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Occupational
Projections and
Training Data
A Statistical and Research Supplement
to the 1982-83 Occupational Outlook Handbook
U S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
December 1982
Bulletin 2202

1982
Edition

Occupational
Projections and
Training Data

1982
Edition

A Statistical and Research Supplement
to the 1982-83 Occupational Outlook Handbook
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
. December 1982
Bulletin 2202

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington. D.C. 20402—Price $6.00

Preface

Information about occupational demand and supply
is needed to plan education and training programs and
provide vocational guidance. This bulletin provides de­
tailed statistics on current and projected occupational
employment and related information on occupational
demand and supply—including new estimates of job
openings—for use in these activities. It is a revision and
update of Bulletin 2052 of the same title published in
1980, and was prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics program for developing and disseminating
projections of the U.S. economy.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division of Occu­
pational Outlook under the direction of Michael Pilot.
Alan Eck and Chester Levine supervised its prepara­

tion. Alan Eck prepared the material on occupational
movements and replacement needs. Jon Q. Sargent con­
tributed the discussion of job prospects for college
graduates, and Thomas Nardone prepared the informa­
tion on broad occupational trends. The training data
were assembled by Verada P. Bluford, John P. Griffin,
and H. James Neary. The chapter discussing individual
occupations represents the work of economists who
prepared the 1982-83 edition of the Occupational Out­
look Handbook.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may, with appropriate credit, be reproduced with­
out permission.

Page

Highlights.................................................................................................................

1

Chapters:
1. Introduction.................................................................................................
Changes indata on job openings................................................................
Assessing thecompetition for jo b s ...........................................................

2
2
4

2.

Tomorrow’s jobs ......................
Population.............................
Labor fo rc e..........................
Employment grow th............
Total job openings.................
Outlook for college graduates

3.

Occupational movements, 1980-81 ............................................................
Job openings...........................................................................................
New employees .......................................................................................

12
12
16

4.

Employment patterns in selected occupations ............................................
Accountants and auditors........................................................................
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration mechanics....................
All-round machinists...............................................................................
Architects................................................................................................
Assemblers..........................
Automobile body repairers......................................................................
Automobile mechanics.............................................................................

22
22
23
23
24
25
26
26

Bank officers and managers......................................................................
Bank tellers..............................................................................................
Barbers.....................................................................................................
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks..........................................................
Bricklayers and stonemasons...................................................................
Business machine repairers......................................................................
Buyers.......................................................................................................

27
28
29
29
30
30
31

Carpenters................................................................................................
Cashiers.....................................................................................................
Compositors and typesetters................................................................
Computer operators..................................................................................
Computer service technicians...................................................................
Cooks and chefs......................................................................................
Cosmetologists.........................................................................................

31
32
33
34
34
35
36

v

Page

Dental assistants......................................................................................
Dental laboratory technicians.................................................................
Dentists.....................................................................................................
Drafters.....................................................................................................
Electricians.............................................................................................
Engineering and science technicians.......................................................
Engineers..................................................................................................

37
37
38
38
39
40
41

Insurance agents and brokers...................................................................
Kindergarten and elementary school teachers.........................................
Lawyers.....................................................................................................
Librarians................................................................................................
Licensed practical nurses..........................................................................
Machine tool operators.............................................................................
Manufacturers’ sales workers...................................................................

41
42
43
44
44
45
46

Physicians................................................................................................
Plumbers and pipefitters..........................................................................
Printing press operators and assistants.....................................................
Programmers...........................................................................................
Psychologists...........................................................................................
Purchasing agents....................................................................................

46
47
48
49
49
50

Radiologic technologists..........................................................................
Real estate agents and brokers.................................................................
Registered nurses......................................................................................
Reporters and correspondents.................................................................
Retail trade sales workers........................................................................

51
51
52
54
54

Secondary school teachers........................................................................
Secretaries................................................................................................
Sheet-metal workers..................................................................................
Social w orkers.........................................................................................
Systems analysts......................................................................................
Television and radio service technicians...................................................
Typists.....................................................................................................
Waiters and waitresses.............................................................................
Welders and flamecutters........................................................................

55
56
56
57
58
59
60
60
61

Appendixes:
A. Assumptions and methods used in preparing employment projections.
B. Estimating replacement needs...............................................................
C. Detailed occupational projections .......................................................
D. Detailed training statistics ...................................................................
E. State employment security agencies.....................................................

63
67
76
97
120

vi

Highlights

and emigration. The CPS-based estimate o f replacement
needs for all occupations in 1980 is five times that based
on working life tables.

Different source o f employment data. The Bureau’s Oc­
cupational Employment Statistics (oes ) survey has
replaced the decennial census and the Current Popula­
tion Survey (cps ) as the primary source of data used to
develop estimates of current and projected employment.
The oes survey obtains data from establishments on the
number of jobs while the c ps obtains data from
households on the number of people employed.

In the past, the Bureau’s estimates of replacement
needs accounted for roughly 2 out of 3 job openings.
Under the expanded definition of job openings, replace­
ment needs are expected to account for about 90 percent
of the 23 to 25 million job openings projected annually
over the 1980-90 period.

Range o f projected needs. The Bureau has prepared
three sets of employment projections. Referred to as the
low-trend, high-trend I, and high-trend II alternatives,
the projections are based on different assumptions con­
cerning labor force growth, unemployment, output,
productivity, and other factors.

More complete supply-demand information. Occupa­
tional supply-demand analysis was severely hampered in
the past because job openings data excluded occupa­
tional transfers and temporary labor force separa­
tions—persons who returned to school or assumed
household duties, for example—and data on recent
graduates of training programs were the principal or on­
ly source of data on supply. The new cps data provide
much more information with which to assess occupa­
tional supply and demand.

Broader definition o f replacement needs. C ps data
covering the 1980-81 period have replaced working life
tables as the basic data used to develop estimates of oc­
cupational replacement needs. Whereas deaths and
retirements were virtually the only source of replace­
ment needs in previous estimates of job openings
published by the Bureau, replacement needs based on
the new cps data include persons who leave an occupa­
tion for any reason—including occupational transfers
and temporary labor force separations—except death

Updated job outlook fo r college graduates. Similar to
the 1970’s, an average annual surplus of between
200,000 and 300,000 college graduates is expected to
enter the labor force during the 1980’s.

1

Chapter 1.
Introduction

mates were based. Further, data on occupations deri­
ved from a survey of employers, such as the OES sur­
vey, are believed to be more reliable than those deri­
ved from a household survey, such as the CPS. Because
of conceptual and procedural differences between the
OES surveys and the census and CPS, the occupational
employment estimates presented in this bulletin and in
the 1982-83 Occupational Outlook Handbook may dif­
fer significantly from those developed for the same oc­
cupations in the past.1
Table 1 provides a comparison of 1980 employment
from the OES and the CPS for the major occupational
groups. As shown in the table, OES-based employment
was higher overall—by 5 percent—and in 7 of the 12
major occupational groups. OES employment ranged
from 32 percent higher for nonfarm laborers to 14 per­
cent lower for managers and administrators. Differences
were also relatively large for sales workers (11 percent)
and service workers, except private household (22 per­
cent). On the other hand, differences were 6 percent or

Occupational outlook information presented in career
guidance publications such as the Occupational Outlook
Handbook usually appears in the form of general state­
ments about expected changes in employment and, when
data permit, the degree of competition jobseekers are
likely to encounter. Descriptive information is consid­
ered appropriate because it is more easily understood
by the target audience—students. However, education
planners, training officials, occupational analysts, and
others need detailed statistics on current and projected
employment, job openings, and training program com­
pletions to evaluate the adequacy of education and train­
ing programs. This bulletin is the sixth in a series be­
gun in 1970 that presents the statistical and technical
data underlying the information developed in the Bu­
reau’s occupational outlook program.
In 1981 and 1982, BLS made significant changes in
the sources and procedures used to develop its estimates
of job openings. This chapter discusses these changes
and indicates how the new data differ from, and why
they are not comparable with, information presented in
previous editions of this bulletin. It also gives examples
of how the information can be used to assess the degree
of competition for jobs.
Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of the 1990
economy under different assumptions and discusses pro­
jected changes in employment by major occupational
group and for all college graduates. Chapter 3 provides
an overview of newly developed information about oc­
cupational movements in 1980-81, and chapter 4 dis­
cusses the outlook for 55 detailed occupations using the
newly developed data.

1 One major conceptual difference is that the OES survey is a count
o f jobs while the CPS is a count o f persons. In the OES surveys,
persons who hold more than one job are counted in each job held;
in the CPS, they are counted only in their primary job.

Table 1. Comparison of employment data from the
Occupational Employment Statistics survey-based matrix
and the Current Population Survey, 1980
(In thousands)
1980 employment
Occupational group

Percent
difference

OES data

Changes in data on job openings
Job openings in an occupation arise from growth in
employment and also from the need to replace indi­
viduals who leave the occupation. BLS has changed its
methods of preparing estimates of both these sources
of job openings.

T o ta l..........................................
Professional and technical
workers ......................................
Managers and administrators,
except farm ...............................
Sales workers.............................
Clerical workers...........................
Craft and kindred workers..........
Nontransport operatives.............
Transport equipment operatives .
Nonfarm laborers ........................
Farmers and farm managers......
Farm laborers and supervisors ...
Service workers, except private
household..................................
Private household workers .........

Employment growth. Estimates of current and pro­
jected occupational employment presented in this bul­
letin, unlike earlier estimates, are based on data col­
lected in the Bureau’s Occupational Employment Sta­
tistics (OES) surveys. These surveys, conducted in each
industry every 3 years, provide more occupational de­
tail than the decennial census and the Current Popula­
tion Survey (CPS), on which earlier occupational esti­

CPS data

102,107

97,270

5.0

16,395

15,613

5.1

9,355
6,822
18,864
12,369
10,679
3,528
5,860
1,484
1,205

10,919
6,172
18,105
12,529
10,346
3,468
4,456
1,485
1,218

-14.3
10.5
4.2
-1.1
3.2
1.7
31.5
.0
-1.1

14,559
988

11,917
1,041

22.2
-5.1

NOTE: The Occupational Employment Statistics survey is a count of
jobs; the CPS is a count of persons. Other differences in the data are
discussed in appendix A.

2

pational mobility in the January 1981 CPS were com­
bined with the CPS matched data to estimate annual
occupational transfers. These combined data—which
provide a composite description of movements into, out
of, and between occupations—are termed “merged
data.”
Table 2 compares estimates of replacement needs in
1980 using the new data based on the CPS and the old
data based on tables of working life.3The new estimates
are 5 times as high as those derived previously from
tables of working life. The new CPS data also indicate
a different distribution of replacement needs among the
major occupational groups. For example, under the
CPS-based method, replacement needs in 1980 were
relatively larger for nonfarm laborers and smaller for
managerial occupations. The difference in the distribu­
tion reflects the inclusion of persons who transfer to
other occupations or temporarily withdraw from the
labor force: Nonfarm laborers are more likely than man­
agers to transfer to another occupation or stop work­
ing temporarily.
The new data exclude replacement needs due to
deaths because appropriate data are not available. As a
result of this exclusion, the estimated replacement rate
may be 0.5 percent less than the actual. Appendix B
provides additional information about the exclusion of
deaths from the data.

less for 8 of the 12 groups. Appendix A discusses the
reasons for the differences between these sources of
data and describes the methodology for developing es­
timates of employment growth based on OES data.
Replacement needs. The new data on job openings pre­
sented in this bulletin include estimates of the need to
replace individuals who leave an occupation for all rea­
sons except death and emigration. Replacement needs
for persons who transfer to other occupations and those
who stop working temporarily—perhaps to return to
school or to raise a family—are included.2 These esti­
mates provide a better measure of total replacement
needs than those previously published by the Bureau,
which primarily covered permanent labor force sepa­
rations—deaths and retirements—derived from tables
of working life.
Longitudinal data from the CPS have been used to
develop new estimates of replacement needs. The lon­
gitudinal character of the CPS theoretically permits
data to be obtained one year later for 50 percent of the
households in each monthly survey. Thus, by matching
information from the surveys, individuals in these house­
holds can be identified from one year to the next to
obtain information on changes in their labor force status
and occupation.
The matched data have several limitations which are
discussed in appendix B. Briefly, because of response
and coding errors, the CPS matched data significantly
overstate occupational changes among persons em­
ployed in both years. To overcome this weakness, ret­
rospective data from supplementary questions on occu­

3 BLS has developed a new set o f working life tables based on la­
bor force patterns observed in 1977. The tables also use matched CPS
data to measure flows into and out o f the labor force. To facilitate
comparisons with previous BLS data, however, replacement rates
based on working life tables used in preparing Occupational Projec­
tions and Training data, 1980 Edition (BLS Bulletin 2052) were uti­
lized in table 2. For information about the new working life tables
see Shirley J. Smith, “New Worklife Estimates Reflect Changing
Profile of Labor Force,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1982, pp.
15-20.

2 An occupational transfer is defined as movement between any of
the detailed, 3-digit occupations from the 1970 Census o f Population
Classified Index o f Industries and Occupations (Bureau o f the Census,
1971).

Table 2. Comparison of replacement needs based on the Current Population Survey and the working life table,
1980
(In thousands)
Replacement needs

Distribution of replacement needs

Occupational group
CPS ’

Working life table 2

CPS 1

Working life table 2

Total ..............................................................................

19,809

3,778

100.0

100.0

Professional and technical workers ................................
Managers and administrators, except farm .....................
Sales workers...................................................................
Clerical workers ................................................................
Craft and kindred workers...............................................
Nontransport operatives ..................................................
Transport equipment operatives......................................
Nonfarm laborers..............................................................
Farmers and farm managers ...........................................
Farm laborers and supervisors........................................
Service workers, except private household....................
Private household workers..............................................

1,828
1,081
1,592
4,071
1,749
2,227
599
1,781
135
334
3,996
392

497
353
261
960
340
303
83
155
107
49
668
65

9.2
5.5
8.0
20.6
8.8
11.3
3.0
9.0
.7
1.7
20.2
2.0

12.9
9.2
6.8
25.0
8.9
7.9
2.2
4.0
2.8
1.3
17.4
1.7

1 Replacement needs were calculated by applying CPS-based
replacement rates used in Occupational Projections and Training Data,
1982 Edition, to 1980 OES survey-based employment data.

2 Replacement needs were calculated by applying working life table
rates used in Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1980 Edition,
to 1980 OES survey-based employment data.

3

Individuals who move to another area and who must
be replaced create additional replacement needs. How­
ever, since the Bureau focuses on the employment out­
look for the Nation as a whole, replacement needs re­
sulting from geographic movements within the Nation
are excluded from the analysis. Replacement needs due
to emigration are insignificant and are also excluded.

To assess the future supply-demand relationship, pro­
jected data about physicians were examined. Openings
for physicians during 1980-90 are estimated to average
17,500 annually. Since the number of U.S. and foreign
medical school graduates—the only source of supply
of new physicians—is expected to number 19,G O
O21,000, a surplus of physicians is indicated. Evidence
of oversupply in some areas of the country is already
evident, and supply-demand imbalances may intensify.

Assessing the competition for jobs
To assess the degree of competition for jobs, infor­
mation is needed about both demand and supply. In
addition to providing more comprehensive information
on demand, or job openings, as explained in the pre­
vious section, the new data available from the CPS pro­
vide a great deal of information on the characteristics
of workers entering occupations. By using these and
other data, some assessments can be made of the ex­
pected competition for jobs in many occupations. Such
conclusions require detailed analyses; simple compari­
sons of data on job openings and information on new
graduates of training programs do not suffice. Follow­
ing are three illustrations using the newly developed
data. The first—for physicians—is an example of an oc­
cupation for which quantitative data on supply are
readily available and fairly complete. The second and
third—registered nurses and food counter workers—are
examples of occupations for which quantitative data on
supply are limited; they illustrate how qualitative as­
sessments of expected competition can be developed.
Chapter 4 presents similar supply-demand information
for 55 occupations.

Registered nurses. As in the case of physicians, analysis
of the supply-demand relationship for nurses begins with
a review of the flow of workers into and out of the
occupation during the course of a year. During 1980,
approximately 130,000 job opportunities existed: 10,000
due to employment growth, 30,000 due to the need to
replace nurses transferring to other occupations, and
90,000 due to the need to replace nurses who stopped
working. Persons age 25-34 who left the labor force
and assumed household responsibilities accounted for a
significantly large group.
An initial review of supply data indicates that ap­
proximately 70,000 of the individuals who completed
nursing training programs in 1980 entered the profes­
sion that year. These data indicate, therefore, that many
more opportunities exist each year than are filled by
new graduates of nursing schools. The newly devel­
oped data about occupational movements help put into
perspective the importance of the large reserve pool of
licensed but inactive nurses who comprise an additional
source of supply.
Review of the CPS-based data on movements into
professional nursing indicates that about 35,000 entrants
had been employed in another occupation a year ear­
lier, and 95,000 had not been working. The data also
indicate that 45,000 persons age 25 or older had been
out of the labor force a year earlier due to household
responsibilities. This latter group probably does not in­
clude many recent graduates. Thus the picture emerges
that nurses generally do not discard their training by
transferring to employment in other occupations but do
temporarily leave jobs because of family responsibilities
and, when convenient, return to the profession.
Projected data for 1980-90 indicate that the total num­
ber of job openings for nurses is expected to increase
while no increase in the number of nursing graduates
is anticipated. With no increase in the output of nurs­
ing schools, new nursing graduates would constitute
only 40 percent of the required supply compared to an
estimated 50 percent in 1980. It can be concluded, there­
fore, that opportunities for new graduates will proba­
bly be better because (1) more opportunities should exist
and (2) employers generally prefer new graduates be­
cause their training is more recent and their salary re­
quirements are usually lower than for experienced
nurses. Similarly, opportunities for trained nurses not
presently employed would, on the average, be better

Physicians. Analysis of the supply-demand relationship
for physicians is facilitated by licensure requirements
and unusually accurate recordkeeping. Moreover, the
proportion of newly licensed physicians who actually
enter the profession is close to 100 percent, far higher
than in most occupations. The supply consists primarily
of recent graduates of U.S. or foreign medical schools;
only a small number of jobs are filled by licensed phy­
sicians who had previously left the civilian labor force
temporarily because of military service, disability, or
household responsibilities.
The newly developed data show that less than 2 per­
cent of physicians left the occupation in 1980-81. This
corroborates available information about their labor
force behavior and is consistent with unpublished data
on separations collected by the American Medical
Association.
Estimated openings in 1980 were compared with data
from the Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) on gradu­
ates of U.S. and foreign medical schools. BHP supply
data for 1980 indicate an increase of about 18,000 in the
total number of physicians, consisting of graduates of
both U.S. and foreign medical schools. This estimate
roughly coincides with the estimate of annual openings
derived from CPS data.
4

because of the increased number of opportunities. In­
deed, employers may have to increase salaries in order
to attract additional qualified nurses. While it is not
possible to characterize the situation as a shortage, train­
ing program planners may decide to increase the num­
ber of nurses in training programs if they consider it
desirable to maintain or increase the proportion new
graduates comprise of total supply.

son in 5 transferred from another occupation. The
largest single group obtaining employment consisted of
persons age 16-19 with a high school education or less.
Only 15 percent of all openings were for full-time jobs.
Over the 1980-90 period, 270,000 annual job open­
ings are projected for food counter workers—20,000
due to increased employment and 250,000 due to re­
placement needs. Despite the fact that all training for
this occupation occurs on the job, information about
the supply-demand relationship derived from the CPS
data should be of interest to persons seeking informa­
tion about part-time jobs, and to corporate planners.
For example, young persons who had not been work­
ing are the major source of supply of new food counter
workers. In the face of increased demand, employment
prospects for this and other demographic groups should
improve. However, the potential supply of persons age
16-19 is expected to decline through the 1980’s. With
demand increasing and the potential supply decreasing,
employment prospects for young persons are especially
good, and additional incentives such as an increase in
wages may be necessary to lure a larger proportion of
this age group into the labor market. This may not be
possible, and corporate planners may have to consider
hiring other groups of workers to fill their needs.

Food counter workers. This occupation, in which em­
ployees are trained on the job, provides a final example
of how analysis of CPS-based data about movements
into and out of an occupation can provide insights into
the supply-demand relationship.
In 1980, about 220,000 job openings were
filled—about 40,000 openings were due to employment
growth and 180,000 to replacement needs. Replacement
needs were exceptionally large for this occupation be­
cause almost 50 percent of all employees left the occu­
pation during the year—half of them transferred to
other occupations and half stopped working. Of those
who stopped working, by far the largest group were
persons with a high school education or less who left
the labor force to attend school.
Information about persons obtaining jobs as food
counter workers during 1980 indicated that only 1 per­

5

Chapter 2.
Tomorrow’s Jobs

This chapter provides an overview of expected trends
in the economy and of job openings over the 1980-90
period. It also assesses the outlook for college graduates.

of the population will directly affect the types of goods
and services demanded. For example, as the number of
young people declines, the need for some education services
will fall. When greater numbers of people from the baby
boom establish families, they will require more housing
and goods such as appliances.
Shifts in the age structure of the population also will
affect the composition of the labor force. These effects
are discussed in a later section.

Population
Changes in population are among the basic factors that
will affect employment opportunities in the future. The
demand for workers in any occupation depends ultimately
on the goods and services sought by the public. Changes in
the size and characteristics of the population influence the
amount and types of goods and services demanded. Changes
in population also affect the size and characteristics of the
labor force— people who work or are available to workthe
which in turn can influence the amount of competition for
jobs in an occupation. Three population factors that will
affect future employment opportunities are population
growth, shifts in the age structure of the population, and
movement of the population within the country.

Regional differences. National trends in population may
not be the same as changes in a particular region or locality.
A nation as large as the United States is bound to vary from
one place to another in rate of population growth. For ex­
ample, between 1970 and 1980, the population of the
Northeast and North Central regions increased by 0.2 per­
cent and 4.0 percent, respectively, compared with 20.0
percent in the South and 23.9 percent in the West. These
differences in population growth reflect the movement
of people to find new jobs, to retire, or for some other
reason.
Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for
and supply of workers in local job markets. In areas with a
growing population, for example, demand for services
such as police and fire protection, water, and sanitation
will increase. At the same time, in some occupations more
people looking for work in those areas could increase
competition. Individuals investigating future employment
opportunities in an occupation should remember that local
conditions could differ greatly from national projections.
Sources of information about local job market conditions
can be found in appendix E.

Population growth. The population of the United States
has increased throughout the century. However, the rate of
growth (the size of the annual increases) was declining
until the post-World War II “baby boomX'which lasted
until the late 1950’s. Since the 1960’s, the rate of growth
has riecljned again_______________ _____________ ___ "" X
/ f n 1980, the population was 226.5 million. It is ex­
pected to increase by about 0.9 percent a year during the
1980’s, slightly faster than during the 1970’s. Continued
growth will mean more people to provide with goods and
services, causing greater demand for workers in many
industries. The effects of population growth on employ­
ment in various occupations will differ. These differences
are accounted for in part by the age distribution of the"
future population.

Labor force
The size and characteristics of the labor force determine
the number and type of people competing for jobs. In
addition, because workers are a vital part of the production
process, the size of the labor force affects the amount of
goods and services that can be produced. Growth, altera­
tions in the age structure, and rising educational levels are
among the labor force changes that will affect employment
opportunities through the 1980’s.

Age strirrture. Because uf the “Uaby~b6om,” the propor­
tion of people age 14 to 24 was high in the 1970’s. Through
the 1980’s, as these young adults become older, the propor­
tion of the population between the ages of 25 and 44 will
swell. By 1990, nearly one-third of the population will
be in this age group compared to 24 percent in 1970. As
a result of the relatively low number of births during the
1960’s and early 1970’s, the number of people between the
ages of 14 and 24 will decline in the coming decade. The
number of people 65 andover will growTbut more “slowly
than in recent years. These changes in the age structure

Growth. The civilian labor force consists of people with
jobs and people looking for jobs. Through the late 1960’s
and the 1970’s, the number of people in the labor force
6

ever, declined because these occupations did not expand
rapidly enough to absorb the growing supply of graduates.
As a result, 1 out of 5 college graduates who entered the
labor market between 1970 and 1980 took jobs not usually
considered by graduates to be appropriate to their educa­
tion and abilities. The proportion of graduates in clerical,
lower level sales, and blue-collar occupations grew. The
outlook for college graduates is discussed in detail in a
later section.

grew tremendously because many people bom during the
baby boom entered the job market, and women increas­
ingly sought jobs. In 1980, the civilian labor force totaled
about 105 million persons— percent of the noninstitu63
tional population 16 years of age and over.
The labor force will continue to grow during the 1980’s
but at a slower rate than in recent years. By 1990, the size
of the labor force is expected to range from 122 to 128
million persons— projected increase of 17 to 22 percent
a
over the 1980 level. Contributing to this anticipated growth
will be the expansion of the working age population and
the continued rise in the proportion of women who work.
The labor force will grow more slowly between 1985 and
1990 than in the early 1980’s. This slowdown will result
from a drop in the number of young people of working
age despite continued growth in the participation rate of
women. A larger labor force will mean more people looking
for jobs. However, because of shifts in the age structure,
the employment outlook for many individuals will improve.

Employment growth
The previous sections discussed trends in the population
and the labor force—
two factors that affect employment
opportunities. Other factors include the policies of the
Federal Government, the rate of inflation, and the availabil­
ity of energy. Changes in these and related factors affect
the amount and type of goods and services that will be
demanded in the future. If the demand for an industry’s
output increases in the future, more workers generally
will be hired to increase production, and employment
in the industry will grow. Growth in an occupation is
closely related to the growth rates of industries in which
the occupation is found. For example, growth in the
construction industry would result in an increase in em­
ployment of blue-collar workers, as would growth in
mining, manufacturing, or transportation—
industries that
also employ a high proportion of blue-collar workers.
Likewise, growth in finance, insurance, and real estate
would result in an increase in demand for white-collar
workers.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared three sets
of projections of employment in industries and occupa­
tions. Referred to as the low-trend, high-trend I, and hightrend II alternatives or scenarios, the projections are based
on different assumptions concerning growth of the labor
force, unemployment, output, productivity, and other
factors. The low-trend projection assumes a decline in the
rate of labor force growth, moderately high employment
levels throughout the decade, continued high inflation,
and modest increases in production and productivity. The
two high-trend scenarios are more optimistic, assuming a
slowdown of inflation and lower unemployment rates
than the low-trend scenario. The high-trend I scenario
assumes a faster growth of the labor force but slower
growth of productivity than the high-trend II scenario.
A more detailed discussion of the assumptions and methods
used to develop the three sets of projections can be found
in appendix A.

Age structure. As a result of the baby boom, a large number
of young people entered the labor force during the 1970’s,
increasing competition for many entry level jobs. As the
number of people between 16 and 24 drops, there will be
fewer first-time entrants into the labor force, and competi­
tion for entry level jobs should ease. The proportion of 25to 54-year-olds in the labor force will swell as people born
during the baby boom get older. The whole economy should
benefit from this change because workers in this age group
generally have work experience and are, therefore, more
productive and less likely to be unemployed.

Education. Employers always wish to hire the best qualified
persons available at the offered wage. This does not mean
that they always choose those applicants who have the
most education. However, the higher educational attain­
ment of the labor force as a whole could increase competi­
tion in many occupations. Many technical, craft, and office
occupations now require postsecondary vocational educa­
tion or apprenticeship, because employers prefer to hire
trained applicants rather than provide training. Thus, high
school dropouts are likely to be at a serious disadvantage
when seeking jobs that offer better pay or advancement.
Traditionally, a college education has been viewed as a
gateway to better pay, higher status, and more challenging
work. As college education has become more widespread,
the proportion of workers in the labor force who have
completed at least 4 years of college has risen from 8 per­
cent in 1952 to 19 percent in 1980. Recent experience
has shown, however, that the traditional view of a college
degree as a guarantee of success has not been matched by
reality. Between 1970 and 1980, employment of college
graduates grew 84 percent. The proportion employed in
professional, technical, and managerial occupations, how­

Growth in industries. Over two-thirds of the Nation’s
workers currently are employed in service-producing
industries—
transportation, communications, and public
utilities; finance, insurance, and real estate; wholesale and
retail trade; services; and government. Goods-producing
7

be expected to grow as the health services industry ex­
pands. The demand for systems analysts and program­
mers to further develop and utilize computer resources
is projected to grow rapidly. Some occupations in this
group will offer less favorable job prospects. For exam­
ple, employment of secondary and college and universi­
ty faculty is expected to decrease somewhat as a result of
declining school enrollments. Other jobs, such as lawyer
or architect, are expected to grow substantially but will
be very competitive because they attract many ap­
plicants.
Managers and administrators include workers such as
bank officers and managers, buyers, credit managers, and
self-employed business operators. Between 1980 and 1990,
this group is expected to grow from 9.4 million to between
10.6 and 11.3 million, or by 13 to 21 percent. Changes in
business size and organizational structure have resulted in
differing trends for self-employed and salaried managers.
The number of self-employed business managers will
continue to decline as large corporations and chain opera­
tions increasingly dominate many areas of business. Some
small businesses, such as quick-service groceries and fastfood restaurants, still will provide opportunities for selfemployment, however. The demand for salaried managers
will continue to grow as firms increasingly depend on
trained management specialists, particularly in highly
technical areas of operation.
Clerical workers constitute the largest occupational
group and include bank tellers, bookkeepers and accounting
clerks, cashiers, secretaries, and typists. Between 1980 and
1990, employment in these occupations is expected to
grow from 18.9 million to between 22.4 and 23.9 million
workers, or by 19 to 27 percent. Although new develop­
ments in computers, office machines, and dictating equip­
ment will enable clerical workers to do more work in less
time and will change the skills needed in some jobs, con­
tinued growth in employment is expected in most clerical
occupations. Exceptions are keypunch operators, stenogra­
phers, and airline reservation and ticket agents—
occupations
in which employment is expected to decline or change very
little as improved technology reduces the need for workers.
Conversely, the more extensive use of computers will greatly
increase the employment of computer and peripheral
equipment operators.
Sales workers are employed primarily by retail stores,
manufacturing and wholesale firms, insurance companies,
and real estate agencies. Employment in this group is ex­
pected to grow from 6.8 million to between 8.1 and 8.8
million workers, or by 19 to 28 percent. Much of this
growth will be due to expansion in the retail trade industry,
which employs nearly one-half of these workers. The de­
mand for both full- and part-time sales workers in retail
trade is expected to increase as a growing population and
changes in its geographic distribution require new shopping
centers and stores. Despite the use of laborsaving merchan­
dising techniques such as computerized checkout counters,

industries—
agriculture, mining, construction, and manufac­
turing-employ less than one-third o f the country’s work
force. Service-producing industries are projected to employ
an even greater proportion o f the work force through the

1980’s.4
Among the specific sectors, services will continue to
grow fastest and will provide the most new jobs. Gains are
expected to be greatest in the industries that provide health
care services—
hospitals, nursing homes, medical laborato­
ries, therapists’ offices, nurses’ services, and doctors’ and
dentists’ offices. Auto repair firms and establishments that
provide a variety of business and professional services such
as personnel supply and computer and data processing also
should experience faster than average rates of growth.
Trade, currently the largest industry sector, will rank
second in new job formation. Wholesale trade is projected
to grow about as fast as the average for all industries;
eating and drinking establishments are expected to ex­
perience faster than average employment gains.
Manufacturing employment grew relatively slowly in the
1970’s but a faster rate of growth is expected during the
1980’s, primarily because of anticipated strong demand for
durable goods such as computers and peripheral equipment
as well as other high-technology items, including optical
equipment, typewriters and other office equipment, radio
and communication equipment, and scientific and control­
ling instruments. In nondurable goods industries, falling
demand or rapid productivity growth are likely to dampen
employment growth.
Public sector growth will slow, reflecting, in large part,
a projected decline in education expenditures.
Growth in occupations. Growth rates among the major
occupational groups have differed markedly since 1960.
White-collar workers now represent about half of the total
labor force, up from 43 percent in 1960. The number of
service workers also has risen rapidly, while the blue-collar
work force has grown only slowly and farm workers have
declined. The following section describes expected changes
among the broad occupational groups between 1980 and
1990. Appendix C provides information by detailed oc­
cupation.
Professional and technical workers include many highly
trained workers such as scientists and engineers, medical
practitioners, teachers, entertainers, pilots, and ac­
countants. Between 1980 and 1990, employment is ex­
pected to grow from 16.4 million to between 19.7 and
20.7 million workers, or by 20 to 26 percent. Greater ef­
forts in energy development and industrial production
will contribute to a growing demand for scientists,
engineers, and technicians. The medical professions can

4 For a detailed discussion o f employment trends and projections in
industries, see Economic Projections to 1990, BLS Bulletin 2121,
March 1982.

8

other private household workers should rise as more women
work outside the home and personal incomes rise, fewer
people are expected to seek these jobs because of the low
wages, lack of advancement opportunities, and low social
status associated with the work.
Service workers include a wide range of workers—
firefighters, janitors, cosmetologists, and bartenders
are a few examples. These workers, most of whom are
employed in service-producing industries, make up the
fastest growing occupational group. Factors expected to
increase the need for these workers are the rising de­
mand for health services as the population becomes
older and—as incomes rise—more frequent use of
restaurants, beauty salons, and leisure services. Between
1980 and 1990, employment of service workers is ex­
pected to increase by about 24 to 32 percent, from 14.6
million to between 18.1 and 19.2 million workers.
Farm workers include farmers and farm managers as well
as farm laborers. Employment of these workers has de­
clined for decades as farm productivity has increased as a
result of fewer but larger farms, the use of more efficient
machinery, and the development of new feeds, fertilizers,
and pesticides. Between 1980 and 1990, the number of
farm workers is expected to decline from 2.7 million to
between 2.4 and 2.2 million workers, or by between 10 and
18 percent.

more stores and longer operating hours will cause employ­
ment to increase.
Craft workers include a wide variety of highly skilled
workers, such as carpenters, tool-and-die makers, instru­
ment makers, all-round machinists, electricians, and auto­
mobile mechanics. Between 1980 and 1990, employment
in this group is expected to increase from 12.4 million to
between 14.6 and 15.8 million, or by 18 to 27 percent.
Employment in many craft occupations is tied to trends in
a particular industry. Employment in nearly all construc­
tion trades, for example, is expected to grow because of
high demand for residential construction and business in­
vestment in new plants. In contrast, the long-run employ­
ment decline in the railroad industry will lessen the demand
for some craft occupations concentrated in that industry,
such as railroad and car shop repairers. Because of advances
in printing technology, very little growth is anticipated in
the printing crafts.
Operatives, except transport, include production work­
ers such as assemblers, production painters, and welders.
Between 1980 and 1990, employment is expected to rise
from 10.7 million to between 12.2 and 13.2 million work­
ers, or by 14 to 23 percent. Employment of operatives is
tied closely to the production of goods, because the major­
ity of these workers are employed in manufacturing indus­
tries. The projected slow growth of some manufacturing
industries, along with improved production processes, will
hold down the demand for many of these workers. Em­
ployment of textile operatives, for example, is expected
to decline as more machinery is used in the textile industry.
Transport operatives include workers who drive buses,
trucks, taxis, and forklifts, as well as parking attendants
and sailors. Employment in most of these occupations will
increase because of greater use of most types of transporta­
tion equipment. Some occupations, such as bus driver and
sailor, will grow only slowly. Between 1980 and 1990,
employment of transport operatives is expected to rise
from 3.5 million to between 4.2 and 4.4 million workers,
or by 18 to 26 percent.
Laborers include such workers as garbage collectors, con­
struction laborers, and freight and stock handlers. Em­
ployment in this group is expected to grow slowly as ma­
chinery increasingly replaces manual labor. Power-driven
equipment, such as forklift trucks, cranes, and hoists will
handle more material in factories, loading docks, and
warehouses. Other machines will do excavating, ditch
digging, and similar work. Between 1980 and 1990,
employment of laborers is expected to increase from 5.9
million to between 6.7 and 7.1 million workers or by 14
to 22 percent^
Private household service workers include housekeepers,
child care workers, and maids and servants. In contrast
to the rapid employment growth expected for other ser­
vice occupations, the number of private household workers
is projected to remain about the same as in 1980 when em­
ployment was 988,000. Although demand for maids and

Total job openings
The total number of job openings expected in future
years is the sum of openings resulting from employment
growth and those arising from replacement needs (table 3).
As discussed in chapter 1, the Bureau’s earlier estimates of
replacement needs, which accounted for roughly 2 out of
3 openings, included only openings due to deaths and
retirements. These estimates understated replacement needs
because they excluded openings that are created as workers
leave the labor force temporarily to return to school and
for other personal reasons. They also excluded openings
created as workers change occupations. After several years
of research, the Bureau has developed estimates that take
account of these factors.
Under this expanded definition, the Bureau estimates
that replacement needs account for about 9 out of 10 job
openings. Thus, it is apparent that even occupations in
which employment is expected to increase slowly or
decline—
laborers and private household service workers,
for example—
offer many job opportunities. (For a compari­
son of estimates of replacement needs under the old and
new methods, see table 2, chapter 1.)
Replacement needs vary among occupations. These
variations reflect differences in the average age of workers
in the occupation, the earnings and status associated with
the job, and the level of required training. Retail trade sales
workers, for example, leave their jobs more readily than
physicians do, and more easily find a similar or better occu­
pation. Physicians have few occupations of equal status and
9

Table 3. Projected average annual job openings, based on low-trend and high-trend I alternative projections,1 by major
occupational group, 1980-90
(In thousands)
Total openings

Employment change

Replacement needs

Occupational group
High

Low

High

Low

Total, all occupations......................................................

23,248

24,884

1,748

2,580

21,500

22,304

Professional and technical w orkers.........................................
Managers and administrators......................................................
Clerical workers............................................................................
Sales w o rk e rs ...............................................................................
Craft w o rk e rs ...............................................................................
Operatives, except transport......................................................

2,337
1,272
4,810
1,872
2,124
2,527

2,503
1,395
5,121
2,013
2,327
2,734

327
121
355
129
220
147

433
199
505
194
339
249

2,010
1,151
4,454
1,743
1,904
2,380

2,070
1,196
4,616
1,819
1,988
2,486

Transport operatives..................................................................
Laborers........................................................................................
Private household service workers............................................
Service workers, except private household............................
Farmers and farm managers.....................................................
Farm supervisors and laborers..................................................

715
1,985
390
4,842
124
300

766
2,105
393
5,107
129
316

63
81
M )
356
(-2 5 )
(-2 4 )

90
128
0
468
(-1 3 )
(-1 3 )

653
1,904
390
4,486
124
300

676
1,977
393
4,639
129
316

Low

1See appendix A for explanation of alternative projections.

High

NOTE: When employment is projected to decline, openings
arise only from replacement needs.

pay to which they could transfer. They also have invested
a great deal of time and money in preparing for their
careers. As a result, the replacement rate is much higher for
retail trade sales workers than for physicians.
Outlook for college graduates
Growth in the demand for college graduates is primarily
the result of growth of those occupations that require a
substantial proportion of workers with college degrees,
such as professional and technical occupations. In addition,
many college graduates enter such occupations each year to
replace workers who retire or leave the labor force to return
to school or take on family responsibilities.
Educational upgrading is another source of growth in
demand for college graduates. This occurs when the amount
of education required to enter an occupation increases over
time as the work and the skills required to perform it
become more complex and employers begin to seek college
graduates to fill jobs not requiring a degree in the past.
During the 1970’s, most of the educational upgrading
occurred in managerial and nonretail sales jobs.
Not all educational upgrading reflects changes in skill
requirements, however. It may also simply reflect the
tendency of employers to hire the most qualified people
available. As the number of available graduates increases,
employers raise their hiring standards and are still able to
hire all the workers they need. At the same time, graduates
faced with a tighter job market may lower their standards
for what they consider appropriate employment.
The demand for college graduates in the 1980’s was
projected by analyzing trends in both occupational employ­
ment and educational upgrading within occupations.
Alternative low and high projections of total occupational
employment were developed as part of BLS’s projections
program, as explained in appendix A.
Based on trends in the proportion of workers with 4 or
more years of college in the major occupational groups,
10

ratios were projected reflecting the proportion of jobs in
each group that could be expected to require a college
degree. Projected requirements for college graduates were
obtained by applying these projected ratios to the projec­
tions of total occupational employment (table 4).
During the 1970’s, employment in professional and
technical, managerial, and nonretail sales jobs—
occupations
generally requiring substantial proportions of workers with
a degree—
increased 40 percent, compared to about 28 per­
cent growth for all workers. Between 1980 and 1990,
employment in these occupations is projected to grow more
slowly. They are expected to increase between 18 and 25
percent, depending on varying assumptions about growth
in the economy, about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions in the 1980’s.
Educational upgrading was projected to occur in profes­
sional and technical, managerial and administrative, and
nonretail sales occupations, continuing the trend toward
greater complexity and skill requirements of many of these
jobs, as well as employers’ responses to a greater supply.
A constant, but small, proportion of the jobs in other occu­
pations were projected to require a college degree.
Table 4. Percent of workers in selected occupational catego­
ries with 4 years of college or more, selected years 1959-80
and projected 1990 requirements
Actual

Projected

Occupational group
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1990

All occupations . .

10.0

12.0

13.2

16.8

19.1

16.9

Professional and
technical workers . .

56.1

58.8

59.8

63.8

64.0

69.3

Managers and
administrators,
except f a r m .............

13.1

17.7

20.1

28.7

33.4

42.0

Nonretail sales
workers......................

18.8

20.3

24.1

31.1

34.1

41.0

Other occupations . .

2.1

2.3

2.2

4.1

5.6

.9

of college graduates estimated at 3.8 million was already in
the labor force, either employed in jobs that did not require
their level of education or unemployed. Of course, many of
these have since begun satisfying careers in occupations that
do not require 4 years of college education. Others, how­
ever, can be expected to compete for jobs that more fully
utilize their education. The job market will be more com­
petitive to the extent that this pool of underemployed
1970’s entrants competes along with 1980’s entrants for
job openings requiring a college degree.
Like college graduates in the 1970’s, future college
graduates cannot be assured that they will find jobs in the
occupations of their choice. Many may experience periods
of unemployment, have to relocate to other areas of the
country, or job-hop before finding one that satisfies them.
As in the 1970’s, some may have to compete with non­
graduates for the more desirable jobs not previously filled
by graduates, but in many cases, their additional education
will prove to be an advantage. Even though a college degree
may not be required, many employers prefer to hire the
best educated candidate who is qualified for a job. In many
cases, a college graduate will also have an advantage in
gaining promotion in non-college careers over those without
degrees. Many graduates who are forced to start work in
jobs for which they are overqualified nevertheless may gain
useful experience that will be an advantage in competing
later for more challenging jobs. Graduates who make a wise
career choice and who are best prepared to enter the job
market should make a smooth transition from school to
work. Those who are not will end up scrambling for the
best available jobs. Most graduates, however, will probably
find a job and few should face sustained unemployment.

College graduates entering the labor force during the
1980’s are expected to encounter job market conditions
very similar to those faced by entrants of the 1970’s. About
15 million college graduates are projected to enter the
labor force—
about 60 percent are expected to be new
graduates. Most of the remainder are expected to be re­
entrants—
college-educated workers who left the labor
force to raise a family, to pursue graduate education, or
for other reasons.
Depending on the amount of economic growth realized
by the economy as a whole and employment growth in
college-graduate-dominated occupations in particular, be­
tween 12 and 13 million graduates are projected to be
required during the 1980’s.
About 67 percent of the graduates are expected to be
required in professional and technical occupations and 28
percent in managerial, administrative, and sales occupa­
tions. The majority will be needed to replace college
graduates who are expected to retire or leave the labor
force for other reasons over the period.
A surplus of between 2 and 3 million college graduates
is expected to enter the labor force during the 1980’s. If
the economy grows as slowly as it did during the 1970’s,
the surplus would be the higher figure, an average annual
surplus of about 300,000 college graduates—
about 1
graduate in 5, just as in the 1970’s. If the economy grows
more rapidly than it did in the 1970’s, the average surplus
would be about 200,000 college graduates—
about 1 in
7—
each year.
Even with more rapid growth, however, the job market
experienced by college graduates in the 1980’s is unlikely
to be more favorable than in the 1970’s. In 1980, a surplus

11

Chapter 3.
Occupational Movements, 1980-81

This chapter provides an overview of occupational
dynamics over a 1-year period—1980-81. Data are pre­
sented on the demand for new workers—the number
of job openings arising from employment growth and
replacement needs. The latter source of demand is ex­
amined in detail to identify the characteristics of per­
sons leaving occupations. The characteristics of indi­
viduals who obtained employment during 1980 also are
examined to identify (1) their previous employment
status, (2) the occupations offering the most opportuni­
ties for individuals with different levels of education,
and (3) the occupations providing the most opportuni­
ties for part-time employment.
While the discussion in this chapter is based on Cur­
rent Population Survey (CPS) data, rather than the Oc­
cupational Employment Statistics (OES) survey-based
data that appear in chapters 2 and 4, not all of the in­
formation comes from the same CPS survey. For ex­
ample, information on opportunities due to employment
change comes from CPS annual average data since these
are the most accurate. However, replacement needs are
estimated using information about occupational separa­
tions developed by merging matched CPS data about
changes in labor force status with January 1980-81 CPS
data about occupational transfers. (The methodology
for and limitations of this new data base are discussed

in appendix B.) Besides providing occupational replace­
ment estimates, the merged data are used to examine
occupational separations by age, sex, and several other
characteristics. Finally, supply-related data come from
supplemental questions asked in the January 1981 CPS.
While the January 1981 CPS information on training
program completions is not as accurate as that presented
in appendix D, they are presented here because they
are consistent with the demand data and identify dif­
ferences in employment patterns for new graduates and
experienced workers with the same education.
Although the 1980-81 CPS data on demand and sup­
ply do not come from the same survey, they nonethe­
less provide a unique glimpse of labor market dynamics
over a 1-year period. However, these data only provide
information about 1980-81. Additional work remains to
determine how movements into, out of, and between
occupations vary with economic conditions.

Job Openings
Employment opportunities for workers not previ­
ously employed in an occupation depend on changes in
total employment and the need to replace employees
who leave the occupation. As shown in table 5, a total
o f about 19 m illion job op en ings occurred during 1980.

Table 5. Job openings, 1980-81
(In thousands)
Annual average
employment 1

Job openings

Occupational group
1980

1981

Total

97,270

98,313

19,386

15,613
10,919
6,172
18,105
12,529
10,346
3,468
4,456
1,485
1,218
11,917
1,041

16,055
11,315
6,291
18,187
12,397
10,316
3,411
4,469
1,477
1,235
12,136
1,024

2,183
1,658
1,560
3,989
1,574
2,022
544
1,487
135
363
3,490
413

1 Current Population Survey.
2 Information about declines in employment is presented in
parentheses for information only. In these cases, replacement needs are
the sole source of openings. See appendix B.

Employment
change 2

Replacement
needs 3

1,043

18,343

442
396
119
82
(-132)
(-30)
(-57)
13
(-8)
17
219
(-17)

1,741
1,262
1,441
3,907
1,574
2,022
544
1,474
135
346
3,271
413

3 Calculated by applying 1980 replacement rates based on merged
CPS data to 1980 CPS employment data. See appendix B for information
about merged CPS data.

12

Table 6 lists the occupations that had 100,000 or more
job openings. How these openings arose is discussed
below.

his or her occupation during 1980. Of these, 45 percent
transferred to another occupation; 17 percent became
unemployed; and 38 percent left the labor force.5

Employment change
Total employment increased 1 percent during 1980
and provided 1 million new jobs (table 5). This increase
was smaller than in most recent years because of un­
favorable economic conditions. Professional occupa­
tions registered the greatest employment gain, followed
closely by managerial occupations. Even though total
employment increased, craft workers and operatives
registered declines, reflecting reduced activity in the
construction and manufacturing sectors. Employment
of farmers and private household workers also declined,
a continuation of a long-term trend.

Occupational patterns. Separation rates varied signifi­
cantly among the major occupational groups (table 7).
Professional workers and managers had the lowest to­
tal separation rates while private household workers
had the highest. Workers in occupations that generally
require the most education and training and have a high
proportion of men who work full time—professional
occupations such as physicians, dentists, lawyers, and
engineers—had both very low labor force separation
rates and very low transfer rates. Occupations that re­
quire relatively little education or training—such as ga­
rage workers, gas station attendants, gardeners, cash­
iers, cooks, and waiters and waitresses—generally had
both high labor force separation rates and high transfer
rates.

Replacement needs
While the number of job openings created by in­
creases in employment during 1980 was reduced by un­
favorable economic conditions, replacement needs cre­
ated many job opportunities and accounted for about
95 percent of all openings. Replacement needs were
greatest for clerical workers, the largest major occupa­
tional group (table 5).
Replacement needs occur when employed individuals
transfer to other occupations or stop working. Table 7
indicates that 1 out of every 5 employed persons left

5It may seem inappropriate to include movements into unemploy­
ment as a source o f replacement needs since individuals who leave
an occupation and become unemployed are not replaced. However,
even though a job is not created when a person becomes unemployed,
openings due to movement into unemployment nonetheless are a
component o f employment growth not captured by changes in em­
ployment levels. This concept is discussed in more detail in appendix
B.

Table 6. Ranking of occupations by job openings, January 1980-81
Job openings
Occupation '

Job openings
Occupation '

Number

Percent of
total

Sales clerks, retail trade....................................
Managers and administrators, n e c....................
Cashiers..............................................................
Secretaries, n e c..................................................
Waiters and waitresses .....................................
Cooks, except private household......................
Stockhandlers....................................................
Janitors and sextons..........................................
Bookkeepers ......................................................
Miscellaneous clerical workers..........................

757,750
711,793
617,973
599,216
465,628
437,341
358,393
333,309
304,789
299,940

4.0
3.8
3.3
3.2
2.5
2.3
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.6

Blue collar worker supervisors, n e c ..................
Bank tellers ........................................................
Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers................
Guards ................................................................
Packers and wrappers, except meat and
produce .............................................................
File clerks...........................................................
Garage workers and gas station attendants ....
Dining room attendants .....................................
Accountants .......................................................

167,243
163,231
161,777
157,362

.9
.9
.9
.8

149,433
145,437
142,084
141,796
140,108

.8
.8
.8
.8
.7

Nursing aides and orderlies..............................
Child care workers, private household.............
Building interior cleaners, nec ...........................
Typists.................................................................
Truck drivers ......................................................
Machine operatives, miscellaneous specified ...
Assemblers.........................................................
Construction laborers, except carpenter
helpers...............................................................
Carpenters..........................................................
Farm laborers, wage workers............................

284,332
277,525
259,528
250,276
245,377
239,385
238,317

1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3

Registered nurses ..............................................
Stock clerks, storekeepers................................
Heavy equipment mechanics, including diesel ..
Sales representive, wholesale trade.................

137,545
136,765
129,989
129,663

.7
.7
.7
.7

129,295
123,925

.7
.7

232,273
223,865
220,697

1.2
1.2
1.2

Elementary school teachers ..............................
Sewers and stitchers .........................................
Checkers and examiners, except
manufacturing....................................................
Dishwashers.......................................................
Secondary school teachers ..............................

122,685
122,598
121,968

.7
.7
.7

215,773
202,306
196,016
194,134

1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0

191,982
177,340
173,840

1.0
.9
.9

Not specified clerical workers............................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ...
Delivery and route drivers.................................
Computer, peripheral equipment operators......
Estimators and investigators, n e c .....................
Counter clerks, except fo o d ..............................
Welders and flame cutters................................
Sales workers, retail trade, except clerks........

120,725
112,516
112,433
107,990
107,586
106,382
102,409
100,042

.6
.6
.6
.6
.6
.6
.5
.5

Freight, material handlers..................................
Miscellaneous operatives..................................
Child care workers, except private household ..
Receptionists .....................................................
Food service workers nec, except private
household .........................................................
Food counter, fountain workers ........................
Automobile mechanics....................................... 1

Number

1 1970 Census of Population 3-digit occupational title.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

nec = not elsewhere classified.

13

Percent of
total

Table 7. Occupational separation rates, 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separation rates, 1980-81
Occupational group

Employed,
1980

Total

Occupational
transfers

Not working
Total

Unemployed

Not in the
labor force

Total .................................................................................................

100.0

20.0

8.9

11.1

3.4

7.7

Professional and technical workers..................................................
Managers and administrators, except farm ......................................
Sales workers ....................................................................................
Clerical workers..................................................................................
Craft and kindred workers.................................................................
Nontransport operatives....................................................................
Transport equipment operatives........................................................
Nonfarm laborers................................................................................
Farmers and farm managers .............................................................
Farm laborers and supervisors..........................................................
Service workers, except private household......................................
Private household workers................................................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

11.2
11.6
23.4
21.6
16.0
24.0
19.4
33.1
12.4
28.4
27.5
39.6

5.2
5.9
11.0
10.5
7.2
9.7
9.2
13.8
2.1
7.5
10.7
3.0

6.0
5.7
12.4
11.1
8.9
14.4
10.3
19.3
10.2
20.9
16.8
36.7

1.2
1.5
2.6
2.4
4.3
7.1
5.2
8.2
.4
3.5
3.9
4.1

4.8
4.1
9.8
8.7
4.5
7.3
5.1
11.1
9.9
17.4
12.8
32.6

SOURCE: Merged data. See appendix B.

Although labor force separation rates were higher
for women than for men in every age group, a U-shaped
pattern was evident for both sexes—a high rate for
young workers, lower rates for workers in the middle
age groups, and rising rates as workers approach re­
tirement age.
The U-shaped pattern is much more exaggerated for
men than for women. Persons age 16-24 and 55 or older
accounted for over 80 percent of all male labor force
separations compared with only 50 percent of all fe­
male labor force separations. This difference in the pat­
tern occurs because men are much less likely than
women to leave the labor force during their prime
working ages.

However, in some occupational groups, there were
significant differences between the rates of labor force
separation and transfer. For example, although private
household workers were the most likely among the oc­
cupational groups to leave the labor force, they were
among the least likely to transfer to another occupa­
tion. Similarly, nonfarm laborers were the most likely
to become unemployed but not the most likely to leave
the labor force. Many laborers are hired for seasonal
or short-term jobs that last only a few weeks or months.
When the job ends, individuals seek other employment
but incur delays in finding it.
Occupations that have a large proportion of women
frequently have low transfer rates and high labor sepa­
ration rates. For example, relatively few registered
nurses transferred to other occupations during 1980;
they tended to leave the labor force altogether rather
than change occupations.

Education. Individuals with greater investment in edu­
cation and training would be expected to have lower
occupational separation rates than workers with less
education or training. The data in table 9 show that
occupational separation rates did decline with increased
education. However, transfer rates were only slightly
lower for college graduates than for persons with a
high school education or less. The proportion of per­
sons becoming unemployed, on the other hand, declined
steadily with increased education. College graduates
had a rate less than one-third that for persons with a
high school education or less. Labor force separations
also declined steadily with education, from 9 to 4
percent.
At all levels of education, men had lower labor force
separation rates than women—reflecting the weaker at­
tachment of women to the labor force because of house­
hold responsibilities. Transfer rates, however, were re­
markably similar for men and women.

Age and sex. The total separation rate in 1980 for both
men and women declined through the 45-54 age group
and then increased (table 8). However, the transfer rate
declined continuously, from 22 percent for the young­
est men to 1 percent for the oldest. Transfer rates were
about the same for men and women within each age
group.
Younger workers are more likely to shop for a job
that they consider more rewarding. In addition, many
younger workers take jobs in occupations temporarily
as a way to advance to better paying occupations. Con­
versely, older workers are more inhibited in changing
occupations because of factors such as seniority, restric­
tive hiring plans, and personal investment in experience,
training, and capital.
The proportion of persons who became unemployed
declined consistently with age for both men and women.

Full- or part-time status. Persons employed part time
generally have a weaker attachment to their occupa14

Table 8. Occupational separation rates by age and sex, 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separation rates, 1980-81
Not working
Age and sex

All employed persons:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 16-19:
T ota l..................................................
M ale ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 20-24:
T ota l..................................................
M ale ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 25-29:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 30-34:
T ota l..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 35-44:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female ...........................................
Age 45-54:
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 55-64:
T o ta l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Age 65 and over:
T o ta l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................

Employed,
1980

Total

Not in the labor force

Occupa­
tional
transfers

Total

Unem­
ployed

Total

Household
responsibili­
ties

Going to
school

Other,
including
retired

100.0
100.0
100.0

20.0
17.3
23.7

8.9
8.5
9.4

11.1
8.7
14.3

3.4
3.7
3.0

7.7
5.1
11.3

3.3
.1
7.8

1.5
1.3
1.7

2.9
3.7
1.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

48.3
47.7
48.9

22.2
22.0
22.5

26.1
25.8
26.5

8.0
9.2
6.6

18.1
16.6
19.9

1.2
.1
2.6

13.1
12.4
13.9

3.8
4.1
3.4

100.0
100.0
100.0

32.1
30.1
34.3

17.0
17.3
16.5

15.1
12.8
17.8

6.2
7.3
4.8

8.9
5.5
13.0

3.8
.1
8.1

3.2
3.2
3.3

1.95
2.2
1.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

21.0
17.3
25.8

10.9
10.9
11.0

10.0
6.5
14.8

4.2
4.8
3.3

5.8
1.7
11.4

4.2
.1
9.7

.6
.6
.7

1.0
1.0
1.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

16.4
12.8
21.6

9.0
8.7
9.4

7.4
4.2
12.2

3.0
3.1
2.7

4.5
1.0
9.5

3.4
.0
8.2

.2
.1
.4

.9
.9
.9

100.0
100.0
100.0

12.8
9.8
16.1

6.3
6.0
6.0

6.5
3.8
10.1

2.5
2.6
2.3

4.0
1.2
7.8

2.9
.1
6.7

.2
.1
.3

.9
1.0
.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

10.6
7.9
14.4

3.9
3.5
4.4

6.7
4.5
10.0

2.3
2.5
2.1

4.4
2.0
7.9

2.7
.1
6.5

.1
.0
.1

1.7
1.9
1.3

100.0
100.0
100.0

15.0
14.0
16.6

2.3
2.5
2.0

12.7
11.6
14.6

1.8
2.0
1.6

10.9
9.6
13.0

3.7
.1
9.3

.0
.0
.0

7.2
9.4
3.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

29.1
28.2
30.6

1.1
.9
1.4

28.0
27.4
29.2

1.0
1.0
1.2

27.0
26.4
28.0

7.4
.3
19.5

.0
.0
.0

19.5
26.0
8.5

SOURCE: Merged data. See appendix B.

tion than full-time workers. While no data on transfers
are available separately for full-time and part-time
workers, table 10 shows that part-time workers were
slightly more likely to becom e unemployed than full­
time workers.

ing in 1980-81, a period of relatively slow growth. In
examining similar data for 1977-78, a period of rapid
growth, some differences in the patterns of movement
are evident. For example, operatives and laborers are
less likely to change their occupation in periods of re­
duced employment growth and are more likely to be­
come unemployed. However, other workers, such as
professional and sales workers, are much less affected
by fluctuations in economic activity. As shown in table
11, they changed occupations or become unemployed
in about the same proportions in 1980-81, when the
economy slowed, as they did in 1977-78, when it was
growing rapidly. While there is much to be learned
about how occupational movements vary under differ­
ent economic conditions, the underlying patterns of oc­
cupational transfers and labor force separations dis­
cussed in earlier sections do not appear to vary signifi­
cantly when economic conditions change.

A striking feature of the data is the tremendous dif­
ference in the labor force separation rates between parttime and full-time employees—21 percent for part-time
employees compared with 5 percent for full-time em­
ployees. Much of this difference may be explained by
the fact that younger workers, who have a weak at­
tachment to the labor force, constitute a disproportion­
ately large proportion of the part-time work force. Many
younger workers take part-time jobs on a temporary
basis and then leave the labor force to further their
education or training.
Cyclical patterns. The occupational movements dis­
cussed above reflect the economic conditions prevail­
15

Table 9. Occupational separation rates by level of education and sex, 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separation rates, 1980-81
Not working
Level of education and sex

All employed persons:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
High school graduate or less:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Some college education:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
College graduate:
T o ta l..................................................
M ale ..................................................
Female..............................................

Employed,
1980

Total

Not in the labor force

Occupa­
tional
transfers

Total

Unem­
ployed

Total

Household
responsibili­
ties

Going to
school

Other,
including
retired

100.0
100.0
100.0

20.0
17.3
23.7

8.9
8.5
9.4

11.1
8.7
14.3

3.4
3.7
3.0

7.7
5.5
11.3

3.3
.1
7.8

1.5
1.3
1.7

2.9
3.7
1.8

100.0
100.0
100.0

21.8
19.5
24.7

8.8
8.6
9.0

13.0
10.9
15.7

4.2
4.7
3.4

8.8
6.2
12.3

3.8
.1
8.6

1.6
1.4
1.8

3.5
4.7
2.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

20.8
17.7
25.0

10.8
10.1
11.6

10.0
7.6
13.3

2.8
3.1
2.5

7.2
4.5
10.8

2.8
.1
6.6

2.2
1.9
2.5

1.2
2.6
1.7

100.0
100.0
100.0

12.8
10.1
17.6

7.6
7.1
8.5

5.2
3.1
9.1

1.1
1.0
1.3

4.1
2.1
7.8

2.0
.0
5.6

.5
.4
.8

1.6
1.6
1.4

SOURCE: Merged data. See appendix B.

tered a professional or technical job compared to 3 per­
cent of those with only a high school education or less.
Most professional occupations, of course, generally re­
quire postsecondary training. Clerical and service
workers, except private household workers—occupa­
tions requiring less training than professional occupa­
tions—provided 43 percent of all jobs for persons with
a high school education or less. About 1 out of 5 col­
lege graduates obtaining jobs entered a clerical or serv­
ice job.
Table 13 also indicates that recent college graduates
exhibit a greater propensity to enter professional occu­
pations than do all new employees having a college de­
gree. Likewise, recent high school graduates are more
apt to enter the clerical and service (except private
household) occupations than all new employees having
the same or less education. Both these patterns are to
be expected. In the case of college graduates, individuals
would be expected to begin work in an occupation for
which they have acquired specialized training. Only 11
percent of recent college graduates obtained manage­
rial or administrative jobs. The comparable proportion
for all college graduates was 16 percent.
The value of work experience for persons with a high
school education or less is also supported by the data.
For example, the proportions of recent graduates with
a high school education obtaining employment in mana­
gerial occupations was one-third that for all newly em­
ployed persons with a high school or less education.
When they complete high school, individuals do not
possess the skills required by managerial occupations
but acquire them later.

