, Indiana; Portland;, -Mainp;; and Vieksburg, Mississippi.
Estimates df appropriations loi-tlie coinpletion of the buildings; at .St.
, Louis, arid fdr the fencing and heatlngthe^buildings^ and works-necessary
for their prdtectioii ;at Chicago, in llliriois; .Clevelarid, in Ohio;. Pittsburg, in Perinsjdvania;: .Lpuisyille,'in, Kentucky;,-Paducah, Napoleon,
. and Natchez,—^havebeen submitted.,
'
.'.
; ,
. —
These estiriiates arc based' upon a careful.calPulatibri-of the amount
andquantity of wprk tol^e done', and are deeined indispensably neces-.
sary for the'buildings aincl grouiids referred to.
. ,,
, •.
, A contract has been made. for Jthe = biiildings' rit .'San .Francisco; and
' those atNappieon:and,St; Louis are, neaiiy: pom pleted:. That at St..Louis
has been delayed awaiting a furtheV appropii^^^
'
. \ [
A. site;has been purcnas,ed;at Evansville, but the balance of.the'appropriation is npt sufficient to erect a suitable building; and an additional
appfopiiation bf $20,000 is respectfully requested..-.



Ho Doc. 28.

^19

•';, A site h a s beeri selected for a hospital at Portlandi M a i n e ; b u t the
: d e p a r t lil ent has- not yet taken firial actidn on the r e p o r t of the c o m missiorie.r,s appoirited to select it. " ' ' '
^
'
T h e following statements connected with t h e subject ac'bompany the
preserit report, viz:
"
. '
Statement T^ exhibiting the whole amount received from the moiithly^.
Gbntribritibris of s e a m e n under the act of 16th J u l y , 1798, tip to 1st,
• Julyy 1852.
'•
• .
: ' •; ^
•'. ' • • ; ••
•
Statement Uy exhIbMrig t h e arnount appropriated b y Congress for
the" p u r c h a s e of sites, erection of marine hospitals, furniture, &e.,
desigriatirig the i^es'pective points and the', amdunt o f appropriation fpr
•eabh place.
^'
'
' •
•-' . ' •
-.
- ' Stateriierit ¥ , exhibiting the present state pf thp hospital frind arising
from; the monthly: ppritributions: of thcv seamen, a n d t h e appropriations
by. Cdngress for their relief.
• ' ,
'
1 "
.
T h e Suprerfie Court, in the case of L a w r e n c e vs. Caswells,.decided
t h a t no return of duties could b e clainied b y "parties w h o h a d riot, at
the, time of m a k i n g the entry", entered :a w r i t t e n protest declaring
speciailly the grounds on which t h e y objected.to^pay t h e ; d u t i e s ; and the
depaittriient ^has fblt itself bound b y t h a t decisidn, and has, since de^
clined to ref und. a n y duties alleged to be illegally assessed, except in
cases where such-written prbtest w a s made; a t the .time,^br.where i t
' e.videritly aro^e fi?om.a clerical error. This course invqlves great„hards h i p i n m a n y cases, v^hefe even the same parties, .havirig in certain entries i n a d e a regular protest,- have received b a c k - t h e duties: erroroneously assessed, agreeably to/legal decisidris; while in ot^her cases,
precisely similar in every respect, but w h e r e the forriiality of a protest
.w^as not observed, np return can be made under the above'decisipn of
the Sripteme Cpui-t.'.' I-vvould recommend these ca;ses;to the favorable
actio 11 of-Congfess, byirivesting in the T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t the .power
to r e t u r n duties hi all cases which m a y b e similar t o l h o s e on which •
the S u p r e m e C b u i t i n a y h a v e m a d e decisions i n favor'bf the claimants,
eypriif no protest has beeri^ m a d e at the time b y t h e ^^^
^^^
.: T h e attentibri: of Corigress/was called a t the; laist session to the tiecessity of a: law--::and one w a s fiaiiied for the purpose, but n^^^
check the m.ultipiieity of suits a.gainst,.the colleetofs; o f t h e ciistonis for
duties-alleged to b e i-mpropeiiy collected b y Pbliging the s a m e partle^sto cdnsolidate all; their suits of a similar kind iii one a c t i o n ; "and also,'
\yhere orie p a r t y h a d already entered a suit, .that no others irivolving:
the saMe priiiciple should' be instituted, ori the .Treasury Depaitriient?
agreeirig, upon riotlce .from other claimants', that the decisloii of t h e suit
w h i c h m a y have been Ellready entered'should govern in th'e settlernent
of the pthersv . A s it -now, is, the same parties; yexatibusiy, a n d with a
y i e w to. increase their costs, w i l l enter separate and. nume'rbus suits, all
•precisely similar iri t h e facts'and circunistances.
- , , .-- ,
- I t i s also esseiitial t h a t j i n all suits against collectors, there should b e t h e right o f appeartb, t h e Supreine Court j withbut regard to the. airiount,"
, a s there are riunierous decisions m a d e in-the lower CGurts,..involvirig irri
portant principles, w-hich wpiild prbba.bl}'' be reversed w e r e an appeal •
.grarited, b u t i n w h i c h the aniburit invblved does not a d m i t of an apr^ea
under existing l a w s • *
• ." ^
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,•
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20

H. Doc. 23.

•; Gprigress, at Its last session, haying, appropriated the sum of ten thousand dollars for locating surf-boats on the coa.st of the Uinited States, the
department called upon the Superintendent pf the Coast Survey for a
report showing the poirits where they could be most advantageously employed for the purpose-of saving life and property from; shipwreck.
This report, has latelyibeeri received, giving twelve ppirits, on the coast
of l^airie and Massachusetts, as suitable loc ations, and ^orders wiUimriiediately issue for the supplying the same with the-requisite boats and
.their appurtenances;" and as soon as other suitable locations along the
coast are furnished this.department from-the .office ofthe coast survey,
measures will be immediately taken for furnishing them likewise.
Numerous reports have been made to the department'of tlie great
sav:ing of life and property; on our coast^by mearis of these boats ; and I
would respectfully suggest that "a further appropriation of ten thousari.d
dqllars be made for this laudable object,.and that;pdwer be granted this
departrnerit to,expend, from tirrie to^ time,; subh pdrtipnsqf it as may be
required to keep the boats and fixtures in repairs for iirimediate use, and
cbmpensate.persons for taking care of them. ^ ^ •
The subject of the fisheries beirig one of high'Importance, and having
recently attracted great.and general attention, I transmit herewith- a
highly interesting- and valuable report prepared for this department by
Lorenzd Sabine, esq., eriibracing—- .
'
', .
,;
, 1. A report qn the fisheries of Frarice, Spain, and Portugal in the
Americarrseas. ; ^
•
"
;
. 2. A report on the fisheries of Newfoundland, Noya Scotia, Cape '
Breton, Prince Edward's Island, Magdalene Islands, Bay of Chaleurs,
Labrador,^andNew'.Brunswick.
- >
'
: '
3. Report qn the fisheries of the United States. . - "1 •
4. Reyieyv'of the controversy between the United States .and Great
Britain as to the intent and meaning df the first article of the convention
of 1818. ' . / .'
: .. . .;,••.•
••, •'•• .• / ' ' , . ' •••••.'-''-.
The following statements accompany the present report, viz:;
A.—Statement df duties, revenues,, and public .experiditures.during
the fiscal year ending June'30, 1852,' agreeably td warrants iss.ued, exclusive of .trust funds and treasury notes funded. '
B.---Statemerit of duties,-, reyenues, and public expenditures for the
fi.rst quarter of the' fiscal year, frpm July 1 to September 30, 185.2,
agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive of trust funds and treasury notes
funded. . . .
..
' .
'
C.—Statement of advances from the treasuiy on account of the .expenses of each custom-hpuse in the United States during the year ending
onthe3^thJurie,a852. ; '
; ' ' ;
/ V vC
/^
' D.^-TjStateriient of the number of persoris employed in each .district of
the.'United States for tfie cbllection of custoiris during the fiscal year
ending'June 30, 1852, withtheir occupation and compensation, pef act
March3, 1849. ^ , •";
" ' '•..' ^'•^
"
:'. - ' ' , ' ;,' • '-^ •
E.—-StMeriient of i h e pubfic debt on t h e l s t J a
1853.
F.-^Stateriient of.the redeiription of treasury riotes during the fiscal
year endirig June 30, 1852."
;
'.
.v .
-;
G.—Stateriient exhibiting the total value of iriipqrts,' and the Irripbrts
consumed, in the United States, exclusive of specie, during each fiscal



H, Doc. 23.
•

•

•

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tl"

'

j^earfrom 1821 to 1852; showing,, also, the value ofthe domestic and
foreign exports, exclusive of specie, and the tonnage employed, during
tlie same periods.
H.—^^Statement exhibiting the valuedf imports, annually, from 1821.
to 1852, designating separately the amourit of; specie and free and dutiable goods, respectively.
;
'
;L—Statement exhibiting the value of certain articles imported during the years enciing on the 30th June, 1844,1845, 1846, 1848, 1849, '
1850, 1851, and 1852, (after deducting the re-exportations,) and the
ampunt of duty which aqcrued on each during the same periods, respectively. . .
'•'.'•
' •• \
"•••.•• ••
R.—-Statement exhibltirig the amount of coin and bullipn imported
and exported, arinually, Irorii 1821 to 1852, iriclusive ; and also theamount of importation over exportation, .and of exportation over importatiqn, during the same years-.
,
- ,L .-^Statement exhibiting .the'quantity and value of wines, spirits, &c.,
imported, annually,"from 1843 to 1.852, inclusive ; and also;showing the
' fpreign cost per gaUon, under specific and ad valorem duties.
' M.-r-Stat.ement showing the value pf goods, remaining in warehouses
at theblose of each quarter from the SOth'September, 1847, tothe 30th
June, 1852, as exhibited bythe quarterly returns of the collectors of
the customs,, under the provisions ofthe act ofthe 6th of August, 1846 ;
and also the amourit of duties pay able, thereon.
N.—Statement exhibiting the. value of dutiable merchandise re-exported, annually,-from 1821-to 1852, iriclusive; and showing also the
yalue re-exported from \yarehouses under the act -qf August 6, 1846^
- O.—^Statement exhibiting the value of foreign merchandise impofted,
re-exported, and.consumed, annually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusive ;* and
.also the estimated population and rate of consumption, per ca;pita, during the same periods. '
:•' /
' \
'V
•P.-^^Statement exhibiting the value of mercharidise and domestic produce^ "&e., exported,•annually, from 1821 to 1852.
' .
Q.—State ment exhibiting, the quantity arid value of cotton exported^
annually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusiveJ.and the average price;per pound.
, R;.—Sta.tement exhibiting the aggregate valueof breadstuff's arid proVislons exported, annually, from 1821 to 1852.;; -• N •
S.—^Statement exhibiting the quantity and. value of tobacco'and ricie
exported, anriually,'from 1821 to 1852,iri'clusive/
'
Allof which is respectfully submitted. . ,
•
':
•/ '
• • : ' ' ^ " • ••••THOMAS •CORWIN,
•
; '
/^
• / '
Secretary of the Treasury.
Hon.

•

D.R.

ATCHISON,

Ffesidenipro tern. oJ the-United. States Senate.




'.,

.'.

Statement of duties, revenues, and public expenditures during the fiscal year iending June SO, 1852, agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive/of trust funds and treasury notes fun
,
^
The receipts into the treasury during the "fiscal year e.nding June 30,18,52, were "as-'follows:
From-customs, viz:
^
-•
During the 'quarter,ehdihg'Septemher , 3 0 , 1 8 5 1 . . , . . . . . „
. - = .•.,.:....
» .
D o . . . ^ . . . d o . . . . . 1..December'31, 185i
.:....:....,..;.....
Do
.do........March;31,1852.
.^.....
.
D o . . . : . , .do... r...yJtine^30,1852.....^....,;,,.....,,,..:....................

114,75^, 909.34'
9,601,509 40
-12,109;761 80
iio, 873,146 08
$47,339,326 62
2,043,239 58
345,820 69

From sales of public lands ..-.. . . . . . . . . . . —
.'..-:. .^-... . „ . . . . . . , . , .
Miscellaneous and incidental:sources, including military contributions, in Mexic(5....,....,.......
• . , Total receipts,- exclusive of loan
-.
Balance in" the treasury. July 1, 1851
Total means

,,.„...•..,

49,728, 386 89 •
.10,911,645 68

i„,....,......'........^..........

o
o

60,640-, 032 57

.....^
'...;.
...
. i . . . . . r.
.........-.......'.. ^

to

_ The' expenditureB for the iiscal year 'ending June 30,1852, exclusive of trust funds, were i
'

Legislative i . . . , . . , - . . . o......

.:...

iDlVIL L I S T .

'i

.

...-. ...o .-...-...o.,"

, , , „;...

Governments in the Territories of the IJnited States..
'.
-. - ^ -. -'- -- - - -^- • — - - - Surveyors and their clerks,'-.-.--,
.
............
.,.,,...,..;...
. -,..,...''...
Officers of the mint and branches
. .•,;....
- . . . . . . . . ^............
Commissioner of the Public Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.....^r.'."...•-...,,........;... ..v.-..
Secretaiy to-sign patents for public lands..........,.-..\ „ . . . . . . , . . . . . „
. . . . . . . . . i . . , . , . ....'>=...
X O t a l CIVU l i s t , o . 9 . o . - . . e < . o . . . . . ' . • « e 9 o e . ' . .o.o a . o v o o* b o . . . .'> e'o e o o o . , . o o o o i
^




K

1,248,017:9.0
1,248, Oil 91
718^ 065 -44'
77, s i s '58
72,528 46
55,300 00
2,000 00
,, 1,500 00
.3,422i939 ^i9

BalAri^s of rhinisters.....i .Zi.. ..^i..,.
.....^.^...;^;':.,^...>,. p.../...,............,.:.,.,.-.....
Salaryof mmister resident to Turkey... -.-—.
....- -,- - -. -,.,
-.. • - - r - - — - • •
Salaries'of charge's des affaires..'.........-.,..
......-.-r--—- -.--- .Salaries of secretaries«6f iegation...; .
...." .....•.,,. .*f.;.:,*.... . „ , . . . .
;Salary of dragoman and assistant dragoman to T.urkey . - ^ . . . . . .-..,*...... -. * * i;..
CommissiOniBr .to reside in-China .' -..:..'....... 1.. .,^.. /.'. - . - - • -.- - - -.- - - - - -•^
Secretary and interpreter to Chinese; mission ,...:,.......',.,.-... ,=,.... - . . -. -: ,*.....«
.CQmniissioner to the Sandwich Islands
^
. . . . sJ - . • > . . . - . . . . . . . . .
To.Anthony'TenEyck. for salary and contingent expenses as commissioner to Sandwich I s l a n d s . . . . . . . . . . .
Contingent expenses of all the missions aibroad.;.;.:.. - -.....".-"....... -,-. -.. -,...,- • •,-«Contingent expenses of foreign intercourse . . . . . ; . . . . = ^ . . . . . . . 1 . . ' . . . . , . .
......
-Salary oif .consul at London : 1 J". .•...•.... . - . • . ; . . . . . . .
..•..'.,,..
.......i.....
> Clerk hire and oflice rent of ,consui:at L o n d o n . . . . . . . . . . .
:.....................
Salary of consul at Alexandria ....-. ' . • . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '•.
-.........
^Salary of .cdnsulat B e y r p u t . . . . . . . . . ;
....,.:......'.:....,........!..,........,
Salaries of .consuls ,at'KUang Chew, &c., C h i n a - . . . . . . . , , .•>.....,.,.
.......
'.
Office reiit of consul at Basle, Switzerland. ....•-.....*.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.........
Relief, and protection of Anierican s e a m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . !
.,.
...^.,..;....
Intercourse of Barbary powers :.'.. ,.... i . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' .
:
;
,.,.
;Inter.pret.ers, .guardsVand other, expense's of consulate in-Tur^^^^
Compensation.of commissioner and.clerks, and contingent expenses of commission and treaty with Mexico'l
i)o
. . , i . . . . ' . d o ; . . - - . . . . : , . . d o . . , . . . . . . . . . . . d o . . . . . . . . . . . . d o . . . ^ . . . . . . . . d o . . : . ....Brazil..
Expenses of the.a gent, of the.S.ubl.ime;P,orte-..i...................... . . . 1 . . . . . . . ' . ; : . . .
--.---- ---- ---Instalment and mtere;st due May 3,0,, 1852.', imder'lSth article of treaty with Mexico......';--'-.--.--.-.-- -'--.Awardeiinder .the IS.th article of treaty between the .United States and M e x i c o : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treaty ,of peac.e, Umits, Muhdaries-, &c., with .Mexico.;... .,-• I . . ..C.
..,-:-..-.......
'
• Total foreign lutercoutse.,J....
•

• '

.

-

'

•-

^

ffi

0
OS

.4,132,671 45

, . . , . . . . , . . . : . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . ,^^.....

MISCELL'ANEOUS. .

Mint e&tablishment.. ..^...-. - . ; . . . :
^.
......:
.
Survey of coasts of the" tJnited States,Including western c o a s t . . . . : . . . : . : . : . . , . - . . .
'Survey-of reefs, shoals, keys, and coasts of South F l o r i c l a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
•Reimbursement of debt .contracted by ,cb,r.porate cities of District p.f Colunabiai...
Relief of the several corporate cities.of District of Columbia
................
Results and account of the exploring expedition........ o , . . . . . » o . . . ^».- i . . . . . , .



• n , ^ 71
6,000 G
O
•77,278 61
16,518 36 I
45 000-00^ ;
l
4jOO0 oo'
2,500 00 j
-3,795 90^
1
1,309 11 i
1
30,311.12 i
.
'36,725-62 \
2, 000'00 ;
2,800 00 i
3,000 0.0 :
739 13
. .3,855 5(J :
100 00,
.
• 135,844-^16 :
9,312 1 1
l,021-'7§ .950 ^S ;
5,850 oa
•51,--81 1
3,180,000 00
^•529,-980 7§.
-3,500 00-

140,003 02
363,000 00
30-,000>00
60,000 00 - 36, 8"68 54
20,000 00 1

- A—Continued.
l*ayment of horses,'&c.,4ost in the military service of the .United States..
......:...
.'
Settlement of the claim ofthe State'of .Maine for interest of money borro^ved and actually expended by her for protection.
of the northeast frontier of said S.tate
^."
~....
Expenses incident to loans and treasury notes.
.-. .^.
.'.
........
Expenses incident to the issue of ten millions of stock for Texas indemnity............'.'.
'.
Salaries of assistant-treasurers-and additionat salary of treasurer of mint at-Philadelphia.
' . . . . . . . . . i."
-----Salaries of ten'additional clerks..i. . . . . . . . \ . . .'
.'.
.
. . . -^
Exp'enses under act of 6th August, 1846, for safe-keeping,.&c., of public revenue
.- ---i
-'-'....,......;...
Compensation to "special agents-to examine^books; and accounts iii the several depositories
.....,....'....
:...
Compen.sation of ,^ per cent, tp each designated, depository, under act August 6, 1846
•-'-.-.-•
Library for the Territory of New M e x i c o . . . . . . ^ . . . . . . . . . . . 1
-.....i........
Public building.s for the Territory of •New.Mexico . . . . . . . . i : . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . . i
^ -•
• - -.---,-,--•
Erection of suitable buildirigs for Territory of M i n n e s o t a : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ . . . . .
;,....
..X..........
Erectipn of-penitentiary In .'Territory of Minnesota-......... - . . . : . . .
.......«.. Jl...,.
—..........
Purchase.of 2,000 copies of. the-Annals of Congress, per 1st section act-March 3, 1851.. •-.....
•.-:--•
Payment, for 2d and 3d volumes of Sth series^ of the Documentary History
',
....:.....,...,.....
To pay for 102 copies of 8th yplume of American Archives, at $16 83'per volume
'.........I................;.To pay;fbr:117.;...i'ido;.'-....•...:.-do • - . - : : : : , . . • . ! . d o . : . . ,
..do:..../.....
...:.....:To pay for "5,640 copies ofthe Congressional Globe and Appendix for 2d session 31st Congress, at $3 per copy
'--•
To pay foi* 264 copies' each of Congressional Globe and Appendix, 1st session 31st C o n g r e s s . . . : . . . . . :
'.
......
To pay for 12 copies each of Congi-essio.hal Glol^eVand Appendix,""2d session 30th Congress, at $3, per copy.
."........
To-pay;for.binding.:5,500 copies of Congressional Globe and Appendix for'members 2d .session-Slst .Congress
........'...
To-pay for reportmg iUsDaOyrGlobe 533^ columns of the proceedings of the House of Representatives l o r last session of
To pay for reporting, &c.; in the-Daily Globe, 800 columns of the proceedings ofthe House, 2d session 31st Congress
To enable thelibrarian of Congress.to subscribe for and-purchase 1,000'copies of the Works of John Adams, second President-of the tJnited S t a t e s . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . . .
................../...............'.:.'.
-^.
.',.,..,.....
Ex;peri^es of removing tp;t.he State whence they .fled fugirives-froni service or-labor.
........^ ............
Payment of per diem of special agent and expenses to pay off Indians, in old.States
.'.
.--:-- «.,--•-•
Payiheht on account.of Cherokee Natipn of Indians that remained in North Carolina.% -• :
......:.
Purchasing, walling,, and ditchmg a.'piece of land near the city of Mexico for a cemetery,'&c:.
Consular r e c e i p t s - . ; . . . . . . . . - . . . 1..'
--..'-,.,
;.
...I
.'
Claims not otherwise provided fori. . . . - . . • . , : . , .
..'...:....
...,,.,,..,..,.,,...-.
Expenses of Sniithsonian Institution, per act 10th August, 1846
.'
....,..'.
:
i..........\.
Relief of sundry individuals..
....
...1, ; . . , . . . , . . . , , ; , . . , . 0 = 0.,, ooo.-.'o.oooo,.«,.. o . . . . . =oo-ol 00



to;
$1,053 0560,610 31
11, 408'33
1,000-00
12,876 44
11,173 15
7,783 33
• 2,706-81
. • ^168:'24
4,418 37
300 00
10,.000 00
10,000 00
60, 000 00
20,859 00
. 1, 418 41
1,627-00
16,920 00
;i, 584:00
. 36 00
-3,187 50
4,001 25
6,000 00
,10,000,00
- 593 86
1,000 00
19, 975 49
9,000 00
388 75
.9,982 38
30,910 14
185,485 44

ffl

t9

For mail services performed by Post Office Depaitment for services for several departnaents of government
.....
For•transinittingihrough'post oflice any papers relative to cehsus'by marshals
•.......:
'Compensation for mail services perfornied for.the two houses.of.Congress.ando.therdepartments of government . . . . J .'.
Support arid maintenance of light-houses, &c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . —
„.. = o. . i . . . . .
..... —.
.."l.
Building light-houses, &c
.....'...
....'...., . > . . . . . . . . . . : ,
. ...........>....
Marine hospital establishment
. : . . . . . . / . — ^...
. . . .'....=
Building naarine hospitals, including repairs," furniture, and fixtures
•Building custom-houses and warehouses, incliidiiig repairs, i f e c . . . . . . . . . . .
1
Expenses of collecting revenue from c u s t o m s . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
.-..
.,.
— -.
Payment of deb.entures or drawbacks, bounties or allowances
..........cio.
,
Refunding duties onToreign miported'merchandise, per act August 8, 1846, (2d.section)
Repayihent to importers of excess of-deposites for'una^scertained duties'.. 1 : . . : . . . . . . . . .
.:..............
; Refunding.duties, per 2d,secfeion act August 8, 1846,,and act March .3, 1849..,.
,
-.."
Refundihg duties,;per,3cf and.18th sections act July 14, 1833, and 2d section act August-8, 1 8 4 6 ; . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . .
Refimding dutieSj.per act'May 8,1846, contrary to .the ternis,of convention between-.Great Britain and the United States..
Refunding duties on sugar and'.molasses illegally, exacted by collectors,, refunded under a decision of the Supreme Court
of-the;'United States, acquiesced in by-Treasury D e p a r t m e n t , . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . - . : . . .
...... —.
......:......,
Tonnage-dutiesln Spanish vessels refunded, per 3d section act July 13, 1832, and 3d section act August 3, 1846 . . .
...
Refunding duties collected under act August 30, 1842:
.;
...'
,..:..,
Debentures and other charges, per 2d section act'October 16, 1837 . . . . . . . . . ' .
".
Do....".......^.d6.......per 2d section act March 3, 1849 . . . . . .
,.
.,
• Do
. . . . . . do. . 1 . . . .per .2d section.act August 8, 1846, and March 3, 1849 . . . . . .
: ...
D o . . . . . . . . . . do"... 1.. -per 2d section act.Oct. 16, 1837, arid 18th section act~Aug. 30, 1842, and Mar. 3, 1849.....
. . •. Do.-..: i...-.-do.-.....'-per'3d section act August 3, 1846, and March 3, 1849 . : . .
...:...:. .....^........
D o . . . . . . . . . . . . d o ! . . . . . .per acts July: 13, 1832, June 30, 1834, and March 3, 1849.
Salaiy of •special; examiner of drugs and medicines
1.............-.
.^..
....... —...
.....
' S.urveys of .pubUc.lands ^ . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V... -. -'.:.'........^ . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..^.... ^ . ' . . . ; . . . . . . .
For ruiining arid marking, the northern boundary pf State of Iowa..:..-.
..:
Expenses of setriing land claihis in California . . ^ i . . . . . . . . .
.-......'. . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . i .
Completing the survey, of the cppper region of Michigan.. ^
.J.I....J..,
7........
......^
Compensation of geologists,''&c., and survey of mineral land;s in Michigan, Wisconsin,':and Iowa
Selection Of certain. Wabash and Erie canal lands in State of O h i o . . . . . : . . . . . . . . ! . .
Two per cent, to the State of Akbama.
,..'-...•....
...
Three
do..-.:-."..'. -Alabama
/.:.....,.....
..../.... ^
.............
....
,
Three . . . . .
do....:
Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - ' . . . .
:'.
....
......
Three ....:. ..... d p . . . . . . . ' . ..Missouri
o
Five
. . . ....d^o...^. .1...Louisiana
•
..;
,.
...".
Five . . . . . . . . . : . d o . . .\ . . . . .Michigan^.
.......'.
1........-.'..
.:
...j.l\
Five o-.-.I-o... .do
^Arkansas .
.. . . i . . . . . „ , . . . „
=.



865,555 55
- 12,000 00
163,888 89
597,466 09
113,103-33
203,115 23
128,693 44
521,491 23
2,082,633 24.
544,452 38
138,086 41
^ 846,918-86
- 282 49.
•272.66
127 50
221,985 87
799 SO
. .'36 72
14,039-27
. 20, 015 27
72,739 87
1,354 96
2,890 21
2;.2Q8 15
, 5,750 45
242,883 52
13; 342 31
50,000 00
12, 780 77
3,610 51
1,049 97
3,557 90
.13,940 06
11,833 25
31,414 33
9,472 00
14,643 45
3,617 06

, ffi
o

A—Continued.
Five per cent, to the State of Florida
-Five - . . . . . . - . - - d o . . . . .
Iowa
,
:..
Expenses of running and marking'the boundary line between the United States and Mexico
. Rep ay liient for lands ei'iToneously sold. J . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.../.:
:.....:.....
Refunding moneys where.certain lands; have been entered at Greensburg district,.Louisiana.
Expenses oftcollecting,revenue from sales of public l a n d s - . . . ' . . . : . ' —
Payment of-war boXmty-land, certificates
.^ . i . . ; . . . . . . . . : . .
For'service§,-&'c., heretofore performed hy registers'.and receivers in locating military bountylandTaJfcing seventh'census of the United States, ihcluding •Oregon Tenltory
. . . . - ••
Extension of the Capitol....... 1 : . . . . . . . : : . ' . i . J . . . . .^.
^ . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . ^.
Completing east wing-.of the Patent Office building . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^....
Repairs and alterations of public buildings in Washington, irhproving.street's, squares, & c . .
Compensation and. contiugent expenses of Auxiliary Guard . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . . .
...
Support of penifcentiary in the District of Columbia:.
------ --............ —
Support of insane paupers in the'District of Columbia..,.....-.'....... ^
.-..:.
Support of twelve transient,paupers.«...--......
.~.
Compensation to draw-keeper's, repairs of bridges, & c . . . .
.:
.....
Miscellaneous items ...'
...y........
.-...:....-..
....
Support of-the military asylum,"per 7th section act March 3, 1851
.•.
.........
For historicai painting foi* the rotunda of the Qapitpl . . . . . . . . . . .'i
... -Eurchase ofsground north .of the,. General Post Gffice.building . . ; . . , . . .
. . . . . . .^..
.\.
Completing, i&c., Washington "city canal, passing through and .a,long;public grounds . . . . . . . . .
Total niiscellaneous . . ; . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .

^>^
C^

$1,215 77
• 6,464 36
• 85, 575 48
49,916 39
•.649 91
167,082 1,4
5,900 00
54,515 30 547,385 02
175, 000 00 ,
166,117 44
141,406 23
15,295 24.
11,920-00
8, 700 44'
2,- 000 00
^ 9,833 38
99,117^00
1,943 29
118,791 19
: 2,000 00
9,8t7 93
5,:0()O 00

.

©

$9/824 158 02

UNDER DIRECTION OF THE DEPARTMENT^ OF THE INTERIOR.

Fulfilling Indian 'treaties . . i . . . ^ . i " . . . . . . . . . . : . - . . . . , . . , . . . . . . . - .
..:..
...^
Current ex°pense8 of Indian depai-tment, including' relief and miscellaneous.........
War pensions:..:.
r.
i.... .....,... ...
Navy pensions
.^....
-.
...,.,.............
yirgima claims .:.:.':':^.
. . . ^ . . . . . . i . . - . :,V.i........................
: Total under direction of the ;Dep artment pf the Interior...



722,410
2,114,841
2,134,220
211,002
16,352

74
93
87
99
41
5 198,828 94

UNDER DIRECTION OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT.

1,594,986
1,540,288
1,989,889
104,823
242, 099
399,351
60,008
315,147
345,682
164,057
848,057
-260,247
57,950
285,596
17, 059

Pay of the army
Subsistence:.
Quartermaster's department.....
Forage
._....-,
Clothing
Barracks..: —
Horses for 2d regiment dragoons.
Miscellaneous items
Militia and volunteers
—
West Point....
.....:..:,...'..
Armories, &c
—
Arming militia
....
Surveys :
Fortifications....;..'.. T . . • . . . : . .
Harbors . . . . . . .
1...

67
66
71
30
74
72
12
04
79
17
73
70
00
71
86

fS, 225/246 ^

Total under direction of War Department.
UNDER DIRECTION OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT.

P;ay of the.navy.
Provisions......
increase
Contingent..
. . i •.. -.
Navy y a r d s . . . . . . '
..',
Hospitals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.
Magazines -.:
'Steam inail'serviced.....
p r y docks . \ . . . . . - . . . . . . . .
Nautical Almanac ...'': -..
Relief and miscellaneous .
Marine corps
.,
Total under direction of Nayy Department <




2,707,985' 89
530,205 83
2,200,'86i 27
547,'798 75
741,692 68
-14,757 67
-958 11
944,062 02
671,796,91
17,776 00
163,239 78
387,101 14
8,928,236.05

O

A'—Continued.

^
O)

PUBLIC DEBT.

;Pa.ying the old public'debt
i
'
Interest on' the p ublic debt, including treasury notes and Mexican indemnity stock
..-..........:.........-....
Interest orifive.million dollars five per cent, stock issued to T e x a s . ; . . . . . . . . .
;
,...
Redemption of stock of the loan-of 1843-'..-. .^^
i........
....^...
.-.,:....
:....
Do-.
...-do-,
1846-....
'.".
"Redemption of stock issued for fourth and fifth instalments of Mexican indemnity
.
Premium arid commission on purchase of stock loan of 1843
........'.:
'
- Do.......::.do:.>......^.do..;...,....do.... 1847......
...../. :........
Reimbursemenf of treasury notes, per acts prior to July 22,-1846, paid in specie
...:-...-.-.:...-...
Reimbursement of-treasury notes, per act July 22,1846, of which two himdred dollars was paid in specie, and fifty dpllars
received for custom's
1...
Total public debt.^..

$1,460 31
3,-750,297 80
250,'000-00
745,637 50
9 74
1, 070,450 00
287,596-76'
2,063 87
167,999 55
.5000

^

250 00
$6^275,815 53
; ; . -

.:

•

Total expenditure.

14,632,136 37

o

46,007,896 20

Balance in the treasury July 1,1852.

o

to

, TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's OJIice, November 30,1852




N. SARGENT, Register.

2t-

H. Doc. 23.
B.

Statement oJ duties, revenues, and public expenditures fpr the first quarter of
the fiscal year, from July \ to September SO''j 18S^, agreeably to warrants issued, exclusive qf trust funds and treasury notes funded.
•
•

~

RECEIPTS.

From' cu'stoms..... —^
.:
From sales of public lands,......^
From miscellaneous and incidental sources

^.:
:

:.

$15,723;935 71
415, 945 91
191,200 10
16, 331, 081 72

EXPENDITURES.

Civil list, miscellaneous, and fpreign intercourse
Expenses of collecting the revenue from customs
Expenses of cbllecting the revenue from lands
liadian department
Pensions
-...:.'
'....'...,
.

-^-..........
...........
,

$1,9l8,185 56
887,571 38

...........!
.......

2,.669,662 23
216,787 04

3,993,086 71
556,411 09
34,469.80
2,805,7,56 94

Army proper, & c .
--^--Fortifications, ordnance, arming militia, .&c

Nayyi.....
Payirigtheoldpublicdebt:.......-....:...
v
.
Interest on treasury .notes....
:.
Redemption of stock of the loan of 1843. . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . .
Reimburseinent of treasury notes, per act of 1847, paid in
;. specie
.
. . . .•
:..:.. ... 1
'........-...'.

.........
216 09
43 42
300,000 00
,

2,886,449-27
2,868,760'51

,50 00

'V,
\
;
. ."
300,309 Sl
From which deduct repayments on account of interest on .
'
' pubiicdebt...
.
............... ..^1..
4,656 14
'295,653 37
13;;440,587 69
N. SARGENT, Register/
.TREASURY DEPARTMENT,.

.J-

Register's Office^ Novemb'erZOt 1^2.




m

.H. Doc. 23.

Statement of the advances from the treasury, on account oj the expenses of each
custom-house in ihe United States during the year ending June SO, 1852.
District.
Passamaquoddy
Maine
.Machias . . : . . . .... - — . .
do
. Frenchman's Bay
do.........
Penobscot.
do.........
Waldoboro'
do
Wiscassetdo
Bath
do
Portland and Falmouth...... do
.
Sacp
do
....
Keiiuebunk.........
. . . .do
York - . . . . - - . . .
.do.........
•Belfast . .
...-.
. . . . -do
.....
' Bangor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..do
•-..
Portsmouth
. ' . . . .'New Hampshire.
Vennont : . . . . . , . . . . . . . : Vennont ....
Newburypoit. 1 . . . . . . . . .Massachusetts . .
Gloucester
/...........do... i.....
Salem and Beverly...
. . . do - . . . . . . . .
Marblehead
..-..-.
do.......:.
Boston and Charlestown
do - . . . . . . . --.
Pljuiouth - . : . . . . ; .
do. - -....... Fall River
......l.do...--....
Barnstable
;.
-....do....
New Bedford
do:..^.. ...
E d g a r t o w n . . . - . . . . - . - . . . . . . . do
Nantucket
. - do - . . . ,
Providence..... . . . -Rhode Island . . 1
Newport
....
:. . : . . . d o . . . . . . . . Bristol and Warren . . . . . . . .•. dp
.....
'Middletown........
Connecticut....
New London
do.........
New Haven
do
Fairfield
do
Stonington . . ; . . . . .
•.
do
Sacket's Harbor'
. . .New York.
Genesee
do - . ' . . . . . . .
Oswego
1 . . . . : do
Niagara . . . . ' . . . '
do...... ...
Bufl'alo
.
do-..
Oswegatchie
do
Sag Harbor .".
do
'...
New York
do
Champlain -:\
do...-.......
Cape Vincent
.- do
Perth Amboy
1 -New J e r s e y . . . . .
Bridgetown
i . . do
.
Burlington
. do......
Great Egg Harbor
do.
. Little Egg ^Harbor
do
Newark
dp
Camden - . . .
-do.....: —
Philadelphia
:. Pennsylvania . . .
Presque Isle
do
—
Delaware
Delaware
Baltimore
:
Maryland . . . . . .
Annapolis . . . . J
dp
'..
Oxford : . . - - .
..do....
Vienna
do..-:



Amount.
$24,851 00
2, 306 00
3,376 00
.4-, 228 -00
6,:502' 00
5,164 00
8,339
12,852 00
1,257 00
• 767 00
571 50
5,465 68
.6,205 97
lOySlS. 50
9,896 00

6va:3d

00

3v7S2 ,00
23,699 00
2,.466 00
210,777 75
3,242 00
4v936 00
.'•3,9'58' 00
7,373 00
4,T53 00
^ 2,190 00
' 9,645 00
5\673 23'
4,493 00. 2,850. 00
2,085 00
12,186 00
2,728. 00
^1,657 00
7,976 00
6,938 44
23,862 00
5,634 ,00
15,963 00
6,3193 00
834 00
764,099 57
8,274 00
5,265 00
4,152 00
50
202 50
163 00
' 922 00.
583 00
1,697 50
292 77
159,584 00
1,241 35
•27,984 14
^-117,781 00
2,228 08
121 11
^1,615

m

M. Doe. .23,
C—Continued.
Distiict.
Georgetown
District of Columbia .
Richmond
Virginia
,
Norfolk.and Portsmouth
do;
Tappahannock
do
Cherrystone
do
.'...
Yprktowri
;....•
. . . do
,
Petersburg'
.....
d'o.
Yeocomico,
.do
.2
Alexandria
'.. .do
...."..
Camden.....
....North:Garolina . . . ^ . .
Edenton
.do..
..:.
Plymouth ..-. ^ . . . . . . : . . .
d o . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Washington . . . . . . ^
- do
Newbern.
- . . . . . . . ' . . .do.....•:;.
'...
; Ocracoke . . . . . —
.:do
- Beaufort..
do.,
,
Wilmington . . • . . . . ; .
. . . . . do'
Charleston . . . . . . . .
. . South Carolina-. /.....
:Georgetown . . . . . . . . . :
do.
:
Beaufort.:....
. .."i...
do. :
^
...
Savannah ..^ . . . . . . . . . . G e o r g i a . . : . , . . . : . . . .
;St. M a a ^ ' s V ; : . . ; . : . ^ . . . . . . : . , d o ^ . .
.'.
Biims\yick..........'...- - . . . . d o . .
...
.,
-'Mobile
1.... Alabama....:. . . . ' . .
' Pearl River . . . . . . . . . : . . M i s s i s s i p p i : . . . . . . . . .
Natchez .
..
....
.'do-,.:..........,
Vicksbui-g . . . . . i
do:....'..,
Pensacola
.Florida . . : . .
..,
St. Augustine-.
do..............
Key<.\Vest . . . . i .
ido......:
^St.'Mark's...:.....
. . . . . . , d o . . . . . ^ . . : ......
-St. John's . . ^ . . . . . . . . . ..... .do
:.......
A.ppalachicpla'
do
New Orleans-....-.
Louisiana
'Tech6
.1.:......do
...,:\
Texas-..
.Texas . . 1 ' . . . . . . . . ,
Saluria
".. \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o / . . . . . . : . . . . . . .
Brazos de Santiago.
do.
...
Miaini........i-..........Ohio ......
...
Sandusky . .
,
do:..
. .Cuyahoga
do
-.-...:..
Minnesota . . . . . . : .
. Minnesota Territory ..
Milwaukie . . . . . . . , .
Wisconsin-.
Detroit
Michigan :
,
Michilimackinac
:.
,. do
.....;
Chicago... i . . . . .
. . . . . liliriois-.
.-.-...
-New Albany
Indiana...........
• Evarisyille.l.... . ^ . . . . . . . . ^ . . . d o .
'
,
Cincinnati
Ohio..
.1
.
- jLouisville
Kentucky
Nashville
: . . . . . Tennessee
,.
Pittsburg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pennsylyania
" St, Louis
Missdurir....
...,
, Wlieelirig -.....,
Virginitt.............
'• Weights and measures'...''.
.. .•-.......-...

.Amount.
$4,311 00
6,160 00
23,413 77
1,621 00
512 00 '
.414 48
6,544 00
"112 50
6,428 00
764 00
317 00
'871 00
827 00
728 00
2,505,00
385 00
7,861 18
58,861 34
464 00
250 00
• 31,428 00
1,198'00
724 00
26,572 00
. 416 09
752 00
3,223 00
•3,972 00
18,250 00
6,155 ^00
2,. 966 ..00
.5,667 00
190,984 67
491 00
'9,590 00
4,876 00
16,060 00
2; 584.00',
2,344 ,00'
4v030 00,
2,714 00
2,520 00
23,170 50
2,211 00
.2,400,00
1;380|28
.496 14
3,809 00
1,676 85'
2,245 43
1,813,69^
5,072 00
'503 68
2,643 50
2,088,386^69
N> SARGENT, Register^

TREASURV Di:i»ARTMENt, Register's Office, December 19', 1852.



Ho';Doc...2E

g2

•

D.

^

Statement of the nwnber of persons employe^l in each district of tIm
1 United States for the collection of customs, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1852^ with their occupation and compensation^ per act
Afarc/i 3/1849. '
': '

Districts;

Occupation.

"^
Passamaquoddy.

Collector....
Surveyor
Inspectors

:

:.. do.... ..:-...•

Machias.

Frenchman's Bay

Penobscot

Waldoboro'

Wiscasset ,

Bath'.




....'
.. . i . .
:....

....do
„.:.'.
. . . . do
.... do-.....,...:.,:.-.
Weigher and measurer..,:..
. . . . do
do..:
Deputy collector's clerk
Collector...:
...
Inspector . . . .
:
.... do.... . ^
'.......,...
....do.....,........:......,...,..
.... doi... . . . . . . .
Boatman . : . . . : . . ^ . . . . . .
;
Collector . . . . • . . : . . . . : . . • . . . . " . . . . . .
Deputy collector and inspector
. . . . do
-.do
/.
. . . . do
:.........do.:.:
. . . . do
do
Collector
Inspector
.
....do-.:.,.-.:....^...^:
.... do...
'.....:......./
. . . . do
, . i - do-..
...:.......
Deputy collector;
,
Collector . ' . . . . . . . . .
Inspectors.
: . - . do
.:.:.
..
. . : . do..
...../............
.....do....'.:.. .........:.;.......
. . . . do : : . . . .
.:........
.... d o . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . v . . . . . . . .
.Collector
.......:...
Deputy collector and inspector
.
Inspector
'...:
... 1
....do..;.
..;..............,
... do!'^!"!!^".^".!!!!*!"!!'""
Collector.....:...::..: ^
Deputy collector and inspector....
Inspectors, weighers, gaugers, &.c..
Irispector....'."
....do....
. . . do
.... d o . . . . . . . . . . . . . :
.....:,
Occasional weigher
. . . . . 3 0 . . : . o---dOo,i.o'po = =
.

$3,006,28
1,802 40
1,098 00
1,.062 00
1,080^00
732 00
549 00
1,106.66
1,056 31
• 182 Q
O
869 72
732 ©d

456 00
250 00
312 50
. ' 163 33
1,265 20
, 800 00
796 00
300 00
.365 00
1,160 96
1,048-75
730,00
& 1 00
150 00
650/00
'234 00
1,^809 4,6
1,098 Od
' • 1,086 00
. 334 26
301 00
430,^00
154 50
, P44.07

,1,077 00
-782 00
721 00
. 248 loo
, 166 00
1,90(S 26
l,086v00
.,1,500^00
i, 092 00
. 500 00
350.00
.' 247-00
V 2tpl38
5185

33

§:. Doc, 22>;
- P—Continued.

Districts r

Occupation.
p.1 © ,

a o
^25

Collector
Deputy collector and occasional weigher,
gauger, arid measurer
Clerk
.^
Inspectors-.......:'........
Occasional inspectors
. . . . do. do
Weighers, gaugers, and measurers
,
Surveyor
Boatmen'.'
— . .V—
'..//..
Collector
—
Inspector . . . - - . . . «
:

Portland and Falmouth

• ;

•

Saco...*

o

....:

..--do-..,....

Kennebunk

Aid of the revenue-. 1...;
Collector . . . / . ....•..._
Inspector
:
. / . : do....:
.... do..
......
Collector". . . . . Inspector .
'
....do..
...-...;
Collector . . # . . . . — . , ; . . . —
Inspector . . . .
.-^
.... do..^

..,

York........
Belfest

:..

•.

....:.
^
1.
:

•
:..

..;.v d o : . . : . . . . . : . . . .
Bangor. .

Portsmouth

Vermont

.Newburyport.




4
3
2
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
4
6
3
L
3
1
2
2
1
1

. . . do
-"Collector
Inspectors-...-..
--.
Weigher, gauger, and measurer
X)eputy collector, weigher, &c.
Collector ..'..,.
Naval officer
..
,...:...
Inspector and deputy collector
Surveyor
i
Occasional inspector. — . .
...i
Inspector arid deputy collector
Inspectors arid measurers
Occasional inspectors
Inspectors
'
Occasional inspectors
:
Weigher and gauger
Inspector
...: d o . . . . . . . : . .
...
Collector.....'
..
Deputy collector
: . . d o - . . . . - do
do...... :
. . . do
do...L . . .
. . . do
...^do...... do.......
Inspector .—
:..:. d o . . : . . .
..:. do-...-.
Boatmen:..!.
. . . . do
^Collector...'.
Naval^Officer

$3,000 00'
1,500 00
800 00
1,098 00
676. 50
466 00
1,500 00
1, 400 71
^ 300 00
375 78
627 00
" 326 00
66 00
229^ 22
600 00
80 00
' 3 2 00
278 68
200 00
96 00
1,409 03
i, 098 00
1,098 00
732 00
732 00
1,723 53
a,098 00
568 53
1,136 90
674 79
497 16
732 00
537 41
732 00
173 91
800 52.
305 53
500 00
107 50
1,197 27,
360 C
O
. 300 00
1, 090 '84
582 50
518 34
500 00
360 00
' 240 00
SOO 00
240 00
160 00
240 00
12a 00
419 96
150 00

M

S. Doc. 22.
D—-Continued.

00 rrS

Districts.

Pk o

*-S-^
Occupation:
Bo

Newburyport—Continued

Gloucester .

Salem and Beverly .

3
2
1
12
2
Marblehead \

Boston and Charlestown .,




3
1
6
6
7
2
56
1

i

2
21
9
4
8
1
2

Surveyor at Newburyport
Surveyor at Ipswich
Weigher and measurer
Gauger and inspector
Inspector . ...:
. . . do.
....
... d o . . .
Occasional inspector
Cpllector..
Surveyor..:....
Inspectors.
. . . do
:....
: . . do
Weigher, gauger, and measurer.
. : . . do
......do
Collector
Deputy collector . . . .
^
Naval officer
Suiweyor at Salem
Weighers and gaugers . . . . .
Measurers-....
Clerk .*,....
Inspectors
Boatmen
: ..
...
Laborer:
.
....
....
Surveyor at Beverly
Collector
.
.Deputy collector and inspector..
inspectors
;
Inspector at Lynn
. . . . do.
do........
Measurer.
Surveyor
Boatmen..;.......
Collector
'...,....
Naval officer
:
Surveyor . . . . . . . "
Deputy collectors
....:..:do
.,,
Collector's clerk
. . . . . . . . do
do.......:
...:.... do.....:
. . . : . . . . do
........ do....
........ do....
,
Inspectors
.... do...:
Superintendent and messenger .
Inspectors :
Night inspectors
Weighers
....
Gaugers
:....
Measurers
Appraiser at large^
Appraisers... i

$330 33
250 00
1,171 66
840 48
999 00
642 00
198 00
45 00
1,767 11
740 65
1, 098 00
300 OO
150 00
618 74
496 28
1,735 65
1,000 00
1,282 91
1,12dr84
1,297 45
676 22
692 00
765 75
300 00
457 00
359 15
852 28
365 00
365 00
182 50
365 00
30 86
455 34
150 00
6^400 00
5, 000 00
4,900 00
2,500 00
1,500' 00
1,80000
1,400 00
1, 300 00
1,200 00
1,100 00
1,000 00
900 00
1,095 00
800 00
1,200 00
700 00
600 00
1,485 00
1,485 00
1,485 00
2,500 00
2,500 00

S. Doc. 22.

35

D—Continued.

00 " ^

Districts.

Occupation.
<= a

a oc
o H^ 0

Boston and Charlesto'WTiContiriued.

Plymouth .

Fall River.

Barnstable .

Nev/ Bedford .

Edgartown .




Assistant appraiser
1.
Appraiser's clerks
do
...,....do......::....
Special examiner of drugs
Storekeeper . . : . . . . . .
.....
Asssistant storekeepers:
...........do...",.....
Storekeeper's clerk
..^
do
:
d o . . . . : . : . . . . . ..:
....:...do..........
..
.do..........
...^
Deputy naval officer.
..f
.
Naval officer's clerk
.'
,---....do....^........ ..:
Messenger
.1.
Deputy surveyor
.:
Surveyor's clerk
'
...
.'
......do . . . . . . . . . : . : . . . . . . .
Messenger
Collector.........
Inspector
,
— do . . . . . . . . :
...do
..do
....:..
..--do.......:
Measurer
Collector . - . . . . : . : . . . . . .
,
Deputy collector, weigher, gauger, & c . . . .
Inspector, weigher, and measurer
. . . . . . do
do..
Weigher and measurer...:
.
..
Boatman
:
'.
Collector...'
..-.
Deputy collectors and inspectors...
Insjpectors
Weigher and measurer.
Deputy collector
.....-.:....
Collector
...-,
Inspectors
,.. —
Clerk:
..:................
Inspector and weigher.
—
........do.........
:..
...
Inspector.-,.-do
'.
...do:...............
....do:
..--do
..,
Boatman
..:
Collector .
'.
>
—
Deputy collector arid inspector
.....do..............:.
Inspector
.....:..
.'—
Temporary inspector

$2,000 00
1,000 00
900 00
800 00
1,000 00
1.400 00
1,100 00
1, 000 00
1,095 00
1,000 00
900 00
800 00
609 00
1,500 00
1,200 00
1,150 00
480. 00
1,500 00
1,150 00
1,000 00
500 00
540 00.
1,095 00
800 00
600 00
300 00
160 00
68 00
1,111 41
1.401 08
],244 30
1,282 90
485 51
300 00
1;690 90
497 50
397 00
143 40
500 003,000 00

1,095 00
650 00
1,240 00
1, 359 00
300 00
96<O0
123'^00
99 00
108 00
420 00
1,438 86
600 00
500 00
500 00
338 00

m

S. Doc 22.
D---^ContInued.

KJ

" ^
•

Districts.

