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Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1978-79 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1978
Bulletin 1956

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Occupational Outlook for
College Graduates, 1978-79 Edition
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1978
Bulletin 1956
Material in this publication is in the
public domain and may be reproduced
without permission of the Federal
Government. Please credit the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite
the name and number of this publication.

Preface
C areer planning has becom e increasingly im portant to college graduates who seek a
rewarding career. For the past 6 or 7 years, the num ber o f college graduates entering the
labor force has exceeded the num ber o f jo b openings in the kinds o f jobs usually sought by
graduates. As a result, college graduates, as a group, have faced com petition for the jobs
they wanted. However, graduates prepared to en ter some occupations have fared m uch
better than those prepared to enter others. A t least through 1985, this com petition for jobs
is likely to continue. G raduates least well prepared for the job m arket will probably
continue to face difficulties finding the kinds o f jobs they want.
T he Occupational Outlook fo r College Graduates is a guide to career opportunities in a
broad range o f occupations for which a college degree is, or is becoming, the usual
background for em ploym ent. It contains a brief summary o f the expected changes in the
econom y, in addition to an analysis o f the overall supply and dem and situation for college
graduates through the m id-1980’s. Each occupational statem ent presents inform ation on
the nature o f the work; places o f em ploym ent; education, skills, and abilities required for
entry; em ploym ent outlook; earnings; and working conditions.
T he assessm ent o f em ploym ent outlook for college graduates was prepared by Daniel E.
H ecker, Division o f O ccupational Outlook.

iii

Contents
Page

Page

> >

I. How to use this b o o k ...........................................
II. W here to go for m ore in fo rm atio n ..................
III. Assum ptions and m ethods used in preparing
em ploym ent p ro jec tio n s.................................
. T om orrow ’s jobs for college graduates...........
. O ccu p atio n s...........................................................
A cco u n tan ts...................................................
A ctors and ac tresses....................................
A ctuaries.........................................................
Advertising w o rk ers.....................................
Air traffic controllers..................................
Airplane p ilo ts ..............................................
A nthropologists.............................................
A rchitects........................................................
A stronom ers...................................................
Bank officers and m anagers.......................
B iochem ists....................................................
Blue-collar w orker supervisors.................
B roadcast tech n ician s..................
B uyers..............................................................
C hem ists..........................................................
C h iro p racto rs.................................................
City m an ag ers...............................................
Claim representatives..................................
C lergy...............................................................
P rotestant m inisters.............................
R ab b is.....................................................
R om an C atholic p rie sts.....................
College student personnel w orkers..........
C om m ercial artists.......................................
C ooperative extension service workers ..
C o u n selo rs......................................................
School counselors................................
Em ploym ent counselors.....................
R ehabilitation c o u n se lo rs..................
College career planning and
placem ent counselors.....................
C redit m anagers............................................
D an cers...........................................................
D ental hygienists...........................................
D en tists...........................................................
D ietitians.........................................................
D rafters...........................................................
Econom ists......................................................
Engineering and science tech n ician s......
E n g in eers........................................................
A ero sp ace..............................................
Agricultu ral............................................
B iom edical.............................................

C e ra m ic ................................................. 105
C hem ical................................................ 106
C iv il........................................................ 106
Electrical................................................ 108
Industrial................................................ 108
M echanical........................................... 109
M etallurgical......................................... 110
M ining..................................................... I l l
P etro leu m .............................................. 112
FBI special ag en ts........................................ 113
Flight atte n d a n ts.......................................... 114
Food scientists.............................................. 115
F o re ste rs........................................................ 117
G eographers.................................................. 119
Geologists....................................................... 121
G eophysicists................................................ 123
H ealth and regulatory inspectors
(G o v e rn m e n t).......................................... 125
H ealth services adm inistrators.................. 129
H istorians....................................................... 131
H om e econom ists......................................... 133
H otel managers and assistants................. 135
Industrial designers..................................... 135
Industrial traffic m anagers........................ 137
Insurance agents and b ro k e rs................... 139
Interior designers......................................... ^44Interpreters .................................................... r43
Landscape a rc h ite c ts.................................. 145
Law yers........................................................... 147
L ibrarians....................................................... 150
Life scientists................................................ 153
M anufacturers sales w o rk e rs.................... 156
M arketing research w orkers..................... 157
M athem aticians............................................. 159
M edical laboratory w orkers...................... 161
M edical record adm inistrators.................. 164
M erchant marine o fficers.......................... 165
M eteorologists............................................... 169
M usicians....................................................... 171
N ew spaper re p o rters................................... 173
O ccupational th e ra p ists............................. 175
O ccupational safety and.health workers... 177
O ceanographers........................................... 180
O ptom etrists.................................................. 182
O steopathic physicians................................ 1 83
Park, recreation, leisure service workers.. 185
Personnel and labor relations workers ... 189
P harm acists.................................................... 192
P hotographers............................................... 195

1
7
15
19
29
29
31
34
36
38
40
43
44
47
48
50
51
53
54
56
59
60
62
64
65
66
68
70
72
74
75
76
77
79
81
83
85
86
88
90
92
93
96
100
103
104
104
V

Contents— Continued
Page

Physical therapists........................................
Physicians........................................................
Physicists.........................................................
P o d ia trists.......................................................
Police o ffic ers...............................................
Political scientists.........................................
Program m ers..................................................
Psychologists..................................................
Public relations w o rk e rs............................
Purchasing a g e n ts ........................................
R adio and television announcers.............
Range m anagers............................................
Real estate sales w orkers and brokers....
R egistered n u rse s.........................................
Securities sales w o rk e rs..............................
Singers..............................................................
Social w orkers...............................................
S ociologists....................................................

Page

Soil conservationists....................................
Soil scientists.................................................
Speech pathologists and audiologists......
State police o fficers....................................
S tatisticians....................................................
S urveyors.......................................................
Systems analysts............................................
T eachers..........................................................
Kindergarten and elem entary
school teachers.................................
Secondary school te a c h e rs ...............
College and university teach ers.......
Technical w rite rs.........................................
U nderw riters.................................................
U rban p lan n ers.............................................
V eterinarians.................................................
W holesale trade sales w orkers..................

197
199
202
204
205
207
210
212
215
218
220
221
223
226
228
230
231
235

VI

237
239
241
242
244
246
248
250
250
252
254
256
260
261
263
264

I. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
This ch ap ter o f the Occupational
Outlook fo r College Graduates tells
how the inform ation was assembled
and discusses a num ber o f points that
need to be kept in mind while inter­
preting the occupational statem ents
th at m ake up the m ain body o f the
book. C hapter II gives suggestions re­
garding su p p lem en tary sources o f
o ccu pational inform ation and tells
how you can keep up to date on de­
v elo p m en ts affecting th e em ploy­
m ent o u tlo o k in d ifferent o ccupa­
tio n s . C h a p te r III p r o v id e s
in fo rm a tio n on th e s o u rc e s and
m ethods used to analyze the occupa­
tional outlook in different fields of
work as well as for college graduates
in g en eral. C h a p te r IV d escrib es
some o f the m ost im portant occupa­
tio n al and in d u strial em p lo y m en t
trends—and their relationship to col­
lege graduates—to provide a back­
ground for interpreting the reports
on individual occupations.
M ore th an one hundred occupa­
tions are described in this book, al­
though the total num ber o f occupa­
tions in the U.S. econom y may be
counted in the thousands. The occu­
pational statem ents th a t follow the
four introductory chapters are re­
printed from the 1978-79 edition o f
th e O c c u p a tio n a l O u tlo o k H an d ­
book. T hese occupations generally
are those o f greatest interest to col­
lege students and graduates, and are
those for which a college education is
required, is becom ing increasingly
necessary, o r is the usual educational
background for em ploym ent. O ccu­
pations covered include w orkers in
professional and related occupations,
sales occu p atio n s, m anagerial and
adm inistrative occupations, and ser­
vice occupations. The statem ents in
this publication account for about 90
percent o f all workers in professional
and re la te d o cc u p atio n s, and for
sm aller p ro p o rtio n s o f w orkers in

o th er m ajor groups. A lm ost threefifths o f all college graduates work in
professional and related occupations;
sm aller proportions are in other m a­
jo r occupational groups.
An alphabetical list o f the occupa­
tional reports is provided in the table
o f contents at the front o f the book.
O nce you have chosen a place to b e ­
gin—an o c c u p a tio n y o u ’d like to
learn m ore about—you can use the
O ccupational O utlook f o r College
Graduates to find out w hat the jo b is
like, w hat education and training are
necessary, and w hat the ad vance­
m ent possibilities, earnings, and em ­
ploym ent outlook are likely to be.
Each section o f this book follows a
standard form at, m aking it easier to
com pare different jobs. W hat follows
is a description o f the type o f infor­
m ation presented in each statem ent,
with a few words o f explanation.
The num bers in parentheses th at
appear just below the title o f m ost
statem ents are D.O.T. code num bers.
D.O.T. stands for Dictionary o f Occu­
pational Titles, now in its fourth edi­
tion, a U.S. D epartm ent o f L abor
publication which “ defines” each o f
about 20,000 jobs according to a sys­
tem th a t uses num bers to classify
each job by the type o f work p e r­
form ed, training required, physical
dem ands, and w orking conditions.
B ecause m any users o f this book
have n o t y et re ceiv ed th e re c e n t
fo u rth ed itio n o f th e D .O .T ., th e
D.O.T. num ber accom panying each
sta te m e n t re fers to th e p revious,
third edition o f th at volume.
The Nature of the Work section
describes the m ajor duties of w orkers
in the occupation. It tells w hat w ork­
ers do on the jo b and how they do it.
A lthough ea ch jo b d esc rip tio n is
typical o f the occupation, duties are
likely to vary by em ployer and size o f
employing organization, geographic
location, and other factors. In som e

occupations, individual workers spe­
cialize in certain tasks. In others they
perform the entire range o f work in
the occupation. O f course, job duties
continually change as technology ad­
vances, new industrial processes are
developed, and products or services
change.
The Places of Employment section
provides inform ation on the num ber
o f workers in an occupation and tells
w hether they are co n cen trated in
c e rta in in d u strie s o r g eo g rap h ic
areas. W h e th e r an o cc u p atio n is
larg e o r sm all is im p o rta n t to a
jobseeker because large occupations,
even th o se grow ing slowly, o ffer
m ore openings than small ones be­
cause o f the many workers who retire
or die each year.
Some occupations are concentrat­
ed in p a rtic u la r industries. M ost
aerospace engineers, for exam ple,
are em ployed in th e aircraft and
parts industry while accountants are
em ployed in almost every industry. If
an occupation is found primarily in
certain industries, this section lists
them.
A few occupations are concentrat­
ed in certain parts o f the country.
Actors and actresses, for example,
usually work in California or New
York. This inform ation is included
for the benefit o f people who have
strong preferences about where they
live—because they do not wish to be
sep a rated from th e ir families and
friends, for example. For most occu­
p atio n s, how ever, em ploym en t is
widely scattered and generally fol­
lows the same pattern as the distribu­
tion o f th e population.
In addition, inform ation on parttim e em ploym ent is included b e ­
cause it is im p o rtan t to students,
hom em akers, retired persons, and
others who may w ant to work p art
time. Knowing which occupations ofl

fer good opportunities for part-tim e
work can be a valuable lead.
T h e Training, O ther Q ualifica­
tio n s, and A dvancem ent s e c tio n
should be read carefully because the
decisions you m ake concerning p rep­
aration for an occupation represent a
considerable investm ent o f tim e and
m o n ey . E a rly an d w ise p la n n in g
tow ard a career goal can save you
u n w a rran te d exp en d itures later. If
you cu rren tly are in school, it’s a
good idea to look closely at the list o f
high school and college courses re ­
garded as useful preparation for the
career you have in m ind. N early all
statem ents list such courses.
W orkers can qualify for jobs in a
variety o f ways, including com pletion
o f a 4-year college curriculum . T he
section dealing with training general­
ly presents the m inim um level and
type o f ed u cation required for the
v ario u s o c c u p a tio n s an d th e p re ­
ferred background for entry. In many
cases, alternative ways o f obtaining
training are listed as well. It is w orth
rem em bering th at the level at which
you e n te r an o c c u p a tio n and th e
speed with which you advance often
are d eterm in ed by th e am ount o f
training you have.
M any o c c u p a tio n s a re n a tu ra l
s te p p in g sto n e s to o th e rs . A fte r
working for a tim e as a program m er,
for exam ple, many people advance to
jobs as systems analysts. The world o f
w ork is dynam ic and few w orkers
spend th eir lives in one or even two
occupations. Some have several jobs
o v er a lifetim e, ch an g in g c a re e rs
when it is advantageous to do so. F re­
quently observed p atterns o f m ove­
m ent from one occupation to anoth­
e r , s u c h as a d v a n c e m e n t fro m
program m er to systems analyst, are
discussed in the Occupational O ut­
look fo r College Graduates. This type
o f inform ation can be useful in sever­
al ways.
It is helpful to know, for example,
th at skills gained working at one job
can m ake you m ore em ployable in
another—perhaps a jo b that is m ore
desirable in term s o f earnings, w ork­
ing conditions, o r scope for self-ex­
pression. On the oth er hand, it also is
useful to know which jobs offer the
most opportunity for transferring to
other work o f a sim ilar nature. P er­
2

sons trained in electrical o r chem ical —work in a confined area.
engineering, for example, frequently —perform repetitious work.
can transfer to another engineering
—enjoy working outside, regardless of the
specialty w here they can apply gen­
weather.
eral engineering knowledge in differ­
The Employment Outlook section
ent ways.
discusses prospective job opportuni­
It usually is wise, however, to dis­ ties. Knowing w hether or not the jo b
cuss the patterns o f jo b transfer and
m arket is likely to be favorable is
advancem ent described in the Occu­
im p o rta n t in deciding w heth er to
pational Outlook fo r College Gradu­
pursue a specific career. While your
ates with counselors, local em ploy­
ers, and others who know about th e
reer goals are significant, you also
p a rtic u la r jo b m a rk e t w h ere you
w ant to work. Typical patterns o f need to know som ething about the
m ovem ent from one occupation to availability o f jobs in the fields th at
another may not apply in every em ­ interest you most.
The em ploym ent outlook section
ploym ent setting.
o f m ost o f th e sta te m e n ts in th e
All States have certification o r li­
censing requirem ents for some o ccu­ O ccupational O utlook f o r College
pations. Physicians and elem entary G raduates begins w ith a sen ten ce
and secondary school teachers are about expected em ploym ent growth
examples o f occupations th at are li­ through 1985. The occupation o r in­
censed. If you are considering o ccu­ dustry is described as likely to grow
pations th at require State licensing, about as feist as the average for all
be sure to check the requirem ents in occupations or industries; faster than
the State in which you plan to work. the average; or m ore slowly than the
A n im p o rta n t fa c to r in c a re e r average (figure I). Job opportunities
choice is the extent to which a p a r­ in a particular occupation or industry
ticular jo b suits your personality. A l­ usually are favorable i f employment
though it often is difficult for people increases at least as rapidly as in the
to assess them selves, your counselor economy as a whole. Occupations or
u n d o u b ted ly is fam iliar w ith tests industries in which employment stays
that can help. Each statem ent p ro ­ about the same or declines generally
vides inform ation which allows you offer less favorable job prospects than
to m atch your own unique personal those that are growing because the
characteristics—your likes and dis­ only openings are those due to deaths,
likes—with the characteristics o f the retirem ents, and other separations
job. F or a particular job, you m ay fro m the labor force.
need the ability to:
Some statem ents take note of the
—make responsible decisions.
effect o f fluctuations in econom ic ac­
tivity. This inform ation is valuable to
—motivate others.
people looking into long-range ca­
—direct and supervise others.
reer possibilities at a tim e when the
—work under close supervision.
econom y is in a recession. Persons
—work in a highly competitive atmosphere.
understandably w onder: W hat will
—enjoy working with ideas and solving prob­ the econom y be like when I enter the
lems.
labor m arket? Will it be harder to
—enjoy working with people.
find a jo b 5 or 10 years from now
—enjoy working with things—good coordina­ than it is today? The Occupational
tion and manual dexterity are necessary.
Outlook fo r College Graduates gives
—work independently—initiative and self-dis­ inform ation, w herever feasible, on
cipline are necessary.
o cc u p atio n s and industries w hose
—work as part of a team.
levels o f em ploym ent fluctuate in re­
—enjoy working with detail, either numbers or sponse to shifts in the econom ic cli­
technical written material.
m ate. It is im portant to bear in m ind
th at em ploym ent in m any—but not
—enjoy helping people.
—use creative talents and ideas and enjoy hav­ all—occupations and industries is di­
re c tly a f fe c te d by an e c o n o m ic
ing an opportunity for self-expression.
dow nturn. A sharp im provem ent in
—derive satisfaction from seeing the physical
the o u tlo o k for these occupations
results of your work.

Figure I
Projected 1976-85
change in employment
requirements

Description
Much faster than the average for all occupations......................
Faster than the average for all occupations.................................
About as fast as the average for all occupations 1......................
More slowly than the average for all occupations......................
Little change is expected.................................................................
Expected to decline...........................................................................

50.0 percent or greater
25.0 to 49.9 percent
15.0 to 24.9 percent
5.0 to 14.9 percent
4.9 to — percent
4.9
— percent or greater
5.0

1The average increase projected for all occupations for the 1976-85 period is 19.2
percent.

and industries is likely as the econ­
omy picks up. However, other occu­
pations and industries are less affect­
e d b y s h o r t - t e r m c h a n g e s in
econom ic activity. O th er factors in­
flu e n c e th e ir g ro w th o r d ec lin e .
These m atters are explored in a num ­
ber o f statem ents.
F o r som e o ccu pations, inform a­
tion is available on th e supply o f
w orkers— at is, the num ber o f peo­
th
ple pursuing the type o f education or
training needed and the num ber sub­
sequently entering the occupation.
W hen such inform ation is available,
the Occupational Outlook fo r College
Graduates describes prospective job
opportunities in term s o f the expect­
ed dem and-supply relationship. The
prospective jo b situation is term ed
“ excellent” when dem and is likely to
greatly exceed supply; “ keen com pe­
tition” when supply is likely to ex­
ceed dem and. O ther term s used are
shown in Figure II.
W orkers who transfer in to one oc­
cu p atio n from a n o th e r som etim es
are a significant com ponent o f sup­
ply; similarly, those who transfer out
may have a substantial effect on de­
m and because their leaving usually
creates a jo b opening. Although the
inform ation cu rren tly available on
transfers am ong occupations is limit­
ed, some statem ents discuss transfer
patterns and their effect on the sup­
ply for certain occupations. The em ­
ploym ent outlook for engineers, for
example, notes th at transfers into the

field are likely to constitute a sub­
sta n tia l p o rtio n o f supply if p a st
trends continue.
T he in fo rm atio n in this section
should be used carefully. G etting a
jo b may be difficult if the field is so
small th at openings are few (a ctu ar­
ies and range m anagers are exam ­
ples) or so popular th a t it attracts
many m ore jobseekers than there are
ing, journalism , and the perform ing
arts). G etting a jo b also can be diffi­
cult in occupations and industries in
which em ploym ent is declining (m er­
chant m arine), although this is n o t
always the case. But even occupa­
tions th at are small or overcrow ded
provide som e jobs. So do o ccupa­
tions in which em ploym ent is grow ­
ing very slowly o r even declining, fo r
there is a need to replace w orkers
who leave the occupation. If the o c ­
cupation is large, the num ber o f jo b
openings arising from replacem ent
needs can be quite substantial. A c­
countants and real estate agents and
brokers are examples o f large o ccu­
p atio n s th a t provide a significant
num ber o f jo b openings each year
because w orkers leave. Openings re ­
sulting from replacem ent needs are
expected to account fo r nearly twothirds o f all jo b openings for the la ­
bor force as a whole.
An assessm ent o f th e overall jo b
m arket for college graduates is p re ­
sented in C hapter IV. It com pares
the num ber o f college graduates like-

Figure II
Job opportunities
Excellent
Very good
Good or favorable
May face competition
Keen competition

Prospective demand-supply relationship
Demand much greater than supply
Demand greater than supply
Rough balance between demand and supply
Likelihood o f more supply than demand
Supply greater than demand

ly to seek jobs through 1985 with the
projected num ber of openings in the
types of jobs usually sought by gradu­
ates.
How reliable is the information on
the outlook for em ploym ent over the
next 10 years? No one can predict
future labor m arket conditions with
perfect accuracy. In every occupa­
tion and industry, th e num ber o f
jo b seek ers and the num ber o f jo b
openings constantly changes. A rise
o r fall in the dem and for a product or
service affects the num ber o f w ork­
ers needed to produce it. New inven­
tions and technological innovations
create som e jobs and eliminate o th ­
ers. Changes in the size or age distri­
bution o f the population, work atti­
tu d e s, tra in in g o p p o rtu n itie s , o r
retirem ent program s determ ine the
n u m b er o f w o rk ers available. As
these fo rces in te ra c t in the lab o r
m arket, som e occupations ex p eri­
en ce a sh o rtag e, som e a surplus,
some a balance betw een jobseekers
an d o p e n in g s. M e th o d s u sed by
econom ists to develop inform ation
on future occupational prospects dif­
fer, and judgm ents th at go into any
assessment o f the future also differ.
Therefore, it is im portant to under­
stand w hat underlies each statem ent
on outlook.
For every occupation and industry
covered in the Occupational Outlook
fo r College Graduates, an estimate of
future em ploym ent needs is devel­
oped. These estim ates are consistent
with a set o f assumptions about the
future o f the economy and the coun­
try. For m ore detail, see the section
entitled, Assumptions and M ethods
Used In Preparing the Em ployment
Projections.
Finally, you should rem em ber th at
job prospects in your community or
State m ay not correspond to the de­
scription o f the em ploym ent outlook
in this book. For th e particular job
you are interested in, the outlook in
your area may be better, or worse.
The Occupational Outlook fo r College
Graduates does not discuss the o u t­
look in local areas because the analy­
sis is far too much for a centralized
staff to handle. Such information has
been developed, however, by many
States and localities. The local office
o f your State em ploym ent service is
3

the best place to ask about local-area
em ploym ent projections. Names and
addresses o f these State and local in­
form ation sources and suggestions
for additional inform ation on the job
m arket are given in the following sec­
tion, W here to Go for M ore Inform a­
tion.
T he Earnings section helps answer
many o f the questions th at you may
ask when choosing a career. Will the
incom e be high enough to m aintain
the standard o f living I w ant and ju s­
tify my training costs? How m uch will
my earnings increase as I gain experi­
ence? Do som e areas o f the country
o r som e industries offer better pay
th a n o th e rs fo r th e sam e type o f
work?
L ike m ost people, you probably
think o f earnings as m oney. But m on­
ey is only one type o f financial re ­
ward for work. Paid vacations, health
insurance, uniform s, and discounts
on cloth in g o r o th e r m erchandise
also are p art o f total earnings.
A bout 9 o u t o f 10 w orkers receive
m oney incom e in the form o f a wage
or salary. A wage usually is an hourly
o r daily rate o f pay, while a salary is
a weekly, m onthly, o r yearly rate.
M ost craft workers, operatives, and
la b o re rs a re w age e a rn e rs, w hile
m o st p ro fessio n al, te c h n ic a l, and
clerical w orkers are salary earners.
In addition to th eir regular pay,
wage and salary w orkers may receive
extra m oney for working overtim e,
o r on a night shift or irregular sched­
ule. In som e occupations, w orkers
also may receive tips o r be paid a
commission based on the am ount o f
sales o r services they provide to cus­
tom ers. Factory w orkers are som e­
times paid a piece rate, which is an
ex tra paym ent for each item they
produce. F or m any w orkers, these
types o f pay am ount to a large part o f
their total earnings.
T he rem aining 10 p ercen t o f all
w orkers are in business for th em ­
selves and earn self-employment in­
come instead o f wages or salaries.
This g ro u p includes w orkers in a
wide variety o f occupations: Physi­
c ia n s, s h o p k e e p e rs , w rite rs, an d
farm ers are examples o f workers who
frequently are self-employed.
W orkers in some occupations earn
self-employment incom e in addition
to their wages or salaries. For exam ­
4

ple, salaried lawyers often have a p ri­
vate practice as well, seeing clients
during evenings o r w eekends, and
co lleg e p ro fesso rs fre q u e n tly a re
paid for publishing articles based on
independent research.
Besides m oney incom e, m ost wage
and salary w orkers receive a variety
o f fringe benefits as p art of their earn ­
ings on the job. Several are required
by Federal and State law, including
social security, w orkers’ com pensa­
tion, and unem ploym ent insurance.
T hese benefits provide incom e to
persons when they are not working
because o f old age, w ork-related in­
jury or disability, o r lack of suitable
jobs.
Among the m ost com m on fringe
benefits are paid vacations, holidays,
and sick leave. In addition, m any
workers are covered by life, health,
and accident insurance; participate
in retirem ent plans; and are entitled
to s u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t
benefits. All o f these benefits are
provided—in p art or in full—through
th e ir em ployers. Som e em ployers
also offer stock options and profitsharing plans, savings plans, and b o ­
nuses.
W orkers in m any occupations re ­
ceive p art o f their earnings in the
form o f goods and services, or pay­
ments in kind. Sales w orkers in d e ­
partm ent stores, for example, often
receive discounts on m erchandise.
W orkers in other jobs may receive
free meals, housing, business expense
accounts, or free transportation on
com pany-owned planes.
W hich jobs pay the most? This is a
difficult question to answer because
good inform ation is available for only
one type o f ea rn in g s—wages and
salaries—and for some occupations

even this is unavailable. N everthe­
less, the Occupational Outlook fo r
College Graduates does include some
c o m p a riso n s o f e a rn in g s am o n g
occupations. Most statem ents indi­
cate w hether earnings in an o ccupa­
tion are greater than or less than the
average earnings of workers who are
not supervisors and work in private
industry, but not in farm ing. T his
group represented about 60 percent
o f all w orkers in 1976 and had the
m ost reliable earnings data currently
available for com parison purposes.
Besides differences am ong o ccu ­
patio n s, m any levels o f pay exist
within each occupation. Beginning
workers almost always earn less than
those who have been on the jo b for
some tim e because pay rates increase
as w orkers gain experience o r do
m ore responsible work.
E arnings in an o c c u p atio n also
vary by geographic location. The av­
erage weekly earnings o f beginning
co m puter program m ers, for exam ­
ple, vary considerably from city to
city. (See table 1.) T he highest earn ­
ings of th e nine cities listed occurred
in D etroit, Mich., and the lowest in
C hattanooga, Tenn. A lthough it is
generally true that earnings are high­
er in the N orth C entral and N orth­
east regions than in the W est and
South, th ere are exceptions. You also
should rem em ber th a t those cities
which offer the highest earnings are
often those in which it is most expen­
sive to live.
In addition, workers in the sam e
occupation may have different earn ­
ings depending on the industry in
which they work. F or example, in
1976, engineers with 18 to 20 years
experience averaged \$28,750 a year

Table 1. Average weekly earnings of beginning computer programmers, 1976, by
selected city
City
Detroit.......................................
New York................................ .
Cleveland................................ .
Chicago....................................
San Francisco-Oakland.........
Greenville-Spartanburg, S.C.
Baltimore..................................
Salt Lake City-Ogden............
Chattanooga............................
SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Average weekly earnings
\$239.50
239.00
238.00
230.00
229.50
201.50
193.00
190.00
185.50

Table 2. Average annual salaries of chemists, with Ph.D. degrees, by type of work,
1976
Type of work

Annual salaries

Management............................................................................
Marketing and technical services..................................................................
Research and development.................................................................
Teaching.........................................................................................

\$36,500
29.500
25,300
20.500
26,900

SOURCE: American Chemical Society.

in re se a rc h o rg an izatio n s and re ­
s e a rc h la b o r a to r ie s , \$ 2 6 ,5 0 0 in
m anufacturing, \$25,400 in construc­
tion, and \$20,700 in State govern­
ment.
Salaries also vary by the type of
work a person perform s. The salaries
of Ph. D. chemists, for exam ple, vary
considerably depending on the spe­
cific nature of the job, as shown in
table 2. In 1976, chem ists in m anage­
m ent jobs earned \$7,000 a year more
than those in m arketing and techni­
cal services. C hem ists in research
and developm ent, however, earned
\$4,200 less than those in m arketing,
but \$4,800 more than chem istry pro­
fessors.
B ecau se o f th ese v a ria tio n s in
earnings, you should check with a
counselor or with local employers if
you are interested in specific earn­
ings inform ation for occupations in
T he Working Conditions section
provides inform ation on factors that

can affect job satisfaction because
preferences for working conditions
vary considerably among individuals.
Some people, for exam ple, p refer
o u td o o r w ork while others p refer
working in an office. Some people
like the variety o f shift work, and
others want the steadiness o f a 9-to-5
jo b . Follow ing is a list of several
w orking co n d itio n s th a t apply to
some of the occupations in the Occu­
pational Outlook fo r College Gradu­
ates.
Overtime work. W hen overtim e is re ­
quired on a job, employees must give
up some o f their free time and need
to be flexible in their personal lives.
Overtim e, however, does provide the
opportunity to increase earning pow­
er.
Shift work.
part of the
some jobs.
these shifts

Evening or night work is
reqular work schedule in
Employees who work on
usually are working while

most other people are off. Some p er­
sons prefer shift work, however, be­
cause they can pursue certain day­
tim e ac tiv itie s, such as hu n tin g ,
fishing, or gardening.
E nvironm ent. W ork settings vary
from clean, air-conditioned offices to
places that are dirty, greasy, or poor­
ly ventilated. By knowing the setting
o f jobs you find interesting, you can
avoid an environm ent that you may
find particularly unpleasant.
Outdoor work. Persons who work
outdoors are exposed to all types of
weather. This may be preferred to
indoor work, however, by those who
consider outdoor work more health­
ful.
Hazards. In some jobs employees are
subject to possible burns, cuts, falls,
and other injuries and must be care­
ful to follow safety precautions.
Physical demands. Some jobs require
standing, stooping, or heavy lifting.
You should be sure that you have the
physical strength and stam ina re­
quired before seeking one of these
jobs.
C onsidering working conditions
when you make up your mind about
a career can help you choose a job
that brings you satisfaction and en­
joym ent.

5

II. WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFORMATION
W hether you have questions about
a particular job or are trying to com ­
pare various fields, the Occupational
Outlook fo r College Graduates is a
good place to begin. It will introduce
you to some of the im portant aspects
of an occupation and answ er many of
your initial questions. But the Occu­
pational Outlook fo r College Gradu­
ates is only one o f m any sources of
inform ation about jobs and careers.
A fter reading a few statem ents, you
may decide that you w ant m ore de­
tailed inform ation about a particular
occupation. O r you may want to find
out where you can find this kind of
work in your com m unity or where
you can go for appropriate training.
If you are willing to m ake an effort,
you will discover a wealth o f occupa­
tional inform ation—m uch of it avail­
able at little or no cost.

Sources of Career Information
M uch inform ation on careers is
p u t o u t by g o v ern m en t, industry,
trad e unions, schools, professional
associations, private guidance serv­
ices, and o th er organizations. You
should be careful in assessing any sin­
gle piece o f career guidance m ateri­
al. Keep in mind the date and source,
in particular. M aterial th at is too old
may contain obsolete o r even mis­
leading inform ation. Be especially
cautious ab o u t accepting inform a­
tion on em ploym ent outlook, earn­
ings, and training requirem ents if it is
more than 5 years old. You also need
to consider the source—and thus the
intent—of the career guidance m ate­
rial you obtain.
Although some occupational m a­
terials are produced solely for the
purpose o f objective vocational guid­
ance, o th ers are p ro d u ced for re ­
cruitm ent purposes. Y ou should be
wary o f biased inform ation, which
may ten d to leave o u t im p o rtan t
items, overglamorize the occupation,

overstate the earnings, or exaggerate
the dem and for workers.
School counselors can be a very im ­
portant source o f guidance inform a­
tion. C ounselors should be able to
refer you to the different types o f
c a re e r m aterials available in your
school or community. They are likely
to be familiar with the job m arket.
They also can discuss entry require­
m ents and costs of the schools, col­
leges, or training program s that offer
preparation for the kind o f work in
which you are interested. M ost im ­
p o rtan t o f all, your counselor can
inform ation you obtain in relation to
your own abilities, personal aspira­
tions, and career goals.
Guidance offices usually have col­
lections o f ca re e r inform ation. In
fact, the book th at y o u ’re reading
now may have com e from the guid­
ance office. Find out what else the
office has to offer.
Some schools have career centers;
often, these are located in or near the
library or m edia center. C areer cen ­
ters provide a sam pling of printed
and audiovisual career inform ation
m aterials, and also may offer individ­
ual counseling, group discussions,
guest speakers, and field trips.
Libraries have books, brochures,
magazines, and audiovisual m aterials
that contain inform ation about jobs
and careers. C heck your school li­
brary or m edia center, o f course—
but d o n ’t forget the public library.
Many libraries have pam phlet files
d e v o te d to sp ecific o c c u p a tio n s.
Some libraries also have collections
o f filmstrips, records and tapes, and
m icrofilms with occupational infor­
mation. The reference shelf undoubt­
edly contains one directory or m ore
that you will find useful if you want
to get the nam es of specific schools,
colleges, or business concerns. The
library staff can direct you to the in­
form ation best suited to your needs.

associations, professional societies,
and educational institutions all pub­
lish career inform ation, and much of
this is available for the asking.
The Sources o f Additional Infor­
m ation section at the end of most
statem en ts lists organizations you
can write to. This is a good way to
begin. For the names and addresses
o f other organizations, consult the
directories on your library’s refer­
ence shelf. There, you are likely to
find directories that list:
—professional associations.
—junior and community colleges.
—colleges and universities.
—home study and correspondence programs.
—sources of scholarships and financial aid.

Your school library or career cen­
ter may have one directory or more
put out by com m ercial publishers
that list sources of career informa­
tion by occupation.
A n o th er useful directory is the
U.S. Office of Education’s Directory
o f Postsecondary Schools with Occu­
pational Programs, 1973-74, which
lists schools offering specific occupa­
tional training programs. The direc­
technical schools as well as com m u­
nity and junior colleges and 4-year
colleges and universities.
Computer-assisted occupational in­
form ation systems have been in ­
stalled in some schools and career
centers. These systems allow users to
obtain career inform ation stored in a
co m p u ter by entering specific re ­
quests and receiving immediate an­
swers. Through the occupational in­
form ation systems, users are able to
examine the ways in which different
personal abilities, interests, and pref­
erences are related to different occu­
pations. The U.S. D epartm ent of La­
7

bor is currently providing funds for
such systems in eight States.
D on’t overlook the im portance of
personal contacts. An interview with
som eone in a particular jo b can often
tell you m uch m ore than a booklet or
b ro ch u re can. By asking the right
questions, you find out what kind of
train in g is really im p o rta n t, how
w orkers got their first jobs as well as
the one th ey ’re in now, and what they
like and dislike about the work.
State employment security agencies
in many States publish career briefs
for dozens of different occupations
and industries. These briefs usually
describe earnings and jo b outlook in­
form ation for a p articular S tate—and
som etim es for a city or m etropolitan
area. By contrast, the Occupational
Outlook fo r College Graduates gives
in fo rm a tio n fo r th e N a tio n as a
w hole. In a d d itio n , a n u m b er o f
States publish brochures on writing
resumes, finding jo b openings, p re­
paring for interviews, and other as­
pects o f a job search. To find out
what m aterials are available for your
State, consult the U.S. Em ploym ent
and T raining A d m inistration’s 1976
Guide to Local Occupational Inform a­
tion. O r write directly to the chief
inform ation officer in your State em ­
ploym ent security agency. Following
is a list o f their titles and addresses:
Alabama
Public Information Officer, Department of In­
dustrial Relations, Industrial Relations
Bldg., 649 Monroe St., Montgomery, Ala.
36130.

Information Officer, Employment Security Di­
vision, Department of Labor, P.O. Box 37000, Juneau, Alaska 99811.

Louisiana

Public Information Officer, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor and Em­
ployment, 251 East 12th Ave., Denver,
Colo. 80203.

Public Relations Director, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 44094, Ba­
ton Rouge, La. 70804.

Connecticut
Public Information Supervisor, Connecticut
Employment Security Division, 200 Folly
Brook Blvd., Weatherfield, Conn. 06109.

Arkansas

Chairman, Employment Security Commission,
20 Union St., Augusta, Maine 04330.

Maryland
Delaware
Secretary, Department of Labor, 801 West
14th St., Wilmington, Del. 19899.

Director o f Public Relations, Department of
Employment and Social Services, Room
601, 1100 North Eutaw St., Baltimore,
Md. 21201.

District of Columbia
Chief, Community Relations and Information
Office, D.C. Department of Manpower,
Room 601, 500 C St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20212.

Florida
Information Director, Florida Department of
Commerce, Collins Bldg., Tallahassee,
Fla. 32304.

Georgia
Chief of Public Relations and Information,
Georgia Department of Labor, 254 Wash­
ington St. SW., Atlanta, Ga. 30334.

Hawaii
Information Specialist, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, 825 Mililani St.,
Honolulu, Hawaii 96813.

Idaho

Massachusetts
Supervisor of Information, Division of Em­
ployment Security, Hurley Bldg., Govern­
ment Center, Boston, Mass. 02114.

Michigan
Director, Information Services Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, Depart­
ment of Labor Bldg., 7310 Woodward
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48202.

Minnesota
Director of Public Information, Department of
Employment Services, 390 North Robert
St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

Mississippi
Public Relations Representative, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

Public Information Coordinator, Department
of Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Ida­
ho 83707.

Missouri

Illinois

Information Supervisor, Division of Employ­
ment Security, Department of Labor and
Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jeffer­
son City, Mo. 65101.

Director, Communications and Public Infor­
mation, Illinois Department of Labor,
State Office Bldg., Room 705, Springfield, 111. 62706.

Indiana
Director of Information and Education, Em­
ployment Security Division, 10 North
Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 46204.

Arizona
Chief of Information and Education, Arizona
State Employment Security Commission,
P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix, Ariz. 85005.

Maine

Iowa
Chief of Information Services, Employment
Security Commission, 1000 East Grand
Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50319.

Kansas

Montana
Information Officer, Employment Security Di­
vision, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, Mont.
59601.

Information Officer, Division of Employment,
Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94600,
State House Station, Lincoln, Nebr.
68509.

Public Information Officer, Employment Se­
curity Department, 500 East Third St.,
Carson City, Nev. 89701.

Public Information Officer, Employment Se­
curity Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203.

Public Relations Director, Department of Hu­
man Resources, 401 Topeka Ave., Tope­
ka, Kans. 66603.

California

Kentucky

New Hampshire

Public Information Section, Employment De­
velopment Department, 800 Capitol Mall,
Sacramento, Calif. 95814.

Supervisor, Public Information, Department
of Human Resources, 592 East Main St.,
Frankfort, Ky. 40601.

Commissioner, Department of Employment
Security, 32 South Maine St., Concord,
N.H. 03301.

8

New Jersey

Tennessee

Director of Public Information, Division of
Employment Security, Department of La­
bor and Industry, John Fitch Plaza, Tren­
ton, N.J. 08625.

Chief of Public Relations, Department of Em­
ployment Security, 519 Cordell Hull
Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

New Mexico
Information Officer, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquer­
que, N. Mex. 87103.

New York

Texas
Public Information Officer, Texas Employ­
ment Commission, TEC Bldg., 15th and
Congress Ave., Austin, Tex. 78778.

Utah

Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Department of Labor, 2 World Trade
Center, New York, N.Y. 10047.

Public Relations Director, Department of Em­
ployment Security, P.O. Box 11249, Salt
Lake City, Utah 84111.

North Carolina

Vermont

Communications and Information Specialist,
Employment Security Commission, P.O.
Box 25903, Raleigh, N.C. 27602.

Public Information Officer, Department of
Employment Security, P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

North Dakota

Virginia

Public Information Section, Employment Se­
curity Bureau, 145 South Front St., Bis­
marck, N. Dak. 58501.

Director, Information Services, Virginia Em­
ployment Commission, P.O. Box 1358,
Richmond, Va. 23211.

Ohio

Washington

Public Information Officer, Bureau of Em­
ployment Services, 145 South Front St.,
Columbus, Ohio 43216.

Information Officer, Employment Security
Department, P.O. Box 367, Olympia,
Wash. 98504.

Oklahoma

West Virginia

Information Director, Employment Security
Commission, Will Rogers Memorial Of­
fice Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla. 73105.

Oregon
Information Officer, Employment Division,
875 Union St. NE., Salem, Oreg. 97310.

Pennsylvania
Director of Public Relations, Bureau of Em­
ployment Security, Department of Labor
and Industry Bldg., 7th and Forster Sts.,
Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Information Representative, Department of
Employment Security, 4407 McCorkle
Ave. SE., Charleston, W. Va. 25305.

Wisconsin
Director of Information, Department of Indus­
try, Labor, and Human Relations, P.O.
Box 2209, Madison, Wis. 53701.

Wyoming
Information Officer, Employment Security
Commission, P.O. Box 2760, Casper,
Wyo. 82601.

Puerto Rico
Information Officer, Bureau of Employment
Security, 414 Barbosa Ave., Hato Rey,
P.R. 00917.

Rhode Island
Information Officer, Department of Employ­
ment Security, 24 Mason St., Providence,
R.I. 02903.

South Carolina
Public Information Director, Employment Se­
curity Commission, P.O. Box 995, Colum­
bia, S.C. 29202.

South Dakota
Public Information Director, Department of
Labor, Office Bldg. No. 2, Pierre, S. Dak.
57501.

Career Information for Special
Groups
C ertain groups of jobseekers face
special difficulties in obtaining suit­
able and satisfying em ploym ent. All
too often, veterans, youth, h an d i­
capped persons, m em bers of ethnic
and racial m inorities, older workers,
and women experience difficulty in
the labor m arket. Choosing a career
wisely and realistically is im portant
for everyone, but it is doubly im por­
tan t for m em bers of these groups.
S pecial co u n selin g , train in g , and
p la c e m e n t are availab le in m any
co m m u n itie s—th ro u g h the public

em ploym ent service, community ser­
vice agencies, or other organizations.
In addition, literature on career
guidance and vocational training for
special labor force groups is available
from the Federal Governm ent. Most
of these publications can be obtained
free of charge. Following are select­
ed examples:
Youth
Employment and Training fo r Youth.
(p ro g ra m fa c t s h e e t) , F e b ru a ry
1977.
Office of Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department of La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20213.

A Message to Young Workers About
the Fair Labor Standards Act, As
Amended in 1974. (WH Publication
1236), 1976.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Mentally handicapped
These, Too, Must Be Equal:America's
Needs in Habilitation and Em ploy­
ment o f the Mentally Retarded, 1974.
President’s Committee on Mental Retarda­
tion, Regional Office Building, 7th and D
Sts. SW., Washington, D.C. 20201.

Guide to Job Placement o f Mentally
Retarded Workers.
Preparing fo r Work, 1975.
How to Get a Job.
Jobs and Mentally Retarded People,
1974.
President’s Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped, Room 600, Vanguard
Building, 1111 20th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Affirmative Action to Employ Handi­
capped People.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Physically handicapped
Careers fo r the Homebound.
People at Work:50 Profiles o f Men
and Women With MS, 1975.
President’s Committee on Employment of the
Handicapped, Room 600, Vanguard
Building, t i l l 20th St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

9

Affirm ative Action to Employ Handi­
capped People.
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Older workers
The Law Against Age Discrimination
in E m p lo ym en t. (W H P ub licatio n
1303).
Office of Information, Room 4331, Employ­
ment Standards Administration, U.S. De­
partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20210.

Services fo r Older Workers, (program
fact sheet), April 1977.
M emo to Mature Jobseekers, 1977.
Office of Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department of La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20213.

Em ploym ent and Volunteer Opportu­
nities fo r Older People. (A oA F act
Sheet), Revised 1976.
National Clearinghouse on Aging, Room
4146, U.S. Department of Health, Educa­
tion, and Welfare, 330 Independence
Ave. SW., Washington, D.C. 20201.

Women
Steps to Opening the Skilled Trades to
Women, June 1974.
Why N ot be an Apprentice and Be­
come a Skilled Craft Worker, (leaflet
52), 1974.
Publications o f the Women's Bureau,
January 1977.
Selected Sources o f Career Inform a­
tion, 1974.
Women’s Bureau, Employment Standards Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Labor,
200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20210.

Veterans
Out o f the Service and Looking fo r a
Job? Here's Help!, 1976.
Veterans fo r Hire: Good Business,
1976.
Office o f Information, Inquiries Section,
Room 10225, Employment and Training
Administration, U.S. Department of La­
bor, 601 D St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20213.

V etera n s R e a d ju s tm e n t A p p o in t­
m e n t s — Q u e s t i o n s a n d A nswers.(BRE-36), revised 1977.
Bureau of Recruiting and Examining, Room
6552, Civil Service Commission, 1900 E
St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20415.
10

T he follow ing p u b lic a tio n s are
available from VA regional offices
(listed in the telephone directory u n ­
d er “ U nited States G overnm ent—
V eterans A dm inistration” ) or from:

your job search are also likely to give
you ideas.

Want ads. The “ Help W anted” ads in
a m ajor newspaper contain hundreds
of job listings. As a job search tool,
Department of Veterans Benefits - 232A, Vet­
they have two advantages: They are
erans Administration Central Office, 810
Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
cheap and easy to acquire, and they
20420.
often result in successful placem ent.
T h ere are disadvantages as well.
A p p re n tic e sh ip or O th e r O n-Job
Training Benefits fo r Veterans With W ant ads give a distorted view of the
Service Since January 31, 1975. (VA local labor m arket, for they tend to
u n d e rre p re se n t sm all firm s. T hey
pam phlet 20-69-4), M arch 1975.
also tend to overrepresent certain
A Sum m ary o f Employment Benefits o ccu p atio n s, such as clerical and
and Opportunities fo r Vietnam Era sales jobs. How helpful they are to
Veterans. (V A pam phlet 20-69-6), you will depend largely on the kind
D ecem ber 1974.
of job you seek.
Bear in mind that want ads do not
provide com plete inform ation; many
Information on Finding a Job
ads give little or no description of the
Do you need help in finding a job? jo b , w orking conditions, and pay.
For inform ation on job openings, fol­ Some ads om it the identity of the
low up as many leads as possible. em ployer. In addition, firms often
P are n ts, neighbors, teac h ers, and run multiple listings. Some ads offer
counselors may know of jobs. C heck jobs in other cities (which do not
the w ant ads. Investigate the local help the local w orker); others adver­
office of your State em ploym ent ser­ tise em ploym ent agencies rather than
vice. And find out w hether private or employment.
If you use the want ads, keep the
nonprofit em ploym ent agencies in
your com m unity can help you. The following suggestions in mind:
* D o n ’t rely exclusively on the
following section will give you some
idea of where you can go to look for want ads; follow up other leads, too.
a job and what sort of help to expect.
ing may be filled before the ad stops
Informal job search methods. Infor­ running.
* Follow the ads diligently. C heck­
mal m ethods of job search are the
most popular, and also the most ef­ ing them every day as early as possi­
fective. Informal m ethods include di­ ble gives you the best advantage over
rect application to employers with or other applicants, which may m ean
w ithout referral by friends or rela­ the difference between a job and a
tives. Jobseekers locate a firm th at rejection.
* D o n ’t expect too m uch from
might employ them and file an appli­
cation, often without certain know l­ “ blind ad s” that do not reveal the
em ployer’s identity. Employers use
edge that an opening exists.
You can find targets for your infor­ blind ads to avoid being swamped
mal search in several ways. The Y el­ with applicants, or to fill a particular
low Pages and local cham bers o f vacancy quietly and confidentially.
com m erce will give you the nam es The chances of finding a job through
and addresses of appropriate firms in blind ads tend to be slim.
* Be cautious about answering “ no
the com m unity where you wish to
experience necessary” ads. Most em ­
work. You can also get listings of
most firms in a specific industry— ployers are able to fill job openings
banking, insurance, m anufacturing, that do not require experience with­
and new spaper publishing, for exam ­ out advertising in the new spaper.
ple—by consulting one of the direc­ This type of ad may m ean that the
tories on the reference shelf of your job is h ard to fill because of low
public library. Friends and relatives wages or poor working conditions, or
may suggest places to apply for a job, because it is straight com m ission
and people you m eet in the course of work.

Public employment service. The pub­
lic em ploym ent service, also called
the Job Service, can be a good source
of inform ation about job openings in
your com m unity. Em ploym ent secu­
rity (ES) agencies in each of the 50
States and the D istrict of Colum bia
are affiliated with the U.S. Em ploy­
m ent Service, and provide their ser­
vices w ith o u t c h a rg e . O p e ra tin g
through a netw ork o f 2,500 local of­
fices, State agencies help jobseekers
find em ploym ent and help em ployers
find qualified workers. To find the
office nearest you, look in the State
governm ent telephone listings under
“ Job Service” or “ E m ploym ent.” If
the local office does not provide the
inform ation or services you are look­
ing for, write to the inform ation offi­
are given in the first section o f this
chapter.

of interest, suggest training program s
and other m eans o f preparing for a
particular occupation, or simply ad ­
vise you on compiling a resume.
One other aspect o f your local of­
fice’s services deserves particular a t­
ten tio n —the occupational registers.
E m ploym ent service offices often
m aintain files of resum es o f qualified
workers in professional, clerical, and
craft occupations, for use by em ploy­
ers seeking such w orkers. Ask to
have your resume filed in the appro­
priate register.

Job Information Service. The Job In­
form ation Service (JIS) plays an im ­
portant role in m atching workers and
jobs. JIS provides a self-service list­
ing o f job openings, as well as a li­
brary o f occupational and job search
literatu re. Em ploym ent service o f­
fices in m ost large cities have a Job
Bank as well— com puterized file o f
a
General services. Assuming you come job openings, revised and printed out
to your local em ploym ent service of­ daily. Because it is self-service, the
fice because you’re looking for a job, JIS unit is m eant for applicants who
the first step is to filLout an applica­ know w hat kind o f work they are
tion th at asks for general background qualified to do. Those applicants can
and work history. To speed up the look over Job Bank listings and select
process, you should bring along com ­ the openings they w ant to apply for.
plete inform ation on previous jobs, This gives them quick access to job
in c lu d in g d a te s o f e m p lo y m e n t, inform ation and frees em ploym ent
nam es and addresses o f employers, service staff to spend m ore time with
and pay levels.
clients who need personal assistance.
The JIS may include the Job Bank
A fter com pleting the application,
you will talk briefly with an inter­ Openings Summary (JBOS) and the
viewer in o rder to be classified into a Job Bank Frequently Listed O pen­
p articular jo b clu ster—professional ings R eport (JOB-FLO). JBOS is a
and m anagem ent, sales, clerical, and m onthly report that provides infor­
so forth. This process, although cru­ m ation on jo b opportunities listed
cial, takes very little time. If you have during the previous m onth in Job
specific training and experience and Banks across the Nation. JOB-FLO
know exactly what you want, the ini­ provides similar inform ation, but fo ­
tial interview may suffice. M ost ap ­ cuses on the “ high volum e” occupa­
plicants, however, can benefit from tions—those with the greatest num ­
additional guidance services, which ber of openings. JBOS and JOB-FLO
are available on request. The u n ­ may not help you find a particular
skilled and inexperienced may take a opening, but they can describe em ­
g en eral a p titu d e te st b attery th at ploym ent trends in a particular city
m easures their abilities, and a voca­ or pinpoint the cities that have the
tional interest questionaire that m ea­ greatest num bers o f openings in a
sures th e ir o cc u p atio n al interests. particular occupation.
The JIS also includes a m onthly
Specific tests in typing and shorthand
publication, entitled “ O ccupations in
may also be given.
You may also talk at length with D em and,” that reports the num ber
o c c u p a tio n a l c o u n s e lo r s . T h e se and locations o f openings in highcounselors, or interview ers, can as­ dem and occupations during the p re ­
sist in a wide range of areas. They vious m onth. It is designed to be eas­
can help you pinpoint a suitable field ily read by the average jobseeker and

can be found in libraries and counsel­
ing offices as well as at the employ­
m ent service.
Special services. Serving people with
job m arket disadvantages is an im­
portant function of the employm ent
service, and many local offices have
specially trained counselors who ad­
vise veterans, youth, handicapped, or
older workers.
By law, veterans are entitled to pri­
ority in interview ing, counseling,
testing, jo b developm ent, and jo b
placem ent. Special counselors called
veterans reem ploym ent representa­
tives are trained to deal with the p ar­
ticular problem s of veterans, many of
whom find it difficult to readjust to
civilian life. While such veterans of­
ten face multiple problem s, jobless­
ness alone is a m ajor barrier to re­
suming an ordinary life. Special help
for disabled veterans begins with o u t­
reach units in each State, whose job
it is to identify jobless disabled veter­
ans and m ake them aw are o f the
many kinds of assistance available to
them.
As p art of the effort to reduce ex­
cessive youth unem ploym ent, local
em ploym ent service offices test and
co u n sel young p eo p le, and re fer
them to training program s or jobs
whenever possible. These offices also
m anage sum m er youth program s.
Youthful jobseekers from very poor
families receive inform ation on the
various kinds of federally funded job
program s for young people, includ­
ing part-tim e and w ork-experience
projects and the Job Corps.
For people with m ental or physical
disabilities, the em ploym ent service
provides assistance in making realis­
tic job choices, and in overcoming
problem s related to getting and hold­
ing jobs. Job openings for h an d i­
capped workers are listed as well. Of­
t e n , t h e s e o p e n in g s a re w ith
governm ent contractors and oth er
firms th at are making a positive ef­
fort to employ handicapped workers.
O lder worker specialists in many
local em ploym ent service offices as­
sist middle-aged and older workers,
whose jo b search generally differs
from that of younger workers. Both
counseling and placem ent services
are tailored to the unique needs of
11

o lder w orkers. Jo b seekers over 55
who have very low incom es may be
referred to one o f the thousands of
p art-tim e, com m unity service jobs
for the elderly funded by the Federal
G overnm ent.
Private employment agencies. In the
appropriate section of the classified
ads o r the telephone book you can
find n u m ero u s ad v ertisem en ts for
private em ploym ent agencies. All are
in business to m ake m oney, but some
offer higher quality service and b et­
ter chances o f successful placem ent
than others.
T h e th re e m ain places in which
private agencies advertise are news­
p ap er w ant ads, the Yellow Pages,
and trad e journals. T elephone list­
ings give little m ore than the nam e,
address, phone num ber, and special­
ty of the agency, while trade journals
only list openings for a particular o c­
cupation, such as accountant or com ­
puter program m m er. W ant ads, then,
are the best source o f general listings
o f agencies.
These listings fall into two catego­
ries—those offering specific o p en ­
ings and those offering general prom ­
ise o f e m p lo y m e n t. Y o u sh o u ld
co n cen trate on the form er, using the
latter only as a last resort. W ith a
specific opening m entioned in the ad,
you have g reater assurance o f the
agency’s desire to place qualified in­
dividuals in suitable jobs.
W hen responding to such an ad,
you may learn m ore about the job
over the phone. If you are interested,
visit the agency, fill out an applica­
tion, p resent a resum e, and talk with
an interview er. The agency will then
arrange an interview with the em ­
ployer if you are qualified, and p er­
haps suggest alternative openings if
you are not.
M ost agencies operate on a com ­
mission basis, with the fee contingent
upon a successful m atch. Agencies
advertising “ no fees, no co n tracts”
are paid by the em ployer and charge
the ap p lican t nothing. Many other
agencies, how ever, do charge their
applicants. You should find out b e­
fore using them exactly what the ser­
vices will cost you.
C om m unity agencies. A grow ing
n um ber o f n o n p ro fit organizations
12

throughout the N ation provide co u n ­
seling, career developm ent, and jo b
placem ent services. These agencies
generally concentrate on services for
a p a r tic u la r la b o r fo rc e g ro u p —
wom en, the elderly, youth, m inori­
ties, or ex-offenders, for example.
C om m unity em ploym ent agencies
serve an im portant function in p ro ­
viding the extensive counseling th at
many disadvantaged jobseekers re ­
quire. They often help their clients
resolve p erso n al, fam ily, or o th e r
fu n d a m e n ta l p ro b le m s th a t m ay
stand in the way o f finding a suitable
job. Some agencies provide neces­
sary job training, while others refer
th e ir clients to train in g program s
elsewhere. For the m ost part, these
com m unity agencies take a strong
active interest in their clients, and
provide an array of services designed
to help people find and keep jobs.
It’s up to you to discover w hether
there are such agencies in your com ­
m unity—and w hether they can help
you. The State em ploym ent service
should be able to tell you w hether
such an agency has been established
in your com m unity. If the local office
cannot help, write the State inform a­
tio n o ffic e r. Y o u r c h u rc h , sy n a­
gogue, or local library may have the
inform ation, too. The U.S. D epart­
m ent o f L abor is another possible
source o f inform ation, for many o f
these agencies receive some or all o f
their funding from the Federal G ov­
ernm ent, through the C om prehen­
sive Em ploym ent and Training A ct
(C ETA ). Among its many and varied
provisions, CETA authorizes Federal
m oney for local organizations th at
offer jo b counseling, training, and
placem ent help to unem ployed and
disadvantaged persons. For further
inform ation, write:
Office of Comprehensive Employment Devel­
opment, Employment and Training Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Labor,
Room 6000, 601 D St. NW., Washington,
D.C., 20213; or the Office of Information,
Room 10406, at the same address.

A nother likely source of inform a­
tion is the U.S. D epartm ent of L a­
b o r’s Directory fo r Reaching Minority
Groups. Although the 1973 directory
is out o f print, a revised edition is
being prepared, and will list organi­
zations th at provide job inform ation,

training, and other services to m inor­
ities. For inform ation, write to:
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S.
Department of Labor, 601 D St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20213.

A directory that lists em ploym ent
counseling and advocacy organiza­
tions for wom en is available for a
nom inal charge from:
Wider Opportunities for Women (WOW),
1649 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.,
20006.

College career planning and place­
ment offices. For those who have ac­
cess to them , career planning and
p lace m en t offices at colleges and
universities offer the jobseeker many
valuable services. Like the com m uni­
ty agencies that serve disadvantaged
jo b se e k e rs by offering supportive
services, college placem ent offices
function as m ore than just em ploy­
m ent agencies. In addition to coun­
seling, they teach students to acquire
jo b seek in g skills. They em phasize
writing resumes and letters of appli­
cation, making a list of possible em ­
ployers, preparing for interviews, and
other aspects of job searching. C ol­
lege placem ent offices offer o th er
services, too. A t larger cam puses
they bring students and em ployers
together by providing schedules and
facilities for interviews with industry
recruiters. Many offices also m ain­
tain lists of local part-tim e and tem ­
porary jobs, and some have files of
summer openings.

Labor Market Information
All S ta te em p lo y m en t sec u rity
agencies develop detailed labor m ar­
ket data needed by em ploym ent and
train in g specialists and ed u cato rs
who plan for local needs. Such infor­
m ation helps policym akers decide
whether or not to expand a vocation­
al training program , for exam ple—or
drop it altogether. Jobseekers and
counselors also may find these stud­
ies helpful. Typically, State agencies
publish reports that deal with future
occupational supply, characteristics
of the work force, changes in State
and area econom ic activities, and the
em ploym ent structure of im portant
industries. For all S tates, and for
nearly all Standard M etropolitan Sta­

tistical A reas (SM SA’s) of 50,000 in­
habitants or more, d ata are available
th a t show cu rren t em ploym ent as
well as estim ated future needs. This
inform ation is very detailed; general­
ly, each State issues a report covering
current and future em ploym ent for
as many as 200 industries and 400
occupations. In addition, m ajor sta­
tistical indicators of labor m arket ac­
tivity are released by all of the States
on a m onthly, quarterly, and annual
basis. For inform ation on the various
labor m ark et studies, reports, and
analyses available in a specific State,
c o n ta c t the ch ief o f research and
analysis in the State em ploym ent se­
curity agency. Titles and addresses
are as follows:
Alabama
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Industrial Relations, Industrial Relations
Bldg., 649 Monroe St., Montgomery, Ala.
36130.

Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Division, Department of Labor,
P.O. Box 3-7000, Juneau, Alaska 99811.

Arizona
Manager, Labor Market Information, Re­
search and Analysis, Department of Eco­
nomic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Phoenix,
Ariz. 85005.

District of Columbia

Maine

Chief, Division of Manpower Reports and
Analysis, Office of Administration and
Management Services, D.C. Department
of Manpower, 605 G St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20001.

Director, Manpower Research Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, 20 Union
St., Augusta, Maine 04330.

Florida
Director, Research and Statistics, Division of
Employment Security, Florida Depart­
ment of Commerce, 1720 South Gadsden
St., Tallahassee, Fla. 32304.

Georgia
Director, Information Systems, Employment
Security Agency, Department of Labor,
254 Washington St. SW., Atlanta, Ga.
30334.

Hawaii
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Labor and Industrial Relations, 825 Mililani St., Honolulu, Hawaii 96813.

Idaho
Chief, Research and Analysis, Department of
Employment, P.O. Box 35, Boise, Idaho
83707.

Illinois
Manager, Research and Analysis Division, Bu­
reau of Employment Security, Depart­
ment of Labor, 910 South Michigan Ave.,
Chicago, 11 . 60605.
1

Indiana
Arkansas
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little
Rock, Ark. 72203.

California
Chief, Employment Data and Research Divi­
sion, Employment Development Depart­
ment, 800 Capitol Mall, Sacramento,
Calif. 95814.

Chief of Research, Employment Security Divi­
sion, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis,
Ind. 46204.

Iowa
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, 1000 East Grand
Ave., Des Monies, Iowa 50319.

Kansas
Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor and Em­
ployment, 251 East 12th Ave., Denver,
Colo. 80203.

Connecticut

Chief, Research and Analysis Department,
Employment Security Division, Depart­
ment of Labor, 401 Topeka Ave., Tope­
ka, Kans. 66603.

Maryland
Acting Director, Research and Analysis, De­
partment of Human Resources, 1 100
North Eutaw St., Baltimore, Md. 21201.

Massachusetts
Assistant Director, Research and Information
Service, Division of Employment Securi­
ty, Hurley Bldg., Government Center,
Boston, Mass. 02114.