New Employees
The following overview of data from the January
1981 CPS provides supply-related information about
new employees: It describes the characteristics of indi­
viduals who had been working in a different occupa­
tion or who had not been working in January 1980.
Previous work status. The previous work status of per­
sons obtaining employment in 1980-81 differed signifi­
cantly by occup ation (table 12). For example, 70 per­
cent of all new managerial employees during 1980 trans­
ferred from other occupations—indicating that previous
employment was an advantage in getting a managerial
job. Obtaining specialized work experience and on-thejob training is frequently a prerequisite to assuming
managerial responsibilities within an organization. On
the other hand, the proportion of workers who trans­
ferred into farm and service worker occupations was
less than the proportion who had not been working—in­
dicating that previous employment was not a prerequi­
site for employment in many of these jobs.
Education. CPS data on training possessed by new
employees are limited to years of school completed.
Although they do not provide information on degrees
held or field of training, they provide some information
of interest for vocational guidance and planning train­
ing programs.
The occupational distribution of the workers obtain­
ing employment 1980-81 varied considerably by educa­
tion level. Table 13 shows that 46 percent of all new
employees during 1980 who had a college degree en­
16

Table 10. Occupational separation rates by full- or part-time status and sex, 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separation rates, 1980-81
Not working
Full- or part-time status and sex

All employed persons:
T ota l..................................................
Male ..................................................
Female..............................................
Full-time:
T ota l..................................................
M a le ..................................................
Female..............................................
Part-time:
T otal..................................................
M ale ..................................................
Female..............................................

Employed,
1980

Not in the labor force

Occupa­
tional
transfers

Total

100.0
100.0
100.0

-

-

-

3.2
3.5
2.8

4.8
3.3
7.6

2.1
.1
5.6

.5
.4
.6

2.3
2.8
1.4

25.3
28.0
24.0

-

2.9
3.7
1.8

8.0
6.7
10.4

-

-

1.5
1.3
1.7

4.2
5.9
3.4

21.1
22.1
20.6

9.1
.2
13.2

6.2
9.8
4.6

5.7
12.1
2.8

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

3.3
.1
7.8

-

-

Other,
including
retired

7.7
5.1
11.3

-

100.0
100.0
100.0

Going to
school

3.4
3.7
3.0

-

-

Household
responsibili­
ties

Total

11.1
8.7
14.3

-

-

Total

Unem­
ployed

“

- Data not available.

SOURCE: Merged data. See appendix B.

Table 11. Comparison of occupational separation rates in 1977-78 and 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separation rates
Occupational group

Professional and technical workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Managers and administrators, except farm:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Sales workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Clerical workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Craft and kindred workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Nontransport operatives:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Transport equipment operatives:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Nonfarm laborers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Farmers and farm managers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Farm laborers and supervisors:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Service workers, except private household:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Private household workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................

Employed,
base year

Not working
Total

Occupa­
tional transfers

Total

Unemployed

Not in the labor
force

100.0
100.0

12.3
11.2

5.8
5.2

6.5
6.9

1.2
1.2

5.3
4.8

100.0
100.0

12.1
11.6

6.3
5.9

5.8
5.7

1.2
1.5

4.6
4.1

100.0
100.0

23.4
23.4

11.6
11.0

11.8
12.4

2.4
2.6

9.4
9.8

100.0
100.0

21.4
21.6

10.6
10.5

10 8
11.1

23
2.4

8.5
8.7

100.0
100.0

13.9
16.0

7.0
7.2

6.9
8.9

2.5
4.3

44
4.5

100.0
100.0

22.7
24.0

11.8
9.7

10.9
14.4

3.9
7.1

70
7.3

100.0
100.0

18.9
19.4

11.2
9.2

7.7
10.3

28
5.2

50
5.1

100.0
100.0

31.8
33.1

16.4
13.8

15.4
19.3

5.5
8.2

9.9
11.1

100.0
100.0

13.1
12.4

3.0
2.1

10.1
10.2

.2
4

99
99

100.0
100.0

32.9
28.4

11.4
7.5

21.5
20.9

2.8
3.5

18 7
174

100.0
100.0

28.0
27.5

11.7
10.7

16.3
16.8

3.6
3.9

12.7
12.8

100.0
100.0

40.1
39.6

4.5
3.0

35.6
36.7

4.7
4.1

30 9
32.6

SOURCE: Merged data. See appendix B. The same methodology was used for both periods.

17

Table 12. Previous employment status of persons obtaining employment, January 1980*81
(Percent)
Previously employed in
Previously not working
different occupation

Age 15

Occupational group

Total

T otal...............................................................................

100.0

44.8

48.3

6.9

Professional and technical workers ................................
Managers and administrators, except farm .....................
Sales workers...................................................................
Clerical workers ...............................................................
Craft and kindred workers...............................................
Nontransport operatives ..................................................
Transport equipment operatives......................................
Nonfarm laborers.............................................................
Farmers and farm managers ...........................................
Farm laborers and supervisors........................................
Service workers, except private household....................
Private household workers..............................................

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

50.7
70.5
42.7
45.4
57.2
47.4
52.1
41.5
23.3
23.5
31.8
14.5

48.1
29.3
47.6
50.8
40.9
49.1
45.2
44.6
74.5
51.2
54.8
62.6

1.2
.1
9.7
3.8
1.8
3.5
2.7
13.9
2.3
25.3
13.5
23.0

SOURCE: Current Population Survey, January 1981.

Information about occupations offering the most op­
portunities for high school and college graduates in
1980-81 is presented in tables 14 and 15. Table 14 lists
the occupations that provided 50,000 or more openings
for persons with a high school education or less. Table
15 lists those that provided 15,000 or more jobs for col­
lege graduates. Information about the education and
training possessed by persons entering specific occupa­
tions is presented in chapter 4.

service workers, except private household; and private
household workers—48, 56, and 72 percent, respec­
tively—were high.
As table 17 shows, part-time employment opportuni­
ties were greatest for service workers, except private
household. This group accounted for 30 percent of parttime job openings but only 18 percent of all openings
filled during 1980.
Occupations that employ a large number of part-time
workers—such as the food service occupations—fre­
quently require little or no training but do provide work
experience that may be helpful in obtaining employ­
ment in other occupations. Table 18 lists the occupa­
tions that provided 20,000 or more part-time jobs dur­
ing 1980-81. Altogether, these 63 occupations accounted
for 4 out of 5 part-time job openings. The top seven on
the list—retail trade sales clerk, cashier, waiter and
waitress, cook, stockhandler, private household child
care worker, and janitor—alone provided one-third of
all part-time openings.

Hours o f work. In discussing the demand for new em­
ployees, the high labor force separation rate of parttime workers was cited as a significant source of re­
placement needs. Table 16 shows that one-third of all
persons obtaining jobs in 1980 were working part time
in January 1981 although the proportion varied by ma­
jor occupational group. For example, the proportions
of part-time employment among new employees in the
managerial, craft, and nontransport operative
groups—13, 13, and 15 percent, respectively—were
quite low. In contrast, the proportions for sales workers;

Table 13. Persons obtaining employment by level of education, 1980-81
(Percent)
High school graduate or less
Occupational group

Total

College graduate

Total

Completed
training in 1980

Total

Completed
training in 1980

T ota l.....................................................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Professional and technical workers ......................................
Managers and administrators, except farm ..........................
Sales workers.........................................................................
Clerical workers .....................................................................
Craft and kindred workers.....................................................
Nontransport operatives ........................................................
Transport equipment operatives...........................................
Nonfarm laborers...................................................................
Farmers and farm managers.................................................
Farm laborers and supervisors.............................................
Service workers, except private household .........................
Private household workers....................................................

11.5
7.4
7.8
21.7
8.9
11.9
2.8
6.9
.4
1.4
18.2
2.0

3.3
5.1
7.0
21.4
10.1
14.5
3.4
8.6
.5
1.8
21.7
2.6

3.1
1.7
6.5
29.5
8.6
13.9
2.9
8.6
.2
1.1
22.5
1.6

46.5
15.5
9.1
14.5
3.4
2.8
.8
1.4
.3
.2
5.2
.3

60.2
10.6
6.1
11.2
1.8
1.9
.4
1.2
.2
.0
6.5
.0

SOURCE: Current Population Survey, January 1981.

18

Table 14. Ranking of occupations by job openings for persons with a high school education or less, January 1980-81
Job openings
Occupation 1

Job openings

Percent who
graduated in
1980

Occupation 1

Number

Sales clerks, retail trade....................................
Cashiers..............................................................
Secretaries, n e c.................................................
Cooks, except private household......................
Waiters and waitresses .....................................
Managers and administrators, n e c....................
Stockhandlers ....................................................
Janitors and sextons..........................................
Child care workers, private household.............
Building interior cleaners, nec ..........................

541,781
520,607
383,843
370,684
356,982
338,258
309,645
283,712
242,045
228,960

9.9
14.5
10.0
9.1
4.2
2.2
8.4
8.5
5.6
4.6

Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers................
Blue collar worker supervisors, n e c ..................
Bank te lle rs........................................................
Heavy equipment mechanics, including diesel..
Checkers and examiners, except
manufacturing....................................................
Welders and flame cutters.................................
Guards ................................................................
Stock clerks, storekeepers.................................
Delivery and route drivers..................................

106,141
100,170
100,033
98,469

1.6
.0
10.4
10.2

97,284
95,280
90,651
89,630
86,398

6.5
5.9
7.3
7.5
13.5

Nursing aides and orderlies..............................
Machine operatives, miscellaneous specified ...
Truck drivers ......................................................
Assemblers.........................................................
Bookkeepers ......................................................
Farm laborers, wage workers...........................
Construction laborers, except carpenter
helpers...............................................................
Miscellaneous clerical workers..........................
Freight, material handlers..................................
Miscellaneous operatives..................................

224,467
209,837
208,968
206,110
201,851
194,826

9.1
10.7
3.5
9.4
13.4
5.1

188,818
187,340
186,715
179,290

8.5
10.8
4.0
10.0

Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ...
Hairdressers and cosmetologists......................
Nonfarm laborers, not specified........................
Shipping and receiving clerks............................
Servants, private household ..............................
Painters, construction and maintenance...........
Mine operatives, nec..........................................
Not specified clerical workers............................
Counter clerks, except fo o d ...............................
Computer, peripheral equipment operators ......
Health aides, except nursing .............................

79,788
76,839
76,138
72,446
71,905
70,549
68,534
66,529
66,280
65,795
64,995

8.7
13.0
14.1
8.7
2.3
11.0
9.1
3.4
6.2
3.3
8.5

Typists.................................................................
Food service workers, nec, except private
household .........................................................
Carpenters..........................................................
Automobile mechanics.......................................
Child care workers, except private household ..
Food counter and fountain workers..................
Packers and wrappers, except meat and
produce .............................................................
Garage workers and gas station attendants....
Dining room attendants .....................................
Receptionists .....................................................

173,680

8.6

172,444
167,347
150,971
150,649
150,645

13.6
6.7
7.2
6.2
7.7

144,727
127,997
125,922
124,042

4.2
11.5
11.0
6.6

Sales workers, retail trade, except clerks.........
Estimators and investigators, n e c .....................
Farmers (owners and tenants) ..........................
Electricians.........................................................
Telephone operators..........................................
Bartenders..........................................................
Teacher aides, except monitors........................
Newspaper carriers and vendors......................
Lodging cleaners, except private household....
Warehouse laborers, n e c ..................................
Statistical clerks..................................................
Cutting operatives, n e c ......................................

62,631
58,539
55,712
54,390
54,250
54,124
53,685
53,230
52,402
52,185
51,704
51,207

9.1
5.6
3.4
13.1
13.3
3.3
3.8
1.3
11.5
7.7
5.1
3.1

123,897
121,804
- 116,459
114,163

9.5
24.7
2.9
7.9

Excavating machine operators, except
bulldozer..............................................
Vehicle washers, equipment cleaners .

50,753
50,082

.0
10.9

Office machine operators..................................
File clerks...........................................................
Sewers and stitchers .........................................
Dishwashers.......................................................

Number

1 1970 Census of Population 3-digit occupational title.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

nec = not elsewhere classified.

19

Percent wh
graduated i
1980

Table 15. Ranking of occupation by job openings for college graduates, January 1980-81
Job openings
Occupation '
Number

Percent who
graduated in
1980

Managers and administrators, nec ....
Secondary school teachers ............. .
Elementary school teachers ............ .
Accountants.......................................
Sales representives, wholesale trade
Sales clerks, retail trade....................
Bank, financial managers................. .
Registered nurses .............................
Secretaries, n e c.................................
Social workers ...................................

200,123
110,116
109,268
74,586
54,439
46,540
45,463
45,299
45,112
41,806

15.7
46.5
29.2
49.2
9.8
18.1
27.8
40.3
9.1
28.2

Lawyers..............................................
Miscellaneous clerical workers.........
Therapists..........................................
Research workers, not specified......
Personnel, labor relations workers.....
Officials and administrators, public
administration ...................................
Computer programmers.....................
Typists................................................
Bookkeepers ......................................
Real estate agents, brokers..............

40,899
40,641
35,820
34,068
32,988

45.4
17.4
51.6
21.3
29.8

31,867
30,953
27,133
27,078
26,815

14.0
44.4
17.0
7.1
10.8

Waiters and waitresses .....................
Sales representatives, manufacturing
Physicians...........................................
Clergy.................................................
Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers .

26,171
25,205
24,200
24,056
24,040

Job openings

40.7
39.8
65.1
28.7
24.1

Occupation 1
Number

Percent who
graduated in
1980

Preschool, kindergarten teachers .....................
Electrical engineers............................................
Editors and reporters.........................................
Industrial engineers............................................
Economists.........................................................
Blue collar worker supervisors, n e c..................
Estimators and investigators, n e c .....................
Teachers, college and university, not specified
Vocational, educational counselors ..................

23,865
23,089
22,628
22,286
21,612
21,598
20,975
20,632
20,558

15.8
59.0
14.3
7.9
14.4
13.8
24.2
19.3
16.3

School administrators, elementary and
secondary..........................................................
Teacher aides, except monitors........................
Computer systems analysts...............................
Teachers except college and university, nec ....
Receptionists .....................................................
Insurance agents, brokers.................................
Operations and systems analysts.....................
Bank tellers ........................................................
Painters and sculptors.......................................
Stock and bond sales agents............................

20,099
19,801
18,884
18,178
17,935
17,906
17,833
17,784
17,308
16,863

8.3
13.9
31.9
4.1
10.1
9.3
25.6
40.1
29.7
10.2

Engineers, n e c ...................................................
Nursing aides, orderlies.....................................
Guards ................................................................
Librarians......................................................... .
Computer, peripheral equipment operators......

16,608
15,474
15,319
15,292
15,140

10.1
14.6
61.3
13.9
12.5

1 1970 Census Population 3-digit occupational title.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

nec = not elsewhere classified.

Table 16. Persons obtaining employment by full- or part-time

status and occupation, January 1980-81
(Percent)
Total

Occupational group

Full time

Part time

T otal.......................................................

100.0

66.2

33.8

Professional and technical workers ........
Managers and administrators, except
fa rm .........................................................
Sales workers...........................................
Clerical workers .......................................
Craft and kindred workers.......................
Nontransport operatives ..........................
Transport equipment operatives.............
Nonfarm laborers.....................................
Farmers and farm managers...................
Farm laborers and supervisors...............
Service workers, except private
household...............................................
Private household workers......................

100.0

72.7

27.3

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

87.1
51.6
64.5
87.4
84.9
76.5
63.5
66.7
59.8

12.9
48.4
35.5
12.6
15.1
23.5
36.5
33.3
40.2

100.0
100.0

43.9
28.2

56.1
71.8

SOURCE: Current Population Survey, January 1981.

20

Table 17. Persons obtaining full- or part-time employment by
occupation, January 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational group

Total

Full time

Part time

Total.......................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

Professional and technical workers .......
Managers and administrators, except
fa rm .........................................................
Sales workers...........................................
Clerical workers .......................................
Craft and kindred workers.......................
Nontransport operatives ..........................
Transport equipment operatives.............
Nonfarm laborers.....................................
Farmers and farm managers...................
Farm laborers and supervisors...............
Service workers, except private
household...............................................
Private household workers......................

11.5

12.6

9.3

7.4
7.7
21.7
8.9
11.9
2.8
6.9
.4
1.4

9.7
6.0
21.1
11.8
14.4
3.3
6.6
.4
1.2

2.8
11.0
22.7
3.3
5.0
2.0
7.5
.4
1.6

18.2
2.0

12.1
.9

30.2
4.3

SOURCE: Current Population Survey, January 1981.

Table 18. Ranking of occupations by part-time job openings, January 1980-81
Job openings

Job openings
Occupation 1

Occupation 1
Number
Sales clerks, retail trade ........................
Cashiers..................................................
Waiters and waitresses..........................
Cooks, except private household..........
Stockhandlers.........................................
Child care workers, private household ...
Janitors and sextons..............................
Food counter and fountain workers ......
Secretaries, nec .....................................
Building interior cleaners, n e c ...............
Food service workers, nec, except
private household .................................
Child care workers, except private
household ..............................................
Dining room attendants..........................
Miscellaneous clerical workers..............
Nursing aides, orderlies..........................
Dishwashers............................................
Managers and administrators, nec .......
Typists ....................................................
Receptionists ..........................................
Bookkeepers ...........................................
Farm laborers, wage workers................
Garage workers and gas station
attendants..............................................
Servants, private household ..................
Freight, material handlers ......................
Teacher aides, except monitors............
File clerks................................................
Hucksters and peddlers .........................
Elementary school teachers..................
Guards....................................................
Bus drivers ..............................................
Stock clerks, storekeepers ....................
Newspaper carriers and vendors...........
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except
farm .......................................................

452,514
411,287
327,156
275,521
229,927
196,553
167,574
151,390
147,396
138,019

Number

Percent of total
7.1
6.4
5.1
4.3
3.6
3.1
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.2

119,897

83,183

1.3

78,508
63,215
58,891
58,823
57,156
56,281
55,846
53,804
51,359

1.2
1.0
.9
.9
.9
.9
.9
.8
.8

50,952
50,346

.8
.8

44,727

.7

.7

41,223
40,972
39,366
38,463
37,390

.6
.6
.6
.6
.6

36,314

6

36,040
35,560
35,477
35,079
33,719
33,645

.6
.6
.6
.6
.5
.5

33,519
32,387

.5
.5

30,134
29,210

.5
.5

Not specified laborers ............................
Real estate agents, brokers ..................
Demonstrators ........................................
Machine operatives, miscellaneous
specified.................................................
Preschool and kindergarten teachers ....
Delivery and route drivers......................
Estimators and investigators, n e c .........
Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers.....
Farmers (owners and tenants)..............
Sales workers, retail trade, except
clerks.....................................................

1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4

43,835

Carpenters...............................................
Miscellaneous operatives.......................
Health aides, except nursing.................
Library attendants, assistants................
Secondary school teachers ...................
Truck drivers...........................................
Packers and wrappers, except meat
and produce ..........................................
Not specified clerical workers ...............
Sales workers, services and
construction ...........................................
Bartenders...............................................

1.9

109,608
107,296
99,480
96,452
95,346
94,653
94,184
89,331
86,204

Bank tellers.............................................
Construction laborers, except carpenter
helpers ..................................................
Hairdressers and cosmetologists..........
Counter clerks, except food ..................
Registered nurses..................................
Attendants, recreation and amusement .
Teachers, except college and university,
n e c .......................................................

Percent of total

29,040
28,769
27,938

.5
.5
.4

27,728
26,478
25,347
25,310
24,344
23,824

.4
.4
.4
.4
.4
.4

22,898

0.4

21,396

.3

21,293
20,314

.3
.3

Athletes and kindred workers................
Housekeepers, except private
household ..............................................
Recreation workers................................

1 1980 Census of Population 3-digit occupational title.
SOURCE: Current Population Survey.

21

Chapter 4.
Employment Patterns
in Selected Occupations

Chapter 3 discussed occupational movements for
broad categories of workers during 1980-81, based on
CPS data. This chapter draws upon those data to ana­
lyze the outlook through 1990 for 55 occupations se­
lected from those covered in the 1982-83 Occupational
Outlook Handbook. The occupations selected represent
those with 1980 employment of 50,000 or more for
which Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) sur­
vey-based data and CPS employment data are definitionally consistent.
In most cases, employment data presented in this
chapter were derived from the OES survey-based ma­
trix described in appendix A and given in detail in ap­
pendix C. Sources of employment data other than the
OES survey-based matrix are given in footnotes. To
calculate 1980-90 average annual openings due to re­
placement needs, the 1980 CPS occupational replace­
ment rates were applied to the employment level for
the midpoint of the projection period. (See appendix B
for a discussion of replacement rates.)
The reader is reminded that statistics on graduates
or completions of various education and training pro­
grams generally represent only a fraction of the total
nuumber of entrants to most occupations. Therefore,
the data on completions of education programs in ap­
pendix D should not be compared with estimates of to­
tal openings in this chapter to develop estimates of
shortages or surpluses. Such data should only be used
in an analytical context to estimate the number of new
graduates who could fill job openings.
The statements that follow are listed alphabetically
and include occupations from most of the major clus­
ters in the 1980 edition of the Standard Occupational
Classification Manual. Each statement first discusses
education and training requirements, and then discusses
employment patterns indicated by data on the experi­
ence of workers in 1980. Selected training statistics from
appendix D or another source are presented where ap­
propriate. Information is presented on the job outlook
through the 1980’s including projected employment
change and, when data permit, supply and demand.
Following each analysis is a statistical summary show­
ing 1980 estimated employment and the ranges pro­
jected for 1990 employment, percent change over the

1980-90 period, and average annual openings over this
period due to growth and replacement needs.
Accountants and auditors
Training. Most large firms require applicants to have
a bachelor’s degree in accounting; some prefer a mas­
ter’s degree. A growing number of employers prefer
applicants who are familiar with computers and their
applications in accounting and internal auditing. Certi­
fication is extremely valuable for professional recogni­
tion. Training in accounting also is available in junior
and community colleges, business schools, and corre­
spondence schools. Job opportunities, however, for
graduates of these 1- and 2-year programs usually are
limited to small accounting and business firms.
Employment patterns. Job openings for accountants
and auditors are projected to average between 104,000
and 115,000 a year through the 1980’s as a result of
relatively rapid expansion in employment and the need
to replace experienced workers who leave their jobs.
Employment of accountants and auditors is projected
to grow faster than the average for all occupations as
businesses, government agencies, and individuals in­
creasingly rely upon the expertise of accountants to im­
prove budgeting and accounting procedures and to
make financial decisions. Nevertheless, the need to re­
place accountants who retire or leave their jobs for
other reasons is expected to account for about 3 out of
4 openings. Still, replacement needs are a less signifi­
cant source of job openings for accountants than for
most occupations.
During 1980, only about 8 percent of all accountants
and auditors left the occupation, compared with about
11 percent of all professional and technical workers and
20 percent of all workers. Because most accountants
and auditors have invested substantial amounts of time
and money in training, they are less inclined to change
occupations. Of those who left the labor force, a sub­
stantial portion assumed household responsibilities or
retired.
About 60 percent of the job openings for account­
ants in 1980 were filled by persons who had not worked
the previous year. About half had been in school or
22

had household responsibilities; others had been un­
employed. The remaining openings were filled by per­
sons who transferred from other occupations—most
likely accounting students who worked while attend­
ing school and qualified accountants who had pursued
business, managerial, and other careers. Also, some
bookkeepers and accounting clerks advanced to ac­
counting and auditing positions after meeting the expe­
rience and education requirements set by their
employers.
Persons with at least a college degree filled most of
the job openings for accountants and auditors in 1980.
Other openings were filled by graduates of junior col­
leges and business and correspondence schools. Accord­
ing to the National Center for Education Statistics,
about 43,000 bachelor’s and 3,500 master’s degrees were
awarded in accounting during academic year 1979-80.
In addition, nearly 16,000 associate degrees and certifi­
cates in accounting technologies were conferred.
Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

897,000
1,124,000
25.3

1,203,000
34.0

104,000
22,000
82,000

to increase about as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions during the 1980’s. Demand for mechanics is ex­
pected to increase as more homes and commercial and
industrial buildings are constructed and as new en­
ergy-saving heating and air-conditioning systems are
installed in existing homes and buildings. Job openings
are projected to average between 33,000 and 36,000 a
year during the 1980’s due to the increased demand for
these mechanics and the need to replace experienced
workers who stop working or transfer to other occu­
pations. About 9 of every 10 job openings are expected
to result from replacement needs.
About three-fifths of the mechanics who left the oc­
cupation in 1980 stopped working. Of these, just over
one-half became unemployed—reflecting the large pro­
portion of mechanics in the construction industry, where
brief periods of unemployment are common. The re­
mainder left the labor force, in some cases because of
a lack of work.
About two-fifths of those who left the trade in 1980
transferred to other occupations. Many probably trans­
ferred to related trades, such as plumbing and
sheet-metal work.
Of the 24,000 job openings for air-conditioning, heat­
ing, and refrigeration mechanics during 1980, 85 per­
cent were filled by workers who transferred from other
occupations. Most of these entrants probably came from
related occupations, such as plumber or sheet-metal
worker, that provide a useful background in installation
and repair. Some of those who transferred may have
been experienced air-conditioning, heating, and refrig­
eration mechanics who had moved into other occupa­
tions during periods of slack work. Others may have
been sales workers employed by distributors of air-con­
ditioning, heating, and refrigeration equipment. A few
probably were helpers being trained on the job who
moved up the career ladder.
Most of the remaining 15 percent of entrants into the
occupation were experienced mechanics who had been
laid off or had left the labor force because of lack of
work. Some entrants were recent graduates of high
school or postsecondary vocational programs. A few
were older mechanics, many of whom move in and out
of the occupation for several years before retiring, usu­
ally working only part time.

115,000
30,000
85,000

1 Includes accountants and auditors; tax examiners, collectors,
and revenue agents; and an estimate for college accounting teachers
based on data from the Current Population Survey.

Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration
mechanics
Training. Most air-conditioning, heating, and refrig­
eration mechanics learn their skills on the job, and the
type and length of training are determined by the em­
ployer. Apprenticeship programs administered by un­
ions and air-conditioning and heating contractors are a
good source of training. Apprentices receive on-the-job
training in all aspects of the trade and 144 hours of
classroom instruction each year in related subjects, such
as the use and care of tools, safety practices, blueprint
reading, and air-conditioning theory. Apprenticeships
usually last 4 years, although the length varies with the
skill of the apprentice. Applicants for apprenticeships
must have a high school diploma and pass a mechani­
cal aptitude test.
Many mechanics learn basic air-conditioning, heat­
ing, and refrigeration work in vocational programs at
high schools, private vocational schools, and junior col­
leges. Although completion of such a program does not
assure a job, employers may prefer to hire graduates of
these programs, especially those that emphasize
hands-on experience, because graduates require less onthe-job training than persons with no training.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

179.000
215.000
19.7
33,000
3,500
29,500

-

-

-

231,000
28.9
36,000
5,000
31,000

All-round machinists
Training. Machinists learn their skills through training
on the job. An apprenticeship program which combines

Employment patterns. Employment of air-condition­
ing, heating, and refrigeration mechanics is projected
23

classroom and on-the-job training is the best way to
acquire all-round machinist skills. Typical machinist ap­
prenticeship programs consist of approximately 8,000
hours of on-the-job shop training over a 4-year period
and about 570 hours of related classroom instruction.
In the shop, apprentices train under experienced
workers and learn chipping, filing, tapping, dowel fit­
ting, riveting, and the operation of various machine
tools. In the classroom, they study blueprint reading,
mechanical drawing', shop mathematics, and shop
practices.
A high school or vocational school education, in­
cluding mathematics, physics, or machine shop train­
ing, is desirable for entry into an apprenticeship pro­
gram. Some companies require experienced machinists
to take additional courses in mathematics and electronics
at company expense to work with newer metalworking
technologies, such as numerically controlled machine
tools. In addition, equipment builders generally provide
training in the electrical, hydraulic, and mechanical as­
pects of machine-and-control systems.

the ranks of the unemployed and one-fifth had been in
school—a pattern very similar to that for all craft
workers combined.
Persons 20-24 years old filled 45 percent of the open­
ings for all-round machinists. In comparison, persons in
this age group filled only about one-fourth of all open­
ings in craft occupations.
Persons who had a high school education or less filled
almost three-fourths of all openings for machinists in
1980. About one-fourth of the openings were filled by
those with some formal postsecondary education.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

303.000
351.000
15.8
43,000
5,000
38,000

-

-

-

390,000
28.5
49,000
9,000
40,000

1 Includes machinists and layout markers, metal.

Architects

Employment patterns. On average, an estimated 43,00049,000 job openings are projected each year during the
1980’s. Growth in employment is projected to be about
the same as the average for all occupations. The need
to replace machinists who will leave their jobs, how­
ever, is expected to account for 80-90 percent of the
job openings—about the same proportion as in all craft
occupations combined.
During 1980, 12 percent of all machinists left the oc­
cupation. This proportion is somewhat lower than that
for all craft workers—reflecting the considerable
amount of time required to learn this highly skilled oc­
cupation and the high earnings of machinists compared
to those of other skilled workers. Nearly one-half of
the machinists who left their jobs transferred to other
occupations. Some became highly skilled instrument
makers or tool-and-die makers. Of those who left the
machinist trade, 30 percent left the labor force alto­
gether. Like other craft workers, about half were retir­
ees—age 55 and older. About one-fourth of all machin­
ists who left the occupation in 1980 became un­
employed—similar to the pattern for other craft
workers.
Nearly three-fifths of all job openings for all-round
machinists in 1980 were filled by persons who trans­
ferred from other occupations. These included trained
machinists who previously left the occupation to do
other work and persons who acquired machinist skills
in their former job, such as tool-and-die makers. Also
included were semiskilled machine tool operators and
workers in other manual occupations who transferred
into apprenticeship programs. Persons who had not
worked the previous year filled over two-fifths of the
openings for machinists in 1980. About half came from
24

Training. All States and the District of Columbia re­
quire individuals to be licensed before they may call
themselves architects or contract to provide architec­
tural services. Most people qualify for the licensing
exam by obtaining at least a Bachelor of Architecture
degree followed by 3 years of practical experience in
an architect’s office. As a substitute for formal educa­
tion, most States accept additional experience in an ar­
chitect’s office, usually 13 years, and successful com­
pletion of a special qualifying test. Although many ar­
chitecture school graduates work in the field even
though they are not licensed, registered architects are
required to take legal responsibility for all their work.
Graduate education is desirable for those interested
in research and teaching.
Employment patterns. Employment of architects is pro­
jected to rise faster than the average for all workers
during the 1980’s, due to increases in new construction,
especially nonresidential constrution. Job openings
are projected to average between 5,500 and 6,200 a year
due to the increased demand for architects and the need
to replace experienced workers who stop working or
transfer to other occupations. Although replacement
needs are expected to account for about one-half of all
job openings for architects, they should be a much less
significant source of openings than in most other
occupations.
Architects have a very strong attachment to the oc­
cupation, as indicated by data on the experience of
workers in 1980. Only 5 percent of architects left their
jobs in 1980, compared to 11 percent of all professional
and technical workers and 20 percent of all workers.
Of those who left their jobs, one-half left the labor force
entirely. Two-thirds of these retired and the remainder

returned to school, most likely to get a graduate de­
gree. Four of every 10 architects who left their jobs
transferred to a different occupation. This represents
less than 2 percent of all architects in 1980—one-third
the transfer rate for all professional and technical
workers—and reflects the sizable investment of time
and money architects make in training. Of those who
did transfer, most moved to related fields such as land­
scape architecture, interior design, or urban planning,
where they could utilize their specialized skills. About
1 out of every 10 architects who left the occupation
became unemployed, less than one-half the proportion
for all professional workers.
During 1980, about 3,800 people took jobs as archi­
tects. About 86 percent had not been working, a sig­
nificantly higher proportion than for other professional
occupations. Most of these entrants had not been in the
labor force; they were primarily recent college gradu­
ates. This reflects the relatively strict entry requirements
for architects.
The remaining 14 percent of job openings in 1980
were filled by people who transferred from another oc­
cupation, one-third the rate for other professional
workers. Many of these probably had been employed
in another occupation while they pursued a degree in
architecture. Others, who already had a degree in ar­
chitecture, transferred from related occupations such
as urban planner, environmental designer, or landscape
architect. Some may have worked as drafters or in other
occupations in an architect’s office to get the required
experience for the licensing examination. This route of
entry into the occupation is relatively uncommon,
however.
Nearly all available jobs were filled by persons un­
der 35 years of age, a significantly larger proportion of
young entrants than for other professional workers.
Only about 60 percent of entrants worked full time in
1980, compared to 73 percent for other professional
workers. Employment of architects is much more sen­
sitive to swings in economic conditions than employ­
ment in most other professional occupations because
demand is closely tied to the level of new construction
activity. Significant downturns in building activity can
temporarily reduce demand for architects, and some
jobseekers may be unable to find full-time positions.
Architects are expected to face competition for jobs
through the 1980’s. According to the National Center
for Education Statistics, about 6,900 bachelor’s and
master’s degrees were awarded in architecture in
academic year 1979-80. As the supply of graduates con­
tinues to exceed the demand for architects, more
jobseekers may be forced to take jobs closely related to
architecture where their skills will be utilized. In addi­
tion, rising competition is expected to make it more dif­
ficult to become an architect without a degree in
architecture.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

80,000
106,000
32.7
5,500
2,600
2,900

_
-

112,000
41.0

-

6,300
3,300
3,000

Assemblers
Training. Formal training requirements for assemblers
are minimal. A high school diploma is helpful but usu­
ally is not required. Some employers prefer applicants
who have taken vocational school courses such as ma­
chine shop. Mechanical aptitude and an ability to do
routine work at a fast pace are more important than
formal training for most assembly jobs. Good eyesight,
with or without glasses, may be required for assemblers
who work with small parts. Those who assemble elec­
trical or electronic components with different colored
wires must have good color vision.
Employment patterns. Employment of assemblers is
projected to grow at least as fast as the average for all
occupations throughout the 1980’s as manufacturing
plants respond to increased demand for consumer goods
and for the industrial machinery and equipment needed
in an expanding economy. Opportunities are not ex­
pected to be equally favorable throughout the economy,
however, nor are they expected to be uniform through­
out the period. The job outlook for assemblers will vary
with the fortunes of the industries in which they are
employed and, during economic downturns, they may
face layoffs.
Among the largest of all occupations, assembly work
provides an unusually large number of job openings.
During the 1980’s, openings created by replacement
needs and growth in employment are projected to av­
erage between 365,000 and 400,000 a year. Most open­
ings are expected to be due to replacement needs.
Nearly all assemblers work in manufacturing plants
that produce durable goods. During economic down­
turns such as that of 1980, demand for durable goods
declines and output is reduced. In these periods, and
also when plants are shut for product changes or re­
tooling, assemblers are laid off. About one-third of all
those who left the occupation in 1980 became un­
employed. Those seeking their first assembly job may
therefore be competing with a large pool of experienced
assemblers. In 1980, the proportion of assemblers hired
from the ranks of the unemployed was twice that for
all occupations.
Many assembly jobs are being lost to automation as
machine or robot assembly systems are introduced on
production lines for products such as washing machines
and automobiles. The extent to which automation will
displace assemblers—but create jobs for technicians and
25

repairers to build, program, and maintain the new ro­
bots—is a topic of controversy. Certainly not all assem­
blers can efficiently be replaced by automation. Robots
are expensive and require a large volume of work to
justify their purchase. They may not be economical in
small operations with perhaps only one shift per day.
Also, where the assembly parts involved are small or
irregular in size, robot technology is only now begin­
ning to make inroads. The effect of automation on as­
sembler employment through the 1980’s is expected to
differ among manufacturing industries depending on
how rapidly and extensively the technology can be
adopted. Opportunities probably will vary geographi­
cally. Areas of industrial growth such as the Sunbelt
States are expected to provide the best prospects.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

1,670,000
1,989,000
19.2

2,183,000
30.9

364,000
32,000
332,000

401,000
51,000
350,000

Automobile body repairers
Training. Most automobile body repairers learn the
trade on the job. They usually start as helpers and pick
up skills from experienced workers. Helpers begin by
assisting body repairers in tasks such as removing dam­
aged parts and installing repaired parts. They learn to
remove small dents and to make other minor repairs.
They then progress to more difficult tasks such as
straightening frames. Generally, 3 to 4 years of on-thejob training are needed to become skilled in all aspects
of body repair. Most training authorities recommend a
3- or 4-year formal apprenticeship program as the best
way to learn the trade, but relatively few of these pro­
grams are available. Apprentices spend most of their
time learning on the job, but they also attend classes in
related subjects such as mathematics, job safety proce­
dures, and business management.

Only about 12 percent of all automobile body re­
pairers left the occupation during 1980, a much lower
proportion than for other workers. Six of every 10
workers who left the occupation became unemployed.
Most of these had worked for car and truck dealerships
that either went out of business or reduced the size of
their service departments because of the dramatic de­
cline in new car and truck sales during 1980. About 3
of 10 workers who left the occupation dropped out of
the labor force. Relatively few transferred to other
occupations.
Of those persons who took jobs as auto body repairers
in 1980, three-fourths transferred from other occupa­
tions; the remainder had been unemployed or out of
the labor force. About 8 percent of all entrants to the
occupation were only 16 years of age. Most of these
worked part time while they were in high school. In
contrast, almost all job entrants over the age of 16 took
full-time jobs.
Because auto body repair is learned on the job, few
entrants to this occupation complete any training be­
yond high school. Eighty-five percent of all entrants in ,
1980 had a high school diploma or less education, a
significantly higher proportion than for other craft
workers. All those entering the occupation with
postsecondary training in 1980 transferred from other
occupations.
Employment, 1980 ...................... r
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

153.000
189.000
23.1
25,000
4,000
21,000

-

-

-

201,000
30.8
27,000
5,000
22,000

Automobile mechanics
Training. Most people prepare for a career as an auto­
mobile mechanic by acquiring experience in related
lesser skilled occupations such as gasoline station atten­
dant, lubrication worker, or mechanic’s helper where
they have the opportunity to observe and work with
experienced mechanics. Many supplement this experi­
ence by taking automobile repair courses in high
schools, trade and vocational schools, community and
junior colleges, and the Job Corps. About 100,000 per­
sons completed education programs in automobile me­
chanics from these combined sources in 1979-80. How­
ever, not all planned to become automobile mechanics.
Some people pursued an interest in automobile me­
chanics simply as a hobby; some planned to become
truck and bus mechanics, automotive body repairers,
or automobile repair service estimators. Many training
authorities believe apprenticeship provides the most
thorough preparation for a career in automobile me­
chanics. However, fewer than 1,500 persons completed
formal registered apprenticeship programs in auto­
mobile mechanics in 1979.

Employment patterns. Employment of automobile
body repairers is projected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations through the 1980’s as
the number of motor vehicles damaged in traffic grows.
Accidents are expected to increase as the number of
motor vehicles increases, although better highways,
driver training courses, and improved bumpers and
safety features on new vehicles may slow the rate of
increase.
Job openings are projected to average between 25,000
and 27,000 a year during the 1980’s due to the increased
demand for automobile body repairers and the need to
replace experienced workers who stop working or trans­
fer to other occupations. Replacement needs are ex­
pected to account for about 85 percent of all openings,
less than for other craft workers.
26

Employers generally prefer to hire high school gradu­
ates with manual dexterity, mechanical aptitude, and
thorough knowledge of automotive systems. Ability to
reliably perform at least the simpler automobile service
and repair tasks quickly and efficiently and to under­
stand technical repair manuals, parts catalogs, and serv­
ice orders is essential. Training acquired in the Armed
Forces is very useful.

G r o w t h ...............................................
R e p la c e m e n t ....................................

Nearly 6 out of 10 job openings for mechanics in
1980 were filled by persons who were not working the
previous year. About 44 percent of these individuals
had been unemployed—somewhat less than the propor­
tion for all craft workers and for all mechanics and re­
pairers. A higher than average proportion—33 per­
cent—of those not working had been in school the year
before, reflecting the attractiveness of automobile me­
chanic careers to younger workers, as well as the wide­
spread availability of vocational training in this field.
About 4 out of 10 entrants into the occupation in 1980
transferred from other fields of work—about the aver­
age for all occupations.

Employment patterns. Between 55,000 and 58,000 job
openings for bank officers and managers are projected
annually through the 1980’s due to faster than average
employment growth and the need to replace experi­
enced bank officers who transfer to other jobs or stop
working. Expanded banking services and the increased
dependence on computers should increase the need for
bank officers and managers to provide sound manage­
ment. Greater international trade and investment should
create new opportunities in both international and do­
mestic banking activities. While replacement needs are
expected to account for 4 out of 5 jobs, they are a less
significant source of job openings than for all managers
or for all occupations combined.
Like other managers, bank officers and managers have
a relatively strong attachment to their occupation. D ur­
ing 1980, less than 10 percent of bank officers and man­
agers left the occupation, compared to 20 percent for
all occupations. Over half of those who left transferred
to other jobs—most likely to closely related positions
in other areas of finance or to positions within other
industries that need individuals with banking experi­
ence. Over one-quarter left the labor force alto­
gether—mostly to retire or assume household duties.

Automobile mechanic jobs generally do not require
education beyond high school. Of those who entered
the occupation in 1980, 87 percent had a high school
education or less. Most of those who got jobs as auto­
mobile mechanics, however, did not enter directly from
school. Slightly more than half of those who found
work as automobile mechanics in 1980 were under 25
years of age. In comparison, less than 40 percent of all
individuals entering craft jobs were under 25 years of
age.
-

1,120,000
32.9

146,800

-

27,800
131,000

Training. Bank officer and management positions are
filled by management trainees, and by the promotion
of outstanding bank clerks or tellers. College gradua­
tion usually is required for management trainees. A
business administration major in finance or a liberal arts
curriculum, including accounting, economics, commer­
cial law, political science, and statistics, serves as excel­
lent preparation for officer trainee positions. A Master
of Business Administration (MBA) in addition to a so­
cial science bachelor’s degree, which some employers
prefer, may provide an even stronger educational foun­
dation. However, the larger banks do hire people with
diverse backgrounds such as chemical engineering, nu­
clear physics, and forestry to meet the needs of the
complex, high-technology industries with which they
deal. Students can gain valuable experience through
summer or part-time employment programs.
Advancement of a bank clerk or teller to an officer
or management position may come slowly in small banks
where the number of positions is limited. In large banks
that have special training programs, promotion may oc­
cur more quickly. For a senior officer position, how­
ever, an employee usually needs many years of experi­
ence. Advancement may be accelerated by special study
through courses offered by local colleges and univer­
sities and the American Bankers Association.

In 1980, 17 percent of all automobile mechanics left
their jobs—roughly the same proportion as for other
craft workers. Of these, 52 percent transferred to other
occupations, 26 percent became unemployed, and 22
percent left the labor force. Two-fifths of the mechanics
who left the labor force were persons 55 and older who
presumably retired.

845,000
1,050,000
24.4

-

Bank officers and managers

Employment patterns. Job opportunities for automobile
mechanics are expected to be good throughout the
1980’s due to the large number of openings that will
occur and the absence of rigid entry requirements. Job
openings for mechanics are projected to average be­
tween 147,000 and 159,000 annually during the 1980’s.
Employment of mechanics is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupations as the number
of motor vehicles in operation increases. Replacements,
however, are expected to be the main source of jobs,
accounting for 6 out of every 7 openings during the
decade.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 .....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................

2 0 ,6 0 0
126,200

158,800

27

at a rate faster than the average for all occupations as
banks expand services. Nevertheless, the need to re­
place experienced tellers who transfer to other jobs or
stop working is expected to account for 9 out of 10 job
openings—about the same proportion as for all clerical
occupations combined.
During 1980, 21 percent of bank tellers left the oc­
cupation, about the same proportion as for all clerical
occupations. About two-thirds transferred to other jobs.
This job may serve as a stepping stone to bank officer
and manager positions. Outstanding tellers who have
had some college or specialized training offered by the
banking industry, such as courses offered by the Ameri­
can Bankers Association, are particularly attractive can­
didates for promotion. Other tellers probably transfer
to clerical positions in other industries, such as manu­
facturing or wholesale trade, that pay higher salaries
than banks.
Over one-quarter of all bank tellers who left the oc­
cupation in 1980 stopped working altogether. Nearly
three-fifths assumed household duties—almost double
the proportion who left their jobs for this reason among
all workers. Over 90 percent of all bank tellers are
women.
During 1980, persons transferring from other occu­
pations filled about 55 percent of all job openings for
bank tellers. In comparison, persons who transferred
filled about 45 percent of all job openings in clerical
occupations. Some who transferred into positions as
tellers probably had held other bank clerical jobs—
banks encourage movement among clerical personnel.
About 45 percent of all job openings for bank tellers
in 1980 were filled by persons who had not worked the
previous year. About 40 percent had left household re­
sponsibilities while another 30 percent had been in
school.
Persons with a high school education or less filled
about three-fifths of all job openings for tellers in 1980.
compared to two-thirds of the openings in all clerical
occupations combined. Persons with some college edu­
cation filled nearly 30 percent of the job openings, while
college graduates filled only 10 percent of the jobs.
Persons 16-24 years old filled nearly three-fifths of all
openings for tellers, compared to less than half of the
job openings in all clerical occupations.
Over one-quarter of all job openings for tellers in
1980 were part-time positions. Persons who had not
worked the previous year filled more part-time jobs
than those who transferred from other occupations.

During 1980, persons transferring from other occu­
pations filled about two-thirds of all job openings for
bank officers and managers. This pattern is similar to
that for other managers but differs significantly from
the average for all occupations; persons who transferred
filled only 43 percent of all openings. Banks often seek
individuals with banking experience—bank clerks and
tellers who have demonstrated the potential for in­
creased responsibilities, including those who worked as
clerks or tellers while attending school—and persons
with specialized experience in other fields. About 45
percent of those who transferred were 25-34 years old;
the same proportion were college graduates.
Nearly one-third of all job openings for bank officers
in 1980 were filled by persons who had not worked the
previous year. About half had been in school or had
household responsibilities. Over half of all bank officers
who had not worked the previous year were 20-24 years
old, while nearly two-thirds were college graduates.
College graduates filled half of all job openings for
bank officers in 1980, compared to 29 percent for all
managers and only 14 percent for all occupations. Per­
sons with some college education filled nearly one-fifth
of all bank officer jobs; those with a high school edu­
cation or less filled about one-third of the openings.
Virtually all job openings for bank officers and man­
agers in 1980 were full-time positions, compared to 87
percent of the openings for all managers and only 66
percent of the openings for all occupations.

Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

406,000
513,000
26.3

-

538,000
32.5

55,000
11,000
44,000

-

58,000
13,000
45,000

-

' Includes managers, officials, and proprietors employed
banking and credit agencies.

Bank tellers
Training. Bank tellers are trained on the job. Training
may last from a few days to several weeks or longer.
New tellers usually observe experienced workers for a
few days before doing the work themselves. Beginners
usually start as commercial tellers; in large banks which
have a separate savings teller’s “cage,” they may start
as savings tellers. Banks often train tellers for other
clerical duties at the same time.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

Employment patterns. Persons seeking bank teller po­
sitions should have good employment prospects
throughout the 1980’s in view of the large number of
projected job openings—between 125,000 and 129,000
annually. Employment of tellers is projected to grow
28

480.000
601.000
25.1
125,000
12,000
113,000

_
-

-

-

619,000
28.9
129,000
14,000
115,000

G r o w th ...............................................
R e p la c e m e n t ....................................

Barbers
Training. All States require barbers to be licensed. In
general, applicants must have graduated from a State-ap­
proved barber school and be at least 16 years old. Eight
States require a high school diploma. Many States re­
quire beginners to obtain an apprenticeship license, and
then work for 1 or 2 years before taking the written
and practical examination for a license as a registered
barber. Barber training programs usually last 9 to 12
months. Most are trade school programs, although some
public high schools offer barbering in their vocational
education programs. Because some States do not rec­
ognize out-of-State training, apprenticeship work, or li­
censes, persons who wish to become barbers should re­
view the laws of the State in which they wish to work
before entering barber school.

112,000
120,000
7.3
3,800

-

_

-

2 ,5 0 0
3,200

Bookkeepers and accounting clerks
Training. High school graduates who have taken busi­
ness arithmetic, bookkeeping, and principles of account­
ing meet the minimum requirements for most bookkeep­
ing jobs. Many employers prefer applicants who have
completed business courses at a community or junior
college or business school.
Employment patterns. The job outlook for bookkeepers
and accounting clerks is expected to be good through­
out the 1980’s due to the widespread availability of jobs,
the high rate of turnover, and the relative ease of entry
into this occupation.
The anticipated growth in the volume of business ac­
tivity is expected to cause employment of bookkeepers
and accounting clerks to grow about as fast as the av­
erage for all occupations. This growth and the need to
replace employees are projected to create between
370,000 and 400,000 job openings for bookkeeping and
accounting clerks annually during the 1980’s. Few oc­
cupations are expected to provide more job openings.
Replacement needs are expected to account for 9 out
of 10 openings.
About 19 percent of all bookkeepers and accounting
clerks left their jobs in 1980—about the same propor­
tion as for all occupations, but slightly less than for all
clerical workers. A larger than average proportion—52
percent—dropped out of the labor force, most to as­
sume homemaking responsibilities. Persons who trans­
ferred to other occupations accounted for two-fifths of
all those who left their jobs—less than the average for
all occupations as well as for all clerical workers. Rela­
tively few bookkeepers and accounting clerks became
unemployed.
Jobs as bookkeepers and accounting clerks are pre­
dominantly held by women. The pattern of movement
in the occupation is typically from work to family re­
sponsibilities and back to work again. In 1980, 54 per­
cent of all job openings in the occupation were filled
by persons who were outside the labor force the pre­
vious year. Nearly 70 percent were homemakers—a
considerably higher proportion than average.
In general, those entering bookkeeping jobs were
older than average. Two-thirds of all entrants in 1980
were 25 years or older, compared to only about onehalf of all entrants to clerical occupations and to the
work force as a whole.
Nearly 3 out of every 10 entrants into bookkeeping
jobs in 1980 took part-time positions. Those coming
from outside the labor force—primarily home­
makers—were more likely to take part-time jobs than
those transferring from other occupations. Women who

Employment patterns. Between 4,000 and 6,000 job
openings are projected to arise each year during the
1980-90 period, significantly fewer than the number of
openings for most occupations. Replacements for expe­
rienced barbers who stop working are expected to ac­
count for most openings. The rest will result from em­
ployment growth, which is projected to occur at a
slower rate than the average for all occupations. The
employment decline of the last decade, caused by the
fashion for longer hair, is expected to end, and demand
for barbers should be stimulated by population growth
and the continued popularity of hairstyling.
Barbers have a strong attachment to their occupa­
tion, especially compared to other service workers.
Once having entered the occupation, most barbers stay
in it until they retire. One reason for this is that most
barbers own their own shops. The high degree of oc­
cupational attachment is striking considering the edu­
cational investment—less than a year of postsecondary
training.
Approximately 5,000 people completed barber school
in 1980, according to the National Association of Bar­
ber Schools, and several hundred more completed reg­
istered apprenticeships. The very limited data available
suggest that most graduates subsequently became li­
censed and entered the occupation. However, some bar­
ber school graduates were already employed as cosme­
tologists; operators in “unisex” salons generally find it
advantageous to hold both licenses. A few barber school
graduates were licensed barbers who needed formal
training in order to practice in a different State (al­
though reciprocity agreements have eliminated the need
for this in many places), and some were inmates of
prisons, reformatories, and other institutions.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................

800
3 ,000

137,000
22.4
5,700

29

combine parental and job responsibilities probably pre­
fer part-time work when they first return to work.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

1,715,000
1,975,000
15.2

2,123,400
23.8

373,000
26,000
347,000

401,000
41,000
360,000

Bricklayers and stonemasons
Training. Most bricklayers and some stonemasons ac­
quire their skills informally by working as helpers and
laborers and by observing and learning from experi­
enced workers. The remainder learn the craft through
3-year apprenticeships, which usually are sponsored by
local contractors or local union-management commit­
tees, or both. In addition to on-the-job training, appren­
ticeship programs generally require 144 hours of class­
room instruction each year in subjects such as blueprint
reading, mathematics, layout work, and sketching. A
high school or vocational school diploma is preferred
but not required.
In 1979-80, nearly 9,500 individuals completed pub­
lic or private vocational education programs in masonry
occupations. Many employers prefer to hire people who
have completed such programs because they impart ba­
sic skills and provide an introduction to the trade. Ap­
proximately 1,000 youths completed Job Corps train­
ing in 1979-80, and nearly 1,100 apprentices completed
registered programs in bricklaying, stonemasonry, or
tile setting in 1979. Another 2,000 cancelled their ap­
prenticeship that year. Some may have left before com­
pleting the program because of an opportunity to work
at the craft level. Others may have acquired enough
experience to enter the occupation at another time.

of construction activity. Temporary layoffs when busi­
ness is slack, and periods of not working when a project
ends, are commonplace for construction workers. D ur­
ing economic downturns such as that of 1980, layoffs
are not only frequent but extended. Three out of 4
bricklayers and stonemasons who left the occupation
in 1980 became unemployed or left the labor force. The
rest transferred to other occupations. Compared to all
other workers, however, bricklayers and stonemasons
who left the occupation in 1980 were less likely to have
taken another kind of job or to have left the labor force.
They were 3 times as likely to have become
unemployed.
Most of the bricklayers and stonemasons who stopped
working during 1980 were in their prime working years,
age 25 to 54, and would be likely to reenter the occu­
pation as soon as jobs became available. Approximately
20 percent of those who stopped working were age 55
or above. Some of those eligible for pension income
might have decided to retire, but an economic upturn
would probably lead others to return to work, on a
part-time basis at least.
Of those who obtained bricklaying and stonemasonry
jobs during 1980, 3 out of 4 had been unemployed or
had worked in another occupation during the previous
year. Very few jobs were available in either craft for
young, inexperienced workers. People between 16 and
19 years of age filled more than 20 percent of all job
openings in the economy in 1980. Individuals in that
age group filled little more than 5 percent of the open­
ings in bricklaying and stonemasonry. Because so many
experienced bricklayers and stonemasons are available
to start work, individuals attempting to enter these crafts
for the first time are likely to encounter keen competi­
tion, at least until construction activity picks up con­
siderably.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

Employment patterns. Employment of bricklayers and
stonemasons is projected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations during the 1980’s, although
stonemasonry may not grow quite as rapidly as brickmasonry. The volume of new construction is expected
to increase because of population growth and business
expansion, spurring demand for bricklayers in particu­
lar. The growing use of brick for interior load-bearing
walls and for decorative work on building fronts and
in lobbies and foyers is also expected to stimulate
demand.
Employment growth and replacement needs are pro­
jected to provide between 38,000 and 40,000 job open­
ings annually during the 1980’s. Replacement needs are
expected to account for more than 4 out of 5 openings,
roughly the same proportion as that for all craft workers.
Brickmasonry and stonemasonry, like the other build­
ing trades, are highly sensitive to changes in the level

1 Includes brickmasons,
stonemasons.

163.000
224.000
37.5
38,000
6,000
32,000

refractory

materials

-

-

-

241,000
47.8
41,000
8,000
33,000
repairers,

and

Business machine repairers
Training. The amount of formal education required
for an entry job as a business machine repairer varies
widely among employers. Many employers hire appli­
cants with a high school education, while some require
at least 1 year of technical training in basic electricity
or electronics. Electronics training received in the
Armed Forces also is valuable. Related experience is
helpful, and many workers transfer from other jobs.
30

Employment patterns. Job prospects for business ma­
chine repairers should be excellent through the 1980’s.
Employment is projected to grow much faster than the
average for all occupations as businesses and govern­
ment agencies buy more machines to handle a growing
volume of paperwork. Between 12,000 and 13,000 job
openings are projected each year due to the increased
demand for business machine repairers and the need to
replace experienced workers who stop working or trans­
fer to other occupations. Although replacement needs
are expected to account for three-fourths of job open­
ings for repairers, they are a much less significant source
of openings than in other craft occupations.
In 1980, about 13 percent of all business machine re­
pairers left their jobs, slightly less than the proportion
of other craft workers or of all mechanics and repairers.
More than two-fifths of those who left the occupation
transferred to other occupations—such as data process­
ing machine repairer or manufacturer’s sales worker. A
few probably advanced to manager of a service repair
department. About 3 of every 10 repairers who left their
jobs in 1980 became unemployed. Most of those who
lost their jobs were below the age of 25 and had no
training beyond high school; employers lay off their
least experienced and productive workers when they
reduce the number of people in their service depart­
ments. About one-quarter of those who left their jobs
dropped out of the labor force—many of these returned
to school.
Seven of every 10 job openings for business machine
repairers in 1980 were filled by experienced workers
who transferred from other occupations. Many of those
who transferred probably worked in related occupa­
tions where they serviced mechanical and electronic
equipment such as home appliances, automotive elec­
trical systems, and radio and television equipment. Most
of the remaining job openings were filled by persons
who had been unemployed.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

55.000
89.000
59.8

_

12,000
3,500
8,500

-

-

-

field of study and train them on the job. Many stores
have 6- to 8-month programs for buyer trainees. They
combine classroom instruction in merchandising and
purchasing with short rotations to various jobs in the
store. This training introduces the new worker to store
operations and policies, and to the fundamentals of mer­
chandising and management. Most trainees begin as as­
sistant buyers; they usually work as assistants for at least
a year before becoming buyers.
Employment patterns. Employment of buyers is pro­
jected to grow about as fast as the average for all oc­
cupations through the 1980’s as the retail trade indus­
try expands in response to a growing population and
higher personal incomes. Between 26,000 and 28,000
job openings are projected each year due to the in­
creased demand for buyers and the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who stop working or transfer to
other occupations. Replacement needs are expected to
be the major source of jobs for buyers during the 1980’s,
accounting for more than 8 of 10 openings. Competi­
tion for jobs as buyers is expected to be keen because
merchandising attracts many college graduates.
During 1980, about 15 percent of all buyers left the
occupation, compared to 12 percent of all managers.
Nearly 6 of every 10 buyers who left transferred to
other occupations. Some were experienced buyers who
probably advanced to merchandise manager or to an
executive job such as general merchandise manager for
a store or chain. Three of every 10 buyers who left
their jobs dropped out of the labor force, either to take
up household responsibilities or to retire. One buyer in
8 became unemployed.
About 7 of every 10 job openings for buyers in 1980
were filled by workers who transferred from other oc­
cupations. Many of these workers probably had expe­
rience in retail sales, which is valuable to buyers be­
cause they must be familiar with merchandise and shop­
pers’ preferences. About one-fourth of all job openings
were filled by people who had not worked the previous
year; one-half of them were college graduates.

96,000
73.5

Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

13,000
4,000
9,000

Buyers
Training. An increasing number of employers prefer
applicants who have a college degree. Many colleges
and universities offer associate degree or bachelor’s de­
gree programs in marketing and purchasing. Related
experience also is valuable, and many people transfer
into the occupation.
While courses in merchandising or marketing may
help in getting started in retailing, they are not essen­
tial. Most employers accept college graduates in any

149.000
178.000
19.7
26,000
3,000
23,000

-

-

-

190,000
27.4
28,000
4,000
24,000

1 Includes only buyers employed in retail trade.

Carpenters
Training. Carpenters learn their trade on the job. Many
pick up their skills by working as a helper to an expe­
rienced carpenter; however, some participate in struc­
tured training programs run by their employer. Most
training authorities recommend completion of an ap­
31

prenticeship because it includes training in all the skills
of the trade. These programs are administered by local
union-management committees and local contractors’
associations. Apprenticeship consists of 4 years of onthe-job training and a minimum of 144 hours of related
classroom instruction each year. However, apprentices
can complete the program in less than 4 years if they
can demonstrate mastery of the required skills.
A high school or vocational school education that
includes courses in carpentry, shop, mechanical draw­
ing, and general mathematics is desirable.

Seven of every 10 job openings during 1980 were
filled by people who had not been working the pre­
vious year. Fifty-five percent of these had been un­
employed—many were experienced carpenters who had
been laid off. The rest were labor force entrants or re­
entrants. Some had been in school. Most, however, had
dropped out of the labor force temporarily waiting for
jobs to became available. One-third of all job openings
for carpenters in 1980 were filled by transfers from
other occupations.
People entering the occupation should expect to ex­
perience periods of unemployment between jobs. Be­
cause many people are qualified for and seek carpentry
jobs, competition may exist for the highest paying jobs,
even when construction activity is high. Carpenters can
improve their chances of getting a steady, year-round
job by acquiring all-round skills.

