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C O N T E N T S 2. A Brief History of US. Central Banking 3. ChangingTimes, Unchanging Commitment 5. Message from the President 6. Changes in the Economy 10. Changes in Roles and Responsibilities 14. Changes in Borders 18. Changes in Payment Systems 22. Directors 30. Officers 33. Financial Reports sztccess of CENTRAL BANKING ape the Fed into the central bank we are today. The following are some of the most important milestones. I 1783-After the Revolution Currency notes known as "Continentals" were issued in such large quantities during the RevolutionaryWarthat the public eventually lost At the urging of Treasury Secretary Alexander established the First Bank of the United States. Itwas the nation's first attempt at a central bank and was given a twenty-yea 1836-lsckSon Ham the central Bank President Andrew Jackson. a central bank foe. ended central by failing to renew the chahr of the Second Bank of the Uni 1836-63-The kee Banklng Era State-chartered banks and unchartered "free" banks took how. They issued their own notes and offered checking accounts, known as demand deposits, but often without sufficient reserves, leading to instability. During the Civil War, Congress passed the National Banking Act, providing for nationally chartered (and regulated) banks whose notes had to be backed by US. government securities. This action brought national currency. State banks continued to flourish ing popularity of demand deposits. e worst depression the United States Cleveland appealed to banker J.F! M $62 million gold bon nd thus prevented a financial c made it clear that the nation's 1914-The Fed Selects Atlanta The Reserve Bank Organizing Committee chose Atlanta as the site for one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that would make up the Federal Reserve System. On November 16, 1914, the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta officially opened for business. 1915-The Flrst System Branch New Orleans was not selected to be a regional Reserve Bank city, but following protests by local leaders and a mass demonstration by New Orleans citizens, district lines placed southern Louisiana in Atlanta's region. New Orleans became the first branch in the Fed system. 1929-33-The Stock Market Crash The stock market crashed on "Black Thursday," October 24, 1929. Between 1930 and 1933 nearly 10,000 banks failed. In March 1933, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt declared a "bank holiday." 1933-35-Congress Acts Congress passed the BankingAct of 1933, known as the Glass-Steagall Act, separating commercial and investment banking.The BankingAct of 1935 established the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) as a separate legal e n t i i and removed the U.S. Treasury Secretary and the Comptroller of the Currency from the Fed's governing board. 1951-The Treasury Accord" As the Korean Conflict broke out, the Fed reached agreement with the Treasury to end the long-standing practice of supporting government bond interest rates to help meet fiscal policy goals. This action 1951-70-The Martln Era Standing up to political pressure, Fed Chairman William McChesney Martin solidified the Fed's position as "independent within the government." He watched price pressures closely and remarked that the Fed's public policy duty was to "take away the punch bowl just when the party is getting started." 1980-Reform and Modernization The Monetary Control Act of 1980 initiated a period of financial regulatory reforms, requiringthe Fed to price its payment services and allowing banks to pay interest on checking accounts. The next two decades saw further reforms, culminating in the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999, which essentially overturnedthe Glass-SteagallAct of 1933. 1982-The End of High Inflation Followingseveral years of rising prices, Fed Chairman Paul Volcker led the effort to quell the double-digit inflation of the 1970s. By keeping a tight rein on the money supply, the Fed curbed inflation and steered the economy back on track. 1987-The Longest Expansion In 1987 Alan Greenspan took over as Fed chairman. During his tenure, his commitment to maintaining a low-inflation environment has helped the U S . economy to enjoy the longest economic expansion in its history. 2000-Movlng Fomrd Today the Fed stands as a leader among the world's central banks. Its commitment to price stability lays the foundation for sustainable economic growth. Its role in the payments system enables consumers and businesses to conduct transactions seamlessly. And its leadership as a banking regulator and the lender of last resort helps ensure a sound financial system. During the United States’ first 125 years, the country’s economic growth was rapid yet unstable. It was marked by bank runs, financial crises, recessions, and depressions. In fact, during the nineteenth century more than 30,000 forms of currency existed in the United States. Unfortunately, many banks that issued currency did not have the financial resources to back it, and these banks ultimately failed. Even with the advent of a uniform national currency after 1863,financial crises continued to disrupt business activity and overall economic performance into the early twentieth century. The American people began to recognize the need for a central banking institution to address these and other problems. After lengthy debate and hard-won compromise, the Federal Reserve Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson in 1913. The establishment of a decentralized central bank, with twelve regional Reserve Banks, was deemed essential to shield the country from the shifting winds of politics that could have troubled a single central bank located in either capital-heavy New York or politically oriented Washington. In 1914, in cities across the nation, twelve Reserve Banks opened for business. The selection of Atlanta as a Reserve Bank site had been far from inevitable as many cities had campaigned for the honor. daving a Reserve Bank in the Deep South was panicu larly important to maintaining the cohesion of the nation. No other region suffered more from the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the lack of capital. The South remained poor while industrial centers in other regions thrived. The case for placing a Reserve Bank in Atlanta was based largely on its being the transportation hub for the Southeast and a burgeoning banking center. But it probably didn’t hurt Atlanta’s bid that Treasury Secretary William McAdoo was born and raised in Atlanta and that President Wilson launched his career here. History would prove the selection of Atlanta to be a wise one as the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and its sh offices in the Southeast have demonstrated a commit. ment to serve the region and help secure its financial well-being. The Fed’s original goals were to create an elastic currencj that would better respond to economic circumstances; to foster a safer, more stable banking system; and to maintain a reliable and efficient payment system. The Fed’s duties included maintaining the Treasury Department’s account, issuing currency, and transferring funds from one depository institution to another. Congress later broadened the Fed’s goals to include promoting low nemployment, steady growth, and stable prices. * ‘he Atlanta Fed’s devotion to the founding principles necessary to fulfill its public policy mandate-principles like integrity, efficiency, effectiveness, and prudence-has been steadfast despite many changes over ime. This commitment remains constant as we enter a iew millennium. 4 M E S S A GF R O M E THE PRESIDENT To this end, we have maintained a solid record for efficient performance while striving to be more innovative and responsive to the financial system’s needs. W have provided analysis and e leadership to shape important public policies that help underpin an ever-changing economyregionally, nationally, and even internationally. And we have deepened our commitment to being a vibrant part of the communities we serve while forging strong cooperation with other Reserve Banks to more effectively serve a nationwide banking system. This year’s annual report has a retrospective focus that reflects our history but also looks The promise of our future is linked to the ahead to the new millennium. The report success of our past. In the eighty-sixyears since reviews the origins of our institution and the the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta was progress made over the past century-how established, the southeastern economy has experienced change and responded to it with experienced remarkable change-in popula- vision. W hope this publication promotes your e tion, industry, banking, and more. W at the e understanding of the Atlanta Fed and assures Atlanta Fed have embraced and championed you of our unwavering commitment to remain a change. Yet the core principles we have long guardian of the Southeast’s and the nation’s valued-integrity, economic well-being. efficiency, effectiveness, and we prudence-remain unchanged. During the past year we have worked to further our progress toward a more efficient, effective payment system; to implement better ways of JACK GUY” supervising today’s rapidly changing banking institutions; and to contribute deeper insights into formulating monetary policy appropriate to our complex, dynamic economy. 