Michigan
Director, Research and Statistics Division,
Employment Security Commission, De­
partment of Labor Bldg., 7310 Wood­
ward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 48202.

Minnesota
Director, Research and Planning, Department
of Employment Services, 390 North Rob­
ert St., St. Paul, Minn. 55101.

Mississippi
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699,
Jackson, Miss. 39205.

Missouri
Chief, Research and Analysis, Division of Em­
ployment Security, Department of Labor
and Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 59, Jef­
ferson City, Mo. 65101.

Montana
Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Division, P.O. Box 1728, Helena,
Mont. 59601.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Division of Em­
ployment, Department of Labor, P.O.
Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln,
Nebr. 68509.

Chief, Manpower Information and Research,
Employment Security Department, 500
East Third St., Carson City, Nev. 89701.

Kentucky
Director, Research and Special Projects, De­
partment of Human Resources, State Of­
fice Building Annex, Frankfort, Ky.
40601.

New Hampshire

Delaware

Louisiana

New Jersey

Chief, Office of Research, Planning, and
Evaluation, Department of Labor, 801
West 14th St., Wilmington, Del. 19899.

Acting Chief, Research and Statistics, Depart­
ment of Employment Security, P.O. Box
44094, Baton Rouge, La. 70804.

Director, Division of Planning and Research,
Department of Labor and Industry, John
Fitch Plaza, Trenton, N.J. 08625.

Director, Research and Information, Con­
necticut Employment Security Division,
200 Folly Brook Blvd., Weatherfield,
Conn. 06109.

Supervisor, Economic Analysis and Reports,
Department of Employment Security, 32
South Main St., Concord, N.H. 03301.

13

New Mexico

Pennsylvania

Utah

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 1928, Al­
buquerque, N. Mex. 87103.

Assistant Director, Research and Statistics,
Bureau of Employment Security, Depart­
ment of Labor and Industry, 7th and For­
ster Sts., Harrisburg, Pa. 17121.

Director, Reports and Analysis, Department
of Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84111.

New York
Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Department of Labor, 2 World Trade
Center, New York, N.Y. 10047.

Puerto Rico
Chief of Research and Statistics, Bureau of
Employment Security, 427 Barbosa Ave.,
Hato Rey, P.R. 00917.

North Carolina

Vermont
Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, P.O. Box 488,
Montpelier, Vt. 05602.

Rhode Island

Virginia

Supervisor, Employment Security Research,
Department of Employment Security, 24
Mason St., Providence, R.I. 02903.

Chief, Manpower Research, Virginia Employ­
ment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Rich­
mond, Va. 23211.

North Dakota

South Carolina

Washington

Chief, Reports and Analysis, Employment Se­
curity Bureau, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck,
N. Dak. 58501.

Director, Manpower Research and Analysis,
Employment Security Commission, 1550
Gadsden St., Columbia, S.C. 29202.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Department, P.O. Box 367,
Olympia, Wash. 98504.

Ohio

South Dakota

West Virginia

Director, Division of Research and Statistics,
Bureau o f Employment Services, 145
South Front St., Columbus, Ohio 43216.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Security Department, 607 North Fourth
St., Box 730, Aberdeen, S. Dak. 57401.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, 112 California
Ave., Charleston, W. Va. 25305.

Oklahoma

Tennessee

Chief, Research and Planning Division, Em­
ployment Security Commission, Will Rog­
ers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma
City, Okla. 73105.

Chief, Research and Statistics, Department of
Employment Security, 519 Cordell Hull
Bldg., Nashville, Tenn. 37219.

Manager, Bureau of Employment Security Re­
search, Employment Security Commis­
sion, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, N.C.
27602.

Texas
Oregon
Chief, Research and Statistics, Employment
Division, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, Oreg.
97310.

14

Chief, Manpower Data Analysis and Research,
Texas Employment Commission, TEC
Bldg., 15th and Congress Ave., Austin,
Tex. 78778.

Wisconsin
Director, Research and Statistics, Department
of Industry, Labor and Human Relations,
P.O. Box 2209, Madison, Wis. 53701.

Wyoming
Chief, Research and Analysis, Employment
Security Commission, P.O. Box 2760,
Casper, Wyo. 82601.

III. ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODS USED IN PREPARING
EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS
Although the discussions o f future
job prospects contained in the Occu­
pational Outlook fo r College Gradu­
ates are written in qualitative term s,
the analyses upon w hich they are
based begin with quantitative esti­
mates o f projected em ploym ent, re­
placem ent openings, an d —in a few
cases—supply.
These projections were developed
using the m ost recent d ata available
on population, industry and occupa­
tio n al em p lo y m en t, p ro d u c tiv ity ,
consum er ex p enditures, and o th er
factors expected to affect em ploy­
m ent. T he B ureau’s research offices
provided m uch o f these data, but
many oth er agencies of the Federal
G o v ern m en t w ere im p o rta n t c o n ­
trib u to rs, including the B ureau of
A pprenticeship and Training and the
U.S. Em ploym ent Service, both in
the Em ploym ent and Training A d­
m inistration o f the D epartm ent of
Labor; the Bureau o f the Census of
the D epartm ent o f C om m erce; the
Office o f E ducation and the R eha­
bilitation Services Adm inistration of
the D ep artm en t o f H ealth, E duca­
tion, and W elfare; the V eterans Ad­
m inistration; the Civil Service Com ­
m ission; th e In terstate C om m erce
Com m ission; the Civil A eronautics
Board; the Federal Com m unications
C o m m issio n ; th e D e p a rtm e n t o f
Transportation; and the National Sci­
ence Foundation.
In ad d itio n , experts in industry,
unions, professional societies, and
trade associations furnished data and
supplied inform ation through inter­
views. M any of these individuals also
reviewed prelim inary drafts of the
statem ents. The inform ation present­
ed in each statem ent thus reflects the
knowledge and judgm ent not only of
the Bureau of L abor Statistics staff,
but also o f leaders in the fields dis­

cu sse d , a lth o u g h th e B u rea u , o f
course, takes full responsibility.
After the inform ation from these
sources was com piled, it was an a­
lyzed in conjunction with the Bu­
r e a u ’s m o d el o f th e econom y in
1985. Like other m odels used in eco ­
nom ic forecasting, it encom passes
the m ajor facets of the economy and
represents a com prehensive view o f
its projected structure. The B ureau’s
model is com prised of internally con­
sistent projections of gross national
p r o d u c t (G N P ) an d its c o m p o ­
nents—consum er expenditures, busi­
ness investm ent, governm ent expen­
ditures, and net exports; industrial
output and productivity; labor force;
average weekly hours of work; and
em ploym ent fo r detailed industry
groups and occupations. The m eth­
ods used to develop the em ploym ent
projections in this publication are the
same as those used in other Bureau
o f L ab o r S tatistics studies o f th e
econom y. D etailed descriptions o f
these m ethods appear in The U.S.
E conom y in 1985, BLS B u lle tin
1809, an d th e B L S H andbook o f
Methods fo r Surveys and Studies, Bul­
letin 1910.
Assumptions. The B ureau’s projec­
tions to 1985 are based on the fol­
lowing general assumptions:
—The institutional framework of the U.S.
economy will not change radically.
—Current social, technological, and scientific
trends will continue, including values
placed on work, education, income, and
leisure.
—The economy will gradually recover from
the high unemployment levels of the mid1970’s and reach full employment (de­
fined as an unemployment rate of 4 per­
cent) in the mid-1980’s.
—No major event such as widespread or longlasting energy shortages or war will signif­
icantly alter the industrial structure of the
economy or alter the rate of economic
growth.

—Trends in the occupational structure of in­
dustries will not be altered radically by
changes in relative wages, technological
changes, or other factors.

Methods. Beginning with popula­
tion projections by age and sex devel­
oped by the Bureau of the Census, a
projection of the total labor force is
derived using expected labor force
participation rates for each of these
groups. In developing the participa­
tion rates, the Bureau takes into ac­
count a variety of factors that affect a
person’s decision to enter the labor
force, such as school attendance, re­
tirem en t practices, and family re­
sponsibilities.
The labor force projection then is
translated into the level of GNP that
would be produced by a fully em ­
ployed labor force. Unemployed p er­
sons are subtracted from the labor
force estim ate and the result is m ulti­
plied by a projection of output per
worker. The estimates of future o u t­
p u t p er w orker are based on an
analysis o f tren d s in productivity
(output per work hour) among in­
dustries and changes in the average
weekly hours of work.
Next, the projection of GNP is di­
vided among its m ajor components:
Consum er expenditures, business in­
v e s tm e n t, g o v e rn m e n t e x p e n d i­
tu re s—F ederal, S tate, and lo cal—
and net exports. Each of these com ­
ponents is broken down by produc­
ing industry. Thus, consum er expen­
d itu res, for exam ple, are divided
am ong industries producing goods
and services such as housing, food,
autom obiles, medical care, and edu­
cation.
Once estimates are developed for
these products and services, they are
translated into detailed projections
of industry output, not only for the
industries producing the final prod­
uct, but also for the interm ediate and
15

basic industries that provide the raw
m aterials, electric pow er, transporta­
tion, com ponent parts, and other in­
puts required in the production p ro ­
cess. To facilitate this translation, the
D epartm ent of C om m erce has devel­
oped input-output tables that indi­
cate the am ount of output from each
industry—steel, glass, plastics, e tc.—
th at is required to produce a final
product, autom obiles for example.
By using estim ates of future output
per w ork-hour based on studies of
p r o d u c ti v i t y a n d te c h n o lo g ic a l
tren d s for each industry, industry
em ploym ent projections are derived
from the o u tput estim ates.
These projections are then com ­
pared with em ploym ent projections
d eriv ed using reg ressio n analysis.
This analysis develops equations that
relate em p lo y m en t by industry to
com binations o f econom ic variables,
such as population and incom e, that
are considered determ inants of longrun changes in em ploym ent. By com ­
paring projections resulting from in­
p u t-o u tp u t analysis and regression
analysis, areas m ay be id en tified
where one m ethod produces a p ro ­
jection inconsistent with past trends
or with the B ureau’s econom ic m od­
el. The projections are then adjusted
accordingly.
Occupational employment projec­
tions. Projections o f industry em ploy­
m en t are tra n sla te d into o c c u p a ­
tional em ploym ent projections using
an industry-occupation matrix. This
matrix, which is divided into 200 in­
dustry sectors and 400 occupation
sectors, describes the cu rren t and
projected occupational structure of
each industry. By applying the pro­
je c te d o c c u p a tio n a l stru c tu re for
each industry to the industry em ploy­
m ent projection and aggregating the
resulting estim ates, em ploym ent pro­
jections for each of the 400 occupa­
tions contained in the matrix are ob­
ta in e d . T h e g ro w th ra te o f an
occupation, thus, is determ ined by 1)
changes in the proportion of workers
in the occupation to the total work
force in each industry, and 2) the
growth rate of industries in which an
occupation is concentrated. An o c­
cupation that is projected to increase
as a proportion of the work force in
each industry, for example, or one
16

that is concentrated in industries p ro ­
jected to grow m ore rapidly than the
average for all industries, would be
projected to grow faster than the av­
erage for all occupations.
In some cases em ploym ent is relat­
ed directly to one of the com ponents
of the B ureau’s m odel— example,
for
the num ber of physicians is related to
consum er ex p en d itu res for health
care. In others, em ploym ent is relat­
ed to an independent variable not
explicitly projected in the model, but
believed to be a prim ary determ inant
of em ploym ent in th at occupation.
The projection of airplane pilots, for
example, is based on the expected
num ber o f hours th at com m ercial
aircraft will be flown. Keep in mind
that some variables can be predicted
more accurately than others. For ex­
am ple, the size o f the school-age
population, which affects needs for
teachers, can be estim ated with a
high degree o f confidence because
most of the people who will be a t­
tending school over the next decade
have already been born. On the other
hand, the level of defense spending,
which affects the needs for scientists
and engineers is quite difficult. D e­
fense spending depends on govern­
m e n t p o lic y , w hich ca n c h a n g e
Projections that are developed in­
d e p e n d e n tly a re c o m p a re d w ith
those in the m atrix and revised, if
necessary, to assure consistency.
Replacement needs. In addition to
a projection of em ploym ent for each
occupation, a projection is made o f
the num ber of workers who will be
needed as replacem ents. Separations
co n stitu te a significant source o f
openings. In most occupations, more
workers are needed to replace those
who retire, die, or leave the occupa­
tion than are needed to fill jobs creat­
ed by grow th. C onsequently, even
som e declining o c c u p atio n s offer
em ploym ent opportunities.
To estim ate replacem ent openings,
the Bureau has developed tables o f
working life based on actuarial expe­
rience for deaths and on decennial
census data for general patterns o f
labor force participation by age and
sex. W ithdrawals from each occupa­
tion are ca lcu lated separately for
men and women by age group and

used to com pute an overall separa­
tion rate for the occupation. These
rates are used to estim ate average
annual replacem ent needs for each
occupation over the projection peri­
od.
The Bureau is currently analyzing
data from the 1970 Census to d eter­
m ine th e e ffe c t o f o c c u p a tio n a l
tra n sfe rs on jo b openings. T hese
transfers have not been taken into
account in calculating replacem ent
needs. Some data on occupational
transfers have been published in two
M o n th ly L abor R ev iew a r tic le s ,
“ O c c u p a tio n a l M o b ility in th e
Am erican Labor F orce” and “ O ccu­
pational Mobility of H ealth W ork­
ers,” January and May 1977, respec­
tively.
Supply. Supply estim ates used in
analysis of many occupations p re ­
sented in this publication represent
the num bers of workers who are like­
ly to seek entry to a particular occu­
pation if past trends of entry to the
o c c u p a tio n co n tin u e. T hese e s ti­
mates are developed independently
of the dem and estimates. Thus, sup­
ply and dem and are not discussed in
the usual economic sense in which
wages play a major role in equating
supply and demand. Statistics on col­
lege enrollm ents and graduations by
field are the chief sources of inform a­
tion on the potential supply of per­
sonnel in professional, technical, and
other occupations requiring exten­
sive form al ed u catio n . A B ureau
p u b licatio n , O ccupational Supply:
Concepts and Sources o f Data fo r
M anpower Analysis (BLS B ulletin
1816, 1974), explores several as­
pects of occupational supply.
Job outlook for college graduates as
a whole. In addition to projecting the
job outlook for many occupations
sought by college graduates, the Bu­
reau has analyzed the outlook for
graduates as a whole. The analysis
was done by com paring projected
openings in the types of jobs requir­
ing a college degree or usually sought
by graduates with estim ates of the
num ber of graduates expected to en­
ter the labor force.
Table 1 presents data on trends in
the p ro p o rtio n of w orkers with 4
years of college or m ore in each o f
the nine major occupational groups.

Table 1. Percent of workers in major occupational groups with 4 years of college or more, selected years, 1959-76 and projected
1985

Year

1959.........................................
1962.........................................
1964.........................................
1965.........................................
1966.........................................
1968.........................................
1969.........................................
1970.........................................
1971.........................................
1972.........................................
1973 .........................................
1974.........................................
1975.........................................
1976.........................................
Projected 1985.......................

All
occupa­
tional
groups

Profes­
sional
and
technical
workers

Managers
and
strators

Sales
workers

Clerical
workers

Service
workers

Craft
workers

Opera­
tives

Labor­
ers

Farm
workers

10.0
11.5
11.7
12.0
12.1
12.8
12.9
12.8
14.1
14.1
14.6
15.5
16.7
17.4
18.1

56.1
57.5
59.2
58.8
59.1
59.4
59.1
59.8
60.2
60.3
62.4
62.9
63.8
64.6
68.0

13.1
15.5
16.2
17.7
19.6
20.6
20.1
20.1
23.5
25.7
26.4
28.0
28.5
28.9
36.2

10.1
11.7
10.6
9.8
11.3
10.7
11.0
11.8
13.3
15.2
15.5
16.5
17.2
18.7
21.5

4.9
5.8
5.3
5.5
4.8
4.7
4.5
4.7
5.0
5.8
5.5
6.5
7.6
8.3
6.5

1.4
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.8
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.1
3.9
3.5

2.1
1.6
1.6
2.1
1.7
1.6
2.0
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.7
3.1
3.3
3.6
3.1

0.8
.9
1.0
.8
.6
.7
.7
.8
.9
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.5

0.5
.7
.8
.9
.4
.7
.6
.7
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.4
2.2
2.3
1.4

1.4
1.5
2.2
1.7
1.8
1.2
2.2
1.2
2.3
2.8
4.3
4.8
5.1
7.4
6.1

These trends were analyzed to d eter­
mine w hat proportion o f the jobs in
each m ajor group by 1985 would re­
quire a degree o r be o f the type usu­
ally sought by graduates. These pro­
portions were applied to projections
o f total requirem ents for w orkers in
each m ajor o ccu p ational group to
obtain projections o f requirem ents
for college graduates by m ajor occu­
pational group, and group totals were
sum m ed. T he p ro jec ted grow th in
jobs for college graduates, therefore,
reflects bo th the overall grow th in
jobs in the econom y and the increas­
ing p ro p o r tio n o f jo b s re q u irin g
H igher p ro p o rtio n s o f graduates
are projected to be needed in profes­
sional and technical, m anagerial and
ad m in istrativ e, and sales o c c u p a ­
tions, reflecting long-term trends in
the increasingly sophisticated nature
o f many o f these jobs. T he increased
sophistication o f m anagem ent tech­
niques, the greater am ount o f legisla­
tion affecting adm inistrators, and the
m ore advanced level o f technology
all should contribute to the upgrad­
ing o f many jobs. To some extent,
however, upgrading o f jobs in these
groups reflects em ployers’ responses
to the greater availability o f college
graduates, rather than any change in
the nature o f the work.

The proportions o f w orkers in the
o th er m ajor occupational groups—
c le ric a l, b lu e -c o lla r, service, an d
fa rm —re q u irin g a college d eg ree
were projected to be som ewhat lower
in 1985 th an actual 1976 p ro p o r­
tions. Em ployers traditionally have
n o t so u g h t college g ra d u a te s fo r
these kinds o f jobs, and, during the
1960’s when other jobs for graduates
were plentiful, few graduates entered
th e s e o c c u p a tio n s . D u rin g th e
1970’s, however, the proportions o f
graduates in these jobs increased rap ­
idly—reflecting, for the m ost p art,
difficulty in finding m ore desirable
jobs rath er than any upgrading o f jo b
content. The projected proportions,
nevertheless, are higher than those
occurring during the 1960’s—reflect­
ing the g reater attractiveness, and
perhaps upgrading, o f certain jobs in
these groups such as police officers
and detectives, insurance adjusters
and investigators, and craft workers.
Estim ates o f jo b openings over the
1976-85 period resulting from col­
lege graduates who are expected to
die, retire, or leave the labor force
for other reasons were calculated by
applying actuarial-type d ata for age
and sex groups to the age and sex
distribution o f college graduates in
the labor force.

Estim ates of the num ber o f college
graduates who are expected to en ter
the labor force were based primarily
on projections o f earned bachelor’s
degrees developed by the National
C enter for Education Statistics. T he
average num ber o f b ac h elo r’s d e­
g re es g ra n te d a n n u a lly o v er th e
1976-85 period is expected to be
slig h tly h ig h e r th a n th e n u m b e r
granted during the 1975-76 academ ­
ic year. F o r detailed discussion o f the
m ethod used to develop these degree
projections, see Projections o f Educa­
tion Statistics to 1985—
86, U.S. D e­
partm ent o f Health, Education, and
W elfare, National C enter for E duca­
tion Statistics, NCES 77-402. A d­
vanced degrees were not included in
the calculations since virtually all ad­
vanced degree recipients would al­
ready have a bachelor’s degree and,
therefore, were accounted for in the
bachelor’s degree calculations.
The num ber o f persons with co l­
lege degrees entering the labor force
over th e 1976-85 period also in­
cludes som e graduates with degrees
earned before 1976 who are not c u r­
rently in the labor force, graduates
separating from the military, and im­
migrants with degrees. Projections of
labor force entrants and re-entrants
from these sources are based on his­
torical trends.
17

%

IV. TOMORROW’S JOBS FOR COLLEGE GRADUATES
M any questions m ust be consid­
ered by young persons as they at­
tem pt to m atch their abilities and int e r e s t s w ith th e v a r ie ty o f
o ccu p atio n al choices. W hat fields
are expected to offer good prospects
for em ploym ent? W hat jobs require a
college ed u catio n ? W ill education
beyond a b achelor’s degree enhance
career prospects in a particular occu­
pation? How do earnings com pare
am ong occupations requiring similar
training? W hat types o f em ployers
provide which kinds o f jobs? Does a
p a rtic u la r jo b o ffer stead y , yearround work or is it affected by m inor
swings in the economy?
T h e answ ers to th ese questions
chan g e as o u r eco nom y changes.
C urrent inform ation, therefore, is a
necessity. This ch ap ter explores how
changes in o u r industrial and eco­
nom ic fram ew ork affect the growth
o f em ploym ent in specific occupa­
tions.

Employment Projections in a
Changing Economy
T he dem and for w orkers in any oc­
cupation depends ultim ately on the
tastes and desires o f consum ers. If a
p ro d u c t o r se rv ic e is u n w a n te d ,
w h eth er by private o r public p u r­
chasers, no w orkers will be needed to
produce o r provide it. C redit m anag­
ers w ould beco m e unn ecessary if
everyone preferred to pay cash for
the things they bought, as would as­
tronauts if the Federal G overnm ent
abandoned its space program .
Closely interw oven with the d e­
mand for products o r services is tech­
n ological inn o v atio n. In th e 20th
century, technology has both created
and elim inated h u n d red s o f th o u ­
sands o f jobs. T he telephone, for ex­
ample, gave birth to an entire indus­
try at about the same tim e that the
autom obile put stable ow ners and
carriage m anufacturers out o f busi­

ness. Changes in the way businesses
are organized and m anaged have had
similar effects; the rise of superm ar­
ket chains has drastically reduced the
num ber o f self-employed grocers.
F ortunately, m ost o f the factors
th at alter the dem and for w orkers in
various occupations do not change
overnight. Shifts in the state o f the
econom y, th e introduction o f new
technology, and the developm ent o f
new organization and m anagem ent
techniques generally occur in an o r­
derly, fairly predictable fashion. A l­
though no one can forecast the fu ­
ture with certainty, it is possible to
m ake industry and occupation em ­
ploym ent projections th at are useful
to ed u cato rs, vocational planners,
and individuals who are planning
their careers. The econom ic and sta­
tistical analysis used by the Bureau o f
L abor Statistics to develop its projec­
tions is described in some detail in
C hapter III.
The following assessm ent o f indus­
trial and occupational growth begins

with a projection o f the total labor
force. By 1985, approxim ately 108.6
million persons will be in the civilian
labor force. This represents a p ro ­
jected 15 percent increase in the la­
bor force over the 1976-85 period.
The growth o f individual industries
and occupations will differ, however,
from th a t o f the total labor force.
T he following sections discuss the
projected growth o f industries and
occupations.
The last part of this chapter relates
jo b o p en in g s re su ltin g from th is
growth to other inform ation about
the labor m arket, and describes the
overall em ploym ent situation th a t
college graduates are likely to face
through 1985.

Industrial Profile
Econom ists customarily divide our
econom y into nine industry catego­
ries under two broad groups—goods
p ro d u cin g and service producing.
M ost o f the N ation’s workers cu r­
rently are em ployed in industries th at

1

Where people w ork
Millions of workers, 1976
Goods-producing industries
Manufacturing
Contract construction
Agriculture
Mining
Service-producing industries
W holesale and retail trade
Governm ent
Services
Transportation and public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate

Less than 4 years of college

l

1 College

♦ Wage and salary workers, except agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid fam ily workers.
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

19

Through the mid-1980's
employment growth will vary widely by industry
Percent change, 1976-85 projected

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

provide services, such as education,
health care, trade, repair and m ainte­
nance, governm ent, transportation,
banking, and insurance. The produc­
tion o f goods through farm ing, con­
struction, mining, and m anufacturing
requires only about one-third o f the
country’s work force.
Em ploym ent in the goods-producing industries has rem ained relatively
constant since W orld W ar II, w here­
as the service-producing industries
have expanded rapidly. Among the
fa cto rs co n trib u tin g to this rapid
growth w ere the m igration from rural
to urban areas and the accom panying
need for m ore local governm ent ser­
vices, and rising incom es and living
standards th at resulted in a dem and
for im proved health and education
services. These factors are expected
to continue to cause the dem and for
services to grow.
Service-Producing In d u stries.
In
1976, m ore than 4 o u t o f 5 employed
college graduates, ab o u t 11.7 m il­
lion, w ere in service-producing in­
dustries. (S ee ch a rt 1.) T otal em ­
ploym ent in the service-producing
ind ustries is ex p ected to increase
from 56.1 million w orkers in 1976 to
71.0 million in 1985, an increase of
26 percent. O f course, growth rates
will vary am ong the industries within
this group. (See ch art 2.)
20

Trade, the largest o f the service in ­
d u strie s, is e x p e c te d to grow by
about 20 percent betw een 1976 and
1985, from 17.7 million to 21.3 m il­
lion workers.
B oth w holesale an d retail trad e
have in cre ased as p o p u latio n has
grown and as rising incom es have e n ­
abled people to buy a greater num ber
and variety o f goods. R etail trade has
grown m ore rapidly than wholesale
trade as the expansion o f the suburbs
has created a dem and for m ore shop­
ping centers. Although self-service is
expected to becom e m ore prevalent,
em ploym ent in retail trade nonethe­
less will continue to grow faster than
In 1976, about 1 o u t of 10 em ­
ployed college graduates, roughly 1.6
million, was in trade. O f all w orkers
in tra d e , 9 p e rc e n t w ere college
Government has been the second
fastest growing service industry. E m ­
ploym ent in State and local govern­
m ents doubled betw een 1960 and
1976. G row th has been greatest in
agencies providing education, health,
sanitation, welfare, and police and
fire protection. Federal G overnm ent
em ploym ent has increased only 20
percent during the sam e period.
G overnm ent is a m ajor area of em ­
ploym ent for college educated w ork­
ers. M ore than a third o f em ployed

were in governm ent in 1976. O f all
workers in governm ent, 35 percent
Between 1976 and 1985, total em ­
ploym ent in governm ent is expected
to rise 22 percent, from 14.9 million
to 18.3 million workers. This growth
rate is less than th a t expected for
services as a whole. Although State
and local governments will continue
to be th e m ajor source o f jobs, the
budget problem s many local govern­
m ents now face are expected to re­
tard the expansion o f some govern­
m ent program s. F urtherm ore, slow
growth is expected in State and local
governm ent education em ploym ent
where alm ost all teachers work. This
will occur because o f declines in the
school age population, resulting in
fewer students to teach.
Service industries have been the
fastest growing group in the serviceproducing category, nearly doubling
in em ploym ent betw een 1960 and
1976. T he growing need for health
care, m aintenance and repair, adver­
tising, and accounting, legal, and en­
gineering services has been the pri­
m ary fo rce behind this growth. In
1976, on e-q u arter o f all em ployed
college graduates were in service in­
dustries. O f all workers in the service
industries, 24 percent were college
In the future, service industries are
e x p e c te d to co n tin u e th e ir ra p id
growth—em ploym ent is projected to
increase from 14.6 million w orkers in
1976 to 20.6 million in 1985. This
projected growth rate o f 40 percent
is nearly twice as rapid as that o f the
serv ic e-p ro d u cin g in d u stries as a
group. Em ploym ent requirem ents in
health care are expected to grow ra p ­
idly due to population grow th—in
particular the growth in the num ber
o f elderly p ersons—and rising in ­
com es th at increase people’s ability
to pay for m edical care. Business ser­
vices, in clu d in g a c co u n tin g , d a ta
processing, and m aintenance, also
are expected to grow rapidly.
Transportation and public utility in­
dustries experienced a m uch slower
growth ra te betw een 1960 and 1976
than any o f the other service-produc­
ing industries. This has largely been
due to em ploym ent declines in the
railroad and w ater transportation in­

dustries. Only about 3 percent o f em ­
ployed college g ra d u ates in 1976
were in transportation industries. O f
all w orkers in these industries, about
9 p ercent were college graduates.
Although em ploym ent in the rail­
road and w ater transportation indus­
tries is expected to continue to de­
clin e (b u t a t a slo w er ra te th an
before), o th er industries in this group
will ex p erien ce increases. T he air
transportation industry, which nearly
doubled in size betw een 1960 and
1976, will continue to grow at a m od­
erate pace.
Between 1976 and 1985, em ploy­
m en t in tran sp o rtatio n and public
utilities industries is expected to rise
from 4.5 million to 5.2 million work­
ers, an increase o f 16 percent.
Finance, insurance, and real estate
will grow faster than services as a
whole. Em ploym ent is expected to
increase from 4.3 million to 5.6 mil­
lio n w o rk e rs b e tw e e n 1976 and
1985, an increase o f 30 percent.
W ithin this group, the two fastest
growing industries have been bank­
ing and credit agencies. Employment
in banking nearly doubled betw een
1960 and 1976, reflecting a growing
population th at increasingly pays its
bills by check. Em ploym ent require­
m ents also grew as banks began to
provide m ore services, particularly
the bank credit cards, and rem ained
o p e n lo n g e r h o u rs . P o p u la tio n
growth also m eant an increased de­
m and fo r th e services o f finance
com panies, savings and loan associ­
ations, and o th e r c re d it agencies.
These trends are expected to contin­
ue through the m id-1980’s.
A bout 7 p ercent o f em ployed col­
lege graduates in 1976 were in fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate. O f
all w o rk ers in th ese industries in
1976, ab out 22 p ercent were college
Goods-Producing Industries. In 1976,
less than 1 out o f 5 em ployed college
the goods-producing industries. To­
tal em ploym ent in the goods-produc­
ing industries—agriculture, mining,
co n struction, and m anufacturing—
has changed very little since 1960.
Significant gains in productivity re­
sulting from autom ated production,
improved m achinery, and other tech­

nological breakthroughs have p e r­
m itted large increases in output with­
o u t a d d itio n a l w o rk e rs. B etw een
1976 an d 1 985, e m p lo y m e n t in
goods-producing industries is expect­
ed to increase by about 17 percent,
from 26.6 m illion to 31.1 m illion
workers. Grow th rates will vary from
in d u s try to in d u s try w ith in th is
group.
Em ploym ent in agriculture, which
has long been declining, stabilized at
about 3.5 million w orkers betw een
1970 and 1975, but dropped again to
3.3 million in 1976. O f all workers in
agriculture in 1976, about 6 percent
w ere college graduates. Since th e
1950’s, the trend tow ard fewer b u t
larger farm s and the use of m ore and
b e tte r m achinery has reduced th e
need for farm ers and farm workers.
So too has the developm ent o f im ­
proved hybrid crops. Recently, for
example, a hybrid tom ato was devel­
oped that has a harder skin and can
be m achine harvested.
A lthough em ploym ent on farm s
has declined, rapid m echanization
c o m b in ed w ith b e tte r fe rtiliz e rs,
feeds, pesticides, and hybrids have
created large increases in outp u t.
The worldwide dem and for food is
risin g ra p id ly as p o p u la tio n i n ­
creases, but production is expected
to continue to rise without reversing
the em ploym ent decline in agricul­
ture. Between 1976 and 1985, em ­
ploym ent is expected to drop about
29 percent, from 3.3 million to 2.3
million workers.
Mining, once declining in em ploy­
m ent, in creased abruptly betw een
1970 and 1976, experiencing a 26percent growth rate during this peri­
od and m atching the growth rate o f
the fastest growing industry group,
services. O f all workers in mining in
1976, about 12 percent were college
M ost of the growth in mining was a
direct result o f our need for addition­
al energy. Em ploym ent in the oil and
gas extraction industry rose 33 p e r­
cent betw een 1970 and 1976, and is
expected to rise another 70 percent
by 1985. Coal, the m ost commonly
used alternative energy source, has
been and will continue to be in great
dem and.

Em ployment in mining is expected
to grow 39 percent betw een 1976
and 1985, from 0.8 to 1.1 million
workers.
Contract construction, which grew
fairly ra p id ly b etw e en 1960 and
1968, stagnated between 1968 and
1976. The earlier growth, which re­
fle c te d an in c re a s in g n e e d fo r
houses, apartm ent and office build­
ings, highways, and shopping centers,
was d a m p e n e d by th e ec o n o m ic
d o w n tu rn th a t b egan in th e la te
1960’s.
Buildings that had been vacant are
now filling up, however, and as our
econom y recovers, em ploym ent in
construction is expected to increase,
rising by 38 percent between 1976
and 1985, or from 3.6 million to 4.9
million workers.
O f all workers in construction in
1976, about 6 percent were college
M anufacturing em ploym ent, also
adversely affected by the economic
conditions of the early 1970’s, is ex­
pected to grow from 18.9 million to
22.8 million between 1976 and 1985,
an increase o f 20 percent.
In 1976, about 1 out of 8 employed
college graduates was in m anufactur­
ing. O f all workers in m anufacturing
in 1976, about 10 percent were col­
M anufacturing is divided into two
b ro a d c a te g o rie s, d u ra b le goods
m a n u f a c tu r in g a n d n o n d u ra b le
goods m anufacturing. Em ploym ent
in durable goods m anufacturing is
expected to increase by about 25
percent, from 11.0 million to 13.8
million workers, while employm ent
in nondurable goods m anufacturing
is expected to increase by only 13
percent, from 7.9 million to 9.0 mil­
lion workers.
G row th rates will vary among indi­
vidual industries within each of these
categories. In nondurable goods in­
dustries, for example, em ploym ent in
tobacco m anufacturing is expected
to decline, while a m oderate rise in
em ploym ent is projected for the syn­
thetic fiber industry. Among durable
g o ods m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u strie s,
medical instrum ent m anufacturing is
expected to undergo a rapid employ­
m ent increase; m otor vehicle m anu­
facturing will employ about the same
21

3

Requirements for college graduates are expected
to grow faster than requirements for all workers
Percent change, 1976-85 projected

-5 0

- 25
IH

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

num ber o f workers in 1985 as it did
in 1976.

Occupational Profile
Custom arily, occupations also are
divided into several groups. W hitecollar w orkers are those in profes­
sional an d tech n ic al, m anagerial,
sales, and clerical jobs. Blue-collar
workers are those in craft, operative,
and la b o re r jobs. Service w orkers
and farm w orkers constitute separate
groups.

0

25

All workers

I

50

75

O nce a small proportion o f the to ­
tal labor force, white-collar w orkers
have steadily in creased in im p o r­
tance until they now represent about
half o f the total. The num ber o f ser­
vice w orkers also has risen rapidly,
while the blue-collar work force has
grown only slowly and the num ber o f
farm workers has declined.
M ost o f these changes in occupa­
tional em ploym ent have been due to
variations in the growth rates o f in­
dustries. Every industry group has a
u n iq u e o c c u p a tio n a l p a tte rn . F i­

Most professional and technical workers
Millions of workers, 1976
W hite-collar workers
Professional and technical workers
Managers and administrators except farm
Sales workers
Clerical workers
Blue-collar workers
Craft workers
Operatives
Nonfarm laborers
Service workers
Farm workers
0
Source: Bureau o f Labor Statistics

22

5

10

B W 8 Less than 4 years of college

nance, insurance, and real estate, for
example, employ mostly white-collar
w orkers, while construction is p re­
dom in an tly a blue-collar industry
group. G row th in the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate group would
result in an increase in em ploym ent
o f w hite-collar workers. The sam e
would be true for growth in services
and trad e—industries that also em ­
ploy large proportions o f white-collar
w o rk e rs . T h e m a g n itu d e o f th e
change would depend on both the
rate of growth and the size o f the
industry.
T he follow ing sections d escrib e
the changes that are expected to o c­
cur am ong the broad occupational
groups betw een 1976 and 1985.

White-collar workers, who num bered
43.7 million iri 1976, included m ore
than 9 o u t o f every 10 employed col­
lege graduates. M ore than 31 p e r­
cent, or 13.6 million, o f all whiteco llar jo b s w ere filled by college
g r a d u a t e s i n 1 9 7 6 . By t h e
m id-1980’s, 33 percent, or 17.5 mil­
lion, o f the 53.5 million white-collar
jobs are expected to require a college
degree. A lthough em ploym ent re ­
quirem ents for college graduates are
expected to increase by 28 percent,
requirem ents in som e w hite-collar
occupations will vary greatly. (See
chart 3.)
Professional and technical workers
in c lu d e a w ide ra n g e o f h ig h ly
trained w orkers, such as scientists
and engineers, medical practitioners,
teachers, entertainers, pilots, and ac­
countants. In 1976, 65 percent o f the
workers in this group were college
graduates. (See ch art 4.) Nearly 3
out o f 5 employed college graduates
in 1976 w ere in this group. (S ee
chart 5.)
Em ploym ent o f professional and
te c h n ic a l w orkers is ex p e cted to
grow by about 18 percent betw een
1976 and 1985, rising from 13.3 m il­
lion to 15.8 m illion w orkers. R e­
quirem ents for college graduates in
this group are expected to grow by
about 23 percent, from 8.7 million to
10.7 million.
G reater efforts in energy produc­
tion, tra n sp o rta tio n , and en v iro n ­
m ental protection will contribute to a
growing dem and for scientists, engi-

neers, and technicians. The medical
professions can be expected to grow
as the health services industry ex­
pands. T he dem and for professional
workers to develop and utilize com ­
puter resources also is projected to
grow rapidly.
Some occupations will offer less
favorable jo b prospects because the
supply o f w orkers exceeds the avail­
able openings. Teachers will contin­
ue to face com petition, as will artists
and entertainers, airline pilots, and
oceanographers.
M anagers and administrators in­
clude w orkers such as corporate ex­
ecutives, school and health services
a d m in is tra to rs , d e p a rtm e n t sto re
m anagers, and self-em ployed busi­
ness operators. In 1976, nearly 30
percent o f the workers in this group
were college graduates. Nearly 1 out
o f 5 em ployed g rad u ates in 1976
were in this group.
Em ploym ent o f m anagers and ad­
m inistrators is expected to grow from
9.3 million to 11.3 million between
1976 and 1985, an increase o f 21
percen t. R equirem ents for college
graduates are expected to increase
by 54 percent, from 2.7 million to 4.1
million.
The rapidly expanding service in­
dustries are expected to offer more
jobs for m anagers than the slowly
growing m anufacturing industries.

Changes in business size and o r­
ganization have resulted in differing
trends for self-employed and salaried
m anagers. The num ber o f self-em ­
ployed m anagers will probably co n ­
tinue to decline as m any areas o f
business are increasingly dom inated
by large corporations and chain o p ­
erations. Some kinds o f small estab­
lishments in the retail trade and busi­
ness serv ic es in d u stries still will
provide oppo rtu n ities for self-em ­
ploym ent, however. T he dem and for
salaried m anagers will continue to
grow rapidly as the econom y grows,
and as firms increasingly depend on
trained m anagem ent specialists.
Sales workers are em ployed p ri­
marily by retail stores, manufactur­

ing and wholesale firms, insurance
com panies, and real estate agencies.
In 1976, 19 percent of the workers in
this group were college graduates.
A bout 7 percent o f employed college
graduates in 1976 were in sales jobs.
Total em ploym ent o f sales w orkers
is expected to grow from 5.5 million
to 6.4 million workers, an increase o f
17 percent.
R equirem ents for college gradu­
ates in this group are expected to
grow by about 37 percent betw een
1976 and 1985. M uch o f the growth
o f sales workers will be due to expan­
sion in th e re ta il tra d e in d u stry ,
w hich em ploys ab o u t o n e-h alf o f
these workers. College graduates in

sales jobs, however, are concentrated
in industries other than retail trad e—
in o cc u p atio n s such as insurance
agents, m anufacturers sales re p re­
sentatives, and securities sales work­
ers, which employers generally p re­
fer to fill with college graduates.
Clerical workers constitute bo th
the largest and the fastest growing
occupational group. Few jobs in this
group require a college degree, how­
ever, and many graduates employed
in clerical jobs in 1976 were likely to
be in positions not requiring a de­
gree. Less than one employed college
graduate in 10 in 1976 was in this
group.
Em ploym ent in clerical occu p a­
tions is expected to grow about 29
percent between 1976 and 1985, ris­
ing from 15.6 million to 20.0 million
workers. Because no developm ents
which would require a college degree
are expected, the proportion of jobs
in this group is not expected to grow.
B lue-collar w orkers. Persons em ­
ployed in craft, operative, and nonfarm laborer jobs are called blue-col­
lar workers. Craft workers include a
wide variety o f highly skilled w ork­
ers, such as carpenters, tool-and-die
m a k e rs, in s tru m e n t m ak ers, a ll­
round m achinists, electricians, and
autom obile m echanics. Operatives
are the largest blue-collar group, in­
cluding workers such as assemblers,
packers, truck and bus drivers, and
many types o f m achine operators.
L aborers, (e x c e p t fa rm ) in clu d e
workers such as garbage collectors,
co n stru c tio n laborers, freight an d
stock handlers, and equipment wash­

ers. In 1976, about 5 percent of em ­
ployed college grad u ates were in
blue-collar jobs.
Em ployment o f blue-collar w ork­
ers is expected to grow by about 18
percent between 1976 and 1985, ris­
ing from 29 million to 34.1 million
workers. Very few blue-collar jobs
require a college degree, and em ­
ploym ent requirem ents for college
graduates in these occupations are
not expected to increase.
Service workers include a wide range
o f w orkers—firefighters, cosm etolo­
gists, and bartenders are a few exam ­
ples. These workers, most of whom
are employed in the service-produc23

ing industries, m ake up one o f the
fastest growing occupational groups.
In 1976, only 3 p ercent o f em ployed
college g ra d u ates w ere in service
jobs.
Some o f the m ain factors th at are
ex p ected to increase th e need for
these w orkers are the rising dem and
for m edical care; the g reater need for
com m ercial cleaning and protective
services; and the m ore frequent use
o f restaurants, beauty salons, and lei­
sure services as incom es rise.
Em ploym ent o f service w orkers is
expected to increase 23 percent b e­
tw een 1976 and 1985, from 12.0 mil­
lion to 14.8 m illion w orkers. R e­
quirem ents for college graduates in
this group are expected to grow at
about the sam e rate as for all service
workers.
Farm workers include farm ers and
farm operators, as well as farm labor­
ers. A bout 1 p ercen t o f em ployed
graduates in 1976 were in this group.
Em ploym ent o f these w orkers has
declined fo r decades as farm produc­
tivity has increased as a result o f the
trend tow ard fewer b ut larger farms,
the use o f m ore and b etter m achin­
ery, and th e d ev elo pm ent o f new
feeds, fertilizers, and pesticides. Be­
tween 1976 and 1985, th e num ber o f
farm w orkers is expected to decline
34 percent, from 2.8 million to 1.9
million workers.

g

Bachelor's degrees earned 1959-60 to 1984-85
Thousands of bachelor's degrees
1,200

1

■ ::M &
;

■ ■•

1,000

800

600

400

200

0
Source: National Center for Education Statistics

College Graduates: Demand and
Supply, 1976-85
T hroughout m ost o f the 1960’s, a
college degree was considered a l­
m ost a g u a ra n te e o f a good jo b .
Overall, th ere probably were m ore
jo b s fo r w hich em p lo y ers so u g h t
to fill them . Consequently, graduates
generally had their pick o f jobs and
almost all graduates found the kinds
of jobs they sought. T he job m arket
fo r c o lle g e g ra d u a te s , h o w e v e r,

c h a n g e d d ra m a tic a lly b e g in n in g
ates have faced increasing com peti­
tion for the kinds of jobs they w ant­
ed. T he slowdown in the N a tio n ’s
econom ic grow th during the early
and m id -1 9 7 0 ’s and a drop in the
need for new teachers contributed, in
part, to this turnaround. H owever,
the principal reason for the com peti­
tion faced by college graduates has
been the sharp increase in the nu m ­
ber o f graduates seeking jobs. T his

Job Openings
T he rate o f em ploym ent growth in
an occupation is only one indicator
o f future jo b prospects; another indi­
cator is the total num ber o f jo b open­
ings expected in the occupation. The
total includes not only openings re­
sulting from em ploym ent growth, but
also those resulting from labor force
separations (retirem ents and deaths)
and transfers to oth er occupations.
M any jo b openings also are creat­
ed because o f occupational transfers.
W hen a technician is upgraded to an
engineer, for example, a job opening
for a technician is created. O f course,
this shift also adds to the supply o f
engineers. D ata for estim ating occu­
pational losses and gains resulting
from transfers are n ot yet available,
but work is continuing towards the
developm ent o f such data.
24

Jobs entered by college graduates
1962-69 and 1969-76, by major occupational group
Millions of workers
8

Unemployed
workers
Service

worker

Nonfarm laborers
Craft workers

Operatives, laborers,
service, farm
and unemployed

Operatives
Clerical workers

- Craft workers

Sales workers

■Clerical workers

Managers and
except farm

Sales workers
Managers and
except farm

Professional and
technical
workers

Professional and
technical
workers
1962-69

1969-76

increase has com e about because o f
sharp in creases in th e n u m b er o f
bach elo r’s degrees granted (c h art 6),
as well as because higher proportions
o f college graduates are seeking jobs.
For exam ple, betw een M arch 1966
and M arch 1976, th e proportion of
all college graduates age 25 to 34 not
in m ilitary service w ho w ere em ­
ployed o r looking for w ork increased
from 79 to 85 percent.
It is estim ated th at about twice as
many college graduates entered the
la b o r m a rk e t b e tw e e n 1969 and
1976 as entered during the previous
7-year period. (See ch a rt 7.) But be­
cause th ere have n ot been enough
openings in the kinds o f jobs sought
by graduates to absorb all jo b seek­
ers, m ore and m ore graduates have
been forced to en ter jobs o f the type
n o t tra d itio n a lly so u g h t. C h a rt 7
com pares the kinds o f jobs entered
by graduates betw een 1962 and 1969
and betw een 1969 and 1976.
O f the roughly 4 m illion new en­
trants betw een 1962 and 1969, about
73 p ercen t entered professional and
technical occupations. This grouping
in c lu d e s a c c o u n ta n ts , e n g in e e rs,
doctors, lawyers, teachers, and oth­
ers in which a college degree usually
is req u ired . A bout 17 percen t en­
tered m anagerial and adm inistrative
occupations, another m ajor occupa­
tional area generally felt by gradu­
ates to be appropriate for their edu­
c a tio n a n d a b ilitie s . A n o th e r 3
p e rc e n t e n te re d sales jo b s; m ost
probably in the b etter paying sales
jobs, such as securities sales workers
and m anufacturers sales representa­
tives. Less than 6 p ercen t entered
clerical, blue-collar, service and farm
occupations.
Between 1969 and 1976 an esti­
m ated 8 million college graduates en­
tered the labor force. M ore gradu­
a te s e n t e r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d
technical occupations than had en­
tered over the previous 7 years, but
because th ere were so many m ore
g raduates com peting fo r available
positions, those finding professional
and te c h n ic a l jo b s re p re se n te d a
m uch sm aller percent o f the total,
only about 46 percent. A bout 19 p er­
cent entered managerial jobs and an­
o ther 8 percent entered sales jobs.

A bout 25 percent o f the graduates
spilled over into many occupations
not previously sought by o r filled by
g ra d u a te s—clerical, service, bluecollar and farm occupations, and to
som e e x ten t m anagerial and sales
occupations. M ost o f the increasing
proportions entering m anagerial and
sales jo b s probably rep resen ts u p ­
grading. U pgrading occurs as jo b s
becom e m ore com plex and therefore
require people with m ore education.
For example, as m anagerial and sales
jo b s previously filled by no n g rad ­
uates require an understanding o f
m ore com plex governm ent regula­
tio n s an d m ore so p h istic a te d a c ­
counting and inventory procedures,
em ployers may decide that a college
graduate is now needed for the jobs.
The great m ajority o f graduates who
to o k clerical, service, blue-collar,
and farm jobs over the 1969-76 peri­
od, however, did not en ter upgraded
positions.
In addition to a spilling over into
nontrad itio n al occupations, g rad u ­
ates also have experienced higher
rates o f unem ploym ent. From early
1969 to early 1976, the unem ploy­
m ent rate for all graduates increased
from less than 1 p ercen t to 2.4 p e r­
ce n t, and fo r g ra d u ates 20 to 24
years old, from 2.4 percen t to 6.1
percent. A lthough some o f this in­
crease can be attributed to generally
poor econom ic conditions, the rise in

the rate o f unem ploym ent of college
graduates reflects mostly an oversup­
ply o f graduates. Y oung graduates
still fared m uch better than young
high school graduates, however, who
had an unem ploym ent rate o f 14.1
percent. The difference in rates indi­
cates, fo r the most part, that gradu­
ates have been able to outbid non­
graduates for jobs rather than rem ain
unem ployed.
Overall, it is estim ated that about 1
out o f 4 graduates who entered the
labor force over the 1969 to 1976
period had to take the kind of jobs
not sought by or filled by graduates
in better times, or were unemployed.
The increased com petition among
graduates for jobs has also had an
adverse effec t on th e ir earnings.
While average salaries of newly hired
graduates have increased since 1969,
earnings o f nongraduates have in­
creased m ore rapidly. As a result, the
prem ium paid to college graduates
has declined (chart 8). Part of this
decline is due to the fact that com pe­
titio n fo r en try level positions in
ates—such as accounting, law, teach­
ing, and engineering has kept salaries
down. A nother is th at a num ber of
graduates have been forced to accept
lower paying jobs not filled by gradu­
ates in the past.
College graduates entering th e la­
bor force through the m id-1980’s are

g

Earnings of college graduates have declined
relative to earnings of high school graduates

Earnings of college graduates divided by earnings of high school graduates, 1969-75

4
1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

Source: Bureau of the Census

25

College graduates entering the labor force are
9
expected to exceed openings in jobs traditionally
filled by graduates by 2 7 million between 1976 and 1985
Millions of openings

N e w entrants

10.4

Job openings

0

2

10

12

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

likely to face jo b m arket conditions
very sim ilar to those faced by gradu­
ates during the early and m id-1970’s.
The num ber of labor force entrants
having a college degree is expected
to continue to exceed openings in the
types o f jobs traditionally sought by
graduates. A bout 3 graduates out of
4 are expected to continue to find the
kinds o f jo b s sought by graduates,
but about 1 graduate in 4 will have to
en ter nontraditional occupations or
face unem ploym ent.
It is estim ated th at about 10.4 mil­
lion college graduates will enter the
labor force over the 1976— period,
85
but only about 7.7 million jo b open­
ings in traditional jobs for college
graduates are expected. (See chart
9.) A bout half are projected to result
from growth in the kinds o f jobs filled
by graduates in the past and from
upgrading o f jobs, and half to replace
graduates who retire, die, or leave
the labor force for o th er reasons.
Like g raduates in th e early and
m id -1 9 7 0 ’s, fu tu re grad u ates may
have to w ork h arder at finding jobs
and may be less likely to find jobs in
the occupation o f their choice than
were g raduates during the 1960’s.
M any may continue to experience
periods o f unem ploym ent, o r move
from jo b to jo b in an attem pt to find
em ploym ent th at fits their abilities
and expectations. A substantial num ­
ber may continue to com pete with
26

nongraduates for the m ore desirable
jobs not previously filled by gradu­
ates. As in the past, college graduates
will have an advantage over those
w ith less ed u c atio n in m ost jo b s.
However, they may face com petition
in some fields from junior and com ­
munity college graduates who have
learned jo b related skills. In others,
such as high paying sales jobs, proven
sales ability may be m ore valued by
employers than a degree. G raduates
who are least well prepared for th e
jo b m a rk e t o r m ost unlucky will
clearly face the prospect o f underuti­
lization o f their skills and job dissatis­
faction. As in the early and m id1970’s, however, alm ost all will p ro b ­
ably be able to find a job, and few
should fa c e su stain ed u n em p lo y ­
ment.
While it is difficult to describe the
e m p lo y m e n t o u tlo o k fo r c o lle g e
g rad u ates optim istically, th e situ ­
ation should not be characterized as
bleak. Job satisfaction depends upon
a num ber o f factors th at are difficult
to analyze, and it is n o t possible to
classify all jobs as being appropriate
or not appropriate for graduates. T he
fact that an occupation has not trad i­
tio n a lly b e e n s o u g h t by c o lle g e
graduates does not necessarily m ean
th a t g rad u ates will be dissatisfied
with it. M any high paying jobs with
substantial responsibility have been
filled prim arily by non-college gradu­

ates in the past, and graduates can be
expected to move into these in great­
er num bers. G raduates who en ter
clerical, sales, and blue-collar jobs
may be able to prove their abilities
once on the job and be prom oted.
Some graduates who may take jobs
as clerks should eventually be able to
move into adm inistrative positions,
and those in craft and service-worker
jobs are likely to be able to advance
m ore quickly within their organiza­
tion, or start their own businesses.
Finding a jo b directly related to
o n e ’s m ajor field of study in college is
probably not necessary for job satis­
faction. A study of college graduates
found th a t m ost liberal arts gradu­
a te s—th o se whose college m ajors
were in fields such as English, histo­
ry, and psychology—working as busi­
ness adm inistrators w ere generally
quite happy with their jo b s.1It is like­
many o th er jobs, perm its graduates
to use th e writing, analytical, and in­
terpersonal skills developed by all
g rad u ates, regardless o f m ajor. If
graduates feel they are using those
skills, they are likely to be satisfied
with th eir jobs. A nother finding of
the study was that a substantial p ro ­
portion of graduates who were w ork­
ing in jobs they considered nonpro­
fessional, perhaps not fully utilizing
these skills, were nevertheless satified. Ideas about w hat constitutes an
ap p ro p ria te jo b for graduates are
changing. M ore and m ore graduates
see jobs as craft w orkers, farm ers,
and self-employed retail store m an­
agers, those associated with “ alterna­
tive life styles,’’ as m ore desirable
than the traditional jobs chosen by
graduates. This shift in attitudes has
tended to ease the problem s of un ­
derem ploym ent and job dissatisfac­
tion for many college graduates.
It should be pointed out that the
num ber of people actually obtaining
degrees and entering the labor force
may be lower than th at projected in
high school graduates, aware o f the
plight of college graduates, may de­
cide not to attend a 4-year college.
'( J o b S a tisfactio n A fter C ollege. . . T h e G rad u ates V iew ­
p oint, T he C P C F oundation, 1977. T h e study is a follow up o f
people who w ere freshm en in 1961, w hose highest degre e held
was a b a c h elo r's d egree, and who w ere w orking full tim e. It
was co n d u c te d betw een N ovem ber 1974 and M arch 1975).

They may decide th at attending a 2year com m unity or ju n io r college,
entering an apprenticeship, or find­
ing a jo b right out o f high school is a
b e tte r p re p a ra tio n for th eir long­
term career goals.
College enrollees already are m ak­
ing some adjustm ents in their selec­
tion o f m ajor field o f study. For ex­
am ple, the proportions preparing to
e n te r overcrow ded fields have d e­
clined. In teaching, it has declined
from 20 percen t in 1970 to 11 per­
cent in 1976, and lower proportions
are studying liberal arts as well. High­
er proportions are obtaining degrees

in career related m ajors such as engi­
neering, accounting, and public af­
fairs and service. While this does not
alter the num ber o f graduates who
are likely to seek jobs through the
m id -1 9 8 0 ’s, it may m ake graduates
b e tte r e q u ip p ed to co m p ete w ith
n o n g ra d u ates who have tech n ical
training or work experience in these
fields.
D espite the overall unfavorable
jo b outlook for college graduates,
those prepared to enter certain o ccu­
pations such as accountant, bank of­
ficer, com puter program m er, engi­

neer, and physician are expected to
have good em ploym ent opportuni­
ties. Even in overcrowded occupa­
tions, many of the better qualified
graduates will find jobs.
Knowledge about prospective em ­
ploym ent opportunities in various
occupations can enable individuals
to m ake a more informed decision
about w hether to attend college, and
if they do choose to attend, what
field to study. The following chapter
discusses the outlook for more than
100 occupations usually sought by

27

V. OCCUPATIONS
A C C O U N TA N TS
(D.O.T. 160.188)

Nature of the Work
M anagers must have up-to-date fi­
nancial inform ation to m ake im por­
tant decisions. A ccountants prepare
and analyze financial reports that
furnish this kind of inform ation.
Three m ajor accounting fields are
pub lic, m an ag em en t, and govern­
m ent accounting. Public account­
ants have th eir own businesses or
work for accounting firms. M anage­
m ent accountants, also called indus­
trial or private accountants, handle
the financial records of the com pany
they work for. G overnm ent account­
ants exam ine the records of govern­
m ent agencies and audit private busin e s s e s a n d i n d i v id u a ls w h o se
dealings are subject to governm ent
regulations.
A ccountants often concentrate on
one particular phase of accounting.
For exam ple, many public account­
ants specialize in auditing (reviewing
a clien t’s financial records and re­
ports to judge their reliability). O th­
ers specialize in tax m atters, such as
preparing incom e tax forms and ad­
vising their clients o f the advantages
decisions. Still others becom e spe­
cialists in m an ag em ent consulting
and give advice on a variety o f m at­
ters. They might develop or revise an
accounting system to serve the needs
of clients m ore effectively or give ad­
vice about different types of account­
ing equipm ent.
M anagem ent accountants provide
the financial inform ation executives
need to m ake sound business deci­
sions. They may choose to work in
areas such as taxation, budgeting, or
investments. Internal auditing is an
area of specialization within m anage­
m ent accounting that is rapidly grow­

ing in im portance. A ccountants who
w ork as internal auditors exam ine
and evaluate th eir firm ’s financial
system s and m an ag em en t co n tro l
procedures to ensure efficient and
econom ical operation.
Many accountants in the Federal
G overnm ent work as Internal Rev­
enue agents, investigators, and bank
exam iners; o th e r go v ern m en t a c ­
countants have regular accounting
positions.

Places of Employment
A bout 865,000 people worked as
accountants in 1976. Almost 20 p e r­
cent were Certified Public A ccount­
ants (C P A ’s) and nearly 12 percent
w ere C e rtifie d In te rn a l A u d ito rs
(C IA ’s).
A bout 60 percent o f all account­
an ts do m a n a g e m e n t a c c o u n tin g
work; one-fifth of these work as in­
ternal auditors. An additional 25 p e r­
cent are engaged in public account­
ing as p r o p r ie to r s , p a r tn e rs , o r
employees of independent account­
ing firms. O ther accountants work
for Federal, State, and local govern­
m ent agencies, and a small num ber
teach in colleges and universities.
O pportunities are plentiful for parttime work in accounting, particularly
in smaller firms.
A ccountants are found in all busi­
ness, industrial, and governm ent o r­
ganizations. Most, however, work in
large urban areas where many public
accounting firms and central offices
of large businesses are concentrated.
For example, over 20 percent of all
a c co u n tan ts are em ployed in ju st
four m ajor cities: Chicago; Los A n­
geles; New York; and W ashington,
DC.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Training in accounting is available
at colleges and universities, account­

ing and business schools, and corre­
spondence schools. Although many
dence schools are successful in small
firms, m ost large public accounting
and business firms require applicants
for accountant and internal auditor
positions to have at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting or a closely re­
lated field. Many employers prefer
those with the m aster’s degree in ac­
counting. A growing num ber of lafge
employers prefer applicants who are
fam iliar with com puter technology
for both accounting and internal au­
ditor positions. For beginning ac­
counting positions, the Federal Gov­
ernm ent requires 4 years of college
training (including 24 sem ester hours
in accounting) or an equivalent com ­
bination of education and experi­
ence. For teaching positions, most
colleges and universities require at
least the m aster’s degree or the C er­
tified Public A ccountancy C ertifi­
cate.
Previous work experience in ac­
counting can help an applicant get a
job. Many colleges offer students an
o p p o rtu n ity to g ain e x p e rie n c e
through internship program s co n ­
ducted by public accounting or busi­
ness firms.
Anyone working as a “ certified
public accountant” must hold a ce r­
tificate issued by the State board of
accountancy. All states use the CPA
examination, prepared by the Am eri­
can Institute of Certified Public A c­
countants, to establish certification.
Most successful candidates have col­
lege degrees, and three-fourths of the
States require CPA candidates to be
college graduates. Nearly all States
require applicants to have at least 2
years of public accounting experi­
ence for a CPA certificate.
R equirem ents vary, but more than
half the States restrict the title “ pub­
lic accountant” to those who are li­
censed o r registered. Some States
29

mathem atics. Neatness and accura­
cy also are necessary. Em ployers
seek applicants who can handle re­
sponsibility and work with little su­
pervision.
To get to the top in the profession,
accountants usually must continue
their study of accounting even
though they already have a college
degree or professional certificates.
They may participate in seminars
sponsored by various professional as­
sociations or take courses offered by
their employers. A growing num ber
of States require both C PA ’s and li­
censed public accountants to com ­
plete a certain num ber o f hours of
continuing education courses before
their licenses can be renewed. An
increasing num ber o f accou n tan ts
study com puter operation and p ro ­
gramming to adapt accounting p ro­
c e d u re s to new d a ta p ro c essin g
m eth o d s. A lthough ca p ab le a c ­
co u n tan ts should advance rapidly,
preparation may be assigned routine
jobs and find prom otion difficult.
Junior public accountants usually
start by assisting with auditing work
for several clients. They may ad­
vance to interm ediate positions with
more responsibility in 1 or 2 years
and to senior positions within anoth­
er few years. In larger firms, those
who deal successfully with top indus­
try executives often become supervi­
sors, managers, or partners, or trans­

Traveling auditor reviewing financial records at a company plant.

require only a high school diplom a
while others require 2 years of col­
lege o r m ore. Info rm ation on re ­
quirem ents may be obtained directly
from individual State boards o f ac­
countancy or from the National Soci­
ety of Public A ccountants.
The recognized m ark of com pe­
tence and experience in the field of
internal auditing is the designation,
C ertified In tern al A u d ito r (C IA ).
30

The Institute of Internal A uditors,
Inc., confers this designation upon
candidates who have com pleted 3
years’ experience in internal auditing
and who have passed a four-part ex­
a m in a tio n . B eginning in 1978, a
bachelor’s degree from an accredited
college or university also will be re ­
quired.
Persons planning a career in a c ­
counting should have an aptitude for

fer to executive positions in private
firms. Some open their own public
accounting offices.
Beginning m anagem ent account­
ants often start as ledger account­
ants, junior internal auditors, or as
trainees for technical accounting po­
sitions. They may advance to jobs
such as chief plant accountant, chief
cost accountant, budget director, or
m anager of internal auditing. Some
becom e controllers, treasurers, fi­
nancial vice-presidents, or corpora­
tion presidents. In the Federal G ov­
e rn m e n t, b eg in n ers are h ired as
trainees and usually are prom oted in
a year or so. In college and universi­
ty teaching, those having minimum
training and experience may receive
the rank of instructor without tenure;
advancem ent and perm anent faculty

status depend upon further educa­
tion and teaching experience.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Employment Outlook

Starting salaries o f beginning ac­
countants in private industry were
\$ 11,500 a year in 1976, according to
a survey in urban areas. Earnings o f
experienced accountants ranged b e ­
tween \$15,400 and \$23,400, depend­
ing on their level o f responsibility
and the com plexity of the accounting
system. In general, experienced ac­
countants earn about twice as m uch
as nonsupervisory w orkers in private
industry, except farming. C hief a c ­
countants who direct the accounting
program o f a com pany or one of its
e s ta b lis h m e n ts e a r n e d b e tw e e n
\$ 2 0 ,5 0 0 and \$ 3 3 ,9 0 0 , d ep en d in g
upon the scope o f their authority and
size of professional staff.
A ccording to the sam e survey, b e ­
ginning auditors averaged \$ 11,800 a
year in 1976, while experienced au ­
d ito r s ’ e a rn in g s ra n g e d b e tw e e n
\$16,100 and \$20,000.
In the Federal Civil Service, the
entrance salary for junior account­
ants and auditors was about \$9,300
in 1977. C andidates who had a supe­
rio r a c a d e m ic re c o rd re ceiv ed a
starting salary of about \$11,500. A p­
plicants with a m aster’s degree or 2
years’ professional experience began
at about \$ 14,100. A ccountants in the
Federal G overnm ent averaged about
\$21,800 a year in 1977.
A ccountants who specialize in in­
com e tax p re p a ra tio n w ork long
hours under heavy pressure during
the tax season; those em ployed by
national accounting firms may travel
extensively to c o n d u c t audits and
perform other services for their cli­
ents. The majority, however, work in
one office betw een 35 and 40 hours a
week, under the same general condi­
tions as fellow office workers.