Employment patterns. Employment of carpenters is
projected to increase about as fast as the average for
all occupations through the 1980’s. In the long run,
construction activity should increase in response to in­
creasing demand for new housing and industrial plants
and as existing industrial plants are renovated to make
them more productive and energy efficient. Prospects
for people wishing to become carpenters generally are
expected to be good because of the many job openings
created by growth and replacement needs.
Between 180,000 and 195,000 jobs are projected to
be available each year due to increased demand for car­
penters and the need to replace carpenters who leave
their jobs. Nine of every 10 job openings for carpenters
through the 1980’s are expected to result from replace­
ment needs.
Nearly 25 percent of all carpenters left their jobs in
1980, a higher proportion than for other construction
trades. About 9 percent of all carpenters transferred to
other occupations, also a higher proportion than for
other construction crafts. The lower than average at­
tachment to the occupation reflects the comparative
ease of entry. Many people take jobs as carpenters with
no intention to making it a career and then transfer to
other jobs after a short time. However, some experi­
enced carpenters enter other occupations when carpen­
try work is unavailable.
Eight percent of all carpenters became unemployed
during 1980, nearly twice the proportion for other craft
occupations. This reflects the short-term nature of many
construction projects—particularly in residential build­
ing, where many carpenters are employed—as well as
the impact of cyclical fluctuations in the economy. The
large proportion of carpenters who become unemployed
means that there usually is a supply of experienced car­
penters available.
About 6 percent of all carpenters left the labor force
during 1980. Some returned to school, but most retired.
About one-half of those age 55 and older who left the
labor force had worked part time, possibly indicating
that some carpenters gradually reduce the number of
hours they work until they finally retire. Many carpen­
ters who left the labor force did so temporarily and
will later reenter the occupation.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

970,000
1,143,000
17.9

1,230,000
27.0

180,000
17,000
163,000

195,000
26,000
169,000

Cashiers
Training. Employers hire individuals without any
work experience for many cashier jobs. They prefer
those who are high school graduates. Many public
school vocational programs offer cashier training.
Courses in business arithmetic, bookkeeping, typing,
and selling are useful for this work. However, new
cashiers usually receive on-the-job training. In large
firms, cashiers often receive classroom instruction in
the use of electronic or computerized registers and in
other phases of a cashier’s work. In smaller ones, they
are trained by an experienced worker. Employers look
for persons who are able to do repetitious work accu­
rately, have a high degree of eye-hand coordination,
and have an aptitude for working with figures.
Employment patterns. Job openings for cashiers are ex­
pected to be plentiful during the 1980’s due to the rela­
tively high rate of turnover in the occupation. Between
650,000 and 680,000 jobs are projected to be available
annually—among the highest for any occupation. Al­
though employment is projected to grow faster than
the average for all occupations, 9 out of 10 job open­
ings are expected to result from a need to replace peo­
ple who transfer to other occupations or stop working.
Cashiering jobs generally require little or no experi­
ence and little education; most are part time. Therefore,
they attract people who want to gain work experience,
or to earn money while in school or while tending to
household responsibilities. Data on the experience of
workers in 1980 indicate that cashiers have very little
32

Applicants generally must be high school graduates
and in good physical condition. Training in mathematics
and English, especially spelling, is useful. Printing and
typing courses in vocational or high schools are good
preparation, and a general background in electronics
and photography is becoming increasingly useful. Many
technical institutes, junior colleges, and colleges offer
courses in printing technology which provide a valu­
able background.
Persons with good typing skills can learn to be photo­
typesetting machine operators in a relatively short pe­
riod of time. These workers need not be trained as
skilled compositors, but they must be familiar with
printing terms and measures.

labor force or job attachment. The separation rate for
cashiers is one of the highest among all occupations.
About 1 out of every 3 cashiers left the occupation in
1980—more than one and one-half times the rate for all
workers.
About 14 percent of all cashiers left the labor force
during 1980, a much higher rate than for individuals in
most other occupations. Most became full-time home­
makers or returned to school. Since this occupation
consists primarily of. young workers, relatively few
cashiers retired or stopped working because of disabil­
ity. Another 14 percent of all cashiers transferred to
other occupations, also a much higher than average
rate. About 4 percent of all cashiers became unemployed
in 1980.
About 70 percent of those who entered the occupa­
tion during 1980 had not been working the previous
year. One-fifth had been unemployed. The rest were
mainly persons 19 or younger who had been in school
and persons 25 and older who had been involved with
household responsibilities.
About one-half of all job openings for cashiers in
1980 were filled by persons who were 19 years or
younger, and almost three-quarters were 24 years or
younger. Tw o out of every 3 job openings were parttime positions. Persons who had not been working the
previous year exhibited a much greater tendency to take
part-time work than those who were transferring from
other occupations.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

1,592,000
2,045,000
28.4

2,163,000
35.8

648,000
45,000
603,000

Employment patterns. Despite growth in the volume
of printing, employment of compositors and typesetters
is projected to decline through the 1980’s as high-speed
phototypesetting machines and typesetting computers
increasingly displace the traditional hot-metal method
of typesetting, which requires more operators. Conse­
quently, many monotype and linotype operators have
been retrained as phototypesetting operators in recent
years. Nevertheless, between 21,000 and 22,000 job
openings are projected each year through 1990 to re­
place experienced workers who change occupations or
stop working.
In 1980, about 17 percent of all compositors and
typesetters left their jobs, a proportion similar to that
for craft occupations as a group. Nearly half of them
transferred to other occupations—most likely to grow­
ing printing occupations such as lithographer or print­
ing press operator or to other skilled or semiskilled jobs.
Over half left the labor force altogether or became un­
employed. Of those compositors and typesetters who
stopped working, almost one-third assumed household
responsibilities—nearly 5 times the proportion who left
their job for this reason among all craft workers. This
pattern reflects the relatively large proportion of women
in this occupation compared to other craft occupations.
Over 70 percent of those who entered the occupa­
tion during 1980 transferred from other jobs. In com­
parison, only 53 percent of all craft jobs were filled by
transfer. Many of those who transferred probably were
secretaries and typists who were highly qualified to be­
come phototypesetting machine operators and who
were attracted to the occupation by higher wages.
About 30 percent of the jobs were filled by persons
who had not worked the previous year. Of these, 36
percent had household responsibilities. In comparison,
of all persons who entered craft occupations in 1980
and who had not worked the previous year, only 7 per­
cent had household duties—again reflecting the rela­
tively high proportion of women in this craft
occupation.

679,000
57,000
622,000

Compositors and typesetters
Training. In the past, almost all compositors were
trained through some type of apprenticeship program.
However, in recent years, the introduction of new tech­
nology has reduced the demand for all-round skilled
compositors. As a result, more and more compositors
are bypassing the traditional apprentice approach and
are learning the work on the job.
In large companies, persons who want to become all­
round compositors generally are trained through an ap­
prenticeship program. Most of those programs empha­
size training in the operation of phototypesetting ma­
chines and in photocomposition work. Generally, ap­
prenticeship covers a 4-year period of training supple­
mented. by classroom instruction or correspondence
courses. However, this period may be shortened by as
much as 2 1/2 years for persons who have had previous
experience or schooling or who show the ability to
learn the trade more rapidly.
33

Over half of those persons who took jobs as com­
positors and typesetters in 1980 were 20-24 years of
age—double the proportion of jobs filled by persons in
this age bracket for all craft workers or all occupations
combined.
Seventy percent of all jobs for compositors and
typesetters in 1980 were filled by persons with a high
school education or less. One-fourth of those who took
jobs in this occupation had some postsecondary educa­
tion. Relatively few openings were filled by college
graduates.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90' .........................................
Decline ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

128,000
116,000
-9.6
21,200
(-1,200)
21,200

-

-

-

turn to school. Relatively few operators became
unemployed.
Six of every 10 job openings for computer operators
during 1980 were filled by experienced workers who
transferred from other occupations; this was a signifi­
cantly higher proportion than for all clerical jobs. Many
jobs were filled by secretaries, typists, bookkeepers, and
others familiar with various kinds of office equipment.
Most of those who transferred into the occupation were
under the age of 35 and had a high school education
or less.
Four of every 10 entrants had not worked the pre­
vious year. Most had not been in the labor force the
previous year—primarily persons who had assumed
family responsibilities or had been in school. Home­
makers who entered the occupation tended to be older
than other entrants—almost all were over 25—reflecting
the tendency of many women to wait until their child­
ren are in school before they go back to work. Most
of these entrants had a high school education or less.
In contrast, computer operators who had been in school
the previous year tended to be younger—almost all
were under 25—and more than one-third had some
training beyond high school.

125,000
-2.4
22,100
(-300)
22,100

1 Data on the decline in employment are presented in
parentheses for information only, since replacement needs are the
sole source o f openings. See appendix B.

Computer operators
Training. Most employers require computer operators
to have a high school education or specialized training
or experience. Many prefer to hire computer operators
who have had some community or junior college train­
ing, especially in data processing. Many employers test
applicants to determine their aptitude for computer
work, particularly their ability to reason logically. Prior
experience is important, and many workers transfer into
this occupation.

Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 .....Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

233.000
387.000
65.8
67,000
15,000
52,000

-

-

-

412,000
76.6
72,000
18,000
54,000

1 Includes computer operators and peripheral ED P equipment
operators.

Employment patterns. Employment of computer op­
erators is projected to rise much faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the 1980’s because of
the increasing use of computers. Between 67,000 and
72,000 job openings are expected to be available each
year during the 1980’s due to the increased demand for
computer operators and the need to replace experienced
workers who stop working or transfer to other occu­
pations. Although replacement needs are expected to
account for three-fourths of all openings, they are a
much less significant source of openings than for all
clerical workers.
During 1980, 17 percent of all employed computer
operators left the occupation. In comparison, 22 per­
cent of all clerical workers left their occupation. This
relative stability is due to a shortage of experienced op­
erators and reflects the relatively high earnings of these
workers. Nearly three-fifths of those who left the oc­
cupation transferred to other occupations. One-fourth
of them advanced to computer programmer, another
data processing occupation experiencing a shortage of
skilled workers. Some operators left the labor force,
mostly to take up household responsibilities or to re­

Computer service technicians
Training. Most employers require applicants for entry
jobs as computer service technicians to have completed
1 to 2 years of post-high school training in basic elec­
tronics or electrical engineering at a vocational school,
junior college, or university. Many employers also con­
sider basic electronics training provided by the Armed
Forces excellent preparation. Related work experience
also is valuable preparation, and many technicians trans­
fer from another occupation. Regardless of background,
newly hired workers can expect some on-the-job train­
ing in order to learn their employer’s system.
Employment patterns. Job prospects should be excel­
lent through the 1980’s. Employment of computer serv­
ice technicians is projected to rise much faster than the
average for all occupations through the 1980’s as the
number of computers in operation continues to increase.
Demand for technicians is expected to rise even faster
than the increase in the number of computers as com­
puter equipment becomes more decentralized. In addi­
tion to job openings created by rapid growth in demand
34

for computer service technicians, many openings are
projected to arise as employers replace workers who
transfer to another occupation or leave the labor force.
Data on the experience of workers in 1980 indicate
that technicians have a strong attachment to their oc­
cupation. In fact, the separation rate for technicians is
one of the lowest among all workers. Therefore, al­
though replacement needs are expected to account for
6 of every 10 openings, they are a much less significant
source of openings than in most occupations.
Only about 1 computer service technician in 20 trans­
ferred to a different occupation in 1980, well below the
proportion for most occupations. Relatively few be­
came unemployed—only about 1 in 100. This pattern
reflects the fact that these workers are in a rapidly
growing field that offers many opportunities for ad­
vancement, high earnings, and good working condi­
tions. Retirements also were uncommon—about 2 in
100—reflecting the low average age in this relatively
new occupation.
About 6 of every 10 openings for computer service
technicians in 1980 were filled by workers in their midto late 20’s who had worked for several years in an­
other occupation. Occupations that require a knowl­
edge of electronics and provide a good background for
computer service technicians are business machine re­
pairer, television service technician, and engineering
technician. A signficiant number of openings, however,
were filled by recent graduates of electronics training
programs offered in 2-year postsecondary schools. Some
entered the occupation from military service, where
they had received electronics training and work
experience.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

83,000
160,000
93.3
19,000
8,000
11,000

_
-

-

-

Only a short period of training or experience is re­
quired to become an assistant or fry cook, but many
years are necessary to achieve the level of skill required
of an executive chef or cook in a fine restaurant. Even
though a high school diploma is not required for be­
ginning jobs, it is recommended for those planning a
career as a cook or chef. Also, many courses in com­
mercial food preparation are open only to high school
graduates.
Employment patterns. Between 399,000 and 417,000
jobs for cooks and chefs are projected to be available
each year through the 1980’s. Small restaurants, school
cafeterias, and other eating places with simple food
preparation should provide the greatnest number of job
openings for cooks. Employment of cooks and chefs is
projected to grow about as fast as the average for all oc­
cupations as the population expands and people dine
out more. However, the need to replace experienced
cooks and chefs who transfer to other jobs or stop
working is expected to account for more than 9 out of
10 job openings—similar to the proportion for all oc­
cupations combined.
The separation rate for cooks and chefs is one of the
highest among all workers. About 30 percent of all
cooks and chefs left their jobs in 1980, compared to
only 20 percent of all workers combined. However,
patterns most likely differ among cooks in various em­
ployment settings. Institutional cooks and restaurant
cooks probably remain in their occupation in higher
proportions than short order and specialty fast-food
cooks. Nearly half of all cooks and chefs who left their
jobs transferred to other occupations, about 40 percent
left the labor force, and the remainder became un­
employed. Of those who stopped working, over 35 per­
cent assumed household duties; over 20 percent left to
go to school—nearly double the proportion who left
their jobs for this reason among all workers.
Similar to all service workers, except private house­
hold workers, only about 30 percent of those who en­
tered the occupation during 1980 transferred from other
jobs—compared to well over 40 percent for all workers.
Over 70 percent of those who entered the occupation
had not worked the previous year, primarily young stu­
dents working to earn spending money or money for
school and older homemakers working to supplement
family income. Of these cooks and chefs who were not
working the previous year, about one-third had been
in school (virtually all were less than 25 years old) and
nearly 30 percent had household responsibilities (nearly
all were over 25 years old, primarily in the 35-54 age
range). About 16 percent of those who entered the oc­
cupation in 1980 were 15 years old—triple the propor­
tion for all occupations combined. Overall, about 50
percent of the job openings for cooks and chefs in 1980
were filled by persons who were 15-19 years old, com­

176,000
112.4
21,000
9,000
12,000

Cooks and chefs
Training. Many cooks begin as kitchen helpers, and
acquire their skills on the job. An increasing number
obtain training in commercial food preparation through
high school or post-high school vocational programs
or community colleges. Cooks and chefs are also trained
in apprenticeship programs offered by professional as­
sociations and trade unions, and in 3-year apprentice­
ship programs administered by local offices of the
American Culinary Federation in cooperation with lo­
cal employers and junior colleges or vocational educa­
tion institutions. In addition, some large hotels and res­
taurants operate their own training programs for new
employees. The Armed Forces also are a good source
of training and experience.
35

pared to 36 percent for all service workers, except pri­
vate household workers, and 22 percent for all occu­
pations combined.
Entrance requirements in this occupation are mini­
mal; individuals with a high school education or less
filled 85 percent of the job openings in 1980, compared
to 67 percent for all occupations combined. About 13
percent had completed some postsecondary education;
relatively few jobs were filled by college graduates.
Nearly two-thirds of the job openings for cooks and
chefs in 1980 were part time, compared to only onethird of the openings for all occupations combined. Per­
sons who had not worked the previous year, including
those age 15, filled about three-fourths of these parttime jobs for cooks and chefs. The availability of parttime jobs that do not interfere with other responsibili­
ties makes this occupation attractive to students and
homemakers.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

1,122,000
1,365,000
21.6
399,000
24,000
375,000

-

“
-

-

1,437,000
28.0
417,000
31,000
386,000

1 Includes institutional cooks, restaurant cooks, and short order
and specialty fast-food cooks.

Cosmetologists
Training. All States require cosmetologists to be li­
censed. Most require applicants to be at least 16 years
old and pass a physical examination. Some States re­
quire a high school diploma. Successful completion of
a State-approved cosmetology course is appropriate
preparation for the State licensing examination. In some
States, completion of an apprenticeship program can
substitute for graduation from cosmetology school, but
few cosmetologists learn their skills this way. Both pub­
lic and private vocational schools offer training in cos­
metology. A daytime course usually takes 6 months to
1 year; an evening course takes longer. An apprentice­
ship generally lasts 1 or 2 years.
Employment patterns. Between 77,000 and 90,000 job
openings are projected each year during the 1980-90
period. Replacements for cosmetologists who stop
working or transfer to other occupations are expected
to account for more than 4 out of 5 openings. The rest
will result from employment growth; the rate of growth
will depend upon factors such as overall population
growth, the proportion of women who work, and the
degree to which men patronize “unisex” hairstyling
salons.
Cosmetologists show a much stronger tendency than
other service workers to stay in their occupation. In
1980, only 1 out of 10 cosmetologists left his or her job,

a proportion comparable to that for professional and
technical workers. When cosmetologists do leave their
jobs, they tend to leave the labor force—relatively few
transfer to other jobs or become unemployed. This at­
tachment to the occupation is noteworthy in light of
the relatively limited investment in training, which can
be acquired in a high school vocational educational
program.
For many young women, cosmetology serves as an
entry point to the world of work. Nine out of every 10
cosmetologists are women, and most job entrants are
under the age of 35. However, the field also is charac­
terized by a pattern of movement from family respon­
sibilities into the labor force and back to the home again.
In 1980, most entrants to the occupation came from
outside the labor force, from homemaking or school in
almost equal numbers. Those who left their jobs as­
sumed household responsibilities, for the most part.
Compared to the number who move to or from
homemaking, relatively few persons transfer to or from
other occupations. In 1980, the proportion of cosme­
tologists who transferred to or from other kinds of jobs
was significantly smaller than that for all service occu­
pations, or for the economy as a whole. Nonetheless,
some cosmetologists use their specialized knowledge to
move into related occupations: They may manage large
salons, demonstrate cosmetics in department stores, be­
come sales representatives for cosmetics firms, act as
beauty or fashion consultants, teach in cosmetology
schools, or work as examiners for State cosmetology
boards.
About half of those who entered cosmetology in 1980
took part-time jobs. Individuals entering from
homemaking were more likely than those who had been
students to choose part-time work. Women who com­
bine parental and job responsibilities probably prefer a
part-time schedule when they first return to work. This
relatively high proportion of part-time work is typical
of service occupations in general and personal service
occupations in particular.
Recent graduates of cosmetology training programs
who pass the licensing examination are the principal
source of supply. In 1980, over 73,000 licenses were
granted, according to data compiled by the Milady Pub­
lishing Corporation. The number of people passing the
State licensing examinations has fluctuated between
55,000 and 85,000 a year over the past two decades.
Augmenting the supply of newly trained cosmetologists
is a large reserve pool of licensed but professionally in­
active cosmetologists who may reenter the occupation
when employment and earnings opportunities are at­
tractive enough.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................

36

514.000
584.000
13.7

.

77,000

_

-

664,000
29.3
yu,000

Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

7,000
70,000

-

15,000
75,000

1 Includes cosmetologists and women’s hairstylists, manicurists,
scalp treatment operators, and shampooers.

Dental assistants
Training. Most dental assistants learn their skills on
the job. However,'some are trained in 1- to 2-year den­
tal assisting programs offered by community and jun­
ior colleges, trade schools, and technical institutes. Some
schools offer 4- to 6-month courses in dental assisting,
but these are not accredited programs. Individuals who
complete dental assistant training in the Armed Forces
usually qualify for civilian jobs as dental assistants.
In 1979-80, about 7,000 individuals completed public
vocational education programs in dental assisting, an­
other 4,500 completed private trade school programs,
and about 3,300 completed community or junior col­
lege programs.
Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
dental assistants are expected to be good through the
1980’s because of the relatively large number of job
openings and the ease of entry into this occupation.
About 45,000 dental assisting jobs are projected to be­
come available on average each year during the 1980’s
because of faster than average employment growth and
the need to replace experienced dental assistants who
stop working or transfer to other occupations. Replace­
ment needs are substantial and are expected to account
for about 7 out of 8 job openings, a much higher pro­
portion than in other allied health occupations.
In 1980, nearly one-fourth of all dental assistants left
their jobs. Half of them left the labor force alto­
gether—to go to school or assume household responsi­
bilities, for the most part. Over one-third transferred to
another job and the rest became unemployed. Of those
who entered the occupation during 1980, only about 30
percent transferred from other jobs. The others had not
worked the previous year—most because they had been
busy with school or household duties. Nearly 7 out of
10 jobs were filled by people with a high school edu­
cation or less. The remainder were filled by people who
had attended college, although relatively few were col­
lege graduates.
Dental assistants’ patterns of occupational entry and
exit reflect the fact that the occupation is dominated
by young women. Ninety-nine percent of all dental as­
sistants are female, and young people are the major
source of supply. In 1980, well over one-third of all job
openings were filled by teenagers (16-19 years), nearly
all of whom had been in school the previous year. Many,
undoubtedly, were still in school, for quite a few high
school and college students work part time in dental
assisting jobs. Part-time work is far more prevalent
37

among dental assistants age 16-19 than among those age
20 and above. Those entering the occupation between
the ages of 25 and 34 are somewhat more likely to be
returning to the job market than to be changing jobs.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

140.000
191.000
38.0
44,300
5,300
39,000

-

-

198,000
42.4
45,700
5,900
39,800

Dental laboratory technicians
Training. Most dental laboratory technicians learn
their craft on the job, usually in 3 to 4 years. High
school graduates are preferred, and courses in art, metal
shop, and science are helpful. Many of those hired as
trainees already have some knowledge of dental labo­
ratory work, usually because they have taken courses
or completed formal training programs.
Training in dental laboratory technology is available
through community and junior colleges, voca­
tional-technical institutes, and trade schools; high school
vocational education programs; apprenticeships; and the
Armed Forces. Formal training programs vary greatly,
both in length and the level of skill they impart. Ac­
credited programs generally take 2 years to complete
and lead to an associate degree, although some lead to
a certificate or diploma.
In 1979-80, approximately 1,500 individuals com­
pleted public vocational education programs in dental
laboratory technology; about 1,600 completed trade
school programs; and 850 earned associate degrees in
community or junior college programs. The number
enrolled in dental laboratory technology programs of
all kinds was higher than these figures suggest, for many
students—vocational education students and appren­
tices in particular—drop out before completing the en­
tire sequence of courses. Students who have taken
enough courses to learn the basics of the craft gener­
ally are considered by employers to be good candidates
for training, regardless of whether they have completed
the formal program.
Employment patterns. Between 3,500 and 4,500 job
openings for dental laboratory technicians are projected
on average each year during the 1980’s due to faster
than average employment growth and the need to re­
place experienced technicians who leave the occupa­
tion. Replacement needs will account for roughly half
of future job openings in the occupation; replacements
are a much less important source of jobs for dental
laboratory technicians than for most other workers. Re­
placements are expected to account for nearly 9 out of
10 openings for all craft workers during the 1980-90
period.

Dentists exhibit a strong attachment to work and to
the dental profession. Once having completed their
training and entered dental practice, dentists tend to
work continuously until they reach retirement age.
Some older dentists stop working because of ill health.
Relatively few leave the labor force because of house­
hold responsibilities. The number of women in the pro­
fession is quite small, less than 3 percent of the total in
1980. Women are beginning to play a more prominent
role in dentistry, however. Their share of first-year den­
tal school enrollments rose from 2 percent to nearly 20
percent during the decade of the 1970’s.
Relatively few people leave dentistry to take up other
careers. Nearly 99 percent of all dentists employed at
the beginning of 1980 were active in the profession a
year later. Such a high degree of occupational attach­
ment is found in only a few other occupations, notably
among other health practitioners, who, like dentists,
have a considerable investment in training.
Recent dental school graduates constitute the princi­
pal source of supply of new dentists. Since licensure
takes 8 years or more following graduation from high
school, job openings for dentists are filled almost exclu­
sively by persons age 25-34. A few jobs are filled each
year by older entrants, including licensed dentists who
had left the civilian labor force temporarily because of
military service or disability.
The number of dental school graduates rose sharply
from the mid-1960’s until the mid-1970’s, as new dental
schools were established. The expansion has moderated
in recent years, and enrollments are likely to level off
or decline somewhat during the 1980’s. Nevertheless,
the number of newly qualified dentists entering the la­
bor market each year will be substantial. As a result,
an oversupply of dentists may develop in some locali­
ties and intensify in others. If so, various market adjust­
ments are likely—reductions in hours of work, reduc­
tions in earnings, and less intensive use of dental assis­
tants and dental hygienists, for example.

Dental laboratory technicians exhibit a relatively
strong attachment to the field. Fewer than 10 percent
left the occupation in 1980, compared to 20 percent of
all workers. Experienced workers who left dental labo­
ratory technology during 1980 transferred to other oc­
cupations, for the most part. Relatively few left the la­
bor force or became unemployed. Most of those who
did leave the labor force were older technicians who
retired.
Currently, most entrants to this occupation are peo­
ple under the age of 35 who have had some postsecon­
dary education—although relatively few are college
graduates. The rest transfer to dental laboratory jobs
from other occupations.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

53.000
69.000
29.0

_

3,600
1,500
2,100

-

-

-

79,000
48.7
4,900
2,600
2,300

Dentists
Training. A license to practice dentistry is required in
all States and the District of Columbia. In most States,
a candidate for licensure must graduate from a dental
school approved by the American Dental Association
and pass written and practical examinations. In 1980,
candidates in 48 States and the District of Columbia
could fulfill part of the State licensing requirements by
passing a written examination given by the National
Board of Dental Examiners. Most State licenses permit
dentists to engage in both general and specialized prac­
tice. In 14 States, however, a dentist cannot be licensed
as a specialist without having 2 or 3 years of graduate
education and, in some cases, passing a special State
examination. In the other 36 States, the extra education
also is necessary, but a specialist’s practice is regulated
by the dental profession, not the State licensing author­
ity. Dentists who want to teach or do research usually
spend an additional 2 to 4 years in advanced dental
training in programs offered by dental schools, hospi­
tals, and other institutions.

Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990' ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ...........................................
Growth .........................................
Replacem ent...............................

Employment patterns. About 4,500 job openings for
dentists are projected each year during the 1980-90 pe­
riod. Two out of 3 openings are expected to arise be­
cause of employment growth. Demand for dentists’
services is expected to be heightened by population
growth, increased awareness of the benefits of regular
dental care, and greater availability of dental insurance.
Replacements for dentists who stop working or trans­
fer to other occupations are expected to account for
only 1 of every 3 openings, an unusually small propor­
tion compared to the average for all workers (9 out of

126,000
155,000
23.0
4,500
2,900
1,600

1 Current and projected employment esti­
mates furnished by the Bureau o f Health Pro­
fessions.

Drafters
Training. Most employers prefer applicants for entry
level jobs as drafters to have completed some postsecon­
dary drafting training in a technical institute, junior or
community college, or extension division of a univer­
sity. Some employers hire persons who were trained in

10).
38

school. In comparison, of all persons who entered pro­
fessional and technical occupations in 1980 and had not
worked the previous year, only 30 percent had been in
school. This difference may be explained by the occu­
pational orientation of educational programs in draft­
ing, which makes the transition from school to work
relatively easy.
Only about one-third of the job openings in 1980
were filled by workers who transferred from other oc­
cupations. In comparison, nearly one-half of openings
in all professional and technical occupations were filled
through transfer. Employers of drafters seek applicants
with drafting skills, and few workers in other occupa­
tions acquire these skills.

vocational and technical high schools or who acquired
drafting experience in the Armed Forces. Others qualify
through on-the-job training programs combined with
part-time schooling or through 3- to 4-year apprentice­
ship programs.
About 34,000 persons completed vocational educa­
tion programs in drafting during 1979-80, according to
the National Center for Education Statistics, and nearly
7,000 persons earned associate degrees and certificates
in architectural drafting and engineering graphics in
academic year 1979-80. However, rates of entry into
this occupation among graduates of these programs are
unknown. In addition, some graduates may be drafters
seeking to upgrade their skills.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

Employment patterns. Employment of drafters is pro­
jected to grow faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s as industries in which drafters
are highly concentrated, such as engineering and archi­
tectural services and durable goods manufacturing, ex­
pand. Persons with an associate degree in drafting and
those trained in the use of computer-aided drafting sys­
tems should have the best employment prospects.
Employment growth is projected to create between
about 9,000 and 13,000 job openings each year. How­
ever, between about 46,000 and 48,000 openings—about
4 out of every 5—are expected to arise from the need
to replace drafters who retire or leave the occupation
for other reasons. Still, replacement needs are a less
significant source of job openings for drafters than for
most other occupations.
Data on the experience of workers in 1980 indicate
that drafters leave their occupation in about the same
proportion as most other professional and technical
workers. Less than 13 percent of all drafters left the
occupation. About half of the workers who left trans­
ferred to other occupations. The rate of transfer out of
this occupation was slightly lower than the rate for
many other engineering technician occupations. This
may be because many engineering technicians learn
technical skills that are easily transferred to repair and
maintenance work, such as appliance and television re­
pair, while drafting skills are somewhat more special­
ized. About one-quarter of the drafters who left the oc­
cupation in 1980 left the labor force altogether—pri­
marily to attend school or retire. The remainder be­
came unemployed.
In 1980, nearly three-fifths of all entrants into draft­
ing had some college or other postsecondary education.
Less than one-third of the job openings were filled by
those having a high school education or less. The re­
maining entrants were college graduates. Persons in the
20-24 age range filled most job openings for drafters.
About two-thirds of all job openings for drafters in
1980 were filled by persons who had not worked the
previous year. About half of these persons had been in

322.000
411.000
27.9
55,000
9,000
46,000

_

_

-

445,000
38.5
61,000
13,000
48,000

Electricians
Training. Electricians learn their skills on the job.
Many people learn the trade informally by working for
several years as an electrician’s helper. Most training
authorities, however, recommend participation in an
apprenticeship program as the best way to learn the
trade. Apprentices receive training in all aspects of the
trade and as a result have a better chance to get a good
job. Apprenticeships usually last 4 years, and consist of
on-the-job training and related classroom instruction in
subjects such as mathematics, electrical and electronic
theory, and blueprint reading.
Persons interested in becoming electricians can ob­
tain a good background by taking high school or vo­
cational school courses in electricity, electronics, alge­
bra, mechanical drawing, shop, and science. Applicants
for apprenticeship usually must be high school or vo­
cational school graduates and have completed 1 year
of algebra.
Most local governments require electricians to be li­
censed. Electricians can get a license by passing an ex­
amination that tests their knowledge of the trade and
local electrical codes.
Employment patterns. Employment of electricians is
projected to increase about as fast as the average for
all occupations during the 1980’s. As the economy ex­
pands, more electricians should be needed to maintain
the electrical systems used by industry and to install
electrical fixtures and wiring in new homes, factories,
stores, and other structures. Between 63,000 and 69,000
jobs are expected to be available each year during the
1980’s due to the increased demand for electricians and
the need to replace experienced workers who stop
39

working or transfer to other occupations. About 8 of
every 10 job openings are expected to result from re­
placement needs. Although the annual number of job
openings for electricians is expected to be large, people
wishing to enter the occupation are likely to face com­
petition. High wages attract many people to the trade.
People planning a career in this trade can improve their
chances for a steady job by acquiring good, all-round
training.
Electricians exhibit a strong attachment to the occu­
pation. Electricians are not inclined to transfer to other
occupations because they have a sizable investment in
training and because their earnings are relatively high.
Less than 3 percent of all electricians transferred out
of the occupation in 1980, less than one-half the rate
for other crafts.
Most electricians who left their jobs in 1980 became
unemployed or left the labor force. They accounted for
3 of every 4 separations from the occupation, compared
to 1 of 2 for other crafts. Nearly one-half of all electri­
cians in 1980 worked in construction, where job open­
ings fluctuate with the level of building activity. About
6 of 10 electricians who stopped working in 1980 be­
came unemployed. Many probably were laid off when
their projects were completed. The remainder of those
who stopped working had left the labor force; most of
these were older workers who had retired.
During 1980, 54 percent of the job openings for elec­
tricians were filled by persons who had been un­
employed or out of the labor force, indicating that
skilled electricians who are not currently working make
up a significant part of the potential supply of labor.
People who transferred from other occupations filled
46 percent of the job openings for electricians.
Most workers who entered the occupation in 1980
had a high school diploma or less education. Fifty-five
percent were more than 35 years old, compared to 30
percent for all craft occupations.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

560.000
669.000
19.5
63,000
11,000
52,000

_
-

-

-

others who have degrees in science and mathematics
also qualify for many technician jobs.
Workers also can qualify as technicians through ap­
prenticeship programs or correspondence school train­
ing. Some qualify on the basis of experience gained in
the Armed Forces. Some persons learn the needed skills
by less formal training on the job. However, postsecondary training is becoming increasingly necessary
for advancement.
Nearly 83,O X persons earned associate degrees and
C)
certificates in engineering and science technologies dur­
ing academic year 1979-80, according to the National
Center for Education Statistics. In addition, about
54,000 persons completed public and private vocational
education programs in engineering and science tech­
nologies during 1979-80. However, rates of entry into
this occupation among graduates of these programs are
unknown. In addition, some graduates may be engineer­
ing or science technicians seeking to upgrade their skills.
Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
engineering and science technicians are expected to be
favorable through the 1980’s in view of the large num­
ber of projected job openings— 168,000 to 183,000 an­
nually. Opportunities should be best for graduates of
postsecondary technician training programs.
Industrial expansion, the increasing complexity of
modern technology, and the growing importance of en­
ergy development and other areas of scientific research
are projected to spur faster than average growth in the
employment of engineering and science technicians.
However, the need to replace experienced technicians
who transfer to other jobs or stop working is expected
to account for about 85 percent of all job open­
ings—about the same as for all professional and tech­
nical occupations combined.
In 1980, 15 percent of all engineering and science
technicians left their jobs—compared to 20 percent for
all occupations combined and 11 percent for all profes­
sional and technical workers. Nearly three-fifths of the
engineering and science technicians who left transferred
to other occupations. Some engineering and science
technicians, such as electrical and electronic technicians,
possess skills that can be transferred to repair and main­
tenance jobs, such as television and radio repair. Over
two-fifths of all engineering and science technicians
who left their jobs in 1980 stopped working. Many left
the labor force as retirees or to attend school; some be­
came unemployed. Relatively few assumed household
duties—reflecting the relatively small proportion of
women in this occupation compared to other profes­
sional and technical occupations.
In 1980, persons transferring into the occupation filled
about half of all job openings—similar to the pattern
for all professional and technical workers. Of the per­
sons who had not worked the previous year, over two-

717,000
28.0
69,000
16,000
53,000

Engineering and science technicians
Training. Although persons can qualify for technician
jobs through many combinations of work experience
and education, most employers prefer applicants who
have had some specialized technical training. Special­
ized training is available at technical institutes, junior
and community colleges, extension divisions of colleges
and universities, and public and private vocational-tech­
nical schools. A few engineering and science students
who have not completed the bachelor’s degree and
40

fifths had been in school. In comparison, of all persons
who entered professional and technical occupations in
1980 and who had not worked the previous year, only
30 percent had been in school. This difference may be
explained by the occupational orientation of educational
programs in this field, which makes the transition from
school to work relatively easy.
Nearly one-half of those who took jobs as engineer­
ing and science technicians in 1980 had some post­
secondary education. One-third had a high school
education or less. One-fifth were college gradu­
ates—most likely science graduates. In the face of a
competitive job market, some graduates with a
bachelor’s degree in science accepted positions as
technicians. On the other hand, virtually all engineering
graduates found professional positions in their field.
Persons 20-34 years old filled 80 percent of all job
openings for engineering and science technicians in
1980—somewhat higher than the proportion of open­
ings filled by persons in that age group in all profes­
sional and technical occupations.
Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

885,000
1,093,000
23.4

1,176,000
32.9

168,000
21,000
147,000

183,000
29,000
154,000

1 Includes broadcast technicians, civil engineering technicians,
electrical and electronic technicians, industrial engineering
technicians, mechanical engineering technicians, and all other
engineering and science technicians.

Engineers

than half the rate for all occupations and is somewhat
less than that for all professional and technical workers.
Engineers are only slightly less likely to transfer to
other occupations or become unemployed than are pro­
fessional and technical workers in general, but are much
less likely to leave the labor force to attend school or
for household responsibilities. Most engineers who leave
the labor force are 55 or older.
During 1980, about 44 percent of those who entered
engineering were recent engineering graduates. Most
of the other entrants transferred from other occupa­
tions—most likely people with previous experience or
training in engineering or a related occupation. Some
entrants were recent science and mathematics gradu­
ates, immigrant engineers, and persons over 55 who had
not worked the previous year.
The National Center for Education Statistics projects
that an average of about 74,000 bachelor’s degrees in
engineering and engineering technology will be
awarded annually over the 1980-90 period. If entry rates
observed during the 1970’s—averaging about 80 per­
cent—continue, roughly 60,000 new engineering gradu­
ates can be expected to seek engineering jobs annually.
In the past, almost all recent engineering graduates who
sought jobs received offers because they are preferred
by employers for many engineering jobs. This prefer­
ence is not likely to change during the 1980’s, so all
available recent engineering graduates, about 60,000 an­
nually, are expected to find engineering jobs. As a re­
sult, between 44 and 50 percent of the projected 120,000
to 136,000 job openings during the 1980’s would be
filled by those graduates—compared to 44 percent in
1980.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

Training. A bachelor’s degree in engineering is re­
quired for most positions. Graduate training in engi­
neering is important for a number of jobs, and is essen­
tial for college and university faculty positions. Persons
having experience in other technical jobs or degrees in
the natural sciences or mathematics also may qualify
for some engineering jobs.

1,218,000
1,552,000
27.4

1,672,000
37.3

120,000
33,000
87,000

136,000
46,000
90,000

' Includes engineers and an estimate for college engineering
teachers based on data from the National Science Foundation.

Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
those with degrees in engineering are expected to be
good through the 1980’s; new graduates should be par­
ticularly in demand. Between 120,000 and 136,000 job
openings are projected annually. Replacement needs are
expected to account for about three-fourths of these
openings as employers replace engineers who transfer
to other occupations or stop working. About one-fourth
of the projected openings are expected to result from
faster than average growth as investment in industrial
plants and equipment grows and defense spending rises
sharply.
Even though the number of engineers expected to
leave the occupation is large, the rate of movement out
of engineering—about 6 percent leave annually—is less

Insurance agents and brokers
Training. Employers of insurance agents prefer col­
lege graduates but readily accept individuals with some
college courses or with less than a 4-year degree. Some
employers hire high school graduates with potential or
proven sales ability or those who have demonstrated
success in other types of work.
Agents and brokers must have a license in the State
where they plan to sell insurance. In most States, li­
censes are issued to applicants who pass written exami­
nations covering insurance fundamentals and the State’s
insurance laws. New agents usually receive training at
their local agency and also at the insurance company’s
41

home office. Some attend company-sponsored classes
to prepare for examinations; other study on their own.

a master’s degree within a certain period after begin­
ning employment.

Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
insurance agents and brokers are expected to be good
through the 1980’s. The volume of insurance sales
should continue to expand as an increasing number of
people enter the 25-54 age category—the group with the
greatest insurance needs. Employment growth due to in­
creased sales and the need to replace people who leave
the occupation are projected to create between 46,000
and 49,000 job openings annually during the 1980’s.
Although replacement needs are expected to account for
85 percent of all openings, they are a somewhat less
significant source of job openings than in most other
sales occupations.
Insurance agents and brokers are less likely to leave
their occupation than other sales workers. Their sepa­
ration rate—13 percent—is almost as low as that for
professional or managerial workers. Those who left the
occupation during 1980 exhibited a greater than aver­
age tendency to transfer to other occupations—nearly
60 percent moved to other jobs compared to less than
one-half of all workers. The rest stopped working. Most
left the labor force primarily to assume household du­
ties or retire. Relatively few became unemployed.
Data for 1980 indicate that this occupation tends to
attract people with previous work experience who are
older and better educated than average. Three-fourths
of all jobs for insurance agents and brokers were filled
by people who transferred from other occupations, com­
pared to less than half for all job openings. Two-thirds
of those entering this occupation in 1980 were 25 years
or older compared to one-half of all entrants. More than
one-half of the job openings in this occupation were
filled by people with at least some college education.
Persons who took part-time positions as insurance agents
and brokers tended to have less education than those
who worked full time in 1980.

Employment patterns. Roughly 220,000 job openings
for kindergarten and elementary school teachers are
projected to be created annually during the 1980’s due
to employment growth and the need to replace expe­
rienced teachers who leave the profession. The demand
for teachers is determined mainly by enrollments, which
in turn depend on the school-age population. Based on
Bureau of the Census projections of the population, the
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
projects that the downward trend for elementary school
enrollments, which began in 1967, will halt around 1983.
Thereafter, enrollments will rise through the 1980’s. As
a result, employment of kindergarten and elementary
teachers is projected to increase about as fast as the
average for all occupations over the decade. Some addi­
tional employment also may be created as a result of ef­
forts to lower the pupil-teacher ratio. Nevertheless,
replacement needs are expected to be the main source of
jobs—accounting for almost 9 out of every 10 openings.
About 11 percent of all kindergarten and elementary
school teachers left the occupation in 1980—about the
same as the separation rate for all professional workers.
Nearly one-half of all those who left kindergarten and
elementary teaching did so to take up family responsi­
bilities, compared to 22 percent for all professional
workers. About one-third of all teachers in this field
transferred to other occupations. Some retired; rela­
tively few became unemployed or returned to school.
New degree receipients constitute an important
source of teacher supply. The number of persons quali­
fied to teach has declined in recent years because of
the poor job market. In 1981, for example, only about
76,000 new graduates (about 8 percent of bachelor’s
degree recipients) were prepared to teach in elemen­
tary schools, down from more than 135,000 new gradu­
ates (about 15 percent of bachelor’s degree recipients)
in 1973. If the proportion prepared to teach remains at
about 8 percent, an average of 78,000 new graduates
will be prepared to teach in elementary schools each
year during the 1980’s, based on the latest NCES pro­
jections of earned degrees. If the application rate for
1981—about 85 percent—continues, about 66,000 are
likely to seek teaching positions.
Most kindergarten and elementary school teachers
are women. The occupation is characterized by a pat­
tern of movement from teaching to family responsibili­
ties or other work and back to teaching again. Thus, at
any time, there is a large reserve pool of qualified
teachers not in the labor force. In 1980, 37 percent of
those who obtained teaching jobs had not worked the
previous year because of household responsibilities. In
addition, kindergarten and elementary school teachers
have been in oversupply for years, so that many

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

327.000
399.000
21.8

_

46,000
7,000
39,000

-

-

-

420,000
28.4
49,000
9,000
40,000

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers
Training. All States require teachers in public elemen­
tary schools to be certified; some States also require
certification of teachers in private and parochial ele­
mentary schools. To become certified, an individual
must have a bachelor’s degree from an institution with
a State-approved teacher education program, student
teaching experience, and basic education courses. In
1980, almost half the States required teachers to obtain
42

would-be teachers took other jobs until they were able
to obtain a teaching job. In 1980, 41 percent of entrants
into kindergarten or elementary school teaching trans­
ferred from other jobs (some probably were recent
graduates employed while in school).
The number of persons in the reserve pool who will
seek teaching jobs in the future cannot be estimated—it
depends on factors such as the availability of teaching
jobs and the salary level relative to other jobs. Never­
theless, job prospects for kindergarten and elementary
school teachers are expected to improve after 1983 as
enrollments increase. Shortages could develop if the
proportion of bachelor’s degree recipients prepared to
teach continues to decline, or if the number of persons
from the reserve pool of teachers seeking entry to the
field is insufficient.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment. 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

1,625,000
1,919,000
18.1

1,931,000
18.8

217,000
29,400
187,600

218,900
30,600
188,300

Includes salaried elementary school teachers and preschool
and kindergarten teachers in the educational services industry.

Lawyers
Training. To practice law in any State, a person must
be admitted to its bar. Usually, applicants for admission
to the bar must pass a written examination. To qualify
for the examination in most States, an applicant must
complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from
law school. Lawyers who have been admitted to the
bar in one State sometimes may be admitted in another
State without taking the bar examination, although re­
quirements may vary.
Employment patterns. Employment of lawyers grew
very rapidly during the late 1970’s. While growth is
projected to be faster than the average for all occupa­
tions through the 1980’s as the demand for legal serv­
ices expands, employment growth is expected to create
fewer annual job openings for lawyers than during the
former period. The need to replace lawyers who retire
or leave their jobs for other reasons is expected to ac­
count for about two-thirds of the 34,000 to 41,000 av­
erage annual job openings projected over the 1980-90
period. Still, replacement needs play a less significant
role as a source of job openings for lawyers than for
most occupations.
During 1980, less than 5 percent of employed law­
yers left the occupation. While most lawyers who left
the occupation transferred to another job, the rate of
transfer out of this occupation was about one-half the
rate for all professional and technical workers. Lawyers
are less inclined to change their occupation, since they
have invested substantial amounts of time and money in
43

training. Those lawyers who do transfer often take ad­
ministrative, managerial, business, or political posi­
tions, and some become judges. Most of the other
lawyers who left the occupation during 1980 retired or
returned to school. Some assumed household duties;
relatively few became unemployed.
The vast majority of job openings are filled by re­
cent law school graduates. Most of these graduates are
in their mid- to late 20’s and have little or no work ex­
perience. About 35,600 persons earned law degrees dur­
ing academic year 1979-80, according to the National
Center for Education Statistics.
During 1980, about one-fifth of the job openings for
lawyers were filled by persons who transferred into the
occupation. This was less than one-half the proportion
of openings that were filled by transfer in all profes­
sional and technical occupations. Some of those who
transfer into the legal profession also are new graduates
who have attended law school on a part-time basis while
working full time in other occupations. Data from the
American Bar Association show that law schools have
graduated about 5,000 part-time students annually in
recent years.
Others who transferred included law school gradu­
ates who were reentering the profession and those who
had no previous work experience as lawyers. Many of
these persons used their law degrees to pursue careers
in business, politics, and other fields in which a thor­
ough knowledge of law is invaluable. Some graduates,
in the midst of keen job competition, were unable to
find jobs as lawyers shortly after graduation from law
school. Rather than establish a new law practice, they
accepted jobs in other fields where legal training is an
asset but not normally a requirement. These groups
make up a reserve pool of qualified lawyers who can
enter this job market at any time.
Despite strong growth in the demand for lawyers
during the late 1970’s, the sizable number of law school
graduates entering the job market each year has cre­
ated keen competition for salaried jobs. Employment
growth is projected to slow during the 1980’s. While
the number of graduates is expected to level off during
this period, the supply of new graduates seeking jobs
as lawyers each year, coupled with those qualified law­
yers seeking to transfer into the legal profession, is ex­
pected to result in continued intense competition for
jobs. This should be especially true in large metropoli­
tan areas. Graduates of prestigious law schools and
those who rank in the top of their classes should have
the best job opportunities. In this competitive job mar­
ket, the willingness to relocate also should be an ad­
vantage in getting a job.
While establishing a new law practice is always pos­
sible, those who undertake this venture may find it dif­
ficult to compete with established law firms. Prospects
probably will continue to be best in those small towns

and expanding suburban areas in which an active mar­
ket for legal services already exists.
Employment, 1980' ..................
Projected employment, 1990 .....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G ro w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

425,000
532,000
25.3

-

588,000
38.6

34,000
11,000
23,000

-

41,000
16,000
25,000

' Includes lawyers and an estimate for law school faculty based
on data from the American Bar Association.

Librarians
Training. Entry requirements for librarians vary by
employment setting. Most States require that school li­
brarians be certified as teachers. A library degree may
not be required because the library has become the
“learning resources center” in many schools and is
staffed by those with master’s degrees in media re­
sources, educational technology, and audio-visual com­
munications, or with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in
library science. A master’s degree in library science
(MLS) is usually required for jobs in public libraries
and most college and university libraries. Some States
require certification of public librarians; the specific
education and experience required vary. A Ph.D. de­
gree in library science is advantageous for teaching in
library schools or for a top administrative post in a col­
lege or university library or in a large library system.

MLS’s were awarded in 1980, down from about 8,000
annually in the mid-1970’s. This decline probably re­
flects the response of students to the poor job market
for librarians. Furthermore, not all become librarians
right after graduation. Only about half of the 1976-77
MLS recipients were employed as librarians in Febru­
ary 1978, according to a survey by the National Cen­
ter for Education Statistics. Most entrants come from
the pool of those qualified to be librarians who are not
in the occupation. Nearly half of those who entered the
occupation in 1980 had not been in the labor force the
previous year because of household responsibilities.
Most of the others transferred from other occupations,
although some probably were recent library science
graduates employed in other occupations while in
school.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G ro w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

145.000
149.000
2.6
20,700
400
20,300

-

-

-

151,000
4.5
21,200
700
20,500

1 Includes librarians and audiovisual specialists.

Licensed practical nurses
Training. All States require practical nurses to have a
license. To become licensed, applicants must complete
a State-approved program in practical nursing and pass
a written examination. Educational requirements for en­
rollment in State-approved training programs range
from completion of eighth grade to high school gradua­
tion, but a high school diploma is usually preferred.
Generally, the course lasts 1 year and is given in com­
munity and junior colleges, local hospitals, and voca­
tional schools.

Employment patterns. Approximately 21,000 job open­
ings are projected to become available annually during
the 1980’s. Virtually all openings are expected to arise
from the need to replace librarians who stop working
or transfer to other occupations, since employment
growth is projected to be very slow through the 1980’s.
Employment growth in public libraries is likely to be
slower than it has been in the last two decades, while lit­
tle change is foreseen in school library employment
and employment of academic librarians is expected to
decline slightly. Opportunities are expected to be best
for librarians with specialized knowledge in scientific
and technical fields, including medicine, law, engineer­
ing, and the physical and biological sciences.
During 1980, about 15 percent of all librarians left
the occupation. This separation rate was somewhat
higher than the average for all other professional
workers, primarily because librarians left the labor force
at a higher rate; they were about as likely as other pro­
fessional workers to transfer to other occupations or
become unemployed. Of those who left the occupation,
about one-third transferred to another occupation, about
one-fourth left the labor force to take up household re­
sponsibilities, and the rest became unemployed, returned
to school, or retired.
One source of entrants is new graduates with mas­
ter’s degrees in library science (MLS). About 5,300

Employment patterns. Job prospects for licensed prac­
tical nurses (LPN’s) should be good throughout the
1980’s in view of the large number of job openings an­
ticipated. About 115,000 LPN jobs are projected each
year during the 1980-90 period as a result of faster than
average employment growth and the need to replace
experienced nurses who leave the occupation. Replace­
ment needs are expected to account for the majority of
LPN job openings—nearly 4 out of 5. Nonetheless, re­
placement needs account for proportionally fewer job
openings in practical nursing than in other service oc­
cupations, or in the economy as a whole.
LPN ’s show an unusually strong attachment to their
field: In 1980 they were three times less likely than all
other workers to change occupations. They were much
less likely than other service workers to transfer to an­
other occupation or become unemployed. This may be
associated with continuing high levels of demand for
LPN ’s as well as limited opportunities for movement
44

into other health careers; entry requirements in the
health field are such that experience cannot as a rule
substitute for completion of a prescribed course of
training.
Of those who did leave nursing, about 7 out of 10
left the labor force altogether—generally to attend to
family responsibilities. Licensed practical nurses not
currently active in the field form a reserve pool of in­
dividuals qualified to reenter later on. Many do—the
occupation is characterized by movement from
homemaking into the labor force and out again. In 1980,
an estimated 150,000 LPN ’s were not working in the
field.
Entrants to practical nursing do not fit the pattern
for the rest of the labor force. For the economy as a
whole, just over half of those who entered an occupa­
tion during 1980 had not worked the year before and
the rest had transferred from another occupation. In
practical nursing, however, 4 out of 5 entrants had not
been employed the previous year (most had been home­
makers or students) and only 1 in 5 had transferred
from another occupation. Some of the latter were most
likely students who held other jobs while completing
their training.
The very high percentage of new LPN ’s who had
not been employed the previous year reflects the move­
ment of mature women into and out of the occupation.
Practical nursing attracts many middle-aged and older
women, and this distinguishes it from other service oc­
cupations (except private household jobs). People age
35 and older filled more than 50 percent of the open­
ings for practical nurses in 1980, but only 20 percent
of all openings for service workers. Conversely, com­
pared to other fields, relatively few teenagers and young
adults enter practical nursing. Individuals age 16-24
filled only about 20 percent of the LPN job openings
in 1980, compared to 60 percent of all service openings.
About 42,000 persons graduated from practical nurse
training programs in 1980, according to the National
League for Nursing, and almost 90 percent of them en­
tered the occupation. New graduates filled approxi­
mately 2 out of 5 openings for practical nurses that
year. If the number of new graduates declines for the
remainder of the decade, as anticipated by the Bureau
of Health Professions, new graduates will fill a smaller
proportion of job openings than they do today.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990' ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ...........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

Machine tool operators
Training. Most machine tool operators learn their skills
on the job. Beginners usually start by observing expe­
rienced operators at work, and gradually assume more
responsibility as they gain experience.
Individual ability and effort largely determine the
time required to become a machine tool operator. Most
semiskilled operators learn their jobs in a few months,
but becoming a skilled operator often requires 1 to 2
years. Some companies have formal training programs
for new employees.
Although no special education is required for semi­
skilled jobs, persons seeking such work can improve
their opportunities by completing courses in mathe­
matics and blueprint reading. In hiring beginners, em­
ployers often look for persons with mechanical aptitude
and some experience in working with machinery. Physi­
cal stamina is important since much time is spent stand­
ing. Applicants should be able to work independently.
Employment patterns. Job opportunities for machine
tool operators should be plentiful through the 1980’s in
view of the large number of projected job open­
ings—nearly 160,000 annually. Growth in the employ­
ment of machine tool operators is projected to be about
the same as the average for all occupations as
metalworking industries expand their output. However,
the need fo replace experienced operators who transfer
to other jobs or stop working is expected to account for
about 9 out of 10 jobs.
Twenty-five percent of all machine tool operators
left their jobs in 1980, about the same as for all non­
transport equipment operatives. Over two-fifths of them
transferred to other jobs. Some operators advanced to
highly skilled machining occupations such as all-round
machinist or tool-and-die maker or to jobs in machine
programming and maintenance. Other operators proba­
bly transferred to other skilled or semiskilled occupa­
tions. One-third of all machine tool operators who left
their jobs became unemployed—reflecting the occupa­
tion’s sensitivity to the business cycle. Nearly one-fourth
left the labor force altogether; four-tenths of these op­
erators were retirees—age 55 and older.
Over half of all job openings for machine tool op­
erators in 1980 were filled by persons who transferred
into the occupation—most likely from unskilled or semi­
skilled occupations. This was slightly higher than the
proportion of openings in other operative occupations
filled by transfer. Nearly three-fourths of those who
transferred into this occupation were 25-54 years old.
In comparison, for all operative occupations except
transport, half of those who transferred were in this
age group.
Persons who had not worked the previous year filled
nearly half of all openings for machine tool operators

550,000
782,000
42.4
115,000
22,000
93,0001

1 Current employment estimate furnished
by the Bureau o f Health Professions; projec­
tion developed by BLS outside the frame­
work o f the OES matrix.

45

in 1980. Over half of these operators had been un­
employed and one-fourth had left household responsi­
bilities or had been in school. Of all machine tool op­
erators who had not worked the previous year, over
half were 16-24 years old. Eighty-five percent of all
machine tool operators who had not worked the pre­
vious year had a high school education or less. Roughly
equal numbers had some formal postsecondary educa­
tion or were college graduates.
Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

1,020,000
1,205,000
18.3

1,233,000
21.1

155,000
19,000
136,000

In 1980, about 15 percent of manufacturers’ sales
workers left the occupation—less than the proportion
for all sales workers combined, but about the same as
for wholesale trade sales workers. Of those who left, a
greater proportion than average—68 percent—trans­
ferred to other jobs. Relatively few manufacturers’ sales
workers leave the labor force or become unemployed.
In 1980, 54 percent of the job openings for manufac­
turers’ sales workers were filled by persons who trans­
ferred from other occupations; the rest were filled by
those who were unemployed or previously outside the
labor force. Those who transferred tended to be older
and better educated than entrants who had not worked
during the previous year. Manufacturers’ sales work is
popular with older individuals who are interested in
making a career change. Individuals who were age 25
or older filled almost 8 out of 10 job openings in this
occupation, compared to only a little more than onehalf of all jobs openings. More than half of the open­
ings in this occupation were filled by persons with at
least some college education.

159,000
21,000
138,000

1 Includes drill press and boring machine operators; grinding
and abrading machine operators, metal; lathe machine operators,
metal; machine tool operators, combination; machine tool
operators, numerical control; machine tool operators, tool room;
milling and planing machine operators; power brake and bending
machine operators, metal; punch press operators, metal; wood
machinists; shaper and router operators; lathe operators, wood;
glass blowing lathe operators; lathe operators, grinding wheels;
jewel bearing lathe operators; veneer lathe operators; boring
machine operators, wood; power press tenders; punch press
operators, plastics; incising machine operators; envelope finishing
machine operators; drill punch operators; drillers, machine; and
stone drillers.

Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

Manufacturers’ sales workers

437,000
501,000
14.5
71,000
7,000
64,000

-

_
-

543,000
24.1
78,000
11,000
67,000

1 Includes sales workers in manufacturing industries.

Training. Manufacturing firms increasingly are seek­
ing college graduates or individuals with at least some
college education for sales positions. Manufacturers of
nontechnical products look for business administration
or liberal arts graduates; manufacturers of technical
products usually seek graduates with degrees in science
or engineering. Many employers also hire high school
graduates with potential or proven sales ability or with
demonstrated success in other types of work.
Many companies, especially manufacturers of tech­
nical products, have formal training programs for be­
ginning sales workers that last at least 2 years. In some
programs, trainees rotate among jobs to learn about
production, installation, and distribution of the product.
In others, trainees receive classroom instruction and
on-the-job training under the supervision of a field sales
manager.

Physicians
Training. All States require a license for the practice
of medicine. Applicants must graduate from an accred­
ited medical school; serve a 1- or 2-year residency after
earning the M.D.; and pass a licensing examination. The
licensing examination taken by most graduates of U.S.
medical schools is the National Board of Medical
Examiners (NBME) test that is accepted by all States
except Texas and Louisiana. Graduates of foreign medi­
cal schools as well as graduates of U.S. medical schools
who have not taken the NBME test must take the Fed­
eration Licensure Examination (FLEX) that is accepted
by all jurisdictions. Although physicians licensed in one
State usually can get a license to practice in another
without further examination, some States limit this
reciprocity.
Most physicians specialize in a particular field of
medicine. Advanced training following the residency
continues for 2 years or more and is offered in 38 spe­
cialties including internal medicine, general surgery, ob­
stetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, pediatrics, radiol­
ogy, anesthesiology, ophthalmology, pathology, and or­
thopedic surgery. The most rapidly growing specialties
are in the primary care area—family practice, internal
medicine, and pediatrics. Upon completion of the ad­
vanced training program and a period of clinical prac­

Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
manufacturers’ sales workers are expected to be good
through the 1980’s. Employment is p*ojected to grow
about as fast as the average for all occupations.
Employment growth and the need to replace experienc­
ed workers who leave their jobs are projected to create
between 71,000 and 78,000 job openings annually dur­
ing the 1980’s. Replacement needs are expected to be the
main source of openings, however, accounting for 9 out
of 10 job openings.
46

specialties is already evident, and supply/demand
imbalances may intensify. Although primary care phy­
sicians who locate in areas where physicians are in de­
mand should encounter little difficulty in establishing a
practice, some specialists are expected to face an in­
creasingly competitive market for the positions or lo­
cations of their choice. Pressure to curtail, the influx of
foreign medical graduates is likely to continue as the
market adjusts to the increasingly abundant supply of
physicians.

tice, applicants for specialty board certification take the
appropriate examination.
Employment patterns. Faster than average employ­
ment growth and the need to replace physicians who
leave the medical profession are projected to create ap­
proximately 17,500 job openings each year during the
1980-90 period. The need to replace those who stop
working or transfer to other occupations is expected to
account for one-third of these openings. In comparison,
replacements will account for nine-tenths of projected
job openings for the work force as a whole.
Physicians exhibit very strong attachment to work
and to the medical profession. Once having completed
their training and entered medical practice, physicians
tend to remain in the labor force until they retire.
Moreover, relatively few leave medicine for other ca­
reers. Nearly 99 percent of all physicians who were
employed at the beginning of 1980 were still active in
medicine a year later. Comparable estimates of occu­
pational attachment were 80 percent for all workers
and 89 percent for professional and technical workers.
Recent medical school graduates constitute the prin­
cipal source of supply of new physicians. Since licen­
sure and specialty board certification take 10 to 15 years
or more following graduation from high school, job
openings for physicians are filled almost exclusively by
persons age 25-34. Some jobs are filled each year by
older entrants, including licensed physicians who had
left the civilian labor force temporarily because of mili­
tary service, disability, or household responsibilities.
Medical school enrollments have increased greatly
since the mid-1960’s; the sharpest rise occurred between
1965 and 1975. Enrollment increases have moderated
since the mid-1970’s, and relatively little change in the
number of new graduates is foreseen for the decade of
the 1980’s. Foreign-trained physicians (including U.S.
citizens who completed their training abroad) currently
account for approximately one-sixth of all newly li­
censed physicians and one-fifth of all M.D.’s in prac­
tice. The number of foreign medical graduates practic­
ing medicine in the United States has soared during the
past few decades but this trend is not expected to con­
tinue. The Bureau of Health Professions anticipates that
the supply of foreign-trained* physicians will continue to
grow during the 1980’s, but more slowly than in the
past.
Annual additions to the supply of physicians could
range between 19,000 and 21,000, depending primarily
on the rate of entry of foreign medical graduates. Fu­
ture enrollment levels in U.S. medical schools can be
projected with reasonable confidence, and the supply
of licensed but inactive physicians is small. It is diffi­
cult, however, to predict immigration.
Job openings are projected to average about 17,500
a year. Evidence of oversupply in some regions and

Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990' ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ...........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

405,000
516,000
27.4
17,400
11,100
6,300

1 M .D .’s only. Current and projected em­
ployment estimates based on data furnished
by the American Medical Association and the
Bureau o f Health Professions.

Plumbers and pipefitters
Training. Plumbers and pipefitters learn their skills on
the job. Many pick up the trade by working as helpers
to experienced plumbers and pipefitters; some receive
more structured training from their employers; and some
participate in formal apprenticeship programs adminis­
tered by local union-management committees and local
contractors’ associations. Apprenticeship consists of 4
years of on-the-job training and a minimum of 216 hours
of related classroom instruction each year. Some train­
ing authorities recommend completion of an appren­
ticeship because the program includes instruction in all
the skills of the trade.
Employers prefer to hire high school graduates. High
school or vocational school courses in shop, plumbing,
general mathematics, drafting, blueprint reading, and
physics provide a useful background.
Most local governments have licensing requirements
for plumbers. To obtain a license, workers must pass
an examination on the trade and local plumbing codes.