Occupation.

CO

52 ' ^
n o
a>

OS

P< «

|5

^
Nantucket.,
Providence.

Bristol and Warren.

Newport .




Collector
Inspector
:
....do
...:......
Collector
Clerk.
Naval officer.. Surveyor Providence
Surveyor East Greenwich
Surveypr Pawtuxet
.
Inspectors coastv^ise
Inspectors foreign :
Inspector Pawtuxet
Inspector East Greem^lch . . . . .
Weigher
Gauger
.'.
..--.....
Ganger^
Inspector-foreign..'
Measurer
Measurer
Boatman at Providence
Boatman at Pawtuxet
Boatman at East Greenwich....
Inspector at Pawtucket
Collector
Inspectors
...:do.:.....
....do
....do
.......:...
...do
...-do..
...-do............
'.
Gauger
Gauger
'
Weigher.
Assistant storekeeper
Boatman
Bpatman
Surveyors
Collector .
..
, Naval officer
:
.
.,
Surveyor
,
Surveyor at North Kingston
•Survej^or at Tiverton
.
Deputy collector and inspector .
Inspector
...do..:
...do
.:..d0
....do.........
==
....do
...do...
....do..
...do
Gauger
...
Weigher . .
'.
Measurer
-:.

$840.39
1,095 00
730 00
914 87
600 00
685 43
649 80
250 00
200 00
1,098 00
243 00
450 00
300 00
237 60
212 11
218 16
240 00
186 92
1, 309 79
145 83
300 00
132 00
300 00
717 76
549 00
420 00
162 00
117 00
108 00
102 00
15 00
282 72
112 08
142 60
550 00
180 00
60 00
250 53
740 13
440 14
402 00
250 00
200 00
552 00
552 00
546 00
400 00
204 00
198 00
138 00
114 00
166 13
58 05
391 92
12 93
28 10

S. Doc. 22.

m

D—Continued.

' Districts.

Occupation.

" ?
^
<o . a
PH ® J
.

a o'c

Newport—Continued .
Middletown . . . . . . ^ ^.

New London.

New Haven.. ......-..-.-;-.-

Fairfield .

.......... -

Ston.ington.

Sackett's Harbor.




2
2
T
3

Boatman..
.....:...
Boatman .:
Collector.. J.'.
Deputy collector...Inspector at Middletown.
Inspector at Hartford . . .
Inspector at Saybrook...
Sui'veyor at Middletown..
Surveyor at Hartford-...
Surveyor at Saybrook-..
Weigher and measurer...
Collector .,.
/
Surveypr:...........
Inspector
...do.......
....do....
....do-...
....do....
Weighers .
Bpatman..
Collector.......
.......
' Surveyor and storekeeper
Deputy collector and inspector
Inspector
....do.....
....do.:........
...do....
...do..:..
...do..
.............
Inspector, weigher, and measurer .
Inspector, weigher, and gauger . . Inspector, weigher,, arid' gauger—
Boatman
..
....:..
Cpllector : . . . . i.;..
.-....:...
Inspector, weigher and measurer..
Inspectors .[...
.Night inspector .....
r - - -,.• Collector
'.
'.....
Surveyor.....................
Inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . - ^ . . . .
Boatman
...
Boatman . . . . . . . < . .
Collector . . . :
,
Deputy cpllector and inspector . . .
do.
.do.
do.
.do.
.do.
do.
.do.
do.
do.
.do.
Temporary inspectors.
.........do.........
...do..:......
.........do.........
Night watch
.....do.............

$324 00
144 00
1,057 45
^ 50 00
500 00
500 00
250 00
346 37
436 99
313 85
97 43
972 99
250 00
600 00
650 00
250 00
500 00
100 00
11 89
300 00
2, 328 73
827 55
1,098 do
1, 098 00
989 00
980 00
129 00
105 00
78 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
300 00
1,041 85
1,360 36
144 00
50 00
845 85
ISO 00 •
500 00
216 00
72 00
" 717 79
730 00
640 00
.365 .00
300 00
240 00
180 00
730 00
547 SO
412 50
2t5 00
412 SO
275 00

38

S . ' D o c 22.'
D—Continued.

Districts.

C
O

Occupation.

ri

P 'a
•PI O

s o:
O +5

o
Genesee.
• Oswego.

Niagara.

Buffalo.

Oswegatchie.

Sag Harbor. .




Collector
..
Deputy collectors and inspectors.
Collector......
Deputy collector-..
Inspectors
:
.,.
...do.
..:do.
...do
...do.
.-"--do....:...-.:.
Night watchmen
*...:
.....do
Clerks
..do
Boatman
Storekeeper.......
Collector
Deputy collector...
Inspectors
Deputy collector . . .
do--...,
Aid of the,revenue.
........do...
Deputy collectors ..
do....-.'..-:
do--.-......
Night watch
.
Collector.:
Deputy collector and inspector ,
do
-do.
-do.
Inspector
,
....do..
...do...
..........
Inspector during navigation.
.:....:..-,do-.:
Night watchmen
Aid of the revenue
Boatman
Clerks.-----..:.,....
Collector
Deputy collector
Inspector..
....do
....do
....do....
do Watchman
.r
Boatman and night watch. .
....do
:do.......
Collector..
Surveyor--..
Inspectors....do.....

$784 20
730 00
961 84
1, 000 0!)
730 00
500 00
300 00
365 00
410 62
250 00
365 00
547 50
730 00
600 00
300 00
730 00
1,359 14
900 00
732 00'
732 00
400 00
172 00
136 00
366 00'
289 00
306 00
366 00
1,950 23
1,000 00
730 00
500 00
250 00
1, 000 00
730 00
540 00
777 00
870 00
730 00
518 00
300 00
730 00
1,460 10
900 00
732 00
600 00

549 do
400 00
366 00
394 00
240 00
180 00
604 95
12 50
312 50
123 00

39

S. Doc. 22.
. D—Continued.
^ u

p
to n S

Districts.

s ^
. PixO

Occupation.

p.®

r

«t-"p.

^a

New York.




1
5
1
1
1
3
7
34
23
16
4
2
1
2
6
1
1
1
1
5
1
3
1
I

Collector
Deputy collectors.
-Auditor-...:. . . . .
Assistant auditor..
Cashier..
.:..
1 Assistant cashier..
Clerks
:".....
.:-dp
:...-..
.do.
..do.
...do.
...do-do.
:do:
Keepers of custom-house.
Watchmen....
... ...
Sunday wjU:chmaai
.. .
Fireman
.•
. Porter and messenger
...-..,do..--......:...
...--..do.......:.
.do.
.do-do.^do-

$6,340 00
2,500 00
3,000 00
2,000 00
2,500 00
2,000 00
1,500 00
1,200 00
1,000 00
900 00
800 00
70O 00
600 00
• 500 00
800 do

549 00
156 00
457 SO
480 00
400 00
360.00
350 00
300 00
250 00
200.00

. Naval Office/
1
3
1
1
, 7
3
5.
12
2
2
1
; 2
1
1
1
1
1

Naval officer:....—
..
Deputy naval officers
.:
Clerk
....
...do.:..
:....:.....
..-do............
..do
.......
..do.........
--do,
..-do..,.......-.:.
,,-do..
:..
.--do.:
..do..........:.:...
...do:
-.
.-do..-..,,.......
Porter
.....,
...
Messe
...do

5, 000 00
1,500 00
1,SOO 00
1,200 00

h 050
1,000
950
900
850
800
750
600
500
400
450
250
150

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

Surveyor''s Offi/x,
Surveyor._.
-.
Deputy surveyor/.-.
Clerk.....:
..:...:...

4,900 00
1,500 00

,.do.........j:...........

1,000 00
700 00
600 00

Porter and messenger..

,

1, too 00

40

S.' Doc. 22L
D—Continued.
.2 '»

so r ^

Districts.

PH

Occupation.

O

PH <D

13

New York—Continued. - .




1
17
3
3
1
1
1
,2
1
1
7
1
1
1
59
1

-General appraiser...
Appraisers;
Assistant: appraisers .
Clerks....... :
...do..
.do.
.do.
.do.
.do.
-do.
do. ,
Samplers.,
...do....
Watchman.
...do......
Laborer
....do......

"*do!^--!!"!'.!i!!'!*!
Special examiner of drugs.

$2,500 00
2,500 00
2,000 00
1,200 00
1,100 00
1,050 00
1,000 00
900 00
800 OO
600 00
832 00
800 00
780 00
624 00
676 00
520 00
780 00
650 00
. 624,00
520 00
2, 000 00

Public warehouses.
Storekeeper
1
Register.....:
1
Clerk
1
Assistant storekeepers
26
Clerks
10
39^ . . . d o . . . .
...do...........
1
38 . Watchmen.
8- . . . . d o .
1
....do...
•7
Messengers and porters.
3

1
3
. 8.
17
193
3^
1
, 1
75
19
18'
7
.. 7.
15
2
4
1

Marker
Laborers, (foremen).
....do
. . .do.
...
.do.
Inspectors
inspector at Albany
—: Inspector at Troy-;—
Inspectors at Long Island-. Night inspectors
Weighers
;Foremen....Gaugers
.;...... |
Assistants.:.
::,..'....
Measurers.
— ^
Assistants to markers:
Measurers of passenger vessels
Watchman and porter in assistant treasurer's office
o -»•

2,500 00
1,200 00
1,200 00
1,000 00'
900 00
800 00
700 00
549 00
546;00
366 00
780 00

520 do
520 00
780 00
520 00
390 00
1,098 00
1,098 00
1,098 00
732 00
549 00
1,485 00
360 00
1,485 00
480 00
1,485 00
600 00
i941 25
915 00

41

S, Doc. 22.
D—Continued.
^

Districts.

Occupation.
s o o«
P *

® a

New York—Contmued.
18.
1
1
1
2
.-2
3
1
5
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

Champlain.,

Cape Vincent.

Perth Amboy.

.a

Bridgetown.... .^-.
Burlington
Little Egg Harbor.
Great Egg Harbor.
Newark

'r^

.

Camden...
Philadelphia...-.-.,-




1
3
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
21
1
2
1
1
2
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
.8

Watchman and porter in assistant treasurer's office
Bargemen..
^
Surveyor at T^oy-.
,
Surveyor at Albany
Collector.....,:.
,
Deputy collectors and inspectors
.
. ..do
do.>
...
. ..do..
'..do
-—
do..
db
,
........do.......
.do.
Collector.
Deputy collectors and inspectors...
do
do...
Aid of the revenue
Night inspector
:...
Collector..
Surveyor
Deputy collector
Inspector
:.
-.,..:.-.
d©..--

:...

...do.:...:..
...do..
Bargeman.
..^.do
Collector
.
.:
.:.do...
...:
...do
....
Inspectors..--..
Collector..:.
Inspector.....:,
..
Collector
Deputy collector and inspector
Temporary inspector
.^
Surveyor...
:.
..
Collector...Naval officer..
Surveyor
Deputy collectors
Deputy naval officers and surveyors.
Appraisers
. :.
.:.
Assistant appraiser...'
Examiner
......do....
..:.^...;
Special examiner of drugs.
Weigher
'.....-......
.....dp...
:..........
Gaugers.......:.:—...
^..,
Measurers,.
.....-..:..-,
Superintendent of pubhc stores.;
Assistant storekeeper.
Clerk
....
.do....................

$549
600
.250
150
1, 050
750
600
500
450

00
00
00
00
71
00
00
00
00'

400 do

1, 014 00
730 00
547 50
547 50
547 50
792 72
150 00
569 50
590 00
600 00
393 00
504 00
59 00
58 00
268 11
161 53
579 09
109 50
442 66
360 00
548 63
730 00
518 00
265 95
6, Oil 89
5,000 00
4,500 00
2,500 00
1,500 00
2,-500 00
2,000 00
1,200 00
1,095 00
1,000 00
1,485 00
1,000 00
1,485 OO
1,485 00
1,500 00
840 00
1,600 00
1, 300 00
1,200 00
1,100 00
1,000 00

42

S. Doc. 22.

. 00

p

o ^
Districts.

of

Occupation.

1"
1
5
3
1
2
1
3
1
45
17
2
26
4
3
5
1
1
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
4
:..
1
1
1
2
3
1
3
1
^ 1
1
1

Philadelphia—Continued..

Presque Isle.
Pittsburg
Delaware

Baltimore

1

. '




1
1
26
2
25
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
1

Clerk
..do.....
..do
do......... '
do . . . . . .
do
..do
Inspector...
.o....
....do
Occasional inspectors
.. . . . . . . .
Principal night inspectors
Nio-htinsnectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boatmen..
..
......
.......
Messengers
Laborers
...
......
.......
....do..
....do......
W^atchmen . . . : . . . . - -..
......
...: do..-.....do
....do
Samnler. rdenutv")
..............

Compensation
to each person.

D—Continued.

$950 00
900 00
860 00
850 00
800 00
493 48
760 00
730 00
1,095 00
730 00
800 00
547 50
36d 00
600 00
547 SO
456 25
400 00
547 SO
456 25
420 00
360 00
547 50
398 S3
Coll Pf tor
732 00
Deputy collector
....................
' 2,179 37
1,500 20
Collector
....
. .
1,095 00
Inspectors..'..
^800 00
do
500 00
.do
365 00
Messengers
..........
300 00
Boatmen
....
.......
6,400 00
Collector
.
...
......
2,sod 00
Deputy collector
1,500 00
Cashier
...'
1,200 00
Clerks.........
1,100 00
..do..
1,000 00
..do
900 00
..do
.:...
850 00
..do...
:.
54'7 50
Messenger
4, 453 '48
Navail officer
1,200 00
DcDutv naval .''officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
900 00
Clerk
2,249 52
Surveyor
.-»»-626 00
Clerk.......:
1,095 00
Inspectors
........:...............
638' 75
Night inspectors
547 SO
do
1,150 00
Storekeeper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1, 095 00
...do
....:......
626 00
Assistant s t o r e k e e p e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1,000 00
Clerks
.:
........:
547 50
Porters
...........................
2,500 00
Appraisers . .
...--...................
1,200 00
Clerk...:.
:...:.
1,000 00
..do.....
:......:....

S. Doc. 22.

43

D—Contiriued.

Occupation.

Districts.

P i » £.

a oc

Baltimore—Continued..

Annapolis.

Oxford
.Vienna.
Havre de Grace
Town Creek
Georgetown

Richmond
Norfolk and Portsmouth.

Tappahannock

Cherrystone..
Yorktown
Petersburg...




1
1
6
I'
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1

Clerk.....
Porter .'
Boatmen
Keeper of Lazaretto.
Weigher
Deputy weighers
Gauger........
Measurer
Deputy measurer....
do
Collector
Inspector
Surveyor
...do:.:...
:
...do-....
Collector
...do..:..-.:......
Surveyor.
.. do
Collector.
Deputy collector, inspector, arid weigher
Deputy collectors and inspectors
Clerk...
,
Gauger 1.
Temporary inspector
.
Collector.
Deputy collectors and- inspectors
,..
Inspectors, weighers, and measurers
Collector.
Deputy collector, inspector, and storekeeper
Clerk...
Naval officer
—
Clerk......
Surveyor . :
...
Inspectors...
...do......
Weigher and gauger.
...
.......
Measurer.'
Watchman . . . .
..,
Boatman.......:.
...do
....^.
Surveyors.''
-Collector.
Deputy collector and inspector
Surveyors
.:.do. ............:
:
Collector.....
.
Surveyor
Collector....
Surveyor.,
Cpllector
Deputy, collector
Surveyor
..
Weigher, -&c. . . . . .
.
:. Inspectors . .
........'--.
Aid of the. revenue;.
,
:
.

$626 do
547 50
540 00
150 00
1,500 00
1,000 00
1,500 00
1,500 do
1, 000 00
600 00
254 11
1,095 00
250 00
200 00
150 00
404 28
560 80
151 81
152 69
1,232 57
1,325 14
823 SO
500 00
18 24
200 00
2,090 68
2,190 00
2,190 OO
3,834^14
1, 095 00
500 00
737 19
626 00
457 23
1,095 00
400 00
575 63
778 41
365 00
300 00
150 00
250 00
585 65
300 00
250 00
150 00
215 39
388 00
402 77
200 00
1,244 50
732 00
500 00
1,500 00
1,098 00
292 00

u

S, Doc, 22,
D—Continued.

Districts.

Occupation.

52 r^a
P o
PH <»

aO
O ••^

O
Collector
:
Deputy collector and inspector . . .
Surveyor
Inspectors .
.
Weigher and measurer
Gauger
:.,.....
Boatman
,
Surveyor
Surveyor
Collector.
.
,...
Temporary inspector, ganger, &c.
. . . . . ....do
..:...do
Collector.-

Alexandria.

Wheeling
Yeocomico
Camden, N.-CEdenton . . . . . .
Plymouth, N. C

Collector......::.......
Surveyor.............
Inspector; gauger, &c..
....do...
Collector...,
........
Deputy collector, inspector, ^ c .
Collector..
Inspector
G.auger
Weigher
Measurer
Collector
Inspector . ...::.Collector
Inspector
.
.
.......
Collector.
.
Naval officer.
Surveyor..........;
—
Permanent inspectors
Temporary inspector
do.
...
do..
Boarding officer and inspector . .
Seamen

Washington, N. C.
Newbern...

Ocracoke

.....

Beaufort
Wilmington, N..C.

Collector.
Naval officer.....
Surveyor..........
Deputy collector.
.......do........
.do.
-do..
Assistant nayal officer
Appraisers . . . . . . . . . .
Weigher
...
Measurer
Ganger . . : . . . . — . . -

Charleston .

28
Georgetown, S.. C......
Beaufort, S. C.
Savannah . . . . .



Inspectors

-? --

Collector.
Deputy collector..
Collector
Collector
-...-.-

$1,718 41
1,098 00
300 00
1,098 00
1,500 00
69 72
49 00
738 41
232 80
690 54
316 95
100,08
371 80
722 58
150 do
126 23
110 51
377 34
500 00
466: 23
250 00
2 64
18
147 78
1,000 00
480 00
.251 45
39 00
2,332 45
1,007 42
899 45
600 00
715 13
799 80
320 19
480 Ob
240 00
225 00
6,000 00
2,409 00
1,900 00
1,300 00
1,200 00
1,000 00
600 00
666 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
1,095 00
546 56
125 00
311 71
3,188 68

u

S. Doc. 23.
D—Continued.

•

Districts.

Occupation.

!

-

•

•5£ ^
P o
O d

5^® da O O

o
Savannah—Continued.

Brunswick . . .
St. Mary's, Ga.
Mobile

Pearl River .
Natchez . . . .
Vieksburg...
Pensacola...
St. Augustine

Key West.

St. Mark's.

St. John's.

Appalachicola.




1
1
10
2
2

Deputy collector:....
Clerk
Inspectors -.
..--do
Appraisers
Weigher and ganger..
Appraisers' porter . . .
Watchman . . . . . . . . . .
SuiTeyor
Naval officer...:
Storekeeper.........
Boatmen
Collector ..'
Temporary inspector .
Collector
:..:....
Inspector
....
Boatmen
Collector
Inspectors and clerks.
Inspectors
.....do
-do.
-do.
-do.
-do.
-do.
Weighers and measurers...
Appraiser
,
Gauger
Collector.
Collector:
Collector.
Collector
Inspector
Surveyor St Andrew's bay ,
Collector.......
.
Deputy collector
.=..
Inspector
...
Boatmen
Boatman.
Collector
.Deputy collector
,
Inspector ."
do....................
Temporary inspector
, Collector
...:
•...
Inspectors . . . . . . . :
Boatmen.J..-do
Collector
Inspectors
Surveyor
•...
Boatmen..
..,
Collector
..
:.....
Inspector .
..;

$1,200 00
800 00
1,095 00
250 00
1,500 00
1,500 00
180 00
182 00
150 00
33 75
800 00
360 00
250 00
250 00
610 94
200 00
60 00
6,000 00
1,500 00
1,098 00
• 948 00
915 00
879 00
786 00
741 00
570 00
1,500 00
840 00
32 69
303 27
505 27
511 75
1,177 70
1,095 00
300 00
549 9 6
,
730 00
500 00
192 00
288 00
1, 309 46
1,098 00
1,098 00
550 00
18 00
797 72
1,096 00
300 00
240 00
710 52
730 00
300 00
180 00
2,012 40
1,095 00

a Doc. 22.

46

D—Continued.

"ce"

Occupation.

Districts.

^

2 '^
P o

a oc

Appalachicola—Continued
New Orleans

2
1
4
1
2
5
9
4
3
1
76
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]

Tech6.
Texas.

Brazos do Santiago.




1
1
1
1
2
4
11
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
I
6
8
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
3

Temporary inspectors
Weigher and gauger
Boatmen..:
Collector
Deputy collectors,
Clerks
:.
...do
....do....
....do
Porter
Inspectors
Gauger
Deputy gauger
Weigher
Deputy weigher
Measurer
Deputy measurer
Naval officer
:
Deputy naval officer
Clerk........
:
....do-...:..
...do
Surveyor,
Deputies.
Boatmen...
....do...........
Appraisers
Assistant appraisers
Clerks...
Messenger
Porters
..-.do..:.
Storekeeper - - -..
Deputy storekeeper ,
Laborers
...-do
Watchmen
Collector
Deputy collector and inspectorCollector
Deputy collector
,
do
Surveyor
Weigher and gauger
Clerk.......
Inspectors
CollectorDeputy collector and inspector.
do
do
do
do
do
do
. . . . . d o . . . . . . . ..do.
do
. . . ..do.
d o . . . . . . . ..do.
Inspectors
...do
Clerks

$750
1,500
300
6,400
2,500
1,500

00
00
00
00
00
00

1,200 do
1,000 00
900 00
730 00
1,095 00
1,500 00
1,200 00
1,500 00^
1,200 Od
1,500 00
1, 095 00
5,000 do
1,500 00
1,200 00
1, 050 00
730 00
4.500 00
l^SdO 00
540 00
360 00
2, 500 00
2,000 00
1, 095 00
' 900 00
' 540 00
360 00
1,500 00
1,095 00
480 00
420 00
730 00
613 97
150 00
1,750 00
730 00
1,000 00
1,000 00
1,200 00
800 00
1,095 00
1,750 00
900 00
1,000 00
1,000 00
700 00
800 00
700 00
700 00
700 00
800 00
700 00

47

S. Doc. 22: '
D—Continued.

^

Districts.

Brazos de Santiago—Continued.

Saluria.

Miami.

Sandusky.

Cuyahoga.

Cincinnati
Detroit...

Clerks . . . . . . . . .
....
.
Storekeeper
.
...:do
Night watch
Boatman
Collector
:
Deputy collector
Surveyors
J-... . .
.--do
Seamen . . : . - .
:-.-.-.- —
Collector
Deputy-collector and inspector.
'.do
.::.do
do
. — :.do
Collector
Deputy collector,and inspector.
.--.-do..
do
do
do
Clerk.:
Collector
.
:..
Deputy collector and inspector.
Inspectors
....do
Surveyor..
Clerk.......
Collector
:..
Deputy collector
do-.
do
do

Michilimackinac.

Chicago -

Louisville..
Nashville-.
St. Louis..

New Albany..
Evansville-. Milwaukie . .




PH

Occupation.

PH^-

i-

do-.-.
.......do
Inspector
...do
......
...do
...-do
Weigher and gauger.
Collector
-Deputy collector
-do.
......do
...Collector....
:
Deputy collector and inspector.
. do.:
do
do..
. . . . do
Inspector
Surveyor
Surveyor
Surveyor..
....:..
Clerk
..........
...do
.......:
Temporary inspector
Surveyor......
Surveyor
Collector........:
Deputy collector

$800
700
800
600
480
1,250
500

00
00
00
00
00
00
00

600 do

500 00
300 00
326 41
800 00
600 00
400 00
645 83
800 00
300 00
200 00
365 00
525 56
732 00
600 00
240 00
3,000 00
600 00
1,693 08
1,000 00
480 00
360 00
240 00
180 00
150 00
750 00
600 00
360 00
240 00
1,095 00
835 85
400 00
300 00
^ 240 00
835 35
480 00
360 00
300 00
300 00
2,715 94
2,540 87
3,000 00
732 00
670 00
• 18 00
1,456 43
412 94
840 00
480 00

m

S. Doc. 22.
D—^Continued.
9 ^
O
'•^

Districts.

Occupation.

<D
PH

^^

p.-w
PH«

d

aoo
Milwaukie—Continued.
Minnesota.
-.
San Francisco..




14

16

Deputy collectors.:...
Collector
Deputy collector.....
Temporary inspector .
Collector
*.......
Deputy collector
do
Cashier
Clerk...............
...do
....
...do.
.-do.
.-do.
.-do--do.
--do.
JSliessenger..........
...-do
Porters
Naval officer
Deputy naval Officer.
Clerk.-.....do.....:.........
...do......
Porter...:......
Surveyor :.
..
Deputy surveyor..
Clerk-.
.--do-...
...do
:
Messenger and porter.
Appraisers...-.
Assistant appraisers...
Examiners
do
Clerks
Clerk....
.:.do.
Watchman and superintendent of laborers.
Watchman
-. - - Laborers
Laborer
.. Storekeeper
-.-. --Assistant storekeeper.
Clerk
Inspector and clerk.
do
do...
-do.
do
-Watchmen.
do
Laborers
^•
-.-.do
Weigher and measurer.
d o . . . . . - . - - . do

$360 00
1,200 00
400 00
12 00
10,000 00
4,832 41
4,250 00
4,000 00
3,600 00
3,549 72
3,532 96
3, 383 51
3,134 13
3,033 51
3, 000 00
792 33
1,033 3.3
1,495 00
1,560 00
8, 000 00
4, 000 00
3,600 00
3, 300 00
3, 000 00
360 00
7,000 00
4,000 00
3,600 00
3, 000 00
2,400 00
1,800 00
6, 000 00
3, 500 00
3, 000 00
2, 370 00
2,160 00
2,088 00
1,740 00
2,160 00
1,560 00
1,440 00
1,224 00
4,000 go
3,000 00
3,000 00
3,500 00
2,988 00
2,591 00
2,196 00
1,953 00
1,560 00
964 29
1,440 00
415 00
, 3,650 00
3,000 00

S. Doc. 22.

49

D—Continued.
.2 ®

Districts.

San Francisco—Contin'd.

San-Joaquin.
Sacramento..

San Diego.
Senora:...

Monterey..

Ore.sron..

^

Occupation.

1
1
1
7
74
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
.1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
6
1
' 1
3
1
2

Weigher and measurer....
Gauger . . . - - - . .
;
...do
Inspectors
....do-....
...:
Inspector
Collector
Inspector
Deputy collector
Collector
v...
Inspector. '..'.
....do....:
.--..do-...
..:.do.
....do-.
CollectorSurveyor San Pedro
Surveyor Santa Barbara..
Collector
Deputy collector
do
Inspector ,
....do
....do-...

•/..

....do...........
..-.do-.-...-do
'Weigher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boatmen
Collector
Deputy collector
Inspectors
Boatmen
Collector
Deputy collector
Surveyors
Inspector
Boatmen

P

O

PH

PH

©

$500 00
3,650 00
3,000 00
2,928 00
2,196 00
1,996 00
3,000 00
2,190 00
730 00
3,000 00
2,196 00
1,386 00
528 00
276 00
. 108 00
3,000 00
2 000 00
2,000 00
4,845 91
2,928 00
2,400 00
2,196 00
1,644 00
882 00
570 00
504 00
186 00
1,627 53
960 00
3, 000 00
2,928 00
2,196> 00
732 00
2,53a SS
1,750, 00
1,000 00
730 00
480 00
N. SARGENT, Register.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, December 9, 1852.




50

S. Doc 22.
E.
SiatemenZ of thepublic debt on the 1st of January, 185%.

Of the old funded and unfunded debt, payable on presentation . ,
Treasury notes outstanding, fundable or payable on presentation
Debt of the coi-porate cities ofthe District of Columbia, assumed per act
of the 20th May, 1836, $60,000 payable annually
fc Loans:
Six per cent, of 1842, redeemable December 31,1862. . $8,198,686 03
Five per cent, of 3 843, redeemable July 1, 1853
4,526, 531 35
Six per cent, of 1846, redeemable November 12, 1856..
4, 999,139 71
Do
1847, redeemable Januaiy 1, 1868
25,656,600 00
Do
1848, redeemable J u l y l , 1 8 6 8 . . . . . . . . 15,735,000 00
Five per cent. Texan indemnity, redeemable January 1,
1865.
5,000,000 00

$114,573 40
121,161 6^
. 780,000 00

64,115,957 05
65,131,692 \%
Amount of the public debt on the 20th November, 1851, as per the report
on the finances of the 6th January, 1852
„
Add on account of the Texan indemnity, per act of September 9, 1850 . ..

62,560,395 26
5, 000, 000 00
67,560,395 26

Deduct payments:
On account of the old funded and unfunded debt
On account of city debts assumed
On account of treasury notes paid in money . . Stocks purchased:
Of the 5 per cent, loan of 1843
Of the 6 per cent, loan of 1846..
Of the 6 per cent, loan of 1847...
Of the 6 per cent, loan of 1848

$2,143 39
60, 000 Od
50 00
1,711,400
9
650,100
5,000

00
74
00
00
2,428,703 13

As above...

..-.-..:

65,131,692 13

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's Office, Jamuiry, 4, 1853.




a

51

Doe. 2^.F.

Statement oj the redemption of treasury notes during the fiscal year ejiding
June 30, 1852.

.a
'^ a-

n3

(V

'

•

1

•

Redemption of treasury notes, per acts prior to July
22 1846
Redemption of treasury notes, per act of July 22, 1846.
Redemption of treasury notes, per act of January 28,
1847
.-

$50
200

. 250

"$56'
50

"

$25,250
8,750

$25, 300
9,000

13, 300

13,300

47, 300

47,600

N> SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's Office, December 11, 1852«




Statement exhibiting the total value of imports, and tJie imyorts consumed in the United States, exclusive of specie, during each fiscal
year from 1821 to 1852} showing, also, the value of the domestic and foreign exports, exclusive of specie, and the tonnage employed during the same periods.
Years.

1821
1822
1823....
1824
1825
:
:...
1826
1827
1828
1829
'
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834...
1835
1836
.1837
1.838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843, (9 months, ending June 30)
1844
....




Total imports, in- Imports
concludiug specie,
sumed, exclusive of specie.
&c.
.

Domestic produce exported,
exclusive ' of
specie.

$43,696,405
68, 367,425
51,308,936
53, 846, 567
66, 375,722
'57,652,577
, 54,901,108
66, 975,475
54,741,571
49, 575, 009
82, "808,110
75, 327, 688
83,470,067
86,973,147
122, 007,974
158,811,392
113, 310, 571
86,552,598
145,870,816
86,250, 335
114, 776, 309
87,996, 318
37,294,129
96, 390,548

$43,671,894
49, 874, 079
47, ISS; 408
50,649,500
66,809,766
52,499,855
57, 878,117
49,976,632
55, 087, 307
58,524,878
59,218,'583
61,726,529
69, 950, 856
80,623,662
100,459,481
106,570,942
94,280,895
95,560,880
101,625,533
111, 660,561
103,636,236
91,799,242
77,686,354
99, 531,774

$62,585,724
83,241, 541
77,579,262
80, 549, 007
96, 340, 075
84,974, 477
79, 484, 068
88,509, 824
74, 492, 527. 70, 876, 920
103,191,124
101,029,266
108,118, 311
126,521,332
149,895,742
189, 980, 035
140, 989, 217
113, 717, 404
162,092,132
107,141,519
127,946,177
100,162, 087
64,753,799
108, 435, 035

Foreign
mer- Total exports, inchandise excluding specie,
ported, exclu&c.
sive of specie.
$10,824,429
11,504,270
21,172,435
18, 322,605
23,793,588
20,440,934
16,431,830
14, 044,608
12, 347, 344
13,145, 857
13, 077, 069
.19,794,074
15, 577, 876
21,'636,553
14,756,321
17,767, 762
17,162,232
9,417,690
10,626,140
12, 008, 371
8,181,235
8, 078,753
5,139, 335
6,214,058

$64,974, 382
72,160,281
74,699,030
75,986,657
99,535,388
77,595,322
82, 324, 827
72,264,686
72, 358, 671
73,849,508
81, 310,583
87,176,943
90,140,433
104,336,973
121,693,577
128,663,040
117,419, 376
108,486,616
121, 028,416
132,085,946
121,851,803
104,691,534
84, 346,480
111,206,046

Tonnage.

$1,298,958
1, 324,699
1,336,566
1,389,163
1,423,112
1, 534,191
1,620,608
.1,741,392
1,260,798
1,191,776.
1,267,847
1,439,450
1,606,151
1,758,907
. 1,824,940
1,882,103
a, 896,686
1,994,640
2,096,380
2,180,764
2,130,744
, 2,092, 391
2,158,603
2,280.095

o
a

1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852

117,254,564
12lj69i>797
146,545,638
154,998,928
147, 857, 439
178,138, 318
216,224,932
212,613,282

105,599,541
110, 048,859
116,257,595
140,651,902
132,565,168
164,032,033
200,476,219
195,072,695

98,455,330
101,718,042
150, 574,844
130,203,709
131,710, 081
134,9.00,233
178,620,138
154,930,447

7,584,781
7,865,206
6,166,754
7,986,802
8,641,691
9,475,493
10,295,121
12,037,043

114,646,606
113,488,516
158,648,622
154j 032,13i
145,755,820
151,898,720
218, 388, Oil
209,641,625

2,417,00^
' 2,562,085
2,839,046
3,154,042
3,334,015
3,535,454
3,772,439
4,138,441

N. SARGENT, Register/
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's Office, Janiiary 5,1853.
NOTE.—In the tables laid before Congress at last session, the imports, including specie, were stated at $223,419,005; but it Was afterguards a,scertained that this
Included $7,194,073 of gold from California via New' Grenada, which does not properly belong to. foreign imports^ and it is, therefore, dow deducted'in the precedhag statement, leaving the foreign imports,%cludiiig specie, $216,224,9.32 for that yea^^^^




.
^

a
•

'

o

a

8. Doe. 22.

54

H.
Statement exhibiting the value of im/ports, annually, from 1821 to 1852.
Value of merchandise imported.
\ ears ending
Specie and Free of duty. Paying duty.
bullion.
September 80..-o^..-:. . 1 8 2 1 . . - , . . •
1822
1823
,1824
1825
1826
1827
^ 1828
1829
1830
1831......
18.32
1833.
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838...:..
1839....:.
1840
1841
1842
Nine months, *o Jtine 3( , 1 8 4 3 . . . . . . .
Y e ^ , to Junes®..1844..-_..^
1845......
1846.......
1847......
1848......
1849.
1850
1851......
1852
•

•

$8,064,890 $2,017,423
3,369,846 .3,928,862
. 5,097,896
3,950,392
8,379,835
4,183,938
6,150,765
4,796,745
6,880,966
5,686,803
8,151,130
3,703,974
7,489,741
4,889,435
7,403,612
4,401,889
8,155,964
4,590,281.
7,305,945
6,150,680
5,9d7,504
8, 341,949
7,070,368 25, 377,582
17,911,632 SO, 481,548
13,131,447 64,809,046
13,400,881 78,655,600
10,510,414 58,733,617
17,747,116 43,112,889
5,595,176 70,806,616
8,882,813 48, 313,391
4,988,-633 61,031,098
4,087,016 26,540,470
22,390,559 1.3,184,025
5,830,429 18,986,452
4,070,242 18, 077,598
3,777,732 20, 990,007
24,121,289 17,651, 3476,360,224 16, 356, 379
6,651,240 15,726,425
4,628,792 18,081,590
5,453,592 19,652,995
5,503,544 24,187,890

$52,503,411
75,942,833
68,530,979
67,985,235
85,392,565
72,406,708
67,628,964
76,130, 648
62,687, 026
58,130,675
89,734,499
.86,779,813
75,670,361
58,128,152
71,955,249
97,923,554
71,739,186
52,857,399.
85,690,340
49,945, 315
61,926,446
69,534,601
29,179,215
83,668,154
95,106,724
96,924, 058
104,773,002
132,282,325
125,479,774
155,427, 936
191,118, 345
182,-921,848

Total.

$62,585,724
83,241,541
77,579,267
80, 549, 008
96, 340, 075
84,974,477
79,484,068
88,509,824
74,492,527
70,876,920
103,191,124
lOl„0.29v266
108,118,311
126„521, 332
149,895,742
189,980, 035
> 140,989,217
113,717,404
162,092,132
107,141,519
127, 946,177
100,162, 087
64,753,799
. 108,435, 035
117,254,564
121,691,797
146,545,638
154,.998,.928
147,857,439
178,. 138,. 318
216,224,932^
212,613,282

N. SARGENT, Registat.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Offi>ce, January 5^ 1853.




Statement exhibiting the value of certai?i articles imported during the years ending on the 2dth of June, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1848j
1849,1850,1851, and 1852, (after deducting the re-exportations ;J and the amount of duty which accrued on each during the same
periods, respectively.
'

-

1846.

1845.

1844.

.

1848. _

Articles.
Value.

Woollens
:.
Cottons
Hempen goods....
.
Iron, and manufactures of....
Sugar
Hemp, unmanufactured......
Salt
..::
Coal
Total.....




:...

Duties.

Value.

Duties.

Value.

Duties.

Value.

Duties.

$9,408,279 .
13,236,830
- 865,427
2, 395,760
6,897,245
261,913
. 892,112
203,681

$3,313,495
4,850,731
213,862
1,607,113.
4,597,093
101,338
654,881
133,845

$10,504,423
13,360,729.
' 801,661
4,075,142
4,049,708
140,372
883,359
^ 187,962

$3,731,014
4,908,272
198,642
2,415,003
2,555, 075
55,122
678,069
130,221

$9,935,925
12, 857,422
696,888
3,660,581
4,397,239
180,221
748,566
336,691

$3,480,797
, 4,865,483
138, 394
1,629,581
2,713,866
62,282
509,244
. 254,149

$15,061,102
17,205,417
606,900
7,060,470
8,775,223
180,335
1,027,656
426,997

$4,196,007
4,166,673
.
121,380
2,118,141
2,632,567
54,100
205,531
128,099

34,161,247

15,472,358

34,003, 356

14,671,418

32,813,533

.13; 653,796

' 50, 344,100

13,622,498

o

'Os

I-^Continuedo

O?

•1

1849. .

1850,

1851,

1852,

Articles,
Duties,

Value,
Woollens
. . . « . . . , . . . ^...
Cottons
:..
Hempen goods
Iron, and manufactures of. - . .
Sugar
Hemp, unmanufactured
Salt...::.:..:......-..;.,.
Coal...-.-...-.......,
Total.

/,,,

..

$13,503,202
15,183,759
460, 335
9,262,567
7,275,780
. '478,232
1,424,529
382,254
47,970,658

'

$3,723,768
3,769,565 •
92,067"
2,778,770
" 2,182,734
143,470
284,906
114,676

•

13,089,956

Value.

-.Duties,.

. Value.

.

Duties,

Value.

Duties

$16,900,916
19,681,612
490,077
10,864,680
6,950,716
574,783
1,227,518
361,855

$4,682,457
4,896,278
98,015
3,259,404
2, 085,215
172,435
245,504
108,557

$19,239,930
21,486,502
615,239
10,780, 312
13, 478,709
212, 811
1,025, 300
478,095

$5,331,600
5,348,695
123,048
3,234,094
4,043,613
63,843
205,060
143,429

$17, 348,184
18,716,741
343,777
18,843,569
13,977,393
164,211,
1,102,101
405,652

$4,769, 083
4,895,327
68,755
5,632,484
4 193:218
49,263
220,420
121,695

57,052,157

15,547,865

67,316,898

18,493, 382

70,901,628

19,950,245

N. SAHGENT, mgistQT.
TREASURY P^PARTMENT, Jte^ister's Office^ Jamiary 5,18§39




m

^
^

57

S, Doc. 22.
K.

tatement exhibiting the amount of coin and bullion imported and exported,
annually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusive; and als& the amount of iwoportation
over exportation, and of exportation over, importatim, during the s^ame
years.
'
^
,
•
Coin and bullion.

II. : IN

Years ending—
o
PH

I-l
p^
X -

• - •

°° .2 -p
o "^ o
M -M P4

1821
$8,064,890 $10,478,059
3, 369,846 10,810,180
1822
1823
6, 372,-9875,097,896
1824
. : 8, 379,835
7, 014, 552 $1,365,283
1825
8,932,034
6,150,765
2,176,433
1826
. . : : 6,880,966
4,704,533
1827 . . . : . . . - . 8,151,130
136,250
8,014,880
1828
8,243,476
7,489,741
1829
4,924,020 *"2,"479^592
7,403,612
• 1830
-. 8,155,964
2,178,773 , 2,977,191
1831....
9,014,931
7, 305,945
1832
5,565,340
251,164
5,907,504
1833
. . 7,070, 368
2,611,701
4,'458,667
• 1834
•...'.:. 17,911,632
2,076,758 15,834,874"
1835:
6,477,775
6, 653,672
13,131,447
4,324, 336
9, 076,545
1836
13,400,881
1837
5,976,249
4,540,165
10,516,414
3,508,046 14,239,070
, 1838
'
17,747,116
8,776,743
1839
' 5,595,176
1840
^ . . . 8,882,813
8,417,014
465,799
1841
4, 988,633 10,034, 332 •
• - 1842
- 4, 087, 016
4,813,539
9 months, to June 30,1843
22,390,559
1,520,7.91 20,869,768
Year ending June 30,1844
5,454,214
376,215
5,830,429
8,606,495
• 1845
'.." 4,070,242
1846
3,905,268.
3,777,732
1847
1,907,739 22,213,550
24,121,289
6,360,224 15,841,620
1848
1,246,592
1849
. . . . 6,651,240
5,404,648
1850 . . .
. 4,628,792
7,522,994
5,453,592 29," 472,752
1851
5,503,544 42,674,135
1852...:
September 3 0 .

•

$2,413,169
7,440, 334
1,275,091

...... ......

2,781,269
753,735
1,708,986-

3,181,567
5,045,699
726,523
4,536,253127,536
9,481, 396
2,984,202
24, 019,160
37,170,591

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, January 5, 1853.




S. Doc. 2±

58

L.
Statement exhibiting the quantity and value of wines, spirits, S^c, imported,
annually, from 184=3 to 1852, inclusive; and also showing the foreign cost
per gallon under specific and ad valorem duties.
No. 1.—MADEIRA WINE.

Period of importation.

Value.

Gallons.

9 months ending June 30, 1843
-..
Year endmg June 30
1844
Do
1845
Do
......:.1846
5 months ending Nov. 3 0 , 1 8 4 6 . . . . . .
7 months ending June 30, 1 8 4 7 . . . . . .
Year ending June 30 ..... 1 8 4 8 . . . . . .
Do
1849
Do
1850
Do
1851
Do...
..1852

$9, 075
3,949 "
30,575
16,754
145,237
101,176
122,895
169, 797
128,613 ,
117,117
5,717
13, 806
21, 630
44, 634
. 10.5,302'
193,971
150,096
303,125
116,008
163,941
103,917;
216, 683

•

Average cost
per gallon.

$2
1
1
1
1

29. 8
-82.5
43.5
11.9
09.8
4L4
48.4
54.3
49.51
70. 76
47.95

Duty.

Specific.

Ad valorem.

No. 2.—SHERRY WINE.

9 months ending June 30, 1843.
Year ending June 39
1844.
Do
1845.
Do
1846.
5 months ending Nov. 30, 1846.
7 months ending Jime 30, 1847.
Year endmg June 30 . . . . 1848.
Do..
1849.
Do
....1850.
Do....
..1851.
Do
.......1852.

6,491
23,418
38,289
41,76126,194
56, 061
109,983
128,510
118,952
154,668 •
97,680

4,685
18,665
23,616
26,538
14, 543'
77; 521
215, 935
170, 794
212, 092
259, 277
168, 610 ^

Specific.

Ad valorenL

No. 3.—SICILY WINE.

9 months ending June 30,1843.
Year ending June 30
1844.
Do
..1845.
Do....
1846:
5 months endmg Nov. 30, 1846.
7 months ending June 30, 1847.
Year ending June 3d
1848.
Do
1849.
Do
1850.
Do
1851.
Do
1852.




14,579
31,180
110,590
209,131
21,281
92,631
190, 294
130,851
91,123
301, 010
91,746

-

6,617
15,000
46,033
74,000
8,933
24,230
67,364
32,231
24,933
98,975
22,563

60.6
48..1.
50.4
35-4
42
26.2
35.4
24.6
27.36
32.88
24.59

Specific.

Ad valorem.

.S. Doc. 22.
L—Continued.
No. 4.—PORT WINE IN CASKS.

Period of importation.

'

9 months ending June 30,1843
Year ending June 30 .....a844.,
;
Do
1845
Do
...1846
5 months ending Nov. 30, 1846
7 months, ending June 3 0 , 1 8 4 7 . . . . . .
Year endmg June 30
1848
'••\
Do
'.
1849
: Do
...1850
Do...............1851
Do..
1852

Gallons.

Value.

38,593
223,615
260,593
372,528
80,991
8,075
501,123
^ 711,268
626,211
762,967
614,816

$25,714
156,878
162,358
148,895
62,851
3,791
170,134
272,700
305,454 .
349,849
240,238

Average cost
per gallon.

Duty.

Specific.
$0 66.6
70.2
62. 3
40
77.6
47
Ad valorem.
34
38.3
48.77
• - 45. 85
39; 07

No. 5.—CLARET IN CASKS.

9 months ending June 30 1843.
Year ending June 30 ....1844.
Do
.%1845.
Do
..1846.
5 months .ending Nov. 30,1846.
7 months ending June 30, .1847.
Year ending June 30 . . . . 1848.
Do
...1849.
Do...
.:...1850.
D o . . . . : . ; . . . . . . , . 1851.
Do...--..
1852.

873, 895
993,198
1,051,862
951,351
294,4^3
591,656
1,227,071
1,912,701
1,919,766
1,940,121
2,702,612

134,598
218,239
249,633
249,703
111,453
119,844
221,416
263,836
267,445
280,333
405,380

15.4
21.97
23.73
26.24
37. 85
20.26
ia04
13.79
13^.93
14.45
15

Specific.

Ad valorem.

No. 6.—OTHER RED WINES.

9 months ending June 30,1843.
Year ending June 30 . . . . 1844
Do
1845
Do
:
..1846
5 months ending Nov. 30, 1846
7 months ending June 30,1847
Year endmg June 30
1848
Do
.....1849
Do
.....1850
Do
...1851
Do
.:i852.....:




•
340,387
495,588
954,646
1, 072, 589
539,454
781,073
994,458
1,469,256
1,245,201
1,172,316

60,096
143,210
316,821
328,814
119,411
180,928
221,177
. 265,988236,727
229,350
•

17.65 Spe^jific.
28.9
' 33.19:
30.65
22.14 Ad valorem*
23.16
22.24
18.1
. 19.01
19.56

S. Doc. 22.

60

L—Continued.
No, 7.—OTHER WHITE WINES.

Period of hnportation.

Gallons.

Value.

.
9 months endmg June 30,1843
123,832 V $28,205
75,090'
Year ending June 30 . . . . 1844
268, 414
211,183
Do
.-.1845
591,735
310,241
Do
1846
' 705,808 .
296,736
5 months ending Nov. 30, 1846
618,267
69,831'
7 months ending June 30,1847
.
278,482
193, 358
840,687
Year endmg June 30 . . . . 1848
210,139
971,895
Do
...1849.215,353
Do
. - - . 1 8 5 0 . . . . . . 1,088,801 ,
1,085,374
209,847
Do
1851
935,379
195,870
Do.:...
1852.

Average cost
per gallon.

Duty.

' ' $ 0 2 2 . 7 7 Specific.
27.9835.69
43. 96
48
. 25.08 Ad valorem^
23
21. 62
19.79
19.33
20.94

No. 8.—BRANDY.

9 months ending June 30, 1843.
Year ending June 30
1844.
Do.
1845.
Do
1846.
5 months endmg Nov. 30, 1846.
7 months ending June 30, 1847.
Year ending June 30
1848.
Do....:..
1849.
Do
1850.
Do..
.......1851.
Do
.-..1852.

191,832
782,510
1,081,314
963,147
331,108
623, 309
1,370,111
2,964, 091
4,145,802
3,163,783
2,751,810

106,267
606, 633.
819, 540
839,231
355,451
575, 631
1,135, 089
1,347,514
2,659,537
2,128,679
1,792,729

55.4
77.52
'^ 75.79
87; 13
1 07. 3
92. 35
82.84
65.28
64.14
67.28
65.14

Specific.

Ad valorem.

No. 9.—GRAIN SPIRITS.

9 months ending June 30, 1843.
Year ending June 30
1844.
Do
1845.
Do
1846.
5 months ending Nov. 30, 1846'.
7 months ending June 30, 1847.
Year ending June 30 . . . . 1 8 4 8 .
Do
1849.
Do
.....1850.
'
Do
1851.
Do.....
1852.




259,129
416,918
606,311
677, 785
136,323
327,635
676,683
796,276
751,183
984,417
865, 301

121,547
171, 015
262,543
345,352
86,073'
143,549'
327,493
327,957
361, 078'
364,204
294,386'

46.91 Specific.
41. 02
23.2
50. 95
63.14
43.81 Ad valorem.
48.4
41.19
48. 07'
36.99
34.02

S. Doc. 22.

•61

L—Continued.
No. 10.—OTHEE SPIEITS.

Period of importation.

9 months ending June 30,1843
Year ending June 30
1844
Do..
1845
Do
1846
5. months ending Nov. 30 1846
7 months ending June 30 1847
Year ending June 30 . . . 1848
Do.-..1849
Do
1850......
Do
1851
Do...-.:
-..1852......

Gallons.

135,399
210,477
270,484
221,344
65,477
160,747
228,671
542-492
339,169
309,-214
359,677

Value.

Duty.

Average cost
per gallon.

$32,095
78,027
78,957
81,713
28,862
^ 57,806
75,943
145,784 !
113,779
100,850
: 98,940

$0 23.7
37.07
29.12
36.92
44.08
35.96
33.21
26. 87
"33.57
32.61
27. 51

Specific.

Ad valorem.

No. 11.—BEER, ALE, AND PORTER, FROM ENGLAND.
9 months ending June 30,1843.
Year ending June 30
1844.
Do
....1845.
Do.-.
.•
1846.
5 months ending Nov. 30,1846.
7 months ending June 30,1847.
Yeai* ending June 30
1848.
Do.:..-.
1849.
• Do
.......1850.,
Do
.-..1851..
Do
1852..