E m p lo y m en t is e x p e c te d to in­
crease ab out as fast as the average
for all occupations through the mid19 8 0 ’s as businesses and governm ent
agencies continue to expand in size
and com plexity. In addition to jobs
resulting from grow th, many thou­
sands o f openings will result each
year w hen w orkers die, re tire , or
leave the occupation.
D em and for skilled accountants
will rise as m anagers rely m ore on
accounting inform ation to make
business decisions. For exam ple, offi­
cers o f large corporations base their
decisions concerning proposals such
as plant expansion, m ergers, or for­
eign in v e stm e n ts on in fo rm a tio n
about the financial condition o f the
firm , tax im plications o f the p ro ­
posed actio n , and o th e r consider­
ations. On a sm aller scale, owners of
small businesses are expected to rely
m ore and m ore on the expertise of
public accountants in planning their
operations. G o vernm ent legislation
to m onitor business activity also is
expected to add to the dem and for
accountants. An exam ple is the Pen­
sion Reform A ct o f 1974, which es­
tablishes m inimum standards for pri­
vate pension plans. This and other
legislation should create many new
jobs for m anagem ent accountants to
m aintain new systems and public ac­
countants to audit them .
Because o f the growing com plexity
in greater dem and than applicants
who lack this training. M any em ploy­
e rs p r e f e r g r a d u a te s w ho h av e
w orked p art tim e in a business or
a c c o u n tin g firm w hile in school.
Those who have been trained in a
specific phase o f accounting should
find ample opportunities.
As d ata processing systems contin­
ue to replace m anual preparation of
accounting records and statem ents,
the need for some acco u n tan ts to
perform routine tasks, particularly in
large firms, may be reduced. How­
ever, many opportunities will arise
for accountants w ithout a college de­
gree, mainly in small businesses and
public accounting firms.

Information
Inform ation about C P A ’s and
about aptitude tests in high schools,
colleges, and public accounting firms
may be obtained from:
American Institute of Certified Public A c­
countants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, N.Y. 10036.

F urther inform ation on specialized
fields of accounting is available from:

National Association of Accountants, 919
Third Ave., New York, N.Y. 10022.
National Society of Public Accountants, 1717
Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20006.
Institute o f Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland
Ave., Altamonte Springs, Fla. 32701.

ACTO RS AND ACTRESSES
(D.O.T. 150.028 and 150.048)

Nature of the Work
Making a character come to life
before an audience is a job that has
great glam our and fascination. This
dem anding work requires special tal­
en t and involves many difficulties
and uncertanties.
Only a few actors and actresses
achieve recognition as stars on the
stage, in m otion pictures, or on tele­
vision o r radio. A somewhat larger
num ber are well-known, experienced
perform ers, who frequently are cast
in supporting roles. However, most
actors and actresses struggle for a
toehold in the profession, and are
glad to pick up parts wherever they
can.
New stage actors generally start in
“ b it” parts where they speak only a
few lines. If successful, they may
progress to larger, supporting roles.
They also may serve as understudies
for the principals. Film and television
actors, in contrast, may begin in large
roles or move into programs from
working in commercials.
A ctors who prepare for stage,
screen, and television roles rehearse
many hours. They must memorize
their lines and know their cues.
In addition to the actors and ac­
tresses with speaking parts, “ extras,”
who have no lines to deliver, are used
in various ways in almost all m otion
pictures and many television shows
and theatre productions. In “ spectac­
u lar” productions, a large num ber of
extras take part in crowd scenes.
Some actors find alternative jobs
as coaches of dram a or directors of
stage, television, radio, or m otion
picture productions. A few teach in
31

dram a departm ents o f colleges and
universities.

Places of Employment
A bout 13,000 actors and actresses
w orked in stage plays, m otion pic­
tures (including films m ade especial­
ly for television), industrial shows,
and com m ercials in 1976.
In the w inter, m ost em ploym ent
opportunities on the stage are in New
York and o th er large cities. In the
sum m er, stock com panies in subur­
ban and reso rt areas provide em ploy­
m ent. In addition, many cities have
“ little th e a tre s ,” rep erto ry com pa­
nies, and dinner theatres, which p ro ­
vide opportunities for local talent as
well as for professional actors and
actresses. N orm ally, plays are p ro ­
duced and casts are selected in New
Y ork City for shows th a t go “ on the
ro a d .”
Em ploym ent in m otion pictures
and film television is essentially cen ­
tered in Hollywood and New York
City, although a few studios are lo­
cated in M iami and o th er parts of the
country. In addition, m any films are
shot on location, and em ploy local
professionals and nonprofessionals as
“ day p layers” and “ extras.” A num ­
ber o f A m erican-produced films are
being shot in foreign countries. In
television, m ost opportunities for ac­
tors are at the headquarters of the
m ajor netw orks—in New York, Los
Angeles, and, to a lesser extent, C hi­
cago. A few local television stations
occasionally employ actors.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Young persons who aspire to act­
ing careers should take part in high
school and college plays, or work
with little theatres and other acting
groups for experience.
Form al training in acting, which is
increasingly necessary, can be o b ­
tained at dram atic art schools, locat­
ed chiefly in New Y ork, and in hun­
d red s o f colleges and universities
throughout the country. A bout 760
c o lle g e s a n d u n iv e rs itie s c o n fe r
bach elo r’s or higher degrees on stu­
dents who m ajor in dram atic and th e­
ater arts. College dram a curriculum s
usually include courses in liberal arts,
32

Acting demands patience and total commitment.

speech, pantom im e, directing, play­
writing, play production, and history
of the dram a, as well as practical
courses in acting. From these, the
student develops an appreciation o f
the great plays and a greater under­
standing o f the roles he or she may be
called on to play. G raduate degrees
in fine arts or dram a are needed for
college teaching positions.
Acting dem ands patience and total
com m itm ent, since aspiring actors
and actresses m ust wait for parts o r
filming schedules, work long hours,
and often do m uch traveling. Flaw­
less perform ances require the tedious
m em orizing o f lines, which som e­
times involves long rehearsal sched­
ules. O th er perform ances, such as

television programs, often allow little
time for rehearsal, so that the actor
m ust d eliver a good perform an ce
with very little preparation. The ac­
tor needs stam ina to withstand the
heat of stage or studio lights, or the
adverse weather conditions that may
exist “ on location.” Above all, p er­
sons who plan to pursue an acting
career m ust have talent and the c re ­
ative ability to portray different ch ar­
acters. They must have poise, stage
presence, and aggressiveness to proj­
ect them selves to the audience. At
the sam e time, the ability to follow
directions is im portant.
In all m edia, the best way to start is
to use local o p p o rtu n ities and to
build on the basis of such experience.

Many actors who are successful in
local productions eventually try to
appear on the New York stage. M od­
eling experience may also be helpful
in obtaining em ploym ent in televi­
sion or m otion pictures.
To becom e a movie extra, one
must usually be listed by C entral
Casting, a no-fee agency that works
with the Screen E xtras Guild and
supplies all extras to the m ajor movie
studios in Hollywood. A pplicants are
accepted only when the num ber of
persons o f a particular type on the
list—for example, athletic young
men, old ladies, or small children—is
below the foreseeable need. In recent
years, only a very small proportion of
the total num ber of applicants have
succeeded in being listed. An actor
employed as an extra in a film has
very little opportunity to advance to
a speaking role in th at film.
T he length o f an a c to r’s o r ac­
tress’s working life depends largely
on skill and versatility. G reat actors
and actresses can work alm ost indefi­
nitely. On the other hand, em ploy­
m ent becom es increasingly limited
by middle age, especially for those
w ho b e c o m e ty p e d in ro m a n tic ,
youthful roles. Due to the factors dis­
cussed, persons who intend to pursue
an acting career may find unstable
em ploym ent conditions and financial
pressures.

Employment Outlook
Overcrow ding has existed in the
acting field for many years, and this
condition is expected to persist. In
the legitim ate th eate r, m otion pic­
tures, radio, and television, job appli­
cants greatly exceed the jobs avail­
able. M o reo v er, m any ac to rs and
actresses are em ployed in their pro­
fession for only a p art of the year.
M otion pictures and TV have
greatly reduced em ploym ent oppor­
tunities for actors in the theater. Al­
though a m otion picture production
may use a very large num ber o f ac­
tors during filming, films are widely
d is trib u te d and m ay be used fo r
years. A lso, som e A m e ric a n -p ro ­
duced films are shot in foreign coun­
tries, resulting in reduced em ploy­
m en t o p p o rtu n ite s fo r A m erican
actors and actresses. Television em ­
ploys a large num ber of actors on TV

program s and com m ercials. H ow ­
ever, em ploym ent in this m edia has
been reduced by the FCC ruling th at
decreased m ajor TV netw ork prim e
time programming. Local stations of­
ten substitute with reruns or with low
cost game shows that employ few a c ­
tors. Also, the trend tow ard 1- to 2h o u r p ro g ra m s an d m o re re ru n s
shortens the period o f em ploym ent
and reduces the num ber of persons
needed.
One possibility for future growth in
the legitim ate theater lies in the es­
tab lish m en t o f year-round p ro fes­
sional acting com panies in cities. The
n u m b er o f such ac tin g groups is
growing. The recent growth of sum ­
m er and w inter stock com panies,
outdoor and regional theatre, rep er­
tory com panies, and dinner theaters
also has increased em ploym ent o p ­
p o rtu n itie s. In ad d itio n , som e in ­
creases may be likely in the em ploy­
m e n t o f a c to rs on te le v isio n in
response to expansion of the Public
Broadcasting System, UHF stations,
and cable TV. The developm ent and
wider use of video cassettes also may
result in some em ploym ent opportu­
nities. These m edia will have a posi­
tive influence on em ploym ent only if
original m aterial and program s re ­
sult, not reruns or old movies.
Though the field o f acting as a
whole is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s, the num ber
of persons seeking to enter the p ro ­
fession is ex p ected to far exceed
available openings. Even highly tal­
ented young people are likely to face
stiff com petition and econom ic diffi­
culties.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
A ctors and actresses in the legiti­
m ate theater belong to the A ctors’
Equity Association; in m otion p ic­
tures, including television films, to
the Screen A ctors Guild, Inc., or to
the Screen Extras Guild, Inc.; in tele­
vision or radio, to the Am erican F ed­
eration of Television and Radio A rt­
ists (A FTR A ). These unions and the
show producers sign basic collective
b arg ain in g a g re e m e n ts w hich set
m inim um salaries, hours o f w ork,
and other conditions of em ploym ent.

Each actor also signs a separate con­
tract, which may provide for higher
salaries than those specified in the
basic agreem ent.
The minimum weekly salary for
actors in Broadway productions was
about \$285 in 1976. Those in small
minimum of \$175 a week. For shows
on the road, the minimum rate was
about \$395 a week. (All minimum
salaries are adjusted upward au to ­
m atically, by union contract, com ­
m ensurate with increases in the cost
of living as reflected in the Bureau of
Labor Statistics Consum er Price In­
dex.)
In 1976, motion picture and televi­
sion actors and actresses earned a
minimum daily rate of \$172.50, or
\$604 for a 5-day week. For extras,
the minimum rate was \$52.50 a day.
A ctors and actresses who did not
work on prime time network televi­
sion received a minimum program
fee of about \$232.50 for a single p ro ­
gram and 8 hours of rehearsal time.
tional com pensation for reruns.
However, annual earnings of ac­
tors and actresses are adversely af­
fected by the frequent periods of un­
em ploym ent experienced by many.
According to recent surveys by the
A cto rs’ Equity Association (which
represents actors who work on the
stage) and the Screen Actors Guild,
almost three quarters of their m em ­
bers earned \$2,500 or less a year
from acting jobs, and only about 3
percent earned over \$25,000 from
such work. Because of the frequent
periods of unem ploym ent character­
istic of this profession, many actors
m ust supplem ent their incom es by
maintaining other, non-acting jobs.
In all fields, many well-known ac­
tors and actresses have salary rates
above the minimums. Salaries of the
few top stars are many times the fig­
ures cited.
Eight perform ances am ount to a
w eek’s work on the legitimate stage,
and any additional perform ances are
paid for as overtime. After the show
opens, the basic workweek is 36
hours, including 12 hours for re ­
hearsals. Before it opens, however,
the workweek usually is longer to al­
low tim e for reh earsals. E vening
work is, of course, a regular part o f a
33

stage a c to r’s life. R ehearsals may be
held late at night and on weekends
and holidays. W hen plays are on the
road, w eekend traveling often is nec­
essary.
M ost actors are covered by a union
health, welfare and pension fund, in­
cluding hospitalization insurance, to
which em ployers contribute. U nder
some em ploym ent conditions, Equity
and AFTRA m em bers have paid va­
cations and sick leave. Most stage
actors get little if any unem ploym ent
c o m p e n s a tio n solely from a c tin g
since they seldom have enough em ­
ploym ent in any State to m eet the
eligibility requirem ents. C onsequent­
ly, when they are betw een acting jobs
they often have to take any casual
work they can find.

Information
Inform ation on colleges and uni­
versities and conservatories that of­
fer a m ajo r in d ram a is available
from:
American Theater Association, 1029 Vermont
Ave., NW., Suite 402, Washington, D.C.
20005.

A C TU A R IE S
(D .O .T. 020.188)

die during this period is a risk to the
co m p an y . T hey th e n c a lc u la te a
price for assuming this risk that will
be profitable to the com pany yet be
co m p etitiv e w ith o th e r in su ran ce
com panies. Finally, they m ust m ake
sure that the price charged for the
insurance will enable the com pany to
pay all claims and expenses as they
occur. In the same m anner, the ac tu ­
ary calculates prem ium rates and d e ­
term ines policy co n tract provisions
for each type o f insurance offered.
M ost actuaries specialize in eith er
life and health insurance or property
and liability (casualty) insurance; a
growing num ber specialize in p en ­
sion plans.
To perform their duties effectively,
actuaries must keep inform ed about
general econom ic and social trends,
and legislative, health, and other d e ­
velopm ents that may affect insurance
practices. B ecause o f th eir bro ad
know ledge o f insurance, com pany
actuaries may work on problem s aris­
ing in their com pany’s investm ent,
group underwriting, or pension plan­
ning departm ents. A ctuaries in ex­
ecutive positions help determ ine gen­
eral com pany policy. In th at role,
they may be called upon to explain
complex technical m atters to com pa­
ny executives, governm ent officials,
policyholders, and the public. They
may testify before public agencies on
proposed legislation affecting the in­

surance business, for example, or ex­
plain intended changes in premium
rates or contract provisions.
A ctuaries who work for the Feder­
al G overnm ent usually deal with a
particular insurance or pension p ro­
gram, such as social security or life
insurance for veterans and members
o f the A rm ed Forces. Actuaries in
State governm ent positions regulate
insurance com panies, supervise the
o p eratio n s o f S tate retirem en t or
pension systems, and work on p ro b ­
lems connected with unem ploym ent
insurance or w orkers’ com pensation.
Consulting actuaries set up pension
and welfare plans for private com pa­
nies, unions, and governm ent agen­
cies. They calculate future benefits
and determ ine the am ount of the an­
nual em ployer contribution. A ctuar­
ies w ho a re e n ro lle d u n d e r th e
provisions of the Employee R etire­
m ent Income Security Act of 1974
(E R IS A ) e v a lu a te th e se p en sio n
plans and subm it reports certifying
their financial soundness.

Places of Employment
A p p ro x im a te ly 9 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s
worked as actuaries in 1976. Four of
every 10 actuaries worked in five m a­
jo r cities—New York, Hartford, C hi­
cago, Philadelphia, and Boston.
About two-thirds of all actuaries
worked for private insurance com pa­
nies. A lm ost 90 p ercen t of these

Nature of the Work
Why do young persons pay m ore
for autom obile insurance than older
persons? How m uch should an insur­
ance policy cost? Answers to these
and similar questions are provided by
pension plans that can be m aintained
on a so u n d fin an cial basis. T hey
assemble and analyze statistics to cal­
culate probabilities o f death, sick­
ness, injury, d isability, unem ploy­
m ent, retirem ent, and property loss
from accident, theft, fire, and other
potential hazards. A ctuaries use this
inform ation to determ ine the expect­
ed insured loss. For exam ple, they
m ay ca lc u la te how m any persons
who are 21 years old today can be
expected to live to age 6 5 —the prob­
ability th at an insured person m ight
34

Employment of actuaries is influenced by the volume of insurance sales.

worked for life insurance com panies; exam inations covering the pension
the rest worked for property and li­ field. Because the first parts of the
ability (c asu alty ) com panies. The exam ination series o f each society
num ber of actuaries em ployed by an co v e r sim ilar m a te ria ls, stu d e n ts
insurance com pany depends on the need not com m it themselves to a c a ­
volume o f its business and the num ­ reer specialty until they have taken
ber and types of insurance policies it about four examinations. Success in
offers. Large com panies may employ passing the first few exam inations
over 100 actuaries on their staffs; helps students evaluate their p oten­
others, generally sm aller com panies, tial as actu aries. T hose who pass
may rely instead on consulting firms these exam inations usually have b et­
or rating bureaus (associations that te r o p p o rtu n itie s for em ploym ent
supply a c tu a ria l d a ta to m em ber and receive a higher starting salary.
com panies).
A ctuaries are encouraged to com ­
C onsulting firm s and rating bu­ plete an entire series o f exam inations
reaus employ about one-fifth o f all as soon as possible. It generally takes
actuaries. O ther actuaries work for from 5 to 10 years to com plete the
private organizations adm inistering series required for full professional
in d e p e n d e n t pen sio n and w elfare status. Exam inations are given twice
plans or for Federal and State gov­ each year. Extensive hom e study is
ern m en t agencies. A few teach in req u ired in o rd e r to pass the a d ­
colleges and universities.
vanced examinations; many actuaries
spend as m uch as 20-25 hours a week
studying. A ctuaries who com plete
Training, Other Qualifications,
five exam inations in either the life
insurance series or the pension series
A good educational background or seven exam inations in the casualty
for a beginning job in a large life or series are aw arded “ associate” m em ­
casualty com pany is a bachelor’s de­ bership in their respective society.
gree with a m ajor in m athem atics or Those who have passed an entire se­
statistics; a degree in actuarial sci­ ries receive full m em bership and the
ence is even better. Some com panies title “ fellow.”
Consulting pension actuaries who
hire applicants with a m ajor in engi­
neering, econom ics, or business ad­ service private pension plans and
m inistration, provided they dem on­ certify their solvency m ust be e n ­
s tra te a th o ro u g h fo u n d a tio n in rolled by the Joint Board for the E n­
calculus, probability, and statistics rollm ent of Actuaries. Applicants for
(2 0 -2 5 h o u r s ) . O th e r d e s ira b le enrollm ent must m eet certain experi­
courses are insurance law, econom ­ ence and education requirem ents as
ics, and accounting. Although only stipulated by the Joint Board.
Beginning actuaries often rotate
25 colleges and universities offer a
degree in actuarial science, several among different jobs to learn various
hundred schools offer a degree in actuarial operations and to becom e
familiar with different phases of in­
m athem atics or statistics.
A strong background in m athem at­ surance work. At first, their work
ics is essential for persons interested may be rather routine, such as p re ­
in a career as an actuary. O f equal paring calculations or tabulations for
im portance, however, is the need to actuarial tables or reports. As they
pass while in school one or m ore of gain experience, they may supervise
the exam inations offered by profes­ actuarial clerks, prepare correspon­
sional societies. T hree societies spon­ dence and reports, and do research.
A dvancem ent to m ore responsible
sor program s leading to full profes­
sional status in their speciality. The work as assistant, associate, and chief
Society of A ctuaries gives 9 actuarial actuary depends largely on job p er­
exam inations for the life and health form ance and the num ber of actu ar­
in su ran c e and p en sio n field, the ial exam inations passed. Many ac tu ­
Casualty A ctuarial Society gives 10 a r ie s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r b r o a d
exam inations for the property and li­ knowledge of insurance and related
ability field, and the Am erican Soci­ fields, are selected for adm inistrative
ety of Pension A ctuaries gives nine positions in other com pany activities,

p a rtic u la rly in u n d erw ritin g , a c ­
counting, or data processing depart­
m ents. Many actuaries advance to
top executive positions.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent of actu aries is ex­
pected to rise faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to job openings
resulting from this growth, several
hundred actu aries will be needed
each year to replace those who re­
tire, die, or transfer to other occupa­
tions. Job opportunities will be best
for new college graduates who have
passed a t least two actuarial exami­
nations while still in school and have
a strong m athem atical and statistical
background. However, because of
the large num ber of persons expect­
ed to receive degrees in actuarial sci­
ence, m athem atics, and statistics,
and the large num ber of students tak ­
ing actuarial examinations, com peti­
tion for beginning jobs should remain
keen.
Employment in this occupation is
influenced to a great extent by the
volume of insurance sales, which will
continue to grow over the next d ec­
ade. Shifts in the age distribution of
the p o p u latio n thro u g h the m id1980’s will result in many more peo­
ple with established careers and fam ­
ily responsibilities. This is the group
that traditionally has accounted for
the bulk of private insurance sales.
Increased sales, however, are only
one determ inant of the demand for
actuaries. In addition, changes in ex­
isting insurance practices are creat­
ing a need for more actuarial servic­
es. As m ore and m ore insurance
co m p an ies b ran ch o u t into m ore
than one kind of insurance coverage,
a greater num ber of actuaries will be
needed to establish the rates for the
variety o f insurance offered. Growth
in sales of relatively new forms of
protection, such as dental, prepaid
legal, and kidnap insurance will cre­
ate additional demand for actuaries.
As more States pass competitive rat­
ing laws, many companies that previ­
ously relied on rating bureaus for ac­
tu a ria l d a ta can be ex p e cted to
expand existing a c tu a ria l d e p a rt­
ments o r create new ones.
35

R ecent court decisions concerning
product liability have focused m uch
attention on this com plex area. In the
years ahead, actuaries will be spend­
ing a lot o f time developing better
ways to pro v id e p ro d u c t liability,
m edical m alp ractice, and w o rk ers’
com pensation insurance protection.
A doption of a “ no-fault” autom o­
bile insurance plan requires com pa­
nies writing autom obile insurance to
reevaluate their pricing structures in
light of no-fault requirem ents. It is
uncertain w hether Federal no-fault
legislation will be enacted soon; how ­
ever, the growing num ber of States
enacting no-fault plans or revising
existing o n es in d ic a te s c o n tin u e d
strong dem and for actuaries to m ake
the required analyses.
ERISA has im posed strict respon­
sibilities on actuaries for the opera­
tion and funding of pension plans. As
the num ber of pension plans contin­
ues to grow, there will be an increas­
ing need for pension specialists to
develop adequately financed plans
and to prepare the reports that certi­
fy their solvency.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, actuaries had average
salaries m ore than twice as high as
the average for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming. New college graduates en ­
tering the life insurance field without
having passed any actuarial exams
averaged \$10,600 in 1976, according
to a survey o f U.S. com panies by the
Life Office M anagem ent Association
(LO M A ). Applicants who had suc­
cessfully com pleted the first exam re­
ceived \$ 11,200 and those who had
passed two exams averaged \$11,800.
In the Federal G overnm ent, new
graduates with the b ach elo r’s degree
could start at \$9,300 a year in 1977.
Applicants with either 1 year of
graduate study or relevant work ex­
perience were hired at \$11,500, and
those with the m aster’s degree or 2
years’ experience started at \$14,100
a year. A ctuaries in the Federal Gov­
ernm ent averaged \$25,100 a year in
1977.
Beginning actuaries can look for­
ward to a m arked increase in earn ­
ings as they gain professional experi­
36

ence and advance in an actu arial
society’s exam ination program . Life
in su ran ce co m panies usually give
m erit increases averaging from \$500
to \$850 to their actuaries as they pass
each successive exam ination leading
to m em bership in the Society of A c­
tuaries. Associates who received that
d e s i g n a t i o n in 1 9 7 6 a v e r a g e d
\$16,500 a year; salaries for actuaries
who were aw arded a full fellowship
during th at year averaged \$24,800.
Fellows with additional years of ex­
perience earned substantially m ore—
top a c tu a rial executives averaged
about \$43,000 in 1976.
Although data are not available for
salaries paid actuaries in casualty
com panies or consulting firms, it is
believed that salaries for these spe­
cialists generally are com parable to
those paid by life insurance com pa­
nies.

Information
For facts about actuarial opportu­
nities and qualifications, contact:
American Society of Pension Actuaries, 1700
K St., NW„ Washington, D.C. 20006.
Casualty Actuarial Society, 200 East 42nd St.,
New York, N.Y. 10017.
Society of Actuaries, 208 South LaSalle St.,
Chicago, 111. 60604.

A D V E R TIS IN G W ORKERS
(D.O.T. 050.088; 132.088; 141.081
and .168; 162.158; and 164.068
through .168)

Nature of the Work
Almost every business, from a
small grocery store to a large bank,
does some form of advertising to
or use its services. Advertising re ­
quires the talents of people in many
d iffe re n t kinds o f jo b s. C rea tiv e
workers such as writers, artists, and
designers develop and produce ad ­
vertisem ents, while people with busi­
ness and sales ability handle the a r­
ra n g e m e n ts fo r b ro a d c a stin g th e
sion, publishing them in newspapers

or magazines, mailing them directly,
or posting them on billboards. The
following occupations are those most
com m only associated with advertis­
ing.
vertising program of the businesses
for which they work. They determ ine
the size of the advertising budget, the
type of ad and the m edia to use, and
what advertising agency, if any, to
employ. M anagers who decide to em ­
ploy an agency work closely with the
advertising specialists from the agen­
cy. These m anagers may supervise
the preparation of pam phlets, b ro ­
chures, o r other m aterials developed
to prom ote the firm ’s products or
services. Advertising m anagers w ork­
ing for new spapers, radio stations,
and o th e r com m unications m edia
have so m ew h a t d iffe re n t d u ties.
They are responsible for selling ad­
vertising time or space, and do work
that is similar to the work of sales
managers in other businesses.
Account executives are em ployed
by advertising agencies to develop
advertising programs for client firms
and individuals. They first study the
client’s sales, public image, and ad­
vertising problems, and then create a
program that suits the client’s needs.
In most agencies, artists and copy­
writers are responsible for develop­
ing the actual artwork and advertis­
ing copy, but in some small agencies,
the account executives have this re­
sponsibility.
Research directors and their assis­
tants study the m arket. They review
possible uses for the product or ser­
vice being sold, com pare its advan­
tages or disadvantages with those of
co m p etito rs, and suggest ways of
reaching potential buyers. To devel­
op m arket information, these w ork­
ers may survey buying habits and m o­
tives of customers, or try out sample
ads to find the them e or medium th at
best sells the product. (See the state­
m ent on marketing research workers
tion.)
the headlines and text to be used in
the ads. By studying inform ation
about the product and its potential
custom ers, they are able to write
copy aim ed at the particular group of

custom ers the advertiser seeks to at­ er people in the advertising field
tract. They may specialize in writing worked for printers, art studios, let­
copy for a certain group o f people, ter shops, package design firms, and
such as business m anagers, teenag­ similar businesses.
ers, or sports lovers, or for a class of
products, such as cars or com puter
Training, Other Qualifications,
e q u ip m e n t. C o p y w rite rs u su ally
w ork closely with ac co u n t ex ecu ­
M ost em ployers prefer college
tives. In som e agencies, they may be
graduates. Some em ployers seek p e r­
supervised by copy chiefs.
Artists and layout workers create sons with degrees in advertising with
the visual im pact o f an ad by select­ heavy em phasis on m arketing, busi­
ing p h o to g rap h s, draw ing illu stra­ ness, and journalism ; others prefer
tions or figures, and selecting the size graduates with a liberal arts b ack ­
or type o f print to be used in a m aga­ ground (social science, lite ratu re ,
zine or new spaper ad. W hen televi­ art, and other disciplines); some em ­
sion com m ercials are planned, they ployers place little em phasis on the
usually sketch sample scenes for the type of degree.
No p artic u la r educational b a c k ­
client to consider. (S ee the sta te ­
m en ts on co m m eric al artists and ground is equated with success in ad ­
photographers for m ore inform ation vertising. In fact, relevant work expe­
rience may be m ore im portant than
on this type of w ork.)
educational background. Experience
Media directors (o r space buyers
and time buyers) negotiate contracts selling ads for school publications o r
for advertising space or air time. radio stations, or on a sum m er jo b
They determ ine the day and time with a m arketing research service,
when a television com m ercial will can be a distinct advantage to the
reach the largest group of prospec­ jobseeker.
Som e organizations re cru it o u t­
tive buyers at the lowest cost. To se­
standing college graduates for train ­
lect the best medium for the advertis­
er, m edia directors m ust know the ing program s that cover all aspects o f
costs o f using various m edia and the advertising work. In other firms, em ­
ployees im mediately enter a specialty
c h a r a c te r i s t ic s o f th e a u d ie n c e
and do not gain such all-round expe­
reached by specific publications or
rience. Some beginners start as re ­
television stations.
search or production assistants or as
Production managers and their as­
space or time buyers. A few begin as
sistants arrange to have the ad print­
junior copywriters.
ed for publication, film ed for televi­
Many advertising jobs require
sion, or re co rd e d for radio. They
im agination, creativity, and a flair for
m ust know which firms or freelance
language. These traits are especially
workers will be able to produce the
im portant to artists, layout w orkers,
best ad for the least cost.
and account executives. All creative
effort m ust be directed toward the
Places of Employment
sales function. People interested in
becom ing advertising m anagers, a c ­
In 1976, about 180,000 people count executives, m edia buyers, and
w orked in jobs requiring consider­ production m anagers m ust be able to
able knowledge of advertising. Those get along well with people and be
em p lo y ed in ad v e rtisin g agencies able to sell their ideas. R esearch d i­
w ere heavily co n c en trate d in New rectors and their assistants m ust have
York City, Los Angeles, and C hica­ an understanding of hum an behavior.
go.
All advertising w orkers m ust be able
Many others worked in the adver­ to accept criticism of their work and
tising departm ents o f m anufacturing be able to function as part o f a team .
firm s, re ta il sto res, banks, pow er
O pportunities for advancem ent in
com panies, professional and trade this field generally are excellent for
associations, and many other organi­ creative, talented, and hard-working
zations. Some people had advertising people. For example, copyw riters
jobs with television or radio stations, and account executives may advance
newspapers, and magazines. Still oth­ to more responsible work in their

specialties, or to m anagerial jobs, if
they dem onstrate ability in dealing
with clients. Some especially capable
workers may becom e partners in an
existing agency, or they may estab­
lish their own agency.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of advertising w ork­
ers is expected to increase faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Most open­
ings, however, will result from the
need to replace workers who die, re­
tire, or leave the occupation for o th ­
er reasons.
The growing num ber o f consum er
and industrial goods and increasing
com petition in many product and
service m arkets will cause advertis­
ing expenditures to rise. Such expen­
ditures also may be spurred by the
growing tendency toward self service
in retail m arketing. An additional
factor is the growing need of small
ing services. Em ployment in advertis­
ing occupations is strongly affected
by general business conditions be­
cause firms expand or contract their
a d v e rtisin g b u d g ets acco rd in g to
their financial success. Although op­
portunities should be favorable for
highly qualified applicants, particu­
larly in re ta il advertising, o th ers
seeking entry jobs will face keen
com petition because the glamorous
nature o f the field attracts many p eo ­
ple.
Local television, radio, and news­
papers are expected to increase their
share o f total advertising expendi­
tures while direct mail, magazines,
and national newspapers continue to
lose ground. The few very large agen­
cies th at account for nearly all na­
tional advertising are expected to
m aintain fast growth because of their

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Based on limited inform ation, an­
nual salaries for beginning advertis­
ing w orkers with bachelor’s degrees
ranged from \$8,000 to \$10,000 in
1976. Higher starting salaries gener­
ally were paid by the largest firms or
advertising agencies to outstanding
37

For additional inform ation on ca­
reers and a list o f colleges that p ro ­
vide training in advertising, contact:
American Advertising Federation, 1225 Con­
necticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

A IR TR A FFIC
CO N TR O LLE RS
(D.O.T. 193.168)

Nature of the Work

Advertising can be a satisfying career for persons who enjoy variety, creative
challenges, and competition.

ap p lican ts, p articu larly those w ith
Salaries o f experienced advertising
w orkers varied by size and type of
firm as well as by type o f job. A c­
cording to a survey o f advertising
agencies tak en in 1975, average an­
nual salaries o f w orkers in selected
occupations were as follows: C hief
executive officer, \$45,300; account
supervisor, \$28,400; account execu­
tive, \$18,500; executive art director,
\$24,400; a rt director, \$17,100; sen­
ior layout artist, \$12,900; junior lay­
o u t a r t i s t , \$ 9 ,3 0 0 ; c o p y c h ie f ,
\$22,300; senior copyw riter, \$16,600;
ju n io r copyw riter, \$10,500; m edia
director, \$ 16,800; space or tim e buy­
e r , \$ 9 ,4 0 0 ; r e s e a r c h d i r e c t o r ,
\$24,000; research analyst, \$13,500;
p ro duction m anager, \$14,400. Sev­
eral o th er surveys yielded these re­
sults: In 1976, the top advertising of­
ficers in large retail firms averaged
over \$32,000 a year; in 1975, the
m edian salary o f advertising direc­
to rs in la rg e b a n k s ra n g e d fro m
\$16,000 to \$17,000 a year; in 1975,
th e av e rag e salary o f ad v ertisin g
m anagers in a wide variety o f com pa­
nies ranged from \$ 18,000 to \$34,000
a year, depending upon the annual
sales volum e o f the firm. Salaries of
advertising m anagers generally are
higher in consum er th an industrial
38

products firms, and m any receive in­
centive com pensation.
People in advertising work under
great pressure, and do not have th e
job security enjoyed by workers in
many o th er occupations. These
workers are expected to produce
quality ads in as short a tim e as
possible. Sometim es they m ust w ork
long o r irregular hours to m eet d ead ­
lines o r m ake last-m inute changes.
A c c o u n t ex e cu tiv es, co p y w rite rs,
and la y o u t w o rk ers m ay b e c o m e
frustrated by a clien t’s inability to
define the type o f ad he or she wants
for a product.
Advertising can be a satisfying c a ­
reer for persons who enjoy variety,
excitem ent, creative challenges, and
com petition. Unlike w orkers in m any
other occupations, advertising w ork­
ers ex p e rien ce th e satisfactio n o f
having their work in print, on televi­
sion, o r on radio, even though they
rem ain unknow n to th e public at
large.

Information
Inform ation on advertising agen­
cies and the ca ree rs they offer is
available from:
American Association of Advertising Agen­
cies, 200 Park Ave. New York, N.Y.
10017.

Air traffic controllers are the
guardians o f the airways. C ontrollers
keep track o f planes flying within
their assigned area, giving pilots in­
structions that will keep the planes
separated. Their im m ediate concern
is safety, but within this fram ework,
controllers m ust d irect planes effi­
ciently to m inim ize delays. Som e
regulate airport traffic; others regu­
late flights between airports.
From the control tower, airport
traffic controllers can see the planes
that are on the ground and in the air
nearby. Planes that are farther away
or at a higher altitude show up on the
radar screen. As planes approach an
the tow er o f their presence and re­
quest perm ission to land. If the way is
clear, controllers direct the pilots to
a runway; if the airport is busy, co n ­
trollers fit the plane into a traffic p a t­
tern w ith other aircraft waiting to
land. They also provide pilots with
inform ation about conditions at the
a irp o rt, such as th e w eather, th e
speed and direction o f the wind, and
the visibility. C ontrollers constantly
observe the planes under their d irec­
tion, and if a controller notices th at
two planes are on a collision course,
one of th e pilots will be instructed to
turn o r change altitude.
A sim ilar procedure is used for
takeoffs. If necessary, a tem porary
break in traffic is arranged, the plane
is instructed to depart, and a control­
ler observes it on radar to guide the
pilot around other planes.
A fter each plane departs, airport
traffic controllers notify the enroute
controllers who will be next to tak e

Training, Other Qualifications,

Controllers coordinate flight activities to prevent accidents and expedite takeoffs and
landings.

charge. T here are 25 enroute control
centers located around the country.
Enroute controllers work in team s of
two or three. Because airplanes gen­
erally fly along specially designated
routes, each team is assigned a cer­
tain am ount o f airspace along one of
these routes. A team , for example,
m ight be responsible for all planes
th at are betw een 30 to 100 miles
north o f the airport and flying at an
altitude betw een 6,000 and 18,000
feet.
W hen a plane enters a team ’s air­
space, one controller com m unicates
with the pilots by radio and follows
the plan e’s flight path on radar. The
remaining team m em bers prepare for
other planes about to en ter their area
by com m unicating with neighboring
control towers and adjacent centers,
and organizing flight plans coming
over teletype m achines and com put­
er displays. These plans were filed by
pilots and provide controllers with
inform ation such as when a plane will
enter the team ’s airspace and at what
altitude.
Enroute controllers also warn pi­
lots about nearby pianes, bad w eath­
er conditions, and o ther possible haz­
ards. If two planes are on a collision
course they will be directed around
each other. Or if a pilot wants to
change altitude in search of better
flying conditions, the controller will

check to d eterm ine th at no o th er
planes will be along the proposed
path during the altitude change.
As the flight progresses, the team
responsible for the aircraft notifies
the next team that will be in charge.
Through this coordination, one team
after another watches over the plane
until it safely arrives at its destina­
tion.
C ontrollers usually have several
planes under their control at one
time, and often have to make quick
decisions about com pletely different
activities. For example, an airport
controller might be directing a plane
on its landing approach, and at the
same time be providing pilots just
entering the airp o rt’s airspace with
inform ation about conditions at the
airport. W hile instructing these pi­
lots, the controller also would be o b ­
serving other planes in the vicinity,
such as those in a holding pattern
waiting for permission to land, to d e­
term ine th at they rem ain well sepa­
rated.

Places of Employment
The sole em ployer of civilian air
traffic controllers is the Federal Avi­
ation A dm inistration (FA A ). A bout
21,000 persons worked as air traffic
controllers in 1976, mostly at m ajor
airports and air route traffic control
centers located near large cities.

Air traffic controller trainees are
selected through the com petitive
Federal Civil Service System. Appli­
cants m ust be less than 31 years old
and m ust pass a written test that m ea­
sures their ability to learn and p er­
form the controller’s duties. In addi­
tion, applicants must have 3 years of
general work experience or 4 years
of college, or a com bination of both.
Applicants with sufficient experience
as military controllers, pilots, or navi­
gators may be hired without taking
the written test. Applicants must be
in excellent health and have vision
correctable to 20/20.
Potential controllers should be ar­
ticu late, since directions to pilots
must be given quickly and clearly. A
quick and retentive memory also is
im portant because controllers con­
planes under their direction which
they m ust immediately grasp, inter­
pret, and rem em ber for a short p eri­
od. A decisive personality is an asset,
since controllers often have to make
rapid decisions.
Successful applicants receive a
com bination of on-the-job and for­
mal training to learn the fundam en­
tals of the airway system, Federal avia tio n re g u la tio n s , c o n tr o lle r
equipm ent, and aircraft perform ance
c h a ra c te ristic s. T hey receiv e a p ­
proxim ately 16 weeks of intensive
training, including practice on simu­
lators, a t the FAA Academy in O kla­
hom a City. It usually takes 2 to 3
years of progressively more respon­
sible work experience to becom e a
fully qualified controller. Each year,
controllers must pass a physical ex­
am ination; they must pass a job p er­
form ance exam ination twice each
year.
C ontrollers can transfer to jobs at
different locations and advance to
supervisory positions. Some advance
to m ore responsible m anagem ent
jobs in air traffic control and a few to
top administrative jobs in the FAA.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of air traffic control­
lers is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
39

through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from growth,
many others will arise as experienced
controllers retire, die, or leave the
occupation for o ther reasons. C om ­
p e titio n fo r jo b s should be keen,
h o w ev er, b ec au se th e n u m b er o f
qualified applicants is expected to be
m uch g re a te r than the num ber o f
openings.
As th e n u m b e r o f a irc ra f t in ­
creases, th e skyways will becom e
m ore congested and m ore controllers
will be needed. Also, to prevent col­
lisions, the FAA has created spaces
near certain airports and above ce r­
tain altitudes which require all pilots
to receive directions from air traffic
controllers. If, as expected, the num ­
ber and size of these spaces are ex­
panded, additional controllers will be
n eed ed desp ite the g re ater use of
new, autom ated control equipm ent.
College graduates who have civil­
ian or m ilitary experience as control­
lers, pilots, or navigators, will have
the best em ploym ent opportunities.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976 controller trainees earned
\$11,500 a year; the average earnings
for all controllers was \$22,300 a
year, or over twice the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, ex cep t farm ing. D epending
on length o f service, they receive 13
to 26 days o f paid vacation and 13
days o f paid sick leave each year, life
insurance, health benefits, and, due
to the stress involved in the work, a
m o re lib e ra l re tire m e n t p ro g ram
than oth er Federal employees.
C ontrollers work a basic 40-hour
week; however, they may work addi­
tional hours for which they receive
overtim e pay or equal time off. Be­
cause c o n tro l tow ers and ce n te rs
m ust be operated 24 hours a day, 7
days a week, controllers are assigned
to night and weekend shifts on a ro ­
tating basis.
Air traffic controllers som etimes
work under great stress. They m ust
keep track of several planes at the
same time and m ake certain all pilots
receive co rrect instructions.
Many controllers belong to the
Professional Air Traffic C ontrollers
Organization.
40

Information
A pam phlet providing general in­
form ation about controllers and in­
structions for subm itting applications
is available from any U.S. Civil Ser­
vice C om m ission Job Inform ation
C en ter. Look under U.S. G overn­
m ent, Civil Service Commission, in
your telephone book to obtain a local
Job Inform ation C en ter telephone
num ber and call for a copy of A n­
nouncem ent 418. If there is no listing
in your telephone book, dial the tollfree num ber 800-555-1212 and re ­
quest the toll-free num ber of the U.S.
Civil Service Commission Job Infor­
m ation C enter for your location.

A IR P LA N E PILOTS
(D.O.T. 196.168, .228, .268, and
.283)

Nature of the Work
Pilots are skilled, highly trained
professionals who fly planes to carry
out a wide variety o f tasks. Although
most pilots transport passengers and
cargo, many others perform tasks
such as crop dusting, inspecting
power lines, and taking photographs.
Except on small aircraft, two pilots
usually are needed to fly the plane.
Generally, the m ost experienced pi­
lot (called captain by the airlines) is
in com m and and supervises any o th ­
er crew m em bers on board. The co ­
pilot assists in com m unicating with
air traffic controllers, m onitoring the
instrum ents, and flying the plane.
Most large airliners have a third pilot
in the cockpit who serves as flight
engineer. The flight engineer assists
the other pilots by m onitoring and
operating many of the instrum ents,
making m inor inflight repairs, and
looking out for other aircraft.
Before departure, pilots plan their
flights carefully. They confer with
dispatchers and w eather forecasters
to find out about w eather conditions
on route and at their destination.
Based on this inform ation, they
choose a route, altitude, and speed
that will give a fast, safe, and sm ooth

flight. It is the responsibility of the
pilot in com m and to inform air traffic
control of the flight plan so that the
flight can be coordinated with other
air traffic.
Before taking off, pilots thorough­
ly check their planes to determ ine
th a t the engines, controls, in stru ­
m ents, and o th er com ponents are
working properly. They also m ake
sure that baggage or cargo has been
Takeoff and landing are the most
difficult parts of the flight and re­
quire close coordination between the
pilot and copilot. For example, as the
plane accelerates for takeoff, the pi­
lot concentrates on the runway while
the copilot scans the instrum ent pan ­
el. The pilots already have calculated
the speed they must attain to becom e
airborne, taking into account the alti­
tude of the airport, the weight of the
plane, and the speed and direction of
the wind. The m om ent the plane
reaches this speed, the copilot in­
forms the pilot who then pulls back
on the controls to raise the nose of
the plane.
Unless the w eather is bad, the ac­
tual flight is relatively easy. Pilots
steer the plane along their planned
route, and radio their position, air
speed, and other flight details to the
air traffic control stations they pass
along th e way. They continuously
scan the instrum ent panel to check
their fuel and the condition of their
engines. Pilots may request a change
in altitude or route if circum stances
dictate. For example, if the w eather
briefing led the pilots to expect a
sm oother ride than is being experi­
enced, they may ask air traffic con­
trol if pilots flying at other altitudes
have reported better conditions. If
so, they may request a change. This
procedure also may be used to find a
stronger tailwind or a weaker head­
wind to save fuel and increase speed.
If visibility is poor, pilots must rely
com pletely on their instruments.
Using the readings on the altim eter,
they know how high above ground
they are and can fly safely over
m ountains and other obstacles. A
inform ation which, with the help of
special maps, tells them their exact
position. O ther, very sophisticated

traveled airports not serviced by the
airlines. Others worked for a variety
as crop dusting, inspecting pipelines,
or conducting sightseeing trips. Fed­
eral, S tate, and local governm ents
also employed pilots.
Most pilots work at the major air­
ports located close to cities. In fact,
over one-third of all pilots work near
seven m etropolitan areas—Los An­
geles, San Francisco, New York, Dallas-Fort W orth, Chicago, Miami, and
Atlanta.

Training, Other Qualifications,

equipm ent provides directions to a
point ju st above the end o f a runway
and enables pilots to land com pletely
“ blind.”
Once on the ground, pilots must
com plete records on their flight for
their com pany and the Federal Avi­
ation Adm inistration (FA A ).
Airline pilots have the services of
large support staffs and consequently
perform few nonflying duties. Pilots
employed by businesses that use their
own aircraft, however, usually are
the businesses’ only experts on flying
and consequently have many other
duties. For example, since pilots un­
derstand the requirem ents for a bal­
the plane and handles all passenger
luggage. While the plane is being re­
fueled, the business pilot stays with it
to assure th at the job is done proper­
ly. O ther nonflying responsibilities
include keeping records, scheduling
flights and m ajor m aintenance, and

perform ing minor m aintenance and
repair work on their planes. Some
pilots are instructors and spend m uch
o f their tim e giving flying lessons.
They teach their students the princi­
ples of flight in ground school classes
and dem onstrate how to operate the
aircraft in “ dual-controlled” planes.
A few specially train ed pilots are
“ evaluators” or “ check pilots.” They
fly with each airline pilot and copilot
at least twice a year to make sure th at
they are proficient.

Places of Employment
A bout 83,000 civilian pilots
worked full time in 1976. A bout onehalf worked for the airlines. M uch o f
the rem ainder worked as flight in­
structors at local airports or for large
businesses th a t use th eir own a ir­
planes to fly com pany cargo and ex­
ec u tiv e s. Som e p ilo ts flew sm all
planes for air taxi com panies, usually
flying passengers to or from lightly

All pilots who are paid to transport
passengers or cargo must have at
least a commercial pilot’s license
from the FAA. To qualify for this
license, applicants must be at least 18
years old and have at least 250 hours
of flight experience. They also must
pass a strict physical examination to
make sure that they are in good
health, have 20/20 vision with or
without glasses, good hearing, and no
physical handicaps that prevent
quick reactions. Applicants must
pass a written test that includes ques­
tions on the principles of safe flight,
n av ig atio n tec h n iq u e s, and FAA
regulations; and dem onstrate their
flying ability to FAA examiners.
In addition to a com m ercial li­
cense, pilots who want to fly in bad
weather must be licensed by the FAA
to fly by instrum ents. Pilots may
qualify for this license by having 40
hours of experience flying by instru­
ments, passing a written examination
on procedures and FAA regulations
covering instrum ent flying, and dem ­
onstrating their ability to fly by in­
strum ents.
Airline pilots must fulfill additional
requirem ents. They must pass FAA
written and flight examinations to
earn a flight engineer’s license. C ap­
tains m ust have an airline transport
pilot’s license. Applicants for this li­
cense m ust be at least 23 years old
and have a minimum of 1,500 hours
of flying experience during the previ­
ous 8 years, including night and in­
strum ent flying.
All licenses are valid as long as a
pilot can pass the required physical
41

exam inations and the periodic tests
o f flying skills dem anded by govern­
m ent regulations.
Flying can be learned in military or
civilian flying schools. Either kind of
training satisfies the flight experience
requirem ents for licensing, but p er­
sons serving in the A rm ed Forces
have the opportunity to gain the sub­
stan tial ex p erien ce on je t a irc raft
th at is preferred by airlines and many
Pilots hired by airlines m ust be
high school graduates; however,
m ost airlines require 2 years of col­
lege and prefer to hire college gradu­
ates. Because pilots m ust be able to
m ake quick decisions and accurate
ju d g m en ts u n d er p re ssu re, airline
com panies give all applicants psy­
chological tests and reject those who
do not pass.
New airline pilots usually start as
flight engineers. A lthough airlines fa­
vor applicants who already have a
flight e n g in e e r’s license, they may
train those who have only the com ­
m ercial license. All new pilots re ­
ceiv e se v e ra l w eek s o f in ten siv e
training in sim ulators and classrooms
before being assigned to a flight.
C om panies other than airlines gen­
erally do n o t require as m uch flying
experience. However, a com m ercial
p ilo t’s license is required and com pa­
nies prefer applicants who have ex­
perience in the type o f plane they will
be flying. New em ployees generally
start as copilots.
A dvancem ent for all pilots gener­
ally is limited to other flying jobs.
Many pilots start as flight instructors,
building up their flying hours while
they teach. As they becom e m ore ex­
perienced, these pilots occasionally
may have the opportunity to fly ch ar­
ter planes and perhaps get jobs with
small air transportation firms such as
air taxi com panies. Some advance to
business flying jobs. Only a small
num ber get flight engineer jobs with
the airlines because the airlines p re­
fer pilots who have been trained in
the military.
In the airlines, advancem ent usual­
ly depends on seniority provisions es­
tablished by union contracts. A fter 5
to 10 years, flight engineers advance
acco rd in g to seniority to co -p ilo t
and, after 10 to 20 years, to captain.
42

Seniority also determ ines which pi­
lots get the m ore desirable routes. In
non-airline jobs, copilots may a d ­
vance to pilot and, in large com pa­
nies, to chief pilot in charge of air­
craft scheduling, m aintenance, and
flight procedures.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of pilots is expected
to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. In addition to the jobs from
em ploym ent growth, openings will
result as experienced pilots die o r
retire. C om petition for job openings
should be keen, however, because
the num ber of qualified pilots seek­
ing jobs is expected to exceed the
num ber of openings.
M ore than half the openings for
pilots will occur outside the airlines.
Businesses are expected to operate
an increasing num ber of planes and
employ m ore pilots to fly executives
and cargo to locations that the sched­
uled airlines do not service. M ore
flight instructors also will be needed
to train new pilots.
The expected growth in airline
passenger and cargo traffic will c re ­
ate a need for m ore airliners and
m ore pilots to fly them . The short
term outlook, however, is poor. The
recent slowdown in air travel com ­
bined with the introduction of bigger
planes has caused a tem porary d e­
crease in the need for airline pilots.
Therefore, many of the new jobs th at
do develop will be taken by experi­
enced airline pilots now on furlough.
R ecent college graduates who
have experience flying large, multiengine aircraft and who have a com ­
m ercial p ilo t’s license and a flight
en g in eer’s license can expect first
consideration for jobs with the m ajor
airlines. Businesses generally have
fewer formal education and experi­
en c e re q u ire m e n ts th a n airlin es.
However, these com panies prefer ap ­
plicants with flying experience in the
type of plane they will be flying on
the job.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings of airline pilots are
among the highest in the Nation. In

1976, the average salary for airline
pilots was \$46,253 a year. Starting
salaries for flight engineers averaged
\$9,000 a year, while some senior
captains on the largest aircraft
earned m ore than \$80,000. Earnings
depend on factors such as the type,
size, and speed of the planes, and the
num ber of hours and miles flown.
Extra pay is given for night and inter­
n atio n al flights. As an add itio n al
benefit, pilots and their im m ediate
families usually are entitled to a lim­
ited am ount of reduced fare trans­
portation on their own and other air­
lines.
Earnings of business pilots ranged
from \$10,000 for copilots on small
planes to \$45,000 for chief pilots of
com panies with large jets. Most busi­
ness pilots flying single-engine planes
m ade from \$14,200 to \$19,000 a
year while salaries of those flying jets
ranged from \$16,500 to \$29,500.
Most flight instructors m ade between
\$7,000 and \$16,000 a year while an­
nual salaries for air taxi pilots ranged
from \$12,000 to \$17,000.
By law, airline pilots cannot fly
more than 85 hours a m onth. Most
airline pilots actually fly less than 70
hours a month and, although they
have additional nonflying duty hours,
usually only work 16 days a m onth.
However, the majority of flights in­
volve layovers away from hom e.
W hen pilots are away from home, the
airlines provide hotel accom m oda­
tions and an allowance for expenses.
Airlines operate flights at all hours of
the day and night, so work schedules
often are irregular. Pilots with little
seniority may be assigned night or
early morning flights.
Pilots em ployed outside the air­
lines often have irregular schedules;
they may fly 30 hours one m onth and
90 hours the next. Since these pilots
frequently have many nonflying re­
sponsibilities, they have m uch less
free time than airline pilots. With the
exception of business pilots, most pi­
lots employed outside the airlines do
not rem ain away from hom e over­
night. They may w ork odd hours,
how ever. Instructors, for exam ple,
often give lessons at night or on
weekends.
Although flying does not involve
much physical effort, the mental

stress o f being responsible for a safe
flight, no m atter what the w eather,
can be very tiring. Particularly during
takeoff and landing, pilots m ust be
alert and ready to act if som ething
goes wrong.
M ost airline pilots are m em bers of
the Air Line Pilots Association, In­
ternational. Those em ployed by one
m ajor airline are m em bers of the Al­
lied Pilots Association.

Information
Inform ation about job opportuni­
ties in a particular airline, and the
qualifications required, may be ob­
tained by writing to the personnel
m anager o f the airline. Addresses of
airline com panies are available in the
booklet The People o f the Airlines.
For a copy, write to:
Public Relations Department, Air Transport
Association of America, 1709 New York
Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

For inform ation ab out the duties,
as well as the physical and education­
al re q u irem en ts for airline pilots,
contact:
Air Line Pilots Association, International,
1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

For inform ation about job oppor­
tunities in com panies other than air­
lines, consult the classified section of
aviation trade m agazines and apply
to com panies th at operate aircraft at
local airports.

A N T H R O P O LO G IS TS
(D.O.T. 055.088)

Nature of the Work
Anthropologists study m an—his
origins, physical characteristics, and
culture. These areas o f study exam ­
ine p eo p le’s traditions, beliefs, cus­
tom s, languages, m ateria l posses­
sions, social relationships, and value
systems. A lthough anthropologists
generally specialize in one of four
specific areas—cultural anthropolo­
gy, archeology, linguistics, and phys­
ical anthropology—they are expect­

ed to have a general knowledge of all
of them .
Most anthropologists specialize in
cultural anthropology, som etim es
called ethnology. Ethnologists may
spend long periods living with tribal
groups or in m odern com m unities to
learn about their ways o f life. The
cultural anthropologist lives with a
group o f people to observe and write
about their social custom s, beliefs,
and m aterial possessions. They usu­
ally learn the native language in the
process. They also m ake com para­
tive studies of the cultures and soci­
eties of various groups. In recent
years, investigations have included
few er prim itive societies and m ore
com plex urban societies, including
ghetto inhabitants, drug addicts, and
the aged.
Archeologists study cultures which
no longer exist or have changed
greatly. They study the remains o f
homes, tools, clothing, ornam ents,
and other evidences o f hum an life
and activity to reconstruct the in­
habitants’ history and customs. For
example, in a desert in New Mexico,
archeologists uncovered an ancient
kiva— an Indian religious cham ber.
In a cave by the Dead Sea, some have
found pieces of ancient scrolls 2,000
years old. A rcheological team s also
have excavated three large prehistor­
ic com m unities along the Illinois Riv­
er.
Linguistic anthropologists study the
evolution of language and the place
of language in a culture. They exam ­
ine the sounds and structure of a so­
ciety’s language and relate them to
the behavior and thought patterns o f
m em bers of that society. Such stud­
ies may be used to trace the diffusion
o f a language or people over wide
geographical areas.
Physical anthropologists studying
hum an evolution investigate how the
physical characteristics of different
races or groups of people are influ­
enced by heredity and environm ent.
This work requires extensive training
in hum an anatom y, biology, genetics,
and the study of prim ates (the order
o f mammals that includes man, apes,
and m onkeys). A physical an th ro ­
pologist may identify a fossil o f a h u ­
man ancestor or teach a chim panzee
to com m unicate with sign language.

A knowledge of body structure en­
ables physical an th ro p o lo g ists to
work as consultants on projects such
as the design of cockpits for airplanes
and spaceships, and the sizing of
clothing.
Most new em ploym ent opportuni­
ties are expected to be in applied an­
thropology, a specialty which uses the
findings o f anthropology in a practi­
cal m anner.
Applied cultural an­
thropologists may, for example, p ro­
vide technical guidelines to ease the
transition o f nonindustrial societies
to a m ore complex level of socioeco­
nomic organization, or a medical an­
thropologist studying cultural a tti­
tudes tow ards health and m edical
treatm ent may help form ulate and
adm inister a health program for an
e th n ic m in o rity . M any m ed ical
schools hire medical anthropologists
as instructors.
Applied linguistic anthropologists
may create a written alphabet to help
advance literacy in societies with un­
w ritten languages. A nother related
specialty area is urban anthropology,
the study of urban life, urbanization,
rural-urban migration, and the influ­
ence of city life.
Most anthropologists teach in col­
leges and universities, and they often
co m b in e teac h in g w ith researc h .
Some specialize in m useum work,
which generally com bines adminis­
trative duties with fieldwork and re­
search on anthropological co llec­
tions. A n th ro p o lo g ists also w rite
cultural, social, and archeological
im pact statem ents for proposed G ov­
ernm ent projects. Some work in busi­
ness and industry including construc­
tion firms or engage in nontechnical
writing.

Places of Employment
About 3,500 persons worked as
anthropologists in 1976. About fourfifths of all anthropologists work in
colleges and universities. The F eder­
al G overnm ent employs a small but
growing num ber, chiefly in museums,
national parks, the Bureau of Indian
Affairs, the Army C orps of E ngi­
neers, and technical aid programs.
State and local governm ent agencies
employ anthropologists, usually for
m useum work or health research.
43

Some work as consultants in private,
co m m u n ity , o r o v erseas d e v e lo p ­
m ent organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Students who w ant to becom e an ­
thropologists should obtain the Ph.
D. degree. College graduates with
b ach elo r’s degrees often get tem po­
rary positions and assistantships in
graduate departm ents w here they are
w orking fo r advanced degrees. A
m a s te r’s d eg ree, plus field ex p eri­
ence, is sufficient for m any beginning
professional positions, b u t prom otion
to top positions generally is reserved
for individuals who have a Ph. D.
degree. M any colleges and universi­
ties require a Ph. D. degree for p er­
m anent teaching appointm ents. P er­
sons w ith a m aster’s o r b a c h e lo r’s
degree in anthropology may be hired
as governm ent social science analysts
or placed in m anagerial positions by
private em ployers.
A stu d en t interested in studying
anthropology should have a strong
background in the social and phys­
ical sciences. M athem atics is helpful,
since statistical and com puter m eth­
ods are becom ing m ore widely used
for research in this field. U ndergrad­
uates may begin th eir field training in
a rc h e o lo g y by arran g in g , th ro u g h
their university departm ents, to ac­
com pany expeditions as laborers or
to attend field schools established for
training. They may later becom e su­
pervisors in charge o f the digging or
collection o f m aterial and finally may
direct a portion o f the work of the
ex p ed itio n . E th n o logists and lin­
guists usually do their fieldwork in­
dependently. M ost anthropologists
base their doctoral dissertations on
data collected through field research;
th ey a re , th e re fo re , e x p e rie n c e d
fieldw orkers by the tim e they earn
the Ph. D. degree.
Nearly 300 colleges and universi­
ties have b ach elo r’s degree program s
in anthropology; some 130 offer m as­
te r’s degree program s and about 80,
doctoral program s. T he choice of a
graduate school is very im portant.
Students interested in m useum work
should select a school which is asso­
ciated with a m useum that has an ­
thropological collections. Similarly,
44

those interested in archeology should
choose either a university that offers
opportunities for sum m er experience
in archeological fieldwork, or attend
an archeological field school else­
where during sum m er vacations.
Anthropologists should have spe­
cial interest in natural history and
social studies and enjoy reading, re ­
search, and writing. Traveling to re ­
m ote areas, working in an uncom ­
f o r ta b le c lim a te , a n d liv in g in
primitive housing are som etimes n ec­
essary.
A nthropologists work with ideas
and have the opportunity for self-ex­
pression. They should be able to
work independently and with detail.
(F o r inform ation on advancem ent,
see the Handbook statem ent on C ol­
lege and University T eachers.)