Employment patterns. Employment of plumbers and
pipefitters is projected to grow about as fast as the av­
erage for all occupations through the 1980’s as con­
struction activity increases. Construction of oil refiner­
ies, chemical plants, powerplants, and other projects
that have large, complex pipe systems is expected to
increase demand for pipefitters. Similarly, construction
of houses and other residential buildings is expected to
increase the demand for plumbers. Between 52,000 and
57,000 job openings are projected to be available each
year during the 1980’s due to the increased demand for
47

plumbers and pipefitters and the need to replace expe­
rienced workers who stop working or transfer to other
occupations. About 9 of 10 openings are expected to
result from replacement needs.
Data on work experience in 1980 indicate that only
about 3 percent of plumbers and pipefitters transferred
to other occupations—less than one-half the proportion
for other craft workers. Plumbers and pipefitters spend
about 4 years acquiring their training and enjoy rela­
tively high earnings. Consequently, they have a strong
attachment to the occupation. Those who do transfer
probably enter related jobs such as air-conditioning,
heating, and refrigeration mechanic.
Most of the plumbers and pipefitters who left the oc­
cupation in 1980 stopped working. About one-fourth
were older workers who retired. Most, however, were
experienced workers who were between jobs. When
work is not available or construction projects are com­
pleted, plumbers and pipefitters may become un­
employed or leave the labor force temporarily. Most
desire to reenter the trade when jobs become available
and therefore reentrants are an important part of the
labor supply for the occupation.
About 49,000 persons took jobs as plumbers and pipe­
fitters during 1980. Six of every 10 jobs were filled by
people who had not been working. Most were experi­
enced plumbers and pipefitters who had been un­
employed. Some had been in school; many were 16- to
19-year-olds who probably entered the occupation for
the first time. A small proportion were older workers
who had dropped out of the labor force temporarily.
Four jobs in 10 were filled by persons who trans­
ferred from other occupations. Some who transferred
probably were experienced plumbers or pipefitters who
had entered other occupations during periods when
construction activity in their trade was down. Others
were production workers who advanced to jobs as pipe­
fitters in manufacturing plants. Some transferred from
apprentice or helper jobs.
People entering the occupation for the first time can
expect competition despite the large number of pro­
jected openings. Many people are attracted to the
plumbing and pipefitting trade because of potential high
earnings. Also, because of the temporary nature of con­
struction work, there usually is a pool of experienced
plumbers and pipefitters who are unemployed or out­
side the labor force. People planning to pursue this
trade can improve their chances of steady work by ac­
quiring all-round skills.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

407.000
489.000
20.0
52,000
8,000
44,000

_

_

-

Printing press operators and assistants
Training. Most press operators learn their trade
through apprenticeship programs, beginning as helpers
to experienced press operators. Others obtain their skills
through a combination of work experience and voca­
tional or technical school training.
The length and content of training depend largely on
the kind of press used in the plant. Most press opera­
tors are trained to operate more than one press but spe­
cialize in a particular area of printing such as letterpress, lithography, or gravure. The apprenticeship pe­
riod in commercial shops generally is 2 years for press
assistants and 4 years for press operators. In addition
to on-the-job instruction, the apprenticeship includes
related classroom or correspondence school courses.
Courses in printing provide a good background. Be­
cause of technical developments in the printing indus­
try, courses in chemistry, electronics, and physics also
are helpful.
Employment patterns. Printing press operators are
likely to face competition for jobs during the 1980’s.
The number of applicants to apprenticeship programs
is expected to exceed the number of openings. As a re­
sult, most people probably will have to take jobs as
helpers or unskilled laborers before being selected for
an apprenticeship. Web-press operators should have the
best job prospects as many firms switch to web-offset
presses from letterpresses or sheet-fed presses.
An estimated 25,000-28,000 job openings are pro­
jected annually through the 1980’s. The need to replace
printing press operators who retire or leave their jobs
for other reasons is expected to account for about 90
percent of these openings—about the same proportion
as for all occupations combined. The remaining open­
ings are expected to result from employment growth,
which, however, will be relatively slow as the increased
use of faster and more efficient presses partially offsets
the need for more press operators arising from growth
in the amount of printed materials.
During 1980, about 16 percent of all printing press
operators left the occupation—the same proportion as
for all craft workers combined. Nearly two-thirds of
these operators transferred to other jobs—most likely
to other skilled or semiskilled occupations. Another
one-fourth left the labor force—about half were retir­
ees, age 55 and older.
During 1980, over 60 percent of all job openings for
printing press operators were filled by persons who
transferred into the occupation, compared to slightly
over 50 percent for all craft workers combined. Many
persons work as helpers or unskilled laborers before
being selected for an apprenticeship. Others may trans­
fer from declining printing occupations such as com­
positors and typesetters or electrotypers and stereo­

522,000
28.3
57,000
12,000
45,000

48

typers. Nearly 40 percent of the openings in 1980 were
filled by persons who had not worked the previous
year. Over one-half of these persons had been un­
employed and over one-fourth had been in school.
Persons with a high school education or less filled
over 60 percent of the jobs for printing press operators
in 1980. However, less than 10 percent of the jobs were
filled by persons 16-19 years old—indicating that very
few individuals enter this occupation immediately after
completing high school. Persons with some college or
postsecondary training filled over one-fourth of the
openings; college graduates filled less than 10 percent
of the jobs.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

178.000
194.000
9.0
25,500
1,600
23,900

_
-

_
-

half the separation rate for all workers and somewhat
less than the rate for all professional and technical
workers.
Fifty-four percent of those who left the occupation
transferred to a different job—probably systems ana­
lyst, data processing manager, or hardware or software
sales worker. Forty-six percent of those who left the
occupation stopped working. Most of these left the la­
bor force—many assumed household responsibilities
and others retired. Relatively few programmers became
unemployed in 1980.
About 55 percent of all job openings for program­
mers in 1980 were filled by persons who had not worked
the previous year. Most had been in school and were
under 35 years of age. The remaining jobs were filled
by workers who transferred from other occupations.
Because of a shortage of trained programmers, many
computer operators who completed additional training
were able to advance to jobs as programmers. High
wages in programming also have attracted other
workers with appropriate skills, such as mathematics
and physics teachers and engineers.

208,000
16.9
27,900
3,000
24,900

' Includes letter press operators, offset lithographic press
operators, platemakers, press operators and plate printers, and all
other press and plate printers.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

Programmers
Training. In hiring programmers, employers look for
people who can think logically and are capable of ex­
acting analytical work. Employers using computers for
scientific or engineering applications prefer college
graduates who have degrees in computer or informa­
tion science, mathematics, engineering, or the physical
sciences. Graduate degrees are required for some jobs.
Although some employers who use computers for busi­
ness applications do not require college degrees, they
prefer applicants who have had college courses in data
processing.

228,000
340,000
48.9
36,000
11,000
25,000

-

-

366,000
60.4
40,000
14,000
26,000

Psychologists
Training. A doctoral degree in psychology is required
for the most responsible research, teaching, clinical, and
counseling positions. Psychologists who want to estab­
lish an independent practice also must meet certifica­
tion or licensing requirements. Licensing laws vary by
State, but generally require a doctorate in psychology
and 2 years of professional experience. In addition, most
States require that an applicant pass a written and an
oral examination. A master’s degree in psychology may
qualify individuals to work as psychological assistants,
school psychologists or counselors, or to teach in 2-year
colleges. Some States certify those with master’s level
training as psychological assistants or associates. Some
States require continuing education for relicensure.

Employment patterns. Employment of programmers is
projected to grow faster than the average for all occu­
pations through the 1980’s as computer usage expands.
Between 36,000 and 40,000 jobs are projected to be
available each year due to the increased demand for
programmers and the need to replace experienced
workers who stop working or transfer to other occu­
pations. Replacement needs are expected to account for
about two-thirds of all job openings for programmers,
a much lower proportion than the proportion for all
professional and technical workers—86 percent. Job
prospects for programmers should continue to be excel­
lent for college graduates who have had computer-re­
lated courses, particularly for those with a major in
computer science or a related field. Graduates of 2-year
programs in data processing technologies also should
have good prospects, primarily in business applications.
Data on work experience in 1980 indicate that pro­
grammers have a strong attachment to their occupa­
tion. Only 9 percent left the occupation in 1980, one-

Employment patterns. Roughly 12,000 job openings for
psychologists are projected to be created each year dur­
ing the 1980’s due to average employment growth and
the need to replace psychologists who retire or leave
their jobs for other reasons. Although replacement
needs are expected to account for about 4 out of 5
openings, they are a less significant source of job open­
ings than in most other occupations.
Persons holding doctorates in applied areas such as
clinical, counseling, and industrial or organizational psy­
chology should have more favorable job prospects than
49

business administration or management. Companies that
manufacture machinery or chemicals may prefer appli­
cants with a background in engineering or science, while
other companies hire business administration majors as
trainees. Courses in purchasing, accounting, economics,
and statistics are helpful. Familiarity with computers
also is desirable.
Some small companies require a bachelor’s degree;
many others, however, hire graduates of associate de­
gree programs in purchasing for entry level jobs. They
also may promote purchasing clerks or technicians to
purchasing agent.

those trained in research specialties such as experimen­
tal, physiological, and comparative psychology. Psy­
chologists with extensive training in quantitative re­
search methods and computer science should have a
competitive edge over applicants without this back­
ground. Competition for academic positions is expected
to remain keen. Persons with only a master’s degree
will probably continue to encounter severe competition
for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify.
Data on the experience of workers in 1980 indicate
that psychologists have a strong attachment to their
occupation. Less than 8 percent left the occupation,
compared with about 11 percent of all professional and
technical workers and 20 percent of all workers com­
bined. The rate of transfer out of this occupation was
slightly over half the rate for all professional and tech­
nical workers, perhaps reflecting the substantial amount
of time and money psychologists invest in training. Of
those psychologists who left the occupation but did not
transfer to another occupation, over half attended
school or assumed household duties; the others retired
or became unemployed.
In 1980, over 60 percent of the job openings for psy­
chologists were filled by persons who were 35-54 years
old—three times the proportion of openings for all pro­
fessional and technical workers filled by persons in that
age group. Many qualified psychologists enter or reenter
the occupation after pursuing academic, business, and
other careers, while other persons in this age group en­
ter the field after earning an advanced degree in psy­
chology. According to the National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics, about 7,800 master’s and 2,800 doctor’s
degrees were awarded in psychology in academic year
1979-80.
Roughly half of those who entered the occupation
in 1980 transferred from other jobs—most likely per­
sons who worked in another occupation while earning
an advanced degree in psychology and those who reen­
tered the occupation after pursuing other careers. Of the
other half, some had been in school or had household
responsibilities while others had been unemployed.
Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

106,000
129,000
22.3
11,600
2,400
9,200

_

-

-

-

Employment patterns. Employment of purchasing
agents is projected to increase about as fast as the av­
erage for all occupations through the 1980’s as manu­
facturing firms, other businesses, and government agen­
cies seek to minimize costs associated with purchases
of materials, supplies, equipment, and services.
Between 20,000 and 22,000 job openings are projected
to be available each year during the 1980’s due to the
rising demand for purchasing agents and the need to
replace experienced workers who stop working or trans­
fer to other occupations. Although replacement needs
are expected to account for about 8 of 10 job openings,
they are less significant than for managers as a whole.
Purchasing agents have a relatively strong attach­
ment to their occupation. During 1980, only about 10
percent of all purchasing agents left the occupation, of
whom three-fifths transferred to other jobs. About onefifth left the labor force; the rest became unemployed.
Those who became unemployed tended to have the
least education. Of those who left the labor force, 35
percent were persons 55 and older who probably re­
tired; others took on family responsibilities and some
returned to school.
Six of every 10 job openings for purchasing agents
in 1980 were filled by workers who transferred from
other occupations—probably clerical and technical
workers in the purchasing department who moved up
the career ladder and others whose specialized knowl­
edge about particular products and services enabled
tham to qualify for jobs as purchasing agents. The re­
maining openings were filled by unemployed purchas­
ing agents and persons who returned to the labor force
after having taken time off to care for a family, attend
school, or for other reasons. Most persons in this cate­
gory had some education beyond high school.

134,000
26.7
12,200
2,800
9,400

1 Includes psychologists and an estimate for college psychology
teachers based on data from the National Science Foundation.

Purchasing agents

Employment, 1980 ...................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

Training. Although there are no universal educational
requirements for an entry level job as a purchasing
agent, most large organizations require a college de­
gree. and prefer applicants with a master’^ degree in
50

172.000
200.000
15.8
20,000
2,500
17,500

_
-

-

-

214,000
24.1
22,000
4,000
18,000

occupations;; and those trained in the Armed Forces.
In 1980, three-quarters of those who entered the occu­
pation were labor force entrants or reentrants. Some
had been students the year before, but many others had
been homemakers. Only about one-fourth transferred
from other jobs, mainly from other allied health occu­
pations. The proportion of radiologic technologists who
transferred from other occupations was considerably
smaller than that for all professional and technical
workers or for the work force as a whole.
The Committee on Allied Health Education and A c­
creditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical Asso­
ciation accredits many, but not all, formal training pro­
grams for radiologic technologists. The number of
graduates of CAHEA-accredited programs has tripled
since 1965. A total of 8,720 persons graduated from
CAHEA-accredited programs in 1980: 7,725 in radiog­
raphy, 664 in nuclear medicine technology, and 331 in
radiation therapy technology. Health professions ana­
lysts expect the number of graduates in radiography to
stabilize at the current level for the rest of the 1980’s,
and completions in nuclear medicine technology and
radiation therapy technology to rise considerably.

Radiologic technologists
Training. Completion of a formal training program in
radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation
therapy technology is required for many entry level
jobs. Hospitals, which employ about three-fourths of
all radiologic technologists, prefer to hire individuals
who have had formal training. Technologists employed
in physicians’ offices are likely to be trained on the job,
however.
Training in radiologic technology is offered at the
postsecondary level in hospitals, medical schools, col­
leges and universities, trade schools, vocational-techni­
cal institutes, and the Armed Forces. Formal training
programs vary greatly, both in length and the level of
skill they impart. They last from 1 to 4 years and lead
to a certificate or an associate or bachelor’s degree. A
bachelor’s or master’s degree in radiologic technology
is desirable for supervisory, administrative, or teaching
positions. A small but growing number of States require
radiologic technologists to be licensed.
Employment patterns. Faster than average employ­
ment growth and the need to replace radiologic tech­
nologists who leave the occupation are projected to
create between 16,500 and 17,500 job openings each
year during the 1980’s. Demand for these workers is
expected to rise as radiologic equipment is increasingly
used to diagnose and treat disease. The use of nuclear
medicine in diagnostic tests and radiation therapy for
cancer treatment is expected to spur demand for tech­
nologists with specialized skills.
Despite the rapid increase in employment projected
for the 1980’s, approximately 3 out of 4 openings are
expected to arise from the need to replace radiologic
technologists who stop working or transfer to other
occupations. About 10 percent of all radiologic tech­
nologists left their jobs in 1980. This was about aver­
age for a professional occupation. Most left the labor
force—to go to school or assume household responsi­
bilities, for the most part. Relatively few technologists
transferred to another job or became unemployed.
Radiologic technologists are young and predomi­
nantly female. Most job entrants are in their 20’s or
early 30’s and 7 of every 10 radiologic technologists
are women. The field is, accordingly, characterized by
a pattern of movement from family responsibilities into
the labor force and back to the home again. Nearly half
of those who took radiologic technologist jobs in 1980
worked part time, a significantly larger proportion than
for professional and technical workers as a whole.
Recent graduates of formal training programs are an
important source of supply. Other sources include ra­
diologic technologists returning to the field from
homemaking or other activities; people transferring
from other occupations (many of them from other health

Employment, 1980' ...................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ............................
G r o w th ...................................
R eplacem ent............................

106,000
145,000
35.8
16,400
3,800
12,600

_

152,000
42.7

_

17,500
4,500
13,000

-

Includes radiologic and nuclear medicine technicians and Xray technicians.

Real estate agents and brokers
Training. All States and the District of Columbia re­
quire real estate agents and brokers to be licensed. Pro­
spective agents must be high school graduates, be at
least 18 years old, and pass a written test. The exami­
nation—more comprehensive for brokers than for
agents—includes questions on basic real estate transac­
tions and on laws affecting the sale of property.
Most States require candidates for the general sales
license to complete at least 30 hours of classroom in­
struction. Candidates for a broker’s license must com­
plete 90 hours of formal training and have 1 to 3 years
of experience selling real estate. Some States waive the
experience requirement for applicants who have a
bachelor’s degree in real estate.
Employment patterns. Employment of real estate
agents and brokers is projected to rise faster than the
average for all occupations through the 1980’s in order
to satisfy a growing demand for housing and other
properties. Shifts in the age distribution of the popula­
tion should result in a larger number of young adults
with careers and family responsibilities. This is the most
51

ing market, family responsibilities, or other personal
factors. About 2 of every 3 homemakers and retired
persons who began selling real estate in 1980 worked
part time. Persons who had been in school or were un­
employed made up the remainder of the labor force
entrants and reentrants.
Persons who transferred from other occupations ac­
counted for about 37 percent of those who became
agents and brokers in 1980. They came from a variety
of occupations, such as other sales jobs, clerical jobs in
real estate agencies, or from completely unrelated fields.
About 1 of 6 who transferred took a part-time position.
Information on work experience in 1980 provides
some evidence that a growing number of real estate
agents or brokers are college graduates. One-third of
all persons taking jobs as agents or brokers had a col­
lege degree. This was double the proportion of college
graduates entering other sales jobs. Fewer than 2 per­
cent of all entrants with a college degree came directly
from school. About one-third of all graduates trans­
ferred into the occupation; the remainder were primarily
college-educated homemakers and labor force
returnees.

geographically mobile group in our society and the one
that traditionally makes the bulk of home purchases.
As their incomes rise, these people also may be expected
to purchase larger homes and vacation properties.
The large number of job openings for real estate
agents and brokers should make it easy to get a job.
Competition for sales is keen, however. Well-trained
and ambitious people who enjoy selling should have
the best prospects for a successful career in real estate.
Between 104,000 and 116,000 job openings are pro­
jected to be available each year through the 1980’s due
to the increased demand for real estate agents and bro­
kers and the need to replace experienced workers who
stop working or transfer to other occupations. About
8 of 10 job openings are expected to result from re­
placement needs, a somewhat smaller proportion than
for all sales workers.
Data on work experience in 1980 indicate that real
estate agents and brokers are more likely to remain in
their occupation than are other workers. Eighty-five
percent of agents and brokers remained in the occupa­
tion between 1980 and 1981, compared to 80 percent
for all workers and 77 percent for other sales workers.
Brokers generally have a greater investment in their
career than agents and therefore may have a stronger
attachment to the occupation. About one-half of those
who left their jobs in 1980 left the labor force. Many
of these had worked in the occupation part time, and
left to resume household responsibilities, to retire, or to
return to school.
About 44 percent of agents and brokers who left the
occupation transferred to different occupations. This
accounted for about 7 percent of all agents and brokers
in 1980, slightly less than the average for all workers
but substantially less than for all sales workers. Expe­
rience gained selling real estate enables these workers
to move to other sales occupations, such as insurance
or securities sales, or to the related fields of real estate
appraisal, property management, and investment coun­
seling. Agents who work for large firms may advance
to managerial positions.
Relatively few real estate agents and brokers become
unemployed; the proportion who lost their jobs in 1980
was less than one-fourth the proportion for all sales
workers. Because agents are paid mainly by commis­
sion, they contribute relatively little to the firm’s costs.
In most cases, it is to the firm’s advantage to keep agents
working, even in a depressed market.
About 74,000 people took jobs as real estate agents
and brokers in 1980. About 63 percent were labor force
entrants or reentrants. Most of these were homemakers
or retired persons. Because real estate agents generally
determine their own work schedules, this occupation
attracts many people with family responsibilities. Many
of these people enter, leave, and subsequently reenter
the occupation, depending on the strength of the hous­

Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 19901 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

582,000
779,000
33.8

852,000
46.4

104,000
20,000
84,000

116,000
27,000
89,000

Current employment estimate taken from the Current
Population Survey. Projected employment calculated using growth
rates implicit in the OES matrix.

Registered nurses
Training. To obtain the license to practice that is re­
quired by all States and the District of Columbia, nurses
must graduate from an approved school of nursing and
pass a national examination administered by each State.
Nurses may be licensed in more than one State, either
by examination or endorsement of a license issued by
another State.
Nurse training programs vary in length from 2 to 5
years after graduation from high school, depending on
the nature of the program. Programs offered by com­
munity and junior colleges take about 2 years and lead
to an associate degree; hospital-based programs last 2-3
years and lead to a diploma; college and university pro­
grams require 4 or 5 years and lead to a baccalaureate
degree. There is considerable controversy about the
relative merits of the various nurse training programs.
Some employers have specific preferences, but, with
few exceptions, graduates of all of these programs
qualify for entry level positions after passing the licens­
ing examination.
52

students in associate degree programs, one fifth are 30
years of age or older.
About one-fourth of all job openings for nurses in
1980 were for part-time positions, approximately the
same proportion of part-time openings as that for all
professional and technical workers. In the economy as
a whole, part-time workers filled one-third of all open­
ings in 1980. Nurses from outside the labor force and
especially those in the 25-34 year age bracket showed
the most interest in part-time work, reflecting the move­
ment of women with young children into the
occupation.
Recent nursing school graduates are a major source
of supply for the profession, but not the only one. D ur­
ing 1980, an estimated 130,000 people entered nursing.
Approximately 70,000 of them, or somewhat more than
half, were recent graduates of basic nursing education
programs. Most of the others came from the large pool
of RN ’s who maintain their licensure while staying at
home to care for families. Also included in the reserve
pool are licensed nurses employed in other occupations,
and individuals who reinstate their licensure in order
to go back to work.
Because of licensure requirements, relatively few peo­
ple enter or reenter nursing from another occupation
(the transfer-in rate for 1980 was about one-third that
for all occupations.) Nonetheless, some movement into
the occupation is to be expected from nurses who pre­
viously held other jobs in the health field as faculty
members, community health educators, health re­
searchers, administrators, or sales representatives for
medical supply firms, for example.
Enrollments in nurse training programs rose substan­
tially in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s and then lev­
eled off. The number of graduates of initial programs
has hovered at about 76,000-78,000 a year since 1976.
The Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) projects that
65,000-75,000 newly qualified nurses will complete
training programs each year during the 1980’s. Actual
completions could be either higher or lower, for en­
rollments appear to be associated with nurses’ earnings
relative to those in alternative occupations. Accord­
ingly, if demand for nurses increases sufficiently to cause
earnings to rise relative to those in other fields, nursing
school enrollments would probably increase and train­
ing completions might surpass the levels currently an­
ticipated. If training completions fall below current
levels while demand for nurses grows, a larger propor­
tion of job entrants will be drawn from the reserve pool
of qualified nurses not currently working in the field.

Some RN ’s who receive their training in diploma or
associate degree programs subsequently enter baccalau­
reate degree programs to prepare themselves for a
broader scope of nursing practice. Experienced RN’s
may continue their training by enrolling in postbac­
calaureate programs leading to advanced degrees or
specialist certificates.

Employment patterns. Employment opportunities for
RN ’s should be good throughout the 1980’s in view of
the many jobs that will be available. Between 180,000
and 190,000 job openings are projected to arise each
year during the 1980’s due to faster than average em­
ployment growth and the need to replace experienced
nurses who leave the profession. Demand for nurses is
expected to increase due to the health care needs of a
growing and aging population. Advances in medical
technology also should spur demand, for highly trained
workers are needed for the sophisticated procedures
and equipment used in diagnosis and treatment. Re­
placement needs are expected to account for 3 out of
4 openings for nurses each year, a much lower propor­
tion than the average for all workers (9 out of 10).
In contrast to the popular impression of an exodus
of nurses suffering from “ burnout,” data on the work
experience of the population in 1980 portray an occu­
pation of above-average stability. Attachment to the
occupation is stronger in nursing than in many other
fields requiring a comparable investment in training.
Nearly 90 percent of all RN ’s who held nursing jobs
at the beginning of 1980 were active in the profession
a year later. This is comparable to the occupational sta­
bility of professional workers in general—and signifi­
cantly greater than the stability demonstrated by the
work force as a whole. The rate of occupational at­
tachment of nurses resembles that of elementary and
secondary school teachers, dental hygienists, and per­
sonnel workers, and exceeds that of librarians, social
workers, and dietitians.
Although nurses change jobs from time to time—
quitting one nursing job for a more attractive one else­
where—relatively few transfer to non-nursing occupa­
tions. When nurses leave the profession, they tend to
leave the labor force altogether. About 7 out of 10
nurses who stopped working in 1980 did so in order to
assume household responsibilities. Nurses are much less
likely than other professional and technical workers to
transfer to another occupation or become unemployed.
In 1980, three-fourths of all entrants to nursing were
in their 20’s or early 30’s. Nearly half were between 25
and 34 years of age, a much higher representation in
this age group than average. Many of these were women
entering or returning to nursing after a brief absence
from the work force for family reasons. Nursing also
is popular with mature women seeking a career; among

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G ro w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

53

1,104,000
1,541,000
39.6

1,617,000
46.5

179,000
44,000
135,000

190,000
51,000
139,000

jects seek jobs as reporters and correspondents each
year.
Newspapers and magazines located in small towns
and suburban areas should provide the best opportuni­
ties for beginning reporters. Journalism graduates who
are willing to relocate and start at relatively low sala­
ries should have an edge in getting these kinds of po­
sitions. Persons without at least a bachelor’s degree in
journalism are expected to face increasingly stiff com­
petition for entry level positions. Competition for re­
porting jobs on large metropolitan newspapers and na­
tional magazines probably will continue to be keen.
Most of these positions require previous journalism
experience.

Reporters and correspondents
Training. Most large employers prefer applicants who
have a bachelor’s degree in journalism. A major in news
journalism is rcommended for those seeking jobs with
newspapers, magazines, and news wire services. An ad­
vanced degree in journalism is an asset for prestigious
entry positions, such as those on large metropolitan
newspapers. Many small-town and local newspapers
hire individuals who have acquired journalism training
in a junior or community college or in the Armed
Forces.
Employment patterns. A relatively small number of job
openings for reporters and correspondents—between
12,000 and 14,000—is expected each year during the
1980’s. Some will arise as a result of growth in the
number of small-town and suburban newspapers. Re­
placement needs, however, are expected to be the pri­
mary source of the jobs, accounting for 9 out of every
10 job openings—about the same proportion accounted
for by replacements in all occupations combined.
During 1980, about 18 percent of all reporters and
correspondents left their jobs, compared to only about
11 percent of all professional and technical workers.
About one-half of them transferred to another occupa­
tion, such as public relations worker or radio and tele­
vision newscaster. Another one-third left the labor
force, primarily to return to school, assume household
responsibilities, or retire. Others experienced unemploy­
ment as some newspapers and magazines went out of
business.
About 55 percent of those who took jobs as reporters
and correspondents in 1980 transferred from other jobs.
Some, most likely, were persons who worked in other
occupations while attending school. Others had exper­
tise in specialized fields, such as finance or athletics,
and had demonstrated that they were capable writers.
Transfers were a more significant source of supply in
this occupation than in all professional and technical
occupations combined, where less than 50 percent of
the job openings were filled by transfer.
About 45 percent of those who took jobs as reporters
and correspondents in 1980 had not worked the pre­
vious year, the largest proportion of whom—
three-fifths—had been in school. Some graduated from
4-year programs; others completed journalism programs
in junior and community colleges. Still others took jobs
after having been involved with family responsibilities.
Data from the National Center for Education Statis­
tics indicate that about 8,500 bachelor’s and 900 mas­
ter’s degrees were awarded in journalism in academic
year 1979-80. Not all graduates seek careers in this field,
however. On the other hand, many persons who are
talented writers in other occupations and can handle
scientific, technical, and other highly specialized sub­

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

57.000
70.000
22.2
12,400
1,300
11,100

_

-

-

-

75,000
31.7
13,400
1,800
11,600

Retail trade sales workers
Training. Most retail trade sales workers learn their
skills on the job. In large stores, training for newly hired
workers usually begins with several days of classroom
instruction, followed by on-the-job training under the
supervision of an experienced worker. In small stores,
an experienced worker, or in some cases the proprie­
tor, trains new sales workers. Employers prefer to hire
high school graduates, and courses in commercial arith­
metic and merchandising provide a good background.
Thousands of high schools offer distributive education
programs that allow students to work part time while
taking courses in merchandising, accounting, and other
aspects of retailing. Marketing and distribution are also
taught in trade schools, vocational-technical institutes,
and community and junior colleges.
Employment patterns. Employment of retail trade sales
workers is projected to rise about as fast as the average
for all occupations through the 1980’s as the industry
expands in response to a growing population and higher
personal incomes. The number of openings in this large
occupation is considerably greater than average: Be­
tween 1.2 and 1.3 million job openings are projected to
arise each year during the 1980-90 period. More than
9 out of 10 of these openings are expected to result
from a need to replace experienced workers who leave
the occupation.
Retail sales jobs are easy to enter because education
and experience requirements are minimal. Many of the
jobs are part time. Students, homemakers, and retirees
are among those attracted to the occupation because it
is a ready source of supplemental income. Retail sales
54

sult from the need to replace experienced teachers who
stop working or transfer to other occupations.
In 1980, 9 percent of all secondary school teachers
left the occupation. This separation rate is somewhat
less than the rate for all professional workers. More
than 40 percent transferred to other occupations; about
30 percent left the labor force to assume household re­
sponsibilities; the rest retired, became unemployed, or
returned to school.
New degree recipients constitute an important source
of teacher supply. The number qualified to teach in
secondary schools has declined over the past decade,
as college students responded to the poor job market.
In 1981, only about 84,000 new graduates (about 9 per­
cent of bachelor’s degree recipients) were prepared to
teach in secondary schools, down from about 195,000
(about 22 percent of bachelor’s degree recipients) in
1972. If the proportion prepared to teach remains at
about 9 percent, an average of 86,000 new graduates
will be prepared to teach in secondary schools each
year during the 1980’s, based on the latest NCES pro­
jections of earned degrees. If the application rate for
1981—about 72 percent—continues, about 62,000 are
likely to seek teaching positions.
New graduates are not the only jobseekers, however.
Many entrants come from the large reserve pool that
consists of persons qualified to teach secondary school
who could not get a teaching job because of the over­
supply which has existed for the last 10 years or so,
and teachers who left the profession for family respon­
sibilities or other reasons. Of the 122,000 who entered
secondary school teaching in 1980, over 50,000 trans­
ferred from other occupations (although some—up to
15,000—of the transfers were new graduates who were
employed while in college), and about 30,000 had not
been working the previous year because of household
responsibilities. Potentially, 140,000 entrants would be
competing for the projected 107,000 annual openings
in the 1980’s if similar numbers attempt to transfer from
other occupations or from outside the labor force in
addition to the 62,000 who are projected to seek em­
ployment after obtaining their degrees. Since many
schools may prefer to hire new graduates—who com­
mand lower salaries and whose training is more re­
cent—fewer job opportunities are expected for persons
who want to transfer into or reenter the field. Even
new college graduates are expected to face keen com­
petition for jobs through the decade. However, job
prospects should be favorable in fields such as mathe­
matics and natural sciences. Persons qualified to teach
these subjects may be in short supply because of com­
petition from business and industry. Teachers qualified
in special education and bilingual education also may
find favorable opportunities.

work also can serve as a steppingstone to higher pay­
ing, more responsible jobs.
Data on the experience of workers in 1980 show that
retail sales workers exhibited much less attachment to
their jobs than the average. They left the labor force
at a higher rate than average, primarily to become full­
time homemakers or students. Retail sales workers also
transferred to other occupations at a higher than aver­
age rate. (A smaller proportion than average became
unemployed or stopped working because of retirement
or disability.)
About one-third of those who entered this occupa­
tion during 1980 transferred from other jobs. The rest
had not worked the year before, because they had been
in school or occupied with household responsibilities,
for the most part. Some had been unemployed. Those
entering the occupation tend to be young; many are
high school or college students. Sixty percent of those
who took retail sales jobs in 1980 were under 25 years
of age. By comparison, approximately 45 percent of all
openings were filled by people age 16-24. Slightly more
than half of the retail sales openings were filled by parttimers. People entering from outside the labor force,
especially teenagers, were more likely to take part-time
jobs, whereas people transferring from other occupa­
tions were more likely to take full-time positions.
Employment, 1980' .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

3,347,000
3,985,000
19.0

-

4,261,000
27.3

1,199,000
64,000
1,135,000

-

1,269,000
91,000
1,178,000

-

1 Includes sales clerks and all other sales workers employed in
the retail trade industry.

Secondary school teachers
Training. All States require public secondary school
teachers to be certified; some States require certifica­
tion for teachers in private and parochial schools as
well. To become certified, an individual must have a
bachelor’s degree from an institution with a State-ap­
proved teacher education program, student teaching
experience, and basic education courses. In 1980, almost
half the States required teachers to obtain a master’s
degree within a certain period after beginnning
employment.
Employment patterns. The demand for teachers is de­
termined mainly by enrollments, which in turn depend
on the school-age population. Based on Bureau of the
Census projections of the population, the National Cen­
ter for Education Statistics (NCES) projects that the
decline in secondary school enrollments, which began
in the mid-1970’s, will continue through the 1980’s.
Consequently, all of the 107,000 job openings for sec­
ondary teachers projected annually are expected to re­

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990

55

1,237,000
1,059,000

-

1,066,000

Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90' .........................................
Decline ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

-14.4
107,200
(-17,800)
107,200

-

-13.9

-

107,600
(-17,200)
107,600

' Data about the expected decline in employment are presented
in parentheses for information only, since replacement needs are
the sole source o f openings. See appendix B.

Secretaries
Training. High school graduates qualify for most sec­
retarial positions provided they have basic office skills.
Secretaries must be proficient in typing and good at
spelling, punctuation, grammar, and oral communica­
tion. Shorthand is necessary for some positions. Word
processing experience is increasingly important and
some employers require it. Others, however, provide
word processing instruction to newly hired workers.
The skills needed for a secretarial job can be acquired
in various ways. Although formal training or refresher
courses are not essential for most jobs, training is an
asset and may lead to higher paying jobs. Secretarial
training ranges from high school vocational education
programs that teach office practices, shorthand, and
typing to 1- to 2-year programs in secretarial science
offered by business schools, vocational-technical insti­
tutes, and community colleges.
In 1979-80, approximately 125,000 individuals com­
pleted public vocational education programs in secre­
tarial science, nearly 45,000 completed business school
programs, and 33,000 completed community or junior
college programs. There is no way of estimating how
many of these graduates sought secretarial positions,
i but it seems likely that many who completed postsecon­
dary programs entered the field. The general office
skills that high school programs provide are suitable
for many different careers, however.
Employment patterns. Prospects for secretaries are ex• pected to be good throughout the 1980’s in view of the
large number of jobs that are projected to be available
and the relative ease of entry to the occupation. Open­
ings for secretaries are projected to greatly exceed the
number of openings in most other occupations. Between
575,000 and 620,000 jobs are projected to be created
every year during the 1980’s by relatively rapid expan­
sion in employment and the need to replace experienced
secretaries who leave the profession. Employment of
secretaries is projected to grow at a faster than average
rate as existing businesses expand and new ones are es­
tablished. Replacement needs nevertheless are expected
to be the primary source of secretarial jobs during the
1980’s, accounting for nearly 9 out of 10 openings.
About 18 percent of all secretaries left the occupa­
tion in 1980, compared to 22 percent of all clerical
workers who left their jobs. Approximately equal num­
56

bers transferred to other occupations or left the labor
force altogether. Relatively few secretaries became un­
employed. Of those who left the labor force in 1980,
nearly 60 percent did so to take up household in re­
sponsibilities. This was about double the proportion
who left their job for this reason among all occupations.
• Two out of 5 people who took jobs as secretaries
during 1980 transferred from another job, many from
another clerical position such as typist, receptionist, ste­
nographer, bank teller, bookkeeper, cashier, or statisti­
cal clerk. The proportion of job entrants who trans­
ferred from another occupation was about average.
Three out of 5 openings for secretaries were filled
by people who had not worked the previous year. Some
had been unemployed, and others had been in high
school, business schoool, or college. Most, however,
had been homemakers. Secretaries are predominantly
female, and the occupation is characterized by a pat­
tern of movement from family responsibilities into the
labor force and back to the home again. Of those who
took jobs as secretaries during 1980, individuals who
had not worked the previous year because of household
responsibilities outnumbered those who had been in
school by roughly 3 to 1. People who took jobs as sec­
retaries in 1980 also were more likely than average to
be between 25 and 54 years of age, a time of life when
people are most likely to be responsible for the care
and financial support of children. One-third of those
entering the occupation were 25-34 years of age and
another one-fourth were age 35-54—a larger represen­
tation than the average for all occupations.
Individuals with some college education filled nearly
2 out of 5 secretarial job openings in 1980. Most of
these had attended college for a year or more but had
not graduated. The rest of the secretarial open­
ings—more than 3 out of 5—were filled by people who
had a high school education or less.
One-fourth of those who took secretarial jobs in 1980
worked part time. Individuals coming from outside the
labor force exhibited more interest in a part-time sched­
ule than those who transferred from another occupa­
tion. Women who combine parental and job responsi­
bilities probably have a preference for a part-time sched­
ule when they first return to work.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

2,500,000
3,200,000
28.3

3,400,000
37.4

575,000
70,000
505,000

618,000
92,000
526,000

Sheet-metal workers
Training. Sheet-metal workers learn their skills on the
job. An apprenticeship that combines classroom and
on-the-job training is the best way to acquire sheet-metal

skills. On the job, apprentices get practical experience
in all aspects of the trade. In the classroom, they study
drafting, blueprint reading, trigonometry and geometry
applicable to layout work, welding, and the principles
of heating, air-conditioning, and ventilating systems.
A high school diploma may be required for entry
into an apprenticeship program. Courses in trigonome­
try, geometry, mechanical drawing, and shop are useful.
Employment patterns. Employment of sheet-metal
workers in construction is projected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupations through the
1980’s. More sheet-metal workers should be needed to
install air-conditioning and heating ductwork and other
sheet-metal products in new buildings and to place new,
more energy-efficient air-conditioning and heating sys­
tems in existing buildings. Installation of solar heating
equipment also should increase the demand for
sheet-metal workers.
Between 17,000 and 18,000 job openings are pro­
jected to be available each year through the 1980’s due
to the increased demand for sheet -metal workers and
the need to replace experienced workers who stop work­
ing or transfer to other occupations. More than 8 of 10
job openings are expected to result from replacement
needs, about the same as for all craft workers.
Thirteen percent of all sheet-metal workers left their
jobs in 1980. About 6 of every 10 who left became un­
employed or left the labor force. Temporary layoffs are
common for sheet-metal workers in the construction
industry because of fluctuations in the level of construc­
tion activity and slack periods between projects. Most
of the sheet-metal workers who became unemployed
were in their prime working years, age 25 to 54, who
would be expected to find employment as soon as work
picks up. Most of those who left the labor force alto­
gether were retirees, 55 years and older.
About 4 of every 10 sheet-metal workers who left
the trade transferred to other occupations, a substan­
tially lower proportion than for other crafts. Because
they have made a sizable investment in training and
their wages are relatively high, sheet-metal workers
usually have a strong attachment to the occupation.
Those who change jobs probably move to related crafts,
such as air-conditioning and heating repair. Some
sheet-metal workers may take managerial or sales jobs
with construction contractors.
About one-half of all those who took jobs as
sheet-metal workers in 1980 transferred from other oc­
cupations. The rest were persons who had not been
working the previous year, two-thirds of whom had
been unemployed. The remainder were labor force en­
trants or reentrants, including young workers, age 16
to 24, who were entering the occupation from school
and older, experienced sheet-metal workers who had
previously left the labor force temporarily.

About two-thirds of all the entrants to sheet-metal
work in 1980 had a high school degree or less educa­
tion, a smaller proportion than for other craft occupa­
tions. The remainder had some postsecondary voca­
tional training in sheet-metal work or a related field.
Entrants from other occupations were much more likely
to have had some college training than entrants who
had not been working.
People wishing to enter sheet-metal apprenticeships
are likely to experience keen competition for the lim­
ited number of available training positions. First-time
entrants also are expected to face competition from ex­
perienced sheet-metal workers who are unemployed
and from workers in related occupations who wish to
enter the trade.
Employment, 19801 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

108,000
130,000
19.6
17,000
2,000
15,000

-

-

-

137,000
26.1
18,000
3,000
15,000

' Includes only sheet-metal workers employed in the construction
industry.

Social workers
Training. A bachelor’s degree is the minimum require­
ment for most professional positions in this field. Besides
the BSW (bachelor’s in social work), undergraduate
majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields sat­
isfy hiring requirements in many social service agen­
cies. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is gen­
erally required for positions in the mental health field;
the MSW is almost always necessary for supervisory,
administrative, or research positions. A doctorate in so­
cial work usually is required for teaching, and is desir­
able for some research and administrative jobs.
In 1981, 26 States had licensing or registration laws
regarding social work practice and the use of profes­
sional titles. Usually, work experience, an examination,
or both, are necessary for licensing or registration.
Employment patterns. Between 69,000 and 71,000 job
openings are projected to be created each year during
the 1980’s because of employment growth and the need
to replace experienced social workers who leave the
profession. Employment of social workers is projected
to grow at about the same rate as that for all occupa­
tions, reflecting public and private response to the so­
cial service needs of a growing and aging population.
Replacement needs are expected to be the principal
source of jobs, however, accounting for 9 out of 10
openings during the 1980’s.
During 1980, approximately 15 percent of all social
workers left the profession. This separation rate was
somewhat higher than the rate for all professional
57

or in graduate school. By contrast, more than 90 per­
cent of those who earned MSW’s in 1976-77 were em­
ployed in professional or managerial jobs 6 months after
graduation; fewer than 10 percent were in nonprofes­
sional jobs, unemployed, or outside the labor force.
Two-thirds of the MSW’s reported that they were em­
ployed as social workers.
In view of the abundant supply of new college gradu­
ates and others with appropriate credentials, job pros­
pects for social workers vary a great deal. Opportuni­
ties depend in part on academic credentials—whether
or not an applicant has formal social work training, and
preferably an MSW. Geographic location is also an im­
portant consideration, for competition is keen in cities
where training programs for social workers abound,
such as Boston and New York. This competition is cer­
tain to intensify if social service programs in those lo­
calities are cut back. At the same time, population
growth in Sunbelt States is spurring expansion of social
service programs there, and some isolated rural areas
find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. The
type of practice is another variable. Job prospects are
expected to be most favorable during the 1980’s in the
health field, including mental health, and in services to
the aging. Child welfare and school social work, by
contrast, are likely to offer fewer oportunities than they
have in the past.

workers chiefly because of the high transfer rate. Over
half of the social workers who left their jobs in 1980
transferred to another occupation. In some cases, this
reflected normal career progression: Transfer from di­
rect service (e.g., casework or community action) to
administration (e.g., policy analyst, planner, or program
coordinator) or promotion from a job as casework su­
pervisor, for example, to one as agency administrator.
Nearly half of those who left social work during 1980
stopped working altogether. Some became unemployed,
but most went back to school, assumed household re­
sponsibilities, or retired. Individuals in this group aug­
ment the pool of potential reentrants. Particularly likely
to return to the profession were those who stopped
working in order to study for an MSW, a step that is
important for career advancement.
In 1980, approximately 30,000 individuals with a col­
lege education took jobs as social workers. Not quite
half of them transferred from another occupation. Many
came from other human service fields, such as person­
nel administration, therapy, psychology, recreation,
teaching, and public administration. Others had previ­
ously held clerical or service jobs such as social wel­
fare aide, interviewer, clerical supervisor, or nurse aide.
Some of those, undoubtedly, were BSW or MSW stu­
dents who worked part time while in school. The rest
of the jobs filled by college graduates in 1980 were
taken by people who had not worked the previous year
because they had been unemployed or in school. Rela­
tively few people entering social work in 1980 had pre­
viously been occupied with home and family responsi­
bilities, despite the preponderance of women in the
occupation.
The supply of new graduates with suitable creden­
tials is very large. Approximately 13,000 persons earned
BSW’s in 1980 and 10,500 earned MSW’s. Many of the
former and most of the latter eventually obtained social
work positions. In addition, about 35,000 bachelor’s and
master’s degrees were awarded in closely related disci­
plines including law enforcement and corrections, park
and recreation management, and public administration.
Also qualified for social work positions were 1980
graduates with bachelor’s degrees in psychology
(42,000) and the social sciences (104,000).
Job search may involve spells of unemployment or
the decision to take a job in an unrelated field. Fol­
lowup data on new college graduates suggest that dur­
ing the late 1970’s, job search difficulties in the social
service area were largely confined to those holding
bachelor’s degrees. Only 35 percent of college gradu­
ates who earned bachelor’s degrees in social work and
the helping professions in 1976-77 were employed as
social workers 6 months after graduation, according to
a survey conducted by the National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics. Nearly half of the BSW’s held nonpro­
fessional jobs and about 10 percent were unemployed

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

345.000
414.000

428,000
24.1

20.0

-

69,000
7,000
62,000

-

8,000

-

63,000

71,000

Systems analysts
Training. College graduates generally are sought for
jobs as systems analysts, and, for some of the more
complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are pre­
ferred. Employers usually want analysts with a back­
ground in accounting, business management, or eco­
nomics for work in a business environment while a
background in the physical sciences, mathematics, or
engineering is preferred for work in scientifically ori­
ented organizations. Many employers seek applicants
who have a degree in computer science, information
science, information systems, or data processing. Re­
gardless of college major, employers look for people
who are familiar with programming language. Courses
in computer concepts, systems analysis, and data base
management systems offer good preparation for a job
in thfs field.
Employment patterns. Job prospects for systems ana­
lysts should be excellent through the 1980’s. Employ­
ment of systems analysts is projected to grow much
faster than the average for all workers as computer ca­
58

pabilities are increased and as new applications are found
for computer technology. Between 28,000 and 31,000
job openings are expected to be available each year
during the 1980’s due to the rising demand for systems
analysts and the need to replace experienced workers
who stop working or transfer to other occupations. Re­
placement needs are expected to account for only about
one-half of all openings for systems analysts, a much
smaller proportion than for professional workers as a
group.
Systems analysts have a relatively strong attachment
to their occupation; only 5 percent left the occupation
during 1980, compared to 12 percent for all professional
workers. Most of those who left the occupation trans­
ferred to other jobs. The transfer-out rate—4 per­
cent—was slightly lower than the rate for all profes­
sional workers. Those who transferred probably ad­
vanced to managerial postions or moved into engineer­
ing, computer sales, or other technical fields. Relatively
few systems analysts left the labor force or became un­
employed in 1980.
During 1980, 7 of 10 job openings for systems
analysts were filled by workers who transferred from
other occupations. Most probably were computer pro­
grammers moving up the career ladder. In many organi­
zations, entry workers routinely begin as programmers
and are promoted to analyst jobs as they gain experience
and demonstrate talent. Persons who had not worked
the previous year filled 3 o f every 10 job openings for
systems analysts.
Persons who transferred into the occupation, on av­
erage, tended to be older than entrants who had not
worked the previous year. College graduates filled vir­
tually all the job openings for systems analysts in 1980.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
G r o w th ........................................
R eplacem ent...............................

205.000
343.000
67.8
28,000
14,000
14,000

-

-

368,000
79.8
31,000
16,000
15,000

Television and radio service technicians
Training. Training in electronics generally is required
to get an entry level job as a television and radio serv­
ice technician. High schools, private vocational schools,
and junior colleges offer training in television and ra­
dio repair. Programs in these schools include subjects
such as mathematics, physics, schematic reading, elec­
tricity, and hands-on work with television sets, radios,
and other equipment. The training typically lasts from
1 to 2 years. The military services also offer training
and work experience that are very useful in civilian
electronics work.
New technicians usually begin by working in the shop
or in the field under the supervision of an experienced
59

worker. Large repair establishments may provide inhouse training combined with home study to familiarize
new workers with particular brands and models of
equipment. A few television and radio service techni­
cians complete 3- or 4-year formal apprenticeship
programs.
Some States require radio and television technicians
to be licensed. To obtain a license, applicants must
pass an examination designed to test their knowledge
of electronic circuits and components and their skill in
the use of testing equipment.
Employment patterns. Employment of television and
radio service technicians is projected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations through the 1980’s
in response to the growing number of television sets,
video games and disk players, tape recorders, and other
home entertainment products. Greater use of electronic
products for other purposes is also expected to spur
demand in this occupation. For example, closed circuit
television is being increasingly used to monitor produc­
tion processes in plants, to protect buildings, and to
bring educational programs into classrooms. Neverthe­
less, the need to replace experienced technicians who
transfer to other jobs or stop working is expected to
account for over four-fifths of all openings during the
1980’s, which are projected to average between 18,000
and 19,000 a year. Still, replacement needs are a less
significant source of job openings than in most other
occupations.
Nearly 19 percent of all television and radio service
technicians left their jobs in 1980—about the same as
the rate for all occupations combined, but slightly lower
than the rate for other craft workers and mechanics
and repairers. Three-fourths of them transferred to other
occupations—much higher than the proportion who left
their jobs for this reason among all craft workers and
mechanics and repairers. Their background in elec­
tronics often qualifies television and radio service tech­
nicians for other occupations, including electronics
technician, computer service technician, business ma­
chine repairer, appliance repairer, and broadcast tech­
nician. Nearly one-fifth of all technicians who left their
jobs left the labor force altogether; nearly three-fifths
were retirees—age 55 and older. Relatively few tech­
nicians became unemployed—perhaps reflecting the fact
that technicians enjoy steady work as the demand for
television and radio services continues even during eco­
nomic downturns.
Similar to the experience of other craft workers and
mechanics and repairers, over half of all job openings
for television and radio service technicians in 1980 were
filled by persons who transferred from other occupa­
tions—most likely from mechanic and repairer or other
craft occupations. Eighty-four percent of those trans­
ferring were 25-54 years old, compared to only 60 per­

entry into the occupation. The expansion of employ­
ment resulting from increased business activity and the
need to replace experienced workers who leave their
jobs are projected to create between 300,000 and 315,000
job openings each year during the 1980’s.
Replacement needs are expected to be the main source
of jobs, accounting for 9 out of 10 openings during the
decade. The proportion of typists who left the occupa­
tion in 1980—about one-fourth—was somewhat higher
than the average for all occupations. Nearly half trans­
ferred to other kinds of work, about 40 percent left the
labor force, and the remainder became unemployed.
Typists who left the labor force did so chiefly because
of household responsibilities or to attend school. The
proportion of typists leaving the labor force for these
reasons was significantly higher than the average for
all occupations. Relatively few typists stopped working
because of disability or retirement.
Many typing jobs are entry level and do not require
office or business experience. The occupation accord­
ingly attracts people outside the labor force, including
many still in school. Of those who began working as
typists in 1980, people who had not worked the pre­
vious year outnumbered those who had worked by 2
to 1. In 1980, about 97 percent of all typists were women,
and the data indicate that movement from family re­
sponsibilities into the labor force and back to the home
was typical. However, teenagers (16-19 years of age)
filled 1 job opening in 4 in 1980; two-thirds of these
jobs were part time. Teenagers and older workers (age
55 and above) were far more likely to take part-time
typing jobs than workers between the ages of 20 and
54, most of whom worked full time.
Compared to the pattern for all occupations, the pro­
portion of job openings for typists filled by workers
who transfer from other occupations is lower than av­
erage. People who become typists tend to come from
outside the labor force; many probably have never
worked before. The proportion of all typists who trans­
fer to other occupations is higher than average, sug­
gesting that typing serves as a steppingstone to contin­
ued labor force activity. It is common for typists to
transfer to another clerical job, such as secretary, sta­
tistical clerk, or stenographer.

cent for all craft occupations combined. Four-fifths of
those who transferred into this occupation had a high
school education or less.
Less than half of the job openings for television and
radio service technicians in 1980 were filled by persons
who had not worked the previous year. Over half had
been in school (almost all were 16-24 years old). In
comparison, of all persons who entered craft occupa­
tions in 1980 and who had not worked the previous
year, only 17 percent had been in school. Less than
one-tenth of those who took jobs as television and ra­
dio service technicians in 1980 and who had not worked
the previous year had left household responsibilities (all
were 35-54 years old). This pattern reflects the very
low proportion of women in this occupation—similar
to other mechanics and repairers. Nine-tenths of those
who took jobs as television and radio service techni­
cians and who had not worked the previous year had
a high school education or less. One-tenth had some
formal postsecondary education.
Thirty-six percent of the job openings for television
and radio service technicians in 1980 were part-time
positions; only 13 percent of the openings in all craft
occupations were part-time positions. Persons who had
not worked the previous year exhibited more interest
in a part-time schedule than those who transferred from
other occupations.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

83,000
109,000
31.3
17,600
2,600
15,000

-

-

-

119,000
42.8
19,300
3,600
15,700

Typists
Training. Employers generally hire high school gradu­
ates who can meet their requirements for typing speed.
Some employers expect applicants to have word proc­
essing training or experience. Good spelling, punctua­
tion, and grammar are important skills, and familiarity
with standard office equipment and procedures is an
asset.
Typing can be learned in different ways. Typing is
taught in high schools, community colleges, business
schools, and home study schools. Some individuals learn
on their own, using self-teaching aids like books and
records. More than 90,000 persons completed vocational
education or business school programs in typing in 197980, but not all of them were planning to become typ­
ists. Some people learn to type for personal convenience,
or because it is a useful skill for other jobs.

Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ........................
Growth ..................................
R eplacem ent.............................

1,067,000
1,254,000
17.5

1,330,000
24.6

299,000
19,000
280,000

316,000
26,000
290,000

Waiters and waitresses
Training. Most waiters and waitresses learn their skills
on the job. Some gain experience by working as waiters’
assistants, carhops, or food counter workers. Large res­

Employment patterns. Job prospects for typists are ex­
pected to be good throughout the 1980’s due to the
widespread availability of jobs and the relative ease of
60

taurants and hotels generally prefer experienced
workers and usually have higher educational standards
than the 2 or 3 years of high school that smaller busi­
nesses generally accept. Some public and private voca­
tional schools, restaurant associations, and large restau­
rant chains provide classroom training in a generalized
food service curriculum. Other employers use self-in­
struction programs to train new employees. Knowledge
of a foreign language may be helpful in restaurants spe­
cializing in foreign foods.
State laws often require waiters and waitresses to ob­
tain health certificates showing that they are free of
contagious diseases.
Employment patterns. Job openings for waiters and
waitresses are expected to be plentiful through the 1980’s
due to very high turnover. On average, 790,000 to
825,000 jobs are projected to be available annu­
ally—more than for almost any other occupation. Be­
ginners should find the best opportunities for employ­
ment in fast-food and other informal restaurants. Those
who seek jobs in more expensive restaurants may ex­
perience keen competition. Employment of waiters and
waitresses is projected to increase about as fast as the
average for all occupations as the population grows and
people dine out more. However, the need to replace
experienced waiters and waitresses who transfer to other
jobs or stop working is expected to account for 95 per­
cent of all job openings—similar to the proportion for
all occupations combined.
The separation rate for waiters and waitresses, like
that for all food service occupations, is one of the high­
est among all workers. In 1980, 40 percent of all waiters
and waitresses left their jobs—twice the rate for all
workers. Nearly half transferred to other jobs, about
40 percent left the labor force, and the remainder be­
came unemployed. Waiters and waitresses who stopped
working did so chiefly to assume household responsi­
bilities (38 percent) or to attend school (24 percent),
higher proportions than for all occupations. Relatively
few waiters and waitresses left the labor force because
of retirement or disability.
Similar to all service workers, except private
houshold workers, nearly one-third of those who en­
tered the occupation during 1980 transferred from other
jobs—compared to more than two-fifths for all occu­
pations combined. More than two-thirds of those who
took jobs as waiters and waitresses in 1980 had not
worked the previous year, including many young stu­
dents and older homemakers for whom the occupation
serves as a source of income rather than a career. Of
these waiters and waitresses, 34 percent had been in
school (virtually all were under 25 years old) and 28
percent had household responsibilities (four-fifths were
over 25 years old). Overall, nearly 70 percent of the
persons who took jobs as waiters and waitresses in 1980
61

were 15-24 years old. In comparison, persons in this
age group filled 60 percent of the openings in all serv­
ice occupations, except private household, but only 47
percent of the job openings in all occupations combined.
Those with a high school education or less filled over
three-fourths of the jobs for waiters and waitresses in
1980. Less than one-fifth of the entrants had some for­
mal postsecondary education while only 5 percent were
college graduates.
Seventy percent of the job openings for waiters and
waitresses in 1980 were part-time positions, compared
to 56 percent for all service workers, except private
household, and only 34 percent for all occupations com­
bined. Persons 15-24 years old filled three-fourths of
these part-time jobs. The availability of part-time jobs
that do not interfere with other responsibilities makes
this occupation attractive to students and homemakers.
Employment, 1980 ......................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ............
Average annual openings,
1980-90 ..........................................
Growth ........................................
Replacem ent...............................

1,711,000
2,072,000
21.1

2,188,000
27.8

788,000
36,000
752,000

823,000
48,000
775,000

Welders and flamecutters
Training. Welding jobs differ in the degree of skill
they require. Welding machine operators can learn the
required procedures in several hours, while skilled man­
ual welders need years of on-the-job training to master
their craft. Most workers start as welders’ helpers. Some
participate in formal training programs to attain entry
level skills. Programs are available in high schools, vo­
cational-technical institutes, trade schools, and commu­
nity colleges. The length of these programs varies; trade
school programs generally take from 6 months to 1 year
to complete. A few employers provide welding appren­
ticeships that generally last 3 to 4 years. Skilled man­
ual welders who perform critical welding work such
as that on oil pipelines or nuclear reactor components
may be required to pass an examination of their weld­
ing skills and become “certified.”
In 1979-80, approximately 37,000 persons completed
public vocational education programs in welding. An­
other 12,000 individuals completed welding programs
in private trade schools and nearly 2,000 youths com­
pleted Job Corps training. Not all of these took up
welding; many entered occupations that require only
the occasional application of welding skills, while others
pursued careers unrelated to welding.
Employment patterns. Employment of welders and
flamecutters is projected to grow at least as fast as the
average for all occupations through the 1980’s. The ac­
tual increase in the number of welders will be deter­
mined largely by the rate of expansion in the industries

although graduates of these programs don’t always be­
come welders. Welding skills are applicable in many
occupations.
Job opportunities in the 1980’s are not expected to
be equally favorable for all kinds of welders. The ro­
bot welding systems that are being introduced on manu­
facturing lines are eliminating the jobs of welding ma­
chine operators, although their full effect will depend
on how rapidly and extensively the new technology is
adopted. For many machine welding occupations, it is
likely that automation will slow employment growth
in the coming years. Highly skilled welders are not ex­
pected to be affected by automation for the foreseeable
future, however, and could experience sharply increased
demand if nuclear power regains favor or if synthetic
fuels become economical. Job openings are expected to
vary geographically, too; the best prospects will be in
the Sunbelt and Western States.

producing heavy machinery, appliances, and the thou­
sands of other products that welders help make.
Through the 1980’s, job openings due to employment
growth and replacement needs are projected to aver­
age between 105,000 and 120,000 each year, which
.places welding among those occupations with the
largest number of openings. Most openings are expected
to arise because of replacement needs.
Welders and flamecutters are particularly vulnerable
to periodic layoffs for factory retooling, and to eco­
nomic downturns such as that in 1980. During that year,
about half of all those who left the occupation became
unemployed. Many of these workers are skilled and
form a pool of potential reentrants who will resume
working when jobs become available. Thus, although
many openings for welders are expected during the
1980’s, those seeking a first job may encounter consid­
erable competition from experienced welders who are
unemployed. Furthermore, employers tend to fill va­
cancies for machine welders from the ranks of company
employees such as assemblers or helpers. Over half of
those entering welding in 1980 transferred from another
job. Those who have recently completed vocational
training programs in welding will fill some openings,

Employment, 1980 .....................
Projected employment, 1990 ....
Percent change, 1980-90 ...........
Average annual openings,
1980-90 .........................................
G r o w th .......................................
Replacem ent..............................

62

573.000
696.000
21.6

-

106,000
12,000

-

94,000

-

784,000
36.9
121,000
2 1 ,0 0 0
100,000

Appendix A.
Assumptions and Methods
Used in Preparing
Employment Projections

Real GNP then is calculated by subtracting assumed
unemployment from the labor force projection and mul­
tiplying the result by a projection of output per worker.
The estimates of future output per worker are based on
an analysis of trends in productivity (output per
workhour) and changes in average weekly hours of
work.
Next, the projection of GN P is divided among its
major components: Consumer expenditures, investment,
government expenditures—Federal, State, and lo­
cal—and net exports. These estimates of GN P by ma­
jor component are derived using an economic model
and by making assumptions about fiscal policy, taxes,
and other major economic variables. Each of these ma­
jor GNP components is in turn broken down by pro­
ducing industry. Consumer expenditures, for example,
are divided among industries producing goods and serv­
ices such as housing, food, automobiles, medical care,
and education.
Once estimates are developed for these products and
services, they are translated into detailed projections of
industry output, not only for the industries producing
the final product—such as automobiles—but also for
the industries that provide electric power, transporta­
tion, component parts, and other inputs required in the
production process. Input-output tables developed by
the Department of Commerce and modified by BLS
are used to estimate output.
By using estimates of future output per workhour
based on studies of productivity and technological
trends for each industry, industry employment projec­
tions are derived from the output estimates. In addition,
many detailed industries are studied using regression
analysis. In these studies, equations are developed that
relate employment by industry to combinations of eco­
nomic variables, such as population and income, that
are considered determinants of long-run changes in em­
ployment. The industry employment projections devel­
oped through these studies are evaluated with data gen­
erated by the basic model to develop the final industry
employment projections. They also are used to develop
projections for industries that are not included in the
basic model.

The Bureau’s system for projecting economic and
employment developments is comprised of a series of
closely related projections encompassing the labor
force, gross national product (GNP), industrial output
and productivity, and employment in detailed industry
groups and detailed occupations.

ASSUMPTIONS

The Bureau has prepared three different sets of as­
sumptions, or scenarios, regarding economic growth
through the 1980’s. The assumptions concern fiscal
policy, demographic trends, productivity, price levels,
and similar factors through the decade. The low-trend
scenario assumes continuing high inflation, low produc­
tivity growth, and moderate expansion in real produc­
tion. The high-trend I version assumes marked improve­
ment in both inflation and productivity, greater labor
force growth, and higher real production. Finally, the
high-trend II version assumes labor force growth con­
sistent with the low trend, but greater productivity gains
and less inflation than in the high-trend I version. D e­
tailed information about these assumptions is presented
in Economic Projections to 1990, BLS Bulletin 2121.