62,612
107,489
79, 302'
117,621
46,146
132,157
130, 008
146,473
156, 735'
275,336
262,838

57,098
102,157
•73,729
110,397
42,987
67,305
101,171
118,233
129,957
189,010
186,964

89,76
95. 04
92.97
94.71
93.15
50.93
77.82
80.72
82.92
68.64
71.13

Specific.

Ad valorem.

No. 12.—BEER, ALE, AND PORTER, FROM SCOTLAND.

9 months ending June 30,1843.
Year endmg June 30
1844.
Do
1845.
Do
1846.
5 months ending Nov. 30,1846.
7 months ending June 30,1847.
Year endmg June 30
1848.
Do..
1849.
Do
'
1850.,
Do...:
..1851.
Do
1852..

7,423
19,236
26,711
38,464
2,151
15,375
39,282
52,297
52,856
88,179
110,752

6,335
18,343
21,294
39,831
1,895
. 8,657
21,533
30,088
41,790
56,736
67,804

85.34
95.36
79.72
. 03.55
88.1
56.31
54.05
57.53
79.07
64.34
61,22

Specific.

Ad valorem.

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, January 5, 1853.




€g

a

Doc 22.
M.

Statement showing the value of goods remaining in warehouses at the close of
each quarter from September 30, 1847, to Jicne 30, 1852, as exhibited by
the quarterly returns of the collectors ofthe customs, under the provisions of
the act of August 6,1846; a^/^^ also the amount of duties payable thereon.
^

•

•

•

Goods remaining in warehouses.

Periods ending—
Vialue.

Duties.
.

ISeptember
December
March
June
Sentember
December
March
June
September
December
March
June
Septeniber
December
March
June
September
December
March
June

30,1847
.....
31, 1847
31^ 1848
30 1848 . . .,..
30. 1848
^
31, 1848
31, 1849
30,1849
30, 1849
31, 1849
'.
31, 1850
30, 1850
;
30, 1850
31, 1850
31,1851
30, 1851
30, 1851
31, 1851
31,1852
30,1852.:.-

...

Total.

-

•

• $3,618,758 00
4,863,59L00
5,291,179 00
6,272,275 00
5,419,676 00
7,201,246 00
5,450, 593 00
7, 830, 010 00
' 6,021,627 00
6,163,151 00
5,600, 318 00
8,247, 055 00
8,162,721 00
7, 307,623 00
7,127,751 00
10,047,061 00
12,049, 892 00
11,807,493 00
9,819, 475 00
8,723, 056 00

'

11,264,624 55
1, 524, 887 16
"1,669,067 39
1, 936,464 00
1,649,182 85
2,152,544 50
1,702,639 37
2,501,394 35
1,927,754 72
1,997,536 75
2,009,165 33
3,077,129 80
2,930, 035 49
• 2,384,419 50
2,293,090 13
3,172,328 08
3,748,594 48
3, 575, 9.30 61
3,169, 553 74
2,866,564 75

147, 024,551 00

Average quarterly value

47,552, 907 55

7,351,227 55

2, 377,645 38

N, SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Q ^ce, January 5, 1853.




m

S. Doc. 22.
.

N.

Statement exhibiting the value of dutiable merchandise re-exported, annually
from 1821 to 1852, inclusive; and showing also the value re-exported from
warehouses under the act of August 6, 1846.
Years.

Dutiable value of Value re-exported
merchandise re- from warehouses.
exported.

3821
:
:
$10,537,731
1822
^-...•.
•
-..11,101,306
1823
..
19,846,873
1824
...:
17,222,075
1 8 2 5 . . . ^ -.
...-....:....
....
22,704, 803
• 19,404,504
1826. •..
•
'
1827 •.-,-.
^•
15,617,986
.
13,167,339
1828
-'. .
1829
'
.
11,427,401
1830
.....'
:
. 12,067,162
1831
12,434,483
1832 . . . . . .
•
18,448, 857
1833 . . . . . . .
......' .....:.
......
12,411,969
1834
....
.
10,879,520
1835
-- .
7,743,655
9,232,867
1836
:
...._^
1837
...^
..
9, 406,043
1838
• • .
^ •
'
4, 466, 384
1839
..
..
5,007,698
1840
•
5, 805, 809
1841 -. . . . - - - .
4, 228,181
4,884,454
1842
3, 456, 572
1843 . . . .
:
3,962,508
1844 - . :
:..
5,171,731
1845
.1
5, 522, 577
1846 .
.
..
-. - --1847—5, months, to November 30 . . . ..-$2,333,527 >
4, 353,907
. . . 2. 020. 380 (
1847—7 months, to June 30
. 6,576,499
1848
6,625,276
1849
7, 376, 361
1850 .-.
.
.'
8,552,967
1851
..^.. . ..
9,501,138
1852 . . . ' . . .
-.:---

$651,170
2, 869,941
3,692,363
5,261,291
5,604,453
6,752,536

319,146,636

24,831,754

9, 973, 332

4,138,626

Total in 32 years
Averao^c ner annum . . . .

.

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, January 5, 1853.

i




So Doe. 2 2 .
O.
Statement exhibiting the value of foreign merchandise imported, re-exported,
and consumed, annually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusive; and also the esti^ mated population and rate of consumption, per capita, during the same
period.

j

•

•-

p

Value of foreign merchandise—
Years ending—

Population.
Imported.

Re-exported. I Consumed and
. on hand.

$62,585 724 |$21, 302, 488 .$41,283,236
1821
83,241,541 22, 286, 202
60,955,339
1822
77, 579,267 27,543,622
50, 035, 645
1823
80, 549, 007 25, 337,157
1824
55,211,850
96, 340, 075 32, 590, 643
63, 749, 432
1825
84,974,477 24, 539; 612
60,434,865
1826'
79,484, 068 23,403,136 . 56,080,932
1827
66, 914,807
88,509,824 21, 595, 017
1828
57,834,049
74,492,527 16, 658, 478
1829
56,489, 441
70, 876, 920 14, 387, 479
1830
83,157,598
103,191,124 20, 033, 526
1831
101,029,266 ;v24, 039, 473
76,989,793
1832
88, 295, 576
108,118, 311 19, 822,735
1833
103,208,521
126,521,332 23, 312,811
1834
129,391,247
1835 • 149, 895, 742 20,504, 495
168,233,675
189,980, 035 21,746,360
1836
119,134,255
140, 989,217 21,854,962
1837.
101,264,609
113, 717, 404 12,452, 795
1838
1839
162,092,132 17, 494, 525 144,.597, 607
88,951,207
• 1840 107,141,519 18,190, 312
112,447, 096
127, 946,177 15,499,081
1841
88,440,549
.
, • 1842 100,162,087 11,721,538
.
58,201,102
6,552,697
64, 753,799
9 mo's, to June 30, 1843
96,950,168
108, 435, 035 11, 484, 867
Year, to June 30.-1844
101,907,734
• 184.5 117, 254, 564 15, 346,830
110,345,174
121, 691,797 11,346,623
1846
146,545, 638
8, Oil, 158 138,534,480
1847
154,998,928 21,132, 315; 133, 866,613
1848
147,857, 439 -13,088,865
134,768, 574
1849
178,138, 318 14, 951, 808 163,186, 510
1850
216,224,932 21,698,293
194,526, 639
1851
195,339,941
212,613,282 17,273, 341
1852
September 30

.

p «

$9, 960,974 .$4
10,. 283,757
10, 606,540
10, 929, .323
11,252,106
11,574,889
11,897,672
12,220, 455
12, 543, 238
12,866, 020
13,286, 364
13,706, 707
14,127, 050
14, 547, 393
14, 967, 736 8
15, 388, 079 10
15,808,422
7
16,228,765
6
16,649,108
8
17, 069, 453 5
17,612,507 I
18,155,561
18,698,615
19,241,670
19,784,725
20, 327,780
20,870, 835
21,413,890
21, 956, 945
23,246, 301
24,250,000
24,500, 000

14
92
71
05
66
22
71
47
61
39
25
61
25
09
64
93
S3
23
68
21
3887
11
03
15
42
60
25
13
02
02
00

NOTE.- See note to statement G.
N . SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,
Register's Office, January 5, 1853.




Statement exhibiting the value offoreign merchandise and domestic ^produce, Sfc, expoHed, annually, from 1821 to 1852.
Value of exports, exclusive of specie, &c.
'J\

Years ending—

-

Foreign merchandise.
-Domestic produce, 4c-,

.
Free of duty.
September 30 -

\

'•

1821.......
1822
1823.
1824
1825
1826
1827'
1828
1829"
]83d
183L-..
1832...
1833
1834
1835
1836..............
18517...
1838...
1839....
1840......
1841
1842...-.:,




:

--.
.-

$286,6,98,
374,716
1,323,762
1,100,530,
, 1,088,785' '
l,d36,43Q:
' 813,844
877,.2!39
919,943,
1,078,695642,586
L345 217
5,1'65,907
10, 757, 033
. 7,'01^2,666
8, 534,895
7,756,189
4,951,306
5,618,442
6,202,562
3 953 054
3,194,299

Paying duty.

$10,537,731
11,101,306.
19,846,873
17,222,075
22,704,803
1^, 404,50.4
15,417,986,
13,167, 339
ll,427,4dl
12,067,162
12,434,483
18, 448,857
12,411,969'
10,879,520
7,743,655
^9,232,867
9,406,043
4;'466,384
5, 007,698
5,'805, 809
4,'228,181
4,884,454

Aggregate value
of. exparlg.

Total.
$10,824,429.
11,476,022
21,170,635
IS, 322,605
23,793,588.
20,440,934
16,431,830
14,0.44,578,
12, 347, 344
13,145,857
13,077,-069
39,794,074
-. 17^:57-7;'876
21,636,553
14,756,321
• 17,767,762
17,162,232
9,417,690
10,626,140
12,008,371
8,181,235
8,078,753

:

$43,671,894
'49,874, 079.'
47,155,408
50,649,500
66,809,766
S2,.449,.8S5
•57,.8,78,,.117
49,976,633
.S5,=087,.3O7
•58; 524,878
59-,-218,-58361,726,529
69,950,856'
m/623i 6B2
100.^459,481
106,570,942
94,280,895
95,560,880
101,625,533
111,660,561
103,636,236
91,799,242

$54,496,323
61,350,101
68,326,043
68,972,105,
90,603,354
.72,.890,789
74,309,947
64,-021,210
.67,434; 651
71,670,735
72,295,652
81,520,603
87,528,732
102,260,215
115,215,802
124,338,704
111,443,127
104,978,570
112,251,673
123,668,932
111,817,471
99,877,995

^Specie and
bullion.

;.

$10,478,'059.
10,810,180
6,372,987
7,014,552
'8,932,034
4,704,533
8,014,880
8,243,476
4,924,020
2,178,773'
9,014,9315,656, 340
2,611,701
2, 076,758
6,477,-775
4,324,336
. 5, 976,249
3, 508, 046
8, 776,743
8,417, 014
10, 034, 3324, 813,539

m

CO'.

Or

P—Continued.
^

Value of exports, exclusive of specie, &c.
Years ending—

F oreign merchandise.

Specie and.
bullion.

Domestic produce, &c.
Free of duty.
9 months, to June 30, 1843
Year ending June 30,1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
'^•-^
i852
Total..--

..:

Paying duty.

$1,682,763
2,251,550
2,413,050
2, 342,629
1,812,847
1,410,303
2,015,815
2,099,132
1,742,154
2,535,905

$3,456,572
3,962,508 •
5.171,731
5,522,577
4, 353, 907
6,576,499
6,625,276
7, 376j 361
8,552,967
.9,501,138.

94,340,946

319,146,636

Aggi-egate value
of exports.

$77,686,354
99,531,774
98,455,3.30
101,718,042
150,574, §44
130,203, 709
131,710,081
134,900,233
178,620,138
154,931,147

.$82,825,689
105,745,832
106,040, 111
109,583,248
156,741,598
138,190,511
140,351,172
144, 375,726
188,915,259
166^968,190

$1,520,791
5,454,214
8,606,495
'3,905,268
1,907,024
15,841,616
5,404,648
7, 522,994
29,472,752
42,674,135

2,867,522,488

3,281,010,070

265,671,195

Total.
$5,139, 335
6,214,058
7,584,781
7,865,206
6,166,754.
7,986,802:
8,641,091
9,475,493
10,295,121
12, 037,043
413,487,582

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's Office, Jamiary 5, 1853.




«
o.
o
CO

67

H. Doc. 23.

Statement exhibking.f/i§..gucintity and value of cotton exported, annually, from
1821 to ^1^52^ viichisipe, and the average p i c e per pound.
Sea Island.

Other.

, Total.

Value.

Av. cost
per lb.

Dollars.-

GehtV.

Years.
Pounds.

1821.....
1822-..-.
1823
1824-...1825
1826
1827.....
• 1828...::
1829.....
1830.....
1831.....
1832..:..
1833
1834
1835..-.
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841.....
.1842...-..,
1843
,
1844...-;
1845
,
184(5.....
1847.:-..
1848
1849-..-.
1850
1851
1852..-..

11 344, 066
11, 250,635
12, 136,688
9, 525,722
9, 665,278
' 5, 972,852
15. 140,798
11, '288,419
T2,,833, 307
147,165
311,762
743, 373
11, 142,987
8, 085, 937
7; 752,736
7, 849, 597
5, 286, 971
7, 286,340
5 107,404
8 779,669
237,424
7, 254, 099
7, 515,079
6, 099,076
% 389,625
'9, 388,533
0, 293,973
7, 724,148
11, 969,259
236,463
299,656
11, 738,075

113,549, 339
124,893, 405
144,675, 095
133,424,460
173, 723,270
' 16i;586,582
142, 369, 663
132,843,941
176,449, 907
166,784,.62'9
204,535, 415
198,562,563
294,310,115
279,169,317
210,590, 463
199,302,044
264,837,186
252; 003,879
298,459,102
' 290,311,937
276,979,784
• 268,668,022
322,215,122
313,47i;749
324,698,604
313,555,617
384,717,907
376,631,970
387,358,992
'379,606,256
423,631, 307
415,781,710
444,211,537
438; 924, 566
595,952,2.97
588,665,957
413, 624,212
• 408,516; 808
743, 941,061
735,161,392
530,^
204,100
• 523,966,676
'584, 717,017
577,462,918
• • 78.4,782, 027 792, 297,106
663, 633,455
(
657,534,379
'872,905,996
863; 516, 371
547,558, 055
538,169,522
527,219,958
520,925,985
814,274, 431
806,550,283
1,014,633,010 1,026,602,269
635,381,604
627,145,141
927,237, 089
918,937,433
1,081,492,564 1,093,230,639

20,157,484
24,035,058
20, 445,520
21, 947, 401
36,846,649
25, 025,214
29, 359,545
22,487,229
26,575, 311
29,674,883
25,289,492
31,724,682
36,191,105
49,448, 402
64,961,302
71,284,925
63,240,102
61,556,811
61,238,982
63, 870, 307
54, 330,341
47, 593,464
49,119,806
54, 063,501
51,739, 643
42,767, 341
53, 415,848
61,998,294
6 6 , 396,967
71,984'; 616
112,315,317
87, 965,732

16.2
16.6
11.8
15.4
20.9
12.2
10
10.7.
10
9.9
9.1
9.8
11.1
12.8
16.8
16.8
14.2
10.3
14.8
. 8.5
10.2
8.1
6.2
8.1
5.92
. 7.81'
10. 34
7.61
6.4
11. 3
. 12.11
8.05

N. SARGENT, Register.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,
Register's Office, January 5, 1853.




H. Doc. 23.

68

R.
Statement exhibiting the aggregate value, of breadstuffs and provisions ex-"ported:, annuallyyfrM.m. 182^ tb/l/8d^/^^^
Years^ ending—
1821...
1822...
1823...
,1824.:.
1825...
1826...
1827...
1828:..
. •
1829...
1830...
1831...
. 1832...
1833...
1834...
1835...
^
1836...
1837...
1838...
1139...
'
1840...
• . 1841..-.
• . 1842...
9'mpnths;ending June 30, 1843...
Year ending June 30..
1844...
; 1845...
„
1846.:.
1847...
1848....
"
•
1849..,
.
1850..
185i..
• •
.
1852..^

September 30. i.

Amount.
$12,341,901
13,886,856
13,767,847
15,059,484
11,634,449
11,303,496
11,685,556
11,461,144
13,131,858
12,075,430
17,538,227
12,424,703>
14,209,128
11,524,024
12,009,399
10,614,130
9,588,359
9,636,650
14,147,779
19,067,535
17,196,102
16,902,876
11,204,123
17,970,135
16,743,421
27,701,121
68,701,921
37,472,751
38,155,507
26,051,373
21,948,651
25,857,027
N. S A ^ m i T , Register.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

RegistGr's Office, January.b,l86d,




m

H. Doc. 23.

StaUment exhibiting the quantity and value of tobacco and rice exported,
aniiually, from 1821 to 1852, inclusive.
Tobacco.

Rice.

Years.
Hogsheads.

1821.......
1822
1823
1824.......
1825
182618271828.......
1829......
1830......
1831
1832-..--.
1833--..a
1834
1835......
1836--..'.
1837-..-..-..
1838
1839:
1840......
1841......
1842..:...
1843......
1844--.....
1845
1846
1847......
1848......
1849......
1850

issi
1852

Value.

66,858
83,169
99,009
77,883
75,984
64,098
100,025
96,278
77,131
83,810'
86,718
106,806
83,153
87,979
94, 353
109,042
ld0,232
100,593
78,995
119,484
147, 828
158,710
94,454
163, 042
147,168
147,998
135,762
^130,665
.101,521
145,729
95,945
137, 097

$5,648,962.
6,222,838
6,282,672
4,855,566
6,115,623
5, 347,208'
6,577,123
, 5,269,960
4, 982,974
5,586, 365
4,892, '388
5,999,769
5,755,968
6,595, 305
8,250V577
10,058,640
5,795,647
7,392, 029
9,832,943
• 9,883,957
12,576,703
9,540,755
4,650; 979
8,397,255
7,469,819
8,478,270
7,242,086
7,551,122
^ 5,804,'207
9,951,023
9,219,251
10,031,283

Av'age cost Tierces.
per hhd.

Value.

$84 49
^88,221 11,494,307
. . 74 82 87,:089
1, 553,482
63 45 101,365
1,820,985
62 34
113,229
1,882,-982
80 48
97,015
1,925,245
83 42
1,917,445
111,063
65 75
2, 343,908
133,518
2,620,6m
54 73
175,019
2,514, 370
- 64 60 132,-923
1,986,824
66 66
130,697
2,016,267
56 41
116, 517
2,152,631
56 17- 120, 327
2,744,418
69 20 M4,163
2,122,272
74 96 121,886
2,210,331
87 44 110,851
2,548,750
92 24 212,983
2,309,279
57 82
106,084
1,721,819
73 48
71,048
2, 460,198
124 47
93, 320
1,942,076
•82 72
101,660
2, 010,107
85 07
101,617
1,-907,387
60 I I
114,617
1,625,726
49 24
106,766
2,182,468
51 SO
134,715
2,160,456
50 75
118,621
2,564,991
.57 -28 . 124,007
3,605,896
53 34
144,427
2,331,824
57 78
100,403
2,569, 362
57 17
328,861
2,631,557
68 28
127,069
2,170,927
96 09
105,590
2,470,029
73 17
119,733

Av'age cost
per tierce.
?$16 94
17 84
17 96
16 63
19 84
17 26
, 17 55
14 97
18 92
15 20
17 30
17 39
19 04
17 41
19 94
11 97
21 76
24 23
. 26 36
19 10
19 78
16 64
15 23
16 20

18 21
20 68
24 97
23 23
19 94
20 71
20 56
SO 63

N. SARGENT^ R ^ s i ^ .
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Register's Office, January 5, 1853.




7Q

H

Doc. 2a.

Report of the Light-house Board.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, OFFICE LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD,

January 15, 1853.
S I R : The Light-house Board has the honor respectfully to submit
to you, for your information and that of Congress, the first annual report
of its proceedings under the organization provided by the act of Congress approved August 31, 1852.
:
Under this law the members of the board were appointed by the
President, and, having convened at the Treasury Department on the
9th of October last, were duly organized by their president, the Hon.
Secretary of-the Treasury.
;~ — ,
; Since that date the board has executed, under the' direction of the
Treasury Department, all Ihe adniinistrative duties relating to-the management of the light-house estabhshment.
'
•^'Having been so recently charged with the execution of these duties,
the board is unable to present at this time the full and. jdetailed account'
of. the conditipn and wanfs of this important branch ofthe publicservice,
for the information of the department and of Congress, which is desirable, and which, on a future occasion, it will be prepared to. submit.
° It proposes to present ijow a brief account of its proceedings since its
organization, and of the measures already taken, or in prospect, for the
reform of the sysfem, under the provisions of the new law; pf.the .progress made in executing recent or former laws in relation to-the construction of light-houses and beacons, and to light-vessels, and to pro^
viding buoys and other aid-S to navigation.
. T h e light-house board, organized by the law of March 3, 1851, to
inquire'into the condition of" the .establishment, was in a very different
position in reference to the system from the present board. Its Huty
was one of inquiry, while that of the present board is one of reform..
It was necessarily obliged to judge of causes from observed eflfects,
a:nd had not the advantage possessed by the present board of seeing
every part of the internal machinery ofthe establishment, and of estirriating its action, separately, or as combined in the system. With this
improved opportunity of examination is also joined the control necessary to apply remedies to observed defects. ' It may, perhaps, be considered the duty of the board to show the present condition of those
parts of the system to which their predecessors had not access, with
the opportunities which it possesses of a thorough examination into
every detail, however minute; and this may even be necessary, in order
to give a reason for the changes which it is compelled to introduce, or
fpr the legislation which it may have to suggest.
An entire reform is needed, and fs in progress, in regard to estimates,
to disbursements, (ordinary and from emergency,) and to accounts of
expenditure. The board is determined that no further waste which
can be prevented shall occur, but that the means placed at its disposal
shall be effectively and'economically applied, and that resistance to
s^ch reforms, or want of co-operation in the system, shall be fully reprpsented to the department having the control, of the establishment.
The new law furnishes responsible officers, of knowledge and expe


;

H:

Doc. 23.

7l

rience, as judges of the necessity of expenditures, and^of their proper'
amourit; aud the board has already had occasion to see the advantage
thence resulting.
' '
The abuses in reference to purchase^', repairs, arid incidental expenses of all kinds cannot be correctedin a day, but iriaj^ the board trusts,
after a time, be entirely eradicated. Most of these have resulted frorri
the employment of sub-agents not known to the department, entirely
irresponsible to the government, a:nd but slightly so tb their immediate
employers, and frpm control vested where there was not the necessary
knowledge" to direct. Imposition is a necessaiy consequence of such
a cause, and the remedy is an obvious one. In cases where contract's
have been made according to previous usagfe, and for a term of years,
there is difficulty in applying an immediate remedy; but it is hoped that,
by a close adherence to their terms, and a rigid eiiforbement of theirobhgations, the reform may be at least commenced under them.
The expenditures for the same objects in the different lighi-hous6'
districts, as now constituted, vary very much, and without adequate
reasons. This results, in a degree, from the employment, in sorrie districts, of irresponsible agents to make repairs, without previous report,
exairiinatiori, and estimate from disinterested and competent persons;'
from the unauthorized employment of perspns connected with the coJ
lection of. customs to perform duties in the light-house establishment> .
from the large sums periodically recommended and disbursed by these
unauthorized agents on account of the light-house establishment, without
prpper supervision; from the purchase of articles, the making repairs,
&c., &c., without proper authority, and without previously approved
estimates of expense; from allowances for travel in visiting light-houses
in districts provided with ample means of transportation belonging to
the government; and e,specia,lly frpm contracts, urider names recommending them as essential to the interes.ts of navigation, the obligations of
which afe permitted to be so imperfectly fulfilled that the places
degenerate almost into sinecures.
For these abuses, the system of inspection by responsible officers,and the systematic control ofthe board, will gradually furnish the rem^
edy. .This control the board is empowered to exert over every part
ofthe system^ and it is essential to economy and to efficiency that it
should .be exercised , rnost thoroughly. The whole system of sub-contracts for: placing and keeping buoys and for rationing crews of lightvessels, for inspections by persons not responsible to the government
and unknowri to the department,' for estimates of construction and
repairs^ to keepers' dwelUngs and to light-houses by such persons, or;
worse, by those interested, must be replaced by one of regular control
and responsibility. Estimates of expenditure made and authorized
must be regarded as binding, and the s,ame authority invoked for'-an
increase necessary from new circumstances as for the original expenditure. It is not remarkable, but is to be regretted, that the burden of
the applications for incidental expenditures are for matters which concerri the personal, convenience of the employees of the establishment,
and not for improvements of public concern.
,
'
While the Light-house Bocird desires and expects, through its inspectors, to know the wants of those employed in this important branch of



5^

H. Doc. 23>

•the public service, and to consider thern in<a proper spirit,'it relies upon the officers to direct their first attention to ihe fulfilment of ihe wants
ofthe navigator, for whose benefit the establishment exists. The board
is satisfied that> by enabling it to exercise a judicipus economy in these
matters, the new system of inspection will more than pay for itself in
means saved which now run to waste.
Since the-prganization of the board, the current routine duties of
the entire establishrnent has been carried put uninterruptedly by them.
The divisipn of the board into cpm.mittees, the executive duties discharged under their direction by the secretaries, and in general the
arrangement.of business, will be found inlhe journal and in the rules
a.nd regulations for the'establishment, approved by the Hon. Secretary
ofthe Treasury October 22, 1852, and appended to this report. . (Ap^
pendix. No. 1.) The arrangement is such as to secure prompt executive action, with the requisite professional examinations pf subjects by
committees, and consultative action by the whole board.
Under the law of August 31, 1852j the, coast has been divided into
twelve inspection districts, of which seven are on the Atlantic coast,
two on the lakes^ Iwo on the Gulf of Mexico, and one. on the Pacific.
It will be necessary hereafter to increase the number .of these districts,
especially as the necessary lights are provided for the western coast;
but this division is sufficient for the present.
, '
Six officers of the army and six of the navy have been detailed by
the Hon. Secretaries of^ War and of the Nayy, on. the application
of the board, for these districts, the limits and assignment of which are
stated in the appendix, No. 2. The inspectors have already receiyed
their orders, and ai*e in general on their way to their stations, where
they will receive specific instructipns to guide them. General instructions in regard to their duties are in the course ^of preparation. As
time was necessary to procure the detail of these inspectors, and to
liberate them frpm other duties on which they were generally engaged,,
such special inspections as have been required have been made, as far
as practicable, by officers of engineers of the army, who have, upon
the ^application of the board, through the Treasury Department, been
detailed to perform the .necessary service, and which has already been
found to be greatly to the advantage and economy of the hght-house
establishment.
. ,
. ,
^
. The darnage reported to have been done during the last hurricane
months to the light-houses and their buildings along the shores of the'
Gulf .of Mexico called for and receiyed, in this way, the prompt action
of the board. Officers of engineers of the army employed near the
respective localities requiring examiriatipn were instructed to visit the
different points, and repprt upon the wPrks necessary to be done to
restore-the public buildings to their proper condition.
The,buoy service has been greatly complained of by navigators and
others interested in the subject, and the board regi'ets to believe that
these cornplaints are in the main well-founded. The system of contracting Avith individuals, at large annual salaries, for keeping the buoys
in their places, has not proved satisfactory even to the minds of some
of those cpntractors themselves.
\^ In spme easea these coptractors, 6\ying-tp their reniptpn^ss from thq



tt. Doc. 23.

73

lo.bality demanding their personal attendance, have failed to attend to
fhe duties required of them. Many cases have been reported of great
neglect ofthis kind.^ The inspectors will, under the preserit organizar^
tion, have the .general supervision and management of these important
aids to navigation.; and the best results are anticipated from their watchfulness and energy.
The first executive duty of iniportance the board was called upon to
perform was to procure the reqtiisite supplies of oil, cleaning-materials,
&c., &c., for the lights along the southern coast. Every effort was
made to obtain the articles of .siipplybest adapted to their respective
uses; and to render this, effectual, all the known tests were a^pplied, by
competent persons, under the personal direction and :Supervision of the
engineer secretary of the board.
- '
The master ofthe supply-vessel was furnished \yith the instructions
and directions prepared by the board and approved by the, Treasury
Department for the guida;nce and instruction of the light-keepers in the
performance of their duties, for distribution. These instructions point
out in detail the duties to be performed fey the keepers, and the acGornpanying directions describe as minutely as possible the mode of
executing them; and frpm which the board anticipates the best results
with reference to both efficiency and economy, when sufficient time
shall have elapsed to enable them fully to be' comprehended. (Appendix, No. 3.)
.
'
Light-keepers will be required henceforth to keep a journal of the
expenditures of oil and other supplies, and to make, returns quarterly,
through the district inspectors, to the board.
The great difference in the annual consumption of oil, glass chim^
neys, .&G., &c., at the different light-houses, renders this a duty of much
importance. While it has been usual to estimate for thirty-five gallons ,
of oil per lamp per annum, the actual returns vary from about nineteen
gallons in some light-houses to nearly; sixty gallons in others-. The
keeper who only consumes nineteen gallons of oil per lamp must neces^
sarily exhibit a light wholly inefficient. If the keeper who returns as
his consumption sixty gallons of oil actually consumes that quantity in
each lamp, his light will be as bad as that of the one who only consumes
one-tiiircf the quantity. In both cases the lights will be unreliable, and
of but little value to the mariner. In an economical point of view it is
of equally great importance. This subject has occupied the attention
of those charged with^the management of European lights for many
years; and they have determined that the only sure remedy is t o be
found in frequent and rigid inspections, and a close examination of the
daily expenditures, as recorded in the journals.
'
• Small differences in the quantities of oil and other supplies consumed
must necessarily arise, growing out of the various causes which combine
to produce a good and bad light. The light-keeper who consumes the
well-established inaximum quantity of oil required for the lamps under
his care, other things being equal, must be supposed to keep a more
efficient light than the keeper who falls below the mean average quan-o
tity; but there is a point, both above and below that average, which;
upon being reached, affords unmistakable evidence against the keeperi
The daily record ofthe quantity of oil consumed will, it is not doubted,



74

°

H. Doc. 23°

exercise a rnost salutary influence hereafter, by serving to teach the
keepers their duty, as well as to prevent any improper use of suppliesi
should any be found capable of such misconduct.
This subject has already been brought to the notice of superintendents
of lights, with the view to apprize keepers that the subject is well un^
derstood by the board. It is hoped the notice already taken will be
sufficient to produce some improvement in this respect.
The board found itself called upon, immediately after Jtsorganiza-^
tion, to cause the annual, estimates for the support of the light-house
establishment for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1854, to be prepared.
In performing this duty fbr the first time, and so immediately after being
organized,' there was no alternative but to adppt the data and basis of
past years. The data of reference usually employed for this purpose
having been prepared, the board adopted the estimates of thelast fiscal
year fbr the same service, and^7?o rata estimates made for the objects
authorized by Congress at the sessions ending 1851 and 1852.
The board thus assumed that the expenditures of a period long antecedent, would be ample for the next fiscal year, notwithstanding it was
aware ofthe fact that the general fund for maintenance during the year
ending June 30, 1852, had fallen very far shprt of .the demands upon
it, -and that the deficiency had been necessarily supplied from other services. The board considers it proper, in this connexion, to express its
disapproval of the principle of preparing estimates for the information
of Congress based' wholly upon the expenditures of periods Ipng antecedent to that wherein the sums asked for will be required for specific
objects in this branch of-the pubhc service, and without reference tP
the peculiar necessities of the service, and tp the mode of using the
funds. Such a system is based upon the assumption that the expenditures of an antecedent period will serve as correct data for a succeeding one, without reference to casualties, which vmight and ought to be
taken into consideration. Estimates, to.be of any value, should be.based
upon a faithful examination of the different works by competent and
disinterested persons; but so long as it is considered necessary to expend .certain annually increasing sums in certain localities, the^appro^
priations will be increased annually, without any guaranty that the service will derive commensurate benefits from them.
This \yill, it is hoped, be corrected by the system of rigid examina-:
tions which will; hereafter be made, and by the estimates of cost of the
necessary repairs based upon them by the inspectors and engineers
charged with the districts and with the repairs, immediately previous
to the time for submitting them to the board.
The board ,had its attention called to the rations furnished to the
crews of light-vessels'soon after i t w a s organized. " The subject was
exairiiried with'the, care which its importance demanded, and a tEible
was substituted, with the approval ofthe department, in its opinion better calculated to give satisfaction and secure health to the crews. (Appendix, No. 4.)
The table marked A will show the condition ofthe objects for which
appropriations had been made, and which had not been commenced pr
completed prior to the organization of the Light-house Board, with a



^

H. Doe. 23;

75

column showing the action in each case by the board since the 9th of
October last.
.
•
. '.,
Table B will show all the objects for which appropriations were
made at the last session, and the action on each case taken by the^
board since its organization. Preliminary action has been had in eyery
case where the localities could be reached, or where the season would'
allow any steps to be taken.'
Officers of the corps of topographical engineers are now engaged in'
exariiining and selecting sites on the lakes, making repairs of piers, &c.,
in that quarter.
Officers of^the coast survey are engaged, and have been since the
passaige of the appropriation bill, examining localities, and selecting
sites for objects which had not been recoriimended specially before the
passage of the law, either by the coast survey or by some competent
person known to the board.
.
. ^
By referring to table B, it will be^ seen that many of these objects
have already been reported upon, and now only await plans, deeds of
cessipn, &c., to enable the board to advertise for prpposals^to execute
the works, and which will be speedily commenced.
Buo3^s have been placed by the superintendents in all cases where
the points were sufficiently well defined to admit'pf its being done by
them. Delays, arising from various details connected with the purchase of land for the towers and buildings, after the sites have been
selected, and the procuring of title-deeds and of cessions from the
States, are. common, and there is np remedy for the evil.' It some-!
times/happens, by the failure of the owner of the land to agree to
dispose of it immediately on application being made to him, that the
appropriation is entirely lost, owing to the legislature of the State hpldr '
ing its sessions only biennially. The law in this case is not only explicit, but essential. Many difficulties now exist, owing to the neglect
hitherto to require from the agents of the establishment the strict fulfilment of these requirements of the^ law.
• • r
The lights authorized, to be built onthe Pacific cpast were transferred
to the management of the board onthe 22d of December, 1852: Those
contracted for under the immediate direction of the Secretary of ,the
Treasury, it is understood, will, be commenced immediately after the
party organized on this side by the contractor reaches California. The
^illunrinatirig apparatus, lanterns, ;&c., for the two lights in San Francisco bay, it is understood, are ready for shipping.
The officer charged with the purchase of the illuminating apparatus
for the remainder of the lights contracted for on the western coast
having received his instructions from the Secretaiy of the Treasury
direct, it remains for the board to see that they are. faithfully carried
out, and that the lights be supplied with them without unnecessary
delay.
^
r- .
i
The remaining lights to be built> on the Pacific coast will be commenced so soon as the necessary prelirriinary steps are taken,- in con-'
formity to the law in relatiPn to sites, &c/
An appropriation was made on the 28th September, 1850, of $4,000
for a light to be placed pn the breakwater at Bass river, Massachusetts.
The officer ofthe revenue marine who was sent to examine and report .



76

H. Doc. 23.

upon this site condemned it as unnecessary. It is apparent, however, to
the board, from the information received from various rehable sources-^^
among which may be included that of the officer of the coast survey '
who was charged with examining this locality, with reference to another
object—-that a small light is required at or ^near the Bass river breakwater. A small light is now kept up by private means at this point.
.Four thousand dollars is recommended^asthe necessary sum to pla:ce
an economical light, and build a keeper's house, at this point.
An appropriation was made on the 28th of September, 1850, of
$30,000 jfor a light-house to be erected on the rocks called the "Sowarid-pigs," near the •entranoe to Buzzard bay. Sp far as< this board is
informed and can ascertain, no surveys haye been made, or other steps
taken, to ascertain the practicability of executing the wishes of Cbn^
gross in this case. A light-vessel is now kept moored near these
dangerous rocks ; but it is wholly inefficient, even as an aid,lo accoinplislrthe purpose designed by authorizing this struetiire,.and is kept
up at a great expense. The acknowledged importance of this light
induces the board to recommend that the sum may be reappropriated
for the erection of a light-house at, or sufficiently near, the danger
known as the '* Sow-and-pigs," to mark it efficiently, in place of the
present expensive light-vessel.
'
"
In 1850 an appropriation was made for erecting two beacon-lights
near Fort Hamilton, New York, to serve as a range for the main channel. In 1851 the appropriation for this purpose was increased to six
thousand dollars. Sites were selected by officers of the coast survey,
and efforts were made to purchase the necessary land for the onefto be
placed near the beach, without success. The other was to have been
located on the land belonging to the United States in the rear of the
fort. After renewed efforts by the Light-house Board, without success,
to procure the necessary land for placing the beacons, it determined to
recommend that the appropriation be made applicable to the erection
of two beacons on the New Jersej?- shore, at the other extremity, of the
range, as they will there answer the purpose cpntemplated as a back
range. The coast survey chart of New York bay accompanying this
report will show, the practicability of this plan, and also the advantages arising from the placing of the other beacons aiithorized to be
built by act of 31st August, 1852.
An appropriation was made at the last session of Cohgress of $5,000°
for a harbor-light west of the entrance to Bucks harbor, in -Brooksyille,
' Maine. , The officer detailed under the law by the Superintendent ofthe
Coast Survey to select and report upon a proper site recommends that
authority be asked to place it on the northern extremity of Pumpkin
island. - As this light cannot be built witliout further legislation, it is
respectfully requested.
The board has been called upon tp recommend, pr approve recommendations for, the following appropriations, for supposed necessary
aids to navigation at this time. In nearly, all of these cases, the objects
required can be recommended on the personal information of those
whose ability to judge of their importance and disinterestedness cannot
be questioned. The objects are given in detail in the table appended
marked-C.



H. Doc. 23.

77

. In Maine.-—For- buoys, beacons,; and spindles,, to complete the aids
in the harbors and ba5^s, and to marb important channels, hitherto
neglected, of great! importance to the. coasting andv general trade,
$ 2 , 0 0 0 . .

"

•-

'

•-••'

• '•_.'•

..

• •

'^

.:

Many of these aids are pointed out in a report, b y the coast survey
officer charged with locating aids provided at the last, session of Con?
gress for this coast, and also in a report from the superintendent of
lights from Portland: to the northeastern boundary. A reference tothe
charts of these bays and harbors will suffice to explain fully the neces.'sity fbr these additional objects:
In Massachusetts.—-For'hnojs. Sec, to mark the channels in Tauntoii
river, Massachusetts^ $5p0..
Lieutenant Rosecrans, of the corps of engineers, has called the
attention of the board to this subject, and will furnish, with the result
of his surveys, now in progress, all the: necessary detailed, informatiom
For a beaconito be placed, on '' D,eep Hole rock," in the Vineyard
sound, $.600.
,
A petition, numerously signedj asks: for this beacon; The board is
not in possession of all the necessary detailed information relating to
this locality, but it believes that there will be no risk in maldng the
appropriation, guarded a | all appropriatioris for these: objects are.
In Rhode Island.—'Forr^ buoys, to be. placed as. specified in table C,
These.buoys have been.asked.for on the authority of the superintendent of lights of the district, and at the instance of those' specially
interested in the local navigation of Narragansett bay andlributaries.
In Connecticut.-^Yor hvioJs, $350.
For beacon on Race rockj: $7,000.
The- buoys have been asked for, and itis believed sire essential. The
Race rock, in Long Island sound, not far distant from Fisher's island^
is one of the mpst.dangerous obstructions to navigation on the coast.
Various esffbrts have been made, and numerous appropriations expended,- in endeavoring to: place an efficient and permanent mark on
this point. Buoys cannot be kept on it, and s.piridles have hitherto
only remained until the breaking up ofthe ice in the spring. To place
a permanent mark, of some material which will resist the action ^of[,the
sea and ice,-an appropriation of not.less than $7,000 will be required.
The urgent necessity for this appropriation will be too apparent, it is.
believed, to be questioned in any quarter,- by a simple reference to the
coast survey chart of Fishers' Island sound.
In.New Fori.—For a.small, light on or near Carleton Head, and for
thoroughly refitting pr rebuilding Tibbett's Point light, (Lake Ontario;.)
$5,000.
'
.
.
Thesatwo objectshaye been brought to l]ie notice of the board by a
corresponderice on the subject some months since, by the report of an'
officer ofthe corps^of topogrdphical; engineers who has-recently yisited>
the locality and reported in detail, and also by a numerously sIgne.d^
petition from those interested^ particularly in the. commerce of Lake
Ontario and the river St. Lawrence.
The. appropriation is considered to be highly necessary, in view of the
increasing .trade with the Canadian, shores,; and the notoriously^ inefficient
light long^ neglected on Tibbett's point. The board respectfully recprn


78

H. Doc. 23.

.mends this case to the particular attention arid consideration of the
Committees of Commerce and of Congress.
; For a'fog-bell or whistle, to be wPrked by machinery, to be placed
on the south"pier near the hght-house at Buffalo, $2,500.
For,a fog-bell or whistle, to be. worked by machinery, to be placed
, on Thunder Bay island, at the light-house, Michigan, $2,500.
These two fog-signals have been strongly recommended by the
superintendent of lights ori the lakes, and the board believes/them to be
very important. The one for Buffalois .undoubtedly of much importance to the commerce of th6 place, especially in consideration of the
fact that these are pier harbors.
For a beacon to be placed at the west end of Lake Erie, on a reef
. of rocks in the channel way, (Ohio,) $3,000.
:. This is strongly recommended by the superiritendent of fights. The
accompanying chart will show its importance.
. In New Jersey.--^Yor hnoyi^ fpr ^Absecuni bar and inlet, (harbor ofrefuge for coasting vessels,) $800.
[ These buoys are urged upon the attention of the board. The large
number of coa:sters, freighted with coal, lumber, &c., &c., which are
compelled to seek shelter in this little harbor, although at presentdifficult
of access for want of artificial aids for marking it, renders it an object
well worthy of the favorable consideration of the Committees of Commerce.
• In Delaware.—-For beacons and buoys to complete the proper marking of. the channels,-shoals, &c., of Delaware "bay, $5,000. , . - .. - ,
-These objects were recomriiended;during the last session of Congress; and, although very liberal appropriations were made for the *'Joe
Flogger," and for the channels inthe vicinity pf- Mahon's river,'/ yet
the system is very incomplete, and requires to be perfected in that
respect.
/
The channels of this river and bay, it will readily be seen by a reference to the coast survey chart, are not properly marked; and, until a
sufficient number of buoys are placed, the great loss of life and property
in it must contiriue. It is hoped that the favorable consideration ofthe
. epmmittee,may be directed'to this point.
In Virginia.-—For beacons and buoys in Chesapeake bay, on Sand^
shoal, in Hog Islarid inlet, and in Potomac and' Rappahannock rivers/
' a s per table C, $23,000.
The buoy of the first class proposed for the Upper Middle Ground
shoal in Chesapeake bay is represented to be of great importance to
. the commerce of the bay. It is a dangerous shoal, and, from its distance frpm the land, can at present only be avoided by the constant use
of the lead. It is of more importance to those navigating the Chesa-^'
peake bay than tb any local or general interests of the State to which
it belongs. The buoys for the Potomac have been recommended by,
citizens, through the superintendent of lights; and, as there are fewer
buoys and other aids to navigation in. this river thap au}^ other of its
importance, shipping, &c., in the country^ it is hoped that the small
sums asked for will not be refused.
^
The aids for the Rappahannock have been petltlpried for through the
, superintendent of lights. The sum is small; and, inasmuch as the



H. Doc. 23.

.

79

authority pf ;Congress has been given to make surveys with a view to
the improvement of its navigation, it is believed to be a reasonable and
legitimate object to recoriimend.
• >' f
In South Carolina.-^-For large-class iron ^ buoys for Charleston bar
and harbor, to replace' those now there, '$3,000.
For an iron bell-buoy to be. placed just outside of (Charleston bar,
$5,000.
. : • ^
. - .: '
: ' •.-••••/
For ..a buoy to be placed on Middle Ground shoal, Charleston harbor,
$500. •
For a light-vessel to be placed on Rattlesnake shoal, $20,000. ,
Foi\rebuilding beacon on Morris island, Charleston harbor, $3,000.
. These objects have been petitioned for; and, from information in possession of the board,,derived.from officers of the coast survey recent:ly
emploj^ed in the viclnit}^. and. others, it is impressed with the great
. importance of these aids to the commerce of Charleston,, and also to
that of acljacent portsr—the light-vessel serving as a guide to passing
.vessels.'
In Florida.—For a pile light-house^of Iron tP take the place of the
preserit inefficient and very expensive Jlght-vessel placed; near Key
West, $12,000.
• . The ,.Sand Key light-vessel was removed from her station and sold
during the last summer, before this board yvas organized. The consequence has been, great disadvantage to vessels passing and hitherto ^
accustomed to find that important aid as a departure. The board considered it of much importance to have the place of that yessel supplied
by another, and. accordingly instituted inquiries with a view to havlngthe light-vessel known as the Key West light-vessel transferred to Sand
key; but the superintendent of lights made such reprpsentations of the
condition of that vessel as to induce the board, very reluctantly, to
abandon, the intention. .
-'
It is now reported to the board that a new vessel must be built, (the.
present one being very defective,) br some: other means employed to
mark this important channel. An iron pile.light-house, it is believed,
will fulfil best the wants ofthis case; and the board respectfully recommends the appropriation to be made.;. In every view of the case it
commends itself to the board—by the necessity for a mark, the inefficiency of the pne formed by the light-vessel, its great annual expense
and rapid decay, on the one side; and by the durability, efficiency^
and comparative economy ofthe hght-hpuse proposed, on the other.
The signals placed along and on the Florida reefs by the coast survey have been found to be very, important aids to the navigator. Owing
to the limited means and temporary purposes for which they were used
by the coast survey parties in that viciriity, many of them have disappeared, and numerous petitions from seafaring men have been sent to
Congress, asldng that- they, maj^ be made permanent. It is believed
that $7,000 will suffice for this purpose.
^
In Alabama.—For a beacon to be erected ori: a shoal produced by a
.wreck in the channel In Mobile bay, $500. .
This small apprpprlation is asked to enable, the board to relieve the
underwriters in Mobile fi'om an, onerous tax now voluntarily paid by
them for marking this spot. It is recommended in the strongest terms
by the superintendent of lights of the district.



80

H. Doc. 2S-

In Louisiana.—For first-class iron.buoys-to mark theeritrances to tlw
passes bf the Mississippi river, $3,000.
The passes of the Mississippi are not marked, either artificially of
naturally, sufficiently well tp enable the navigator to run with security
boldly for the entrances; The pecuhar conformation ^of the delta of
-the Mississippi renders it difficult, in ,approaching it'from sea, to
determine the exact position ofthe vessel; and, since the channels have
become pbstructfed,.it is very necessary to provide additional aids.
These aids are now proposed at a very, small cost.
•
Towards the construction of a first-class light-house to be pla:ced as
maybe determined upon by the LightrHouse Board, after the completion
ofthe survey now in progress in the vicinity of Ship shpal, or Racoon
point, in place of the light-vessel now there, at great annual expense,
and without prpducing equivalent benefits, $20,000.^.
.
In Texas.-^For a first-class light-hpuse^to be placed near the mouth of
the river Sabine, $30,000... . .
.
. . .
This light is urged on the score of the amount of commerce along the
coast and into and up this river; The board- has- as = yet no means of
knowing anything in relation to this point, further than that it is^ marked'
as one of the points for a first-class seacoast light in the- programriicof
the temporary light-house boards, That this light must be authorized
at no distant day, if not riow, the board believes to be certain.
The increasing importance nowattached to. these=aids along: this low*
coast is but the necessary consequence of an increasing-commerce.
The.fewnesS; of the aids south of the Mississippi is a- strong argu-'
ment in favor of liberal appropriations to meet present demands.It must be remembered that these aids, when once established^ If the^
appropriations are sufficient to" make them^ such as a true economy demands, will be of comparative^ little expense hereafter.
'
In California.'—For a light-house to be placed on Point-Boneta, San-'
Francisco; $25,000.
; '
For buoys, &c., for San Francisco. bay, Sacramento river, Marer
Island straits; Suisun, Umpqua, Humboldt harbor, &:c., $4,800. .
. The proposed light-hpuse at the entrance to the bay of San Francisco is necessary to the safety of navigators entering that port and bay.
The small light authorized to be placed on Battery point is to serve as?
a mere harbpr.or range light, while this is to mark from seaward- ihe..entrance to the bay. The distance of the Farrallones, nearly twenty-^
nine miles, forbids its being of any further use than as an-off-^shore seacoast light, and of the greatest importance in that respect.
The;bupys are recommended b y t h e revenue officers and others ori;
that coast; and, from the local knowledge of those w h a have made representations to the boardj there can be no doubt of the propriety of
making the appropriation;
;
/;
, In Oregon.—For buoys for.Columbia river, $l,500i
The increasing commerce, and the daily increasing necessity for meet-^
ing the wants of that comnierce, render this appropriation one of much
concern to those interested in that distant portion of our- country. I t
is hoped that:the appropriation wiir be made. A smaM sum expended
Si few years since under the direction of the Superlritendient of the Coast'



•.'H.-Doc. 2 3 . '

'81^

Survey is a:il that has, up to this time, 'been devoted to that object in
Oregon.
o
•
•
/ The superintendent of iights oh the,upper lakes recommends three.•
small lights, viz:; •
, •
•
'/'
' Poirit Betsey, Lake'Michigan, $5,000. . \
' Grand.Island harbor, Lake-SuperiPr, $5,000.
Rock harbor,^Isle Royal, Lake .Superior, $5,000.
Although the board is not possessed of ^he requisite detailed information to'recommend/these lights as. being absolutely riecessaiy, yet ther«e
can be no risk of a iriisappropriation of funds, inasmuch as-the law provides that their necessity, "shall be reported on by the Topographical
, bureau-.before construGting them; arid- as the commerce of this rich
mineral region is rapidly increasing, and is subjected to many natural
obstacles, it is deemed, just, to recommend them to the favorable coh' sideratloii'of Congress.:;
'
. •
^ The first item under the head of miscellanebusls, to/test the practicability- of rendering the buoy . guides'of- Mr. Jabez- Stone useful for
narrow channel's and rivers: t h e . Sriiall sum of $250 is .asked for .this
'.purpoge:
*
;
' •
.
V The item for testing Mr. Babbage^s plan of distinguishing, lights bypccultations is fully explaineds in. the report of the temporary light.liause board, and it is considered unnecessary to repeait heire its details.
The importance of the subject in every respect must commend itself to
%he favorable consideration of Confess,'but in. none more- than in the
generous and disinterested :riianner in which the distinguished inventor
presented it to the board, to be used for the benefit of mariners'.
To test this ingenious plan on--.a- proper scale, it will require, in the
opinion of the board, about $5,000, which is respectfully asked.
Without designing'to make a'general recapitulation of'the recom•'mendations con tallied in the programme hi the'report ofthe temporary
light-house board made; to' Congress at ,.its last session, thi^ boa.rd
considers it proper at this; time respectfully to recall the attention of
the departmentoand of Congress to objects referred to in that report'as
of great importance tP the navigating.interests, but more particularly
to the external commerce of the country, and of the great cities of the
;Atlantic', Gulf, and Pacific cpasfs. - ,; - ' ' f.' . '.
. ' To carry out gradually arid .with' a proper economy,the 'general features of the. programme'alluded, to,, it may be assunied that it was the
•design of Congress to authprize,.from time to. time, such a filling-in of the
proposed system^^of lights of major importance on the seacoast, arid
' renovating and improving others,- (taking-them in the prder of their,supposecl importance,) as wilfat rib distant day complete .the entire, plari,
by which the interests of commerce will be greatly subserved, and
Congress-relieved-from,the annual,demands fbr new structures; .
If it be the pleasure of Congress further tb confirm the recommendations- of that board.' by appropriating funds-fbivgradua^^^ executing its
programme, 'the.follo;wing are; the .bbjects 'considered of greatest importance next to those already provided, and which are placed rather
in geographical order than in that of importance :
Maine.-—'1. T a elevate, improve, and fit with first-order illuminating
.