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f anthropologists is
expected to increase about as fast as
the average for all occupations. M ost
new jobs are expected to be in p ri­
vate industry, the Federal G overn­
m ent, m ental and public health agen­
c i e s , an d u rb a n p la n n in g
d e p a rtm e n ts o f city governm ents.
C o lleg e an d u n iv ersity te a c h in g ,
which will rem ain the largest area o f
em ploym ent for anthropologists, is
likely to have little growth due to the
projected slowdown in college e n ­
rollments.
The num ber of qualified an th ro ­
pologists seeking to enter the field
will likely exceed available positions.
As a result, doctorate holders may
face keen com petition through the
m id-1980’s, particularly for jobs in
colleges and universities. G raduates
with only bachelor’s and m aster’s d e­
grees are expected to face very keen
com petition, although they may be
preferred for some nonacadem ic p o ­
sitions. Some teaching positions may
be available in junior colleges or high
schools for those who m eet state c e r­
tification requirem ents.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Starting salaries for an th ro p o lo ­
gists with a Ph. D. degree were gener­
ally about \$16,000 a year in 1976.
M ost ex p e rien ce d an th ro p o lo g ists
e a r n e d b e t w e e n \$ 1 7 ,0 0 0 a n d

\$27,000 a year, according to limited
data available. In general, salaries of
experienced anthropologists are a lit­
tle less than the average for all social
science professional workers.
In the Federal G overnm ent, an­
thropologists having a bachelor’s de­
g re e c o u ld b eg in as tra in e e s at
\$9,303 or \$11,523 a year in 1977,
depending upon the applicant’s aca­
dem ic record. The starting salary for
those having a m aster’s degree was
\$14,097 a year, for those having a
Ph. D., \$17,056. Anthropologists in
the F ederal G overnm ent averaged
around \$23,800 in 1977.
Many anthropologists in colleges
and universities supplem ent their
regular salaries with earnings from
other sources such as sum m er teach ­
ing and research grants.
Anthropologists som etimes are re­
quired to do fieldwork under adverse
w eather conditions. They also m ust
adapt themselves to cultural environ­
m ents which are materially and so­
cially different.

Information
F or in fo rm atio n ab o u t em ploy­
m ent opportunities and schools th at
offer g rad u ate training in an th ro ­
pology, contact:
The American Anthropological Association,
1703 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.
The Archeological Institute of America, 260
W. Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10013.

ARCHITECTS
(D.O.T. 001.081)

Nature of the Work
A ttractive buildings improve the
physical environm ent of a com m uni­
ty. But buildings also must be safe
and m ust allow people both inside
and around them to perform their
duties properly. A rchitects design
buildings that successfully com bine
th ese e le m e n ts of a ttra c tiv e n e ss,
safety, and usefulness.

M ost a rch itects provide p ro fes­
sional services to clients planning a
building project. They are involved
in all phases o f developm ent of a
building or project, from the initial
discussion o f general ideas to the fi­
nal piece o f construction. Their du­
ties require a variety o f skills—de­
sign, engineering, m anagerial, and
supervisory.
The architect and client first dis­
cuss the purposes, requirem ents, and
cost o f a project, as well as any pref­
erence in design th at the client may
have. T he arch itect th en prepares
schem atic drawings to show the scale
and stru ctu ral relationships o f the
building.
If the schem atic drawings are ac­
cepted, the architect develops a final
design showing the floor plans and
the structural details o f the project.
For exam ple, in designing a school,
the architect determ ines the width of
corridors and stairways so that stu­
dents may move easily from one class
to another; the type and arrangem ent
o f storage space, and the location
and size o f classrooms, laboratories,
lunchroom or cafeteria, gymnasium,
and adm inistrative offices.
Next the architect prepares work­
ing drawings showing the exact di­
mensions o f every p art of the struc­
ture and the location o f plumbing,
heating units, electrical outlets, and
air conditioning.
A rchitects also specify the building
m aterials, and, in som e cases, the
interior furnishings. In all cases, the
architect m ust insure th at the struc­
tu re ’s design and specifications con­
form to lo cal and S ta te building
codes, zoning laws, fire regulations,
and other ordinances.
T hroughout this time, the architect
may m ake changes to satisfy the cli­
ent. A client may, for exam ple, d e­
cide that an original house plan is too
expensive and ask the architect to
make modifications. O r clients may
decide th at their own ideas are more
appealing than those of the architect.
As a result, architects could becom e
frustrated, redesigning their plans to
m eet the clients’ expectations.
A fter all drawings are com pleted,
the architect assists the client in se­
lecting a co ntractor and negotiating

Training, Other Qualifications,
the contract. As construction p ro ­
ceeds, the architect m akes periodic
visits to the building site to insure
All States and the District of C o­
that the contractor is following the
design, using the specified m aterials, lum bia require architects to be li­
and m eeting the specified quality censed. To qualify for the 2-day li­
standards. The job is not com pleted censing exam, a person must have
until construction is finished, all re ­ either a bachelor of architecture de­
quired tests are m ade, bills are paid, gree followed by 3 years of experi­
and guarantees are received from the ence in an architect’s office or a m as­
ter of architecture degree followed
contractor.
A rchitects design a wide variety o f by 2 years of experience. As a substi­
structures such as houses, churches, tute for formal training, most States
hospitals, office buildings, and air­ accept additional experience (usual­
ports. They also design multibuilding ly 12 years) and successful com ple­
com plexes for urban renewal proj­ tion of a qualifying test for admission
ec ts, college cam puses, industrial to the licensing examination. Many
parks, and new towns. Besides d e­ architectural school graduates work
signing stru c tu re s, a rch itects also in the field even though they are not
may help in selecting building sites, licensed. However, a registered ar­
preparing cost and land-use studies, chitect is required to take legal re­
and long-range planning for site d e­ sponsibility for all work.
In 1976, the National A rchitectur­
velopm ent.
W hen working on large projects o r al Accrediting Board had accredited
for large architectural firms, archi­ 80 of the 101 schools offering profes­
tects often specialize in one phase o f sional degrees in architecture. Most
the work such as designing, or ad ­ of these schools offer a 5-year cu r­
m inistering construction contracts. riculum leading to a Bachelor of A r­
This often requires working with en ­ chitecture degree or a 6-year cu r­
gineers, urban planners, landscape ric u lu m lead in g to a M a ste r o f
architects, and other design person­ A rchitecture degree. Students also
may transfer to professional degree
nel.
program s after completing a 2-year
ju n io r o r com m unity college p ro ­
Places of Employment
gram in architecture. Many architec­
A b o u t 5 0 ,0 0 0 r e g is te r e d ( l i ­ tural schools also offer graduate edu­
censed) architects were em ployed in cation for those who already have
1976. In addition, many unlicensed their first professional degree. Al­
architectural schpol graduates also though such training is not essential
work as architects, but they m ust for practicing architects, it often is
work u n d er the supervision o f li­ desirable for those in research and
teaching. A typical college architec­
censed architects.
Most architects work in architec­ tural program includes courses in ar­
tural firms, for builders, for real es­ chitectural theory, design, graphics,
tate firm s, or for o th er businesses engineering, and urban planning, as
th a t have large co n stru c tio n p ro ­ well as in E nglish, m ath em atics,
grams. Some work for governm ent chemistry, sociology, economics, and
agencies, often in city and com m uni­ a foreign language.
Persons planning careers in archi­
ty planning or urban redevelopm ent.
A bout 1,300 architects work for the tecture should be able to work in­
Federal G overnm ent, mainly for the d ep e n d en tly , have a capacity for
D ep artm en ts o f D efense, H ousing solving technical problem s, and be
and U rban D evelopm ent, and the artistically inclined. They also must
be prepared to work in the com peti­
G eneral Services Adm inistration.
Although found in many areas, a tive environm ent of business where
large proportion of architects are leadership and ability to work with
em ployed in seven cities; Boston, others are important. W orking for ar­
Chicago, Los Angeles, New Y ork, chitects or building contractors d u r­
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and ing sum m er vacations is useful for
gaining practical knowledge.
W ashington.
45

ments for architects to teach in col­
leges and universities.
Growing public concern about the
quality o f the physical environm ent is
expected to increase the dem and for
urban redevelopm ent and city and
com m unity environm ental planning
projects. This should create further
opportunities for employment. (See
statem en t on urban planners else­
where in the Handbook.)

Earnings and Working
Conditions

New graduates usually begin as junior drafters in architectural firms.

New graduates usually begin as ju ­
nior d rafters in architectural firms,
w h ere th ey p re p a re a rc h ite c tu ra l
drawings and m ake m odels o f struc­
tures under the direction o f a regis­
tered architect. A fter several years of
e x p e rie n c e , they m ay advance to
chief or senior drafter responsible for
all m ajor details o f a set o f working
drawings and for supervising other
drafters. O thers may work as design­
ers, co nstruction co n tract adm inis­
trators, or specification writers who
prepare directions explaining the ar­
ch itect’s plan to the builder. Em ploy­
ees who becom e associates in their
firms receive, in addition to a salary,
a share o f the profits. Usually, how­
ever, the arch itect’s goal is to own his
or her own business.

Employment Outlook
A rchitects are expected to face
c o m p e titio n fo r jo b s th ro u g h the
m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. A lthough em ploym ent
of architects is expected to rise about
as fast as the average for all workers
during this period, the num ber of d e­
grees granted in architecture also has
46

been increasing rapidly. If this trend
c o n tin u e s, th e n u m b er of peo p le
seeking em p lo y m en t in th e field
could exceed the num ber o f openings
from g ro w th , d e a th s, and re tir e ­
ments. The best em ploym ent pros­
pects are expected to occur in the
South and in those States which do
not have architectural schools.
The outlook for these workers may
change, however, during short-run
periods. Because the dem and for
architects is highly dependent upon
the level of new construction, any
significant upsurge or downturn in
building could tem porarily alter d e ­
mand.
Most job openings are expected to
be in architectural firms but some
openings are also expected to occur
in colleges and universities, construc­
tion firms, and the Governm ent.
The m ajor factor contributing to
the increase in em ploym ent of archi­
tects is the expected rapid growth o f
nonresidential construction. In addi­
tion, the projected increase in enroll­
m en ts in a r c h ite c tu ra l p ro g ra m s
should result in additional require­

The average salary for architects in
1976 was well over \$20,000, accord­
ing to the limited inform ation avail­
able. Architects with well-established
p riv a te p ra c tic e s g en e ra lly e a rn
m uch m ore than even highly paid
salaried em ployees o f architectural
firms. A lthough the range in their
incomes is very wide, some architects
with many years of experience and
good reputations earned well over
\$35,000 a year. Architects starting
their own practices may go through a
period when their expenses are great­
er than their income. Annual income
may fluctuate due to changing busi­
ness conditions.
In 1977, the average salary for
architects working in the Federal
G overnm ent was about \$23,000.
Most architects spend long hours
at the drawing board in well
equipped offices. An architect som e­
times has to work overtime to m eet a
deadline. The routine often is varied
by interviewing clients or contractors
and discussing the designs, construc­
tion procedures, or building m ateri­
als of a project with other architects
or engineers. C ontract adm inistra­
tors frequently work outdoors during
inspections at construction sites.

information
General inform ation about careers
in architecture, including a catalog of
publications, can be obtained from:
The American Institute of Architects, 1735
New York Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20006.

Inform ation about schools of ar­
chitecture and a list of junior colleges
offering courses in architecture are
available from:

The Association of Collegiate Schools of Ar­
chitecture, Inc., 1735 New York Ave.
N W , Washington, D. C. 20006.

Inform ation about the licensing ex­
am inations can be obtained from:
The National Council of Architectural Regis­
tration Boards, 1735 New York Ave.
NW., Suite 700, Washington, D.C. 20006.

ASTRONOM ERS
(D .O .T .021.088)

Nature of the Work
A stronom ers seek answers to ques­
tions about the fundam ental nature
of the universe, such as its origin and
history and the evolution of our solar
system . A s tro n o m e rs—som etim es
called astrophysicists—use the princi­
ples o f physics and m athem atics to
study and determ ine the behavior of
m atter and energy in distant galaxies.
One application of the inform ation
they gain is to prove or disprove
theories o f the nature o f m atter and
energy such as E instein’s theory o f
relativity.
To m ake observations o f the uni­
verse, astro n o m ers use large te le ­
scopes, radio telesco pes, and other
instrum ents th at can d etect electro­
m a g n e tic ra d ia tio n fro m d is ta n t
sources. A stronom ers o f today spend
little tim e visually observing stars
through telescopes because pho to ­
graphic and electronic light-detect­
ing equipm ent is m ore effective with
dim or distant stars, and galaxies. By
using spectroscopes to analyze light
from stars astronom ers can d e te r­
m ine th e ir chem ical com position.
A s tro n o m e rs also use r a d io te le ­
scopes and other electronic m eans to
observe rad io w aves, X -rays, and
cosm ic rays. E lectronic com puters
are used to analyze data and to solve
co m p lex m a th e m a tic a l eq u a tio n s
that astronom ers develop to repre­
sent various theories. C om puters also
are useful for processing astronom i­
cal data to calculate orbits of aster­
oids or com ets, guide spacecraft, and
w ork o u t tab les fo r n av ig atio n al
handbooks.

Astronom ers usually specialize in
one of the many branches of the
science such as instrum ents and tech ­
niques, the sun, the solar system, and
the evolution and interiors o f stars.
A stronom ers who work on obser­
vational program s begin their studies
by deciding what stars or other o b ­
jects to observe and the m ethods and
instrum ents to use. They may need to
design optical m easuring devices to
attach to the telescope to make the
required m easurem ents. A fter com ­
pleting their observations, they an a­
lyze the results, present them in p re ­
cise num erical form , and explain
them on the basis of some theory.
Astrom om ers usually spend relative­
ly little tim e in actual observation
and relatively m ore tim e in analyzing
the large quantities of data that o b ­
servatory facilities collect.
Some astronom ers concentrate on
theoretical problem s and seldom visit
observatories. They form ulate th eo ­
ries or m athem atical models to ex­
plain observations m ade earlier by
o th er astronom ers. These astrono­

m ers develop m athem atical e q u a­
tions using the laws o f physics to
com pute, for exam ple, theoretical
models o f how stars change as their
nuclear energy sources become ex­
hausted.
A lm ost all a stro n o m ers do re ­
search o r teach; those in colleges and
universities often do both. In schools
th at do not have separate d ep a rt­
ments of astronomy or only small en­
rollm ents in the subject, they often
te a c h co u rses in m ath em atics or
physics as well as astronomy. Some
a stro n o m e rs a d m in iste r re se a rc h
program s, develop and design astro­
nomical instrum ents, and do consult­
ing work.

Places of Employment
Astronom y is the smallest physical
science; only 2,000 persons worked
as astronom ers in 1976. Most as­
tronom ers work in colleges and uni­
versities. Some work in observatories
operated by universities, nonprofit
organizations, and the Federal Gov­
ernm ent.

Almost all astronomers do research or teach.

47

T h e F e d e r a l G o v e rn m e n t e m ­
ployed alm ost 600 astronom ers and
s p a c e s c ie n tis ts in 1 9 7 6 . M o st
worked for the N ational A eronautics
and Space A dm inistration. O thers
worked for the D epartm ent of D e­
fense, mainly at the U.S. Naval O b­
servatory and the U.S. Naval R e­
s e a r c h L a b o r a t o r y . A fe w
astronom ers worked for firms in the
aerospace field, or in m useum s and
planetarium s.

Training, Other Qualifications,
The usual requirem ent for a job in
astronom y is a Ph. D. degree. P er­
sons with less education may qualify
for som e jobs; how ever, high-level
positions in teaching and research
and advancem ent in m ost areas are
open only to those with the doctor­
ate.
Many students who undertake
graduate study in astronom y have a
bach elo r’s degree in astronom y. In
1976, about 50 colleges and universi­
ties h ad p ro g ram s leading to the
b a c h e lo r ’s d e g re e in a stro n o m y .
However, students with a bachelor’s
degree in physics, or in m athem atics
w ith a physics m inor, usually can
qualify for graduate program s in as­
tronom y.
A bout 55 universities offer the Ph.
D. degree in astronom y. These p ro ­
grams include advanced courses in
astronom y, physics, and m athem at­
ics. Some schools require that gradu­
ate stud en ts spend several m onths
working at an observatory. In m ost
institutions, the work program lead­
ing to the doctorate is flexible and
allows stu d en ts to take courses in
their own particular area of interest.
Persons planning careers in astron­
omy should have im agination and an
inquisitive mind. Perseverance and
the ability to co n centrate on detail
and to work independently also are
im portant.
New graduates with a bachelor’s or
m aster’s degree in astronom y usually
begin as assistants in observatories,
planetarium s, large departm ents of
astronom y in colleges and universi­
ties, G overnm ent agencies, or indus­
try. Some work as research assistants
while studying toward advanced d e­
48

grees. New graduates with the d o c­
torate can qualify for teaching and
research jobs in colleges and univer­
sities and for research jobs in Gov­
ernm ent and industry.

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking positions as as­
tronom ers will face keen com petition
for the few available openings ex­
pected through the m id-1980’s. Em ­
ploym ent of astronom ers is expected
to grow slowly, if at all, because the
funds available for basic research in
astronom y, which com e mainly from
the Federal G overnm ent, are not ex­
pected to increase enough to create
many new positions. M ost openings
will occur as replacem ents for those
who die or retire. Since astronom y is
such a small profession, there will be
few openings needed for re p la c e ­
ments. There will be keen com peti­
tion for these openings because the
num ber o f degrees granted in astron­
omy probably will continue to ex­
ceed available openings.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
A stronom ers have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings m ore
than twice the average earnings for
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, astronom ers holding the Ph. D.
degree could begin at \$17,056 or
\$20,442 depending on their college
record. Those having the bachelor’s
degree could start at \$9,303 or
\$1 1,523; with the m aster’s degree at
\$11,523 or \$14,097. The average
annual salary for astronom ers and
space scientists in the Federal G ov­
ernm ent was about \$25,100 in 1977.
A stro n o m ers teac h in g in colleges
and u n iv ersities receiv ed salaries
equivalent to those o f other faculty
members. (See statem ent on college
and university teachers elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Most astronom ers spend most o f
their time working in offices or class­
room s, although astronom ers who
make observations may need to trav­
el to the observing facility and fre­
quently work at night.

Information
For inform ation on careers in as­
tro n o m y and on schools offering
training in the field, contact:
American Astronomical Society, 211 FitzRandolph Rd., Princeton, N.J. 08540.

BANK O FFICERS AND
M ANAGERS
(D.O.T. 186.118, .138, .168, and
.288; 161.118, 189.118 and .168)

Nature of the Work
Practically every bank has a pres­
ident who directs operations; one or
more vice presidents who act as gen­
eral m anagers or who are in charge
of bank departm ents such as trust or
credit; and a com ptroller or cashier
who, unlike cashiers in stores and
other businesses, is an executive offi­
cer generally responsible for all bank
property. Large banks also may have
treasurers and other senior officers,
as well as junior officers, to supervise
the various sections within different
departm ents. Banks employed over
300,000 officers and m anagers in
1976.
Bank officers make decisions
within a framework of policy set by
the board of directors and existing
laws and regulations. They must have
ties to relate to the operations of
their departm ent. For example, loan
officers evaluate the credit and col­
lateral o f individuals and businesses
applying for a loan. Similarly, trust
officers m ust understand each ac­
co u n t before they invest funds to
support families, send young people
to college, or pay retirem ent p en ­
sions. Besides supervising financial
services, officers advise individuals
and businesses and p artic ip a te in
com m unity projects.
Because banks offer many servic­
es, a wide choice of careers is avail­
able to w orkers who specialize.
Loan officers may handle install­
m ent, com m ercial, real estate, or ag­
ricultural loans. To evaluate loan ap­
plications properly, officers need to

A loan officer evaluates an individual’s credit rating before approving a loan.

be fam iliar with econom ics, produc­
tio n , d is trib u tio n , m erch an d isin g ,
and com m ercial law. Also, they need
to know b u sin ess o p e ra tio n s and
should be able to analyze an indus­
try ’s financial statem ents.
Bank officers in trust m anagem ent
require knowledge o f financial plan­
ning and investm ent for investm ent
research and for estate and trust ad­
m inistration.
O perations officers plan, coordi­
nate, and control the work flow, up­
date systems, and strive for adm inis­
trative efficiency. C areers in bank
o p eratio n s include electro n ic data
processing m anager and other posi­
tions involving internal and custom er
services.
A correspondent bank officer is
responsible for relations with other
banks; a branch m anager, for all
functions o f a branch office; and an
international officer, for advising
custom ers with financial dealings
abroad. A working knowledge of a
foreign co u n try ’s financial system,
trade relations, and econom ic condi­
tions is beneficial to those interested
in international banking.
O ther career fields for bank offi­
cers are auditing, econom ics, person­

nel adm inistration, public relations,
and operations research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Bank officer and m anagem ent p o ­
sitions generally are filled by m an­
agem ent trainees, and occasionally
by p ro m o tin g o u ts ta n d in g b a n k
clerks or tellers. College graduation
usually is required for m anagem ent
m ajor in finance or a liberal arts c u r­
riculum including accounting, ec o ­
nom ics, co m m ercial law, political
science, and statistics serves as excel­
lent preparation for officer trainee
positions. In fact, a M aster of Busi­
ness Adm inistration (M BA) in addi­
tion to a social science b ac h elo r’s
degree com es closest to the “ ideal”
college education. However, banks
do hire people with diverse backgounds such as chem ical engineer­
ing, nuclear physics, and forestry to
m eet the needs of com plex, hightech n o lo g y in d u stries w ith w hich
they deal. Valuable experience may
be gained through sum m er em ploy­
m ent programs.
A m anagem ent or officer trainee
may spend a year or two learning the
various banking areas before choos­

ing a perm anent position. This p rac­
tice is com m on but not universal. A
bank may hire an applicant with spe­
cific skills for a position that is clear­
ly defined at the outset.
Persons interested in becoming
bank officers should like to work
in d ep en d en tly and to analyze d e­
tailed inform ation. They also need
tact and good judgm ent to counsel
custom ers and supervise employees.
A dvancem ent to an officer or
m anagem ent position may come
slowly in small banks where the num ­
ber of positions is limited. In large
banks th at have special training p ro ­
grams, prom otions may occur more
quickly. For a senior officer position,
however, an employee usually needs
many years o f experience.
Although experience, ability, and
leadership are emphasized for p ro ­
m otion, advancem ent may be accel­
erated by special study. The Am eri­
can B an k ers A sso cia tio n (A B A )
offers courses, publications, and o th ­
er training aids to officers on every
phase of banking. The American In­
stitute o f Banking, an arm of the
ABA, has long filled the same educa­
tional need among bank support p er­
sonnel. (See the statem ent on the
banking industry elsew here in the
Handbook for m ore inform ation on
these and o th er training program s
sponsored by universities and local
bankers’ associations.)

Employment Outlook
Through the m id-1980’s, em ploy­
m ent of bank officers is expected to
increase faster than the average for
all occupations. Rising costs due to
expanded banking services and the
increasing dependence on com puters
will require more officers to provide
sound m an ag em en t and effectiv e
quality control. O pportunities also
will arise as ex p erien ced officers
leave th eir jobs. College graduates
who m eet the standards for m anage­
m ent trainees should find good op ­
portunities for entry positions.

Earnings
Officer trainees at the bachelor’s
level generally earned between \$800
and \$900 a month in 1976. Those
with an M.A. or M.S. started at be49

tween \$ 1,000 and \$ 1,200 a m onth. A
M aster o f Business A dm inistration,
however, appears to be worth m ore
in salary term s: graduates with an
MBA were offered starting salaries of
\$1,300 to \$1,400 a m onth in 1976.
Salaries o f senior bank officers
may be several times as m uch as
starting salaries. T he actual salary
level depends upon the particular
position and the size and location of
the bank. F or officers, as well as for
o th er bank em ployees, earnings are
likely to be lower in small towns than
in big cities.
See th e statem ent on the banking
industry elsew here in the Handbook
for additional inform ation on bank­
ing occupations.

Laboratory
research
involves
weighing, filtering, distilling, drying,
and culturing (growing m icroorga­
nism s). Some experim ents also re ­
quire the designing and constructing
of laboratory apparatus or the use o f
radioactive tracers. Biochemists use
a variety o f instrum ents, including
electron m icroscopes and centrifug­
es, and they may devise new instru­
m ents and tech n iq u e s as need ed .
T hey usually re p o rt the results o f
their research in scientific journals o r
before scientific groups.
Som e b io ch em ists co m b in e r e ­
search with teaching in colleges and
universities. A few work in industrial
production and testing activities.

Places of Employment

B IO C H E M IS T S
(D .O .T. 041.081)

Nature of the Work
B iochem ists study th e chem ical
com position and behavior of living
things. Since life is based on com plex
c h e m ic a l co m b in a tio n s and re a c ­
tions, the work o f biochem ists is vital
for an und erstan d in g o f re p ro d u c­
tion, grow th, and heredity. Biochem ­
ists also m ay study th e effects of
food, horm ones, or drugs on various
organisms.
The m ethods and techniques of
biochem istry are applied in areas
such as m edicine, nutrition, and agri­
cu ltu re. F o r in stan ce, biochem ists
may investigate causes and cures for
diseases, identify the nutrients neces­
sary to m aintain good health, or d e­
velop chem ical com pounds for pest
control.
M ore than 3 out o f 4 biochem ists
work in basic and applied research
activities. T he distinction betw een
basic and applied research is often
one of degree and biochem ists may
do both types. M ost, however, are in
basic research. The few doing strictly
applied research use the results of
basic research to solve practical
problem s. For exam ple, knowledge
of how an organism form s a horm one
is used to synthesize and produce
horm ones on a mass scale.
50

A bout 12,700 biochem ists w ere
em ployed in the U nited S tates in
1976. A bout one-half are em ployed
in colleges and universities; over onefourth work in private industry, p ri­
marily in com panies m anufacturing
drugs, insecticides, and cosm etics;
some work for nonprofit research in­
stitutes and foundations; and others
for Federal, State, and local govern­
m ent ag encies. M ost g o v ern m en t
biochem ists do health and agricultur­
al research for Federal agencies. A
few self-em ployed biochem ists are

Many biochemists work in basic and ap­
plied research activities.

consultants to industry and govern­
ment.

Training, Other Qualifications,
The minimum educational require­
m ent for many beginning jobs as a
biochem ist, especially in research or
teaching, is an advanced degree. A
Ph. D. degree is a virtual necessity
for persons who hope to contribute
significantly to biochem ical research
and advance to many m anagem ent
and adm inistrative jobs. A bachelor’s
degree with a m ajor in biochem istry
or chem istry, or with a m ajor in biol­
ogy and a m inor in chemistry, may
qualify some persons for entry jobs as
research assistants or technicians.
M ore than 100 schools award the
bachelor’s degree in biochemistry,
and nearly all colleges and universi­
ties offer a m ajor in biology or chem ­
istry. P ersons planning careers as
biochem ists should take undergrad­
uate courses in chem istry, biology,
b io c h e m is try , m a th e m a tic s , an d
physics.
About 150 colleges and universi­
ties offer graduate degrees in bio­
chemistry. G raduate students gener­
ally are required to have a bachelor’s
degree in biochemistry, biology, or
chemistry. Many graduate program s
emphasize one specialty in biochem ­
istry because of the facilities or the
research being done at that particu­
lar school. G ra d u ate train in g re ­
quires actual research in addition to
advanced science courses so students
should select their schools carefully.
For the doctoral degree, the student
does intensive research and a thesis
in one field of biochemistry.
Persons planning careers as bio­
chemists should be able to work in­
dependently or as p art of a team .
Precision, keen powers of observa­
tion, and m echanical aptitude also
are im portant. B iochem ists should
have analytical abilities and curious
minds, as well as patience and perse­
verance to com plete hundreds of ex­
perim ents necessary to solve a single
problem . They should also express
them selves clearly when writing and
speaking to com m unicate the find­
ings of their research effectively.
may begin their careers as teachers

or researchers in colleges or universi­
ties. In private industry, m ost begin
in research jobs and with experience
may advance to positions in which
they plan and supervise research.
New graduates with a bach elo r’s
degree usually start work as research
assistants o r technicians. These jobs
in private industry often involve test­
ing and analysis. In the drug industry,
for exam ple, research assistants ana­
lyze the ingredients o f a product to
verify and m aintain its purity or qual­
ity.

Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for biochem ists
with advanced degrees should be fa­
vorable through the m id-1980’s. The
em ploym ent o f biochem ists is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations during
th is p e rio d . Som e a d d itio n a l jo b
openings will result each year as bio­
chem ists retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations. T he outlook for
biochem ists is based on the assum p­
tion th at research and developm ent
expenditures in biochem istry and re­
lated sciences, prim arily by the Fed­
e ra l G o v e rn m e n t, w ill in c re a s e
through the m id-1980’s, although at
a slower rate than during the 1960’s.
If actual expenditures differ signifi­
cantly from those assum ed, the out­
look for biochem ists would be al­
tered.
The anticipated growth in this field
should result from the effort to find
cures for cancer, h eart disease, and
other diseases, and from public con­
cern with environm ental protection.
Biochem ists will also be needed in
the drug and o ther industries and in
hospitals and health centers. Colleg­
es and universities may need addi­
tional teachers as biochem istry en­
rollm ents continue to increase.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Average earnings of biochemists
were about twice the average for all
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. According to
a 1976 su rv ey by th e A m erican
Chem ical Society, salaries for experi­
enced biochem ists averaged \$18,000
for those with a bachelor’s degree;

\$19,000 for those with a m aster’s d e­
gree; and \$26,000 for those with a
Ph. D.
Starting salaries of biochem ists
employed in colleges and universities
are com parable to those for other
faculty m em bers. (See statem ent on
college and university teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Biochemists in research and devel­
opm ent do m ost o f their work in a
laboratory, but they also may write,
lecture, and do library research.

Information
For general inform ation on careers
in biochem istry, contact:
American Society of Biological Chemists,
9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md.
20014.

B LU E-CO LLAR W ORKER
SU PER VISO R S

Nature of the Work
In any organization, someone has
to be boss. For the millions of w ork­
ers who assemble television sets, ser­
vice autom obiles, lay bricks, unload
ships, or perform any of thousands o f
other activities, a blue-collar w orker
supervisor is the boss. These supervi­
sors direct the activities of other em ­
ployees and frequently are respon­
sible fo r seein g th a t m illions o f
dollars worth of equipm ent and m a­
terials are used properly and effi­
ciently. While blue-collar worker su­
pervisors are most commonly known
as forem en or forewom en, they also
have many other titles. In the textile
industry they are referred to as sec­
ond hands; on ships they are known
as boatswains; and in the construc­
tion industry they are often called
overseers, straw bosses, or gang lead­
ers.
Although titles may differ, the job
of all blue-collar w orker supervisors
is similar. They tell other em ployees
what jobs are to be done and m ake
sure the jobs are done correctly. For

term inals assign workers to load
trucks, and then check that the m ate­
rial is loaded correctly and that each
truck is fully used. They may mark
freight bills and keep charts to record
the loads and weight of each truck. In
some cases, supervisors also do the
same work as other employees. This
is especially true in the construction
industry where, for example, brick­
layer supervisors also lay brick.
Because they are responsible for
the output of other workers, supervi­
sors m ake work schedules and keep
production and em ployee records.
They use considerable judgm ent in
planning and must allow for unfore­
seen problem s such as absent work­
ers and m achine breakdowns. T each­
ing em ployees safe work habits and
enforcing safety rules and regulations
are other supervisory responsibilities.
They also may dem onstrate timesav­
ing o r lab o rsav in g tech n iq u e s to
workers and train new employees.
In addition to their other duties,
blue-collar w orker supervisors tell
th eir subordinates about com pany
p lan s an d p o licies; rew ard good
w orkers by m aking reco m m en d a­
tions for wage increases, awards, or
p ro m o tio n s; and d ea l w ith p o o r
workers by issuing warnings or rec­
omm ending that they be fired or laid
off w ithout pay for a day or more. In
com panies where employees belong
to lab o r unions, supervisors may
m eet with union representatives to
discuss work problem s and grievanc­
es. They must know the provisions of
labor-m anagem ent contracts and run
their operations according to these
agreem ents.

Places of Employment
1,445,000
blue-collar
worker supervisors were employed in
1976. Although they work for almost
all businesses and government agen­
cies, over half work in m anufactur­
ing, supervising the production of
cars, washing m achines, or any of
thousands of other products. Most of
the rest work in the construction in­
dustry, in wholesale and retail trade,
and in public utilities. Because em ­
ploym ent is distributed in much the
51

Employment Outlook

Coordinating assignments is a responsibility of the blue-collar worker supervisor.

same way as population, jobs are lo­
cated in all cities and towns.

Training, Other Qualifications,
W hen choosing supervisors, em ­
ployers generally look for ex p e ri­
ence, skill, and leadership qualities.
Em ployers place special emphasis on
the ability to m otivate em ployees,
m aintain high m orale, com m and re­
sp ect, and get along w ith people.
Com pletion of high school often is
th e m inim um edu cational re q u ire­
m ent, and 1 or 2 years of college or
technical school can be very helpful
to w orkers who want to becom e su­
pervisors.
M ost supervisors rise through the
ran k s—th a t is, they are prom oted
from jobs where they operated a m a­
ch in e, or w orked on an assem bly
line, or at a construction craft. This
work experience gives them the ad ­
vantage of knowing how jobs should
be d o n e and w hat problem s may
arise. It also provides them with in­
sight into m anagem ent policies and
em ployee attitu d e s tow ards these
policies. Supervisors are sometimes
fo rm er union rep resen tativ es who
are fam iliar with grievance p ro c e­
dures and union contracts. To sup­
52

plem ent this work experience, larger
com panies usually have training p ro ­
grams to help supervisors make m an­
agem ent decisions. Smaller com pa­
nies often use independent training
organizations or written training m a­
terials.
Although few blue-collar w orker
supervisors are college graduates, a
growing num ber of employers are
hiring trainees with a college or tech ­
nical school background. This p ra c­
tice is m ost prevalent in industries
with highly technical production p ro ­
cesses, such as the chemical, oil, and
electro n ics industries. E m ployers
generally prefer backgrounds in busi­
ness adm inistration, industrial rela­
tions, m athem atics, engineering, or
science. The trainees undergo onthe-job training until they are able to
accept supervisory responsibilities.
Supervisors with outstanding abil­
ity, particularly those with college
education, may move up to higher
m anagem ent positions. In m anufac­
turing, for exam ple, they may a d ­
vance to jobs such as d ep artm en t
head and plant m anager. Some su­
pervisors, particularly in the c o n ­
struction industry, use the experi­
ence and skills they gain to go into

Employment of blue-collar worker
supervisors is expected to increase at
about the same rate as the average
for all occupations through the mid19 8 0 ’s. In addition, many job open­
ings will arise as experienced supervi­
sors retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations.
Population growth and rising in­
com es will stim u late dem and for
goods such as houses, air condition­
ers, TV sets, and cars. As a result,
m ore b lu e-c o lla r w orkers will be
needed to produce and sell these
items, and more supervisors will be
needed to direct their activities. Al­
though m ost of these supervisors will
continue to work in m anufacturing, a
large part of the increase in jobs will
be due to the expansion of nonm anu­
facturing industries, especially in the
trade and service sectors.
There is usually keen com petition
for supervisory jobs.
C om petent
workers who possess leadership abil­
ity and have a few years of collge are
the m ost likely to be selected.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, average annual earnings
of blue-collar worker supervisors
who worked full time were \$15,149,
com pared with \$12,946 for workers
in all occupations. Supervisors usu­
ally are salaried. Their salaries gener­
ally are determ ined by the wage rates
of the highest paid workers they su­
pervise. For example, some com pa­
nies keep wages of supervisors about
10 to 30 percent higher than those of
their subordinates. Some supervisors
may receive overtime pay.
Since supervisors are responsible
for the work of other employees,
they generally work more than 40
hours a week and are expected to be
on the jo b before other workers ar­
rive and after they leave. They som e­
times do paperwork at home, such as
making work schedules or checking
employee time cards, and may find
themselves worrying about job-relat­
ed problem s after work.
W orking conditions vary from in­
dustry to industry. In factories, su­
pervisors may get dirty around ma-

chinery and m aterials and have to
p u t up with noisy factory operations.
Some supervisors who have limited
authority may feel isolated, neither a
m em ber o f the work force nor an
im portant p art o f m anagem ent. On
the oth er hand, supervisors have
m ore challenging and prestigious
jobs than m ost blue-collar workers.

Information
A bibliography o f career literature
on m anagem ent occupations is avail­
able from:
American Management Association, 135 West
50th St., New York, N.Y. 10020.

B R O AD C AST
T E C H N IC IA N S
(D.O.T. 194.168, .281, .282, and
782; 957.282; and 963.168 through
.887)

Nature of the Work
B roadcast technicians operate and
m aintain the electronic equipm ent

used to reco rd and transm it radio
and television program s. They work
with m icrophones, sound recorders,
light and sound effects, television
cam eras, video tape recorders, and
other equipm ent.
In th e co n tro l room , b ro a d cast
technicians operate equipm ent th at
regulates the quality o f sounds and
pictures being re co rd ed or b ro a d ­
cast. They also operate controls th at
switch broadcasts from one cam era
o r studio to another, from film to live
program ming, or from netw ork to lo­
cal program s. By m eans o f hand sig­
nals and, in television, by use o f tele­
phone headsets, they give technical
directions to personnel in the studio.
W hen events outside the studios
are to be broadcast, technicians may
go to the site and set up, test, and
operate the equipm ent. After the
broadcast, they dism antle the equip­
m ent and return it to the station.
As a rule, broadcast technicians in
small stations perform a variety o f
duties. In large stations and in n e t­
w orks, on the o th er hand, tech n i­
cians are m ore specialized, although
specific job assignments may change
from day to day. Transmitter techni­
cians m onitor and log outgoing sig­

nals and are responsible for transm itte r o p e ra tio n . M a in te n a n c e
technicians set up, maintain, and re­
pair electronic broadcasting equip­
m ent. Audio control technicians regu­
late sound pickup, transmission, and
switching, and video control techni­
cians regulate the quality, brightness,
and contrast of television pictures.
The lighting o f television program s is
directed by lighting technicians. For
program s originating outside the stu­
dio, field technicians set up and o p er­
ate broadcasting equipm ent. Record­
ing technicians operate and maintain
sound recording equipm ent; video re­
cording tech n ic ia n s o p e ra te a n d
m aintain video tape recording equip­
m ent. Som etim es th e term “ engi­
n eer” is substituted for “ technician.”

Places of Employment
A bout 22,500 broadcast tech n i­
cians w ere em ployed in radio and
television stations in 1976. Most ra­
dio stations employ fewer than four
tech n ician s, although a few large
ones have more than 10. Nearly all
television stations employ at least 10
broadcast technicians, and those in
large m etro p o lita n areas average
about 30. In addition to the techni­
cians, som e supervisory personnel,
with job titles such as chief engineer
or director o f engineering, work in
engineering departm ents.
are employed in every State, m ost
are located in large m etropolitan
areas. T he highest paying and m ost
specialized jobs are concentrated in
New Y ork, Los Angeles, and W ash­
ington, D .C .—the originating centers
for most of the netw ork programs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A person interested in becoming a
broadcast technician should plan to
get a First Class Radiotelephone O p­
e ra to r L ice n se from th e F ed eral
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o m m is s io n
(F C C ). F ederal law requires th a t
an y o n e w ho o p e ra te s b ro a d c a s t
tra n sm itte rs in television statio n s
must hold such a license. The law
also requires that the chief engineer
of a broadcasting station hold a first
53

class license. The FCC issues a Third
C lass O p e ra to r L icense, to o , and
some stations require all their broad­
cast technicians to have one or the
o th er o f these licenses. A pplicants
for an FCC license m ust pass a series
o f w ritten exam inations. These cover
construction and operation o f trans­
m ission an d receiving eq uipm ent;
c h a ra c te ristic s o f e lec tro m ag n etic
waves; and regulations and practices,
b o th F e d e r a l an d in te r n a tio n a l,
Am ong high school courses, alge­
bra, trigonom etry, physics, electron­
ics, and o th er sciences provide valu­
a b le b a c k g r o u n d f o r p e r s o n s
anticipating careers in this occupa­
tion. Building and operating an am a­
teu r radio station also is good train­
ing. Taking an electronics course in a
technical school is still another good
way to acquire the knowledge for b e­
com ing a broadcast technician. Some
persons gain work experience as tem ­
porary em ployees while filling in for
regular b ro ad cast technicians who
are on vacation.
M any schools give courses espe­
cially designed to prepare the student
for the F C C ’s first class license test.
T echnical school or college training
is an advantage for those who hope
to advance to supervisory positions
or to the m ore specialized jobs in
large stations and in the networks.
Persons with FCC first class licens­
es who get entry jobs are instructed
and advised by the chief engineer or
by o th e r ex p e rien ce d tech n ic ia n s
concerning the work procedures of
the station. In small stations, they
may start by operating the transm it­
ter and handling o ther technical du­
ties, after a brief instruction period.
As they acquire m ore experience and
skill they are assigned to m ore re­
sponsible jobs. Those who dem on­
s tra te ab o v e -a v e ra g e ability m ay
move into top-level technical posi­
tions, such as supervisory technician
or chief engineer. A college degree in
engineering is becom ing increasingly
im portant for advancem ent to super­
visory and executive positions.

Employment Outlook
People seeking beginning jobs as
broadcast technicians face com peti­
54

tion, especially in m ajor m etropoli­ hours a day, 7 days a week. Network
tan areas where the num ber o f quali­ technicians may occasionally have to
fied jobseekers exceeds the num ber work continuously for many hours
of openings. Job prospects may be and under great pressure in order to
b e tte r in sm aller cities for people m eet broadcast deadlines.
T ec h n ician s generally w ork in ­
with appropriate training in electron­
doors in pleasant surroundings. The
ics.
Em ploym ent o f broadcast techni­ work is interesting, and the duties are
cians is expected to increase about as varied. W hen rem ote pickups are
fast as the average for all occupations m ad e, how ever, tec h n ic ia n s m ay
through the m id-1980’s. M ost jo b work out of doors at some distance
openings, however, will result from from the studios, under less favorable
th e n ee d to re p la c e ex p e rien ce d conditions.
technicians who retire, die, or trans­
fer to other occupations.
Some new job opportunities for
Information
technicians will arise as new radio
and television stations go on the air.
Demand for broadcast technicians phone o p erato r’s examinations, and
also will increase as cable television guides to study for them , write to:
stations broadcast m ore of their own Federal Communications Commission, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20554.
programs. At the same time, techno­
logical developm ents are likely to
F or inform ation on careers for
limit future dem and; such laborsav­ broadcast technicians, write to:
ing technical advances as autom atic
program m ing, autom atic operation National Association of Broadcasters, 1771 N
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
logging, and rem ote control of trans­
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 1111
m itters all hold down dem and for ad ­
16th St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
ditional technicians.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of beginning technicians
in com m erical radio and television
ranged from about \$155 to \$215 a
week in 1976 and those of experi­
enced technicians from about \$200
to \$450, according to the limited in­
form ation available. As a rule, tech ­
nicians’ wages are highest in large
cities and in large stations. Techni­
cians em ployed by television stations
usually are paid m ore than those who
work for radio stations because tele­
vision work is generally more com ­
plex. Technicians em ployed by edu­
c a ti o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s
generally earn less than those who
work for com m ercial stations.
M ost technicians in large stations
work a 40-hour week with overtim e
pay for additional hours. Some
broadcast technicians in the larger
cities work a 37-hour week. In small
stations, many technicians work 4 to
12 hours of overtim e each week.
Evening, night, and w eekend work
frequently is necessary since many
stations are on the air as many as 24

(D.O.T. 162.158 and 185.168)

Nature of the Work
The Am ericans have been invited
to a private showing in Paris. R epre­
senting a m ajor New York depart­
m ent sto re, they sit with a select
g ro u p in an e le g a n tly fu rn ish e d
room. They watch closely as graceful
models float down the runway before
them to display the latest creations
by the w orld’s most famous design­
ers. A fter some consultation, they
m ake choices involving thousands,
perhaps millions of dollars. All in a
day’s work.
The jo b of retail buyer often brings
to mind the glamour of high fashion;
exciting, fast-paced lives involving
frequent travel abroad. N ot every
buyer, however, deals in fashion. All
m erchandise sold in a retail store—
garden furniture, autom obile tires,

toys, aluminum pots, and canned
soups alike—appears in that store on
the decision of a buyer. Although all
buyers seek to satisfy their stores’
custom ers and sell at a profit, the
kind and variety o f goods they pur­
chase d ep en d on the store w here
they work. A buyer for a small cloth­
ing store, for example, may purchase
its com plete stock o f m erchandise
from sportsw ear to form al evening
clothes. Buyers who work for larger
retail businesses often handle one or
a few related lines of goods, such as
m en ’s w ear, ladies’ sportsw ear, or
children’s toys. Some, known as fo r­
eign buyers, purchase m erchandise
outside the United States.
In order to purchase the best selec­
tion of goods for their stores, buyers
must be familiar with the m anufac­
turers and distributors who handle
the m erch an d ise they need. They
also m u st k e e p in fo rm e d a b o u t
changes in existing products and the
developm ent of new ones. To learn
ab o u t m erchandise, buyers attend
fashion and trad e shows and visit
m a n u fa c tu re rs ’ show room s. They
usually o rd e r goods during buying
trip s, an d also p lace o rd e rs with

wholesale and m anufacturers’ sales
workers who call on them to display
their m erchandise.
Buyers m ust be able to assess the
resale value o f goods after a brief
inspection and m ake a purchase d e ­
cision quickly. They are aw are o f
their stores’ profit margins and try to
se le c t m e rc h a n d ise th a t will sell
quickly a t well above the original
cost. Since m ost buyers work within
a limited budget, they m ust plan their
purchases to keep needed items al­
ways in stock but also allow for unex­
pected purchases when a “ good buy”
presents itself.
B ecause b u y ers p u rc h a se m e r­
chandise for their firms to resell (u n ­
lik e p u rc h a sin g a g e n ts w ho buy
goods for direct use by the firm —see
the statem ent on purchasing agents
elsew here in the H andbook), they
m ust know what motivates custom ers
to buy. Before ordering a particular
line o f m erchandise, buyers study
m arket research reports and analyze
past sales records to determ ine what
products are currently in dem and.
They also work closely with assistant
buyers and sales clerks whose daily
contact with custom ers furnishes in­

form ation about consum er likes and
fashion and trade magazines to keep
abreast of style and m anufacturing
other m edia to check retail com peti­
to rs’ sales activities; and watch gen­
eral econom ic conditions to antici­
pate consum er buying patterns.
Merchandise managers (D.O.T.
185.168) plan and coordinate buying
and selling activities for large and
medium-sized stores. They divide the
budget among buyers, decide how
much m erchandise to stock, and as­
sign each buyer to purchase certain
goods. M erchandise managers may
review buying decisions to insure
that needed categories of goods are
in stock, and help buyers to set gen­
eral pricing guidelines.
Buyers and m erchandise managers
usually have very busy schedules and
deal with many different people in
the course of a day. They work with
m anufacturers’ representatives, o th ­
er store personnel including store ex­
ecutives and sales workers, and cus­
t o m e r s . A s s i s t in g w ith s a l e s
prom otions and creating enthusiasm
among sales personnel are part of the
buyer’s job, and he or she may be
asked to provide inform ation such as
dress sizes and product descriptions
to the advertising departm ent for a
sales p rom otion, o r to m eet w ith
floor sales workers before a new line
of m erchandise is introduced. Some
buyers direct assistants who handle
routine aspects of purchasing such as
verifying shipments; others supervise
departm ent managers.
Some buyers represent large stores
or chains in cities where many m anu­
facturers are located. The duties of
these “ m arket representatives” vary
by em ployer; some purchase goods,
while others supply inform ation and
arrange for store buyers to m eet with
m a n u fa c tu re rs w hen they are in
town.
New technology has altered the
buyer’s role in retail chain stores. In
the past, firms employed a buyer for
each store or group of stores in a
local area. Now cash registers co n ­
n e c te d to a co m p u ter, know n as
point-of-sale term inals, allow retail
chains to m aintain centralized, up-tothe-m inute inventory records. W ith
55

these records, a single garden furni­
ture buyer, for exam ple, can p u r­
chase lawn chairs and picnic tables
for the entire chain.

Places of Employment
In 1976, approxim ately 109,000
buyers and m erchandise m anagers
worked for retail firms. Although
jobs for buyers are found in all parts
of the country, most jobs are in m ajor
m etropolitan areas where retail
stores are concentrated. M arket rep­
resentatives work for buying offices
in m ajor m arket areas such as New
York, Chicago, and Dallas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Distributive education program s at
thousands of high schools have
launched careers in retailing leading
to a bu y er’s position. (A dditional in­
form ation on distributive education
appears in the statem ent on retail
trade sales workers elsewhere in the
H andbook.) Indeed, m any a good
buyer began in a stockroom or be­
hind a counter and worked up the
ladder w ithout any college training.
However, new buyers will find a col­
lege degree increasingly necessary.
Many ju n io r and 4-year colleges of­
fer program s in m arketing and p u r­
chasing and confer thousands o f d e­
g r e e s e a c h y e a r . In a d d i t i o n ,
n u m erous trad e schools train stu ­
dents for careers in fashion m erchan­
dising. C ourses in m erchandising or
m arketing may help in getting a first
jo b , b u t m o st e m p lo y e rs a c c e p t
graduates in any field o f study and
train them on the job.
Many stores, especially the larger
ones, have formal training program s
for m anagem ent or executive train­
ees, in cluding buyers. T hese p ro ­
grams usually last from 6 to 8 m onths
and com bine classroom instruction
in m e rc h an d isin g and purchasing
with short rotations to various jobs in
the store. This training introduces
the new w orker to store operations
and policies, and provides the funda­
mentals o f m erchandising and m an­
agem ent as well.
The train e e’s first job is likely to be
that of assistant buyer. The duties
56

Earnings and Working
Conditions

include supervising sales workers,
checking invoices on m aterial re ­
ceived, and keeping account of stock
d e p e n d in g u p o n th e ir in d iv id u a l
abilities and the size of the d ep art­
m ent where they work. Training as
an assistant buyer usually lasts at
least a year. A fter years of working as
a buyer, those who show exceptional
ability may advance to m erchandise
manager. A few find further prom o­
tion to top executive jobs such as
general m erchandise m anager for a
retail store or chain. The length o f
time it takes to reach any of these
levels depends not just on the indi­
v idual’s ability but on the s to re ’s
need for m anagem ent personnel. The
faster the com pany grows, the great­
er the opportunity for a worker to
acquire responsibility.
Buyers should be good at planning
and decisionm aking and have an in­
terest in merchandising. They need
leadership ability and com m unica­
tions skills to supervise sales workers
and assistant buyers and to deal ef­
fectively with m anufacturers’ rep re­
sentatives and store executives. Be­
cause of the fast pace and constant
pressure of their work, buyers need
physical stam ina and em otional sta­
bility.

Buyers for discount departm ent
stores and other mass m erchandising
firms are among the most highly paid
in the industry, as are those who buy
centrally for large chain departm ent
stores.
Most
earned
between
\$ 15,000 and \$25,000 a year in 1976,
though many earned salaries outside
this range. M erchandising managers
earned considerably more. The actu ­
al incom e depends upon the product
line purchased, the sales volume of
the store, and the individual’s senior­
ity.
Buyers often earn large bonuses
for exceptional perform ance. In ad­
dition, m any stores have incentive
plans, such as p ro fit sharing and
stock options.
Buyers regulate their own hours,
and often work more than 40 hours a
week because of special sales, con­
ferences, and travel. The am ount of
traveling a buyer does varies with the
type of merchandise bought and the
location of suppliers, but most spend
4 or 5 days a m onth on the road.
M erchandise m anagers also travel
frequently, averaging several trips a
m onth in many cases.

Employment Outlook

G eneral inform ation about a ca­
reer in retailing is available from:

Em ployment of buyers is expected
to grow m ore slowly than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. Centralized buying is gaining
popularity among chain stores, which
are expected increasingly to dom i­
nate general m erchandise retailing.
Although anticipated growth of in­
dependent food stores should partial­
ly offset these trends, they will still
reduce the num ber of openings for
buyers. M ost job openings will arise
each year from the need to replace
workers who leave the occupation.
Com petition for these jobs is expect­
ed to be keen, for m erchandising a t­
tra c ts la rg e n u m b e rs o f co lleg e
graduates every year. Prospects are
likely to be best for qualified appli­
cants who enjoy the com petitive n a ­
ture of retailing and work best in a
dem anding, fast-paced job.

Information

National Retail Merchants Association, 100
West 31st St., New York, N.Y. 10001.

Inform ation on schools that teach
retailing is available from:
United States Office of Education, Division of
Vocational/Technical Education, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20202.
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

CHEM ISTS
(D.O.T. 022.081, .168, .181,
and.281)

Nature of the Work
The clothes we wear, the foods we
eat, the houses in which we live—in

Many modern products, including plastics and other synthetics, have resulted from
research in chemistry.

team of analytical chemists. Organic
chem ists at one tim e studied the
chemistry of only living things, but
this area has been broadened to in­
clude all carbon compounds. W hen
com bined with other elem ents, car­
bon forms a vast num ber of substanc­
es. Many m odern com m ercial prod­
ucts, including plastics and o th er
synthetics, have resulted from the
work of organic chemists. Inorganic
ch em ists study co m p o u n d s o th e r
than carbon. They may, for example,
develop m aterials to use in solid state
e le c tro n ic c o m p o n e n ts. Physical
chem ists study energy transform a­
tions to find new and better energy
s o u rc e s . In c re a sin g ly , h o w e v er,
chemists consider themselves m em ­
bers of new specialties that include
two of the preceding fields or more.
Biochemists, often considered as ei­
ther chemists or life scientists, are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.
Som e ch e m ists sp ecialize in the
chem istry of foods. (See statem ent
on food scientists elsewhere in the
Handbook.)

Places of Employment
fact m ost things th at help m ake our
lives b etter, from m edical care to a
cleaner environm ent—result, in part,
from the work done by chemists.
Chem ists search for and put into
practical use new knowledge about
substances. They develop new com ­
pounds, such as rocket fuel; improve
foods; and create clothing th at is
chem ically treated against flam m a­
bility, soil, and wrinkles.

exists, experim entation with various
substances yields a product with the
required specifications.
Nearly one-fifth of all chemists
work in production and inspection.
In production, chemists prepare in­
structions (batch sheets) for plant
w orkers th at specify the kind and
am ount of ingredients to use and the
exact mixing time for each stage in
the process. A t each step, samples

Over one-half o f all chemists work

are tested for quality control to meet

in research and developm ent. In ba­
sic research, chemists investigate the
properties and com position of m atter
and the laws that govern the com bi­
nation of elem ents. Basic research
often has practical uses. For exam ­
ple, sy n th etic ru b b e r and plastics
have resulted from research on small
molecules uniting to form larger ones
(p o ly m erizatio n ). In research and
developm ent, new products are cre­
ated or improved. The process of de­
veloping a product begins with de­
scriptions o f the ch a rac te ristic s it
should have. If similar products exist,
chemists test samples to determ ine
their ingredients. If no such product

industry and governm ent standards.
Records and reports show results o f
tests.
Others work as m arketing or sales
representatives to obtain technical
knowledge of products sold. A num ­
ber of chemists teach in colleges and
universities. Some chemists are co n ­
sultants to private industry and to
governm ent agencies.
Chem ists often specialize in one of
the subfields of chemistry. Analytical
chemists determ ine the structure,
com position, and nature of substanc­
es, and develop new techniques. An
outstanding example was the analysis
o f moon rocks by an international

Nearly 150,000 persons worked as
chemists in 1976. About three-fifths
of all chemists work in private indus­
try, alm ost one-half of them in the
chem ical m anufacturing industry.
M ost o th e rs w ork for com panies
m anufacturing food, scientific instru­
ments, petroleum , paper, and electri­
cal equipm ent.
C o lle g e s and u n iv e rsitie s e m ­
ployed 25,000 chemists in 1976. An
equal num ber worked for State and
lo c a l g o v e rn m e n ts, p rim arily in
health and agriculture, and for Fed­
eral agencies, chiefly the D epartm ent
of Defense; Health, Education, and
W elfare; Agriculture; and Interior.
Sm aller num bers w orked for n o n ­
profit research organizations.
Chemists are employed in all parts
of the country, but they are concen­
trated in large industrial areas. N ear­
ly one-fifth of all chemists were lo­
cated in four m etropolitan areas—
New Y ork, Chicago, Philadelphia,
and Newark. About half worked in
six States—New York, New Jersey,
California, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
Illinois.
57

Training, Other Qualifications,
A b ach elo r’s degree with a m ajor
in chem istry or a related discipline is
sufficient for many beginning jobs as
a chemist. However, graduate train ­
ing is required for many research and
college teaching positions. Beginning
chemists should have a broad back­
ground in chem istry, with good labo­
ratory skills.
A bout 1,175 colleges and universi­
ties o ffer a b a c h e lo r’s d eg ree in
chem istry. In addition to required
courses in analytical, inorganic, o r­
ganic, and physical chem istry, under­
graduates usually study m athem atics
and physics.
M ore than 350 colleges and uni­
versities award advanced degrees in
chemistry. In graduate school, stu­
dents generally specialize in a p ar­
ticu lar subfield o f chem istry. R e­
q u ire m e n ts fo r th e m a s te r’s and
d o cto r’s degree usually include a th e­
sis based on independent research.
Students planning careers as
chemists should enjoy studying sci­
ence and m athem atics, and should
like working with their hands build­
ing scientific apparatus and perform ­
ing experim ents. Perseverance and
the ability to concentrate on detail
and to work independently are essen­
tial. O ther desirable assets include
an inquisitive mind, and imagination.
Chem ists also should have good eye­
sight and eye-hand coordination.
G raduates with the bachelor’s d e­
gree generally begin their careers in
governm ent or industry by analyzing
or testing products, working in tech ­
nical sales o r service, or assisting sen­
ior chem ists in research and develop­
m ent laboratories. M any em ployers
have special training and orientation
program s which are concerned with
the special knowledge needed for the
em ployer’s type of work. C andidates
for an advanced degree often teach
or do research in colleges and univer­
sities while working tow ard advanced
degrees.
Beginning chemists with the m as­
te r’s degree can usually go into ap­
plied research in governm ent or pri­
vate industry. They also may qualify
for teaching positions in 2-year col­
leges and some universities.
58

The Ph. D. generally is required
for basic research, for teaching in
colleges and universities, and for ad ­
vancem ent to many adm inistrative
positions.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent
opportunities
in
chemistry are expected to be good
for graduates at all degree levels
through the m id-1980’s. The em ploy­
m ent o f chemists is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all
occupations during this period; thou­
sands o f new jobs will be created
each year. In addition, several th o u ­
sand openings will result each year as
chem ists retire, die, or transfer to
other occupations.
This outlook for chemists is based
on the assum ption that research and
developm ent expenditures of govern­
m en t an d in d u stry will in c re a se
through the m id-1980’s, although at
a slower rate than during the 1960’s.
If actual expenditures differ signifi­
cantly from those assumed, the o u t­
look for chemists would be altered.
Approxim ately three-fourths of to ­
tal em ploym ent is expected to be in
private industry, primarily in the d e ­
velopm ent of new products. In addi­
tion, industrial com panies and gov­
ernm ent agencies will need chemists
to help solve problem s related to en ­
ergy shortages, pollution control, and
health care. Some also will work in
Federal, State, and local crim e labo­
ratories.
Little growth in college and uni­
versity em ploym ent is expected, and
com petition for teaching positions
will be keen. (See statem ent on col­
lege and university teac h ers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Some graduates will find openings
in high school teaching after com ­
p le tin g p r o f e s s io n a l e d u c a t i o n
courses and other requirem ents for a
State teaching certificate. They usu­
ally are then regarded as teachers
rather than chemists. (See statem ent
on secondary school teachers else­
where in the Handbook.)

nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming. According to
th e A m erican C h em ical S ociety ,
salaries of experienced chemists hav­
ing a b a c h e lo r’s degree averaged
\$21,200 a year in 1976; for those
with a m aster’s degree, \$22,100; and
for those with a Ph. D., \$25,800.
Private industry paid chemists with
the b achelor’s degree starting sala­
ries averaging \$11,500 a year in
1976,; those with the m aster’s d e­
gree, \$13,600; and those with the
Ph. D„ \$18,700.
In colleges and universities, the av­
erage salary of those with the m as­
t e r ’s d eg ree was \$17,0 0 0 and of
those with the Ph. D., \$21,000. In
addition, many experienced chemists
in educational institutions su p p le­
m ent their regular salaries with in­
com e from consulting, lecturing, and
writing.
Depending on a person’s college
record, the annual starting salary in
the Federal G overnm ent in 1977 for
an inexperienced chem ist with a
bachelor’s degree was either \$9,303
or \$1 1,523. Those who had 2 years
of graduate study could begin at
\$14,097 a year. Chemists having the
Ph. D. degree could start at \$17,056
or \$20,442. The average salary for all
chemists in the Federal G overnm ent
in 1977 was \$19,900 a year.
Chemists usually work in m odern,
well-equipped, and well-lighted labo­
ratories, offices, or classrooms. Some
hazard is involved in handling poten­
tially explosive or highly cau stic
chem icals. However, when safety
regulations are followed, health haz­
ards are negligible.

