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Volume V





Dallas, Texas, August 15, 1950

Number 8

Plan Now fo r Winter Grazing
Adequate winter pastures reduce livestock
feed costs and increase weight gains of beef
cattle and milk production of dairy herds. By
making plans now to seed the proper pasture
crops, grazing can be provided during most,
if not all, of the winter months.
The winter pasture program should be
based upon the use of small grains, winter le­
gumes, and cool-season grasses. Research has
shown that by midwinter the cured summer
grasses are very deficient in protein. Analyses
of various grasses in January at the Denton
Agricultural Experiment Station placed the
protein content of Little Bluestem at 2.7 per­
cent, K. R. Bluestem at 3.3, Bermuda at 5.0,
and Buffalo at 6.0, compared with 12.3 percent
for Kentucky fescue and 12.5 for Western
wheat grass.
While exact recommendations as to varie­
ties, rates and time of seeding, fertilizer needs,
and cultural practices for the establishment
of winter pastures vary throughout the South­
west, some general information can be given
that should be helpful in making plans for
winter grazing.
Small Grains
All of the small grains can be used for win­
ter pasture. They are particularly important
to the Southwest because the seed is readily
available, most farmers are familiar with
planting methods, no special equipment is re­
quired, and they are productive on a wide
variety of soils. Planting time ranges from
September to November, depending upon the
area and moisture conditions.
Oats, one of the most common grains used
in central and eastern areas of the Southwest,
should be sown at the rate of about 2 or 3

bushels per acre except in parts of northern
Louisiana, where as much as 8 bushels per acre
may be recommended. Wheat, the major pas­
ture grain in western sections, can be sown at
rates ranging from % to 2 bushels per acre.
Winter barley, either alone or with vetch,
makes a very desirable pasture and is usually
ready to graze a week or two earlier than oth­
er grains. The recommended rate of seeding
per acre is from 1 % to 2 bushels of barley and
about 10 pounds of vetch.
Abruzzi or Balboa rye provides a very good
winter pasture and, although somewhat less
productive in early fall, is generally more
productive during the mid- and late-winter
months. It should be sown at the rate of about
1 to 114 bushels per acre, although as much
as 2 bushels are recommended in sandy areas,
where soil blowing is a hazard.
W inter Legumes

Adapted, inoculated, and properly ferti­
lized winter legumes are highly productive
and should be included in the winter pasture
program. Planting should be done between
September 15 and November 15.
In selecting the legume to be used, farmers
should be governed by the success or failure
of the variety in their community, avail­
ability of seed, and the soil and moisture con­
ditions of the area. Suggested winter legumes
Hairy vetch—Plant about 2 *4 inches deep
at the rate of 20 pounds per acre if broadcast
or 10 to 15 pounds if drilled with small grains.
D ixie crim son clover — Use 10 to 15
pounds per acre alone and 5 to 10 pounds per
acre with a small grain. Plant J4 to 1 inch



Black medic—This relatively new clover
has given excellent results in certain areas and
is particularly good for use in pasture mix­
tures. Planting rate is 10 to 15 pounds per
acre in pasture mixtures or 15 to 20 pounds
per acre if seeded alone.
Button clover—This is also relatively new
to the Southwest and has given excellent re­
sults in many communities. From 15 to 20
pounds of scarified seed (seed with the outer
hull removed) should be sown per acre.
Cool-season Grasses
Experiment stations throughout the South­
west have tested hundreds of cool-season
grasses and are still searching for more pro­
ductive strains and better cultural and man­
agement methods. To date, the fescues have
proved to be the most desirable. Of these, Alta
144 and Kentucky 31 are probably the best
adapted. They should be seeded between midAugust and mid-October at the following
rates per acre: 3 to 5 pounds in 3-foot rows,
5 to 10 pounds in 2-foot rows, 10 to 15 pounds
if broadcast, or 5 to 10 pounds if seeded with
a legume.
Harding grass has given good results at the
Texas Experiment Station at Denton, and
test plantings of adapted strains of Brome and
orchard grass have proved satisfactory in other
sections. Dallis grass in combination with
White clover and lespedeza has given good re­
sults in the coastal area.
In the seeding of these grasses, it is impor­
tant that a firm seed bed, relatively free from
weeds, be prepared and the seed drilled and
covered lightly, usually not deeper than /z
inch. The tiny seeds are not able to push their
way to the surface if germination occurs much
deeper than 1 inch.
These grasses usually provide some pasture
by December but should be grazed lightly the
first season so the plant can build up sufficient
root stock to survive the following summer.
Heavy grazing is generally possible during the
second and subsequent seasons.
All winter pastures will benefit from proper
fertilization. The kinds and amounts of ferti­

