View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

I

annual

Federal

Reserve

Bank of Cleveland

-

1965

To the Banks in the Fourth Federal

Reserve District:

We are pleased to present the Annual Report of the Federal Reserve
Bank of Cleveland for 1965. On behalf of the directors, officers, and
staff, we gratefully acknowledge the cooperation and assistance of
the agricultural, commercial, educational, financial, and industrial
leaders of the Fourth District, who have given generously of their
time and effort in helping us carry out our responsibilities.
By almost any standard of measurement, the year 1965 was one
of the most successful in the nation's and the District's economic history. In the jargon of the times, nearly all economic indicators were
"A-O.K." Thus, both in the District and in the nation, production and
income expanded substantially, employment rose markedly, and unemployment receded significantly. Indeed, by year end, the problem
of a possible straining of resources was coming to the fore. During
1965, the nation's balance of international payments showed moderate improvement over previous years. Bankers in the Fourth District
made an important contribution to this improvement.
Against the background of a vigorous, expanding economy, we
have devoted this Annual Report to a discussion of the "challenge of
education." Quality education at all levels and ample educational
opportunities are basic ingredients of a favorably performing economy.
Education in the nation is a major growth industry that constantly
faces new and exciting challenges. This is no less true in the four
states that are wholly or partly within the Fourth Federal Reserve District. In these states, enrollments at all levels of education account
for about 14 percent of enrollments in the nation, and spending for
education accounts for approximately 10 percent of the national
total. Considerable progress has been made in meeting the burgeoning demands of education in recent years, but the accomplishment is by no means complete. Indeed, the task is only beginning
since demands for education in the years ahead will necessarily
mount. Success in meeting these demands-in
the Fourth Federal
Reserve District as well as in the nation-will
go a long way towards
enhancing the quantity and quality of our future economic output.

-J~~jN.~
Chairman

President

challenge
four

Education

in the United

fourth

States is a

major growth industry. While substantial
progress has been made in meeting burgeoning

needs, demands

particularly

for education,

beyond high school, will con-

tinue to rise sharply, thus posing a major
challenge

to the responsible

Enrollment

CONTENTS-

(public

levels of education

authorities.

and private)

(elementary,

at all

second-

ary, and higher) increased by about one-

Challenge

of Education

Comparative

.

Statement of Condition

2
18

half between 1954 and 1964, or from 36
to 53 million.

In the elementary

where registration

schools,

is greatest, the increase

Comparison of Earnings and Expenses

19

was 36 percent;

Directors.

20

schools and in the colleges and univer-

21

sities advanced

Cincinnati Branch Directors and Officers

22

82 percent and 97 percent,

Pittsburgh Branch Directors and Officers

23

Officers

.

enrollments

much

more

rapidly,

or

respectively.

The greater rate of expansion

of enroll-

ments in secondary and higher education
reflects in part the relatively

2

in the high

large rise in

of education
district

states

the birth rate following

World War II. It

also reflects, particularly

in recent years,

an increased awareness of the impor-

uct, had increased to nearly 6 percent

an adequate financial

of GNP by 1964.

formidable.

While future increases in enrollments

Enrollment.

base are indeed

Problems

involved

in

tance of education as a means of broad-

and expenditures

ening

and social

cases at the same rates as those of the

equally important to those states that are

high school was a

past decade, they nevertheless are ex-

wholly

individual

opportunities.

economic

While

may not occur in all

meeting

the needs of education

or partly within

are

the Fourth Fed-

common standard of achievement a gen-

pected to be substantial. For example, by

eral Reserve District -

eration ago, college and graduate school

1975, if current trends continue,

Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. (The re-

education

ment in higher education will have dou-

lationship

bled again. On the other hand, projected

Fourth District is shown on the map on

rates of increase from the present to 1975

the back cover. For the purposes of this

in elementary and secondary enrollments

report, each of the four states identified

have now become more fre-

quent goals.
Total expenditures for education in the
United States are an indication

of the

enroll-

Kentucky, Ohio,

of these four states to the

magnitude of the expansion. The costs of

are less than the college rate, or 20 per-

above is considered

elementary, secondary, and higher edu-

cent and 25 percent,

spective of its relationship

cation in the United States increased from

short, enrollment

nearly $14 billion

in 1954 to $36 billion

respectively.

In

at all levels is expected

District.)

in its entirety,

irre-

to the Fourth

Total enrollments

of students

to total over 70 million students by 1975,

at all levels of education in the four states

in 1964, or at an average annual rate of

as compared

in 1964 were as follows:

growth of $2.2 billion. Spending for edu-

These projected

cation, which in 1954 accounted for less

indicate that the tasks of providing

than 4 percent of Gross National

cational facilities and teaching staffs with

Prod-

with

53 million

in 1964.

demands for education
edu-

3,166,000;
829,000;
Combined,

Ohio,

Pennsylvania,

2,909,000;

Kentucky,

and West Virginia,

495,000.

these figures amounted

to

3

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
ENROllMENT

u.s.

Millions

45

Source

of persons

Department

of Health,

Biennially

of doto:

Projections,

u.s.

Federal

Reserve

Bonk

Education,

and Welfare

of Cleveland

HIGHER EDUCATION
ENROllMENT

U.S.

Millions

10.0,......-~----

of persons

•••••
-----...,

Biennially

7.5 Four 5 ate.

0.5
""
•.•
~~

0.4

.,oo!:??::;ii""

0.3

~??';i'

~~

02

~

w.

Ohio
Ky.

_---

-=--e=E5~~~~~~

~

1954
Source

of doto:

u.s.

Projections,

Federal

NOTE:

in the three

Doto

Deportment

Reserve
charts

of Health,

Bank

Education,

and

Source

Welfare

'56

of data:

r-------Vo.

Department

of Health,

'
0.1

__Jo

'58 '60 '62 '64

u.s.

_-

'75

Education,

and

Welfare

of Cleveland

include

public

and

nonpublic

enrollment.