5 I Changes i n T H E E C O N O M Y In 1913 the area that would make up the Sixth Federal Reserve District was poor, with depleted lands and limited capital. The region’s primary economic challenge was overcoming its dependence on a single volatile commodity-King Cotton. In addition, many of the region’s state-chartered banks were small, inconsistently regulated, and hard-pressed to support their local economies in times of stress. Loan rates were high and bank failures co perity had bypassed the Southeast. Over the next several decades the Southeast became increasingly industrialized. Textile and apparel manufacturers were drawn by the region’s raw materials and low-cost labor, and abundant timber made the region a prime supplier for the home-building industry nationwide. Beginning in the 1970s massive in-migration spurred income growth, construction, and a booming service sector. Today the Southeast is one of the nation’s most rapidly growing areas. The region’s economyhas diversified to become much less dependent on agriculture and more oriented to high-tech, higher-wage industries like automobile manufacturing as well as services, from tourism to health care. A Shift in Focus As the southeastern economy has grown and transformed over the decades, the Atlanta Fed too has changed, sometimes helping to shape and sometimes responding to the evolving economy. For example, when the region’s economy was rural and agrarian, the Atlanta Fed met banks’ needs mainly by processing cash and providing them with discount window loans to meet temporary liquidity shortages. C H A N G E S I N Alabama 8 Alabama, once renowned for steel production, is recognized today for space technology. Events in the 1930s, especially the Great Depression, fundamentally reshaped the Fed. Providing liquidity locally in times of stress through discount window lending as a means of stabilizing the economy took a back seat to buying and selling government securities. These open market operations were directed by the Federal Open Market Committee, made up of the members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and Reserve Bank presidents. This development stimulated the Atlanta Fed’s need for more information on the regional and national economy and a greater understanding of economics. The Atlanta Bank rose to the occasion by establishing a strong economic research department that not only conducted analysis but also reached out across the region through speeches and reports to encourage further economic diversification. A Commltment to Efficiency Through its commitment to efficient operations, both internally and through its services to financial institutions, the Atlanta Fed has contributed in its own way to a stronger banking system in the region. In the 1970s, for example, the Atlanta Fed promoted the development of an alternative, electronic retail payment method-the automated clearinghouse (ACH). Through support of high-volume electronic payments like direct deposit of payroll, the ACH has made the entire nation’spayment system more efficient and reliable. That commitment continues today through the work of the Retail Payments Office, based at the Atlanta Fed but working on behalf of the entire Federal Reserve System to make the national retail payment system as efficient, accessible, reliable, and secure as technology will permit. I N C H A N G E S Florida The world has enjoyed Florida citrus products for decades, but Florida also has become a tourist playground. I I - .. t . \ _ . Lending to local member banks in times of stress was once the Fed's chief rn,eun,.q ---- - _ o stabilizing economic activity, But econometric f modeling is now an important tool for informing moneta7.ypolicg decisions that help stabilize the economy II . 3 Changes in R O L E S A N D R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta was established during a time of debilitating business conditions. Large banks in the Northeast were the major source of credit and capital to the Southeast’s many small, often unsound banks. Before long, the Atlanta Fed became a stable and trusted source of funds for the region, and over time the Atlanta Bank’s examiners established a solid standard of prudence for the region’s banking system. Rediscounting loans and Handling Government Securities In its early years the Atlanta Fed provided considerable currency to local banks, but its links to nationwide check-clearing services, authorized by the legislation that established the Fed, were used sparinglyat first. In its first year of operation the Atlanta Fed processed fewer than 500 checks a day. It also took some time for the Bank to assume its envisioned role as a lead supervisor of state-chartered banks. Capital-poor banks in the Southeast were slow to subject themselves to the Fed’s supervision or its requirement that checks cleared through the Fed be accepted at face (par) value and not redeemed below par. Only three state-chartered banks had joined the Atlanta Fed after two years of operations. Whatever contribution Atlanta Fed staff made to the safety and soundness of southeastern banks in these early days came through monitoring the creditworthiness of banks in conjunction with discount window lending-the main activity of the Atlanta Fed’s thirteen original employees. In this role the Atlanta Fed made secured loans to member financial institutions. With this infusion of liquidity, these banks could make additional loans to their customers. Such loans helped growers avoid having to sell their crops at times when prices were low and served to keep locally strained credit conditions from cascading into wider economic problems. C H A N G E S I N Another significant activity of the Atlanta Fed in its early years-and again during World War 11-was handling government securities transactions spurred by the war efforts. World World War I caused unprecedented economic change across America, including the expansion of government debt. The volume of government securities work ebbed over time, in large measure as a result of technological innovation. By the 1960s much of the paperwork had been computerized on the Fed’s book-entry system. Today most of the securities services performed on behalf of the U.S. government have been centralized to a few Fed offices nationwide. Georgia 12 Georgia boasts a long tradition as a transportation center and is now the site of the world’s busiest airport. Bank Supervision Other responsibilities grew in importance after a slow start. The Bank created a bank examination department in the 1920sto supervise the growing number of state member banks. Examiners monitored banks through such activities as verifying balance sheets and generally placing sole reliance on on-site visits. Today most monitoring occurs remotely as a supplement to on-sitework. Bank supervision now focuses on the risk-management processes financial institutions have in place, critiquing in-house models and testing portfolios with tools such as credit-risk and default models. Check Processing By the 1930s, check processing had become one of the Atlanta Fed’s primary activities. Today the Sixth Federal Reserve District processes the highest check volumes in the Federal Reserve System even though the Atlanta Fed has long been a leader within the Fed system in supporting the transition to electronic payment methods. This transition is already reflected in the slowing growth in the volume of checks processed at the Atlanta Bank and in the Bank’s increasing use of electronic check presentment. Econometric Modeling Over the years the Atlanta Fed’s primary focus in regard to monetary policy and economic stabilization has changed significantly as well. W have shifted from cone ducting credit analyses of local bank loans and balance sheets to gathering statistics; drawing insightful information on business, banking, consumers, and labor from our directors; and conducting advanced econometric modeling. In recent years, such modeling has become more refined. Whereas once hundreds of factors were weighed against each other simultaneously to simulate the economy as a whole, the Atlanta Fed’s latest econometric model focuses on a fewvariables and their interrelationships. This model, the result of over a decade of research and development, continues to gain the respect and recognition of policymakers and economists. C H A N G E S I N Louisiana Long regarded a a place for entertainment s Louisiana is now a center of technologically advanced oil and natural gas drilling --- e - Changes i n B O R D E R S A decentralized central bank sounds like a paradox. The Atlanta Fed, as one of twelve regional Reserve Banks, initially coped with a need to serve both regional and national interests by keeping a regional focus dedicated to locally accommodating the needs of its constituents. Founded as a decidedly southern institution and shaped early on by southern business and banking leaders, the Atlanta Fed was keenly aware of the difficulties facing its region and stood ready to help stabilize and bolster a predominately agrarian economy. From the outset the Atlanta Fed sought to carry out its mission throughout its geographic district. After creating the Federal Reserve System’sfirst branch in New Orleans in 1915, the Atlanta Bank added branches in Birmingham, Jacksonville, and Nashville within a few years to meet the needs of banks in these commercial centers. In 1923 the Atlanta Fed extended its service outside its borders to the dollar-based economy of Cuba, opening a currency office in Havana, which remained in operation until 1938. In the 1970s the Bank extended its check-processing and cash services to the booming south Florida economy with an office in Miami that later became a full-scale branch, the last to be added to the Federal Reserve System, in 