METHODS
Labor force, GNP, and industry output and
employment
Beginning with population projections by age and
sex developed by the Bureau of the Census, an estimate
of the labor force is derived using projected labor force
participation rates for each population group. In devel­
oping participation rates, the Bureau takes into account
a variety of factors that affect decisions to enter the la­
bor force, such as school attendance, retirement prac­
tices, and family responsibilities.
63

Occupational employment

industry were applied to 1980 estimates of total wage
and salary employment in that industry. The staffing
patterns for the 1980 matrix were developed from the
OES surveys of manufacturing industries and Federal
Government conducted in 1977, of several nonmanu­
facturing industries conducted in 1978, and of most of
the balance of nonmanufacturing conducted in 1979.
For hospitals and railroads, 1976 data were used since
no later data were available. The Bureau’s current em­
ployment statistics (CES) survey was the source of the
1980 annual average industry employment.

The method used to develop the 1990 occupational
projections incorporated an industry-occupation matrix
as the basic analytical tool. The general approach was
to develop base-year (1980) estimates of occupational
staffing patterns of industries, project these patterns to
the target year of the projections (1990), and multiply
the projected patterns by projected industry employ­
ment levels. The products—projected occupational em­
ployment by industry—were then summed across in­
dustries to derive an estimate of projected total employ­
ment by occupation.
This basic approach has been used by BLS to de­
velop occupational projections since the mid-1960’s.
The step-by-step procedures used in developing the
1980-90 projections, however, were somewhat differ­
ent from those used in previous years, in large part be­
cause the primary data base for occupational employ­
ment changed from the decennial census and the Cur­
rent Population Survey (CPS) to the Occupational Em­
ployment Statistics (OES) surveys. One result of this
change was an increase in the size of the matrix to 1,678
detailed occupations in 378 industries (primarily 3-digit
SIC detail) from 377 occupations and 201 industries in
the 1970-census-based matrix.

Wage and salary workers in agriculture and private house­
holds. Base-year estimates of wage and salary worker
employment in agriculture and private households were
developed from data in the 1980 Current Population
Survey. The occupational distributions were based
largely on the 1978 census-based matrix. Those esti­
mates were based on 1970 census data modified by 197178 CPS trends in large occupations in these industries.
Since the occupational configuration of the matrix was
based on the OES survey classification scheme, the 1978
census matrix employment data for 377 detailed occu­
pations were distributed into the 1,678 detailed occu­
pations in the OES-based matrix. In this procedure, CPS
data were generally used as control totals, which were
distributed into appropriate detailed OES-matrix occu­
pations. This distribution was based on established re­
lationships between the census and OES occupational
classifications. Many analytical judgments were neces­
sary to establish relationships for many occupations be­
cause a perfect match between OES and CPS occupa­
tions was not always possible.

Base-year estimates
Separate estimates of 1980 employment were devel­
oped for wage and salary workers in OES survey in­
dustries, for wage and salary workers in agriculture and
private households, and for self-employed and unpaid
family workers. Data on wage and salary worker oc­
cupational employment were developed in an indus­
try-occupation matrix format. Estimates of occupational
employment of self-employed and unpaid family
workers were developed at the total (all industry) level
only. They were added to the total of wage and salary
workers to derive estimates of employment by detailed
occupation for the entire economy.

Self-employed and unpaid family workers. Base-year es­
timates of self-employed and unpaid family workers by
occupation were based on 1980 CPS annual averages,
as in previous census-based matrices, since no alterna­
tive data series exist. Similar to the procedure used for
wage and salary workers in agriculture and private
households, the employment data in the detailed census
matrix occupations were distributed to the 1,678 occu­
pations in the OES-survey-based matrix. In general,
CPS data were used as control totals, and the distribu­
tions were based largely on the distribution of OES
wage and salary employment unless other data were
available or judgment derived from analyses indicated
that this procedure would result in incorrect data. For
example, certain jobs found only in government (such
as health inspector) often fell into a broader CPS cate­
gory (inspector) which contained self-employed and
unpaid family workers. In such cases, the distribution
was not based on the wage and salary worker
distribution.

Wage and salary workers in OES survey industries.
Base-year estimates were derived from the OES sur­
veys for all industries except agriculture and private
households, which are not included in the OES survey
program. The OES surveys are conducted by mail from
a sample of employers in each industry. They are con­
ducted on a 3-year cycle—manufacturing industries the
first year and nonmanufacturing industries divided in
the other 2 years of the cycle. To develop occupational
employment estimates for 1980, the occupational staff­
ing patterns from the most recent OES survey for each
64

Data for self-employed and unpaid family workers
were developed only at the all-industry level because of
the unreliability of these data at the detailed industry
level.

tions was made to OES survey occupations based on
the distribution of 1980 data. These distributions were
then reviewed and changes made where deemed ap­
propriate. The resulting distribution was applied to pro­
jected totals for self-employed and unpaid family
workers developed through the Bureau’s economic
model.

Projections
Wage and salary workers in OES survey industries. The
basic procedure for projecting occupational employ­
ment was to develop data on past trends in the propor­
tion of employment in each industry represented by
each detailed occupation and to extrapolate this trend
to the target year. These initial projections were then
reviewed in detail for consistency with knowledge about
technological change and other factors affecting the
occupational composition of industries. Changes in the
ratios developed through analytical judgments were
placed in an updated matrix which was iterated to force
it to add to 100 percent in each industry. The final step
in the procedure was to apply the projected staffing
pattern to projected industry employment totals. Total
wage and salary employment in an occupation was ob­
tained by summing across industries. Because of changes
in the occupational content of the OES surveys from
one year to the next, changes in the Standard Industrial
Classification between the last two OES surveys for
some industries, and other factors, technical problems
were encountered in developing data on trends in staff­
ing patterns for several industries. These problems are
discussed in greater detail in BLS Economic Growth
Model System Used fo r Projections to 1990, BLS
Bulletin 2112.

Total occupational employment. To develop total em­
ployment estimates by occupation, employment of wage
and salary workers was added to totals of self-employed
and unpaid family workers. With the exception of table
C -l, projected employment data are presented in this
bulletin for the low alternative and the higher of the two
high alternatives. Unlike previous estimates of total na­
tional employment, the totals represent the number of
jobs by occupation, not the number of persons
employed by occupation. These totals are different
because a person may have more than one job. The dif­
ference between the projected number of jobs and the
projected number of persons employed in 1990 is
roughly 7 percent.
Differences between the OES- and census-based
matrices
There are significant differences between the national
occupational employment data developed through the
two matrices. The differences result largely from dif­
ferences in the primary surveys that provide the data
for each matrix—the decennial census and the Current
Population Survey (CPS) for the census-based matrix
and the OES surveys for the OES-based matrix. The
important differences in the data are as follows:
1. In the census and the CPS, which are surveys of
households, individuals with two or more jobs are
counted only in their primary occupation. The OES
surveys, which are surveys of employers, count jobs
rather than individuals. Workers on the payrolls of
two or more employers (establishments) are counted
in the occupation held in each establishment. The
distribution patterns differ between the two surveys
because the occupational distribution of secondary
jobs differs from that of primary jobs.
2. In the census and the CPS, persons on unpaid ab­
sences are counted as employed. In the OES sur­
veys (as in the CES), these individuals are not in­
cluded in the employment totals.
3. The reference date of the census is April 1. The
CPS annual averages reflect monthly data collected
in the week containing the 12th of the month. The
OES surveys use the 12th of April, May, or June,
depending upon which month shows the least yearto-year seasonal change for that industry.
4. The census and the CPS cover all classes of workers:
private wage and salary workers (including agricul­
ture and private household workers), government

Wage and salary workers in agriculture and private house­
holds. The initial projected 1990 staffing patterns, or
ratios, for the agriculture and private household sectors
were taken directly from the 1990 census-based matrix
developed by the Bureau in 1978. These projected ra­
tios were analyzed based on data that became available
after the earlier matrix was developed, and a few ratios
were adjusted. The census-based occupational distribu­
tion was converted to the OES survey distribution in
a manner similar to the method used to develop the
wage and salary worker base-year matrix described
above.
The projected ratios were then applied to the 1990
industry employment projections. The resulting em­
ployment and ratios were reviewed in detail in the same
manner as for wage and salary workers in OES survey
industries. Changes in patterns that resulted from this
review were incorporated into the final matrix.
Self-employed and unpaid family workers. To develop
the projections, the percent distributions of self-em­
ployed and unpaid family workers by occupation from
1972-80 CPS data were extrapolated to 1990 and forced
to add to 100 percent. A distribution of these propor­
65

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family
specific; different industries receive different ques­
workers. The OES surveys do not cover agricul­
tionnaires. It is believed that the magnitude of the
tural and and private household workers or self-em­
coding error is smaller in the OES surveys for these
ployed and unpaid family workers.
reasons.
The census and the CPS do not include workers
10. The 1970 census distributed occupational employ­
under 16 years of age. In the OES surveys, those
ment into 201 industries, generally combinations of
under 16 years of age are included if they are on
2-, 3-, or 4-digit industries based on the 1967 Stand­
the payrolls of establishments within the scope of
ard Industrial Classification (SIC). The OES sur­
the survey.
veys collect data for 378 industries by 3-digit SIC.
In the OES surveys, each occupation implies a spe­
Since 1976, the surveys have been based on the 1972
cific skill level, as defined in each survey question­
SIC (as revised in 1977) and match the industry
naire. In the census and the CPS, job titles provided
classification in other BLS surveys.
by respondents are grouped into categories which
A comparison was made of the wage and salary em­
often include workers with greatly different skill ployment levels for 105 detailed occupations that were
levels.
definitionally
comparable
between
the
1978
In the OES surveys, respondents are instructed to census-based matrix (the last national census matrix pro­
report individuals who perform more than one job
duced) and the 1978 OES-based matrix (the first OES
in the occupation of the job that requires the high­ matrix produced). OES-based matrix employment was
est skill level. In responding to the census or the higher than census-based matrix employment in 52 of
CPS, individuals report themselves in the occupa­ the comparable occupations, and lower in the remain­
tion in which they work the most hours during the ing 53. The range was from 229 percent higher than
reference period.
census-based employment to 49 percent lower. The av­
The census and the CPS are generally completed erage of the difference for all 105 comparable occupa­
by one individual who reports for all members of tions was 31 percent. In numbers, the range was from
the household. Significant error can result from about 327,000 more stock clerks in the OES matrix to
proxy respondents reporting occupations inac­ almost 1.3 million fewer secretaries.
curately. According to analyses, individuals in the
The distribution of employment differences was
census and CPS tend to upgrade their occupation. highly skewed, reflecting several occupations where
The OES surveys are completed by an official of OES-based employment was much higher than
the responding establishment, generally from per­ census-based employment. Differences for most occu­
sonnel or payroll records.
pations, however, were much smaller than these
In the census and the CPS, responses are coded into extremes. As the following tabulation shows, 7 out of
detailed occupational categories by coding clerks at 10 occupations had differences lower than 30 percent,
the Bureau of the Census. There is little information and more than one-half had differences under 20
on the survey form to use in coding occupations, percent.
usually only a job title and some description of ma­
Differences between census-based and
jor duties. As a result, there is the potential for sig­
Cumulative
Percent o f
OES survey-based wage and salary
percent
occupations
nificant coding error. A similar problem exists in
employment, 1978
coding industries. In contrast, in the OES surveys,
30
30
Less than 10 percent...........................
54
24
10 to 19 percent ...................................
employers code the occupations. The questionnaire
71
17
20 to 29 percent ...................................
has specific occupational definitions for respondents
81
10
30 to 39 percent ...................................
to classify their employees, regardless of job titles
89
8
40 to 50 percent ...................................
100
11
50 or more p ercen t.............................
within the firm. The occupations are also industry

66

Appendix B.
Estimating Replacement Needs

In developing information about changes in labor
force status and occupation for 1980-81, several factors
were considered which affected the selection of the
specific monthly data to be included in the matched
sample. One consideration was the availability of addi­
tional information from questions about occupational
mobility added to the January 1981 CPS questionnaire.
As discussed below, occupational mobility data from
the January 1981 CPS were used in conjunction with
matched data to estimate replacement needs. Because
occupational mobility data were available only for Janu­
ary 1980-81, matched data with that period as the mid­
point were sought to reduce the impact of varying eco­
nomic conditions. Other considerations were the ad­
vantages of increasing the sample size so that more de­
tailed occupations could be examined, and reducing the
impact of seasonal factors. As a result of these consid­
erations, matched data describing movements over a
1-year period were prepared for each of 18 months be­
ginning with January 1979 to January 1980 data and
ending with June 1980 to June 1981 data.
Data in each monthly matched CPS sample were
used to tabulate changes in the labor force status of
workers 1 year later by occupation. Although economic
conditions and unemployment rates varied, the propor­
tion of persons remaining employed from 1 year to the
next was relatively stable from month to month, vary­
ing from a low of 86.7 percent to a high of 88.2 per­
cent. Variations in the data about persons becoming
employed who previously were unemployed or out of
the labor force also were of about the same magnitude
in each monthly sample. Since the rates of movement
were similar for all periods and a larger sample was
desired to improve the relability of data for small oc­
cupations, the samples were combined to create a
matched sample of 665,502 persons age 15 and older in
the initial year of the matched data. Data about the
same individual but for different months appear in the
combined sample. Although the CPS monthly data
come from 1979, 1980, and 1981, the combined sample
is identified as “matched data”.
To produce weighted data, CPS weights from the
full sample for each month were applied to each per­
son and divided by the number of months for which
matched data were prepared. The weighted numbers
approximate 35 percent of those that would result if it

Information on replacement needs previously pub­
lished by the Bureau of Labor Statistics was confined
primarily to estimates of the need to replace individuals
who permenantly left the labor force due to death or
retirement.' Although the Bureau was aware that a sig­
nificant shortcoming of these replacement estimates was
the failure to account for workers who left the labor
force temporarily or transferred to another occupation,
sufficient data were not available to develop estimates
of such replacement needs. Using Current Population
Survey (CPS) data, however, procedures for calculat­
ing replacement needs have been revised so that the
data now include occupational transfers and all labor
force separations except deaths.
Sources of data
Because of its design, the CPS permits data to be ob­
tained 1 year later for 50 percent of the households in
each monthly survey.1 Each monthly CPS sample con­
2
sists of eight subsamples of households termed rotation
groups. One new rotation group is introduced into the
sample each month. Each new group is surveyed for 4
consecutive months, excluded from the sample for the
next 8 months, then surveyed again for the next 4 con­
secutive months. After being interviewed eight times,
members of each group are dropped from the survey.
Individuals in households in four of the rotation groups
can be identified in surveys taken 1 year apart by match­
ing household, age, race, and sex information from mi­
cro data computer files. For matched individuals, data
about changes in their labor force status and occupa­
tion can be tabulated for both periods. However, pri­
marily because those who move to another household
during the year are not included in the survey a year
later, data can only be produced for about 35 per­
cent—rather than about 50 percent—of the persons in
the entire CPS sample. Longitudinal data computed
from this matching process are the framework for the
revised estimates of replacement needs. They have been
termed “matched data” in the discussion which follows.
1Tomorrow's Manpower Needs, Volume I, Bulletin 1606 (Bureau of
Labor Statistics, 1969), p. 47.
2 For additional information about the survey, see The Current
Populaton Survey: Design and Methodology, Technical Paper 40 (Bu­
reau o f the Census, 1978).

67

were employed the previous year, 2.4 percent were un­
employed, and 8.4 percent were out of the labor force.
Of those employed in 1981, 60.9 percent were employed
in the same occupation in 1980 and 28.3 percent trans­
ferred from another occupation in 1980. Because these
date overstate transfers for reasons stated above, the
matched data about persons employed in the same oc­
cupation and those transferring in were adjusted using
retrospective data.
Table B-2 illustrates the occupational mobility data
derived from the January 1981 CPS. It identifies the
number of secretaries in January 1981 who were also
employed in January 1980 (3,366,782) and the propor­
tion of that number (92.4 percent) who were employed
as secretaries. This is significantly higher than the 60.9
percent shown in the matched data. For clarity, this
proportion can be expressed as:

were possible to match a complete monthly sample from
year to year.
Besides changes in an individual’s labor force status,
the matched CPS data identify workers who change
their occupation.’ However, matched data on occupa­
tional mobility significantly overstate actual movements
because individuals may respond differently to the same
CPS question about their occupation, responses may be
recorded differently by interviewers, or recorded in­
formation may be coded differently by clerks.4
To surmount the overstatement of occupational
change in the matched data, results of a CPS study of
occupational mobility conducted during January 1981
that provided reliable data were merged with the
matched sample. In the January 1981 CPS question­
naire, persons employed in Jaunary 1981 were asked to
report their labor force status in January 1980 and, if
employed, their occupation. Since only employed per­
sons were asked to respond to the supplemental ques­
tions, it was not possible to assess separations from the
work force from these data: Individuals employed in
January 1980 but not working in January 1981 could
not be identified. The longitudinal data on occupational
mobility from the January 1981 CPS are termed “ret­
rospective data” in the discussion that follows.
The following example illustrates how matched data
about changes in labor force status were merged with
retrospective data about occupational mobility to pro­
duce data on labor force and occupational changes for
secretaries. Those data have been termed “merged
data.” The result is a composite description of move­
ments into, out of, and between occupations over a
1-year period.
In developing the merged data, it was first necessary
to develop separate tabulations of matched data and
retrospective data. Table B-l—which presents matched
data—indicates that 89.2 percent of secretaries in 1981

Number o f secretaries in January
1981 who also were secretaries in
January 1980
_

3,109,077

Number o f secretaries in January
1981 who were employed in any
occupation in January 1980

_

<^4

3,366,782

The matched data in table B-l indicate that 1,189,596
individuals currently employed as secretaries had been
employed in some occupation a year earlier. To esti­
mate the number who had been employed in the same
occupation, but based on the January CPS data rather
than the restrospective data, the following calculation
was made:
M atched data

Retrospective data

Number of
secretaries in 1981
who had been
employed in any oc­
cupation a year
earlier

3 Movement between any o f the detailed, 3-digit occupations from

the 1970 Census o f Population Classified Index o f Industries and Oc­
cupations (Bureau o f the Census, 1971).
4Cande L. Collins, “Comparison o f Month-to-Month Changes in
Industry and Occupation Codes with Respondents Report o f Change:
CPS Jobs Mobility Study,” Response Research Staff Report No. 75-5
(unpublished, Bureau o f the Census, May 15, 1975), table C, p. 7.

1,189,596

Number of
secretaries in
January 1981 who
were secretaries in
x January 1980
Number o f
secretaries in
January 1981 who
were employed in
any occupation in
January 1980
x .924

Merged data

Estimated number
= o f secretaries in
1981 who were
secretaries in 1980

= 1,098,592

Table B-1. 1980 labor force status of secretaries employed in 1981
1980 labor force status
Source of data

Total
employed,
1981

Employed
Total

Matched data:
Number ....................................................................
Percent.....................................................................
Merged data:
Number ....................................................................
Percent.....................................................................

Same
occupation

Different
occupation

Unemployed

Not in labor
force

1,333,807
100.0

1,189,596
89.2

811,747
60.9

377,849
28.3

31,963
2.4

112,249
8.4

1,333,807
100.0

1,189,596
89.2

1,098,592
82.4

91,004
6.8

31,963
2.4

112,249
8.4

68

Table B-2. Secretaries in January 1981 who were employed
in January 1980

ued working in January 1981 were secretaries. This
proportion can be expressed as:

Employed, January 1980
Source of data

Total
employed,
January 1981

Retrospective data:
Number............................
Percent............................

3,366,782
100.0

Same
occupation

3,109,077
92.4

Number o f secretaries in January
1980 who also were secretaries in
January 1981
_

Different
occupation

3,109,077

Number o f secretaries in January
1980 who were employed in any
occupation in January 1981

257,705
7.7

_

^ jq

3,415,395

This proportion from the January 1981 CPS was
combined with matched data to produce merged data.
The merged data in table B-3 indicate that 1,098,592
secretaries employed in 1980 were secretaries in 1981.
The number employed in any occupation in 1981 was
calculated as follows:

This calculation resulted in an estimate of 1,098,592
persons in the matched sample who worked as secre­
taries in 1981 and 1980. The difference between that
number and the number of secretaries in 1981 who had
been employed in any occupation a year earlier
(1,189,596 - 1,098,592 = 91,004) identified the number
of persons who transferred into secretarial positions.
The merged data about movements into occupations
are presented in table B-l.
Preparing information about movements out of oc­
cupations also entails merging CPS data. Table B-3
presents 1981 information about individuals employed
as secretaries in 1980. It indicates that 811,747 secre­
taries in 1980 continued to be secretaries in 1981. Note
that the matched data in table B-l identified that same
number of secretaries in 1981 as having been secretaries
in 1980. (The proportion remaining in the same occu­
pation, however, viewed from the previous or the cur­
rent year, will be different because the base employ­
ment will differ from year to year.) The first step in
adjusting the matched data about movements out of an
occupation is to substitute the merged data estimate of
the absolute number of persons remaining in the same
occupation from table B-l (1,098,592) for that in table
B-3. Once the number of secretaries employed in 1980
who continued working as secretaries has been identi­
fied, January 1981 retrospective data can be used to es­
timate occupational transfers.
Table B-4 presents information about secretaries em­
ployed in January 1980 who remained employed in any
occupation in January 1981 and about those who con­
tinued to work as secretaries. It indicates that 91.0
percent of all secretaries in January 1980 who contin­

Retrospective data

Matched data

Number o f
secretaries in
January 1980 who
were secretaries in
January 1981

Secretaries in 1980
who were secretaries
in 1981

Number o f
secretaries in
January 1980 who
were employed in
any occupation in
January 1981

1,098,592

Merged data

Estimated number
= o f secretaries in
1980 who were
secretaries in 1981

= 1,206,978

- .910

The difference between the number of secretaries in
1980 who remained employed in any occupation in 1981
and those who continued working as secretaries
(1,206,978 - 1,098,592 = 108,386) is the estimated num­
ber of secretaries transferring out of the occuption. Un­
like the matched data about movements into occupa­
tions, total employment of secretaries in 1980 must be
calculated by summing the data about their 1981 activi­
ties before proportions for each are calculated. The re­
sultant merged data provide a composite description of
labor market activities of secretaries and are presented
in table B-3.

Table B-3. 1981 labor force status of secretaries employed in 1980
1981 labor force status
Source of data

Total
employed,
1980

Employed
Total

Matched data:
Number ..........................................................................
Percent...........................................................................
Merged data:
Number ..........................................................................
Percent...........................................................................

Same
occupation

Different
occupation

Unemployed

Not in labor
force

1,323,086
100.0

1,189,428
89.9

811,747
61.4

377,681
28.6

27,264
2.1

106,395
8.1

1,340,637
100.0

1,206,978
90.0

1,098,592
82.0

108,386
8.1

27,264
2.0

106,395
7.9

69

example, employment of engineers increased from 1980
to 1981 and 93.8 percent remained in the same occupa­
tion. Thus the replacement rate—those not in the same
occupation—was 6.2 percent (100.0 - 93.8 = 6.2 per­
cent). In the case of secretaries and some other occu­
pations, employment declined and active replacement
needs were not equal to the proportion of persons leav­
ing the occuption during 1980-81. As shown in tables
B-l and B-3, secretarial employment declined from
1,340,637 in 1980 to 1,333,807 in 1981 a decline of 0.5
percent. Table B-3 indicates that 18.0 percent (100.0 82.0 = 18.0 percent) left the occupation from 1980 to
1981. Because employment declined, however, not all
those leaving secretarial jobs were replaced during 198081. Thus, the proportion leaving the occupation was
reduced by the decline in employment to determine the
proportion who were replaced. For secretaries, replace­
ment needs were calculated as 17.5 percent (18.0 - 0.5
= 17.5 percent).
Replacement rates for 1980-81 provide valuable in­
sights into the major source of employment opportuni­
ties. However, 1980-81 was atypical in that employment
grew slowly and unemployment was increasing, char­
acteristics that are inconsistent with assumptions for the
projected period. As a result, 1980-81 replacement rates
might be affected by economic conditions and be inap­
propriate for use in another time period.
In order to assess the impact of reduced economic
activity on the 1980-81 replacement rates, occupational
employment change and separation data were compared
with those for 1977-78. Merged data prepared from
matched data for 1977-78 and January 1978 retrospec­
tive data about transfer were available and permitted
consistent comparisons of the 1980-81 data with those
from a period of rapid employment growth and declin­
ing unemployment. Because economic conditions dif­
fered significantly between 1977-78 and 1980-81, differ­
ences in the data for movements reflect the impact of
reduced economic activity and permit adjustments to
the projected replacement rates. Data for the major oc­
cupational groups illustrate the process used to project
replacement rates for each occupation.
Table B-5 contains information about occupational
separations for 1977-78 and 1980-81. The expectation
that movement into unemployment would increase dur­
ing periods of economic decline was confirmed by the
data for craft workers; operatives, except transport;
transport operatives; nonfarm laborers; and farm
laborers. Except for nonfarm and farm laborers, the in­
creased movement into unemployment was accom­
panied by employment declines, which provided
another indication that the occupation is affected by
economic conditions. Data for the other groups showed
lesser changes in the proportion of persons becoming
unemployed, indicating that economic activity has little
effect on separations.

Table B-4. Secretaries in January 1980 who were employed
in January 1981
Employed, January 1981
Source of data

Retrospective data:
Number............................
Percent............................

Total
employed,
January 1980
3,415,395
100.0

Same
occupation

3,109,077
91.0

Different
occupation

306,858
9.0

Developing replacement needs
Once data about movements into, out of, and between
occupations have been developed, they can be used to
produce informaton about replacement needs. When
employment in an occupation increases from 1 year to
the next, replacement needs equal the number of per­
sons who leave the occupation for any reason—trans­
fers, labor force separations, and those who become
unemployed.5When employment declines, replacement
needs equal the number who leave minus the decline
in employment.
It may not seem appropriate to include movements
into unemployment in estimates of replacement needs
since individuals who become unemployed are not re­
placed. However, even though a job is not created when
a person becomes unemployed, openings due to move­
ment into unemployment are not captured in growth
estimates by changes in employment levels, as the fol­
lowing example illustrates.
Assume in any given time period that 500 employees
in a specific occupation in one firm are laid off perma­
nently and become unemployed. If employment in that
same occupation increases in other firms during the
same period by 500 workers, the decline in employment
caused by the 500 who became unemployed will be
offset, and the change in employment will be measured
as zero. Without counting workers who become un­
employed in replacement needs, the 500 openings will
not be accounted for in the openings estimates. There­
fore, because job openings due to growth are under­
stated by the way change in employment is measured,
it is appropriate to include movement from employment
to unemployment in estimating job openings due to re­
placement needs.
The methodology for estimating replacement needs
for specific occupations varied depending on whether
employment increased or decreased from 1 year to the
next in the matched data. For those occupations in
which employment increased, the proportion of em­
ployees who had to be replaced was equated to the
proportion of 1980 employees identified in the merged
data as not being in the same occupation in 1981. For
5 Merged data do not include those who leave the labor force be­
cause o f death because records are based on data for two points in
time for the same individual. See “Data limitations” section for ad­
ditional information.

70

Table B-5. Comparison of occupational separation rates, 1977-78 and 1980-81
(Percent)
Occupational separations
Occupational group

Professional and technical workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Managers and administrators, except farm:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Sales workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Clerical workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Craft and kindred workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Operatives, except transport:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Transport equipment operatives:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Nonfarm laborers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Farmers and farm managers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Farm laborers and supervisors:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Service workers, except private household:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................
Private household workers:
1977-78 ..........................................................................
1980-81 ..........................................................................

Not working

Employed,
base year

Total

Occupational
transfers

Total

Unemployed

Not in the labor
force

100.0
100.0

12.3
11.2

5.8
5.2

6.5
6.0

1.2
1.2

5.3
4.8

100.0
100.0

12.1
11.6

6.3
5.9

5.8
5.7

1.2
1.5

4.6
4.1

100.0
100.0

23.4
23.4

11.6
11.0

11.8
12.4

2.4
2.6

9.4
9.8

100.0
100.0

21.4
21.6

10.6
10.5

10.8
11.1

2.3
2.4

8.5
8.7

100.0
100.0

13.9
16.0

7.0
7.2

6.9
8.9

2.5
4.3

4.4
4.5

100.0
100.0

22.7
24.0

11.8
9.7

10.9
14.4

3.9
7.1

7.0
7.3

100.0
100.0

18.9
19.4

11.2
9.2

7.7
10.3

2.8
5.2

5.0
5.1

100.0
100.0

31.8
33.1

16.4
13.8

15.4
19.3

5.5
8.2

9.9
11.1

100.0
100.0

13.1
12.4

3.0
2.1

10.1
10.2

.2
.4

9.9
9.9

100.0
100.0

32.9
28.4

11.4
7.5

21.5
20.9

2.8
3.5

18.7
17.4

100.0
100.0

28.0
27.5

11.7
10.7

16.3
16.8

3.6
3.9

12.7
12.8

100.0
100.0

40.1
39.6

4.5
3.0

35.6
36.7

4.7
4.1

30.9
32.6

SOURCE: Merged data.

Reduced economic activity also seemed to be re­
flected in reduced transfers among operatives, laborers,
and private household workers. This may reflect a re­
luctance to change jobs, or a lack of opportunity to
transfer to other jobs, or both. Because the relationship
between occupational transfers and economic activity
is complex, the 1980-81 transfer data will be used with­
out adjustment for the projected period. This could re­
sult in replacement needs being understated for some
occupations.
The data about separations in table B-5 are virtually
the same for professional and technical workers; man­
agers and administrators; sales workers; clerical
workers; farmers; and service workers for both 1977-78
and 1980-81, indicating that these occupations are not
significantly affected by different economic conditions.
In the case of private household workers, a decline in
transfers and movement into unemployment was offset
by increased labor force separations, leaving the over­
all separation rate at about the same level. Because re­
placement rates for these occupational groups were sta­
ble, they have been used as the projected rates.
In contrast, employment of craft workers; operatives,

except transport; and transport operatives declined in
1980-81 compared with 1977-78, indicating sensitivity
to reduced activity in the construction and manufac­
turing industries. In these cases, the 1980-81 replace­
ment rate was adjusted by reducing the separation rate
by the percentage decline in employment since not all
workers leaving the occupation were replaced. For the
projected period, employment in each of these occupa­
tions is expected to increase, and no reduction in sepa­
rations is appropriate. However, the 1980-81 separation
rate for each of these occupations—as well as that for
nonfarm and farm laborers—is inflated by increased
movements into unemployment. To produce projected
replacement rates for these groups, 1977-78 data about
movements into unemployment are substituted for 198081 data. The occupational separation rate that results
from combining 1977-78 data about movement into un­
employment with 1980-81 data about other separations
is the projected replacement rate. Because the impact
of occupational transfers has not been taken into ac­
count, these rates may understate replacement needs.
As a larger data base of matched and retrospective data
is built up over the years, research will be conducted
71

to see if the transfer rates can be adjusted for changes
in economic conditions.
Projected annual replacement needs for 1980-90 were
calculated by applying the replacement rate developed
from the merged data to employment for the mid-point
of the projected period. Because OES or other data are
used to determine current and projected employment,
each occupation has been scrutinized and replacement
needs data developed only when the CPS and the OES
or other data source are judged to be definitionally
consistent.

Table B-7. Estimated rates of entering and leaving the labor
force for men in 1970 by age
(Entries per 1,000 persons in the stationary population; separations per
1,000 persons in the stationary labor force)
1970

Entry rate
Total
16-19 ...............................
20-24 ...............................
25-29 ...............................
30-34 ...............................
35-39 ...............................
40-44 ...............................
45-49 ...............................
50-54 ...............................
55-59 ...............................
60-64 ...............................
65-69 ...............................
70-74 ...............................
75-79 ...............................
80-84 ...............................
85+ .................................

Comparison with previous data
Table B-6 presents a comparison of replacement rates
based on the projected merged CPS data with rates
based on the working life table, used in the 1980 edi­
tion of this publication. The CPS data generally yield
rates 3-5 times those based on the working life table
even though the CPS rates exclude data about deaths.
The differences between the rates are attributable to
differences in the concept of replacement needs.
In previous studies, BLS used the working life table
to estimate job openings resulting from deaths and re­
tirements. 6 In order to obtain a death and retirement
rate for an occupation, the combined death and retire­
ment rate for a specific age-sex group in the table was
applied to occupational employment in that age-sex
group; the weighted average of all age-sex groups was
then used as the separation rate for the occupation.
Working life tables are constructed from differences
in labor force participation rates for persons of differ­
ent ages. Because a labor force participation rate meas­
ures the proportion of any age group which is in the
6Tomorrow's Manpower Needs,

(Percent)
Merged
CPS data 3

Total .................................................................

3.8

19.4

Professional and technical workers..................
Managers and administrators, except farm ......
Sales workers ....................................................
Clerical workers .................................................
Craft and kindred workers.................................
Operatives, except transport.............................
Transport equipment operatives........................
Nonfarm laborers................................................
Farmers and farm managers ............................
Farm laborers and supervisors..........................
Service workers, except private household......
Private household workers................................

3.0
3.8
3.8
5.1
2.8
2.8
2.3
2.6
7.2
4.1
4.6
6.6

11.2
11.6
23.3
21.6
14.1
20.9
17.0
30.4
9.1
27.7
27.5
39.6

1 Working life table data include deaths; merged CPS data do not.
2 Annual rates for both sexes used in O c c u p a tio n a l P ro je c tio n s

and

Training D ata , 1 98 0 E dition.

3 Annual rates for both sexes used in

-

Due to
withdrawal

1.7
2.3
2.0
2.5
4.4
6.7
11.0
17.2
32.9
103.3
107.7
166.4
169.3
284.6
-

1.7
2.3
2.0
2.3
3.1
4.9
7.6
11.8
18.6
28.4
43.6
61.8
89.6
130.6
-

0.2
1.3
1.8
3.4
5.4
14.3
74.9
127.1
104.6
79.7
154.0
-

_

labor force, differences in rates measure the net of sepa­
rations from and accessions to the labor force. In the
working life table, a positive difference in rates—the
result of an increasing labor force participation rate—
is considered as an accession. A negative difference in
the rates—the result of a declining labor force partici­
pation rate—is considered as a separation due to
retirement.
Table B-7 presents part of the 1970 table of working
life for males. Death is responsible for all separations
through 30 years of age; there are no separations be­
cause of retirement below age 30. However, there are
accessions to the labor force, which reflect an increas­
ing labor force participation rate. For men age 30 and
over, the table shows no accessions but does show sepa­
rations because of retirement as the labor force partici­
pation rate declines. Like accesssions, separations be­
cause of retirement are a net measure—the difference
between persons entering or reentering and those leav­
ing the labor force. Consequently, using retirement rates
from working life tables to compute the absolute num­
ber of job openings from replacement needs understates
the actual by the number of persons entering or reen­
tering the labor force. For example, assume one 40year-old man is employed while a second man, also age
40, is outside the labor force. If, after a year, the first
man has left the labor force, perhaps because of a per­
manent injury, a labor force separation and a job open­
ing will have occurred. If the second man fills the job
opening created by the first, a labor force accession oc­
curs. However, if there were no other changes, there
would be no change in the labor force participation rate
of 40- and 41-year-old males. As a result, an estimate
of job openings based on change in labor force partici­

Table B-6. Comparison of occupational replacement rates
based on working life table and rates based on merged CPS
data1

Working life
table 2

476.0
84.2
12.1

Due to
death

SOURCE: L en g th o f W orking L ife fo r M e n a n d W om en, 1970, Special
Labor Force Report 187 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1979), table 3

pp. 47-55.

Occupational group

Separation rate

Age

O c c u p a tio n a l P ro jectio n s a n d

Training D ata , 1 9 8 2 E dition .

72

longitudinal data, response and coding errors create
false measures of movement. If employed persons clas­
sified as not in the labor force during the first survey
are classified as employed during the second, the
matched data will indicate movement where none
occurred.
While response errors in the CPS are known to exist
and have been examined, their impact on the accuracy
of CPS matched longitudinal data has not been conclu­
sively determined. A recent study determined that re­
sponse errors in the CPS matched longitudinal data off­
set each other in much the same manner as in cross-sec­
tional data.9 Table B-8 presents matched and retrospec­
tive longitudinal information about the same persons
from January 1977 to January 1978. As expected, the
matched data show more mobility than the retrospec­
tive, but the differences are small. There is no signifi­
cant difference in the ratio of movement from unemploy­
ment while the rates of movement from out of the la­
bor force differed by 15 percent. Because the retrospec­
tive data in table B-8 exclude information about persons
who change residence and are not subject to the same
response and coding errors as the matched data, the
proportion of persons employed in both years is higher
than that derived from the matched data. As shown in
the last section, if data on persons who changed
residence were included the proportion would be less.
Errors in occupational classification also have been
examined by the Census Bureau. A study comparing
estimates of occupational mobility derived from match­
ed January 1972-73 data and the January 1973
retrospective data reported “ ...the level of occupational
mobility (between major occupational groups) derived
from the retrospective data is only about one-fifth that
based on the matched comparison (4.2 percent vs. 22.8
percent.” 1
0

pation rates would be zero. Yet, an actual separation
and a job opening did occur.
Working life tables used by BLS in the past assumed
that males, once in the labor force, remained until re­
tirement or death. The tables for women, however, in­
cluded temporary labor force separations because of
marriage, or the presence of young children. These tem­
porary separations also were calculated using data
about changes in the labor force participation rates for
specific groups of females and, as a result, measure net
rather than gross separations.
Earlier this year the Bureau revised the methodology
used in preparing working life tables.7 Matched CPS
data about annual movements of individuals into and
out of the labor force have replaced net separations
based on changes in labor force participation rates. Be­
cause the new working life tables do not estimate total
separations from an occupation, they have not been
used to estimate replacement needs.
Replacement rates based on CPS merged data differ
conceptually from those computed from working life
tables in that they measure total separations from the
occupation. Total separations include occupational
transfers—which account for about half of the total-and
all labor force separations except deaths. Individuals
who die while employed are not included in the total
because the data are not available. This limitation to
the data is discussed in the next section.
Data limitations
In evaluating the data, several limitations were iden­
tified. The most significant were biases in the matched
data from response and coding errors, and the exclu­
sion of persons who died or who moved in the year
between surveys. The first tends to overstate occupa­
tional separations while the others understate them.
Each limitation is discussed below and, where possible,
its impact on movements quantified.

9 Van Anthony, "Potential Effect o f Response Errors in the CPS
on Measurements o f Labor Force Movements” (unpublished memo­
randum, Bureau o f Labor Statistics, February 26, 1980), p. 8 .
10 Paula J. Schneider, “Evaluation of the Occupation One-Year Ago
Item in the January 1973 CPS” (unpublished, Bureau o f the Census,
1976), p. 3.

Response and coding errors. The labor force status or
occupation of some individuals in the CPS is reported
incorrectly by respondents, or is misclassified or mis­
coded by interviewers or clerks. Such errors do not
significantly affect cross-sectional data from the survey
because the net error is small. For example, the monthly
estimates include as employed some persons who should
be classified as unemployed or not in the labor force
and also include approximately the same number of per­
sons as unemployed or not in the labor force who should
be classified as employed.8 As a result, the absolute
number of employed persons in any month has little
error. However, when CPS data are used to develop

Table B-8. Comparison of January 1977-78 CPS matched
data and January 1977-78 CPS retrospective data on labor
force changes for persons remaining at the same residence

Labor force status

Shirley J. Smith, “New Worklife Estimates Reflect Changing Pro­
file o f Labor Force,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1982, pp. 15-20.
8 The Current Population Survey Reinterview Program January 1961
Through December 1966, Technical Paper 19 (Bureau o f the Census,
1968).

73

Total employed, 1978:
Number..................................
Percent..................................
Employed, 1977 .......................
Unemployed, 1977 ...................
Not in labor force, 1977 ..........
Age 15, 1977 ............................

Retro­
Matched data
spective data

31,070,978
100.0
86.9
4.0
7.8
1.3

31,070,978
100.0
87.9
4.0
6.8
1.3

Ratio,
matched to
retro­
spective
data

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.0

variations in mortality rates by occupation.1
3 Profes­
sional and supervisory occupations—occupations in the
highest social-economic level—had mortality rates ap­
proximately 60 percent those for the population.
Depending on the occupation, excluding deaths
probably understates replacement needs by .4 - .7 per­
cent. The lower figure is probably associated with oc­
cupations having the lowest occupational separation
rates—those with the highest socioeconomic levels. Of
course, the relative error of excluding deaths in the re­
placement rate depends on the occupational replace­
ment rate. For the 44 CPS occupations with rates less
than 5 percent—the decile with the lowest separation
rates—the error may be greater than 10 percent. How­
ever, for the 44 with separation rates exceeding 35 per­
cent—the decile with the highest separation rates—the
error is less than 1.5 percent. Overall, 80 percent of the
CPS occupations probably have a relative error in the
replacement rate of 1.5 to 10 percent due to the exclu­
sion of deaths.

This and other studies of matched and retrospective
data conclude that retrospective data consistently
underestimate, and matched data overestimate, occupa­
tional mobility.
The Census Bureau studies convincingly established
that the matched CPS data significantly overstated oc­
cupational transfers but were less convincing in estab­
lishing that the retrospective data significantly under­
state these movements; data from a study by the Office
of Education showed approximately the same rate of
separations among teachers as the retrospective data."
In the absence of an alternative, therefore, the restropective data were selected as the more reliable and the
lower limit for estimates of occupational transfers.
Exclusion o f persons who die. Individuals who die be­
tween surveys do not appear in both surveys and can­
not be part of the CPS matched data file. Thus the CPS
matched data exclude occupational separations due to
deaths. Since some employed individuals die and must
be replaced, however, the replacement needs data are
biased downwards to the extent that they exclude
deaths.
One measure of the bias that exclusion of deaths has
on replacement needs is the mortality rate for employed
persons estimated by using mortality data for the
population and census-based age and sex employment
data. For all employed persons in 1980, this mortality
rate was 0.6 percent and varied between occupations
with differences in the age and sex distribution of
employees. However, available data indicate that apply­
ing mortality data for the population to occupational
employment data overstates estimates of replacement
needs because (1) mortality among employed persons is
less than that of the population as a whole and (2) mor­
tality varies by occupation. Comparisons of Social
Security mortality data for employed persons and mor­
tality data for the general population show that the mor­
tality rate for employed perios is about 80 percent that
of the population.1
1
2
The difference reflects the fact
that employed persons are healthier: They are less likely
to be disabled or suffer from chronic diseases. Another
study using data from a large company has identified

Exclusion o f persons who change residence. The matched
sample was created by identifying persons who ap­
peared in the monthly CPS sample in two consecutive
years. Unfortunately, some individuals who were in the
first sample and should have been in the sample a year
later could not be identified. Some of these were per­
sons who died. Others probably were missed because
of coding errors or other data processing problems.
However, individuals who changed their residence were
a more significant problem.1 For any rotation group in
4
the sample, CPS interviewers obtain information about
individuals at a specific address. Thus, individuals who
move are not included in the sample a year later.
A comparison of labor force and occupation status
for persons who did and did not change residence is
presented in table B-9 based on the retrospective data.
Those persons employed in January 1981 who did not
change residence also were less likely to have changed
occupation or labor force status. B-9 also presents
merged data. Although merged data exclude persons
who move, the merged data on changes in occupation
and labor force status are quite close to the information
for all persons combined. Apparently the overstatement
in movements resulting from response error is compen­
Teacher Turnover
sated for by the exclusion of persons who moved.

11
A. Stafford Metz and Howard L.Fleischman,
in Public Schools Fall 1968 to Fall 1969, DHEW Publication No. (OE)
74-11115 (Department o f Health, Education, and Welfare, Office o f
Education, 1974), p.3.
12 Pierre Decoufle, “Letters to the Editor,” Journal o f Occupational
Medicine, September 1977, tables 1 and 2, pp. 582-84; and A.J.
McMichael, “Standardized Mortality Ratios and the ‘Healthy Worker
Effect’: Scratching Beneath the Surface,” Journal o f Occupational
Medicine, March 1976, pp. 165-68.

74

1 M. Gerald Ott, Benjamin B. Holder, and Ralph R. Langner, “D e­
3
terminants of Mortality in our Industrial Population”, Journal o f Oc­
cupational Medicine, March 1976, table 7, p. 175.
14 For additional information about reasons for nonmatches see Con­
sistency o f Reporting o f Ethnic Origin in the Current Population Survey,
Technical Paper 31 (Bureau o f the Census, 1974), appendix C.

Table B-9.

Changes in labor force status and occupation by residence status
January 1980-81 residence status 1
Different residence
Labor force status

1980-81
merged data

Same
residence

Total

Same State
Same county

Different
county

Different
State

Different
country

Total employed, 1981 .............................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Employed, 1980 ....................................................
Same occupation ...............................................
Different occupation ..........................................
Not working, 1980 ................................................
Age 15, 1980.........................................................

89.0
80.1
8.9
9.6
1.4

88.5
79.7
8.9
10.5
1.1

90.1
83.1
7.0
8.8
1.1

85.7
70.9
14.8
13.8
.6

78.8
58.8
20.1
20.5
.7

67.8
40.4
27.5
31.6
.5

39.9
20.1
19.8
60.1
.1

1 January 1981 CPS.

75

Appendix C.
Detailed Occupational
Projections

groups: 4,000-4,999; 3,000-3,999; 2,000-2,999; 1,0001,999; and under 1,000. Because of the small size of the
occupations, the employment estimates are unreliable.
These lists are presented to give the reader some idea
of the variety of occupations for which data are being
collected through the Occupational Employment Sta­
tistics surveys. Definitions used to collect data on
employment in these occupations appear in the OES
Dictionary o f Occupations.

This appendix presents estimates of 1980 employment
and projections of 1990 employment by detailed occu­
pation. Table C-l provides 1980 estimates of employ­
ment, three alternative 1990 projections (see discussion
of projections in appendix A), and the 1980-90 percent
change for 670 detailed occupations. This table includes
only occupations with 1980 employment of 5,000 or
higher. Tables C-2 through C-6 list 893 occupations
having fewer than 5,000 workers in 1980. These occu­
pations are listed alphabetically in five employment size

76

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Total, all occupations ..........................................................................

102,107.3

119,591.1

127,908.4

121,448.5

17.1

25.3

18.9

Professional, technical, and related workers............................................

16,395.2

19,662.3

20,727.6

19,917.4

19.9

26.4

21.5

Engineers 1 ................................................................................................
Aeronautical and astronautical engineers..............................................
Chemical engineers.................................................................................
Civil engineers .........................................................................................
Electrical engineers.................................................................................
Industrial engineers.................................................................................
Mechanical engineers..............................................................................
Metallurgical engineers............................................................................
Mining engineers .....................................................................................
Petroleum engineers................................................................................
All other engineers..................................................................................

1,177.8
68.0
55.5
165.4
326.7
115.9
212.9
15.4
6.1
17.9
193.9

1,504.3
97.6
68.4
207.9
441.2
145.7
273.9
20.4
8.4
26.0
214.6

1,624.3
103.6
73.1
217.2
479.9
159.3
300.0
22.0
9.2
27.6
232.5

1,531.2
100.1
70.0
210.3
449.2
148.3
279.1
20.8
8.7
25.8
218.9

27.7
43.4
23.2
25.7
35.1
25.8
28.7
32.4
37.7
45.7
10.7

37.9
52.3
31.6
31.3
46.9
37.5
40.9
42.5
51.2
54.2
19.9

30.0
47.2
26.0
27.1
37.5
28.0
31.1
34.7
42.6
44.3
12.9

Life and physical scientists ......................................................................
Agricultural scientists...............................................................................
Biological scientists..................................................................................
Chemists...................................................................................................
Geologists ................................................................................................
Medical scientists....................................................................................
Physicists..................................................................................................
All other life and physical scientists.......................................................

253.8
19.8
44.8
93.6
39.8
8.1
20.5
27.1

300.2
21.6
51.2
112.9
51.7
9.4
23.1
30.3

317.3
22.7
54.1
119.5
54.9
9.7
24.4
32.0

305.6
22.1
52.5
115.0
52.0
9.4
23.6
31.1

18.2
9.1
14.1
20.6
30.1
15.6
12.5
11.6

25.0
14.3
20.7
27.6
38.2
19.4
19.0
18.1

20.4
11.5
17.0
22.8
30.7
15.8
14.8
14.5

Mathematical specialists...........................................................................
Actuaries...................................................................................................
Mathematicians........................................................................................
Statisticians..............................................................................................
All other mathematical specialists ..........................................................

52.0
7.8
12.7
26.5
5.0

61.7
10.9
14.4
30.9
5.6

65.8
11.6
15.2
33.2
5.8

63.3
11.3
14.7
31.6
5.7

18.7
39.5
13.2
16.7
10.9

26.5
48.3
20.0
25.2
16.3

21.6
44.8
15.8
19.3
13.2

Engineering and science technicians .......................................................
Broadcast technicians .............................................................................
Civil engineering technicians ..................................................................
Drafters....................................................................................................
Electrical and electronic technicians ......................................................
Industrial engineering technicians...........................................................
Mechanical engineering technicians.......................................................
Surveyors..................................................................................................
All other engineering and science technicians ......................................

1,267.9
16.5
24.6
321.6
359.5
32.4
48.5
61.3
403.4

1,578.0
17.8
30.7
411.1
466.3
40.2
60.9
72.9
478.0

1,700.8
18.4
31.6
445.3
513.8
43.6
67.1
78.0
503.0

1,610.1
17.8
31.1
418.8
480.3
40.8
62.2
75.4
483.8

24.5
7.5
24.8
27.9
29.7
24.0
25.5
18.8
18.5

34.1
11.4
28.4
38.5
42.9
34.4
38.2
27.2
24.7

27.0
7.7
26.2
30.2
33.6
25.7
28.1
22.9
19.9

Medical workers, except technicians.......................................................
Chiropractors............................................................................................
Dentists ' ..................................................................................................
Dietitians...................................................................................................
Nurses, professional ................................................................................
Optometrists.............................................................................................
Pharmacists..............................................................................................
Physicians, medical and osteopathic 1 ...................................................
Podiatrists.................................................................................................
Therapists.................................................................................................
Inhalation therapists..............................................................................
Manual arts, music, and recreational therapists..................................
Occupational therapists........................................................................
Physical therapists.................................................................................
Speech and hearing clinicians..............................................................
All other therapists................................................................................
Veterinarians............................................................................................

2,198.7
23.0
170.7
44.2

2,932.6
27.0
208.3
60.9

3,099.2
29.5
222.7
64.5

2,958.0
27.8
212.4
62.4

1,104.0

1,541.5

1,617.4

1,550.9

27.1
141.2
491.1
12.1
149.6
18.3
23.6
19.0
34.2
35.2
19.3
35.5

32.7
157.5
625.6
16.1
216.5
26.1
34.6
30.9
51.6
51.6
21.8
46.6

35.5
169.9
664.6
17.5
226.8
27.4
37.2
32.5
54.5
52.8
22.3
50.8

33.1
155.2
631.2
16.5
218.9
26.3
35.3
31.3
52.3
51.8
21.9
49.6

33.4
17.2
22.0
37.6
39.6
21.0
11.5
27.4
32.6
44.7
42.3
46.7
62.7
50.9
46.6
12.6
31.1

41.0
28.1
30.4
45.8
46.5
31.3
20.3
35.3
44.3
51.6
49.5
58.0
71.4
59.4
50.2
15.2
42.9

34.5
20.7
24.4
41.0
40.5
22.4
9.9
28.5
35.8
46.4
43.1
49.9
64.9
53.0
47.4
13.4
39.4

Health technologists and technicians......................................................
Cytotechnologists....................................................................................
Dental hygienists.....................................................................................
Dietetic technicians..................................................................................
EKG technicians......................................................................................
Health records technologists..................................................................
Licensed practical nurses 1 .....................................................................
Medical technicians..................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologists.............................................................
Pharmacy helpers....................................................................................
Physical therapy technicians...................................................................
Radiologic and nuclear medicine technicians........................................

1,202.6
5.3
60.6
5.8
19.7
31.6
521.7
88.2
105.0
23.1
11.3
14.0

1,617.5
7.0
84.4
9.1
26.2
43.6
706.9
119.1
140.8
30.3
16.7
18.2

1,707.9
7.7
86.2
10.0
27.3
45.5
751.6
126.7
149.4
31.8
18.0
19.1

1,628.0
7.0
83.5
9.4
26.2
43.6
717.1
119.4
141.2
30.2
17.0
18.2

34.5
32.5
39.2
56.6
33.3
37.8
35.5
35.0
34.0
31.3
47.9
29.9

42.0
46.9
42.3
72.8
39.0
43.9
44.1
43.6
42.2
37.5
59.5
36.7

35.4
34.2
37.8
62.2
33.1
38.0
37.5
35.3
34.4
30.7
50.2
30.3

See footnotes at end of table.
77

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Surgical technicians ................................................................................
X-ray technicians.....................................................................................
All other health technologists and technicians......................................

31.5
92.3
192.5

43.9
126.4
245.0

45.8
132.6
256.1

43.9
126.2
245.2

39.3
36.8
27.3

45.4
43.6
33.1

39.2
36.6
27.4

Technicians, except health, science, and engineering...........................
Airplane p ilo ts..........................................................................................
Air traffic controllers................................................................................
Embalmers ...............................................................................................
Flight engineers.......................................................................................
Radio operators.......................................................................................
Technical assistants, library....................................................................
Tool programmers, numerical control.....................................................
All other technicians, except health, science, and
engineering............................................................................................

289.4
81.7
29.0
11.4
5.9
5.9
35.5
11.9

330.2
94.2
33.6
11.6
6.4
6.8
35.5
13.8

349.0
100.5
34.3
14.0
6.8
7.1
35.7
15.3

333.8
95.6
33.7
12.8
6.4
6.7
35.4
14.1

14.1
15.3
16.1
2.0
8.0
15.2
.1
15.8

20.6
23.0
18.5
22.9
14.7
20.5
.6
28.4

15.3
17.0
16.4
13.1
8.8
14.8
-.2
17.9

108.2

128.4

135.4

129.0

18.6

25.1

19.2

Computer specialists................................................................................
Computer programmers...........................................................................
Computer systems analysts....................................................................

432.8
228.2
204.6

683.1
339.9
343.2

733.9
366.0
367.9

697.2
346.6
350.6

57.8
48.9
67.7

69.6
60.4
79.8

61.1
51.8
71.4

Social scientists............................... ........................................................
Economists...............................................................................................
Financial analysts....................................................................................
Psychologists 1.........................................................................................
Sociologists..............................................................................................
Urban and regional planners ..................................................................
All other social scientists ........................................................................

189.6
28.8
14.3
82.5
6.4
23.1
34.6

242.4
40.9
18.5
106.5
7.7
29.4
39.4

255.4
43.3
20.2
111.1
8.1
30.3
42.4

248.0
41.5
19.5
108.5
7.9
29.7
40.8

27.9
42.0
29.7
29.2
20.3
27.5
13.8

34.7
50.1
41.7
34.8
27.4
31.3
22.6

30.8
44.0
37.0
31.6
24.5
28.7
17.9

Teachers...................................................................................................
Adult education teachers ........................................................................
College and university teachers..............................................................
Dance instructors ....................................................................................
Elementary school teachers...................................................................
Extension service specialists..................................................................
Graduate assistants.................................................................................
Preschool and kindergarten teachers.....................................................
Secondary school teachers ....................................................................
Vocational education teachers...............................................................
All other teachers....................................................................................

3,915.5
107.4
457.4
22.5
1,285.6
6.0
132.1
474.6
1,237.2
27.0
165.6

4,048.1
123.1
405.1
25.6
1,536.6
5.8
108.7
570.3
1,061.6
33.2
178.2

4,081.6
125.9
406.6
27.2
1,542.3
5.8
109.1
575.5
1,065.6
34.2
189.3

4,042.6
123.4
404.1
24.8
1,532.9
5.8
108.4
568.5
1,059.1
33.3
182.4

3.4
14.6
-11.4
13.5
19.5
-3.1
-17.7
20.2
-14.2
22.8
7.6

4.2
17.2
-11.1
20.5
20.0
-2.8
-17.4
21.3
-13.9
26.5
14.3

3.2
14.8
-11.6
9.9
19.2
-3.4
-17.9
19.8
-14.4
23.2
10.1

Selected writers, artists, and entertainers...............................................
Actors.......................................................................................................
Athletes....................................................................................................
Commercial artists...................................................................................
Dancers ...................................................................................................
Designers.................................................................................................
Musicians, instrumental ...........................................................................
Painters, artistic.......................................................................................
Photographers .........................................................................................
Public relations specialists......................................................................
Radio and television announcers............................................................
Announcers ...........................................................................................
Broadcast news analysts......................................................................
Reporters and correspondents...............................................................
Singers.....................................................................................................
Sports instructors....................................................................................
Writers and editors..................................................................................
Writers, artists, and entertainers, n.e.c....................................................

969.3
20.8
20.5
120.1
6.5
165.4
138.2
22.4
90.7
86.6
51.0
42.8
8.2
57.3
18.9
36.4
118.0
8.1

1,115.4
24.6
22.4
121.9
7.8
189.2
159.7
19.5
104.2
101.8
65.5
54.7
10.8
70.0
21.0
41.1
144.5
9.4

1,196.4
26.2
24.2
133.6
7.8
206.1
165.4
21.5
112.9
108.9
68.1
56.9
11.2
75.4
22.5
43.4
156.9
9.9

1,132.8
24.7
23.6
126.2
7.9
185.1
165.4
20.3
103.7
104.3
65.7
54.8
10.8
72.0
21.8
41.3
148.6
9.4

15.1
18.5
8.8
1.5
19.9
14.4
15.5
-12.6
14.9
17.5
28.4
27.8
31.1
22.2
11.0
13.2
22.5
16.8

23.4
25.9
17.7
11.2
20.3
24.6
19.7
-3.9
24.5
25.7
33.5
32.9
36.3
31.7
18.9
19.3
33.0
22.5

16.9
18.7
14.7
5.1
21.7
11.9
19.6
-9.3
14.4
20.4
28.7
28.1
31.3
25.7
15.4
13.5
25.9
16.6

Other professional and technical workers...............................................
Accountants and auditors 1.....................................................................
Architects..................................................................................................
Assessors.................................................................................................
Audiovisual specialists, education...........................................................
Brokers, floor representatives, and security traders..............................
Buyers, retail and wholesale trade !........................................................
Claim examiners, property/casualty insurance ......................................
Claims takers, unemployment benefits ..................................................
Clergy.......................................................................................................

4,445.7
833.2
79.5
32.4
10.6
7.8
251.9
22.0
15.2
296.0

5,248.7
1,053.9
105.5
37.8
10.3
9.4
296.3
32.5
17.8
288.5

5,595.9
1,131.4
112.1
38.5
10.3
10.8
319.6
33.5
18.2
309.9

5,366.9
1,078.7
108.4
37.9
10.2
10.4
298.1
32.8
17.9
298.3

18.1
26.5
32.7
16.8
-3.4
21.3
17.6
47.3
17.4
-2.5

25.9
35.8
41.0
18.8
-3.0
38.7
26.9
52.1
19.8
4.7

20.7
29.5
36.3
17.0
-3.6
33.5
18.3
48.6
17.8
.8

Cost estimators........................................................................................
Credit analysts, chief ...............................................................................

85.7
7.7

105.8
9.7

113.2
10.4

108.5
10.1

23.5
25.8

32.1
35.0

26.6
31.0

See footnotes at end of table.
78

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Credit analysts.........................................................................................
Directors, religious education and activities ...........................................
Employment interviewers ........................................................................
Foresters ..................................................................................................
Insurance investigators............................................................................
Judges ......................................................................................................
Law clerks................................................................................................
Lawyers 1 ..................................................................................................

24.1
35.8
58.2
29.5
9.7
19.9
32.7
416.2

29.5
36.6
85.6
32.2
13.2
22.9
42.6
523.5

32.1
39.4
95.3
33.6
14.0
23.3
48.0
579.9

31.1
37.9
88.3
33.0
13.5
22.9
44.3
543.3

22.5
2.2
47.0
9.2
36.3
15.0
30.2
25.8

33.5
9.9
63.7
13.9
43.6
17.0
46.8
39.4

29.4
5.8
51.8
12.0
38.8
15.2
35.4
30.5

Librarians..................................................................................................
Magistrates...............................................................................................
Media buyers ...........................................................................................
Paralegal personnel .................................................................................
Personnel and labor relations specialists ..............................................
Purchasing agents and buyers................................................................
Recreation workers, group......................................................................
Safety inspectors.....................................................................................
Social workers .........................................................................................
Caseworkers..........................................................................................
Community organization workers .........................................................

134.3
10.1
15.1
31.5
178.2
172.3
130.2
5.9
344.8
289.5
55.3

138.5
11.8
17.5
65.8
205.1
199.5
152.3
7.4
413.8
342.4
71.4

141.1
12.0
19.4
75.3
217.2
213.8
159.7
7.6
427.6
353.9
73.7

139.0
11.8
18.3
68.8
208.2
202.4
156.6
7.4
422.7
349.8
72.9

3.1
16.7
16.3
108.9
15.1
15.8
16.9
24.8
20.0
18.3
29.2

5.1
18.7
28.5
138.8
21.9
24.1
22.6
29.2
24.0
22.3
33.3

3.5
16.9
21.6
118.4
16.8
17.5
20.2
25.8
22.6
20.8
31.9

Special agents, insurance.......................................................................
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents ....................................
Tax preparers...........................................................................................
Title examiners and abstractors..............................................................
Underwriters.............................................................................................
Vocational and educational counselors .................................................
Welfare investigators ...............................................................................
All other professional workers.................................................................

24.0
54.1
31.1
10.2
76.2
207.6
11.7
737.7

29.1
60.3
46.2
17.4
89.5
210.5
13.6
814.0

30.2
61.4
52.8
18.0
93.3
213.9
13.9
862.5

29.5
60.4
50.0
17.4
89.9
211.8
13.7
831.0

21.7
11.5
48.6
70.6
17.5
1.4
16.0
10.4

25.9
13.6
69.8
76.1
22.6
3.0
18.1
16.9

23.1
11.7
60.8
69.7
18.1
2.0
16.4
12.7

Managers, officials, and proprietors ..........................................................
Auto parts department managers...........................................................
Auto service department managers........................................................
Construction inspectors, public administration.......................................
Inspectors, except construction, public administration...........................
Postmasters and mail superintendents..................................................
Railroad conductors.................................................................................
Restaurant, cafe, and bar managers......................................................
Sales managers, retail trade...................................................................
Store managers.......................................................................................
Wholesalers..............................................................................................
All other managers...................................................................................