7,399,000 students, or nearly 14 percent

table). Moreover,

of the total enrollment

education

at all levels of

enrollment

in Kentucky

in higher

is expected

to

Virginia during 1954-64 was considerably
less than in the other states of the Fourth

education in the United States. Similarly,

double again by 1975 (see accompany-

District. In none of the states, however,

spending for education in the four states

ing chart). The number of college-bound

is secondary enrollment

taken together amounted to 10.5 percent

students in Pennsylvania and Ohio is ex-

nearly as fast in the next ten years as in

of the total in the nation in 1964, or more

pected to increase by three-fourths

the preceding

In each of the four states, higher eduduring

the past decade experi-

Recent and projected

increases

higher education enrollment

decade. The projected

rates of increase cluster at 25 percent

in West Virginia by two-thirds.

than $3.7 billion.

cation

and

expected to rise

in

in the four

for Ohio,

Pennsylvania, and West Vir-

ginia. For Kentucky, the projected

rate

enced a considerably more rapid rate of

states are based in large part upon the

is 29 percent. The higher rate projected

increase in enrollment

sharp gains in secondary enrollment

be-

for Kentucky reflects mainly the relative-

elementary or secondary education, thus

tween 1954 and 1964. As in the nation

ly large number of children in the early

paralleling

as a whole, high school enrollment

school years. (The median age of the

the pattern

than did either

for the United

States as a whole. During 1954-64, college
enrollment

in Kentucky increased by 120

percent, virtually

doubled

in West Vir-

creased by more than four-fifths
while

in-

in Ohio,

Kentucky and Pennsylvania with

increases of about three-fifths

were not

population

in Kentucky is the lowest of

any of the four states and two years below the national median.)

ginia and Ohio, and increased by about

far behind

(see chart). The 30-percent

The expected slower rate of increase

70 percent in Pennsylvania (see center

increase in secondary enrollment in West

in high school enrollment in turn is based

4

on the relatively slow growth in elemen-

between 1950 and 1960 the school-age

tary-age group to the higher-age groups

tary school

population

will result in greater increases in the pop-

through

population

the eighth

1954-64 period.

(kindergarten

grade) during

Ohio, with

the

an enroll-

ment increase of over two-fifths,

experi-

(5 to 24 years of age) as a

percent of the total population

increased

markedly in Ohio and somewhat less in
Pennsylvania. Although

the school-age

ulation groups at the secondary and higher education levels.
Despite the varying percentage changes

enced by far the largest relative gain of

population in Kentucky remained virtual-

in the three school-age groups between

the four states at the elementary level.

ly unchanged during the period and that

1950 and 1960, the percentage of indi-

The increase in elementary enrollment in

of West Virginia

viduals enrolled

Pennsylvania during the ten-year period

states in 1960 still had larger school-age

each state. At the same time, there was

was about 30 percent. West Virginia and

populations in proportion

to total popu-

an overall

increase in the educational

Kentucky were among the few states in

lation than either Ohio or Pennsylvania.

attainment

level of the population.

the nation to experience a decline or only

Thus, Kentucky and West Virginia have

adult population

a small increase in elementary enrollment.

Demographic

Characteristics.

Changes in the number of students en-

declined,

those two

in school climbed

for

The

(25 years of age and

had greater burdens in educating their

over) in each of the states had relatively

youth than have the other two states.

more education

Of the three school-age groups, the

and elementary (see accompanying

college, secondary,
in 1960 than in 1950
chart).

While

the

rolled at the various levels of education

number

reflect at least three demographic

fac-

school group (5 to 13 years of age) in-

number of those who had "some high

changes in the total number of

creased as a percent of the total popula-

school"

persons of school age, changes in the

tion in each of the four states during the

in each of the four states between 1950

age distribution

period

the

and 1960, Ohio and Pennsylvania main-

changes in the percentage of each of

college-age group (18 to 24 years of age)

tained their relative advantage. By 1960,

the subgroups enrolled in school. Latest

declined relatively in each state and the

all four states were fairly close in the pro-

data available on the school-age popula-

secondary

portion of the adult population

tion in each state are from the 1960 Cen-

stable. In the years ahead to 1975, the

had "some college" training, with Ohio

sus. As shown in an accompanying chart,

movement of those now in the elernen-

maintaining its relative leadership in the

tors -

within

this group, and

of persons in the elementary

-

under review.

In contrast,

or high school

group

was

increased by at least 6 percent

that had

5

SCHOOL-AGE

18·24

GROUPS

as a PERCENT of TOTAL

YEARS

14·17 YEARS

Source

of doto:

U.S. Department

of Commerce

percent of those who had had four years

cent study of the characteristics of the

or more of college.

labor force indicated a marked difference

The rise in the level of educational

in the level of educational attainment of

attainment is due to a number of factors.

employed

A major reason is the increase in the real

Thus, as shown

and unemployed

persons.

in an accompanying

income of families both in the United

chart, in March 1964 nearly three-fifths

States and in the four states under re-

of employed persons (18 years and over)

view. With each succeeding generation,

had four years of high school or more.

a larger proportion

In contrast, of the unemployed members

of families has been

able to afford the cost of educating their
children

through

high school and col-

of the labor force, only two-fifths

had at

least graduated from high school. These

lege. Another long-term factor has been

figures suggest a correlation

the substantial and continuing movement

employment

of the population

from a rural, agricul-

school. Other studies have shown that

tural environment

to urban, industrial

areas where the importance

of higher

between

and completion

of high

increased demands forworkerswith

more

education are not concentrated in occu-

education is more apparent, and its at-

pations requiring

tainment more readily available.

training, but rather are distributed

More recently, rapid gains in the technology of the economy have greatly in-

over

a wide range of occupations.

Role of the Federal Government.

creased the demands for persons with

Recognizing

advanced education. For example, a re-

requires

6

the highest levels of

that the national

an educated

interest

citizenry,

the

POPULATION

YEARS of SCHOOL COMPLETED by POPULATION
25 YEARS of AGE and OVER
Percentage

Source

of doto:

U.S. Department

distribution

of Commerce

Federal Government
helping improve

has moved toward

education

tional opportunities

and educa-

at all levels. In gen-

below

a specified

minimum,

currently

set at $2,000. On the basis of such criteria, school districts

in Kentucky and

eral, this represents a shift in emphasis

West Virginia will

by the Federal Government in the area of

as much per pupil as those in Pennsyl-

education from expenditures for special

vania and Ohio.

purposes, somewhat

narrowly

defined,

to more broadly conceived programs.
The Elementary and Secondary Educa-

receive nearly twice

Other smaller programs of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act include
grants to help purchase books and other

tion Act of 1965, which authorized a total

materials for libraries of nonprofit schools,

expenditure

the

both public and private; grants for educa-

first year, was signed into law last April.

tional research and training of personnel;

The Act is the largest legislative commit-

grants to strengthen state departments of

ment to improve elementary and secon-

education;

dary education ever made by the Federal

education centers that will offer compre-

Government.

hensive guidance and counseling,

authorized

of $1.3 billion

during

The bulk of the funds is

for a three-year program of

grants to states, which will

be allotted

and grants for supplemental

cialized instruction

spe-

in advanced science,

foreign languages, art and music, as well

to school dis-

as for centers that will develop radio and

tricts where 3 percent or more of the

television broadcasts for classroom use.

for current expenditures

children between 5 and 17 years of age

In some of these programs, special incen-

come from families with annual incomes

tive grants are offered

to those school

7

districts that show increased efforts on

tribution

their own, as measured by current expen-

higher education is actually understated

ditures for education.

in the accompanying chart. For one thing,

helps to broaden the school tax base and

only federal funds for current expendi-

makes possible a greater equalization

tures (but not for capital purposes) are

educational opportunity

renewed and expanded the Higher Edu-

included;

Revenue sources tapped by states also

cation Act of 1963. This legislation

higher education made indirectly through

tend to keep better

thorized $845 million during the first year

state governments

price levels and increasing personal in-

to assist public and other nonprofit

state

The Congress has also provided assistance to higher education.

