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COMP2000 Pilot Survey New Orleans, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area August-September 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1997 Bulletin 3082-6  New Orleans, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area  ii  Preface  T  Labor Statistics (BLS) field economists under the direction of the Dallas Regional Office. The Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, in cooperation with the Office of Field Operations and the Office of Technology and Survey Processing, in the BLS National Office was responsible for the survey design and data processing and analysis.  his survey of occupational pay was conducted in August/September 1996 in the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The MSA includes the parishes of Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, and St. Tammany. New Orleans is the sixth area selected for a series of tests using a new way of identifying and classifying occupations within establishments. The revised data collection procedure introduces a new method for determining the level of duties and responsibilities of surveyed occupations. This method, called “generic leveling,” will replace the job classification system now used in the Occupational Compensation Survey program (OCS). An entirely new statistical program will replace the existing OCS program, Employment Cost Index, and Employee Benefit Survey series. The working title of the program is COMP2000. Hourly wage rates for various occupational classifications compose the bulk of the information contained in this bulletin. One table contains data on weekly wage rates. Tables showing the number of workers included in the wage data are also presented. The bulletin consists primarily of tables whose data are analyzed in the initial textual section. Also contained in this bulletin is information on the new COMP2000 program, a technical note describing survey procedures, and several appendixes with detailed information on occupational classifications and the generic leveling methodology. Survey data were collected and reviewed by Bureau of  Where to find more information For additional information regarding this survey, please contact the BLS Dallas Regional Office at (214) 767-6970. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001, or call (202) 606-6220. The data contained in this bulletin are also available on the Internet’s World Wide Web through the BLS site: http://stats.bls.gov/comhome.htm Data are in ASCII files containing the exact published table format. Electronic files for future surveys will contain positional columns of data in an ASCII file for easy manipulation as a data base or spreadsheet. A third format will be Portable Document Format that will contain the entire bulletin. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-7828; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  iii  Contents  Page A New Compensation Survey .............................................................................................................. Wages in the New Orleans, LA metropolitan area ...............................................................................  1 2  Appendixes: A. Technical note.......................................................................................................................... B. Occupational classifications...................................................................................................... C. Generic leveling criteria ........................................................................................................... D. Evaluating your firm’s jobs ......................................................................................................  36 43 51 58  Tables: 1. Hourly earnings for selected occupations .................................................................................. 2. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, full-time workers only.............................................. 3. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, part-time workers only............................................. 4. Weekly earnings for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only ......................... 5. Hourly earnings by occupational group and level...................................................................... 6. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries ..................... 7. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry ................. 8. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, State and local government. 9. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry ...................................... 10. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, full-time workers only .. 11. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, part-time workers only . 12. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry... 13. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, full-time workers only ............................................................................................................. 14. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, part-time workers only ............................................................................................................ 15. Number of workers by occupation ............................................................................................ 16. Number of workers by occupational group and level................................................................. 17. Number of workers by occupational group and selected characteristic ...................................... 18. Number of workers by occupational group and industry, private industry ................................. 19. Number of workers by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry.......................................................................................................................  4 7 10 11 13 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 33 34 35  Appendix tables: A1. Number of establishments studied by industry and establishment employment size.................. A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings for selected occupations...............................  v  40 41  A New Compensation Survey  T  his bulletin represents the sixth test results of a new Bureau of Labor Statistics program called COMP2000. COMP2000 integrates three existing programs: the Occupational Compensation Survey (OCS), the Employment Cost Index (ECI), and the Employee Benefits Survey (EBS), into one comprehensive compensation program. Data from the new survey will be jointly collected from one common sample of establishments. The survey has several major goals: To make the most efficient use of available resources—dollars, people, and technology; to minimize the burden of collection on respondents; and to provide a wide range of statistical outputs reflecting up-to-date economic and statistical concepts. The streamlining of programs and the addition of data will be phased in over time. At first, testing will concentrate on wage level data (such as contained in this bulletin) and the collection of demographic characteristics of workers (e.g., length of service). In Fall 1996, a new areabased sample was put into place that will allow for the collection of wage data based on the methods refined in the early tests. The larger metropolitan area collections will yield bulletins, similar to this one, which will replace the current Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins. Further testing of benefit data, wage trend data, and other compensation characteristics will begin within the next year. Based on test results, new collection procedures for these types of statistics will be developed. The new procedures will be implemented beginning in 1998. Eventually, wage data and benefit information collected from the sample will be used to produce compensation indexes and statistics on benefit provisions and incidence. These new series will supplant the current ECI and EBS programs.  COMP2000 versus OCS The wage data in this bulletin differ from those in previous Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins by providing broader coverage of occupations and establishments within the survey area. The same holds for all future COMP2000 products. Occupations surveyed for this bulletin were selected using probability techniques from a list of all those present in each establishment. Previous OCS bulletins were limited to a preselected list of occupations, which represented a small subset of all occupations in the economy. Information in the new bulletin is published for a variety of occupation-based data. This new approach includes data on broad occupational classifications, such as white-collar workers, major occupational groups such as sales workers, and individual occupations such as cashiers. In tables containing job levels within occupational series, the levels are derived from generic standards that apply to all occupational groups. The job levels in the OCS bulletins were based on narrowly-defined descriptions that were not comparable across specific occupations. Occupational data in this bulletin are also tabulated for other classifications such as industry group, full-time versus part-time status, union versus nonunion status, and establishment employment size. Not all of these series were generated by the OCS program. Finally, the establishments surveyed in this bulletin were selected from among all private and State and local government establishments. Previous OCS samples were limited to establishments with 50 or more employees. The wider scope of the COMP2000 program means that virtually all workers in the New Orleans metropolitan statistical area are covered, excluding only private household and farm workers and employees of the Federal Government.  1  Wages in the New Orleans, LA metropolitan area  S  traight-time wages in the New Orleans, LA metropolitan area averaged $12.79 per hour during August/September, 1996 (table 1). White-collar workers had the highest average wage level, $15.80 per hour. Blue-collar workers averaged $11.22 per hour, while service workers had average earnings of $6.74 per hour. Within each of these occupational groups, average wages for individual occupations varied. For example, white-collar occupations included petroleum engineers at $32.55 per hour, supervisors, sales occupations at $12.64 per hour, and billing clerks at $7.50 per hour. Among occupations in the blue-collar category, industrial machinery repairers averaged $15.59 per hour while helpers, construction trades, averaged $7.12 per hour. Finally, service workers included correctional institution officers at $8.64 and maids and housemen at $5.48 per hour. Table 1 presents earnings data for 93 detailed occupations; data for other detailed occupations could not be reported separately due to concerns about the confidentiality of survey respondents.  Private industry workers, about 85 percent of the New Orleans area labor force studied, averaged $12.61 per hour, while State and local government workers earned $13.79 per hour (chart 1). (All comparisons in this analysis cover hourly rates for both full- and part-time workers, unless otherwise noted.) Sixty-three percent of State and local government workers were in white-collar jobs, with more than one-third in professional specialty occupations (chart 2). Only about 9 percent of private sector employees were in professional specialty occupations. In contrast, blue-collar workers made up only 14 percent of government employees, while they made up 32 percent of private industry. Chart 2. Distribution of employment by occupational group, New Orleans, LA, August-September, 1996  Percent  Private industry  100  State and local government  80  Chart 1. Average hourly wage rates by industry, New Orleans, LA, August-September, 1996  60 Dollars per hour $ 14  40  12  20  10 0 8  White-collar  Blue-collar  Service  6  Average wages for full-time workers in New Orleans were $13.54 per hour, compared with an average of $7.01 per hour for part-time workers (tables 2-3). Wages for the highest levels of work within major occupational groups usually were greater than for the lowest levels of work (table 5). This general pattern can vary somewhat depending on the mix of specific occupations  4 2 0 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  2  (and industries) represented by the broad group. A given level within a group may not have data because no workers were identified at that level or because there were not enough data to guarantee confidentiality.  Chart 3. Average hourly wage rates by work level for executives, managers, and administrators, New Orleans, LA, August-September, 1996 Dollars per hour $ 30  Work levels for all major groups span several levels, with professional specialty and executive, administrative, and managerial workers typically starting and ending at higher work levels than the other groups. (See chart 3 for an example of wage data by level of work.) Union workers had hourly wage rates of $13.70 in New Orleans. Nonunion workers wages averaged $12.72 (table 6). Only 6 percent of workers in New Orleans were unionized, with just 21 percent of those in the higher-paying, white-collar occupations. In the private sector, hourly wages averaged $15.12 in goods-producing industries. Wages stood at $11.68 in service-producing industries (table 9).  25 20 15 10 5 0 10  11  12 Level  3  13  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $12.79 $10.07 All workers excluding sales .................... 12.88 10.25 White-collar occupations ........................ 15.80 12.31 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 21.17 19.28 Professional specialty occupations 23.48 21.81 Engineering occupations ........... 33.21 28.85 Petroleum engineers .......... 32.55 – Electrical and electronic engineers ...................... 24.56 – Industrial engineers ............ 24.08 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 28.91 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 26.68 – Geologists and geodesists 36.04 – Registered nurses .............. 21.86 21.00 Teachers ..................................... 20.82 20.00 Teachers, college and university .......................... 26.20 23.13 Health specialities teachers 21.69 – Teachers, except college and university .......................... 18.16 19.18 Elementary school teachers 19.70 20.72 Secondary school teachers 20.32 – Technical occupations .................... 14.20 13.00 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 13.10 – Radiological technicians ..... 14.72 – Licensed practical nurses ... 11.82 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 12.50 10.00 Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 14.04 – Drafters ............................... 14.52 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 17.58 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 21.76 18.49 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 34.48 – Financial managers ............ 23.51 – Personnel and labor relations managers ....... 25.73 – Administrators, education and related fields .......... 24.14 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 19.83 – Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. .... 18.27 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 28.44 24.05 Accountants and auditors ... 21.79 17.88 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... 16.14 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 12.15 12.02 Sales occupations .............................. 11.88 8.50 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 12.64 11.54 Sales occupations, other business services ......... 14.76 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 16.84 – Sales workers, other commodities ................. 8.06 – Cashiers ............................. 6.08 5.75  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $6.73 - $15.50 $12.61 $10.00 6.86 - 15.80 12.69 10.00 8.30 - 20.00 15.67 12.00  $6.50 - $15.00 $13.79 $11.44 6.50 - 15.20 13.80 11.44 8.00 - 19.01 16.36 15.55  $8.37 - $18.34 8.37 - 18.34 9.62 - 22.18  13.20 16.00 23.09 –  12.60 18.49 23.37 –  13.61 14.14 – –  25.02 27.50 42.42 –  22.72 27.10 33.51 32.55  19.94 25.00 28.85 –  28.85 33.89 42.60 –  18.26 18.73 – –  18.33 19.24 – –  – – –  24.56 24.99 28.91  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – 18.24 14.25 -  – – 23.90 23.35  – 36.04 22.47 23.91  – – 21.00 12.63  – – 18.13 10.53 -  – – 25.00 34.58  – – 20.51 19.86  – – 21.79 20.38  16.14 –  34.31 –  31.48 21.69  32.62 –  16.00 –  39.07 –  – –  – –  13.61 16.67 – 10.07 -  22.60 22.73 – 17.14  10.71 – – 14.48  – – – 13.03  – – – 10.50 -  – – – 17.14  19.26 19.70 20.32 11.39  20.72 20.72 – –  – – –  – 14.79 11.82  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  14.20  13.05  10.50  15.00  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  14.04 14.52  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  18.66  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  28.00  21.47  17.63  27.06  23.39  22.28  – –  – –  – 23.51  – –  – –  – –  32.74 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.78  –  –  –  –  –  18.36  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  35.29 29.12  28.66 22.42  24.05 18.08  35.29 29.82  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  15.38  –  –  –  –  –  –  10.00 6.05 -  14.36 12.69  11.55 11.89  11.55 8.50  10.00 6.05 -  13.75 12.69  18.66 –  – –  – –  – –  10.10 -  13.00  12.64  11.54  10.10 -  13.00  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.76  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  16.84  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 4.90 -  – 7.39  – 5.75  – 4.90 -  – 7.39  – –  – –  – –  – –  – – –  – – – 8.50 -  13.62 -  16.83 16.83 -  –  See footnotes at end of table.  4  8.06 6.08  – – –  – – – 8.50 -  13.44 -  16.83 16.83 -  –  – – – – – 18.89 16.28 – – 16.33 16.67 – –  15.50 -  22.44 22.61 – – – – – – – 22.65 22.96 – – 22.64 22.73 – –  29.12  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ........................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Supervisors, general office Secretaries ......................... Typists ................................ Receptionists ...................... Personnel clerks except payroll & timekeeping ... Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ Payroll and timekeeping clerks ............................ Billing clerks ........................ Dispatchers ......................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. Stock and inventory clerks .. Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ................. General office clerks ........... Data entry keyers ............... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... Professional occupations, N.E.C. ........................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................ Automobile mechanics ....... Industrial machinery repairers ....................... Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ..... Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters ................... Supervisors, construction trades, N.E.C. ............... Electricians ......................... Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters ................... Construction trades, N.E.C. Supervisors, production occupations .................. Machinists ........................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... Welders and cutters ............ Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ....................... Driver-sales workers ........... Bus drivers ..........................  