" • ' . .

•

:

^

'

6

'

\




.

^

• •

• • •

• •

•

- .

- • •

- •

•

• • - * • - • ,

:

82

H. Doc. 23.

apparatus the light-house at Seguin, one ofthe most important positions
on the eastern coast, $15,000.
Massachusetts.-^2. To elevate,, improve, and fit with first-order illuminating apparatus the- light-house at TrurP highlands. Cape Cod?
being an important seacoast position:to mark the approaches to Boston
bay, $15,000.
/
'
;
3. To refit and improve Gay Head light,. $13,000. .
. .
New York.—4. To erect a first-class seacoast light-house tower, and
fit.it with .the. most approypd apparatus for iliuminatian, riear Great
West bay. Long Island, $30,000,
'
. .'. , .
New Jersey.—5'. For elevating, imprpving, and refitting with proper
illuminating apparatus the light-house at Barnegat, New Jerseyy
$12,090.
'
" .
.
; ",.
• /' 6. For a first-class light-house, to be fitted with the moet approved
illuminating apparatus, to be placed in tbe viciBity of Absecum inlet,
to guide navigators cle:a.rpf Absecum and Brigantine sHoals, $30,000.
South Carolina.—7. For changing the present sniall. ai^d, useless light
at Cape Romain into ,a first-class^ seacoast light, required to guide
vessels'clear. of the dangerous shoals^ distant from six to. seven milesy
and.in the track of vessels bound south^of Charleston, South Carolina^
$20,000.
/.
• ••
> • ^ ' ' ;
.Florida.-—8. For the erection of a first-class light-bpiise tower;. arid
for fitting it: with first-:order illuminating apparatus, near Jupiter inlet,
to mark the dange'rous shoals lying off' that point, and to' guide vessels
along that coast, $35,'000i
• .
,.
.
' .
. The board has sbuglit; to point out the most important objects requiring.'the consideration of the Committees of "Cpmmerce and of Congress
at this time. The information, so^far as it is offered, is 'from 'the most
reliable, and it is believed disinterested," sources. • .
, No doubt there a r a a great many objects worthy of'the specialconsideration of Congress at this time, arid prpbably of much more inipprtance to the interests of commerce arid nayigation .than some of,'those
now presented:; .but the board has had rio means of discbyeririg them,
nor of knowing what means to take, to^seek then! out, to be iii time to be
presented in this-report.^
.
. .~ •
; '
, .
All siiperln.tenderits have b'een .iosbucted to point out such aids as
the}^- deemed, of importance. In liipst. cases.BO aiiswers:have been
received, and In others they have/reported that nothing is required.
The board may be permitted to say, in this connexion, th at, in" its
opinion, it is not som u c h an. increase in the number of the aid's tb,nay igation that is required as tb Improve: those npw existirig ;^arid it is the
firm determination of the board to avail itself of all the means at its
; command to effect that object.
'•.•".'
• ' . -'
The attention of the board-has -been specially called Id the d^estructioiiof wood' buoys ,a;long the sou thern coast, renderirig it imperative
that hereafter, :if" a, proper econonQy is practised, none, but metal
buoys be employed in those waters where the worai;is found. In a
- rc-cent case, the buoys authorized by one Congress had scarcely been
placed before the next session of Congress was calle.d upon to supply
their places. :
, ""; ; - ,
•
• '.. '
.Independently of this destru^tiye marine animal, itis believed that IrPn



H; Doc. 23.

83

buoys, properly constructed and well mopred, are, in the end^ much
cheaper than wooden ones. This is reported to be the experience i n
.Europe, and the difference iri price of irpn in this country is not sufficient,to turn the beam. V
The special attention pf the board .h.as been called to the necessity for
building a better class of ligfit-vesaels fpr exposed stations, and for endeavoring: to prevent the.se important-aids tp navigation from bping taken
from their stations at a time when they.are most needed. It has becorrie
necessaiy to exert a prpper influence to prevent the total disregard of
coiis.equences gro.vving put pf the abaiidonment^of a light-ship station
now daily manifested. Pretexts are always at hand when impunity is
the reward.
. . . , :
. .
The four first-class light-vessels tp be built immediately will be constructed upon ithe best-models anel of the best iitaterials.. Every effort
will be made to render them safe and comfortable to thpse whp a,re to
remain on board o'f them, and-,the baird expects to be able\to have
therii kept at their stations until relieyed.
While the board desires to spare no efforts to improve and render
efficieiit all the lights,a.nd otlier: aids to navigation under its direction as
rapidly as the mealiis. at its conlmand will perinit, it is persuaded that
the seacoast lights and exterior aids, to navigation demand their .ffist
attention.
-.
/ :
- ; , ^; \
• ••
' The smaller lights in pur bays, rivers, sbunds, and harbors, with
their accessory aids, fiicilitate greatly those engaged in navigation ; but
it is to bur seacoast li£>lits, ,and the buoys In our bays, and to. mark the
outside channels, that the voyager must trust for safety of life, and
.property. .
-• • - By the gradual introduction of a better. description of illuminating
apparatus, the superiority pf which is no longer to be questioned, by
adopting a sj'-stem of construction founded upon scientific attainments
and.practical knowledge, by improving the models and ^employing better materials incur light-vessels,.and by introducing a rigid system of
accQuritability, supervision, and inspection, in every branch of the service, the board expects to place the light-house estabhshment of this
country on a prpper footing of efficiency and economy.
The short time the board has had charge pf the financial concerns of
the establishment has been ample to satisfy it that more will be accomplished at an early daynhan was anticipated.
.Should Congress be of opinion that the important seacoast lights
. contained in .the system of the temporary light-liouse board, shpuld be
gradually imprpyed by the introduction of better illuminating a.ppar
ratus, or by the renovations which the ordinary.annual appropriations
for that object will allow, the important results, although; certain to be
attained in the course pf time, will be but little perceptible from year •
to year, in so extensive a system-of lighting as ours has gi;own to be.
If, on the^ contrary. Congress, in view of the interests concerned,.
should authorize the small additional appropriations recoriimended, for
a few years, for the purpose, of fitting those, seacoast fights of greatest
•importance first, and leave the sniall inland .lights to be renovated frorn^
the annual savings from the approprialio^-'.s ^'or tl.ia.t object the benefits^




H. Doc. 23. -

84

whick would result from the change would soon.be apparent in the
increased efficiency and economy of the system.
The economy of the smaller lights is much greater, in proportion to
numbers, than that of the larger. There.are many lights, fitted with
lamps and reflectors, consurnirig 600, 500, 400, 30'0, &c./ Sec., gallons
of oil,"which, with proper'apparatus,.would onl}^ consume from 183
tb 48 or 50 gallons of oil each, and produce better lights.
: •
But there are positions at y^hich-it wiU be advantageous, to employ"
the old apparatus—as; for example,,in channels and other situations
requiring but little Imnge 'and small arcs of the horizon to be illuminated.
" ' ,
'
:
As a system, it may be asserted' that the dipptric fulfils more per^
•ectly all the requirements of the service; yet the parabolic ^reflector,
and. the Bordier Marcet,. arid' Sidereal apparatus, used chiefly • for
sma^ beacons In France, cannot ,be abandoned, ,when= alt the interests
of a varied service are considered.
_
By order of the board. ^
'
•'. '
Very respectfully submitted:,
' .'
^ • . •- • ;.
• ',W . B. SHUBRICK, Chairman.:
THORNTON A. JENKINS, • -}• a

17

T 17 X
T

L D M D . L . 1 . HARDCASTLE, )




••

'

;

} Secretaries.
.

Table showiiig objects belonging, to the light-house estahlishment for which djypfopriaiions had been made prior to the Slst August,
1852, ccnd^ the action in each case before and since the organization of the board, on the 9th October, 1852.
State.-

Maine ,

Locality.

Description of
object.

Sum appropriated,
or balance.

jLedge east of Boon is One buoy . . . . . Amount,
land.
•
•
Black Saddle-back islandj Light-house ..^

Date. of ap- Action prior to organiza- Action since organisation of the Lighthouse Board. :
propriationi. tion of Light-hOuse Board.

$150 00 Sept.28, 1850|

:Suoy ordered to be placed.

4, 000 001Sept,
;.28, 1850| Condemned by Capt. "VValden, U. S. revenue'marine
300 00 Mar. 3> 1851jNo buoy pliaced, the "appro |TO - be included in ° additional approWhite and Thorn's ledges Buoys . . ~
priation being deemedl , priations since niade so soon as the
and Pond island reef,
season will permit.
too small.
Kennebeck "river.
Naraguagus, (Pond is- Light-house - . .
4,000 00 Mar. 3,1851 lUiider. contract to be done|Reported finished; waiting for con- ©
tractor-to furnish illuminating appa- p
by October 15, 1852,
land.),
: ratus.
Ready for bemg moored.
•
Hhode I s l a n d . . . . Brenton's reef
15j 000 00 Mar. 3, 1851 Under contract... .^.
Light-Vessel - . .
|This sum to be employed to complete
Massachusetts . . . In the channel to Com- Buoys
Balance,
560 ooiMar. 3, 1851 Eleven biioys placed.the. marking of this channel.
mercial Point and Neponset ri^;^er;
Breakwater'at Bass river Light-house ..^• Amount, 4,000 00 !Sept.28,1850 The site being condemned IBoard recommends a reappr6priation of
by Captain. Waiden, U $4,000 to place a light at or near this
place.
S. revenue mai-ine.
IBoard recommends reappropriation to
30i 000. 00 Sept. 28,18501iNo report
Reef of rocks, called the| . . . . d o
commence a light-house at this point.
-^ Sow-and-pigs.",
'
Egg r o c k . . . . . . . . . . 1: . . . . d o .
5,000 oo!Sept. 28', 1850! Condemned by.Capt. Wat
den.
Newbury port
• 500 00 [Sept. 28, 185o|JNo -action...
'. [Ordered to be placed.
Buoys or beacon
6,000 00 Mar. 3,1851 No title obtained to land.. [Sites cannot be obtained; recomNew York.
Near Fort Hamilton, to iTwo beacons .
mends change of sites to other end
guide to Narrows.
of the channel, on the New Jersey
shore.
CO



00

A—Continued.
State.

Locality: >

Description, of Sum appropriated, Date of ap- Action prior to organiza- Action since organization of the Lighthouse: Board.
or balance.
propriation. tion of Light-house. Board;
object.

New York—Con- Horse-shoe: reef,.Niagara Light-house. .. Amount, $45, 000 00 Mar. 3,1851 Under contract to-be done The board has no infonnatio.n, except.
, by June 1,;^1853.. river.:
report from the engineer officer
tinued.
' charged with tills work at the time he .was relieved.
.;
....do.:.:....
. 6,0,00 00 Mar. 3,1851 Condemned by General
Sodus, .bay
. Swift:
^ •
6,000 00 Mar. 3, 1851 No contract; the deeds ap- The board has:caused the foundations
....do....:..,
Gardner's Island...
proved; sum. insufficient. to be examined; and .will commence'
the structure; immediately.
250 00 Mar. 3; 1851 Appropriation insufficient.. Additional appropriation made; bell
New jersey.
Fdg-bell . . : . : .
Newark light-house
to be procured.
4,500 00 Sep^t.^28, 1850 Site condeinned- by Captain
Conaskonk p o i n t . , . . - . . Light-ho.use . , .
Waiden, U. S. revenue
Delaware.
Ohio

Indian r i v e r : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d o . . . . . . . .
On Green island, in Lake . . . . d o . . .
.Erie.
do
Mouse i s l a n d . . . . . . . . . .

....

5,000 00 Sept..28,1850 Condemned by Cajit. Wai- No -mfprmation obtained yet by the
den, U. S, revenue ma- board.
•
rine.
5,000 00 Mar. 3,1851 Title not-obtainedTitle-deeds obtained, and in hands of
; Attorney. General for" decision.
5,000 00 Mar, 3,1851 Condemned by Gen. Swift . Tlift board has no inf<Vrit)fition on this
subject..

5,000 00 Mar. 3, 1851 Authorized to be huilt by Cannot be received or .paid for in conFifth Auditor.
sequence of title being defective and
deed'of-cession not made.
8,000 Op Sept. 28,1850 Under contract to be done Light-vessel completed and sent to her
Jiine's island . . . . . . . . . . . . ]Oi.ight-boat......
by December 1, 1852.
station.
,27,000.00 Mar; 3,1851 Under contract. to • be doneThe board.has no official.information
Seven-foot knoll. . . . . . . . Light-hpuse...,
. by the 1st July, 1853.
in relation to this structure.
|204 81 Sept.28,1850 Light-house, coij-ipleted*.... Obstructions removed and- improveVirginia.....'....: South end of Hog island'. . . . . d o . . . . . . . . Bcil&nce,
ments made' to rejidev the light use-' fiil.

Maiyland

Fishmg battery




. . . . ....do

'(!0

Konh Caroiiiia.. iMiddle GrolM shoal, ;uo^ * . i i . i . » . .
Beaufort harbor;
i
On Hatteras inlet, near! Buoys i i a i i-. ..
the south breakers.
Cape Channel, opposite . d o . . . . . . . . . .
Hatteras light-house,]
and one at Bog chailneL
Beacon .island ..^. ^^
iLight-house . . i

MisBissippi. *

Georgia .^^^.
Morid^ .e..^.

Texas. ^ * ^ ^ *

Mlchigaii-

Ocracoke chaiineli ^. *.. .Light-tedat.. . .
Diamiotid sk.oalj off Cape Iron buoy:**- Hatteras.
Cape Hatteras, outer jFloating bellr
beacon.
shoal.
Upper jettee. Cape Fear|Light-house - . ^
river i
At or fleair
....do........
river.
Ship island .*2. i
...do..^.....

M d 001|Main S,lgSliHdt placed...* i.s — . . . . Superintendent'asked for infbrmatioii.
Sept.28, 18501ISt^ars directed Febnmry 10, These aids are only known to have been
SOO ooj
"185L
placed by the receipt of accounts.
Information asked; the account.of su.250 00 Sept. 28j 1850
perintendent shows they have been
placed recently.
'
"
6,000 00 Marv" 3. 1851 Light-house cotnplisted, but Lighted October, 1852.
not fitted up.
|
15j 000 00;Mar. 3) 1851 Light-boat under contract.] Lighted October, 1852.
a.. ]
• 800 00Mar. 3,1851 Not placed . 4 i i i & i. i i 4 i. Placed December, 1852.
S) 000 oojMar/ 8) 1851 Not placed ...**. ^. ^ . . . . . Placed December, 1852.
13,000 00 Mar. 3,18 1I Asked' for report, &c

Engineers charged with submitting
plan and estimates.
3,000 00 Sept. 28,185&!Site condemned by Captaiii No action.
Evans.
. 12> 000 00Sept. 28,1850] Site reserved; superintend- Contrasted for and recently completed.
ent directed to coritract.
Savannah river.
|TO purchase sig-|
150 00 Sept. 28)1850 Not reported by CaptainltNo action; fund, not available.
o.
Evans.
nallightk
Buoys replaced by iron ones.
320 ooi Mar. 3,1=851[The buoys placed-. -.
Entrance of Mosijuito iBuoys......
Balance)
harbor-.
Additional'appropriations. To be comjSea-horse k©y ^ ^»^»»^ ^ . .|Light-housQ: .»
8> 000 00 Sept. 28,18501[Sum insufficient... *..
menced without unnecessary delay.
do..«...*. a. Baknce, 1^ 394 -88Mar. " 3, 1847Light-house completed^ but|Lighted; but notice not received offi- °
Bolivar point
cially.
,
-.. •
not fittisd up.
1,172 24 Mar. 3)18471|Light-house completed, but|Lighted, but notice not received offiMatagorda island.. * ^.. -. - . . . d o . - *
cially.
not fitted up.
Additional appropriation,of $2,500 at
lAransas Pass . . ^ *
. . . . d o . • I. b it.. ^ . Amount, 12,500 00 Mar. 3,1851
last session. Plans in preparation.
Completed and.nea.i-ly ready for lighting
15) 000 ooi Sep.t. 28,1850 Contracted foi*........
BraKOs Santiago: ^ .**.... Light-house and
beacon.
Additional appropriations-preliminary
5,000 00 |Sept. 28,1850 INo action . . . . Red Fish b a r . . . . . . . . . . iLight-house.
steps taken;
. :
6>000 00 Sept. 28,1850, Light-house completed Oc- Ready for lighting when season bpens'
iMarquette «»--•«.. o „ - . .
-do.
tober 1,1852:
GD,




o

..HI'

f
gt.ate,

J^ocallty,

Michigan—Pont'd, Ottaw.a .Point,
bay,
Wisconsin-, v^ P.. |T win r i y e r s . , . . .
Californij^.andOr" egon.




I)§soription of
object.

Sum appropriated, Date of ap- Action prior to organizaAction since organization of the Lightor baU.nce,
proprlatfon. tion of Light-house Board,
house Bop,rd.

tight-hpus^.. , . An^oi^nt? $5, OOP" 00,3ept, 28,18:^0
LightJiouse completed Oc No repprt from superintendent.
tober;1852; :' " "
....dp..,,....
3, m 00 Sept.-2S, lg50 Light-house completed OcLight ready for lighting at the opening
tober, 1852,
ofthe season. \
'
• w? v » 4-11 the lights on tliis poast under.- the
special direction of the Secretary of
the Treasury until transferred, De^
cember 22, |853> to .the LightrhousQ
Board,
. "

sa

Table showing the objects belonging to the light-house establishment for whicK oppropriations were made August 31, 1852, with
' • ^
the action taken by the board on the several cases since its organization, October 9, 1852.
State.

'

Maine

Description of obj ect. Sum appropriated.

Locality.
o

•Nubble

.
,

.
,
^

Superintendent and inspector of district directed to procure deeds for the
site.'
500 00 Will be commenced so soon as the season will permit.
Beacon
...
2,500 00 r All of these bells are to be, according to law, on Jones's patent. The proFoo--bell
2, 500 00 ! prietor has been requested to submit his proposals, with detailed speci-...do...:
• 2,500-00 1 cations, to enable the board to contract for placing them at the several
...:do
,
2,500 00 I points designated by-Congress.
do:....
......
. .
.
•
Beacon,.:
500 :oo Constructed.
160 .00 Inspector instructed in relation to them.
Two buoys..... . . . . . .
25,000 00 Examinations in i)rogress with reference to the procuring materials.
Light-house
1, 000 00 Inspector directed to examme site and report.
Beacon
5,000 00. Site selected by Coast Survey on Heron, neck; work to be commenced
Light-house
immediately.
-'
.
,•Lio-ht-house

'....

Haddock's ledio-e Cane Elizabeth
Seguin -.- . .
•...
Whitehead . . :
^.....
W^est Quoddyhead . . -.
.-.
Logey's ledge
-.. -.
Eastern and Western Sisters
Boonisland . . . . .
Steel's ledge:, Between New Haven and
Vmal Haven, or on Heron
neck.
Kennebeck river.
..
Beacons, buoys, and
spindles.
Fog-bell
Petit Menan
Old Man's ledffe
Buoys .
.
Entrance of Camden harbor Beacons
Beacons and buoys ..
Narraguagus ha.rbor
^ Brooksville .:..-.=
Light-house
Between Owlshead and
Whitehead light-houses.
Goldsborough

$5, 000 -00

5, 000 00
2,500
'500
1,000
1,000
3,500

00
00
00
00
00

Beacons

4,000.00

Four buoys

• 200 00

Buck l e d g e . . . » . . . . . . . . . . . . Beacon .»„.«



Action in the case.-

500 00

District inspector charged with the selection of the points and,execution
of the work.
^ .
Jones's patent; embraced in correspondence relating to others.
•Districtlnspector charged with this duty, to be executed without delay.
Do^
do ~
,
- do.
Do
• do
*
do. .
Site selected by Coast Survey on Pumpkin island. (Further legislation
required.)
. V
Sites selected by Coast Survey, and district inspector directed to execute
: -v^'ork.
'
District inspector charged with placing these objects on the points designated by law.
The repairs of this beacon to be made so^^^soon as season opens sufficiently.

ffi
o
0^

00

B—Continued.
Locality.

State.

Description of object.

New Hampshire.. Wiley's • ledge and Half-way Beacon and buoy.
rock.
Massachusetts . . . Succonesset. •. . . . . Light-Vessel..

Sum appropriated.

Plans made, and work to be commenced as sdon as the season will permit.

12,000 00

Site det'errnined by Coast- Survey; niodel and plein.s. in preparation for advertising for proposals';
v
,
Superintendent of lights, instructed to procure and place them,
r Engineer secretary of Light-house Board charged with the diity of submit!. ting plans and specifications for beacons and spindles, and the work to
|, be advertised foiMvithout delay; the buoys.to be procured by contract,
I and placed by inspector of district.
Site selected by Coast Survey; model and plans in preparation for advertising for x^roposals.- .
Coast Survey to have-placed-as recommended.
Do
do
do.
Do
do
do.
Model, plan, and spe ciiic atiorfs adopted, and proposals advertised for.
Jones's patent; in the condition of those for other points.
Do
,
do
do.
Coast Survey charged with placing buoy, with others authorized for this
^ vicinity.
Do
dodo.
Plans advertised for by Topographical bureau, in conformity to the law.
Constructed and placed under direction of superintendent of lights, by order
of Light-house Board.
Model, plan, and specifications adopted"and proposals advertised for. The
appropriation believed'to be top s.riiall; $16,000 required to complete the
vessel and fit her with proper moorings,Illuminating apparatus, &c.
Inspector of district charged with placing these buoys.

Three buoys
Beacons and buoys..
Beacon
Spindles;

Kin Pond bar.
•Bibb rock:..>
. —......
Great ripp
'.... ... .
Sand slioai:... 1
.Oft' Nantucket.
Baker's island
Race point...:.....
Point Gammon light-house. .

Light-vessel or lighthouse.
Buoy.
.....-.....,
Buoy-boat
.:.,.do,...
Light-vessel
^.
Fog-bell.....
.....do..,.%
Buoy

Succonesset point.
Minot's ledge.-.:^.
New-Bedford
-.

..do.........
Light-house
Four buoys.

120 00
80,000.00.
300 00

Mmot's ledge-

Light-vessel.

16,000-00

Channel leading,frqm> Narraganset bay to Wana. quacket pond.
Goat island
,

Buoy.

250 00

.do.

150 00




Action in the case..

$800 00

Holmes's hole
Newburyport
Fawn bar
-..
Graves.

Rhode Island

o

. 300 00

. 2,000
1,000
6, 000
12,000

00
00
00
00

75
500
500
30,000
2,500
2, 500
120

00
00
00
00
00:
00
00-

Do

do

do.

o

o.
o
•,

Connecticut..
New York...

Black RoGk,i>ier
Oswego
Sandy Hook....
.......
Throg's Neck
Saiidy Hook.
Gardiner's island•
Sag. harbor.
Stony Brook h a r b o r . . . . . . . .
Mouth Genesee
Hudson:river
Bay of NewYork...
New Jersey...

Maryland...

3,^500 00. This work well advanced -under direction of an officer of the corps of engineers. .>
500 00 Superintendent of lights negotiating for purchase of site.
5, 000 00 District inspector instructed to msa-k the site and report on the jurisdiction.
.480 00 District inspector charged Svith.placing these buoys, on thei opening of navigation. '
.
.
.
.
.
600 00 District inspector charged with the construction of this beacon. Beacon
5,000 00 Temporary repairs made by.officer of topographical engineers, and will be
Light-house repairs.
be completed so soon as the season opens sufficiently to do it economically
and proj)erly.
\ Jones's patent; will be placed so soon as the necessary arrangements can
Fog-bell...
]
I be made with the patentee. '
;
...-do.....
i
20,000 00 Model, i:)lan, and specifications adopted, and proposals invited.
Light-vessel
1^000 00 C An officer of the coi'ps.of engineers instructed to examine and report upon
Light-house
.450 00 } the foundations, to enable the board to have plans prepared and to inBeacon
.,
...
( vite proposals.
300 00 Inspector of district charged with placing these buoys, sP soon as they can
Three buoys
be nmde.
<
.
2,600 00' Referred to Topographical bureau-for report.'
Beacon, &.c.,.
1,500 00 Inspector of district charged with placing these on sites selected by engiThree small beacons
neer, secretary. .
^
. .
'500 00 Inspector of district charged with procuring .them to be placed as the board
Ten buoys..-..
will direct.
3,000 00 Inspector directed to report to the board the kind of structure required.
Beacon
4,000 00 Plan in preparation, preparatory to inviting proposals by. advertisement.^
1,000 00 District inspector to report the classes of buoys adapted'to this locality.
Monument.. i
Buoys ....
..
( Sites, selected by Coast,Survey; engineer secretary, charged.with-making;
( Beacon, bug-lights, I 3;000 00 \ plans aiid specifications to enable the board to advertise for proposals.
( and fog-bell.
200 00 District inspector will place these buoys so soon as they can be made.
Four buoys
' 2,500 00 The light-house not in a condition to receive the bell; will'be procured in
, tune.
Fog-belL..,-:-...-.,
480 00 Superintendent of lights directed to place these buoys from general stock.
1,500 00 Necessary information-from officer of engineers received, and work to be
Six buoys . .
.—
commenced at once,
. . .
Beacon
....—
80 00 Coast SuiTcy has constructed and i)laced.
Buoy
...
200"00 District inspector charged with the examination, and to report the proper
Bell........
, vessel on which to place this bell.

Preservation of fighthouse,. &c.
New Haven
- - Light on wharf......
....
Point au R o c h e . . . . . . . . . . . . Light-house
Six buoys...
Hudson river
Do......

...

Long Island
Mill reef
Inlet Little Egg harbor.....
West Oyster bed, N. A. bay
Elbon beacon; Set-off
Point andPassaic river.....
Great Egg harbor and Herreford; •
Seven-foot knoll
Pocomoke sound...
Fort Carrol
Hooper's straits
Chesapeake bay




...

/.

O" ^

CO.

• B—Continued.
Description of object. Sum appropriated-

Locality.

State.

Sagmaw bay

Buoys

" Round island

Michigan

. . .-. . . Beacon. . . : . • . . .

Mouth Clinton river
Wisconsin..

Light-house

Mouth,of South Black river. . . - . . d o
: . Neenah; on Fox r i v e r . . . . . . Buoys
Light-house
:.
Removal .%f light. ' house, &c.'
Mouth Maumee river
Light-hpuse
Ledge between western Sis- Buoys
ter aud entrance to Maumee bay.
Huron . . . . . . . .
Rprs. light-house, &c.
Vermilion harbor
Renewing light-house,
&c.
Delaware bay
. . . . . . Six buovs' .
...
Brandywine shoal
'Two ice-breakers
Winnebago lake
Milwaukie

Ohio

Delaware

Virginia

Buoys
Two buoys
do.
Light

Joe Flogger shoal
Chincoteague inlet.
Metomkiriinlet
Pungoteague creek
Jones's point
Apateagne
Smith's island
Cape Henry




1^

,.
'.

/ . . . Light-house
Fog-bell....do
....do

'

$600 00
4,000 00
5,000'00
5, 000 00
500 00
5, 000 00
5, 000 00
5,000 00
300 00

Action in the case.

Inspector of district instmcted; buoys to be placed on opening of navigation.
Referred to Topographical bureau; necessary steps in progress to procure
deed to site and ces.sion of jurisdiction.
An officer of topographical engineers now employed in making necessary
examinations.
Referred to Topographical bureau to report on site,^ &c.
.
Inspector of district charged to procure and place these buoys on opening
of navigation.
'
Referred to Topographical bureau for report on site, &c.
This case is now in course of examination.
Referred to Topographical bureau.
Inspector directed to procure and place these buoys on opening of navigation.
; ,
•

6,000
3,000

,

.

•

_

.

•

t. Referred to Topographical bureau-to be reported upon.
Do
do
do.
0

480 1 0 Inspector of the district charged with this duty.3,600 .0 An officer of the topographical engineers has reported onithis work. Now
under consideration.
' . ,
'
.•
3, 000 d9 Coast Survey to place.
160 00 Distiict inspector charged with this duty.
Do
*
do
160 00
10,000 00 Coast Survey has reported in favor ef this object. Work to be commenced'
at once:
>
*
.
5,000 00 Site'examined by CPast Survey and report made. Under consideration.
2,500 00
2,500 00 > Jones's patent, included with pthers at other pomts on the coast.
Do
do
do.
2, 500 00

X
o

White shpal (James river)---.
Day's point.
,..:
....
Point of st oals
Lyon Creek shoals
Horseshoe shoal.. White point and Elbow point.
Occahannock creek
North Carolina... Baldhead-light-house
Bogue banks.. .•-

Beacon . . . . . .
Beacon-lights.
Beacon-light..
.....do......
Buoy
Two buoys. .
..:-do.-...-..
Fog-bell....-..
Light;house , -

I,000v00
-5,000 00
5,000 00
5,000 00
500 00
160 00
160 00
2,600-00
5,000 00

( All the aids authorized for .James river have been examined into.. Sites
I
have been selected by Coast Survey, and the superintendent of lights in
{
the district is negotiatmg for the purchase of the land, to enable the'
board to obtain an act of cession before the legislature adjourns its
I
present session.
District inspector will procure and place this buoy without delay.
Do
do
"do.
Do
- do ,
do. - ^
Inspector of the district, directed to examine location and report on it.
Recommended by Coast Survey. Inspector charged with examining founda
-tions.
'
;

200 ,00
Two buoys. . .
Albemarle sound
80 00 > Coast Survey to place.
Buoy . - . , . . . .
'
Falker's shoal
100 00
N. River, county Currituck. Buoys-. ..... . :
30,000 00 Model, plan, and specifications adopted, and proposals invited for building.
Light-vessel-.
Fryingpan shoals
1,600 00 Coast SuiTcy to have; placed.
Two channels over Frying- Four buoys..
pan shoals.
.1,000 00
do.
do.
Do
Main and Oak Island chan- . . . d o
nels. •
1,320 00 District inspector charged witli this duty, and furnished with plans.
Cape Fear r i v e r . . . . . . . . . . . Six buoys
3,500 00 To be constructed on plan of Light-house Board, and placed.
Bell-boat
South Carolina... Cape Romani shoal
Harbor-light....
Charleston . . . . . . . . . . . .
foo o'o. Engineer officer instructed to examine and report on this subject.
630 00 Coast Survey to place, after completion of survey.
Georgetown:
:
.. Three buoys
5,000 00 Sites to be selected by Coast Survey, after survey of harbor is completed.
South and North Isl'd points. Three beacon-lights :,
4, 000 00 Coast Survey to have, placed.
-Mobile ; b a y - . . : . - . . . . . . . . . Bell-buoy . ^ . . . . . . . .
Alabama.
Do
do.
2,100 00
Six buoys . . . c
Middle ground
Do
do.
200 00
Buoy
.. . . . . . . . ,
Northwest Pelican shoal
4,000 00 Plans in preparation, and work to be commenced without delay. :
Sand island%nd Mobile point Four beacons....:.\
.,
Do
do
• ' dp.
3, 000 00
Revenue point
. . . . . . . . Screw-pile beacon..
Lighthouse . . . .
- 5,000 00 Referred to Coast Survey for examination and report.
East Pascagoula river
Mississippi . . .
..--do...
12, 000 00 Under contract to be completed February 1, 1853.
Ship island 1,800 00 Coast Survey to have placed.
Cat and Ship Island harbors. Nine buoys
3, 000 00 Survey in progress, imder direction of Superintendent Coast Survey.
Ship shoal and Racoon point] Exainination and surLouisiana — .
vey of.
240 00 Coast Survey to have placed.
Three buoys
Horn Island pass
Do
do.
_
_
\
840 00
Sand Bore and Boca Grande Four buoys.. - . - - - Florida.
35,000 00 An officer of the topographical engineers directed to visit the site and reLight-house
Coffin's patches
port a plan.
250 00 Coast SuiTey to have placed..
Seahorse reef
| Buoy



O

IO

50

B-—Gontinued.
Locality.

State.

Description of object. Sum appropriated.

- $700 00
Florida—Cont'd.. Ten ; miles south of Cape Three buoys.
Florida.
10,000 00
Rebecca shoal.
— :Beacon
10,000 00
Mouth of St. John's river.. Securing light-house
...
Light-house ^r.light2,500 00
Texas
: Aransas pass.
vessel.
Three small .light5,000 00
Galveston bayhouses.
1,000 00
California
, Bay of San Francisco
. Buoys
5,000 00
Plumboldt .harbor . . . . . . . . "Beacon
5,000 op
La Pointe, Lake Superior . Lis;.ht-h6use
...:'do
•30,000 00
Santa Cruz
California and Oregon..... .Completion of light- 120,000 00
houses.
10,000 "00
Life-boats, &c
Coast United States. ..
1,000 00
Testing .Wilson and
Illuminating-apparatus.
Meacham's.
Otter creek
......
Sale of light:house-..
Michigan
Three beaconlights
Holmes's Hole
Massachusetts
-^in place of one.
Two beacons
*30,000 00
Gedney.channel range...
New Ycrk
...do
Swash channel..-.
Bell-beacon
Flinn's knoll
..
44,127 81
Light-house
Sand key
Florida
•12,000 00
....:do....
Seahorse k ey
12,000 00
Cape St. Bias
,
...do
6,300 00
Chicago...
.-..:...
...do
Illinois
California. . . .

Point Loma,"San Diego .
Point Conception.. ^ . . : .
Monterey




.do.
.do.
.do.

15,000 00
15-000 00
15,000 00

CD

Action in the case.

Coast Survey to have placed. '
Plans prepared, and the subject under.consideration.
This work in progress, under the care of an officer ofihe corps of engmeers.
Site determined by Coast Survey, and plans in preparation for asking proposals.
•,
.
Sites determined by Coast Survey, and work about,to be commenced.
Coast Survey to have placed,
. Sites to be selected by Coast Survey, and plans prepared withput delay.
Referred to Topographical bureau for a report.
Referred to Coast Survey for examination and location of site.
These lights transferred to the care of the board December 22, 1852.
Coast i^urvey charged by Secretary of the Treasury -with selectmg sites
Correspondence had on the subject. No definite action taken as yet.
Superintendent of lights directed to execute the law.
Superintendent of lights at Edgartown directed to obtain deeds of conveyance and cession of sites.
^ Prehminary steps taken, and the board hopes to have the deeds to,land,
> <fec., to enable them to commence erecting these beacons with the. open)
ing of spring.
In rapid progress, under the direction of an officer of topogi'aphical engineers.
.Site selected by Coast Survey. ^
Inspector charged with examination of foundation and location of site.
In charge, of officer of topographical engineers, and in .progress.
The erection of these eight light-houses was-contracted for by the Treasury Department prior to their superintendence being transferred to the
board. This contract contains modifications providing for the enlargement Pf the structures at the pptidn of the department. 'The date of

.O

•05

Oregon

Farrallones island... .
Battery Point..
. 'Alcatras island
...
Humboldt harbor
Cape DisappointmeiEit.

.do
. tio..-.-..
-do
.do.:....
-do

15,000 00
-15,000 00
15,000 00
15,000 00
45,000.00

Cape Flattery
New Dungemiess.
Umpqua

'.doV.V.'.W.V.'.'.

15,:000 00
15,000 00
15,'000 00




-do.:

.:

•the appropriations for these lights is anterior to that of all other objects :embraced.in this table; but, never having been under the superintendence of the Fifth Auditor, they were not -included in the table
corresponding with the dates of appropriation. A special transfer of
;all works connected with the light-house 6sta;blishmt}nt on the Pacific
coast was made to the board on December 22, 1852. Instructions are
in prepa:rafion to the light-house inspector on that coast in reference to
•ail these.works.

Ti-aB&ferred frona F^ka's kadll ,]ight4oiise Rp.propriaticm

•o

CO
On

96

B. Doc; 23.:
Table C.

The Light-house Board respectfully submits the following recommendations, which are fully explained in its report to Congress, and
requests the favorable consideration of the Committees of Commerce. •"
Maine.—That the appropriation of $5,000, made August 31, 1852,
for a harbor-light on a point of land lying west of the entrance, to
Buck's harbor, in Brooksvjlle, may be changed to the northern extremity of Pumpkin, island,^ in conformity to the recommendation bf the
coast survey officer who reported on the site, in obedience to the act
of Congress.
.~
That the sum of $2,000 be appropriated for ,buo)^s, beacons, and
spindles to be placed on important points specified b}^ superintendent
of lights at Portland and persons interested in commerce and navigation, in addition to sums appropriated at the last session-of Congress. •
Massachusetts.—For. buoys to be placed in Taunton river, to render
the navigation safe and eas}^, $500.
That the sum of $30,000, appropriated September 28, 1850/.for a
light-house on the *SSow-aiid-pigs" entrance to Buzzard's bay, h e
reappropriated to enable the board to commence a light-house at or
near that place, to take the plfice of the light-vessel now" emploj^ed to
mark that dangerous position. ,
'
^
That the >sum of $4,000 be reappropriated for a light-house to be
placed on or near the breakwater at, Bass river—this sum having been
appropriated in 1850, and the site condemned.
For a beacon on ^'Deep Hole rock," Vineyard sound, $600.
Rhode is/and.—For buoys to be placed on the following points:
"Old-Newton," <*The Sisters," (Narraganset bay,) '^ Sandy point,"
(Block island,) * Tuarsett point," (near Wickford,) and on ''Brig
*
ledge," (Narraganset bay,)'$500.
^ Connecticut.—For buoys in New Haven harbor, $200.
For biioy on Pennfield reef, $150.
For beacon on Race rock. Long Island sound, $7,000.
•New York-—For a small light on or near Carlton head, and for^
repairing or rebuilding Tibbetts Point light-house, $5,00.0.
,For a fog-bell, or whistle, to be v/orked by clocky/ork-power, to be
placed on the end of the south pier at Buffalo, near the light-house,
$2,500.
. .
For authority to change the location of the two beacons authorized
to be placed near Fort Hamilton to the other end of the range line of
the ma.in channel, on the Jersey shore.
Michigan.—-For a light-house on Point Betsy,' Lake Michigan,
$5,000.
, ^
. . : , - . '
0 For Grand Island Harbor light. Lake Superior, $5,000.
•
For a light-house at Rock harbor, Isle Royal, Lake Superior, $5,0001
For a fbg-bell for Thunder Bay Island light-hpuse. Lake Hdron,
$2,500.
'
••/, : /
Ohio.'--For a beacon of solid masonry to be placed on a reef .lying
in the track of vessels at the west end of Lake .Erie, near, the south
shore off Bois Blanc, and near Touissaint river, $3,000.



H. Doc. 23.

97

New .Jersey.—For buoys to be placed on Absecum bar and in the inlet, (a harbor of refuge,) $800.
•
> .
,
Delaware.—For beacons and buoys recommended at the last session
of Congress for Delaware bay, to complete the necessary beaconage
and buoyage in the lower part ofthe river and bay, $5,000.
Virginia.—For a first-class buoy to be placed in the ''Upper Midd l e " in Chesapeake ba}^ and buoys for Sand Shoal and Hog Island inlets, Atkntic coast, $800.
For buoys to be placed in the Potomac river as follows: lower end
"Jones's point," lower end "Occoquon flats," off "Marlow's creek,"
lower part of " W a d e ' s bay," off "Jenifer's quarters," "Matthias's
point," and "Dent's shoal," $560.
For a small hght at Stingery point, Rappahannock, $250.
For a beacon at Naylor's hole, Rappahannock, $150.
For twelve buoys fbr Rappahannock river, S600.
South Carolina.—For six large Iron buoys for Charleston bar and
channels, $3,000.
^
For a large bell-buoy for the entrance over Charleston bar, $5,000.
For a buoy to be placed on Middle Ground shoal, Charleston harbor,
$500.
. For a light-vessel to be placed on Rattlesnake shoal, $20,000.
For rebuilding beacon on Morris island, Charleston harbor, $3,000.
Florida.—For an iron pile light-house to supply. the place of the
light-vessel stationed.near Key West, $12,000.
For a first-class light-house to be located near the entrance to Pensacola bay, in place ofthe one now improperly located, $30,000.
For making permanent the signals placed by the coast survey along
the Florida reef, $7,000.
Alabama.—For a beacon to mark a shoal in Mobile bay caused by a
wreck, $500. ,
^ '
Louisiana.—^or largest-class iron buoys to mark the approaches to
the principal passes at the mouth ofthe Missis.sippi, $3,000.
Towards the erection of a lirst-class light-house to serve as a substitute for the hght-vessel at " Ship shoal," to be determined upon and
located after the completion ofthe survey of that locahty authorized by
the act approved August 31, 1852, and now in progress, $20,000.
Texas.—For a first-class hght-house at the mouth of Sabine river,
$30,000.
California.—^For a buoy to mark '^Commission ledge," in Mare
Island straits, $500.
^
^^
^
For a buoy to mark "Middle Ground" io Suisun bay, $500.
^ For a largest-class buoy to mark entrance to bar at San FranciscOp
For buoys to mark the channels ofthe Sacramento river, $2,000.
For buoys for Humboldt harbor, $500.
For buoys for Umpqua, $500.
For second-class light at Point Boneta, San Francisco bay, $2,500.
Oregon.—For additional buoys for Columbia river, $1,500,
Miscellaneous.—To test the adaptation of Jabez Stone's patent buoy
as a guide to river and other narrow channels, §2§0*
7
.



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To enable the Light-house Board to procure the necessary machinery
=and test practical 1}^ the plan fbr distinguishing hghts submitted by
Charles Babba.ge, esq., and which was communicated to Congress at
its last session, $5,000.
• ;"'^
^

Table D.

: The following are the objects considered by the Light-house Board
of greatest importance, -next to those abeady .provided, embraced in
the general programme of the board under its temporary organization,
and which are placed In geographical order, commencing at the northeastern boundary of the United States:
Maine.—1. To elevate, improve, and fit with first-order illuminating
apparatus the light-house at Seguin, one of the most important positions "
on the eastern coast, $15,000.
Massachusetts.—2. To elevate, improve, and fit with first-order illuminating apparatus the light-house. at Truro highlands, Ca:pe Cod being an important seacoast position to mark the approaches to Boston,
harbor, $15,000.'
r
3. To refit and improve Gay Head hght, $13,000.
New York.—4. To erect a first-class seacoast light-house tower, and
fit It with the most approved illuminating apparatus, near Great West
bay. Long Island, $30,000.
. New Jersey.—5. For elevating, improving, and refitting with proper
illuminating apparatus the light-house at Barnegat, $12,000.
-.v 6. For a first-class hght-house, to be fitted with the most approved
illuminating apparatus, to be placed in the vicinity of Absecum inlet,
to guide navigators clear of Absecum and Brigantine shoals, $30,000.
South Carolina.-—7. For changing the present small and useless hght
-at Cape Roma.in intp a fu-st-class seacoast light, required to guide- ves. sels clear pf the dangerous shoals distant from six to seven miles from
.it, and in the track of vessels bound south of Charleston, $20,000.
Florida.—^^8. For the erection of a first-class light-house tower, and
for fitting it with a first-order illuminating apparatus, near Jupiter inlet,
io mark the dangerous shoals l3^ing off that point, and to guide vessels
along that coast, $35,000. / ,




H . Doc. 28.'
'-. .. .. A P P E N D I X - - N O . L •

^•-99' '^^^^oq-.-

List of.thememhers of the Light-house Board,pj the United/State's, organ"
ized' in'conformity to the act d/''Coiigress^^pprdm^,A^igM§i. 31, 1852.^
E X OFFICIO

PRESIDENT.

'^^ • ;

,

.:

Hon. Thomas CorwTn, Secretary ofthe Treasury.'
:

.CHAIRMAN.

' •' ." '^ ' • ' • / > / /

Commodore We B» Shubricky^E/. 5 . Navy.
MEMBERS. . _

Brevet Brig. Gen. Joseph G. Totten, Chief Engineer,- U. S. Army
Lieut. Col. James Kearney, U. S. Porps Topographical Engineers.
Professor A. D. Bache, L L . D., Superintendent Coast Survey.
• Professor Joseph Henry, L L . D., Secretary-of Smithsonian Institution.
Commander S. F . Du Pont, U. S..Navy.
•' '
.

SECRETARIES.

Lieutenant Thornton A. Jenkins, TJ. S. Navy.
.Brevet Captain Edmund L. F . Hardcastle, U. S. Corps Topographical
Eno-ineers.
"
Synoptical index to the laws relating to the light-house estahlishnent of the
United States.
* •

I

1789, August 7. Expenses ,of light-houses, beacons,
buoys, &c., to be paid from public
treasury.......
Vol. 1,
" "
Secretary of the Treasury to contract
for keeping light-houses, &c., in re•
^
pair; for furnishing same, &c
1,
1820, May 15. No light-house, &c., to be erected till
jurisdiction over ground be ceded
.to United States
............
3,
1828, May 23. Compensation'of light-house keepers,
4,
1844, June, 17. Commissions allowed when salary is
less than $2,000
5,
1S5Q, Sept. 28. System of coloring and marking buoys
\
prescribed
. ..... i..
.9,
"
" , Commissions allowed , to collectors
acting as superintendents. .:.
9,.
1851, March 3. Certain duties on the seaboard to be
, ^
: ^
performed by Superintendent ofthe
., Coast Survey,, and on the lakes by ,
Colonel of Topographical Engi- ^
.
neers
9,
- "
". The lens or Fresnel system of lighting adopted
9,
"
" Officers of the engineer corps to su^'
perintend the con struction of lighthouses
. . . - . .o-.„ = :
-,
9,




'
p. 54'
.f»4600
284
6.96
50't
:50t
, 628'
629?
<
629

i

100

H. Doc. 23.

Pamphlet laws, 1851-'52, page 119 :
\
. ". i :;!(."
SEC. 8. Ljght-house board constituted—members—secretariies-^their
;;v ,
power aLnchduties—to.be attached to the oflice of the Secr
jetar^rpf'the Treasu^
duties.
:
;'•
S E C . 9.-President of the board—chairman.
- .
SEC. 10. Meetings ofthe board.
.
SEC. 11. Certain clerks, archives, &c., to be transferred to such'boai'd
S E C 12. Light-house districts—officer of the aiiny or navy to be assigned to each—his pay.
I

.

,

•

•

Page 120:
SEC. 13. Rules and regulations to be established and distributed.
SEC- 14. Preparation of plans, estimates, &c—bids, how acted on.
S E C 15. Materials, how contracted for-—works, how to he executed.
S E C 16. Board to furnish estimates of expenses to be laid before Coiigi'ess.
S E C 17. Inconsistent acts repealed—other acts continued iii force—
1851, chap. 37, sees. 2, 3, continued in force—no additional salary to be paid—members of the board not to be
interested.^
Approved August 31, 1852.

Laws of the United States relating to light-houses, buoys, beacons, Sfc, ^tr*
Statutes at Large, vol. 1, page 5 3 :
\
SEC. 1. That all expenses wliich shall accrue from Expenses of supand after the 15th day of August, 1789, in the necessary ^ s t t ^ S ^ l ^ s t t J
support, maintenance, and repau's of all light-houses, be paid out of the
beacons, buoys, and public piers erected, placed, or United States treassunk, before the passing of this act, at the entrance of or ^^'^^
within any bay, inlet, harbor, or port of the United States, for rendering
the navigation thereof easj^ and safe, shall be defrayed out of the treasury
<Di-fithe United States.
" * :•
S E C 3. That it shall be the duty of-the Secretary of Secretary of the
ijhe Treasury to provide,-by contracts, which shall be Z f ^ ' S n ^ Z ^ i l
approved by the President of the United States, for ing, &c., when nobuilding a light-house.near the entrance of Chesapeake ciessary.
bay, and for rebuilding, when necessary, and keeping in good repair, the
light-houses, beacons,-buoys, and public piers in the several States, arid
for furnishing the same with all necessary supplies; and also to agi'eie for
the salaries, wages, or hire of the person or persons appointed by th>e
President for the superintendence and care of the same.
Approved August 7,1789.