9,355.4
46.7
58.1
48.3
111.7
28.3
33.2
556.9
273.1
961.9
248.5
6,988.6

10,562.5
54.2
68.9
60.8
125.1
28.9
31.2
642.0
323.4
1,101.3
279.4
7,847.3

11,344.1
58.9
74.9
61.9
127.5
30.0
34.3
680.0
351.2
1,182.8
306.8
8,435.8

10,760.5
59.0
75.2
60.9
125.4
29.1
31.5
650.1
322.8
1,106.6
283.6
8,016.1

12.9
16.1
18.6
26.0
12.0
2.1
-6.3
15.3
18.4
14.5
12.4
12.3

21.3
26.1
28.9
28.2
14.1
5.9
3.3
22.1
28.6
23.0
23.5
20.7

15.0
26.4
29.4
26.2
12.2
2.9
-5.2
16.7
18.2
15.0
14.1
14.7

Sales workers.............................................................................................
Brokers and market operators, commodities .........................................
Contribution solicitors ..............................................................................
Crating and moving estimators................................................................
Real estate appraisers.............................................................................
Real estate brokers .................................................................................
Sales agents and representatives, real estate 1 ....................................
Sales agents and representatives, insurance ........................................
Sales agents and representatives, securities.........................................
Sales clerks..............................................................................................
Travel agents and accommodations appraisers....................................
Vendors ....................................................................................................
All other sales workers............................................................................

6,821.5
5.8
6.7
7.5
35.9
38.7
291.8
327.3
63.4
2,879.9
52.1
6.9
3,105.5

8,112.2
8.3
9.0
10.1
47.1
47.9
393.7
398.6
80.0
3,359.2
74.7
9.1
3,674.5

8,763.2
9.5
9.5
10.5
50.5
52.5
430.3
420.4
91.6
3,598.5
79.4
9.7
4,000.9

8,204.5
9.1
9.4
9.8
48.2
48.6
400.5
405.4
88.2
3,359.3
74.9
9.2
3,741.9

18.9
42.4
34.4
33.7
31.1
23.9
34.9
21.8
26.2
16.6
43.4
31.3
18.3

28.5
63.7
41.1
39.7
40.5
35.8
47.5
28.4
44.4
25.0
52.4
40.2
28.8

20.3
56.8
40.0
29.9
34.2
25.8
37.2
23.9
39.1
16.6
43.8
33.1
20.5

Clerical workers..........................................................................................
Adjustment clerks....................................................................................
Admissions evaluators.............................................................................
Bank te lle rs..............................................................................................
New accounts tellers ............................................................................
Tellers ....................................................................................................
Bookkeepers and accounting clerks.......................................................
Accounting c le rks..................................................................................
Bookkeepers, hand ...............................................................................
Brokerage clerks .....................................................................................
Car rental clerks......................................................................................
Cashiers....................................................................................................
Checking cle rks.......................................................................................
Circulation clerks.....................................................................................

18,863.8
37.3
5.6
480.4
52.7
427.7
1,714.5
740.0
974.6
12.9
16.8
1,592.5
15.9
10.7

22,417.6
45.4
5.4
600.8
64.9
535.9
1,974.8
833.0
1,141.8
16.7
21.0
2,044.6
20.3
12.7

23,917.0
47.6
5.4
619.3
67.1
552.3
2,123.4
892.7
1,230.7
19.3
21.6
2,163.4
20.9
13.6

22,720.5
45.7
5.4
605.6
65.8
539.9
2,006.0
843.2
1,162.8
18.6
20.7
2,068.7
20.4
13.0

18.8
21.7
-3.1
25.1
23.1
25.3
15.2
12.6
17.2
29.6
25.0
28.4
27.4
18.4

26.8
27.5
-2.8
28.9
27.3
29.1
23.8
20.6
26.3
49.7
28.3
35.8
31.5
27.5

20.4
22.4
-3.4
26.1
24.9
26.2
17.0
14.0
19.3
44.6
23.0
29.9
28.1
21.9

See footnotes at end of table.
79

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Claims adjusters......................................................................................
Claims clerks............................................................................................
Claims examiners, insurance..................................................................
Clerical supervisors.................................................................................
Collectors, bill and account ....................................................................
Court clerks..............................................................................................

69.8
67.6
40.3
429.6
88.7
26.0

94.7
92.3
57.7
518.7
107.9
30.4

97.9
95.8
58.9
552.7
119.0
30.9

95.1
92.8
57.9
526.0
112.8
30.4

35.7
36.5
43.0
20.8
21.6
16.9

40.4
41.6
46.1
28.7
34.1
19.0

36.3
37.2
43.8
22.4
27.1
17.2

Credit authorizers ....................................................................................
Credit clerks, banking and insurance .....................................................
Credit reporters........................................................................................
Customer service representatives, printing and
publishing ..............................................................................................
Desk clerks, bowling flo o r.......................................................................
Desk clerks, except bowling flo o r...........................................................
Dispatchers, police, fire, and ambulance...............................................
Dispatchers, vehicle, service, or w o rk....................................................
Eligibility workers, welfare.......................................................................
File clerks.................................................................................................

20.8
50.4
17.0

25.6
61.9
21.4

27.0
68.0
23.7

26.3
66.0
22.3

23.1
22.7
25.5

29.9
34.8
39.2

26.5
31.0
30.8

7.0
15.4
82.3
51.0
91.7
32.6
270.9

7.9
15.4
94.1
59.6
108.4
38.4
325.0

8.6
16.4
106.4
60.7
115.5
39.2
346.2

8.1
16.9
95.3
59.7
107.4
38.6
329.1

13.4
.4
14.3
17.0
18.2
17.8
19.9

23.2
6.4
29.2
19.0
26.0
20.0
27.8

16.8
10.2
15.8
17.2
17.2
18.3
21.5

General clerks, office...............................................................................
In-file operators........................................................................................
Insurance checkers..................................................................................
Insurance clerks, except medical............................................................
Insurance clerks, medical........................................................................
Library assistants.....................................................................................
Loan closers ............................................................................................
Mail carriers, Postal Service ...................................................................
Mail cle rks................................................................................................
Marking clerks, trade ...............................................................................
Messengers..............................................................................................
Meter readers, utilities .............................................................................
Mortgage closing clerks ..........................................................................

2,394.7
5.4
12.9
9.7
69.0
119.0
24.1
241.5
81.2
43.5
51.6
30.0
21.8

2,772.2
6.7
15.4
11.0
92.8
123.3
31.1
260.1
94.5
53.8
59.9
32.4
24.7

2,972.4
7.9
15.8
11.5
97.4
124.7
32.7
269.7
99.4
56.8
64.1
37.7
26.7

2,811.4
7.1
15.4
11.3
92.2
123.3
31.9
262.0
96.2
54.8
61.6
32.5
26.4

15.8
23.8
18.9
13.9
34.5
3.7
29.2
7.7
16.4
23.8
16.1
7.8
13.3

24.1
46.1
22.1
19.0
41.2
4.8
35.8
11.7
22.4
30.6
24.4
25.6
22.4

17.4
32.2
19.4
17.5
33.7
3.7
32.3
8.5
18.5
26.1
19.5
8.2
21.3

Office machine operators........................................................................
Bookkeeping and billing operators.......................................................
Bookkeeping, billing machine operators.............................................
Proof machine operators.....................................................................
Transit clerks .......................................................................................
Computer, peripheral equipment operators .........................................
Computer operators! ............................................................................
Peripheral EDP equipment operators.................................................
Duplicating machine operators .............................................................
Keypunch operators..............................................................................
Tabulating machine operators ..............................................................
All other office machine operators.......................................................
Order clerks .............................................................................................
Payroll and timekeeping clerks...............................................................
Personnel clerks......................................................................................
Policy change clerks................................................................................
Postal clerks ............................................................................................

914.5
233.8
176.7
47.5
9.6
233.2
184.6
48.7
33.9
324.7
5.1
83.7
250.2
178.7
94.8
26.6
316.3

1,107.6
283.5
211.8
59.8
11.8
386.8
316.7
70.1
38.4
293.0
6.0
100.0
289.0
210.9
111.4
31.6
309.5

1,183.5
301.1
228.2
60.9
12.0
412.0
338.2
73.8
41.1
315.8
6.4
107.2
316.0
226.2
117.5
33.1
320.9

1,121.4
282.5
211.7
59.2
11.7
393.9
323.0
70.9
39.1
297.8
6.1
101.9
288.1
214.2
112.7
31.7
311.8

21.1
21.2
19.9
25.9
23.5
65.8
71.6
44.0
13.4
-9.8
17.3
19.4
15.5
18.0
17.5
19.0
-2.2

29.4
28.8
29.1
28.2
25.7
76.6
83.2
51.6
21.3
-2.8
25.1
28.1
26.3
26.6
23.9
24.5
1.5

22.6
20.9
19.8
24.5
22.3
68.9
75.0
45.7
15.3
-8.3
19.1
21.7
15.1
19.9
18.8
19.4
-1.4

Procurement clerks.................................................................................
Production clerks.....................................................................................
Proofreaders ............................................................................................
Rate clerks, freight..................................................................................
Raters ......................................................................................................
Real estate cle rks...................................................................................
Receptionists ...........................................................................................
Reservation agents.................................................................................
Safe deposit clerks .................................................................................
Secretaries, stenographers, and typists.................................................
Secretaries ............................................................................................
Stenographers.......................................................................................
Typists....................................................................................................

40.3
201.1
19.8
11.2
56.1
15.6
401.5
56.6
10.6
3,817.4
2,469.0
281.2
1,067.2

46.5
235.4
22.2
13.9
63.2
22.1
499.0
55.2
13.9
4,680.9
3,168.7
257.9
1,254.3

50.0
257.9
24.2
14.4
65.9
23.8
533.0
58.8
14.3
4,996.2
3,392.0
274.6
1,329.6

47.0
239.6
23.1
13.4
63.5
22.0
504.8
55.6
13.9
4,760.2
3,227.5
261.7
1,271.0

15.5
17.1
12.5
24.1
12.6
41.6
24.3
-2.4
31.0
22.6
28.3
-8.3
17.5

24.0
28.3
22.3
29.2
17.4
52.1
32.7
3.9
34.1
30.9
37.4
-2.3
24.6

16.6
19.2
16.9
19.9
13.2
40.5
25.7
-1.6
30.9
24.7
30.7
-6.9
19.1

Service clerks ..........................................................................................
Shipping and receiving clerks.................................................................
Shipping packers.....................................................................................
Statement clerks ......................................................................................
Statistical clerks.......................................................................................
Stock clerks, stockroom and warehouse................................................

22.9
390.0
346.1
32.6
85.2
821.6

28.8
448.7
397.8
43.8
94.6
963.7

30.3
488.1
431.2
44.9
100.4
1,042.7

29.8
452.0
400.9
43.8
95.7
977.3

25.8
15.0
15.0
34.2
11.0
17.3

32.4
25.1
24.6
37.8
17.9
26.9

30.0
15.9
15.8
34.3
12.3
18.9

See footnotes at end of table.
80

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Survey workers........................................................................................
Switchboard operators/receptionists......................................................
Teachers’ aides, except monitors...........................................................
Telephone advertisement takers, newspapers.......................................

45.6
233.4
415.4
9.6

47.7
275.7
493.3
11.3

51.7
297.9
496.5
12.3

49.2
281.7
491.7
11.7

4.7
18.1
18.8
17.8

13.5
27.6
19.5
27.7

7.9
20.7
18.4
21.8

Telegraph operators.................................................................................
Telephone operators................................................................................
Switchboard operators..........................................................................
Central office operators........................................................................
Directory assistance operators.............................................................
All other telephone operators...............................................................
Ticket agents ...........................................................................................
Title searchers.........................................................................................
Town clerks..............................................................................................
Traffic agents...........................................................................................
Traffic clerks ............................................................................................
Transportation agents..............................................................................
Travel counselors, auto club ..................................................................
Weighers...................................................................................................
Worksheet clerks.....................................................................................
Yard clerks...............................................................................................
All other clerical workers.........................................................................

15.3
337.3
183.9
110.0
38.0
5.4
53.1
7.0
28.4
18.2
6.7
21.3
8.4
35.3
11.6
5.6
1,150.0

13.5
350.9
192.9
112.6
39.7
5.7
50.8
12.4
33.3
21.8
8.8
22.0
9.9
41.5
12.5
4.5
1,339.1

15.0
386.3
207.2
127.7
45.0
6.4
53.9
12.8
33.9
22.9
9.1
23.3
10.8
44.7
12.6
5.0
1,437.1

13.8
356.3
196.3
114.0
40.2
5.8
51.2
12.3
33.3
21.3
8.8
22.1
10.1
41.9
12.5
4.6
1,360.2

-11.8
4.0
4.9
2.4
4.5
5.0
-4.2
78.5
17.3
19.8
31.5
3.0
16.9
17.5
7.7
-18.6
16.4

-2.4
14.5
12.6
16.1
18.4
19.0
1.6
83.4
19.3
25.8
36.9
9.4
28.0
26.5
9.2
-10.2
25.0

-10.0
5.6
6.7
3.7
5.8
6.4
-3.4
76.6
17.5
17.1
31.8
3.8
19.7
18.8
8.2
-17.6
18.3

Craft and related workers ..........................................................................

12,369.2

14,566.9

15,756.1

14,866.3

17.8

27.4

20.2

Construction craft workers .......................................................................
Air-hammer operators..............................................................................
Brickmasons.............................................................................................
Carpenters................................................................................................
Carpet cutters and layers........................................................................
Ceiling tile installers and floor layers......................................................
Concrete and terrazzo finishers ..............................................................
Drywall installers and lathers..................................................................
Drywall applicators ................................................................................
Lathers...................................................................................................
Tapers....................................................................................................

3,317.1
11.9
145.9
969.5
53.2
26.6
112.6
95.9
52.3
11.9
31.7

3,981.2
14.6
204.5
1,142.7
65.5
34.8
154.1
124.3
70.5
11.4
42.5

4,276.6
16.4
220.5
1,231.0
72.6
38.4
166.0
134.2
76.1
12.2
45.8

4,076.0
15.0
211.2
1,186.4
67.6
35.9
158.9
127.5
72.5
11.7
43.4

20.0
22.5
40.2
17.9
23.2
31.0
36.9
29.6
34.7
-4.4
33.9

28.9
37.8
51.2
27.0
36.6
44.2
47.4
39.9
45.6
2.9
44.4

22.9
25.7
44.8
22.4
27.1
35.1
41.1
33.0
38.6
-1.7
36.7

Electricians...............................................................................................
Fitters, pipelaying ....................................................................................
Glaziers....................................................................................................
Highway maintenance workers...............................................................
Insulation workers ...................................................................................
Painters, construction and maintenance................................................
Paperhangers...........................................................................................
Plasterers .................................................................................................
Plumbers and pipefitters..........................................................................
Refractory materials repairers ................................................................
Roofers....................................................................................................
Stonemasons...........................................................................................
Structural steel workers...........................................................................
Tile setters ...............................................................................................

560.3
8.8
38.4
186.0
45.4
382.4
21.1
23.6
406.7
7.7
112.6
9.1
74.8
20.2

669.4
10.6
47.2
211.2
59.3
435.8
24.3
25.6
488.1
9.3
129.6
10.0
87.6
27.6

717.0
11.6
50.4
214.9
63.4
476.6
26.9
27.7
521.7
9.5
139.4
10.7
92.6
29.9

684.1
10.8
48.8
211.6
60.9
429.3
24.4
26.4
500.6
9.2
133.6
10.4
89.8
28.4

19.5
19.3
23.0
13.5
30.5
14.0
15.6
8.5
20.0
19.7
15.2
10.0
17.2
36.2

28.0
30.7
31.3
15.5
39.6
24.6
27.8
17.4
28.3
22.7
23.8
17.5
23.8
48.0

22.1
22.0
27.1
13.7
34.1
12.3
15.8
11.9
23.1
19.4
18.7
14.8
20.1
40.4

Mechanics, repairers, and installers.........................................................
Air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration mechanics ..........................
Aircraft mechanics...................................................................................
Auto body repairers.................................................................................
Auto seat cover and top installers..........................................................
Automotive mechanics ............................................................................
Auto repair service estimators................................................................
Bicycle repairers......................................................................................
Coin machine servicers and repairers....................................................
Data processing machine mechanics.....................................................
Diesel mechanics....................................................................................
Electrical instrument and tool repairers .................................................
Electric motor repairers...........................................................................
Electric powerline installers and repairers.............................................
Cable splicers........................................................................................
Line installers and repairers.................................................................
Troubleshooters, powerline..................................................................
Engineering equipment mechanics.........................................................
Farm equipment mechanics....................................................................

3,936.7
179.5
108.5
153.4
9.4
845.7
11.4
12.4
26.7
83.0
173.5
9.1
20.2
171.6
43.7
120.2
7.7
92.0
24.8

4,752.4
214.7
125.0
188.8
8.2
1,052.1
14.2
15.7
29.2
160.4
214.4
10.7
26.9
187.0
46.1
132.7
8.2
104.0
29.9

5,142.8
231.4
132.7
200.7
8.4
1,123.8
15.4
17.3
31.0
176.3
227.6
11.7
34.5
212.0
52.1
150.3
9.6
112.3
32.4

4,850.0
217.4
126.1
192.6
7.7
1,081.9
15.7
15.1
24.6
166.7
214.5
11.1
32.1
189.8
46.6
134.8
8.3
107.6
31.4

20.7
19.7
15.2
23.1
-12.7
24.4
24.7
27.1
9.2
93.2
23.5
16.8
33.2
9.0
5.4
10.4
6.6
13.1
20.9

30.6
28.9
22.3
30.8
-10.1
32.9
35.1
39.7
16.1
112.4
31.1
27.7
70.6
23.6
19.3
25.1
24.5
22.1
31.0

23.2
21.2
16.2
25.5
-18.1
27.9
37.9
22.5
-8.0
100.8
23.6
21.6
58.6
10.6
6.7
12.2
7.9
17.0
26.7

See footnotes at end of table.
81

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Gas and electric appliance repairers......................................................

60.2

67.7

75.5

67.7

12.4

25.3

12.4

Household appliance installers...............................................................
Hydroelectric machine mechanics ..........................................................
Instrument repairers................................................................................
Knitting machine fixers ............................................................................
Laundry machine mechanics..................................................................
Loom fixers ..............................................................................................
Maintenance mechanics..........................................................................
Maintenance repairers, general utility.....................................................
Marine mechanics and repairers.............................................................

17.0
13.0
37.6
10.6
5.4
11.4
18.0
348.1
651.4
9.9

22.0
13.9
41.5
11.1
4.5
15.6
16.2
411.0
785.0
10.6

23.9
15.8
44.9
12.2
5.4
18.8
16.4
439.5
845.4
11.4

22.8
14.0
41.9
10.8
4.9
17.7
16.1
418.9
794.3
10.8

29.0
7.6
10.5
5.4
-17.4
37.2
-9.9
18.1
20.5
7.1

40.4
22.1
19.6
14.9
-.1
65.7
-8.4
26.3
29.8
15.2

33.5
8.2
11.6
2.0
-8.8
55.6
-10.4
20.3
22.0
9.4

Millwrights.................................................................................................
Mine machinery mechanics ....................................................................
Mobile home repairers.............................................................................
Musical instrument repairers...................................................................
Office machine and cash register servicers..........................................
Pinsetter mechanics, automatic ..............................................................
Radio and television repairers................................................................
Railroad car repairers ..............................................................................
Railroad signal and switch maintainers..................................................
Section repairers and setters .................................................................
Sewing machine mechanics ...................................................................

91.0
18.1
5.6
14.4
55.4
6.5
83.1
30.0
5.7
13.6
12.2

107.9
26.4
6.7
17.2
88.5
6.6
109.1
24.4
4.7
14.0
14.2

114.3
29.9
7.5
18.9
96.1
6.9
118.6
26.9
5.1
14.4
15.6

109.1
28.1
7.1
18.5
91.4
7.2
114.3
24.7
4.7
13.7
14.5

18.5
46.0
20.2
19.4
59.8
.4
31.3
-18.5
-18.6
3.0
16.4

25.6
65.4
34.0
31.5
73.5
6.4
42.8
-10.1
-10.2
6.1
28.3

19.9
55.3
26.6
28.8
65.0
10.2
37.6
-17.5
-17.6
1.3
18.6

Shoe repairers .........................................................................................
Telephone installers and repairers .........................................................
Cable repairers......................................................................................
Cable installers .....................................................................................
Central office repairers .........................................................................
Frame wirers .........................................................................................
Installers, repairers, and section maintainers......................................
Station installers ...................................................................................
Trouble locators, test desk ..................................................................
All other telephone installers and repairers.........................................

15.5
247.6
10.1
7.1
50.8
13.3
75.0
59.4
19.4
12.5

17.2
265.9
10.8
8.2
47.8
12.5
86.5
68.4
18.3
13.6

17.8
301.5
12.2
9.5
54.2
14.1
98.0
77.5
20.7
15.3

16.8
269.6
10.9
8.4
48.4
12.6
87.7
69.2
18.5
13.8

10.8
7.4
6.2
15.6
-6.0
-6.0
15.4
15.1
-5.7
8.4

15.1
21.8
20.7
33.6
6.6
6.5
30.7
30.5
6.9
22.4

8.4
8.9
7.7
19.1
-4.8
-4.8
16.9
16.5
-4.5
10.4

Water meter installers..............................................................................
All other mechanics, repairers, and installers........................................

6.1
224.0

7.2
257.4

7.3
279.8

7.2
264.1

17.2
14.9

19.3
24.9

17.5
17.9

Metalworking craft workers, except mechanics.......................................
Blacksmiths..............................................................................................
Boilermakers ............................................................................................
Coremakers, hand, bench, and flo o r......................................................
Forging press operators..........................................................................
Header operators ....................................................................................
Heat treaters, annealers, and temperers...............................................
Layout markers, metal .............................................................................
Machine tool setters, metalworking........................................................
Machinists 1
................................................................................................
Molders, m etal.........................................................................................
Molders, bench and floor .....................................................................
Molders, machine .................................................................................
All other molders, metal .......................................................................
Patternmakers, m etal..............................................................................
Punch press setters, metal .....................................................................
Rolling mill operators and helpers..........................................................
Shear and slitter setters..........................................................................
Sheet-metal workers and tinsmiths!........................................................
Tool-and-die makers...............................................................................
All other metalworking craft workers......................................................

936.1
5.9
43.9
9.3
8.9
5.4
25.2
21.3
55.5
281.9
39.7
13.0
19.2
7.5
7.9
19.2
10.8
5.5
217.8
166.0
11.9

1,069.7
5.4
48.3
10.3
10.8
6.9
29.5
24.3
65.9
326.7
44.3
14.5
21.6
8.2
9.4
23.3
12.4
6.6
252.1
179.1
14.4

1,179.6
6.0
52.7
10.9
12.0
7.4
32.0
27.2
73.7
362.3
47.0
15.5
23.1
8.3
10.3
25.9
12.7
7.2
270.7
206.4
15.2

1,094.2
5.6
50.1
10.3
11.1
7.0
29.6
24.8
67.3
335.4
44.3
14.6
21.7
7.9
9.5
23.9
12.4
6.7
258.1
183.6
14.5

14.3
-8.6
10.1
10.8
21.6
27.6
17.0
13.9
18.6
15.9
11.6
11.9
12.5
8.9
19.0
21.4
15.4
20.1
15.7
7.9
21.4

26.0
.8
20.1
17.9
34.6
37.9
26.8
28.0
32.7
28.5
18.5
19.6
20.6
11.4
29.6
34.6
17.5
32.0
24.3
24.4
28.0

16.9
-6.2
14.2
11.4
24.9
30.7
17.6
16.7
21.1
19.0
11.6
12.5
13.5
5.5
20.1
24.1
14.5
22.1
18.5
10.6
22.6

Printing trades craft workers....................................................................
Bookbinders, hand and machine ............................................................
Bindery machine setters..........................................................................
Compositors and typesetters..................................................................
Etchers and engravers ............................................................................
Photoengravers and lithographers..........................................................
Camera operators, printing...................................................................
Photoengravers.....................................................................................
Strippers, printing..................................................................................

408.0
23.7
6.5
127.8
14.7
55.1
22.2
10.3
22.6

429.8
26.4
7.1
115.5
16.9
68.6
29.3
9.9
29.5

463.0
28.7
7.7
124.8
18.0
74.2
31.7
10.6
31.9

444.9
27.4
7.4
119.0
17.1
71.5
30.5
10.3
30.8

5.3
11.4
10.4
-9.6
14.8
24.4
32.1
-4.7
30.1

13.5
21.2
20.1
-2.3
22.2
34.6
43.0
3.0
40.9

9.0
15.9
14.8
-6.9
16.1
29.7
37.6
-.8
35.8

See footnotes at end of table.

82

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Press and plate printers..........................................................................
Letter press operators ..........................................................................
Offset lithographic press operators......................................................
Platemakers...........................................................................................
Press operators and plate printers.......................................................
All other press and plate printers.........................................................

178.3
38.0
80.8
13.8
36.1
9.5

194.2
37.0
92.3
15.0
39.9
10.0

208.3
40.0
99.4
16.2
41.9
10.8

201.3
38.6
96.1
15.6
40.5
10.5

9.0
-2.8
14.3
8.4
10.5
6.1

16.9
5.1
23.0
17.3
15.9
14.7

12.9
1.4
19.0
12.9
12.2
10.8

Other craft and related workers ...............................................................
Auxiliary equipment operators................................................................
Bakers......................................................................................................
Blue-collar worker supervisors ...............................................................
Cabinetmakers.........................................................................................
Control room operators, steam ..............................................................
Crane, derrick, and hoist operators........................................................
Dental laboratory technicians.................................................................
Food shapers, hand.................................................................................
Furniture finishers....................................................................................

3,771.4
8.3
63.2
1,297.0
70.7
7.6
126.6
53.4
5.1
22.1

4,333.8
8.0
72.2
1,503.1
89.3
7.2
144.3
68.9
4.5
26.0

4,694.0
9.2
76.5
1,624.8
95.1
8.4
154.3
79.4
4.9
28.6

4,401.3
8.0
73.9
1,528.3
88.1
7.3
146.9
70.6
4.7
26.4

14.9
-3.7
14.2
15.9
26.2
-5.4
14.1
29.0
-11.4
17.6

24.5
11.1
20.9
25.3
34.5
9.7
21.9
48.7
-5.2
29.4

16.7
-3.2
16.9
17.8
24.6
-4.3
16.0
32.3
-8.6
19.7

Furniture upholsterers..............................................................................
Glass installers........................................................................................
Heavy equipment operators....................................................................
Inspectors.................................................................................................
Jewelers and silversmiths.......................................................................
Lens grinders...........................................................................................
Locomotive engineers..............................................................................
Locomotive engineer helpers .................................................................
Log inspectors, graders, and scalers .....................................................
Logging tractor operators........................................................................

34.8
5.7
452.8
472.5
27.8
10.9
46.8
11.0
5.3
25.8

35.9
7.9
531.3
544.2
32.2
12.6
46.7
4.4
5.6
15.4

40.0
8.1
582.4
595.1
35.3
14.0
51.2
4.8
5.7
16.1

37.1
7.3
545.0
553.9
31.2
13.2
47.3
4.4
5.5
15.7

3.4
38.8
17.3
15.2
15.9
14.9
-.2
-60.1
5.5
-40.1

15.0
41.8
28.6
26.0
27.2
28.4
9.3
-56.0
7.0
-37.7

6.7
28.6
20.3
17.2
12.3
20.6
.9
-59.6
3.7
-39.0

Lumber graders .......................................................................................
Machine setters, paper goods........... .....................................................
Machine setters, plastic materials...........................................................
Machine setters, woodworking................................................................
Merchandise displayers and window trimmers.......................................
Millers.......................................................................................................
Motion picture projectionists...................................................................
Opticians...................................................................................................
Oil pumpers..............................................................................................
Patternmakers, w ood...............................................................................

5.8
10.0
7.4
5.1
26.1
6.5
19.3
33.4
15.1
7.4

6.2
10.1
9.6
6.4
30.9
7.2
19.7
42.1
16.1
8.7

6.2
10.3
9.8
6.5
33.2
7.7
19.5
45.7
17.0
9.6

6.0
10.2
9.4
6.1
31.7
7.2
19.2
40.8
15.8
8.8

8.5
1.3
28.8
24.4
18.5
10.4
1.9
26.1
6.7
17.9

8.4
3.6
31.3
27.8
27.0
17.9
.7
36.9
12.3
29.5

3.4
2.2
26.7
19.3
21.3
11.0
-.8
22.5
4.6
19.1

Power station operators..........................................................................
Pumpers, head.........................................................................................
Pumping station operators, waterworks.................................................
Sewage plant operators..........................................................................
Shipfitters..................................................................................................
Ship engineers.........................................................................................
Stationary engineers ...............................................................................
Tailors ......................................................................................................
Testers......................................................................................................
Upholsterers.............................................................................................
Upholstery cutters...................................................................................
Upholstery workers, n.e.c.........................................................................

17.9
8.4
5.2
41.2
17.1
9.8
62.3
62.8
105.7
20.9
6.8
15.5

19.4
8.8
6.4
43.3
20.8
10.4
71.0
75.5
119.8
26.2
8.4
18.7

21.6
9.2
6.7
44.5
23.1
10.8
75.0
82.6
129.5
28.7
9.1
20.3

19.6
8.6
6.4
43.4
21.4
9.8
71.6
77.1
121.8
26.5
8.5
19.0

8.4
4.2
21.4
5.0
21.7
6.1
14.0
20.3
13.3
25.6
23.2
20.9

20.5
9.7
27.7
8.0
35.2
9.6
20.3
31.5
22.5
37.7
33.9
30.9

9.3
2.1
21.7
5.3
25.5
-.6
14.9
22.8
15.2
26.9
25.2
22.7

Veneer graders........................................................................................
Watchmakers ...........................................................................................
Water treatment plant operators.............................................................
All other craft and related workers.........................................................

5.1
12.3
29.7
463.1

6.3
12.4
34.9
529.9

5.9
13.9
36.3
572.6

5.3
12.2
35.0
539.3

22.4
.9
17.4
14.4

14.5
12.9
22.3
23.6

3.9
-.9
17.7
16.4

Operatives...................................................................................................

14,206.1

16,304.9

17,595.8

16,487.3

14.8

23.9

16.1

Assemblers................................................................................................
Aircraft structure and surfaces assemblers...........................................
Electrical and electronic assemblers......................................................
Electro-mechanical equipment assemblers ...........................................
Instrument makers and assemblers........................................................
Machine assemblers................................................................................
All other assemblers................................................................................

1,668.4
25.4
233.1
58.4
24.8
103.0
1,219.3

1,989.5
26.7
272.7
69.3
29.2
124.2
1,462.2

2,183.1
29.4
299.1
78.1
33.1
144.0
1,593.6

2,021.1
27.2
276.5
70.5
28.9
126.9
1,486.1

19.2
5.2
17.0
18.8
17.7
20.6
19.9

30.9
15.8
28.3
33.9
33.2
39.8
30.7

21.1
7.0
18.6
20.9
16.4
23.2
21.9

Bindery operatives....................................................................................
Bindery workers, assembly.....................................................................

86.6
43.7

78.9
39.2

85.6
42.6

81.9
40.8

-8.9
-10.4

-1.1
-2.6

-5.3
-6.8

See footnotes at end of table.
83

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Employment, all industries
Occupation

1990
(Low)

1980

1990
(High I)

Percent change
1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Bindery workers, stitching .......................................................................
All other bindery operatives....................................................................

10.4
32.4

10.1
29.6

11.0
32.1

10.5
30.7

-3.5
-8.6

5.0
-1.1

0.2
-5.2

Laundry, drycleaning, and pressing machine operators..........................
Drycleaners, hand and machine..............................................................
Folders, laundry.......................................................................................
Laundry operators, small establishment ................................................
Markers, classifiers, and assemblers......................................................
Pressers, hand.........................................................................................
Pressers, machine...................................................................................
Pressers, machine laundry......................................................................
Rug cleaners, hand and machine...........................................................
Shapers and pressers..............................................................................
Spotters, drycleaning and washable materials.......................................
Washers, machine, and starchers...........................................................
All other laundry, drycleaning, and pressing machine
operators...............................................................................................

324.6
14.6
15.8
40.0
18.1
29.3
53.3
67.5
6.7
6.0
7.2
59.1

355.6
13.9
13.0
47.6
15.9
32.3
55.8
73.8
5.5
6.5
5.9
78.6

403.9
16.8
15.8
53.2
18.4
36.0
64.7
83.6
6.7
7.3
7.2
86.6

375.2
15.3
14.4
49.4
17.2
33.4
59.2
78.0
6.1
6.7
6.6
81.8

9.6
-5.1
-17.7
19.2
-12.0
10.1
4.6
9.3
-17.3
9.1
-17.8
32.9

24.4
15.0
.1
33.2
1.8
22.5
21.4
23.9
.6
21.9
-.1
46.4

15.6
4.8
-8.8
23.6
-5.0
13.8
11.1
15.5
-8.4
11.6
-9.0
38.4

6.9

6.7

7.5

7.1

-2.8

10.0

3.1

Meat cutters and butchers .......................................................................
Boners, meat ...........................................................................................
Boners, poultry.........................................................................................
Butchers, all-around.................................................................................
Carcass splitters......................................................................................
Fish cleaners, hand, and butchers, fis h .................................................

66.3
17.0
10.3
22.9
6.8
9.3

67.3
17.7
10.8
23.8
7.0
8.0

71.7
18.8
11.5
25.3
7.5
8.7

66.5
17.3
10.6
23.1
6.8
8.7

1.4
4.0
4.1
3.9
4.0
-14.2

8.2
10.7
10.7
10.7
10.6
-7.2

.3
1.5
2.0
1.2
1.1
-6.9

Metalworking operatives...........................................................................
Dip platers, nonelectrolytic......................................................................
Drill press and boring machine operators..............................................
Electroplators...........................................................................................
Furnace chargers ....................................................................................
Furnace operators, cupola tenders.........................................................
Grinding and abrading machine operators, metal..................................
Heaters, metal .........................................................................................
Lathe machine operators, metal .............................................................

1,652.8
13.1
124.5
37.5
5.5
16.9
131.4
6.5
156.6

1,970.4
15.6
147.6
44.1
6.7
19.8
153.9
7.7
186.3

2,211.2
16.7
167.1
47.7
6.8
20.8
173.4
8.3
210.2

2,025.4
15.8
151.3
45.1
6.6
19.8
157.2
7.9
191.3

19.2
19.1
18.6
17.7
20.3
17.2
17.1
18.9
19.0

33.8
27.3
34.2
27.3
22.4
23.4
32.0
27.1
34.2

22.5
20.8
21.6
20.4
19.7
17.1
19.7
20.8
22.1

Machine-tool operators, combination .....................................................
Machine-tool operators, numerical control .............................................
Machine-tool operators, tool-room..........................................................
Milling and planing machine operators...................................................
Pourers, metal..........................................................................................
Power brake and bending machine operators, metal ............................
Punch press operators, metal ................................................................
Welders and flamecutters.......................................................................
All other metalworking operatives...........................................................

170.7
52.7
38.7
72.4
15.3
40.1
182.9
572.8
15.2

199.9
61.2
45.6
83.1
19.4
48.4
217.4
696.2
17.5

226.2
69.7
52.1
95.4
20.3
53.9
240.4
784.3
17.9

205.9
62.8
46.7
85.6
19.4
49.4
222.3
720.8
17.3

17.1
16.1
17.9
14.8
26.7
21.0
18.8
21.6
15.2

32.5
32.3
34.6
31.9
32.7
34.5
31.4
36.9
17.6

20.6
19.2
20.6
18.3
26.9
23.3
21.5
25.8
13.9

Mine operatives, n.e.c................................................................................
Continuous mining machine operators...................................................
Derrick operators, petroleum and g a s ....................................................
Gagers .....................................................................................................
Loading machine operators ....................................................................
Mill and grinder operators, minerals.......................................................
Roof bolters .............................................................................................
Roustabouts.............................................................................................
Service unit operators, oil well ...............................................................
Shuttle car operators...............................................................................
Well pullers...............................................................................................
All other mine operatives,n.e.c................................................................

210.3
8.5
16.7
7.3
7.1
12.0
12.7
79.8
12.0
13.3
6.6
34.5

238.5
13.1
15.9
7.6
9.3
13.3
17.7
79.7
12.3
18.2
6.8
44.6

258.3
15.1
16.7
7.9
10.4
14.0
20.3
83.7
12.9
20.9
7.1
49.4

242.7
14.2
15.7
7.4
9.7
13.1
19.1
78.5
12.1
19.6
6.7
46.7

13.4
54.5
-4.7
3.0
31.7
10.6
39.8
.0
2.3
37.2
3.4
29.3

22.8
77.4
.0
7.7
46.9
16.4
60.3
4.9
7.3
57.3
8.5
43.3

15.4
66.8
-6.0
.4
36.8
8.9
50.9
-1.5
.9
47.8
1.8
35.3

Packing and inspecting operatives...........................................................
Baggers ...................................................................................................
Bundlers...................................................................................................
Cloth graders ...........................................................................................
Graders, food and skins..........................................................................
Production packagers..............................................................................
Selectors, glassware................................................................................
All other packing and inspecting operatives...........................................

919.2
235.1
19.0
8.4
6.6
608.9
30.1
11.1

980.7
237.7
20.6
8.5
6.6
660.6
34.8
11.8

1,040.7
249.9
22.8
8.7
7.1
704.3
35.4
12.4

993.0
242.3
21.1
8.4
6.9
669.3
33.2
11.9

6.7
1.1
8.3
1.8
1.4
8.5
15.5
5.9

13.2
6.3
19.6
4.6
7.9
15.7
17.7
11.2

8.0
3.0
10.9
.7
4.9
9.9
10.1
7.2

Painters, manufactured articles ................................................................
Painters, automotive ................................................................................
Decorators, hand......................................................................................
Rubbers ....................................................................................................

161.8
40.7
5.4
7.3

204.9
56.2
7.1
9.5

221.6
58.6
7.6
10.1

205.9
55.1
7.3
9.5

26.6
38.1
31.8
29.9

36.9
43.9
40.2
39.0

27.3
35.4
35.5
30.3

See footnotes at end of table.

84

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Painters, production ................................................................................

108.4

132.1

145.3

134.0

21.8

34.0

23.6

Sawyers.....................................................................................................
Cut-off-saw operators, lum ber................................................................
Edgers, automatic and pony...................................................................
Head sawyers ..........................................................................................
Ripsaw operators ....................................................................................
Sawyers, metal ........................................................................................
Trim-saw operators .................................................................................
All other sawyers.....................................................................................

83.1
17.5
6.0
6.5
12.4
19.1
6.5
15.1

98.2
21.6
6.5
7.1
15.3
22.9
7.3
17.5

102.2
22.1
6.6
7.2
15.8
25.4
7.3
17.8

97.5
20.8
6.3
6.9
14.9
23.3
7.0
18.2

18.2
23.6
8.2
8.9
23.7
19.9
12.1
15.7

22.9
26.0
9.6
10.1
28.2
32.6
12.3
18.0

17.3
19.1
5.4
6.1
20.7
21.9
8.0
20.1

Sewers and stitchers.................................................................................
Menders...................................................................................................
Sewing machine operator:
Regular equipment, garment....
Special equipment, garment.......
Regular equipment, nongarment....
Special equipment, nongarment ....
All other sewers and stitchers

895.3
9.8

967.5
9.5

1,065.8
11.4

987.3
10.4

8.1
-3.2

19.0
16.8

10.3
6.3

602.0
87.0
137.7
38.9
15.1

633.9
96.3
161.8
45.5
15.3

702.0
106.4
175.0
49.0
16.1

647.4
98.5
164.0
46.1
15.6

5.3
10.8
17.5
16.9
1.1

16.6
22.4
27.1
25.9
6.2

7.5
13.2
19.1
18.3
3.4

Textile operatives......................................................................................
Battery loaders ........................................................................................
Beam warper tenders and beamers.......................................................
Card tenders and comber tenders..........................................................
Creelers, yarn...........................................................................................
Doffers .....................................................................................................
Drawing frame and gill box tenders........................................................
Folders, hand...........................................................................................
Knitting machine operators.....................................................................

380.2
8.3
10.0
9.9
17.6
24.3
7.7
26.2
22.0

399.0
6.4
9.4
10.3
19.6
24.4
8.5
29.4
23.4

419.3
6.5
9.9
10.8
20.7
25.2
8.7
32.3
25.5

395.9
6.4
9.6
10.1
19.7
24.3
8.3
29.5
22.8

4.9
-22.5
-5.9
4.2
11.3
.3
10.1
12.1
6.2

10.3
-21.4
-.6
9.0
17.8
3.7
12.8
23.1
15.7

4.1
-22.7
-4.1
2.6
11.8
-.1
8.0
12.7
3.5

Seamless hosiery knitters .......................................................................
Slubber tenders .......................................................................................
Spinners, frame .......................................................................................
Spooler operators, automatic .................................................................
Texturizers and crimp setters.................................................................
Turners.....................................................................................................
Twister tenders........................................................................................
Weavers....................................................................................................
Winder operators, automatic...................................................................
Yarn winders............................................................................................
All other textile operatives ......................................................................

5.2
5.5
30.6
7.6
7.5
10.3
14.4
35.2
13.4
19.9
85.9

5.5
5.5
31.6
6.9
8.7
11.0
17.4
32.5
15.6
23.7
89.0

6.0
5.6
32.4
7.1
9.1
12.2
18.1
33.4
16.1
24.5
93.5

5.3
5.4
31.0
6.9
8.8
11.3
17.2
32.4
15.2
23.4
88.3

5.0
-1.1
3.2
-9.4
15.2
6.9
21.0
-7.5
16.2
19.1
3.6

15.1
1.3
6.0
-7.3
20.9
18.0
25.9
-5.1
20.0
23.3
8.9

1.4
-2.7
1.2
-10.3
17.0
9.2
19.9
-7.8
13.8
17.5
2.8

Transportation equipment operatives.......................................................
Ambulance drivers and ambulance attendants......................................
Bus drivers ...............................................................................................
Chauffeurs................................................................................................
Delivery and route workers.....................................................................
Industrial truck operators.........................................................................
Log handling equipment operators .........................................................
Parking attendants ..................................................................................
Railroad brake operators.........................................................................
Rental car delivery workers ....................................................................
Sailors and deckhands............................................................................
Streetcar operators ..................................................................................
Taxi drivers...............................................................................................
Truck drivers ............................................................................................
Transportation equipment operatives, n.e.c............................................

3,527.6
31.3
285.3
42.0
825.7
399.9
7.5
35.8
74.1
9.4
33.8
8.2
71.2
1,696.3
7.1

4,153.5
41.4
325.0
48.2
917.1
459.3
7.7
44.5
66.7
12.1
34.6
9.6
69.1
2,111.5
6.6

4,430.1
42.4
328.3
51.9
991.4
492.8
7.7
51.3
73.4
12.4
35.7
9.8
78.4
2,247.6
7.1

4,141.4
40.1
320.1
48.3
901.6
463.8
7.5
57.9
67.6
11.9
30.9
9.6
72.0
2,103.6
6.6

17.7
32.2
13.9
14.6
11.1
14.8
3.5
24.2
-10.0
29.1
2.1
17.3
-3.0
24.5
-6.3

25.6
35.4
15.1
23.4
20.1
23.2
3.5
43.3
-.9
32.3
5.5
19.3
10.0
32.5
-.2

17.4
28.2
12.2
14.8
9.2
16.0
.3
61.6
-8.7
26.8
-8.5
17.5
1.0
24.0
-6.6

All other operatives ..................................................................................
Batch plant operators..............................................................................
Blasters .....................................................................................................
Coil finishers ............................................................................................
Cutters, machine .....................................................................................
Cutters, portable machine.......................................................................
Cutter-finisher operators, rubber goods .................................................
Cutting machine operators, fo o d .............................................................
Die cutters and clicking machine operators...........................................
Dressmakers, except factory..................................................................
Drillers, hand and machine.....................................................................
Dyers........................................................................................................
Exterminators...........................................................................................
Filers, grinders, buffers, and chippers....................................................

4,229.9
8.0
9.1
7.4
28.8
16.9
7.4
12.0
20.2
46.0
18.2
13.4
25.6
125.2

4,801.0
9.7
11.6
8.9
31.9
18.3
9.3
11.5
21.2
48.9
24.1
15.0
33.7
151.4

5,102.3
10.3
12.9
9.7
33.9
20.1
9.4
12.3
22.3
53.1
26.7
15.9
37.4
168.5

4,853.5
10.2
12.0
9.1
32.5
18.6
9.4
11.7
21.4
50.5
25.0
14.9
35.2
155.3

13.5
21.1
28.3
19.6
10.6
8.1
26.0
-4.0
4.9
6.4
32.8
12.2
31.6
20.9

20.6
29.0
42.5
30.4
17.7
19.0
26.8
2.3
10.6
15.4
46.8
18.3
46.2
34.6

14.7
27.2
32.7
21.9
12.6
9.9
27.2
-2.4
6.1
9.8
37.4
10.9
37.5
24.1

See footnotes at end of table.
85

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90 1980-90
(High I)
(Low)

1980-90
(High II)

82.4

115.3

120.5

115.6

39.9

46.1

40.2

1,660.3
112.2
5.8
26.6
9.9
41.0
455.3
466.1
48.9
55.9
10.4
29.3
7.1
50.1
16.3
6.2
9.3
68.9
27.7
9.7
36.9
21.5
41.4
94.5
9.4

1,979.0
120.4
5.1
28.5
12.2
55.4
580.3
529.0
59.4
64.1
10.6
37.0
8.5
66.6
18.4
6.8
9.3
82.9
28.9
12.2
37.4
24.3
46.3
126.4
8.6

2,153.4
137.3
5.6
31.7
13.1
59.6
613.9
600.9
64.1
68.0
12.7
37.8
8.8
74.1
21.1
8.1
9.9
85.3
35.0
14.1
37.6
27.8
45.9
131.5
9.6

2,057.9
126.8
5.2
28.7
12.3
59.1
598.8
564.5
60.1
64.5
11.7
36.0
8.2
68.7
19.8
7.5
10.2
82.5
32.3
13.1
37.3
26.1
45.7
129.8
9.0

19.2
7.3
-11.7
7.2
23.5
35.3
27.4
13.5
21.5
14.6
1.8
26.2
20.2
33.0
12.9
9.2
.5
20.3
4.4
26.6
1.5
13.3
11.9
33.8
-8.3

29.7
22.4
-4.2
19.2
32.3
45.3
34.8
28.9
31.0
21.6
22.9
28.8
24.9
48.0
29.3
30.9
6.4
23.7
26.4
45.6
1.8
29.5
11.0
39.2
1.5

23.9
13.1
-10.9
7.9
24.2
44.2
31.5
21.1
23.0
15.4
13.0
22.8
15.8
37.1
20.9
20.9
10.2
19.7
16.5
35.8
1.2
21.3
10.4
37.4
-4.8

1,751.3
8.3
8.9
103.4
29.3
41.3
219.2
5.9
50.4
6.5
648.1
19.5
7.4
63.3
102.2
393.0
22.2
18.3

2,122.5
9.7
11.3
151.6
32.3
48.5
255.8
6.9
59.1
7.3
800.7
25.0
8.7
72.2
118.6
458.9
26.1
26.1

2,214.6
9.8
11.8
154.2
33.0
49.3
260.3
7.0
60.2
7.4
867.3
26.2
8.8
73.5
120.7
467.0
26.5
27.4

2,144.6
9.7
11.7
151.8
32.3
48.6
256.2
6.9
59.2
7.3
819.6
24.4
8.7
72.3
118.8
459.7
26.1
27.1

21.2
17.1
27.1
46.5
10.4
17.3
16.7
17.2
17.3
13.0
23.5
28.1
17.3
14.0
16.0
16.8
17.3
42.8

26.5
19.1
33.0
49.1
12.9
19.3
18.8
19.3
19.3
14.9
33.8
34.3
19.3
16.1
18.1
18.8
19.3
49.7

22.5
17.3
32.1
46.8
10.5
17.5
16.9
17.4
17.5
13.1
26.5
25.4
17.5
14.2
16.2
17.0
17.5
48.1

988.4
393.7
23.2
86.7
6.4
478.4

980.7
411.2
18.5
99.7
2.2
449.0

992.5
416.2
18.7
100.9
2.3
454.4

987.0
413.8
18.6
100.4
2.3^
451.9

-.8
4.4
-20.1
15.1
-64.9
-6.1

.4
5.7
-19.2
16.4
-63.5
-5.0

-.1
5.1
-19.6
15.8
-64.3
-5.5

203.9

254.2

269.6

256.0

24.6

32.2

25.5

All other service workers..........................................................................

518.3

629.8

666.2

637.2

21.5

28.6

22.9

Laborers, except farm ...............................................................................
Animal caretakers....................................................................................
Construction laborers, except carpenter helpers...................................
Asphalt rakers.......................................................................................
Fence erectors......................................................................................

5,859.8
94.4
101.6
6.8
6.9
46.0
34.2
7.7
75.6
22.0
116.4
53.3
13.7

6,668.2
112.5
122.2
7.9
8.8
54.5
41.7
9.3
79.5
23.9
148.3
62.5
14.7

7,144.6
121.8
133.1
9.4
9.3
60.0
43.9
10.5
84.2
23.9
157.6
68.0
15.1

6,790.5
123.9
124.9
8.1
9.0
55.5
42.8
9.6
88.8
22.7
158.4
63.5
14.8

13.8
19.3
20.2
15.1
27.3
18.4
21.8
21.7
5.2
8.5
27.4
17.2
7.8

21.9
29.1
30.9
37.4
34.2
30.5
28.2
36.7
11.4
8.5
35.4
27.7
10.1

15.9
31.3
22.9
18.2
30.5
20.6
25.0
25.0
17.5
3.2
36.1
19.1
8.2

Psychiatric aides......................................................................................
Selected personal service workers

.....................................

Baggage handlers and porters...............................................................
Bellhops, bag porters, and doorkeepers................................................
Child care attendants...............................................................................
Child care workers, except private household.......................................
..............................................
Cosmetologists and women’s hairstylists 1
Flight attendants......................................................................................

Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers...........................................
Welfare service aides ..............................................................................
Personal service workers, n.e.c...............................................................
Protective service workers .......................................................................
Bailiffs......................................................................................................
Checkers, fitting room ..............................................................................
Correction officials and ja ile rs................................................................
Crossing or bridge tenders .....................................................................
Crossing guards, school..........................................................................
Firefighters ...............................................................................................
Fire inspectors.........................................................................................
Fire officers..............................................................................................
Fish and game wardens..........................................................................
Guards and doorkeepers ........................................................................
Lifeguards.................................................................................................
Police detectives .....................................................................................
Police officers ..........................................................................................
Police patrolmen/women ........................................................................
Sheriffs.....................................................................................................
Store detectives.......................................................................................
Private household workers.......................................................................
Child care workers, private household...................................................
Housekeepers, private household...........................................................
Laundresses, private household..............................................................
Maids and servants, private household .................................................

Reinforcing-iron workers.......................................................................
All other construction laborers..............................................................
Cannery workers .....................................................................................
Chain offbearers, lumber.........................................................................
Cleaners, vehicle.....................................................................................
Conveyor operators and tenders ............................................................
Forest conservation workers ..................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

86

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Percent change

Employment, all industries
Occupation
1980
Floor sanding machine operators ...........................................................
Fuel pump attendants and lubricators....................................................
Furnace operators and tenders, except m etal.......................................
Kiln operators, minerals........................................................................
Stationary boiler firers...........................................................................
All other furnace operators and tenders, except metal ......................
Furniture assemblers and installers........................................................
Miscellaneous machine operatives:
Meat and d a iry ................
All other food...................................................
Tobacco.................................................................................
Lumber and furniture..........................................................
Paper ..........................................................................................
Chemicals.................................................................................
Rubber and plastics...............................................................
Leather ...................................................................................
Stone, clay, gla ss.............................................................................
Primary m etals.............................................................................
Manufacturing, n.e.c.......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing, n.e.c......................................................................I
Miscellaneous operatives, durable goods, n.e.c...............................
Miscellaneous operatives, nondurable goods, n.e.c.........................
Mixing operatives.....................................................................................
Nailing machine operators ......................................................................
O ilers........................................................................................................
Photographic process workers...............................................................
Power screwdriver operators..................................................................
Punch and stamping press operators, except m etal.............................
Riveters.....................................................................................................
Rotary drill operators..................................... .........................................
Rotary drill operator helpers...................................................................
Sandblasters and shotblasters...............................................................
Sanders, w ood.........................................................................................
Shear and slitter operators, metal ..........................................................
Shoemaking machine operators..............................................................
Surveyor helpers .....................................................................................
Termite treaters and helpers..................................................................
Tire changers and repairers....................................................................
Winding operatives, n.e.c..........................................................................
Coil winders...........................................................................................
Paper reel and rewinder operators ......................................................
Winders, paper machine.......................................................................
All other winding operatives, n.e.c........................................................
Wirers, electronic.....................................................................................
Wood machinists.....................................................................................
Operatives, n.e.c.......................................................................................
Service workers..........................................................................................

1990
(Low)

1990
(High I)

1990
(High II)

1980-90 1980-90
(Low)
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

12.3
401.3
62.0
7.4
48.4
6.2
8.8

10.9
475.1
64.6
7.6
50.5
6.5
10.8

12.2
491.9
67.2
7.9
52.5
6.7
11.5

11.4
481.4
64.6
7.5
50.7
6.5
10.8

-11.3
18.4
4.2
2.6
4.4
4.8
21.9

-1.2
22.6
8.4
7.7
8.5
8.3
30.8

-7.8
19.9
4.2
1.2
4.7
4.1
22.6

47.9
73.6
7.6
47.5
106.5
153.4
218.4
8.2
47.1
85.6
87.9
40.0
99.1
250.8
51.5
9.4
40.9
76.6
8.5
5.3
14.2
22.6
39.7
11.6
20.9
31.2
64.9
55.8
8.8
' 60.7
49.6
31.0
5.5
5.7
7.4
30.7
25.5
1,488.2

45.6
78.5
7.1
58.9
117.8
166.6
283.5
8.2
53.2
100.2
101.9
42.9
122.9
257.2
51.3
11.0
48.2
81.2
10.6
6.5
17.2
24.2
42.3
14.3
26.5
37.0
54.1
67.3
11.6
70.9
58.0
36.8
6.1
6.3
8.8
35.1
32.9
1,678.5

48.6
83.3
7.8
60,0
120.3
175.9
291.9
8.7
55.9
105.8
107.3
45.6
128.4
275.6
54.9
10.9
52.4
89.1
11.3
6.8
18.7
25.5
44.6
15.5
28.0
40.5
58.8
69.8
12.9
76.8
62.1
40.4
6.2
6.3
9.2
38.4
34.0
1,798.9

44.7
80.9
7.3
55.6
118.9
172.2
282.2
8.3
53.7
100.5
102.7
42.2
122.5
258.7
51.9
10.9
49.0
81.0
10.6
6.4
17.6
24.0
42.0
14.4
26.1
37.8
54.6
68.0
12.1
73.0
59.0
37.6
6.1
6.3
9.0
36.2
32.4
1,701.7

-4.8
6.7
-5.8
23.8
10.5
8.6
29.8
.1
12.9
17.1
15.9
7.2
24.0
2.6
-.3
16.7
17.9
6.0
23.6
23.4
20.8
7.2
6.6
22.6
26.7
18.6
-16.5
20.7
32.6
16.8
17.0
18.8
10.3
10.6
19.4
14.4
28.7
12.8

1.3
13.2
3.8
26.2
13.0
14.6
33.7
5.8
18.8
23.6
22.1
14.2
29.5
9.9
6.5
15.7
28.2
16.2
32.3
29.2
31.5
13.0
12.4
33.1
33.6
29.9
-9.3
25.2
47.7
26.4
25.2
30.2
11.2
11.1
25.3
25.1
33.0
20.9

-6.7
9.9
-2.9
17.0
11.6
12.3
29.2
1.5
14.0
17.3
16.8
5.5
23.6
3.2
.8
15.7
20.0
5.7
23.7
21.4
23.7
6.3
5.7
24.1
24.5
21.2
-15.8
22.0
38.7
20.2
19.0
21.3
10.1
10.4
22.7
17.7
27.0
14.3

15,547.1

19,103.4

20,233.6

19,374.1

22.9

30.1

24.6

7,824.6
57.0
457.3
213.9
1,377.8
376.3
447.7
553.8
1,210.1
154.7
1,082.6
91.8
2,084.9
365.9
728.7

25.7
17.6
18.5
11.4
21.6
18.6
25.0
21.0
49.6
32.9
27.6
28.4
21.1
29.4
18.2

32.4
23.2
25.5
18.2
28.0
23.8
32.4
27.3
56.9
40.5
34.7
36.2
27.8
37.0
23.6

26.5
18.3
19.6
12.6
22.7
21.0
25.9
21.5
50.1
33.2
29.0
28.6
21.8
30.5
18.3

Food service workers................................................................................
Bakers, bread and pastry........................................................................
Bartenders................................................................................................
Butchers and meat cutters......................................................................
Cooks, except private households..........................................................
Cooks, institutional ................................................................................
Cooks, restaurant ..................................................................................
Cooks, short order and specialty fast foods........................................
Food service workers, fast food restaurants..........................................
Hosts/hostesses, restaurants, lounges, and coffee shops...................
Kitchen helpers........................................................................................
Pantry, sandwich, and coffee makers ....................................................
Waiters and waitresses ...........................................................................
Waiters, assistants...................................................................................
All other food service workers ...............................................................

6,183.5
48.1
382.2
190.0
1,122.5
311.1
355.7
455.7
806.3
116.1
839.4
71.4
1,711.3
280.3
615.9

7,771.0
56.6
452.8
211.6
1,365.1
368.9
444.7
551.5
1,206.3
154.3
1,070.7
91.6
2,071.6
362.6
727.8

8,189.2
59.3
479.6
224.5
1,436.5
385.1
471.0
580.3
1,265.3
163.1
1,130.4
97.2
2,187.6
384.0
761.5

Janitors and sextons.................................................................................

2,751.2

3,252.5

3,499.9

3,312.8

18.2

27.2

20.4

Selected health service workers ................................... ..........................
Dental assistants.....................................................................................
Health aides, except nursing..................................................................
Medical assistants....................................................................................
Nurses aides and orderlies................................. ....................................

1,490.2
138.8
5.0
89.4
1,174.6

2,113.8
193.4
6.6
116.3
1,682.3

2,248.2
197.6
7.0
122.8
1,800.3

2,154.0
191.4
6.8
115.7
1,724.5

41.8
39.4
31.8
30.1
43.2

50.9
42.4
38.9
37.3
53.3

44.5
38.0
35.0
29.5
46.8

See footnotes at end of table.
87

Table C-1. Employment, 1980 and projected 1990 (three alternatives), and percent change, 1980-90 in occupations with 1980
employment of 5,000 or higher—Continued
(Thousands)
Employment, all industries
Occupation

1990
(Low)

1980

1990
(High I)

Percent change
1990
(High II)

1980-90
(Low)

1980-90
(High I)

1980-90
(High II)

Furnace operators and heater helpers...................................................
Garbage collectors..................................................................................
Gardeners and groundskeepers, except farm ........................................
Helpers, trades ........................................................................................
Line service attendants ...........................................................................
Loaders, cars and trucks.........................................................................
Loaders, tank cars and trucks................................................................
Off-bearers ...............................................................................................
Riggers.....................................................................................................
Septic tank servicers ...............................................................................
Setters and drawers................................................................................
Shakeout workers, foundry .....................................................................
Stock handlers.........................................................................................
Order fillers............................................................................................
Stock clerks, sales flo o r.......................................................................
Timbercutting and logging workers.........................................................
Choker setters, lumber .........................................................................
Fallers and buckers...............................................................................
All other timbercutting and logging workers........................................
Work distributors .....................................................................................
All other laborers, except farm ...............................................................

8,3
117.3
652.5
954.8
30.3
6.2
8.8
23.6
28.3
6.1
7.2
10.6
965.0
363.7
601.3
74.6
11.4
46.0
17.2
17.7
2,471.4

9.8
136.5
737.7
1,167.1
31.8
7.6
9.6
27.9
33.1
8.1
7.5
13.8
1,127.4
405.9
721.5
59.1
8.9
36.3
14.0
20.8
2,706.6

10.3
147.5
788.3
1,261.8
33.9
7.4
10.3
28.2
35.3
10.7
7.8
14.5
1,206.5
443.3
763.2
62.7
9.5
38.5
14.8
22.9
2,892.7

9.8
136.5
764.1
1,199.3
32.0
7.2
10.3
26.5
33.8
10.0
7.4
13.8
1,133.1
404.3
728.9
60.8
9.2
37.3
14.3
21.4
2,727.4

18.0
16.4
13.1
22.2
4.7
21.5
10.2
18.2
16.9
32.0
5.1
30.4
16.8
11.6
20.0
-20.8
-22.0
-21.2
-18.6
17.7
9.5

23.5
25.8
20.8
32.2
11.6
17.8
17.9
19.3
24.6
75.2
9.4
37.1
25.0
21.9
26.9
-16.0
-17.1
-16.4
-14.0
29.6
17.0

17.8
16.4
17.1
25.6
5.5
15.1
17.8
12.0
19.5
63.6
2.8
30.4
17.4
11.2
21.2
-18.5
-19.5
-19.0
-16.6
20.7
10.4

Farmers and farm workers ........................................................................
Farmers and farm managers....................................................................
Farmers (owners and tenants) ...............................................................
Farm managers .......................................................................................
Farm supervisors and laborers................................................................
Farm supervisors.....................................................................................
Farm laborers ..........................................................................................

2,689.2
1,484.2
1,447.0
37.2
1,205.0
30.0
1,175.0

2,193.1
1,230.6
1,200.0
30.6
962.6
24.8
937.8

2,426.3
1,354.9
1,320.6
34.3
1,071.5
27.8
1,043.7

2,327.4
1,281.3
1,247.8
33.6
1,046.1
27.4
1,018.7

-18.4
-17.1
-17.1
-17.9
-20.1
-17.4
-20.2

-9.8
-8.7
-8.7
-7.8
-11.1
-7.4
-11.2

-13.5
-13.7
-13.8
-9.9
-13.2
-8.7
-13.3

1 As a result of differences in definition or data sources, the 1980 and
projected 1990 employment data differ from those presented in chapter
4.