Middle range  $8.32  –  9.72 12.30 11.31 7.62 7.36  $8.75 – 10.91 – 7.19  8.79 7.99  – 6.44  – 6.19 -  9.83  9.42  7.75 -  – – –  – – –  9.10 9.09  – 7.50  18.20 9.39 8.33  –  Middle range  $8.32  –  9.85 11.94 11.69 7.59 7.31  $8.74 – 11.50 – 7.19  – 10.50  – 7.73  – –  – –  11.25  10.02  9.50  7.52 -  – – –  7.48 7.50 12.00  – – –  – 6.25 -  – 13.75  9.10 9.45  – 9.00 –  – 7.25 –  – 11.88 –  10.34  10.10  8.13 -  18.21  –  $8.98 – 9.68 – –  $9.02 – – – –  – 8.64  – –  – –  – –  11.25  –  –  –  –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  18.20 9.79 –  – 9.75 –  – 7.50 –  – 8.21 –  – 7.89 –  – 6.10 –  11.88  10.43  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  16.64 11.22  13.54 10.06  9.00 7.00 -  21.25 14.00  16.71 11.33  12.75 10.21  8.88 7.00 -  20.68 14.31  16.38 9.73  15.60 9.68  9.66 7.37 -  22.18 11.83  14.76  13.62  10.50 -  16.99  15.08  14.00  11.00 -  17.35  11.00  10.92  9.31 -  11.89  19.03 12.07  17.50 –  16.70 –  21.39 –  20.12 12.41  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  15.59  –  –  –  15.59  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.42  –  –  –  11.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.07  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.18  15.20  20.25  15.83  16.06  20.25  10.27  –  –  –  26.19  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  18.27 14.75  – –  – –  – –  18.53 15.21  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  13.63 12.78  – –  – –  – –  13.71 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  21.66 14.15  – –  – –  – –  22.11 14.15  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.98  9.75  6.75 -  11.80  9.99  9.75  6.75 -  11.80  –  –  –  –  12.43 11.68  11.80 –  10.92 –  13.21 –  12.47 11.68  11.80 –  10.92 –  13.21 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.81 9.53 9.13 –  9.30 10.00 – –  6.82 7.00 – –  12.50 10.75 – –  9.72 9.59 9.13 –  9.06 10.00 – –  6.70 7.00 – –  12.26 10.75 – –  11.42 – – 12.96  11.32 – – –  –  11.77 -  See footnotes at end of table.  5  –  Middle range  –  $7.08 - $11.55 – – 9.00 - 13.20 – – 5.50 8.13  –  Mean Median  –  7.48 7.50 12.62  –  Mean Median  $7.19 - $12.00 – – 9.00 - 13.70 – – 5.50 8.13  11.88 -  – –  – 12.12 –  –  –  $6.98 - $10.14 – – – – – – – –  8.87 – – –  – 10.12 –  14.12 – – –  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Ship captains and mates except fishing boats ...... $15.03 Sailors and deckhands ....... 6.66 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ..... 10.81 Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 7.36 Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. 5.58 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, N.E.C. ..... 12.57 Helpers, mechanics and repairers ....................... 6.37 Helpers, construction trades 7.12 Construction laborers ......... 8.26 Stock handlers and baggers 6.40 Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... 6.64 Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... 7.30 Service occupations ............................... 6.74 Protective service occupations 8.28 Police and detectives, public service ................ 10.99 Correctional institution officers .......................... 8.64 Guards and police except public service ................ 6.16 Protective service occupations, N.E.C. ...... – Food service occupations .......... 5.44 Waiters and waitresses ...... 2.92 Cooks ................................. 6.44 Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... 5.64 Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants ...................... 3.67 Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... 6.28 Health service occupations ....... 8.38 Health aides except nursing 8.13 Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... 8.28 Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... 6.34 Maids and housemen ......... 5.48 Janitors and cleaners ......... 6.60 Personal services occupations 6.55 Service occupations, N.E.C.. .......................... 6.30  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  – –  – –  – –  $15.03 6.66  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  10.85  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  $9.25  7.37  $6.43  $9.25  $7.30  $6.58  $6.50  $5.25 -  $5.25 -  $5.48 -  $9.21  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – – 5.50  – – – 4.50 -  – – – 7.00  6.14 7.15 – 6.40  – – – 5.50  – – – 4.50 -  – – – 7.00  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.00 6.00 7.50  5.25 4.75 5.50 -  9.25 8.00 10.32  7.31 6.28 6.96  6.00 5.50 6.00  5.25 4.50 5.00 -  9.25 7.04 8.00  6.66 8.72 10.23  – 8.57 9.99  – 6.51 7.96 -  – 10.10 12.50  10.63  9.74 -  12.50  –  –  –  –  11.23  10.90  9.90 -  12.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.64  –  –  –  5.50  5.00 -  6.51  6.15  5.50  5.00 -  6.00  –  –  –  –  – 5.00 – 6.50  – 4.25 – 4.25 -  – 6.50 – 7.34  – 5.28 2.92 6.38  – 4.81 – –  – 4.25 – –  – 6.13 – –  12.30 8.31 – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  5.16  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3.67  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.13 7.80 –  5.00 6.02 –  6.87 10.00 –  6.04 8.35 –  6.13 7.89 –  5.00 5.67 –  6.13 10.00 –  – 8.45 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  7.54  5.78 -  10.00  8.32  7.54  5.50 -  10.00  8.14  –  –  –  5.71 – 6.00 5.75  5.00 – 5.00 4.57 -  7.10 – 8.65 6.80  5.95 5.49 6.19 6.67  5.25 – 5.25 5.75  5.00 – 4.75 4.60 -  6.20 – 6.67 7.00  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  6.30  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  6  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $13.54 $11.00 All workers excluding sales .................... 13.55 11.00 White-collar occupations ........................ 16.34 12.82 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 21.27 19.31 Professional specialty occupations 23.59 21.88 Engineering occupations ........... 33.62 28.85 Petroleum engineers .......... 32.55 – Electrical and electronic engineers ...................... 24.56 – Industrial engineers ............ 25.68 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 28.91 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 26.68 – Geologists and geodesists 36.04 – Registered nurses .............. 21.63 20.93 Teachers ..................................... 21.08 20.19 Teachers, college and university .......................... 26.72 23.41 Teachers, except college and university .......................... 18.31 19.31 Elementary school teachers 19.62 20.72 Secondary school teachers 20.32 – Technical occupations .................... 14.28 13.03 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 13.41 – Radiological technicians ..... 14.79 – Licensed practical nurses ... 11.81 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 12.59 9.50 Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 14.04 – Drafters ............................... 14.67 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 17.58 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 21.78 18.49 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 34.48 – Financial managers ............ 23.51 – Personnel and labor relations managers ....... 25.73 – Administrators, education and related fields .......... 24.14 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 19.83 – Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. .... 18.27 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 28.44 24.05 Accountants and auditors ... 21.79 17.88 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... 16.14 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 12.14 12.02 Sales occupations .............................. 13.44 10.10 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 12.76 11.60 Sales occupations, other business services ......... 14.76 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 17.62 – Sales workers, other commodities ................. 11.19 – Cashiers ............................. 6.43 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.50 - $16.22 $13.44 $10.80 7.50 - 16.47 13.44 10.91 8.86 - 20.52 16.34 12.29  $7.27 - $15.80 $14.06 $11.83 7.27 - 15.80 14.07 11.83 8.54 - 19.50 16.33 15.56  $8.65 - $19.06 8.65 - 19.07 9.66 - 22.12  13.33 16.03 23.37 –  12.75 19.04 24.09 –  13.61 14.14 – –  25.04 27.41 42.60 –  23.00 27.56 33.92 32.55  20.39 25.28 28.85 –  28.85 34.58 42.98 –  18.17 18.63 – –  18.33 19.07 – –  – – –  24.56 – 28.91  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – 18.08 14.97 -  – – 23.25 23.42  – 36.04 22.29 25.14  – – 20.77 16.53  – – 18.00 12.00 -  – – 25.00 34.96  – – 20.44 19.90  – – – 20.42  16.53 -  34.53  32.55  32.64  16.53 -  41.03  –  –  14.14 16.49 – 10.07 -  22.61 22.64 – 17.14  – – – 14.56  – – – 13.03  – – – 10.50 -  – – – 17.22  19.25 19.62 20.32 11.51  20.72 20.72 – –  – – –  – – 11.82  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  14.33  13.24  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  14.04 14.67  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  18.66  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  28.00  21.47  17.63  27.06  23.48  22.28  – –  – –  – 23.51  – –  – –  – –  32.74 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.78  –  –  –  –  –  18.36  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  35.29 29.12  28.66 22.42  24.05 18.08  35.29 29.82  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  15.38  –  –  –  –  –  –  10.00 7.39 -  14.36 14.38  11.55 13.46  11.55 10.10  10.00 7.39 -  13.75 14.38  18.82 –  – –  – –  – –  10.10 -  13.00  12.76  11.60  10.10 -  13.00  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.76  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  17.62  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  11.19 6.43  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – – –  – – – 8.50 -  13.62 -  16.83 16.83 -  –  See footnotes at end of table.  7  – – –  13.44 -  16.83 16.83 -  –  – – – – – – 16.40 – 16.34 16.49 – –  15.50 -  22.44 22.61 – – – – – – – – 22.96 – 22.64 22.64 – –  29.12  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ........................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Supervisors, general office Secretaries ......................... Receptionists ...................... Personnel clerks except payroll & timekeeping ... Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ Billing clerks ........................ Dispatchers ......................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. Stock and inventory clerks .. Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ................. General office clerks ........... Teachers’ aides .................. Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... Professional occupations, N.E.C. ........................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................ Automobile mechanics ....... Industrial machinery repairers ....................... Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ..... Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters ................... Supervisors, construction trades, N.E.C. ............... Electricians ......................... Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters ................... Construction trades, N.E.C. Supervisors, production occupations .................. Machinists ........................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... Welders and cutters ............ Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ....................... Driver-sales workers ........... Ship captains and mates except fishing boats ...... Sailors and deckhands .......  Middle range  $8.53  –  9.86 12.30 11.24 7.43  $8.94 – 10.33 7.67  8.79 7.99  – 6.44  – 6.19 -  9.83 7.50 13.78  9.42 – –  7.75 – –  – –  – –  18.20 9.61 8.02  – 9.75 –  – 7.25 –  10.41  –  18.21  –  16.85 11.48  13.70 10.44  14.80  –  Middle range  $8.53  –  10.03 11.94 11.67 7.37  $8.88 – 10.62 7.39  – 10.50  – 7.73  – –  – –  11.25 – –  10.02 7.50 –  9.50 – –  7.52 – –  – –  9.16 9.94  – –  – –  – 12.02 –  18.20 10.14 –  – 10.00 –  –  –  10.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.24 7.24 -  21.48 14.17  17.01 11.62  13.13 10.50  13.65  10.50 -  16.99  15.13  14.10  19.03 12.07  17.50 –  16.70 –  21.39 –  20.12 12.41  – –  15.59  –  –  –  15.59  11.42  –  –  –  15.07  –  –  15.29  15.20  $9.02 – 9.68 –  $9.02 – – –  – 8.64  – –  – –  – –  11.25 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – 8.27 8.02  – 7.98 –  – 6.10 –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.00 7.20 -  20.80 14.50  16.35 9.67  15.63 9.66  9.67 7.37 -  22.15 11.83  11.00 -  17.50  11.01  10.92  9.31 -  12.12  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.25  15.97  16.57  20.25  10.27  –  –  –  26.19  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  18.27 14.75  – –  – –  – –  18.53 15.21  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  13.63 12.78  – –  – –  – –  13.71 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  21.66 14.15  – –  – –  – –  22.11 14.15  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.99  9.75  6.75 -  11.80  10.00  9.75  6.75 -  11.80  –  –  –  –  12.98 11.68  11.80 –  10.92 –  13.21 –  13.05 11.68  11.80 –  10.92 –  13.21 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.90 9.75 9.13  9.50 10.00 –  7.00 7.50 –  12.50 10.82 –  9.83 9.83 9.13  9.30 10.00 –  6.82 7.58 –  12.50 10.82 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  15.03 6.66  – –  – –  15.03 6.66  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11.83 -  – –  See footnotes at end of table.  8  –  Middle range  –  $7.25 - $11.61 – – 8.75 - 13.56 5.77 8.13  –  Mean Median  –  9.16 9.45  –  Mean Median  $7.35 - $12.00 – – 8.75 - 13.94 5.77 8.13  – 7.67 –  12.30 -  – –  – –  – 12.50 –  –  –  $6.98 - $10.14 – – – – – –  – 10.12 –  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ..... $10.81 Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 7.73 Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. 5.58 Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, N.E.C. ..... 12.57 Helpers, mechanics and repairers ....................... 7.47 Helpers, construction trades 7.22 Construction laborers ......... 8.26 Stock handlers and baggers 7.61 Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... 6.71 Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... 7.57 Service occupations ............................... 7.35 Protective service occupations 8.70 Police and detectives, public service ................ 11.09 Correctional institution officers .......................... 8.64 Guards and police except public service ................ 6.09 Protective service occupations, N.E.C. ...... 9.48 Food service occupations .......... 6.05 Cooks ................................. 7.19 Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... 6.67 Health service occupations ....... 8.42 Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... 8.19 Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... 6.49 Maids and housemen ......... 5.48 Janitors and cleaners ......... 6.87 Personal services occupations 6.92  – $6.70  Middle range  – $5.50 -  – $9.85  Mean Median  $10.85 7.78  – $6.75  Middle range  –  –  $5.50 - $10.00  Mean Median  –  –  $7.30  $6.58  Middle range  – $5.48 -  – $9.21  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  7.26 7.29 – 7.61  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.00 6.30 8.00  5.50 5.00 5.50 -  9.85 8.68 10.82  7.59 6.76 6.98  6.00 6.00 5.75  5.50 5.00 5.00 -  9.85 7.69 8.00  6.67 9.33 10.39  – 8.65 10.08  – 7.44 8.32 -  – 10.63 12.50  10.63  9.74 -  12.50  –  –  –  –  11.34  10.90  9.99 -  12.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.64  –  –  –  5.50  5.00 -  6.75  6.05  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 6.13 –  – 5.00 –  – 7.00 –  – 5.82 7.14  – 6.13 –  – 5.00 –  – 6.50 –  12.30 8.95 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – 8.15  – 6.68 -  – 10.00  6.60 8.39  – 8.27  – 6.40 -  – 10.00  – 8.49  – –  – –  – –  7.62  6.18 -  10.00  8.20  7.69  5.75 -  10.00  8.18  –  –  –  5.75 – 6.00 5.75  5.00 – 5.00 4.60 -  8.43 – 8.65 7.18  6.07 5.49 6.43 6.92  5.41 – 5.50 5.75  5.00 – 5.00 4.60 -  6.20 – 6.70 7.18  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  9  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, part-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales .................... White-collar occupations ........................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. Professional specialty occupations Registered nurses .............. Teachers ..................................... Technical occupations .................... Sales occupations .............................. Cashiers ............................. Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Stock handlers and baggers Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Food service occupations .......... Waiters and waitresses ...... Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants ...................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... Health service occupations ....... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.01 7.23 9.53  $5.50 5.50 6.68  $4.50 4.50 5.00 -  $7.30 7.50 10.50  $6.83 7.04 9.11  $5.25 5.50 6.50  $4.50 4.50 5.00 -  $7.10 7.30 9.93  $9.21 9.21 18.34  $6.39 6.39 14.42  $5.50 5.50 8.22 -  19.31 21.58 23.21 13.64 12.83 5.80 5.06  18.75 21.00 – – – 5.00 –  10.50 13.93 – – – 4.50 –  25.00 30.00 – – – 6.50 –  18.87 21.22 23.22 – 13.12 5.80 5.06  18.75 21.00 – – – 5.00 –  10.50 11.50 – – – 4.50 –  25.00 30.00 – – – 6.50 –  21.67 23.06 – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  7.91  7.00  6.00 -  9.00  7.95  7.25  6.00 -  9.00  –  –  –  –  12.67 5.95  9.00 5.00  6.25 4.50 -  15.05 6.50  12.14 5.73  9.00 5.00  6.14 4.50 -  13.85 6.10  18.34 12.84  14.42 –  6.83  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.08 5.03  5.00 5.00  4.50 4.50 -  5.25 5.50  5.07 5.03  5.00 5.00  4.50 4.50 -  5.25 5.50  – –  – –  – –  – –  5.21 5.60 6.88 5.15 3.13  – 5.00 7.00 4.50 –  – 4.26 5.50 4.25 –  – 6.67 7.50 6.13 –  5.19 5.51 6.94 5.02 3.13  – 4.81 – 4.50 –  – 4.25 – 4.25 –  – 6.50 – 6.00 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  4.97  –  –  –  4.67  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3.54  –  –  –  3.54  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.78 8.16  – –  – –  – –  5.15 8.20  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  8.67  –  –  –  8.72  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.55 5.55 5.10  – – –  – – –  – – –  5.33 5.30 4.67  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  8.22 –  $8.29 8.29 22.96  22.96 –  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  10  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 All industries Occupation3  White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Petroleum engineers .................... Electrical and electronic engineers Industrial engineers ...................... Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. Geologists and geodesists ........... Registered nurses ........................ Teachers ............................................... Teachers, college and university ...... Teachers, except college and university .................................... Elementary school teachers ......... Secondary school teachers .......... Technical occupations .............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... Radiological technicians ............... Licensed practical nurses ............. Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. Drafters ......................................... Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... Financial managers ...................... Personnel and labor relations managers ................................ Administrators, education and related fields ........................... Managers, medicine and health ... Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. ..................................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Accountants and auditors ............. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................ Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations .... Sales occupations, other business services .................................. Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale Sales workers, other commodities Cashiers ....................................... Sales support occupations, N.E.C. Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Supervisors, general office ........... Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Personnel clerks except payroll & timekeeping ............................ Records clerks, N.E.C. .................  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.6  $646  $508  39.7 39.6 41.6 40.0 40.0 39.9 39.8  844 934 1398 1302 983 1024 1151  39.8 40.0 39.4 38.4 38.3  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.7  $649  $490  760 858 1154 – – – –  40.0 40.0 41.6 40.0 40.0 – 39.8  920 1103 1413 1302 983 – 1151  1062 1442 852 810 1023  – – 831 789 925  – 40.0 39.0 37.5 36.4  38.5 37.8 38.0 39.9  704 742 772 570  733 762 – 519  38.7 40.0 40.9  520 592 483  40.4  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  38.9  $635  $615  780 1010 1154 – – – –  39.1 39.0 – – – – –  711 728 – – – – –  715 733 – – – – –  – 1442 870 943 1183  – – 831 620 1224  – – 40.0 38.7 –  – – 818 770 –  – – – 794 –  – – – 39.9  – – – 581  – – – 520  38.3 37.8 38.0 40.0  737 742 772 460  772 762 – –  – – –  – – 40.9  – – 484  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  508  380  40.5  536  –  –  –  –  39.9 40.0  560 587  – –  39.9 40.0  560 587  – –  – –  – –  – –  40.0  703  –  40.0  746  –  –  –  –  39.7  864  712  39.8  856  693  38.8  910  890  40.1 39.6  1381 930  – –  – 39.6  – 930  – –  40.1 –  1312 –  – –  38.8  997  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  39.2 40.0  946 793  – –  – –  – –  – –  – 40.0  – 831  – –  39.1  715  –  39.0  716  –  –  –  –  40.1 39.5  1141 862  962 714  40.1 39.8  1150 893  962 723  – –  – –  – –  39.7  641  –  40.0  615  –  –  –  –  40.2 39.3 40.9  488 528 522  484 404 482  40.4 39.3 40.9  467 529 522  462 404 482  707 – –  – – –  39.6  585  –  39.6  585  –  –  –  –  40.0 37.0 38.1 43.2  705 415 245 368  – – – –  40.0 37.0 38.1 43.2  705 415 245 368  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  39.5 38.5 39.1 39.0  389 474 439 290  346 – 400 288  39.7 39.1 39.5 39.0  398 467 461 288  350 – 425 288  38.5 – 37.4 –  347 – 362 –  341 – – –  40.0 39.8  352 318  – 258  – 40.0  – 309  – –  – 39.3  – 340  – –  See footnotes at end of table.  11  37.6 – –  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued All industries Occupation3  Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... Billing clerks .................................. Dispatchers ................................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... Stock and inventory clerks ............ Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ........................... General office clerks ..................... Teachers’ aides ............................ Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ Professional occupations, N.E.C. White-collar occupations excluding sales .....  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.8 40.0 39.9  $391 300 549  $377 – –  39.0 39.9  358 377  39.3 39.3 35.0 39.8 40.1 39.6  State and local government  Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.8 40.0 –  $399 300 –  $380 – –  – –  39.0 39.8  358 396  – –  716 378 281  – 390 –  39.3 39.6 –  716 401 –  414 731 667  – – 544  39.8 – 39.8  418 – 678  1 Earnings are the straight-time weekly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time  Weekly earnings  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  – –  – –  – 400 –  – 38.8 35.0  – $321 281  – $316 –  – – 520  – – 38.9  – – 636  – – 615  employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Mean weekly hours are the hours an employee is scheduled to work in a week. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  12  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Electrical and electronic engineers ................ Registered nurses ........ Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Natural scientists .................. Teachers ............................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Teachers, college and university .................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 5 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 2 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Electrical and electronic technicians .............. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Not able to be leveled Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $15.80  $15.67  $16.36  $16.34  $16.34  21.17  22.72  18.26  21.27  23.48 19.58 14.06 16.04 19.85 19.70 23.71 34.84 31.59 37.52 33.21 23.24 24.90 45.33  27.10 21.17 15.10 19.00 18.11 20.14 24.40 36.70 31.59 37.28 33.51 23.24 26.65 45.33  18.73 17.98 12.20 13.29 – 18.84 – – – – – – – –  24.56 21.86 19.44 20.85 20.76 26.71 20.82 16.94 13.28  24.56 22.47 19.44 – 20.61 26.88 23.91 10.85 –  – 20.51 – – – – 19.86 19.27 –  26.20  31.48  18.16 17.04 14.20 10.02 13.43 10.79 13.43 14.12 13.26 16.51  10.71 – 14.48 10.33 13.43 11.17 13.41 14.17 13.60 16.95  14.04  14.04  21.76 9.37 15.31 16.66 15.22 16.69 16.16 22.04 27.01 30.45 46.28 23.50  21.47 9.12 14.98 16.57 15.55 15.95 16.20 22.31 26.90 32.11 47.56 –  25.42 13.87 15.91 16.30 21.96 24.05 29.73 46.28  25.25 14.08 – 16.37 22.26 22.67 31.49 47.56  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $16.33  $9.53  $9.11  $18.34  23.00  18.17  19.31  18.87  21.67  23.59 18.70 14.12 16.08 – 19.97 24.19 34.84 31.82 37.52 33.62 25.12 24.90 45.33  27.56 19.45 15.22 19.66 17.18 20.63 25.06 36.70 31.82 37.28 33.92 25.12 26.65 45.33  18.63 18.13 12.20 12.74 – 18.70 – – – – – – – –  21.58 24.27 – – – – – – – – – – – –  21.22 25.66 – – – – – – – – – – – –  23.06 – – – – – – – – – – – – –  24.56 21.63 18.36 20.77 21.13 26.71 21.08 17.63 12.63  24.56 22.29 18.36 – 21.03 26.88 25.14 – –  – 20.44 – – – – 19.90 – –  – 23.21 – – – – 13.64 – –  – 23.22 – – – – – – –  26.72  32.55  18.31 17.66 14.28 10.12 – 10.68 13.72 14.12 13.23 16.93  – – 14.56 10.33 – 11.06 13.70 14.17 13.58 17.56  14.04  14.04  23.39 – – – – – – 20.41 – – – –  21.78 9.34 15.31 16.66 15.22 16.69 16.16 22.04 27.01 30.45 46.28 –  21.47 9.12 14.98 16.57 15.55 15.95 16.20 22.31 26.90 32.11 47.56 –  26.06 – – – 20.66 – – –  25.44 13.87 15.91 16.30 21.96 24.05 29.73 46.28  25.25 14.08 – 16.37 22.26 22.67 31.49 47.56  – 19.26 19.46 11.39 – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  13  – 19.25 – 11.51 – – – – – – – –  – – – 12.83 – – – – – – –  – – – 13.12 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  –  –  –  23.48 – – – – – – 20.41 – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  26.18 – – – 20.66 – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ............... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Not able to be leveled Secretaries ................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $28.44 25.10 25.35 29.34 46.72  $28.66 26.15 25.35 29.34 46.72  – – – – –  $28.44 25.10 25.35 29.34 46.72  $28.66 26.15 25.35 29.34 46.72  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  16.14 11.88 7.84 5.28 8.20 14.88 14.57 21.26 15.52 19.32 6.08 5.39 5.31  15.38 11.89 7.86 5.28 8.20 14.88 14.57 21.26 15.52 19.32 6.08 5.36 5.31  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  16.14 13.44 10.63 5.62 8.61 15.09 14.91 21.26 15.66 19.32 6.43 – –  15.38 13.46 10.75 5.62 8.61 15.09 14.91 21.26 15.66 19.32 6.43 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  9.72 6.97 7.39 9.07 9.64 10.48 11.41 13.73 13.46 15.99 14.69 11.31 9.96 10.31 12.32  9.85 7.06 7.30 9.11 9.90 10.64 11.80 14.47 13.46 – 14.60 11.69 10.04 10.93 12.90  $8.98 6.47 8.24 8.57 9.14 8.99 – 9.15 – – – 9.68 – – –  9.86 7.32 7.46 8.91 9.76 10.52 11.44 13.73 13.46 15.99 14.79 11.24 8.80 10.38 12.32  10.03 7.50 7.36 8.94 10.12 10.68 11.84 14.47 13.46 – 14.70 11.67 8.88 11.12 12.90  $9.02 6.53 8.33 8.57 9.15 8.99 – 9.15 – – – 9.68 – – –  9.83 9.22 9.14 9.39 6.58 8.50 9.65 9.20 9.50  10.02 9.23 9.38 9.79 – – 9.67 – 9.94  – – – 8.21 – – – – –  9.83 9.22 9.14 9.61 – – 10.10 9.20 9.50  10.02 9.23 9.38 10.14 – – 10.16 – 9.94  – – – 8.27 – – – – –  16.64 6.97 7.65 9.05 9.83 13.67 13.13 14.98 17.53 18.12 20.43 30.69 28.62 33.77 36.31 45.34  16.71 7.06 7.59 9.10 10.18 13.03 13.38 15.63 15.02 18.11 20.53 32.25 28.85 34.84 36.31 46.28  16.38 6.47 8.18 8.51 9.15 15.57 11.90 12.63 – 18.15 19.38 15.70 – – – –  16.85 7.32 7.72 8.90 9.85 13.06 13.20 14.97 17.30 18.34 20.51 30.69 28.63 33.77 36.31 45.34  17.01 7.50 7.66 8.93 10.24 12.15 13.48 15.70 14.68 18.47 20.62 32.25 28.86 34.84 36.31 46.28  16.35 6.53 8.27 8.52 9.15 15.62 11.90 12.21 – 18.06 19.38 15.70 – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  14  – $5.80 5.00 – 6.73 – – – – – 5.06 5.22 –  – $5.80 5.00 – 6.73 – – – – – 5.06 5.22 –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  7.91 5.88 6.41 10.32 – – – – – – – – – – –  7.95 5.89 6.46 10.37 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – 12.67 5.88 6.52 10.32 9.49 21.21 11.04 – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – 12.14 5.89 6.46 10.37 9.52 22.02 11.04 – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – $18.34 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Not able to be leveled Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Not able to be leveled Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 3 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Level 3 ...................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ......................  All industries  Private industry  $20.23 11.22  $16.73 11.33  14.76 9.50 8.35 11.48 11.12 14.25 14.73 17.77 17.14 20.69 25.83 17.32  15.08 – 8.34 11.99 11.11 14.36 15.19 18.17 17.76 21.82 – 17.32  9.98 7.58 7.05 8.88 10.22 14.55  9.99 7.58 7.05 8.88 10.23 14.87  9.81 6.85 8.18 8.80 11.46 10.98 13.13 16.65 9.53 10.61  9.72 6.85 8.10 8.63 11.45 – 12.97 16.65 9.59 11.18  7.36 5.67 7.82 8.98 11.89 9.84 6.74 4.98 6.77 6.11 6.92 9.71 9.94 11.25 10.90 12.22  Full-time workers  State and local government  Part-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – $9.73  $20.31 11.48  $16.80 11.62  – $9.67  11.00 – – 8.72 – – 11.11 – – – – –  14.80 9.50 8.44 11.52 11.19 14.26 14.73 17.77 17.14 20.69 25.83 17.32  15.13 – 8.43 12.06 11.18 14.36 15.19 18.17 17.76 21.82 – 17.32  11.01 – – 8.72 – – 11.11 – – – – –  9.99 – 7.06 8.91 9.99 14.55  10.00 – 7.06 8.91 9.99 14.87  11.42 – 10.96 – – – – – – –  9.90 7.00 8.24 8.74 11.46 10.98 13.13 16.65 9.75 10.63  9.83 7.00 8.23 8.64 11.45 – 12.97 16.65 9.83 11.21  7.37 5.68 7.86 9.36 – – 6.28 4.92 6.71 6.01 6.25 9.08 – – – –  7.30 5.64 – 7.02 – – 8.72 6.05 – 6.50 – – 9.47 12.98 12.66 12.14  7.73 5.91 7.89 8.98 11.89 9.84 7.35 5.32 7.22 6.03 7.38 9.80 10.00 11.25 11.75 12.32  7.78 5.94 7.93 9.36 – – 6.76 5.31 7.17 5.75 6.70 9.19 – – – –  8.28 6.22 9.49 7.67 12.98 12.44 12.22 12.87  6.96 6.18 – – – – – –  10.23 6.42 – 7.66 12.98 12.66 12.14 –  8.70 5.85 – 7.79 12.98 12.44 12.32 12.87  6.16 – 5.44 4.51 5.57  6.15 – 5.28 4.45 4.54  – – 8.31 – –  6.09 5.70 6.05 5.16 6.74  – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  15  All industries  Private industry  – $5.95  – $5.73  State and local government – $12.84  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  6.83 – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  7.30 5.62 – 7.02 – – 9.33 5.42 8.03 7.06 – – 9.68 12.98 12.66 12.25  5.08 5.00 – – – – 5.60 4.70 5.91 6.36 5.26 – – – – –  5.07 4.99 – – – – 5.51 4.59 5.49 6.74 5.13 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  6.98 – – – – – – –  10.39 6.71 – 7.83 12.98 12.66 12.25 –  6.88 – – – – – – –  6.94 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  6.05 – 5.82 5.16 –  – – 8.95 – –  – – 5.15 4.42 5.16  – – 5.02 4.35 –  – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Health service occupations Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ......................  All industries  Private industry  $5.02 5.75 8.38 8.72 7.32  $4.80 5.75 8.35 8.83 –  8.28 8.86 7.32  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – $8.45 – –  $4.23 – 8.42 8.63 7.32  $3.77 – 8.39 8.73 –  8.32 9.03 –  8.14 – –  8.19 8.40 7.32  6.34 5.36 7.71 6.60 5.36 8.01  5.95 5.31 – 6.19 5.27 –  – – – – – –  6.55 5.36 4.99 5.57  6.67 5.36 4.65 –  – – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical note for more information.  Part-time workers  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – $8.49 – –  $6.40 – 8.16 9.18 –  $6.40 – 8.20 9.30 –  – – – – –  8.20 8.54 –  8.18 – –  8.67 – –  8.72 – –  – – –  6.49 5.31 8.08 6.87 5.28 8.53  6.07 5.30 – 6.43 5.27 –  – – – – – –  5.55 5.57 – 5.55 5.57 –  5.33 5.32 – 5.30 – –  – – – – – –  6.92 – – –  6.92 – – –  – – – –  5.10 – – –  4.67 – – –  – – – –  3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  16  Table 6. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $13.70 13.68 18.21  $12.72 12.81 15.74  $13.54 13.55 16.34  $7.01 7.23 9.53  $12.77 13.03 15.63  $12.96 10.37 17.88  – – –  21.26 23.76 14.15  21.27 23.59 14.28  19.31 21.58 12.83  21.08 23.40 14.20  – – –  – –  21.73 11.85  21.78 13.44  – 5.80  21.48 8.91  – 16.98  11.31 18.27 13.37  9.69 16.58 10.83  9.86 16.85 11.48  7.91 12.67 5.95  9.72 16.55 11.08  – 22.56 13.09  15.23 13.05 12.15  14.66 8.66 9.39  14.80 9.99 9.90  – – 6.83  14.52 10.30 9.51  18.71 – 12.07  7.61 7.66  7.35 6.70  7.73 7.35  5.08 5.60  7.26 7.11  – 4.29  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  17  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $13.13 13.10 –  $12.57 12.66 15.66  $13.44 13.44 16.34  $6.83 7.04 9.11  $12.57 12.86 15.44  $12.96 10.37 17.88  – – –  22.74 27.10 14.43  23.00 27.56 14.56  18.87 21.22 13.12  22.61 27.07 14.48  – – –  – –  21.43 11.86  21.47 13.46  – 5.80  21.13 8.92  – 16.98  – – 13.40  9.82 16.71 10.93  10.03 17.01 11.62  7.95 12.14 5.73  9.85 16.60 11.19  – 22.56 13.09  15.24 13.08 12.13  15.05 8.64 9.27  15.13 10.00 9.83  – – –  14.85 10.32 9.39  18.71 – 12.07  7.50 7.09  7.37 6.26  7.78 6.76  7.26 6.66  – 4.29  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  5.07 5.51  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  18  Table 8. Hourly earnings1 by occupational group by selected characteristics, State and local government, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  All workers ...................................................................... White-collar occupations ............................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .. Professional specialty occupations ..................... Technical occupations ........................................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ...................................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................................................... White-collar excluding sales ................................... Blue-collar occupations .............................................. Precision production, craft, and repair occupations Transportation and material moving occupations ... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ............................................................. Service occupations ...................................................  $16.04 18.56 – – –  $13.57 16.12 18.00 18.55 11.39  $14.06 16.33 18.17 18.63 11.51  $9.21 18.34 21.67 23.06 –  $13.79 16.36 18.26 18.73 11.39  –  23.39  23.48  –  23.39  – 18.56 – – –  9.01 16.14 9.70 10.99 –  9.02 16.35 9.67 11.01 –  – 18.34 12.84 – –  8.98 16.38 9.73 11.00 11.42  – –  7.23 8.75  7.30 9.33  – –  7.30 8.72  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined  through collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  19  Table 9. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, all workers2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $12.61 12.69 15.67  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $15.12 $12.90 $13.76 $11.68 $14.26 $10.82 $12.24 $11.40 15.12 12.90 13.76 11.65 14.54 10.07 11.84 11.48 20.02 17.03 16.92 14.69 17.80 13.30 16.99 14.49  22.72  25.99  –  21.91  21.79  21.47  40.27  –  19.48  27.10 14.48  29.74 17.32  – –  26.88 16.21  26.28 13.80  – 14.51  – –  – –  22.72 13.47  21.47 11.89  26.30 –  18.55 –  23.28 –  19.45 11.89  24.04 –  12.85 12.18  27.50 –  17.18 8.85  9.85 16.71 11.33  11.39 20.06 12.69  12.94 17.20 11.99  10.41 16.92 12.23  9.43 15.70 9.89  12.11 18.99 11.29  8.57 15.56 9.96  11.28 16.55 –  8.70 14.83 8.16  15.08  15.47  13.84  15.44  14.27  15.02  14.66  –  12.83  9.99  10.03  –  9.89  9.53  –  –  –  –  9.72  12.14  –  12.39  9.25  10.14  8.17  –  7.12  7.37 6.28  7.83 –  8.73 –  7.14 6.22  – –  8.08 5.32  – –  5.41 6.72  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in  7.17 –  one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  20  Table 10. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, full-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  $13.44 13.44 16.34  Total  Mining  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $15.18 $27.90 $12.99 $13.78 $12.67 $14.44 $12.52 $14.35 $11.87 15.19 27.90 13.00 13.78 12.54 14.74 11.79 13.92 11.88 20.18 29.77 17.08 17.01 15.38 18.12 14.57 17.91 14.75  23.00  26.39  31.73  –  22.09  21.97  21.97  40.27  –  19.37  27.56 14.56  30.19 17.50  33.32 –  – –  26.88 16.39  26.68 13.84  – 14.87  – –  – –  22.78 13.41  21.47 13.46  26.30 –  37.41 –  18.55 –  23.28 –  19.45 13.47  24.04 –  12.85 13.75  27.50 –  17.18 11.22  10.03 17.01 11.62  11.42 20.22 12.73  14.47 29.77 23.28  12.97 17.26 12.09  10.44 17.01 12.23  9.61 15.97 10.34  12.47 19.41 11.40  8.73 15.96 10.41  11.84 17.48 –  8.73 14.89 8.84  15.13  15.47  23.28  13.84  15.44  14.41  15.02  15.02  –  12.83  10.00  10.03  –  –  9.89  –  –  –  –  –  9.83  12.14  –  –  12.39  9.37  10.26  8.34  –  7.13  7.78 6.76  7.89 –  – –  7.22 –  8.73 –  7.72 6.66  – –  8.64 5.52  – –  5.71 6.80  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm,  where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  21  Table 11. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, part-time workers only2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996  Occupational group3  Goodsproducing industries4  Service-producing industries5  Total  Total  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $6.83 7.04 9.11  $7.63 7.63 –  $6.81 7.03 9.12  – – –  $8.73 9.07 12.32  18.87  –  19.70  –  20.49  21.22 13.12 5.80  – – –  22.21 13.30 5.80  – – –  22.21 14.29 –  7.95 12.14 5.73  – – –  7.89 12.33 5.68  – – –  8.48 14.17 5.83  5.07 5.51  – –  4.94 5.51  – –  4.90 6.43  All private industries  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ........................... 1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another  firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  22  Table 12. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, all workers2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $12.61 12.69 15.67  $10.98 10.87 13.62  $14.48 14.67 17.82  $12.81 12.85 15.37  $17.37 17.48 20.76  22.72 27.10 14.48  22.11 27.29 12.83  23.06 26.99 15.44  21.00 26.33 14.51  24.48 27.33 16.53  21.47 11.89  16.90 11.70  25.59 12.27  23.41 12.48  27.19 –  9.85 16.71 11.33  9.56 14.36 10.00  10.23 18.81 12.98  9.89 16.39 12.54  10.71 21.00 14.46  15.08  13.05  16.93  16.97  16.79  9.99  8.69  11.21  9.48  15.59  9.72  9.18  11.21  10.77  –  7.37 6.28  7.24 5.99  7.52 6.66  7.59 6.08  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  7.04 7.62  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  23  Table 13. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, full-time workers2 only, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $13.44 13.44 16.34  $11.95 11.73 14.50  $15.00 15.15 18.15  $13.20 13.19 15.48  $17.98 18.06 21.20  23.00 27.56 14.56  22.82 28.26 12.70  23.10 27.16 15.59  20.52 26.25 14.70  24.66 27.54 16.62  21.47 13.46  16.90 13.63  25.59 13.17  23.41 13.34  27.19 –  10.03 17.01 11.62  9.67 14.77 10.22  10.46 18.97 13.35  10.06 16.21 12.91  11.03 21.37 14.80  15.13  13.10  16.96  17.01  16.79  10.00  8.55  11.34  9.49  16.38  9.83  9.31  11.25  10.77  –  7.78 6.76  7.62 6.73  7.98 6.79  8.05 6.03  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  7.40 7.90  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  24  Table 14. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, part-time workers2 only, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $6.83 7.04 9.11  $6.04 6.09 7.23  $8.67 9.04 12.91  $9.07 9.58 14.16  $7.54 7.68 9.62  18.87 21.22 13.12 5.80  11.12 – – 5.80  22.57 25.16 11.84 5.82  24.01 26.66 – 5.95  17.02 18.46 – –  7.95 12.14 5.73  8.55 9.13 6.03  6.55 15.90 5.30  6.40 18.86 5.24  6.68 10.28 5.55  5.07 5.51  4.98 5.28  5.17 6.22  5.20 6.21  – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  25  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All workers ............................................................ 474,189 402,647 All workers excluding sales .............................. 427,938 356,486 White-collar occupations .................................. 241,916 196,837 Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ 80,482 52,904 Professional specialty occupations ........... 60,607 34,786 Engineering occupations ..................... 9,552 9,401 Petroleum engineers .................... 1,575 1,575 Electrical and electronic engineers 1,301 1,301 Industrial engineers ...................... 1,908 1,756 Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... 1,551 1,551 Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. 2,852 – Geologists and geodesists ........... 1,319 1,319 Registered nurses ........................ 10,710 7,709 Teachers ............................................... 23,182 5,875 Teachers, college and university ...... 7,790 3,840 Health specialities teachers .......... 1,504 1,504 Teachers, except college and university .................................... 15,392 2,035 Elementary school teachers ......... 5,637 – Secondary school teachers .......... 1,792 – Technical occupations .............................. 19,875 18,118 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... 1,689 – Radiological technicians ............... 688 656 Licensed practical nurses ............. 2,353 2,288 Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. 3,602 3,074 Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. 1,954 1,954 Drafters ......................................... 2,178 2,178 Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ 1,626 1,466 Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ 33,872 28,562 Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... 992 – Financial managers ...................... 1,774 1,774 Personnel and labor relations managers ................................ 1,264 – Administrators, education and related fields ........................... 2,165 – Managers, medicine and health ... 1,007 – Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. ..................................... 1,970 1,757 Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... 7,630 7,499 Accountants and auditors ............. 6,024 5,643 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................ 1,978 1,871 Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... 5,177 4,699 Sales occupations ........................................ 46,251 46,161 Supervisors, sales occupations .... 5,610 5,610 Sales occupations, other business services .................................. 1,664 1,664 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 4,580 4,580 Sales workers, other commodities 7,805 7,805 Cashiers ....................................... 11,731 11,641 Sales support occupations, N.E.C. 1,569 1,569 Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ 81,310 69,210 Supervisors, general office ........... 2,834 2,173 See footnotes at end of table.  26  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  71,541 387,373 322,953 71,451 355,548 291,219 45,079 209,115 165,489  64,420 64,330 43,626  86,816 72,389 32,801  79,694 65,268 31,347  7,122 7,122 1,453  27,578 25,821 – – – – –  73,107 55,050 9,269 1,575 1,301 1,624 1,551  46,610 30,220 9,117 1,575 1,301 – 1,551  26,497 24,830 – – – – –  7,376 5,557 – – – – –  6,294 4,565 – – – – –  1,081 991 – – – – –  – – 3,001 17,307 – –  2,852 1,319 8,030 21,917 7,237 –  – 1,319 5,230 5,032 3,402 –  – – 2,800 16,884 – –  – – 2,680 1,265 – –  – – 2,479 – – –  – – – – – –  13,357 5,637 1,792 1,757  14,680 5,468 1,792 18,056  – – – 16,389  13,050 5,468 1,792 1,667  – – – 1,819  – – – 1,729  – – – –  – – –  1,446 583 2,248  – – 2,183  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  3,038  2,511  –  –  –  –  – –  1,954 2,038  1,954 2,038  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  1,626  1,466  –  –  –  –  5,310  33,779  28,562  5,217  –  –  –  892 –  992 1,774  – 1,774  892 –  – –  – –  – –  –  1,264  –  –  –  –  –  – 857  2,165 1,007  – –  – 857  – –  – –  – –  –  1,970  1,757  –  –  –  –  – –  7,630 6,024  7,499 5,643  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  1,978  1,871  –  –  –  –  5,147 31,824 5,445  4,699 31,734 5,445  – 14,427 –  – 14,427 –  – – –  –  1,664  1,664  –  –  –  –  – – – –  3,938 2,660 7,220 1,437  3,938 2,660 7,130 1,437  – – – –  – – 4,511 –  – – 4,511 –  – – – –  12,100 –  70,405 2,834  58,583 2,173  11,822 –  10,905 –  10,626 –  – –  478 – –  All industries  448 – –  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Secretaries ................................... 13,395 10,932 Typists .......................................... 1,741 1,581 Receptionists ................................ 6,983 6,873 Personnel clerks except payroll & timekeeping ............................ 1,579 – Records clerks, N.E.C. ................. 2,528 1,796 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... 7,938 6,621 Payroll and timekeeping clerks ..... 1,586 1,586 Billing clerks .................................. 2,252 2,252 Dispatchers ................................... 1,712 1,262 Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... 1,660 1,660 Stock and inventory clerks ............ 3,938 3,464 Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ........................... 1,324 1,324 General office clerks ..................... 10,973 8,389 Data entry keyers ......................... 1,132 – Teachers’ aides ............................ – – Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ 3,433 3,230 Professional occupations, N.E.C. 1,344 – White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... 195,665 150,676 Blue-collar occupations .................................... 139,943 129,750 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ 55,543 51,033 Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................................. 3,225 2,874 Automobile mechanics ................. 3,301 2,822 Industrial machinery repairers ...... 1,832 1,832 Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ............................... 3,340 3,340 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .......... 1,943 – Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. 6,563 5,798 Supervisors, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters ...................... 1,599 – Supervisors, construction trades, N.E.C. ..................................... 1,546 1,480 Electricians ................................... 2,800 2,452 Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters ............................. 5,353 5,271 Construction trades, N.E.C. .......... 787 – Supervisors, production occupations ............................ 1,542 1,459 Machinists ..................................... 1,421 1,421 Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... 18,898 18,552 Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ..................................... 3,111 3,060 Welders and cutters ...................... 2,482 2,482 Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ 28,551 26,710 Truck drivers ................................. 7,296 6,666 Driver-sales workers ..................... 3,968 3,968 Bus drivers .................................... – – Ship captains and mates except fishing boats ........................... 2,649 2,649 Sailors and deckhands ................. 4,366 4,366 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ............... 2,030 2,008 Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... 36,950 33,456 See footnotes at end of table.  27  Full-time workers  All industries  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  2,463 – –  10,979 – 6,613  8,516 – 6,544  2,463 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – 731  1,579 2,528  – 1,796  – 731  – –  – –  – –  – – – –  7,938 – 2,252 1,269  6,621 – 2,252 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – –  1,621 3,160  1,621 2,686  – –  – –  – –  – –  1,324 8,757 – 725  1,324 6,263 – –  – 2,494 – 725  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – 3,250 3,047 – 1,344 – 44,989 177,291 133,755 10,193 128,710 118,862  – – 43,536 9,848  – – 18,374 11,233  – – 16,921 10,888  4,480  –  –  –  – 2,584 – –  4,510  – – 1,453 345  55,108  50,628  – – –  3,225 3,301 1,832  2,874 2,822 1,832  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  3,340  3,340  –  –  –  –  – 765  1,943 6,412  – 5,647  – 765  – –  – –  – –  –  1,599  –  –  –  –  – –  1,546 2,800  1,480 2,452  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  5,353 787  5,271 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  1,542 1,421  1,459 1,421  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  17,508  17,161  –  –  –  –  – –  2,830 2,482  2,778 2,482  – –  – –  – –  – –  27,115 6,854 3,968 –  25,550 6,224 3,968 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – –  2,649 4,366  2,649 4,366  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  2,030  2,008  –  –  –  –  28,979  25,524  1,842 – – 561  3,494  –  3,455  1,436 – – –  7,972  7,933  –  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ............................. Supervisors, handlers, equipment cleaners, and laborers, N.E.C. Helpers, mechanics and repairers Helpers, construction trades ......... Construction laborers ................... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ..................... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Police and detectives, public service .................................... Correctional institution officers ..... Guards and police except public service .................................... Protective service occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Food service occupations .................... Waiters and waitresses ................ Cooks ........................................... Kitchen workers, food preparation Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants .... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Health service occupations ................. Health aides except nursing ......... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Maids and housemen ................... Janitors and cleaners ................... Personal services occupations ........... Service occupations, N.E.C.. ........  All industries  2,382 1,590 2,401 4,001 1,689 4,051  Full-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  –  –  2,382  – – – – –  1,590 1,441 3,223 1,689 1,605  – 2,191 3,265 – 4,051  All industries  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  –  –  –  –  –  – 1,231 2,488 – 1,605  – – – – –  – – – – 2,446  – – – – 2,446  – – – – –  1,678  –  –  1,612  –  –  –  –  –  13,046 92,330 16,967  12,786 76,060 11,007  260 16,270 5,960  10,278 49,548 11,018  10,057 38,602 5,627  221 10,946 5,391  2,768 42,782 5,949  2,729 37,459 5,380  – – –  2,546 258  – –  2,403 258  2,449 258  – –  2,307 258  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  7,751  6,983  – 34,314 5,217 3,668 2,989 2,806  – 32,338 5,217 3,479 2,569 2,806  7,110 11,090 1,001  5,072  4,304  –  297 1,976 – – – –  968 8,646 – 1,550 – –  – 7,980 – 1,361 – –  297 666 – – – –  – 25,668 3,842 – 1,928 2,595  – 24,358 3,842 – 1,772 2,595  – – – – – –  5,790 8,955 –  – 2,135 –  3,255 8,477 –  3,086 6,374 –  – 2,103 –  3,856 2,614 –  2,703 2,581 –  – – –  8,869  7,059  1,810  6,587  4,809  1,778  2,283  2,250  –  16,067 3,620 12,093 13,892 4,026  12,265 3,572 8,693 11,495 4,026  11,535 3,396 7,784 9,873 –  8,749 3,348 5,401 9,873 –  4,532 – 4,309 4,019 –  3,516 – 3,292 1,623 –  – – – – –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are  –  – – – – –  – – – – –  classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  28  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Electrical and electronic engineers ................ Registered nurses ........ Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Natural scientists .................. Teachers ............................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Teachers, college and university .................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 5 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 2 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Electrical and electronic technicians .............. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Not able to be leveled Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  241,916  196,837  45,079  209,115  165,489  43,626  32,801  31,347  1,453  80,482  52,904  27,578  73,107  46,610  26,497  7,376  6,294  1,081  60,607 7,742 3,563 5,049 12,853 7,142 4,062 7,559 3,263 2,746 9,552 1,612 746 2,928  34,786 3,878 2,394 2,495 2,968 4,696 3,448 6,950 3,263 2,714 9,401 1,612 638 2,928  25,821 3,864 1,170 2,554 – 2,446 – – – – – – – –  55,050 6,256 3,348 4,522 – 6,583 3,500 7,559 2,791 2,746 9,269 1,328 746 2,928  30,220 2,601 2,178 2,199 1,582 4,339 2,886 6,950 2,791 2,714 9,117 1,328 638 2,928  24,830 3,655 1,170 2,323 – 2,245 – – – – – – – –  5,557 1,486 – – – – – – – – – – – –  4,565 1,277 – – – – – – – – – – – –  991 – – – – – – – – – – – – –  1,301 10,710 2,399 2,490 2,594 2,942 23,182 4,534 1,869  1,301 7,709 2,399 – 2,204 2,835 5,875 1,279 –  – 3,001 – – – – 17,307 3,254 –  1,301 8,030 1,052 2,289 2,032 2,942 21,917 3,920 1,405  1,301 5,230 1,052 – 1,643 2,835 5,032 – –  – 2,800 – – – – 16,884 – –  – 2,680 – – – – 1,265 – –  – 2,479 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  7,790  3,840  –  7,237  3,402  –  15,392 4,338 19,875 1,346 1,071 3,125 3,097 3,387 2,920 2,955  2,035 – 18,118 1,167 1,071 2,715 2,975 3,322 2,760 2,267  13,357 3,139 1,757 – – – – – – –  14,680 3,840 18,056 1,257 – 2,915 2,462 3,387 2,694 2,713  – – 16,389 1,167 – 2,505 2,339 3,322 2,534 2,025  13,050 – 1,667 – – – – – – –  1,954  1,954  –  1,954  1,954  –  33,872 2,816 2,365 2,852 2,331 3,151 3,932 3,767 5,560 3,153 2,094 1,092  28,562 2,435 2,114 2,629 2,025 2,403 3,831 3,218 4,240 2,443 1,835 –  5,310 – – – – – – 549 – – – –  33,779 2,785 2,365 2,852 2,331 3,151 3,932 3,767 5,560 3,153 2,094 –  28,562 2,435 2,114 2,629 2,025 2,403 3,831 3,218 4,240 2,443 1,835 –  17,981 1,224 1,392 2,517 2,801 3,900 2,738 2,094  14,171 1,012 – 2,416 2,273 2,687 2,029 1,835  3,810 – – – 528 – – –  17,919 1,224 1,392 2,517 2,801 3,900 2,738 2,094  14,171 1,012 – 2,416 2,273 2,687 2,029 1,835  See footnotes at end of table.  29  – – – 1,819 – – – – – – –  – – – 1,729 – – – – – – –  State and local government  – – – – – – – – – – –  –  –  –  5,217 – – – – – – 549 – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  3,747 – – – 528 – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ............... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Not able to be leveled Secretaries ................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  7,499 1,155 1,181 1,272 1,605  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1,978 31,824 3,711 2,503 6,459 5,196 3,528 2,395 2,685 1,039 7,220 – –  1,871 31,734 3,621 2,503 6,459 5,196 3,528 2,395 2,685 1,039 7,130 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – 14,427 5,718 – 3,175 – – – – – 4,511 3,076 –  – 14,427 5,718 – 3,175 – – – – – 4,511 3,076 –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  12,100 1,096 1,205 1,517 5,639 677 – 818 – – – 2,463 – – –  70,405 5,696 10,958 16,671 14,934 6,651 5,137 5,438 2,273 651 1,673 10,979 2,678 3,107 1,720  58,583 4,691 9,793 15,284 9,313 5,973 4,347 4,621 2,273 – 1,642 8,516 2,596 1,356 1,370  11,822 1,006 1,164 1,387 5,621 677 – 818 – – – 2,463 – – –  10,905 3,848 1,506 4,070 – – – – – – – – – – –  10,626 3,758 1,465 3,940 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  6,621 3,231 1,175 8,389 – – 2,581 – 1,398  – – – 2,584 – – – – –  7,938 3,246 2,459 8,757 – – 1,441 1,750 1,565  6,621 3,231 1,175 6,263 – – 1,348 – 1,398  – – – 2,494 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  150,676 8,448 12,425 19,852 11,381 15,231 11,955 13,068 10,025 9,705 8,004 10,533 7,503 5,158 1,676 2,222  44,989 1,096 1,385 1,648 5,683 5,333 2,333 3,659 – 4,193 715 1,177 – – – –  177,291 5,696 12,214 17,431 15,589 18,607 13,312 16,200 18,461 13,097 8,157 11,709 8,350 5,899 1,676 2,481  133,755 4,691 10,960 15,912 9,968 13,514 10,979 12,771 8,414 9,106 7,442 10,533 7,031 5,158 1,676 2,222  43,536 1,006 1,254 1,519 5,621 5,093 2,333 3,428 – 3,991 715 1,177 – – – –  18,374 3,848 1,596 4,070 1,475 1,957 976 – – – – – – – – –  16,921 3,758 1,465 3,940 1,412 1,718 976 – – – – – – – – –  All industries  Private industry  7,630 1,286 1,181 1,272 1,605  7,499 1,155 1,181 1,272 1,605  1,978 46,251 9,429 6,820 9,633 5,724 3,734 2,395 2,732 1,039 11,731 5,463 3,610  State and local government  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  – – – – –  7,630 1,286 1,181 1,272 1,605  1,871 46,161 9,339 6,820 9,633 5,724 3,734 2,395 2,732 1,039 11,641 5,373 3,610  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  81,310 9,544 12,463 20,741 15,948 6,882 5,262 5,438 2,273 651 1,783 13,395 4,598 3,261 1,720  69,210 8,448 11,258 19,224 10,310 6,204 4,473 4,621 2,273 – 1,753 10,932 4,517 1,510 1,370  7,938 3,246 2,459 10,973 1,704 1,096 2,674 1,750 1,565 195,665 9,544 13,810 21,501 17,064 20,565 14,288 16,727 20,377 13,898 8,719 11,709 8,823 5,899 1,676 2,481  See footnotes at end of table.  30  1,453 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Not able to be leveled Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Not able to be leveled Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 3 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Level 3 ...................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ......................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  8,585 139,943  3,489 129,750  – 10,193  8,411 128,710  3,378 118,862  55,543 1,641 3,088 3,403 7,913 4,745 16,564 6,036 5,535 1,673 1,150 2,787  51,033 – 2,962 2,886 7,436 4,590 14,685 5,592 5,004 1,431 – 2,787  4,510 – – 517 – – 1,879 – – – – –  55,108 1,641 2,968 3,252 7,779 4,715 16,564 6,036 5,535 1,673 1,150 2,787  50,628 – 2,842 2,735 7,302 4,590 14,685 5,592 5,004 1,431 – 2,787  18,898 2,014 4,917 2,057 4,952 1,554  18,552 2,014 4,917 2,057 4,688 1,472  17,508 – 4,873 2,019 4,398 1,554  17,161 – 4,873 2,019 4,134 1,472  – – – – – –  28,551 4,050 7,575 5,843 4,316 1,032 2,310 900 7,296 2,373  26,710 4,050 7,256 5,007 4,226 – 1,770 900 6,666 1,786  1,842 – 319 – – – – – – –  27,115 3,634 6,782 5,698 4,316 1,032 2,310 900 6,854 2,347  25,550 3,634 6,620 4,981 4,226 – 1,770 900 6,224 1,760  – – – – – – – – – –  36,950 19,947 7,934 3,899 1,317 1,190 92,330 33,731 16,182 18,175 11,564 4,353 1,469 648 2,949 945  33,456 18,551 7,283 3,245 – – 76,060 31,862 12,922 14,481 8,751 2,296 – – – –  3,494 1,396 – 654 – – 16,270 1,869 – 3,694 – – 346 374 732 825  28,979 12,577 7,332 3,899 1,317 1,190 49,548 11,665 8,419 12,048 8,210 3,804 1,055 648 1,285 915  25,524 11,221 6,680 3,245 – – 38,602 10,975 7,892 9,574 5,534 1,747 – – – –  16,967 7,050 1,205 355 374 853 945 291  11,007 5,797 – – – – – –  5,960 1,254 – 249 374 732 825 –  11,018 3,331 – 329 374 853 915 291  7,751 – 34,314 17,300 4,930  6,983 – 32,338 16,910 3,679  – – 1,976 – –  5,072 3,134 8,646 1,802 756  – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  31  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – 9,848  – 11,233  – 10,888  4,480 – – 517 – – 1,879 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  1,436 – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  3,455 1,357 – 654 – – 10,946 690 527 2,474 – – 320 374 732 795  7,972 7,369 – – – – 42,782 22,066 7,763 6,126 3,354 – – – – –  7,933 7,330 – – – – 37,459 20,887 5,030 4,907 3,217 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  5,627 – – – – – – –  5,391 903 – 223 374 732 795 –  5,949 – – – – – – –  5,380 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  4,304 – 7,980 1,717 –  – – 666 – –  – – 25,668 15,498 4,174  – – 24,358 15,193 –  – – – – –  – 345  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Health service occupations Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ......................  