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
\
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

H. Doc, 23.

101

Volume 3, page 600:
,
SEC. 7. No light-house, beacon, or land-mark shall be built or erected
on any site previous to the cession of jurisdiction over the same being
made to the United States.
Approved May 15, 1820.
Volume 4, page 284:
SEC..4. That, from and after the passage of this act,,the Secretary of
the Treasury be, and he is hereby, authorized and empowered to regulate
and fix the salaries ofthe respective keepers of light-houses, in such manlier as he shall deem just and proper: Provided, The whole sum allo.wed
shall hot exceed an average of four hundred dollars to each keeper.
Approved May 23, 1828.
Volume 5, page 696:
Provided, That no superintendent shall receive any of the commissions
whose compensation may exceed two thousand dollars per annum.
Approved June 17, 1844.
^ S E C C. And- be it further enacted. That hereafter all buoys along the
coast, or in bays, harbors, sounds, or channels, shall be colored and numbered, so that in passing up the coast or sound, or entering the bay, harbor, or channel, red buoys, with even numbers, shall be passed onthe
starboard hand, black buoys, with uneven numbers, on the port hand, and
buoys with red and black stripes on either hand; buoys in channel^ways
to be colored with alternate white and black perpendicular stripes.
S E C 7. And be j.t further enacted. That there shall be allowed .collectors, when acting as superintendents of light-houses, beacons, lightboats, and buoys, the same rate of commission on the disbursements of
the aforesaid appropriations as were allowed and paid for the year ending
fourth of March, 1849: Provided, That no collector, shall receive for his
services as superintendent aforesaid over the sum of four hundred dollars per annum: And provided further. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall assign to the collectors the superintendence of such light-houses,
beacons, light-boats, and buoys as he may judge best and most convenient fbr the public interest.
\ Approved September 28, 1850.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America _ in Congress assembled., That, the following appropriations be, and .the same are hereby, made, and directed to be paid but of
any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, to enable, the
Secretary of, the Treasury to carry the provisions ofthis act into effect:
fProvided, however. If a good title to any land which it may be necessary
to use cannot be obtained on reasonable terms, or the exclusive right to
such land cannot be acquired by cession, when, the interest of the United
States demands it, before the appropriation would by law fill into the
surplus fund, in any and all such cases the appropriation shall be apphcable to the objects for which they are made at any time within two
yeai's after the first meeting of the legislature in any State wherein such
land may be situated subsequent to the passage ofthis act, to wit.
*
. #
*
* .
*
• *
# .
*



102

H. Doc. 2 a

S E C 2. And, be At further, enacted, That if such person as the Secretary of the Treasury shall designate :shall report, in any of. the cases
herein provided fbr, that preliminary surye5^s are necessary to determine"
the site of a proposed light-house or light-boat, beacon, or buoy, or to
ascertain more fully what the public exigency demands, the Secretary of
the Treasury shaU thereupon direct the Superintendent of the survey of
the coast of the United States to perform such duty on the seaboard, and
the Colonel of the Corps of Topographical Engineers tP perform such
duty on the northwestern lakes.
S E C 3. And be it further enacted. That the officers so directed shall
forthwith enter upon the discharge of the duty, and,,after fully ascer-;
taining the facts, shall report: First,, whether the proposed facilitj^ to
navigation is the most suitable for the exigency which exists ; and,
second, where it should be placed, if the interests of commerce demand
if: third, if the thing proposed be not the most suitable, whether it
is expedient to make any other kind ofeimprovement: fomth, whether
the proposed light has any connexion with other lights, and, if so,
whether it cannot be so located as to subserve both the general and the
local wants of trade and navigation : and, fifth, whether there be any,
and, if any, what, other facts of importance touching the subject.
S E C 4. And be it further enacted. That all such reports shall, as
speedily as may be, be laid before the Secretary ofthe Treasury; and,
if such as to authorize the work without further legislation, he shall
forthwith proceed with it: otherwise, such reports shall be laid before
Cpngress at the next ensuing session. But in all cases where the person
designated by the Secretary of the Treasury, under^the second section
of this act, does not report such preliminary examination as expedient,"
the provisions of this act shall, without delay, be carried into execution.
S E C 7. And be it further enacted. That hereafter, in. all new lighthouses, in all light-houses requiring new lighting apparatus, and in all
light-houses as yet unsupplied with illuminating apparatus, the lens or
Fresnel S3^stem shall be adopted, if, in the opinion of the .Secretary of
the Treasury, the public interest will be subserved thereby:
S E C 9. And be it further enacted, That the President be, and he is
hereby, required to cause to be detailed from the engineer corps of thearmy, from time to time, such officers as may be necessary to superintend the construction and Tenovatiiig hght-houses.
Approved March 3', 1851.
• ,
S E C 8. And be it further enacted. That the President be, a:nd he is
Ihereb}^ authorized and required to appoint, immediately after the passage of this act, two officers of the navy of high rank, one oflicer of
the corps of engineers ofthe army, one officer ofthe corps of top ographi^cal engineers of the army, and two civilians of high scientific attainments,-whose services ma}^ be at the disposal of the President, and an
officer of the navy and an officer of engineers of the army as secreta•ries, who shall constitute the Light-house Board of the United States,
and shall have power to adopt such rules and regulations for'the^ goy.ernment of their meetings as they may judge expedient; and the board
so constituted shall be attached to the office of the Secreta'ry of the
Treasuiy, and, under his superintendence, shall discharge all the ad


H. Doc. 23.

103

J.

ministratlve duties of said office relating to the construction, Illumlnatlpn,
inspection, and superintendence of light-houses, light-vessels, beacons,
buoys, sea-marks, and their appendages, and embracing the security of'
ibundatiohs of works already existing, procuring illuminating and other
apparat:us, supplies. a..ncl materials of all kinds for building and for rebuilding when necessary, and keeping in good repair the light-houses,
light-vessels, beacons, and buoys of the United States.
S E C 9. A?id be it fiirther enacted. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall be ex officio president of the Light-house Board ofthe United
States*, and the said board, at their first meeting, shall proceed to ballot
for one of their members as chairman,, and the niember who shall receive the majority of ballots of the whole board shall be declared by
the president to h e chairman of the Light-house Board, who shall, in
the, absence of the president of the board, preside over their meetings,
and dp and perform such acts as may be required by the riiles of the
board.
SEC. 10. And.be it Jurther enacted,. That the Light-house Board shall
ineet four times in each year for the transaction of general and special
business, each meeting to commence on the first Monday in March,
June, September, and December; and that the Secretary ofthe Treasury is hereby authorized to convene the Light-house Board whenever,
in his judgment, the e^^igencles of the service may require it.
S E C 11. And be it fiirther, enacted. That the Secretary ofthe Treasury be, and he is hereby, required .to cause such clerks as are now
employed on light-house duties in the Treasury Department to be
transferred tp the Light-house Board, without any change of salary, and
to provide the necessary accommodations for the secretaries and clerks,
for the preservation of the archives, models, drawings. Sec, Sec, and
for holding the meetings of the board ; and that he cause to be transferred to the proper oflicers of the Light-house Board all the archives,
books, documents, drawings, models, returns, apparatus, &c., &c., belonging to the light-house establishment of the United States.
S E C 12. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the dutj^ of the
Light-hpuse Board, immediately alter being organized, to arrange the
.Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific, and lake coasts of the United States into lighthouse districts, not exceeding twelve in number ; and the President is
hereby authorized and required to direct that an officer of the army or
navy may be assigned to each district as a light-house inspector, subject to and under the orders of the Light-house Board, who shall feceiye for such service the same pay and emoluments that he would be
entitled tp by law for the performance of duty in the regular line of his
profession, and no pther, except the legal allow^ance per mile when
travelling under orders connected with his duties.
S E C 13. And be it further enacted. That the said Light-house Board,
by and with the consent and approbation of the Secretary of the
Treasury, be authorized and required to cause to be prepared and distributed among the light-keepers, inspectors, and others employed in
the light-house establishment, .such rules, regula.tions, and instructions
as shall be necessa.ry for securing an efficient, uniform, and economical
system pf administering the light-house establishment of the United
States, and to secure responsibility from them; which rules, regulations,



104

H. Doe. 23.

,

and instructions, when approved, shall be respected a:nd obeyed until
altered and annulled by the same authority.
S E C 14. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the
Light-house Board to cause to be prepared, by the engineer secretary
of the board, or by such officer of engineers of the army as may be
detailed fbr that service, all plans, drawings, specifications, and estimates of cost of "all illuminating and other apparatus, and of construction and of repair of towers, buildings, &c., connected with the lighthouse establishment; and no bid or contract shall be accepted or
entered into except upon, the decision of the board, at a regular or
special meeting, and through their properly authorized officers.
S E C 15. And be it further enacted. That hereafter all materials for
the construction and repair of light-houses, light-vessels, beacons, buoys,
&c., &c., shall be procured by public contracts, under such regulations
as the board may from time to time adopt, subject to the approval of
tljie Secretary of the Treasuiy; and all works of construction, renovation, and repair shall be made by the orders ofthe board, under the
immediate attendance of their engineer secretary, or of such engineer
of the army as may be detailed for that purpose.
S E C 16. And be it further enacted. That it shall be the duty of the
Light-house Board to furnish, ujDon the requisition of the SecTctary of
the Treasury, all the .estimates of expense which the .several branches
pf the light-house service may require, and such other information as
may be required to be laid before Congress at the commencement bf
each session.
S E C 17. And be it further enacted. That all acts and parts of acts
inconsistent with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed, and all
acts and parts of acts relating to the light-house establishment of the
United States not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, and necessary to enable the Light-house Board, under the superintendence of
the Secretar}^ o f t h e Treasury, to perform alf duties relating to the
management, construction, illumination, inspection, and superintendence of hght-houses, light-vessels, beacons, buoys, sea-marks, and their
accessories, including the procuring and testing of apparatus, supplies,
and materials of aU kinds for illuminating, building, and rebuilding
when necessary, maintaining; and keeping in good repair the lighthouses, light-vessels, beacons, buo3^s, -and sea-marks of the United
States; and the second and third sections of the act making appropriations for light-houses, light-vessels, buoys. Sec, approved March third, .
eighteen hundred and fifty-one,—are hereby declared to be in full force,
and shall have the same effect as though this act had not passed: Provided, That no additional salary shall be allowed to any civil, military,
or naval officer who shall be employed on the Light-house Board, or
who may be in any manner attached to the light-house service of the
United States under this a c t . And provided further. That it shall not
be lawful for any member of the Light-house Board, inspector, lightkeeper, or other person in au}^ manner connected with the hght-house
service, to be engaged, either directly or indirectly, in any contract'for
"labor, materials, or supphes for the light-house service, nor to possess,"
either as principal or agent, any pecuniary interest in any patent, plan.



H. Doc. 23.

105

or mode of construction or illumination, or in any article of supply for
the light-house service of the United States. .
Approved August 31, 1852.

Rules and regidations for the light-house establishment, approved by ihe^
Treasury Department October 22,,1852.
LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD.

1. At all meetings of the board, five members shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business. .•
2. In the absence of the president and chairman from any meeting'
of the boai'd, one of its members shall be appointed temporary chairman.
3. Notice shall be given to the president and members of the Lighthouse Board of all meetings, regular or special, and of adjourned meet'ings, between the periods of holding which more than a day elapses.
4. The secretaries shall prepare a llstrof the items of business, to be
placed before the chairman at the regular and special meetings.
5. All orders and communications shall proceed generally from the
board through one or other of the secretaries, and all communications
to the board shall be transmitted through them, including estimates,
plans, suggestions, reports, returns, accounts, vouchers, requisitions^
&

c

•

•

•

:

•

• /

'

The exceptions to this routine, if any, will be indicated by the board
from time to time.
6. Communications to Congress, or to the departments of the executive, shall pass through the Secretary of the Treasury, and shall be
signed by the chairman or presiding officer ofthe board arid secretaries.
7. Informal communications with the committees of Congress, lor
' advice or information, may take place through the chairman, secretarieSj,
or committees of the board.
COMMITTEES.

1. There shall be the following standing committees of the Lighthouse Board, to consist of two members each, viz:
I.. Committee of Finance.
. II. Committee on Engineering.
III. Gommittee on Light-vessels, &c.
IV. Committee on Lighting.
. V. Committee on Experiments.
2. The chauman and secretaries shall be ex officio members of all
committees.
3. All committees shall, unless otherwise determined by the board,
be named by the chairman, who shall appoint annually the standing
committees, and fill, from time to time, any vacancies which may occur
in them.
«



100

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Doc. 23.

: 4. The seyeral committees will annually^ at the meeting in December, submit to the board reports on the several subjects confided to
them, to be used in preparing the annual repprt to the Secretary of the'
Treasury.
5. The committees may originate business to be submitted to the
board, but can take no final order unless specialty authorized so to do
by the board. .
COMMITTEE p F FINANCE.

The Committee of Finance shall pass upon the estimates of all other
committees, presenting them as approved to the board. They shall
have charge of all matters-relating to accounts, (ihcluding the administrative examinations,) to appropriations, returns of property, cpntracts,,
and title deeds.
COMMITTEE ON ENGINEERING.

. The Committee on Engineering shall have charge of all matters relating to construction, renovation, and repairs of hght-houses,-beacons,
and permanent sea-marks, including plans, .drawings, estimates, con-^
/ t r a c t s , locations, materials, and modes of building.
COMMITTEE ON LIGHT-VESSELS, E T C

. This committee shall have charge of all aubjects relating to lightvessels, floating-beacons, and buoys,: including plans, niodels, esti'mates, contracts, materials, modes of construction, improvement, moorings, fog-signals, and other accessories, and the keepers, seamen, and
. others employed. Questions ofthe necessity for new light-boats, floatr
ing-beacons, bupys, &c., shall be examined by them.
COMMITTEE ON LIGHTING.

1. The Committee on Lighting shall have charge of all matters relating to illuminating apparatus, including classification, power, and
^ distribution, kinds of ^lights, divergence, &c.; to materials fbr illumination, for cleansing and preserving apparatus; to fog-signals, and their
accessories; to keepers of light-houses, and their assistants.
2. This committee shall also examine Into the necessity for new lighthouses, beacons, and permanent sea-marks.
COMMITTEE ON EXPERIMENTS.

This committee shall test the value of oils and other materials used
in illuminating, and of lighting apparatus ; the modes of distinguishing
lights and light-houses, beacons and sea-marks, buoys, &c.; shall in- ^
vestigate the relative value of signals by sound, &c.; the ventilation of
light-houses and hght-yessels; their protection from hghtning; the modes
6 i preventing corrosioii or decay ; and in general shall take charge of
all matters requiring experiments or observations to determine their
value, application, pr economy.



H. Docv 23.
SECRETARIES, '

107
'

1. The secrettries shall prepare annually a descriptive list of lighthouses, light-boats, beacons, buoys, and sea-marks, to be submittedto
the board, and printed for the use of navigators-^the lists to be accompanied by the necessaiy ma.ps.
2. They shall give due notice to mariners of all changes and casualties in the lighting establishnaent—-causing printed notices to be promptly issued, and copies to be supplied to all the custom-houses, to be publicly posted and distributed to navigators, and furnished to all commercial newspapers on the seaboard and lakes.
:
3. Each secretary shall keep a journal of all business which, he ma.y
transact, in writing or otherwise, to be open to the. members pf the
board, and to be submitted at their regular or special meetings.
4. The secretaries shall attend to all details in the execution of the
orders ofthe board, receive all reports, attend to current business and
eorrespondence, and in general tp all administrative details not otherwise provided for, referring matters of special importance to the chairman of the board, to one of the. standing. committees, or' to the .board,
at a regular or special meeting.
5. They shall submit a digest of the reports; of superintendents. In-:
specters, and keepers, to the board, at their regular meetings; and any
portions of vSuch. reports, as may require special attention^ without delay,
to the appropriate committees.
6. They shall have authority to convene the committees of the
board.
7. They shall prepare papers, reports, &c., and collect informa^"
tiori, desired by or necessaiy to the.action of the cominittees or of the
board.
8. They shall prepare regulations, instructipns, and directions for in-,
specfors, superintendents,. light-keepers. Sec, to be submitted to the
board.
^
^
9. They shall prepare forms of cnntracts, returns, accounts, and
others, to be submitted to the appropriate committees and to the board.
10. They shall prepare estimates for the committees and the board,,
and a docket of business for the meetings of the committees and of the
board.
11. They shall arrange and direct the labors, of the clerks and messengers of the offices.
''
12. In case ofthe absence of either secretary, his duties in the office,
will devolve upon the other, and, in case of the absence of both, upon
a. member of the board, to be appointed by the chairman.
NAVAL SECRETARY.

1. The naval secretary of the board shall keep the journal of its proceedings. He shall have charge of the office, and of those employed
in it, except so much and such as may be assigned to the engineer sec-:
retary. There shall be under his charge the details relating to—. ..
The light-vessels, floating-beacons, buoys, and sea-marks.
The supplies of stores of oil and other "materials of illumination.
.



108

H. Doc. 23.

The salaries of keepers, attendants, &c., and all other current expenses
of light-houses, light-vessels, beacons, buoys, &c.
* The records, books, papers, and stationery ofthe board.
Office and other legal expenditures.
Accounts for inspections, &c., &c.
General estimates, &c., &c.
ENGINEER SECRETARY.

1. The engineer secretary of the board is specially charged with all
the duties ofthe engineering branch ofthe light-house service, andys^ith
the care and preservation ofthe property beloriging to that branch.
2. He shall prepare the plans, estimates, contracts, and specifications
for the construction, renovation, and repairs of light-houses, permanent
beacons, and sea-marks, and shall prepare for the Committee on Engineering all projects, &c., which they may require. ^
3. He shall examine the reports ofthe inspectors, and submit to the
^ board such suggestions and remarks made by them in relation to construction, repairs, &c., as he may deem important.
INSPECTION DISTRICTS.

The following twelve inspection districts are constituted:.
First district.—Embracing all lights. Sec, from the northeastern boundary, Maine, to Hampton harbor. New Hampshire.
^
Second district.—Embracing all lights, &c., from Hampton harbor,
New Hampshire, to Gooseberry Point, Massachusetts.
Third district.—Embracing all hghts, &c., from Gooseberry Point,
Massachusetts, to Squam inlet, New Jersey, including Lake Champlain
and Hudson river.
«
Fourth district.—-Fmhracing all lights, &c., from Squam inlet. New:
Jersey, to Metomkin inlet, Virginia, including Delaware bay and tributaries.
'
Fifth district.—Embracing all lights, &c., from Metomkin inlet, Vir-=
gjnia, to New River inlet. North Carolina, including Chesapeake bay
and tributaries, ~Albemarle and Pamplico sounds.
Sixth district.—Embracing all hghts, &c., from New River inlet.
North Carohna, to Mosquito inlet, Florida.
Seventh distiict.—^Embracing all lights. Sec, from Mosquito inlet,
Florida, to Egmont key, Florida.
Eighth district.—Embracing all lights, &c., from St. Mark's, Florida,
to Barataria bay, Louisiana, including Mississippi river, and all lakes
and bays adjacent to the coast between these hmits.
Ninth district.—Embracing all lights, &c., from Barataria bay, Louisiana, to Rio Grande, Texas.
.Tenth district.—Embracing all hghts, &c., on Lakes Erie and Ontario,
and the rivers St. Lawrence and Niagara, and their tributaries. Eleventh district.—Embracing all lights, &c., on Lakes St. Clair,
Huron, Michigan, and Superior, and Green bay, and their tributaries. .
Twelfth district.—^Embracing all lights, &c.. on the coast of California
and Oregon.
'



H. Doc. 23.

109

INSPECTORS, ETC.

' 1. The board will a.pply for the detail of officers of the arm.y and
nayy to be assigned to light-house duty, and will distribute them in
the districts above named.. Vacancies which may occur in either class
of inspectors will be supplied by similar, applications.
2. The inspectors will make their visits at such times and in such
manner as may be indicated by the board, inspecting by night as yv^ell
as by day.
,. 3. Special instructions, indicating the fi^equency of their inspections,
the objects to be examined, the reports to be made, and in general
including all mat^ters relating to this subject, will be prepared by the
secretaries and submitted to the board.
4. Special inspections will be made bj^ the secretaries and by menibers of the board by its order.
ESTIMATES A N D ACCOUNTS.

1. The board will require from the inspectors.and others, in their
estimates, specifications of the several objects for which funds are required, with detailed reasons for each expenditure.
2. The estimates, in duplicate, and accounts, when received fi'om
inspectors, local superintendents, and others, shall be examined by one of
the secretaries, and, if according to prevIou.s'orders of the board or the
routine established; by them, be approved by their^order; if defective,
or irregular, or wanting in economy, shall be suspended, or referred to
the appropriate standing committee, or to the board. The estimates
and accounts, when approved, shall be, trarismitted by one of the
secretaries to the proper officers of the Treasury.
3. The vouchers of accounts shall be signed in triplicate, and duplicates be sent to the office of the Light-house Board.
4. The inspectors and other officers who may be charged with such
duty shall send to the board, within the first week of each quarter of
the fiscal year, estimates for expenditures required during the quarter
for works committed to their charge, and for renovations, repairs, &c.;
but no advances will be made on such estimates until accounts and
youchers for the preceding quarter have been received for adjustments
^

NEW LIGHT-HOUSES. - , ^
^

1. Memorials in relation to the erection of new light-houses, when
riiade or referred to the board, shall be examined by the secretaries,
and bei referred to the Committee on Lighting, who will report on them
to the board.
2. The board will determine which of the light-houses, &c., require
under the law a preliminary survey or examination.
3. The following routine will be observed in regard to new lighthouses for which appropriations are made under provisions of law:
I. If advisable, a report is to be procured (as provided b}^ law) of
the necessitj^ of the light, &c. ^




110

H. Doe. 23:

II. The site is to be designated^^and obtained by purchase, or otherwise, and the jurisdiction of the United States over it to be secured.
III. Plans and estimates for construction,'&c.,'are to be made, limited
by the amount of the appropriation.
. "
IV. The buildings, &c., are to be inspected before being received.
V. Provision is to be made for lighting, and a suitable keeper to be
V obtairied.
.
•
• ;. • : - ' 4. When the erection of a light-house, &c., appropriated for, is determined upon, the secretaries shall direct the superiritendent ofthe district
in which the locality is to'ascertain to whom the land belongs, to malke
the purchase, forward the deeds, duly'authenticated and recorded, with
the brief of title of the United States district attorney, and his opinion
of the validity and regularity of the papers, to be submitted to the Attorney General of the United States.
.
5. After the approval ofthe Attorney General is had, the se ere t ariies
shall direct the local superintendent to obtain an act of cession of the
jurisdiction of the site to the United States by the State legislature;
and in no case shall a i y payment be made on account of work until
this routine has been complied w-ith,-and the limits of the property have
been set-off' by-proper metes and bounds.
CONTRACTS.

,. 1. Due public notice will be.given of all contracts for construction,
supplies. Sec, by public advertisement.
o
2. The originals of all contracts shall be sent to the board in duplicate-—one copy to be transmitted to the proper officer of the treasury,
and the other to.be .preserved in the archives of the board.
LIGHT-HpUSE K E E P E R S .

1. The light-house keepers will be nominated, as heretofore, by the
local superintendent; and such nominations, when approved, will be
sent to the Secretary of the Treasuiy.
^.
2. The Secretary of the Treasuiy will forward letters of appoiritment through the board.
ADMINISTRATIVE DETAILS.

The board is authofized to arrange all administrative details confided
to them by law or by the department, provided that their rules are in ;
harmony with existing laws, with these regulations, and v^ith the general
rules for the transaction of business by the Treasuiy Department.
W. B. SHUBRICK, Chairman
•

THORNTON A. JENKINS,
? cf
. •
EDM'D L . ,F. HARDCASTLE, j ^^'•'•^^«''^'^*TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Approved;




Office Light-house Board, October 22, 1852.
.
• ^ T H O . CORWIN,
Secretary of the Treasury.

; -

B.. Boc. 23.

qil

'No. 2.
Inspec'don Districts.

,. ._.^;^.^;^.,
"

First district—emhrsicmg all hghts, buoys, beacons, &c., from northeast boundary, Maine, to Hampton .harbor. New Hampshire.—Lieutenant W. B. Frarikliri, Uriited States Corps of Topographical Engineers.
Second district-^-emhr^cmg all lights, buoys, beacons, &c., :from
Hampton harbor, Nevv^ Hampshire, to Gooseberry Point, Massachusetts.—Commodore John Dovs^ris, United States Navy.
Third district—embracing all lights, buPys, beacons, Sec, from Gooscr
'berry Point, Massachusetts, to Squam' inlet. New Jersey, including
Lake Champlain and Hudson river.—^Lieutenant Sftnon Fraser Blunt,
United States Navj^
Fourth district—•errkyr^cmg all lights, buoys, beacons, . &c., from
Squam inlet. New Jersey, to Metomkin inlet, Virginia, including Dela^
"ware bay'arid tributaries.—-Lieutenant Charles H-. McBlair, United
States Ndvy.
' .
' . ^
Fifth district--^rnhrdiCmg dXl -lights, buoys, beacons. Sec, from Metomkin inlet, Virginia, New River inlet. North Carolina, including
Ches'apeaike bay and tributaries, Albemarle and Paxoplico sounds.—Lieutenant A. M. Pennock, United States Navy.
.
Sixth district—^embracing all lights, buoys=j beacdnsj &c., from New
River inlet. North Carplina, to Mcsquito inlet, FlPrida.—-Lieutenant
D. P . Woodbury, United States Corps Engineers.
Seventh district-^emhraciug airilghts, buoys, beacons, &c., from
Mosquito inlet, Florida^ to Egmont key, Florida.—Commander James
Glynn, Uriited States Navy.
^Eighth district^-^emhmcing all lights, buoys, beacons, &c., from St.
Mark's, Florida, to Barataria bay, Louisiana, including Mississippi
river, and all the lakes aind bays adjacent to.the coast between these .
iimits.—Captain D. Leadbetter, United States Corps Engineers.
Ninth district---^einhr^6ing^^ll tights, buoys, beacons, &c., from Barataria bay, Louisiana, to Rio/Grande, Texas.—Lieutenant M. Hunt,
United States Navy.
Tenth district—^embracing a i r lights, buoys, beacons, &c., on Lakes
Erie and Ontario, arid the river St. La\vrence, and their tributaries.—
Lieutenarit J. C. Wobdmff, United States Corps Engineers. ^ ] Eleventh district—ernbracirig all lights, brioys, beacons, &c., on Lakes
St. Clair, Huron, Michigari, Su-perlor, and Green bay, and their tributaries.—Captain L . Sitgrea:ves, Uriited States Corps Topographical
Engineers. .
.
Twelfth district'—ernhr2icmg^\\\^^i^, buoys, beacons, &c., coast of
California and Oregon.—BreVet Major H . W.-Halieck, United States
Corps Erigirieers.




jll2

H. Doc. 23.
No. 3.
Instructions for light-keepers of the United States.
STATIONS WITH TWO OR MORE K E E P E R S .

- 1. The. lamps shall be lighted punctually every day at sunset, and
extinguished at sunrise.
:
' 2. The lamps shall be kept burning bright and clear every night
from sunset to sunrise; and in order that the greatest degree of light
may be uniformly maintained, the wicks must be trimmed every four
hours, or oftener if necessary, and clean glass chimneys fitted on; and
special care must be taken to cut the tops ofthe wicks exactly even, to
produce a flame of uniform shape,, free from smoky points.
3. The light-keepers shall keep a regular and constant watch In the
light-room throughout the riight; the fii'st watch to commence at sun. seti The light-keepers are to take the watches akernately, in such
manner.that he who has the first watch one night shall have the second
watch the next night. The length or duration of the watch shallnot,
in ordinary cases, exceed four hours; but during the period between
the months of September and> March, (both inclusive,) the first watch
shall change at eight o'clock. The watches shall at all times be so
arranged as to have a change at^midnight.
4. The principal keeper will be particular to note on his journal the
time at which all lights usually visible from the lantern of his tower
ai'e lighted up; he will also specify the hour of the disappearance of
any of them, and note at such times the condition of the weather and
atmosphere.
5. At stations where there is only one light-room, the daily duty
shall be laid out in two departments, and the light-keepers shall change
from one department to the other every Sunday night. '
First department.—'The light-keeper who has this department shall,
immedlatel}^ after the morning watch, cleanse and polish the reflectors
or refractors; he .shall also thoroughly cleanse the lamps and carefully
dust the' chandelier. He shall, supply the burners with wicks, the
lamps with oil, and shall have everything connected with the apparatus in a state of readiness for fighting up in the evening.
^
Second department.—-The light-keeper who has this department.shall
cleanse the glass of the laritern, lamp^glasses, copper and brass work,
and utensils, the \yalls, floors, and balcony of the light-room, and the
apparatus and machinery therewith connected, together with the tower
stairs, passage, doors, and windows, from the light-room to the oilcellar.
6. For the more effectual cleansing of the glass of the lantern, and
management of the lamps at the time of lighting, both light-keepers
shall be upon watch throughout the first hour of the first watch every
night during the winter period, between the first day of September and
the last day of March, when they shall jointly do the duty ofthe lightroom during that hpur. These changes to and from the double watch
must be noted by the keepers in the monthly returns for Septeniber arid
April. The light-keepers must return to the hght-house on all occa


S^Doc.-22^

113

sions, so as to be in time to attend the double watch at fighting time
during the period above specified.
^
7. At those stations where there are two light-rooms and two keepers, each light-keeper shall perforin the entire duty of both departments
in the light-room to which he may be specially assigned. But after
the first hour ofthe first watch, the light-keeper who has charge of this
watch shall perform the whole duty of trimming and attending the
lights of both light-rooms till the expiration of his watch; and, in like
manner, his successor in the watch shall perform the whole duty of
both light-rooms during his watch.
.
8. At stations where there are a number of lights requiring more
than two keepers, the duties shall, in the absence of special instructions, be apportioned in such manner as to equalize, as nearly as possible, the duties of all the keepers.
9. No light-keeper shall be exempted from keeping a regular watch,
and performing a full-share of duty, except for sickness ; in which case
the fact must be entere'd on the.jouinal, and reported to the district inspector without delay.
.
10. The plate-glass must be cleaned within and without, by night .
as well as by day, particularly from the drift snow and sleet, and the
moisture which is liable to accumulate in the interior of the lantern.
11. The light-keeper on duty shall on no pretence whatever, during
his watch, leave the light-room and balcony, except to call his reVfei',
and at stations where there are two or more lights which require his
visits'during the "watch.
12. The principal keepers of revolving lights are required to give
their particular attention to the MOVABLE MACHINERY; to see that it
is well cleaned in every part, and kept free from dust; well oiled with
clockmakers' oil; uniform in its motions, without unnecessary friction
of its parts; performs its revolutions regularly within the prescribed
period of time; wound up at the expiration of regular intervals of time;
the motive-weight rests during the day upon a support to reheve the
machinery and cord-; and that the CORD is not in danger of parting from
long use.
13. When the frame on which the lamps and reflectors are placed
ismovable, care must be taken to place the lights in the same position
every night, leaving the dark side towards that'portion of the horizon
which does not require to be lighted ; and the reflectors and lamps must
be kept firmly screwed to the frame, with the lips of the reflectors perpendicular to the horizon, except in cases where it is specially required
that they should be slightly inclined.
14. Strict attention must be given to the ventilation of the lantern,
taking care to keep the leeward ventilators sufficiently open to admit
the requisite quantity of air to produce steady, clear, and bright lights.
15. The principal light-keeper -is held responsible for the safety and
gPod order of the stores, utensils, arid apparatus of every description,
aild for everything being put to its proper use, and kept in its proper
pflaice. He shall take care that none of the stores or materials are
wasted, and shall observe the strictest economy and the most careful
management, yet so as to mairitain, in every respect, the best possible
.fight.
8



114

S. Doc. 22.

16. The principal light-keeper shall daily serve out the allowarice of
oil and other stores for fhe use of the light-room. The oil is to be
rheasured'by the assistant in sight of the principal light-keeper. The
light-keepers are on no account to leave the turning-keys attached to
the cranes of the pil-cisterris a;fter drawing oil, but shall remoye and
deposite them on the tray beside the oil-measures, or hang them up in
some safe and corivenient place.
17. The hght-keepers shall keep a daily journal of the quantity of
oil expended, the routine bf duty, and state pf the weather, embodying
any events of interest or importance relating to his duties that, may occ u r . ^ These shall be written iri the jourria:l-books to be kept at each
station for the purpose, at the periods of the day when they occur, as
t h e j riiust on no account be trusted to memory. At the end of each
quarter they shall make up and transmit to the district inspectors, under
cover to the collector of the di strict, who is superintenderit of lights, a
return, which shall be an accurate copy of the journal fpr the preceding
quarter.
•
'
18. The light-keepers are also required to take.notice of any shipwrecks which shall happen within the vicinity of the light-house, and
to enter an account thereof, according to the prescribed form,, in a book
furnished to each station for this purpose; and in such account they
shall state, if practicable, whether the light was seen by any on board
the shipwrecked vessel, and recognised by them, and how Ipng i t V a s
seen before the vessel struck. A copy of this entry shall form the shipwreck return, and be forthwith forwarded to the inspector.
19. A book containirig a riote of the vessels passingeach light-house
shall be kept, and 'an annual schedule, showing the number of vessels
ineach month, shall be sent to, the district irispector.
20. The quarterly and shipwreck returns are to be written by the
assistant, and the accompanying letters by the principaLl keeper. The
whole shall be-carefully compared, and the addition of the columns
tested by-both light-keepers, who shall also sign the same as correct,
according to the printed form ; and the principal keeper shall transmit
the same to the district inspector as prescribed, without unnecessary
delay.
:'
.
21..The principal light-keeper is held responsible for the regularity
of the watches throughput the night, for the cleanliness and-good order
of the reflecting or refracting apparatus, machinery, and utensils, and
for the due performdnce of the whole duty of the light-room or lightrooms, as the case may be, whether performed by him personally or
by the assistant.
22. The principal light-keeper i s also held responsible for the. good
order and coridition of everythirig belpngihg to the light-house estab; lishment at the station under his chai;ge, including the cleanliness ofthe
apartments, passages, stairs, roofs, water-cisterns, wells, storerooms,
workshops, privies, stables, ash-pits of the dwelling-houses,: &c.,<&:c.
23. The principal and assistant shall take especial eare, at all times,
that rieither lucifer matches, npr anj'^ihing else which is easily ignited,
iighted lamps, candles, o^ fires, be left anywhere in the preniises, so
as to endanger the public property by fire. The fire-buckets are to be
kept in the most convenient place for use, and, when the- weather wiU



S. Doc. 22.

115

permit, filled with water ready for -use, and they are on no account
to be used for household purposes.
.
24. Tfie light-keepers shall, under no circumstances, nse tripofi
ppwGler for cleaning the refi'actors, or silvered parts of the reflectors,
nor an}^ other cleaning materials than the rouge, whiting, .buffskins, «and
cleaning-Gloths, &c., furnisli(3d -by .direction of the Light-hpuse Board,
a;nd for.the purposes designated in the directions to fight-keepers..
25. Each package or parcerpf rouge and .whiting niust.be examined
by the keeper before using it, by rubbing ^between ihis fingers, to ascerr
tain that it is free: from grit and other impurities; and should it be found
to be pf baid quality, and calculated to injure the apparatus, it must
not be used. The tripoli powder shall be employed exelusiyely for
cleaning the -backs of the reflectors, and ot^her brass work of the apparatus.
, "
26. The light-keepers shall endeavor to keep in good order and re-r
.pair the dikes enclosing the light-hpuse grpunds, the landing-places
and roads leading from thence to the fight-house, and the drains there•With connecte.d, together with all pther things placed under their charge.
27. When stores of any kind are to be la.nde,d for the use of the
light-house, the fight-keepers shall attend and giye their assistance.
The principal light-keeper must, upon the?e qccaslons, satisfy himself,
as far as possible, of the quantity and condition of the stores receivedj
yyhich" must be duly entered in the store-^books and quarterly-return
book.
.28. The light-keepers are to inake a report ofthe quality ofthe stores
in the quarterly Teturri for the quarter, immediately succeeding their receipt, and earlier should circumstances render i t necessary, and also
for the fourth quarter annually; and this report must proceed upon
speciaLl-lrial of the seyeral cisterns of "oil, and the pther stores in detail,
both at the time of receiving, them and after the experience of sufficient
time tp test them fully.
'
•
29. Should the supply of fight-house^ stores at any time appear to the
.principallight-keeper to ;be getting short,^ so as thereby to endanger, the
regular appearance of the light,, he shall immediately infprm; t h e district
inspector, and, by pruderit management of the -,lights, guard against a
total consumption of the supplies before others can be rece.iyed.
30. The light-keepers are prohibited from carrying on any trade or
business,whatever which will take them from the premises, or in any
other manner cause the neglect of their public duties: . .. ,
'
31. The light-keepers have permission "to go from home to draw their
salaries, and also to attend public worship on Sunday, but on no other
occasion withput the permission of tfie district inspector., The assistant hght-keepers, on all occasions pfle^tve of absence, must consult the
principal light-keeper as to the proper time for such leave, and obtain
his consent;. in fike manner, the principal light keeper shall duly intimate'liis intentipn. pf goirig from home to the assistant light-keeper; it
being expressly ordered that only one light-keeper shall be absent frona
the light-house at one and the same time.
32. While the principal light-keeper is absent, or is incapacited for
duty by sickness, the full charge ofthe light-room duty and ofthe premises shall deyolve upon the assistant, who shaU, in that case, have ac


116

S. Doc. 22.

cess to the keys ofthe light-room stores, and be held responsible in all
respects as the principal fight-keeper.
33. The light-keepers are required to be sober and industrious, and
orderly in their families. They are expected to be polite to strangers,
in showing the premises at such hours as do not interfere with the proper
duties of their office; it being expressly understood that strangers shall
not be admitted to the light-room after sunset. Not more than three
persons shall have access to the light-room at one and the same time
during the day, and no stranger visiting the fight-house shall be permitted to handle any part of the machinery or apparatus. The lightkeepers must not, on any pretext, admit persons in a state of intoxication into the light-house.
'
' 34. The principal light-keeper is prohibited frpm selling any.malt or
spirituous liquors, and from allowing any to be sold on the premises under his charge.
35. In the event of any neglect of duty on the part of any fight-keeper,
the other light-keeper or light-keepers at the "station shall give immediate notice of the circumstance to the district inspector, the party offending being permitted' to send with the notice or report any explanations
he may desire to make.
.
^ ;
36. The light-keepers are to observe that the above general regulations are without prejudice to any mpre special instructions which may
be ma:de applicable to any particular light-house, or to such orders as
may, from time to time, be issued by the Light-house Board.
37. All official communications for the Light-house Board must be.
transmitted through the district inspector, except in cases of emergency,
when they may be sent direct to one of the secretaries of the Lighthouse Board, under cover to the honorable Secretary of the Treasury.
38. These instructions are to be hung up in a conspicuous place in
the lightrhouses, and in the-dwelling of the keepers, and the keepers
and assistants are,required to make themselves perfectly acquainted
with them.
The breach.of any of the foregoing instructions will subject the offending light-keepers to the serious displeasure of the department, and,
in the absence of extenuating circumstances, to dismissal. . .
By order of the Light-house Board:
,
W. B. SHUBRICK,
'
Chairman, •
THORNTON A. J E N K I N S ,
) O
•
EDMUND L . F . HARDCASTLE, \ ^'^^'i^^'^'r

.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Office Light-house Board, Washington city, October 14, 1852.
Approved:
T H O . CORWIN,
Secretarij of the Treasury.




' S. Doc. 22.. -

117

Instructions for light-keepers^ of the United States.
LIGHT STATIONS WITH ONE K E E P E R .

1. The lamps shah be lighted purictually every day at sunset, and
extinguished at sunrise.
2. The lamps shall be kept burning bright and clear every night
from sunset to sunrise; and in order that the greatest degree bf light
may be uniformly maintained, the wicks must be trimmed every four
hours, or oftener if necessary, and clean glass chimneys fitted on; and
special care must: be taken to cut the tops of the wicks exactly even,
to produce a flame of uniform sha.pe, free from smoky points.
3. The keeper is held responsible for the careful watching and trimming of the light throughout the night, and Is expected to be in attendance during the day, never absenting himself ^from duty without'
permission from the district inspector, except in the cases hereinafter
jirovided for, in Avhich calses he must furriish an efficient substitute.
Any negligence .win subject him to the severest displeasure ofthe department.
. .
4. The keeper will be particular to note in his journal the time at
which all lights-usually visible from- the lantern of his,tower are lighted
up. He wiU also specify the hour ofthe disappearance of any of them,
and note, at such times, the condition of the weather and atmosphere. ^
5. The plate-glass must be cleaned within and without, by night as
well as by day^ particularly of the drift snow, sleet, arid the moisture
which is liable to accumulate in the interior of the^ lantern; and must
polish and clean the reflectors, or refractors, and lamps, trim the lamps,
and put the light-room in perfect order, by 10 o'clock a. m. daily, and
be very particular with the order and cleanliness of the buildings,
apartments, and premises. .
6. Strict attention must be given to the ventilation of the lantern,
taking care to keep the leeward ventilators sufficiently open to admit
the requisite quantity of air to produce steady, clear, and .bright lights.
7. The keepers of revolving lights are required tp give theii* particular attentign to the MOVABLE MACHINERY;/to see that it is well cleaned
in every part, and kept free from dust; well oiled with clockmakers'
oil; uniform in its motions, without unnecessary friction of its parts;
performs -its revolutions regularly within the prescribed period of time;
wound lip at the expiration of regular intervals of time; the motiveweight rests during the day upon a support, to relieve the machinery
and cord; and that the CORD is riot iri danger of parting from long use.
. 8. When the frariie upon which the lamps and reflectors are placed
is movable j care must be taken to place the lights in the same position
every night, leaving the dark side towards that portion of the horizon
which does not require to be lighted; and the reflectors and lamps
must be kept firmly screwed to the frame, with the lips of the reflectors perperidieular to the horizon, except in cases where it is specially
required that they should be sfightly inclined.
9. The keeper is held responsible for. the safety and good order of
the stores, utensils, and apparatus of every description, and for everything being put to its proper use and kept in its proper place. He



118

S. Doc. 22.

shall take ca:re that none ofthe stores or materlails are wasted, and
shall observe the strictest economy and the most careful management,
yet so as to maintain, in every respect, thp best possible light.
10. H e is on no account to leave the turning-kej^s attached to the
cranes of theoil-cisterris after drawing oil, but shall remove and deposite them on the tray beside the oil-measures, or hang them up in
some safe arid convenient place.
.
.^
11. He sha:ll keep a daily journal of the qua:ritity of oil expended,
and state of the weather,' embodying any events of interest or importance that may occur. These shall be written in the journal-books to
= be kept at each station for the jjurpbse, at the periods ofthe daiy when
they occur,, as they must ori no account be trusted to memory. At fliei
end of each quarter, he shall make up and transmit to the district
inspectors, under cover to the collector of the distiict, who is superin.tendent of lights,- a return, which shall be an accurate 0Opy of the
journal for the preceding quarter. .
^ 12. He is also required to take riotice of any shipwrecks which shall
happen withiri the vicinity of the light-house,'arid to enter an account
thereof, according to the prescribed form, in a book furnished to each
station for this purpose; and in such account he shall state, if practicable, whether the light was seen by any one on board the shipwrecked
vessel,, and recognised by him, and how long it was seen before the
vessel struck; A copy of this entry shall' form the shipwreck, return,
and be forthvi^ith forwarded to the inspector.
, . »
• .13. A book containing a note of the.vessels passing each light-house
shall be kept; and an annual schedule j showirig the number of vessels
in each quarter, shall be sent to the district'irispector.
14. The light-keeper is also held responsible for the good order and
G6ndition..of eveiything belonging to thp light-house establishment at
the station under his charge, including the 'clea.iiliness of the aLpartments, passages^ staitSj roofs, water-cisterns,'weUs,; storeroom^, workshops, privies,,stables, ash-pits of tlie dwelling-houses, &c.,-&;c.
15. The fight-keeper shall take especial care, at all times, thsit
neither lucifer matches, nor anything else which is easily ignited,
lighted lamps, candles, or fires, be left anywhere Iri the premises, so
ias to endanger the public pi^Pperty by fire. The fire-buckets^are to be
kept in the most convenient place for us6, and, when the weather will
permit, filled with water read}^, and they are on no aecourit to be
removed for household purposeSi
. ,
16. The light-keeper shall, urider rib circumsta:rices, use tripoli
power fpr cleaning the refractor^, Pr silvered parts ofthe reflesctors, rior
any othisr. cleariirig materials thari the rouge, whitirig, buffskiris, iand,
cleaning-cloths, &;c., furnished by direction of the Light-house Boa:rd,
and fpr the purposes designated iri the directions io light-keepers. Each
package or parcel bf rouge arid whiting liiust be exaniined by the keeper
before usirig it, by rubbing between his fingers, to ascertain that it is
free from grit arid other impurities, and, should it be found to be of bad
quality, and calculated to injure the appafatiis, it riiust not be used.
The tripoli powder shall be'used exelusiyely for cleaning the backs of
the reflectors, and other brass work of the a:pparatus.
- 17. The light-keeper slmU endeavor to keep in good order and re


S... Doe, 22..

119

pair;the''dikes enclosing the light-house giounds, the lariding-places
and roads^ leading from thence ,to the light-house, and the drains therewith comiected,. together with all other things placed under his charge.;
18. When stores of any kind are tp be landed, for the use of ;the
light-house, the keeper shall a:tteiid and give his assistance. He shall
satisfy himself, upori these occasions, as far as possible, of the quantity ;
and condition of the stores received, which must be duly entered,in the
store-books and quarterly-return book., , '.
•\
, 19. The light-keeper is to make a report of the quality of, the stores, ;
in the return for the quarter immediately.succeeding their receipt, and ;
earlier should circumstances render it necessaiy, and.also for the fourth'
quarter annually; arid this report must proceed upon special trial-'of the .
several cisterns pf oil, and the other stores in detail, both at the time of
receiving them and after the expiration of sufficient time to test them
.fuiiy.^^-

;.

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.

20. Should the supply of light-house stores at any time appear to the :
keeper to be getting short, so as thereby to endanger the regular appear-;
ance ofthe light, he^ shall immediately inform the district inspector, and,
by prudence in the management of the lights, guard against: a total
consumption of the supplies before others can be received,
21. The light-keeper is prohibited from carrying Pn any trade or
business whatever, which will take hiin from the premises, or in any
other manner cause the neglect of his pubfic duties. ,
22. He has permission to go from home to draw his salary, arid also
to attend pubhc worship on Sunday, but on no pther occasion without
the permission of this district inspector. , In case of sickness'he must
provide a temporary keeper, and report the fact, without delay, to the
. district inspector or superintendent of lights.
23. The light-keeper is required to be sober and industrious, and
orderly in his family.' He is expected to be pplite to strangers, iri show-,
ing the premises at such hours as do nbt interfere with tfie prpper
duties of his office; it being expressly understood that strangers shallnot
be admitted to the light-room after sunset. Not more than three per-;
sons shall have access to the fight-room at one and' the same time','
during the,day, and no stranger visiting the light-house shall be per. mitted to handle any part ,of the machinery pr apparatus. The light?
keeper must not,, on any pretext, admit persons in a state of intoxication into the lightrhouse. He is prohibited. from selling any malt: or
spirituous liquors, and from allowing any to be sold onthe premises
under his charge.
' '
'
. 24. The light-keeper i? to observe that the above general regulation^
are without prejudice to any more .special instructions which may be
made appficable to any particular light-hous.e, pr to such orders as
may, from time to time, be issued by the ^Light-hpuse Board.
.
' / 25. All officia:! communications fbr the Light-house Board must be
transmitted through"the district inspector, except in c.ases of emergency,
when they may be sent direct to one of the secretaries pf the Lighthouse Board, under coyer, to the honorable Secretary of the Treasury.
26. These instructioris are to be hung up in a conspicuous place in
the hght-house, and in the keeper's dwelling. The keeper i s required
to make himself perfectly acquainted with them.



S, Doc. 22.

120

The breach of any of the foregoing instructions will subject the
offending fight-keeper tothe severest, displeasure, of the department,
and, in the absence of extenuating circunistances, to dismissal.
By order of the Light-house Board:
/ •
W . B. SHUBRICK,
'
Chairman,
THORNTON A. JENKINS,
) O •
.
EDMUND L . F . HARDCASTLE, \ Secretaries.
.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Office Light-house Board, Washington city, October 1^, 1852.
- Approved:,
'
^
T H O . CORWIN,
'
Secretary of the Treasury.

Instructions to keepers of light-vessels of the: TJnited States.
1. The lamps shall be lighted punctually every day at sunset, and
extinguished at sunrise.
•
2. The lamps shall be kept .burning bright and clear every night
from sunset to sunrise ;• and, in order that the greatest degree of lightmay be uniformly maintained, the wicks must be trimmed every four
hours, or oftener if necessaiy, and clean glass chimneys fitted on; and
especial care must be taken to cut the tops.of the wicks exactly eveuij
to produce a fiame of uniform shape, free from smoky points,
•
3., The keeper is held responsible for the careful watching and trimming of the light throughout the night, and is expected to be in attendance during the day,, never absentirig himself from duty without
permission from the district inspector, (except in the cases hereinafter
provided for,) in which cases he'must furnish' an" efficient substitute.
Any negligence will subject him.to the severest displeasure of the department.
' .
.
-^
.
4. The keeper will be particular to note in his journal the tiine at
which all lights usually visible from the .vessel • under his charge are
lighted up ; he will also specify the hour of the disappearance of any
of them, and note at such times the condition of the weather and atr
mosphere.
. ,
^
5. The keeper must clean the glass of the lantern within and withr
out, by night as well as, by day, particularly of the drift snow, sleet, .
and the moisture which is liable to accumulate iri the interior of the
lantern, and.polish arid clean the refiectors and lamps ; trim the lamps,
and put the vessel in perfect order by 10 o'clock a. m. daily; and be
very particular with the order and cleanliness of the apartments, holds,
storerooms, and the berths of the crew.
,
6. The routine duties. of cleaning the lamps, filling and trimming
them, polishing the reflectors, &c., must be arranged in. such manner
by the keeper as to give each one' of the crew his fair proportion of
d u t y .

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S'. Doc. 22.

121

7. The upper deck of the vessel must be thoroughly washed down
every morning, and, when necessaiy tp keep it clean, sand and stiff
brooms may be used ; but holystones must not be used more than orice
a month. The between-decks are only to be,wetted occasionally, and
in the forenoon, in good weather.
8. A log-book shall be kept on board of each light-vessel, in which
all the incidents of interest or importance shall be recorded daily, em
bracirig specially the times at which the lamps are trimmed during the
night; the length of time.which intervenes between, lowering the lantern and'again hoistirig it, after the lamps are trimmed ; the number of
men on watch ; the direction and strength of the wind, and the state of
the weather at noon, 8 p. m., midnight, and 8 a. m.; and during gales/
as much oftener as circumstances may require ; alsp the times at which
the moorings are examined, and the condition in which they are found,
&c., &c."
• 9. The keeper must take an inventory of all anchors, cables, sails,
boats, and all furniture, materials, stores, and supphes of all kinds,,
immediately on taking charge of a new light-vessel, or on succeeding a
keeper; a.copy of which, duly signed, must be transmitted through the
proper channel to the Light-house Board, and a corrected list made out
on the first day .of July and January annuaUy, specifying at the bottom, in detail, those.articles which have been expended, and what are
required for the next half year.
lb. The keeper is held responsible for the. safety and good order of
the stores, utensils,'and apparatus of every description, and for everything being put to its proper use and kept in its proper place. He
shall take care that none of the stores or materials are wasted, and shall.
observe the strictest economy, and the most careful management, yet
so as to maintain, in every respect, the best possible fight.
11. He is on no account to leave the turning-keys attached to the
cranes of the oil-cisterns after drawing oil, but shall remove and deposite them on the tray beside the oil-measures, or hang them up in
some safe and convenient place.,
_• .
12. H e shall keep a daily journal of the quantity of oil expended,
and .state pf .the weather, embodying any events of interest or importance that may occur. These shah be written in the journal-books to
be kept at each station for the purpose, at the periods of the day when
they occur, as they must on no account be trusted to, memory. At
the end pf each quarter he shall- make up and transmit to-the district
inspectors, under cover-to the collector of the district, who is superintendent of lights, a return, which shall be an accurate copy of the journal
for the preceding quarter/
13. He is also required to take notice of any ^ shipwrecks whichshaU happen within the vicinity of the light-vessel, and to enter an account thereof in the log-book; and in such account he shall state, if
practicable, whether the light was seen by any one on board the shipwrecked vessel, and recognised by him, and how long it was seen bcr
fore the vessel struck. A copy of this entry shall form the shipwreck
return, and be forthwith forwarded to the inspector.
14. A book containing a note of the vessels passing each light-vessel



12?