NOTE: n.e.c.= not elsewhere classified
SOURCE: National industry/occupation matrix

88

Table C-2. Occupations with 1980 employment of 4,000 - 4,999
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation
Bag sewers
Band scroll saw operators
Boarding machine operators, hosiery
Boring machine operators, wood
Business brokers
Camp directors
Chippers
Clock and watch assemblers
Cloth feeders and back tenders
Coin machine operators and currency sorters
Copy markers

Instrument makers-A
Lease buyers
Loading machine operators
Messengers, bank
Music directors
Nuclear engineers
Panelboard and grinding mill panelboard operators
Picture framers
Planer operators
Printer-slotter feeders
Printer-slotter operators

Cutting and creasing press operators
Die setters
Dividing machine operators
Dredge operators
EEG technicians
Estimators, printing services
Film editors
Folding machine operators
Fourdrinier machine tenders
Garment repairers

Roll forming machine operators
Rolling mill operator helpers
Scrappers/strippers
Shaper and router operators
Shipwrights
Signal maintainers
Station agents
Television camera operators
Tower operators
Traffic technicians

Table C-3. Occupations with 1980 employment of 3,000 - 3,999
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation

Automatic maintainers
Automatic spring coiling machine operators
Baggage handlers
Ballast cleaning-machine operators
Blockmaking machine operators
Blood bank technology specialists
Brattice builders
Burlers
Calender operators, rubber or plastics
Camera repairers

Loom winder tenders
Lumber straighteners
Machine adjusters
Mattress makers
Meat grinders
Media analysts
Media clerks, estimators, and billers
Menders, cloth
Metal mold makers and repairers
Mixers, stone, clay, and glass

Cap sewers
Carton-forming machine operators
Casters, ingots and pigs
Casters, pottery and porcelain
Cigarette-making machine operators
Classified ad clerks, newspaper
Clean out drillers
Cloth printers
Coater operators, off-machine
Coil tapers, hand or machine

Novelty workers
Opener tenders and waste machine tenders
Portfolio managers
Power press tenders
Pulpers
Resawyers
Rigging slingers
Rug cleaners, hand
Service observers
Shade ticket markers

Concrete mixer operators
Concrete pipe makers
Concrete vault makers
Core layers and sheet turners
Corrugator operators
Cushion makers
Die sinkers
Draw-bench operators, tube drawers
Drier operators, chemicals, plastics, and rubber
Drillers, hand

Shell mold and core machine operators
Ship riggers
Shoe parts sewers, hand
Sign erectors
Slasher tenders
Smash hands
Sodabar operators
Sound recording and reproduction technicians
Springers
Still operators, batch or continuous

Dye-range operators and spiral-dye-beck tenders
Dye-reel operators, jiggers, and pad-machine operators
Dye-tub operators and random dyers
Electric tool repairers
Electromedical equipment repairers
Floor workers, glass
Folding machine operators, paper
Fusing machine operators
Guides, travel
Loader engineers

Taping machine operators
Telegraph equipment maintainers
Tenter frame operators
Tinters
Tipple operators
Trimmers, plastic
Tumbler operators
Upholstery trimmers
Vacuum plastic forming machine operators
Veneer drier feeders
Warp tying machine tenders

89

Table C-4. Occupations with 1980 employment of 2,000 - 2,999
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation
Actuarial clerks
Appraisers
Asphalt-plant operators
Atmospheric scientists
Automatic clippers, veneer
Back tenders, cloth printing
Baggage porters
Beam-dyer operators and package-dyeing-machine operators
Beater engineers
Beaters
Belt makers, apparel

Harness placers
Heat sealers
Hot plate plywood press operators
Impregnators, electronic
Insulation wrapping/braiding machine operators
Lathe operators, wood
Making machine catchers
Margin clerks
Museum curators
Natural gas treating unit operators
Photolettering machine operators

Bias machine operators
Blending machine operators
Boatswains
Bobbin winders, machine and sewing machine
Bodymaker operators, tin can
Bootblacks
Box makers, paperboard
Braiding machine operators
Brick and tile making machine operators
Buffers, shoe parts
Building inspectors, fire insurance

Picker tenders
Pickers
Picklers, continuous pickling line
Pipeliners
Placers
Pond workers, lumber
Pot tenders
Private branch service advisors
Protective signal operators
Punch press operators, plastics
Purchase and sales clerks, security

Cake decorators
Call-out operators
Cancellation clerks
Candy makers
Cheesemakers
Cloth finishing range operators, chief
Cloth finishing range tenders, middle
Cloth or carpet winders
Cloth trimmers, machine
Coal washers
Coating machine operators

Quilling machine operators
Railroad police
Repairers, shoe finish
Right-of-way agents
Riveters, heavy
Rug cleaners, machine
Scrap sorters
Skivers
Sliver forming and winding operators
Smokers
Sorters, burned products

Convolute and spiral tube winders
Corrective therapists
Cutting machine operators
Dispatchers, airplane
Drier operators, textiles and rugs
Encapsulators
Extrusion press operators, hot billets
Feed pellet mill operators
Filter/filter press operators
Finishers, machine

Spotters, washable materials
Steel pourer helpers
Stitchers, utility
Stone setters
Tappers, metal
Technical directors
Technical operators, oil and gas
Telegraph plant maintainers
Teletype installers
Tenoner operators

Finishers, pottery and porcelain
Flavor room workers, freezer operators
Flexo-folder-gluer operators
Flexographic press operators
Forging and straightening roll operators
Form setters, metal road form
Forming machine maintainers, glass
Gas meter installers
Gluing machine operators
Gravure press operators

Terrazzo workers
Timber cruisers
Trade recorders
Traffic engineers
T reers
Turbine operators
Veneer driers
Warp knitting machine operators
Wire weavers
Wrapping machine operators

90

Table C-5. Occupations with 1980 employment of 1,000 - 1,999
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation

Adhesive bandage machine operators
Ampule fill, seal, wash operators
Assemblers for puller-over
Athletic trainers
Automatic assembly machine attendants
Band builders
Batch, furnace, and tank operators, glass
Bead flippers
Bevelers
Billposters

Gas dispatchers
Gasoline engine and mower repairers
Glass blowers
Glass cut-off machine operators
Glass grinders and watch crystal edge grinders
Glaziers, stained glass/joiners
Gunsmiths
Harness builders and loom changers
Head loaders
Headers, bottomers, and car droppers

Blasters, construction
Bleach-range operators and knitting goods bleachers
Bleacher operators, pulp
Bottoming machine operators, etc.
Box estimators
Braiding machine tenders
Cage makers, hand or machine
Calender operators, cloth
Carbon black makers
Carbon setters

Heating pit chargers
Histologic technologists
Hydraulic press operators, veneer
Ingredient scalers
Ink workers
Inkers, hand and machine
Installers, repairers, telephone
Instructors, leather/footwear machinery
Kettle operators, adhesive
Kiln operators, lumber

Card grinders
Carrier drivers
Casket coverers and liners
Casters
Casters, plastics
Catchers
Cementers, machine joiner
Cementers, oil well
Chemical waste treatment plant operators
Cigarette filter making machine operators

Kiln stack operators
Knitters, full fashioned garment
Laminating machine operators
Laminating machine operators, furniture
Layout markers, wood
Lehr tenders
Letterset press operators
Long-wall miner operator helpers
Loopers, hosiery
Luggage makers

Coating mixer tenders
Colorists, textiles
Compounders
Compressors, tablet
Computers, prospecting; and computers, seismograph
Control panel operators, petroleum
Core feeders
Corrugator-knife operators
Crew schedulers
Curers, rubber goods

Manifest clerks
Manipulators, table/bed operators
Marine service station attendants
Mathematical technicians
Mixer operators, hot metal
Mold makers, pottery
Mortuary beauticians
Mud plant operators
Multi-slide machine operators
Museum technicians, restorers

Custom tailors
Cut-off machine operators, tubing
Cut-off sawyers, log
Cylinder machine tenders
Dado operators
Decker operators
Die mounters
Die polishers, wire and tubes
Digester operator helpers
Digester operators

Napper tenders
Operators, door machine
Pattern cutters
Picklers, food
Pipe strippers
Plastic top installers
Pleating machine operators
Polishers, glass; and blockers
Polishers, mold
Power transformer repairers

Dipping machine operators
Dividend clerks
Drapery hangers
Drawers-in, hand
Drawing-in machine tenders
Drier operators, coal and ore
Drycleaners, hand
Edge gluers
Electric meter installers
Electrolytic cell makers and repairers

Press operators, devulcanized scrap rubber
Proof press operators
Proofreaders, clerical
Prosthetists, orthotists
Pulling and lasting machine operators
Pumpers, meat
Raw cheese workers
Recovery operators, papermaking
Retort operators
Rig builders

Elevator installers and repairers
Fasteners, machine
Fermentation operators
Film bookers
Fine-graders
Fire bosses
Firers, marine
Freight handlers
Fumigators
Gang sawyers

Rock dust sprayers
Rock splitters, quarry
Roll builders
Rotation molding machine operators
Rubber covering machine operators
Sawyers, plastics
Sawyers, stone
Scorers
Screen cutters/markers, nonphotographic
Screen makers, photographic processing

91

Table C-5. Occupations with 1980 employment of 1,000 ■1,999—Continued
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation

Second cutters, hand
Second loaders
Securities cashiers, exchange
Security description clerks
Setters, molding and coremaking machines
Shapers, hand
Shellfish processing machine tenders
Shooters; and shooters, seismograph
Shop repairers, instrument
Shuttlers, embroidery

Stone cutters, hand
Stone polishers
Stove tenders and blast furnace keepers
Stretcher-leveler operators
Stunners
Sugar boilers
Supercalender operators
Tackers, togglers, and pasters
Tally clerks, saw mill
Termite treater helpers

Side lasters
Sinter press setters and operators
Skin peeling machine operators
Slitter-creaser-slotter operators
Slitter-scorer-cut-off operators
Slotter operators
Sorter operators, green lumber
Sorters, leather
Sorters, upholstery parts
Speeder tenders

Tire finishers
Tire repairers
Transfer clerks
Tube machine operators, bags
Tube molders, fiberglass
Umpires
U.S. marshalls
Veneer lathe operators
Veneer repairers, hand
Veneer repairers, machine

Splicers
Sprayers, hand and machine
Spring machine operators
Stapling machine operators
Station engineers, main line
Steel die press operators
Stereotypers
Stewards, ship
Stitchers, special machine
Stone carvers, hand

Vulcanizers, rubber plate
Watchcase vulcanizer tenders
Watershed tenders
Waxing machine operators
Wood carving machine operators
Wrapper layers
Yarder engineers

92

Table C-6. Occupations with 1980 employment under 1,000
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation
Abrasive grinders
Acetone recovery workers
Acidizers
Ager operators
Ager operators, cellulose
Air-drier machine tenders, paper
Airdox fitters
Anode rebuilders
Archivists
Art appraisers

Casing machine operators
Casters, finished or semi-finished products
Casters, plaster of paris
Casting room operators, cellophane
Centrifuge operators, food
Chain makers, hand
Channeling machine operators
Chasers, jewelry and silverware
Cheese blenders
Cheese casting machine operators

Artificial appliance makers
Asbestos shingle shear machine operators
Asphalt blenders
Asphalt heater tenders
Asphalt mixing machine tenders
Asphalt-plant drier operators
Audiometrists
Auger machine operators
Autoclave operators
Automatic lump making machine operators

Chocolate temperers, confection
Chopped-strand operators
Cigar makers, hand
Claim agents
Clarifiers
Clay makers
Clay turners
Cloth shrinking machine operators
Coaches of professional athletes
Coater operators, insulation board

Automatic rubber hose vulcanizing machine operators
Bag builders
Baggers, plastics
Barley steepers, malt house operators
Bath makers
Batters-out
Bead forming machine operators
Beamers, hand
Beamers, machine
Bed lasters

Coater operators, plastics
Coaters, pill
Coaters, roofing felt
Coating inspectors, pipelines
Cobblers
Concrete wall grinder operators
Concrete-stone finishers
Condenser setters
Conduit tubing machine operators
Contour grinders

Bed setters
Belt builders
Belt makers, sanding drums
Biochemistry technologists
Blanching machine operators
Blender conveyor operators
Board machine setters
Boat patchers, plastic
Boil-off machine operators, cloth
Bolters

Control operators, cryolite bath
Cooling machine operators
Core analysts
Corner cutters
Costumers
Counter clerks, telegraph office
Cracker and cookie machine operators
Cremators
Creping machine operators
Crude oil treaters

Bolters, flour
Bottom fillers
Box cover strippers
Breakers
Brine makers
Brine tank tenders
Briquetting machine operators
Brown stock washers, blow pit operators
Buffers, hides or skins
Bulk plant operators, sugar

Cryolite recovery operators
Crystallizer operators
Cullet crusher/washer operators
Cupola chargers, insulation
Cupola operators, insulation
Cut-lace machine operators
Cutter and grinder operators
Decal appliers
Decorators, bakery products
Dehairing machine operators

Bulk station operators
Bulk-systems operators, flour
Bull chain operators
Bullet processing machine operators
Bunch makers, machine
Burner tenders, perlite
Burnishers
Buttermakers
Calciner operators
Calciners, gypsum

Diamond cleaners and sawyers
Diamond experts
Diamond selectors
Dicer operators
Die holders
Diesel plant operators
Diffuser operators/battery operators, sugar
Dippers
Dispatchers, mine car
Dispatchers, refinery

Calender machine operators
Calendering machine operators, knit goods
Capital analysts
Carbon arc furnace operators
Carbon furnace operators
Carbonation equipment tenders, beer
Carbonation equipment tenders, sugar
Cartridge priming machine operators
Case makers
Casers

Dispatchers, relay
Dope pourers, wrappers
Dowel machine operators
Drapers
Drapery and upholstery measurers
Drawing-kiln/glass rolling machine operators
Dredge dipper tenders
Dredge pipe installers
Dresser tenders
Drier and rewinder operators, rugbacking

93

Table C-6. Occupations with 198C employment under 1,000—Continued
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation
Drier operators, insulation board
Drier tenders, metal scrap
Drill punch operators
Drillers, machine and drillers, multiple spindle
Drivers, assembly line
Droppers, fermenting cellar
Dry curers
Dry starch operators, automatic
Drying machine operators
Dust operators/ore crushing dust collectors

Guide setters
Gun perforator loaders
Hammersmiths, open die
Hand blockers, caps and hats
Hand edgers and belt seamers
Handbag framers
Harness makers
Hatters
Heaters, coke production
Heel attachers

Dye tank tenders
Dynamite cartridge crimpers
Egg processors
Electric track switch maintainers
Electricians, office
Electrotypers
Ending machine operators
Enrobing machine operators/machine icers
Envelope finishing machine operators
Envelope folders, hand

Heel breasters, leather
Heel builders, hand and machine
Heel-seat fitters, machine
Heel-seat tasters, machine
Hi-density finishing operators, insulation board
Hide handlers
Hide pullers
High climbers
Hogshead coopers
Hose loaders

Escorts and chaperons
Evaporator operators, chemical
Evaporator operators, papermaking
Extruder operators
Fashion coordinators
Feeders/catchers, tobacco
Fiberglass bonding machine tenders
Field mechanical meter testers
Filter cleaners
Firers, char-kiln

Hose makers
Hospital insurance representatives
Hydrator operators, lime
Hydraulic drillers
Hydrogenation operators
Icemakers
Incising machine operators
Instructors, bus and trolley
Instrument fitters
Instrument repairers, optical

Firers, petroleum refining
Fireworks makers
Flaking roll operators, cereal
Flamers
Folders, machine
Folding machine feeders
Foreign reporters
Form makers
Form tamper operators
Formation fracturing operators

Jewel-bearing lathe operators
Jigger operators
Joint cutters, machine
Kettle tenders, nonferrous metal
Kettle workers, soap
Kiln tenders, glass
Kiln transfer operators
Knife operators
Knotting machine operators/tag machine operators
Lace roller operators

Formation testing operators
Four-corners-stayer machine operators
Fullers, textile
Fur cleaners
Fur cutters
Fur finishers
Fur glazing and polishing machine operators
Fur nailers
Furnace and burner tenders
Furnace combustion analysts

Lamp keepers and repairers
Lasters, hand
Lasting machine operators
Lathe operators, grinding wheels
Leachers
Lead press operators
Lead stripping machine operators
Leaf conditioners, casers
Leather cleaners
Leather sprayers

Furniture cleaners
Furriers
Gas pumping station operators
Gasket coater and drier operators
Gasket winders
Gatherers
Gem cutters
Glass blowing lathe operators
Glass calibrators
Glass cutters, machine

Leather stampers, hand
Leather workers
Leather workers, surgical
Light technicians
Limers
Line walkers
Link-and-link hand knitting machine operators
Linter machine tenders
Liquefication-and regasification-plant operators
Loaders, malt house

Glass finishers
Glazing machine operators
Glove turners and formers
Glue spreading machine operators, luggage
Gluemakers
Grain receivers
Graining press operators
Granulator machine operators
Greasemakers
Green anode processors

Long-wall miner operators
Lump wrappers, hand
Mat machine operators
Measuring machine operators, leather
Melter operators, sugar
Mercerizer operators and mangle tenders
Metal mold makers
Meter readers, taxi
Microbiology technologists
Microphone boom operators

94

Table C-6. Occupations with 1980 employment under 1,000—Continued
OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation
Mill hands, plate mill
Mill roll rewinders, cellophane
Millers, clay
Milliners
Mixers, ores and metals
Model and mold makers, plaster
Mode! makers, pottery
Mogul operators, confection
Mold cleaners, tire
Mold makers
Mold makers, brick, tile, and concrete
Mold pressers, hand
Molders, fiberglass luggage
Molders, machine (drugs)
Molders, pattern
Molders, shoe parts
Molding machine operators, pressers
Mortising machine operators
Motion picture narrators
Nail making, assembly machine operators
Needle-felt-making machine operators
Nickel plant operators
Nitro-cotton operators
Observers, electrical and/or gravity prospecting
Oil well wall samplers
Ordering machine operators
Orthopedic cast specialists
Orthopists
Outside property agents, shoppers
Painters, aircraft
Paintings restorers
■
Pan greasers, machine
Panel/patch/sealing machine operators
Paper cup machine operators
Paperhanger operators
Pattern gaters
Patternmakers, plastics
Patternmakers, stone
Perforator operators
Perforator operators, oil well
Pilling machine operators
Pipe wrapping machine operators
Planers, stone
Plastics repairers
Platform workers, glass
Plodder machine operators
Polishing-wheel makers
Pot liners
Potters, mash hand/plug shapers, machine
Powder cutting operators
Precipitator operators
Preparation room workers
Press operators, hardboard
Press operators, meat
Press operators, mica
Pressers, expeller operators
Process machine operators
Processors, solid propellant
Property handlers
Pullers-over

Pulp refiner operators
Pulverizer and drier tenders
Pump operators, by-products
Purification operators
Rackers, poolroom
Reagent operators
Recovery operators, catalysts
Refined syrup operators
Refiner operators, rubber

Refinery operators
Refractory grinder operators
Refractory molders, hand
Rip and groove machine operators
Roasters, arc
Roasters, food
Roller builders, rubber
Roller machine operators
Rollers
Rolling machine operators
Roof cement and paint makers
Rope laying machine operators
Rotary kiln operators
Rough rounders, machine
Rubber grinder-finisher operators
Rubber mold makers
Ruling machine operators
Saddle makers
Sales agents and representatives, financial services
Salt washers
Salted meats conditioners
Sand blasters, stone
Sawyers, tail
Scouring train operators
Scouts
Script clerks
Seam rubbing machine operators
Seamless tube rollers
Seasoners, machine
Seasoning mixers
Security checkers
Separation tenders
Sewer tappers
Shactors
Shaker tenders
Shakers
Shank piece tackers
Sheeter operators, plastics
Shell machine operators
Shoe dyers
Shredder operators, cellulose
Singers, cloth
Sirup makers
Skein yarn dyers
Skimmers, reverberatory furnace
Slab depiler operators
Slime press and filter operators
Sole levelers, machine
Sorters, selectors, and graders, tobacco
Sorting machine operators
Special effects technicians
Spinners, confection
Spinners, jewelry and silverware
Splicers, rubber products
Splitters
Splitters, machine
Splitting machine feeders
Splitting machine tenders
Spout workers
Spray machine operators
Stainers
Stakers, machine
Staple cutters and/or staple processing machine operators
Staplers, mattress and bedspring
Stem roller or crusher operators
Stemmers, hand
Stemmers, machine
Stencil cutters
Stickers
Still operators
.Still operators, asphalt

95

Table C-6. Occupations with 1980 employment under 1,000—Continued

OES matrix occupation

OES matrix occupation

Stitchdown thread lasters
Stock preparers
Stone cutters, machine
Stone drillers
Story analysts
String machine operators/tape fasting operators
Striping machine operators, insulating wire
Strippers
Stripping machine operators
Stunt men or stunt women

Trench sewer shapers
Tube winders, hand
Tumbler operators, plastics
Twisters, hand
Ultrasonic machine operators
Vamp creasers
Varnish makers
Veneer jointer operators
Veneer sanders
Video recording engineers
Vulcanizers, footwear
Wallpaper reelers and rolling machine operators
Ware finishers, footcasters, handlers
Warm-in workers
Wash screen operators, explosives
Washers, synthetic fibers

Tank house operators, copper
Tank tenders, silver refining
Tanning drum operators/colorers, hides
Tanning-liquor makers
Taxidermists
Thermolasting machine operators
Threaders, knit goods
Threshers
Tire bagging machine tenders
Tire layers and extractors

Weather clerks
Wet machine tenders
Winders, roofing felt
Wood grinder operators
Wringer machine operators
Yardage control operators, forming
Yeast pushers

Toe lasters
Transfer controllers, saw mill
Treaters
Treating engineers

96

Appendix D.
Detailed Training
Statistics

tion Statistics (NCES). In academic year 1982-83, CIPS
will replace the two NCES classification systems cur­
rently being used—the Standard Terminology for Cur­
riculum and Instruction in Local and State School Sys­
tems, commonly referred to as Handbook VI, and A
Taxonomy o f Instructional Programs in Higher Educa­
tion, commonly known as the HEGIS Taxonomy.
Data in this appendix should be used with caution
because they represent only one component of supply
and, in some cases, are incomplete and do not match a
specific occupation. For a discussion of other sources
of supply, see chapter 1.

This appendix presents information on one compo­
nent of supply—structured training programs. It dis­
cusses the status of current education and training pro­
grams and provides the latest available data on enroll­
ments and completions. Training programs discussed
include:
Public vocational education
Private vocational education
Employer training
Apprenticeship programs
Federal employment and training programs
Armed Forces training
Home study schools
Community and junior colleges
Colleges and universities
Tables D -l through D-7 present detailed statistics on
most of these training programs. The type of data pre­
sented and the time period covered vary by table. Ta­
ble D -l presents data on enrollments and completions
in occupationally specific public vocational education
programs during 1979-80. Table D-2 shows the number
of enrollments, completions, and persons leaving with
or without a marketable skill in private noncollegiate
postsecondary vocational education programs during
1979-80. Table D-3 indicates the number of registra­
tions, cancellations, and completions in apprenticeship
program s during calendar year 1979. T ab le D-4 presents
data on enlistments in the Armed Forces as of Septem­
ber 30, 1980. Table D-5 presents the number of associ­
ate degrees and other formal awards below the bacca­
laureate granted in academic year 1979-80. Tables D-6
and D-7 present data on bachelor’s, master’s, doctor’s,
and first professional degrees granted in academic year
1979-80.
Users who wish to relate training statistics to data on
job openings should consult the Vocational Preparation
and Occupations (VPO), developed by the National Oc­
cupational Information Coordinating Committee
(NOICC). Education programs in the VPO are coded
according to the Classification o f Instructional Programs
(CIPS),' developed by the National Center for Educa-1
1 VPO includes only CIPS codes related to secondary and post­
secondary vocational education. Baccalaureate and higher level pro­
grams are not included.

97

Public vocational education
Vocational education programs are conducted on
three levels: Secondary; postsecondary; and adult, in
which persons already in the labor force retrain or up­
date and improve job skills. During the 1970’s, the Fed­
eral Government provided categorical grants (targeted
for specific purposes) to elementary and secondary
schools to conduct vocational, technical, and continu­
ing education programs. During the 1980’s, Federal
Government funding is likely to be in the form of block
grants (for discretionary use) to the States to adminis­
ter many of these programs. States in the past have
strongly supported vocational education programs and
are likely to continue this policy.
Types o f training available. Vocational education in­
cludes programs in agriculture, distribution, health,
home economics, and office, technical, and trade and
industrial education. Other programs, such as consumer
and homemaking training and industrial arts, do not
generally lead directly to an occupational skill. Special
vocational programs for the disadvantaged and handi­
capped also are provided.
Curriculums generally prepare trainees for specific
occupations. Table D -l provides data on enrollments
and completions in occupationally specific public vo­
cational education programs during 1979-80. These pro­
grams, which are offered at or above grade 11, are de­
signed to impart entry level job skills.
Enrollments. Enrollments in public vocational educa­
tion programs grew from 4.2 million in 1963 to 16.5
million in 1979-80, including over 2 million disadvan­

In 1980, approximately 72 percent of all private post­
secondary schools were accredited, State approved, or
eligible for Federal student grant and loan programs.
While private postsecondary vocational schools out­
numbered public postsecondary vocational schools by
more than 3 1/2 to 1, the average enrollment in private
schools—199 students—was only 43 percent of the av­
erage enrollment in public schools. Large schools typi­
cally offer a variety of programs in several vocational
areas. Some business schools, for example, offer short­
hand, typing, stenography, and fundamentals of ac­
counting and computer operations, while many trade
schools offer courses ranging from air-conditioning in­
stallation and repair to welding and cutting operations.
On the other hand, small schools generally specialize in
a single type of program, such as cosmetology or ra­
diologic technology. Some programs—flight training,
for example—require considerable individual attention
and generally have low pupil/teacher ratios; less tech­
nically complex programs—real estate, for exam­
ple—can accommodate large numbers of students.

taged and 400,000 handicapped persons. The following
tabulation, based on data from the NCES, shows the
level and percent distribution of total enrollments by
major program area.
Program area
Total .................................................. ......
O ffic e ......................................................
Consumer and hom em aking............
Trade and industrial...........................
Industrial a rts.......................................
A griculture...........................................
H ealth ....................................................
Occupational home economics .......
T ech nical...............................................
Other ......................................................

Total
enrollments

Percent
distribution

16,453,006

100

3,400,057
3,385,736
3,215,987
1,536,667
961,018
878,529
834,296
551,862
499,305
1,189,549

21
21
20
9

6
5
5
3
3
7

Occupationally specific enrollments, which totaled
nearly 6 million in 1979-80, accounted for 36 percent
of all public vocational education enrollments. Approxi­
mately 33 percent of the occupationally specific enroll­
ments were in office programs, and 30 percent were in
trade and industrial programs (see table D-l).

Enrollments. Enrollments vary not only by program
but also by major field. Private vocational education
courses are classified into seven areas similar to those
used for public vocational education programs:
Agribusiness, marketing/distribution, health, home eco­
nomics, business/office, technical, and trades and in­
dustry. In 1980, 37 percent of the 944,000 students en­
rolled in private noncollegiate postsecondary vocational
schools were in trades/industry programs, 26 percent
were in marketing/distribution programs, and 22 per­
cent were in business/office programs (see table D-2).

Completions. Nearly 1.9 million persons completed oc­
cupationally specific public vocational education pro­
grams during 1979-80, including 234,000 disadvantaged
and 45,000 handicapped persons. The distribution of
completions by major program area is similar to the
distribution of enrollments. About 60 percent of these
completions were in office and trade and industrial pro­
grams, evenly divided between these two major areas
(see table D-l).
Private vocational education
In 1980, the NCES surveyed about one-sixth of all
private postsecondary vocational schools (7,432) and
recorded 1,479,373 enrollments in 177 different pro­
grams. The following tabulation indicates the percent
distribution of private postsecondary schools with oc­
cupational programs, by type of school:

Completions. In 1980, 580,000 students completed pro­
grams in private noncollegiate postsecondary vocational
schools. Marketing/distribution programs had the
largest proportion of completions (34 percent), followed
by trades/industry programs (32 percent) and busi­
ness/office programs (17 percent). Over 40,000 students
did not complete their training but left with a market­
able skill. Table D-2 provides data on enrollments, com­
pletions, and persons leaving with or without a mar­
ketable skill by detailed occupational program.

Percent
C osm etology/barber.............................................................
Business/commercial ............................................................
Flight s c h o o l...........................................................................
Trade school ...........................................................................
Hospital school ......................................................................
College/university .................................................................
Allied health ...........................................................................
A rts/d esign ..............................................................................
Junior/community c o lle g e ..................................................
Technical institute .................................................................
Vocational/technical ............................................................
O th er.........................................................................................

29
19
12
10
9
5
4
3
3
2
1
3

Employer training
Many companies in private industry have developed
educational training programs to meet their needs. Gen­
erally, these programs serve three purposes: (1) To train
new employees, (2) to improve the performance of em­
ployees in their present jobs, and (3) to prepare em­
ployees for new jobs and responsibilities.
Training varies among occupations. Skilled and semi­
skilled occupations have three on-the-job training
paths—apprenticeship, structured on-the-job instruc­
tion, and learning by doing. Structured instruction may

Of all private postsecondary schools with occupa­
tional programs, 83 percent were proprietary and were
generally single-program schools; the remainder were
nonprofit and were predominantly hospital schools and
colleges and universities with occupational programs.
98

1. Only 15 percent of all establishments in the four
metalworking industries selected provided
structured occupational training in the 14 oc­
cupations studied.
2. Establishments with 1,000 employees or more
accounted for 44 percent of all enrollments in
structured training.
3. About 71 percent of all structured training was
conducted to qualify employees for work in an
occupation; 29 percent was to improve current
job skills.
4. More than two-thirds of all structured occu­
pational training was provided on the job.
5. Establishments provided training primarily be­
cause they felt job skills could best be taught in
their own training programs and because em­
ployees’ education or training was inadequate.
6. Employee interest in an occupation was the
primary factor used to select employees for
training.

range from scheduled training conducted by designated
instructors to periodic training from supervisors and
fellow employees. Unstructured training or learning by
doing often involves simple directions on how to per­
form a routine task on a machine; further skills then are
acquired through work experience or developed at the
employee’s initiative.
White-collar employees also may receive structured
training. In many companies, structured training usu­
ally consists of “in-house” programs that offer courses
during or after working hours. These courses normally
are designed to meet specific company needs and often
are offered by professional associations. In the banking
industry, for example, the American Institute of Bank­
ing offers programs in 12 areas of banking, such as
trusts, commercial lending, and bank marketing.
In addition, companies may allow employees to en­
roll in college or university courses. For example, un­
der the tuition-aid program, employees may be partially
or fully reimbursed for job-related courses taken after
working hours. Occasionally, employees are permitted
to take outside courses on company time or even to
arrange for extended educational leaves of absence.
Limited data indicate that companies use education
and training programs quite extensively. In a 1975 sur­
vey of firms with 500 or more employees, the Confer­
ence Board2 found that of the 32 million employed, 4.3
million participated in “in-house” company programs,
and 1.25 million were in tuition-aid programs. Although
firms with fewer than 500 employees often do not have
the resources to develop “in-house” programs, tui­
tion-aid programs are not uncommon among these
companies.
The lack of data on employer training hinders de­
tailed analysis of occupational training and supply, how­
ever. BLS, with the support of the Employment and
Training Administration (ETA), conducted a pilot sur­
vey in 1970 to test the feasibility of collecting data on
occupational training in selected industries, and to de­
termine the best method of collecting such data.3 The
results encouraged the Bureau, with further support
from ETA, to conduct a nationwide, full-scale mail sur­
vey of employer training in nearly 5,000 establishments
in 1975 and early 1976 on training provided in 1974.
The resulting report, published in 1977, describes the
characteristics of occupational training provided by em­
ployers in 14 selected occupations in four metalwork­
ing industries.4

Apprenticeship programs
Training authorities generally recommend appren­
ticeship as the best way to acquire all-round proficiency
in a craft. Most apprenticeships range from 3 to 5 years,
depending upon the particular trade involved. These
programs involve planned on-the-job training in con­
junction with related classroom instruction—generally
144 hours each year. Mastery of a particular trade re­
quires: (1) Learning the skills of the trade, (2) perfect­
ing the use of each specific skill, and (3) bringing each
skill up to the speed and accuracy required of the job.
Most apprenticeship programs have committees of
employers and local trade unions that interview appli­
cants, review the trainee’s progress, and determine when
an apprenticeship has been completed satisfactorily.
Most programs are registered with Federal and State
apprenticeship agencies, but sponsors are not required
to register their programs. Some companies unilaterally
plan, control, and tailor apprenticeship programs to
their particular needs and, therefore, prefer not to reg­
ister their programs with apprenticeship agencies. Un­
fortunately, no estimate is available of the number of
apprentices in programs that are not registered.
The Department of Labor’s Bureau of Apprentice­
ship and Training (BAT) registers, but does not finance,
apprenticeship programs. BAT provides technical as­
sistance and support to State apprenticeship agencies
and to employers and unions in establishing and main­
taining apprenticeship programs. Through 1979, BAT

2Seymour Lusterman, Education in Industry, Report 719 (New York,
The Conference Board, Inc., 1977).
3“The BLS Pilot Survey o f Training in Industry,” M onthly Labor
Review, February 1974, pp. 26-32.
4Occupational Training in Selected Metalworking Industries: A Report
on a Survey o f Selected Occupations, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1976/ETA
R&D Monograph 53 (U.S. Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics and Employment and Training Administration, 1977).

5 Apprenticeship Registration Actions, by Region and State (annual)
through 1979 may be obtained from the Division o f Reporting Op­
erations, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department
o f Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. In addition, the 1981 Employment
and Training Report o f the President contains a tabulation o f the train­
ing status o f registered apprentices through 1979.

99

maintained records of new registrations, completions,
and cancellations of apprenticeships for each apprenticeable trade by State.5 (Availability of these data in
1980 and beyond was uncertain as this publication went
to press.)
The nearly 325,000 registered apprentices in training
at the end of 1979 (see table D-3) represent the largest
number in training since 1941 when these data were
first recorded. Since 1941, nearly 1.2 million appren­
tices have completed training. In the last 10 years, how­
ever, about 475,000 apprentices have completed train­
ing—about two-fifths of the total since 1941. Annual
fluctuations in the number of completions often reflect
job market conditions.
Of the 43,454 registered apprenticeship completions
in 1979, about 55 percent were in construction occupa­
tions, nearly 15 percent each in production occupations
and mechanic and repairer occupations, and the remain­
ing 16 percent in service, technologist and technician,
transportation and material moving, and other miscel­
laneous occupations.
Although apprenticeship cancellations represent a po­
tential loss of highly trained workers, many dropouts
eventually become skilled craft workers through less
structured means. In some instances, particularly when
jobs are abundant, apprentices drop their training pro­
gram in favor of earning a skilled worker’s wage im­
mediately. When the job market is depressed, however,
they are more likely to complete their apprenticeships.
In other instances, trainees who cancelled may have
acquired enough experience to reenter the occupation
at another time. Trainees sometimes are dropped invol­
untarily during extended periods of construction inac­
tivity or high unemployment.

cifically targeted for national programs—the Job Corps
and programs for Indians, migrants, older workers, vet­
erans, displaced workers, the handicapped, and others.

Federal employment and training programs
The Federal Government has conducted structured
employment and training programs since the enactment
of the Manpower Development and Training Act
(MDTA) of 1962. With the passage of the Comprehen­
sive Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1973
and CETA amendments of 1978, programs were de­
centralized. Although the Federal Government has re­
tained a few programs, such as the Work Incentive
(WIN) Program, most Federal employment and train­
ing funds now are distributed to State and local gov­
ernments, along with the responsibility for planning and
managing these programs.
At the time this publication went to press, CETA
was expected to be replaced with a job training pro­
gram that would distribute block grants to States to
provide job training to out-of-school 16- to 25-year-olds
and to recipients of Aid to Families With Dependent
Children. Training funds would focus on fields short of
skilled workers, and would range from entry level po­
sitions to highly skilled jobs. Some funds would be spe­

Work Incentive (WIN) Program. The WIN Program
helps employable recipients of Aid to Families with
Dependent Children get and keep jobs. WIN, which is
administered jointly by the Department of Labor and
the Department of Health and Human Services through
State employment services and welfare agencies, pro­
vides job development services and referrals and helps
to provide employment, subsidizes employment, and
provides limited training and supportive services, as
needed.
After an interview to determine a person’s job po­
tential and needs, an employability plan is started to
identify the services and activities needed to get a job.
WIN tries to place people in unsubsidized jobs. Of the
1 million persons registered during fiscal year 1981,
319,000 were placed in unsubsidized jobs.

Comprehensive Em ploym ent and Training A c t
(CETA). Under CETA, all States, cities, and counties
with populations of 100,000 or more receive Fed­
eral grants to run comprehensive employment and train­
ing programs in their localities. Some smaller units and
rural areas also qualify for Federal allocations. Eligible
units, called prime sponsors, receive funds to provide
some of the services or to contract with others. The
amount each prime sponsor receives is based upon its
current population, unemployment rate, training needs,
and number of economically disadvantaged persons. To
receive Federal funds, every eligible sponsor—475 in
fiscal year 1981— must submit a comprehensive plan
describing its area, the services to be provided, and
persons to be served.
Every State and area that operates a comprehensive
employment development program must have a plan­
ning council whose members represent clients, labor,
business, education, community organizations, the em­
ployment services, training agencies, and, where appro­
priate, agriculture. The councils help governments de­
cide on the services needed and check on program
operations.
In fiscal year 1981, CETA served about 2.4 million
individuals, not counting nearly a million youth in sub­
sidized summer jobs. About 44 percent received class­
room training, 6 percent obtained on-the-job training,
and 19 percent were provided work experience. The
remainder received a variety of services designed to
improve their employability.

Job Corps. The Job Corps assists youth between 16
and 21 years of age, mostly school dropouts, who have
poor educational records and who are “economically
disadvantaged’’ to become employable and productive.
100

The program provides basic educational and vocational
skills as well as social skills and counseling, medical,
dental, and other support. The Job Corps differs from
other Federal employment programs in that centers
provide residential living 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Centers vary in enrollment from 170 to 2,600 and serve
men, women, or both; they may be urban or rural.
Fields in which training was offered in fiscal year
1981 included clerical-sales, services, forestry-farming,
food service, auto and machine repair, construction,
electrical appliance repair, industrial production, trans­
portation, and health occupations. Of the 114,000 stu­
dents enrolled, approximately 72,000 had left the pro­
gram by year-end, of whom about 44,600 were reported
as completing the training. About 27,400 students left
before completing their training, which generally lasts
from 9 months to 2 years.
About 26,600 of those completing their training were
reported to be available for placement. About 17,000
(64 percent) of those available obtained job placements,
with 6,900 being placed in their chosen field. Most of
the remainder of those completing training—about
18,000—received school or military placement.
Armed Forces training
The Armed Forces provide training in hundreds of
specialized occupational skills. Each year, thousands of
military recruits complete extensive training in com­
puter repair, medical care, food service, metalworking,
and many other fields. When these persons leave the
military, they often possess skills that qualify them for
specialized civilian occupations.
However, some military skills are not directly com­
parable to those needed in civilian jobs or are specific
only to the needs of the Armed Forces. Most of these
persons will need additional training after they leave
the service to qualify for civilian job s that are similar
to their military jobs. For example, a navigation/bombing training and flight simulator specialist has many,
but not all, of the skills needed to become an electronic
technician. A few military skills, such as those learned
by infantry specialists, are unique to the military and
have limited application to civilian jobs.
In an effort to assist military personnel in utilizing
their training to qualify for civilian jobs, the Army,
Navy, and Marine Corps, in concert with the Bureau
of Apprenticeship and Training, have established reg­
istered apprenticeship programs for uniformed person­
nel. Only occupations that are comparable or identical
to civilian occupations are registered. Individuals par­
ticipating in a program record their hours of training
and work assignments in a logbook that documents their
service experience and which can be presented to an
employer, labor union, or joint apprenticeship commit­
tee when they apply for a job.

The largest proportion of Armed Forces enlistees
train in the mechanical and technical areas. The fol­
lowing tabulation shows the number of enlisted person­
nel in each of the nine major occupational groups as of
September 30, 1980:
Infantry, guncrews, and seamanship specialists...................
Electronic equipment repairers........................................
Communications and intelligence specialists........................
Medical and dental specialists..................................................
Other technical and allied specialists.....................................
Functional support and administration ..................................
Electrical and mechanical equipment repairers...................
Craft w ork ers................................................................................
Service and supply handlers......................................................

242,389
154,559
145,012
77,604
37,723
269,849
348,461
70,636
156,228

Table D-4 provides more detail on these occupational
groups.
To aid in “translating” military job titles, the Depart­
ment of Defense has compiled a military-civilian job
comparability manual. The Military-Civilian Occupa­
tional Source Book relates military jobs by service branch
to their civilian counterparts as identified in the De­
partment of Labor’s Dictionary o f Occupational Titles.
Although intended for use by high school guidance
counselors, the manual can also serve as a useful tool
for employees and vocational counselors involved in
job placement for veterans.
Home study schools
Home study (correspondence) schools provide many
individuals with an alternative means of education and
training. Since many people are unable to attend school
for one reason or another, taking a training program
through home study is their only alternative for gain­
ing a skill. Courses offered through home study pro­
grams vary in length, skill level, and degree of special­
ization, and emphasize vocational, academic, or simply
personal enrichment.
In 1980, about 2.5 million persons were enrolled in
home study courses, according to the National Home
Study Council (NHSC). Enrollment in Federal Gov­
ernment and military programs totaled 1.5 million; 1.1
million students took courses offered by the 77 schools
accredited by the NHSC; most of the remaining home
study students were enrolled in programs offered by
religious organizations and colleges and universities.
Correspondence schools generally require students
to complete a certain number of lessons within a speci­
fied length of time to obtain a certificate of completion.
Correspondence school students have a completion rate
of about 55 percent.
Since 1976, the NCES has collected data on one
source of home study—private noncollegiate post­
secondary correspondence schools. Data appear in
Enrollments and Programs in Noncollegiate Post­
secondary Schools.

101

Based on the information available, home study
schools should remain a significant source of training
for many men and women because it is a convenient
and relatively low-cost method of obtaining new knowl­
edge or skills.

Colleges and universities
Colleges and universities serve many purposes, in­
cluding providing individuals with specific occupational
training. A college education provides the necessary
background to enter fields such as engineering, law,
business, the humanities, and the natural sciences.
The length of a college education depends on the
student’s interests and career goals. Most students seek
employment after obtaining a bachelor’s degree, which
usually requires 4 years. Those who wish to qualify for
positions requiring more specialized knowledge often
continue their study. Master’s, doctorate, and profes­
sional degree programs require several additional years
of study after the bachelor’s degree. Occasionally, these
programs accept exceptional students after 2 or 3 years
of undergraduate work.
College and university enrollments increased steadily
during the 1960’s and early 1970’s—from 4,748,000 in
1965 to 7,215,000 in 1975. The rate of increase slowed
during the late 1970’s—to 7,571,000 by 1980. The NCES
projects that enrollments will level off in the early
1980’s—to 7,789,000 in 1982—then decline slowly dur­
ing the late 1980’s to 7,101,000 by 1990.
The number of degrees conferred by colleges and
universities is closely related to enrollments. During
academic year 1979-80, 1,330,000 persons earned de­
grees—929,000 bachelor’s degrees, 298,000 master’s de­
grees, 33,000 doctoral degrees, and 70,000 first profes­
sional degrees. NCES projects that the total number of
degrees will increase to 1,405,000 in academic year
1984-85, then drop off to 1,339,000 by academic year
1989-90.7
Tables D-6 and D-7 show the number of degrees
conferred by major field of study. Of course, many
graduates do not pursue careers in their field of study,
but studies have shown that the proportion of gradu­
ates of occupational curriculums who directly enter re­
lated occupations tends to be very high, particularly if
training takes a number of years. For example, nearly
all medical school graduates enter medicine and most
engineering school graduates enter engineering. How­
ever, for many liberal arts graduates, whose training is
less occupationally oriented, entry rates into occupa­
tions related to a college major are substantially lower.
This is especially true at the bachelor’s degree level
since many graduates enter professional school, teach­
ing, or occupations for which a college degree in any
one of a number of fields may be adequate preparation.
A recent survey by NCES collected data on the la­
bor force status in February 1978 of people who re­
ceived bachelor’s degrees between July 1976 and June

Community and junior colleges
Community and junior colleges play an integral part
in the American educational system. By offering a wide
variety of courses and programs, these schools enable
many students from diverse backgrounds to obtain oc­
cupational and educational training beyond high school.
For students interested in transferring to a 4-year col­
lege, many programs are designed to provide a general
educational background in arts and sciences. Students
who wish to specialize in a particular field may enroll
in vocational or occupational curriculums, such as den­
tal hygiene or data processing. Typically, programs in
junior and community colleges last 2 years and result
in an associate degree. Some programs last less than 2
years and students are granted certificates or other
awards upon completion.
According to the NCES, enrollments in 2-year insti­
tutions of higher education doubled over the 1970-80
period—from 2,223,000 to 4,526,000. NCES projects
that enrollments in 2-year institutions will increase
steadily through the 1980’s—to 5,000,000 by 1990.
During the 1970-80 period, awards of associate de­
grees increased by 60 percent, according to recent sur­
veys.6 A shift in student attitudes, placing more value
on job training, was apparently a factor in the upsurge
in associate degrees awarded. Associate degrees in oc­
cupational curriculums grew by 134 percent over the
1970-80 period, while degrees in the arts and sciences
increased by only 5 percent. In academic year 1979-80,
63 percent of all associate degrees were awarded in oc­
cupational curriculums, while 37 percent were awarded
in arts and sciences and general programs. Table D-5
provides detailed data on associate degrees and other
formal awards below the baccalaureate granted during
academic year 1979-80.
Because community and junior colleges can quickly
adjust their programs to meet new employment situa­
tions and student interests, radical changes in enroll­
ments in particular curriculums can and do take place
in a short period of time. For this reason, NCES does
not project the number of enrollments in specific cur­
riculums. Some information on future enrollments may
be obtained from State and local community and jun­
ior college administrators.

6 The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) o f
NCES provides annual data on associate degrees and other awards
below the baccalaureate, including those granted by 4-year colleges.
In 1979-80, 2-year institutions awarded 86 percent o f these degrees.

102

7 Projections, along with a discussion o f the projection methodol­
ogy, are published by NCES in Projections o f Education Statistics to
1990-91.

1977 8The Bureau of Labor Statistics also has analyzed
these data for all graduates and for each of 19 major
fields of study. Information on the labor force, occu­
pational, and graduate school status of each of these
8 The results o f the survey are published by NCES in New Teachers
in the Job Market and Occupations o f Recent College Graduates.

103

groups is presented in an article, “College Majors and
Jobs,” in the Summer 1982 issue of the Occupational
Outlook Quarterly. Additional followup studies of col­
lege students and graduates are available from surveys
conducted by college placement offices, professional
societies, and other organizations. Most of these data
are limited to graduates from a single institution or field.

Table D-j1. Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific1 public vocational education programs, 1979-80
DOE
Instructional
code

Enrollments

Completions

5,979,508

Title

1,857,934

01.
01.0100
01.0200
01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700
01.9900

Agriculture, t o t a l ...........................................................................................................................
Agricultural p ro d u ctio n ........................................................................................................
Agricultural supplies/services...............................................................................................
Agricultural mechanics...........................................................................................................
Agricultural products..............................................................................................................
Horticulture ..............................................................................................................................
Renewable natural resources..................................................................................................
F o res try ....................................................................................................................................
Other agriculture.....................................................................................................................

384,940
173,052
21,517
66,727
4,922
71,358
14,331
11,213
21,820

140,483
64,483
8,196
25,716
2,006
22,601
4,263
3,551
9,667

04.
04.0100
04.0200
04.0300
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000
04.1100
04.1200
04.1300
04.1500
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.9900

Distribution, total...........................................................................................................................
Advertising services.................................................................................................................
Apparel and accessories........................................................................................................
A u to m o tiv e ..............................................................................................................................
Finance and c r e d it ..................................................................................................................
F lo ris try ....................................................................................................................................
Food distribution.....................................................................................................................
Food services...........................................................................................................................
General merchandise..............................................................................................................
Hardware, building m a te ria ls ...............................................................................................
Home furnishings.....................................................................................................................
Hotel and lodging.....................................................................................................................
Industrial m a rk e tin g ..............................................................................................................
Insurance....................................................................................................................................
Personal services........................................................................................................................
Real estate......................................... '.......................................................................................
Recreation and to u ris m ........................................................................................................
T ransp ortation ........................................................................................................................
Retail trade, o t h e r .................................................................................................................
Other distributive education..................................................................................................

601,275
12,977
22,515
5,454
36,364
4,959
22,769
31,462
186,107
2,876
2,565
14,067
18,062
5,840
4,596
106,616
16,064
14,113
13,612
80,257

228,976
3,681
9,680
2,746
6,448
2,251
12,594
16,227
72,446
1,676
950
2,764
4,812
1,768
2,230
39,578
4,482
4,713
6,209
33,721

07.
07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0203
07.0299
07.0301
07.0302
07.0303
07.0399
07.0400
07.0501
07.0800
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906
07.0907
07.9900

Health, to ta l....................................................................................................................................
Dental assisting........................................................................................................................
Dental hygiene (associate).....................................................................................................
Dental laboratory technology...............................................................................................
Medical laboratory assisting..................................................................................................
Othermedical laboratory technology..................................................................................
Nursing, associate degree........................................................................................................
Practical (vocational) nursing...............................................................................................
Nursing assistance (aid e)........................................................................................................
Other nursing...........................................................................................................................
Rehabilitation...........................................................................................................................
Radiologic technology ( X - r a y ) ............................................................................................
Mental health technology.....................................................................................................
In h a la tio n th e ra p y t e c h n o l o g y ............................................................................................
Medical assisting........................................................................................................................
Community health a i d e ........................................................................................................
Medical emergency technician...............................................................................................
Other health education...........................................................................................................

455,129
16,371
7,433
5,105
13,271
4,831
104,753
73,968
49,572
16,760
7,956
10,705
10,324
10,096
20,218
7,866
20,916
74,984

147,881
6,986
2,085
1,505
2,479
1,187
24,523
29,660
24,850
6,512
1,695
2,653
1,835
2,948
5,816
3,605
6,706
22,836

09.02
09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205
09.0299

Occupational preparation, to ta l..................................................................................................
Care and guidance of children...............................................................................................
Clothing management, production, and services...............................................................
Food management, production, and services..................................................................
Home furnishing, equipment, and services.........................................................................
Institutional and home management and services............................................................
Other occupational preparation for homemaking............................................................

242,087
93,795
27,753
76,726
9,313
5,356
29,144

90,935
30,478
9,853
30,550
2,249
2,330
15,475

14.
14.0100
14.0201
14.0203
14.0299
14.0300
14.0400
14.0500
14.0600
14.0700
14.0800
14,0900
14.9900

Office occupations, to ta l..............................................................................................................
Accounting and computing occupations............................................................................
Computer and console operators........................................................................................
Programmers..............................................................................................................................
Other business data processing............................................................................................
Filing, office machines, clerical occupations.....................................................................
Information, communication occupations.........................................................................
Materials support, transportation, etc..................................................................................
Personnel, training, and related occupations.....................................................................
Stenography, secretarial, and related occupations............................................................
Supervisory and administrative management occupations............................................
Typing and related occupations............................................................................................
Other office occupations........................................................................................................

1,970,518
414,543
40,771
76,616
95,134
409,517
38,673
3,547
22,702
421,029
182,217
200,622
65,147

563,312
107,409
12,209
15,402
18,917
122,758
13,016
1,016
4,341
125,731
24,771
85,169
32,573

See footnotes at end of table.

104

Table D-1. Enrollments and completions in occupationally specific1 public vocational education programs, 1979-80
DOE
instructional
code

Enrollments

Title

Continued
Completions

16.
16.0103
16.0104
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0110
16.0111
16.0113
16.0117
16.0601
16.0602
16.0605
16.9902
16.9900

Technical, t o t a l ..............................................................................................................................
Architectural technology........................................................................................................
Automotive tech n o lo g y........................................................................................................
Civil technology........................................................................................................................
Electrical technology...............................................................................................................
Electronic tech n o lo g y...........................................................................................................
Environmental control technology.....................................................................................
Industrial technology..............................................................................................................
Mechanical technology...........................................................................................................
Scientific data technology.....................................................................................................
Commercial pilot tra in in g .....................................................................................................
Fire and safety technology.....................................................................................................
Police science...........................................................................................................................
Water and wastewater technology........................................................................................
Other technical education.....................................................................................................

387,117
27,441
11,952
16,605
14,719
87,695
8,064
14,561
25,419
18,575
7,198
13,654
55,843
2,989
82,402

82,573
5,185
3,570
2,661
2,120
17,447
1,170
2,237
4,590
3,437
1,856
4,520
15,707
683
17,390

17.
17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0399
17.0400
17.0700
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1004
17,1007
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1500
17.1700
17.1900
17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2303
17.2305
17.2306
17.2307
17.2399
17.2400
17.2602
17.2699
17.2700
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899
17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200
17.3300
17.3500
17.3600
17.9900

Trade and industrial, t o ta l...........................................................................................................
Air-conditioning........................................................................................................................
Appliance repair........................................................................................................................
Body and fender repair...........................................................................................................
Auto m e c h a n ic ........................................................................................................................
Automotive specialization.....................................................................................................
Aviation occupations..............................................................................................................
Commercial art occupations..................................................................................................
Commercial photographic occupations...............................................................................
Carpentry, construction........................................................................................................
Electricity, construction........................................................................................................
M as o n ry ....................................................................................................................................
Plumbing and pipefitting........................................................................................................
Other construction and maintenance trades.....................................................................
Custodial services....................................................................................................................
Diesel mechanic........................................................................................................................
Drafting occupations..............................................................................................................
Electrical occupations...........................................................................................................
Electronic occupations...........................................................................................................
Supervisor and management developm ent........................................................................
Graphic arts occupations........................................................................................................
Instrument maintenance and repair occupations............................................................
Maritime occupations..............................................................................................................
Machine shop occupations.....................................................................................................
Machine tool operations........................................................................................................
Sheet m e t a l..............................................................................................................................
Welding and cutting..................................................................................................................
Tool and die m a k in g ..............................................................................................................
Other metalworking occupations........................................................................................
Metallurgy occupations...........................................................................................................
Cosmetology..............................................................................................................................
Other personal s e rv ic e s ........................................................................................................
Plastics occupations..................................................................................................................
Firefighter tra in in g ..................................................................................................................
Law enforcement tra in in g .....................................................................................................
Other public services..............................................................................................................
Quantity food occupations..................................................................................................
R e frig e ra tio n ...........................................................................................................................
Small engine re p a ir.................................................................................................................
Stationary energy sources occupations...............................................................................
Textile production and fabrication.....................................................................................
Upholstering..............................................................................................................................
Woodworking occupations.....................................................................................................
Other trade and industrial occupations...............................................................................
2
Other programs, greater than 1 percent of total
............................................................
Other programs, less than 1 percent of total3
..................................................................

1,792,052
48,799
11,130
66,074
237,557
20,294
24,425
50,025
24,184
106,551
28,625
27,593
16,304
69,901
9,545
24,518
103,560
49,690
93,835
21,036
69,210
3,541
6,402
74,435
8,617
11,903
125,675
4,299
29,621
607
77,673
9,249
2,498
25,495
57,914
24,462
34,979
3,742
21,434
2,213
18,579
8,400
28,091
109,367

562,952
12,508
3,167
20,152
80,266
8,560
5,791
10,262
6,612
34,325
8,755
8,984
4,978
24,744
3,029
6,927
30,370
9,519
28,096
6,078
23,592
778
1,132
21,570
2,610
3,454
37,279
1,067
12,514
240
25,427
3,601
1,057
13,800
15,588
4,899
11,092
1,155
7,490
740
5,845
2,560
9,821
42,518

85,486
60,904

25,301
15,521

’ Occupationally specific enrollments include students above grade
10 enrolled in programs which are designed to train individuals for
specific occupations. Excluded are all programs in industrial arts and
consumer and homemaking training, as well as prevocational, counsel­
ing and guidance, and cluster programs (those programs that include 4
or more subjects that cannot be separated and identified as a complete
program).

105

2 Includes those programs that are more than 1 percent of a program
area (e.g., Agriculture) that are not listed separately.
3 Includes those programs that are less than 1 percent of a program
area that are not listed separately.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics.

Table D-2. Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled, by
individual programs for private noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1979-80'
DOE instructional code and title

Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
marketable skill

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

Total, all programs ..................................................................

944,145

579,748

40,699

131,842

191,793

01. Agribusiness, total ...............................................................

3,929

3,436

80

242

170

01.0100
01.0200
01.0299
01.0300
01.0400
01.0500
01.0600
01.0700
01.9900

Agricultural production.................................................
Agricultural supplies/services......................................
Veterinarian assistant..................................................
Agricultural mechanics ................................................
Agricultural products....................................................
Ornamental horticulture...............................................
Agricultural resources..................................................
Forestry ........................................................................
O ther.............................................................................

235
0
1,070
0
0
2,624
0
0
0

235
0
803
0
0
2,398
0
0
0

0
0
49
0
0
31
0
0
0

0
0
174
0
0
68
0
0
0

0
0
43
0
0
127
0
0
0

04. Marketing and distribution, total ..........................................

230,281

198,379

1,569

20,744

9,589

04.0100
04.0200
04.0300
04.0400
04.0500
04.0600
04.0700
04.0800
04.0900
04.1000

Advertising services.....................................................
Apparel and accessories ............................................
Automotive sales..........................................................
Finance and credit.......................................................
Floristry.........................................................................
Food distribution...........................................................
Food service technology.............................................
General merchandise ..................................................
Hardware, building materials ......................................
Home furnishings management ..................................

0
11,633
35
29,296
0
781
80
443
0
0

0
6,563
35
26,505
0
577
40
62
0
0

0
268
0
19
0
127
5
15
0
0

0
1,878
0
2,697
0
77
3
133
0
0

0
2,925
0
75
0
0
32
232
0
0

04.1100
04.1200
04.1300
04.1400
04.1500
04.1600
04.1700
04.1800
04.1900
04.2000
04.3100
04.9900

Hotel and lodging.........................................................
Industrial marketing......................................................
Insurance......................................................................
International trad e ........................................................
Personal service sales ................................................
Petroleum sales............................................................
Real estate ..................................................................
Recreation and tourism...............................................
Transportation services...............................................
Retail trade, o th e r........................................................
Wholesale trade, o ther................................................
O ther.............................................................................

420
0
13,386
0
588
0
145,788
15,256
455
1,463
0
10,658

336
0
11,714
0
573
0
129,954
12,769
121
621
0
8,509

49
0
0
0
14
0
176
292
15
153
0
435

0
0
0
0
1
0
12,867
1,396
6
110
0
1,576

35
0
1,672
0
0
0
2,789
789
312
579
0
139

07. Health occupations, to ta l.....................................................

87,099

45,130

2,856

10,132

28,987

07.0101
07.0102
07.0103
07.0199
07.0201
07.0202
07.0203
07.0204
07.0299
07.0301

Dental assistant............................................................
Dental hygiene (associate) ..........................................
Dental laboratory technology ......................................
Other dental.................................................................
Cytology........................................................................
Histology.......................................................................
Medical laboratory assisting ........................................
Hematology..................................................................
Medical laboratory technology, o th e r.........................
Nursing (associate degree).........................................

6,128
0
2,687
117
0
4
766
329
3,143
1,863

4,420
0
1,601
65
0
2
581
172
1,890
969

165
0
140
3
0
0
16
11
26
61

660
0
310
14
0
0
124
38
585
217

883
0
637
35
0
1
45
108
644
616

07.0302
07.0303
07.0304
07.0305
07.0399
07.0401
07.0402
07.0499
07.0501
07.0502

Practical (vocational) nursing ......................................
Nursing assistant (aide)...............................................
Psychiatric aide ............................................................
Surgical technician.......................................................
Nursing, o th er...............................................................
Occupational therapy...................................................
Physical therapy...........................................................
Rehabilitation services, o th e r......................................
X-ray technician............................................................
Radiation therapy.........................................................

5,848
6,458
86
381
26,534
0
0
0
5,844
249

3,674
4,733
63
163
7,242
0
0
0
1,771
208

814
148
16
28
130
0
0
0
0
10

388
1,214
8
35
2,842
0
0
0
471
10

973
364
0
153
16,320
0
0
0
3,603
21

07.0503
07.0599
07.0600
07.0700
07.0800
07.0901
07.0902
07.0903
07.0904
07.0906
07.0907

Nuclear medical technology ........................................
Radiologic, o th e r..........................................................
Optical technology.......................................................
Environmental health technology................................
Mental health technology............................................
Electroencephalograph technology ............................
Electrocardiograph technology....................................
Respiratory therapy technology ..................................
Medical assisting (office) .............................................
Community health aide................................................
Medical emergency technician....................................

41
351
0
0
0
402
1,110
1,421
19,416
0
249

21
299
0
0
0
363
852
682
12,775
0
65

1
42
0
0
0
0
0
11
1,128
0
21

5
11
0
0
‘ 0
39
259
183
2,260
0
78

14
0
0
0
0
0
0
546
3,256
0
84

See footnotes at end of table.
106

Table D-2. Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled, by
individual programs for private noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1979-80'—Continued
DOE instructional code and title

Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
marketable skill

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

Mortuary science..........................................................
Medical records technician..........................................
Physician’s assistant...................................................
Health occupations, o ther............................................

2,185
402
162
925

1,709
354
83
374

0
0
5
80

113
46
19
203

362
2
54
268

09. Home economics, to ta l........................................................

0

0

0

0

0

Child ca re .....................................................................
Clothing management, production, and services........
Food management, production, and services.............
Home furnishings .........................................................
Institutional/home management .................................
Home economics, oth er...............................................

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

14. Business and office, to ta l....................................................

198,195

98,021

18,121

32,218

49,826

Accounting ....................................................................
Computer operator.......................................................
Keypunch operator ......................................................
Computer programmer .................................................
Systems analyst...........................................................
Business data processing............................................
General o ffice ...............................................................
Information, communication occupations ....................
Materials support occupations ....................................
Personnel occupations.................................................