lizer to be used vary widely, and local recom­
mendations should be followed. In general,
from 200 to 400 pounds of a complete ferti­
lizer (one containing nitrogen, phosphate,
and potash) applied at the time of seeding will
be profitable in the humid areas of the South­
west. Additional topdressing with nitrogen in
the spring is sometimes recommended.

Irish Potatoes for Fall
LaSalle, LaSoda, and DeSoto varieties of
Irish potatoes are recommended for the fall
crop in Louisiana. These varieties generally
outyield and are of somewhat superior qual­
ity to the Triumph, the standard variety for
fall planting in most parts of the State.
The LaSoda is particularly well adapted to
shipping and commands a premium on most
markets. The plants set a crop relatively early
and are somewhat resistant to mosiac disease.
The LaSalle variety is excellent for home use
and local markets.
To avoid a poor stand in the fall crop,
growers should make certain that the seed has
had a sufficient “rest period.” This period is
that time after harvest during which the seed
will not sprout, regardless of temperature or
other growing conditions, and is from 60 to
100 days for most varieties.
Planting should be done about mid-August
in northern Louisiana and about September
1 in the southern sections. Use large seed pieces
and plant about 12 inches apart in the row
and from 3 to 5 inches deep. Liberal applica­
tions of commercial fertilizer will pay big
dividends. On light soils a 6-8-8 fertilizer
applied at the rate of 600 to 1,000 pounds per
acre is recommended. On heavy soils similar
amounts of either a 5-10-5 or 4-12-4 should
be used.

Dairy Cows Need Water
It is common knowledge that dairy cows
need adequate water for maximum milk pro­
duction, but the urgency of this need fre­
quently is not realized. Louisiana State Uni­
versity specialists point out that, with an
average ration, about 10 pounds, or more than


1 gallon, of water are required for every
pound of dry matter consumed. If insufficient
water is provided, the cow usually eats less
feed in order to keep her water and feed sup­
ply in balance. If forced to restrict her feed
and water intake, milk production will be de­
Frequent watering is as essential as the quan­
tity of water available. If forced to walk a
great distance in the hot sun for water, or if
watered only once or twice a day, cows will
not consume sufficient water for maximum

Leafy , Green Alfalfa Hay Best
Alfalfa hay that contains a large percent­
age of leaves and is bright green in color is
the most valuable, according to C. L. Canode,
Oklahoma A. & M. College agronomist. Leaf­
iness is an indication of a relatively high pro­
tein content, and green color, the presence of
Vitamin A. Stemmy, brown alfalfa hay is
usually very low in feeding value.
In order to produce alfalfa hay with these
desirable properties, the crop should be cut
when the plants are one-tenth to one-fourth
in bloom and the hay handled when it is in a
tough or slightly tough condition. Overdrying
results in shattering of leaves and loss of color.


Total gain of about 270 pounds per steer
and average daily gain of 1.9 pounds during
the period were about the same for the three
lots. Steers in each of the lots consumed about
the same amount of feed, although the calves
fed molasses cleaned up their feed sooner and
refused feed less frequently.
On the basis of prices prevailing during the
feeding period, the feed cost for 140 days
was $61.73 per steer for the lot receiving no
molasses, $52.89 for the lot receiving corn mo­
lasses, and $52.51 for the steers receiving cit­
rus molasses. While the first lot sold for nearly
50 cents per hundred pounds more than the
others, the profit per steer was about $5.00
less because of the higher feed costs.
On the basis of feed required per hundred
pounds of gain, the two types of molasses were
worth about the same, or $44 per ton, with
ground milo worth $48 per ton.

Quality Eggs Pay Off

Feed Value of Citrus Molasses

Quality eggs frequently bring a premium
of 5 or more cents per dozen when sold on a
graded basis, and the egg grading program
sponsored by the United States Department of
Agriculture and state agricultural colleges is
placing this method of selling within the reach
of more and more farmers. Production of topquality eggs is thus becoming increasingly im­
portant in obtaining highest profits in the
poultry business.