S. Doc. ,22.

shall be kept, and an annual schedule, showing the number of vessels
in each quarter, shall be sent to the district inspector.
15. The light-keeper shall take especial care,' at all times, that
neither lucifer matches, nor anything else which is easily ignited, lighted
lamps, candles, or fires, be left anywhere in the vessel, so as to endanger the public property by fire. When the weather is such as to
require fire tP be kept in the stove at night, every precaution must be
taken by the watch on deck and by ,the keeper to prevent accidents
from it. The fire-buckets are to be kept on deck in the most convenient
place for use, and, when the weather will permit, filled with water at
sunset every day, and they are on no account to be kept between
decks at anight. Two draw-buckets must be kept properly strapped
arid fitted, one pn either side, arid the end' of the bucket rope madefast
to the vesseL , The wash-deck pump must be examined frequently,
and kept in good order.
• 16. The light-keeper shall, under no circumstances, use tripoli
powder for cleaning the refriactprs,- or silvered; parts ofthe reflectors,
nor any other cleaning materials than the rouge, whiting, buffskins,
cleaning-cloths, &c., furnished by direction of the Light-house Board,
and fbr the purposes designated in the directions to light-keepers. Each
package or parcel of rouge and whiting must be examined by the keeper
before, using it, by rubbing between his fingers,, to.ascertain that it is
free from grit and other impurities, and, should it be found to be of bad
quality, and calculated to injure the apparatus, it must not be- used.
The tripoli powder shall be used exclusively fPr cleaning the backs of
the reflectors, and other brass work of the apparatus.
17. A regular watch must be kept on deck at all times; and the vessel
riiust be sburided at least once during^ eyery watch at nigKt,. arid in bad
weather every hour, and the result reported to the keeper, should it be
necessary.
- _ "
18. The keeper must see that the watch is set, and everything in
good order, every night before leaving the deck. The lightning conductors must be rigged Put and led fair, clear of afi iron arid the ship's
side, everyday at sunset, .and rigged in at daylight, except in bad
weather, when they must be kept rigged out during its continuance.
In bad weather he is required to give his personal attentipn to the duties
bf the vessel, puring bad weather the spare anchor must be kept
ready for letting gOj and a proper range of cable on deck, bitted arid
stoppered, to bring the vessel up in the event of dragging, arid a sufficient watch to be kept constantly on deck to meet any emergency;
The deep-sea lead must be kept oyerboard, and a careful hand stationed
by it whenever the weather is such as to endanger the safe riding of
the vessel. Should the vessel drag her anchors, the keeper is carefully
to consider whether she'lias driveri to such a distance, or in such a direction, as tb make it dangerous to shipping to continue to show her
lights; a n d i f the distance or direction be not such as tb endanger the
safety of vessels running on their course, the lights 'and day-marks are'
to be continued in the usual manner; but should the fight-vessel have
driven so as to be dangerous or useless as a guidctp shipping, the usual
lights arid day-marks must in that case be discontinued, and the lanterns
and other distinguishing marks be carefully naasked.



S. Doc. 22.

123

19. The moorings must be-examined at least once a month, by
heaving in the chain, selecting such times as are best, adapted to the
purpose, but particularly after heavy gales; and in every instance ai;
strict and careful examination of the chains, shackels, swivels, &c.,
Iriust be' made by the keeper, and the result noted in the log-book; and
if he has any reason to doubt their good condition he must report the
fact, without delay, to the district inspector directly, or through the collector, who is superintendent of lights, to the .board.
20. The keepers of light-vessels must not slip their mporings; nor will
they be permitted tP leave their stations except by written permission
from the inspector of the distiict, and after, due notice shall have been
given of such intentipn. 21. The balla:st must be removed, and the hold thoroughly cleaned
and whitev^ashed at least once in six irionths. Water must not, under
any pretence, be let into the hold; but, on the coritrary, the vessel must
be pumped out every day, before 8 a. m., as dry as the.pumps will
riiake her; arid in the event of water settling forward or aft, which the
pumps will not reach, it must be bailed put with buckets.
.22. Duririg the summer months the wirid-sails are to.be kept up and
the awnings spread v^henever the weather will permit; and every precaution must be taken to-keep the vessel dry, cool, and comfortable
between decks. Wet clothes or' bedding must not be kept below.
During the stoririy season the sails riiust be kept bentj and frequently
loosed to dry when the weather will permit.. Every effort must be made
to keep the^between-decks arid fields dry and thoroughly veritilated; and
once a morith in> summer, a:rid as often as the weather will permit in
winter, not oftener than once a mbnth, the beddirig of the crew iriust be
aired arid shakeri on deck.
/
•
' - 23. The life and other boats must be examined frequently, and every
care bestowed upon them to insure their preservation and usefulness in
case of need.
"
^
.24. When stores of any kind are to be received on board for the use
tX the- light-vessel, the keeper shall attend'and give his assistance. He
shall satisfy himself, upbn these occasibris, asfaLr as possible, ofthe
quantity and coridition of the .stores received, which must be duly entered in the store-books and quarterly-return bbok, and see that the oil is
fciptied immediately into the cisterris.
" V
' 25. The light-keeper is to make a rejiort of the quality pf the stores
in the return for the quarter immediately succeeding their receipt, arid
earlier shbuld circumstances render it necessary, arid also for the fourth
quarter anriually;-and this report must proceed upon special trial ofthe
several cisterns of oil, and thb other stores in detail, both at the time of
receiving them and after the expiration of suffibient time tb test them fulfy.
26. Shpuld the supply of iight-vessef stores at any time^ appear to the
keeper to be getting short, so as thereby to endanger the regular appearance ofthe light, he shaU immediately inform the district inspector,
and, by f)rud"eribe in the mariagemerit Pf the lights, guard against a total
Gpnsumption of the supplies before others can be received.
21. The light-keeper is prohibited from carrying on aiiy trade or
business whatever, which will take him from the light-vessel, or in any
other manner cause the neglect bf his pubfic duties.



124

S. Doc. 22.

28. He has permission to go from the vessel to draw his salary, and
also to attend public worship^pn Sunday, but on no other occasion without the permissiori of the district inspector. In case of sickness, or
anything else happening to endanger the proper management of the
fight, he must report the fact, without delay, to the district inspector
or superintendent of lights.
29. The light-keeper is required to'be sober arid orderly; to exact
from the crew the strictest obedience to his orders, and treat persons
who visit the fight-vessel with civility. He is prohibited from selhng
any malt or spirituous fiquors, and from allowing any to be sold on
board the light-vessel under his charge.
^ ;'
30. The keeper must hail all steam or other vessels which hover
about the vessel under his charge and prevent the lights from being
seen, and request them to keep off; and under no .pretence shall .he
allow any vessel to make.fast alongside or astern. The seamen and
others constituting the crews of fight-vessels are required, to conduct
themselves in an orderly and subordinate manner, obe3ing, promptly
and cheerfully, all the orders from the inspector and keeper. Any neglect of duty, or disobedience of orders,,must be reported immediately
tothe district inspector, who will inquire into and report the circumstances ofthe case to the board.
°
31. The keeper must see that the buoys to the anchors of the lightvessel watch, and that they are always in good floatirig condition.
32. The light-keeper is to observe that the above general regulations
are without prejudice to any more special instructions which may be
made applicable-to any;particular light-vessel, or to such orders as
may, from time to time, be issued^ by the Light-house Board.
33. All official communications for the Light-house Board must be
transmitted through the district inspector, except in cases of emergency,
when they may be sent direct to one of the secretaries ofthe Light-house
Board, under, cover, to the honorable Secretary of the Treasuiy. '
.34. These instructions are to be hung up in a conspicuous place in
the apartments of the vessel, and the keeper is required to make himself perfectly acquainted with them, arid to have them read on the first
Monday of every month to all the crew.
'
'
° 35. The breach of any ofthe foregoing instructions will subject the
offending light-keeper, or others, to the severest displeasure of the dcr
partment, and, iri the absence of extenuating circumstances, to dis
missal.
.
By order of the Light-house Board :
> WM. B . SHUBRICK,
Chairman,
THORNTON A. JENKINS,
>
,,EDM'D L . F . HARDCASTLE, >
y'

\

Secretaries.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

:

Office Light-house Board, Washington, city, Oct. 14, 1852.
Approved:
THO. CORWIN, ^
;
'
' Secretary bJ the Treasury.



S. Doc. 22.

125

Directions to the light-keepers of the United States.

^

The fights must be extinguished every day at sunrise, the curtains put
.np around the interior of the lantern, and, as sobn after as practicable,
the keeper or keepers shall commence the process of cleaning the lamps,
trimming the wicks, and pofishing the' reflectors or refractors, (as the
case may be,) wiping off the plate-glass, &c., &c., observing strictly
the fofiowing directions:
.
TO CLEAN AND TRIM THE LAMPS OF REFLECTING LIGHTS.

2. The reservoirs, tubes, and'burners must be thoroughly cleaned,
arid ocpasionally rinsed- out with clean hot oil. ^ When necessary, the
burners must be supplied with new wicks, taking care to cut their tops
perfectly even. At least once in two weeks the reservoirs, tubes, and
burners will require to, be cleaned with hot ley, to remove the .gummy
matter which is fiable to accumulate and disturb the perfect and uniform flow of ^ oil to the wicks., When the weather is cold enough to
cause the oil, if put in^the lamps in the morning, to become thick during the day, they must not be filled until, a short time before sunset, when
the. oil must be warmed, and the heaters applied, to aid in. keeping it
in a liquid state. Oil containing^ sediment must be carefully strained
before putting it into the reservoirs; and should any be found unfit fbr
use inthe lantern, it must be used for the house lamps.
TO CLEAN, POLISH, AND ADJUST THE REFLECTORS AND LAMPS.

I

i 3. The reflectors must be removed, one at a time, from the frame, and
carried carefufiy into the room next below the lantern. If the back
or copper part be. tarnished, place it on the table or stand provided for
that purpose, with that side u p ; mix a small quantity of tripoli powder in waste oil, and apply it with a cloth, rubbing it^until all the tar«
nish is removed; then, clean it off with dry powder and another cloth.
This operation will be required orice of twice a week, according to the
state of, the weather and the cpndition ofthe lantern. The reflector
must then be placed on the stand, with the front or silvered part up,
snd^polished with the greatest care, as upon this the briUiancy and efficiency pf the fight mainly depend. Having wiped pff the dust and burnt
particles of wick with a soft cloth,, moisten, a smaU quantity of rouge
powder, which has been previously found to be free from gritty particles,
with spirits of wine,'(not more than, enough for one ,day's use,) and apply it with a soft leather, or small soft, brush, to the silver, rubbirig it
-aU over in right lines, up and down, with the apparent grain, and, before it is quite dry, polish it with a dry leather and a small quantity of
dry rouge powder, rubbing it briskly until it becomes brilliant, and perfectfy free from tarnish and stains. The gritty particles fourid in rougepowder, or whiting, may be separated from the fine powder by mixing
it with a small quaritity of water, and thoroughly working it into a paste;
then put it into a sufficient quantity of water to make a clear mixture;
when well mixedj let it stand a few moments, and then pour pff the liquid,
•leaving the-heavy particles at the bottom. After the fiquid has settled




126

S. Doc. 22.

for half an hour, pour off the water, and the fine rouge or whiting remaining at the bottom wiU "be ready for use, and to which spirits of
wine may be added if necessary. The reflectors will ordinarily be required to be pleaned inthis manner about pnce-a >y.eek; at. other times,
wheri .the silyer is not much discolored, it wiU be suffibient to apply .a
little dry rouge powder in a soft t a g lightly, breathingon it at the same
.time, and then polish it off with a clean dry leather. The silvered part
of the reflectors must be cleaned with the rouge yowder^,\whiUrig, arid
spirits of wine, authorized by the instructions.bf the Light-house Board,
and in the manner indicated in the directions. The tripoli powder must
be used exclusively for the brass work.
4. The glass chimneys. must be, mad e perfectly clean and free from
stains,.and to:fit into their sockets steadily and perfectly upright, (par^
allel to the axis of the burner,) to prevent, the sides frpm being snipked
or injured by being iinequally heated :by the
flames.
.'
5. The rscrews for.raising and lowering the wicks, and chimneys must
-be tried, to ascertain if they can be moved without difficulty, and the
tubes:of the burners examined,:to see if the.oif sta:nds..att.he .prqp.er level ,
to supply the-wicks with-regularity; but the lamps m,ust never be tilted
to regulate the flow of o i l / Defective lamps must .be remoyed, and
spare ones rsubstituted at pnce.
,.
•
6. The reflectors should be^as close to each other, both the lower and
the upper tiers, as.possible, their lips perpendicular to the hprizpn, and
the burners in the focus of each. Too much care q'annptbe' observed
in performing this part of the. keeper's duty, to insure the strongest ray
of light beirig directed.to.those:point,s.of .the hprizpii of mo.st importance
to the mariner, and to" prevent, as far as possible, any waste bf light, by
allowing it to be transriiltted to.ppints \yher,e it is not .required: .The
adjustments of the lamps and reflectors can be easily m.ade by the aid
of the eye, a foot-rule,:and.a.plummet.
7. The leathers,'cloths, linen rags, and .polishing .powders^ riiust b?e
kept in tight cases, well wrapped up, free from damp and dust. Iri
using the leathers great care must be taken to fpld them.smooth, free
from crease or uneven surface, and that .no grit.or other hard .substance
adheres to;them.to injure the.silvered surface of the reflectprs ; and no
leather, which,has =been wetted or.washed with yifater, shaU be used,
on any account, to clean the.silvered part of the reflectprs.
.8.: Havirig completed the cleaning of the lam^p.s, :bur,ners, :and; reflectors, and placed ..them properly.on:their frames, .aiid .the whple illuminating apparatus beingim every respectr,eady for lighting, the cpver
kept-for >that purpose must be placed oyer-thelanips and reflectprs care^
.fully,,so as.to.preventany dust frpm.s.ettling on.therii-during..the cleaning of the.lantern-floor and platform, both of which must be carefully
washed and wiped with cloths when.necessary. Wheii.lhe interior of
the(dome,-chand.elier, astragals, &c.,.&c., require to be clearied with
water, or in any.other:way than.by the use of brushes and.dry cloths,
it must be done early in the day, and before the lari^i^psaiid.reflectors
:are eleaned, that the whole may".be thbroughly. dry .before suriset.
9. Previous toiigbting the lamps in the • eyenirig, the, curtains Tmust
be- taken: down carefully and ;put away in a. plean place, and all the
reflectors^wiped. off with a soft,, clean clothv to remove-anv dust that



S. Doc. 22.

127

may have settled on them during the day. Care must be taken, at all
all times, to pi^event dust and sand froin getting into the lantern. When
there is sufficient wind to move the dust and sand, the lantern-door
should be kept tightly closed.
.10. In . lighting, the lamps the keeper must fight them oiie after
another as rapidly as possible, taking care to have the tops of the wicks
ignited all rourid, and'screwed down to the lowest point at which they
willburn before leaving them, and the glass chimney raised ashigh as
possible. Haying in. this, manner lighted all the lamps, he must commence with the one first .lighted, and raise the wick gradually until the
flame is about three-fourths of an inch high, and at .the same time
lower the chimney gradually in the same proportion.; continue the
operation with each 6nein,-successipn, until the first one lighted is again
reached. Each-liglit must npw be-raised in succession to its greatest
height; and the chimney lowered to its proper point, to produce the
brightest and whitest light, though very gradually, taking care that the
wicks are. not elevated so rapidly as to cause them to char or srnoke.
The flames shbuld be from one and a quarter to one and a half inch in
heigMrwhen properly lighted, and attended. Good lights can only be
^produced by being frequeritly examined and carefully attended to, and
kept^perfectly free from smoky .points,, with clean chimneys and refractors or bright reflectors of proper shape and in perfect adjustinent.
" -

VENTILATION.

l i . One of the. most important duties of the light-keeper is to-be
watchful and attentive in keeping the lantern well ventilated. When
there is very little wind a portion of all the veniilators placed in the
lower part of the lantern may be opened, having due regard to theclear
and steady burning of the lights. When there is much wind the leeward ventilators only must be opened, and only so much of them asis
necessaiy to allow the lights to burn bright, steady, and clear. Irregular currents of air, produced either by the trap or.balcony-door, or by
the windward ventllatprs, are injurious to the lights, when the means
employed are in other respects good. Before leaving the lantern,^even
for a moment, the keeper must be certain that the: ventilators" are sufficiently open to admit the necessary quantity of air to produce good
combustion. > ^ ;
"
" '
. ./12.,.The paint-work of the interior of the lantern .must be kppt
washed clean and w:hite. The whole interior of the dome, sashes,, and
astragals, must be painted, white. Soot, iron rust, and dust must not
,he permitted to accumulate.in the lantern; and in the event ofthe plateglass becoming discolored by i h e iron rust, &c.,. from-the dome, and
frame-wprk of .the lantern^, it must be thoroughly cleaned pff, without
delay, with spirits of wine and .rouge.if necessary.
•
, ,.
13* When ice,, sleet, or drift ..snow settles on the outside, or when
the ice forms in cold weather on the inside of the glass pf the: lantern,'
a strong brine applied to it wiU cause its removal without .difficulty,
and, in extreme cases, a smaU quantity of spirits df wirie may be employed with advantage for the same purpose. Storm panes of glass




S. Doc. 22.

128

must be kept clean and ready for replacing any that may be broken
during the night.
14. Cleaning rags, chimneys, trimming scissors, brushes, oil-meas- .
ures, chairs,' stools, and the like, must be removed from, arid kept out
of, the lantern while the lights are: burning. Utensils of all kinds must
be kept in their proper places, in the room immediately below the
lantern.
15. When the weather becomes sufficieritly cold tOTcquIre fire to be
kept in the stove, the temperature of the interior of the lantern must
not be raised more than is absolutely necessary to. keep the oil in a
liquid state. The oil-heaters should be warmed in the stove of the
dwelling-house before being placed in the reservoirs, and just before
lighting the lamps .
\
'•'.'.
16. Every effort must be made by the keeper to keep the towers,
buildings,:and premises, clean and in good order.' Lime for whitewash,
and paints, will be furnished in proper quantities, which must, be used
economically. The stairs, floors, and railings must be kept free from
oil, soot, and dfrt.
\

.,

•

•

. , L I G H T N I N G RODS.

• ,

^

17. Keepers are particularly cautioned not to neglect the electrical
conductors attached tP the towers and dwefiings. Care must be tal^en
to ascertain that they are not in contact with iron girders, bands, or
other metal employed in the construction of the buildings.; that they
are not injured by being cracked or broken, and that they lead out
from the .building, either irito the water, or; sufficiently outward and
downwards into the grpund tb. reach the-wet earth; the p a r t in the
ground to be surrounded by powdered charcoal.
_ '
>
'
.
REVOLVING M A C H I N E R Y .

'

18. The revolving machinery requires the especial care and attention
of the light-keepers, s.Every part of it must be carefufiy cleaned with
small brushes, furnished for the. purpose,^and with pieces of soft white
pine, cut to the proper size-and shape, to remove the dust and guniiny
oil which are liable to adhere to its different parts. When it is thoroughly cleaned, the pivots must be/ oiled, either with olive oil, neat's
foot pil, or the best quality of sperm oil; and if the fly is driven by an
endless screw, that screw must be oiled also. Tins operation must be
performed at stated periods, and always when, upon examination, it i s
found necessary. The fiy, or regulator, inust be adjusted by testing
the machinery in motion with the aid'of a good time-piece. The dura:tion of the revolutions in.ust be strictly in conformity to the stated,
periods in the light-house fist, and to directions from the proper officers
of the aboard. The time occupied in performing the revolutions must
be frequently tested, and in case of any^deviation from that prescribed,
the j^y mubt: be readjusted.




S. Doc. 22.

129

FOG SIGNALS

19. These essential aids to navigation demand the same care and
attention, on the part ,of; the keepers, that the lights do. Whistles,
bells, or gongs, fitted with the necessary machinery, require to be examined daily, to see that all is in working order and adjustment. The
bells must be kept clean and brightat.all times, and nothing permitted
to be in their vicinity which will tend to destro3^6r. lessen their usefulness to the mariner, by deadening the sound or deflecting it from its
prpper direction.
During thick or foggy weather these signals^ must be made at the
prescribed periods of time, to enable those within the limits of'their
sound to distinguish them from others in their vicinity..
.• \ .
Bells, whistles, and gongs, must be sounded with as much regularity
as possible during the existence of foggy or thick weather, whether
worked by hand or by machinery.
DAY SIGNALS AND DISTINGUISHING MARKS.

20. No change in the color of towers, buildings, or their appendages,
must be.made, except by thc'positive writteri directions of the Lighthouse Board to the inspector of the district. T n all cases where tidesignals are required to be made, the keepers will be specially instructed
on the subject.
, '
By order of the Light-house Board :
. WM. ,B. SHUBRICK,
Chairman.
THORNTON A. JENKINS,
) . O ,. ^ .-. EDM'D L . ^ F . HARDCASTLE, t
^ ^'
*
-

-

•

. .

•

,

^

< *

TREASURY

DEPARTMENT/

Office Light-house Board, Washington, city, Oct. 14, 1852. :,
Approved:
^
,
';
/
THO. CORWIN,
. ; , ,
'
' . Secretary of the Treasury.




130

S. Doc. 22.:

ExhiMt showing the comjyonent ports of the ration to be served, to the crews
oJ the light-vessels of the United. States f o r each day of the week, and the
value at which they are to be commuted.

-

POUNDS.

OUNCES.

,

; [ FKACTIONS OF
A

„

DAYS O F T H K

PINT.

WEEK.

o

Sunday...:....',
Monday .
......
Tuesday.
^...,..
Wednesday
...
Thursday,..-.
.
Frida,}^
..,.,..
Saturday :
. ^..

6 o

tl

.^

*1
1
1

1

1
1
1

Vfeekfy quantity.. 4

'i

1
1

3

1

1

i

•

'5
o

14
14
14
14
14
14
14

ci

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

i
i
i
i
i
i
i

98. 14

g,

6

o
O

i.

.1
0

,2:
"/
2'

'i

i
7'^ 4

M 'i 1

V A L U A T I O N OF T H E W E E K L Y Q U A N T I T Y , E T C :

3 ' 'pounds of pork, at 7 i cents p e r ,pound
. .^
....4 pounds of beef, at 6 cents p e r pound . . ^ . ' . . . . . i . . . . ,^
1 pound of flour, r t 4 cents per pound
.i . . .
1 pound of rice, at 3 "cents p e r pound
i . ppund, of raisins, &c., a t 13 cents p e r p o u n d .
-.
98 Ounces of riav}^ biscuit of best quality, at 4 cts. p e r p o u n d .
14 ounces of sugar of good qualit}^ at S^cents p e r p o u n d .
I f ounce of tea, at 80 cents p e r p o u n d .
•
7 ounces of coffee, at ,20^cqnts p e r p p u n d . . . . , . . . : . . . . .
4 ounces of butter, at 2 3 cents p e r p o u n d . . . :
1 J, pint of beans, at 2 4 cents per gallon
=
i pint of molasses, at 6 4 cents per gallon
i pint of vinegar, at 20 cents p e r gallon.
1 p e c k of Irish, jiotatoes
Averaging 2 0 cents .per d a y , or w e e k l y .




* Or fresh beef and vegetables.

2 2 J cents.
24 do.
4 do.
3 do.
6^ do.
2 4 ^ d.b.
7 do.
^ 8 i do.
8 f do.
5S do.
" 4 J do.
4 do.
l i do.
16 do.

$L 40

S : Doc. 22.

131

>Reorulation.
TREASURY D E P A R T M E N T ,

' > Office of the Light-house Board, December 28, 1852..
The foregoing exhibit of the component parts of the rations to be
served to the_ brews bf the hght-vessels of the United States must be
strictly bbserved by superintendents, inspectors, contractors, a.nd keepers
of light-vessels.
- .
The board will make such modifications from time to time as may
be considered necessaiy.
"
• •
One pound of fresh beef, with half a pound of green vegetables, per
mari, for making soup,'mu5t be served to the crews ot light-vessels, in
lieu of one pound of salt beef on one day of each week, on one day of
every two weeks, or. on one day of every' four weeks, as may be determined upon in each .case by the board: ^
'
The allowance of Irish potatoes for each mail must be .delivered on
the respective days on which the fresh beef is delivered.
The board will direct Avhat shall be the smallest quantity of salt provisions which shall be kept on board, at all times, of each light-vessel,
havirio: reference to .her location. :
'
. ,
The Light-house Board will give instructions in a.ll-^cases requiring
special regulations. - The foregoing ration list will take effect in all the
districts in which light-vessels are located at the expiration of the present contracts for supplying rations, and where commuted at the end pf
the quarter.
It shall be the duty of the master or keeper of the light-vessel to
examine all provisions sent on board, either b}^ the government ;pr by a
contractor, to see that the}^ are of good quality, and that they are regularfy and properfy served to the crew, and in his. absence the mate pr
assistant keep.er shall perform this service.
'
^
^
The .quantities received shall be entered by the master of the vessel
in a provision-book to be kept for that purpose, and a regular return of
experiditure made quarterly t9 the inspector.
'
.
Commutations of rations can only take place by authorlt}'- of the
boalxl, and when it is considered that the interest of, the service will be
injured by permitting It, the board will require the keeper and all the
crew to receive the ration in kind, and the sum of $60 in that case will
be deducted from the annual pay ofthe keeper as an equivalent for thC;
ration.
' '.
,
No keeper, superintendent, or Inspector, will be allowed to contract
for the ration.s for the crew of a light vessel.
No contractor, superintendent, or inspector, will be allowed to change
the parts of the salt ration, nor the times that"ma,y be determined upo%
fbr the delivery ofHhe fresh provisions and vegetables, without authority
of the board.
' .
;
.
In afi cases where the special permission of the board is given for
commuting the ration, twenty cents per day pt^r man will be allowea
in lieu thereof
-•
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^
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^
All the articles constituting the ration tor the crews of light-vesselsmust be examined and theri ouafitv approved by the-superintendent or



S. Doc. 22.

132

inspector ofthe district, or by such other persbn as may be assigned W
perform that duty.
.
"
"
.
These regulations must be: placed in. the apartments of all lightvessels.
^ ,By order of the Light-house Board:
^
W . B . SHUBRICK,
Chairman*.
THORNTON A. JENKINS,

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? O ^

•

} Seeretartes.

L D M D L. r . HARDCASTLE, )

Approved:
WM. L . H O D G E , :
Acting Secretary of the Treasury^
Instructions and directions for the management of lens lights.-.—Dispositian
of the lamps and illuminating appa,ratus.—^General vietvs.
ORDERS OF F R E S N E L LENS APPARATUS.

I. The Lens or Fresnel illuminating apparatus emplpyed in the
light-houses of nearly all the commercial nations of the world at the
present day, is divided into three principal and three minor orders, <
taking rank according to. theri* dimensions and the sizes of their lamps
and burners.
^
They are denominated:
1st order, with a.lamp of four or five concentric wicks;
2d order, with ,a lamp of three concentric wicks;
3d order, with a lamp of two concentric wicks.
The three minor orders are:
3cl order, smaller size,.with one or t\yo concentric wicks;
4th order, with one wick and mechanical lamp, or large Argand
fountain lamp; and ' \
4th order, smaller size, with one wick, as in the larger size.
Note.—These INSTRUCTIONS and DIRECTIONS, modified in; some respects l b meet the wants pf the light-house.service bf the United States,
have, been compiled and arranged mainly from the latest published
authorities on this subje.et for the government and management of the
French lights—the joint productions of the distinguished engineers,
Morisieur Leonor Fresnel and Monsieur L. Reynaud.
'
The three minPr orders are now generally called 4th, 5th, and 6th
orders.
•
.
•'
'
.
OPTICAL PORTIONS AND FRAME.

II. The optical parts of this apparatus are composed of glass lentlclular panels, arid of catadioptric panels, or of mirrors. These pieces
are united and assembled together by means of a.metafiic'frame, having
>a'.cast-iron column.for a,support.



S. Doc. 22.

133

M. C. Ft. In.
The interior diametre of a 1st order apparatus is .1, 8 4 = 6 00.44
« 2d
"
"
' 1, 4 0 = 4 07.11
3d
''
,
^^
1, 0 0 = 3 03.371
4t:h
>
*
"
' 0, 50 = 1 07.68
5th
"
''
0, 375 = 1 02.76
' ;
6th
"
"
-0, 3 0 = 0 11.81
'MECHANICAL LAMPS.

illl. Each lens light of the three largest orders is usually iriumlnated
l)y a mechaiiical lamp, placed isa the common fbcus ofihe optical parts.
Hydraulic, and pneumatic lamps are, occasionally employed for the
same purpose. All of these lamps are furnished with multiple wicks,
varying in size and number according to the order of the a.pparatus.
IV. Three kinds of mechaiiical lamps are employed at present, viz:
. 1. The clock-work movement lamp;2. The lamp of Heriry.Lepaute; and
. 3i. The Wagner lanipi
•,
,
These lamps differ pnly iri their mechanical parts, all of them having
the same bbject, to canse the oil :to flow at ari estimated ratib to the
amount of oil consumed, to the burrier, by nieans pf the punip.s, whicli
are put In motion by the differ eiit kinds of'machinery em plo3^ed in them.
T h e motive power is a weight which descends in the interior of the
•eolumn supporting the frame of die apparatus.
V. The mechanical:lamps.are composed oif five different parts:
The oil-eisteiis, or irfeservoir;
T h e machinery ;
The body of the pumps | •
.
•
The burner;
The glass chimney.
, ,,
.
, , .
•/ .

-t-HE .OIL-^eisf ERN.

VI. l^he.reservoir, or cistern, is a vessel mode of copper or tin occupy lag the centre of the mounting of the lamp. It should be large
enough to contain double the quantity of oil nece.ssaiy^^ to burn fifteen
or sixteen hours.
VII. The machineiy is composed, according to its system^ of the
foliowiMg pieces:.
T H E CLOCK-WORK M O V E M E N T LAMP.

1. Is composed of a.wheel and axle, ca,'rrying the masLcr cog vvheel;
two hoirizbntal shafts or beams, the first of which carries the centre and
the second a side wheel; a vertical shaft, proylded with another s>iae
wheel at its lower extreriiity, which traverses the oil-cistern and puts
the feed-pumps in motion, by rriearis of the four small wheels which
gear into each other.
'
.
TlieTegulator of thj^ maclrine is a; simple ifiy.:
:-




S Doc. 22.

134

THE LAMP OF, HENRY LEPAUTE.

2. Is composed of a wheel and axle, carrjing a wheel fitted upon
its two faces with roller-pins; which form the escapement with four
points of bent levers. These levers communicate by cranks to two
vertical shafts Avhich traverse the oil-cistern, and which, by means^ of
two fixedievers at their upper extremity, put the four feed-pumps in
motion.
\
This machinery has a small orifice plercedin a diaphram, placed in
the upper part of th.e bod}'' of the pumps, through which the oil passes
:to reach the burner, for a regulator. . Iri soriie lamps of this description
a small screw, terminated by. a point, is added to the body of the
pumps, which, in penetrating the regulator-orifice, aliov/s the" flow of
the oil to be regulated at wilL'
'
.
T H E WAGNER LAMP.

3. Is composed, of a.wheel and axle, canying the master wiieel, and
two horizontal beams or shafis, fitted with the ordinary clock-work
movement gearing; the second of which transmits the motion to two
vertical beams or shafts, by means of cranks. These last beams
traverse the oil-cistern, and put the four feed-pumps in play, b y t h e
intermediary of tvvP fixed levers at their upper extremity/
., The regulator is, as in the case of the first lamp, a simple fly.
Thisiamp has, besides, as in the case of the Lepaute lamp, an- ap^paratus designed;to. regulate at will the excess of flow of oil to the
burner. It consists of a small screw placed upon the body ofthe
pumps, which being tightened reduces the opening left for the passage
of the oil. .
' . .
BODY OF T H E P U M P S .

VIII. The body .of the pumps communicates with the reservoir of oii
by means of a suction pipe hiteA. at its lower extremity with: a small
filter. The pistons, to the riumber'of three or fomvare-formed oi valves
of calfskin, and the 5wcA;^6-are simple washers of the §ame leather.'

BURNERS.

. IX. The burner of the lamp is fitted \yith concentric wicks to the number
of two, three, or four, according as it belongs to the 3.d, 2d, or 1st order.
The lower.part of each of these wicks is fixed by a ring.upon a circular support, which is elevated or lowered by riieans of a small handscrew.
,
,
The oil reaches the wicks by ai tube which forms the stem of the
burner, arid which is adjusted on the body of the pumps by means of
ai.regulating screw fitted with a leather washer.
^ GLASS

CHIMNEY.

X. The glass chimney is supported by a cylindrical gallery, which
is elevated or lowered accordingly, as it is turned to the left or to tlie
right.



S: Doc. 22.

135

• UpPn' the summit of the chimney is placed a sheet-iron tube, in the
interior of which is fitted a, REGISTER or DAMPEII, which serves to reg^
ulate at will the opening ofthe tube. In some li^ght-houses, where the
chimneys are very short, thls>tubeis sustained by an iron collar fixed
to the apparatus'; in others, it is made to rest simply on the chimney,
•to-which it is loosely fitted. .
' XL The consumption of oil of a mechanical lamp, producing its full
effect, reaches per hour, as follows:
In a lamp of the 1st order, 750 grammes = l i b . 10 oz. 7.f dwts.
Iu a lamp ofthe 2d order, 500 gra,mmes = 1 lb. 1 oz, 10 J dwts.
In a lamp ofthe 3d order, 190 grammes = 0 lb. 6 oz. 11J^ dwts.
* .XII. To enable the flame to produce its full effect, and that^ at the
same time the crown of the burner be kept sufficiently cooled, it is necessary that the pumps elevate nearly four times as much oil per hpur
as the lamp consumes, viz: ^
,
For the 1st order, 3 kilogrammes = 6 lb. 9 oz. 15 dwts.
: ,
For the 2d order, 2 kilbgrammes = 4 lb. 6 oz. 10 dwts.
)For the 3d order; 760 kilogrammes v= 1 lb. 10 oz. 14 dwts.
The excess of oil is discharged by the burner, and it falls back into
the cistern.
. . ^
MOTIVE WEIGHT.

XIII. TAe mptive weight oi the lamps ought to be regulated in its
descent by a tackle, that is, suspended to the hook of the lower block
of a small tackle.'
. . '
Wlien the machinery has been well made, and is properly 'attended
to, the tackled weight necessary to cause it to. perform its proper function will not exceed—
,
-. l a lamps of the ist order, 75 pounds..
' ^ i
Iri lamps bf the 2d order, 65 pounds.
. In lanips of the 3d bfder, 45 pounds, •
:'

REVOLVING MACHINERY.

XIV. Jn^ revolving lights the movable part of thb illuminating apparatus is piit in motion by a rotary machine^ which has a simple fly,
pr pendulum fly, for its regulator.
PLACING LENTICULAR APPARATUS AND THEIR LAMPS^
ADJUSTMENT OF THE LENTICULAR AND CATADIOPTRIC

PANELS.

XV. The lenticular and catadioptric panels of the lights are solidly
fixed in their frames by means of screws and bolts, and cannot be displaced or put out'of adjustment ^except by extraordinary accidents,
which it would seem unnecessary to speak of here.
In regard to the mirrors placed in horizontal courses upon cIreulkr
bars, their mounting does not present the same stability as that of the
lenses; and It may happen that they may'become displaced"either by
a slight jar or by simple friction, when in cleaning tliem they are not
held in their places.



136

S. Doc. 22.

It will be perceived that one. of these mirrors has been disturbed
wheri, in looking from the focus of the apparatus, the horizpn is not
seen in the centre of the mirror. To restore it to, its original position,
it is sufficient to adjust the screws and eounter-screws ofthe three brass
feet which support,its frairie.
This operation, which requires to be executed by two persons, must
never be undertaken except under the direction of the engineer or the
inspector of the district.
•, '
^
•
.
TO PLACE THE SERVICE LAMP..

XVI. The sermce lamp of a lens fight is generally supported on a
tripod, having three vertical threaded steins^ and which are fitted.with
screws and counter-screws. These stems fit in the feet of the lamp,
and the adjustment presents sufficient ipla^j to allow the centiing ta be
made at pleasure.
For the lamp to be properly placed, it is requisite—^
L . T h a t the centre of the burner correspond exactly, witfi the-axis of
this centre or focus oi the lens apparatus. - ,
- ' ,
2. That the crown of the burner be placed immediately belo^ the
centre of the lenses, at a distance determined by the height of .a gauge
furnished for the purpose; (l).
. .
3. That the top of" the crown of the burner be perfectly level.
XVII. The several operations neces'sary tp satisfy these three conditions are generally executed in the folio wing, order:.
. '
1. The central position'of the apparatus is. determined bypassing
two threads a..cross each'other at right angles from the centres of the
four uprights of the frames of the^ lenses.
."
•
2. On the burner is a.djusted the gauge which has already been
mentioned, the centre of which is marked in^a manner not to be mistaken.
,
'
"
; .
.'
3. By means of the regulating screws of the tripod, the: lamp is
brought nearly to its proper height; on the crown of the burner is then
placed a small spirit level, and from its iridieations the lamp is regulated so that the top pf the burner shall be horizpntal.
4. To. centre t h e burner—that is-, to. make' 'the centre of the ga^ge
correspond with the intersection of the two threads-^—the nuts of the
upper screws are then loosened, and the lamp is moved.horizontally, as
mnch as it may. be found necessaiy to put it intp .its proper position.
5. Finally, Ihe small spirit level is'replaced on the crown ofthe
burner, and if it is found to be np longer horizpntal, it is restoied tc»
this position, otserving at the sarrie time not tp neglect the tVi^o first
conditions relative to the centring and to the height.
(1) NG-^f;E.—i-This vertical distance is generallj regnlated as followa :i
For lights of the 1st order, 1.1 inch.
:
For lights of the 2d order, 1.0 inch.
.
•
For lights of the 3d order, 0.94 inch.
;
When the height, of .'the. tower:?, is such a.s to .require the inclinatioa af their krises^ th©,
burner is eieyated proportionallj to this inclination;.
. \




S. Doc. 22:

13T

SPARE LAMPS.

XVIII. Two spare mechanical lamps should alwa}^^ be kept in reserve to supply, if necessary, the place of the service lamp.
MANAGEMENT OF MECHANICAL LAMPS.
XIX. When, it is required to prepare a mechanical lam,p fbr lighting, it is necessaiy to proceed in conformity to the following directions:
TO PLAGE. THE AVICKS.. ,

The burner is first supplied with wicks'; in doing which, for each of
them, proceed as .follows:
'-The wick-holder, being - detached from the burner, is placed upon
that part ofthe mandril deslgried to receive it, (ailicle 77;) the wick
is placed on this mandril, and it is lowered to the bottom of the wickholder, where it is firmly fixed by a ring; the lower edge being- cut
evenly, and regularly covered fiy the ring, so as not to impede the
passage of the oiL (1)
TO TRIM THE EDGES OF THE WICKS..

.. The wicks ,being placed, the}^ are lowered to their lowest,point;
then, with very sharp curved scissors,- their^ upper edges are cut even
with the burner.
If the. crown of the burner should, present any points or projecting
threads, these inequalities would cause the, flames to smoke, and the
burner would soon be covered with collections of carbonized wick,
palled mushrooms. It isj therefore, very essential that the wicks should
be regularly trimmed, (snuffed,) as well in this first operation as in all
successive trimmings.,
-'
TO FILL THE RESERVOIR AND WIND. UP THE WEIGHT.

. Having supplied the burner, pour into the reservoir <about one arid a
half time the . quantity of oil, necessary for the'consumption ofthe
night; then wind up the motive-w eight of the machinery, by the aid .of
its crank or. key. After a lapse of a few riioments., the oil which is
sucked and forced up by the puinps will saturate.tlie wicks, and the
remainder pass over the crown of the burner into the dripper.
VERIFICATION OF THE PRODUCT OF THE PUMPS.

XX. To ascertain if the oil is raised, in sufficient quantity, a vessel
of the capacity of 250 grammes is placed under the dripper, and the
time required to fill.it is noted. After what has been' said above, the
time'necessaiy to fill this vessel before lighting the lamp ought to,be:
Five minutes for a lamp, of the'fir St order.
(1) NOTE.—^If any of the wiclis are found to be of too great diameter, they are reduced to
the proper dimensions by removing carefully a sufficient number of the threads of the chain..



S.= Doc. 22.

138

Seven and a half minutes for a larrip of the second order.
Ninpteen and three-fourths minutes for a lamp of the third order.
TO LIGHT A BURNER WITH CONCENTRIC WICKS.

XXI. When the wicks are suffibieritly saturated with oil, the lighting
may be performed in observing the following precautions:
The central wick. No. 1, is raised about three-tenths of;an inch, and
with a lighting-lamp (**Zwccr7^6^") two opposite points ofthe wick aie
fighted, and then lowered to the lowest point at which it will burn.
Proceed in the same way .with the wicks two, three, and four, and.
hasten in each case to lower them so soon as they are fighted, so as not
to smoke the apparatus. That being done, place-the glass chimney on
the burner, and surmount it with its regulator of sheet-iron.
REGULATOR AND DAMPEII. ^

XXII. During the first moments of the lighting, the key of tlie
damper should be inclined at an angle' of 45°, and the curve of the
chimney raised to its greatest height, so as to prevent its being broken
by a too sudden heating; Then lower the chimney gradually to the
point which will permit the flame to reach the development prescribed
in article 25, which will.give it its greatest effect. . If too low, it wiU
prevent tfie flame frorii reaching the desired height; if too high, it will
produce a red and duU flame. ' ,
'
MANAGEMENT O F ' T H E LAMP DURING THE FIRST HOUR AFTER LIGHTING.

, XXlII. During the first hour of combustion, the height of the wicks
above the burner ought riot to exceed bne-fiftfi of ari inch; and care
should be taken that, the flames do not rise too rapidly, which.might
cause the fracture of the chimney and carbonize the wicks.
MANAGEMENT OF THE REGULATOR AND DAMPER.

XXIV. As the conibustion becornes more active, the damper should
be opened as much as necessary,, and the wicks elevated to three-tenths
of an inch, which it will be rarely necessary to. exceed. In opening the
damper, the flame will fall iand whiten; in closing itj the fiame will
rise, redden, and become smoky.
/
.
MEAN HEIGHT OF FLAME IN FULL E F F E C T .

XXV. At the expiration of an hour, the flames, thus managed, ought
to-be found at their full power, and to have attained the mean heights,
as follows:
'
For a lamp of the first order, four to four arid one-third inches.
For a.lamp of the'second order, three to three arid one-half inches:
For a lamp of the third order, two and three-quarters to three inches.
, The flames are to be maintained at the desired height by the proper
use of the key of the damper.;
.
j



S. Doc. 22.
THE ALARM-BELL.

139
;

, XXVI. To aid the vigilance ofthe keepers, an alarm-bell is attached
t o the service lamp of lens lights. -The escapement of this instrument
is retained by the end of a, lever, .supporting at its. other extremity a
cup pierced with a sniall hole. This cup is placed under the spout of
the dripper of the buVner, and,- as long as it is kept full of oil, i t sustains its counterpoise; but If the ascending oil should, fail, the cup. will
soon become empty, and the counterpoise, descending, raises the stop
of the hammer of the jalarum, which is then set in motion.
HYDRAULIC LAMP WITH MULTIPLE WlCKS.

;-

This lamp is composed of a reservoir, ori cistern, of the proper
^capacity to hold the requisite quantity of oil for use during one night;
a suppiying-cistern, which Is placed with its top horizontal to the bottom
of the reservoir; and a burner, whose crown is horizontal to the bottom
of the cistern. From the bottom of the reservoit^a tube is led into the
side ofthe supply-cistern; and in the end of this tube, in the cistern,
is a movable stop, to, which is attached, by a curved piece,of metal, a
hollow metallic ball, whicfi serves to regulate the flow of oil Into the
cistern, elosing or shutting the tube as the oil in the cistern iriereases
or diminishes, and consequently to the burner.
,' The oil is conducted from the supply-cistern through a tube from
the bottom of the cistern leading downwards, and then horizonta.lly to
the burner placed in the centre of the lens; thence up to and through
the several branch-tubes connected with the severaf concentric'wicks.
The surplus or overflqw of oil passes off',, as in the case of-the mechanibal lamp, into the overflow-cistevn. The precautions to be taken
in the management of this lamp' are lo draw off' the bil in the morriirig
from the overflow-cistern, and either put it into the reservoir or make
some other disposition of it; and, half an. hour before lightirig, lower the
regulating ball into the supply-cistern, to allow the oil to flo\v and
thoroughl}^ saturate the wicks before fighting them. The burrier is in
every respect similar to that ofthe mechanical lamp, and is managed
in.the same way, so far as the wicks are concerried.
This lamp can only be used for fixed lights, requiring only a part of
the horizon to be illuminated.
'
—
.
MANAGEMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC LAMP.

Stop the flow of oil by raising the regulating balance ball, and extinguish the light by turning down the wicks in succession, commencing
with the exterior one. Replenish the .upper reservoir with oil. In
addition tb the usual precautions tp be taken with multiple wick-burriers, in cleaning, supplying with wicks, &c ,ihe- union joints must be
carefully examined, to see that they are secure and in good order. The
intenial parts ofthe lamp and cisterns require to be thoroughly cleaned
about once in six months. To execute this duty In an effectual manner, .It will be necessary to unscrew all the uniori joints, and have the
entire interior cleaned with the flexible brushes provided fbr the puiv



140

S. Doc. 22.

pose. The oil in the overflow-chamber must be drawn off, and, in
lowering the regulating ball, care must be taken to place it so that it
will preserve its previous level.
,
^
,
THE PNEUMATIC LAMP.
^ This lamp is placed in the focus of the Illuminating apparatus, a s i n .
the case ofthe mechanical lamp. It is composed of a reservoir, which
is filled with oil, a chaniber for overflow of oil from the lamp, a suppiying-cistern filled with oil, and an-air chamber.
A tube fitted with a stop-cock passes from the bottom ofthe reservoir
through the overflow-chamber and supplj^-clstern into the air-chamber,
around which is placed a receiver for the oil with its top near the top
ofthe air-chamber, over which the oil passes into the,air-chamber.
A tube from the top of the air-chamber, on the opposite end from the
one the tube from the reservoir enters, passes up into the supply-chairiber. The main stem or tube leadings to the burner passes trom a cock
at the centre ofthe bottom ofthe suppty-cistern, up through the supply
cistern and reservoir, to the branches leading to the different wickholders of the burner.
The pressure of the oil from the reservoir into the air-chamber will
force the air into the "supply-cistern, and cause the oil to flow tothe
burner, so long as there is any oil in. the reservoir.
In the management of this lamp, before extinguishing the light, the
cock to the tube conducting the oil from the reservoir to the air chamber must be closed.
j
,,
^ Draw off the oil frpm the air-chamber; take off the reservoir; fill the
supply-cistern with oil through the. proper tube, having previously shut
the cock connectino- the reservoir and air-chamber. Havino^ filled the
supply-cistern, shut the cock,^and then fill the reservoir and.replace.it,
with its'valve over the tube, and cock, conriecting it with the air-chamber.
^
'
. =
Half an hour before the time for lighting, the cpck of the tube between the reservoir and air-chamber must be opened to allo^v the, oil to
flow to the wicks a sufficient time before lip-htins:.
MANAGEMENT OF THE PNEUMATIC

LAMP..

Having stopped the flow of oil,^extinguish the light in the usual m'anner, with multiple wicks; remove the upper reservoir; fill the supplycistern with a' funnel, through the tube "and cock, haying a,conimon
straight handle, the other, having been previously closed; wheri this
cistern is full, close the tube by turning the cock; fifi and replace the
upper reservoir. Keep the tube connecting the upper reservolr and airchamber closed'by its cpck during the da.y, to'prevent the oil froni"
overflowino^ the burner and beino^ wasted. No oil must be left in either
the. air or overflow chamber. The interior parts of the lamj) must be
thoroughly cleaned^as ofteri as once iri six" months^ by unscrewing the
union joints and removing all gummy oil, dirt, &c., b}^^means of flexible brushes and, the other ordinary means employed for cleaning the
tubes and burriers-of lamps.



S- Doc. 22-..

141

This lamp Is used in appairatus for fixed lights, illuminating the whole
arc of the horizon, and also in movable lens fights.
DOUBLE-AVICK CONSTANT LEVEL LAMPS.

The a.pplication of double wicks to the ordinary Argand lamps has.,
been successfully tested..
"
The only difference in the management will be to develop the flame
more slowly, during, the first hour of combustion, than in the singlewick lamps.
,
.
'
'

ATTENDANCE UPON THE LIGHTS.
.EVENING AND NIGHT SERVICE.

XXVIL The.night service of lens lights is performed by two or three
keepers, divided into successive watches of lour hours' duration.
,

EVENING SERVICE.

,

XXVIII. Every evening, half an hour before sunset, the keepers, provided with a lighting lamp, will ascend, to the lantern of the tower;
(article 76.).' If the daily routine has been, regularly and faithfull}^ performed, the following will be the condition of things:
l.^The lamp of the apparatus, ready for fighting, willbe capped with
its cover.
,
•
: '
,
'
,,
2. The motive-weight, raised if its greatest height, will be held by
• an iron pin on a level with the table ot the-frame.
i ^
3. The glass chimney, deposited in a small box, will be placed on
this stand,.as well as its damper, it it is not attached to the apparatus,
and-also the service bcisket containing tho ordiriary implements of the
service.
.
^
4. Four glass chimn6)^8, an(d a spare burner fitted with dry wicks,
will be held in reserve in orie ofthe cases .of the table ofthe frame, or
in the small closet ofthe light-room.
5. Ill one ofthe closets ofthe fight-room will be found the two spare,
lamps, capped with their covers and fitted with their cords. The one;
ofthe two-lamps which, m case of necessity, is to be placed in the apparatus, will,in addition, be fitted with a spare bloclcof the motiveweight.
: . '
'
' ,
' '
, ,
6/ A vessel filled with Hrtered oil w.Ill be found iri, the light-room.
. 7 . If there is a revolylng machine, the motiye-weight will be raised
to its greatest height, and the masteiTwheel will: be .held.by its bolt,
and the side-wheels will be ungeared.
\
'
.
: 8. To prevent the failure pt a light In the light-house, ja taper wiU
: be kept lighted in the light-room, and near by, a lantern will be placed
ready to be fighted in case it should become necessaiy to trim or change^
the service lamp.
9. The blinds of the lantern will be lowered, and the pieces of the
optical parts of the- apparatus will be covered with the curtains pro-*
vided to protect them from the action of* the sun.