In 1965, it

au-

insti-

of the Federal Government

also, federal

funds.

payments

are included

As the chart

to

to

under

indicates,

elementary

and secondary

education

of

within the state.

pace with

rising

comes than do revenues derived from

tutions of higher education to finance the

the Federal Government

construction

to

portant source of funds for higher edu-

support of public

loans and scholarships to stu-

cation in the nation as a whole than in

ondary schools by the state is a more

the states of the Fourth District. One rea-

important

families,and to provide funds for libraries

son is that these states received propor-

Pennsylvania, and West Virginia than in

and for extension programs.

tionately

Ohio, or in the nation as a whole.

provide

dents from

of academic

low-

facilities,

and middle-income

Sources of Funds. An accompanying
chart shows the sources of funds for current expenditures on education in 1959-

is a more im-

and excise taxes. State support of public

smaller amounts for research,

which is the most important

source of

federal aid to higher education.
Public

elementary

and

property

taxes. As the chart indicates,
elementary

and sec-

source of funds in Kentucky,

All levels of government,

taken to-

gether, provide about 45 percent of the

secondary

current funds for education beyond high

60, the most recent period for which data

schools obtain most of their funds from

school in the United States. In West Vir-

are available for all levels of education.

local governments,

As indicated in the chart, federal aid is

heavily

for

more than one-half of current operating

proportionately

school purposes. State support of public

expenses for higher education, the gov-

schools is usually financed by nonprop-

ernment share exceeds the national aver-

erty tax sources such as income, sales,

age. Government

greater for higher edu-

cation than for public

elementary

secondary schools. Moreover,

8

and

the con-

on property

which

in turn

rely

ginia, where

taxes levied

government

provided

contributes

about

36

YEARS of SCHOOL,
EMPLOYED and UNEMPLOYED,

percent of funds to higher education in
Kentucky,

24 percent

in Pennsylvania,

The major sources of funds for private
higher education

are student

and 27 percent in Ohio in the academic

cluding

income

year 1959-60. As would be expected, the

services, endowments,

financial contribution

Related services include

of government

to

tuition),

from

U.S. LABOR FORCE 18 YEARS and OVER,
MARCH 1964

fees (in-

Percentage

distribution

related

gifts, and grants.
the amounts

higher education for current purposes in

spent by colleges and universities

each state is influenced by the extent to

cafeterias, residence halls, student unions,

which

and bookstores, and are approximately

public

institutions

in terms of enrollment.

are dominant

Although private

colleges and universities

receive some

financial support from all levels of government,

such aid is a relatively

fOT

covered by student expenditures for these
services.

Elementary & Secondary Education.

Source

of dato:

Monfhly

Labor

Review,

May 1965

minor

The table in the center of this report pre-

source of funds and is primarily from the

sents a profile of significant physical and

Federal Government

financial trends in education for the de-

stantially.

cade 1954-64.

public elementary and secondary schools

for

research pur-

poses.
Funds for higher education
by local governments

provided

have been com-

paratively small. Contributions

have been

Schools and Students.
percent of the enrollment

More than 85
in elementary

In 1964, enrollment

in non-

in Pennsylvania was the largest of the
four states -

about one-fourth

of total

and secondary schools in the nation is

enrollment. West Virginia, with less than

accounted for by public schools, and the

5 percent enrolled in non public schools,

remainder

by nonpublic

had by far the lowest proportion.

local governments, however, is expected

proportion

has remained approximately

to become more important

constant over the past decade. Among

percent,

the four states of the Fourth District, the

public schools, were closer to the pro-

extent of nonpublic education varies sub-

portion

primarily

to municipal

institutions.

Sup-

port of this type of higher education by

ahead with
colleges.

the growth

in the years

of community

schools. This

Ken-

tucky and Ohio, with 13 percent and 16
respectively,

enrolled

in non-

for the nation as a whole.

9

SOURCES

of FUNDS for CURRENT EXPENDITURES
Academic

year

Percentage

1959·1960

distribution

PUBLIC ELEMENTARY
and SECONDARY EDUCATION

Source

of doto:

u.s.

Department

of Health,

Education,

and Welfare

Enrollment in the elementary schools

amount

in Kentucky and Pennsylvania increased

locally.

during the ten-year period under review,
although

the number

of elementary

schools in those states declined.

In the

case of West Virginia, both the number
of pupils and the number of schools declined, and in Ohio both increased. Insofar as the secondary level is concerned,
there were reductions in the number of
schools

in all four states, against the

background of rising enrollments. Reduction in the number of elementary schools
was due to the widespread

closing of

one-teacher schools, which in turn was
facilitated

by school district reorganiza-

tion and consolidation

of smaller dis-

tricts. School districts provide
chinery through which

the ma-

local control

of

schools is exercised, and are largely responsible for the location

and size of

schools, the types of educational
grams and services

10

offered,

pro-

and the

of financial

As would

support

provided

be expected, the size and

characteristics

of local school

districts

vary from state to state. Thus, Ohio had
relatively

fewer one-teacher

schools in

1954 than any of the other states in the
Fourth District because a reorganization
program had already been instituted. Although an extensive school building program to accommodate
ments occurred

rising

throughout

enroll-

the United

States during the past decade, the total
number

of public

schools did not in-

crease.This was because the new schools,
whether built for replacement or expansion, were

designed

to accommodate

more pupils per school.
The number of classroom teachers in
the United States in both the public elementary and secondary schools has kept
pace with

enrollment.

(Complete

data

on classroom teachers are not available
for nonpublic

schools in 1954.} How-

ever, in individual

states the balance

As would be expected from the growth
of secondary
number

school

enrollment,

of high school

Current expenditures have increased rap-

the
in-

graduates

idly throughout

the United States as well

as in the four states of the Fourth District,

creased rapidly during the 1954-64 peri-

even after adjustment for changes in en-

for example, the number of public sec-

od.ln part, this reflected an improvement

rollment, indicating that influences other

ondary classroom teachers increased by

in the "retention

than enrollment

70 percent, while the number of students

of the "dropout

was not

always maintained.

In Ohio,

rate" (the complement
rate")

that

occurred

also contribute

heavily

to the costs of education.

high schools of the State

during the most recent five-year period.