Citrus molasses, a by-product of canning
hearts and juices of citrus fruits, is about equal
to corn molasses and about 9 5 percent as effi­
cient as ground milo for fattening beef calves,
according to tests by Texas A. & M. College.
In these tests three lots of beef calves aver­
aging about 460 pounds were used. The ration
for the check lot consisted of cottonseed meal,
ground milo, Atlas silage, and prairie and al­
falfa hay. Four pounds of citrus molasses were
substituted for 4 pounds of ground milo in lot
No. 2, and 4 pounds of corn molasses were
substituted in the ration of lot 3. The calves
were kept on feed for 140 days, beginning
November 10, 1949.

Temperature and humidity are the two
most important factors governing the qual­
ity of eggs, according to F. Z. Beanblossom,
extension poultry m arketing specialist of
Texas A. & M. College. In order to maintain
quality, eggs should be cooled as quickly as
possible after laying to a temperature of about
65 degrees Fahrenheit and held in a room
‘where the humidity is generally not lower
than 75 percent.



The importance of prompt cooling is shown
by the fact that eggs held at a temperature of
99.6 degrees F. drop to "B grade” in 3 days or
less, while those held at 65 degrees F. usually
maintain quality for more than a week.

tally, the butt or ground end should be treated
an additional 12 to 15 hours. Split oak posts
need to be treated only on the ground end.
About 1 gallon of solution will be required
for each post treated.
suitable for treating posts up to 8
Mr. Beanblossom points out that in order to feetA intank
be constructed by welding
facilitate cooling, eggs should be spread out together three can
oil drums.
on a wire tray or left in a wire basket for
about 5 or 6 hours after gathering. Eggs han­
dled in this manner will cool in from 3 to 5
Control of Bagworms
hours, but if placed in a solid pail or an egg
case, 12 to 20 hours will be required for cool­ Bagworms are causing considerable damage
to evergreens in forests and in shrubbery in
Oklahoma and Texas. Their presence can be
detected by the small cone-shaped, grayish
Treated Fence Posts
brown bags which they weave with silk and
Last Longer
bits of leaves and twigs and attach to the
branches of the trees or shrubs. Because the
Chemically treated fence posts of pine, oak, color of these cones is similar to that of the
and elm usually last from 10 to 15 years longer surrounding branches, it is frequently difficult
than untreated posts, according to C. W. Sim­ to see them without careful inspection.
mons, extension forester of Texas A. & M.
College. The cost of treating usually is about Spraying with a lead arsenate solution is
recommended for control by G. R. Durrell,
30 cents per post.
Oklahoma A. & M. College forester. Most ef­
Pentachlorophenol (usually called “penta”) fective control is gained when spray is applied
diluted with fuel oil to a 5-percent solution early in the spring at the time the bags first
has been used successfully for treating posts appear. When mixing and applying the spray
from the above named tree species. The chem­ solution, manufacturer’s instructions should
ical holds its strength well and does not leach be followed carefully.
or wash out of the wood.
On small trees or shrubbery, bagworms
Posts to be treated should be seasoned until also can be controlled by pulling the bags
they take on a gray color. For pines this will from the limbs and burning them. All bags
require from 5 to 10 months, while oak and must be removed, as a single bag left on the
elm usually require from 6 months to 2 years, tree can result in heavy infestation the fol­
depending upon the size of the posts. During lowing year.
the seasoning period the posts should be piled
crib fashion, with the stack about 18 inches
above the ground and with a roof or a shade
tree to keep off the sun.
August 31—South Texas Brahman Auction,
September is the best month for the treat­ Alice, Texas.
ing operation, although it can be done any
time from June to October, according to Mr. September 11-16— Texas Aberdeen - Angus
Simmons. Posts should be completely sub­ Show, Tyler, Texas.
merged in the solution for about 2 days—or October 7-22—State Fair of Texas, Dallas.
longer if they are larger than 4 inches in di­
ameter. If the posts are placed in an upright October 13-20— All American Jersey Show
position during treatment, they should be and Junior Jersey Exposition, State Fair of
kept butt end down; and, if placed horizon­ Texas, Dallas.