S. Doc. 22.

142
^

TO LIGHT THE LAMP. ^

XXIX. Commence lighting up at sunset, so that the light may have
its full effect by the time twilight ceases.
XXX. Iri executing that duty, and in managing the lamp, the previous instructions will be followed!
TO PUT THE REVOLVING MACHINERY IN MOTION.

XXXI. I f i t i s a movable light, put the revolvirig machinery iri motiori
immediately after lighting up. To do this it is sufficient to lower the
pivot of the connecting-wheel, so that the side-wheels gear properly,
and then remove the bolt ofthe master-wheel.
TO TRIM T H E WICKS OF T H E LAMP.

XXXII. If, after a long coriibustion, the wicks are found to be too'
much carbonized to allow their flames to be kept at a proper height,,by
closing the damper bne-half, and also in raising the wicks about onetenth of an inch higher, they then can be trirrimed.
This operation .should be,executed in observing the following pre-:
cautions:
'^ ^ ,
"
'
,
i . Suspend in the middle of the a.pparatus the lantern kept in the
light-room fbr thi_s purpbse, and place the lighting lamp on the service
stand, with two spare, clean and dry, glass chimneys.
- ,
' 2. Extingiiish the service lamp by lowering the wicks; takedown
the damper, if it is not fixed to the apparatus, and then remove the
chimne}^ by applying a piece of very dry cloth around' it, which will
allow it to be hcindled without inconvenience trom its heat; WTap it
up in that cloth,; and/place it in its box, where it will cool gradually,
arid thus prevent its breaking.
3. Stoj;) the mabhinery by winding up the motive-weight and placing
it on a level with the frame, resting: it on its support; then trim the
wicks as rapidly as possible; after which, remove the support of the
weight and relight the wicks, raising therii at once to "the height of
about a quarter of an^ inch. Having completed this oj^eration, replace
the chimney, which is still warm, and in a few minutes the flames will
reach their original; fieight. Should the sprvice chimney break,' it
must be replaced by one of the two spare; chimneys. In this case it
will be necessaiy to keep the flames down i b r soriie moments, so as not
to heat the new chimney too rapidly.
' .
XXXIII. It may.be necessary to tiirii the wicks again, if carbonized:
particles (called mushroGiri:s) form on thern, and produce a red and
smoky
flame.
•
'
, ,
These collections of carbonized particles are prdinarlly occasioned
by thb points or threa.,ds left on thc edges of the wick, or by the dust
o r dirt which' may adhere to them,'and which obstruct some part of
the openings intended to preserve a proper circulation ofthe air, or by
the bad quality of the oil used;




S. Doc. 22.

143

TO CHANGE THE SERVICE LAMP.

XXXIV. When in the cburse of the night any accident happens to
the lamp, and requires that it should be replaced by a spare one, the
following directions must be observed:
Bring the spare lamp (which, fitted with its cord and pulley and its
cistern filled with oil, had been previously .prepared as directed in article
28, section 6) and place it on the service table. Hang in the centreofthe apparatus the lantern designed and kept for that purpose in the.
fight-room. Deposite ori the. starid, or on the service gallery, two glasschimneys, the service basket, the lighting Tamp, and the spare burneriitted with its wicks, if the service burner sis to be replaced. After
having gradually loAvered.the wicks of the lamp of the appar^atus for
extinguishing them, remove the chimney, observing the precautions in-'
dicated above.; wind up the weight to its greatest height, and suspend
it at the level pf the table of the tYame by an iron bolt; unhook^ thebloek, and then remove the' lamp of the apparatus, and replace it b y
the spare one. "
.^'
'
,
. • >
That being done, adjust uppn Itthe old burner, if It will answer, or
the new one, if it be necessary, after having plunged-it into the oil t b :
saturate the new wicks, and proceed, as.rapidly as possible to verify
the position of the crown pf the burner.
If, the crown of the burner is found not to be level, it must be made
approximately so by the use of the screws..
'.
Then pour the oil from the oil-vessel into the cistern of the newiarnp."
The spare lamp havirig been thus placed with the greatest rapidity, it
mu>t be put in motion and lighted with the greatest celerity compatible
with the precautions necessar)^ to prevent the chimney from .being
broke.n.
•
, '
'
'^ - ' . !
, ,.
•.., •.
When the light is extingu.Ished next morning, proceed at once tp
rectlf}^ the placing of the lamp with care.
/'
XXXV. When there is more than one keeper, the one on watch must
call assistance before commencing the exchange of a i a m p .
NECESSARY PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED IN WINDING
MACHINERY WHILE THE LAMP IS BURNING.

.

XXXVI. Whenever it becomes necessaiy diiririg' the night" to Avind
up the motive-weight of the lamp in use, after every third turn of the
crank, press it back for a moment in the opposite direction, to allow the,
pumps to tbrce the oil up, and prevent the flames from increasing- top\
greatly, and smoking the phimney. -,
- / ''
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN IN CASES WHEN THE BURNER OF THE LAMP.
^
^
IS NOT SUFFICIENTLY SUPPMED WITH OIL.

;. XXXVII. In case.the keeper on watcli.has neglected the lamp of the'
apparatus, and is warned by the alarm-bell that the ascension ofthe oil^
has diminished or ceased, he ought to enter immediately into the'"apparatus, and hasten the action of the pumps b}^ a gentle effort applied to
the crank in the direction of the pressure of the riiotive-weight. "



144

S. Doc. 22.

He must then examirie whether it be necessary to change the burner
or even the lamp in use. ^
,
HEATER.,

' )

XXXYIII. When the cold is sufficiently intense to render the oil too
thick for burning, the following precautions should be observed iii performing the evening duties:
1. An hour before sunsetj the oil to be used in theia:mp must be
heated until it reaches a temperature too great for the hand to remain
in i t ; after which pour it into the cistern.
2. Uriscrew the burner,, pour hot oil thrpugh a funriel into the orifice
of the bodies of the pumps; then, after having held the burner in hot
oil for some minutes, it should be replaced and lighted.
- 3. Theri iprepare and.hght the lamp oi the double tube heater, arid, after
having screwed on the washer of this little apparatus sb as to make it
tight, plunge i t irito the reservoir ofthe service lamp. I t will be necesr
sary to observe that the wick of the heater lamp does not rise higher
than a quarter, of'an inch above the burner; otherwise it will be extinguished, by the dense smoke which will be produced.
'
*
MORNING DUTIES.

XXXIX. The principal duties, to bo performed in the morning must
be executedin the fbliowing manner:
" '
EXTINGUISH THE LAMP.

1. At sunrise, extinguish the lariip ofthe apparatus by commencing
with the exterior wick, and proceed gradually, to prevent exposing the
chiriiney by a too rapid ehange of temperature.
RAISING THE

MOTIVE-WEIGHT.

' 2. Wind up the motive-weight of the lariip level with the service
table, and fix it as before directed.
R A I S I N G T H E W E I G H T OF T H E REVOLVING M A C H I N E R Y .

^3. If i t is a movable ..light, raise the weight of the. machinery, :arid
Stop the master-wheelby means of its bolt. Throw the wheels out of
gear to prevent accidents from shocks.
\
4. Lower the blinds and a.rrange the curtains of the lantern, which
dotible precaution^ is necessary to prevent the sun's rays from melting
ihe burner of the lamp and injuring the lowqr nrirrors of the apparatus.'
5. Remove the dairiper arid also the glass chimney, and place them
temporarily on the table bf service.
, '
.
6. Trim the wicks of the lamp exactly even with the liurner, as^ before directed at article 19.
.
.7. Clean theinterior of the burner with a small bottle or phial brush,
arid all of the extprior of the lamp with a cloth.'



S-. Doc. 22. >

145-

TD "CLEAN THE RESERVOIR AND RENEW THE OIL.

8. Allow the oil to drip'from the reservoir into, a vessel, which must
fee set on one side,*.
.
•
9. The reservoir should be rinsed put w^ith newly-filtered oil, (which
should afterwards be again filtered,) and, with a new piece of linen
-attached to a small stick, remove all the dirt which ma.y have remained
after the rinsing.
^
' ,
10. If the filter of the suction tube be obstructed, it should be re•moved and cleaned, and then replaced.
'^
11. The reservoir should then be filtered with oil filtered the preced-.
ing evening,
,
, ,
CLEANING THE GLASS

CHIMNEY.

12. The glass chimney m use should be cleaned with great care,, in
the manner" indicated in article 50, and then deppslted,-as well as the
damper, in one. of the cases, or in the closet ofthe light-room.
RENEWING TriEE WICKS.

XL. Whenever a part, or all,, of the-wicks ofthe burner ofthe lamp
in use are renewed, it will be necessaiy immediately to work the
pumps for one hour, so.as to soak them well with oIL
COVERING OF THE SERVICE

LAMP.

XLT. After having completed the morning duties, so far as the lamp
-is cbricemed, it should have its cover placed over it, so as to protect the
burner,' the. body' of the pumps, and the reservoir from dust until the
time for lighting.
.
/
• ' • ' ' ' . f
SUPERINTENDING MECHANICAL LAIMPS,
PERIODICAL ^CHANGES OF THE SERVICE

LAMP.

XLII. After fifteen da^^-s of continued service, the lamp of the apparatus should be,changed tor one of the two spare ones ;,and this rotation must take place regularly betw^een t h e three lamps, so that all
three may be kept in condition fpr service.
•
XLIll. The change, should be made in the morning < and itniust not
;
be neglected' tb set the new lampjii motion fbr several hours, to see
that it performs wefi. " Care should be taken to have it previously filled
with oil. ,
'
;
TO CLEAN THE

MECHANICAL

LAMP AFTERS F I F T E E N DAYS'

SERVICE.

XLIV. -The lamp haying been taken from the cipparatus, it should be .
examined and cleaned with care. Observe to disconnect the body of •
* NOTE.—Having allowed this oil to settle for a few hours, it should be poured into a filter witki
some fresh oil. This filtering is indispensable, even for new oil, to remove from it the smalL
particles of cotton which it nearly always contains.
• ^

,10



S. Doc. 22.

146

the pumps, so as to remove from them all remalnlrig oil, which, hecotn^
ing "old, interferes with the play o f t h e Valves. .^The suction tube
should be unscrewed and its. filter cleaned. The lamp, being re.ad^
justed and covered, should be deposited in one of the closets of th^'
fight-room.
T o USE AND PRESERVE THE . MULTIPLE-WICK. BURNERS;

XLV. Ofthe six burners, belonging to the three mechanical lamp^
of a lens light, one must remain mounted and fitted to the lamp qf the
apparatus; another, fitted.with dry wicks, must be kept as a spare ope
in one of the closets of the light-rpom.
The four others, entirely without wicks, well cleaned, perfectly dry,
and having their, racks slightly greased with lard, should be kept
wrapped ..up in a closet free from dampriess, and they shpuld npt be
used except when one ofthe two first must be repaired. .
The burners kept in reserve are tp be examined from time to time,
and cleaned when necessary. It should be particularly nPticed If their
racks play freely, and, having wipedthem, they should be again greased.
THE ORDINARY MANAGEMENT OF MECHANICAL LAMPS.

XLVL To keep in.good conditibn the moblfity of the machinery of,
the lamps, care should be taken that from time to time a little clock' maker's.oil be applied to the pivots of the several movable pieces, as
also to the escapement pivots of the Lepaute lamp. This oil should
be •.applied more frequently tp the pivpts of the fly, to those ofthe mas
ter-wheel, and to the endless screw of lamps with clockwork move-ripLcnt, than to any ofthe other pieces. Care must betaken, however,/
riot-to apply thlsNoIl but iri very small quantities, arid, after having carefully removed, with a new piece of linen attached to. a stick, alf of the
old oil adhering to the several parts of the machinery.
DISMOUNTING AND COMPLETE CLEANING OF THE MECHANICAL LAMPS.

XLVII. Each niechanical lamp ought to be^dismounted and, completely cleaned_^ as often. as it riisiy be, necessaiy tb dp: so,, an.d at least
ohre every year.
XLVIII, To clean the brass piece's, of the machinery,- they ^should
be entirely cbvered with tripoli mixed with, spirits of wine, and then
rubbed with a silver-plater's brush until they are handsprriely polished.
The pieces in steel must be cleaned With tripoli mixed^with a fittle
.clockmaker's oil.
•
Befbre replacing the mechanism,, the holes of the pivots of the
wheels, as also the screws and the threads ofthe screws, should be
cleaned with a sma:llstick of softwood:; and care must be takeri; that
ever3^ particle of tripofi employed in the cleaning be remoyed.




S. Doc. 22.

I4T

DERANGEMENT OF THE MECHANISM OF THE MECHANICAL, LAMPS, AND
,
THE MEANS FOR REMEDYING IT.

XLlX. When a mechanical lamp, after having performed for some
time, ceases to act well,, the keeper must search for the cause bf this^
disturbance, so,that he may remedy it, as far as possible.
To facilitate this search, the principal causes which may serve to pre-,
vent the regular performance or injure the effect of the different kinds ot
lamps may be enumerated, as follows:
'
IRREGULAR FLOW'OF TIIE OIL.

1. When the oil flows irregularly, the flames fall and rise alternately,
withbut the power of beriig maintained at a constant height.
I n the clockwork-movement lamps this iriconvenience may arise from the
fact that the .wheels which put the piston's of the pumps in motion* do
not gear in such a position that the direction of these pistons presents a
regular succession of moyements. .
/
This can be remedied by restoring the gearing to the positloris indicated
by the marks. .
' r
'
In the Z/Cjpwfe 7a77ip5. the irregular flow of the oil may arise from a
transposition of the crariks which transmit^ the motion to the verticab;
beams by a sim:ple loosening-of the screws which sustain the escapement levers, or from some a:lteration in the form of the; escapement pieces:
in consequence of wearing;
^ . >
In the firstcase it will be necessary to restore the cranks tothe placesindicated by the marks;. in the second case,, tighten the loosened screws;
andin the third case, the lamp shonld be sent to the clockmaker to be
repaired.
As im the Wagner lamps, they do not appear to be liable to that inconvenience, except in consequence of the wearing of the pieces after longcontinned use.
;
THE ;PLAY QF A VALVE ARRESTED.

2. It imay happeri that one of the Valves^ may cease to perform, owingto the derangement of the steel wire, or of the metallic cloth (if it hap- ppnto a Wagner lamp)-which it sustains^ and which it will be suflScient
to restore to i t s places ^
3.- Wheriever a mechanical lariip remains long without being used, and
it has b.een neglected to clean i t tbthebottom ofthe body of the pumpsy,
its" valves, lose their pliability by the viscosity which the coat of oil adhering to thek^ surface takes on becoming old. Mt is necessaiy to cleanr
valves found iri this condition, by washing themi in tepi^ oil, pr replace:""
them: by new:ones ma;de by the instrumerit designed for that purpose.
4. Whenever one of these yalves becomes cracked, the flpw of oil. willbe no longer regular, nor in sufficient quantity. It is discerned imme
diately by the loss of bil which ensues, and it is remedied by replacing
* NOTE;—This observation is not applicable to lamps of the new model, in whichthe
pumps are put in play by two cranks.
^



148.

»

S. Doc. 22.

the valve by a new leather, the proper form of wiiich is given by means
of the cast-iron mould.
^
The renewing the valves of the mechanical lamps is an operation in
which the keepers of lens lights ought to be exercised. It is necessary,
in proceeding in it,to observe not to stretch too tightly the calfskin over
the body of the pumps, for it will result at times in stopping the movement of the pistons, arid consequently in the irregular flow of the oil.
There will be the same irregularity of the movements if the valves are'
too. much developed.
•
^
. ,
If a valve becomes ruptured in the course ofthe night service, and the
flame cannot be sustained at two-thirds of the prescribed height, it will
become necessary to change the lamp.
SUCTION T U B E O B S T R U C T E D .

5. If It be neglected tOTcnew the service lamp every fifteen days, or
to filter the oil before putting it into the cistern, or finally to clean the
metallic cloth of the suction tube at least once a week, it may happen that
the small holes of that cloth may be found to b.e obstructed to the extent
of intercepting, or at least of interfering greatly with, the fiow ofthe oil.
To prevent, in-such a case, the riebessity.for replacing the lamp during
the service of the night, the difficulty may be attempted to be obviated
by increasing the motive weight, or by opening the wings of the fly in
lamps provided with that description of regulator.6. Whenever the burner of a mechanical lamp is not supplied with a,
sufficient quantity of oil, the wicks become carbonized, the name reddens
and rises in smoking; a.nd, if the flow ofthe oil ceases entirely, the'crown
ofthe burner, being no longer protected by the oil, melts, or at least becomes unsoldered.
if, on the'contrary, the oil flows in excess, it opposes itself to the development of the
flames.
'
'•'"'/.•''..'
The first perturbatioii may take place either from the obstructiPn of
the filter of the suction tube (which may have been neglected in cleaning) or from the obstruptiPn ofthe orifice ofthe diaphragm ofthe body of.
the pumps. In the one or the other case, it will be necessary to hasten
to increase the flow of the oil to the burner by turning off the screw of
the body of the pumps, the point of which partially closes the orifice of
the diaphragm, if it happen to a lamp provided with that mechanism,
and, if it happen to another lamp,^by pressing slightly on the crank pf the
windlass.'of the motive power" in^ the- directibn- of the action o f t h e
motive weight.
* , ' ' /
As to an excess of oil, that may be remedied in the Lepaute lamp by
turning the regulating screw (wheri there is one) in a manner to reduce
the orifice; in the clockwork-movement lamps, and in the systeni of
Wagiier,.in opening t h e wingsof the fi}^;' a n d i n all, in diminishing at
will the motive weight.' ,
TO C L E A N T H E GLASS C H I M N E Y S .

. L . The glass chimneys, soiled by .smoke'or by drops of • cooked oil,
must be cleaned by rubbing them, until all the stains disappear, with a '



.S. Doc. 22.

149.;

i^g or a small piece of soft wood dipped in oil, after which wipe them off
and clea
m> with Spanish whiting. • A chimney wifi in this-way be
restored
perfect cleanness and transparency.
,
o SUPERINTENDENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF REVOLYING"MACHINERY, AND
'
.
i t s ACCESSORIES.

. \ LI. Every effort should be made to prevent,, as far as possible, the
introduction of dust into the interior pf the cage of the moveable machinery of a revolving light, and the wheel-works and pivots of the ma,-:
chiiiery should be cleaned,'as ofteri as necessary, with a small feather
brush^and soft clean linen. To perform this cleaning, the case, or cage,
surrounding the machinery must be removed.
; ^
LIL .A small quantity pf clockmaker's oil should be applied, from
time, to time, to the pivpts of the fly, to the joints ofthe moveable wings,
(if it is acted on by dijlijing pendulumi) and also to the pivots of the cylinder upon w^hich the cord of the motive weight is wound. The pivots
ofthe other pieces should be oiled also, but less frequently. .Before
apptying the riew pil, it will be necessary always to see that the thick
oil has been carefully removed from the parts. '
LIII; To prevent the oxydation ofthe polished irpnand steel pieces,
they must be rubbed, as often as rnay'be found to be necessary, with a
piece of cloth covered over with lard br some other description of. unsalted grease. It must also be observed not to spread that grease upon
any ofthe pieces of copper, bronze, or brass.
'

DISMOUNTING AND CLEANING THE REVOLVING MACHINERY.

LIV. Once a year, (in the month of July,) the^ revolving machinery
ought tb be taken down and thoroughly cleaned by the keeper.
To perform this duty of cleaning the machinery, it will be necessary
to proceed in the manner indicated fbr the mechanical lamps.
VERIFICATION OF THE MOVEMENT.

LV. After having restored all the pieces of the , revolving machine
to their proper places, itanust be put in operatiori, to see if it performs
properly by means of the ordinary weights, and that each revplution bf
the apparatus is made in the prescribed interval.of time.
In case the revolution should be either-too slow or too fast, it may
be properly modified, by closing or straightening out the wings of
thefly. \
:
.
'
]
; '
If the regulator Is a flying pendulum, the movement may be increased
at pleasure by raising the moveable balls, or diminished by lowering
them upon their stems.
'
. The greater or less opening of these balls will indicate the resistance
which the moveable frame,will oppose to the action bf the-machine. >
'. PRESERVATION OF THE SPARE FLY.

LVI. The spare fly must be ericlosed Iri a box, placed where dampness cannot reach it. It must be examined from trine to time, taking



S Doc. 22.

150

.care, to grease the polished steel pieces., and bbserving at each time to
;Wipe them off befbre doing so.
• .
TO CLEAN THE CIRCIJLAR CARRIAGE OF THE MOVABLE MACHINERY.

LVII. The large and small rofiers of the carriage, the rollers of the
revolving part, as well as the road on which they run, must be wiped
off' daily; the pivots of the rollers must be cleaned and oiled as often
as may be found necessary.
TO DISMOUNT THE CIRCULAR CARRIAGE.

LVIIL Whenever it becornes necessary to dismount the circular carriage ofthe movable frame, for the purpose of cleaning it, commence
by raising the frame a little by mearis of three small screw-cranes -(verins) specially provided for that purpose, and w;hlch must be replaced
in succession byiegularly squared ledges of wood. That beirig done,
raise the exterio:r rollers, withdraw the forelocks of the iron circle ofthe
carriage, and then take the two pieces apart immediately, observing to take care to sag the pivots.
This dut}'', as well as the remounting.of the carriage, wlll.requrie the
united services of two persons.
^
LIX. The three screw-cranes designed to raise the mpvable frame at
pleasure ought to be kept constantly in good condition and ready for
use, as well as the other tools and implements. All the tools and implements, in steel or iron, which are only required occasloiially, ought
to be kept constantly greased with lard, and enclosed in a case free from
dampriess..
^
.
OIL-FILTER.

LX. Independently of the ordinary, cleaning, the oil-filter must be
an object of especial care. Once a month the piece of cloth fitted to it
must be washed with soap, and the sand must be cleansed with boiling
water. They must not be replaced until all dampness has been removed—to do which, the sand must be heated in a pari or otheryessel..
iSea sand must never be used for this purpose^ even after having been
washed in fresh water. .
ATTENDANCE UPON THE LENSES, THE CATADIOPTRIC RINGS, AND THE
,
^
MIRRORS. . .
DAILY CLEANING, ETC.

LXI. It is necessary to dust the- lenses daily, arid alsb the catadioptric rings, or the mirrors, of the apparatus, and then wipe them off
with a piece of soft clean linen. '
. .
It is proper to say that, if these pieces were wiped before beiBg
dusted, their surfaces would be exposed to the danger of being injured*




S. Doc. 22.

151

T b REMOVE OIL SPOTS FROM THEM.

LXII. If oil shpuld get on any part of the surifaces of the lenses,
the catadioptric rings, or mirrors, it ought to be cleaned off* immediately
with a piece of lirien Wetted with spirits of wine.
LXIII. Once in every two months the entire surfaces of the glass of
-the lenses and the mirrors must be washed with spirits of wine, after
. 'which each piebe must be carefully wiped iri the mariner directed.^LXIV. These same pieces ought to be pofished with rPuge once k
year.'

.

' • ^

..:••,

That operation shbuld be execrited as follows : Break up a small
quantity of rouge (say 12 or 14 ounces) in water, and form a: clear
- mixture with it. This mixture must then be put into about a pint
of water, and, after having stirred it up well .with a stick, let it rest for
a few moments. Then pour offthe liquid mixture, into aribther vessel
carefully, to separate the' sriiall gritty particles which it raaj contain,
and which, by this means, wilfremairi at the bottom of the first vesseL
T h a t being done, leave it to settle about half an hour. When pour off
the water, until the rouge appears on the edge, of the vessel.
This fiquid rouge must be spread lightly, by means of a pencil oir^
piece of soft finen, over the entire" surface ofthe glass to be cleaned.
When this coat of rouge becomes dry, rub it with a piece of buffskin
until all of itis entirely removed.
The rouge, thus prepared, should be entirely consumed, as it will be
unfit for future use for cleaning •'6
TO PRESERVE THE POLISHING ROUGE. .

LX v.. The polishing rouge ought to be carefully wrapped up and
enclosed where dust cannot reach it. If it is not soft to the touch,
rind free from gritty particles, it ought not to be employed, inasmuch
as, instead of preserving the pofish ofthe glass, it: will greatly injure it.
LXVI. The nietallic reflectors employed as . additional pieces i n
some of the lens lights should be rubbed, daily, first with a soft lineiij
and then with a buffskin solely designed for that purpose.
LXVII. Once in two months these metallic reflectors ought to be
clearied with Spanish whiting.
, /
.
This wtoing should be prepared in the same way the polishing rouge
is, and the same precaution should be observed in its use^ That is
so much the more es^sential, inasmuch as the polish of the silver plate
is more susceptible to injury than glass.
ATTENDANCE UPON THE GLASS, AND THE GLAZING OF THE LANTERN.
DAILY CLEANING OF T H E (B^LASS OF T H E L A N T E R N .

LXVIII. The glass of the lantern must be ke:pt always in a „state of
perfect cleariliness.
.;
To insure this, it will be necessary to wipe it bff daily inside with a
clean rag, free from oil) and. also in the. same manner outside, if re- ^
quired.
.
^



S. Doc. 22.

152

Any discolorations which remain upon the panes of plate glass after
this cleaning must be removed by using a little water, and spirits of
wine if necessary.
^
,
ATT.:ENDANCE

UPON

AND

KEEPING

UP

THE^ POLISH

O F THE

PLATE

GLASS OF THE LANTERN.

LXIX. Independently of these daily cleanings, the-plate glass ofthe
lantern must, be cleaned every year with the polishing rouge, both inside and out, .always observing, the same precautions as have been prescribed fpr cleaning the optical parts of the.apparatus. '
, , •

GLAZING.

LXX. The glazing of the frames of the glass, and of all the joints
of the lantern thro ugh. which the rain may penetrate, ought to receive
the'greatest''possible attention and care.
The putty should be made of two parts of Spanish y^hiting and one
part oi white lead—the whole pulverized and reduced to a stiff* paste,
wefi mixed with equal parts of linseed and boiled oil.
,

RENEWING THE GLASS.

- LXXI. As keepers of fights are required, when the glass ofthe Ian-*
tern i s broken, to repla:ce it themselves without delay, it Will not be
amiss to enter into some details on the subject. "
•
To detach the piece after having used the diamond, strike lightly the
opposite side ofthe plate with the end ofthe handle ofthe instrument.
This will deyelop the slit, and a sfight effort wifi suffice, ordinarily,
to detach the piece to be removed.
If the section presents any irregularities, they must, be removed by
means of a glazier's pincers.
The glass, thus cut according to the requisite dimensions, ought to
be ground obliquely on its two sides, and square upon its horizontal
joints.
'
"
'
:
This work is executed by rubbing the .edge of the glass upon, a castiron plate covered with sharp sand, which is kept constantly wetted
during the operat:ion.''
,
PLACING T H E PLATES OF GLASS.

I t i s highly important to leave a.bout one^twelfth of an inch play all
around the glass in putting it into its frame. If.it toucfi against the
frames, it will be greatly exposed to the risk of being broken, during high
winds., by the effect of the osciUation of the lantern; and, besides, if
less than one-twelfth of an inch space be left between the glass, the
putty wilhfiU. such thin joints only imperfectly. Thin strips of lead are
"employed to rest the glass upon in this glazing.
'
Whenever it becomes necessary to repair the glazing of a frame in
which the frames are divided into several plates of -glass resting upon
each other, tb renew a lower or intermediate .platCj it will be necessaiy
to remove every'piece above it beloriging to that frame.



•S. D o c - 2 2 .

153

. To fit the joint of two pieces of glass, cover the lower edge with
putty one-tenth to two-tenths of an inch in thickness, and then place
on It two smafi wedges pf lead, upon .which let the edge of the upper
plate of glass rest, the weight of which will press out the 'excess of
putty beyond the thickness of the two leaden wedges. This excess of
putty must be removed Immediately by the glazing knife; taking care
to preserve the edges smooth and intact through the whole extent of
the line.
:
The glazing of the contour or exterior of the frame should cover the
edges of the slats and headings. . •
la replacing the outside slats,- it must not "be forgotten to put ri small
quantity of putty over the heaid of each screw, which serves to retain
i t in its place.
.
.
.
TOOLS, IMPLEMENTS; AND THE VARIOUS ARTICLES ,RELATING TO THE
ILLUMINATING SERVICE. '
,
.
,

^

TIN WARE.

LXXII. A suction-purap is used for transferring the oil from one
vessel to another.
OIL-FILTER.

LXXIII. The oil to be used in light-house lamps ought always to be .;
filtered previously by the keeper..
The filter is composed of two parts. The upper part is' the filter,
properly so called; the second is a reservoir, designed to receive the
filtered oil, and fitted with a cock.
. _
The filter consists of a plate of tin pierced witfi fioles, upon which
is placed a piece of cloth and a layer of fine sand one-tenth of an inch
in thickness.
. . . / : .
It is necessary to-place this apparatus upon a stand, or small wooden
table, qf a proper height, to allow the oil vessel to pass under the cock.
LXXIV. Copper vessels should be used exclusively for transporting
the oil from; one part of the tower to another.
LIGHTING-LANTERN.

LXXV. The lighting-lantern contains, besides a fixed lamp, two
smafi hand-lamps, called ^'liicernes,^^ which serve for the purpose of
lighting the lamps of the light-hbuse. In the centre ofthe lucerne is a
screw-button, made of copper, which is removed to introduce the oil
and wick. Near the ring'which serves as a handle is an air tube, upon
which the thumb is placed to prevent the oil from running out when it
is inclined to light: the wicks of the lamp.
•

HEATER.

LXXVI. The heater of .the mechanical lariip consists of a small
lamp, enclosed in an oblong box, with two tubes. Upon one of the



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154

isides of that box is made, for the passage of the lamp, an opening,
which closes hermetically by means of a screw-washer.
SEitVlCE BASKET FiTTED.

« LXXVII. The service basket is in the shape of a. handle-box, with
a cover, in two parts.
.
It is divided into three cbmpartments. One oi them receives a flat
box, in which the greasy rags and wick trimmirigs are placed for the
moment; upon that box are placed the clean rags for wiping the glass
chimneys.
The second ought to cbntaln the followirig objects:
1. A triangular scraper to remove the cooked oil remaining on the
edges of the burner.
2. A horse-hair bottle^brush to clean the air tubes of the burner of the
service lamp.,
3. A pair of curved scissors to snuff the wicks of the lamp.
Finally, the third compartmeiit is designed to receive—
1. A pair of straight scissoi's to cut the length of the new wicks to
supply the burner.
2. A calibre which determines that length.
3. The mandrills designed to place the wicks. They are of a conical
form, except a small part at their base, which is C3iindrical, and a little
receding to receive the wick-holder. '
'
DRIPPING-PAN.

LXXVIII. The dripper is a square vessel, flat, arid having a double
bottom. The upper bottom is moveable, and pierced With holes; the
other carries a small tube for pouring off the liquid.
It serves also as a dripper fbr the burner, when it is necessary to re^
move the service lamp, the lamp-feeders, oH^measures, &c., &c.
MEASURE OF TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY GRAMMES.

LXXIX. The measure bf 250 o-rawme^ serves to deteiinirie the quantity of oil which is thrown out by the burner, fiilowirig the indications
given in article 20, arid finally to regulate the flow conformably to the
prescription of article 12.
LAMP-FEEDERS.

LXXX. These lamp-feeders contain a.small quantity of oil, and
serve the purpose of filling the small lamps and handdanterns.
RpUGE BOX.

LXXXI. The polishing rouge ought to be carefully preserved out
of the way of dust. It is, for that purpose, enclosed in a double box.
Above the smallest box the buffskins designed to rub the pieces with
rouge a:re placed.
..
o
/



S. Doc. 22.

. .155

ORDINARY'HANDEL AMP.

LXXXII. The keeper of the watch ought always to be assured
that the hand-lantern is'placed in the light-room, ready to be lighted.
This lamp must be suspended in the interior of the apparatus, if t h e
service lamp is extinguished, either for the purpose of changing it or
trimming the wicks.
LXXXIII. The keepers are provided with lamps for their special
use.
.

-.

_

INSTRUMENTS >AND I M P L E M | : N T S . .

• °

OIL GAUGES.

LXXXIV. Two gauges, divided Into hundredths and thousaindths oi
a metre, upon a scale of Om. 30c. in length, serve to measure the height
of the oil contained in the reservoir ofthe lamp In use, and consequently
to determine the weight of that oil by means of the gauging table ofthe
lamp..
^
SCREW CRANES, (VERINS.)

L X X X y . The "verins," to the number bf three,^ made ofiron or
bronze, are specially designed to raise at pleasure the moveable frame
of revolving lights. Each "verin" is formed by a stem or bolt, the extremities bf which, threaded in opposite directions, screw into two small
mpveable plates. The stem is increased in size at its centre, and
pierced with holes, in which a pin is passed to wbrk them..
SPIRIT LEVEL.

LXXXVI. All fight-houses are furnished with a small spirit level,
which is designed to verify the level of the crown' of the bbrner of the
lamp in use. Another level, larger, is furnished to revolving fights, to
verify^ the horizontality of the surface upon which the rollers of the
carriage move, as also that of the corinecting wheel of the revolving
machiriery..
/
',
LXXXVil. The mould to form the valves consists of two pieces of
cast iron, forming a kind of matrix, by means of which the,best form
for the play ofthe pumps is given to the valves of these pumps.
VALVE^-PUNCH, OR CUTTING-OUT TOOL.

LXXXVIII. This is an instrument of steel,- formed for the purpose
of making the leather valves used in the body of the pumps of mechanical lamps.
SCISSORS.

LXXXIX. A pair of straight and-a pair of curved scissors constitute
a part ofthe supplies of every light-house, (article 77.)



S. Doc. 22.

158
. ,

.

TRIANGULAR SCRAPERS.

XC. Are designed for cleaning the lamp burners, in the manner described above.
GLAZIER'S PINCERS.

'

XCI. These pincers m a y b e necessary whenever i t i s required to
replace broken glass. Tp reduce a small quantity of the dimensions
of a plate of glass, place the pincers in such a way that the bills may
take hold of the edge of the plate, making at the same time a sharp angle with it.
By pressing a little.upon the handle ofthe pincers, and turning the
hand a little out, the small pieces of glass are cut pff. This should be
. executed slowly and with great care, removing a very small portion
of the glass at a time. '.
KEY OF THE REVOLVING MACHINERY.

XCII. This key is made of polished steel, and must be used exclusively for winding up the revolving machineiy.
HAMMER,

PINCERS, SPLIT KEY, FILES, HAND-VICE, FLAT PINCERS,
SCREW-DRIVERS, AND SOLDERING IRONS.
.

XCIII. All of these implements are indispensable, either for mounting or dismounting the mechanical lamps and the revolving machinery
or' for making'pins when required, and also to execute the little soldering
required to the dome of the lantern and to the utensfis of tin, &c., &c.
XCIV. All the keys and screw-drivers which were used in placing
the lantern, setting up the illuminating apparatus, the service gallery
and its stand, the ladders, and the balustrade ofthe platform, as well as
the spare bolts, screws, nuts, &c., should be left at the light-house, and
preserved with care. Other implements furnished in. accordance with
the requirements of the Work of placing lanterns and illuminating apparatus may also be'kept at the light-houses, and form a part of their
inventories; but they are; nbt indispensable, and do not require to be
renewed.
BRUSHES.

.

HORSE-HAIRBRUSHES.'^

XCV. Tb sweep the different parts and the stairs of the interior of
the.lantern.
;
'
WOLF'S

HEAD.

X C y i . Rounded hair brush, mounted on a long handle, to sweep
the platforms and the cage ofthe staris ofthe towen*



S.. Doc. ,22.

'

157

FEATHER BRUSHES.

XCVII. The feather brushes ought only to be used to dust the
illuminating, apparatus and the glass of the lantern. It is necessaiy
always to dust the optical pieces of the apparatus befbre wiping them
off; (article 61.)
BAKER'S BPOJSHES.

XCVIIL These brushes, with handles and long hair, serve "to sweep
the frame table, the gallery, and the step-ladder. SILVER-PLATER'S

BRUSHES..

XCIX. These brushes have handles alsb, but^smaller rind shorter,
than the baker's brushes. They serve to clean the lamps and utensils,
and to remove the Spanish whiting or the tripoli, which it would be
difficult, without their assistance, to remove from the cavities and entering angles.
'

PENCILS*

C. Are designed to paint the.iron of the lantern and of the illuminating apparatus; and one of them ought to .be kept to spread the rouge
upon the surfaces of the optical pieces and the plate glass ofthe lantern.
BOTTLE-BRUSIiES.

CI. The bottle-brushes are made of horse-hair, mounted upon a
wire stem, (article 77.)
-'

.

-^
'

MISCELLANEOUS.
.

CALFSKIN,

'

•
•

.'

CII. One calfskin, to make valves and washers.
.

'

. /'[•

CHAMOIS: SKINS,

.

^

..

c m . TWO chamois (or buff} skins, the sole use of which is to serve
to rub the pieces covered with polishing rouge and the reflectors.
CLOCKMAKER'S OIL.

CIV. This oil is exclusively designed to grease the mechanism of ttie
lamps and the revolvirig machinery, and to destroy the effect ofthe
tripoli employed to clean the pieces of polished steel and of the
mechanism.
..:...-.




S. Doc. 22.

158

S P I R r r s OF WINE.

CV» Spirits of wine Is employed--—'
1. T o wash the optical pieces of the apparatus, and to remove the^
grease,and discolorations which resist a simple rubbing, as well on those
pieces as the glass of the lantern. .
2 . / f o destroy-the effect o f t h e tripoli employed for cleaning the
iitensils and pieces In copper of the mechanism of the lamps and of
the revo.lving inachiriery*
.
POLISHING ROUGE.

CVI. The polishing rouge is specially employed in the operation
prescribed once a year at least, and which has for its object to preserve
the pohsh of the pieces in glass of the apparatus, as well as the plate
glass of the lantern. (For that purpose it ought to-be prepared with
the greatest care, as indicated in article 64.)
SPANISH WHITING.

CVIL The Spariish whiting, prepared in the same manner, and
with the same care, as the polishing rouge, serves for the prescribed
duties, every two months j (article 68,). to preserve"^ the polish of the
silver-plated refiectors.
Mixed in oil, it is employed to clean the utensils in tin;: it enters also
into the composition'of putty, for glazing the lantern.
TRIPOLL

CVTII:, The tripoli is employed for cleaning) in the manner indicated
in articles 104 and 105.
.
I B I N S E K D OIL, BOILED OIL, AND UNGROUND WHITE LEAD.

CIX. T h e ordinary supplies of thes.e substances are designed, bythe
addition of Spanish whiting to them, to make the putty necessary to
the glazing of the lantern, (article 70.)
' .
The foregoing instructions'aiad dii:ections\are designed to guide the^
engineers, inspectors j and light-keepers in the performance of the irrespective duties, and they are required to fofiow them in all cases in
which they are a,pplicable. to the light-house service of the United
States.
•
. .
By order offthe Light-house Board:
W. B. SHUBRICK, Chairman,
THORNTON A. JENKINS,

) O

.

•

EDM'B L. F. HAKBGASTLEJ'^'"'•*'^*"*'''
TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

Approved 5



, Washington, December 18, 1852.,.
THO. CORWIN,
Secretary ofthe Treasury,

S. Doc. 22.

159

Instructions and directions for the management of beacondights with one
keeper—embracing fhe different systems of illuminating apparatus and
lamps in most general' use in Europe and America.-—General views. '
.

I L L U M I N A T I N G APPARATUS.

I. The illuminating apparatus employed in beacons and other smallclass lights are arranged according to several different systems.
The most general are—
.
'
1st. The catadioptric or lens apparatus, of 11.81 inches, 14.76 inches,
and 19.68 Inches, of interior diameter, illuminated by an ordinary
°Argand fountain, Carael, or hydrostatlc^lamp.
2;d. The parabolic reflector, illuminated by an ordinary Argand foun- ^
tain lamp.
. 3d. The sidereal apparatus, formed of two reflecting surfaces, bothgenerated by the revolution, of a parabola about its parameter, illu^
mlnated.by an Arganddbuntain lamp.
.
II. The lenses or catadioptric apparatus are placed upon cast-iron
pedestals or tripods. They are fixed,.ordinarily, on a central pivot,
and rest upon rollers in such a, manner as to allow them to turn with
ease upon their axis.
. Sometimes the sidereal and reflector apparatus are placed similarly ;
but most usually each kind is enclosed in a small movable lantern,
which is raised upon a wooden scaffold. ^
Notc^-r^lihese INSTRUCTIONS and DIRECTIONS, modified in some respects tb meet the wants ofthe light-house service, of the United States,,
have been compiled and arranged rnainly from the latest published
authorities bn this subject for the government and management of the
French lights—-the joint productions bf the distinguished engineers,
Monsieur Leonor Fresnel and Monsieur L. Reynaud.
CONSTANT L E V E L , ( O R ARGAND FOUNTAIN) LAMPS.

III. Coristant level (fountain) lamps, are formed of two partsr^the
body ofthe lamp, Aiid the reservpir.or fpuntairi. The reservoir is provided at its lower part with a valve,, which is raised when the stem
which is attached to, it comes in contact with the bottom ofthe body of
the lamp. A communication is thus established between the reservoir
and the burner of the lamp.
. ^
To insure that these lamps will be regularly, fed with oil, it is necessaiy—
1st.' That the extremity of the lower addition of the; reservoir should
be one-terith or one-twelfth of an inch lower than the- crown of the
burner/
2d. That the external air should reach the lower orifice ofthe reservoir without obstriictipri,. to replace the oil as i t is consumed. An opening is made for that purpose Jn the envelope of the lamp.




a Doc. 22/

160

LAMPS OF LENS AND REFLECTOR BEACON-LlGHTS.

IV. The burners of lamps used in lens and reflector beacon-fights
are covered with glass chimneys^ formed with elbows or shoulders.
The lower part or base of the chimney rests in a moveable gallery,
which is formed ordinarily of two concentric circles. It encloses the
burner, by a slight pressure, which is increased at pleasure by gently
bending inwards, with a flat pincer, the elastic plates ofthe interior
circle.
HEIGHT OF THE FLAM^. .

V. The height of the flame, "borresponding to the full effect of lamps '
of this description, is from 1^ to i f inch. It is obtained by elevating
to a proper point the moveable gallery whicfi holds the chimney. If
that point is exceeded, the flame may assume a great development, but
it wifi be dull and red; if the error is on the contrary extreme, the
flame will continue to be maintained white, but without its attaining
such a height as is desired.
CONSUMPTION OF OIL.

; VI. Two sizes of burners are used in these lamps—one of them .94
inch, and the other .87 inch iri dia:meter, measured at the centre ofthe
annular space occupied by the wick. The estimated mean consump-tion of oil (colza) for the larger burner is 60 grammes, (1 oz. 18.06
dwts. troy,) and the smaller one 45 grammes (1 oz. 8.95'dwts. troy)
per hour.
,
.
A small number of lens apparatus is illuminated by ordinary constant lever lamps, fitted with a burner, of two concentric wicks.
The general management of these lamps is the same as of the preceding, ones, and their consumption per hour reaches to about 115 .
grammes, (3 oz. 14 dwts. troy.)
t o FILL THE RESERVOIR*

VIII. To fill a constant level lamp with oil, remove the reservoir,
from its envelope or case ; turn it up, and fill it through the hole left in
the lower part of it for that purpose ; then replace it, taking care t o
close the valve by means of the'small iron sterii attached to it, in a
manner to prevent the oil frorn being sjiilt in turning.it down. .
TO PLACE THE WICKS.

IX. To fit a wick in its place, raise the wick-holder to its greatest
height; remove it, and introduce the tin or wooden mandril designed to
receive the wick; then shpve down the wick to the bottom offthe wickholder, and secure it there by means of a tin ring supplied for.that
purpose. Should the ring be missing, its place riiust be supplied" by a
thread.

,

,

. / •

•

"

It is very important that the edge of the wick should be cut very
regular, and covered, so that no projection of a nature to intercept the



S. Doc. 22,

161

passage of the oil may be presented. The wick being placed, lower it
to its lowest point, and cut the upper edge even with the top of the
burner, in the neatest and most regular manner possible^ .with the sharp
urved scissors supplied for. the purpos^e.
:
"
• ,. '. "• ' r . . ' i ' . . - . • : ••;^./ TRIMMING. •

-.

•-.•'.•,:

X. T o tririi (snuff) a* wick while it is burning, raise i t t o a height to
:
bring the lower part of tlie carbonized wick evpn^ W^ the edge of the .
burner; thi^n proceed tp trim as befbreidirectp^^^
• '.'-

:

':

'••.'. v••^.,••'^

.'

/•/V^':i?:E-ATEii.s:.;v';'^,V\:^-;•'':'

;••••

,..;

•

'•

•.

; XL When the temperature is such as to cause,fear of congelatipn:of
the off, a heateris plabed urider the body of the lam^ '\_ ,
This impieriientis composed bf, a.cup filled with, oil, and a floating
taper placed i n it.. ,dt is fixed t o the basplof the body of the lamp in
the-place of the moyeabfe'rpprtion, Jiriiils^ iri; shaipetp the bottpm of the N
.^lam^Prby^meaiis of the'ripper :i^^
.. ^
' /,;,..' ^•:-:,^/i-'-

"..': iA^viPS VFOR ^ ' S I D E ^ A L ^APPARATus." .•' •;. ,.

. •, XII, The Ikmps for sidereal apparatus differ fbom pther lamps iii
the fofiowing Tespects: :.,
w i " . \ ' -.' ' / • / ' , ,
. - ' ist. The wick^iristead pf being fixed at its lower edge, is free, in..a :
dbublp. bp^enwork" basket, aboye %hieh. it .ought to project one-fifrh or
/onersixth: of an irichv -T
';
^ 2d. The form"- of the .chimiiey is nearly cylindrical, and is^ sustained
about half an InGh above the turner-b^^
and two elastic
rings fixed to a vertical stem. •
' \ ^ \
' .^-.
,; ,3d. The heater is .formed of a plate .pf iron, the lower part pf which
;rests in affixed sheathuppntberreserypirjtheiipf^
is curved, arid
. rests ribove the x^hinineyv^; ' ;.< •//•/,. '; - H :- ,; f •
^
~.' .
; . /.'.'•/:./ ':/•..:\'• \\ \ CONSUMPTION :'OIl'.0][L.:-

•_••:•.. V .

... •-: ' ;,

\ XIIL The burners pf; these iariips are. 1.1 irich in diameter. Theiii
average'cQrisurriptionis fifty gramines'of oil p e r h o u r ; and the-heighticif
. t h e flanlej. tp-.pi^oduce^^^
/^ •
FILLING TliE tlE SERVOIR, A^

A:ND TkmMING THE WlCKSe

' X t y . The'reservoir of these'is
fi
as of those;
••already;described.',/"' : •,\/.^. f•/././/^ 'V^/;-:,'/.:'.•.''•:-.;/-',;'; •:' '•'•/=••,-' •-"_'•.
To put a wick iri its place; afref^ haying?' cut the. deslrediength upoii
thetin fbrriier^:introduce it between.. t K two cyllfiders by means of a;
mandril placed upon trie • wick-holder J; arid then lower dowri to the?
. bPttpm.;' It is them cut very regularly witfi the curved scissors,; after-^
wards elbvateit bymeans bf the end of the presser, which covers four
.plates, to about three-teriths of an irich above the burner; it tliien served'



S Doc. 22.

162

for the other; end of the same instrument to bring it back again to the
:proper height—that is, about one-sixth of an inch above the burner.
When it is necessary to trim the wick, it is raised a fittle by means
"of the presser; then, after having.trimmed it with care, replace it, prbcjeeding in the manner before described.
LAMPS TO I L I ^ U M I N A T E THE WHOLE HORIZON.

XV. Coristant level (fountain) lamps cannot be used to illuminate
the entire arc of the horizon. To accorriplish that object, recourse must ;
be-had either to hydrostatic or mecharilcal (Carcel) lamps. All these
lamps are managed in the same manner that the ordinary coristant level •
lamps are, in .so far; as relates to' chimneys,^ placing an.d trimming the
wicks, dispositions, &c., described in ai-ticles 9.and
.

^

: HYDROSTATIC LAMPS^ ; .

i .

'

'

XVI. The hydrostatic lamp, or the lamp of Thilprler, (the name of
the inventor,) is composed of two reseiypirs—the orie, lower, filled. With :
oil, the other filled with a sqlutipn of sulphate bf zinc, the densitj^ of
\vhich is properly regulated., Thes.e tworeservolrs are p u t i n eoirimu-?
nication by-a tube starting from the bottom of the upper reservoir and
terminating a little above the bottom of the oil-cistern'., A second tubcj
starting from the cbne of the lower cisterri, conducts the oil to thb
burner of the Iampi
- ,^ .,
..
^
The cone of the upper reservoir is traversed by the regulating tubeJ
' This tube must be carried down to. the point which is riecessary to
make the column of saline sblution immediately below that level balance- .
a column of oil raised to the top'of tlie burrier. : /
;:
The wick of a hydrostatio^lamp ought to be kept at from one-fourth'
to one-third of an in cli above the level of the burner, and.the flame,,when fully developed, at a heightof 1 | tp 2. inches.'
CONSUMPTION OF OIL.

.

.

-

XVIL The. diameteT of the "burner is eight-.terithso
inch, arid
its consumption ,estimated at t h e ^ avefage of 55 grammes per hour,
: (about 2 ounces troy.), V , ' C ''•'"f^''^'-/'-: ,
./ .
.
.
:

*.
'

, TO FILL THE RESERVOIR.

/ i f .

.,

. XVIII. To fill a hydrostatic lamp-with oil, it is neces.sary td prbceed" .
'a.s,follows; • ,." < . '•;../•:'• f^"v:^-.. ^ •.':/. ''; .
•
:• ' • , ' : .'"'• " •
"
The stopper which closes -the burner, the neck, and the .chimneyholder are removed, and the funnel is placed upon tfie burner;" remove
also the azr tube, designed to.regulate the .height of the oil; pour the
oil, which should be filtered, in the, furinel, until its level reaches the:
summit of that apparatiis; restore the air tube to its proper place, taking '
care to replace the pin to its crank; raise up the funriela little, turning
it about, to make any oil which, it.may still contain run out; after,
which place it upon the bil-can, having previously allowed it to drip'
or a few mbments over the burner; finally, replace the neck, the^



S. Doc. 22.

163

chimney-holder, and the stopper, and empty the lamp-cup of the oil
which has passed over from the top of the lamp.
, Before removing the lamp filled with oil, it will be necessary to close
the orifice of the air tube with a stopper ; i f ihis precaution is not observed, the liquid will run-over.
. .
/
•
'. '^,..