1975. Today the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta continues to transcend old borders-not jurisdictionally but rather by contributing to program and policy debates that affect the region, the nation, and the world. A Global Perspective One example of the Atlanta Fed’s expanded “borders” is the Bank’s Latin America Research Group, whose periodic reports and conferences advance understanding about a region of the world with increasingly close trade ties to the Southeast and the United States. The Bank’s supervision staff follow the banking industry in Latin America, meeting regularly with the region’s bank supervisors and central bank officials to stay informed about market conditions. In addition, as Latin American countries rely more on the U.S. dollar for business transactions, our Miami branch has begun to process currency shipped to and from a number of these countries. C H A N G E S I N Mississippi 16 Cotton has been replaced by casznos as one of Mwswszppz’spramary sources of income The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Boundaries have also changed over the last decade along business lines. Financial deregulation has had a profound effect on the Fed’s supervisoryactivities. One of the most recent, landmark steps toward deregulation, the Gramm-Leach-BlileyAct of 1999, formally ended the boundaries between insurance, underwriting, and banking in the financial services industry. The Federal Reserve now has umbrella supervisory authority over financial services holding companies that can engage not only in banking but also in insurance and brokerage services. These changes have required the Atlanta Fed to alter its supervisory staff‘s skill sets and organizational structure and to attract, train, motivate, and retain a workforce with the knowledge and experience to supervise today’s more complex banking institutions. The Emergence of Specialist Banks Borders among bank regulators have also had to change. As a result of the growth, both in size and complexity, of the Southeast’s banking organizations and the movement to interstate banking, partnerships with state and federal supervisors have had to be strengthened. Moreover, consistency among all Fed districts has become more significant. Banks today--especially interstate banks-want a streamlined supervisory structure with fewer points of contact rather than a host of federal and state agencies. Accordingly,the Fed of the new millennium must employ more collaborative business practices in this decentralized, deregulated financial environment. The year 2000 saw many Federal Reserve Banks evolving toward cooperative centers of expertise while still finding ways to carry out their responsibilities regionally. The Atlanta Fed has deepened its expertise in regard to wealth management by commercial banks on behalf of their customers, with particular focus on Latin America. This shift is important as the financial industry’s horizons expand and the scope of services offered becomes as critical as the geographic region served. C H A N G E S I N Tennessee ~ The sound of saws and lumberjacks has given w a y to the sound of country music. I I t Changes i n P A Y M E N T S Y S T E M S The ways consumers and businesses pay for transactions have undergone many changes since the Fed’s inception. In 1929, for example,the U.S.Treasury Department introduced smaller-sized, more durable currency. The new bills were also more difficult to counterfeit. Again, in the 1990s the Treasury enhanced currency with a number of counterfeit-deterring features. In both cases the Fed played an important role in expediting the changeover. And because of a strong economy and the ready availability of cash from automated teller machines, currency continues to grow in usage even while new methods of payments are rapidly coming on line. Checks continued to grow for decades despite predictions of a decline in usage after the advent of computers in the 1960s. The Atlanta Fed’s check volume leveled off in 2000, but it is unlikely that consumers will soon abandon this convenient, low-cost payment method. New Payment Methods Many people think of credit cards as “plastic money,” but a credit card really represents loans that the consumer pays back with a check. Debit cards, in contrast, allow consumers to make payments electronically from their checking accounts without writing a check. Smart cards use computer technology imbedded in the card to store money for small-value transactions or information such as personal security data. These methods still account for a small share of retail payments, but together these alternatives represent the largest share of new growth. While the market will ultimately determine which of these payment methods proves most popular, the Atlanta Fed will continue to seek w y to process as efficiently as as possible its share of the huge volume of paper checks-about 68 billion nationallythat are written each year. One way of improving efficiency is by “electronification” of the check, which involves capturing a digital image of the check and delivering this information by electronic transmission to the bank on which it is drawn. The digital information can also be archived and made available to customers as needed. By eliminating the need to deliver paper checks, the whole process cuts costs, time, and labor. The Fed now provides imaging services for depository institutions and the US. Treasury. 2 0 leading the System’s Retail Payments The Atlanta Fed is also playing a leadership role nationally in other efficiencyenhancing changes through its Retail Payments Office. Based in Atlanta but working on behalf of the entire Federal Reserve System, this office is coordinating strategic efforts like the electronification of the check, a survey of check usage, and standardization of the infrastructure by which checks are processed and imaged. The office also coordinates cooperative efforts with other organizations, and even other countries, to promote the electronic method of making small-dollar, high-volume payments-the ACH. MEETI NG TOMo R ROW’ s C HA LLENG ES The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and the Federal Reserve System have overcome numerous challenges and navigated many changes during the past century. In the beginning, the Atlanta Fed had to prove that it could provide valuable services to the Southeast. The Bank adapted quickly to the region’s unique conditions and soon became a vital part of its economy. As times have changed, so have the Fed’s services through the determination and dedication of its staff, new legislative requirements, and the use of advanced systems and technology. As the pace of technological change accelerates, challenges will undoubtedly arise that have yet to be imagined. In such an environment, it is obviously difficult to foresee how the Bank’s roles and responsibilities will change by the end of this decade, much less the end of the century. What is certain is that the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta is committed to meeting new challenges with the same vigor, creativity, efficiency, and standard of excellence that have made it a strong part of the nation’s dynamic central banking system. 21 Federal Reserve Banks each have a board of nine directors. Directors provide economic information, have broad oversight responsibility for their Bank’s operations, and, with Board of Governors approval, appoint the Bank’s president and first vice president. Six directors-three class A, representing the banking industry, and three class B-are elected by banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Three class C directors (including the chairman and deputy chairman) are appointed by the Board of Governors. Class B and C directors represent agriculture, commerce, industry, labor, and consumers in the district; they cannot be officers, directors, or employees of a bank; class C directors cannot be bank stockholders. Fed branch office boards have five or seven directors; the majority are appointed by head-office directors and the rest by the Board of Governors. A - -_ -*- F Small Business, Agriculture, and Labor A D V I S O R Y % mACUFF w Deputy Director AFL-CIO Midwest Region Chicago, Illinois B m BERRY Managing Partner Huntland Farms Chickamauga, Georgia R O W EDWARDS C O U N C I L MELVINN HRI O District Vice President international Bmtherhood of Electrical Workers Birmingham, Alabama RITA MITCHELL Vice President SunTrust Securities Inc. Nashville,Tennessee President and Chief Executive Officer Evans Pmpetties Inc. Vem Beach, Florida RICHARD RAY President Georgia AFL-CIO Atlanta, Georgia CATHY Elus President Atlanta Classic Cars Decatur, Georgia WILLIAM ROCHEUE DONNA GIBBS JAMES SANFORD President First Coast Systems Jacksonville, Florida KARIN GRANT-HOPKINS President Multi Image Resource Gmup New Orleans, Louisiana S w HARDY m President/Principal Consultant Hardy Ink Daphne, Alabama Owner Royal Oaks Farms Nunnelly, Tennessee Chairman of the Board Home Place Farms Pramille, Alabama THOMFSON President and Chief Executive Officer Cement Industries Inc. Fort Myers, Florida ROYWARD President and Managing Partner Horne CPA Group Jackson, Mississippi 29 Other C O R P O R A T E O F F I C E R S SENIORVICE PRESIDENTS DONALD NELSON E. FRANK CRAVEN J . JR. EDMUND LLINGHAM WI Financial Services Central General Counsel Legal Department ZANE KELLEY R. Human Resources/ Service Departments W A M L II JOHN KERR R. District Building Projects VICE PRESIDENTS LOIS C. BERTHAUME T ROBERDS . Supervision and Regulation Division Supervision and Regulation Division Research Division 1 . SUZANNA Cosrmo B. FRANK NG (RETIRED) KI Associate Director of Research Research Division Check Relay Supervision and Regulation Division THOMASCUNNINGHAM J . BOBBIEH. MCAK CRCN I Associate Director of Research Research Division Public Affairs Officer Public Affairs Department GERALD DWVER P. ADRIENNE WELLS M. System Retail Payments Office RONALD ZIMMERMAN N. Supervision and Regulation Division ROBERT MCKENZIE (RESIGNED) 1. Research Division Check Standardization CYNTHIAC. GI O N D W Supervision and Regulation Division RICHARD JONES A. Deputy General Counsel Legal Department ASSISTANT I C E V LARRY J SCHUK . JOHN . PEUCK D Systems/lnformation Security/ Cryptographic Development and Support PRESIDENTS VC I A. ANDERSON IK CAROLYN HWY C. SUSAN1 ROBERTSON . System Retail Payments Office Miami Office Supervision and Regulation Division Miami Office System Retail Payments Dffice EDWARD ANDREWS C. JANE^ A. HERRING System Retail Payments Office Service Department Accounting Department JOHN ATKINSON H. SUSAN HW Supervision and Regulation Division JOHN BRANIGIN S. Check Standardization 1 JAMES .BROWN Human Resources Department JOANH. BUCHANAN Assistant General Counsel Legal Department MARY KEPLER M. Automation Operations JACQUELYN LEE H. Systems Department MELINDA RUSHING 1 . M. ROBERT SCHENCK Supervision and Regulation Division ROBERT S T . ~ N Financial Services Support w. DV AI D ! I"l hI t Supervision and Regulation Division T R. SMITH M I Supervision and Regulation Division ALBERT M RN 111 E. A I Community Relations Officer Public Affairs Department DAVID E C R AR Assistant General Counsel Legal Department ARUNA SRINIVASAN Human Resources Department ROBERTOC A G (RESIGNED) J HN . D NE A. MASLANEY A IL Research Division Financial Services Technologies and Support CHAPELLE DAVIS D. MARY MCCORMICK M. Credit and Risk Management ELLISW TALLMAN . Research Division EDWINAM. TAYLOR Supervision and Regulation Division Planning and Control Department Statistical Repohs Department J COURTNEY . DUFRIES MARIEE. MCNALLY IARRY D. WALL Community Affairs Officer Supervision and Regulation Division J STEPHEN . FOLEY Facilities Management Research Division ALVIN 1 PILKINTON . JR. JULIUSG. WEYMAN Supervision and Regulation Division Assistant General Auditor Auditing Department JAYNE Fox Check Relay TED6. REDDY 111 Corporate Secretary Corporate Relations Department District Building Projects JOHN . HANNAN 1 JR. Supervision and Regulation Division Cryptographic Development and SupporVlnformation Security JOHN ROBERTSON C. MARION RIVERS111 F? Research Division 31 Branch O F F I C E R S ATLA NTA MIAMI JAMES M. MCKEE J M E S T. CURRY 111 Vice President and Branch Manager Vice President and Branch Manager JEFFREY1 W U ~ E N . Vice President Payment Services MARIE GOODING C. Assistant Vice President and Assistant Branch Manager CHRISTOPHER -DER N. Assistant Vice President ROBERT LOVE A. JUAN D U BUSTO Assistant Vice President and Assistant Branch Manage1 FREDD. Cox Assistant Vice President ROBERT DE ? h Y B A. Assistant Vice President ROBERT MORANDO K. Assistant Vice President Assistant Vice President WILLIAM R. POWEU Assistant Vice President NASHVILLE M m K. PURCEU BIRMINGHAM Senior Vice President and Branch Manager ANDRET. ANDERSON JONES L E Vice President and Assistant Branch Manager Vice President and Branch Manager MARMRET A. THOMAS c. LEAH 1 DnvENwm . Assistant Vice President and Assistant Branch Manager Assistant Vice President TREV BROW 6. ANNITA MOORE T. Assistant Vice President Assistant Vice President FREDRIC . FLEN 1 ULRN I J O B E. WARREN Assistant Vice President Assistant Vice President CHARLES PRIME W. Assistant Vice President NEW ORLEANS JACKSONVILLE ROBERT 1 SLACK . Vice President and Branch Manager ROBERT Musso J. Senior Vice President and Branch Manager Amv S. GOODMAN CHRISTOPHER OAKLEY 1 . Vice President and Assistant Branch Manager Assistant Vice President and Assistant Branch Manager W. JEFFREYDEMNE DARRIN FINLEY 0. Assistant Vice President KATHLEEN L~UGHMAN Y . Assistant Vice President SHIRLEY PYATT 0. Assistant Vice President 32 Assistant Vice President EDWARD HUGHES 6. Assistant Vice President EVEITE H. JONES Assistant Vice President PATRICIA VAN DE GRAM (RESIGNED) D. Assistant Vice President M A N A G E M E N T ’ S 34 A S S E R T I O N To the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta The management of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (“FRB Atlanta”) is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of the Statement of Financial Condition, Statement of Income, and Statement of Changes in Capital as of December 31,2000 (the “Financial Statements”). The Financial Statements have been prepared in conformity with the accounting principles, policies, and practices established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and as set forth in the Financial Accounting Manual for the Federal Reserve Banks, and as such, include amounts, some of which are based on judgments and estimates of management. The management of the FRB Atlanta is responsible for maintaining an effective process of internal controls over financial reportii including the safeguarding of assets as they relate to the Financial Statements. Such internal controls are designed to provide reasonable assurance to management and to the Board of Directors regarding the preparation of reliable Financial Statements. This process of internal controls contains self-monitoringmechanisms, including, but not limited to, divisions of responsibility and a code of conduct. Once identified, any material deficiencies in the process of internal controls are reported to management, and appropriate corrective measures are implemented. Even an effective process of internal controls, no matter how well designed, has inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, and therefore can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation of reliable financial statements. The management of FRB Atlanta assessed its process of internal controls over financial reporting including the safeguarding of assets reflected in the Financial Statements, based upon the criteria established in the “Internal ControlIntegrated Framework” issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the ‘beadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, the management of the FRB Atlanta believes that the FRB Atlanta maintained an effective process of internal controls over financial reporting including the safeguarding of assets as they relate to the Financial Statements. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta w Jack Guynn President and Chief Executive Officer &trick K. Barron First Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Anne M. DeBeer Senior Vice President February 16,2001 R E P O R T O F I N D E P E N D E N T A C C O U N T A N T S To the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta W have examined management’s assertion that the Federal Reserve Bank of e Atlanta (“FRB Atlanta”) maintained effective internal control over financial reporting and the safeguarding of assets as they relate to the Financial Statements as of December 31,2000, included in the accompanyingManagement’s Assertion. Our examination was made in accordance with standards established by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and accordingly, included obtaining an understanding of the internal control over financial reporting, testing, and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of the internal control, and e such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. W believe that our examination provides a reasonable basis for our opinion. Because of inherent limitations in any internal control, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected. Also, projections of any evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the internal control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. In our opinion, management’s assertion that the FRB Atlanta maintained effective internal control over financial reporting and over the safeguarding of assets as they relate to the Financial Statements as of December 31,2000, is fairly stated, in all material respects, based upon criteria described in “Internal Control-Integrated Framework”issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP March 2,2001 Atlanta, Georgia 35 R E P O R T O F I N D E P E N D E N T A C C O U N T A N T S To the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Board of Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta W have audited the accompanying statements of condition of the Federal e Reserve Bank of Atlanta (the “Bank”) as of December 31,2000 and 1000, and the related statements of income and changes in capital for the years then ended. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Bank’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the financial statements based on our audits. W conducted our audits in accordance with generally accepted auditing e standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. W believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. e As discussed in Note 3, the financial statements were prepared in conformity with the accounting principles, policies, and practices established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. These principles, policies, and practices, which were designed to meet the specialized accounting and reporting needs of the Federal Reserve System, are set forth in the “Financial Accounting Manual for Federal Reserve Banks” and constitute a comprehensive basis of accounting other than generally accepted accounting principles. In our opinion, the financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Bank as of December 31,2000 and 1000, and results of its operations for the years then ended, on the basis of accounting described in Note 3. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP March 2,2001 Atlanta, Georgia 36 S T A T E M E N T S O F C O N D I T I O N (in millions) As of December31,2000 As of December31,1999 Assets Gold certificates $ a02 $ 724 450 166 Special drawing rights certificates a3 Items in process of collection 603 6 29,455 1,122 Investments denominated in foreign currencies 14 34,513 Loans to depository institutions US. government and federal agency securities, net 1,134 402 13,643 307 Bank premises and equipment, net 297 4,499 Accrued interest receivable Interdistrict settlement account 200 40 40 $ 42,454 $ 46,580 $ 39,286 $ 43,852 1,097 a99 4 a77 4 772 Other assets Total assets 20 514 Coin llabllltles and capital Liabilities Federal Reserve notes outstanding, net Deposits Depository institutions Other deposits Deferred credit items Interest on Federal Reserve notes due U.S.Treasury a4 34 Accrued benefit costs a7 a2 29 17 $ 41,464 $ 45,660 Other liabilities Total llabllltles Capital Capital paid-in $ 495 $ 495 Surplus 990 Total capltal $ Total llabllltles and capltal $ 42,454 460 460 $ 920 $ 46,580 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 37 S T A T E M E N T S 38 O F I N C O M E F r the years ended o December31.2000 December31.1999 (in millions) Interest Income Interest on US. government and federal agency securities $ 2,044 Interest on investments denominated in foreign currencies Interest on loans to deDositorv institutions $ 1,666 16 19 1 1 ~ Total Interest Income $ 2,064 $ 1,683 Other operatlng Income (loss) Income from services $ 162 $ Foreign currency losses, net (35) US. government securities losses, net (1) 5 8 Other income Total other operatlng Income 153 15 Reimbursable services to government agencies $ 77 $ 137 $ 151 $ 142 Operatlng expenses Salaries and other benefks Occupancy expense 17 16 Equipment expense 25 45 24 48 Assessments by Board of Governors 98 Other expenses Total operatlng expenses Net Income pdor to dlstrlbutlon $ 336 $ 1,805 92 $ 322 $ 1,498 Dlstrlbutlon of net Income Dividends paid to member banks Transferred to surplus Payments to US. Treasury as interest on Federal Reserve notes Total dlstrlbutlon The accompanyingnotes are an integral part of these financial statements. $ 29 304 $ 26 42 1,472 1,430 $ 1,805 $ 1,498 S T A T E M E N T S O F C H A N G E S (in millions) I N C A P I T A L For the years ended December 31,2000, and December31,1999 Capital Paid-in Balance at January 1, 1999 (8.4 million shares) Surplus Total Capital 418 5 418 $ 836 42 42 $ Net income transferred to surplus Net change in capital stock issued (0.8 million shares) Balance at December 31,1999 (9.2 million shares) 42 $ 460 42 $ 460 5 920 Net income transferred to surplus 304 304 Surplus transfer to the U.S.Treasury Net change in capital stock issued (0.7 million shares) (269) (269) Balance at December 31,2000 (9.9 million shares) 35 5 495 35 $ 495 5 990 The accompanying notes are an integral pari of these financial statements. 39 N O T E S T O F I N A N C I A L S T A T E M E N T S 1. ORGANIZATION The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (“Bank”) is part of the Federal Reserve System (“System”) created by Congress under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (“Federal Reserve Act”) which established the central bank of the United States. The System consists of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Board of Governor”) and twelve Federal Reserve Banks (“Reserve Banks”). The Reserve Banks are chartered by the federal government and possess a unique set of governmental, corporate, and central bank characteristics. Other major elements of the System are the Federal Open Market Committee (“FOMC”) and the Federal Advisory Council. The FOMC is composed of members of the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (“FRBNY”) and, on a rotating basis, four other Reserve Bank presidents. Structure The Bank and its branches in Birmingham, Alabama, Jacksonville, Florida, Nashville, Tennessee, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Miami, Florida, serve the Sixth Federal Reserve District, which includes Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and portions of Louisiana, Tennessee, and Mississippi. In accordance with the Federal Reserve Act, supervision and control of the Bank is exercised by a Board of Directors. Banks that are members of the System include all national banks and any state chartered bank that applies and is approved for membership in the System. Board of Directors The Federal Reserve Act specifies the composition of the Board of Directors for each of the Reserve Banks. Each board is composed of nine members serving three-year terms: three directors, including those designated as Chairman and Deputy Chairman, are appointed by the Board of Governors, and six directors are elected by member banks. Of the six elected by member banks, three represent the public and three represent member banks. Member banks are divided into three classes according to size. Member banks in each class elect one director representing member banks and one representing the public. In any election of directors, each member bank receives one vote, regardless of the number of shares of Reserve Bank stock it holds. 2. OPERATIONS AND SERVICES The System performs a variety of services and operations. Functions include: formulating and conducting monetaly policy; participating actively in the payments mechanism, including large-dollar transfers of funds, automated clearinghouse operations and check processing; distribution of coin and currency; fiscal agency functions for the US.’heasury and certain federal agencies; serving as the federal government’s bank; providing short-term loans to depository institutions; serving the consumer and the community by providing educational materials and information regarding consumer laws; supenising bank holding companies and state member banks; and administering other regulations of the Board of Governors. The Board of Governors’ operating costs are funded through assessments on the Reserve Banks. The FOMC establishes policy regarding open market operations, oversees these operations, and issues authorizations and directives to the FRBNY for its execution of transactions. Authorized transaction types include direct purchase and sale of securities, matched sale-purchase transactions, the purchase of securities under agreements to resell, and the lending of U S . government securities. The FRBNY is also authorized by the FOMC to hold balances of and to execute spot and forward foreign exchange and securities contracts in nine foreign currencies, maintain reciprocal currency arrangements (“FK swaps”) with various central banks, and “warehouse” foreign currencies for the U.S. Treasury and Exchange Stabilization Fund (“ESF”) through the Reserve Banks. 3. SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES Accounting principles for entities with the unique powers and responsibilities of the nation’s central bank have not been formulated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. The Board of Governors has developed specialized accounting principles and practices that it believes are appropriate for the significantly different nature and function of a central bank as compared to the private sector. These accounting principles and practices are documented in the “Financial Accounting Manual for Federal Reserve Banks” (“Financial Accounting Manual”), which is issued by the Board of Governors. All Reserve Banks are required to adopt and apply accounting policies and practices that are consistent with the Financial Accounting Manual. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the Financial Accounting Manual. Differences exist between the accounting principles and practices of the System and generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).The primary differences are the presentation of all security holdings at amortized cost, rather than at the fair value presentation requirements of GAAP, and the accounting for matched sale-purchase transactions as separate sales and purchases, rather than secured borrowings with pledged collateral, as is generally required by GAAF! In addition, the Bank has elected not to present a Statement of Cash Flows. The Statement of Cash Flows has not been included as the liquidity and cash position of the Bank are not of primaly concern to the users of these financial statements. Other information regarding the Bank’s activities is provided in, or may be derived from, the Statements of Condition, Income, and Changes in Capital. Therefore, a Statement of Cash Flows would not provide any additional useful information. There are no other significant differences between the policies outlined in the Financial Accounting Manual and GAAP. The preparation of the financial statements in conformity with the Financial Accounting Manual requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of income and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Unique accounts and significant accounting policies are explained below. 