Pennsylvania, with $479 per pupil, was

increased by 87 percent. Similarly in Ken-

Thus, public high school graduates in the

the only Fourth District state that spent

tucky, public high school enrollment

United States in the academic year 1963-

about as much as the United States aver-

by 68 percent while the number of class-

64 represented

age of $484 per pupil in 1964, although

in the public

rose

nearly three-fourths

of

room teachers increased by 50 percent.

the class that entered the ninth grade in

Ohio, with an average of $465, was not

On the other hand, in Pennsylvania and

1960-61, as compared with two-thirds

far behind. Kentucky and West Virginia

West Virginia the increase in classroom

the ninth

teachers

graduated in 1958-59. (Comparable

at the secondary

level

was

greater than the rise of enrollment.
(Although not shown separately in the
center table, in the United States as a
whole,

the size of "other

instructional

staff," which includes principals,

librari-

grade class of 1955-56

of

that
fig-

ures are not available for the four states

less, or about

$325 per pupil.
One of the factors contributing

to in-

creased expenditures per pupil has been

being discussed here.)
Finances. A major problem at all levels
of education

each spent considerably

is that of raising funds to

higher salaries for instructional

staff. The

estimated national average annual salary

meet steadi Iy increasi ng costs. (Discus-

for all instructional

staff in 1964 was

ans, and guidance and psychological per-

sion refers only to public elementary and

about $6,200, which

compared

sonnel, virtually

secondary schools, since historical

figure of $3,800 in 1954. The salary figure

ing enrollment.)

kept pace with mount-

are not available for nonpublic

data

schools.)

includes compensation

with

a

of principals and

11

profile

of
KentuckJ.

United States
1954

1964

% Change

26,138
22,546
3,592

35,525
30,025
5,500

+ 36
+ 33
+ 15

529
484
45

561
482
79

122,614
110,875
11,739

96,672
81,910
14,762

21
26
+ 26

4,496
4,258
238

2,761
2,501
260

42,825

13,333

69

2,389

993

7,037
6,290
747

12,791
11,391
1,400

+ 82
+ 81
+ 87

123
108
15

202
181
21

29,550
25,637
3,913

29,479
25,350
4,129

1
5

619
508

510
429
81

PHYSICAL

1954

1964

Elementary
Full-time enrollment
public
nonpublic

(in thousands) .

Number of schools
public
nonpublic
Number of one-teacher

schools

0

0
0

0

0
0
0

0

Secondary
Full-time enrollment
public
nonpublic

(in thousands) .

Number of schools.
public
nonpublic

1,276E
1,129

Number of high school graduates (in thousands)
public
nonpublic
Total Instructional
public
nonpublic

n.o.

1,232
1,098
134

Staff", Elementary and Secondary (in thousands)

Classroom teachers public
nonpublic

elementary

Classroom teachers public
nonpublic

737E
658

(in thousands)

secondary (in thousands) .

n.o.

421E
375
n.o.

g

0
0
0

+

III

21 E
18

0

0
0

35
31
4

2,296
2,021
275

+ 80
+ 79
n.c.

n.o,

1,933E
1,718E
215E

+ 57
+ 56
+ 60

22
20
2

32E
28E
4E

1,078
940
138

+ 46
+ 43

14E
13

18
16
2

755
685
70

+ 79
+ 83
n.o.

n.o.

10
9
1

n.c.

n.o.

7E
6

Higher Education
Enrollment in degree credit programs (in thousands) .
public
nonpublic

2,515
1,357
1,158

4,950
3,179
1,771

+ 97
+134
+ 53

30
19
11

66
46
20

Number of institutions
public
nonpublic

1,863
662
1,201

2,168
784
1,384

+
+
+

16
18
15

37
9
28

38
8
30

356,608
290,825
56,788
8,995

610,982
495,898
100,599
14,485

+
+
+
+

71
71
77
61

4,613
3,944
595
74

8,909
7,820
1,027
62

$272
$265
$ 80
$ 6

$486
$484
$ 85
$ 19

+ 79
+ 83
6
+
+217

$153
$153
$ 11
$ 2

$309
$324
$ 35
$ 12

$6,164
$5,963

+ 61
+ 65

$2,526
$2,465

$4,620
$4,400

Earned degrees conferred
bachelor's or first professional
master's or second professional
doctor's

FINANCIAL
Elementary and Secondary Public Schools
Revenues per pupil C ....
Current expenditures per pupil
Capital outlays per pupil.
Interest on school debt per pupil
Average annual salaries
instructional staff (including
classroom teachers .

classroom teachers)

$3,825
$3,615E
Source:

u.

S. Deportment of Health,
E - estimated

Education, and Welfare
n.o. - net available

education
(
1'1

"/0

West Virginia

1954

1964

% Change

1954

1964

% Change

1,371
1,145
226

1,966
1,615
351

+ 43
+ 41
+ 55

1,623
1,268
355

2,110
1,558
552

+ 30
+ 23
+ 55

361
351
10

320
306
14

3,7640
3,0580
7060

+
+
+

6
5
11

6,248
5,209
1,039

5,1700
3,8810
1,2890

- 17
- 26

9

3,563
2,926
637

+ 24

3,416
3,352
64

2,1170
2,0530
640

- 58

200

60

-

97

1,431

1180

-

92

1,759

6320

- 64

+ 87
+ 87
+ 89

506
431
75

804
655
149

+ 59
+ 52
+ 99

104
101
3

136
130
6

+ 31
+ 29
+100

11
16
13

403
382
21

3870
3650
220

-

Change

6

+

9

+ 76
-

39

r-

- 41
+
I

Pennsylvania

Ohio

~"

+ 64
+ 68
+ 40
-

-

18
16
27

+ 67
+ 72

-

374
329
45
1,297
1,139
158
67E
60

n.c.

n.c.

+ 45
+ 40
+100

61
53
8

+ 29
+ 23
n.c.

35E
31
n.c.

23E
20

701
616
85
1,2520
1,0920
1600

-

+

3
4
1

1,538
1,252
286

123
108
15

+ 84
+ 80

100E
81

n.c.

n.c.

101E
89E
12E

+ 66
+ 68
+ 50

74
62
12

59
51
8

+ 69
+ 65

40E
33

+ 61
+ 70
n.o.

1,3700
1,0470
3230

n.c,

-

+

155
125
30

+ 55
+ 54

113E
92E
21 E

+ 53
+ 48
+ 75

54
42
12

1954

% Change

1964

18E
18

- 11
- 13
+ 40
-

38

- 39

-

+

4
4
5

24
23
1

+ 33
+ 28

16
16

18E
18E

+
+

+ 35
+ 27

8
8

n.c.

9E
9
n.o,

+ 69
+72

6E
6

n.c.

49
43
6

n.c.

n.c.

n.c.

29E
25

n.c.

n.c.

f

f

n.c.

13
13

-

- 11
f

11
n.o,

10
10,

+ 67
+ 67

-

n.c.

n.c.

37
34
3

+120
+142
+ 82

126
67
59

242
146
96

+ 92
+118
+ 63

148
26
122

252
66
186

+ 70
+154
+ 52

20
15
5

39
30
9

+ 95
+100
+ 80

+

3

+ 21
+ 22
+ 21

115
16
99

129
16
113

12

-

+

14

21
10
11

20
10
10

-

7

75
11
64

+

+

62
9
53

-

+ 93
+ 98
+ 73
- 16

16,917
14,571
2,012
334

29,982
25,359
4,031
592

+ 77
+ 74
+100
+ 77

22,995
19,529
2,982
484

38,671
32,929
4,986
756

+
+
+
+

68
69
67
56

3,195
2,620
565
10

5,296
4,563
716
17

+
+
+
+

+ 43
+ 50

I

- 11

f

n.c.