Information
G eneral information on career op­
portunities and earnings for chemists
is available from:
American Chemical Society, 1155 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Manufacturing Chemists Association, 1825
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20009.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

For specific inform ation on F eder­
al G overnm ent careers, contact:

Earnings of chemists averaged
more than twice as m uch as those o f

Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

For additional sources of inform a­
tion, see statem ents on biochemists,
chem ical engineers, food scientists,
and the industrial chem ical industry.
Inform ation on chem ical technicians
may be found in the statem ent on
engineering and science technicians.

C H IR O PR A C TO R S
(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
C hiropractic is a system of treat­
m ent based on the principle that a
person’s health is determ ined largely
by the nervous system, and that inter­
ference with this system impairs nor­
mal functions and lowers resistance
to disease. C hiropractors treat pa­
tients prim arily by m anual m anipula­
tion (ad ju stm en ts) of parts of the
body, especially the spinal column.
Because o f the em phasis on the
spine and its position, m ost chiro­
practors use X-rays to aid in locating
the source of p atients’ difficulties. In
addition to m anipulation, most chiro­
p ra c to rs use su p p lem en tary m ea­
sures such as water, light, and heat
therapy, and prescribe diet, exercise,
and rest. M ost State laws specify the

types of supplem entary trea tm e n t
perm itted in chiropractic. C h iro ­
practors do not use drugs or surgery.

Places of Employment
About 18,000 persons, practiced
chiropractic in 1976. Most chiro­
p ra cto rs w ere in private p ractice.
Some were salaried assistants of es­
tablished practitioners or worked for
chiropractic clinics. O thers taught or
conducted research at chiropractic
colleges.
C hiropractors often locate in small
com m unitees—about half of all a c ­
tive chiropractors work in cities of
50,000 inhabitants or less.

Training, Other Qualifications,
All 50 States and the District o f
Colum bia regulate the practice of
chiropractic and grant licenses to
chiropractors who m eet certain edu­
ca tio n al re q u irem en ts and pass a
State board examination. Although
the type of practice perm itted and
the educational requirem ents for a
license vary considerably from one
State to another, most States require
successful com pletion of a 4-year
chiropractic course following 2 years
o f p re p ro fe ssio n a l college w ork.

Some S tates require th at specific
subjects such as English, chemistry,
biology, or physics be a part of this
preprofessional work. In addition,
several States require that chiroprac­
tors pass a basic science exam ina­
tion. C hiropractors licensed in one
State often may obtain a license in
other States by reciprocity.
In 1976, there were 13 chiroprac­
tic colleges. Four of these institutions
were fully accredited by the Council
on Chiropractic Education; four o th ­
ers were recognized candidates for
accred itatio n and working tow ard
accreditation. All require a minimum
of 2 years of college before entrance,
an d m o st c o lle g e s re q u ire th a t
courses in chemistry and biology be
taken during these 2 years. By 1979,
the Council on Chiropractic Educa­
tion will approve only those schools
which include courses in English and
the social sciences. Chiropractic col­
leges emphasize courses in m anipula­
tion and spinal adjustments. Most
offer a broader curriculum however,
including subjects such as physio­
therapy and nutrition. In most chiro­
practic colleges, the first 2 years of
the curriculum include chiefly class­
room and laboratory work in subjects
such as anatom y, physiology, and
b io ch em istry . D uring the last 2
years, students obtain practical expe­
rience in college clinics. The degree
of D octor of Chiropractic (D .C .) is
aw arded to students com pleting 4
years of chiropractic training.
Chiropractic requires a keen sense
of observation to detect phyical ab­
norm alities and considerable hand
dexterity but not unusual strength or
endurance. Persons desiring to be­
come chiropractors should be able to
work independently and handle re­
sponsibility. The ability to work with
detail is im portant. Sympathy and
understanding are am ong personal
q u a litie s co n sid ered desirab le in
dealing effectively with patients.
Most newly licensed chiropractors
either set up a new practice or p ur­
chase an established one. Some start
as salaried chiropractors to acquire
experience and funds needed to es­
tablish their own practice. A m oder­
ate financial investm ent is usually
59

necessary to open and equip an of­
fice.

Employment Outlook
Enrollm ents in chiropractic colleg­
es have grown dram atically, partly in
a p p a re n t response to the b ro a d er
public acceptance of the profession.
As m ore students graduate, new chi­
ro p racto rs may find it increasingly
difficult to establish a practice in
those areas where other practitioners
already are located. The best oppor­
tunities for new chiropractors may be
in small towns and in areas with com ­
paratively few established practition­
ers.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In chiropractic, as in other types of
independent practice, earnings are
relatively low in the beginning. New
graduates who worked as associates
to established practitioners earned
about \$ 12,000 a year in 1976. Expe­
rie n c e d c h i r o p r a c t o r s a v e ra g e d
about \$25,000, according to limited
data available, although many earn
considerably more.

C ITY M A NA G ER S
(D.O.T. 188.118 and 188.168)

Nature of the Work
Population growth and industrial
expansion place increasing pressure
on housing, transportation, and other
facilities o f cities. Problem s associat­
ed with growing m odern com m uni­
ties, such as air and w ater pollution
and rising crim e rates, also dem and
attention. To cope effectively with
these problem s, many com m unities
hire a specialist in m anagem ent tech ­
niques—the city manager.
A city m anager usually is appoint­
ed by the com m unity’s elected offi­
cials and is responsible directly to
them. Although duties vary by city
size, city m anagers generally adm in­
ister and coordinate the day-to-day
operations of the city. They are re ­
sponsible for functions such as tax
collection and disbursem ent, law e n ­
forcem ent, and public works. They
also hire departm ent heads and their

staffs and prepare the annual budget
to be approved by elected officials.
In addition, they study current prob­
lem s, such as traffic co n g estio n ,
crime, or urban renewal, and report
their findings to the elected council.
City m anagers must plan for future
growth and developm ent of cities
and surrounding areas. To provide
for an expansion of public services,
they frequently appear at civic m eet­
ings to advocate certain programs or
to inform citizens of current govern­
m ent operations.
City m anagers work closely with
planning departm ents to coordinate
new and existing programs. In small­
er cities th at have no p erm an en t
planning staff, coordination may be
done entirely by the manager.
To aid the city manager, many
cities employ management assistants:
assistant city managers, departm ent
assistants. U nder the m anager’s di­
rection, m anagem ent assistants ad­
minister programs, prepare reports,

Information
The State board of licensing in the
capital of each State can supply in­
form ation on State licensing require­
ments for chiropractors.
G eneral inform ation on chiroprac­
tic as a career is available from:
American Chiropractic Association, 2200
Grand Ave., Des Moines, Iowa 50312.
International Chiropractors Association, 741
Brady St., Davenport, Iowa 52808.

For a list of chiropractic colleges,
as well as general inform ation on chi­
ropractic as a career, contact:
Council on Chiropractic Education, 3209 Ingersoll Street, Suite 206, Des Moines,
Iowa 50312.

For inform ation on requirem ents
for admission to a specific chiroprac­
tic college, con tact the admissions
office o f th at school.

60

A city manager often deals with members of the community.

dence, generally help to keep the city
g o v ern m en t fun ctio ning sm oothly.
Assistant city m anagers organize and
coordinate city program s, supervise
city em ployees, and act for the city
m anager upon occasion. They also
may assum e responsibility for some
projects, such as the developm ent of
a prelim inary annual budget. D epart­
m ent head assistants generally are re­
sponsible for one activity, such as
personnel, finance, or law enforce­
m ent, but they also may assist in oth­
er areas. A dm inistrative assistants,
also called executive assistants or as­
sistants to the city m anager, usually
do adm inistrative and staff work in
all departm ents under the city m an­
ager. For instance, they may compile
o p eratin g statistics o r review and
analyze w ork procedures.

States, but one-half are concentrated
in the eastern part of the Nation.

Training, Other Qualifications,

A m aster’s degree, preferably in
becom ing essential for those seeking
a ca re e r in city m anagem ent. A l­
though some applicants with only a
bachelor’s degree may find em ploy­
m ent, strong com petition for posi­
tions, even am ong m aster’s degree
recipients, will m ake the graduate
degree a requirem ent for m ost entry
level jobs. In some cases, em ployers
may hire a person with training in a
field related to public adm inistration,
such as engineering, recreation, so­
cial work, or political science.
In 1976, 185 colleges and universi­
ties o ffered g rad u ate degree p ro ­
Places of Employment
grams in public or municipal adm in­
A bout 3,000 city m anagers were istratio n . D egree re q u irem en ts in
em ployed in 1976. In addition, som e sch o o ls in c lu d e su cc essfu l
nearly 9,000 persons w orked as ad­ com pletion of an internship program
m inistrative assistants, d ep artm en t in a city m anager’s office. During this
head assistan ts, and assistant city internship period, w hich may last
m a n a g e rs . M o st c ity m a n a g e rs from 6 m onths to a year, the degree
worked for cities and counties that candidate observes local governm ent
had a council-m anager form o f gov­ operations and does research under
ernm ent. U nder this type of govern­ the d ire c t supervision o f the city
m ent, an elected council appoints a manager.
Nearly all city m anagers begin as
m anager who is responsible for the
day-to-day operation o f the govern­ m anagem ent assistants. M ost new
m ent as well as for the hiring and graduates work as adm inistrative as­
firin g o f a s s is ta n ts , d e p a rtm e n t sistants to city m anagers for several
heads, and other staff. Many other years to gain experience in solving
city m anagers worked for m unicipal­ urban problem s, coordinating public
ities th at had the m ayor-council form services, and applying m anagem ent
of governm ent, in which the m ayor techniques. O thers work in a govern­
appoints the city m anager as his or m ent d ep artm en t such as finance,
her ch ief adm inistrative officer. A public w orks, o r public planning.
few city m anagers also worked for They may acquire supervisory skills
county governm ents, m etropolitan or and additional experience by w ork­
regional planning organizations, and ing as assistant city m anager or d e ­
councils of governm ents. All types of partm ent head assistant. City m anag­
local governm ents em ployed m an­ ers often are first em ployed in small
agem ent assistants, but larger juris­ cities, but during their careers they
dictions generally em ployed them in may work in several cities o f increas­
ing size.
greater num bers.
Persons who plan a career in city
Although over three-quarters of all
city m anagers work for small cities m anagem ent should like to work
having less than 25,000 inhabitants, with detail and to be a part o f a team .
many larger cities also employ a city They m ust have sound judgm ent,
m anager. A bout half o f the cities self-confidence, and the ability to
having a population of between perform well under stress. To handle
10,000 and 500,000 have city m an­ em ergency situations, city m anagers
agers. City m anagers w ork in all m ust quickly isolate problem s, iden­

tify their causes, and provide a num ­
ber of possible solutions. City m anag­
ers should be tactful and able to
co m m unicate and w ork well with
people.
City m anagers also must be dedi­
cated to public service since they of­
ten put in long, hard hours in times of
crisis.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f city managers and
local governm ent m anagem ent assis­
tants is expected to expand faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as m anage­
m ent of our governm ents becomes
more complex. Examples of more so­
phisticated m anagem ent techniques
include com puterized tax and utility
billing, electronic traffic control, and
application of systems analysis to ur­
ban problem s. The dem and for city
m anagers also will increase as m ore
cities convert to the council-m anager
form of governm ent, currently the
fastest growing form of city govern­
m ent. F urtherm ore, city m anagers
and m anagem ent assistants will be
employed by other types of local gov­
ernm ent to help elected officials with
d ay -to -d ay o p era tio n s o f g o v ern ­
ment. Increased emphasis on region­
al solutions to urban problem s should
result in additional job opportunities
for city m anagers and m anagem ent
assistants in councils o f government.
Persons who seek beginning m an­
ag e m e n t assistan t jo b s m ay fa ce
strong com petition through the mid1980’s, especially if they do not have
a graduate degree in public adm inis­
tration o r related m anagem ent expe­
rience. Com petition should be keen
am ong the growing num ber of ad­
m inistrative assistants, d ep artm en t
head assistants, and assistant city
m anagers for the relatively few city
m anager positions. However, many
of those unable to find em ploym ent
in this area should find jobs in other
fields of public administration.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of city managers and m an­
agement assistants vary according to
education, experience, job responsi­
bility, and city size. Generally, city
61

m a n a g e rs ’ earn in g s are very high
relative to the average earnings for
nonsupervisory w orkers in private in­
dustry, except farming. In 1976, av­
erage annual salaries of city m anag­
ers ranged from about \$20,000 in
cities o f 5,000 inhabitants to m ore
th a n \$ 4 0 ,0 0 0 in c itie s o f o v e r
100,000 in h ab itan ts, acco rd in g to
the International City M anagem ent
A ssociation. T he average annual sal­
ary for all city m anagers was m ore
than \$23,000. City m anagers in cities
not having council-m anager govern­
m ents received slightly less.
Salaries o f m anagem ent assistants
averaged \$17,000 in 1976, and
ranged from about \$12,000 in small
cities to m ore than \$20,000 in large
ones. Salaries of assistant city m anag­
ers generally were higher than those
o f oth er m anagem ent assistants.
City m anagers often work m ore
than 40 hours a week. Em ergency
problem s may require evening and
w eekend work and m eetings with in­
dividuals and citizen’s groups co n ­
Fringe benefits usually include
health and life insurance program s,
pension plans, sick leave, vacation
tim e, and often a car for official
business. M anagers generally are re­
im bursed fo r expenses incurred while
attending professional m eetings and
sem inars.

Information
For inform ation on a career in city
m anagem ent, contact:
International City Management Association,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

C LA IM R EPR E S E N TA TIV E S
(D .O .T. 168.288, 241.168, and
249.268)

Nature of the Work
Fast and fair settlem ent o f all
claims is essential to any insurance
com pany if it is to m eet its com m it­
m ents to policyholders and also p ro ­
tect its own financial well-being. The
62

Claims adjuster gathering evidence in investigating a claim.

people who investigate claims, nego­
tiate settlem ent with policyholders,
and authorize paym ent are known as
claim representatives—a group th at
includes claim adjusters and claim
examiners.
W hen a property-liability (casual­
ty) insurance com pany receives a
claim, the claim adjuster determ ines
w hether the policy covers it and the
am ount of the loss. Adjusters use re ­
ports, physical evidence, and testi­
mony of witnesses in investigating a
claim. W hen their com pany is liable,
they negotiate with the claim ant and
settle the case.
Adjusters m ust m ake sure that set­
tlem ents are in line with the real ex­
tent of the loss. They m ust protect
their com pany from false or inflated
claims but, at the same time, settle
valid claim s fairly and p rom ptly.
Some adjusters are allowed to issue
ch e ck s on com pany funds; m ost,
how ever, subm it th e ir findings to
claim exam iners who review them to
insure th at proper procedures have
been follow ed and th en authorize
payment.
Some adjusters work with all lines
of insurance. O thers specialize in
claims from property dam age by fire,
m arine loss, autom obile dam age,
w orkers’ com pensation loss, or p ro d ­
uct liability. Several States have “ n o ­
fa u lt” autom obile insurance plans
that relieve the adjuster from d eter­

mining responsibility for a loss. A d­
justers in these States still must de­
cide the am ount of loss, however. A
growing num ber of casualty com pa­
nies employ special claims people to
settle small claims, usually minor au­
to m o b ile o r h o m eo w n e r dam age
claims. These claim workers, gener­
ally c a lle d “ inside a d ju s te rs ” or
“ te le p h o n e a d j u s t e r s ,” c o n ta c t
claim ants by telephone or mail and
have th e policyholder send repair
costs, m edical bills, and other state­
ments to the company. Many com pa­
nies centralize this operation in a
drive-in claims center where the cost
of repair is determ ined and a check is
issued on the spot.
Adjusters work away from the of­
fice m ost o f the time. They may be
called to the site of an accident or to
the location of a fire or burglary. A d­
justers m ake their own schedules of
the activities needed to dispose o f a
claim properly. They also keep w rit­
ten or taped records of inform ation
obtained from witnesses and other
sources and prepare reports of their
findings.
In life insurance com panies, the
counterpart of the claim adjuster is
the claim examiner, who investigates
the details surrounding questionable
claims o r those exceeding a specified
amount. They may check claim ap­
plications for com pleteness and ac­
curacy, interview medical specialists,

consult policy files to verify inform a­
tion on a claim, or calculate benefit
paym ents. Generally, exam iners are
au th o riz ed to in v estigate and ap ­
prove paym ent on all claim s up to a
certain limit; larger claim s are re­
ferred to a senior exam iner.
Exam iners checking incorrect or
questionable claims may correspond
with investigating com panies, field
m anagers, agents, or the family of the
insured. Claim exam iners occasional­
ly travel to obtain inform ation by
personal interview, or contact State
insurance departm ents and other in­
surance com panies. In addition to
verifying claims and approving pay­
m ent, exam iners also m aintain rec­
ords o f settled claim s and prepare
reports to be subm itted to their com ­
p any’s d ata processing departm ent.
Some experienced exam iners serve
on com m ittees, co n duct surveys of
claim practices within their com pa­
ny, and help devise m ore efficient
ways to process claim s. They, like
claim adjusters, som etim es testify in
court on contested claims.

Places of Employment
A bout 155,000 persons worked as
claim representatives in 1976.
The m ajority o f claim adjusters
worked for insurance com panies that
sell property and liability coverage.
Some w ere em ployed by indepen­
d en t adjusting firm s th a t co n tract
th eir services for a fee. These in­
dependent firms range from national
com panies em ploying hundreds of
adjusting specialists to small 3- or 4person local operations. A relatively
small num ber o f adjusters represent
the insured rather than the insurance
com pany. These “ public adjusters”
usually are retained by banks, finan­
cial organizations, and other business
firms to handle fire and other losses
to property. They negotiate claims
ag ain st in su ran c e co m p an ie s and
deal with adjusters for such com pa­
nies.
Most claim examiners worked for
life insurance com panies in large
cities such as New Y ork, San F ran­
cisco, Chicago, Dallas, and Philadel­
phia, where most hom e offices are
located.
Adjusters may travel to almost any
area of the United States, since

claims m ust be settled locally. O cca­
sionally, an e x p e rie n c e d a d ju ste r
may travel to the scene of a disaster,
such as a hurricane or a riot, to work
with local personnel. Some cases re ­
sult in trav e l o u tsid e th e U n ited
States.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Although a growing num ber of in­
surance com panies prefer claim re p ­
resentatives to have a college degree,
m any h ire th o se w ith o u t college
training, particularly if they have spe­
cialized ex p erien ce. F or exam ple,
persons experienced in autom obile
repair work may qualify as auto ad ­
justers, and those with clerical work
experience m ight be hired as inside
No specific field of college study is
recom m ended. Although courses in
insurance, econom ics, or other busi­
ness subjects are helpful, a m ajor in
alm ost any college field is adequate
preparation. An adjuster who has a
business or accounting background
might specialize in loss from business
interruption or dam age to m erchan­
dise. Those with college training in
engineering will find their education
A legal background is m ost helpful to
those handling w orkers’ com pensa­
tion and product liability cases.
Most large insurance com panies
provide beginning claim adjusters
and exam iners on-the-job training
and home study courses. Claim rep ­
resentatives are encouraged to take
courses designed to enhance their
professional skills. For example, the
Insurance Institute of Am erica offers
a six-semester study program leading
to an associate degree in claims ad ­
justing upon successful com pletion
of six exam inations. A djusters can
prepare for these examinations by in­
d ep en d en t hom e study or through
com pany or public classes. A profes­
sional C ertificate in Insurance A d­
justing also is available from the C ol­
lege of Insurance in New York City.
The Life Office M anagem ent A s­
sociation (L O M A ) in co operation
with the International Claim Associ­
ation offers a claims education p ro ­
gram for life and health examiners.

The program is part of the LOMA
Institute Insurance Education P ro­
gram leading to the professional des­
ignation, FLMI (Fellow, Life M an­
agem ent Institute) upon successful
com pletion of eight written examina­
tions.
About three-fourths of the States
require adjusters to be licensed. D e­
spite wide variation in State licensing
re q u ire m e n ts , a p p lic a n ts usually
must comply with one or more of the
following: Pass a written examination
covering the fundam entals of adjust­
ing; furnish character references; be
20 or 21 years of age and a resident
o f the State; offer proof that they
have com pleted an approved course
in insurance or loss adjusting; and file
a surety bond.
Because they often work closely
with claimants, witnesses, and other
insurance professionals, representa­
tives m ust be able to adapt to many
d iffe re n t p erso n s and situ atio n s.
They should be able to com m unicate
effectively and gain the respect and
cooperation of people from different
backgrounds. For example, when ad­
ju sters’ evaluations of claims differ
from those of the persons who have
suffered the loss, they should be able
to explain their conclusions tactfully.
Examiners need to be familiar with
medical and legal term s and practic­
es and Federal and State insurance
laws and regulations. Because they
may have to check prem ium pay­
ments, policy values, and other nu­
merical items in processing a claim,
examiners should be adept at making
m athem atical calculations. Both ad­
justers and examiners should have a
good m em ory and enjoy w orking
with details.
Beginning adjusters and examiners
work on small claims under the su­
pervision of an experienced worker.
vestigation and settlem ent, they are
assigned claims that are higher in loss
value and m ore difficult. Trainees
are prom oted as they dem onstrate
com petence in handling assignments
and progress in the courses they take.
Because of the complexity of insur­
ance regulations and claims proce­
dures, workers who lack formal aca­
dem ic training may advance m ore
slowly than those with 2 years or
63

m ore o f colleg e. E m ployees who
show unusual com petence in claims
work or outstanding adm inistrative
skills may be pro m oted to d ep a rt­
m ent supervisor in a field office or to
a m anagerial position in the hom e
office. Qualified adjusters and exam ­
iners som etim es transfer to other d e­
partm ents, such as underw riting or
sales.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of claim representa­
tives is expected to grow about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as the num ­
ber o f insurance claims continues to
increase. In addition to jobs created
by growth o f the occupation, many
others will result from the need to
replace w orkers who die, retire, or
transfer to oth er jobs.
Several factors point to a growing
volume o f insurance and a resulting
need for claim adjusters. Over the
next decade a steadily rising num ber
of w orkers will be entering their m ost
productive years. These workers and
their families are likely to seek insur­
an ce p ro te c tio n as they p u rch ase
hom es, autom obiles, and other con­
sum er durables. New o r expanding
businesses will need protection for
new plants and equipm ent and for
insurance covering their em ployees’
health and safety. As m ore people
live and work in densely populated
areas, the increased risk of autom o­
bile accident, fire, or theft should re­
sult in a greater num ber of claims.
As ways o f doing business continue
to change, the dem and for certain
kinds o f claim adjusters will be stron­
ger than for others. For example, the
growing trend toward drive-in claim
centers and claim handling by tele­
phone should reduce the dem and for
autom obile adjusters while it stim u­
lates dem and for inside adjusters. In­
d ep endent adjusters who specialize
in autom obile dam age claims should
continue to suffer some loss o f busi­
ness. Prospects should be very good,
however, for adjusters who specialize
in highly com plex types of business
in su ra n c e such as m arin e ca rg o ,
w orkers’ com pensation, and product
liability.
A similar situation exists for claim
examiners. Em ploym ent of exam in­
64

ers in casualty com panies should rise
about as fast as for adjusters; how ­
ever, m uch slower growth is expect­
ed for life insurance examiners as in­
creased use o f com puters enables
them to process m ore claims, espe­
cially routine ones and those th at
arise under group policies.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
According to a recent survey o f
property and liability com panies,
\$ 13,000 a year in 1976; inside adjust­
ers earned average salaries o f about
\$9,900. M ost public adjusters are
paid a percentage of the am ount o f
th e se ttle m e n t—generally 10 p e r­
cent. Adjusters are furnished a com ­
pany car or are reim bursed for use o f
their own vehicles for business p u r­
poses. Salaries o f claim adjusters are
about one and one-half times the av­
erage earnings for all nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming; salaries of inside adjusters
are slightly above the average for all
nonsupervisory work
A survey of life insurance com pa­
nies by the Life Office M anagem ent
Association revealed that claim ex­
am iners earned average salaries of
\$13,300 a year in 1976. According to
the survey of property and liability
com panies, casualty claim examiners
averaged \$15,280. Claim supervisors
in casualty com panies and life com ­
p an ies av erag ed \$ 1 7 ,3 0 0 a year.
Claim examiners earn more than 1
1/2 times the average for all nonsu­
pervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Claim adjusting is not a desk job. It
requires that a person be physically
fit because m uch o f the day may be
spent in traveling from one place to
another, walking about outdoors,
and climbing stairs. Adjusters may
have to work evenings or weekends

in order to interview witnesses and
claim ants when they are available.
Since m ost companies provide 24h o u r claim service to th e ir p o l­
icyholders, som e adjusters always
m ust be on call. (See the statem ent
on the Insurance Industry for addi­
tional inform ation on working condi­
tions and employee benefits.)
Claim examiners have desk jobs
that require no unusual physical ac­
tivity. Although the average w ork­
week for examiners is 35 to 40 hours,
they may work longer at times of
peak claim loads or when quarterly
and annual statem ents are prepared.
They also may need to travel o cca­
sionally.

Information
G eneral inform ation about a ca­
reer as a claim examiner or adjuster
is available from the home offices of
many life and property and liability
insurance companies.
Inform ation ab o u t licensing re ­
quirem ents for claim adjusters may
be obtained from the departm ent of
insurance in each State.
Inform ation about career opportu­
nities in these occupations also may
be obtained from:
Insurance Information Institute, 110 William
St., New York, N.Y. 10038.
American Mutual Insurance Alliance, 20 N.
Wacker Dr., Chicago, 11 . 60606.
1
The National Association of Independent In­
surers, Public Relations Department,
2600 River Rd., Des Plaines, 111. 60018.

For inform ation about public in­
National Association of Public Adjusters,
1613 Munsey Building, Baltimore, Md.
21202 .

C areer information on life insur­
ance claim exam ining is available
from:
American Council of Life Insurance, 1850 K
St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

CLERGY
Deciding on a career in the clergy
involves considerations different
from those involved in other career

choices. W hen persons choose to en­
ter the ministry, priesthood, or rabbi­
nate, they do so primarily because

they possess a strong religious faith
and a desire to help others. N ever­
theless, it is im portant to know as
much as possible about the profes­
sion and how to prepare for it, the
kind of life it offers, and its needs for
personnel.
The num ber o f clergy needed de­
pends largely on the num ber o f peo­
ple who participate in organized reli­
gious groups. This affects the num ber
of churches and synagogues estab­
lished and pulpits to be filled. In
addition to the clergy who serve con­
gregations, many others teach or act
as adm inistrators in sem inaries and in
oth er ed ucational institutions; still
o th e rs serv e as c h a p la in s in the
Armed Forces, industry, correctional
institutions, hospitals, o r on college
campuses; or render service as mis­
sionaries o r in social welfare agen­
cies.
Persons considering a career in the
clergy should seek the counsel of a
religious leader of their faith to aid in
evaluating their qualifications. The
m ost im portant o f these are a deep
religious belief and a desire to serve
the spiritual needs o f others. The
priest, m inister, or rabbi also is ex­
pected to be a m odel o f moral and
ethical conduct. A person consider­
ing one o f these fields must realize
that the civic, social, and recreation­
al activities of a m em ber of the clergy
often are influenced and restricted
by the custom s and attitudes of the
community.
The clergy should be sensitive to
the needs o f others and able to help
them deal with these needs. The job
dem ands an ability to speak and
write effectively, to organize, and to
supervise others. The person enter­
ing this field also m ust enjoy studying
because the ministry is an occupation
which requires continuous learning.
In ad d itio n , the m inistry dem ands
considerable initiative and self-disci­
pline.
M ore detailed inform ation on the
clergy in the three largest faiths in
the U nited States—P rotestant, Ro­
man Catholic, and Jewish—is given
in the following statem ents, prepared
in cooperation with leaders of these
faiths. Inform ation on the clergy in
other faiths may be obtained directly

fro m le a d e rs o f th e r e s p e c tiv e
groups.

PR O TESTAN T M IN IS T E R S
(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature off the Work
Protestant ministers lead their co n ­
gregations in worship services and
adm inister the rites of baptism, co n ­
firm atio n , and Holy C om m union.
They prepare and deliver serm ons
and give religious instruction to p e r­
sons who are to becom e new m em ­
bers of the church. They also p er­
form m arriages; co n d u ct funerals;
counsel individuals who seek guid­
ance; visit the sick, aged, and handi­
capped at hom e and in the hospital;
c o m fo rt th e b ereav e d ; and serve
c h u rc h m em b ers in o th e r w ays.
Many Protestant m inisters write arti­
cles for publication, give speeches,
and engage in interfaith, com m unity,
civic, educational, and recreational
activities sponsored by or related to
the interests of the church. Some
ministers teach in seminaries, colleg­
es, and universities.
The services th at m inisters c o n ­
d u c t differ am ong P ro te sta n t d e ­
nom inations and also among congre­
gations within a denom ination. In
many denom inations, m inisters fol­
low a traditional order of worship; in
others they adapt the services to the
needs o f youth and o th er groups
within the congregation. Most serv­
ices include Bible reading, hym n
singing, prayers, and a serm on. In
some denom inations, Bible reading
by a m em ber of the congregation and
individual testim onials may consti­
tute a large part of the service.
M inisters serving small congrega­
tions generally work on a personal
basis with their parishioners. Those
serving large co n g reg atio n s have
g re ater adm inistrative responsibil­
ities, and spend considerable tim e
working with com m ittees, church of­
ficers, and staff, besides perform ing
their o th er duties. They may have
one or m ore associates or assistants
who share specific aspects o f the

The services that ministers conduct differ
among Protestant denominations and
also among congregations within a de­
nomination.

ministry, such as a minister of educa­
tion who assists in educational p ro­
grams for different age groups, or a
minister of music.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 190,000 ministers
served m ore than 72 million Protes­
tants. M ost ministers serve individual
congregations. In addition, however,
thousands of ministers work in close­
ly related fields such as chaplains in
hospitals and the Armed Forces. The
greatest num ber of clergy are affiliat­
ed with the five largest groups of
churches—Baptist, United M ethod­
ist, Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Epis­
copal.
All cities and most towns in the
United States have at least one Prot­
estant church with a full-time minis­
ter. Some churches employ part-time
ministers; many part-time clergy are
sem inary students or m inisters re­
tired from full-time pastoral respon­
sibilities. Although m ost m inisters
are located in urban areas, many live
65

in less densely populated areas where
they may serve two congregations or
more.

Training and Other
Qualifications
E ducational requirem ents for en ­
try into the Protestant ministry vary
greatly. Som e denom inations have
no form al educational requirem ents,
and o th e rs o rd ain persons having
varying am ounts and types o f train­
ing in Bible colleges, Bible institutes,
or liberal arts colleges.
In 1976, there were 138 Am erican
theological institutes accredited by
the Association of Theological
Schools in the United States and
C anada. These adm it only students
who have received a bachelor’s d e­
gree or its equivalent with a liberal
arts m ajor from an accredited col­
lege. Many denom inations require a
3-year course o f professional study in
one of these accredited schools or
sem inaries after college graduation.
The degree of m aster o f divinity is
aw arded upon com pletion.
Recom m ended presem inary or un­
dergraduate college courses include
E n g lish , h isto ry , p h ilo so p h y , the
natural sciences, social sciences, the
fine arts, music, religion, and foreign
languages. These courses provide a
knowledge of m odern social, cultur­
al, and scien tific in stitu tio n s and
problems. However, students consid­
ering theological study should con­
tact, at the earliest possible date, the
schools to which they intend to ap­
ply, to learn how to prepare for the
program they expect to enter.
The standard curriculum for ac­
credited theological schools consists
of four m ajor categories: biblical, his­
to rical, theological, and p ractical.
Courses o f a practical nature such as
psychology, religious education, and
a d m in is tr a tio n a re e m p h a s iz e d .
Many accredited schools require that
students gain experience in church
work under the supervision of a fac­
ulty m em ber or experienced minis­
ter. Some institutions offer doctor of
m inistry d eg rees to stu d en ts who
have com pleted 1 year or more of
additional study after serving at least
a year as minister. Scholarships and
loans are available for students of
theological institutions.
66

In general, each large denom ina­
tion has its own school or schools o f
theology th at reflect its p articu lar
doctrine, interests, and needs. How­
ever, many of these schools are open
to students from o th er denom ina­
tions. Several interdenom inational
schools associated with universities
ate training covering a wide range o f
theological points of view. Persons
who have denom inational qualifica­
tions for the ministry usually are o r­
dained after graduation from a sem i­
nary. In denom inations that do not
require, seminary training, clergy are
ordained at various appointed times.
Men and women entering the clergy
often begin their careers as pastors o f
small congregations or as assistant
pastors in large churches.

Employment Outlook
The trend toward m erger and unity
among denom inations, com bined
with the closing of smaller parishes
and the downturn in financial sup­
port, has reduced dem and for Protes­
tant m inisters in recent years. As a
result, new graduates of theological
schools will face increasing com peti­
tion in finding positions. The supplydem and situation will vary among d e­
nom inations and the chance of o b ­
taining em ploym ent will depend, in
part, on the length of the candidate’s
fo rm al p re p a ra tio n . M ost o f th e
openings for clergy that are expected
through the m id-1980’s will th e re ­
fore result from the need to replace
those in existing positions who retire,
die, or leave the ministry. The need
for m inisters in Evangelical church­
es, however, is expected to continue
to grow.
Although fewer opportunities may
arise for Protestant ministers to serve
individual congregations, newly o r­
dained ministers may find work in
youth, family relations, and welfare
organizations; religious education;
and as c h a p la in s in th e A rm e d
Forces, hospitals, universities, and
correctional institutions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of Protestant clergy vary
substantially, depending on age, ex­

perience, education, denom ination,
size and wealth of congregation, type
of community, and geographic loca­
tion. According to a study by the In­
stitute for Church Development, av­
erage income including benefits for
Protestant ministers in five denom i­
nations was about \$13,650 in 1976.
These earnings are somewhat higher
than the average for Protestant de­
nom inations as a whole. Annual va­
cations average 3 weeks and there
often is opportunity for time off.
Because of the wide range of serv­
ice that the minister provides, he or
she may work long or irregular hours,
often involving considerable travel.

Information
Persons who are interested in en­
tering the Protestant ministry should
seek th e counsel of a m inister or
church guidance worker. Each theo­
logical school can supply information
on admission requirem ents. Prospec­
tive ministers also should contact the
ordination supervision body of their
particular denom ination for inform a­
tion on special requirem ents for ordi­
nation.

RABBIS
(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of
their congregations and teachers and
interpreters of Jewish law and tradi­
tion. They conduct religious services
and deliver sermons at services on
the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays.
Rabbis customarily are available at
all times to counsel m embers of their
congregation, other followers of Ju ­
daism, and the community at large.
Like o th er clergy, rabbis co n d u ct
weddings and funeral services, visit
the sick, help the poor, com fort the
bereaved, supervise religious educa­
tion program s, engage in interfaith
activities, and involve themselves in
com m unity affairs.
Rabbis serving large congregations
may spend considerable time in ad-

Rabbi instructing nursery school children about the Friday evening Sabbath meal.

m in istra tiv e d u ties, w orking w ith
their staffs and com m ittees. Large
congregations frequently have an as­
s o c ia te o r a ssista n t ra b b i. M any
assistant rabbis serve as educational
directors.
Nearly all rabbis serve O rthodox,
C onservative, o r Reform congrega­
tions. Regardless o f their particular
point o f view, all Jewish congrega­
tions preserve the substance o f Jew ­
ish religious worship. T he congrega­
tions differ in the extent to which
worship—for exam ple, in the w ear­
ing o f head coverings, the use of He­
brew as the language o f prayer, or
the use o f music or a choir. The for­
m at o f th e w o rsh ip serv ic e and,
therefore, the ritual th at the rabbis
use may vary even am ong congrega­
tions belonging to the sam e branch of
Judaism.
Rabbis also may write for religious
and lay publications, and teach in
theological seminaries, colleges, and
universities.

Places of Employment
About 4,000 rabbis served over 6
million followers o f the Jewish faith
in this country in 1976; approxim ate­
ly 1,550 were Orthodox rabbis, 1,350
were C onservative, and 1,200 R e­

form. O thers work as chaplains in the
m ilitary services, in hospitals and
other institutions, or in one of the
m any Jew ish co m m u n ity serv ic e
agencies. A growing num ber are em ­
ployed in colleges and universities as
teachers in Jewish Studies programs.
Although rabbis serve Jewish com ­
munities throughout the Nation, they
are concentrated in those States that
have large Jewish populations, p a r­
tic u la rly N ew Y o rk , C a lifo rn ia ,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Illinois,
M assachusetts, F lorida, M aryland,
and the W ashington, D.C. m etropol­
itan area.

Training and Other
Qualifications
To becom e eligible for ordination
as a rabbi, a student m ust com plete a
prescribed course of study in a sem i­
nary. Entrance requirem ents and the
curriculum depend upon the branch
of Judaism with which the seminary
is associated.
Nearly 30 sem inaries train O rtho­
dox rabbis in program s of varying
lengths. The required course of study
to prepare for ordination is usually 3
or 4 years. However, students who
are not college graduates may spend
a longer period at these sem inaries
and com plete the requirem ents for

the bachelor’s degree while pursuing
the rabbinic course. Some Orthodox
sem inaries do not require a college
degree to qualify for ordination, al­
though students who qualify usually
have com pleted 4 years o f college.
The Hebrew Union College—Jew ­
ish Institute of Religion is the official
sem inary that trains rabbis for the
Reform branch o f Judaism. It is the
only branch that has approved the
training and ordination o f women as
rabbis. In 1976, almost half the en­
tering class at the Reform seminary
were women. The Jewish Theologi­
cal Seminary of Am erica is the offi­
cial sem inary that trains rabbis for
the Conservative branch of Judaism.
Both seminaries require the com ple­
tion of a 4-year college course, as
well as earlier preparation in Jewish
studies, for admission to the rabbinic
program leading to ordination. N or­
mally 5 years of study are required to
com plete the rabbinic course at the
Reform seminary, including 1 year of
preparatory study in Jerusalem. Ex­
ceptionally w ell-prepared students
can shorten this 5-year period to a
minimum of 3 years. A student hav­
ing a strong background in Jewish
studies can com plete the course at
the Conservative seminary in 4 years;
for other enrollees, the course may
take as long as 6 years.
In general, the curriculum s of Jew ­
ish theological sem inaries provide
s tu d e n ts w ith a c o m p re h e n s iv e
know ledge o f the B ible, T alm ud,
R abbinic literature, Jewish history,
theology, and courses in education,
p a s to ra l p sy ch o lo g y , an d p u b lic
speaking. Students o f the Reform
seminary get a thorough preparation
in the classics as well as extensive
practical training in dealing with the
social and political problem s in the
com m unity. Training for alternatives
to the pulpit, such as leadership in
com m unity services and religious
education, increasingly is stressed.
Some seminaries grant advanced
academ ic degrees in fields such as
Biblical and Talm udic research. All
Jewish theological seminaries m ake
scholarships and loans available.
Newly ordained rabbis usually be­
gin as leaders of small congregations,
assistants to experienced rabbis, di­
rectors o f Hillel Foundations on col­
67

lege cam p u ses, te a c h e rs in sem i­
n a r ie s a n d o th e r e d u c a tio n a l
in s titu tio n s , o r c h a p la in s in th e
A rm ed Forces. As a rule, the pulpits
o f large and well-established Jewish
congregations are filled by experi­
enced rabbis.

Employment Outlook
T he d em an d for R abbis has d e ­
clined in recen t years because some
e s ta b l i s h e d c o n g r e g a tio n s h a v e
closed and fewer new ones are being
form ed. As a result, m any newly o r­
dained R abbis will take positions in
sm aller Jewish com m unities and as
assistant R abbis in larger Jewish co n ­
gregations. O pportunities still exist
for R abbis to teach in colleges and
universities, to serve as chaplains in
the A rm ed Forces, and to work in
hospitals and oth er institutions or in
one o f the m any Jewish social service
ag en cies. O penings in established
congregations will com e largely from
a need to replace those Rabbis who
retire or die.
The em ploym ent outlook for rab­
bis varies am ong th e th ree m ajor
branches o f Judaism , however. R e­
form rabbis may face som e com peti­
tion for available positions and O r­
th o d o x c le r g y a re e x p e c te d to
e n c o u n te r very keen co m petition.
C o n serv ativ e rabbis, on the o th er
h and, will have good em ploym ent
opportunities, if present trends con­
tinue.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Incom es vary depending on the
size and financial status of the con­
gregation, as well as its denom ina­
tional branch and geographic loca­
tion. Rabbis usually earn additional
incom e from gifts or fees for officiat­
ing at cerem onies such as weddings.
In 1976 the annual earnings of
rabbis averaged betw een \$15,000
and \$20,000, including pension and
housing allowance. Earnings of O r­
thodox rabbis ten d ed to be at the
lower end o f the scale. Average earn ­
ings o f newly ordained Conservative
an d R e fo rm ra b b is w e re a b o u t
\$19,000; m ore ex p erienced rabbis
e a rn ed m uch higher salaries and,
w ith o th e r b e n e fits, av e rag e d as
68

m uch as \$35,000 a year. Some senior
rabbis in large tem ples earned up to
\$60,000 a year.
R abbis’ working hours are d eter­
m ined by their role in the congrega­
tion. Besides conducting regular reli­
gious services, they also may spend
considerable time in adm inistrative,
educational, and com m unity service
functions, as well as presiding over
various cerem onial services. Rabbis
also m ust be available to serve the
em ergency needs of their congrega­
tion m em bers.

Information
Persons who are interested in b e­
com ing rabbis should discuss their
plans for a vocation with a practicing
rabbi. Inform ation on the work o f
rabbis and allied occupations can be
obtained from:
The Jewish Theological Seminary of America,
(Conservative), 3080 Broadway, New
York, New York 10027.
The Rabbi Issac Elchanan Theological Semi­
nary, an affiliate of Yeshiva University,
(Orthodox), 2540 Amsterdam Ave., New
York, N.Y. 10033.
Hebrew Union College and Jewish Institute of
Religion, (Reform), whose three campus­
es are located at 40 W. 68th St., New
York, N.Y. 10023; at 3101 Clifton Ave.,
Cincinnati, Ohio 45220; and at 3077 Uni­
versity Mall, Los Angeles, Calif. 90007.

R O M A N CATHO LIC
PRIESTS
(D.O.T. 120.108)

Nature of the Work
Rom an Catholic priests attend to
the spiritual, pastoral, m oral, and
educational needs of the m em bers o f
their church. Their duties include
presiding at liturgical functions; of­
fering religious enlightenm ent in the
form o f a serm on; hearing confes­
sions; adm inistering the Sacram ents
(including the sacram ents of M ar­
riage and Penance); and conducting
funeral services. They also com fort
the sick, console relatives and friends
of the dead, counsel those in need o f
guidance, and assist the poor.

The number of priests has been insuffi
cient to fill all the needs of Catholic instl
tutions.

Priests spend long hours working
for the church and the community.
Their day usually begins with m orn­
ing m editation and Mass, and may
end with the hearing of confessions
or an evening visit to a hospital o r a
home. Many priests direct and serve
on church com m ittees, work in civic
and charitable organizations, and as­
sist in com m unity projects.
There are two main classifications
of priests—diocesan (secular) and
religious. Both types have the same
powers acquired through ordination
by a bishop. The differences lie in
their way of life, the type of work to
which they are assigned, and the
church authority to whom they are
immediately
subject.
Diocesan
priests generally work as individuals
in parishes assigned to them by the
bishop of their diocese. Religious
priests generally work as part o f a
religious order, such as the Jesuits,
Dominicans, or Franciscans. They
engage in specialized activities such
as teaching or missionary work as­
signed to them by superiors of their
order.
Both religious and diocesan priests
hold teaching and administrative
posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges
and universities, and high schools.
Priests attached to religious orders
staff a large proportion of the institu­
tions of higher education and many
high sc h o o ls , w h e re a s d io c e s a n

priests are usually concerned with
the p aro ch ial schools attac h ed to
parish churches and with diocesan
high schools. The m em bers o f reli­
gious orders do m ost of the mission­
ary work conducted by the Catholic
C hurch in this country and abroad.

Places of Employment
Approxim ately
59,000
priests
served nearly 49 million Catholics in
the U nited States in 1976. There are
priests in nearly every city and town
and in many rural com m unities. The
majority are in m etropolitan areas,
where m ost Catholics reside. C atho­
lics are concentrated in the N orth­
east and G reat Lakes regions, with
sm aller concentrations in California,
Texas, and Louisiana. Large num ­
bers of priests are located in com m u­
nities near C atholic educational and
other institutions.

Training and Other
Qualifications
P reparation for the priesthood
generally requires 8 years of study
beyond high school. T here are over
450 sem inary institutions where stu­
dents may receive training for the
priesthood. P reparatory study may
begin in the first year o f high school,
at the college level, or in theological
sem inaries after college graduation.
High school sem inaries provide a
college preparatory program that
emphasizes
English
gramm ar,
speech, literature, and social studies.
Some study of Latin is required and
the study o f m odern language is en­
couraged. The sem inary college of­
fers a liberal arts program , stressing
philosophy and religion; the study of
man through the behavioral sciences
and history; and the natural sciences
and m athem atics. In m any college
sem inaries, a student may concen­
trate in any o f these fields.
The remaining 4 years of prepara­
tion include sacred scripture; dog­
matic, m oral, and pastoral theology;
hom iletics (art of preaching); church
history; liturgy (M ass); and canon
law. Field work experience usually is
req u ired in addition to classroom
study; in recent years this aspect of a
p rie s t’s training has been em p h a­
sized. Diocesan and religious priests

atten d differen t m ajor sem inaries,
where slight variations in the training
reflect the differences in the type of
work expected of them as priests.
Priests are not perm itted to marry.
Postgraduate work in theology is
offered at a num ber of A m erican
C atholic universities or at ecclesiasti­
cal universities around the world,
p articu larly in R om e. Also, m any
priests do graduate work at o th er
universities in fields unrelated to th e­
ology. Priests are encouraged by the
C atholic C hurch to continue their
studies, at least informally, after ordi­
nation. In recen t years continuing
education for ordained priests has
stressed social sciences, such as soci­
ology and psychology.
Young m en never are denied entry
into sem inaries because of lack o f
funds. In seminaries for secular
priests, the church authorities may
m ake arrangem ents for student
scholarships or loans. Those in reli­
gious sem inaries are financed by co n ­
tributions of benefactors.
The first assignment of a newly
ordained secular priest is usually that
o f assistant pastor or curate. Newly
ordained priests of religious orders
are assigned to the specialized duties
for which they are trained. D epend­
ing on the talents, interests, and ex­
perience o f the individual, many o p ­
portunities for greater responsibility
exist within the church.

Employment Outlook
A growing num ber of priests will
be needed in the years ahead to
provide for the spiritual, educational,
and social needs of the increasing
num ber of Catholics in the Nation.
The num ber of ordained priests has
been insufficient to fill the needs o f
newly established parishes and other
Catholic institutions, and to replace
priests who retire or die. This situ­
ation is likely to persist and perhaps
worsen, if the recent drop in sem i­
nary enrollm ents continues. H ow ­
ever, perm anent deacons, who may
m arry and hold full-time jobs outside
the C hurch, are being ordained as
Catholic m inisters to preach and p e r­
form other liturgical functions, such
as com m union and baptism. They are
not perm itted to celebrate Mass or

h e a r confession. A lthough priests
usually continue to work longer than
persons in other professions, the var­
ied dem ands and long hours create a
need for young priests to assist the
older ones. Also, an increasing num ­
ber of priests have been acting in
many diverse areas of service—in so­
cial work; religious radio, newspaper,
and television work; and labor-m an­
agem ent m ediation. They also have
been serving in foreign posts as mis­
sionaries, particularly in countries
that have a shortage of priests.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Diocesan priests’ salaries vary
from diocese to diocese and range
from \$2,000 to \$6,000 a year. The
diocesan priest also may receive a
car allowance of \$25 to \$50 a month,
free room and board in the parish
rectory, and fringe benefits such as
group insurance and retirem ent
benefits in the diocese.
Religious priests take a vow of
poverty and are supported by their
religious order.
Priests who do special work relat­
ed to the church, such as teaching,
usually receive a partial salary which
is less than a lay person in the same
position would receive. The differ­
ence betw een the usual salary for
these jobs and the salary that the
priest receives is called “ contributed
service.” In some of these situations,
housing and related expenses may be
provided; in other cases, the priest
m ust m ake his own arrangem ents.
Some priests doing special work may
receive the same com pensation that
a lay person would receive. These
may include priests working as law­
yers, counselors, consultants, etc.
Due to the wide range of duties
which m ost clergy have, priests often
must work long and irregular hours.
Their working conditions vary widely
with the type and area of assignment.

Information
Young men interested in entering
the priesthood should seek the guid­
ance an d counsel o f th eir parish
priest. For information regarding the
d ifferen t religious orders and the
69

secular priesthood, as well as a list o f
th e sem inaries w hich prep are stu ­
dents for the priesthood, contact the
d io c e s a n D ire c to rs o f V o c a tio n s
through the office o f the local pastor
or bishop.

C O LLEG E STU D E N T
P E R S O N N E L W O RK ER S
(D.O.T. 045.108, 090.118 and .168,
129.108, and 166.168)

Nature of the Work
A stu d en t’s choice o f a particular
institution o f higher education is in­
fluenced by many factors. Availabil­
ity o f a specific educational program ,
quality o f the school, cost, and loca­
tion all may play im portant roles.
For m any students, however, an
equally im portant factor is the insti­
tu tio n ’s ability to provide for their
housing, social, cultural, and recrea­
tional needs. Developing and adm in­
istering these services are the tasks of
college stu d en t personnel workers.
T he admissions officer, the registrar,
the dean o f students, and the career
planning an d p lacem en t counselor
are probably the best known am ong
these. O th er workers th a t m ake up
this broad occupational field include
student activities and college union
personnel, student housing officers,
counselors in the college counseling
center, financial aid officers, and for­
Titles o f student personnel w ork­
ers vary from institution to institution
and from program to program within
a single school. Titles also vary with
the level o f responsibility within a
s tu d e n t p e rs o n n e l p ro g ra m . T h e
m ore com m on titles include dean, di­
rector, officer, associate dean, assist­
ant director, and counselor.
The dean o f students, or the vice
president for student affairs, heads
the student personnel program a t a
school. Among his o r h er duties are
evaluating the changing needs o f the
students and helping the president of
the college develop institutional poli­
cies. For example, to m eet the needs
o f an increasing n u m ber of older,
70

part-tim e students, colleges and uni­
versities have been changing policies
in areas such as student housing and
student participation in decisions on
graduation requirem ents and course
offerings. In addition, the dean o f
students generally coordinates a staff
o f associate o r assistant deans who
are in charge o f the specific p ro ­
grams th at deal directly with the stu­
dents.
A t some schools, the admissions
office and the records office are
separate. Admissions counselors in ­
terview and evaluate prospective stu­
dents and process their applications.
They may travel extensively to re ­
cruit high school, junior college, and
older students and to acquaint them
with opportunities available at their
college. They work closely with fac­
ulty, ad m in istrato rs, financial aid
personnel, and public relations staff
to determ ine policies for recruiting
and adm itting students. Personnel in
the office o f the registrar m aintain
the academ ic records o f students and
provide current enrollm ent statistics
to those who require them both w ith­
in the college and in the community.
S tu d en t fin a n c ia l aid p erso n n el
help students obtain financial sup­
port for their education. W orkers in
this field m ust keep well-inform ed
about the sources and m anagem ent

o f all forms of financial aid—scholar­
ships, grants, loans, employm ent, fel­
lowships, and teaching and research
assistan tsh ip s. T hey w ork closely
sions, counseling, business, and aca­
dem ic office staffs.
Career planning and placement
counselors, sometimes called college
placem ent officers, assist students in
career selections and also may help
them get part-tim e and sum m er jobs.
On m any campuses, they arrange for
prospective employers to visit the
school to discuss their personnel
needs and to interview applicants.
(F or further inform ation on this
field, see statem ent on college career
planning and placem ent counselors.)
The student personnel staff in
charge o f student activities work with
m em b ers o f p ro p o se d and e s ta b ­
lished stu d en t organizations, esp e­
cially with student government. They
help the student groups to plan, im­
plem ent, and evaluate their activi­
ties. O ften, the student activities staff
will assist in the orientation o f new
students.
College union staff mem bers work
with students to provide intellectual,
cultural, and recreational programs.
Many college union staff m em bers
direct th e operation o f the physical
facilities and services o f the building,

Student financial aid personnel help students obtain financial support for their
education.

such as food and recreational servic­
es, building m aintenance, fiscal plan­
ning, and conference facilities.
Student housing officers sometimes
live in the dorm itories and, in gener­
al, help the students to live together
in harm ony. They may serve as coun­
selors to individual students with per­
sonal problem s. Housing officers also
may be involved in m anaging the fis­
cal, food service, and housekeeping
operations o f student residences.
Counselors help students with p er­
sonal, ed u catio n al, and vocational
problem s. Students may com e to the
counselors on th eir own or be re­
ferred by a faculty m em ber, a resi­
dence hall counselor, or a friend.
C ounseling needs m ay arise from
lack of self-confidence or motivation
on the p art of the student, failure in
academ ic work, desire to leave col­
lege or transfer to another college,
inability to get along with others,
loneliness, drug abuse, or m arriage
p ro b lem s. In a d d itio n , th e re is a
growing trend for counselors to try to
reach m ore students by establishing
group sensitivity sessions and tele­
phone “ hotlines.” Counselors often
adm inister tests th at indicate apti­
tudes and interests to students having
tro u b le u n d erstan d ing them selves.
Some also teach in the college or as­
sist with admissions, orientation, and
training o f residence hall staff. (F or
further inform ation on this field, see
statem ent on psychologists.)
and coordinate many of the services
that help to insure a successful aca­
dem ic and social experience for stu­
d en ts from o th e r co u n tries. They
usually assist with foreign student ad­
missions, orientation, financial aid,
housing, English as a foreign lan­
guage, academ ic and personal coun­
seling, student-com m unity relation­
ships, jo b p lacem en t, and alum ni
relations. In addition, they may be an
adviser for international associations
and nationality groups and for U.S.
students interested in study, educa­
tional travel, work, or service proj­

university, w hether a 2-year or a 4year school, has a staff perform ing
stu d en t personnel functions. They
are not always organized as a unified
program . Large colleges and univer­
sities generally have specialized staffs
for each personnel function. In many
small colleges a few persons may ca r­
ry out the entire student personnel
program .

Training, Other Qualifications,

Because of the diversity in duties,
the education and backgrounds o f
college student personnel workers
vary considerably. Generally, how ­
ever, a m aster’s degree is preferred
and a doctoral degree may be neces­
sary for advancem ent to top-level p o ­
sitions. Schools often prefer persons
with a bachelor’s degree in a social
science, such as econom ics or histo­
ry, and a m aster’s degree in student
personnel work. In 1976, 120 colleg­
es and universities offered graduate
program s in this area.
O ther specialized training may also
be required for some student person­
nel occupations. A m aster’s degree in
clinical o r counseling psychology
usually is required for work as a col­
lege counselor. This degree also is
helpful in o th er student personnel
fields such as career planning and
placem ent. Familiarity with data p ro ­
cessing is an asset, especially for
work in admissions, records, or fi­
nancial aid. Social science and recre­
ation degrees also are useful, as is
work experience in business, govern­
m ent, or educational associations.
College student personnel workers
m ust be interested in, and able to
work with, people of all backgrounds
and ages. They m ust have the p a ­
tience to cope with conflicting view­
points of students, faculty, and p a r­
ents. People in this field often deal
with the unexpected and the unusual;
therefore em otional stability and the
ability to function while under pres­
sure are necessities.
Entry level positions usually are
those of student activities advisers,
Places of Employment
admissions counselors, financial aid
An estim ated 57,000 college stu­ counselors, residence hall directors,
d en t p erso n n el w orkers were em ­ and assistants to deans. Persons w ith­
ployed in 1976. Every college and out graduate degrees may find ad ­

vancem ent opportunities limited. A
doctorate usually is necessary for the
top student personnel positions.

Employment Outlook
The em ploym ent outlook for col­
lege stu d en t personnel w orkers is
likely to be som ewhat com petitive
through 1985. Tightening budgets in
both public and private colleges and
universities, are expected to lim it
growth in employment. Student p er­
sonnel positions least likely to be af­
fected if some reduction becom es
necessary are those in admissions, fi­
nancial aid, and records. Most open­
ings will result from the need to re­
place personnel who transfer to other
positions, retire, or leave the field for
other reasons.
Any em ploym ent growth that does
occur is expected to be in junior and
com m unity colleges. Enrollm ent at
this level of education has been rising
and many new schools have opened.
If these recent trends continue, some
additional student personnel workers
will be needed in 2-year institutions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries vary greatly depending on
geographic location and the size of
the school. According to the limited
data available, top adm inistrators
with at least 5 years of experience
averaged between \$28,000 and
\$30,000 a year in 1976. In the larger
colleges and universities, salaries
reached as high as \$46,000.
College student personnel workers
frequently work more than a 40-hour
week; often irregular hours and over­
tim e work are necessary. Em ploy­
m ent in these occupations usually is
on a 1 2 -m o n th b a sis. In m an y
schools, they are entitled to retire­
m ent, group medical and life insur­
ance, and sabbatical and other bene­
fits.

Information
A pam phlet, Careers in Higher
Education, is available from:
The American Personnel and Guidance Asso­
ciation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.

71

C O M M E R C IA L A R TIS TS

they m ay do several sk etch e s o r
rough visuals before the director is
satisfied.
(D.O.T. 141.031 and .081, 970.281
O ther com m ercial artists, usually
and .381, and 979.381)
with less experience, are needed to
turn out the finished product. LetNature of the Work
terers put together headlines and o th ­
A team o f com m ercial artists with er words on the ad. They use set or
varying skills and specializations of­ p h o to letterin g , and m ust have a
ten creates the artw ork in new spa­ knowledge of type faces and the abil­
p ers an d m ag azin es an d on b ill­ ity to reproduce them in a variety o f
boards, brochures, and catalogs. This sizes and mediums such as ink, p en ­
team is supervised by an art director, cil, or cutout pieces o f paper. M e­
whose m ain function is to develop a chanical artists paste up an engrav­
them e o r idea for an ad or an adver­ e r ’s guide o f the ad with all th e
tising campaign. A fter the art direc­ elem ents in the exact size and place
to r has d e term in e d th e m ain e le ­ in w hich they will finally appear.
m ents o f an ad or design, he or she Since this pasteup will be the engrav­
will turn it over to two specialists for e r ’s b lu e p rin t, m ech a n ical artists
further refinem ent. The sketch artist, must be very precise.
Pasteup artists and other beginners
also called a Tenderer, does a rough
draw ing o f any p ictu re s required. do more routine work such as cutting
The layout artist, who is concerned mats, assembling booklets, or ru n ­
with graphics rather than art work, ning errands.
In a small office, the art director
constructs or arranges the illustra­
tions or photographs, plans the ty­ may perform the layout and m ore
pography and picks colors for the ad. routine work with the help of train­
W hat em erges is a “ rough visual,” a ees. In a large office, however, the art
sketch of the finished ad. Both the director develops concepts with the
sketch artist and the layout artist copywriter; sets standards; deals with
work closely with the art director; clients; and purchases needed photo­

graphs, illustrations, lettering, and
other artw ork from freelancers.
departm ents who lack time or p er­
sonnel hire freelance illustrators to
prepare sketches. These artists must
be highly talented and able to work
qu ick ly —an agency, for exam ple,
may require a finished sketch in 1
day. Only the highly talented will re­
ceive enough assignments to m ain­
tain a sufficient income.
Advertising artists create the con­
cept and artwork for a wide variety
of items. These include direct mail
advertising, catalogs, co u n ter dis­
plays, slides, and filmstrips. They also
design o r lay out the editorial pages
an d fe a tu re s o f n ew sp a p ers an d
magazines and produce or purchase
the necessary illustrations or a r t­
work. Some com m ercial artists spe­
cialize in producing fashion illustra­
tio n s , g re e tin g c a r d s , o r b o o k
illustrations, or in making technical
drawings for industry.

Places of Employment
About 67,000 persons worked as
com m ercial artists in 1976. Although
some com m ercial artists can be
found in nearly every city, the m ajor­
ity work in large cities, such as New
York, Los Angeles, Boston, W ash­
ington, D.C., and Chicago, where the
largest users of commercial art are
located.
Most commercial artists work as
staff artists for advertising d ep a rt­
ments o f large companies, advertis­
ing agencies, printing and publishing
firm s, te x tile co m p an ie s, p h o to ­
graphic studios, television and m o­
tio n p ic tu re stu d io s, d e p a rtm e n t
stores, and a variety of other business
org an izatio n s. M any are self-em ­
ployed or freelance artists. Som e
salaried com m ercial artists also do
freelance work in their spare time. A
few th o u sa n d co m m ercial artists
work for Federal G overnm ent agen­
cies, principally in the Defense D e­
partm ent. A few teach in art schools.