40 a. Gold Certlficates The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to issue gold certificates to the Reserve Banks to monetize gold held by the U.S. Treasury. Payment for the gold certificates by the Reserve Banks is made by crediting equivalent amounts in dollars into the account established for the U.S. Treasury. These gold certificates held by the Reserve Banks are required to be backed by the gold of the U.S. Treasury. The U S . Treasury may reacquire the gold certificates at any time and the Reserve Banks must deliver them to the US. Treasury. At such time, the U.S. Treasury’s account is charged and the Reserve Banks’ gold certificate accounts are lowered. The value of gold for purposes of backing the gold certificates is set by law at $42 2/9 a fine troy ounce. The Board of Governors allocates the gold certificates among Reserve Banks once a year based upon Federal Reserve notes outstanding in each District at the end of the preceding year. b. Special Drawing Rights Certificates Special drawing rights (“SDRs”) are issued by the International Monetary Fund (“Fund”) to its members in proportion to each member’s quota in the Fund at the time of issuance. SDRs serve as a supplement to international monetary reserves and may be transferred from one national monetary authority to another. Under the law providing for United States participation in the SDR system, the Secretary of the US. Treasury is authorized to issue SDR certificates, somewhat like gold certificates, to the Reserve Banks. At such time, equivalent amounts in dollars are credited to the account established for the US. Treasury, and the Reserve Banks’ SDR certificate accounts are increased. The Reserve Banks are required to purchase SDRs, at the direction of the U.S. Treasury, for the purpose of financing SDR certificate acquisitions or for financing exchange stabilization operations. The Board of Governors allocates each SDR transaction among Reserve Banks based upon Federal Reserve notes outstanding in each District at the end of the preceding year. c. Loans to Depository institutions The Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 provides that all depository institutions that maintain reservable transaction accounts or nonpersonal time deposits, as defined in Regulation D issued by the Board of Governors, have borrowing privileges at the discretion of the Reserve Banks. Borrowers execute certain lending agreements and deposit sufficient collateral before credit is extended. Loans are evaluated for collectibility, and currently all are considered collectible and fully collateralized. If any loans were deemed to be uncollectible, an appropriate reserve would be established. Interest is recorded on the accrual basis and is charged at the applicable discount rate established at least every fourteen days by the Board of Directors of the Reserve Banks, subject to review by the Board of Governors. However, Reserve Banks retain the option to impose a surcharge above the basic rate in certain circumstances. d. U.S. Government and Federal Agency Securities and lnvestments Denominated in Foreign Currencies The FOMC has designated the FRBNY to execute open market transactions on its behalf and to hold the resulting securities in the portfolio known as the System Open Market Account (“SOMA”). In addition to authorizing and directing operations in the domestic securities market, the FOMC authorizes and directs the FRBNY to execute operations in foreign markets for major currencies in order to counter disorderly conditions in exchange markets or other needs specified by the FOMC in carrying out the System’s central bank responsibilities. Purchases of securities under agreements to resell and matched sale-purchase transactions are accounted for as separate sale and purchase transactions. Purchases under agreements to resell are transactions in which the FRBNY purchases a security and sells it back at the rate specified at the commencement of the transaction. Matched sale-purchase transactions are transactions in which the FRBNY sells a security and buys it back at the rate specified at the commencement of the transaction. Effective April 26, 1999, FRBNY was given the sole authorization by the FOMC to lend US. government securities held in the SOMA to U.S. government securities dealers and to banks participating in US. government securities clearing arrangements, in order to facilitate the effective functioning of the domestic securities market. These securities-lending transactions are fully collateralized by other US. government securities. FOMC policy requires FRBNY to take possession of collateral in excess of the market values of the securities loaned. The market values of the collateral and the securities loaned are monitored by FRBNY on a daily basis, with additional collateral obtained as necessary. The securities loaned continue to be accounted for in the SOMA. Prior to April 26, 1999, all Reserve Banks were authorized to engage in such lending activity. Foreign exchange contracts are contractual agreements between two parties to exchange specified currencies, at a specified price, on a specified date. Spot foreign contracts normally settle two days after the trade date, whereas the settlement date on forward contracts is negotiated between the contracting parties, but will extend beyond two days from the trade date. The FRBNY generally enters into spot contracts, with any forward contracts generally limited to the second leg of a swap/warehousing transaction. The FRBNY, on behalf of the Reserve Banks, maintains renewable, short-term F/X swap arrangements with two authorized foreign central banks. The parties agree to exchange their currencies up to a prearranged maximum amount and for an agreed upon period of time (up to twelve months), at an agreed upon interest rate. These arrangements give the FOMC temporary access to foreign currencies that it may need for intervention operations to support the dollar and give the partner foreign central bank temporary access to dollars it may need to support its own currency. Drawings under the F/X swap arrangements can be initiated by either the FRBNY or the partner foreign central bank, and must be agreed to by the drawee. The F/X swaps are structured so that the party initiating the transaction (the drawer) bears the exchange rate risk upon maturity. The FRBNYwill generally invest the foreign currency received under an F/X swap in interest-bearing instruments. Warehousing is an arrangement under which the FOMC agrees to exchange, at the request of the Treasury, US. dollars for foreign currencies held by the Treasury or ESF over a limited period of time. The purpose of the warehousing facility is to supplement the U S . dollar resources of the Qeasury and ESF for financing purchases of foreign currencies and related international operations. 41 In connection with its foreign currency activities, the FRBNY, on behalf of the Reserve Banks, may enter into contracts which contain varying degrees of off-balance sheet market risk, because they represent contractual commitments involving future settlement, and counter-party credit risk. The FRBNY controls credit risk by obtaining credit approvals, establishing transaction limits, and performing daily monitoring procedures. While the application of current market prices to the securities currently held in the SOMA portfolio and investments denominated in foreign currencies may result in values substantially above or below their carrying values, these unrealized changes in value would have no direct effect on the quantity of reserves available to the banking system or on the prospects for future Reserve Bank earnings or capital. Both the domestic and foreign components of the SOMA portfolio from time to time involve transactions that can result in gains or losses when holdings are sold prior to maturity. However, decisions regarding the securities and foreign currencies transactions, including their purchase and sale, are motivated by monetav policy objectives rather than profit. Accordingly, earnings and any gains or losses resulting from the sale of such currencies and securities are incidental to the open market operations and do not motivate its activities or policy decisions. U.S. government and federal agency securities and investments denominated in foreign currencies comprising the SOMA are recorded at cost, on a settlement-date basis, and adjusted for amortization of premiums or accretion of discounts on a straight-line basis. Interest income is accrued on a straight-line basis and is reported as “Interest on U.S. government and federal agency securities” or “Interest on investments denominated in foreign currencies,” as appropriate. Income earned on securities lending transactions is reported as a component of “Other income.” Gains and losses resulting from sales of securities are determined by specific issues based on average cost. Gains and losses on the sales of US.government and federal agency securities are reported as “US. government securities losses, net.” Foreign currency denominated assets are revalued monthly at current market exchange rates in order to report these assets in U S . dollars. Realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments denominated in foreign currencies are reported as “Foreign currency losses, net.” Foreign currencies held through FK swaps, when initiated by the counter-party, and warehousing arrangements are revalued monthly, with the unrealized gain or loss reported by the FRBNY as a component of “Other assets” or “Other liabilities,” as appropriate. Balances of U S . government and federal agency securities bought outright, investments denominated in foreign currency, interest income, amortization of premiums and discounts on securities bought outright, gains and losses on sales of securities, and realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments denominated in foreign currencies, excluding those