5

-

9

~

66
74
27
70

"

'"

----'
+102
+112
+218
+500
+ 83
+ 79

$263
$254
$ 93
$ 8

$530
$465
$ 83
$ 20

+102
+ 83
- 11
+150

$4,012
$3,886

$6,100
$5,850

+ 52
+ 51

$273
$299
$ 65d
$ 4
$4,074
$4,012

$513
$479
$ 68d
$ 28
$6,060
$5,908

0) Latest doto available are for 1962.
b) Includes librarians,
principals, guidance counselors, and other supervisory personnel.
c) Does not include funds from short-term loans, bonds, and other long-term loans.
d) Includes outlays

by nonschool agencies.

+ 88
+ 60
5
+
+600

$185
$186
$ 49

+ 49
+ 47

$3,058
$2,969

e

e) Less thon $1.00.
f) Less thon 1,000.
g) less than plus or minus 0.5%'

$316
$327
$ 34
$ 4

+ 71
+ 76
- 31

$4,800
$4,725

+ 57
+ 59

-

supervisors

whose

considerably

salaries tend

to be

higher than those of class-

widely than current expenditures.
outlays for the United

Capital

States as a whole

of local school districts
cies, and a general

rise in the level of

room teachers. The Fourth District states

grew from $80 to $85 per pupil between

interest

in 1964 included

1954 and 1964.

states also experienced

states,

Ohio

two of the more typical

and

Pennsylvania,

with

Comparable

expendi-

rates. The four

tures per pupil in Ohio and Pennsylvania

interest

teachers' salaries averaging about $6,100,

also showed

view of the long-term

as compared

however,

also included

with

$4,000 in 1954; they

two of the lower

states, West Virginia

and Kentucky,

$4,800 and $4,620, respectively.
reason for the comparatively
crease in expenditures
secondary enrollment,

paying

large in-

per pupil
which

is that

usually in-

volves higher costs of operation
dent,

has accounted

proportion

at

Another

per stu-

for an increasing

of total enrollment.

change. In Kentucky,

but remained

well

substantially,

below

average. In West Virginia,
lays remained

below

capital

the national

age and showed a declining

outaver-

trend over

the ten-year period. (Analysis of the data
during

the intervening

that the terminal

years indicates

dates of 1954 and 1964

are representative

of the

period

to fixed

The third

as

funded

These outlays are financed

tion, interest

major

category

is interest

and unfunded

of school

payments

school

debt.

ing proportion

of school expenditures

on

debt. Be-

Higher Education.
variety of institutions

The number

and

in the United States have increased markedly during the past decade. Institutions

of instruction.

cover a wide range

For example, a junior

col-

lege offers the first two years of training

full

bond issues or other types of borrowing

per pupi I more than tripled for the United

grams in liberal

and tend to fluctuate

States, reflecting

leading

14

in

of higher education

usually

increasing indebtedness

to

ensuing years.

tween 1954 and 1964, interest payments

more

necessi-

rise further and to account for an increas-

level, while

somewhat

in

are expected

at the college

usually from

District

Moreover,

financing

payments

of higher education

expenditures

assets such as land, plant, and equipment.

on school

Fourth

large increases in

tated by a high level of school construc-

the national

a whole.)

In contrast to current expenses, capital
outlays are made for additions

little

they increased

and state agen-

offers

a university

undergraduate

arts, graduate

to the doctorate,

procourses

and courses

Source

preparing for entrance into various pro-

of data:

u.s.

in response to rising needs.

Department

of Commerce

year regionally accredited nonprofession-

fessions. Many other types of educational

Public colleges and universities in West

al colleges and universities in the states

and technical institutions have developed

Virginia now account for one-half of the

of the Fourth District that offer a general

institutions

recently in response to special needs.
The enrollment
universities
rapidly

in public colleges and

has expanded

much

more

in recent years than in private

colleges. Thus, in 1964, enrollment
public

institutions

of higher

in

education

and over three-fourths

tal enrollment

of to-

in that State. In Pennsyl-

vania, corresponding

figures are about

12 percent of all institutions

of higher

education and 26 percent of enrollment.

course of instruction

leading to a bacca-

laureate degree. These institutions
widely

vary

in size and tend to be concen-

trated in large urban areas.
As would be expected from the large

These two states have the largest and

rise in enrollment,

in the United States was about two-thirds

smallest

graduates has also increased substantially

of total enrollment.

public

Only ten years ear-

that in the public

with
in

in the United States and in each of the

the Fourth District states. In Ohio, public

Fourth District states (see center table).

was almost equal to

colleges and universities account for al-

Kentucky had the largest relative increase

most 15 percent of all educational

in the number of students earning the

institutions.

higher education enrollment
students in degree credit
reported

associated

in private edu-

lier, in 1954, enrollment
cational institutions

proportions

(Data on
include all

programs, as

by the Department

of Health,

and private higher education

the number of college

insti-

tutions beyond high school and for over

bachelor's

one-half of total enrollment.

during the 1954-64 period, while

lic educational

institutions

While pubin Kentucky

Education, and Welfare.) Although much

account for only 21 percent of all insti-

of the growth in enrollment

tutions of higher education, they include

has occurred

at existing colleges and universities and
their branches, a number of new two- and
four-year colleges have been established

more than two-thirds of total enrollment.
On the inside back cover of this report
is a map showing the location

of four-

experienced

or first

professional

degree
Ohio

the largest percentage rise

in graduate degrees.

Basic Economic

Factors.

achievement is important

Economic

in determining

the ability of a state to maintain and/or
expand education programs. The level of

15

INDEBTEDNESS OUTSTANDING for PUBLIC
elEMENTARY and $ECONDARY SCHOOLS

1954
Sources

'56

U.S. Deportment
of Health,
Education,
U.S. Department of Commerce

of doto:

'62

'60

'58

'64

and Welfare

and

personal income
ability,

is one measure of this

On a per capita

incomes

in Ohio

and

basis, personal
Pennsylvania

in

of the states to support education.
can be measured in two ways -

tion

the United

spending on education

while

per capita income

States increased

However,

in the United

by 44 percent between

1954-64, per capita income

in Ohio

in-

by will-

ingness to incur debt for school construc-

1964 were slightly higher than those for
States as a whole.