All industries  Private industry  3,654 5,123 11,090 4,984 2,885  3,379 5,123 8,955 4,758 –  8,869 3,158 2,885  7,059 2,932 –  16,067 11,498 832 12,093 8,492 704  12,265 10,092 – 8,693 7,134 –  13,892 2,191 4,685 3,753  11,495 2,191 2,989 –  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – 2,135 – –  2,269 – 8,477 4,050 2,885  1,994 – 6,374 3,856 –  1,810 – –  6,587 2,554 2,885  4,809 2,361 –  – – – – – –  11,535 7,430 663 7,784 4,648 536  8,749 6,872 – 5,401 4,138 –  – – – –  9,873 – – –  9,873 – – –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical  Part-time workers  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – 2,103 – –  1,385 – 2,614 934 –  1,385 – 2,581 902 –  – – – – –  1,778 – –  2,283 – –  2,250 – –  – – –  – – – – – –  4,532 4,068 – 4,309 3,844 –  3,516 3,220 – 3,292 – –  – – – – – –  – – – –  4,019 – – –  1,623 – – –  – – – –  note for more information. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  32  Table 17. Number of workers1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Time4  Incentive4  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  30,375 30,115 6,245  443,813 397,822 235,671  387,373 355,548 209,115  86,816 72,389 32,801  432,357 402,325 222,884  41,831 25,612 19,032  – – –  76,095 56,435 19,661  73,107 55,050 18,056  7,376 5,557 1,819  79,437 59,561 19,875  – – –  – –  33,567 45,991  33,779 31,824  – 14,427  33,271 30,032  – 16,219  1,293 5,985 21,147  80,017 189,680 118,796  70,405 177,291 128,710  10,905 18,374 11,233  80,144 192,852 130,944  – 2,813 8,999  9,434  46,108  55,108  –  52,768  2,775  5,476  13,423  17,508  –  17,098  4,469  24,082  27,115  1,436  25,214  3,337  1,768 2,983  35,182 89,347  28,979 49,548  7,972 42,782  35,864 78,530  – 13,800  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational ’groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  –  collective bargaining. 4 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  33  Table 18. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Goods-producing industries3 Occupational group2  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Total  ConManustruction facturing  Service-producing industries4  Total  402,647 356,486 196,837  100,692 100,523 33,580  27,621 27,452 4,955  52,904  11,227  –  5,580  41,677  5,874  34,786 18,118  7,855 3,372  – –  2,962 2,617  26,930 14,747  – 2,937  – –  28,562 46,161  8,460 –  1,045 –  5,277 –  20,102 45,992  4,489 –  2,234 38,495  2,411 –  10,968 4,552  69,210 150,676 129,750  13,724 33,412 66,496  2,700 4,786 22,666  9,408 55,485 20,265 117,264 40,631 63,254  5,890 16,254 18,407  10,787 15,816 25,422  8,722 11,771 –  30,087 73,424 17,822  51,033  34,865  15,458  16,209  16,167  5,138  6,486  –  4,543  18,552  16,485  –  15,966  2,067  –  26,710  4,468  –  4,070  22,242  12,133  7,734  –  2,375  33,456 76,060  10,678 –  4,386 –  22,778 75,445  – –  10,749 25,180  – –  9,291 41,853  6,292 –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups.  61,512 301,956 61,512 255,963 20,265 163,256  TransFinance, Wholeportation insursale and and ance, Services retail public and real trade utilities estate 37,130 104,913 34,771 66,418 18,613 54,311 2,796  –  22,262 137,651 21,676 133,099 12,357 77,976 –  32,368  – –  21,493 10,875  –  –  3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 4 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  34  Table 19. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group2  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  402,647 356,486 196,837  219,953 188,884 103,117  182,695 167,602 93,720  115,342 101,368 51,352  67,353 66,235 42,368  52,904 34,786 18,118  18,350 11,489 6,861  34,554 23,297 11,257  14,337 8,428 5,909  20,217 14,869 5,348  28,562 46,161  13,433 31,069  15,129 15,092  6,427 13,974  8,703 –  69,210 150,676 129,750  40,266 72,048 70,711  28,944 78,627 59,039  16,614 37,378 45,570  12,330 41,250 13,469  51,033  24,550  26,483  20,010  6,473  18,552  9,443  9,109  6,507  2,602  26,710  19,280  7,429  4,812  –  33,456 76,060  17,438 46,124  16,018 29,936  14,241 18,420  1,778 11,516  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual  occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  35  Appendix A: Technical Note  This section provides basic information on the procedures and concepts used to produce the data contained in this bulletin. It is divided into three parts: Planning for the survey; data collection; and processing and analyzing the data. While this section answers some questions commonly asked by data users, it is not a comprehensive description of all the steps required to produce the data.  Sample design The sample design for this survey area was a two stage probability sample of detailed occupations. The first stage of sample selection was a probability-proportional-to-size sample of establishments. Use of this technique means that the larger an establishment’s employment, the greater its chance of selection. Weights were applied to each establishment when the data were tabulated so that it represents similar units (by industry and employment size) in the economy which were not selected for collection. See Appendix Table 1 for a count of establishments in the survey by employment size. The second stage of sample selection, detailed below, was a probability sample of occupations within a sampled establishment.  Planning for the survey The overall design of the survey, which was based on the type of data to be produced, had to be developed before data collection could begin. Survey scope This survey of the New Orleans, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing workers1 in goods-producing industries (mining, construction and manufacturing); service-producing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries); and State and local governments. Agriculture, private households, and the Federal government are excluded from the scope of the survey. For purposes of this survey an establishment was an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. For all industries in this survey and for State and local governments, the establishment was usually at a single physical location.  Data collection Numerous procedures were developed for the actual collection of data from survey respondents. Occupational selection and classification Identification of the occupations for which wage data were to be collected was a multi-step process: 1. Probability-proportional-to-size selection of company jobs. 2. Classification of jobs into occupations based on the Census of Population system. 3. Characterization of jobs as full-time v. part-time, union v. nonunion, and time v. incentive. 4. Determination of the level of work of each job.  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the New Orleans, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area (March 1995). The sampling frame was reviewed prior to the survey and, when necessary, missing establishments were added.  For each occupation, wage data were collected only for those workers who met all the criteria identified in the last three steps. In step one, the company jobs to be sampled were selected at each establishment by the BLS field economist during a personal visit. A complete list of employees was used for sampling, with each selected worker representing a job within the establishment. As with the selection of establishments, the selection of a company job was based on probability proportional to its size in the establishment. The greater the number of people working in a job in the establishment, the greater its chance of selection.  1  If an establishment had at least one employee at the time data were collected, it was in-scope for the survey. In theory, any sampled establishment in the universe could have one or more employees when the data are actually collected.  36  ers in the occupation; 2) wage and salary rates were determined through collective bargaining or negotiations; and 3) settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, were embodied in a signed, mutually binding collective bargaining agreement. If these conditions were not met, the worker’s job was classified as nonunion.  The number of jobs collected in each establishment was based on an establishment’s employment size as shown in the following schedule: Number of employees 0-49 50-99 100-249 250-499 500-999 1,000+  Number of selected jobs 4 8 10 12 16 20  Generic leveling through point factor analysis In the last step before wage data were collected, the work level of each selected job was determined using a “generic leveling” process. Generic leveling ranks and compares all occupations randomly selected in an establishment using the same criteria. This is a major departure from the method used in the past in the Bureau’s Occupational Compensation Surveys which studied specifically defined occupations with leveling definitions unique to each occupation. For the New Orleans survey, the level of each occupation in an establishment was determined by an analysis of each of 10 leveling factors. Nine of these factors are drawn from the U.S. Government Office of Personnel Management’s Factor Evaluation System, which is the underlying structure for evaluation of General Schedule Federal employees. The tenth factor, supervisory duties, is an attempt to account for the effect of supervisory duties. It is considered experimental. The 10 factors were:  NOTE: If the number of employees in an establishment was less than four, then the number of company jobs selected would be equal to the number of employees.  The second step of the process entailed classifying the selected jobs into occupations based on their duties. The COMP2000 occupational classification system is based on the 1990 Census of Population. A selected company job may fall into any one of about 480 occupational classifications, from accountant to wood lathe operator. In cases where a job’s duties overlapped two or more census classification codes, classification was based on the primary duty. Each occupational classification is an element of a broader classification known as a major occupational group (MOG). Occupations can fall into any of the following MOG’s: • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • •  Professional specialty and technical Executive, administrative, and managerial Sales Administrative support including clerical Precision production, craft, and repair Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers, Service occupations  Knowledge Supervisory controls Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  Each factor contains a number of levels and each level has an associated written description and point value. The number and range of points differs among the factors. For each factor, an occupation was assigned a level based on which written description best matched the job. Within each occupation, the points for the 10 factors were recorded and totaled. The total determines the overall level of the occupation. A description of the levels for each factor is shown in Appendix C. Tabulations of levels of work for occupations in the survey follow the Federal government’s white-collar General Schedule. Point ranges for each of the 15 levels are shown in Appendix D. It also includes an example of a leveled job and a guide to help data users evaluate jobs in their firm.  A complete list of all individual occupations, classified by the MOG to which they belong, is contained in Appendix B. In step three, certain other job characteristics of the chosen worker were identified. First, the worker was identified as holding either a full-time or part-time job, based on the establishment’s definition of those terms. Then the worker was classified as having a time versus incentive job, depending on whether any part of pay was directly based on the actual production of the workers, rather than solely on hours worked. Finally, the worker was identified as being in a union job if: 1) a labor organization was recognized as the bargaining agent for all work37  In prior test surveys, wage data collected using the new generic leveling method were evaluated by BLS researchers using regression techniques. For each of the major occupational groups, wages were compared to the 10 generic level factors (and levels within those factors). The analysis showed that several of the generic level factors, most notably knowledge and supervisory controls, had strong explanatory power for wages. That is, as the levels within a given factor increased, the wages also increased. Detailed research continues in the area. The results of this research will be published by BLS in the future.  Definition of terms Full-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be full time. Incentive worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied, at least in part, to commissions, piece rates, production bonuses, or other incentives based on production or sales. Level. A ranking of an occupation based on the requirements of the position. (See the description in the technical note and the example for more details on the leveling process.)  Reference period The survey was collected in August through September 1996. For each establishment in the survey, the data reflect the establishment’s practices on the day of collection.  Nonunion worker. An employee in an occupation not meeting the conditions for union coverage (see below).  Earnings Earnings were defined as regular payments from the employer to the employee as compensation for straighttime hourly work, or for any salaried work performed. The following components were included as part of earnings: • • • • • •  Part-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be part-time. Straight-time. Time worked at the standard rate of pay for the job.  Incentive pay, including commissions, production bonuses, and piece rates, Cost-of-living allowances, Hazard pay, Payments of income deferred due to participation in a salary reduction plan, Deadhead pay, defined as pay given to transportation workers returning in a vehicle without freight or passengers, and On-call pay.  Time-based worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied to an hourly rate or salary, and not to a specific level of production. Union worker. Any employee is in a union occupation when all of the following conditions are met: • •  The following forms of payments were not considered part of straight-time earnings: • • • • • •  •  Shift differentials, defined as extra payment for working a schedule that varies from the norm, such as night or weekend work, Premium pay for overtime, holidays, and weekends, Bonuses not directly tied to production (e.g., Christmas bonuses, profit-sharing bonuses), Uniform and tool allowances, Free room and board, and Payments made by third parties (e.g., tips, bonuses given by manufacturers to department store salespeople, referral incentives in real estate).  A labor organization is recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation. Wage and salary rates are determined through collective bargaining or negotiations. Settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, are embodied in a signed mutually binding collective bargaining agreement.  Processing and Analyzing the Data Data were processed and analyzed at the Bureau’s National office following collection. Weighting and nonresponse Sample weights were calculated for each establishment/occupation in the survey. These weights reflected the relative size of the occupation within the establishment and of the establishment within the sample universe. Weights were used to aggregate the individual establish-  To calculate earnings per hour worked, data on work schedules were also collected. For hourly workers, scheduled hours worked per week were recorded. Because salaried workers often work beyond the assigned work schedule, their typical number of hours actually worked was collected. 38  cally selected probability sample. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey, sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample and not from an entire population. The sample used for this survey is one of a number of possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error. It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error divided by the estimate. Appendix Table 2 contains RSE data for selected series in this bulletin. The standard error can be used to calculate a “confidence interval” around a sample estimate. For example, table 1 shows that mean hourly earnings for all workers was $12.79 per hour. Appendix Table 2 shows a standard error of 3.6 percent for this estimate. Thus, at the 95-percent level, the confidence interval for this estimate is $13.71 to $11.87 ($12.79 plus and minus 2 times 3.6 percent times $12.79). If all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 95 percent of the time. Nonsampling errors also affect survey results. They can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information for some establishments, difficulties with survey definitions, inability of the respondents to provide correct information, or mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained. A Technical Reinterview Program tested in New Orleans will be used in the development of a formal quality assessment process to help compute nonsampling error. Although they were not specifically measured, the nonsampling errors were expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive training of the field economists who gathered the survey data by personal visit, computer edits of the data, and detailed data review.  ment/occupations into the various data series. Of the establishments surveyed, 16.0 percent refused to supply information. If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights of responding sample members in the same or similar “cells” were adjusted to account for the missing data. This technique assumes that the mean value of the nonrespondents equals the mean value of the respondents at some detailed “cell” level. Responding and nonresponding establishments were classified into these cells according to industry and employment size. Responding and nonresponding occupations within responding establishments were classified into cells which were additionally defined by major occupation group and job level. When a sampled occupation was considered a refusal and could not be classified into a major occupational group, nonresponse adjustments were made for that occupation in the service occupational group. Establishments which were determined to be out of business or outside the scope of the survey (6.6 percent of the total sample) had their weights changed to zero. If only partial data were given by a sample establishment or occupation, or data were missing, the response was treated as a refusal. Estimation Weights, adjusted for nonresponse, were multiplied by the wage rate of each establishment/occupation, which itself was the average wage of all workers in the occupation. The resulting products were aggregated and then divided by the sum of the weighted occupational employments to obtain the data series contained in the tables in the bulletin. Not all series that were calculated met the criteria for publication. Before any series was published, it was reviewed to make sure that the number of observations underlying it was sufficient. This review prevented publishing a series that could have revealed information about a specific establishment. Data reliability The data in this bulletin are estimates from a scientifi-  39  Table A1. Number of establishments studied by industry group and employment size, and number represented by industry group, New Orleans, LA, August - September 1996 Number of establishments studied 100 workers or more  Industry All workers  All industries ......................................................... Private Industry ................................................. Goods-producing industries .......................... Manufacturing ........................................... Mining ....................................................... Construction ............................................. Service-producing industries ........................ Tranportation and public utilities ............... Wholesale and retail trade ........................ Finance, insurance and real estate .......... Services .................................................... State and Local government .............................  291 250 63 35 7 21 187 25 71 14 77 41  Fewer than 100 workers  169 158 34 15 2 17 124 15 54 11 44 11  100 - 499 workers  Total  122 92 29 20 5 4 63 10 17 3 33 30  74 62 20 13 3 4 42 7 15 2 18 12  500 workers or more 48 30 9 7 2 – 21 3 2 1 15 18  NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Overall industry and industry groups may include data for categories not shown separately.  40  Number of establishments represented by survey  26,732 26,626 3,655 1,269 164 2,221 22,971 1,255 9,494 3,431 8,790 106  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, New Orleans, LA, August September 1996  All industries  Occupation3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Registered nurses ........................ Technical occupations .............................. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Accountants and auditors ............. Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations .... Sales workers, other commodities Cashiers ....................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... General office clerks ..................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... Blue-collar occupations .................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................................. Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ Truck drivers ................................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Guards and police except public service .................................... Food service occupations .................... Waiters and waitresses ................ Cooks ........................................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Health service occupations ................. Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Janitors and cleaners ................... See footnotes at end of table.  41  3.6% 3.7 4.3  Private industry  4.2% 4.5 5.3  State and local government 3.5% 3.5 –  5.7 6.0 13.9 17.1 5.2  7.6 7.8 13.9 23.0 5.6  – – – – –  5.7  6.6  –  11.0 11.8  11.1 11.4  – –  8.7 11.3 7.3 17.8 8.2  8.5 11.3 7.3 17.8 8.3  – – – – –  3.0 5.8 5.6  3.4 6.4 5.7  – – –  5.0 5.2  5.8 6.2  – –  6.3 4.5 3.5  6.7 5.8 3.8  – – –  4.4  4.7  –  8.1 7.6  7.0 7.3  – –  7.0  7.2  –  3.9 10.6  4.1 11.4  – –  5.1 6.3  5.6 6.3  – –  11.4 4.8 8.3  11.6 6.0 9.7  – – –  7.8 5.6 9.2 9.5  8.7 5.8 9.2 10.0  – – – –  7.0 15.1  7.7 19.1  – –  19.4  24.6  –  5.5 6.8  5.7 8.0  – –  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, New Orleans, LA, August September 1996 — Continued  All industries  Occupation3  Personal services occupations ........... 1 The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the estimate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about  6.6%  Private industry  7.2%  State and local government –  480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. See the technical note for a complete listing of occupations. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  42  Appendix B. Occupational Classifications  NOTE: The four-digit code before each occupation title is used to classify it into one of three major groups. Whitecollar workers include those classified in Major groups A through D. Blue-collar workers include those classified in Major groups E through H. Service workers are classified in Major group K.  Major group A: A069 A073 A074 A075 A076 A077 A078 A079 A083  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, AND SURVEYORS A043 Architects A044-A059 Engineers A044 Aerospace Engineers A045 Metallurgical and Materials Engineers A046 Mining Engineers A047 Petroleum Engineers A048 Chemical Engineers A049 Nuclear Engineers A053 Civil Engineers A054 Agricultural Engineers A055 Electrical and Electronic Engineers A056 Industrial Engineers A057 Mechanical Engineers A058 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects A059 Engineers, n.e.c.1 A063 Surveyors and Mapping Scientists  Physicists and Astronomers Chemists, Except Biochemists Atmospheric and Space Scientists Geologists and Geodesists Physical Scientists, n.e.c. Agricultural and Food Scientists Biological and Life Scientists Forestry and Conservation Scientists Medical Scientists  HEALTH DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONS A084 A085 A086 A087 A088 A089  Physicians Dentists Veterinarians Optometrists Podiatrists Health Diagnosing Practitioners, n.e.c.  HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND TREATING OCCUPATIONS A095 A096 A097 A098 A099 A103 A104 A105 A106  MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS A064 Computer Systems Analysts and Scientists A065 Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts A066 Actuaries A067 Statisticians A068 Mathematical Scientists, n.e.c.  Registered Nurses Pharmacists Dietitians Respiratory Therapists Occupational Therapists Physical Therapists Speech Therapists Therapists, n.e.c. Physicians' Assistants  NATURAL SCIENTISTS TEACHERS 1  n.e.c. in an occupation title means not elsewhere classified.  43  A173 Urban Planners  A113-154 Teachers, College and University A154 Earth, Environmental and Marine Science Teachers A114 Biological Science Teachers A115 Chemistry Teachers A116 Physics Teachers A117 Natural Science Teachers, n.e.c. A118 Psychology Teachers A119 Economics Teachers A123 History Teachers A124 Political Science Teachers A125 Sociology Teachers A126 Social Science Teachers, n.e.c. A127 Engineering Teachers A128 Mathematical Science Teachers A129 Computer Science Teachers A133 Medical Science Teachers A134 Health Specialties Teachers A135 Business, Commerce and Marketing Teachers A136 Agriculture and Forestry Teachers A137 Art, Drama, and Music Teachers A138 Physical Education Teachers A139 Education Teachers A143 English Teachers A144 Foreign Language Teachers A145 Law Teachers A146 Social Work Teachers A147 Theology Teachers A148 Trade and Industrial Teachers A149 Home Economics Teachers A153 Teachers, Post Secondary, n.e.c. A154 Post Secondary Teachers, Subject not specified A155-163 Teachers, except College and University A155 Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Teachers A156 Elementary School Teachers A157 Secondary School Teachers A158 Teachers, Special Education A159 Teachers, n.e.c. A160 Substitute Teachers A163 Vocational and Educational Counselors  SOCIAL, RECREATION, AND RELIGIOUS WORKERS A174 A175 A176 A177  Social Workers Recreation Workers Clergy Religious Workers, n.e.c.  LAWYERS AND JUDGES A178 Lawyers A179 Judges WRITERS, AUTHORS, ENTERTAINERS AND ATHLETES A183 A184 A185 A186 A187 A188 A189 A193 A194 A195 A197 A198 A199 A999  Authors Technical Writers Designers Musicians and Composers Actors and Directors Painters, Sculptors, Craft-Artists, and Artist Print-Makers Photographers Dancers Artists, Performers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. Editors and Reporters Public Relations Specialists Announcers Athletes Professional Occupations, n.e.c.  TECHNICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS A203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians A204 Dental Hygienists A205 Health Record Technologists and Technicians A206 Radiologic Technicians A207 Licensed Practical Nurses A208 Health Technologists and Technicians, n.e.c.  LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS A164 Librarians A165 Archivists and Curators SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND URBAN PLANNERS A166 A167 A168 A169  ENGINEERING AND RELATED TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS  Economists Psychologists Sociologists Social Scientists, n.e.c.  A213 A214 A215 A216 A217 44  Electrical and Electronic Technicians Industrial Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Engineering Technicians, n.e.c. Drafters  B029 Buyers, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Except Farm Products B033 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, n.e.c. B034 Business and Promotion Agents B035 Construction Inspectors B036 Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction B037 Management Related Occupations, n.e.c.  A218 Surveying and Mapping Technicians SCIENCE TECHNICIANS A223 Biological Technicians A224 Chemical Technicians A225 Science Technicians, n.e.c. MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICIANS A226 A227 A228 A229 A233 A234 A235  Airplane Pilots and Navigators Air Traffic Controllers Broadcast Equipment Operators Computer Programmers Tool Programmers, Numerical Control Legal Assistants Technical and Related Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group C: SALES OCCUPATIONS C243 Supervisors: Sales Occupations FINANCE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, SALES REPRESENTATIVES C253 Insurance Sales Occupations C254 Real Estate Sales Occupations C255 Securities and Financial Services Sales Occupations C256 Advertising and Related Sales Occupations C257 Sales Occupations, Other Business Services  Major group B: EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS EXECUTIVES, MANAGERS, AND ADMINISTRATORS  SALES REPRESENTATIVES, COMMODITIES EXCEPT RETAIL  B003 Legislators B004 Chief Executives and General Administrators, Public Administration B005 Administrators and Officials, Public Administration B007 Financial Managers B008 Personnel and Labor Relations Managers B009 Purchasing Managers B013 Managers; Marketing, Advertising and Public Relations B014 Administrators, Education and Related Fields B015 Managers, Medicine and Health B016 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents B017 Managers, Food Serving and Lodging Establishments B018 Managers, Properties and Real Estate B019 Funeral Directors B021 Managers, Service Organizations, n.e.c. B022 Managers and Administrators, n.e.c.  C258 Sales Engineers C259 Sales Representatives; Mining, Manufacturing, and Wholesale RETAIL AND PERSONAL SERVICES SALES WORKERS C263 C264 C265 C266 C267 C268 C269 C274 C275 C276 C277 C278  MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS B023 B024 B025 B026 B027  Accountants and Auditors Underwriters Other Financial Officers Management Analysts Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists B028 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products  Sales Workers, Motor Vehicles and Boats Sales Workers, Apparel Sales Workers, Shoes Sales Workers, Furniture and Home Furnishings Sales Workers, Radio, TV, Hi-Fi, and Appliances Sales Workers, Hardware and Building Supplies Sales Workers, Parts Sales Workers, Other Commodities Sales Counter Clerks Cashiers Street and Door-To-Door Sales Workers News Vendors  SALES RELATED OCCUPATIONS C283 Demonstrators, Promoters, and Models, Sales C284 Auctioneers C285 Sales Support Occupations, n.e.c. 45  D344 Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators Major group D: DUPLICATING, MAIL, AND OTHER OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS  ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL  D345 Duplicating Machine Operators D346 Mail Preparing and Paper Handling Machine Operators D347 Office Machine Operators, n.e.c.  SUPERVISORS, CLERICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT D303 D304 D305 D306 D307  Supervisors: General Office Supervisors: Computer Equipment Operators Supervisors: Financial Records Processing Chief Communications Operators Supervisors: Distribution, Scheduling, and Adjusting Clerks  COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D348 Telephone Operators D353 Communications Equipment Operators, n.e.c. MAIL AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTING OCCUPATIONS  COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D308 Computer Operators D309 Peripheral Equipment Operators  D354 D355 D356 D357  SECRETARIES, STENOGRAPHERS, AND TYPISTS D313 Secretaries D314 Stenographers D315 Typists  MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS D359 D363 D364 D365 D366 D368 plers D373 D374  INFORMATION CLERKS D316 D317 D318 D319 D323  Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service Messengers  Interviewers Hotel Clerks Transportation Ticket and Reservation Agents Receptionists Information Clerks, n.e.c.  RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS, EXCEPT FINANCIAL  Dispatchers Production Coordinators Traffic, Shipping, and Receiving Clerks Stock and Inventory Clerks Meter Readers Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and SamExpeditors Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Clerks, n.e.c.  ADJUSTERS AND INVESTIGATORS D325 D326 D327 D328  Classified-Ad Clerks Correspondence Clerks Order Clerks Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll and Timekeeping D329 Library Clerks D335 File Clerks D336 Records Clerks, n.e.c.  D375 Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators D376 Investigators and Adjusters, Except Insurance D377 Eligibility Clerks, Social Welfare D378 Bill and Account Collectors MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS  FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS D337 Clerks D338 D339 D343  D379 D383 D384 D385 D386 D387 D389  Bookkeepers, Accounting and Auditing Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Billing Clerks Cost and Rate Clerks  46  General Office Clerks Bank Tellers Proofreaders Data Entry Keyers Statistical Clerks Teachers' Aides Administrative Support Occupations, n.e.c.  E569 E573 E575 E576 E577 E579 E583 E584 E585 E587  Major group E: PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS E503 E505 E506 E507 E508 E509 E514 E515 E516 E517 E518 E519 E523 E525 E526 E527 E529 E534 E535 E536 E538 E539 E543 E544 E547  Supervisors: Mechanics and Repairers Automobile Mechanics Automobile Mechanic Apprentices Bus, Truck, and Stationary Engine Mechanics Aircraft Engine Mechanics Small Engine Repairers Automobile Body and Related Repairers Aircraft Mechanics, Except Engine Heavy Equipment Mechanic Farm Equipment Mechanics Industrial Machinery Repairers Machinery Maintenance Occupations Electronic Repairers, Communications and Industrial Equipment Data Processing Equipment Repairers Household Appliance and Power Tool Repairers Telephone Line Installers and Repairers Telephone Installers and Repairers Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics Camera, Watch, and Musical Instrument Repairers Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Office Machine Repairers Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers Elevator Installers and Repairers Millwrights Mechanics and Repairers, n.e.c.  E588 E589 E593 E594 E595 E596 E597 E598 E599  Carpenter Apprentices Drywall Installers Electricians Electrician Apprentices Electrical Power Installers and Repairers Painters, Construction and Maintenance Paperhangers Plasterers Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Plumber, Pipefitter, and Steamfitter Apprentices Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers Glaziers Insulation Workers Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Roofers Sheetmetal Duct Installers Structural Metal Workers Drillers, Earth Construction Trades, n.e.c.  EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS E613 E614 E615 E616 E617  Supervisors: Extractive Occupations Drillers, Oil Well Explosives Workers Mining Machine Operators Mining Occupations, n.e.c.  PRECISION PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E628 Supervisors: Production Occupations PRECISION METAL WORKING OCCUPATIONS E634 E635 E636 E637 E639 E643 E644  SUPERVISORS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES E553 Supervisors: Brickmasons, Stonemasons, and Tilesetters E554 Supervisors: Carpenters and Related Workers E555 Supervisors: Electricians and Power Transmission Installers E556 Supervisors: Painters, Paperhangers, and Plasterers E557 Supervisors: Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters E558 Supervisors: Construction Trades, n.e.c.  E645 E646 E647 E649 E653 E654  Tool and Die Makers Tool and Die Maker Apprentices Precision Assemblers, Metal Machinists Machinist Apprentices Boilermakers Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool Sharpeners Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Metal Layout Workers Precious Stones and Metals Workers Engravers, Metal Sheet Metal Workers Sheet Metal Worker Apprentices  CONSTRUCTION TRADES OCCUPATIONS PRECISION WOODWORKING OCCUPATIONS E563 E564 E565 E566 E567  Brickmasons and Stonemasons Brickmason and Stonemason Apprentices Tile Setters, Hard and Soft Carpet Installers Carpenters  E656 Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Wood E657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters E658 Furniture and Wood Finishers 47  F708 Drilling and Boring Machine Operators F709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing, and Polishing Machine Operators F713 Forging Machine Operators F714 Numerical Control Machine Operators F717 Fabricating Machine Operators, n.e.c. F719 Molding and Casting Machine Operators F723 Metal Plating Machine Operators F724 Heat Treating Equipment Operators  PRECISION TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE WORKERS E666 E667 E668 E669  Dressmakers Tailors Upholsterers Shoe Repairers  PRECISION WORKERS, ASSORTED MATERIALS  WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS  E675 E676 E677 E678  Hand Molders and Shapers, Except Jewelers Patternmakers, Layout Workers, and Cutters Optical Goods Workers Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance Technicians E679 Bookbinders E683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers E684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers, n.e.c.  F726 Wood Lathe, Routing, and Planing Machine Operators F727 Sawing Machine Operators F728 Shaping and Joining Machine Operators F729 Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS F734 Printing Press Operators F735 Photoengravers and Lithographers F736 Typesetters and Compositors  PRECISION FOOD PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E685 E686 E687 E688  Precision Food Production Occupations, n.e.c. Butchers and Meat Cutters Bakers Food Batchmakers  TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE OPERATORS  PRECISION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND RELATED WORKERS  F738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators F739 Knitting, Looping, Taping, and Weaving Machine Operators F743 Textile Cutting Machine Operators F744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators F745 Shoe Machine Operators F747 Pressing Machine Operators F748 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Operators  E689 Inspectors, Testers, and Graders E690 Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. E693 Adjusters and Calibrators PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS E694 E695 E696 E699  Water and Sewage Treatment Plant Operators Power Plant Operators Stationary Engineers Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators, n.e.c.  MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSORTED MATERIALS F753 F754 F755 F756 F757  Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Packaging and Filling Machine Operators Extruding and Forming Machine Operators Mixing and Blending Machine Operators Separating, Filtering, and Clarifying Machine Operators F758 Compressing and Compacting Machine Operators F759 Painting and Paint Spraying Machine Operators F763 Roasting and Baking Machine Operators, Food F764 Washing, Cleaning, and Pickling Machine Operators F765 Folding Machine Operators F766 Furnace, Kiln, and Oven Operators, Except Food F768 Crushing and Grinding Machine Operators  Major group F: MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS METALWORKING AND PLASTIC WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS F703 F704 F705 F706 F707  Lathe and Turning-Machine Set-Up Operators Lathe and Turning-Machine Operators Milling and Planing Machine Operators Punching and Stamping Press Operators Rolling Machine Operators 48  F769 F773 F774 F777  G829 Sailors and Deckhands G833 Marine Engineers G834 Bridge, Lock, and Lighthouse Tenders  Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators Motion Picture Projectionists Photographic Process Machine Operators Miscellaneous Machine Operators, n.e.c.  MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS FABRICATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS  G843 Supervisors: Material Moving Equipment Operators G844 Operating Engineers G845 Longshore Equipment Operators G848 Hoist and Winch Operators G849 Crane and Tower Operators G853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators G855 Grader, Dozer, and Scraper Operators G856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment Operators G859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Operators, n.e.c.  F783 F784 F785 F786 F787  Welders and Cutters Solderers and Braziers Assemblers Hand Cutting and Trimming Occupations Hand Molding, Casting, and Forming Occupations F789 Hand Painting, Coating, and Decorating Occupations F793 Hand Engraving and Printing Occupations F795 Miscellaneous Hand Working Occupations, n.e.c. PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, SAMPLERS, AND WEIGHERS  Major group H: HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS  F796 Production Inspectors, Checkers, and Examiners F797 Production Testers F798 Production Samplers and Weighers F799 Graders and Sorters, Except Agricultural F800 Hand Inspectors, n.e.c.  FARM, FISHING AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS NONFARM SECTOR H483 H484 H485 H486 H487 H489 H494 H495 H496 H497 H498  Major group G: TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS G803 G804 G806 G808 G809 G813 G814  Supervisors: Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers Driver-Sales Workers Bus Drivers Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs Parking Lot Attendants Motor Transportation Occupations, n.e.c.  HELPERS, HANDLERS, AND LABORERS H864 Supervisors: Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, and Laborers, n.e.c. H865 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers H866 Helpers, Construction Trades H867 Helpers, Surveyor H868 Helpers, Extractive Occupations H869 Construction Laborers H874 Production Helpers H875 Garbage Collectors H876 Stevedores H877 Stock Handlers and Baggers H878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers H883 Freight, Stock, and Material Handlers, n.e.c. H885 Garage and Service Station Related Occupations  RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G823 G824 G825 G826  Marine Life Cultivation Workers Nursery Workers Supervisors, Agriculture-Related Workers Groundskeepers and Gardeners, Except Farm Animal Caretakers, Except Farm Inspectors, Agricultural Products Supervisors, Forestry and Logging Workers Forestry Workers, Except Logging Timber Cutting and Logging Occupations Captains and Other Officers, Fishing Vessels Fishers, Hunters, and Trappers  Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Locomotive Operating Occupations Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators Rail Vehicle Operators, n.e.c.  WATER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G828 Ship Captains and Mates, Except Fishing Boats 49  K439 Kitchen Workers, Food Preparation K443 Waiters'/Waitresses' Assistants K444 Food Preparation Occupations, n.e.c.  H887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners H888 Hand Packers and Packagers H889 Laborers, Except Construction, n.e.c.  HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS Major group K: K445 Dental Assistants K446 Health Aides, Except Nursing K447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants  SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K413 Supervisors: Firefighting and Fire Prevention Occupations K414 Supervisors: Police and Detectives K415 Supervisors: Guards K416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention Occupations K417 Firefighting Occupations K418 Police and Detectives, Public Service K423 Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Other Law Enforcement Officers K424 Correctional Institution Officers K425 Crossing Guards K426 Guards and Police, Except Public Service K427 Protective Service Occupations, n.e.c.  K448 Supervisors: Cleaning and Building Service Workers K449 Maids and Housemen K453 Janitors and Cleaners K454 Elevator Operators K455 Pest Control Occupations PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K456 K457 K458 K459  FOOD SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K461 K462 K463 K464 K465 K467 K468 K469  K433 Supervisors: Food Preparation and Service Occupations K434 Bartenders K435 Waiters and Waitresses K436 Cooks K438 Food Counter, Fountain, and Related Occupations  50  Supervisors: Personal Service Occupations Barbers Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Attendants, Amusement and Recreation Facilities Guides Ushers Public Transportation Attendants Baggage Porters and Bellhops Welfare Service Aides Early Childhood Teacher's Assistants Child Care Workers, n.e.c. Service Occupations, n.e.c.  Appendix C. Generic Leveling Criteria  such as performing numerous standardized tests or operations; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Below are the 10 criteria for generic leveling occupations. The description of each level within a factor is included. An example using these criteria for leveling a job follows in appendix D.  4. Knowledge of an extensive body of rules, procedures, operations, products or services requiring extended training and experience to perform a wide variety of interrelated or nonstandard procedural assignments and resolve a wide range of problems; OR Practical knowledge of standard procedures in a technical field, requiring extended training or experience, to perform such work as: adapting equipment when this requires considering the functioning characteristics of equipment; interpreting results of tests based on previous experience and observations (rather than directly reading instruments or other measures); or extracting information from various sources when this requires considering the applicability of information and the characteristics and quality of the sources; OR Comprehensive knowledge of a blue-collar skill, usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship. OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Knowledge measures the nature and extent of information or facts which the workers must understand to do acceptable work (e.g., steps, procedures, practices, rules, policies, theories, principles, and concepts) and the nature and extent of the skills needed to apply those knowledges. To be used as a basis for selecting a level under this factor, a knowledge must be required and applied. 1. Knowledge of simple, routine, or repetitive tasks or operations which typically includes following step-by-step instructions and requires little or no previous training or experience; OR Skill to operate simple equipment or equipment which operates repetitively, requiring little or no previous training or experience; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill. 2. Knowledge of basic or commonly-used rules, procedures, or operations which typically requires some previous training or experience; OR Basic skill to operate equipment requiring some previous training or experience, such as keyboard equipment; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  5. Knowledge (such as would be acquired through a pertinent baccalaureate educational program or its equivalent in experience, training, or independent study) of basic principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation, and skill in applying this knowledge in carrying out elementary assignments, operations, or procedures; OR In addition to the practical knowledge of standard procedures in Level 1-4, practical knowledge of technical methods to perform assignments such as carrying out limited projects which involves use of specialized, complicated techniques; OR Advanced knowledge of a blue-collar skill to solve unusually complex problems;  3. Knowledge of a body of standardized rules, procedures, operations, good services, tools, or equipment requiring considerable training and experience to perform the full range of standard clerical assignments and resolve recurring problems; OR Skill, acquired through considerable training and experience, to operate and adjust varied equipment for purposes  51  OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Supervision Received covers the nature and extent of direct or indirect controls exercised by the supervisor, the employee's responsibility and the review of completed work. Controls are exercised by the supervisor in the way assignments are made, instructions are given to the employee, priorities and deadlines are set, and objectives and boundaries are defined. Responsibility of the employee depends upon the extent to which the employee is expected to develop the sequence and timing of various aspects of the work, to modify or recommend modification of instructions, and to participate in establishing priorities and defining objectives. The degree of review of completed work depends upon the nature and extent of the review, e.g., close and detailed review of each phase of the assignment; detailed review of the finished assignment; spot-check of finished work for accuracy; or review only for adherence to policy.  6. Knowledge of the principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation as described at Level 1-5 which has been either: (a) supplemented by skill gained through job experience to permit independent performance of recurring assignments, or (b) supplemented by expanded professional or administrative knowledge gained through relevant graduate study or experience, which has provided skill in carrying out assignments, operations, and procedures in the occupation which are significantly more difficult and complex than those covered by Level 1-5; OR Practical knowledge of a wide range of technical methods, principles, and practices similar to a narrow area of a professional field, and skill in applying this knowledge to such assignments as the design and planning of difficult, but well-precedented projects; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  1. For both one-of-a-kind and repetitive tasks the supervisor makes specific assignments that are accompanied by clear, detailed, and specific instructions. The employee works as instructed and consults with the supervisor as needed on all matters not specifically covered in the original instructions or guidelines. For all positions the work is closely controlled. For some positions, the control is through the structured nature of the work itself; for others, it may be controlled by the circumstances in which it is performed. In some situations, the supervisor maintains control through review of the work which may include checking progress or reviewing completed work for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions and established procedures.  7. Knowledge of a wide range of concepts, principles, and practices in a professional or administrative occupation, such as would be gained through extended graduate study or experience, and skill in applying this knowledge to difficult and complex work assignments; OR A comprehensive, intensive, practical knowledge of a technical field and skill in applying this knowledge to the development of new methods, approaches, or procedures; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  2. The supervisor provides continuing or individual assignments by indicating generally what is to be done, limitations, quality and quantity expected, deadlines, and priority of assignments. The supervisor provides additional, specific instructions for new, difficult, or unusual assignments including suggested work methods or advice on source material available. The employee uses initiative in carrying out recurring assignments independently without specific instruction, but refers deviations, problems, and unfamiliar situations not covered by instructions to the supervisor for decision or help. The supervisor assures that finished work and methods used are technically accurate and in compliance with instructions or established procedures. Review of the work increases with more difficult assignments if the employee has not previously performed similar assignments.  8. Mastery of a professional or administrative field to: Apply experimental theories and new developments to problems not susceptible to treatment by accepted methods; OR Make decisions or recommendations significantly changing, interpreting, or developing important public policies or programs; OR Equivalent knowledge or skill. 9 . Mastery of a professional field to generate and develop new hypotheses and theories; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  52  3. The supervisor makes assignments by defining objectives, priorities, and deadlines; and assists employee with unusual situations which do not have clear precedents. The employee plans and carries out the successive steps and handles problems and deviations in the work assignment in accordance with instructions, policies, previous training, or accepted practices in the occupation. Completed work is usually evaluated for technical soundness, appropriateness, and conformity to policy and requirements. The methods used in arriving at the end results are not usually reviewed in detail.  Guidelines covers the nature of guidelines and the judgment needed to apply them. Guides used in General Schedule occupations include, for example: desk manuals, established procedures and policies, traditional practices, and reference materials such as dictionaries, style manuals, engineering handbooks, and the pharmacopoeia. Individual jobs in different occupations vary in the specificity, applicability and availability of the guidelines for performance of assignments. Consequently, the constraints and judgmental demands placed upon employees also vary. For example, the existence of specific instructions, procedures, and policies may limit the opportunity of the employee to make or recommend decisions or actions. However, in the absence of procedures or under broadly stated objectives, employees in some occupations may use considerable judgment in researching literature and developing new methods.  4. The supervisor sets the overall objectives and resources available. The employee and supervisor, in consultation, develop the deadlines, projects, and work to be done. At this level, the employee, having developed expertise in the line of work, is responsible for planning and carrying out the assignment; resolving most of the conflicts which arise; coordinating the work with others as necessary; and interpreting policy on own initiative in terms of established objectives. In some assignments, the employee also determines the approach to be taken and the methodology to be used. The employee keeps the supervisor informed of progress, potentially controversial matters, or far-reaching implications. Completed work is reviewed only from an overall standpoint in terms of feasibility, compatibility with other work, or effectiveness in meeting requirements or expected results.  Guidelines should not be confused with the knowledges described under Factor 1, Knowledge. Guidelines either provide reference data or impose certain constraints on the use of knowledges. For example, in the field of medical technology, for a particular diagnosis there may be three or four standardized tests set forth in a technical manual. A medical technologist is expected to know these diagnostic tests. However, in a given laboratory the policy may be to use only one of the tests; or the policy may state specifically under what conditions one or the other of these tests may be used.  5. The supervisor provides administrative direction with assignments in terms of broadly defined missions or functions. The employee has responsibility for planning, designing, and carrying out programs, projects, studies, or other work independently. Results of the work are considered as technically authoritative and are normally accepted without significant change. If the work should be reviewed, the review concerns such matters as fulfillment of program objectives, effect of advice and influence of the overall program, or the contribution to the advancement of technology. Recommendations for new projects and alteration of objectives are usually evaluated for such considerations as availability of funds and other resources, broad program goals or priorities.  1. Specific, detailed guidelines covering all important aspects of the assignment are provided to the employee. The employee works in strict adherence to the guidelines; deviations must be authorized by the supervisor. 2. Procedures for doing the work have been established and a number of specific guidelines are available. The number and similarity of guidelines and work situations requires the employee to use judgment in locating and selecting the most appropriate guidelines, references, and procedures for application, and in making minor deviations to adapt the guidelines in specific cases. At this level, the employee may also determine which of  53  Actions to be taken or responses to be made differ in such things as the source of information, the kind of transactions or entries, or other differences of a factual nature.  several established alternatives to use. Situations to which the existing guidelines cannot be applied or significant proposed deviations from the guidelines are referred to the supervisor.  3. The work includes various duties involving different and unrelated processes and methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done depends upon the analysis of the subject, phase, or issues involved in each assignment, and the chosen course of action may have to be selected from many alternatives. The work involves conditions and elements that must be identified and analyzed to discern interrelationships.  3. Guidelines are available, but are not completely applicable to the work or have gaps in specificity. The employee uses judgment in interpreting and adapting guidelines such as agency policies, regulations, precedents, and work directions for application to specific cases or problems. The employee analyzes results and recommends changes.  4. The work typically includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods such as those relating to well-established aspects of an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include the assessment of unusual circumstances, variations in approach, and incomplete or conflicting data. The work requires making many decisions concerning such things as the interpreting of considerable data, planning of the work, or refining the methods and techniques to be used.  4. Administrative policies and precedents are applicable but are stated in general terms. Guidelines for performing the work are scarce or of limited use. The employee uses initiative and resourcefulness in deviating from traditional methods or researching trends and patterns to develop new methods, criteria, or proposed new policies. 