, .. •' . . •., .;^•• : V •^'- ^ ., • • : ; - H E A T E R S . \ : ' / • ' ' • •
-

;•:,';

•'•'.•'.. . -•

^ •

XIX. When there js risk .of t h e oil congealing, > two heaters are em. ployed to prevent it.V One of these heaters is placed under the lower,
and the other, u rider the upper .xeservoir, in 'each of which a floating
taper is placed. ' T h e loWer one is fitted iri a crivity made in the plate
or 3upport of the lamp ;; the: upper : oiie is• fornied by a. vase hpllowed
..out on one side -to fit the barrel or rounded side of the lamp, and i s
secured by fpur Avires through the holes of the neck, Which cover oter
the upper reservoir.
;' •' ' ' .• ' ,
•
- , :,
'
M E e H A N i p A r i L A M P S r ( C A L L E D MbDERATOR^^^

.' XX. T h e mechanical .lamps-in.'^^^^^
niodei'ator lamps. / :

. . '

lens lights are

. : ^ / V.: " .

,'

^

^

^ The machinery placed in the reseryolr of the lamp i s formed by a
spiral spring,' the base of which is, attached to a .piston. / T h e piston is
' made of a sheet-irondisk,:'fitte^
a leather Washer, and is traversed
by the tube-vyhieh. feeds the .burner.. The foot of the crank which
serves to raise'the sptirigis fixed upon the piston. The lower part ofthe burner is supplied with aiube, having a leather box..at its base, and
an iron stem Whicfr passe's througli the' tube trayersing the piston. .
To wirid up one of these, lamps, tu.rii the: key fixed at the top of the.
button of the rack.uritlL it is arrestedo . I t will be -necessary tb com- '
'mence winding;up at the rnoment of lighting the lamp, and it will be
necessary. to rene w it after wards a t the end of- abput six hours' pom.,.bustion. :_^-f-/•_,.,^,.;,-.,.-;:;\^ VM-.:,. •^;^-.;.-^
•'•/-; /'/\\ : ^"•/ . f ••:'"\_/^ r / ,..;'

.':.',

':-;;.;.••>•;:;;•:• V' ' - / T O ' , F i L L \ T H E " ' l l E S E R T O ^

XXL To fili the reservbir of the ;h^^^
• • f o U o w s : . ' ' _ -' : •.•'\^/

;- : : . , • . ; " ' * ' : " ' ; ' • ' > /

'•^:' • ; ' • ' •

lamp with oil, proceed as
••• "'•'.;'

••'''': /

• '.

" *;

-''

: T h e moyevable gallery,:wlilch hblds the glass chiriiney,and theneck
are^ removed^ when pour the oil: throrigh the opening of- the lairip until
/^it flows tp the;iipper part of th^ reservoir^ v^^
•
^
'
.

TO PLACiE TlHE B U R N E R I N T H E C E ^

'

XXII. T o 'make rin illuminatm^
its greatest
effect,, it: is necessary that its axis should' be ,honzontalj and that- the
flame be placed i n the fpcuSi. In: reflector arid sidereal, apparatus, the
lamp is so arranged that the removalbf the burner'out ofits focus may;
nbt be reasonably feared ; butit is essential Jo be assured, frpm timetp
time, that the axis of the reflector i s : perfectly horizontal, (except in
. special cases, which-wifi be treated of elsewhere.) This can be'tested



'" S* Doc.. 22,

|64 \

by a simple plummet and,fine;—determining if the opening of the reflector is included, in one vertical plane.
In lens apparatus it is.necessary to examine if the burner i? placed
exactly ill the axis of the apparatus, and at the proper distance below
the focus-—that is to say, .87 inch below it. To deterriiine this, dra^w
two threads across each other,: at right angles, usirig the small copper 'buttons placed iri the interior- of the .uprights ; the burrier will be pro-'
p.erly placed when its' centre cbrrespbndsvwith the point where the two
threads cross, and even vyith these tlrieadsin a,p.para:tuswhe^^^
t o n i a r e placed at .87 inch bplpw the fiDca]: : p l a ^
low the threads when the buttpn^^ are/placed,iii. the b^
of tlW up-;
rights .of the apparatiiSi^ ^^^ ^^ ;^
^/f/
. :
.
.- ^ ' ;
. ' ' , . ' > • .

. / --f'-

- ) V-TO L i G H T ; T H E , ; L A M E ^ / . - , ;f^
^

, \/.y

' ,.'.•.:'•

•,•':/

XXIII.' To light a larrip^iebmmeriee % raisirig thp; wicfe about one-,
third of an incfi above' the top' of the brirn'er, :a:nd /light it at two. pp-?'
posite points of itS: contour, using- for t h a t purjDose.-'a .sniall .harid-lamp;
specially designed for lighfingj Q3h.eda^'luceriii^.J^ ]' .',
',.
- ••
. From theniomentiheflam.e "commencesto risbvarid^
mences to smoke, lower the wick, aijd place the chimney jn its hplder.
'At first keep'the wick low ririd the chimriey high | aiterwards raise the.
wick to its proper height, arid lowerthe'chiinney t o its .position iri succession, until a clear white..flame is .obtalrip.d, with such a, deyelppmerit
a s t h e descrij)tlpri of lamp will allow...i.V i
/ Ji •'' ^; v:
These directions "are riot appfiqable to the corisfa:nt leypMaLriips used,
in sidereal apparatus; for,-as has bpen already said'in/article 12,,the.
ivicksof thbse lamps are fixed in a .wick-holder
It is. indispensable to' raise tlip:chiinriey-about '2,^/ inches above the^
burner; afterward.s it is lowered^lafter ,the wibk has been lighted) to^
the supports upomwhich it rpst^;^ . -. - .
^?
"
, -' •
Tp light lariips with two .concentric wicks,; commence with .the
ceritral one, which should lie Ipvv^ered as muclii as. ppssible (without .
risk of extinguishing the fight) irrim,ediately Afterwards;, fpllow the
sanie .course y^ith the bufer Wic.kfia^^
wicks, com^
mence raising them-gradually, arid/loTivPr theVch^
,at. the same
time. The flanie of a burner of two cpncentiic..wicks requires^^a^^
lialf an hour to enable i t to reachits fufi deveibpmenL
^; 'f
'•'•:i ':!; " ' •• - J - T O . E X T I N G U I S H ; T I J E LAMPS;. ^ ' " . y ' ; ' / ' • ' , ' ' • ' . . , , • '

' '

XXIV, A lamp is extingriished by .Ipwering: its: wibk,; or .by bib Wing <
it out when it:belongs.to \a sidereal light. To extiriguisfi lamps haying
two coneeritric: wicks, cpm.mence. by iowering the/ceritre due arid' the .
outer Pne.,^^' The chimney bught nqttp be rernbved for. seyeral rninutes
after, and until it is su.ffibieriflycbbl to. prevent its b^^
contraction of: the; glass.
' REVOLVING M A C H I N E R Y .

XX^V. Beacon and; other sriiall lens lights are sometiriies yaried by
flashes. That characteristic distirictipri is imparted to i h e m by lens;es^;



' S.- Ddc. 2 1 . •

.16^

.-

bf cyilridricril eleriieri:ts, which a revblvi riiachirie turns ri:rpurid the
apparatus.
The revolving machiribry consists of a clockwork moverii^erit. With
a fly for its regulator, and' which is put in, play by a weight. Rs rnbi:ionis!retd,rded br a:ccelerat,ed by opening or clbsihg the frictipn wings '
bf the fly, or by iricrerisirig or diminishing the motive weight.';
.
.The mption of this m'achinery is. commuriicated to the frame which
. sristalri.s the moveaW^
by means of two cog-wheels, vv^hich are .
thrbwrilritogeai tit pleasure. .
.' > ^. . '.: >
.;,-'•

-.•:.[) .;
.••••;,

, ' .'*

• •:-.^/LI-GHTlNfi i ) U t l E ; S . y
;

•', M O R N I N G R O U T I N E , - -,

; ,;.. ^^ ^
^
.^.-^ " ,; '

\.
',

'

...

I XXVI, T h e k e e p e r must commence the foilpwing course of duties .
every iriorniiig rmmediately.afterextirigulshing the lights:
• .' i f theiiglitis one bf shbrt ellipsis, the riiotive weight of the revblyirig ,
-'machiriery;must;be' Wound .up to its greatest height, arid: thbri fixed;
thb machirie rririst theri" be stbppedj arid the conri:ebting wheel throw;ri
'out of; gear,-' ^ ^,.;; •-. ' ' '•//,. / r:/- • ' ^-"•, • '
;:•! .
If the lamp is rriourited ori a; moveable, table,bn the apparatus, the
table riiust be-lowefbd.. if; the apparatris is. raised upbn a scaffolding,
it must be lowered ,until it rests upb
table designed- to
• receive it. . ,--',' -' -,"; •.':..•,-;''"-.;- • '/ '•• ^ .':. . •'" ."
ff .
;
The foregoing directioris iriust be ob served Iri extiri gulshiiig the famp;
arid the glass .cHmney;riiust..be^^^b^
arid
then wrapped in a. dry piece''of lineri arid .placed but of the way bf
>idust. If if:- is a bbristant level iamp, it mujst be fembyed frorri the
apparatus arid pfecbd ^
^
:
•
, *
; The apparatus ^riiust be dusfed with: a feather.brushyarid"Wiped bff
with apiece of cleari spft lirien arid-eritirely free: from'dust.; If any
,prirt of. the apparatus is greased,' it musf fie washed with, spirits of Wine:
uritil the .gre.ase'is;eptlrely. removed.; When this is completed, the
.covers must be.ptacbd over the ajpparatus. '
•-/
- ;; • . .
' The plate glass.'bf the lanterri-iriust be crirefully w
iri.sicle arid
out, and, shbuld it be fourid to; bp necessary to do sovclearied with
Spanish whiting. :
;; •;.;'
,./
.; '
- /'
: : . • .
The brirtriiris:of the laritern must theri be^'S^^
' . - . .: '
; : The service table,, tlie chandelier, arid the iriteribr walls arid sides of
the dead-lights of the lanterri, mrist^.bb' dristed, and the: stairs swept J
^ Havirig cprripletied^ these duties, the lairip must be.taken doWii tb the v
;^toreroom, where it.is emptied, and the' oil it (Contained measured, tb
ascertain the qriaritl.ty consuiried duiing the night;, a^^ which, that oil
^^
riiust be prissed through t h e
filter,
for
ffi^
J ,
;, ; ^
, The oil which. oyerflowed/ the burner and ran into the larnp-cup'
during the night must be. 'ppur^d^i^^
Vessel, resbrved for that special purpose, and it must be.kept for the exclusive use of .the hand^
lanterns and lariips for the keep ei^^
...
;. ;
'. / '
/ The burner of the -lamp must be carefrilly. bleaned within rind vYith-.
. out. The cooked: or guriiniy oil. iriu st be reiribved from the edges of
^
the burlier by means of a scraper;, abottle-brushmMst be passed through



S. Doc. 22.

166

the air tube to the interior, and the outside must be carefully wiped
with a cloth.
' • • ' " • . . • .
T h e body of the lariip must undergo such cleaning as its condition
may demand.
Finally, fill the lamp, renew or trim the wick, and replace t h e l a m p
in its apparatus, so that it will be, iri every' respect; ready for lightmg
af sunset. , "'.,
^
\ ' /
' • ' - / • '';• •'^•. : ' ' " '
" Examine carefully into the condition of the spare lamp, which'must
be kept in the light-rooni;pf the tower; and. b,e sure it is in perfect
order, and ready to be filled for use.
i
/-'-'' '
/ An oil-can or vessel must be kept^filled with filtered oil in the lightropm, to be used in the spare lamp in case it should be required. ^
•' .

!-;

••EVEN'ING^ROUTINEV V

" .

XXVIL The keeper must go into the lantern every evening at or
befbre sunset, having previously provided himself .with a hand-lantern
and a lighting-lantern, ("lucerne."y '
' ;
When the morning duties shall.have been regularly and jiroperly
performed, the following will be found to be the conditipn of things :: • .
The lamp of. the apparatus will be> in its. pliace and ready tb be
fighted ; its chimney,-with a spare lamp, burner, tw;b spareychimneys,
. and the sei-vice basket cori taining t h e varibus« utensils, will be fourid ar^:
ranged in the service closet or stbrerbom. « The weights of the revolving machinery in the fights varied by flashes- will be' wound up to their
greatest height, the;, main of master wheel wiir be retained by its bolt j /
and the connecting wheels will be ungeared.
• >' - - \ ' :
/ R e m o v e the cover from the lamp and burner, and Pomriience lighting '
up at suriset, so that the light .may reach its vfull power by dark, following the directions heretofore given in the execution of* that duty; If
the apparatus, is on.a moveable chandelier or rollers, place it in the pqysition which it ought to occupy duririg. the night, and, for' the purpose r
of keeping it there, stop it with its piri or.key.
'
,
.,
Rembve the -bfinds, if there are any,; fold them n p , arid return them
to the same closet, if the'apparatus\ is placed in a peririaneht lanterri.
..If the apparatus is placed in a>lantern to be.hoisted and IbWered, it"
must,be hoisted tothe top of the scaflbld. ': ; •
> -'
-'
If the beacpn;is a/.revblylrig or'flashing light,^the revolvirig machinery
must be put in motion immediatery after the light is iighted.: / T o do^
this, i t wifi only be necessary tP put the two cogged yvheels in gear,
withdraw the bolt which retains the master wheel; and remove the stbp^
' wiiich supports the .iriotiyp weight.
/ '. "' : '
When the temperature is ; sp Ibwas to cause, fear that the-oil will
congeal, it wili.be necessary to tafee the followirig precautions, iri the
everiingduties::
.
i v ^
'
., ^ «' '^ - '
:'
'
1st. An hour before sunset, remove the lamp, enipty it, and heat the
oifuntil it reaches such aternperature thatthe handcannPt be held iri c
i t ; then plunge the'burner in it, arid let it remain several minutes. It,
must then.be returned to its place, and the oil restored, to its cistern.
. 2d. Prepare the heater arid put it iriits place. ;



S. Doc. 22.

167

NIGHT DUTIES.

:

XXVIII. The light must be visited by the keeper at least once during the night for the period embraced between the first April and the
first October, -and twice each night during the remainder of the. year,
and oftener if there should be any reason to fear the light may go out,
or that its intensity may become perceptibly diminished.
These visits during the night must be made in the summer months
near midnight, and in the winter months at about eleven o'clock p. m.
and two o'clock a. m. At each yisit the keeper must be provided
:with a lighting-lamp. '
- ;
When the keeper finds that the .wicks.a.re carbonized and require to
be trimmed, (sriuffed,) he Will proceed, as follows, according to the descriptiori of the lamps under his charge :' '
. - ^ .'/
If it is ari ordinary fountairi, (constant level:lariip,) hydrostatic, or
mechaiiical lamp; he must substitute the spare lamp inimediately after
having supplied with oil andjighted it outside of the apparatus, resting
it on the service stand during t h e operation. If it is a sidereal apparatus lamp, remove the wick-holder and. replace it with one of t^he wick-'
holders already fitted, which may be lighted at the; same time. All
these operations ought to be executed as rapidly as. possible.
When a lamp has been removed and a substitute placed, it must be
placed on the service starid or. table, and the. wick trimmed and put in
•perfect order for .use in case of riecessity. : " ^
:'
• The springs bf the moderator lamp must be wound up at each visit.
, In the hydrbstatic lamps the level pf the oil becomes gradually lower
•as the conibustion continueSv and during the long nights it may get so
low a:s to'injure the" deyelopnient of the fiame perceptibly. . The keeper^
will perceive tfiis b y t h e carboiiizbd part of the wick being near the
burner. It will then become necessary to raise the air tube aiittle, so
as to; elevate the oil to ^ its proper ievel. To perform this operation
without running the risk of causing t h e oil to -overflow, which would
.extinguish thb lanip, turn the air tube very,.slowly to the right, and to
the left, observlrig atteritively the movement, of the oiL .
•:•.•;:/•••;••.;

,

^. .MANAGEMEiNT—CLEANLINESS^

i

'

TPWER AND BUILDINGS.

.'.

:

:

_

i

. XXIX. Every part^bf the tower and' buildings must be kept in, the
most perfect state of cleanliness rind neatness; they must be sv^ept and
"dusted every day, rind washed a,s often as there may be any riecessity
for-dping"sb. : v • ' . ' /'"'-^."'
'
•
'
'
;;
:• XXX. .The glass ofthe knterri must'be wiped off every .iribpin inside arid out; .once a week it must be washed off outside.
:
'
;PREPARATION b F T H E : POLISHING RbUGE.

XXXI. This bpieration should be execrited. as'follows : Break up a"
. small quantityof rouge (a few ounces) in clean water, and form a clear
mixture with.it.>;This mixture must then,be put into about a pint of



S. Doc. 22^
clean water, and, after having stirred it up well With a stick, let it rest
• for a few moments ; then pour off the liquid mixture into another vessel
carefully, to separate the sma:ll gritty particles Which it.may contain,
and which, by this means, will remain at the bottom of the first vessel.
Tfiat being done, leave it to settle about ha:lf an hour, when pour off
^ the water until the. rouge appears on the edge bf the vessel. ...
This liquid rouge must" be spread lightly, by means .of a pencil or
piece bf soft lineri, over the entire surfkce of thp glass to be cleaned.^
When this coat of-fouge becomes dry,Trib i t with a piece of buffskin
until all of it is entirely remoyed. . , i
.
i , ^
.
The rouge thus prepared; should be entirely consumed, as i t will be.
"unfit for future use for cleaning,
. ,
. ,/
. . . .,
, • ' • .'.'• ;•

;

• ' . ; , " . SPANISH W H I T I N G .

''

'.

'

\

/ ' / ' / ^

• .- ]

XXXII. The Spanish whiting in habituaruse for cleaning the glass
of the lantern, arid the silvered portions bjf the reflectors must be. prepared in the same manrier-as the pofishirigiouge, .but in 1^
qua:iititities, according t o the necessity.
., * . ; > : i
^
. - .
' . "

• -

' ' . . ' •

•'•'•'

-•'. '• GLAZING. •:•', ; • • , .

'.f-

\ . " ''"'^

'-.

. XXXIII. The glazing pf' the frames ofthe glass andri,llthe joint s of
the lantern through which the rain riiay penetrateought to b e attended
to with the greatest care.;' - •'/ ; " _ ;
.;
= y ; :
. X X X i y . The putty eiriployed should be cbmp'osed of three parts of
Spanish white and one part of white, lead, both, w-e 11 pulverized and
reduced, to a paste a little stiff, arid well beaten up,'withequaKparts of
bofied and commpn linseed oil.
.,, ; - ; ,.-• ^'
'

\

.:

. T O REPLACE THii GLASS.

.

' ;

/'

.

XXXV. As the keepers of beacGri-lights-may'be required to replace
. a broken pane of glass, it may not be amiss t o Cuter into soriie details
pn the subject. Having ^lanscrewed the slats,,and remoyed the pieces;
of broken, glass, the old putty must be carefully, cleaned from the frames.
T r y ' the new pane of glass, to see that it will riot tbuch; any' part bf •
the frame, and that there will be a play of about briertwelfth of an irich
. all around,, and particularly around the riotclies made to the, right, of .the
.bolts fixed to the upriglits.
; ,
; -^
•'
• ..i f ariy portiori of theglass touches its frame, it must be carefully arid
gradually removed by usirig a pair of- glazier's pincers. Haying dorib
j§b to all paits of the glass w'hibh do not fit, the necessary diriierisioris
will be obtained. . ..
; - • .
''
*
.
A'coating of spirits of turperitine.must be spread on thefrarries,and
.the putty;, is then applied. ThrebsmallblbPks of soft \vobd, of a
one-twelfth of an inch in thickness, areUo be placed between the lower
border ofthe glass arid the frame, one^ beirig situatpd in the middle and
the other tw;o at about twbinches arid a, half from the uprights. Without.
this precautiori, the Weight, of the;'"^glass would start the putty, rind, it
Wbuld come in, cbntact with the.hard srif face of the Ipwer border of the^
Trame, Blocks of the sariie thickriess must be placed Pri t h e putty



S. .D#e.'. 22;

160

throughout the whole length ofthe uprights, and between the vertical
edges of the,new pane,and the edges of the two adjacent pnes. T h e
slats must then be replaced and the pritty applied.
' Thp putty must not project beyorid the perperidieular airid upper slats-,
but it is,to be bevelled'along the lower orie, so a:s t b perriiit the water
to run off.
'^. \ ., • .' ., '-, •
' . .'
. '.
: -^

CATADIOPTRIC A P P A T R A T U S V "

XXXVL Should ariy of, the putty ^bf the ririgs or prisms of the
apparatus be started, i t must Immediately;be.replaced with new putty,
in the/iriaririei" rifrea^dy exjplain^^^
. i
'
Orice each.mpnth tfie glasses .riiust be washed wit
of wirie.
The apparatus ^must ,be cleaned once ^a'year W;ifh:.p6fishirig rbugb.
This riiust be done as described in article 31. ' '
' ..'f

-

.METALLIC REFLECTORS.

\

,{

. XXXVII.; The parabolic ,and sidereal reflectors must be. wiped at
fiij^t%ith ri- sbft lirieri to reriibve the drist,,then tubbed with a buff
leather desigried .for this purpbse.^nritil their polish is testbred.'
' At.the erid of eyery two riioriths-these refleetbrs iriust be polished
with Spanish, whiting, arid the precautions indicated in article 39,
riiust be bbserved duririg this qperatiori. It is the more essbritial to use
these precautions, as the. polish, of silver is much iripre easily affected:^
than that^of glassy .
.^ :— ••
.'•:•:
•
•, ". " - ., \ - ' .•" '' " ;'
^

• '. . \ LAMPS. ^ . " ' ' •

• •

• '

.

.

XXXVIIL, At t h e end:bf every .fifteen^days the service lamp of the
lighting apparatus must be removed; and replaced by one'of the. spare
lamps..

::•/,,••

' '

•'• ' . f . / ' • ' ' f . ' .

\

j

/•-. • y.-.-.

'••

'••••'•

* '• •-,-. C O N S T A N T L E V E L . L A M P S .
•

. • ;' ;

_

;

'•.

^ '- ' •. ' _

' X X X i X . Should a burner be-irijrired by u^e or ac;ciderit, i t must be
replaced immediately,by bne of the spare buriiers. .This ban easfiy be
dbrie by uriscrewing: the, jurictiori joiriti Befbre pfeelrig the ripw burrier,
the. j unction mu^t;be, furnished with a leather washer.
'
,
,

.

\

.. ;

LEVEL OF THE OIL.

V X L . Tlie;ievbr of:the bil iri the n e w burnetmrist be attended t o ;
it riiust be mairitained'at about brie-tweifth'of an iricfibelbw the upper
edge. .-Shbuld theievel,be tbb high, the bilWouid bverfloW.; if, on the
contrary, it be too low, the flariie would be'tbbne^^^ the burner, whose
. edges W^orild 'sobri be. burned. 'Wheii the level of thb oil is tbo high, a:
small; plate of tin-must be sbldered ove'fthe notch bri the, small cyliri der
at the bottom: of the reserybir of the lamp; theri, with-a, file, a h ^
riotcfi is made to the\Pyliride'r, cafe beirig takeri nbt to make it as low as
the first. ,Wlieri the level is, tob lbw, the' notch is enlarged in the riiari. nef above stated*
•
•
^
. . . .



S. Doc. 22.

170

CLEANSING.

XLI. All the brass work ofthe service lamp must be cleansed every
eight days with tripoli dissolved in spirits^ of Wine, When a lamp is
withdrawn from the apparatus to be placed in store, its wicks must be
removed, the lamp emptied and drained,-and cleansed outwardly with
tripoli. I t i s cleansed inside by rinsing it several times with boiling
water, or a weak lye of ashes.
.

CONSTANT L E V E L

LAMP. ^

"XLII. The body oif the pumps of the lamps and the outside of the
burners rririst be cleansed at the end of every eight days with Spanish
whiting mixed in a little oik
;' ,: ,
;
.,
;
When the iriside of a lamj) or of a burner is clog-ged with oil, it: must
be-cleansed.in the mariner just stated. :^
. .

•

MODERATOR.LAMPS.

>

,

XLIII. At the expiration of every eight ;days the exterior of the
lamps must be. cleansed with tripofi mixed with spirits of wine, and
tiie small filter of metallic clotfi below the burner must be removed and
washed with boilingivater.
. ' ••./. .
:
:Wfien a lamp is rernoved from the.apparatus to be placed inreserve,
the wick must oe withdrawri and the.pit poured on the filter; the maichinery is then slightly' wound up, and the. lamp reversed over the
drain....-'
•'•.'•''^';• ^''' i : .'.:.-'•'.* •,• '. '"••-' -r'/'^.' .-' '-• *''!'.= . '
°. The'outside ofthe lamp is rubbed with tripbfi, and the . burner
cleansed.:

• \.'-/-- • " ' '
.

• : . - ; ; " ' /.••'•.:.. -•.-. ^ .',.•/.--.

.HYDROSTATIC

LAMPS.

,

-

XLIV. The principal care required for a hydrostatic lamp is to keep
it constantly clean. . ' ^ ' ...'.., < ,; . ••-. .; - ; . , ,'
.The burner, the chimney hplder, the neck,.thp body of the lamp,,
and the draining cup, must be cleansed daily.
.
; . i
The same with regard to the stopper of the burrier and of the stopper
of the funnel.
' " .
^ ; .•
^.«^
When a lanip,.after being used fifteen.'days, is withdrawn to be
placed in rpserve, a'^^wire must be passed through the air.tube to rempve '
any. particles.' of crystallized sulphate which may - have been formed
there; . Should this tube become clogged, the oil could not reach the
burner.. Should the lamp, in consequerice o f t h e crystallization ofthe
salt,.or from-any other cansb, cease to work properly, by the following
process it can be cleansed:: .
^
Istly. The air tube is removed in order t o drain the oil irito the cup.
. 2 d l y . When;.the drainage has ceased,thelamp is reversed*to eriipty '
put the oil and- liquid sulphate; the stopper placed at the bbttom is re-"
moved, arid the remainder of t h e oil and liquid is received in a vessel
•with a large mouth* > When the lamp is entirely empty, the stopper is
replaced. ,
;
V



S. Doc. 22.

171

3dly. The lamp -must be rinsed several times with bofiing water,
and shaken in every direction, until it is ascertained that no crystaUizaL-?
tion remains in it. The lamp is then emptied and drained.
4thly. The oil is separated from the solution of sulphate of zinc, and
both the specific weight and volume of the latter are ascertained by.
means of the areometer and the tin measure gauged to contain the
quantity riecessary for orie lamp. The,density, and volume are augriiented, if necessary, by dissolving some crystallized sulphate in a
small quaritity^ of hot water, which is afterwards poured slowly into the
measure. Should the liquid becoriie too heavy,pa small quantity of
pure water is a d d e d l o it.;if, on the contrary, it be too lightj some concentrated liqri id sulphate is added to i t . / "
.. i
When the weight and the. volume have been ascertained to be correct, the liquid is poured into the lamp by the Prifiee of theieather bbx,
whose air tube has first been rembyed. ;
•
,
The lanip will be supplied with oil in trie manner described in article
18; then it must be placed in feserve to await its turn of service.
•

CLEANSING T H E

GLASS

CHIMNEY.

XLV. When the chimney of a lamp is stained, with cooked oil, the
spots'are removed b y rubbing it with a cloth dipped in oil; then i t i s
, wiped.with care,.arid rubbed with Spanish whitirig. '
' \

•

'

.REVOLVING MACHINERY. ^

,

XLVL The reyolying machinery of moyeable lights is cleaned and
kept in order in the following manner:
'
/
Every morning the cage, the \\jheel communicating;the inoyement,
and that ofthe carriage must be dusted. ' } "'.-: ; " . '
'
, ;
The large vertical rollers, the small horizontal rollers, as weU as the
railway on which they run, must be wiped,oH. .
Every eight days these rollers? must ^ be removed, their axles wiped,.
, a small stick riovered with lineri passed through the openings which
receive them, arid a small quantity of clockinaker's oil poured into
them befbre they are replaced. . ^ .
'
' ^ ^
C are must be taken not to remove more than! bne roller at a time. .
Oecasionallythe piv^ots of the machinery must be lubricated witli
clockmaker's oik , .' ;
Yearly^ in Jrily, the revolvirig machinery must be.taken apart by. the
keeper to be thorpughly cleansed.
; -^
To cleanse the brass pairts ofthe rnachinery, their surfaces are coated
wlth^ tripoli mixed in splrits> pf wine, arid, they are then rubbed With
a small soft brush until they receive a fine polish. .
;
, Should i t be forind impracticable to rembve any stains with the r
biiish, a small spatula- of ^spft wood rind tripoli must be used for this
purpose. • =
' ;
V .
'.
'
.
The iron and ^teel parts must be rublied With;a spatula of spft wbod
djpped iri oil. . ^
A stick cbvered with a piece of .linen iriay be used to cleanse the
holes ofthe pivots of the axles, as well as the screw holes.



gi D&fe. 22.

IB

Before prittirig the riirichriiPry tPgether again, a srriall quantity of
blockmalvbr's oil riiust be poured irito' the holes in 'whiefr the axlbs
work, and all the different parts of iron and steer coated With tallbw. ..

'

C L E A N S I N G bi^ T H E I N S T R U M ^

• XLVII. All the tin uterisils used in the light-hou^e service riiust h t
fubbedwith Spariish \yhiting twice a year, .or bfterier if necessary.
NO^EffeLATufei; m b Xjm OF THE UTIENSILS USED IN iilGPtT-PtoUSES.
•

,_ •'

;•

:"'

''.••:

'

•• ;

,^.FILTER^..

,

r

.

'.'

'•":

. '• •

'"•'

, Xl/Vlil. The oil used iri the lamps of liglit-hbuses/iriu'st b e filtered
by the keepen
, i .
'
'
'/.• • ' •
: "
The filter is in two parts;- the upper part contains the filter, .pro:perly
so called',, and the lower partis a reservoir to receive the" filtered'bil. .
Tfie^ filter consists bf a tin • plate pierced with holes,'. over : which
is placed a piece of cloth and a layer of fine sand about one-tenth of
an inch in thickness.
.
^
.i'.!,
/ ; '- /
. \
Once a month the cloth rnust be washed with hot water and sbap, ^
arid the sand passed through boiling .water. - They mu^^
again
used until they have beeri perfectly dried; to effect this, the^saiid must
be dried over a fire; .-i
... ;,y.. v ; /
:' , ;
. •. ' (
. Care must be taken not tp use sea sandj even after it. fias been washed
in,fresh water. V \
f -' :
- . -".
' ; ^ i * . '.
.* *
' • ,,

.

--.SERVICE B A S K E T : ; , -'-V;. , ; ;

: , .;

.

. XLIX.; The seiyiee basket is in the, fofrri'of a box, with a handle'
arid cover in^two parts. ,; ;
; ;,/•
.—i
It is divided into/throe cPrripartments. _The smallest cbn tains a flat*
; box to receive the greasy cloths and ends of,wicks; under thiis box are^
placed clean cloths used iri wiping the glasses. -, ^
\ .
. In;the,secbnd.prirt are placed orie or ^^^^^
• The tlrird part mri^tcoritairi tfie
fofiowing:artic
;; ,: . '
,:

TritAMiJLAR stMAi^Eri^

.

:

.

* °

^ A triarigular; scraper,^used; l b remove;cooked' oik from, the',edges of
thfe burriersi
!
' .. ; \
.
'
;

']'

BOTTLE-BRUSH.

A hbrse-haif binsh to ciearise the inner ^a^^^
. ;

..

r. .

i;

,'

f'

- :-

CURVED SCISSORS,

Curved scissors to trim the lamp-wicks.
'

CALIB:RE^ -

A cri7{i?'-e of tiri,,curved at its extrbmity,tbbriable the,keeper to cut
the wicks the pl'bpetlbrigth.'
, '
^ ^^ ^^ ^
^ ^ ^
-- '
:' "



M A N D R I L , OR W I G ? : - M O U L D .
•1

'

•

•

.

A conical mandril, of tin br^.wopd, to facilitate the fitting of the wick .
on the holder. .
,
;•,
TIN DRIPPING-PAN.

.

,

L. -The dripping-pan is flat and square; i t has a double bottom; the
upper portion is riioveable,;and pierced with holes the lower portion
has a spout-^by which.to pbtir^off the'liquid; it ,is used to drain the
burners,,the lariips, &c.. /
;; • ; • ; ; • •
.
.
'

• ; ._,THE:HAND-LA.NTERN.

*
^

^. • '." '

"-'

.
-

" ' ' • , .' ,.

LI. This lanterri is used for-, the dpuble puppAse of giving light to the
keeper arid to enable him to light the fight-house, i . ..
;
- Orie pf the sides pfthia lantern IS.^^^^
tp:receiye a ismafi-hand-lanip,
called a'^lucerne.^^ ^ '
;• •
i
.:, .'
' .,
••' . : ; •

;'

' '

'

' . ;

-/.^

L U C E R N E .••'.-'

' •,_., \-_ • , ' .

,: ...•••,;-_

• -. '

.^

LIL *The luccT-ne is used t p ignite the wick'.of the light-house lamp.
In the: cpritreis a screw stopper, which is remoyed when it is npcess^ry,
to renew the .wick or fill it witfi oil; riear the handle is a sriiall air tube,,
on which the.thumb is placed.to prevent the escape of the oil when the
Zwcerweis used to light the wick ofthe l a ^
: : ::.
i

•' -, /

•

-..

.

'

•'• * ' • • ' " •

'

-'OIL-GAN.

:'••,-:

' - ^ ""

f

i,

- '

•' LIII* The oil-can is used to fill the .reservoir ofthe lamps. It must be
placed e.very night,^ filled vyitfi oil,- on t h e seryice table of the fight-house,
chamber, so that, if required, the reservoir, of ;the spare lamp may be
filled without delay, i . „ " / ; . : ^ „' . / /
'•
. '
.

1^ ' • • • - . ' • • ^ i

•:/,;

_
'

^ ' . : /

LAMKP''S.TA.NI).

.-.r^'

••,-..:.

.-

^^

"'

:LIV, The shape of the lamp stand varies with that of the lamp.which
it has to suppPrt. Each light-house is furnishbd with tWbpf these articles. One must ahvays :be ke.pt o n t h e table of the iantern chamber;
the other inthe stbreropna of the. lig^^
.
'. ..
. . .
•' :.-'/, " .', :'•'".- /•^'•/•. • -,' / j i i p u G E ' % c r i c ; - . - \ ,,< '':
•

'^'-'f

\

'

-;LV. This box cbiitains anpther,.iri which is'^kept the rouge, in cake
or in powder. / , . ' , . / / • - . : .'.^ .'.'•.-"
Qn the top jof the inside bo
thebuff leather used only to
rub the rouge; when it is employed tb. cleari; the apparatus arid the:
glasses of the'laritern. :>
/.; / v: ^ ; ::
. •':'"•':':•

•/'•*:/

•/'•/'/.

" • ' • , - " . T R I P O L I . "-.^ "'

,-•":,..',

,, •'

,• .

-• * i

LVI. T h e trippfi must be ericlosed in d box, and used exclusively to
clean the brass.and copper utensils.



S^ Doc. 22.

im.

PENCILS. ,

LVlI. These are used, ordinarily, foi putting the polishing rouge
lipon the surfaces of the glass t o b e cleaned;
\ ".- •
HAND-BRUSHES.

,

LVIIL The hand-brush, or baker's brush, is of a half-round shape,
and has a handle ten to'fifteen inches long; i t i s used, for the lanterri
frame,interior walls, the forir br five last steps'of the.stairs, &c. - Accidents;
inight occur frprn: the use of the* brdinaiy broomj in consequence of the
length of the handle."
"
'/ . ' . i : v
;
.

S I L V E R - P L A T E R ' S BRUSH.

^ - .

-

^

LIX. This brush serves to rub the pieces of cppper on which tripoli
has been used. It is particularly desigried for those parts of the re volv-,
ing machiriefy made of coppet,.
'
'
^
;
i
' •'

• • .' ; /

'

.."•- > E A : T H E R , : B R U S H i ' . \ ' / • ' ' / f , ' / \ ' - • ••

•-••."

LX, The feather brush is rised: to d ust the illrifnlnating - apparatus,
the glass of the laritern, the frame^and rofiers,' arid the cage of the reyblvingmachinery. ,- i ; '
.^[
' ^ v i '
,- /
\

LXI, These pincers may perhaps becbriie riecessary wheri broken
glass is required. to be placed in the lanterri, ; To reduce,, by' small,
quantities, the dimensions of a plate of glass, place the pincers i n such
a nianner that the biUs:m,ay seize the edge of theglass, making a.very
short angle with themi^vlri pressing a little, on-the brariches of the pincers,' and :in turning the hand put, the small:particles of glass will be
, removed,/^ .-That operatiori pught to be executed very siovvly, arid with
much care, observing to remove b u t a very small quantity:'at a time.
;

SCREW^PRIVER, KEY, A N D - H A M M E R . " i

:,

LXII.r Screw-driyers and keys are used for« mouriting arid d
ing the revolving riiachlneiy.-Afterthey haye been used, they ought
^.to be rubbed with a .pie:ceoj'cloth, smeared with taUow or hpg's laxdj
and kept: in a dry place..
; ^ ; ':
:, :
"
SPECIAL IMPLEMENTS CONNECTED WITH HYDROSTATIC LAMPS.
•

'.i'. • .
_

- ,'.
^

_. ' • • L I Q U I D - M E A S U R E .

" ' " : , ; , : ^ '•;•'., !
-

•'

LXIII. This measureis of the exact 'shape o r the prdinary oil-can;
it is gauged to Contain the .quantity of dissolved sulphate of zriic nec.esisary to charge a l a m p .
: •
/
; ; ; v



S. Doc. 22.

175

OIL-CAN.

LXIV. This oil-can does not differ from, the ordinary oil-can but in
its upper part, which- is arranged to receive" the funnel-stopper which
was described in article 18.
'
.
AREOMETER.

.

.-

LXV,This^^ Yfery fragile instrumentds enclosed in a paper box. I t
serves to- test the density of the dissolved sulphate pf ziric. . The proper
density will be indicated by this instrumerit being inserted in the liquid,,
and the scale malritaining itself even, with the surface.
;

IMPLEMENTS FOR THE USE OF SIDEREAL LAMPS.
CIRCULAR SCRAPER.

;

LXVI. Is forrried of a,smallironstemi havirig.at its extremity a small
iron circle tb scrape the outside of the wick-holder, and at the other
end a smairdisk to scrape the interior.
-\.
^

: BURNER-DRIPPER, OR cup;-^

'

LXVII. The'burner-dr.iip,per, or cupVis a sriiall tin vessel, with a rim.
- The foregoing iN^TRUCTibNS and DIRECTIONS are designed to guide .
the engineers, inspectors, and .fight-keepers, iri the performance of their
respectivP duties,, and they are required ^io: follbw themin all casPs i n
which they are applicable to the. light-house service offthe United
•Statesv .. " • :•. • -. • ^ ;•./ '} >' " —, ' ,•• ^'' '-f.-- • ^ / - / . •
^
'" , '
By order ofthe Light-houserBbard:
:
• :• \
: ; . ;
:.
- W ; B . SHUBRICK,.chairman.
'THORNTON A . JENKINS', ., '.. )' o

T<
7

? • T -c^ TT •

'. ^ •'-- V

* - y Secretaries,

'.-^ •''

- - '

•

v

-

LDM D L . 1 . HARDCASTLE, )
;

:

.
Approved:
•

.

:•

TREA.SURY P E P A I I T M E N T ,

:
:'
. '

/

.

Washingtori^ December.18, 1852,
/. /
T H O . CORWIN,;
^
^^
Secretary of fhefPreasury,
:

.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,

• r . Register's Office, Janiiary 15, 1853.
' SIR : I have the. honor to transmit the: follPwirig staternents, required
i b y the resolution'ofthe'Senate of the 30th ultimo, in relation tb the mari ne-hbspItaLfund," v i z : . ' ^ -,
V : / ,:
; '
.
-^.f
T. Statement of the hospital money collected anriually under the act
ofthe 16th July,1798.- : / , . /. '
: < ^ >.. '
•
' •'
U. Staternerit of the appropriations by Congress fo marine hospitals,
sites, furnitrire, walls, and repairs. ,' •;
..
'
; .' ^
' V . Statement of the marine-lipspitar fund bn the 1st July, 1852.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
- i'- :
f-/'J ^ / S A R G m % Register,, .
Hon.

THOMAS CORWIN,

'

Secretary of the Treasufy^^



'

'

'

. ^

S. Doc. 22.

,176

Statement of the amount of marine-hospital nioney collected annually from
seamen under the act of' July 16, 1798.
Amount collected.

Years endingDecember 3 1 . . - O . . . . . 1 8 0 2 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : ^ . . . . : - . . .

. l805:°!/:"I[!]!l/'!^!^^!!'*!!/"?^:!!'"!!^!:!X-"^
• • 1806.^..;..v:....-..'^..;...w..-r:.-v.-'-'v--V--T-->'

• '

• : • l809':[^l^:!!J/"!•!]!'^•!JXJ....:.:....^v.^"^
', ,-.' '• 'i8i2:!!v:^!;!/!!/I!!!]]..-....:..J^:.i..^.-....-j..i..

-'

;;.. :'

_ . r -ms^"^.'J^.^^V^/^^'f.^^^^^

• •-"'-aspC^CX"-:-^':::/::'!^^^^^

.;. l82£!!!!/•"/!"C:i/'^l]v^^!],i^"I!/i:![•lI^^
r - ' , . . ' - / ' •-••• -issse....::.....................•^...J..:.'....'.w.^.

"'..

' , ..'-

r

:./i836..,.......,.,.^.:..<...:...............-.....-..,^.

• . : i8iivI!-!I!!!-]!:[^!^!^!!!]:]!/!]*:!;""!J/]!!!-!;

. • ..•••^, • ' , , 1842..:..,.........:;•..,^:.'....I..-. ...:.'.v^.-....::....
.
Six months, to June, 1 8 4 3 . - . : - . . . . . . . . . i . , . , : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . : . . .
Year ending .June 30,; 1 8 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . : . . . . . . .
...
'
...-..:.
: - • • • , .-'"^'i;'^;^--• 1845.;,,....l.::..-;...:,.^..^...-.:..v...'...:..'^
• T 8 4 8 v . . . . ; . i . . .i!v'!'":]:!:!}]l/!^'^'*-!!/^:!!]]]"!
-",

• / • • • / • :

:'.:•

• : i ^ 4 9 : . . . . . : . . , . : . . . ^ . . - : : : . - ; . . ^ : . . ^ . . . . . . : ; , : . . . .

.'-^\m)./.A......:/...

......;-..i^..;j..-.":

' " '-'•'•;.^'';., i 8 5 i . , . - . l . . . . . . - , . : . • - . . i ^ . . ^ . L : . . . . . _ . . _ i ^ : . . . . . ' :
1852, as far as'ascertained..-....! . - - v . . : . . . 1 . - , . - ' . .
Deduct receiyed by R. Amold,. lata -collector, of. Perth ^Ji^boy, and not
, paid into.tie; tr:easury.,.:.;.:..'..,.,;. - - . . . . . : . . .^'.. / j ^ . . . . - . : JJ...,..

$109,954 56
54,933 21
: 58,210 98. , ,5,8,005-98
66,820; 01
61,474 47
36,515 44
*74,192 42
^ 54, 309 "^3.1 •
'
,54,5.86 34
42,421 46
.21,789^58
10,280 73
^8, 374-,74:
'43, 864 2 1
46,630 59
,> 49,239 58
50,405'84
48,765 01
..> 48, 569^99
51,923 72
' 53,062 91
"51,895 38
57jt)32'39
' "58,112 5 1
' .58>254.26
56,223 31
5^,361 34;
:. .59,492 21
59,182 17
'
58,942:56
• 62,901 15
64,532 98,
, ;66,621:77;
67,961 02
27;021 24
35,233,92
66,311 83
71,"878 7 3 • ,73,568 2972,462 98
37,417 18
.: 85,-017 71 •
88; 074 34."
., 88,630 60
95,199:05
.; : 99,,948;14,
. '101,.'904 15

.ii7;fei 98:

• 122; 438 62
132,573 55
3,2l9,5p6<44

.' 2,045 08^
3,217,461-36
* Ofthis amount $38,513:96: was receivei from th
act Mar: 3,1799.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT Register's Office, Jamdry. 14, 1853.' « ' N. SAI^G^NT;jRe^is^er; .




177

§. Doc. 22.

u.
Statement of the appropriations by Congress, for marine hospitals, sites,
' ^ furniture, ivalls, and repairs.
'

Years.

. At what ports. -

>i83a.'.-.
; Charleston, S. C. - ......do
1832
1834 •'' • . . ; .
do...... 1838.. ' . . ' - . . . . . J . - . d o . . . . . . . . . . .
r .

Amount.
......

:

;. 1.

:

I-

1837.
1837
1844.
1848
1849
1851..

.^
'
$32,360 00

:

Boston, Mass, (see n o t e ) . . . . .
"-.-I Vy^ashington, D. C:

00
00
00.
00

• ' / • • ' •

Norfolk Va
.:
1833 . . - .
1840-.': . . . . . . d o . . - . . . . . . - - . . - . . .
1849.-...:-. . . . . i . . do
^
1
1835 -

$25,000
4,360
1,000
2,000

.:..

Total.

• 3, 875 .00
4,000 00
1,600 00

.

...

^
9,475 00
. •500 00

...-...'...

''':'"

-

New'Orleans, La. •..-....'.-'.
....•-:.: ....
do
".
.'
do
...
•.
do.-..-..........
d o . . . -:
-.....-.--'.
• '

'...

' .

100 00

70,000 00
30,000.00
21,69.6 00
7,500 005,500 00

' ^
134,696 00

1837..--.. . . .
1839 .
.
1842-...." ^ .
.
1849.........
1851.1842

10,000 00'
15,000 00
15,000 00
7,500-00
- 2,330 00

Mobile, Alabama
V..
.do.
..
..."....-..
. . . . . . do. -. - - . .
:..:.
. . . . . . do
......:
...--.do..---...:.-.

49,830-00
10,000 00

.'• 'Ocracoke . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 8 4 5 ' . . - . . - . . ' Key West
ia5i
..: ......do

25,000 00
600 00

....

25 600 00
1842..^
: . Cleveland, Ohio :
1849:..:
do
1850.........
do
1851.;
..
do
:....
1852.\-.....:
do

12,000
10,000
- 6, 667
•24,011
2,000

-..:
:........
.
.

00
00
00
00
00
54,678 00

1842......*.!..
1849
• ...
1850-..'.
18.51...
1852

Pittsburg - . ' . - . ;
- .•
. . . - -. do. 1 1 . - - - . . . - - - - . '
......do
...-......;.
.-.--.do...
:.
-. do .
. ..-

i .
,
:......•

lO;253 00
10,000 00
11,667 00
28,753.42
1,563 48
62,236 90

1'842--.'
Louisville,. Ky 1849..-.
do
1850.....
. . . do
do
1851
• '. .
1 8 5 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . do .

....:..........
.

6,000
10,000
, 11,687
19,000
2,000

00
00
00
00
00

1,000
10,000
20,000
7,625
2, 000

00
00
00
00
0,0

• 48,667 00
1842....
-. ' Paducah
1849
.
..do
1850......... .
do' 1851......... ......do
1852
1
do

.^...;
:

;
^

^
' 40,625 03.

12



i7B

S.-Doc. 22.
U—Continued.
At what i)6rts.

Years.,

Amount.

1842.
1849..
1850.
1351:
1852.

St. Louis, Mo.
.....do......
:.-..xlo
.....do.:....
...:.do......

$7-, 468
10,000
20,000
'1,871
.2,000

00
00
00
30
00

1842,
1849.
18^0.
1851.
1852.

Napoleoii.....
do.
...-:.do:...:.
..--..do...:...
do:.....

1, 000
10,000
20,000
10,250

00
00
00
00

-;8842.
S849.

Nfitchez,-Miss.
.--..do..:...
do......
-do.
-do.

Total.

$41,339 30

im:
:i851.
1852.
1849:
1850.
1851.

•2,ooo,;oo

43,250 do

7, 000.00

io,'Ooo do
20,000 00
2,250.00
2,000 00
'41,250 00

Chicago,
do.
....:do:

;1,0,000 00
20,000 00
19,712 00
49,712 00

:.i85o:
1851,
1851.
1850-,
1852;
1852.

Evansville".
.....do.:.

10,^000 00
15,000 do
25,000 00
10,000 00

Vieksburg
San Francisco .
..:.-do

50, 000 00
.130,000 00
180,000 00
3p,'00Q 00

Portland .
Sites for marinie hospitals—;
'
On the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and
: Lake Erie .:
...'
At Pittsburgh, Louisville, and Cleveland.
Total-

15,000 00
25,000 00
929,319 20

NOTE.—In 1837 a tharine hospital-was built at Chelsea, Massaichusetts, and paid, for out of
the general fund, $27,603 .39; and,there was repaid, being from the sale.of-the old^hospital,
#2,875..-. - ,
•'
,
: • .
^ .
~
' • . ••
•
N.. SARGENT,-.' Register.
fREASUR'Y D E P A R T M - E N T ,

.-

Registers Office, Jcmnary 14, 1853,




179

-S. Doc. 22.
° .

.

V.

Statement of the marine hospital fund on the 1st July, 1852.
Amount of receipts, per statement A
...^ —
Received from the sale ofrthe old hospital at Chelsea-, Massachusetts...
Appropriations by Congress for the' relief of sick and disabled seamen..

3,217,46136
12,875 00
969,069 34
4,199,4©5 70

Payments from the treasury, for the relief of seamen, to the
30th June, 1852..":.:-..
. ^ . . . . . . . . . . $3,891,229 59
Carried to the surplus fund prior to 1 8 3 3 . . . . - - . . . . - .
.^ • '
537 33
3,891,766 92
Balance of the fund, July 1, 1852, subject to any variation, on the settlement
accounts not reported to this office, and to payments, not yet ascertained
for furnishing the five, marine hospitals provided for out of the appropriation of *20d,000'" for the relief of sick and disabled seamen," per'act of
the 30th September, 1850—(page 539, Little & Brovm's edition)...'.,'....

307,638 78

*NoTE.—By the act of .31st August, 1852, there Is an additional appropriation of $100,000.
"- •
•
•

': .

;. '

- •

TREASURY B E P A R T M E N T , ,

Register's Office, Jdnxmry 15, 1853.




N. SARGENT, i?e^5t6r.
'•

'

. . '

.