Effort

and by the relationship

As shown

between

the amount of debt outstanding

debt per pupil

chart,
for pub-

lic elementary and secondary schools was

and in West

three-fifths,

In an accompanying

the United States as a whole. School debt

income,

per pupil

effort,

with that for the United States,

capita income
fourths

and West

Virginia,

per

in 1964 was about three-

that for the nation

as a whole.

amount

in Ohio was almost the same
as that for the United

1962, while

per pupil

States in

debt in Pennsyl-

vania exceeded the national

average by

Nevertheless, per capita income in those

more than $30. In Kentucky

and West

states increased faster than in the United

Virginia debt was considerably

lower, or

States as a whole

the ten-year

$258 and $140, respectively.

increased

ing school

period;

during

per capita income

62 percent

in West Virginia

by

and by 50

In addition

to income,

nomic factor is the effort

16

another

eco-

or willingness

debt, even after adjustment

for the rise in enrollment,
doubled

percent in Kentucky,

Outstand-

in the United

more

than

States between

1954 and 1962. Kentucky,

with

an in-

crease of 142 percent, was the only State

while

rose by
Virginia

in Ohio

by

it in-

creased by about two-fifths.

of increase in Pennsylvania

In Kentucky

$500 per pupil in 1962 for

rapidly

average. School debt

in Pennsylvania

about

school

more

outstanding

approximately

identical

in which

increased

than the national

creased by only 35 percent. The percent
was almost

District

three-fourths

and income.

in an accompanying

in the Fourth

on education

is a second

measure of

which
is shown

for the states of the

and for the nation

Spending

and secondary
expenditures,

for public

capital

however,

outlays,

Spending
includes

as a

elementary

schools includes

ments for interest.
education,

spending

of personal

Fourth District
whole.

table,

as a percent

current

and payon higher
only cur-

rent expenditures

because funds for cap-

ital expenditures

are more likely

obtained
building
propriate

from

to be

gifts, grants, and special

fund drives. It would

not be ap-

to relate capital outlays of col-

leges and universities to the incomes of
the states.

Concluding Comments.
of education

As shown in the table, each of the four
states of the Fourth

District

spent

This survey

in the four states of the

Fourth Federal Reserve District indicates

a

that progress has been made in meeting

smaller percent of its income on educa-

the needs of increasing numbers of stu-

tion than did the United States as a whole,

dents. The task, however, is by no means

despite the fact that per pupil expendi-

finished as demands for education in the

tures in Ohio and Pennsylvania are close

years ahead will continue

to the national average (see center table).

though the Federal Government

The smaller percent of income spent on

come increasingly interested in improv-

to grow. Alhas be-

education in both states reflects the fact

ing education and educational

opportu-

that per capita income is well above the

nities, the funds appropriated

so far are

national median, and that spending for

small compared with total expenditures

education

SPENDING on EDUCATION
as a
PERCENT of PERSONAL INCOME

on education. At the National Conference

absorbs progressively smaller

PUBLIC
HIGHER
ElEMENTARY
EDUCATION
anti SECONDARY (PUBLIC anti
EDUCATlON(l) NONPUBLlC) (2)
(1963·1964)

increments of income as incomes rise. Of

of State Governors in July 1965, the gov-

the four states, Ohio and West Virginia

ernors pledged their support for an interstate compact

Ohio

percent of income spent on public ele-

and quality of education. Thus, the evi-

Po.

mentary and secondary schools; in order

dence mounts that government

1.70%
1.42
1.26
1.50

U.S.
Ky.

were closest to the United States in the

4.60%
3.77
4.48
3.76
4.37

W. V o.

of spending on higher education
sylvania was first, followed
West Virginia, and Ohio.

to improve

the quantity

at all lev-

Penn-

els is aware that, if anticipated needs are

by Kentucky,

to be met, not only a larger effort but also
a more cooperative one is required.

U7

(l) Spending
includes
current
expenditures,
capitol
and interest.
(2) Spending
in dudes only current
expenditures.
Sources

TOTAl

(1961·1962)

of doto:

U.S. Department

of

and U.S. Deportment

Health. Education,

6.30%
5.19
5.74
5.26
5.74

I:
I'

II

II

outlays.

and Welfare

of Commerce

17

co m pa rati ve state me nt
of condition
Dec. 31, 1964

Dec. 31,1965

ASSETS

$1,027,788,063
147,919,600
1,175,707,663

$1,146,855,209
137,794,660
1,284,649,869

70,087,483
12,346,414

47,080,029
10,554,686

3,790,000

22,730,000

772,221,000
2,106,682,000
555,763,000
3,434,666,000

505,161,000
2,105,047,000
440,816,000
3,051,024,000

3,438,456,000

3,073,754,000

Cash Items in Process of Collection.
Bank Premises
Other Assets
Total Assets

586,241,928
5,271,050
83,397,615
$5,371,508,153

616,036,242
5,930,897
47,990,376
$5,085,996,099

LIABILITIES
Federal Reserve Notes

$3,232,281,011

$3,004,814,099

Gold Certificate Account .
Redemption Fund for Federal Reserve Notes
Total Gold Certificate Reserves.
Federal Reserve Notes of Other Banks.
Other Cash .
Discounts and Advances .
U. S. Government Securities:
Bills
Notes
Bonds
Total U. S. Government Securities
Total Loans and Securities

Deposits:
Member Bank-Reserve
U. S. Treasurer-General
Foreign
Other Deposits
Total Deposits

1,445,338,569
67,818,951
13,500,000
11,019,221
1,537,676,741

1,350,868,097
69,558,192
20,020,000
8,396,712
1,448,843,001

Deferred Availability Cash Items
Other Liabilities
Total Liabilities

486,774,242
15,301,059
$5,272,033,053

481,765,168
56,392,031
$4,991,814,299

CAPITALACCOUNTS
Capital Paid In .
Surplus
Total Liabilities and Capital Accounts

49,737,550
49,737,550
$5,371,508,153

47,090,900
47,090,900
$5,085,996,099

Contingent Liability on Acceptances
for Foreign Correspondents
18

Accounts.
Account

$

Purchased
12,924,000

$

11,174,800

comparison
of
earnings and expenses
1965
Total Current Earnings
Net Expenses
Current Net Earnings
Additions to Current Net Earnings:
Profit on Sales of U. S. Government
Securities (Net)

$ 127,241,656

$ 110,642,402

16,633,918
110,607,738

16,449,582
94,192,820

-0--

Profit on Foreign Exchange Transactions (Net)
All Other.
Total Additions
Deductions from Current Net Earnings:
Loss on Sales of U. S. Government
Securities (Net)
All Other.
Total Deductions •
Net Additions •
Net Earnings Before Payments to U. S. Treasury.
Dividends
Payments to U. S. Treasury (Interest on F. R. Notes)
Transferred to Surplus

1964

$

51,271
13,545
26,569
91,385

862
-03,991
46
3,991
9081
87,394
181,632 ~
94,280,214
110,789,370
2,762,834
2,899,235
134,215,180
105,243,485
2,646,650
$ -42,697,800
19

directors
(as of January

1, 1966)