Training, Other Qualifications,

Some salaried commercial artists also do freelance work in their spare time.
72

Artistic ability, imagination, n eat­
ness, and a capacity to visualize ideas
on paper are im portant qualifications

for success in com m ercial art. How­
ever, these qualities may be devel­
oped by specialized training in the
tech n iq u es o f com m ercial and ap­
plied art.
Persons can prepare for a career in
com m ercial art by attending a 2- or
4-year trad e school, or a junior col­
lege, college, or university which of­
fers a program in com m ercial art. In
1976, ab out 900 institutions offered
instruction in com m ercial art.
M ost artists who en ter the field are
sion to these schools is based upon
high school grades, a portfolio of art
work, and an interview. A growing
num ber of colleges and universities,
however, confer degrees in com m er­
cial art. These college program s sup­
plem ent art instruction with liberal
arts courses such as English or histo­
ry. A lthough many em ployers prefer
graduates o f a college or university
program in com m ercial art, the qual­
ity and reputation o f a particular pro­
gram is m ore im portant than the type
of institution offering it.
Limited training in com m ercial art
also may be obtained through public
vocational high schools and practical
experience on the job. There is no
formal training program for the com ­
mercial art trainee, however. Instead,
trainees may run errands for the art
director or do o ther general chores
while learning. A dditional training
usually is needed for advancem ent.
B eginners also should supplem ent
their form al education and training
by making posters, layouts, illustra­
tions, and similar projects for schools
and other organizations.
The first year in art school may be
spent studying fu n d am en tals—p er­
sp ec tiv e , d esig n , c o lo r h arm o n y ,
com position—and the use of pencil,
crayon, pen and ink, and other art
media. Subsequent study, generally
m ore specialized, includes drawing
from life, advertising design, graphic
design, lettering, typography, illus­
trations, and other courses in the stu­
d en t’s particular field of interest.
In order to advance beyond a be­
ginner’s jo b , com m ercial artists must
develop specialized skills. For exam ­
ple, letterers and retouchers must do
precise and detailed work that re­
q u ire s e x c e lle n t c o o rd in a tio n . A

sketch artist m ust be able to draw
anything adequately in alm ost any
m edium , including die m arker, p en ­
cil, ink or transparencies. Most com ­
m ercial artists advance by specializ­
ing either in the m echanical elem ents
of producing an ad (letterers and m e­
chanical and layout artists) or in the
pictorial elem ents (sketch artists and
illu s tr a to r s ) . T h u s, a su c c e ssfu l
sketch artist may not be very skilled
in typography. A rt directors, how ­
ever, need a strong educational b ack­
ground in art and business practices
in addition to experience with pho­
tography, typography, and printing
production m ethods. Advertising art
directors require a special kind o f
creativ ity —the ability to conceive
ideas that will stim ulate the sale o f
the client’s products or services.
C om m ercial artists usually assem ­
ble their best artw ork into a “ portfo­
lio,” to display their work. A good
portfolio is essential for initial em ­
and for job changes.

Employment Outlook
T ale n te d and w ell-trained co m ­
m ercial artists may face com petition
for em ploym ent and advancem ent in
m ost kinds of work through the mid1980’s. Those with only average abil­
ity and little specialized training are
likely to encounter keen com petition
for beginning jobs and have very lim­
ited opportunities for advancem ent.
Em ploym ent of com m ercial artists
is expected to increase about as fast
as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. One antici­
pated area of growth is in visual ad ­
vertising such as television graphics,
packaging displays, and poster and
w indow displays. T he expanding
field of industrial design also is ex­
pected to require m ore qualified a rt­
ists for three-dim ensional work with
en g in eerin g co n c ep ts. (S ee s ta te ­
m ent on industrial designers.) In ad ­
dition, a few thousand jobs for com ­
m ercial artists are expected to open
each year throughout the period to
replace workers who will die, retire,
or leave the field for other reasons.
The dem and for com m ercial artists
is expected to vary by specialization
or type. For example, dem and for

freelance artists is expected to in­
crease and experienced paste-up and
m echanical artists are always need­
ed; jobs for art directors and layout
artists, however, will be fewer, much
sought after, and open only to experi­
enced, very talented, and creative
artists. E m ploym ent opportu n ities
are expected to be best for those who
have a variety of skills rather than
expertise in one or two specialties.
Com m ercial art occupations are
particularly sensitive to changes in
conditions.
Therefore,
jobseekers may find that opportuni­
ties vary from year to year depending
upon econom ic conditions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, beginning com m ercial
artists having no training beyond vo­
cational high school typically earned
from \$90 to \$110 a week; graduates
of 2-year professional schools, \$100
to \$ 125 a week; and graduates of 4y e a r p o st-h ig h sch o o l p ro g ram s,
\$120 to \$175 a week, according to
the limited data available. Talented
artists who had strong educational
b ackgrounds and good portfolios,
however, started at higher salaries.
A fte r a few years o f ex p erien ce,
qualified illustrators may expect to
earn \$185 to \$300 a week. Art direc­
tors, executives, w ell-know n fre e ­
lance illustrators, and others in top
positions generally have much higher
earnings, from \$480 to \$580 a week
or more.
Earnings of freelance artists vary
widely, since they are affected by
factors such as skill level, variety,
and popularity of work. Freelance
artists may be paid by the hour or by
the assignment. Com mercial artists
who worked for the Federal G overn­
m ent in 1977 had an average annual
salary o f \$15,550 or about \$300 a
week.
Salaried com m ercial artists gener­
ally work 35 to 40 hours a week, but
som etimes they must work additional
hours under considerable pressure to
m eet dead lin es. F ree la n ce artists
usually have irregular working hours.
73

Information
Inform ation on institutions offer­
ing program s in com m ercial art is
available from:
National Art Education Association, National
Education Association, 1916 Association
Dr., Reston, Va. 22091.

C O O P E R A TIV E
E X T E N S IO N S E R V IC E
W O RK ER S

feeds to m eet cow s’ nutritional needs
and to raise their output of milk, and
recognizing and com bating health
hazards including the possible estab­
lishm ent of a herd inspection p ro ­
gram. They also may help local farm ­
ers m arket their products.
Extension agents for com m unity
resource developm ent m eet with
com m unity leaders to plan and p ro ­
vide for econom ic developm ent of
the com m unity. They also assist com ­
munity leaders in developing recrea­
tional program s and facilities and in
planning other public projects, such

as water supply and sewage systems,
libraries and schools.
In addition to group work, they
also do field work with individuals. If
a farm er is having a problem with his
or her crops, an extension agent will
visit the farm, examine the problem
and suggest remedies. Likewise,
hom e econom ics extension agents
occasionally visit hom em akers to
give personal help in solving prob­
lems.
An im portant part of each exten­
sion w orker’s job is to provide infor­
mation th at is im portant to people in

(D .O .T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
C ooperative extension service
workers, or extension agents as they
are often called, co n d uct educational
program s for rural residents in areas
such as agriculture, hom e econom ­
ics, youth activities, and com m unity
re so u rc e d ev e lo p m e n t. E xtension
agents generally specialize in one of
these areas and have titles that m atch
their specialties, such as extension
agent for youth activities or exten­
sion agent for agriculture science and
h o rtic u ltu re . T h ey a re em p lo y ed
jointly by State land-grant universi­
ties and the U.S. D epartm ent of Agri­
culture.
Extension agents usually work with
groups o f people. For exam ple, the
extension agent for youth activities
conducts 4-H m eetings for m em bers
in the area. During the sum m er, they
may hold day cam ps to organize
youth recreational activities. Agents
who work in hom e econom ics set up
m eetings and program s to illustrate
the benefits o f proper nutrition and
to educate hom em akers in good nu­
trition.
A griculture
science
extension
agents conduct group meetings on
topics o f special interest to area
farmers. In a county which has m uch
dairy farm ing, extension agents ar­
range sem inars covering dairy herd
health or the raising of forage crops.
D uring th ese sem in ars, agents in ­
stru ct farm ers in using the proper
74

County extension worker gives technical advice to dairy farmer.

th e co m m u n ity . M any e x te n sio n
ag en ts w rite articles dealing with
their areas o f specialization for publi­
catio n in local new spapers. O ften
these are regular fe atu re colum ns
that appear once a week. O thers ap­
pear on local radio and television
shows to give m arketing reports for
ag ricu ltu ral p ro d u cts im p o rtan t to
the area, or present Saturday m orn­
ing program s for young people. A
few extension service w orkers pro­
duce docum entary films on topics in
which they have special training for
broadcast on local television stations.
Also, extension workers at some land
g r a n t u n iv e r s itie s p r o d u c e an d
b ro ad cast program s on universityowned UHF and cable television sta­
tions.
In addition to the extension service
workers who work at the county lev­
el, State extension specialists, at land
grant universities coordinate the ef­
forts of county agents. State exten­
sion agents keep abreast of the latest
research in their fields of study and
develop ways of using the research in
extension work at the county level.
Some State extension w orkers may
be on a split assignm ent and may
teach classes at the university. Also,
about 200 agricultural extension spe­
cialists are em ployed by the Exten­
sion Service of the U.S. D epartm ent
of A griculture in W ashington, D.C.

Places of Employment
M ore than four-fifths o f the ap­
proxim ately 16,000 cooperative ex­
ten sio n se rv ic e w o rk e rs are em ­
ployed by counties throughout the
United States. Alm ost all of the more
th an 3 ,000 co u n ties have county
staffs. D epending on the population
of the county, staffs range in size
from one agent, who serves a wide
variety o f clientele interests, to a doz­
en or m ore agents, each serving a
highly specialized need. M ost o f the
remaining extension agents are em ­
ployed by State extension services lo­
cated on the campuses o f land grant
universities. A few work for regional
staffs serving m ulticounty areas, and
a small num ber are em ployed by the
Extension Service of the U.S. D e­
partm ent of Agriculture. In addition,
a few work in urban areas, mostly
organizing 4-H activities for youth.

Training, Other Qualifications,
C ooperative Extension Service
agents are required to be proficient
in disciplines related to the needs o f
their clientele. They m ust have a
bachelor’s degree in their subjectm atter field. In addition, training in
educational techniques and in a com ­
m unications field such as journalism
is extrem ely helpful.
O ften, they receive specific in ­
struction in extension work in a p re ­
induction training program , and can
improve their skills through regular
in -serv ice train in g p ro g ram s th a t
cover both educational techniques
and the subject m atter for which they
are responsible. Beside being profi­
cient in their subject m atter exten­
sion workers m ust like to work with
people and to help them.
In m ost States, specialists and
agents assigned to m ulticounty and
State staff jobs are required to have
at least one advanced degree and in
many they m ust have a Ph. D.

Employment Outlook
The em ploym ent o f cooperative
extension service workers is expect­
ed to increase m ore slowly than the
average for all occupation through
the m id-1980’s. As agricultural tech ­
nology becom es m ore com plicated,
m ore extension w orkers trained in
education and com m unications will
be needed to dissem inate inform a­

tion concerning advances in agricul­
tural research and technology to the
farm population. Also, m odern farm ­
ers often are college educated and,
thus, m ore likely to use innovative
farming practices. This may increase
the dem an d for extension agents
since extension agents relay advanc­
es in farm in g p ra c tic e s from re ­
searchers to farmers.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The salaries of extension workers
vary by locality, but, for the most
part, they are competitive with sala­
ries of other municipal and county
p ro fe ssio n a l e m p lo y ee s, such as
school teachers.
Extension agents work in offices
and in the field. Since most extension
service offices are located in small
towns, persons who wish to live o u t­
side the city may find extension work
the ideal career. Extension agents of­
ten get great satisfaction out of help­
ing others.

Information
Additional information is available
from County Extension offices, the
State D irector of the Cooperative
Extension Service located at each
land-grant university, or the Exten­
sion Service, U.S. D epartm ent of Ag­
riculture, W ashington, D.C. 20250.

CO U N SELO RS
At some point in their lives, m ost
people seek advice or assistance for
personal, education, or vocational
problem s. These problem s may be
relatively minor, such as a conflict in
a student’s class schedule, or may in­
volve serious em otional or physical
disabilities. Regardless of the p ro b ­
lem, counselors often are the ones to
whom people turn for help.
Counselors may specialize in a spe­
cific area and work setting. Some
deal primarily with school children,
while others work only with adults.
Some counselors are trained to assist

in vocational planning and may work
for State or private, nonprofit agen­
cies. W hatever the area of specializa­
tion, counselors help people under­
stand them selves—their capabilities
and potential—so that they can make
and carry out decisions and plans for
a satisfying and productive life.
This chapter covers four counsel­
ing specialties: school; rehabilita­
tion; em ployment; and college career
planning and placem ent.
School counselors are the largest
counseling group. They are primarily
concerned with the personal, social,
75

and educational developm ent o f stu­
dents.
Rehabilitation counselors help p er­
sons with physical, m ental, or social
handicaps to becom e productive in­
dividuals.
Em ploym ent counselors counsel
p e rs o n s — th e u n em p lo y ed o r u n ­
skilled, fo r ex am p le—who ca n n o t
find a jo b and/or have problem s in
career choice and planning.
College career planning and place­
m ent counselors help college students
examine their own interests, abilities,
and goals; explore ca re e r a lte rn a ­
tives; and m ake and follow through
with a career choice.
Persons who want to enter the
counseling field m ust be interested in
helping people and have an ability to
understand their behavior. A pleas­
ant but strong personality that instills
co n fid en ce in clients is desirable.
C ounselors also m ust be patient, sen­
sitive to the needs o f others, and able
to com m unicate orally as well as in
writing.
School counselors must keep up to date on opportunities for education and vocational
training.

SC H O O L C O U N SELO R S
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
U ncertainty about career choice,
learning disabilities, or an unhappy
home life are typical problem s that
many students face. Usually these
problem s cannot be solved by the
student alone; professional assistance
often is needed. M ost schools hire
counselors to give individual atten ­
tion to students’ educational, career,
and social developm ent.
A counselor role is to help students
understand themselves better—their
abilities, talents, and career options,
for example. To accom plish this,
counselors may use tests and individ­
ual or group counseling; sometimes
they develop specialized m ethods or
seek the assistance o f com m unity re­
source persons.
W hen helping students in career
choices, counselors often adm inister
and evaluate tests. Some counselors
also have responsibility for a career
inform ation center and the school’s
76

career education program . The
counselor may, for example, suggest
ways in which a m ath teacher can
incorporate into a lesson inform ation
on occupations that require m athe­
m atics. O r the counselor may a r ­
range field trips to factories and busi­
ness firm s o r show film s w hich
provide a view o f real work settings.
The desired result is a student who is
more aware of careers that m atch his
or her talents, likes, and abilities and
who can, with the assistance of the
counselor, develop an educational
and career plan.
School counselors m ust keep upto-date on opportunities for educa­
tional and vocational training beyond
high school to counsel students who
w ant this inform ation. They m ust
keep inform ed about training p ro ­
grams in 2- and 4-year colleges; in
t r a d e , t e c h n i c a l , a n d b u s in e s s
schools; ap p ren ticesh ip program s;
and available federally su p p o rted
program s. C o u n selo rs also advise
students about educational require­
ments for entry level jobs, job chang­
es caused by technological advances,

college entrance requirem ents, and
places o f employment.
Counselors in junior high and high
schools often help students find parttime jobs, either to enable them to
stay in school or to help them p re­
pare for their vocation. They may
help both graduates and dropouts to
find jobs or may direct them to com ­
munity em ploym ent services. They
also may conduct surveys to learn
m ore about hiring experiences of re­
cent graduates and dropouts, local
job opportunities, or the effective­
ness of the educational and guidance
programs.
Counselors also work with prob­
lems affecting the school as a whole
or one or two individuals. If drug
abuse is a problem , counselors may,
for example, initiate group counsel­
ing sessions to discuss the dangers of
taking drugs. Or they may speak in­
dividually with students and th eir
parents.
Counselors work closely with o th ­
er staff m em bers of the school, m em ­
bers of the community, and parents.
Often, teachers and counselors co n ­
fer about problems affecting a stu­

dent or group of students. A teacher
may refer a student who appears to
have problem s dealing with class­
m ates to a counselor who will at­
tem pt to find the cause. Counselors
may arrange m eetings with parents
or com m unity agencies, such as m en­
tal health organizations, if a student’s
problem s are serious.
Elem entary school counselors help
children to m ake the best use o f their
abilities by identifying these and oth­
er basic aspects of the child’s m ake­
up at an early age, and by evaluating
any learning problem s. M ethods used
in counseling grade school children
differ in many ways from those used
with older students. O bservations of
classroom and play activity furnish
clues ab o u t children in the lower
grades. To b etter u nderstand chil­
dren, elem entary school counselors
sp end m uch tim e consulting with
teachers and parents. They also work
closely with other staff m em bers of
the school, including psychologists
and social workers.
Some school counselors, particu­
larly in seco n d ary schools, teac h
classes in occupational inform ation,
social studies, or other subjects. They
also may supervise school clubs or
other extracurricular activities, often
after regular school hours.

Places of Employment
About 43,000 people worked full
time as public school counselors dur­
ing 1976. M ost counselors work in
large schools. An increasing num ber
o f school districts, however, provide
g u id a n c e serv ic es to th e ir sm all
schools by assigning m ore than one
school to a counselor.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Most States require school counse­
lors to have counseling and teaching
c e rtific a te s . H o w ever, a grow ing
num ber o f States no longer require
te a c h e r c e rtific a tio n . (S ee s ta te ­
ments on elem entary and secondary
school teach ers for ce rtificate re­
q u ire m e n ts .) D e p e n d in g on th e
State, a m aster’s degree in counseling
and from 1 to 5 years of teaching
experience usually are required for a
counseling certificate. People who

plan to becom e counselors should
learn the requirem ents of the State in
which they plan to work since re ­
quirem ents vary am ong States and
change rapidly.
College students interested in b e­
com ing school counselors usually
take the regular program o f teacher
education, with additional courses in
psychology and sociology. In States
where teaching experience is not a
requirem ent, it is possible to m ajor in
a liberal arts program . A few States
substitute a counseling internship for
teaching experience. In some States
teachers who have com pleted part of
the courses required for the m aster’s
degree in counseling are eligible for
provisional c e rtific a tio n and may
work as counselors under supervision
while they take additional courses.
C ounselor education program s at
the graduate level are available in
m ore than 450 colleges and universi­
ties, usually in the departm ents o f
education or psychology. One to 2
years of graduate study are necessary
for a m aster’s degree. M ost program s
provide supervised field experience.
Subject areas of required graduate
level courses usually include apprais­
al of the individual student, individ­
ual counseling p ro c ed u re s, group
guidance, inform ation service for c a ­
reer developm ent, professional rela­
tions and ethics, and statistics and
research.
accept responsibility for their own
lives is im portant for school counse­
lors. They m ust be able to coordinate
the activity of others and work as
part o f the team which forms the

educational system.
School counselors may advance by
moving to a larger school; becoming
director or supervisor of counseling
or guidance; or, with further gradu­
ate education, becom ing a college
counselor, educational psychologist,
school psychologist, or school a d ­
m inistrator. Usually college counse­
lors and educational psychologists
m ust earn the Ph. D. degree.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of school counselors
is likely to grow more slowly than the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s as declining school

enrollm ents coupled with financial
constraints limit demand. If Federal
assistance for career education is in­
creased, however, many m ore jobs
should result. Thus, future growth in
counselor em ploym ent will depend
largely on the am ount of funds that
the Federal G overnm ent provides to
the States.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
According to a recent survey, the
average salary of school counselors
ranged from \$11,646 to \$18,929.
School counselors generally earn
m ore than teachers at the same
school. (See statem ents on kinder­
garten and elem entary school teach­
ers and secondary school teachers.)
In m ost school systems, counselors
receive regular salary increments as
they obtain additional education and
experience. Some counselors supple­
m ent their income by part-tim e con­
sulting or other work with private or
public counseling centers, govern­
m ent agencies, or private industry.

Information
State departm ents of education
can supply information on colleges
and universities that offer training in
guidance and counseling as well as
on the State certification req u ire­
ments.
Additional information on this
field of work is available from:
American School Counselor Association,
1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Wash­
ington, D.C. 20009.

EM PLO YM ENT
COUNSELORS
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
Uncertainty about career plans is a
problem faced not only by young­
sters in school but also by many
adults. Many persons lack realistic
career goals, adequate job training,
or knowledge about the labor m ar­
77

ket. Some becom e unem ployed. V et­
erans and school dropouts are exam ­
ples of other individuals who often
do not know how to turn their talents
and abilities into m arketable skills.
Em ploym ent counselors (som etim es
called vocational counselors) help
these and o ther jobseekers.
M ost em ploym ent counselors as­
sist p erso n s who turn to S tate or
com m unity agencies for advice. The
handicapped, older workers, and in­
dividuals displaced by autom ation
and industry shifts or unhappy with
their present occupational fields are
typical applicants. Some jobseekers
are skilled in specific occupations
and ready for im m ediate job place­
m ent; others, who have little educa­
tion and lack m arketable skills, need
intensive training to prepare for jobs.
In S tate em ploym ent services, the
counselor also helps those who are
least em ployable, such as welfare re ­
cipients, ex-prisoners, and the educa­
tionally and culturally deprived.
C ounselors interview jobseekers to
learn
em ploym ent-related
facts
about their interests, training, work
experience, work attitudes, physical
capacities, and personal traits. If n ec­
essary, they may get additional data
by a r r a n g in g fo r a p t i t u d e a n d
achievem ent tests and interest inven­
tories, so th at m ore objective advice
may be given. They also may get ad­
ditional inform ation by speaking with
the app lican t’s form er em ployer or
school principal.
W hen a jo b seek er’s background—
the perso n ’s abilities and limitations
has been thoroughly reviewed, the
em ploym ent counselor discusses
occupational requirem ents and job
opportunities in different fields
within the potential of the jobseeker.
Then the counselor and the client
develop a vocational plan. This plan
may specify a series of steps involv­
ing rem edial education, job training,
work experience, or o th er services
needed to enhance the person’s em ­
ployability.
In many cases, em ploym ent coun­
selors refer jobseekers to other agen­
cies for physical re h ab ilitatio n or
psychological or oth er services be­
fore or during counseling. If, for ex­
ample, a person is ham pered in a job
search b ec au se o f stu tte rin g , the
78

counselor m ight suggest visits with
city or county m edical personnel.
Proper referrel requires that counse­
lors be fam iliar with the available
com m unity services so that they can
select those m ost likely to benefit a
particular jobseeker.
Counselors may help jobseekers by
suggesting em ploym ent sources and
appropriate ways o f applying for
work. In some cases, counselors may
contact em ployers about jobs for ap ­
plicants, although in State em ploy­
m ent services agencies, placem ent
specialists often handle this work.
After job placem ent or entrance into
training, counselors may follow up to
determ ine if additional assistance is
needed.
The expanding responsibility o f
public em ploym ent service counse­
lors for improving the employability
o f d isad v an ta g ed p erso n s has in ­
creased their contacts with these p e r­
sons during training and on the job.
Also, it has led to group counseling
and the stationing of counselors in
neighborhood and com m unity cen­
ters.

Places of Employment
In 1976, about 3,400 persons
worked as em ploym ent counselors in
State em ploym ent service offices, lo­
cated in every large city and many
sm aller tow ns. In addition, ab o u t
3 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y m e n t c o u n s e lo r s
worked for various private or com ­
m unity agencies, prim arily in th e
larger cities. Some worked in institu­
tions such as prisons, training schools
for delinquent youths, and m ental
hospitals. Also, the Federal G overn­
m ent employed a limited num ber o f
em ploym ent counselors, chiefly in
the V eterans Adm inistration and in
the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some
counselors teach in graduate training
program s or conduct research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
The national qualification stand­
ard for first level em ploym ent coun­
selors in State em ploym ent service
offices calls for 30 graduate sem ester
hours of counseling courses beyond a
bachelor’s degree. However, 1 year
o f c o u n se lin g -re la te d e x p e rie n c e

may be substituted for 15 graduate
sem ester hours.
All States require counselors in
their public em ploym ent offices to
m eet State civil service or m erit sys­
tem requirem ents that include mini­
m um e d u c atio n al and experien ce
standards.
Applicants with advanced degrees
and additional qualifying experience
may enter at higher levels on the
counselor career ladder. Many States
also m ake provision for individuals
with extensive experience in the em ­
ploym ent service, w heth er or not
they have college degrees, to enter
th e c o u n se lo r c a re e r la d d e r an d
move upward by acquiring the p re­
scribed university coursew ork and
qualifying experience for each level.
A lthough minimum entrance re­
q u ire m e n ts are n o t sta n d a rd iz e d
among private and com m unity agen­
cies, m ost prefer, and some require, a
m aster’s degree in vocational coun­
seling o r in a related field such as
psychology, personnel adm inistra­
tion, counseling, guidance education,
or public administration. Many pri­
vate agencies prefer to have at least
one staff m em ber who has a doctor­
ate in counseling psychology or a re­
lated field. For those lacking an ad­
vanced degree, em ployers usually
emphasize experience in closely re­
lated w ork such as reh ab ilitatio n
counseling, em ploym ent interview ­
ing, school or college counseling,
teaching, social work, or psychology.
In each State, the public employ­
m ent service offices provide some inservice training program s for their
new counselors or trainees. In addi­
tion, both their new and experienced
counselors often are given part-tim e
training at colleges and universities
during the regular academ ic year or
at institutes or summer sessions. Pri­
vate and community agencies also of­
ten provide in-service training oppor­
tunities.
College students who wish to be­
come em ploym ent counselors should
enroll in courses in psychology and
basic sociology. At the graduate lev­
el, requirem ents for this field usually
include co u rses in tech n iq u e s of
counseling, psychological principles
and psychology of careers, assess­
m ent and appraisal, cultures and en­

vironm ent, and occupational infor­
m a tio n . C o u n s e lo r e d u c a tio n
program s at the graduate level are
available in m ore than 450 colleges
and universities, m ainly in d e p a rt­
m ents o f education or psychology.
To obtain a m aster’s degree, students
m ust com plete 1 to 2 years of gradu­
ate study including actual experience
in counseling under the supervision
of an instructor.
Persons aspiring to be em ploym ent
counselors should have a strong in­
terest in helping others m ake voca­
tional plans and carry them out. They
should be able to work independent­
ly and to keep detailed records.
W ell-qualified counselors with ex­
perience may advance to supervisory
or adm inistrative positions in their
own o r o th e r organizations. Some
may becom e directors o f agencies or
o f oth er counseling services, or area
supervisors o f guidance program s;
some may becom e consultants; and
others may becom e professors in the
counseling field.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent counselors with m as­
te r’s degrees or experience in related
fields are ex p e cted to face som e
com petition in both public and com ­
m u n ity e m p l o y m e n t a g e n c i e s
th ro u g h th e m id - 1 9 8 0 ’s. A c tu a l
growth in em ploym ent o f counselors
will depend in large p art on the level
o f Federal funding to State, local and
c o m m u n ity a g e n c ie s to p ro v id e
counseling services. Some openings
for em ploym ent counselors will re­
sult, however, from the need to re ­
place those who die, retire, or trans­
fer to oth er occupations.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

for counselors in private, nonprofit
organizations in 1976 was \$8,500.
The average for experienced w orkers
was \$16,000. In general, salaries o f
em ploym ent counselors are about 1
1/2 times as high as average earnings
for all nonsupervisory workers in pri­
vate industry, except farming.
M ost counselors work about 40
hours a week and have various b en e­
fits, including vacations, sick leave,
pension plans, and insurance cover­
age. C ounselors em ployed in com ­
munity agencies may work overtim e.

Information
For general inform ation on em ­
ploym ent or vocational counseling,
contact:
National Employment Counselors A ssoci­
ation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.
National Vocational Guidance Association,
1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Wash­
ington D.C. 20009.
U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and
Training Administration, USES, Division
of Counseling and Testing, Washington,
D.C. 20210.

The adm inistrative office for each
S tate’s em ploym ent security agency,
bureau, division, or commission can
supply specific inform ation about lo­
cal job opportunities, salaries, and
entrance requirem ents for positions
in public em ploym ent service offices.

R E H A B ILITA TIO N
C O U NSELO R S
(D.O.T. 045.108)

Nature of the Work
Salaries o f em ploym ent counselors
in State em ploym ent services vary
considerably from State to State. In
1976, salaries ranged from about
\$7,000 for entry level positions to
\$21,000 for experienced counselors.
The average starting salary for begin­
ning w orkers was \$10,506, while ex­
p e r ie n c e d c o u n s e lo r s a v e ra g e d
\$13,814.
According to the limited data
available, the average starting salary

Each year m ore m entally, physi­
cally, and emotionally disabled p e r­
sons becom e self-sufficient and p ro ­
d u c tiv e c i tiz e n s . T h e y fin d
em p lo y m en t in a w ide variety o f
occupations previously thought too
com plex or dangerous for them to
handle. A growing num ber are study­
ing in colleges and technical schools
throughout the U nited States. O ne
m em ber o f the team o f professionals

who help disabled individuals leave a
sheltered environm ent to lead as n o r­
mal a life as possible is the rehabilita­
tion counselor.
Rehabilitation counselors begin
their work by learning about their
client. They may read school reports,
confer with m edical personnel, and
talk with family m em bers to d eter­
mine the exact nature of the disabil­
ity. They also discuss with physicians,
p sy c h o lo g ists, an d o c c u p a tio n a l
therapists the types o f skills the client
can learn. A t that point, the counsel­
or begins a series o f discussions with
the client to explore training and ca­
reer options. The counselor then uses
this inform ation to develop a reha­
bilitation plan.
A rehabilitation program generally
includes specific job training, such as
secretarial studies, as well as other
specialized training the disabled p er­
son may need. W hen working with a
blind individual, for exam ple, the
counselor may arrange for training
with seeing-eye dogs. The disabled
person then may spend a few months
learning to cross streets and ride pub­
lic transportation systems. Through­
out this period, the counselor and
disabled client m eet reguarly to dis­
cuss progress in the rehabilitation
program and any problem s that may
arise.
Counselors also must find jobs for
disabled persons and often make fol­
low-up checks to insure that place­
m ent has been successful. If the new
em ployee has a specific problem on
the job, the counselor may suggest
adaptations to the employer.
Rehabilitation counselors m ust
m aintain close contact with handi­
capped clients and their families over
m any m onths or even years. T he
counselor often has the satisfaction
of watching day-by-day progress in
the disabled p erso n ’s fight for in­
dependence. At other times, how ­
ever, the counselor may experience
the disappointm ent o f a client’s fail­
ures.
Because job placem ent is an im­
portant aspect of a counselor’s work,
he or she must keep in touch with
m em bers of the business community
to learn the type of jobs available and
training required. They also try to
alleviate any fears on the part of em79

ployers ab o u t the suitability o f hiring
handicapped individuals. As a result,
counselors may spend tim e publiciz­
ing th e re h a b ilita tio n program to
b u sin e ss an d c o m m u n ity a s s o c i­
ations.
An increasing num ber o f counse­
lors specialize in a particular area of
reh ab ilitatio n ; som e m ay work al­
m ost exclusively with blind people,
alcoholics o r drug addicts, the m en­
tally ill, or retarded persons. O thers
may work alm ost entirely with p er­
sons living in poverty areas.
The am ount o f time spent counsel­
ing each client varies with the sever­
ity o f the disabled p erso n ’s problem s
as well as with the size o f the counse­
lo r’s caseload. Usually, counselors in
private organizations can spend m ore
time with clients than their co u n ter­
parts in State agencies. Some reh a­
bilitation counselors are responsible
for many persons in various stages of
rehabilitation; on the o th er hand, less
e x p e rie n c e d c o u n se lo rs o r th o se
working with the severely disabled
80

may work with relatively few cases at
a time.

Places of Employment
A bout 19,000 persons worked as
rehabilitation counselors in 1976.
A bout 70 percent worked in State
and local rehabilitation agencies fi­
nanced cooperatively with Federal
and State funds. Some rehabilitation
counselors and counseling psycholo­
gists w orked for the V eterans A d­
m inistration. R ehabilitation centers,
sheltered workshops, hospitals, labor
unions, insurance com panies, special
schools, and other public and private
ag en ices w ith re h a b ilita tio n p r o ­
grams and job placem ent services for
the disabled employ the rest.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A bachelor’s degree with courses
in counseling, psychology, and relat­
ed Fields is the minimum educational
requirem ent for rehabilitation coun­

selors. However, employers are plac­
ing increasing emphasis on the m as­
t e r ’s d e g r e e in r e h a b i l i t a t i o n
counseling or vocational counseling,
or in related subjects such as psy­
chology, education, and social work.
W ork experience in fields such as vo­
cational counseling and placem ent,
psychology, edu catio n , and social
work is an asset for securing em ploy­
m ent as a rehabilitation counselor.
Most agencies have work-study p ro ­
grams whereby em ployed counselors
can ea rn graduate degrees in the
field.
More than 75 college and universi­
ties offered graduate program s in re­
habilitation counseling in 1976. Usu­
ally, 1 1/2 to 2 years of study are
required for the m aster’s degree. In­
cluded is a period of actual work ex­
perience as a rehabilitation counsel­
or under the close supervision of an
instructor. Besides a basic founda­
tion in psychology, courses generally
included in m aster’s degree programs
are c o u n se lin g th e o ry and te c h ­
niques, occupational and educational
in fo rm a tio n , and com m u n ity r e ­
sources. O ther requirem ents may in­
clude courses in placem ent and fol­
low up, te sts and m e a su re m e n ts ,
psychosocial effects of disability, and
medical and legislative aspects of re­
habilitation.
To earn the doctorate in rehabili­
tation counseling or in counseling
psychology may take a total of 4 to 6
years o f graduate study. Intensive
training in psychology and other so­
cial sciences, as well as in research
m ethods, is required.
Many States require that rehabili­
tation counselors be hired in accord­
ance with State civil service and m er­
it system rules. In most cases, these
regulations require applicants to pass
a com petitive written test, sometimes
supplem ented by an interview and
evaluation by a board of examiners.
In addition, some private organiza­
tions require rehabilitation counse­
lors to be certified. To becom e certi­
fied, counselors m ust pass exam s
adm inistered by the Commission on
R ehabilitation C ounselor C ertifica­
tion.
Because rehabilitation counselors
deal with the welfare of individuals,
the ability to accept responsibility is

im portant. It also is essential that
they be able to work independently
and be able to m otivate and guide the
activity of others. Counselors who
work with the severely disabled need
unusual em otional stability. They
must be very patient in dealing with
clients who often are discouraged,
angry, or otherw ise difficult to han­
dle.
C ounselors who have limited expe­
rience usually are assigned the less
difficult cases. As they gain experi­
ence, their caseloads are increased
and they are assigned clients with
m ore com plex rehabilitation p ro b ­
lems. A fter obtaining considerable
experience and m ore graduate edu­
cation, rehabilitation counselors may
advance to supervisory positions or
top adm inistrative jobs.

\$14,097. In general, salaries of reha­
bilitation counselors are above the
average earnings for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
C ounselors may spend only part o f
their time in their offices counseling
and p erfo rm in g n ecessary p a p e r­
work. The rem ainder o f their time is
spent away from the office, working
with prospective em ployers, training
agencies, and the disabled person’s
family. The ability to drive a car of­
ten is necessary for this work.
Rehabilitation counselors general­
ly work a 40-hour week or less, with
some overtim e work required to a t­
tend com m unity and civic meetings
in the evening. They usually are cov­
ered by sick and annual leave bene­
fits and pension and health plans.

Employment Outlook

Information

Because most State and private
rehabilitation agencies are funded
prim arily by the F ed eral G overn­
m en t, th e e x te n t o f em p lo y m en t
grow th will depend largely on the
level of governm ent spending. Addi­
tional positions, however, are expect­
ed to becom e available in private
com panies, such as m anufacturing
and service firms, for rehabilitation
counselors to help in equal em ploy­
m ent opportunity efforts. In addition
to grow th needs, many counselors
will be required annually to replace
those who die, retire, or leave the
field for oth er reasons.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries o f beginning rehabilitation
counselors in State agencies aver­
aged \$10,441 a year in 1976. Begin­
ning salaries ranged from \$7,200 in
Puerto Rico to \$15,774 in Alaska.
The V eterans Adm inistration paid
counseling psychologists with a 2year m aster’s degree and 1 year of
subsequent experience—and those
with a Ph. D .—starting salaries of
\$ 17,056 in 1976. Those with a Ph. D.
and a year of experience, and those
with a 2-year m aster’s degree and
much experience, started at \$20,442.
Some rehabilitation counselors with
a b achelor’s degree were hired at
starting salaries of \$ 1 1,523 and

For inform ation about rehabilita­
tion counseling as a career, contact:
American Psychological Association, Inc.,
1200 17th St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.
American Rehabilitation Counseling Associ­
ation, 1607 New Hampshire Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20009.
National Rehabilitation Counseling Associ­
ation, 1522 K St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20005.

Inform ation on certificatio n r e ­
quirem ents and procedures is avail­
able from:
Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Cer­
tification, 520 North Michigan Ave., Chi­
cago, 111. 60611.

COLLEGE CAREER
P LA N N IN G AND
P LA C EM EN T
C O U NSELO R S
(D.O.T. 166.268)

Nature of the Work
Choosing a career is a decision
faced by many college students.
Finding an occupation that m atches
o n e ’s likes, dislikes, and talents can
be difficult and time consuming.

And, once the decision is made,
there is still the problem of writing
resumes, being interviewed, and
searching out prospective em ploy­
ers—often an anxiety-producing and
discouraging experience.
C areer planning and placem ent
counselors help bridge the gap be­
tween education and work by assist­
ing students in all phases of career
decisionm aking and planning. These
counselors, sometimes called college
placem ent officers, provide a variety
of services to college students and
alumni. They assist students in m ak­
ing career selections by encouraging
them to examine their interests, abili­
ties, and goals, and th en helping
them to explore possible career alter­
natives. They may, for example, ar­
range part-tim e or summer employ­
m ent with a local government agency
for an architectural student consider­
ing a career as a city planner. Or they
may discuss em ploym ent options and
training requirem ents with students
majoring in history. Ofen, counselors
suggest additional courses or further
training to enchance em ploym ent
prospects.
C are er planning and placem ent
counselors also arrange for job re­
cruiters to visit the campus to discuss
their firm ’s personnel needs and to
interview applicants. They provide
em ployers with inform ation about
students and inform students about
business operations and personnel
needs in industry. A counselor may,
for example, explain to students that
workers in certain industries are sub­
ject to layoffs. In order to counsel
students adequately, counselors must
keep abreast of job m arket develop­
m ents by reading literature in the
field and m aintaining contact with
industry and government personnel
recruiters.
Some career planning and place­
m ent counselors, especially those in
junior o r community colleges, advise
ad m in istrato rs on curriculum and
course content. They may suggest
courses that employers believe would
train students m ore adequately. In
addition, some counselors, especially
those working in small schools, also
teach. All counselors maintain a li­
brary of career guidance and recruit­
m ent information.
81

trative staff. Universities frequently
have placem ent officers for each m a­
jo r branch or campus.
About 3,900 persons worked as
career planning and placem ent coun­
selors in colleges and universities in
1976. Nearly three-fourths worked in
4-year in stitu tio n s. T he rem ain er
worked in junior and community col­
leges.

Training, Other Qualifications,

Counselor discusses career alternatives with college student.

Placem ent counselors may special­
ize in areas such as law, education, or
part-tim e and sum m er work. How­
ever, the extent of specialization usu­
ally depends upon the size and type
o f college as well as the size of the
placem ent staff.

Places of Employment
Nearly all 4-year colleges and uni­
versities and many o f the increasing
num ber of junior colleges provide ca­
82

reer planning and placem ent services
to their students and alumni. Large
colleges may employ several counse­
lors working under a director of c a ­
reer planning and placem ent activi­
ties; in many institutions, however, a
com bination of placem ent functions
is perform ed by one director aided
by a clerical staff. In some colleges,
especially the smaller ones, the func­
tions of career counselors may be
perform ed on a part-tim e basis by
m em bers of the faculty or adm inis­

Although no specific educational
program exists to prepare persons for
career planning and placem ent work,
a bachelor’s degree, preferably in a
behavioral science, such as psychol­
ogy or sociology, is custom ary for
entry into the field, and a m aster’s
degree is increasingly being stressed.
In 1976, 120 colleges and universi­
ties offered graduate program s in
co lleg e s tu d e n t p e rso n n e l w ork.
G raduate courses that are helpful for
career planning and placem ent coun­
seling include counseling theory and
techniques, vocational testing, th e­
ory of group dynamics, and occupa­
tio n al re se a rc h and em p lo y m en t
trends.
Some people enter the career plan­
ning and placem ent field after gain­
ing a broad background of experi­
e n c e in b u s i n e s s , i n d u s t r y ,
governm ent, or educational organi­
zations. An internship in a career
planning and placem ent office also is
College career planning and place­
m ent counselors must have an inter­
est in people. They must be able to
com m unicate with and gain the co n ­
fidence of students, faculty, and em ­
ployers in order to develop insight
into the employm ent needs of both
em ployers and students. People in
this field should be energetic and
able to work under pressure because
they m ust organize and adm inister a
wide variety of activities.
A dvancem ent for career planning
and placem ent professionals usually
is through prom otion to an assistant
or associate position, director of ca­
reer planning and placem ent, direc­
tor of student personnel services, or
some other higher level adm inistra­
tive position. However, the extent of

such o p p o rtu n ity usually depends
upon the type of college or university
and the size of the staff.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of college career
planning and placem ent counselors is
expected to increase through the
m id-1980’s. Dem and will be greatest
in junior and com m unity colleges,
where, in many cases, there are no
career planning and placem ent pro­
gram s at present. In addition, the
large num ber of adults entering com ­
m unity colleges who have been out
of the labor m arket or who are seek­
ing a m id-career change will require
specialized counseling.
Also contributing to the dem and in
all postsecondary institutions will be
the expected continued expansion in
services to students from minority
and low-income groups, who require
special counseling in choosing ca­
reers and assistance in finding parttime jobs. G row th also is expected in
services to the handicapped and to
adu lts p a rtic ip a tin g in continuing
education.
However, many institutions of
higher education faced financial
problem s in 1976. If this situation
persists, colleges and universities
may be forced to limit expansion of
counseling and placem ent services,
resulting in com petition for available
positions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries vary greatly am ong educa­
tional institutions. According to the
limited inform ation available, the av­
erage salary of college career plan­
ning and p lacem en t d irecto rs was
m ore than \$17,000 a year in 1976.
C areer planning and placem ent
counselors frequently work m ore
than a 40-hour week; irregular hours
and overtim e often are necessary,
particularly during the “ recruiting
seaso n .” M ost counselors are em ­
ployed on a 12-month basis. They are
paid for holidays and vacations and
usually receive the same benefits as
o th e r p ro fessio n al p erso n n el em ­
ployed by colleges and universities.

Information
A booklet on the college student
personnel professions, as well as o th ­
er inform ation on career counseling
and placem ent, is available from:
The College Placement Council, Inc., P.O.
Box 2263, Bethlehem, Pa. 18001.

C R E D IT M A NA G ER S
(D.O.T. 168.168)

Nature of the Work
Both businesses and individuals
may require cred it (th e postpone­
m ent of paym ent until a future d a te )
to m eet their daily needs for a variety
o f goods and services. F or m ost
forms of credit, a credit m anager has
final authority to accept or reject a
credit application.
In extending credit to a business
(com m ercial credit), the credit m an­
ager, or an assistant, analyzes d e­
tailed financial reports subm itted by
the applicant, interviews a represent­
ative of the com pany about its m an­
agem ent, and reviews credit agency
reports to determ ine the firm ’s re c­
ord in repaying debts. The m anager
also checks at banks where the com ­
pany has deposits or previously was
granted credit. In extending credit to
individuals (consum er cred it), d e ­
tailed financial reports usually are
not available. The credit m anager
m ust rely m ore on personal in ter­
views, credit bureaus, and banks to
provide inform ation about the p e r­
son applying for credit.
Particularly in large organizations,
executive level credit managers are
responsible for formulating a credit
policy. They must establish financial
standards to be m et by applicants
and thereby determ ine the am ount o f
risk that their com pany will accept
when offering its products or services
for sale on credit. M anagers usually
cooperate with the sales departm ent
in developing a credit policy liberal
enough to allow the com pany’s sales
to increase and yet strict enough to
deny credit to custom ers whose abil­
ity to repay their debts is question­

able. Many credit managers establish
o ffice p ro c e d u re s and su perv ise
w orkers who g ath er inform atio n ,
analyze facts, and perform general
office duties in a credit departm ent;
they include application clerks, col­
lection w orkers, bookkeepers, and
secretaries.
In smaller com panies that handle a
limited num ber of accounts, credit
m anagers may do m uch of the work
of granting credit themselves. They
may interview applicants, analyze the
inform ation gained in the interview,
and m ake the final approval. They
frequently must contact customers
who are unable or refuse to pay their
debts. They do this through writing,
telephoning, or personal contact. If
these attem pts at collection fail,
credit m anagers may refer the ac­
count to a collection agency or assign
an attorney to take legal action.

Places of Employment
About 53,000 persons worked as
credit m anagers in 1976. About onehalf were employed in wholesale and
one-third of the total, worked for
m anufacturing firms and financial in­
stitutions.
Although
credit
is
granted
throughout the United States, most
credit m anagers work in urban areas
where many financial and business
establishments are located.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A college degree is becoming in­
creasingly im portant for entry level
jobs in credit m anagement. Employ­
ers usually seek persons who have
economics, or accounting, but may
also hire graduates holding liberal
arts degrees. Some employers p ro­
mote high school graduates to credit
m anager positions if they have expe­
rience in credit collection or process­
ing credit information.
Newly hired workers normally be­
gin as m an ag em en t train e es and
work under the guidance of more ex­
perienced personnel in the credit de­
partm ent. Here they gain a thorough
u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e c o m p a n y ’s
83

use of com puters for storing and re­
trieving information will enable this
greater volume of inform ation to be
processed more efficiently. The use
of telecom m unications networks en­
ables retail outlets to have immediate
access to a central credit office, re­
gardless of distance.
A nother factor that is expected to
slow the growth in the num ber of
credit m anagers is the increased use
of bank credit cards. As stores substi­
tute bank credit cards for their own
charge accounts, credit departm ents
may be reduced or eliminated.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

A college degree is becoming increasingly important for entry level jobs in credit
management.

credit procedures and policies. They
may analyze previous credit transac­
tions to learn how to recognize which
applicants should prove to be good
custom ers. T rainees also learn to
deal with credit bureaus, banks, and
other businesses that can provide in­
form ation on the past credit dealings
of their custom ers.
Many formal training program s are
available through the educational
branches o f the associations that
serve the credit and finance field.
This training includes home study,
college and university program s, and
special instruction to im prove begin­
n e rs’ skills and keep experienced
credit m anagers aware of new devel­
opm ents in their field.
A person interested in a career as a
credit m anager should be able to
analyze detailed inform ation and
draw valid conclusions based on this
analysis. Because it is necessary to
m ain tain good cu sto m er re la tio n ­
ships, a pleasant personality and the
ability to speak and write effectively
also are characteristics of the suc­
cessful credit m anager.
The work perform ed by credit
m anagers allows them to becom e fa­
m iliar with alm ost every phase of
th eir co m p an y ’s business. Highly
qualified and experienced m anagers
can advance to top-level executive
84

positions. However, in small and m e­
dium-sized com panies, such opportu­
nities are limited.

Employment Outlook
T hrough the mid-1980’s em ploy­
m ent is expected to grow more slow­
ly than the average for all occupa­
tions. D espite this relatively slow
growth, many jobs will becom e avail­
able each year due to the need to
replace persons who leave the occu­
pation. Although there will be oppor­
tunities throughout the country, em ­
ploym ent prospects should continue
to be best for well-qualified jobseek­
ers in m etropolitan areas.
The volume of credit extended
rose very rapidly during the past d ec­
can be expected to require increasing
am ounts of credit to secure raw m a­
terials for production and obtain fin­
ished goods for eventual resale. It is
in the area of business credit where
dem and for credit m anagers will be
strongest.
C onsum ers, w hose personal in ­
com es have risen, are expected to
finance g re a te r num bers o f highpriced items. In addition, the use of
credit for everyday purchases is ex­
pected to grow as dem and increases
for recreation and household goods
as well as for consum er services. D e­
spite increases in consum er debt, the

In 1976, credit m anager trainees
who had a college degree earned
annual salaries that ranged from
about \$10,000 to \$11,000, depend­
ing on the type of em ployer and the
geographic location of the job.
A ssistant cred it m anagers av er­
aged ab o u t \$12,000 to \$14,000 a
year and credit managers had aver­
age earnings of about \$17,000. Indi­
viduals in top-level positions often
earn over \$40,000 a year.
Credit managers normally work
the standard workweek of their com ­
pany—35-40 hours, but some work
longer hours. In wholesale and retail
trade, fo r exam ple, a seasonal in­
crease in credit sales can produce a
greater work volume. Some credit
m anagers attend conferences spon­
sored by industry and professional
organizations where managers m eet
to develop and discuss new te c h ­
niques for the m anagem ent of a cred ­
it departm ent.

Information
Inform ation about a career in co n ­
sum er credit may be obtained from:
International Consumer Credit Association,
375 Jackson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 63130.
National Consumer Finance Association,
1000 16th St., NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

F or in fo rm atio n ab o u t train in g
program s available in com m ercial
credit, write:
National Association of Credit Management,
475 Park Ave. South, New York, N.Y.
10016.

D ANCERS
(D.O.T. 151.028 and 151.048)

Nature of the Work
Dancing is an ancient and world­
w ide a rt th a t has m any d iffe ren t
form s. D an ce m ovem ents may be
used to in terp ret an idea or a story,
or they may be purely physical ex­
pressions o f rhythm and sound. Pro­
fessional d an cers m ay perform in
classical ballet or m odern dance, in
dance adaptations for musical shows,
in folk dances, and in other popular
kinds o f dancing. In addition to being
an im p o rtan t art form for its own
sake, dance also is used to supple­
m ent oth er types of entertainm ent,
such as opera, musical com edy, and
television.
In dance productions, perform ers
m ost often work as a group. How­
ever, a very few top artists do solo
work.
Many dancers com bine stage work
with full-time teaching. A few danc­
ers becom e choreographers and cre­
ate new routines. O thers are dance
directors who train dancers in new
productions.
(This statem ent does not include
instructors of ballroom , A m erican or
international folk dance, or other so­
cial dancing.)

Places of Employment
A bout 8,000 dancers perform ed
on the stage, screen, and television in
1976. M any others taught in second­
ary schools, in colleges and universi­
ties, in dance schools, and in private
studios. A few teachers, trained in
d an ce th era p y , w o rked in m ental
hospitals.
Dance teachers are located chiefly
in large cities, but many smaller cities
and towns have dance schools as
well. New York City is the hub for
perform ing dancers. O ther large
cities th at have prom ising em ploy­
ment opportunities, including m ajor
dance com panies, include Los Ange­
les, C h icag o , H o u sto n , Salt Lake
City, C incinnati, Miami, San Francis­
co, Los Angeles, M inneapolis, Seat­
tle, Boston, and Philadelphia.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Serious training for a career in
dancing traditionally begins by age
12 or earlier. Ballet training is partic­
ularly disciplined, and persons who
wish to becom e ballet dancers should
begin taking lessons at the age o f 7 or
8. Early and intense training also is
im p o rtan t for the m odern dancer.
M ost dancers have their professional
auditions by age 17 or 18, but train ­
ing and practice never end. For ex­
am ple, professional ballet dancers
take from 10 to 12 lessons a week for
11 or 12 m onths of the year, and
m ust spend many additional hours
practicing.
T he early training a d an c er r e ­
ceives is crucial to the later skill of
the dancer, and therefore the selec­
tion o f a professional dance school is
very im portant.
Because of the strenuous training
required, a d an c er’s general educa­
tion may be m inim al. How ever, a
dan cer should study m usic, lite ra­
ture, and history along with the arts
to help in the interpretation of d ra ­
m atic episodes, ideas, and feelings.
Over 115 colleges and universities
confer bachelor’s or higher degrees
in dance. College or university dance
degrees
are
generally
offered
through the departm ents of physical
education, music, theater, or fine
arts.
A college education is not essential
to obtaining em ploym ent as a profes­
sional dancer. In fact, ballet dancers
who postpone their first audition u n ­
til graduation may com pete at a dis­
advantage with younger dancers.
Although a college education is an
advantage in obtaining em ploym ent
as a dance teacher in a college o r
university, it is of little use for one
who teaches professional dance or
choreography in a studio situation.
Professional schools usually require
teachers to have experience as a p e r­
form er; colleges and conservatories
generally require graduate degrees,
but experience as a perform er often
may be substituted. M aturity and a
broad educational background also
are im portant.
The d an c er’s life is one of rigorous
practice and self-discipline; therefore
patience, perseverence, and a devo-

The dancer’s life is one of rigorous prac­
tice and self-discipline.

tion to dance are essential. Good
health and physical stam ina are n ec­
essary, both to keep in good condi­
tion and to follow the rugged travel
schedule which is often required.
Body height and build should not
vary m uch from the average. Good
feet and normal arches also are re­
quired. Above all, one m ust have
agility, grace, and a feeling for music,
as well as a creative ability to express
oneself through dance.
Seldom does a dancer perform un­
accom panied. Therefore, young p e r­
sons who consider dancing as a ca­
reer should be able to function as
part of a team. They also should be
prepared to face the anxiety of unsta­
ble working conditions brought on by
show closings and audition failures.
Because of the strenous nature of
the art, young dancers have an ad­
vantage over older dancers in com ­
peting for jobs. Many dancers retire
in their thirties or transfer to related
fields such as teaching dance. How­
ever, some skillful dancers continue
perform ing beyond the age of 50.
Those who becom e choreographers
or dance directors can continue to
w ork as long as persons in o th er
occupations.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of dancers is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations. However, the
num ber of dancers seeking profes­
sional careers will continue to exceed
the num ber of available positions,
85

and com petition will be keen. M ost
em ploym ent opportunities will result
from replacem ent needs.
Em ploym ent opportunities in stage
productions are limited, and com pe­
titio n fo r such p o sitio n s is g re at.
Television is partly responsible for
the reduction in stage productions,
yet at the sam e time this m edia offers
new outlets for dance. New profes­
sional dance com panies form ed from
the increasing num ber of civic and
com m unity groups offer additional
em ploym ent opportunities. As a re­
sult o f the increased general popular­
ity o f dance in recen t years, the best
e m p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s are in
teaching dance.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Professional dancers who perform
usually are m em bers o f one o f the
unions affiliated with the Associated
A ctors and Artistes o f A m erica
(A FL-C IO ). D ancers in opera ballet,
classical ballet, and the m odern
dance belong to the A m erican Guild
o f M usical Artists, Inc.; those on live
or videotaped television belong to
the A m erican F ederation of Televi­
sion and R adio A rtists; those who
perform in films and TV belong to
th e S c re e n A c to rs G u ild o r th e
S creen E xtras G uild; and those in
musical com edies join A ctors’ Equity
Association. O ther dancers may be
m em bers o f oth er unions, depending
upon the fields in which they p er­
form. T he unions and producers sign
basic ag reem en ts specifying m ini­
mum salary rates, hours o f work, and
o th e r c o n d itio n s o f em p lo y m en t.
H o w e v e r, th e s e p a r a te c o n tr a c t
signed by each dancer with the p ro ­
d ucer o f the show may be m ore fa­
vorable th an the basic agreem ent re­
garding salary, hours o f work, and
working conditions.
In 1976, the minim um salary for
dancers in opera and other stage
productions was about \$250 a week.
The single perform ance rate for bal­
let dancers was about \$ 100 for a solo
dance and about \$50 per dancer for a
group. D ancers on tour received an
allowance o f \$30 a day in 1976 for
room and board, with the em ployer
paying the cost of transportation. For
a brief appearance in a perform ance
86

on television or a few days’ work in a
movie, the minimum rate was higher,
relative to tim e w orked. However,
this difference was offset by the brev­
ity o f the engagem ent and the long
period likely waiting for the next one.
U nem ploym ent rates for dancers
are higher than the average for all
occupations. Many qualified people
cannot obtain year-round work as
dancers, and are forced to supple­
m ent their incom es by other types of
work. Some dancers who are quali­
fied to teach com bine teaching with
performing.
Salaries o f dance teachers vary
with the location and the prestige o f
the school in which they teach.
Dance instructors in colleges and
universities are paid on the same
basis as other faculty m em bers. (See
statem ent on college and university
teachers.)
The norm al workweek is 30 hours
(6 hours per day m axim um ) spent in
rehearsals and m atinee and evening
perform ances. Extra com pensation is
paid for additional hours worked.
Most stage perform ances take place,
of course, in the evening, and re ­
hearsals require very long hours, of­
ten on weekends and holidays. For
shows on the road, weekend travel
often is required.
D ancers are entitled to some paid
sick leave and various health and
welfare benefits provided by their
unions, to which the em ployers co n ­
tribute. Dance instructors in schools
receive benefits com parable to those
of other teachers.

Information
Inform ation on colleges and uni­
versities th a t give a m ajor in th e
dance or some courses in the dance,
as well as details on the types o f
courses and other pertinent inform a­
tion is available from:
National Dance Association, a division of the
American Alliance for Health, Physical
Education and Recreation, 1201 16th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For inform ation on all aspects o f
dance, counseling services, and jo b
listings, contact:
American Dance Guild, 1619 Broadway,
Room 603, New York, N.Y. 10019.

D ENTAL H Y G IE N IS TS
(D.O.T. 078.368)

Nature of the Work
D ental hygienists are oral health
clinicians and educators who help
th e p u b lic develop and m ain tain
good oral health. As m em bers of the
dental health team , dental hygienists
may perform preventive and th era­
peutic services under the supervision
o f the dentist. Specific responsibil­
ities of the hygienist vary, depending
on the law of the State where the
hygienist is em ployed, but may in­
clude: removing deposits and stains
from p a tie n ts’ teeth; providing in­
structions for patient self-care, and
dietetic and nutritional counseling;
and the application o f m edicine for
the prevention o f tooth decay. They
take m edical and dental histories, ex­
pose and develop dental X-ray films,
m ake m odel impressions o f teeth for
study, and prepare other diagnostic
aids for use by the dentist. Pain con­
trol and restorative procedures also
may be perform ed by dental hygien­
ists in some States.
D e n tal hygienists who w ork in
school systems serve in several ca­
pacities. Clinical functions include:
exam ination of children’s teeth, as­
sistance to the dentist in determ ining
the dental treatm ent needed, and re­
porting of their findings to parents.
They also scale and polish teeth and
give in stru ctio n on p ro p e r m outh
care. In addition, they develop class­
room or assembly program s on oral
health.
A few dental hygienists assist in
research projects. Those having ad­
vanced training may teach in schools
of dental hygiene.

Places of Employment
Nearly 27,000 persons worked as
dental hygienists in 1976. Many are
em ployed part time. Most work in
private dental offices. Public health
agencies, school systems, industrial
plants, clinics, hospitals, dental hy­
giene schools, and the Federal Gov­
ernm ent are other sources of em ­
ploym ent for dental hygienists. Some
who are graduates of bachelor’s de­
gree program s are commissioned of­
ficers in the Armed Forces.

Dental hygienists must be licensed.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Dental hygienists m ust be licensed.
To obtain a license in m ost States, a

candidate must be a graduate of an
accredited dental hygiene school and
pass both a written and clinical ex­
am ination. For the clinical exam ina­

tion, the applicant is required to p er­
form d e n ta l hygiene p ro c e d u re s,
such as removing deposits and stains
from a p atien t’s teeth. In 1976, can­
didates in 48 States and the District
of Colum bia could com plete part of
the State licensing requirem ents by
passing a written examination given
by the N ational Board of Dental Ex­
am iners. Few States perm it dental
hygienists licensed in other States to
practice in their jurisdictions without
further examination.
In 1976, 182 schools of dental
hygiene in the United States were
accredited by the Am erican Dental
Association. Most programs grant an
associate degree; others lead to a
bachelor’s degree. Some institutions
offer both types of programs. Eigh­
teen schools offer m aster’s degree
program s in dental hygiene or related
fields.
C om pletion of an associate degree
program usually is sufficient for the
dental hygienist who wants to prac­
tice in a private dental office. In o r­
der to do research, teach, and work
in public or school health programs,
at least a baccalaureate degree usual­
ly is required. Dental hygienists with
a m aster’s degree work as teachers or
adm inistrators in dental hygiene and
dental assisting training program s,
public health agencies, and in associ­
ated research.
Com petition is keen for admission
to dental hygiene schools. The mini­
mum requirem ent for admission to a
school o f dental hygiene is gradu­
a tio n fro m high sch o o l. S ev eral
schools that offer the bachelor’s de­
gree adm it students to the dental hy­
giene program only after they have
com pleted 2 years of college. Many
schools also require that applicants
take an aptitude test given by the
Am erican Dental Hygienists’ Associ­
ation. D ental hygiene training given
in the A rm ed Forces does not fully
p rep are one to pass the licensing
exam, but credit for that training may
be granted to those who seek admis­
sion to accred ited dental hygiene
programs.
The curriculum in a dental hygiene
program consists of courses in the
basic sciences, dental sciences, clini­
cal science, and liberal arts. These
schools offer laboratory, clinical, and
classroom in stru ctio n in su b jects
87

such as anatom y, physiology, chem is­
try, pharm acology, nutrition, histol­
ogy (th e study of tissue structure),
p erio d o n to lo g y (th e study o f gum
diseases), dental m aterials, and clini­
cal dental hygiene.
People who want to becom e dental
hygienists should be those who enjoy
working with others. T he ability to
p u t patients at ease is helpful. P er­
sonal neatness and cleanliness, m an­
ual dexterity, and good health also
are im portant qualities. Among the
c o u r s e s re c o m m e n d e d fo r h ig h
school students interested in careers
in th is o c c u p a tio n a re b io lo g y ,
h e a lth , c h e m is tr y , s p e e c h , a n d
m athem atics.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for
dental hygienists are expected to be
good th ro u g h the m id-1980’s. D e­
spite an anticipated rise in the num ­
ber o f graduates from schools of d en ­
tal hygiene, the dem and is expected
to be greater than the num ber avail­
able for em ploym ent if recent trends
in enrollm ents continue. T here also
should be very good opportunities
for those desiring part-tim e em ploy­
m ent, and for those willing to work in
rural areas.
Em ploym ent of dental hygienists is
expected to grow m uch faster than
the average for all occupations, b e­
cause o f an expanding population
and the growing aw areness o f the im­
portance o f regular dental care. In­
creased participation in dental p re­
p a y m e n t p la n s an d m o re g ro u p
practice am ong dentists should result
in new jo b s for d en tal hygienists.
D ental care program s for children
also may lead to m ore em ploym ent
opportunities in this field.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Earnings o f dental hygienists are
affected by the type o f em ployer,
education and experience of the indi­
vidual hygienist, and the geographic
location. D ental hygienists who work
in private dental offices usually are
salaried em ployees, although some
are paid a commission for work p er­
form ed, or a com bination of salary
and commission.
88

D ental hygienists working full tim e
in private offices earned average
salaries o f about \$12,900 a year in
1976, according to the limited d ata
available. This salary was slightly
above the average for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private industry, ex­
cept farming. In 1977, the Federal
G overnm ent paid dental hygienists
with no experience starting salaries
of \$8,316 a year. Experienced dental
hygienists working for the Federal
G overnm ent earned average annual
salaries o f \$10,500.
D ental hygienists em ployed full
time in private offices usually worked
between 35 and 40 hours a week.
They may work on Saturdays or d u r­
ing evening hours. Some hygienists
work for two dentists or more.
D ental hygienists usually work in
clean, well-lighted offices. Im portant
health protections for persons in this
occupation are regular m edical
checkups and strict adherence to es­
tablished procedures for using X-ray
equipm ent and for disinfection.
D ental hygienists who work for
school systems, health agencies, and
the Federal or State governm ents
have the same hours, vacation, sick
leave, retirem ent, and health insur­
ance benefits as o th er w orkers in
these organizations.