20,783
1,692
19,913
27.452
0
1,063
2,970
4,300
0
0

10,858
1,203
11,965
11,569
0
398
1,621
2,333
0
0

1,798
35
570
1,292
0
44
204
455
0
0

3,583
228
3,576
6,100
0
228
395
743
0
0

4,543
225
3,803
8,489
0
392
749
768
0
0

14.0700 Stenographic, secretarial, and related occupations ....
14.0800 Supervisory and administrative management
occupations..................................................................
14.0900 Typing and related occupations..................................
14.9900 Office occupations, other.............................................

94,244

43,991

11,226

13,419

25,607

13,673
11,220
885

6,599
6,951
533

1,396
1,101
0

1,607
2,248
91

4,069
921
261

16. Technical occupations, total ...............................................

44,378

22,180

2,208

7,006

12,980

16.0101
16.0102
16.0103
16.0104
16.0105
16.0106
16.0107
16.0108
16.0109
16.0110

Aeronautical technology..............................................
Agricultural technology................................................
Architectural technology..............................................
Automotive technology................................................
Chemical technology...................................................
Civil technology ............................................................
Electrical technology ...................................................
Electronic technology..................................................
Electromechanical technology ....................................
Environmental control technology ..............................

2,395
0
412
1,318
0
226
2,377
18,637
124
201

767
0
167
658
0
142
667
7,533
45
73

67
0
0
248
0
20
116
993
1
0

492
0
91
412
0
16
281
3,185
21
30

1,069
0
155
0
0
47
1,312
6,926
57
96

16.0111
16.0112
16.0113
16.0114
16.0115
16.0116
16.0117
16.0203
16.0601
16.0602

Industrial technology.................................. ..................
Instrumentation technology..........................................
Mechanical technology................................................
Metallurgical technology..............................................
Nuclear technology......................................................
Petroleum technology..................................................
Scientific data processing............................................
Legal assistant .............................................................
Commercial pilot training .............................................
Fire and fire safety technology ...................................

135
287
1,256
0
0
0
1,507
788
0
0

50
236
921
0
0
0
488
706
0
0

0
28
0
0
0
0
43
12
0
0

5
22
139
0
0
0
191
42
0
0

81
0
196
0
0
0
786
27
0
0

16.0603
16.0604
16.0605
16.0606
16.0607
16.0608
16.0695
16.0699
16.9901
16.9902

Forestry technology.....................................................
Oceanographic technology..........................................
Police science technology...........................................
Teacher’s assistant.....................................................
Library assistant...........................................................
Broadcast technician ...................................................
Performing artists.........................................................
Technology, o th e r........................................................
Air pollution technology...............................................
Water and waste water treatment technology...........

0
0
0
0
0
9,924
4,369
163
0
259

0
0
0
0
0
6,736
2,705
163
0
121

0
0
0
0
0
583
85
0
0
13

0
0
0
0
0
1,716
321
0
0
42

0
0
0
0
0
890
1,259
0
0
80

17. Trade and industrial, total ..................................................

334,828

184,749

13,906

55,155

81,011

8,684
27
2,333
13,863
472

4,918
16
1,407
6,444
446

610
0
148
1,779
21

1,936
3
424
2,136
5

1,220
8
352
3,506
2

07.0909
07.0915
07.0920
07.9900

09.0201
09.0202
09.0203
09.0204
09.0205
09.0299

14.0100
14.0201
14.0202
14.0203
14.0204
14.0299
14.0300
14.0400
14.0500
14.0600

17.0100
17.0200
17.0301
17.0302
17.0303

Air conditioning installation and repair.......................
Appliance repair...........................................................
Body and fender repair...............................................
Auto mechanic .............................................................
Auto specialization, repair............................................

See footnotes at end of table.

107

Table D-2. Total enrollments, total completions, total who left with or without a marketable skill, and total still enrolled, by
individual programs for private noncollegiate postsecondary schools with occupational programs: 1979-80'—Continued
DOE instructional code and title

Total enrollments

Completions

Left with
marketable skill

Left without
marketable skill

Still enrolled

17.0399
17.0401
17.0402
17.0403
17.0500

Automotive services, other .........................................
Aircraft maintenance....................................................
Aircraft operations........................................................
Ground operations.......................................................
Blueprint reading..........................................................

424
0
0
0
0

285
0
0
0
0

45
0
0
0
0

85
0
0
0
0

8
0
0
0
0

17.0600
17.0700
17.0800
17.0900
17.1001
17.1002
17.1003
17.1004
17.1005
17.1006

Business machine maintenance .................................
Commercial art occupations........................................
Commercial fishery occupations.................................
Commercial photography occupations.......................
Carpentry, construction ...............................................
Electricity, construction ...............................................
Heavy equipment maintenance operations................
Masonry........................................................................
Painting and decorating ..............................................
Plastering .....................................................................

519
23,752
0
7,840
629
0
3,138
407
92
0

520
5,188
0
1,234
417
0
2,075
257
54
0

0
777
0
339
26
0
18
34
5
0

0
6,197
0
2,093
104
0
225
44
14
0

0
11,590
0
4,174
82
0
821
69
19
0

17.1007
17.1008
17.1009
17.1010
17.1099
17.1100
17.1200
17.1300
17.1400
17.1503

Plumbing and pipefitting..............................................
Drywall installation .......................................................
Glazing..........................................................................
Roofing .........................................................................
Construction and maintenance trades, other.............
Custodial services........................................................
Diesel mechanic...........................................................
Drafting occupations....................................................
Electrical occupations, o th e r.......................................
Radio and TV repair....................................................

171
0
0
0
1,767
29
4,471
9,274
2,930
2,271

101
0
0
0
1,351
24
2,459
3,524
1,308
1,305

21
0
0
0
36
2
217
796
280
125

9
0
0
0
261
0
664
1,610
234
477

35
0
0
0
118
2
1,130
3,341
1,099
366

17.1599
17.1600
17.1700
17.1900
17.2000
17.2100
17.2200
17.2302
17.2303
17.2306

Electronics occupations, o th er....................................
Fabric maintenance services.......................................
Supervisor and management development................
Graphic arts occupations............................................
Industrial atomic energy occupations.........................
Instrument maintenance and repair occupations.......
Maritime occupations...................................................
Machine shop occupations..........................................
Machine tool operations..............................................
Welding and cutting.....................................................

23,417
476
1,239
2,876
0
2,497
6,649
265
1,451
19,119

12,517
476
724
1,462
0
1,101
6,305
115
1,332
11,910

1,393
0
69
261
0
181
44
71
0
2,487

3,801
0
186
659
0
205
199
74
12
2,466

5,705
0
260
495
0
1,009
100
5
108
2,254

17.2307
17.2399
17.2400
17.2601
17.2602
17.2699
17.2700
17.2801
17.2802
17.2899

Tool and diemaking .....................................................
Metalworking, other .....................................................
Metallurgy occupations................................................
Barbering......................................................................
Cosmetology................................................................
Personal services, other .............................................
Plastics occupations....................................................
Firefighter training ........................................................
Law enforcement training ...........................................
Public service occupations, o th er...............................

316
345
111
9,337
126,590
4,358
24
0
1,487
0

54
342
64
6,586
66,518
3,475
24
0
1,467
0

95
2
6
30
2,724
193
0
0
19
0

60
1
17
1,199
23,812
431
0
0
0
0

107
0
23
1,521
33,535
259
0
0
0
0

17.2900
17.3000
17.3100
17.3200
17.3300
17.3400
17.3500
17.3600
17.4000
17.5000
17.9900

Quantity food occupations...........................................
Refrigeration engineering............................................
Small engine repair, internal combustion ...................
Stationary energy sources...........................................
Textile production and fabrication ..............................
Leatherworking .............................................................
Upholstering.................................................................
Woodworking occupations...........................................
Truckdriving..................................................................
Dog grooming..............................................................
Trade and industrial occupations, other .....................
Not reported .............. ..................................................

16,061
383
2,067
217
1,873
0
479
5
26,326
2,848
932
45,436

13,826
216
1,523
127
1,097
0
348
5
17,271
2,345
183
27,903

680
18
117
12
40
0
6
0
162
14
0
1,959

1,162
45
176
32
241
0
110
0
3,452
263
31
6,345

393
103
249
45
496
0
15
0
5,441
226
716
9,230

1 Table does not include collegiate, flight, and other schools.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics.

108

Table D-3. Apprenticeship registration actions, calendar year 1979
Beginning
of period
1-1-79

Trade

During period
Added

Cancelled1

Completed

End of
period
12-31-79

U.S. to ta ls .....................................................................................................

289,168

136,786

58,634

43,454

323,866

Technologists and technicians, except health:
Drafters, designers.....................................................................................

841

317

230

124

804

2,259
2,352

1,007
1,168

499
625

694
194

2,073
2,701

1,403

1,066

604

491

1,374

Mechanics and repairers:
Air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics......................................
Aircraft mechanics.....................................................................................
Auto and related body repairers...............................................................
Auto and related mechanics.....................................................................
Car repairers..................................................................................................
Electronic technicians...............................................................................
Industrial technicians..................................................................................
Maintenance m echanics............................................................................
Millwrights.....................................................................................................
Office machine servicers...........................................................................
Radio, T V repairers.....................................................................................
Not classified above.....................................................................................

2,041
660
3,207
9,909
3,149
1,610
1,310
4,853
5,636
1,084
718
4,344

855
134
1,260
4,786
1,259
622
488
1,946
2,241
233
176
2,058

399
32
739
2,524
708
146
222
744
679
241
190
771

294
26
346
1,466
680
310
178
913
1,038
146
130
757

2,203
736
3,382
10,705
3,020
1,776
1,398
5,142
6,160
930
574
4,874

Construction occupations:
Bricklayers, stone and tile setters............................................................
Carpenters .....................................................................................................
Cement masons...........................................................................................
Electrical workers........................................................................................
Electricians..................................................................................................
Floor coverers...............................................................................................
Glaziers...........................................................................................................
Insulation w o rk e rs .....................................................................................
Lathers...........................................................................................................
Line erectors, light and power..................................................................
Ornamental ironworkers............................................................................
Painters...........................................................................................................
Pipefitters, sprinkler fitters, steamfitters...............................................
Plasterers........................................................................................................
Plumbers........................................................................................................
Roofers...........................................................................................................
Sheet-metal w o rk e rs ..................................................................................
Structural steel w o rk e rs ............................................................................
Tapers, dry-wall applicators.....................................................................
Not classified above.....................................................................................

8,488
43,212
3,092
920
35,118
1,697
1,143
1,683
1,357
4,651
166
6,732
15,859
1,229
17,607
5,670
11,265
8,066
1,910
1,394

3,884
23,672
1,792
424
13,833
955
688
504
804
2,173
48
3,941
5,755
827
5,965
4,335
4,773
5,145
1,136
639

1,992
13,397
824
228
4,843
523
323
194
400
754
14
1,991
1,662
347
2,482
2,410
1,771
1,370
803
477

1,068
4,637
466
170
4,961
228
189
235
155
816
15
956
3,089
121
2,322
539
1,591
1,568
412
283

9,312
48,850
3,594
946
39,147
1,901
1,319
1,758
1,606
5,254
185
7,726
16,863
1,588
18,768
7,056
12,676
10,273
1,831
1,273

Production occupations:
Precision production occupations:
Boilermakers.................................................................................................
Bookbinders, bindery workers..................................................................
Cabinetmakers, wood machinists............................................................
Compositors..................................................................................................
Lithographers, photoengravers...............................................................
Machinists.....................................................................................................
Medical and dental technicians...............................................................
Molders, corem akers..................................................................................
Optical w orkers...........................................................................................
Patternmakers..............................................................................................
Printing and publishing workers...............................................................
Toolmakers, diemakers...............................................................................

3,931
631
1,968
385
2,173
15,528
3,457
646
389
852
875
12,730

1,381
273
1,039
100
724
6,397
2,882
257
109
383
396
5,379

417
108
629
94
653
2,748
529
139
119
74
111
2,044

769
90
242
70
369
2,450
226
97
49
143
80
1,807

4,126
706
2,136
321
1,875
16,727
5,584
667
330
1,018
1,080
14,258

Plant and system operators:
Stationary engineers..................................................................................

1,899

713

212

448

1,952

Machine operators, tenders, and setup workers:
Machine set-up and operators..................................................................
Press o p e ra to rs ...........................................................................................

1,437
1,134

699
258

353
189

205
187

1,578
1,016

Transportation and material moving occupations:
Operating engineers (construction machinery operators)...................

5,496

2,775

875

857

6,539

Miscellaneous trades, not classified a b o v e .........................................................

19,002

12,112

3,182

3,757

24,175

Service occupations:
Food and beverage preparation and service occupations:
Butchers, m e a tc u tte rs ...............................................................................
Cooks, bakers..............................................................................................
Personal service occupations:
Barbers, beauticians.....................................................................................

11ncludes voluntary quits, layoffs, discharges, out-of-State transfers,
upgrades within certain trades, and suspensions or interruptions for
m ilitary service.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training,

109

•4. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (DOD) occupational groups, September 30,1980
Group title and description of coverage

Enlisted
strength
242,389

0

IN F A N T R Y , GUN CREWS, A ND SEAMANSHIP S P E C IA L IS T S ..................................................................................................

01

In fa n tr y — includes weapon specialists, ground reconnaissance specialists and crew-served artillery specialists,

armor and amphibious crews, and specialists in combat engineering and seamanship......................................................

103,703

02

A r m o r a n d A m p h i b i o u s .................................................................................................................................................................

24,554

03

C o m b a t E n g in ee rin g — includes specialists in hasty and temporary construction of airfields, roads, and bridges

04

A r t ille r y /G u n n e ry , R o c k e ts , a n d Missiles — includes conventional field, anti-air and shipboard guns and artillery,

05

A i r C re w — includes pilots and navigators, flight engineers, and other air c re w ...............................................................

6,414

06

Seam anship — includes boatswains, navigators, and other seamanship specialists............................................................

13,885

07

In s ta lla tio n S e c u rity — includes specialists who guard weapon systems, defend installations, and protect

and in demolition, field illumination, and chemical warfare..................................................................................................
and rocket and missile specialists.................................................................................................................................................

20,937
50,858

personnel, equipment, and fa c ilitie s ...........................................................................................................................................

1
10

22,038

ELECTRO NIC EQ UIPM ENT R E P A IR E R S ...........................................................................................................................................

154,559

R ad io /R a d a r — includes fixed and mobile radio, air traffic and tracking radar, communication, navigation, and

electronic countermeasure g e a r....................................................................................................................................................

70,809

11

F ire C o n tro l E le c tro n ic S ystem (N o n -M is s ile ) ...........................................................................................................................

7,519

12

M issile G u id an ce, C o n tro l a n d C h e c k o u t — includes specialists in guidance, control, and checkout equipment for

13

S o n a r E q u ip m e n t — includes specialists in underwater detection and fire control systems, oceanographic

guided and ballistic missiles...........................................................................................................................................................
equipment, and related antisubmarine g e a r ..............................................................................................................................

22,533
7,813

14

N u c le a r W eapons E q u i p m e n t ................................................... ....................................................................................................

1,321

15

A D P C o m p u te rs .................................................................................................................................................................................

7,569

16

T e le ty p e a n d C ry p to g ra p h ic E q u ip m e n t .....................................................................................................................................

13,684

19

O th e r E le c tro n ic E q u ip m e n t — includes training devices, inertial navigation systems, and electronics instruments

specialists..........................................................................................................................................................................................

2

23,311

CO M M UNICA TIO NS A N D IN TELLIG EN C E S P EC IA LISTS...........................................................................................................

145,012

20

R a d io a n d R a d io C od e — includes operators of radio, radio teletype, and visual communications equipment. . . .

21

S o n a r ...................................................................................................................................................................................................

4,257

22

R a d a r a n d A i r T r a ffic C o n tr o l .......................................................................................................................................................

24,754

23

Sign al In te llig e n c e /E le c tro n ic W arfare — includes the intercept, translation, and analysis of foreign
communications, and the operation of electronic countermeasures equipm ent...............................................................

21,548

24

In te llig e n c e — includes the gathering, receipt, and analysis of nonsignal intelligence data, the interrogation of

prisoners, other language translators and interpreters, image interpretation, and specialists in counterintelligence
and investigational activities..........................................................................................................................................................
25

8,830

C o m b a t O p e ra tio n s C o n tr o l — includes specialists in forward area tactical operations and intelligence and in

command post control a c tiv itie s .................................................................................................................................................
26

41,695

21,444

C o m m u n ic a tio n s C e n te r O p e ra tio n s — includes the receipt and distribution of messages, the operation of

communications center equipment, and the operation of major field communications systems...................................

22,484

3

M E D IC A L A N D D E N TA L SPECIALISTS..............................................................................................................................................

77,604

30

M e d ic a l C a r e .......................................................................................................................................................................................

53,172

31

T e ch n ica l M e d ic a l Services — includes laboratory, pharmaceutical, and X-ray services...................................................

10,461

32

R e la te d M e d ic a l Services — includes specialists in sanitation, health preservation, and veterinary services and

preventive medical services..............................................................................................................................................................

4,931

33

D e n ta l C are — Includes specialists in dental care and treatment and in related technical and laboratory services . .

9,040

4

OTHER T E C H N IC A L A N D A L L IE D S P E C IA L IS T S ........................................................................................................................

37,723

40

P h o to g ra p h y — includes still, motion, and television camera operators, precision photographic processing, editing,

and broadcasting.............................................................................................................................................................................

6,081

41

M a p p in g , S u rvey in g , D ra ftin g , a n d I l l u s t r a t i n g ........................................................................................................................

7,197

42

W e a th e r — includes specialists in the collection of weather and sea condition data and in weather forecasting . . .

5,283

43

O rd n a n c e D isp osal a n d D iv in g — includes the excavation and rendering safe of explosive ordnance and of

chemical and nuclear agents, and underwater demolition and other types of d iv in g ......................................................

1,507

45

M u s ic ia n s ................................................................................................................................. .........................................-..................

4,609

49

T e c h n ic a l S pecialists, N .E .C . — includes physical science laboratory analysts, specialists in memorial activities,
safety, NBC warfare, and firefighting and damage control, and other technical specialists and aids such as
scientific engineering assistants.....................................................................................................................................................

13,046

110

Table D-4. Enlisted strength in Department of Defense (DOD) occupational groups, September 30,1980—Continued
DOD
code
5

Group title and description of coverage

Enlisted
strength

FU N C TIO N A L SUPPORT A N D A D M IN IS T R A T IO N ........................................................................................................................

269,849

50

P ersonnel — includes specialists in personnel administration, personnel and manpower management, and

51

A d m in is tr a tio n — includes clerks, typists, and stenographers and legal and medical administrative

recruiting and counseling.................................................................................................................................................................
specialists..........................................................................................................................................................................................

45,361
72,645

52

C le ric a l/P e rs o n n e l — includes combined personnel and administrative specialists and senior enlisted personnel

53

D a ta Processing — includes computer operators, analysts, and programmers and electric accounting machine

operators.............................................................................................................................................................................................

14,089

54

A c c o u n tin g , F in a n c e , a n d D is b u rs in g ...........................................................................................................................................

14,123

55

O th e r F u n c tio n a l S u p p o r t — includes specialists who provide support in the functional areas of supply

whose primary responsibilities are non-technical.....................................................................................................................

accounting and procurement, transportation, flight operations, and related a re a s .........................................................
56

106,371

R elig iou s, M o ra le , a n d W e lfa re — includes chaplains' assistants and specialists in theater, arts, sports, and

57

6,379

In fo r m a tio n a n d E d u c a tio n — includes specialists in public affairs, radio/TV, and other types of information

related activities.................................................................................................................................................................................

5,061

and education....................................................................................................................................................................................
6

5,820

EL E C T R IC A L /M E C H A N IC A L EQ UIPM ENT R E P A IR E R S ............................................................................................................

348,461

60

A ir c r a f t a n d R e la te d — includes aircraft engines, electrical systems, structural components and surfaces, and

launch equipment..............................................................................................................................................................................

153,476

61

A u to m o tiv e — includes construction equipment and other wheel and track vehicles......................................................

59,694

62

W ire C o m m u n ic a tio n s — includes specialists in the installation and maintenance of telephones, switchboards,

and central office and related interior communications equipment......................................................................................

27,410

63

M issile, M e c h a n ic a l a n d E le c tric a l — includes missiles and missile systems and related c o m po nen ts.........................

4,812

64

A r m a m e n t a n d M u n itio n s — includes small arms, artillery, mines, bombs and associated mountings, nuclear

weapons, and ammunition ren ovation ........................................................................................................................................

34,187

65

S h ip b o a rd P ro p u ls io n — includes marine main engines, boilers, and auxiliary eq u ip m e n t.............................................

37,551

66

P o w e r G e n e ra tin g E q u ip m e n t — includes nuclear power reactors and primary electric generating p la n ts ................

26,934

67

Precision E q u ip m e n t — includes optical and other precision instruments and office m achines...................................

2,687

69

O th e r M e c h a n ic a l a n d E le c tric a l E q u ip m e n t — includes specialists in the maintenance and repair of

mechanical and electrical equipment which is not readily classifiable in another g r o u p ................................................
7
70

1,710

C R A F T W O R K E R S ....................................................................................................................................................................................

70,636

M e ta lw o rk in g — includes specialists in the machining, shaping, and forming of metal and in the fabrication

of metal p a rts ....................................................................................................................................................................................

13,260

C o n s tru c tio n — includes specialists in construction trades and construction equipment operation.............................

24,826

72

U tilitie s — includes plumbers, heating and cooling specialists, and electricians...............................................................

18,230

74

L i t h o g r a p h y .......................................................................................................................................................................................

2,004

75

In d u s tria l Gas a n d F u e l P ro d u c tio n — includes specialists in the production of liquid oxygen, hydrogen,

76

F a b ric , L e a th e r, a n d R u b b e r .....................................................................................................................................

2,660

79

O th e r C r a ft W orkers, N .E .C . — includes specialists in trades such as molding, camouflage, and plastic work,
which are not readily classifiable elsewhere in this section.....................................................................................................

9,000

71

nitrogen, and carbon d io x id e ........................................................................................................................................................

656

8

SERVICE A N D SUPPLY H A N D LER S.....................................................................................................................................................

156,228

80

F o o d S e rv ic e .......................................................................................................................................................................................

46,442

81

M o to r T ra n s p o rt — includes the operation of wheel and track vehicles (except construction equipment) and

82

M a te r ia l R e c e ip t, S torage, a n d Issue — includes specialists in the receipt, storage, issue, and shipment of

83

L a w E n fo rc e m e n t — includes military police, protective and corrections specialists, and criminal and

noncriminal inspectors and investigators.....................................................................................................................................

39,181

84

P ersonal S ervice — includes laundry, dry cleaning, and related services...............................................................................

1,918

86

F o r w a r d A re a E q u ip m e n t — includes specialists in parachute packing and repair, in aerial delivery operations,

railway e q u ip m e n t..........................................................................................................................................................................
general and specialized classes of supplies, excluding a m m u n itio n ......................................................................................

and in flight equipment fitting and m aintenance.....................................................................................................................
NOTE: Definitions are provided for most occupational groups. The
lack of explanatory material for a few occupational groups indicates
that the title of the grouping is considered a sufficient definition.

31,858
30,877

5,952

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower Data
Center—Enlisted Master File,

Ill

Table D-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards by length of curriculum and type of credit, 1979-80'
Curriculums of at least 2 but less than 4 years
Curriculum

HEGIS
code2

Work wholly or chiefly
creditable toward a
bachelor’s degree

Work not wholly or
chiefly creditable
toward a bachelor's
degree

Curriculums of at least
1 but less than 2 years

All curriculums, to ta l...........................................................................

-

291,919

143,208

77,814

Arts and science or general programs................................................

-

148,197

6,577

3,060

Occupational curriculums, to ta l.............................................................

-

143,722

136,631

74,754

Business and commerce technologies .....................................................
Business and commerce technologies, general ....................................
Accounting technologies .........................................................................
Banking and finance technologies..........................................................
Marketing distribution, purchasing, business and industrial
management.........................................................................................
Secretarial technologies (includes office machine training) ..................
Personal service technologies (flight attendant, cosmetologist, etc.) ....
Photography technologies.......................................................................
Communications and broadcasting technologies (radio/television,
newspapers) .........................................................................................
Printing and lithography technologies.....................................................

5000
5001
5002
5003

57,819
12,192
7,558
450

46,514
8,993
6,074
645

21,928
2,371
2,080
149

5004
5005
5006
5007

15,360
12,653
189
418

12,349
10,801
777
462

1,927
9,837
2,686
134

5008
5009

1,299
385

718
362

133
238

Hotel and restaurant management technologies...................................
Transportation and public utilities technologies.....................................
Applied arts, graphic arts, and fine arts technologies (includes
advertising design)................................................................................
O ther........................................................................................................

5010
5011

1,081
463

1,152
438

188
530

5012
5099

4,437
1,334

2,793
950

1,279
376

Data processing technologies...................................................................
Data processing technologies, general..................................................
Keypunch operator and other input preparation technologies..............
Computer programmer technologies ......................................................
Computer operator and peripheral equipment operation technologies .
Data processing equipment maintenance technologies ........................
O ther........................................................................................................

5100
5101
5102
5103
5104
5105
5199

6,175
3,729
94
1,687
294
312
59

6,385
2,760
102
3,033
221
193
76

2,587
644
692
544
645
56
6

Health services and paramedical technologies ........................................
Health services assistant ........................................................................
Dental assistant technologies.................................................................
Dental hygiene technologies...................................................................
Dental laboratory technologies...............................................................
Medical or biological laboratory assistant technologies.........................
Animal laboratory assistant technologies...............................................
Radiologic technologies (X-ray, etc.) .....................................................
Nursing, R.N. (less than 4-year program)..............................................
Nursing, practical (L.P.N. or L.V.N.-less than 4-year program).............

5200
5201
5202
5203
5204
5205
5206
5207
5208
5209

34,198
918
656
2,183
298
1,830
499
1,795
19,211
1,216

32,109
1,117
590
1,781
554
1,618
591
1,803
16,323
1,667

20,172
1,585
2,071
90
59
235
41
84
160
10,946

Occupational therapy technologies.........................................................
Surgical technologies..............................................................................
Optical technologies (includes ocular care, ophthalmic, optometric
technologies) ........................................................................................
Medical record technologies...................................................................
Medical assistant and medical office assistant technologies ...............
Inhalation therapy technologies .............................................................
Psychiatric technologies (includes mental health aide programs).........
Electrodiagnostic technologies (includes EKG.EEG, etc.).....................
Institutional management technologies (rest home, etc.)......................
Physical therapy technologies................................................................
O ther........................................................................................................

5210
5211

451
101

363
156

52
871

5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5299

363
451
1,017
1,153
885
36
86
380
669

350
492
1,125
1,218
925
87
155
635
559

70
188
2,192
830
239
32
37
18
372

Mechanical and engineering technologies ...............................................
Mechanical and engineering technologies, general ..............................
Aeronautical and aviation technologies..................................................
Engineering graphics (tool and machine drafting and design)..............
Architectural drafting technologies..........................................................
Chemical technologies (includes plastics).............................................
Automotive technologies.........................................................................
Diesel technologies.................................................................................
Welding technologies..............................................................................
Civil technologies (surveying, photogrammetry, e tc.)............................

5300
5301
5302
5303
5304
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309

21,548
2,452
2,346
1,026
1,128
442
1,151
308
306
989

29,692
2,470
1,396
1,579
1,672
259
3,270
1,288
836
1,047

21,264
816
703
1,019
430
80
3,865
968
2,669
132

Electronics and machine technologies (television, appliance, office
machine repair, e tc.).............................................................................
Electromechanical technologies..............................................................
Industrial technologies.............................................................................

5310
5311
5312

4,901
882
810

7,752
937
1,275

2,147
325
1,341

See footnotes at end of table.
112

Table D-5. Associate degrees and other formal awards by length of curriculum and type of credit, 1979-801—Continued
Curriculums of at least 2 but less than 4 years
Curriculum

HEGIS
code2

Work wholly or chiefly
creditable toward a
bachelor’s degree

Work not wholly or
chiefly creditable
toward a bachelor’s
degree

Curriculums of at least
1 but less than 2 years

Textile technologies................................................................................
Instrumentation technologies..................................................................
Mechanical technologies.........................................................................
Nuclear technologies...............................................................................
Construction and building technologies (carpentry, electric work,
plumbing, sheet-metal, air conditioning, heating, etc.)........................
O ther........................................................................................................

5313
5314
5315
5316

87
214
1,308
24

209
423
1,210
112

75
166
1,029
25

5317
5399

2,225
949

3,164
793

4,837
637

Natural science technologies ....................................................................
Natural science technologies, general ...................................................
Agriculture technologies (includes horticulture)......................................
Forestry and w ildlife technologies (includes fisheries)...................
Food services technologies....................................................................
Home economics technologies...............................................................
Marine and oceanographic technologies...............................................
Laboratory technologies, general............................................................
Sanitation and public health inspection technologies (environmental
health technologies) .............................................................................
O ther........................................................................................................

5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
5405
5406
5407

7,388
640
2,752
447
2,180
622
101
195

7,196
160
3,176
1,080
915
780
320
47

4,782
256
2,713
125
691
705
2

5408
5499

162
289

302
416

174
116

5500
5501
5502

16,594
1,330
1,479

14,735
945
225

4,021
390
127

5503
5504
5505
5506
5507
5508
5599

3,139
156
6,757
2,204
646
242
641

2,648
280
6,319
1,658
1,410
447
803

837
101
1,389
203
373
163
438

Public-service-related technologies.......................................................
Public service technologies, general ......................................................
Bible study or religion-related occupations.............................................
Education technologies (teacher aide and 2-year teacher training
programs)..............................................................................................
Library assistant technologies ................................................................
Police, law enforcement, correction technologies.................................
Recreation and social work and related technologies..........................
Fire control technology............................................................................
Public administration and management technologies...........................
O ther........................................................................................................

Survey. See a A T a x o n o m y o f In s tr u c tio n a l P ro g ra m s in H ig h e r E d u c a ­
tio n (U.S. Department of Education, 1970).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

’ These data do not include associate degrees and other formal
awards below the baccalaureate granted in specific arts and sciences
curriculums.
2 HEGIS codes are from the Higher Education General Information

113

Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study, 1979-80
Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Master's
degrees

All field s..................................................................................................

929,417

298,081

A G R IC U L TU R E AND N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E S ............................................
Agriculture, general...............................................................................................
A gronom y..............................................................................................................
Soils science...........................................................................................................
Animal s c ie n c e .....................................................................................................
Dairy s c ie n c e ........................................................................................................
Poultry scien ce.....................................................................................................
Fish, game, and wildlife management...............................................................
H orticulture...........................................................................................................
Ornamental horticulture.....................................................................................

22,802
2,243
1,786
731
3,684
251
111
1,314
1,747
633

3,976
328
441
152
472
68
49
324
254
17

991
26
174
56
136
25
12
72
80
3

Agriculture and farm managem ent...................................................................
Agricultural economics........................................................................................
Agricultural business............................................................................................
Food science and technology............................................................................
F o re s try ..................................................................................................................
Natural resources m anagem ent.........................................................................
Agriculture and forestry technologies............................................................
Range management...............................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

235
1,780
1,463
824
2,377
1,936
207
311
1,169

2
561
38
337
437
235
16
63
182

—
164
—
94
80
30
8
17
14

0203
0204
0205
0206
0299

A R C H ITEC TU R E A N D E N V IR O N M E N T A L D E S IG N ...................................
Environmental design, general............................................................................
Architecture...........................................................................................................
Interior design........................................................................................................
Landscape architecture........................................................................................
Urban arch itecture...............................................................................................
City, community, and regional planning......................... ; ............................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

9,132
943
5,465
902
1,006
3
395
418

3,139
135
1,425
83
216
131
1,054
95

79
2
24
—
—

0300
0301
0302
0303
0304
0305
0306
0307
0308
0309

AREA S T U D IE S ........................................................................................................
Asian studies, general...........................................................................................
East Asian studies..................................................................................................
South Asian (India, etc.) s tu d ie s ......................................................................
Southeast Asian s tu d ie s .....................................................................................
African s tu d ie s .....................................................................................................
Islamic studies........................................................................................................
Russian and Slavic studies..................................................................................
Latin American studies........................................................................................
Middle Eastern studies........................................................................................

2,489
173
157
13
5
13
—
96
277
34

772
89
70
11
17
15
—

0310
0311
0312
0313
0314
0399

European studies, g e n e ra l..................................................................................
Eastern European s tu d ie s ..................................................................................
W est European s t u d ie s ........................................................................................
American studies..................................................................................................
Pacific area studies...............................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

45
3
15
1,288
—
370

14
1
3
199

0400
0401
0402
0403
0404
0405
0406
0407
0408
0409

BIO LO G IC A L SCIENCES .....................................................................................
Biology, general.....................................................................................................
Botany, general.....................................................................................................
Bacteriology...........................................................................................................
Plant pathology.....................................................................................................
Plant pharmacology...............................................................................................
Plant p h y s io lo g y ..................................................................................................
Zoology, g e n e ra l..................................................................................................
Pathology, human and anim al............................................................................
Pharmacology, human and a n im a l..................................................................

46,370
33,523
724
284
70
—
26
3,653
40

0410
0411
0412
0413
0414
0415
0416
0417
0418
0419

Physiology, human and a n im a l.........................................................................
M icro b io lo g y ........................................................................................................
Anatom y..................................................................................................................
Histology..................................................................................................................
B io ch em istry........................................................................................................
Biophysics..............................................................................................................
Molecular biology..................................................................................................
Cell b io lo g y ...........................................................................................................
Marine b io lo g y .....................................................................................................
Biometrics and biostatistics...............................................................................

386
2,347
1
15
1,686
103
254
50
450
15

0420
0421

E c o lo g y ..................................................................................................................
Entom ology...........................................................................................................

867
262

code

0100
0101

0102
0103
0104
0105
0106
0107
0108
0109

0110
0111
0112
0113
0114
0115
0116
0117
0199
0200

0201
0202

Major field of study

114

33

44
130
43

32,615

7
45
1
145

7
12
2
—
6
—
—
3
10

132

—
—
—
78
—
27

6,510
2,911
300
51
171

3,636
718
161
28
104

4

—

—

18
431
72
84

9
245
103
213

238
545
90
268
50
21
32
104
95

240
348
144
—
475
90
72
21
13
29

199
253

54
154

4

Table D-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1979-80—Continued
HEGIS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

124
24
171
17
43
—
194

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)
124
7
68
41
15
—
160

0422
0423
0424
0425
0426
0427
0499

G enetics.................................................................................................................
R ad io b io lo g y........................................................................................................
Nutrition, scientific...............................................................................................
Neurosciences........................................................................................................
Toxicology..............................................................................................................
Em bryology...........................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

0500
0501
0502
0503
0504
0505
0506
0507
0508
0509

BUSINESS A N D M A N A G E M E N T .........................................................................
Business and commerce, general.........................................................................
A c c o u n tin g ...........................................................................................................
Business statistics..................................................................................................
Banking and fin a n c e ...........................................................................................
Investments and securities..................................................................................
Business management and adm inistration......................................................
Operations research...............................................................................................
Hotel and restaurant m anagem ent..................................................................
Marketing and purchasing..................................................................................

186,683
34,457
42,712
256
11,019
147
61,593
494
1,714
22,153

55,148
10,650
3,456
99
3,604
104
30,186
522
76
1,951

410
39
1
35

0510
0511
0512
0513
0514
0515
0516
0517
0599

Transportation and public u tilitie s ..................................................................
Real estate..............................................................................................................
Insurance..................................................................................................................
International business........................................................................................
Secretarial studies..................................................................................................
Personnel management........................................................................................
Labor and industrial relations............................................................................
Business economics...............................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

1,322
866
561
493
1,620
2,109
1,352
2,533
1,282

142
86
40
1,220
7
1,035
785
307
878

4
3
4
8
—
9
14
48
10

0600
0601
0602
0603
0604
0605
0699

C O M M U N IC A TIO N S ..................................................................................................
Communications, g e n e ra l..................................................................................
Journalism...............................................................................................................
Radio—television..................................................................................................
Advertising...............................................................................................................
Communication m ed ia........................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

28,616
11,588
8,457
4,482
1,940
1,689
460

3,082
1,558
866
242
118
171
127

193
139
30
10
—
11
3

0700
0701
0702
0703
0704
0705
0799

COMPUTER A N D IN F O R M A T IO N S C IE N C E S ...............................................
Computer and information sciences, general...................................................
Information sciences and systems.....................................................................
Data processing.....................................................................................................
Computer program m ing.....................................................................................
Systems analysis................ .....................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

11,154
9,118
1,210
580
148
38
60

3,647
3,324
265
6
—
25
27

240
220
18
—
—
1
1

0800
0801
0802
0803
0804
0805
0806
0807
0808
0809

E D U C A T IO N ..............................................................................................................
Education, g e n e ra l...............................................................................................
Elementary education, g e n e ra l.........................................................................
Secondary education, g e n e ra l............................................................................
Junior high school e d u c a tio n ............................................................................
Higher education, g e n e ra l..................................................................................
Junior and community college e d u c a tio n ......................................................
Adult and continuing education.........................................................................
Special education, general..................................................................................
Administration of special e d u c a tio n ...............................................................

118,102
3,816
42,042
3,305
338
3
2
49
8,897
8

103,453
13,296
15,891
5,492
93
469
255
948
8,979
34

7,940
1,321
214
196
—
421
168
140
260
15

0810
0811
0812
0813
0814
0815
0816
0817
0818
0819

Education of the mentally retarded..................................................................
Education of the gifted........................................................................................
Education of the d e a f ........................................................................................
Education of the culturally disadvantaged......................................................
Education of the visually handicapped............................................................
Speech correction..................................................................................................
Education of the emotionally disturbed.........................................................
Remedial education..............................................................................................
Special learning disabilities..................................................................................
Education of the physically handicapped......................................................

2,066
17
378
5
76
1,399
463
—
875
117

790
46
376
95
104
503
553
131
1,479
60

8
2
1
2
1
4
3
2
22
2

0820
0821
0822
0823
0824
0825
0826
0827

Education of the multiple handicapped.........................................................
Social fo u n d a tio n s ..............................................................................................
Educational psychology.....................................................................................
Pre-elementary e d u c a tio n ..................................................................................
Educational statistics and research..................................................................
Educational testing, evaluation, and measurement.........................................
Student personnel..................................................................................................
Educational adm inistration...............................................................................

72
37
131
4,865
2
41
194
11

80
449
2,132
1,660
62
143
13,197
9,679

__
209
627
45
52
24
649
1,468

115

73
2
116
64
36
—
1,290

Master's
degrees

796
113
51
10
37

Table D-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1979-80—Continued
HEGIS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Master's
degrees

0828
0829

Educational supervision.....................................................................................
Curriculum and in s tru c tio n ...............................................................................

50
268

1,107
3,957

0830
0831
0832
0833
0834
0835
0836
0837
0838
0839

Reading e d u c a tio n ..............................................................................................
Art education........................................................................................................
Music education.....................................................................................................
Mathematics education........................................................................................
Science education..................................................................................................
Physical e d u c a tio n ..............................................................................................
Driver and safety edu catio n ...............................................................................
Health ed u c a tio n ..................................................................................................
Business, commerce, and distributive education............................................
Industrial arts, vocational and technical education......................................

335
2,606
6,220
762
672
20,316
132
2,377
3,875
6,539

6,299
780
1,149
512
591
4,126
231
1,033
1,307
2,484

124
41
105
38
73
262
4
60
61*
281

0899-1
0899-2
0899-3
0899-4
0899

Agricultural education........................................................................................
Education of exceptional children, not classified a b o v e .............................
Home economics education...............................................................................
Nursing education..................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

1,058
115
2,078
221
1,269

287
49
481
50
2,014

29
—
10
—
181

0900
0901
0902
0903
9094
0905
0906
0907
0908
0909

E N G IN E E R IN G ...........................................................................................................
Engineering, g e n e ra l...........................................................................................
Aerospace, aeronautical, astronautical engineering......................................
Agricultural engineering.....................................................................................
Architectural engineering..................................................................................
Bioengineering and biomedical engineering..................................................
Chemical engineering...........................................................................................
Petroleum engineering........................................................................................
Civil, construction, and transportation engineering ...................................
Electrical, electronics, communications engineering...................................

68,893
3,977
1,424
745
319
395
6,320
893
10,326
13,821

16,243
1,597
382
152
43
209
1,270
122
2,683
3,836

2,507
282
99
61
—
49
284
25
270
525

0910
0911
0912
0913
0914
0915
0916
0917
0918
0919

Mechanical engineering........................................................................................
Geological engineering........................................................................................
Geophysical engineering.....................................................................................
Industrial and management engineering.........................................................
Metallurgical engineering.....................................................................................
Materials engineering...........................................................................................
Ceramic engineering...........................................................................................
Textile engineering................< .........................................................................
Mining and mineral engineering.........................................................................
Engineering physics..............................................................................................

11,808
222
56
3,175
585
429
253
55
682
254

2,060
36
16
1,313
211
319
36
8
87
52

281
2
4
116
82
120
18
—
7
18

0920
0921
0922
0923
0924
0925
0999

Nuclear engineering..............................................................................................
Engineering mechanics........................................................................................
Environmental and sanitary engineering.........................................................
Naval architecture and marine engineering......................................................
Ocean engineering..................................................................................................
Engineering technologies.................................................................................. .
O th e r........................................................................................................................

495
157
285
552
167
10,491
1,007

365
134
472
64
102
339
335

101
63
39
7
8
5
41

1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009

FIN E A ND APPLIED A R T S ..................................................................................
Fine arts, g en eral..................................................................................................
A r t ...........................................................................................................................
Art history and appreciation...............................................................................
Music (performing, composition, t h e o r y ) ......................................................
Music (liberal arts pro gram )...............................................................................
Music history and appreciation.........................................................................
Dramatic a r t s ........................................................................................................
Dance........................................................................................................................
Applied design........................................................................................................

40,892
4,310
13,221
1,966
5,405
3,341
204
5,191
818
4,163

8,708
651
2,177
346
2,663
619
135
1,117
244
315

655
31
2
123
289
72
41
91
3
1

1010
1011
1099

Cinematography............. * ....................................................................................
Photography...........................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

579
1,037
657

132
85
224

1
1
—

1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109

FOR EIG N L A N G U A G E S ........................................................................................
Foreign languages, general..................................................................................
French ....................................................................................................................
German.................................................................................. i ...............................
I t a l i a n .....................................................................................................................
Spanish.....................................................................................................................
Russian.....................................................................................................................
Chinese.....................................................................................................................
Japanese .................................................................................................................
L a tin ........................................................................................................................

11,133
689
3,285
1,466
272
4,331
402
79
108
95

2,236
394
513
309
49
685
60
33
14
14

549
130
128
94
9
103
6
7
4
2

116

1

64
751

Table D-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1979-80—Continued
HEGIS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Master's
degrees
9
38
2
—
4
51
8
53

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Greek, classical.....................................................................................................
Hebrew.....................................................................................................................
A r a b ic .....................................................................................................................
Indian (A s ia tic ).....................................................................................................
Scandinavian languages........................................................................................
Slavic languages (other than Russian)...............................................................
African languages (non-Semitic).........................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

77
78
13
—
40
53
—
145

1200
1201
1202
1203
1205
1207
1208
1209-2
1211-2
1212

HEA LTH PR O FES SIO N S........................................................................................
Health professions, general..................................................................................
Hospital and health care adm inistration.........................................................
Nursing....................................................................................................................
Dental specialties.................................................................................................
Medical specialties..............................................................................................
Occupational therapy...........................................................................................
O ptom etry..............................................................................................................
P h a rm a c y ..............................................................................................................
Physical therapy.....................................................................................................

63,920
5,219
1,692
32,441
75
—
1,666
392
6,974
2,338

15,704
788
1,683
4,616
382
69
205
9
380
282

786
61
13
118
10
38
—
2
89
2

1213
1214
1215
1216-2
1217
1219
1220
1221-2
1222
1223

Dental h y g ie n e .....................................................................................................
Public health...........................................................................................................
Medical record librarianship...............................................................................
Podiatry or podiatric m e d ic in e ........................................................................
Biomedical com m unication...............................................................................
Veterinary medicine specialties........................................................................
Speech pathology and aud io lo g y.....................................................................
Chiropractic...........................................................................................................
Clinical social w o rk ..............................................................................................
Medical laboratory technologies.........................................................................

1,238
586
657
—
33
3,576
105
313
5,092

30
2,574
—
2
5
148
3,290
—
636
231

—
182
—
—
—
67
110
—
15
1

1224
1225
1299

Dental technologies..............................................................................................
Radiologic technologies.....................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

2
466
1,055

—
47
327

1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1399

HOME ECO NO M ICS..................................................................................................
Home economics, g en eral..................................................................................
Home decoration and home e q u ip m e n t.........................................................
Clothing and te x tile s ...........................................................................................
Consumer economics and home management...............................................
Family relations and child developm ent.........................................................
Foods and n u t r it io n ...........................................................................................
Institutional management and cafeteria management...................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

18,411
6,183
820
% 3,254
706
3,263
3,167
555
463

2,690
871
46
127
91
692
756
57
50

192
71
—
13
17
56
31
1
3

1400
1401-2
1499

L A W ..............................................................................................................................
Law, general...........................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

683
621
62

1,817
1,083
734

40
37
3

1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1599

LETTERS .....................................................................................................................
English, general.....................................................................................................
Literature, E n g lis h ..............................................................................................
Comparative lite ra tu re ........................................................................................
Classics.....................................................................................................................
Linguistics..............................................................................................................
Speech, debate, and forensic science...............................................................
Creative w ritin g .....................................................................................................
Teaching of English as a foreign language......................................................
Philosophy..............................................................................................................
Religious s tu d ie s ..................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

40,633
23,501
2,107
354
404
552
5,630
272
67
3,695
3,374
677

8,509
4,187
415
163
97
521
1,060
260
498
509
695
104

1,875
845
140
98
44
162
171
4
1
246
128
36

1600
1601
1699

L IB R A R Y S C IE N C E ..................................................................................................
Library science, g e n e ra l.....................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

398
387
11

5,374
5,296
78

73
65
8

1700
1701
1702
1703
1799

M A T H E M A T IC S ........................................................................................................
Mathematics, general...........................................................................................
Statistics, mathematical and th e o re tic a l.........................................................
Applied mathematics...........................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

11,378
10,492
247
396
243

2,860
2,087
495
179
99

724
552
115
41
16

1800
1801

M IL IT A R Y S C IE N C E S ...........................................................................................
Military science ( A r m y ) .....................................................................................

251
2

46
46

—

1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1199

117

—

6
5
5
2
4
25
2
17

_
6
72

_

Table D-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1979-80—Continued
Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

HEGIS
code

Major field of study

1802
1803
1899-1
1899

Naval science (Navy, Marines)............................................................................
Aerospace science (Air Force)............................................................................
Merchant m a r in e .................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................... ...

2
10
213
24

1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909

PHYSICAL SCIENCES..............................................................................................
Physical sciences, general.....................................................................................
Physics, general.....................................................................................................
Molecular physics.................................................................................................
Nuclear physics.....................................................................................................
Chemistry, g e n e ra l..............................................................................................
Inorganic chemistry..............................................................................................
Organic chemistry..................................................................................................
Physical c h e m is try ..............................................................................................
Analytical chem istry...........................................................................................

1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919

Pharmaceutical c hem istry..................................................................................
Astronomy..............................................................................................................
Astrophysics...........................................................................................................
Atmospheric sciences and m e te o ro lo g y .........................................................
G e o lo g y .................................................................................................................
Geochemistry........................................................................................................
Geophysics and seism ology...............................................................................
Earth sciences, general........................................................................................
Paleontology...........................................................................................................
Oceanography........................................................................................................

1920
1999-1
1999-2

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

Master's
degrees
_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

23,410
1,024
3,296
3
97
11,214
10
—
3
2

5,219
125
1,177
—
15
1,615
7
25
16
8

3,089
20
818
2
10
1,413
19
30
23
15

3
96
26
367
4,439
4
154
931
5
252

52
70
9
170
1,192
8
95
183
3
142

M etallurgy..............................................................................................................
Other earth sciences...........................................................................................
Other physical sciences........................................................................................

36
391
1,057

32
85
190

12
17
67

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2099

PSYCHOLOGY ...........................................................................................................
Psychology, general..............................................................................................
Experimental psychology..................................................................................
Clinical psychology..............................................................................................
Psychology for counseling..................................................................................
Social psychology..................................................................................................
Psychometrics........................................................................................................
Statistics in p sych olo gy.....................................................................................
Industrial psychology...........................................................................................
Developmental p sych olo gy...............................................................................
Physiological psychology.....................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

41,962
40,254
31
3
149
298
_
_
50
291
31
855

7,806
4,581
62
592
1,797
272
31
5
87
209
11
159

2,768
1,899
56
428
187
69
3
1
5
52
18
50

2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2199

PUBLIC A F FA IR S A N D SERVICES......................................................................
Community services, general...............................................................................
Public administration...........................................................................................
Parks and recreation management.....................................................................
Social work and helping services.....................................................................
Law enforcement and corrections......................................................................
International public s ervice...............................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

37,555
1,527
1,831
5,753
12,459
15,015
143
827

20,087
406
6,586
647
10,065
1,805
75
503

392
28
131
21
162
18
11
21

2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209

SOCIAL S C IE N C E S ..................................................................................................
Social sciences, general........................................................................................
Anthropology........................................................................................................
Archaeology ...........................................................................................................
Economics..............................................................................................................
H istory....................................................................................................................
Geography..............................................................................................................
Political science and governm ent.....................................................................
S o c io lo g y ..............................................................................................................
Crim inology...........................................................................................................

103,870
8,503
3,592
69
17,863
19,301
3,443
25,457
18,881
2,453

12,181
1,252
832
29
1,821
2,367
579
1,938
1,341
243

3,225
81
359
8
677
712
138
535
583
8

2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2299

International relation s........................................................................................
Afro-American (black culture) studies............................................................
American Indian cultural studies.....................................................................
Mexican-American cultural studies ...............................................................
Urban studies........................................................................................................
Demography...........................................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

1,674
261
11
79
1,092
17
1,174

816
59

53
6

—

—

21
671
24
188

—

22
9
34

T H E O L O G Y .................................................................................................................
Theological professions, general.........................................................................
Religious m u s ic .....................................................................................................

6,207
3,708
262

3,922
2,282
219

1,319
1,209
16

2300
2301-2
2302

118

1
i

,

45
72
20
66
260
10
43
46
2
79

Table D-6. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctor’s degrees conferred in institutions of higher education by field of study,
1979-80—Continued
HEGIS
code

Bachelor's
degrees
requiring
4 or 5 years

Major field of study

Master's
degrees

Doctor's
degrees
(Ph.D., Ed.D.,
etc.)

2303
2304
2399

Biblical languages..................................................................................................
Religious education...............................................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

37
1,886
314

50
1,202
169

4
44
46

4900
4901
4902
4903
4904
4999

IN T E R D IS C IP L IN A R Y S T U D IE S .........................................................................
General liberal arts and sciences.........................................................................
Biological and physical sciences.........................................................................
Humanities and social sciences.........................................................................
Engineering and other disciplines......................................................................
O th e r........................................................................................................................

34,473
20,069
3,105
3,127
466
7,706

4,952
1,373
318
1,273
935
1,053

401
106
30
86
17
162

NOTE: Dash indicates data are not available.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Educa­
tion Statistics.

Table D-7. First professional degrees1conferred by institutions
of higher education, 1979-80
First professional
degrees

Field of study
Total, all institutions......................

70,131

Chiropractic (D.C. or D .C .M .)................................
Dentistry (D.D.S. or D .M .D .) ................................
Medicine (M .D .).........................................................
Optometry (O .D .)......................................................
Osteopathic Medicine ( D . O . ) ................................
Pharmacy (D. P h a r .) ...............................................
Podiatry (Pod. D. or D.P.) or
Podiatric Medicine (D .P .M .)............................
Veterinary Medicine (D .V .M .)................................
Law (LL.B. or J.D .)...................................................
Theology (B.D., M. Div., or R abb i)......................
O th e r...........................................................................

2,061
5,258
14,902
1,085
1,011
637
580
1,835
35,647
7,115
-

includes degrees that require at least 6 years of college work
for completion (including at least 2 years of preprofessional train­
ing).
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Statistics.

119

Appendix E.
State Employment
Security Agencies

State employment security agencies develop occupa­
tional projections and related employment statistics in
cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The
following list shows where to write or call for this informa­
tion:

Colorado

Chief, Research and Development
Colorado Division of Employment
and Training
1278 Lincoln Street
Denver, Colorado 80203
Phone: (303)866-6316

Alabama

Chief, Research and Statistics Division
Alabama Department of Industrial
Relations
Industrial Relations Building, Room 427
Montgomery, Alabama 36130
Phone: (205)832-5263

Connecticut

Director, Research and Information
Employment Security Division
Connecticut Labor Department
200 Folly Brook Boulevard
Hartford, Connecticut 06115
Phone: (203)566-2120

Alaska

Chief, Research and Analysis Section
Employment Security Division
Alaska Department of Labor
P.O. Box 3-7000
Juneau, Alaska 99802
Phone: (907)4654505

Delaware

Arizona

Research Chief, LMI
Research & Analysis Section 733A
Arizona Department of Economic
Security
P.O. Box 6123
Phoenix, Arizona 85005
Phone: (602)255-3616

Chief, Office of Planning, Research
and Evaluation
Delaware Department of Labor
University Plaza Office Complex
Building D
Chapman Road—
Route 273
Newark, Delaware 19713
Phone: (302)368-6962

District of
Columbia

Chief, Division of Labor Market
Information, Research, and Analysis
D.C. Department of Employment Services
500 C Street, N.W. Room 411
Washington, D.C. 20001
Phone: (202)724-2413

Florida

Chief, Bureau of Research and Analysis
Florida Department of Labor
and Employment Security
Caldwell Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Phone: (904)488-6037

Georgia

Director, Labor Information Systems
Georgia Department of Labor
254 Washington Street, S.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Phone: (404)656-3177

Arkansas

California

Chief, Research and Analysis Section
Employment Security Division
Arkansas Department of Labor
State Capitol Mall
P.O. Box 2981
Little Rock, Arkansas 72203
Phone: (501)371-1541
Chief, Employment Data and Research
Division
Employment Development Department
P.O. Box 1679
Sacramento, California 95808
Phone: (916)4454434
120

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Research Director
Research and Statistical Services Office
Minnesota Department of Economic
Security
390 North Robert Street, Room 517
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
Phone: (612)296-6545
Chief, Research and Statistics Division
Mississippi Employment Security
Commission
P.O. Box 1699
Jackson, Mississippi 39205
Phone: (601)961-7424

Missouri

Chief, Research and Analysis
Iowa Department of Job Service
1000 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, Iowa 50319
Phone: (515)281-8181

Director, Research and Statistics Division
Michigan Employment Security
Commission
7310 Woodward Avenue
Detroit, Michigan 48202
Phone: (313)876-5445

Minnesota

Chief of Research
Indiana Employment Security Division
10 North Senate Avenue
Indianapolis, Indiana 46204
Phone: (317)232-7702

Director of Job Market Research
Massachusetts Division of Employment
Security
Charles F. Hurley Bldg.—
Government
Center
Boston, Massachusetts 02114
Phone: (617)727-6556

Michigan

Manager, Research and Analysis Division
Illinois Bureau of Employment Security
910 South Michigan Street (15th Floor)
Chicago, Illinois 60605
Phone: (312)793-2316

Director, Research and Analysis Division
Maryland Department of Human
Resources
Employment Security Administration
1100 North Eutaw Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21201
Phone: (301)383-5000

Massachusetts

Chief, Research and Analysis
Idaho Department of Employment
P.O. Box 35
Boise, Idaho 83707
Phone: (208)384-2755

Director, Division of Research and
Analysis
Bureau of Employment Security
Maine Department of Labor
20 Union Street
Augusta, Maine 04330
Phone: (207)289-2271

Maryland

Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
P.O. Box 3680
Honolulu, Hawaii 96811
Phone: (808)548-7639

Idaho

Maine

Mississippi

Hawaii

Chief, Research and Statistics
Missouri Division of Employment
Security
Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
P.O. Box 59
Jefferson City, Missouri 65101
Phone: (314)751-3215

Chief, Research and Analysis
Division of Employment
Kansas Department of Human Resources
401 Topeka Avenue
Topeka, Kansas 66603
Phone: (913)296-5060
Chief, Research and Statistics
Department of Human Resources
2nd Floor West
275 East Main Street
Frankfort, Kentucky 40621
Phone: (502) 564-7976
Chief, Research and Statistics Section
Louisiana State Department of Labor
P.O. Box 44094—Capitol Station
1001 North 23rd Street
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70804
Phone: (504) 342-3141
121

Montana

Chief, Research and Analysis
Employment Security Division
Department of Labor and Industry
P.O.Box 1728
Helena, Montana 59601
Phone: (406)449-2430

North Carolina

Director, Labor Market Information
Division
Employment Security Commission of
North Carolina
P.O. Box 25903
Raleigh, North Carolina 27611
Phone: (919)733-2936

Nebraska

Chief, Research and Statistics
Division of Employment
Nebraska Department of Labor
P.O.Box 94600
Lincoln, Nebraska 68509
Phone: (402)475-8451

North Dakota

Chief, Research and Statistics
North Dakota Employment Security
Bureau
P.O.Box 1537
Bismarck, North Dakota 58505
Phone: (701)224-2868

Nevada

Chief, Employment Security Research
Nevada Employment Security
Department
500 East Third Street
Carson City, Nevada 89713
Phone: (702)8854550

Director, Division of Research and
Statistics
Ohio Bureau of Employment Services
145 South Front Street
Columbus, Ohio 43216
Phone: (614)466-3240
Oklahoma

Chief, Research and Planning Division
Oklahoma Employment Security
Commission
310 Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105
Phone: (405)521-3735

Oregon

Assistant Administrator for Research and
Statistics
Employment Division
Department of Human Resources
875 Union Street N.E.
Salem, Oregon 97311
Phone: (503)378-3220

Pennsylvania

Director, Research and Statistics Division
Pennsylvania Department of Labor and
Industry
7th and Forster Streets
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17121
Phone: (717)787-3265

Puerto Rico

Chief, Research and Statistics DivisionFloor 15
Department of Labor and Human
Resources
Bureau of Employment Security
Prudencio Rivera Martinez Building
505 Munoz Rivera Avenue
Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 00918
Phone: (809)754-5385

New Hampshire Director, Economic Analysis and Reports
New Hampshire Department of
Employment Security
32 South Main Street
Concord, New Hampshire 03301
Phone: (603) 224-3311-E xt. 251

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

Director, Division of Planning and
Research
N.J. Department of Labor and Industry
P.O.Box 2765
Trenton, New Jersey 08625
Phone: (609)292-2643

Chief, Research and Statistics Section
Employment Services Division
Department of Human Services
401 Broadway— Floor
3rd
P.O. Box 1928
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87103
Phone: (505)842-3105

Director, Division of Research and
Statistics
New York State Department of Labor
State Campus-Building 12
Albany, New York 12240
Phone: (518)457-6181
122

Rhode Island

Employment Security Research
Supervisor
Rhode Island Department of Employment
Security
24 Mason Street
Providence, Rhode Island 02903
Phone: (401)277-3704

South Carolina

Director, Manpower Research and
Analysis
South Carolina Employment Security
Commission
P.O. Box 995
Columbia, South Carolina 29202
Phone: (803)758-8983

Virginia

Commissioner, Virginia Employment
Commission
P.O.Box 1358
Richmond, Virginia 23211
Phone: (804)786-3001

Washington

Chief, Research and Statistics
Employment Security Department
Employment Security Building
212 Maple Park
Olympia, Washington 98504
Phone: (206)753-5224

Chief, Division of Labor and Economic
Research
Department of Employment Security
112 California Avenue
Charleston, West Virginia 25305
Phone: (304)885-2660

Wisconsin

Director, Bureau of Research and
Statistics
Department of Industry, Labor, and
Human Relations
P.O. Box 7944
Madison, Wisconsin 53707
Phone: (608) 266-7034

Wyoming

Chief, Reports and Analysis Section
Employment Security Commission
P.O. Box 2760
Casper, Wyoming 82601
Phone: (307)237-3703

Chief, Research and Statistics
Office of Administrative Services
Department of Labor
P.O. Box 1730
Aberdeen, South Dakota 57401
Phone: (605)622-2314

Tennessee

Director of Administrative Services
Vermont Department of Employment
Security
P.O. Box 488
Montpelier, Vermont 05602
Phone: (802) 229-0311

West Virginia

South Dakota

Vermont

Chief, Research and Statistics
Tennessee Department of Employment
Security
Cordell Hull Office Building, Room 519
436— Avenue, North
6th
Nashville, Tennessee 37219
Phone: (615)741-2284

Texas

Chief, Economic Research and Analysis
Texas Employment Commission
1117 Trinity Street
Austin, Texas 78701
Phone: (512)3974540

Utah

Director, Research and Analysis
Utah Department of Employment
Security
P.O.Box 11249
Salt Lake City, Utah 84147
Phone: (801)533-2014

☆

123

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

:!9 8 2

0 -3 8 1 -6 0 8

( 3883)

A Report on White-Collar Salaries
by Occupation
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics

The 23 rd in an annual
series, the “National
Survey of Professional,
Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay,
March, 1982,” provides
nationwide salary
information for 101 work
level categories covering
24 occupations. Data for
programmers and programmer/analysts are
published for the first
time. The occupations
include:

Professional
and
Administrative
Accountant
Attorney
Auditor
Buyer
Chemist
Chief Accountant
Director of Personnel
Engineer
Job Analyst
Programmer/
Programmer Analyst
Public Accountant

Order Form

Please send______ copies of "National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical
Pay, March 1982,” Bulletin 2145. Stock no. 029-001-02720-6 price $4.75.**
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offices will expedite orders:
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Boston, MA 02203
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, NY 10036

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P.O. Box 13309
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Chicago, IL 60604

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2nd Floor
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911 Walnut St.
Kansas City, MO 64106
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, CA 94102

Also included are salary
data from 1970, a des­
cription of survey
methods and scope,
survey changes in 1982,
occupational definitions,
and a comparison of
average annual salaries
in private industry with
Federal Classification
Act salary rates.

You may send your order
directly to:
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Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street address
City, State,
ZIP Code

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102