Chairman
JOSEPH

Director, Former Chairman

B. HAll

The Kroger

Co

the Board

of

Cincinnati,

Ohio

Deputy Chairman
lOGAN
Armco

Chairman

T. JOHNSTON
Steel

WALTER

Corporation

Chairman

& Swasey

ALBERT G.
Tobacco

RICHARD

Company

Cleveland,

Company

Bank and

Mt. Sterling,

Company

Chairman

Manufacturing

of

Troy,

Chairman

National

EDWIN

J. THOMAS

The Goodyear

Member,
lELAND
The Ohio

20

of Columbus

Coshocton,

Chairman

Federal Advisory

Company

Board
Ohio

of

the Executive

and

Ohio

Finance Committee
Akron,

Ohio

Council

A. STONER
National

the

Ohio

President

Bank

Tire & Rubber

of

Columbus,

D. SCHOOLER

Coshocton

Ohio

the Board and Chief Executive Officer

Company

Bank & Trust Company

SEWARD

Kentucky

Findlay,

EVERETT D. REESE
The City National

Ohio

President

Savings

DA VI D A. MEEKER
The Hobart

Ohio

President

R. HOLLINGTON

The Ohio

Board

the Board

of

CLAY

Clay

the

Middletown,

K. BAilEY

The Warner

of

Bank of Columbus

President
Columbus,

Ohio

officers
1, 1966)

(as of January

W. BRADDOCK

President

HICKMAN

First Vice President

EDWARD A. FINK
GEORGE E. BOOTH,

Vice President and Cashier

JR

Vice President and General Counsel

PAUL BREIDENBACH

Vice President and Secretary

ROGER R. CLOUSE
PHILLIP B. DIDHAM

Vice President

ELMER F. FRICEK ...........•.............................

Vice President

CLYDE HARRELL

Vice President

JOHN

................................•........

Vice President

J. HOY

HARRY W. HUNING

Vice President

FRED S. KELLY

Vice President

FRED O.

Vice President

KIEL

Vice President and General Economist

MAURICE MANN

Vice President

CLI FFORD G. MILLER

General Auditor

ELFER B. MILLER
ADDISON

Assistant Vice President and Economist

T. CUTLER

R. JOSEPH GINNANE

Assistant Vice President

WILLIAM

Assistant Vice President

H. HENDRICKS

Assistant Vice President

ROBERT G. HOOVER
H. MILTON
OSCAR

Chief Examiner

PUGH

Assistant Cashier

H. BEACH, JR

DONALD

Assistant Cashier

G. BENJAMIN

ROBERT D. DUGGAN

Assistant Cashier

ANNE

Assistant Cashier

J. ERSTE

THOMAS

E. ORMISTON,

Assistant Cashier

JR

JAMES H. CAMPBELL
LESTER M. SELBY .............•.......................

,

Assistant General Auditor
Assistant Secretary

21

branch

directors

(as of January 1, 1966)

CINCINNATI BRANCH
DIRECTORS

Chairman
WALTER C. LANGSAM,
University

of Cincinnati,

JACOB H. GRAVES

President
The Second National

Bank and Trust Company

of Lexington

Lexington,

Kentucky

JOHN W. HUMPHREY

President

Cincinnati,

Ohio

KROGER PETTENGILL

President
The First National
Cincinnati,

JAMES B. PUGH

President
The Philip Carey Manufacturing

President

Company

The Security

Cincinnati,

Ohio

R. STANLEY LAING

President
The National

Bank of Cincinnati

Ohio

Cash Register Company
Dayton,

Ohio

Portsmouth,

Central

National

Ohio

BARNEY A. TUCKER

President
Burley-Belt

Fertilizer

Lexington,

Kentucky

Company

OFFICERS
FRED O. KIEL

Vice President
JOSEPH W. CROWLEY

Assistant Cashier
HOWARD

WALTER H. MacDONALD

Cashier
GEORGE W. HURST

Assistant Cashier
E. TAYLOR

Assistant Cashier

22

Bank of Portsmouth

and officers

PITTSBURGH BRANCH
DIRECTORS

Chairman
G. L. BACH, Maurice Folk Professor of Economics and Social Science
Carnegie

Institute of Technology,

J. S. ARMSTRONG
President and Trust Officer
The Grove City National

Bank

Grove City, Pennsylvania
F. L. BYROM

President
Koppers Company,
Pittsburgh,

Inc.

Pennsylvania

ROBERT DICKEY III

President
Dravo Corporation
Pittsburgh,

Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh,

Pennsylvania

S. L. DRUMM

President
West Penn Power Company
Greensburg,

Pennsylvania

ROBERT C. HAZLETT

President
Wheeling
Wheeling,

Dollar

Savings & Trust Co.

West Virginia

EDWIN H. KEEP

President
First National
Meadville,

Bank of Meadville

Pennsylvania

OFFICERS
CLYDE HARRELL

Vice President
J. ROBERT AUFDERHEIDE
Assistant Cashier

ROY J. STEINBRlt~K

Cashier
PAUL H. DORN

Assistant Cashier

CHARLES E. HOUPT

Assistant Cashier

23

.
In

four

nonprofessional

accredited

four-year

fo u rth district
KENTUCKY

College
Asbury College
Bellarmine
College
Berea College
Brescia College
Campbellsville
College
Catherine Spalding College
Centre College of Kentucky
Cumberland
College
Eastern Kentucky State College
Georgetown
College
Kentucky State College
Kentucky Wesleyan College
Morehead
State College
Murray State College
Nazareth College of Kentucky
Pikeville College
Transylvania
College
Union College
University
of Kentucky
University of Louisville
Ursuline College
Vi lIa Madonna College
Western Kentucky State College

states
Map

~

Community
Wilmore
Louisville
Berea
Owensboro
Campbellsville
Louisville
Danville
Williamsburg
Richmond
Georgetown
Frankfort

Nazareth
Pikeville
Lexington
Barbourville
Lexington
Louisville
Louisville
Covington
Bowling Green

F-3*
F-2
G-3*
F-1
G-2
F-2
G-3
H-3*
G-3*
F-3*
F-3
G-1
F-3*
H-1
F-2
G-4*
F-3*
H-3*
F-3*
F-2
F-2
E-3*
G-2

Yellow Springs
Ashland
Cincinnati
Berea
Bluffton
Wickliffe
Bowling Green
Columbus
Cleveland
Wilberforce
Cleveland
Mt. st. Joseph
Columbus
Steubenville
Wooster
Defiance
Granville
Findlay
Cincinnati
Tiffin
Hiram
Cleveland
Kent
Gambier
Painesville
Canton
Marietta
Toledo
Oxford
Alliance
New Concord
Cleveland
Oberlin
Ada
Columbus
Athens
Delaware
Westerville
Cincinnati
Cleveland
Akron
Cincinnati
Dayton
Toledo
Cleveland
Oxford
Cleveland
Wilberforce
Wilmington
Springfield
Cincinnati
Youngstown