Information

DENTISTS
(D.O.T. 072.108)

Nature of the Work
Dentists examine teeth and other
tissues o f the m outh to diagnose dis­
eases or abnormalities. They take Xrays, fill cavities, straighten teeth,
and treat gum diseases. Dentists ex­
tra c t teeth and substitute artificial
dentures designed for the individual
patient. They also perform corrective
surgery o f the gums and supporting
bones. In addition, they may clean
teeth.
Dentists spend most of their time
with patients, but may devote some
time to laboratory work such as m ak­
ing dentures and inlays. Most den­
tists, how ever—particularly those in
large cities—send their laboratory
w ork to com m ercial firm s. Some
dentists also employ dental hygienists
to clean patients’ teeth and provide
instruction for patient self-care. (See
s ta te m e n t on d e n ta l h y g ien ists.)
They also may employ other assis­
tants who perform office work, assist
in “ ch airsid e” duties, and provide
therapeutic services under the super­
vision of the dentist.
Most dentists are general practi­
tioners who provide many types of
dental care; about 10 percent are
specialists. The largest group of spe­
c ia lis ts a re o r th o d o n tis ts , w ho

For inform ation about accredited
program s and the educational r e ­
quirem ents to enter this occupation,
contact:
Office of Education, American Dental Hygien­
ists’ Association, 211 E. Chicago Ave.,
Chicago, 11 . 60611.
1

O th er m aterial on opportunities
fo r d e n ta l hygienists is available
from:
Division of Dentistry, Public Health Service,
U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

The State Board of Dental Exam ­
iners in each State, or the N ational
Board of Dental Examiners, 211 E.
Chicago Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611,
can supply inform ation on licensing
requirem ents.

About 9 out of every 10 dentists are in
private practice.

straig h ten teeth . T he next largest
group, oral surgeons, operate on the
m outh and jaws. T he rem ainder spe­
cialize in pedodontics (dentistry for
children); periodontics (treating the
gums); prosthodontics (m aking arti­
ficial teeth o r dentures); endodontics
(ro o t canal therapy); public health
dentistry; and oral pathology (diseas­
es o f the m outh).
A bout 4 percent o f all dentists
teach in dental schools, do research,
or adm inister dental health program s
on a full-time basis. M any dentists in
private practice do this work on a
part-tim e basis.

Places of Employment
A bout 112,000 dentists were at
work in the United States in 1976—9
o f every 10 were in private practice.
A bout 5,000 served as commissioned
officers in the A rm ed Forces, and
about 1,400 worked in other types of
Federal G overnm ent positions—
chiefly in the hospitals and clinics of
the V eterans Adm inistration and the
Public H ealth Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A license to practice dentistry is
required in all States and the District
o f Colum bia. To qualify for a license
in m ost States, a candidate m ust be a
graduate o f a dental school approved
by the A m erican D ental Association
and pass w ritten and practical exami­
nations. In 1976, candidates in 48
States and the District of Columbia
could fulfill p art o f the State licens­
ing requirem ents by passing a written
exam ination given by the N ational
B oard o f D ental Exam iners. M ost
State licenses perm it dentists to en­
gage in both general and specialized
practice. In 14 States, how ever, a
dentist cannot be licensed as a “ spe­
cialist” without having 2 or 3 years of
g ra d u ate ed u c atio n an d , in som e
cases, passing a special State exam i­
nation. In the o th er 36 states, the
extra education also is necessary, but
a specialist’s practice is regulated by
the dental profession, not the State
licensing authority. In order to prac­
tice in a different State, a licensed
dentist usually must pass the S tate’s

exam ination. H owever, at least 21
States grant licenses w ithout further
exam ination to dentists already li­
censed in other States on the basis o f
their credentials. Dentists who w ant
to teach o r do research usually spend
an additional 2 to 4 years in a d ­
vanced dental training in program s
operated by dental schools, hospitals,
and other institutions o f higher ed u ­
cation.
Dental colleges require from 2 to 4
years of predental education. H ow­
ever, o f those students entering d en ­
tal school in 1976, 85 percent had a
b ac c a la u re a te o r m a ste r’s degree.
P red en tal ed u c atio n m ust include
courses in the sciences and hum an­
ities.
Com petition is keen for admission
to dental schools. In selecting stu­
d e n ts, sch o o ls give c o n sid e ra b le
w eight to college grades and th e
am ount o f college education. In addi­
tion, all dental schools participate in
a nationwide admission testing p ro ­
gram , and scores earn ed on these
tests are considered along with infor­
m ation gathered about the applicant
through recom m endations and inter­
views. Many State-supported dental
schools also give preference to resi­
dents o f their particular States.
Dental school training generally
lasts 4 academ ic years although some
institutions condense this into 3 cal­
endar years. Studies begin with an
em phasis on classroom instruction
and laboratory work in basic sciences
such as anatom y, microbiology, bio­
chem istry, and physiology. Courses
in clinical sciences and preclinical
technique also are provided at this
time. The last 2 years are spent chief­
ly in a dental clinic, treating patients.
The degree o f D octor of D ental
Surgery (D.D.S.) is aw arded by m ost
dental colleges. An equivalent d e ­
gree, D o c to r o f D en tal M edicine
( D .M .D .) , is c o n f e r r e d by 19
schools.
Dental education is very costly b e ­
cause of the length o f time required
to earn the dental degree. However,
Federal funds provide a limited num ­
ber o f loans for dental students, and a
limited num ber of scholarships are
available for qualifying students who
agree to a minimum o f 2 years’ F ed ­
eral service.

T he p rofession o f dentistry re ­
quires both m anual skills and a high
level o f diagnostic ability. Dentists
should have good visual memory, ex­
cellent judgm ent of space and shape,
and a high degree o f manual dexter­
ity, as well as scientific ability. Good
business sense, self-discipline, and
the ability to instill confidence are
helpful for success in private prac­
tice. High school students who want
to becom e dentists are advised to
take courses in biology, chemistry,
health, and m athematics.
Most dental graduates open their
own offices or purchase established
practices. Some start in practice with
established dentists, to gain experi­
ence and to save the money required
to equip an office; others may enter
residency training program s in ap­
proved hospitals. Dentists who enter
the Arm ed Forces are commissioned
as ca p ta in s in the Arm y and A ir
Force and as lieutenants in the Navy.
G ra d u a te s o f re c o g n iz e d d e n ta l
schools are eligible for Federal Civil
Service positions and for com m is­
sions (equivalent to lieutenants in the
Navy) in the U.S. Public Health Ser­
vice.

Employment Outlook
E m p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
dentists are ex p ected to be good
th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. D e n ta l
school enrollm ents have grown in re­
cent years because of federally assist­
ed construction o f additional training
facilities. As a result, the num ber of
new entrants to the field is expected
to fall short o f the number needed to
fill openings created by growth of the
occupation and by death or retire­
m ent from the profession.
Em ployment of dentists is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations due to pop u ­
lation grow th, increased awareness
that regular dental care helps prevent
and control dental diseases, and the
expansion o f prepaym ent arran g e­
ments, which m ake it easier for p eo ­
ple to afford dental services. Fluori­
dation o f community water supplies
and im proved dental hygiene may
prevent some tooth and gum disor­
ders, and preserve teeth that m ight
otherw ise be ex tracted . How ever,
since the preserved teeth will need
89

care in the future, these m easures
may increase ra th e r th an decrease
the dem and for dental care. Similar­
ly, while new techniques, equipm ent,
and drugs, as well as the expanded
use o f dental hygienists, assistants,
and lab o rato ry tech n ician s should
enable individual dentists to care for
m ore patients, these developm ents
are n o t expected to offset the need
for m ore dentists.
T here will continue to be a need
for dentists to adm inister dental pub­
lic health program s and teach in den­
tal colleges. Also, many dentists will
c o n tin u e to serv e in th e A rm ed
Forces.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
During the first year or two of
practice, dentists often earn little
m ore than the m inimum needed to
cover expenses, b u t their earnings
usually rise rapidly as their practice
develops. Specialists generally earn
considerably more than general p rac­
titioners. T he average incom e o f den­
tists in 1976 was about \$39,500 a
year, according to the limited infor­
m ation available. In the Federal G ov­
ern m en t, new g rad u ates o f d ental
sch o o ls co u ld e x p e c t to s ta rt a t
\$17,056 a year in 1977. Experienced
dentists working for the Federal G ov­
ernm ent in 1977 earned average an­
nual salaries o f \$31,600, with some
earning as m uch as \$39,600 a year.
Location is one o f the m ajor fac­
tors affecting the incom e of dentists
who open their own offices. For ex­
ample, in high-income urban areas,
dental services are in great dem and;
however, a practice can be devel­
oped m ost quickly in small towns,
w here new dentists easily becom e
kqown and where they may face less
com petition from established practi­
tioners. A lthough the incom e from
practice in small towns may rise rap­
idly at first, over the long run the
level o f earnings, like the cost o f liv­
ing, may be lower than it is in larger
communities.
M ost dental offices are open 5
days a week and some dentists have
evening hours. Dentists usually work
between 40 and 45 hours a week,
although many spend m ore than 50
hours a week in the office. Dentists
90

often work fewer hours as they grow
older, and a considerable num ber
continue in part-tim e practice well
beyond the usual retirem ent age.

Information
Persons who wish to practice in a
given S tate should o b tain the re ­
q uirem ents for licensure from th e
board o f dental exam iners o f th a t
State. Lists of State boards and o f
accredited dental schools, as well as
inform ation on dentistry as a career,
is available from:
American Dental Association, Council on
Dental Education, 211 East Chicago
Ave., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Dental Schools,
1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Inform ation on dentistry as a c a ­
reer also is available from:
Division of Dentistry, Public Health Service,
U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Students should contact the d irec­
to r of student financial aid at th e
school they attend for inform ation
ab o u t F ed eral or o th e r loans and
scholarships.

D IE TITIA N S
(D.O.T. 077.081 through .168)

Nature of the Work
Dietitians plan nutritious and ap ­
petizing meals to help people m ain­
tain or recover good health. They
also supervise the food service p e r­
sonnel who prepare and serve the
m eals, m anage dietetic purchasing
and accounting, and give advice on
good eating habits. Clinical dietitians
form the largest group in this occupa­
tion; the others are adm inistrative,
teaching, and research dietitians. N u­

tritionists also are included in this
field.
Administrative dietitians apply the
principles of nutrition and sound
m anagem ent to large-scale m eal
planning and preparation, such as
that done in hospitals, universities,
schools, and other institutions. They
supervise the planning, preparation,
and service of meals; select, train,
and direct food service supervisors
and w orkers; budget for and p u r­
chase food, equipm ent, and supplies;
enforce sanitary and safety regula­
tions; and prepare records and re­
ports. Dietitians who are directors of
a dietetic departm ent also decide on
departm ental policy; coordinate di­
etetic service with the activities of
other departm ents; and are respon­
sible for the dietetic departm ent bud­
get, which in large organizations may
am ount to millions o f dollars annual­
ly*
Clinical
dietitians,
sometimes
called therapeutic dietitians, plan
diets and supervise the service of
meals to m eet the nutritional needs
o f patients in hospitals, nursing
homes, or clinics. Among their du­
ties, clinical dietitians confer with
doctors and other m em bers of the
health care team about patients’ nu­
tritional care, instruct patients and
their fam ilies on the requirem ents
and im portance of their diets, and
suggest ways to keep on these diets
after leaving the hospital or clinic. In
a small institution, one person may
be both the administrative and clini­
cal dietitian.
Research dietitians conduct, evalu­
ate, and in terp ret research to im­
prove the nutrition of both healthy
and sick people. This research may
be in nutrition science and ed u ca­
tion, food managem ent, or food serv­
ice system s and equipm ent. T hey
may conduct studies o f how the body
uses food. Research projects may in­
vestigate the nutritional needs of the
aging, o r persons with a chronic dis­
ease, or space travelers. Research di­
e titia n s usually a re em ployed in
medical centers or education facili­
ties, but also may work in community

Places of Employment
A bout 45,000 persons worked as
dietitians in 1976. M ore than onehalf work in hospitals, nursing
homes, and clinics, including about
1,100 in the V eterans Adm inistration
and the U.S. Public Health Service.
Colleges, universities, and school sys­
tem s employ a large num ber of dieti­
tians as teachers or in food service
systems. M ost o f the rest work for
health-related agencies, restaurants
or cafeterias, and large com panies
th at provide food service for their
employees. Some dietitians are com ­
m issioned o fficers in th e A rm ed
Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Clinical dietitians plan meals for patients
in hospitals, nursing homes, or clinics.

health program s. (See statem ent on
fo o d s c ie n tis ts e ls e w h e re in th e
Handbook.)
Dietetic educators teach dietetics
to dietetic, m edical, dental, and nurs­
ing students and to interns, residents,
and oth er m em bers o f the health care
team . They usually work in medical
and educational institutions.
N utritionists may counsel individ­
uals and groups on sound nutrition
p ractices to m aintain and improve
health or they may engage in teach­
ing and research. This work covers
such areas as special diets, meal plan­
ning and preparation, and food bud­
geting and purchasing. Nutritionists
in com m unity health may be respon­
sible for the nutrition com ponents of
preventive health and m edical care
services. This includes planning, de­
veloping, coordinating, and adm inis­
tering a nutrition program or a nutri­
tion com ponent as an integral part of
a com m unity health program . N utri­
tionists work in such diverse areas as
fo o d in d u s trie s , e d u c a tio n a l and
health facilities, and agricultural and
w elfare agencies, both public and
private.
An increasing num ber of dietitians
work as consultants to hospitals and
to health-related facilities. O thers act
as consultants to com m ercial en ter­
prises, including food processors and
equipm ent m anufacturers.

A bachelor’s degree, preferably
with a m ajor in foods and nutrition o r
institution m anagem ent, is the basic
ed u catio n al req u irem en t for d ieti­
tians. This degree can be earned in
about 240 colleges and universities,
usually in departm ents o f hom e ec o ­
nomics. College courses usually re ­
quired are in food and nutrition, in­
stitu tio n m an ag e m en t, ch em istry ,
bacteriology, physiology, and related
courses such as m athem atics, data
processing, psychology, sociology,
and economics.
For a dietitian to qualify for p ro ­
fessional recognition, the A m erican
Dietetic Association (A D A ) recom ­
m ends the com pletion after gradu­
ation of an approved dietetic intern­
sh ip o r an a p p ro v e d in d iv id u a l
traineeship program . The internship
lasts 6 to 12 m onths and the traineeship program 1 to 2 years. Both p ro ­
gram s com bine clinical experience
under a qualified dietitian with some
classroom work. In 1976, 68 intern­
ship program s were approved by the
A m erican D ietetic A ssociation. A
growing num ber of coordinated u n ­
d e rg ra d u a te p rogram s, lo cated in
schools o f m edicine and in allied
health and hom e econom ics d ep a rt­
m ents of both colleges and universi­
ties, en ab le stu d en ts to co m p lete
both the requirem ents for a bache­
lo r’s degree and the clinical experi­
ence req u irem en t in 4 years. T he
ADA approves coordinated u n d er­

Persons m eeting the qualifications
established by the A D A ’s Commis­
sion on Dietetic Registration can be­
com e Registered Dietitians (R .D .’s).
R egistration with the ADA is ac­
knowledgem ent of a dietitian’s com ­
petence.
E x p erien ced d ietitia n s may a d ­
vance to assistant or associate direc­
tor or director o f a dietetic d ep art­
ment. A dvancem ent to higher level
positions in teaching and research
usually requires graduate education;
public health nutritionists must earn
a g ra d u a te d e g re e in th is field .
G ra d u ate study in institutional or
those interested in adm inistrative di­
etetics.
Persons who plan to becom e dieti­
tians should have organizational and
adm inistrative ability, as well as high
scientific aptitude, and should be
able to work well with a variety of
people. Among the courses recom ­
m ended for high school students in­
terested in careers as dietitians are
tration, biology, health, m athem at­
ics, and chemistry.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities for
qualified dietitians on both a full­
time and part-tim e basis are expected
to be good through the m id-1980’s.
In recent years, employers have used
dietetic assistants trained in voca­
tional and technical schools and di­
etetic technicians educated in junior
colleges to help m eet the dem and for
dietetic services. Because this situ­
ation is likely to persist, employm ent
opportunities also should continue to
be favorable for graduates of these
programs.
E m ploym ent of dietitians is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id -1 9 8 0 ’s to m eet the food
m anagem ent needs o f hospitals and
extended care facilities, industrial
plants, and restaurants. D ietitians
also will be needed to staff com m uni­
ty health programs and to conduct
research in food and nutrition. In ad­
dition to new dietitians needed be­
cause of occupational growth, many
others will be required each year to
re p la ce those who die, re tire , or
91

leave the profession for other rea­
sons.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Starting salaries o f hospital dieti­
tians av erag ed \$ 1 1 ,3 0 0 a year in
1976, according to a national survey
conducted by the University o f Texas
M edical Branch. E xperienced dieti­
tians received annual salaries ranging
from \$13,900 to \$25,300, according
to th e A m erican D ie te tic A ssoci­
ation. T he m edian salary paid by col­
leges and universities to dietitians
with b ach elo r’s degrees was \$13,900
a year in 1976. T he m edian salary for
those with b ach elo r’s degrees w ork­
ing in com m ercial or industrial estab­
lishm ents was \$14,400 a year; for
those in public and voluntary health
a g e n c ie s , \$ 1 3 ,0 0 0 . F o r se lf-e m ­
ployed dietitians w ith a b a c h e lo r’s
degree, the m edian salary was over
\$16,000 a year in 1976.
The en trance salary in the Federal
G overnm ent for those com pleting an
approved internship was \$11,523 in
1977. Beginning dietitians with a
m aster’s degree who had com pleted
an internship earned \$14,097. In
1977, the Federal G overnm ent paid
experienced dietitians average sala­
ries o f \$18,109 a year.
M ost dietitians w ork 40 hours a
week; how ever, dietitians in hospitals
may som etim es w ork on weekends,
and those in com m ercial food service
have som ew hat irregular hours.
Some hospitals provide laundry serv­
ice in addition to salary. Dietitians
usually receive paid vacations, holi­
days, and health insurance and re­
tirem ent benefits.

m ents for dietetic interns and dieti­
tians in Federal G overnm ent hospi­
tals and for public health nutritionists
and dietitians in the Public H ealth
Service, U.S. D epartm ent o f Health,
Education, and W elfare, and in the
D istric t o f C o lu m b ia g o v ern m e n t
program s.

DRAFTERS
(D.O.T. 001.281, 002.281, 003.281,
005.281, 007.281, 010.281,
014.281, and 017.)

Nature of the Work
W hen building a space capsule,
television set, or bridge, workers fol­
low drawings that show the exact di­
m ensions and specifications o f the
entire object and each of its parts.
W orkers who draw these plans are
drafters.
D rafters prepare detailed drawings
based on rough sketches, specifica­
tions, and calulations m ade by scien­
tists, engineers, architects, and d e ­
sig n ers. T h ey also c a lc u la te th e
strength, quality, quantity, and cost
of m aterials. Final drawings contain a
detailed view of the object from all
sides as well as specifications for m a­
terials to be used, procedures fol­
lowed, and other inform ation to c a r­
ry out the job.
In preparing drawings, drafters use
com passes, dividers, protractors, tri­
angles, and o th er drafting devices.
T hey also use en g in ee rin g h a n d ­
books, tables, and calculators to help
solve technical problems.

Drafters are classified according to
the work they do or their level of
responsibility. Senior drafters trans­
late an engineer’s or architect’s p re­
liminary plans into design “ layouts”
(scale drawings of the object to be
b u ilt). D etailers draw ea ch p a rt
shown on the layout, and give dim en­
sions, m aterials, and other inform a­
tion to m ake the drawing clear and
com plete. Checkers carefully exam ­
ine drawings for errors in com puting
or recording dimensions and specifi­
cations. U nder the supervision of ex­
perienced drafters, tracers make mi­
nor corrections and trace drawings
for reproduction on paper or plastic
film.
D rafters usually specialize in a p ar­
ticular field o f work, such as m e­
chanical, electrical, electronic, aero ­
nautical, structural, or architectural
drafting.

Places of Employment
About 320,000 persons worked as
drafters in 1976—m ore than 9 out of
10 worked in private industry. Engi­
neering and architectural firms em ­
ployed about 3 out of the 10. O ther
m ajor em ployers included the fabri­
cated m etals, electrical equipm ent,
m achinery, and construction indus­
tries.
About 20,000 drafters worked for
F ed eral, S tate, and local govern­
m ents in 1976. Most drafters in the
Federal G overnm ent worked for the
Defense D epartm ent; those in State
and local governments were mainly
in highway and public works d ep art­
m ents. A n o th er several th o u san d

Information
For inform ation on approved di­
etetic internship program s, scholar­
ships, e m p lo y m en t o p p o rtu n itie s,
and registration, and a list o f colleges
providing training for a professional
career in dietetics, contact:
The American Dietetic Association, 430
North Michigan Ave., 10th floor, Chica­
go, 111. 60611.

T he U.S. Civil Service C om m is­
sion, W ashington, D.C. 20415, will
send in fo rm atio n on th e re q u ire ­
92

Drafters may specialize in mechanical, electrical, aeronautical, structural, or architec­
tural drafting.

drafters worked for colleges and uni­
versities and nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Persons interested in becoming
drafters can acquire the necessary
training in technical institutes, junior
and com m unity colleges, extension
divisions o f universities, and voca­
tional and tech n ical high schools.
Some persons receive training and
e x p e rien ce in th e A rm ed F orces.
O th ers qualify th ro u g h on-the-job
train in g p ro g ram s co m b in ed with
part-tim e schooling or 3- to 4-year
apprenticeship program s.
Training for a career in drafting,
w hether in a high school or posthigh
sc h o o l p ro g ra m , s h o u ld in c lu d e
courses in m athem atics, physical sci­
e n c e s , m e c h a n ic a l d ra w in g , and
drafting. Shop p ra ctices and shop
skills also are helpful since m any
h ig h er level d raftin g jo b s require
knowledge of m anufacturing or con­
struction m ethods. M any technical
schools offer courses in structural de­
sign, architectural drawing, and engi­
neering or industrial technology.
Those planning careers in drafting
should be able to do freehand draw ­
ings of three-dim ensional objects and
also detailed work requiring a high
d eg ree o f ac cu ra cy . T hey should
have good eyesight and m anual dex­
terity. In addition, they should be
able to function as p art of a team
since they work directly with engi­
neers, architects, and skilled work­
ers. A rtistic ability is helpful in some
specialized fields.
High school graduates usually start
out as tracers. Those having posthigh
school technical training may begin
as junior drafters. A fter gaining expe­
rience, they may advance to check­
ers, detailers, senior drafters, or su­
p e r v is o rs . S om e m ay b e c o m e
in d ep en d e n t designers. C ourses in
engineering and m athem atics som e­
times enable drafters to transfer to
engineering positions.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of drafters is expect­
ed to increase faster than the average
fo r all o cc u p atio n s. T his grow th,
along with the need to replace those

who retire, die, or move into other
fields of work, should provide favor­
able job opportunities through the
m id-1980’s. Holders o f an associate
(2-year) degree in drafting will have
the best prospects. Many large em ­
ployers already require postsecon­
dary te c h n ic a l e d u c a tio n , tho u g h
well-qualified high school graduates
who have studied drafting may find
opportunities in some types o f jobs.
Em ploym ent of drafters is expect­
ed to rise rapidly as a result of the
increasingly com plex design p ro b ­
lems of m odern products and p ro ­
cesses. In addition, m ore su p p o rt
personnel will be needed as the em ­
ploym ent of engineers and scientists
grows. P hotoreproduction of draw ­
ings and expanding use of electronic
drafting equipm ent and com puters,
how ever, will reduce the need for
less skilled drafters.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In private industry, tracers aver­
aged about \$8,400 a year in 1976,
while m ore experienced drafters av­
eraged betw een \$9,800 and \$12,000
a year. S en io r d ra fte rs av e rag e d
about \$ 15,300 a year in 1976. On the
average, experienced drafters earn
ab o u t one and o n e -h a lf tim es as
m uch as the average earnings of nonsupervisory workers in private indus­
try, except farming.
The Federal G overnm ent paid
drafters having an associate degree
starting salaries of \$8,316 a year in
1977. Those with less education o r
experience
generally started at
\$7,408. The average Federal G ov­
ernm ent salary for all drafters was
about \$ 11,000 a year.
Although drafters usually work in
well-lighted
and
well-ventilated
rooms, they often m ust sit for long
periods of time doing very detailed
work. Occasionally, drafters may
visit other offices or construction
sites to gain first-hand inform ation
about a certain assignment.

Information
G eneral inform ation on careers for
drafters is available from:
American Institute for Design and Drafting,
3119 Price Rd., Bartlesville, Okla. 74003.

International Federation of Professional and
Technical Engineers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

See Sources of Additional Infor­
m ation in the statem ent on engineer­
ing and science tech n ician s e lse­
where in the Handbook.

EC O N O M ISTS
(D.O.T. 050.088 and .118)

Nature of the Work
Economists are concerned with
how to utilize scarce resources such
as land, raw materials, and hum an
resources to provide goods and ser­
vices for society. Economists analyze
the relationship between the supply
and dem and of goods and services
and study how they are produced,
distributed, and consum ed. Some
econom ists are concerned with spe­
cific fields such as farm , wage, tax,
and ta riff problem s and policies,
while others attem pt to develop th eo ­
ries explaining the causes of em ploy­
m ent and unem ploym ent or inflation.
Most econom ists analyze and inter­
pret a wide variety of economic data
in the course of their work.
Econom ists in colleges and univer­
sities are engaged primarily in teach­
ing th e th e o rie s, p rin cip les, and
m ethods of economics. In addition,
econom ics faculty m em bers often
are involved in research, writing, and
o th er nonteaching activities. They
frequently act as consultants to busi­
ness firms, governm ent agencies, or
individuals.
Econom ists in governm ent collect
and analyze data and prepare studies
used to assess econom ic conditions
and the need for changes in govern­
m e n t p o lic y . M o st g o v e rn m e n t
econom ists are in the fields of agri­
culture, forestry, business, finance,
labor, transportation, or internation­
al trade and developm ent. For exam ­
ple, econom ists in the U.S. D epart­
m ent of Com m erce study domestic
prod u ctio n , distribution, and c o n ­
sum ption of comm odities or services;
in the Federal T rade Commission,
econom ists prepare econom ic evi­
dence or industry analyses to assist in
93

Economics is the largest social science field.

enforcing Federal statutes designed
to elim inate unfair, deceptive, or m o­
n o p o lis tic p ra c tic e s in in te rs ta te
com m erce; econom ists in the Bureau
o f L ab o r Statistics assist in survey
planning and analyze data on prices,
wages, em ploym ent, and productiv­
ity.
Econom ists who work for business,
firms provide m anagem ent with in­
form ation to m ake decisions on m ar­
keting and pricing o f com pany produ c ts ; a n a ly z e th e e f f e c t o f
governm ent policies on business or
international trade; or look at the ad ­
visability o f adding new lines of m er­
chandise, opening new branch o p era­
tions, o r otherw ise expanding the
mists working for firms th at carry on
extensive operations abroad may be
asked to p rep are short- and long­
term forecasts of foreign econom ies
as well as forecasts of the U.S. econ­
omy.

Places of Employment
Econom ics is the largest social sci­
ence field. A bout 115,000 persons
worked as econom ists in 1976, ex­
cluding those teaching in secondary
schools. A bout 3 o ut o f 4 of these
jo b s are in private industry or re ­
search organizations. Im portant em ­
94

ployers of econom ists include m anu­
fa c tu rin g firm s, ban k s, in su ran ce
com panies, securities and investm ent
com panies, and m anagem ent c o n ­
sulting firms. Colleges and universi­
ties employ about 10 percent of the
N a tio n ’s econom ists while govern­
m ent agencies, prim arily F ederal,
em ploy an o th er 10 percent. Some
econom ists run their own consulting
Econom ists work in all large cities
and university towns. The largest
num ber are in the New York City
and the W ashington, D.C. m etropol­
itan areas. Som e w ork overseas,
mainly for the U.S. D epartm ent o f
State including the Agency for Inter­
national D evelopm ent.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Econom ists must have a thorough
understanding o f econom ic theory
and of m athem atical m ethods of ec o ­
nom ic analysis. Since many begin­
ning jobs for econom ists in govern­
m e n t a n d b u s in e s s in v o lv e th e
collection and com pilation of data, a
thorough knowledge of basic statisti­
cal procedures is required. In addi­
tion to courses in m acroeconom ics,
m icroeconom ics, econom etrics, and
business and ec o n o m ic statistics,

training in com puter science is highly
recom m ended.
At the
level,
courses in one or more of the follow­
ing subjects also are valuable: busi­
ness cycles; econom ic and business
history; econom ic developm ent of
selected areas; money and banking;
international econom ics; public fi­
nance; industrial organization; labor
econom ics; com parative econom ic
systems, economics o f national plan­
ning; urban econom ic problems and
policies; m arketing principles and o r­
ganization; consum er analysis; o r­
ganizational behavior; and business
law.
A bachelor’s degree with a m ajor
in econom ics is sufficient for many
m anagem ent trainee, and business
sales jobs. However, graduate train­
ing increasingly is required for ad­
vancem ent to more responsible posi­
tio n s as e c o n o m is ts . A re a s o f
specialization at the graduate level
include advanced economic theory,
com parative economic systems and
planning, econom etrics, econom ic
developm ent, economic history, en­
v iro n m en tal and n atu ral reso u rce
e c o n o m ic s, h isto ry o f ec o n o m ic
thought, industrial organization, in­
stitutional econom ics, international
economics, labor economics, m one­
tary econom ics, public finance, re­
gional and urban economics, and so­
cial policy. Students should select
graduate schools strong in specialties
in which they are interested. Some
schools help graduate students find
part-tim e em ploym ent in nearby gov­
ernm ent or private organizations en­
gaged in econom ic research where
students may gain valuable experi­
ence.
In the Federal Governm ent, candi­
dates fo r en tran ce positions m ust
have a m inim um o f 21 sem ester
hours of economics and 3 hours of
statistics, accounting, or calculus.
A m aster’s degree generally is the
minimum requirem ent for a job as a
college instructor in many junior col­
leges and small 4-year schools. In
many large colleges and universities,
com pletion of all the requirem ents
for a Ph. D. degree, except the disser­
tation, is necessary for appointm ent
as a teaching assistant or instructor.
The Ph. D. degree usually is required

for a professorship and alm ost always
is necessary to gain tenure.
In governm ent, industry, research
organizations, and consulting firms,
econom ists who have a graduate d e­
gree usually can qualify for m ore re­
sponsible research and adm inistra­
tive positions. E xperienced business
econom ists may advance to m anage­
rial or executive positions in banks,
in d u stria l co n c ern s, tra d e asso ci­
ations and oth er organizations where
they form ulate practical business and
A bout 1,500 colleges and universi­
ties offer b ach elo r’s degree program s
in econom ics; about 230, m aster’s;
and about 120, doctoral programs.
Persons who consider careers as
econom ists should be able to work
accurately and in detail since much
time is spent on careful analysis of
data. Frequently, the ability to work
as p art o f a team is required. E cono­
mists m ust be objective in their work
and be able to express them selves
effectively both orally and in writing.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of econom ists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
mid-1980’s. However, m ost openings
will result from deaths, retirem ents,
and oth er separations from the labor
force.
Private industry and business will
continue to provide the largest num ­
ber o f em ploym ent opportunities for
econom ists because o f the increasing
complexity of the dom estic and inter­
n a tio n a l e c o n o m ie s a n d th e in ­
c re a s e d re lia n c e on q u a n tita tiv e
m e th o d s o f a n a ly z in g b u s in e s s
trends, forecasting sales, and plan­
ning purchases and production op­
erations. Em ployers will seek those
well-trained in econom etrics and sta­
tistics. In addition, th e increasing
need for business econom ists to assist
lawyers, accountants, engineers, and
other professionals in solving prob­
lems should stim ulate em ploym ent
growth. Em ploym ent o f econom ists
in State and local governm ent agen­
cies is expected to increase because
of the growing responsibilities of lo­
cal g ov ernm ents in areas such as
housing, transportation, environm ent
and n atu ral resources, health, and

em ploym ent developm ent and train­
ing. Em ploym ent of econom ists in
the Federal G overnm ent is expected
to rise slowly—in line with the rate of
grow th p ro je c te d fo r the F ed eral
work force as a whole. Colleges and
universities, the traditional em ployer
of many highly qualified economists,
are not expected to significantly in­
c re a se em p lo y m en t. As a re su lt,
many such econom ists may seek nonacadem ic positions.
Persons who graduate with a
bachelor’s degree in econom ics
through the m id-1980’s are likely to
face keen com petition for jobs as
economists. However, many of these
degree holders will find em ploym ent
in governm ent, industry, and busi­
ness as m anagem ent or sales trainees,
or as research assistants. C andidates
who hold m aster’s degrees in ec o ­
nomics face very strong com petition
for teaching positions in colleges and
universities, b u t they should find
good opportunities for adm inistra­
tive, research, and planning positions
in private industry and governm ent.
Ph. D .’s are likely to face com peti­
tion for academ ic positions, although
those graduating from high-ranking
universities should have an advan­
tage. Ph. D .’s should have favorable
opportunities in governm ent, indus­
try, research organizations, and co n ­
sulting firms.
Econom ists specializing in the e n ­
vironm ent, energy and natural re ­
sources, health, and transportation
are expected to have good job o ppor­
tunities. However, since practicing
econom ists may shift from one spe­
cialty to another, fields of specializa­
tion offering favorable job opportu­
nities may change over short periods
of time. A strong background in ec o ­
nomic theory and econom etrics p ro ­
vides the tools for acquiring any spe­
cialty within the field.

Earnings
A ccording to the 1975-76 College
Placem ent Council Salary Survey,
bachelor’s degree candidates in the
social sciences received offers aver­
aging around \$10,000 a year; m as­
te r’s degree candidates in the social
sciences, around \$12,000; bachelor’s
degree candidates offered positions
in the field of finance and econom ics,
around \$10,600.

A ccording to an Am erican E co­
nom ic Association survey, average
salary offers made to new Ph. D .’s for
the academ ic year 1975-76 were as
follows: in colleges and universities,
around \$ 13,100 to \$ 14,600 for the 9m onth academ ic year; in business
and in d u stry , \$18,0 0 0 a year; in
banking and finance, \$17,775 a year;
in consulting and research, \$ 17,500 a
year; in the Federal G overnm ent,
\$18,750 a year; and in State and lo­
cal government, \$15,500 a year. Av­
erage salaries o f econom ists em ­
ployed in colleges and universities
for the academ ic year 1975-76 were
as follows: for professors, ab o u t
\$25,400; for associate professors,
about \$18,700; for assistant profes­
sors, about \$15,300; and for instruc­
Economists who have a Ph. D.
generally are paid higher salaries
than those who have lesser degrees
and similar experience. A substantial
num ber of economists supplem ent
their salaries by consulting, teaching,
and research activities. In general,
salaries of experienced econom ists
are m uch higher than the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
The Civil Service Commission rec­
ognizes education and experience in
certifying applicants for entry level
positions in the Federal Government.
In general, the entrance salary for
econom ists having a bachelor’s de­
gree was \$9,303 a year in 1977; how­
ever, those with superior academic
re c o rd s could begin at \$1 1,523.
Those having a m aster’s degree could
qualify for positions at an annual sal­
ary of \$14,097, while those with a
Ph. D. co u ld b eg in a t \$ 1 7 ,0 5 6 .
Econom ists in the Federal Govern­
m ent averaged around \$25,100 in
1977. Econom ists work in many gov­
ernm ent agencies, prim arily in the
D e p a rtm e n ts o f S ta te , T re asu ry ,
Army, Interior, A griculture, C om ­
m erce, L abor, H ealth, E ducation,
and W elfare, Housing and Urban D e­
velopm ent, and Transportation.

Information
For inform ation on job openings
for econom ists with graduate degrees
95

and on schools offering graduate
training in econom ics, contact:
American Economic Association, 1313 21st
Avenue South, Nashville, Tenn. 37212.

For additional inform ation on ca­
reers in business econom ics, contact:
National Association of Business Economists,
28349 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleve­
land, Ohio 44122.

E N G IN E E R IN G A ND
S C IE N C E T E C H N IC IA N S
(D .O .T. 002. through 029.)

Nature of the Work
Knowledge o f science, m athem at­
ics, industrial m achinery, and techni­
cal p ro cesses en ab les engineering
and science technicians to work in all
phases o f business and governm ent,
from research and design to m anu­
facturing, sales, and custom er ser­
vice. Although their jobs are m ore
limited in scope and m ore practically
oriented than those of engineers or
scientists, technicians often apply the
theoretical knowledge developed by
en g in eers and scien tists to actu al
situ atio n s. T ech n ician s freq u en tly
use com plex electronic and m echani­
cal instrum ents, experim ental labora­
tory equipm ent, and drafting instru­
m e n ts . A lm o s t a ll t e c h n i c i a n s
described in this statem ent m ust be
able to use technical handbooks and
com puting devices such as slide rules
and calculating machines.
In research and developm ent, one
of the largest areas of em ploym ent,
technicians set up experim ents and
calculate the results using complex
instrum ents. They also assist engi­
neers and scientists in developing ex­
perim ental equipm ent and m odels by
making drawings and sketches and,
frequently, by doing routine design
work.
In production, technicians usually
follow the plans and general direc­
tions of engineers and scientists, but
often w ithout close supervision. They
may prepare specifications for m ate­
rials, devise tests to insure product
quality, or study ways to improve the
efficiency o f an operation. They of­
96

ten supervise production workers to
m ake sure they follow prescrib ed
plans and procedures. As a product is
built, technicians check to see that
specifications are followed, keep e n ­
gineers and scientists inform ed as to
progress, and investigate production
problem s.
As sales workers or field represen­
tatives fo r m an u factu rers, te c h n i­
cians give advice on installation and
m aintenance o f com plex m achinery,
and may w rite specifications and
technical manuals. (See statem ent on
technical w riters elsew here in the
Handbook.)
Technicians may work in the fields
o f engineering, physical science, or
life science. W ithin these general
fields, job titles may describe the
level (biological aide or biological
technician), duties (quality control
technician or time study analyst), o r
area of work (m echanical, electrical,
or chem ical).
As an engineering technician, one
might work in any of the following
areas:
A eronautical T echnology. T e c h n i­
cians in this area work with engineers
and scientists to design and produce
aircraft, rockets, guided missiles, and
sp acecraft. Many aid engineers in
preparing design layouts and models
o f stru c tu re s, c o n tro l system s, o r
equipm ent installations by collecting
inform ation, m aking com putations,
and perform ing laboratory tests. For
example, a technician might estim ate
w eight factors, cen ters of gravity,
and other items affecting load cap ac­
ity of an airplane or missile. O ther
technicians prepare or check draw ­
ings for technical accuracy, practica­
bility, and economy.
A eronautical technicians frequent­
ly work as m anufacturers’ field ser­
vice representatives, serving as the
link between their com pany and the
m ilitary services, com m ercial a ir­
lines, and other custom ers. T echni­
cians also prepare technical inform a­
tio n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n m a n u a ls ,
bulletins, catalogs, and other litera­
ture. (See statem ents on aerospace
engineers, airplane m echanics, and
occupations in aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft m anufacturing elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Re­
frigeration Technology. A ir-condi­
tioning, heating, and refrigeration
te c h n ic ia n s design, m a n u fa c tu re ,
sell, and service equipm ent to regu­
late interior tem peratures. T echni­
cians in this field often specialize in
one area, such as refrigeration, and
sometimes in a particular type of ac­
tivity, such as research and develop­
ment.
W hen working for firms that
m a n u fa ctu re te m p e ra tu re -c o n tro l­
ling equipm ent, technicians generally
work in research and engineering de­
partm ents, where they assist engi­
neers and scientists in the design and
testing o f new equipm ent or produc­
tion m ethods. For example, a techni­
cian may construct an experim ental
model to test its durability and o p er­
ating ch a rac te ristic s. T echn ician s
also work as sales workers for equip­
m ent m anufacturers or dealers, and
must be able to supply engineering
firms and other contractors that de­
sign and install systems with inform a­
tion on installation, m aintenance, op­
erating costs, and the perform ance
specifications of the equipm ent. O th­
er technicians work for contractors,
where they help design and prepare
installation instructions for air-condi­
tioning, heating, or refrigeration sys­
tems. Still others work in custom er
service, and are responsible for su­
pervising the installation and m ainte­
nance o f equipment. (See statem ent
on refrigeration and air-conditioning
m echanics elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)
Civil Engineering Technology. T ech­
nicians in this area assist civil engi­
neers in planning, designing, and
c o n s tru c tin g h ig h w ay s, b rid g e s ,
dams, and other structures. They of­
ten specialize in one area such as
highway or stru ctu ra l technology.
During the planning stage, they esti­
m ate costs, prepare specifications for
m aterials, or participate in surveying,
d rafting, or designing. O nce c o n ­
struction begins, they assist the co n ­
tractor o r superintendent in schedul­
in g c o n s t r u c t i o n a c ti v i t i e s o r
inspecting the work to assure co n ­
form ance to blueprints and specifica­
tions. (See statem ents on civil engi­
n e e r s , d r a f t e r s , a n d s u rv e y o rs
elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Electronics Technology. Technicians
in this field develop, m anufacture,
and service electronic equipm ent
and systems. The types o f equipm ent
television to industrial and m edical
m easuring or control devices, naviga­
tio n al e q u ip m e n t, an d e le c tro n ic
com puters. Because th e field is so
broad, technicians often specialize in
one area such as autom atic control
devices or electronic amplifiers. F ur­
th e rm o re , te c h n o lo g ic a l a d v a n c e ­
m ent is constantly opening up new
areas o f work. For exam ple, the d e­
velopm ent of printed circuits stim u­
lated th e g ro w th o f m in ia tu rized
electronic systems.
W hen working in design, pro d u c­
tion, or custom er service, electronic
tech n ician s use sophisticated m ea­
suring and diagnostic devices to test,
a d ju st, an d re p a ir e q u ip m e n t. In
m any cases, they m ust understand
the requirem ents o f the field in which
the electronic device is being used. In

designing equipm ent for space explo­
ration, for example, they m ust co n ­
sider the need for minimum weight
and volume and maximum resistance
to shock, extrem e tem perature, and
pressure. Some electronics tech n i­
cians also work in technical sales,
while others work in the radio and
te le v isio n b ro a d c a s tin g in d u stry .
(See statem ents on broadcast techni­
cians and occupations in radio and
television broadcasting elsewhere in
the Handbook.)
Industrial Production T echnology.
T e c h n ic ia n s in this a re a , usually
called industrial or production tech ­
nicians, assist industrial engineers on
problem s involving the efficient use
o f p e rso n n e l, m a te ria ls, and m a ­
chines to produce goods and servic­
es. They prepare layouts of m achin­
ery and equipm ent, plan the flow o f
work, m ake statistical studies, and
analyze production costs. Industrial
technicians also conduct tim e and

Since technicians are part of a scientific team, they sometimes work under the super­
vision of engineers and scientists.

m otion studies (analyze the time and
m ovem ents a w orker needs to ac­
complish a task) to improve the p ro ­
duction m ethods and procedures in
m anufacturing plants.
M any industrial technician s ac­
quire experience that enables them
to qualify for other jobs. For exam ­
ple, those specializing in machinery
and production m ethods may move
into industrial safety. Others, in job
analysis, may set job standards and
interview, test, hire, and train p er­
sonnel. Still others may move into
production supervision. (See state­
m ents on personnel workers and in­
dustrial engineers elsew here in the
Handbook.)
Mechanical Technology. M echanical
technology is a broad term that cov­
ers a large num ber o f specialized
fields including autom otive technol­
ogy, diesel technology, tool design,
m a c h in e d esign, an d p ro d u c tio n
technology.
Technicians assist engineers in de­
sign and developm ent work by m ak­
ing freehand sketches and rough lay­
o uts o f p ro p o se d m ach in ery and
o th e r eq u ip m e n t and p arts. T his
w ork re q u ire s know ledge o f m e­
chanical principles involving to ler­
ance, stress, strain, friction, and vi­
b ra tio n fa cto rs. T ec h n ician s also
analyze the costs and practical value
o f designs.
In planning and testing experim en­
tal m achines and equipm ent for p er­
form ance, durability, and efficiency,
technicians record data, m ake com ­
putations, plot graphs, analyze re­
sults, and write reports. They som e­
times recom m end design changes to
improve perform ance. Their job of­
ten requires skill in the use of com ­
plex in stru m en ts, te st equipm ent,
and gauges, as well as in the prepara­
tion and interpretation of drawings.
W hen a product is ready for p ro ­
d u ctio n , technicians help prep are
layouts and drawings of the assembly
process and of parts to be m anufac­
tured. They frequently help estim ate
labor costs, equipm ent life, and plant
space. Some m echanical technicians
test and inspect m achines and equip­
m ent in m anufacturing departm ents
or work with engineers to eliminate
p ro d u c tio n problem s. O th ers are
technical sales workers.
97

Tool designers are am ong the b et­ d ata that will be the basis for deci­
ter known specialists in m echanical sions and future research.
engineering technology. Tool design­
C hem ical technicians in pro d u c­
ers prepare sketches o f the designs tion generally put into com m ercial
for cutting tools, jigs, dies, special operation those products or process­
fixtures, and oth er devices used in es developed in research laborato­
mass p ro d u ctio n . F req u en tly , they ries. They assist in making the final
redesign existing tools to im prove design, in stallin g eq u ip m en t, and
their efficiency. They also m ake or training and supervising operators on
supervise others in m aking detailed the production line. Technicians in
drawings o f tools and fixtures.
quality control test m aterials, p ro ­
M achine drafting, with some d e­ duction processes, and final p ro d ­
signing, is an o th er m ajor area often ucts to insure th a t they m eet th e
grouped under m echanical technol­ m a n u fa c tu re r’s specificatio n s and
ogy and is described in th e statem ent quality standards. Many also work as
on drafters. (Also see statem ents on te c h n ic a l sales p e rso n n e l, selling
m ech a n ical en g in eers, autom obile chem icals or chem ical products.
m e c h a n ic s , m a n u f a c tu r e r s ’ sales
Many chem ical technicians use
w orkers, and diesel m echanics else­ com puters and instrum ents, such as a
where in the Handbook.)
dilatom eter (which m easures the ex­
pansion o f a substance). Because the
Instrum entation Technology. A u to ­ field o f chem istry is so broad, chem i­
m ated m anufacturing and industrial cal technicians frequently specialize
processes, oceanographic and space in a particular industry such as food
exploration, w eather forecasting, sat­ processing or pharm aceuticals. (See
ellite com m unication systems, envi­ statem ents on chemists, chem ical en ­
ronm ental p ro tectio n , and m edical gineers, and occupations in the in­
research have helped to m ake instru­ dustrial chem ical industry elsewhere
m entation technology a fast-growing in the Handbook.)
field for technicians. They help d e­
Meteorological technicians support
velop and design com plex m easuring m eteorologists in the study of atm o­
and con tro l devices such as those in a spheric conditions. Technicians cali­
sp acecraft th at sense and m easure brate instrum ents, observe, record,
changes in h eat or pressure, au to ­ and re p o rt m eteo ro lo g ical o c c u r­
m atically reco rd data, and m ake n ec­ rences, and assist in research projects
essary ad ju stm en ts. T h ese te c h n i­ and the developm ent o f scientific in­
cians have extensive knowledge of strum ents.
Geological technicians assist geolo­
physical sciences as well as electri­
cal-electronic and m echanical engi­ gists in evaluating earth processes.
neering. (S ee statem en t on in stru ­ C urren tly m uch research is being
m e n t w o rk e rs e ls e w h e re in th e conducted in seismology, petroleum
and m ineral exploration, and ecol­
Handbook.)
Several areas o f opportunity exist ogy. These technicians install seismographic in stru m en ts, reco rd m ea­
in the physical sciences:
C hem ical technicians w ork with surem ents from these instrum ents,
chem ists and chem ical engineers to assist in field evaluation of e a rth ­
develop, sell, and utilize chem ical quake dam age and surface displace­
and related products and equipm ent. m ent, or assist geologists in ea rth ­
M ost chem ical technicians do re­ q u a k e p r e d ic tio n r e s e a r c h . In
search and developm ent, testing, or petroleum and m ineral exploration,
o th er laboratory work. They often they help conduct tests and record
set up and conduct tests on processes sound wave data to determ ine the
and products being developed or im­ likelihood of successful drilling, or
proved. F or exam ple, a technician use radiation detection instrum ents
may exam ine steel for carbon, phos­ and collect core samples to help ge­
phorus, and sulfur content or test a ologists evaluate the econom ic possi­
lu b ricatin g oil by subjecting it to bilities of mining a given resource.
Hydrologic technicians gather d ata
changing tem peratures. The techni­
cian m easures reactions, analyzes the to help hydrologists predict river
results o f experim ents, and records stages and w ater quality levels. They
98

m onitor instrum ents that measure
w ater flow, w ater table levels, or
w ater quality, and record and ana­
lyze the d ata obtained. (See state­
m en t on en v iro n m en tal scientists
elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Technician positions in the life sci­
ences generally are classified into
two categories:
Agricultural technicians work with
agricultural scientists in the areas of
food production and processing.
Plant technicians conduct tests and
experim ents to improve the yield and
quality o f crops, or to increase resist­
ance to disease, insects, or other haz­
ards. Technicians in soil science ana­
lyse th e c h e m ic a l an d p h y sic a l
properties of various soils to help de­
term ine the best uses for these soils.
Animal husbandry technicians work
mainly with the breeding and nutri­
tion o f animals. O ther agricultural
technicians are em ployed in the food
industry as food processing techni­
cians. They work in quality control
or in food science research, helping
food scientists develop b etter and
m ore efficient ways o f processing
food m aterial for hum an consum p­
tion. (See statem ent on food scien­
tists elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Biological technicians work prim ar­
ily in laboratories where they p er­
form tests and experim ents under
controlled conditions. M icrobiologi­
cal technicians study microscopic o r­
ganisms and may be involved in im­
m unology or parasitology research.
L aboratory animal technicians study
and report on the reaction of labora­
tory animals to certain physical and
chem ical stimuli. They also study and
conduct research to help biologists
develop cures that may be applied to
hum an diseases. Biochemical techni­
cians assist biochemists in the chem i­
cal analysis of biological substances
(b lo o d , o th e r body fluids, foods,
drugs). Most of their work involves
conducting experim ents and rep o rt­
ing their results to a biochemist. As a
biological technician, one might also
work primarily with insects, studying
insect control, developing new insec­
ticides, or determ ining how to use
insects to control other insects or un­
desirable plants. (See statem ents on
life scientists elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)

Technicians also specialize in
fields such as m etallurgical (m etal),
electrical, and optical technology. In
the atom ic energy field, technicians
work with scientists and engineers on
problem s o f radiation safety, inspec­
tio n , an d d e c o n ta m in a tio n . (S ee
s ta te m e n t on o c c u p a tio n s in the
atom ic energy field elsew here in the
Handbook.) New areas of work in­
c lu d e e n v iro n m e n ta l p ro te c tio n ,
w here tech n ician s study the p ro b ­
lems of air and w ater pollution, and
industrial safety.

Places of Employment
Over 585,000 persons worked as
engineering and science technicians
in 1976. Alm ost 400,000 worked in
engineering fields, about 130,000 in
the physical science occupations,
and about 55,000 in the life sciences.
A bout two-thirds of all technicians
worked in private industry. In the
m anufacturing sector, the largest em ­
ployers w ere the e lec trical equip­
m e n t, c h e m ic a l, m a c h in e ry , and
aerospace industries. In nonm anu­
facturing, large num bers worked in
wholesale and retail trade, com m uni­
cations, and in engineering and ar­
chitectural firms.
In 1976, the Federal G overnm ent
em ployed about 95,000 technicians,
chiefly as engineering and electron­
ics technicians, equipm ent special­
ists, b io logical tech n ic ia n s, c a rto ­
graphic tech n ician s (m apm aking),
m e te o ro lo g ic a l te c h n ic ia n s , and
physical scien ce tech n ic ia n s. The
largest num ber worked for the D e­
p artm e n t o f D efense; m ost o f the
others w orked for the D epartm ents
of T ransportation, A griculture, Inte­
rior, and Com m erce.
S tate g o v ern m e n t agencies em ­
ployed nearly 50 ,0 00 engineering
and science technicians, and local
governm ents about 11,500. The re­
m ainder worked for colleges and uni­
versities and nonprofit organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Although persons can qualify for
technician jobs through many com bi­
nations of work experience and edu­
cation, m ost em ployers prefer appli­
cants who have had some specialized
technical training. Specialized train­

ing is available at technical institutes,
junior and com m unity colleges, area
vocational-technical schools, exten­
sion divisions of colleges and univer­
sities, and vocational-technical high
schools. Some engineering and sci­
ence students who have not com plet­
ed the bachelor’s degree and others
who have degrees in science and
m athem atics also are able to qualify
for technician positions.
Persons also can qualify for techni­
cian jobs by less form al m ethods.
W orkers may learn through on-thejo b tra in in g , a p p re n tic e sh ip p ro ­
grams, or correspondence schools.
Some qualify on the basis of experi­
ence gained in the A rm ed Forces.
However, postsecondary training is
becoming increasingly necessary for
ad v an cem en t to m ore responsible
jobs.
Some of the types of postsecon­
dary and other schools that provide
technical training are discussed in
the following paragraphs:
Technical Institutes. Technical in­
stitutes offer training to qualify stu­
d ents for a jo b im m ediately after
graduation with a minimum of onthe-job training. In general, students
receive intensive technical training
but less theory and general education
than in engineering schools or liberal
arts colleges. A few technical insti­
tutes and com m unity colleges offer
cooperative program s in which stu­
dents spend part of the time in school
and part in paid em ploym ent related
to their studies.
Some technical institutes operate
as regular or extension divisions o f
colleges and universities. O ther insti­
tutions are operated by States and
municipalities, or by private organi­
zations.
Junior and C om m unity Colleges.
C urriculum s in junior and com m uni­
ty colleges which prepare students
for technician occupations are simi­
lar to those in technical institutes,
but with m ore em phasis on theory
and liberal arts course work. A fter
c o m p letin g th e 2-year p ro g ram s,
some graduates qualify for tech n i­
cian jobs while others continue their
education at 4-year colleges. M ost
large com m unity colleges offer 2year technical program s, and many
em ployers prefer graduates who have
m ore specialized training.

Area Vocational-Technical Schools.
These postsecondary public institu­
tions serve students from surround­
ing areas and train them for jobs in
the local area. Most of these schools
require a high school degree or its
Other Training. Some large corpo­
rations co n d u ct training program s
and operate private schools to m eet
their needs for technically trained
personnel in specific jobs; such train­
ing rarely includes general studies.
Training for some technician o ccu­
pations, for instance tool designers
and electronic technicians, is avail­
able through formal 2- to 4-year ap­
prenticeship programs. The appren­
tice gets on-the-job training under
the close supervision of an experi­
enced technician and related techni­
cal knowledge in classes, usually af­
ter working hours.
The Arm ed Forces have trained
many technicians, especially in elec­
tronics. A lthough m ilitary jo b re ­
quirem ents generally are different
from those in the civilian economy,
military technicians often are able to
find em ploym ent with only minimal
Technician training also is avail­
able from many private technical and
correspondence schools that often
specialize in a single field such as
electronics. Some of these schools
are owned and operated by large co r­
porations that have the resources to
provide very up-to-date training in a
technical field.
Those interested in a career as a
technician should have an aptitude
for m athem atics and science and en­
joy technical work. An ability to do
detailed work with a high degree of
accu racy is necessary; for design
work, creative talent also is desir­
able. Since technicians are part o f a
scientific team , they sometimes must
work under the close supervision of
engineers and scientists as well as
with o th e r technicians and skilled
workers. Some technicans, such as
repair and m aintenance technicians,
should be able to deal effectively
with custom ers requiring their servic­
es.
E ngineering and science tech n i­
cians usually begin work as trainees
in routine positions under the direct
supervision of an experienced techni99

cian, scientist, or engineer. As they
gain experience, they receive m ore
responsibility and carry out a p ar­
ticular assignm ent under only gener­
al su p e rv is io n . T e c h n ic ia n s m ay
eventually move into supervisory p o ­
sitions. Those who have the ability
an d o b ta in a d d itio n a l e d u c a tio n
som etimes are prom oted to positions
as scientists or engineers.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for en ­
gineering and science technicians are
expected to be favorable through the
m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. O p p o rtu n ities will be
best for graduates of postsecondary
school technician training program s.
Besides the openings resulting from
the faster-th an -av erage grow th ex­
pected in this field, additional techni­
cians will be needed to replace those
who die, retire, or leave the occupa­
tion.
Industrial expansion and the in­
creasing com plexity o f m odern tech ­
nology underlie the anticipated in­
crease in dem and for technicians.
Many will be needed to work with
the growing num ber o f engineers and
scientists in developing, producing,
and distributing new and technically
advanced products. A utom ation of
industrial processes and grow th of
new areas o f work such as environ­
m ental protection and urban devel­
opm ent will add to the dem and for
technical personnel.
The anticipated grow th of research
and developm ent expenditures in in­
dustry and governm ent should in­
crease requirem ents for technicians.
B ecause space and defense p ro ­
grams are m ajor factors in the em ­
ploym ent o f technical personnel, ex­
penditures in these areas affect the
dem and for technicians. The outlook
for technicians is based on the as­
sum ption th at defense spending will
increase from the 1976 level by the
m id-1980’s, but will still be slightly
low er th a n th e levels o f the late
1960’s. If defense spending should
differ substantially from this level,
the dem and for technicians would be
affected accordingly.

Earnings
In private industry in 1976, aver­
age starting salaries for 2 -year gradu­
100

ates ranged from about \$9,000 to
\$10,800 a year, while those who did
n o t c o m p le te a 2 -y e a r p ro g ra m
earned average starting salaries from
ju st over \$6,400 to about \$9,300.
Senior engineering technicians in p ri­
vate industry earned average salaries
of about \$16,000 a year.
Starting salaries for all technicians
in the Federal G overnm ent were
fairly uniform in 1977. A high school
graduate with no experience could
expect \$6,572 annually to start. W ith
an associate degree, the starting sal­
ary was \$8,316, and with a bache­
lo r’s, \$9,303 or \$11,523. At higher
experience levels, how ever, differ­
ences in earnings are significant. The
average annual salary for all engi­
neering technicians em ployed by the
F ed eral G overnm ent in 1977 was
\$17,800; for physical science techni­
cians, \$17,100; and for life science

Information

and engineering and technology p ro­
grams, contact:
Engineers Council for Professional Develop­
ment, 345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
10017.

Inform ation on schools offering
te c h n ic ia n p ro g ram s is av ailab le
from:
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, Accrediting Commission, 2021
L St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Office of Education, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20202.

S tate dep artm en ts o f edu catio n
also h av e in fo rm atio n ab o u t a p ­
proved technical institutes, ju n io r
colleges, and other educational insti­
tutions within the State offering posthigh school training for specific tech ­
nical occupations. O ther sources in­
clude:
American Association of Community and Jun­
ior Colleges, Suite 410, 1 Dupont Circle,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20009.

For inform ation on careers for e n ­
gineering and science tech n ician s

EN G IN EER S
The work of engineers affects our
lives in thousands of different ways.
Their past accom plishm ents have e n ­
abled us to drive safer autom obiles,
reach the m oon, and even prolong
life through special machinery. F u­
ture accom plishm ents could help us
increase energy supplies, develop
more pollution-free powerplants, and
aid m edical scien ce’s fight against
disease.
In 1976, m ore than 1.1 million
persons were em ployed as engineers,
the second largest professional o ccu­
pation, exceeded only by teachers.
Most engineers specialize in one o f
the m ore than 25 specialties recog­
nized by professional societies. W ith­
in the m ajor branches are over 85
m inor subdivisions. Structural, envi­
ronm ental, hydraulic, and highway
engineering, for example, are subdi­
visions o f civil engineering. E ngi­
neers also may specialize in the engi­
neering problem s of one industry,

such as m otor vehicles, or in a p ar­
ticular field of technology, such as
propulsion or guidance systems. This
section, which contains an overall
discussion of engineering, is followed
by separate statem ents on 12 branch­
es of the profession—aerospace, ag­
r ic u ltu r a l, b io m e d ic a l, c e ra m ic ,
chemical, civil, electrical, industrial,
m echanical, m etallurgical, mining,
and petroleum engineering.