held under an FK swap arrangement, are allocated to each Reserve Bank. Effective April 26, 1999, income from securities lending transactions undertaken by FRBNY was also allocated to each Reserve Bank. Securities purchased under agreements to resell and unrealized gains and losses on the revaluation of foreign currency holdings under FK swaps and warehousing arrangements are allocated to the FRBNY and not to other Reserve Banks. e. Bank Premises and Equipment Bank premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over estimated useful lives of assets ranging from 2 to 50 years. New assets, major alterations, renovations and improvements are capitalized at cost as additions to the asset accounts. Maintenance, repairs and minor replacements are charged to operations in the year incurred. Internally developed software is capitalized based on the cost of direct materials and services and those indirect costs associated with developing, implementing, or testing software. f. lnterdistrict Settlement Account At the close of business each day, all Reserve Banks and branches assemble the payments due to or from other Reserve Banks and branches as a result of transactions involving accounts residing in other Districts that occurred during the day’s operations. Such transactions may include funds settlement, check clearing and automated clearinghouse operations, and allocations of shared expenses. The cumulative net amount due to or from other Reserve Banks is reported as the “Interdistrict settlement account.” g. Federal Reserve Notes Federal Reserve notes are the circulating currency of the United States. These notes are issued through the various Federal Reserve agents to the Reserve Banks upon deposit with such Agents of certain classes of collateral security, typically U S . government securities. These notes are identified as issued to a specific Reserve Bank. The Federal Reserve Act provides that the collateral security tendered by the Reserve Bank to the Federal Reserve Agent must be equal to the sum of the notes applied for by such Reserve Bank. In accordance with the Federal Reserve Act, gold certificates, special drawing rights certificates, U S . government and federal agency securities, triparty agreements, loans to depository institutions, and investments denominated in foreign currencies are pledged as collateral for net Federal Reserve notes outstanding. The collateral value is equal to the book value of the collateral tendered, with the exception of securities, whose collateral value is equal to the par value of the securities tendered. The Board of Governors may, at any time, call upon a Reserve Bank for additional security to adequately collateralize the Federal Reserve notes. The Reserve Banks have entered into an agreement which provides for certain assets of the Reserve Banks to be jointly pledged as collateral for the Federal Reserve notes of all Reserve Banks in order to satisfy their obligation of providing sufficient collateral for outstanding Federal Reserve notes. In the event that this collateral is insufficient, the Federal Reserve Act provides that Federal Reserve notes become a first and paramount lien on all the assets of the Reserve Banks. Finally, as obligations of the United States, Federal Reserve notes are backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. The “Federal Reserve notes outstanding, net” account represents Federal Reserve notes reduced by currency held in the vaults of the Bank of $21,662 million and $18,237 million at December 31,2000 and 1999, respectively. 42 h. Capital Paid-ln The Federal Reserve Act requires that each member bank subscribe to the capital stock of the Reserve Bank in an amount equal to 6 percent of the capital and surplus of the member bank. As a member bank’s capital and surplus changes, its holdings of the Reserve Bank’s stock must be adjusted. Member banks are those state-chartered banks that apply and are approved for membership in the System and all national banks. Currently, only one-half of the subscription is paid-in and the remainder is subject to call. These shares are nonvoting with a par value of $100. They may not be transferred or hypothecated. By law, each member bank is entitled to receive an annual dividend of 6 percent on the paid-in capital stock. This cumulative dividend is paid semiannually. A member bank is liable for Reserve Bank liabilities up to twice the par value of stock subscribed by it. i. Surplus The Board of Governors requires Reserve Banks to maintain a surplus equal to the amount of capital paid-in as of December 31. This amount is intended to provide additional capital and reduce the possibility that the Reserve Banks would be required to call on member banks for additional capital. Reserve Banks are required by the Board of Governors to transfer to the U S . Treasury excess earnings, after providing for the costs of operations, payment of dividends, and reservation of an amount necessary to equate surplus with capital paid-in. The Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-113, Section 302) directed the Reserve Banks to transfer to the U.S. Treasury additional surplus funds of $3,752 million during the Federal Government’s 2000 fiscal year. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta transferred $269 million to the U.S. Treasury during the year ended December 31,2000. Reserve Banks were not permitted to replenish the surplus for these amounts during fiscal year 2000 which ended September 30, 2000; however, the surplus was replenished by December 31,2000. In the event of losses or a substantial increase in capital, payments to the US.Treasury are suspended until such losses or increases in capital are recovered through subsequent earnings. Weekly payments to the U S . Treasury may vary significantly. j . h o m e and Costs Related to Treasury Services The Bank is required by the Federal Reserve Act to serve as fiscal agent and depository of the United States. By statute, the Department of the Treasury is permitted, but not required, to pay for these services. The costs of providing fiscal agency and depository services to the Treasury Department that have been billed but will not be paid are immaterial and included in “Other expenses.” k. Taxes The Reserve Banks are exempt from federal, state, and local taxes, except for taxes on real property, which are reported as a component of “Occupancy expense.” 4. U.S.GOVERNMENT FEDERAL AND AGENCY SECURlTlES Securities bought outright are held in the SOMA at the FRBNY. An undivided interest in SOMA activity, with the exception of securities held under agreements to resell and the related premiums, discounts and income, is allocated to each Reserve Bank on a percentage basis derived from an annual settlement of interdistrict clearings. The settlement, performed in April of each year, equalizes Reserve Bank gold certificate holdings to Federal Reserve notes outstanding. The Bank’s allocated share of SOMA balances was 6.656 percent and 6.087 percent at December 31,2000 and 1999, respectively. The Bank’s allocated share of securities held in the SOMA at December 31, that were bought outright, was as follows (in millions): 2000 Par value Federal agency US. government Bills Notes Bonds Total par value Unamortized premiums Unaccreted discounts Total allocated to Bank $ 9 11,897 15,987 6,176 34,069 648 (204) $ 34.513 1999 $ 11 10,744 13,298 5,051 29,104 554 (203) $ 29,455 43 I Total SOMA securities bought outright were $518,501 million and $483,902 million at December 31,2000 and 1999, respectively. The maturity distribution of US. government and federal agency securities bought outright, which were allocated to the Bank at December 31, 2000, was as follows (in millions): ~ Maturities of Securities Held Within 15 days 16 days to 90 days 91 days to 1year Over 1 year to 5 years Over 5 years to 10 years Over 10 years Total U.S. Government Securities Par value Federal Agency Obligations $ - 1,202 7,253 8,356 8,839 3,691 4,719 $ 34,060 $ 1,202 7,253 8,356 8,848 3,691 4,719 $ 34,069 $ - 9 - $ Total 9 At December 31, 2000 and 1999, matched sale-purchase transactions involving U.S. government securities with par values of $21,112 million and $39,182 million, respectively, were outstanding, of which $1,405 million and $2,385 million were allocated to the Bank. Matched sale-purchase transactions are generally overnight arrangements. 5. h E S T M E N T S DENOMINATEDFOREIGN IN CURRENCIES The FRBNY, on behalf of the Reserve Banks, holds foreign currency deposits with foreign central banks and the Bank for International Settlements and invests in foreign government debt instruments. Foreign government debt instruments held include both securities bought outright and securities held under agreements to resell. These investments are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the foreign governments. Each Reserve Bank is allocated a share of foreign-currency-denominated assets, the related interest income, and realized and unrealized foreign currency gains and losses, with the exception of unrealized gains and losses on F/X swaps and warehousing transactions. This allocation is based on the ratio of each Reserve Bank’s capital and surplus to aggregate capital and surplus at the preceding December 31. The Bank’s allocated share of investments denominated in foreign currencies was approximately 7.159 percent and 7.027 percent at December 31,2000 and 1999, respectively. The Bank’s allocated share of investments denominated in foreign currencies, valued at current exchange rates at December 31, was as follows (in millions): 2000 European Union Euro Foreign currency deposits Government debt instruments including agreements to resell Japanese Yen Foreign currency deposits Government debt instruments including agreements to resell Accrued interest Total $ 332 1999 $ 305 196 178 197 23 393 4 $ 1,122 625 3 $ 1,134 Total investments denominated in foreign currencies were $15,670 million and $16,140 million at December 31,2000 and 1999, respectively. The maturity distribution of investments denominated in foreign currencies which were allocated to the Bank at December 31, 2000, was as follows (in millions): Maturities of Investments Denominated in Foreign Currencies Within 1year Over 1year to 5 years Over 5 years to 10 years Over 10 years Total $ 1,053 30 31 8 $ 1,122 At December 31,2000 and 1999, there were no open foreign exchange contracts or outstanding F K swaps. At December 31,2000 and 1999, the warehousing facility was $5,000 million, with no balance outstanding. 