0-3*
C-4*
E-3*
B-4*
C-3*
B-4*
B-3*
0-4*
B-4*
0-3*
B-4*
E-3*
0-4*
C-S*
C-4*
B-3*
0-4*
B-3*
E-3*
B-3*
8-4*
B-4*
B-4*
C-4*
A-4*
C-4*
0-4*
B-3*
0-3*
B-4*
0-4*
B-4*
B-4*
C-3*
0-3*
0-4*
C-3*
0-4*
E-3*
B-4*
B-4*
E-3*
0-3*
B-3*
B-4*
0-3*
B-4*
0-3*
0-3*
0-3*
E-3*
B-S*

Owensboro
Morehead

Murray

OHIO
Antioch
College
Ashland College
Athenaeum
of Ohio (The)
Baldwin-Wallace
College
Bluffton College
Borromeo Seminary of Ohio
Bowling Green State University
Capital University
Case Institute of Technology
Central State University
Cleveland
State University
(Fenn)
College of Mt. St. Joseph-on-the-Ohio
College of St. Mary of the Springs
College of Steubenville
(The)
College of Wooster
Defiance College (The)
Denison University
Findlay College
Hebrew Union College
Heidelberg
College
Hiram College
John Carroll University
Kent State University
Kenyon College
Lake Erie College
Malone College
Marietta College
Mary Manse College
Miami University
Mount Union College
Muskingum
College
Notre Dame College
Oberlin
College
Ohio Northern University
Ohio State University
(The)
Ohio University
Ohio Wesleyan University
Otterbein
College
Our Lady of Cincinnati
College
St. John College of Cleveland
University
of Akron (The)
University of Cincinnati
University of Dayton
University
of Toledo
Ursuline College
Western College for Women
Western Reserve University
Wilberforce
University
Wilmington
College
Wittenberg
University
Xavier University
Youngstown
University
(The)

PENNSYLVAN IA
Academy of the New Church
Albright
College
Allegheny
College
Alliance College
Beaver College
Bloomsburg
State College
Bryn Mawr College
Bucknell University
California
State College

*Located

in the Fourth

Federal

Bryn Athyn
Reading
Meadville
Cambridge
Glenside
Bloomsburg
Bryn Mawr
lewisburg
California

Reserve

District.

Springs

schools

C-7
C-7
A-S*
A-S*
C-7
B-6
C-7
B-6
C-S*

Map
Community

Code

Pittsburgh
Allentown
Pittsburgh
Philadelphia
Cheyney
Clarion
Dallas
Carlisle
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
East Stroudsburg
St. Davids
Edinboro
EIizabethtown
Lancaster
Erie
Beaver Falls
Gettysburg
Grove City
Gwynedd Valley
Haverford
Philadelphia
Immaculata
Indiana
Huntingdon
Wi I kes-Barre
Kutztown
Easton
Phi ladelphia
Annville
Bethlehem
lincoln University
Lock Haven
Williamsport
Mansfield
Northampton
Scranton
Erie
Grantham
Millersville
Philadelphia
Bethlehem
Pittsburgh
Allentown
Chester
University Park
Philadelphia
Rosemont
Loretto
Philadelphia
Latrobe
Greensburg
Shippensburg
Slippery Rock
Selinsgrove
Swarthmore
Philadelphia
Greenville
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Scranton
Collegeville
Erie
Villanova
Washington
Waynesburg
West Chester
New Wilmington
Wilkes-Barre
Chambersburg

C-S*
8-7
C-S*
C-7
C-7
B-S*
B-7
C-6
C-7
C-S*
B-7
C-7
A-S*
C-6
C-7
A-S*
C-S*
0-6
B-S*
C-7
C-7
C-7
C-7
C-S*
C-6
B-7
C-7
B-7
C-7
C-6
B-7
0-7
8-6
8-6
A-6
B-7
A-7
A-S*
C-6
C-7
C-7
B-7
C-S*
C-7
C-7
B-6
C-7
C-7
C-S
C-7
C-S*
C-S*
C-6
8-5*
B-6
C-7
C-7
B-S*
C-7
C-S*
A-7
C-7
A-S*
C-7
C-S*
0-5*
C-7
B-S*
B-7
C-6

Philippi
Bethany
Bluefield
Athens
Elkins
Fairmont
Glenville
Huntington
Charleston
Salem
Shepherdstown
West Liberty
Montgomery
Institute
Morgantown
Buckhannon
Wheeling

E-S
C-S*
G-4
G-4
E-S
0-5
E-4
F-4
F-4
0-5
0-6
C-S*
F-4
F-4
0-5
E-S
C-S*

College
Carnegie Institute of Technology
Cedar Crest College
Chatham College
Chestnut Hill College
Cheyney State College
Clarion State College
College Misericordia
Dickinson
College
Drexel Institute of Technology
Duquesne University
East Stroudsburg
State College
Eastern Baptist College
Edinboro State College
Elizabethtown
College
Franklin and Marshall College
Gannon College
Geneva College
Gettysburg
College
Grove City College
Gwynedd-Mercy
College
Haverford
College
Holy Family College
Immaculata
College
Indiana State College
Juniata College
King's College
Kutztown
State College
Lafayette College
La Salle College
Lebanon Valley College
Lehigh University
lincoln University
Lock Haven State College
Lycoming College
Mansfield
State College
Mary Immaculate Seminary
Marywood
College
Mercyhurst
College
Messiah College
Millersville
State College
Moore College of Art
Moravian
College
Mount Mercy College
Muhlenburg
College
Pennsylvania
Military
College
Pennsylvania
State University
(The)
Philadelphia
College of Art
Rosemont College
St. Francis College
St. Joseph's College
St. Vincent College
Seton Hill College
Shippensburg
State College
Slippery Rock State College
Susquehanna University
Swarthmore
College
Temple University
Thiel College
University of Pennsylvania
University
of Pittsburgh
University of Scranton
Ursinus College
Villa Maria College
Villanova University
Washington
and Jefferson College
Waynesburg
College
West Chester State College
Westminster
College
Wilkes College
Wilson College

WEST VIRGINIA
Alderson-Broaddus
College
Bethany College
Bluefield State College
Concord College
Davis and Elkins College
Fairmont
State College
Glenville
State College
Marshall University
Morris Harvey College
Salem College
Shepherd College
West Liberty State College
West Virginia
Institute of Technology
West Virginia State College
West Virginia University
West Virginia Wesleyan College
Wheeling
College

./

institutions
in four
four-year

of higher

fourth

district

accredited

education

states

non professional

schools

OHIO
ENROLLMENT

•
•

Pu blic
•

Under 1,000

•

1,000 To 5,000

•

Over 5,000

e
e

10

Private

fourth federal reserve district
®

Under 1,000

~

1,000 To 5,000

.®
\0

I!').

KENTUCKY

o

•

•
2

3

.8

0

~

•

• @

A

•

F

G

WEST VIRGINIA
H

5

4

Source

of data:

U.S.

Department

6

of Health,

Education,

and Welfare

7
(information

as of academic

year

1964-65)

Fourth

Federal

Reserve

District