5. Guidelines are broadly stated and nonspecific, e.g., broad policy statements and basic legislation which require extensive interpretation. The employee must use judgment and ingenuity in interpreting the intent of the guides that do exist and in developing applications to specific areas of work. Frequently, the employee is recognized as a technical authority in the development and interpretation of guidelines.  5. The work includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods applied to a broad range of activities or substantial depth of analysis, typically for an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include major areas of uncertainty in approach, methodology, or interpretation and evaluation processes resulting from such elements as continuing changes in program, technological developments, unknown phenomena, or conflicting requirements. The work requires originating new techniques, establishing criteria, or developing new information.  Complexity covers the nature, number, variety, and intricacy of tasks, steps, processes, or methods in the work performed; the difficulty in identifying what needs to be done; and the difficulty and originality involved in performing the work.  6. The work consists of broad functions and processes of an administrative or professional field. Assignments are characterized by breadth and intensity of effort and involve several phases being pursued concurrently or sequentially with the support of others within or outside of the organization. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include largely undefined issues and elements, requiring extensive probing and analysis to determine the nature and scope of the problems. The work requires continuing efforts to establish concepts, theories, or programs, or to resolve unyielding problems.  1. The work consists of tasks that are clear-cut and directly related. There is little or no choice to be made in deciding what needs to be done. Actions to be taken or responses to be made are readily discernible. The work is quickly mastered. 2. The work consists of duties that involve related steps, processes, or methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done involves various choices requiring the employee to recognize the existence of and differences among a few easily recognizable situations.  54  The programs are essential to the missions of the overall organization or affect large numbers of people on a long-term or continuing basis.  Scope and Effect covers the relationship between the nature of the work, i.e., the purpose, breadth, and depth of the assignment, and the effect of work products or services both within and outside the organization.  Personal Contact includes face-to-face contacts and telephone and radio dialogue with persons not in the supervisory chain. (NOTE: Personal contacts with supervisors are covered under Factor 2, Supervision Received. Levels described under this factor are based on what is required to make the initial contact, the difficulty of communicating with those contacted, and the setting in which the contact takes place (e.g., the degree to which the employee and those contacted recognize their relative roles and authorities)).  Effect measures such things as whether the work output facilitates the work of others, provides timely services of a personal nature, or impacts on the adequacy of research conclusions. The concept of effect alone does not provide sufficient information to properly understand and evaluate the impact of the position. The scope of the work completes the picture, allowing consistent evaluations. Only the effect of properly performed work is to be considered.  Above the lowest level, points should be credited under this factor only for contacts which are essential for successful performance of the work and which have a demonstrable impact on the difficulty and responsibility of the work performed.  1. The work involves the performance of specific, routine operations that include a few separate tasks or procedures. The work product or service is required to facilitate the work of others; however, it has little impact beyond the immediate organizational unit or beyond the timely provision of limited services to others.  The relationship of Factors 6 (Personal Contacts) and 7 (Purpose of Contacts) presumes that the same contacts will be evaluated for both factors. Therefore, use the personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for Factor 7 as the basis for selecting a level for Factor 6.  2. The work involves the execution of specific rules, regulations, or procedures and typically comprises a complete segment of an assignment or project of broader scope. The work product or service affects the accuracy, reliability, or acceptability of further processes or services.  1. The personal contacts are with employees within the immediate organization, office, project, or work unit, and in related or support units; AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public in very highly structured situations (e.g., the purpose of the contact and the question of with whom to deal are relatively clear). Typical of contacts at this level are purchases of admission tickets at a ticket window.  3. The work involves treating a variety of conventional problems, questions, or situations in conformance with established criteria. The work product or service affects the design or operation of systems, programs, or equipment; the adequacy of such activities as field investigations, testing operations, or research conclusions; or the social, physical, and economic well being of persons. 4. The work involves establishing criteria; formulating projects; assessing program effectiveness; or investigating or analyzing variety of unusual conditions, problems, or questions. The work product or service affects a wide range of establishment activities, major activities of industrial concerns, or the operation of other organizations.  2. The personal contacts are with employees in the same overall organization, but outside the immediate organization. People contacted generally are engaged in different functions, missions, and kinds of work, e.g., representatives from various levels within the overall organizations such as headquarters, district offices, or local offices, plants, stores, or other operating units in the immediate installation. AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public, as individuals or groups, in a moderately structured setting (e.g., the contacts are generally established on a routine basis, usually at the employee's work place; the exact purpose of the contact may be unclear at first to one or more of the parties; and one or more of the parties may be uninformed concerning the role and authority of other participants). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons seeking airline reservations or with job applicants at a job information center.  5. The work involves isolating and defining unknown conditions, resolving critical problems, or developing new theories. The work product or service affects the work of other experts, the development of major aspects of administrative or scientific programs or missions, or the well-being of substantial numbers of people. 6. The work involves planning, developing, and carrying out vital administrative or scientific programs. 55  OR The purpose is to interrogate or control persons or groups who may be fearful, uncooperative, or dangerous. Therefore, the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired effect, such as, gaining compliance with established policies and regulations by persuasion or negotiation, or gaining information by establishing rapport with a suspicious informant.  3. The personal contacts are with individuals or groups from outside the employing establishment in a moderately unstructured setting (e.g., the contacts are not established on a routine basis; the purpose and extent of each contact is different and the role and authority of each party is identified and developed during the course of the contact). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons in their capacities as attorneys; contractors; or representatives of professional organizations, the news media, or public action groups.  4. The purpose is to justify, defend, negotiate, or settle matters involving significant or controversial issues. Work at this level usually involves active participation in conferences, meetings, hearings, or presentations involving problems or issues of considerable consequence or importance. The persons contacted typically have diverse viewpoints, goals, or objectives requiring the employee to achieve a common understanding of the problem and a satisfactory solution by convincing them, arriving at a compromise, or developing suitable alternatives.  4. The personal contacts are with high-ranking officials from outside the employing establishment at national or international levels in highly unstructured settings (e.g., contacts are characterized by problems such as: the officials may be relatively inaccessible; arrangements may have to be made for accompanying staff members; appointments may have to be made well in advance; each party may be very unclear as to the role and authority of the other; and each contact may be conducted under different ground rules). Typical of contacts at this level are those with presidents of large national or international firms, nationally recognized representatives of the news media, presidents of national unions, members of Congress, leading representatives of foreign governments, state governors, or mayors of large cities.  Physical Demands covers the requirements and physical demands placed on the employee by the work assignment. This includes physical characteristics and abilities (e.g., specific agility and dexterity requirements) and the physical exertion involved in the work (e.g., climbing, lifting, pushing, balancing, stooping, kneeling, crouching, crawling, or reaching). To some extent the frequency or intensity of physical exertion must also be considered, e.g., a job requiring prolonged standing involves more physical exertion than a job requiring intermittent standing.  Purpose of Contacts ranges from factual exchanges of information to situations involving significant or controversial issues and differing viewpoints, goals, or objectives. The personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for this factor must be the same as the contacts which are the basis for the level selected for Factor 6.  1. The work is sedentary. Typically, the employee may sit comfortably to do the work. However, there may be some walking; standing; bending; carrying of light items such as papers, books, small parts; driving an automobile, etc. No special physical demands are required to perform the work.  1. The purpose is to obtain, clarify, or give facts or information regardless of the nature of those facts, i.e., the facts or information may range from easily understood to highly technical.  2. The work requires some physical exertion such as long periods of standing; walking over rough, uneven, or rocky surfaces; recurring bending, crouching, stooping, stretching, reaching, or similar activities; recurring lifting of moderately heavy items such as typewriters and record boxes. The work may require specific, but common, physical characteristics and abilities such as above-average agility and dexterity.  2. The purpose is to plan, coordinate, or advise on work efforts or to resolve operating problems by influencing or motivating individuals or groups who are working toward mutual goals and who have basically cooperative attitudes. 3. The purpose is to influence, motivate, convince, or question persons or groups. Those contacted may be hesitant or skeptical, so the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired response.  3. The work requires considerable and strenuous physical exertion such as frequent climbing of tall ladders, lifting heavy objects over 50 pounds, crouching or crawling in restricted areas and defending oneself or others against physical attack.  56  ditions cannot be controlled.  Work Environment considers the risks and discomforts in the employee's physical surroundings or the nature of the work assignment and the safety regulations required. Although the use of safety precautions can practically eliminate a certain danger or discomfort, such situations typically place additional demands upon the employee in carrying out safety regulations and techniques.  Supervisory Duties describes the level of supervisory responsibility for a position. 1. No supervisory responsibility. 2. A nonsupervisory position. Incumbent sets the pace of work for the group and shows other workers in the group how to perform assigned tasks. Commonly performs the same work as the group, in addition to lead duties. Can also be called group leader, team leader, or lead worker.  1. The work environment involves everyday risks or discomforts which require normal safety precautions typical of such places as offices, meeting and training rooms, libraries, and residences or commercial vehicles, e.g., use of safe work practices with office equipment, avoidance of trips and falls, observance of fire regulations and traffic signals, etc. The work area is adequately lighted, heated, and ventilated.  3. Directs staff through face to face meetings. Organizational structure is not complex and internal and administrative procedures are simple. Performing the same work as subordinates is not the principal duty. Typically, this is the first supervisory level.  2. The work involves moderate risks or discomforts which require special safety precautions, e.g., working around moving parts, carts, or machines; with contagious diseases or irritant chemicals; etc. Employees may be required to use protective clothing or gear such as masks, gowns, coats, boots, goggles, gloves, or shields.  4. Directs staff through intermediate supervisors. Internal procedures and administrative controls are formal. Organizational structure is complex and is divided into subordinate groups that may differ from each other as to subject matter and function.  3. The work environment involves high risks with exposure to potentially dangerous situations or unusual environmental stress which require a range of safety and other precautions, e.g., working at great heights under extreme outdoor weather conditions, subject to possible physical attack or mob conditions, or similar situations where con-  5. Directs staff through two or more subordinate supervisory levels with several subdivisions at each level. Programs are usually inter-locked on a direct and continuing basis with other organizational segments, requiring constant attention to extensive formal coordination, clearances, and procedural controls.  57  Appendix D. Evaluating Your Firm’s Jobs  To compare data on their firm’s jobs with statistics contained in this bulletin, data users need to be able to determine their jobs’ work levels. Using the example of a dental hygienist, this appendix will go through the procedure for determining the work level of a particular job. To determine the work level of a job, it must be evaluated using the generic leveling factors. With the information available, such as a written position description and other knowledge of the job, each factor must be reviewed. Comparing that information to the descriptions of each level within a factor as shown in Appendix C, the level best matching the job should be chosen and recorded. (Note that the number of levels varies by factor.)  Level 2.  Generic leveling: an example  Level 2.  Scope and effect In terms of process, the dentist’s work follows the hygienist’s. In terms of effect, the hygienist doing a thorough cleaning in preparation for the dentist’s work allows the dentist to do a complete exam and properly treat the patient. Level 2. Personal contacts Patients come to the clinic or occasionally the hygienist will travel to perform work or give a talk at a school.  Knowledge Hygienist must have a dental hygienist license which requires 2 years of schooling and passage of a technical exam. This is a mid-level hygienist job, which means a worker must have at least 3 years of experience. The procedures are essentially the same every day, such as cleaning teeth, checking gums, and taking x-rays.  Purpose of contacts Most of hygienist’s interaction is with patients; no planning or coordination work is involved. Level 1. Physical demands The work is sedentary.  Level 4.  Level 1.  Supervision received Most of the tasks are performed without supervision. For more complicated procedures, such as tooth filling, the dental hygienist assists the dentist.  Work environment Hygienist must take precautions not to be exposed to xrays, punctures, etc.  Level 2.  Level 2.  Guidelines A hygienist knows which procedure to use for different dental problems. Unusual situations are handled after checking with the supervisor.  Supervisory duties A dental hygienist at this level does not supervise anyone.  Level 2.  Level 1.  Complexity Each procedure performed leads to the next, for example, examining gums, scraping plaque, then cleaning teeth.  Assigning points Once the correct level has been identified within each factor, the points associated with each level are recorded. Summing the points for all factors gives the total points 58  used to rank Federal civil service white-collar jobs, each identified by a point range. The 1,020 total points for the dental hygienist job puts it in level 5.  for the job. Using the factors above and the table at the end of this section showing the points associated with each level within a factor, a sample worksheet was filled out for the dental hygienist position.  Point ranges by work level Generic leveling worksheet Range of Generic Level Points Company job title: Dental Hygienist Level Factor  Level  Points  Knowledge  4  550  Supervision received  2  125  Guidelines  2  125  Complexity  2  75  Scope and effect  2  75  Personal contacts  2  25  Purpose of contacts  2  20  Physical demands  1  5  Work environment  2  20  Supervisory duties  1  0  Total  5  1020  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Low  High  190 255 455 655 855 1105 1355 1605 1855 2105 2355 2755 3155 3605 4055 and up  254 454 654 854 1104 1354 1604 1854 2104 2354 2754 3154 3604 4054  Comparing wages Once the work level has been identified for a job, wages for that job can be compared to wages for similar jobs at the same work level. BLS publishes hourly wage rates by work level within nine major occupational groups, which are combinations of similar individual occupations. The groups and work levels available vary by area. Employers can also use the data on work levels to compare different jobs in their establishment.  Determining the work level The following chart takes the point total determined using the worksheet and converts it to an overall work level for the job. There are 15 work levels, based on those  Points associated with each factor level F a c to r K n o w le d g e S u p e rv i s i o n r e q u i r e d G u id elin e s C o m p le x ity S c o p e a n d e ff e c t P e rs o n a l c o n ta c t s P u r p o se o f c o n ta c t s P h y s ic a l d e m a n d s W o rk e n v ir o n m e n t S u p e rv i s o r y d u ti e s  1 50 25 25 25 25 10 20 5 5 0  2 200 125 125 75 75 25 50 20 20 251  3 35 275 275 150 150 60 120 50 50 502  4 550 450 450 225 225 110 220 X X 1003  5 750 650 650 325 325 X X X X 1504  6 950 X X 450 450 X X X X X  7 1250 X X X X X X X X X  8 1550 X X X X X X X X X  9 1850 X X X X X X X X X  Note: X indicates that a level is not associated with a given factor. For example, for physical demands, point levels 1, 2, and 3 are the only choices.  59
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102