6. BANK PREMISES A D EQUIPMENT N A summary of bank premises and equipment at December 31 is as follows (in millions): 2000 Bank premises and equipment Land Buildings Building machinery and equipment Construction in progress Furniture and equipment Accumulated depreciation Bank premises and equipment, net 34 88 17 134 141 414 (107) $ 307 $ 1999 32 42 13 78 134 299 (99) $ 200 $ Depreciation expense was $16 million for each of the years ended December 31,2000 and 1999. The Bank is constructing a new building to replace the head office in Atlanta. At December 31,2000, the contractual obligation for this construction totals $37 million. Real estate located at Peachtree Walk in Midtown Atlanta was sold to TCB #11,L.L.C. and Post Apartment Homes, L.P. on June 9,2000 with a profit of approximately $1.9 million. The Bank leases unused space to outside tenants. Those leases have terms ranging from 1 to 5 years. Rental income from such leases w s $1 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2000 and 1999. Future minimum lease payments mder noncancelable a agreements in existence at December 31,2000, were (in thousands): 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Thereafter $ 601 491 211 149 39 - $ 1,491 7. COMMITMENTS CONTINGENCIES AND At December 31,2000, the Bank was obligated under noncancelable leases for premises and equipment with terms ranging from 1 to approximately 9 years. These leases provide for increased rentals based upon increases in real estate taxes, operating costs or selected price indices. Rental expense under operating leases for certain operating facilities, warehouses, and data processing and office equipment (including taxes, insurance and maintenance when included in rent), net of sublease rentals, was $7 million for each of the years ended December 31,2000 and 1999. Certain of the Bank’s leases have options to renew. 45 Future minimum rental payments under noncancelable operating leases and capital leases, net of sublease rentals, with terms of one year or more, at December 31,2000, were (in millions): Operating 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Thereafter $ 3.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0 $ 7.4 At December 31,2000, other commitments and long-term obligations in excess of one year were $135 million. Under the Insurance Agreement of the Federal Reserve Banks dated as of March 2, 1999, each of the Reserve Banks has agreed to bear, on a per incident basis, a pro rata share of losses in excess of 1 percent of the capital paid-in of the claiming Reserve Bank, up to 50 percent of the total capital paid-in of all Reserve Banks. Losses are borne in the ratio that a Reserve Bank’s capital paid-in bears to the total capital paid-in of all Reserve Banks at the beginning of the calendar year in which the loss is shared. No claims were outstanding under such agreement at December 31,2000 or 1999. The Bank is involved in certain legal actions and claims arising in the ordinaly course of business. Although it is difficult to predict the ultimate outcome of these actions, in management’s opinion, based on discussions with counsel, the aforementioned litigation and claims will be resolved without material adverse effect on the financial position or results of operations of the Bank. 8. RETIREMENT T RF PMNS AND H I I Retirement Plans The Bank currently offers two defined benefit retirement plans to its employees, based on length of service and level of compensation. Substantially all of the Bank’s employees participate in the Retirement Plan for Employees of the Federal Reserve System (“System Plan”) and the Benefit Equalization Retirement Plan (“BEP”). The System Plan is a multi-employer plan with contributions fully funded by participating employers. No separate accounting is maintained of assets contributed by the participating employers. The Bank’s projected benefit obligation and net pension costs for the BEP at December 31,2000 and 1999, and for the years then ended, are not material. Thrift Plan Employees of the Bank may also participate in the defined contribution Thrift Plan for Employees of the Federal Reserve System (“Thrift Plan”). The Bank’s Thrift Plan contributions totaled $4 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2000 and 1999, and are reported as a component of “Salaries and other benefits.” 9. PDSTRmREMENT BENEFITS &HER THANP N I N AND P S E P O M N BENEFITS E SO S OTML Y ET Postretirement Benefits Other Than Pensions In addition to the Bank’s retirement plans, employees who have met certain age and length of service requirements are eligible for both medical benefits and life insurance coverage during retirement. The Bank funds benefits payable under the medical and life insurance plans as due and, accordingly, has no plan assets. Net postretirement benefit costs are actuarially determined using a January 1 measurement date. Following is a reconciliation of beginning and ending balances of the benefit obligation (in millions): ~~ 2000 Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation at Janualy 1 Service cost-benefits earned during the period Interest cost of accumulated benefit obligation Actuarial (gain) Contributions by plan participants Benefits paid Plan amendments, acquisitions, foreign currency exchange rate changes, business combinations, divestitures, curtailments, settlements, special termination benefits Accumulated postretirement benefit obligation at December 31 46 1999 $ 65.9 $ 71.8 1.8 4.5 (2.1) 0.4 (2.3) 2.1 4.1 (10.4) 0.3 (2.0) (8.0) $ 60.2 $ 65.9 Following is a reconciliation of the beginning and ending balance of the plan assets, the unfunded postretirement benefit obligation, and the accrued postretirement benefit costs (in millions): 2000 Fair value of plan assets at January 1 Actual return on plan assets Contributions by the employer Contributions by plan participants Benefits paid Fair value of plan assets at December 31 Unfunded postretirement benefit obligation Unrecognized initial net transition asset (obligation) Unrecognized prior service cost Unrecognized net actuarial gain (loss) Accrued Postretirement benefit costs $ - 1.9 0.4 (2.3) $ 60.2 12.6 5.4 $ 78.2 1999 $ - 1.7 0.3 (2.0) $ $ 65.9 - 5.0 3.3 $ 74.2 Accrued postretirement benefit costs are reported as a component of “Accrued benefit costs.” At December 31,2000 and 1999,the weighted-averageassumption used in developing the postretirement benefit obligationwas 7.5 percent. For measurement purposes, an 8.75 percent annual rate of increase in the cost of covered health care benefits was assumed for 2001. Ultimately, the health care cost trend rate is expected to decrease gradually to 5.50 percent by 2008, and remain at that level thereafter. Assumed health care cost trend rates have a significant effect on the amounts reported for health care plans. A one percentage point change in assumed health care cost trend rates would have the following effects for the year ended December 31,2000 (in millions): 1 Percentage Point Increase 1 Percentage Point Decrease Effect on aggregate of service and interest cost components of net periodic postretirement benefit costs Effect on accumulated postretirement benefit obligation $ 2.1 $ (1.6) 15.6 (11.8) The following is a summary of the components of net periodic postretirement benefit costs for the years ended December 31 (in millions): 2000 Service cost-benefits earned during the period Interest cost of accumulated benefit obligation Amortization of prior service cost Recognized net actuarial loss Net periodic postretirement benefit costs 1999 $ 1.8 $ 2.1 4.6 4.1 (0.4) - (0.4) $ 6.0 $ 5.8 - Net periodic postretirement benefit costs are reported as a component of “Salaries and other benefits.” Postemployment Benefits The Bank offers benefits to former or inactive employees. Postemployment benefit costs are actuarially determined and include the cost of medical and dental insurances, survivor income, disability benefits, and self-insured workers’ compensation expenses. Costs were projected using the same discount rate and health care trend rates as were used for projecting postretirement costs. The accrued postemployment benefit costs recognized by the Bank at December 31, 2000 and 1999, were $9 million in each year. This cost is included as a component of “Accrued benefit costs.” Net periodic postemployment benefit costs included in 2000 and 1999 operating expenses were $2 million in each year. 47 48 C R E D I T S Design by GOLD & Associates, Inc. Cover photography by Tim Olive Photography on pages 5 and 27 by Kevin Rose Photography on pages 23-26,28, and 30 by Flip Chalfant Remaining photography by GOLD & Associates, Inc. Printing by Hickory Printing Group, Inc.