Nature of the Work
Engineers apply the theories and
principles of science and m athem at­
ics to practical technical problems.
Often their work is the link between
a scientific discovery and its useful
application. Engineers design m a­
chinery, products, systems, and p ro ­
cesses for efficient and economical
perform ance. They develop electric
power, w ater supply, and waste dis­
posal systems to m eet the problem s

o f urban living. They design industri­
al m achinery and equipm ent used to
m anufacture goods; and heating, airconditioning, and ventilation equip­
m ent for m ore com fortable living.
E n g in eers also d ev e lo p scien tific
equipm ent to probe o u ter space and
the ocean depths, design defense and
w e ap o n s sy stem s fo r th e A rm ed
Forces, and design, plan, and super­
vise the co n stru ctio n o f buildings,
highways, and rapid transit systems.
They design and develop consum er
products such as autom obiles, televi­
sion sets, and refrigerators, and sys­
tem s for control and autom ation of
m anufacturing, business, and m an­
agem ent processes.
Engineers must consider many fac­
tors in developing a new product. For
example, in developing new devices
to reduce autom obile exhaust em is­
sions, engineers m ust determ ine the
general way the device will work, d e­
sign and test all com ponents, and fit
them together in an integrated plan.
They m ust then evaluate the overall
effectiveness of the new device, as
well as its cost and reliability. These
factors apply to m ost products, in­
cluding those as different as medical
eq u ip m en t, ele c tro n ic co m puters,
and industrial m achinery.
In addition to design and develop­
m ent, many engineers work in test­
ing, production, operation, or m ain­
t e n a n c e . T h e y s u p e r v i s e th e
operation o f p ro d u ction processes,
determ ine the causes o f breakdowns,
and perform tests on newly m anufac­
tured products to ensure that quality
standards are m aintained. They also
estim ate the tim e needed to com ­
plete engineering projects and their
cost. Still others are in adm inistrative
and m anagem ent jobs where an engi­
neering background is necessary, or
in sales where they discuss the tech ­
nical aspects of a p ro duct and assist
in planning its installation or use.
(See statem en t on m a n u fa c tu re rs’
salesworkers elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) Engineers with considerable
education or experience sometimes
work as consultants. Some with ad­
vanced degrees teach in the engi­
neering schools of colleges and uni­
versities.
Engineers within each o f the
branches may apply their specialized
knowledge to many fields. Electrical

engineers, for example, work in
m edicine, com puters, missile guid­
ance, or electric power distribution.
Because engineering problem s are
usually complex, the work in some
fields c u ts ac ro ss th e tra d itio n a l
branches. Using a team approach to
solve pro b lem s, en g in eers in one
field often work closely with special­
ists in other scientific, engineering,

Places of Employment
M ore than half of all engineers
work in m anufacturing industries—
mostly in the electrical and electron­
ic equipm ent, aircraft and parts, m a­
chinery, chemicals, scientific instru­
m ents, prim ary m etals, fab ricated
m etal products, and m otor vehicle
industries. Over 340,000 were em ­
ployed in nonm anufacturing indus­
tries in 1976, primarily in construc­
tion, public utilities, engineering and
architectural services, and business
and m anagem ent consulting services.
Federal, State, and local govern­
m ents em ployed about 150,000 engi­
neers. Over half o f these worked for
the Federal G overnm ent, mainly in
the D epartm ents of Defense, Interi­
or, Agriculture, T ransportation, and
in th e N a tio n a l A e ro n au tics and
S pace A dm inistration. M ost engi­
neers in State and local governm ent
agencies worked in highway and pub­
lic works departm ents.
C o lle g e s an d u n iv e rs itie s e m ­
ployed about 45,000 engineers in re ­
search and teaching jobs, and a small
n u m b er w orked for no n p ro fit r e ­
search organizations.
Engineers are employed in every
State, in small and large cities and in
rural areas. Some branches of engi­
neering are concentrated in particu­
lar industries and geographic areas,
as discussed in the statem ents later in
this chapter.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A bachelor’s degree in engineering
is the generally accepted educational
requirem ent for beginning engineer­
ing jobs. College graduates trained in
one of the natural sciences or m athe­
matics also may qualify for some b e­
ginning jobs. E xperienced te c h n i­

c i a n s w ith s o m e e n g i n e e r i n g
education are occasionally able to
advance to some types of engineering
jobs.
Many colleges recently have estab­
lished 2- or 4-year program s leading
to degrees in engineering technology.
These program s prepare students for
practical design and production work
rather than for jobs that require more
theoretical scientific and m athem at­
ical knowledge. G raduates of 4-year
en g in eerin g tech n o lo g y program s
may get jobs sim ilar to those o b ­
tained by engineering bachelor’s d e­
gree graduates. However, the status
of those with the engineering tech ­
nology degree is still not clear. Some
em ployers regard them as having
skills somewhere between those o f a
technician and an engineer.
G raduate training is being em pha­
sized for an increasing num ber of
jobs; it is essential for most beginning
teaching and research positions, and
is desirable for advancem ent. Some
specialties, such as nuclear engineer­
ing, are taught mainly at the graduate
level.
About 250 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in engi­
neering, and over 50 colleges offer a
b a c h e lo r’s deg ree in engineerin g
technology. Although program s in
the larger branches of engineering
are offered in most of these institu­
tio n s, som e sm all specialties are
taught in only a very few. Therefore,
students desiring specialized training
should investigate curriculum s b e­
fore selecting a college. Admissions
requirem ents for undergraduate en­
g ineering schools usually include
high sch o o l co u rses in adv an ced
m athem atics and the physical scienc­
es.
In a typical 4-year curriculum , the
first 2 years are spent studying basic
sciences—m athem atics,
physics,
chem istry, in tro d u cto ry en g in ee r­
ing—and the humanities, social sci­
ences, and English. The last 2 years
are devoted, for the m ost part, to
sp e c ia liz e d e n g in e e rin g co u rses.
Some program s offer a general engi­
neering curriculum , perm itting the
stu d e n t to choose a specialty in
graduate school or acquire it on the
job.
Some engineering curriculum s re­
quire m ore than 4 years to com plete.
101

A num ber o f colleges and universi­
ties now offer 5-year m aster’s degree
program s. In addition, several engi­
neering schools have form al arrange­
m e n ts w ith lib e ra l a rts c o lle g e s
whereby a student spends 3 years in a
liberal arts college studying pre-engi­
neering subjects and 2 years in an
engineering school and receives a
bachelor’s degree from each.
Some schools have 5- or even 6year co o p erativ e plans w here stu ­
d en ts c o o rd in a te classroom study
and practical work experience. In ad ­
dition to gaining useful experience,
stu d en ts can finance p a rt o f th eir
education. Because o f the need to
keep up with rapid advances in tech ­
nology, en g in ee rs o fte n co n tin u e
their education throughout their ca­
reers.
All 50 States and the District of
C olum bia require licensing for engi­
neers w hose work may affect life,
h ealth , o r p ro p erty , o r who offer
their services to the public. In 1976,
there were over 300,000 registered
engineers. Generally, registration re­
quirem ents include a degree from an
a c c re d ite d e n g in e e rin g sch o o l, 4
years o f relevant work experience,
and the passing of a State exam ina­
tion.
Engineering graduates usually b e­
gin work under the supervision o f ex­
perienced engineers. Some com pa­
n ie s h a v e s p e c ia l p ro g r a m s to

acquaint new engineers with special
industrial practices and to determ ine
the specialties for which they are best
suited. E xperienced engineers may
advance to positions of greater re­
sp o n sib ility an d som e e n g in e e rs
move to m anagem ent or adm inistra­
tive positions after several years o f
engineering. Some engineers obtain
istration to improve their advance­
m ent opportunities, while still others
obtain law degrees and becom e p at­
ent attorneys. Many high level execu­
tives in private industry who began
their careers as engineers.
Engineers should be able to work
as part of a team and should have
creativity, an analytical mind, and a
capacity for detail. They should be
able to express their ideas well orally
and in writing.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for en ­
g in eers are ex p e cted to be good
through the m id-1980’s in most spe­
cialities. In addition there may be
so m e o p p o r tu n itie s fo r c o lle g e
graduates from related fields in c e r­
tain engineering jobs.
Em ploym ent requirem ents for en ­
gineers are expected to grow slightly
faster than the average for all o ccu­
p a tio n s th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s.
M uch of this growth will stem from

Growth and replacement needs are expected to provide
many job openings for engineers
Selected engineering occupations
Average annual openings, 1976-85 (in thousands)
A e ro s p a c e e n g in e e rs

C h e m ic a l e n g in e e rs

1

I

|

|
1

C ivil e n g in e e rs

E le c tric a l e n g in e e rs

industrial expansion to m eet the de­
mand for m ore goods and services.
M ore engineers will be needed in the
design and construction of factories,
utility systems, office buildings, and
transportation systems, as well as in
the developm ent and m anufacture of
defense-related products, scientific
instrum ents, industrial m achinery,
chem ical products, and m otor vehi­
cles.
Engineers will be required in en er­
g y -r e la te d a c tiv itie s d e v e lo p in g
sources of energy as well as designing
energy-saving systems for autom o­
biles, hom es, and o th er buildings.
E ngineers also will be needed to
solve environm ental problems.
The level of expenditures in some
of these areas, particularly defense,
however, has fluctuated in the past,
affecting the requirem ents for engi­
neers, and may do so in the future.
The outlook for engineers given here
is based on the assumption that de­
fense spending will increase from its
1976 level but will still be lower than
the peak levels of the 1960’s. If, how­
ever, defense activity is higher or
lower than the level assumed, the de­
mand for engineers will be higher or
lower than now expected. Further, if
the dem and for their specialty d e­
clines, engineers may lose their jobs.
This can be a particular problem for
older engineers, who may face diffi­
culties in Finding other engineering
jobs. These difficulties can be mini­
mized by selection of a career in one
of the m ore stable industries and en­
gineering specialties, and by continu­
ing-education to keep up on the lat­
est technological developments.
Despite these problems, over the
long run the num ber of people seek­
ing jobs as engineers is expected to
be in balance with the num ber of job
openings.
(The outlook for various branches
is discussed in the separate state­
ments later in this section.)

Earnings and Working
Conditions

In d u s tria l e n g in e e rs

M e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e rs

O th e r

15
Source; Bureau of Labor Statistics

102

R e p la c e m e n t

A ccording to the College Place­
m ent Council, engineering graduates
with a bachelor’s degree and no ex­
perience were offered average start­
ing salaries of \$14,800 a year in pri­
vate industry in 1976; those with a

m aster’s degree and no experience,
alm ost \$ 1 6 ,500 a year; and those
with a Ph. D., over \$21,000. Starting
offers for those with the bach elo r’s
degree vary by branch as shown in
the accom panying table.

Starting salaries for engineers,
by branch, 1976
Average starting
Branch
salaries
Aeronautical engineering.....
\$14,268
Chemical engineering...........
16,212
Civil engineering...................
13,764
Electrical engineering...........
14,448
14,568
Industrial engineering...........
Mechanical engineering.......
14,964
Metallurgical engineering....
15,600

In th e F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t in
1977, engineers with a b ach elo r’s d e­
gree and no experience could start at
\$9,303 or \$11,523 a year, depending
on their college records. Those with
a m a s te r ’s d eg ree co u ld s ta rt at
\$11,523 or \$14,097. Those having a
Ph. D. degree could begin at \$17,056
or \$20,442. T he average salary for
experienced engineers in the Federal
G overnm ent was ab out \$25,900 in
1977.
For a 9-m onth academ ic college
year in 1976, faculty m em bers with 5
years’ experience beyond the bache­
those with 18 to 20 years experience
bey o n d th e b a c h e lo r’s degree re ­
ceived ab o u t \$21,150. (See sta te ­
m ent on college and university teach­
ers elsew here in the Handbook.)
Engineers can expect an increase
in earnings as they gain experience.
A ccording to an Engineering M an­
power Commission survey, the aver­
age salary for engineers with 20 years
of experience was \$26,000 in 1976.
Some in m anagem ent positions had
m uch higher earnings.
M any engineers work indoors in
offices and re searc h lab o ra to ries.
Others, however, spend time in more
active w ork—in a factory or mine, at
a co n stru ctio n site, or some other
outdoor location.

stu d y , a n d s a la r ie s —is a v a ila b le
from:

Directory of Engineering Societies, published
by Engineers Joint Council, 345 E. 47th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

Engineers’ Council for Professional Develop­
ment, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y.
10017.

Scientific and Technical Societies of the United
tional Academy of Sciences, National Re­
search Council, 2101 Constitution Ave.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20418.

Engineering Manpower Commission of Engi­
neers Joint Council, 345 E. 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
National Society of Professional Engineers,
2029 K St. N W , W ashington, D.C.
20006.

study, contact:
American Society for Engineering Education,
One Dupont Circle, Suite 400, Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Societies representing the individ­
ual branches of the engineering p ro ­
fession are listed later in this chapter.
Each can provide inform ation about
c a re e rs in th e p a rtic u la r b ra n ch .
M any o th e r engineering o rganiza­
tions are listed in the following publi­
cations available in m ost libraries o r
from the publisher:

Some engineers are mem bers of
labor unions. Inform ation on engi­
neering unions is available from:
International Federation of Professional and
Technical Engineers, 1126 16th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

A ERO SPACE E N G IN E E R S
(D.O.T. 002.081)

Nature of the Work
A erospace engineers design, d e­
velop, test, and help produce com ­
m ercial and m ilitary aircraft, m is­
siles, and spacecraft. They play an

Information
G eneral inform ation on engineer­
ing c a re e rs —including engineering
sc h o o l re q u ire m e n ts , c o u rse s o f

Aerospace engineer checking out part of a spacecraft.
103

im portant role in advancing the state
o f tech n o lo g y in co m m ercial avi­
ation, defense systems, and space ex­
ploration.
A erospace engineers often special­
ize in an area o f work like structural
design, navigational guidance and
co n tro l, in stru m en tatio n and co m ­
m unication, or production m ethods.
They also may specialize in one type
of aerospace product such as passen­
ger planes, helicopters, satellites, or
rockets.

Places of Employment
A bout 50,000 aerospace engineers
were em ployed in 1976, mainly in
the aircraft and parts industry. Some
w o rk e d fo r F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t
a g e n c ie s, p rim a rily th e N a tio n a l
A eronautics and Space A dm inistra­
tion and the D epartm ent o f Defense.
A few w orked for com m ercial air­
lines, consulting firms, and colleges
and universities.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f ae ro sp ac e engi­
neers is expected to grow m ore slow­
ly than the average for all occupa­
tio n s th r o u g h th e m i d - 1 9 8 0 ’s.
Em ploym ent of aerospace engineers
is largely determ ined by the level of
Federal expenditures on defense and
space program s: in the past, rapid
changes in spending levels have usu­
ally been accom panied by sharp em ­
ploym ent fluctuations. Expenditures
for the space program are expected
to increase only slightly from 1976 to
the m id-1980’s, while defense spend­
ing will probably increase m oderate­
ly. Although few jobs will be created
by em ploym ent growth, many w ork­
ers will be required to fill openings
created by deaths, retirem ents, and
transfers o f workers to o th er occupa­
tions. (See in tro d u ctory section of
this ch ap ter for discussion of training
statem en t on aircraft, missile, and
spacecraft m anufacturing elsewhere
in the Handbook.)

A G R IC U LTU R A L
E N G IN E E R S
(D.O.T. 013.081)

Nature of the Work
Agricultural engineers design m a­
chinery and equipm ent, and develop
m ethods to im prove efficiency in the
production, processing, and distribu­
tion o f food and other agricultural
products. They also are concerned
with the conservation and m anage­
m ent o f energy, soil, and w ater re ­
sources. Agricultural engineers work
in research and developm ent, p ro ­
duction, sales, or m anagem ent.

Places of Employment
M ost o f the 12,000 agricultural
engineers em ployed in 1976 worked
for m an u fa ctu rers o f farm e q u ip ­
m ent, electric utility com panies, and
distributors of farm equipm ent and
supplies. Some worked for engineer­
ing consultants who supply services
to farm ers and farm -related indus­
tries; others were independent co n ­
sultants.
A bout 450 agricultural engineers
are em ployed in the Federal G overn­
m ent, mostly in the D epartm ent o f
A griculture; some are employed in
colleges and universitites; and a few
work in State and local governm ents.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of agricultural engi­
neers is expected to grow faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Increasing
dem and for agricultural pro d u cts,
m odernization o f farm operations,
increasing emphasis on conservation
of resources, and the use of agricul­
tural products and wastes as industri­
al raw m aterials should provide addi­
tional oppo rtu n ities for engineers.
(See introductory part of this section
for inform ation on training require­
m ents and earnings. See also state­
m ent on agriculture elsewhere in the
Handbook.)

Information
American Society of Agricultural Engineers,
2950 Niles Rd., St. Joseph, Mich. 49085.

B IO M E D IC A L EN G IN EER S
Nature of the Work
B iom edical en g in eers use en g i­
neering principles to solve medical
and health-related problem s. Many
do research, along with life scientists,
chemists, and mem bers of the m edi­
cal profession, on the engineering as-

Information
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astro­
nautics, Inc., 1290 Avenue of the Amer­
icas, New York, N.Y. 10019.
Many biomedical engineers are involved in research.
104

p ects o f the biological system s of
man and animals. Some design and
develop m edical instrum ents and de­
vices including artificial hearts and
kidneys, lasers for surgery, and pace­
m akers th at regulate the heartbeat.
O th er biom edical engineers ad ap t
com puters to m edical science, and
design and build systems to m odern­
ize laboratory, hospital, and clinical
procedures. M ost engineers in this
field require a sound background in
one o f the m ajor engineering disci­
plines (m echanical, electrical, indus­
trial, or chem ical) in addition to spe­
cialized biom edical training.

Places of Employment
T here were about 3,000 biom edi­
cal engineers in 1976. Most teach
and do research in colleges and uni­
versities. Some work for the Federal
G o v ern m en t, prim arily in the N a­
tional A ero n au tics and Space A d­
m inistration, or in State agencies. An
increasing num ber w ork in private
in d u stry d ev elo p in g new devices,
techniques, and systems for im prov­
ing health care. Some work in sales
positions.

C E R A M IC E N G IN E E R S
(D.O.T. 006.081)

Nature of the Work
C eram ic engineers develop new
ceram ic m aterials and m ethods for
making ceram ic m aterials into useful
products. Although to some, the
w ord ceram ics m eans pottery, c e ­
ramics actually include all nonm etallic, inorganic m aterials which require
the use of high tem perature in their
processing. Thus, ceram ic engineers
work on diverse products such as
glassw are, h ea t-resistan t m aterials
for furnaces, electronic com ponents,
and nuclear reactors. They also d e ­
sign and supervise the construction
of plants and equipm ent to m anufac­
ture these products.
C eram ic engineers generally spe­
cialize in one product or m ore—for
exam ple, p ro d u c ts o f re frac to ries
(fire -a n d h e a t-re s is ta n t m ateria ls
such as firebrick); whitewares (p o r­
celain and china dinnerw are or high
voltage electrical insulators); struc­

tural m aterials (such as brick, tile
and terra cotta); electronic ceram ics
(ferrites for memory systems and mi­
crowave devices); protective and re­
fractory coatings for m etals; glass;
abrasives; cem ent technology; or fuel
elem ents for atomic energy.

Places of Employment
About 12,000 ceram ic engineers
were em ployed in 1976, mostly in the
stone, clay, and glass industry. O th­
ers work in industries that produce or
use ceram ic products such as the iron
and steel, electrical equipm ent, aero ­
sp ac e, and ch e m ic als in d u stries.
Some are in colleges and universities,
independent research organizations,
and the Federal Governm ent.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of ceram ic engineers
is expected to grow faster than the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. Programs related to
nuclear energy, electronics, defense,
and medical science will provide job
opportunities for ceram ic engineers.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f biom edical engi­
neers is expected to grow faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s, but the actu­
al num ber o f openings is not likely to
be very large. Those who have ad­
vanced degrees will be in dem and to
teach and to fill jobs resulting from
increased expenditures for m edical
research. Increased research funds
could also create new positions in
instrum entation and systems for the
delivery o f health services. (See in­
troductory p art o f this chapter for
inform ation on training requirem ents
and earnings.)

Information
Alliance for Engineering in Medicine and Biol­
ogy, Suite 404, 4405 East-West Highway,
Bethesda, Md. 20014.
Biomedical Engineering Society, P.O. Box
2399, Culver City, Calif. 90230.

Most ceramic engineers are employed in the stone, clay, and glass industry.
105

Additional ceram ic engineers will be
required to im prove and adapt tradi­
tio n al c e ra m ic p ro d u c ts, such as
w hitew ares and abrasives, to new
uses. The developm ent of filters and
catalytic surfaces to reduce pollu­
tion, and the developm ent of ceram ic
m aterials for energy conversion and
conservation, should create addition­
al openings for ceram ic engineers.
(See introductory p art o f this section
for inform ation on training require­
m ents and earnings.)

Information
American Ceramic Society, 65 Ceramic Dr.,
Columbus, Ohio 43214.

C H E M IC A L E N G IN E E R S
(D .O .T. 008.081)

Nature of the Work
C hem ical engineers are involved in
m any phases of the production of
ch em icals and ch em ical products.
They design equipm ent and chem ical
plants as well as determ ine m ethods
o f m anufacturing the product. Often,
they design and operate pilot plants
to test their work and develop chem i­
cal processes such as those to remove
chem ical contam inants from waste
m a te ria ls . B ecau se th e d u tie s o f
chem ical engineers cut across many
fields, these professionals must have
a working knowledge o f chem istry,
physics, and m echanical and electri­
cal engineering.
This branch of engineering is so
diversified and com plex that chem i­
cal engineers frequently specialize in
a particular operation such as oxida­
tion or polym erization. Others spe­
cialize in a particular area such as
pollution control or in the p roduc­
tion o f a specific pro duct like plastics
or rubber.

Places of Employment
Most of the 50,000 chem ical engi­
neers working in 1976 were in m anu­
facturing industries, prim arily those
producing chemicals, petroleum , and
related products. Som e w orked in
106

governm ent agencies or taught and
did research in colleges and universi­
ties. A small num ber worked for in­
dependent research institutes and e n ­
gin eerin g co n su ltin g firm s, o r as
independent consulting engineers.

Employment Outlook
E m p lo y m en t o f ch em ical e n g i­
neers is expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. A m ajor fac­
tor underlying this growth is industry
expansion—the chem icals industry in
particular.
The growing complexity and au to ­
mation of chem ical processes will re ­
quire additional chem ical engineers
to design, build, and m aintain the
n ecessary p lan ts and eq u ip m en t.
C h e m ic a l e n g in e e rs also will be
needed to solve problem s dealing
with environm ental protection, d e ­
velopm ent of synthetic fuels, and the
design and developm ent of nuclear
reactors. In addition, developm ent o f
new chemicals used in the m anufac­

ture of consum er goods, such as plas­
tics and synthetic fibers, probably
will create additional openings. (See
introductory part of this section for
inform ation on training requirem ents
and earnings. See also the statem ent
on chemists and the industrial chem i­
cal industry elsewhere in the Hand­
book.)

Information
American Institute of Chemical Engineers,
345 East 47th St., New York, N.Y.
10017.

C IV IL ENG IN EER S
(D.O.T. 005.081)

Nature of the Work
Civil engineers, who work in the
oldest branch of the engineering p ro ­
fession, design and supervise the con-

cluding highways and railways), geo­
technical, and soil mechanics.
Many civil engineers are in super­
visory o r adm inistrative positions
ranging from supervisor of a co n ­
struction site to city engineer to toplevel executive. Others teach in col­
leges and universities or work as con­
sultants.

Places of Employment
About 155,000 civil engineers
were employed in 1976. Most work
for Federal, State, and local govern­
m ent agencies or in the construction
industry. Many work for consulting
engineering and architectural firms
or as independent consulting engi­
neers. O thers work for public utili­
ties, railroads, educational institu­
tions, and m anufacturing industries.
Civil engineers work in all parts of
the country, usually in or near major
industrial and com m ercial centers.
They often work at construction
sites, sometimes in rem ote areas or in
foreign countries. In some jobs, they
must often move from place to place
to work on different projects.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of civil engineers is
expected to increase about as fast as
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Job oppor­
tunities will result from the growing
needs for housing, industrial build­
ings, e le c tr ic p o w e r g e n e ra tin g
plants, and transportation systems
created by a growing population and
an expanding economy. Work relat­
ed to solving problem s of environ­
m ental pollution and energy self-suf­
ficiency will also require additional
civil engineers.
Many civil engineers also will be
needed each year to replace those
who retire, die, or transfer to other
occupations. (See introductory part
of this section for information on
training requirem ents and earnings.)
Most civil engineers work for construction companies and Federal, State, and local
governments.

struction of roads, harbors, airports,
tunnels, bridges, w ater supply and
sewage systems, and buildings. M ajor

specialties within civil engineering
are stru ctu ral, hydraulic, en v iro n ­
m ental (sanitary), transportation (in ­

Information
American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E.
47th St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

107

(D.O.T. 003.081, .151, and .187)

sea rch , d ev e lo p m e n t, and design,
many are in m anufacturing, adm inis­
tration and m anagem ent, technical
sales, or college teaching.

Nature of the Work

Places of Employment

Electrical engineers design, devel­
op, test, and supervise the m anufac­
tu re o f e le c tric a l an d e le c tro n ic
equipm ent. E lectric equipm ent in­
cludes pow er generating and trans­
mission equipm ent used by electric
m o to rs, m a ch in e ry c o n tro ls , and
lighting and wiring in buildings, and
in autom obiles and aircraft. E lec­
tro n ic eq u ip m e n t in clu d es ra d a r,
com puters, com m unications equip­
ment, missile guidance systems, and
consum er goods such as televisions
and stereos.
Electrical engineers generally spe­
cialize in a m ajor area—such as inte­
grated circuits, com puters, electrical
equipm ent m anufacturing, com m u­
n ic a tio n s , o r p o w e r d is trib u tin g
eq u ip m en t—or in a subdivision of
these a re a s—m icrow ave com m uni­
cation or aviation electronic systems,
for example. Electrical engineers d e­
sign new products and specify their
uses and write perform ance require­
m ents and m aintenance schedules.
They also test equipm ent, solve o p er­
ating p ro b lem s, and estim ate the
time and cost o f engineering proj­
ec ts. B esid es em p lo y m e n t in r e ­

Electrical engineering is the largest
b ra n c h o f th e p ro fessio n . A b o u t
300,000 electrical engineers w ere
em ployed in 1976, mainly by m anu­
facturers o f electrical and electronic
equipm ent, aircraft and parts, busi­
ness m achines, and professional and
scientific equipm ent. Many work for
telep h o n e , telegraph, and electric
light and pow er com panies. Large
num bers are em ployed by govern­
m ent agencies and by colleges and
universities. O thers work for co n ­
struction firms, for engineering co n ­
sultants, or as independent consult­
ing engineers.

ELEC TR IC A L E N G IN E E R S

and developm ent in new types of
power generation, should create ad­
ditional jobs. Many electrical engi­
neers also will be needed to replace
personnel who retire, die, or transfer
to other fields of work.
The long-range outlook for electri­
cal engineers is based on the assump­
tion th a t defense spending in the
m id-1980’s will increase from the
1976 level, but will still be somewhat
lower than the peak level o f the late
1960’s. If defense activity is higher or
lower than the projected level, the
dem and for electrical engineers will
be higher or lower than now expect­
ed.
(See introductory part of this sec­
tion for information on training re­
statem ent on electronics m anufac­
turing elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Information

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f e le c tric a l e n g i­
neers is expected to increase about as
fast as average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Although in­
creased dem and for com puters, com ­
m unications, and military electronics
is expected to be the m ajor contribu­
tor to this growth, dem and for elec­
tr ic a l a n d e le c tr o n ic c o n s u m e r
goods, along with increased research

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers/United States Activities Board,
2029 K St., N.W., Washington, D.C.
20006.

IN D U S TR IA L EN G IN EER S
(D.O.T. 012.081, .168, and .188)

Nature of the Work
Industrial engineers determ ine the
most effective ways for an organiza­
tion to use the basic factors of p ro ­
duction—people, machines, and m a­
terials. They are m ore concerned
with people and methods of business
organization than are engineers in
other specialties who generally are
c o n c e rn e d m ore w ith p a rtic u la r
products or processes, such as m et­
als, power, or mechanics.
To solve organizational, produc­
tion, and related problem s most effi­
ciently, industrial engineers design
d ata processing systems and apply
m athem atical concepts (operations
research techniques). They also de­
velop m anagem ent control systems
to aid in financial planning and cost
analysis, design production planning
108

A dditional num bers of industrial
engineers will be required each year
to replace those who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations. (See
introductory part of this section for
inform ation on training requirem ents
and earnings.)

Information
American Institute of Industrial Engineers,
Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, Ga. 30092.

M E C H A N IC A L E N G IN E E R S
(D.O.T. 007.081, .151, .168, and
.187)

Nature of the Work

Industrial engineer reviewing film of production process to check for problems.

and control systems to coordinate ac­
tivities and control product quality,
and design or im prove systems for
the physical distribution of goods and
services. In d u strial en g in eers also
c o n d u c t p la n t lo c a tio n su rv e y s,
where they look for the best com bi­
nation o f sources o f raw m aterials,
transportation, and taxes, and devel­
op wage and salary adm inistration
systems and job evaluation programs.
Because the work is closely related,
many industrial engineers move into
m anagem ent positions.

Places of Employment
A b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 in d u strial en g i­
neers were em ployed in 1976; more
than two-thirds worked in m anufac­
turing industries. Because their skills
can be used in alm ost any type of
com pany, they are m ore widely dis­
tributed am ong industries than are
those in o th er branches o f engineer­
ing. For exam ple, some work for in­
surance com panies, banks, construc­
tion and m ining firm s, and public

utilities. H ospitals, retail organiza­
tions, and other large business firms
em ploy industrial engineers to im ­
prove operating efficiency. Still o th ­
ers work for governm ent agencies
and colleges and universities. A few
are in d e p e n d e n t co n su ltin g e n g i­
neers.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent of in d u strial en g i­
neers is expected to grow faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. The increas­
ing com plexity of industrial o p era­
tions and the expansion of autom ated
p r o c e s s e s , a lo n g w ith in d u s tr y
growth, are factors contributing to
em ploym ent growth. Increased re c ­
ognition o f the im portance o f scien­
tific m anagem ent and safety engi­
n e e r in g in r e d u c in g c o s ts a n d
increasing productivity, and the need
to solve enviro n m en tal problem s,
should create additional opportuni­
ties.

M ech an ical en g in eers are c o n ­
cerned with the production, tran s­
mission, and use of power. They de­
sign and develop pow er-producing
m achines such as internal com bus­
tion engines, steam and gas turbines,
and jet and rocket engines. They also
design and develop power-using m a­
chines such as refrigeration and airconditioning equipm ent, elevators,
machine tools, printing presses, and
steel rolling mills.
The work of m echanical engineers
varies by industry and function since
many specialties have developed
within the field. Specialties included
are m otor vehicles, m arine eq u ip ­
m ent, energy conversion system s,
heating, ventilating and air-condi­
tioning, in stru m en tatio n , and m a­
ch in es fo r sp ecialized in d u stries,
such as petroleum , rubber and plas­
tics, and construction.
Large num bers of m echanical en­
gineers do research, test, and design
work. M any are adm inistrators or
m anagers, while others work in m ain­
tenance, technical sales, and produc­
tion operations. Some teach in col­
leges and universities or work as
consultants.

Places of Employment
About 200,000 m echanical engi­
neers w ere em ployed in 1976. Al­
most three-fourths were employed in
109

m anufacturing—mainly in the prim a­
ry and fabricated m etals, m achinery,
transportation equipm ent, and elec­
trical equipm ent industries. O thers
w o rked fo r g o v ern m e n t agencies,
educational institutions, and consult­
ing engineering firms.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent of m echanical engi­
neers is expected to increase about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. The growing
dem and for industrial m achinery and
m ach in e to o ls and th e increasing
com plexity of industrial m achinery
and processes will be m ajor factors
su p p o rtin g in cre ased em p lo y m en t
opportunities. M echanical engineers
will be needed to develop new energy
systems and to help solve environ­
m ental pollution problem s.
Large num bers o f m echanical en ­
gineers also will be required each
year to replace those who retire, die,
o r tra n s fe r to o th e r o c c u p a tio n s.
(See introductory p art o f this section
for inform ation on training require­
Metallurgical engineers study the physical properties of metal.
m ents and earnings. See also state­
m ent on occupations in the atom ic
energy field elsew here in the Hand­ ful metal. Physical metallurgists deal
Employment Outlook
with the nature, structure, and phys­
book.)
Em ployment of m etallurgical and
ical properties of m etals and their
m aterials engineers is expected to
alloys, and with m ethods of convert­
ing refined m etals into final products. grow faster than the average for all
Information
M ech an ical m etallu rg ists develop occupations through the m id-1980’s.
The American Society of Mechanical Engi­
m ethods to work and shape m etals An increasing num ber of these engi­
neers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, N.Y.
such as casting, forging, rolling, and neers will be needed by the m etal­
10017.
drawing. Scientists working in this working industries to develop new
field are known as m etallurgists or metals and alloys as well as to adapt
m aterials scientists, but the distinc­ current ones to new needs. For ex­
tion between scientists and engineers ample, com m unications equipm ent,
com puters, and spacecraft require
in this field is small.
M E TA LLU R G IC A L
lightweight metals of high purity. As
E N G IN E E R S
the supply of high-grade ores dim in­
Places of Employment
ishes, m ore m etallurgical engineers
(D .O .T. 011.081)
will be required to develop new ways
The m etalworking industries—p ri­ of recycling solid waste m aterials in
Nature of the Work
marily the iron and steel and nonfer- addition to processing low-grade ores
now re g a rd e d as u n p ro fitab le to
M etallurgical engineers develop rous m etals in d u strie s—em ployed
mine. M etallurgical engineers also
o v e r o n e - h a lf o f th e e s tim a te d
m ethods to process and convert m et­
als into useful p ro d u c ts. M ost of 17,000 m etallurgical and m aterials will be needed to solve problems as­
these eng in eers g enerally w ork in engineers in 1976. M etallurgical en ­ sociated with the efficient use of nu­
one o f the three main branches of gineers also work in industries th at clear energy. (See introductory p art
m etallurgy—extractive or chem ical, m anufacture m achinery, electrical o f this section for inform ation on
physical, and m echanical. Extractive equipm ent, and aircraft and parts, training requirem ents and earnings.
m etallurgists are concerned with ex­ and in the m ining industry. Som e Also see statem ent on the iron and
tracting m etals from ores, and refin­ work for governm ent agencies and steel industry elsewhere in the Hand­
ing and alloying them to obtain use­ colleges and universities.
book.)
110

Information
The Metallurgical Society of the American
Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Pe­
troleum Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New
York, N.Y. 10017.
American Society for Metals, Metals Park,
Ohio 44073.

M IN IN G E N G IN E E R S
(D .O .T. 010.081 and .187)

Nature of the Work
Mining engineers find, extract, and
prepare m inerals for m anufacturing
industries to use. They design the
layouts o f open pit and underground
mines, supervise the construction of
m ine shafts and tu nnels in u n d er­
ground operations, and devise m eth­
ods for transporting m inerals to pro­
cessing plants. Mining engineers are
responsible for the econom ic and ef­
ficient operation o f m ines and mine
safety, including ventilation, w ater
supply, power, com m unications, and
equipm ent m aintenance. Some min­
ing engineers work w ith geologists
and m etallurgical engineers to locate
and appraise new ore deposits. O th­
ers develop new m ining equipm ent
or direct m ineral processing opera­
tions, which involve separating m in­
erals from the dirt, rocks, and other
m aterials they are m ixed with. Min­
ing engineers frequently specialize in
the m ining o f one specific m ineral
such as coal or copper.
W ith increased em phasis on pro­
tecting the environm ent, many min­
ing engineers have been working to
solve problem s related to mined-land
reclam ation and w ater and air pollu­
tion.

Places of Employment
A b o u t 6 ,0 0 0 m ining en g in ee rs
were em ployed in 1976. M ost work
in the mining industry. Some work
for firms th at produce equipm ent for
the m ining industry, while o th ers
work in colleges and universities, in
governm ent agencies, or as indepen­
dent consultants.

Mining engineers are responsible for the efficient operation of mines and mine safety.

Mining engineers are usually em ­
ployed at the location o f mineral d e­
posits, often near small comm unities.
However, those in research, teac h ­
ing, m anagem ent, consulting, or sales
often are located in large m etropoli­
tan areas.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of mining engineers
is expected to increase faster than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Efforts to
attain energy self-sufficiency should
spur the dem and for coal, and th ere­
fore for mining engineers in the coal
industry. The increase in dem and for
coal will depend, to a great extent, on
the availability and price o f other d o ­
mestic energy sources such as p etro ­
leum, natural gas, and nuclear en e r­

gy. M ore technologically advanced
mining systems and further enforce­
m ent of mine health and safety regu­
lations also will increase the need for
mining engineers. In addition, explo­
ration for all other minerals is also
increasing. Easily m ined deposits are
being depleted, creating a need for
engineers to devise m ore efficient
m ethods for mining low-grade ores.
Em ploym ent opportunities also will
arise as new alloys and new uses for
metals increase the dem and for less
widely used ores. Recovery of m etals
from the sea and the developm ent of
oil shale deposits could present m a­
jo r challenges to th e mining engi­
neer. (See introductory part of this
section for inform ation on training
statem ent on mining elsewhere in the
Handbook.)
ill

Information
The Society of Mining Engineers of the Ameri­
can Institute of Mining, Metallurgical,
and Petroleum Engineers, 540 Arapeen
Dr.—Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah
84108.

PETR O LEUM E N G IN E E R S
(D.O.T. 010.081)

Nature of the Work
Petroleum engineers are mainly in­
volved in exploring and drilling for
an d p ro d u c in g oil and gas. T hey

work to achieve the maximum profit­
able recovery o f oil and gas from a
petroleum reservoir by determ ining
and developing the best and most ef­
ficient production m ethods.
Since only a small proportion of
the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow
out under natural forces, petroleum
engineers develop and use various a r­
tificial recovery m ethods such as
flooding the oil field with w ater to
force the oil to the surface. Even
when using the best recovery m eth­
ods, about half the oil is still left in
the ground. Petroleum engineers’ re ­
search and developm ent efforts to in­
crease the proportion of oil recov­
ered in each reservoir can m ake a
significant contribution to increasing
available energy resources.

Places of Employment
About 20,000 petroleum engineers
were employed in 1976, mostly in the
petroleum industry and closely allied
fields. T heir employers include not
only the major oil companies, but
also the hundreds of smaller indepen­
dent oil exploration and production
com panies. They also work for com ­
panies th at produce drilling equip­
m ent and supplies. Some petroleum
engineers work in banks and other
fin an c ial in stitu tio n s w hich n eed
their knowledge of the economic val­
ue of oil and gas properties. A small
num ber work for engineering con­
sulting firms or as independent con­
sulting engineers, and for the Federal
and State governments.
The petroleum engineer’s work is
concentrated in places where oil and
gas are found. Almost three-fourths
of all petroleum engineers are em ­
ployed in the oil-producing States of
T exas, O klahom a, Louisiana, and
California. There are many Am eri­
can p etro leu m engineers w orking
overseas in oil-producing countries.

Employment Outlook
The em ploym ent of petroleum en­
gineers is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Econom ic
exp an sio n will req u ire increasing
supplies of petroleum and natural
gas, even with energy conservation
measures. With efforts to attain en er­
gy self-sufficiency, and high petrole­
um prices, increasingly sophisticated
and expensive recovery methods will
be used. Also, new sources of oil
such as oil shale and new offshore oil
sources may be developed. All of
these factors will contribute to in­
creasing dem and for petroleum engi­
neers. (See introductory part of this
section for inform ation on training
requirem ents and earnings.)

Information
Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME,
6200 North Central Expressway, Dallas,
Tex. 75206.

Petroleum engineers discuss problem with drilling supervisor.
112

FBI SPEC IA L A G E N TS
(D.O.T. 375.168)

Nature of the Work
F ed eral B ureau o f Investigation
(FBI) special agents investigate vio­
lations o f Federal laws in connection
with b an k ro b b eries, kidnappings,
white-collar crim e, thefts of G overn­
m ent property, organized crim e, es­
p io n ag e, and sab o tag e . T he FBI,
which is p art of the U.S. D epartm ent
of Justice, has jurisdiction over many
different Federal investigative m at­
ters. Special agents, therefore, may
be assigned to any type of case, al­
though those with specialized train­
ing usually work on cases related to
their background. Agents with an
accounting background, for exam ­
p le, m ay in v e stig a te w h ite-c o lla r
crim es such as bank em bezzlem ents,
or fraudulent bankruptcies or land
deals.
Because the FBI is a fact-gathering
agency, its special agents function
strictly as investigators, collecting
evidence in cases in which the U.S.
G overnm ent is or may be an interest­
ed party. In their casew ork, special
agents conduct interviews, examine
records, observe the activities of sus­
pects, and participate in raids. Be­

cause the FBI’s work is highly confi­
d e n tia l, sp e c ia l a g e n ts m ay n o t
disclose any of the inform ation gath­
ered in the course of their official
duties to unauthorized persons, in­
cluding m em bers of their families.
F requently agents m ust testify in
court about cases that they investi­
gate.
Although they work alone on m ost
assignments, agents com m unicate
with their supervisors by radio or
telephone as the circum stances dic­
tate. In perform ing potentially d an ­
gerous duties, such as arrests and
raids, two agents or m ore are as­
signed to work together.

Places of Employment
About 8,600 persons were special
agents in 1976. Most agents were as­
signed to the FBI’s 59 field offices
located throughout the Nation and in
Puerto Rico. They worked in cities
where field office headquarters are
located or in resident agencies (sub­
offices) established under field office
supervision to provide prom pt and
efficient handling o f investigative
m atters arising throughout the field
office territory. Some agents are as­
signed to the Bureau headquarters in
W ashington, D.C., which supervises
all FBI activities.

Special agents process a car for fingerprints.

Training, Other Qualifications,
To be considered for appointm ent
as an FBI special agent, an applicant
usually m ust be a graduate of a Stateaccredited law school or a college
graduate with a major in accounting.
The law school training must have
been preceded by at least 2 years of
From time to time, as the need
arises, the FBI accepts applications
from persons who have a 4-year col­
lege degree with a physical science
m ajor or fluency in a foreign lan­
guage, o r who have 3 years of profes­
sional, executive, complex investiga­
tive, or other specialized experience.
Applicants for the position of FBI
special agent must be citizens of the
United States, be at least 23 years old
but not have reached their 35 th
birthday before they begin duty and
be willing to serve anywhere in the
United States or Puerto Rico. They
must be capable of strenuous phys­
ical ex e rtio n , and have excellen t
hearing and vision, normal color p er­
ception, and no physical defects that
would prevent their using firearms or
p articip atin g in dangerous assign­
ments. All applicants must pass a
rigid physical examination, as well as
written and oral examinations testing
their aptitude for meeting the public
and conducting investigations. All of
the tests except the physical exami­
nations are given by the FBI at its
facilities. Background and character
investigations are made of all appli­
cants. A ppointm ents are made on a
probationary basis and become p er­
m anent after 1 year of satisfactory
service.
Each newly appointed special
agent is given about 15 weeks of
training at the FBI Academy at the
U.S. M arine Corps Base in Quantico,
Va. before assignment to a field of­
fice. During this period, agents re­
ceive intensive training in defensive
tactics and the use of firearms. In
a d d i t i o n , th e y a re th o r o u g h ly
schooled in Federal criminal law and
procedures, FBI rules and regula­
tions, fingerprinting, and investiga­
tive work. After assignment to a field
office, the new agent usually works
closely with an experienced agent for
113

about 2 weeks before handling any
assignments independently.
All adm inistrative and supervisory
jobs are filled from within the ranks
by selecting those FBI special agents
who have dem onstrated the ability to
assume m ore responsibility.

Employment Outlook
The jurisdiction o f the FBI has ex­
panded greatly over the years. Al­
though it is im possible to forecast
sp ec ia l a g e n t p e rs o n n e l re q u ir e ­
ments, em ploym ent may be expected
to increase with growing FBI respon­
sibilities.
The FBI provides a career service
and its rate of turnover is traditional­
ly low. Nevertheless, the FBI is al­
ways interested in applications from
qualified persons who would like to
be considered for the position of spe­
cial agent.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The entrance salary for FBI special
agents was \$15,524 in late 1976.
Special agents are not appointed un­
der Federal Civil Service regulations,
but, like o th er Federal em ployees,
salary raises if their work perform ­
ance is satisfactory; they can advance
in grade as they gain experience.
Salaries of supervisory agents start at
\$28,725 a year.
Special agents are subject to call
24 hours a day and m ust be available
for assignm ent at all times. Their
duties call for some travel, for they
are assigned w herever they are
needed in the United States or
Puerto Rico. They frequently work
longer than the custom ary 40-hour
week an d , un d er specified co n d i­
tions, receive overtim e pay up to
about \$3,900 a year. They are grant­
ed paid vacations, sick leave, and an­
nuities on retirem ent. Agents are re­
quired to retire at age 55 if they have
served at least 20 years.

FLIG H T A TTE N D A N TS
(D.O.T. 352.878)

Nature of the Work
Flight attendants (also called stew­
ardesses and stew ards) are aboard
alm o st all c o m m ercial p asse n g er
planes to help m ake the passengers’
flight safe, com fortable, and enjoy­
able.
Before each flight, attendants see
that the passenger cabin is in order.
They check that supplies such as
food, beverages, blankets, and read ­
ing m aterial are adequate, and that
first aid kits and o th er em ergency
equipm ent are aboard. As passengers
com e aboard, attendants greet them ,
check their tickets, and assist them
by hanging up coats and stow ing
small pieces of luggage under the
seats.
Before the plane takes off, atten ­
dants use the public address system
to instruct passengers in the use o f
em ergency equipm ent and check to
see that all passengers have their seat
belts fastened. In the air, they answer
questions about the flight, distribute
magazines and pillows, and help care
for small children, elderly persons,

and handicapped persons. On many
flights, they serve cocktails and p re­
cooked meals.
One o f the most im portant func­
tions of attendants is to assist passen­
gers in the rare event of an em ergen­
cy. T hese range from a disabled
engine, where passengers must be re­
a ssu re d , to em erg en cy lan d in g s,
where attendants evacuate the plane,
opening doors and inflating em ergen­
cy slides. A ttendants also must be
prepared to adm inister first aid to
passengers who becom e ill during the
flight.

Places of Employment
About 42,000 flight attendants
worked for the airlines in 1976. Most
attendants are stationed in m ajor
cities at the airlines’ main bases;
nearly three-fifths work near C hica­
go, Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, New
York, and San Francisco. Airliners
generally carry 1 to 10 flight atten ­
dants, depending on the num ber of
seats on the plane and the proportion
of economy to first-class passengers.
Large aircraft like the Boeing 747
may have as many as 16 flight atten ­
dants.

Information
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. De­
partment of Justice, Washington, D.C.
20535.
Most airlines provide a 5-week training course for newly hired attendants.
114

Training, Other Qualifications,
The airlines place great stress on
the hiring o f poised, tactful, and re­
sourceful people. In particular, appli­
cants should be able to talk com fort­
ab ly w ith s tra n g e rs . As a ru le ,
applicants m ust be at least 19 years
old. They m ust be in excellent health
and have good vision. Vision may be
corrected with con tact lenses or, on
m ost airlines, with glasses. A ppli­
cants also m ust speak clearly.
A pplicants m ust be high school
graduates. Those having 2 years of
college, n u rses’ training, or experi­
ence in dealing with the public are
preferred. Flight attendants for inter­
national airlines generally m ust be
able to speak an appropriate foreign
language fluently.
M ost large airlines give newly
hired flight attendants about 5 weeks
of training in their own schools.
T ransportation to the training cen­
ters and an allowance while in train­
ing may be provided. Trainees are
taught how to react to em ergencies,
including instruction on evacuating
an airplane, operating an oxygen sys­
tem , and giving first aid. A ttendants
also are taught flight regulations and
duties, and com pany operations and
policies. A dditional courses in pass­
port and custom s regulations are giv­
en to trainees for the international
ro u tes. T o w ard s th e en d o f th eir
tra in in g , stu d e n ts go on p ra c tic e
flights. T he few airlines that do not
operate schools generally send new
em ployees to the school of another
airline.
After com pleting their training,
flight attendants are assigned to one
of their airline’s main bases. New
attendants usually fill in on extra
flights or replace attendants who are
sick or on vacation. Because assign­
ments are based on seniority, experi­
enced atten d a n ts usually get their
choice o f base and flights.
O pportunities for advancem ent
are lim ited. However, some atten ­
dants may advance to flight service
instructor, custom er service director,
instructor, or recruiting representa­
tive.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of flight attendants is
expected to grow m uch faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to grow th, openings will occur b e­
cause o f the need to replace experi­
enced attendants who retire, die, or
transfer to other occupations.
In creases in p o p u latio n and in ­
com e are expected to increase the
num ber o f airline passengers. To deal
with this growth, airlines usually en ­
large their capacity by increasing the
num ber and size of planes in o p era­
tion. Since the Federal Aviation A d­
m inistration safety rules require one
attendant for every 50 seats, m ore
flight attendants will be needed. Job
opportunities may vary from year to
year, however, because air travel is
sensitive to ups and downs in the
economy.
Because the job is attractive and
offers a chance to travel, many p eo ­
ple are interested in becom ing flight
atten d an ts. A pplicants can expect
keen com petition for any available
jobs because the num ber of appli­
cants is expected to exceed the num ­
ber of openings. Applicants with 2
years of college and experience in
dealing with the public have the best
chance o f being hired.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The average m onthly earnings o f
all flight attendants were \$1,042 in
1976. According to a num ber o f
union contracts, salaries of m ost b e­
ginning flight attendants on dom estic
flights ranged from \$690 to \$780 a
m onth, while those on international
flights earned from \$830 to \$980. As
an additional benefit, flight a tte n ­
dants and their im m ediate families
are entitled to reduced fare transpor­
tation on their own and m ost other
airlines.
Since airlines operate around the
clock 365 days a year, attendants
may work at night, on holidays, and
on weekends. They usually fly no
m ore than 80 hours a m onth, but
they may devote up to 35 hours a
m onth on the ground duties involved
in preparing their planes for flights.

As a result of variations in scheduling
and limitations on flying time, many
attendants have 15 days or more off
each m onth. A ttendants may be
away from their hom e bases about
one-third of the time or more. W hen
they are away from hom e, the air­
lines provide hotel accom m odations
and an allowance for meal expenses.
Flight attendants have the oppor­
tunity to m eet interesting people and
see new places. The com bination of
free time and discount air fares p ro ­
vides su b sta n tia l o p p o rtu n ity for
travel. How ever, the w ork can be
stren u o u s and trying. M any sh o rt
flights require speedy service if all
passengers are to be served. Poor
w eather can make it difficult to serve
drinks and meals. A ttendants stand
during m uch of the flight and must
remain pleasant and efficient regard­
less of how tired they may be.
M ost flight attendants are m em ­
bers of either the Transport W orkers
Union of Am erica or the Association
of Flight Attendants.

Information
Inform ation about job opportuni­
ties in a particular airline and the
qualifications required may be ob­
tained by writing to the personnel
m anager of the company. Addresses
of com panies are available from:
Air Transport Association of America, 1709
New York Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20006.

FOOD S C IE N TIS TS
(D.O.T. 022.081, 040.081, and
041.081)

Nature of the Work
In the past, consum ers processed
m ost food in the hom e, but today
industry processes almost all foods.
A key w orker involved in the devel­
opm ent and processing of the large
variety o f foods available today is the
food scientist or food technologist.
Food scientists investigate the
chem ical, physical, and biological
nature o f food and apply this knowl­
115

edge to processing, preserving, p ack­
aging, d istrib u tin g , and storing an
a d e q u a te , n u tritio u s, w holesom e,
and econom ical food supply. A bout
three-fifths o f all scientists in food
processing work in research and d e­
velopm ent. O thers w ork in quality
assurance laboratories o r in pro d u c­
tio n o r p ro c essin g a re a s o f food
plants. Some teach o r do basic re­
search in colleges and universities.
Food scientists in basic research
study the structure and com position
o f food and the changes it undergoes
in storage and processing. For exam ­
ple, they may develop new sources of
proteins, study the effects o f process­
ing on m icroorganism s, or search for
factors th at affect the flavor, texture,
or appearance of foods. Food scien­
tists who w ork in applied research
and developm ent create new foods
and develop new processing m eth­
ods. They also seek to im prove exist­
ing foods by making them m ore nu­
tritious and enhancing their flavor,
color, and texture.
Food scientists insure th a t each
p roduct will retain its characteristics
and n u tritive value during storage.
They also conduct chem ical and m i­
crobiological tests to see that p ro d ­
ucts m eet industry and governm ent
standards, and they may determ ine
the nutritive contents o f products in

Food scientists conduct tests to identify
bacterial cultures.

116

order to comply with Federal nutri­
tional labeling requirem ents.
In quality control laboratories,
food scientists check raw ingredients
for freshness, m aturity, or suitability
for processing. They may use m a­
chines th a t test for tenderness by
finding the am ount of force neces­
sary to puncture the item. Periodical­
ly, they inspect processing line o p ­
erations to insure conform ance with
governm ent and industry standards.
F o r ex a m p le , sc ie n tists te st p ro ­
cessed foods for sugar, starch, p ro ­
tein, fat, vitamin, and mineral co n ­
te n t. T hey m ake su re th a t, a fte r
processing, various enzymes are in­
active and m icrobial levels are ad e­
quately low so that the food will not
spoil during storage or present a safe­
ty hazard. O ther food scientists are
involved in developing and im prov­
ing packaging and storage m ethods.
Food scientists in production p re ­
p a re p r o d u c tio n s p e c if ic a tio n s ,
s c h e d u le p ro c e s s in g o p e r a tio n s ,
m aintain proper tem perature and h u ­
midity in storage areas, and supervise
sanitation operations, including the
efficient and econom ical disposal of
wastes. To increase efficiency, they
advise m anagem ent on the purchase
of equipm ent and recom m end new
sources of m aterials.
Some food scientists apply their
knowledge in areas such as m arket
research, advertising, and technical
sales. O thers teach in colleges and
universities.

ganizations such as the United N a­
tions. Some teach or do research in
colleges and universities. (See state­
m ent on college and university teach­
ers elsewhere in the Handbook.)

Training, Other Qualifications,

A bachelor’s degree with a m ajor
in food science, or in one of the
physical or life sciences such as
chem istry and biology, is the usual
minimum requirem ent for beginning
jobs in food science. An advanced
degree is necessary for many jobs,
particularly research and college
teaching and for some m anagem ent
level jobs in industry.
About 60 colleges and universities
offered program s leading to the
bachelor’s degree in food science in
1976. U ndergraduate students m a­
joring in food science usually take
courses in physics, chemistry, m athe­
matics, biology, the social sciences
and hum anities, and business adm in­
istration, as well as a variety of food
s c ie n c e c o u r s e s . F o o d s c ie n c e
courses cover areas such as preserva­
tion, processing, sanitation, and m ar­
keting o f foods.
Most of the colleges and universi­
ties that provide undergraduate food
scien c e p ro g ram s also o ffer a d ­
vanced degrees. G raduate students
usually specialize in a particular area
of food science. R equirem ents for
the m aster’s or d o cto r’s degree vary
by institution, but usually include ex­
tensive laboratory work and a thesis.
Places of Employment
People planning careers as food
A bout 7,000 persons worked as scientists should have analytical
food scientists in 1976. Food scien­ minds and like details and technical
tists work in all sectors of the food work. Food scientists must be able to
industry and in every S tate. T he express their ideas clearly to others.
Food scientists with a bachelor’s
types of products and processes with
which they work may depend on the degree might start work as quality
locality. For example, in Maine and assurance chemists or as assistant
Idaho they work with potato process­ production managers. After gaining
ing; in the Midwest, with cereal p ro d ­ experience, they can advance to
ucts and m eatpacking; and in Florida more responsible m anagem ent jobs.
and California, with citrus fruits and A food scientist might also begin as a
junior food chemist in a research and
vegetables.
Some food scientists do research developm ent laboratory of a food
for Federal agencies such as the com pany, and be prom oted to sec­
Food and Drug Adm inistration and tion head or another research m an­
the D epartm ents of A griculture and agem ent position.
People who have m aster’s degrees
Defense; others work in State regula­
tory agencies. A few work for private may begin as senior food chemists in
consulting firms and international o r­ a research and developm ent labora­

tory. Those who have the Ph. D. d e­
gree usually begin their careers doing
basic research or teaching.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f food scientists is
expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. M ost openings will
result from the need to replace those
who die, retire, or transfer to other
fields, although some openings will
arise from em ploym ent growth.
Em ploym ent is expected to grow
as the food industry responds to the
challenge o f providing wholesome
and econom ical foods th at can m eet
changing consum er preferences and
food standards. In addition, both pri­
vate households and food service in­
stitutions th at supply custom ers such
as airlines and restaurants will de­
m and a greater quantity of processed
convenience foods.
Em ploym ent opportunities should
generally be favorable through the
m id-1980’s for food scientists with
degrees in food science. O pportuni­
ties may not be as good for scientists
with degrees in related fields such as
chem istry or biology. Food scientists
with advanced degrees are expected
to have m ore favorable opportunities
than those with only a bachelor’s de­
gree.
An increasing num ber of food sci­
entists are expected to find jobs in
research and product developm ent.
In recent years, expenditures for re­
search and developm ent in the food
industry have increased m oderately
and probably will continue to rise.
T h ro u g h re searc h , new foods are
being produced from m odifications
of wheat, corn, rice, and soybeans.
F o r ex a m p le , fo o d sc ie n tists are
working to improve “ m eat” products
m ade from vegetable proteins. There
will be an increased need for food
scientists in quality control and pro­
duction because of the complexity of
products and processes and the ap­
plication o f higher processing stan­
dards and new governm ent regula­
tions.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Food scientists had relatively high
earnings in 1976, twice as high as the

average for all nonsupervisory w ork­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Food scientists with the bache­
lo r ’s deg ree had average startin g
salaries of about \$11,300 a year in
1976. Those with a m aster’s degree
started at about \$13,500, and those
w ith th e Ph. D. d eg ree a t ab o u t
\$17,400.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, food scientists with a bache­
lo r’s degree could start at \$9,303 or
\$11,523 a year, depending on their
college grades. Those with a m aster’s
deg ree could s ta rt a t \$1 1,523 o r
\$14,097, and those with the Ph. D.
degree could begin at \$17,056 o r
\$20,442. The average salary for ex­
perienced food scientists in the F ed­
eral G overnm ent was about \$21,500
a year in 1977.

Information
For inform ation on careers in food
science, contact:
Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 2120,
221 North LaSalle St., Chicago, 111.
60601.

Foresters also do research, provide
forestry information to forest owners
and to the general public (called
extension w ork), and teach at colleg­
es and universities.
Foresters often specialize in one
area of work, such as tim ber m anage­
m ent, outdoor recreation, or forest
economics. Some of these areas are
recognized as distinct professions.

Places of Employment
About 25,000 persons worked as
foresters in 1976. Nearly 2 out o f 5
worked in private industry, mainly
for pulp and paper, lum ber, logging,
and milling companies. About onefourth worked for the Federal Gov­
ernm ent, primarily in the Forest Ser­
vice of the D epartm ent of Agricul­
ture. The rem ainder worked for State
and local governments, colleges and
universities, or consulting firms or
were self-employed, either as consul­
tants or forest owners.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A bachelor’s degree with a m ajor
in forestry is the minimum educa­
tional requirem ent for those desiring
p ro fe ssio n a l c a re e rs in fo re stry .

FORESTERS
(D.O.T. 040.081)

Nature of the Work
F o re sts are a vital n a tu ra l r e ­
source. They can be used repeatedly
w ithout being destroyed—if properly
managed. The condition o f our envi­
ronm ent has becom e a m ajor nation­
al concern, and foresters play an im ­
p o r t a n t ro le in p r o te c tin g t h a t
environm ent by ensuring th at our
forests are properly used. Foresters
manage, develop, and protect these
lands and their resources—tim ber,
w ater, wildlife, forage, and re cre a­
tional areas.
Foresters plan and supervise the
cutting and planting o f trees. They
also protect the trees from fire,
harmful insects, and disease. F orest­
ers may be responsible for other d u ­
ties ranging from wildlife protection
and w atershed m anagem ent to the
d e v e lo p m e n t and su p e rv isio n o f
camps, parks and grazing lands.

Foresters spend considerable time out­
doors in all kinds of weather.

117

However, due to keen job com peti­
tion and the increasingly com plex na­
ture o f the fo rester’s work, em ploy­
e rs p r e f e r g r a d u a te s w ho h o ld
advanced degrees. C ertain jobs such
as teaching and research require ad ­
vanced degrees.
Education in forestry leading to a
bach elo r’s or higher degree was of­
fered in 1976 by 50 colleges and uni­
versities, of which 43 w ere accredit­
ed by th e S o c ie ty o f A m e ric a n
Foresters. C urriculum s stress the lib­
eral arts and com m unications skills
as well as technical forestry subjects.
M ost program s also include courses
in forest econom ics and business ad ­
m inistration to supplem ent the stu­
d e n t’s scientific and technical know l­
edge.
M a n y c o l l e g e s r e q u ir e
students to spend one sum m er in a
field cam p operated by the college.
All schools encourage sum m er jobs
th at give firsthand experience in for­
est or conservation work.
In addition to m eeting the intellec­
tual dem ands of forestry, foresters
m ust en joy w orking o u td o o rs, be
physically hardy, and be willing to
move, often to rem ote places. F orest­
ers should also be able to work well
with people and be able to express
them selves clearly.
Forestry graduates usually work
under the supervision of experienced
foresters. A fter gaining experience,
they may advance to m ore respon­
sible positions. In the Federal Gov­
e rn m e n t, an ex p e rien ce d fo re ste r
may supervise an entire forest area,
and may advance to regional forest
supervisor or to a top adm inistrative
position. In private industry, forest­
ers start by learning the practical and
adm inistrative aspects of the busi­
ness. M any foresters work their way
up to top m anagerial positions within
their com panies.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent requirem ents for for­
esters are expected to grow about as
fast as the average for all occupations
through th e m id -1 9 80’s. In re cen t
years, however, the num ber o f p er­
sons earning degrees in forestry has
e x c e e d e d o c c u p a tio n a l r e q u ir e ­
ments, creating com petition for jobs.
If the n u m b er o f degrees granted
each year remains at present levels,
118

com petitio n is expected to persist
throughout the period. O pportunities
will be better for those who can offer
an em ployer either an advanced d e ­
gree or several years’ experience.
The country will need m ore forest­
ers in the future to ensure an increas­
ing output of forest products. E m ­
ploym ent also may increase as we
becom e m ore aware of the need to
conserve and replenish our forest re ­
sources, and to improve the environ­
m ental quality of our forest lands.
Private owners of tim berland may
well employ m ore foresters as they
recognize the need for—and the
higher profitability of—im proved
forestry and logging practices. The
forest products industry will require
additional foresters to apply new
techniques for using the entire forest
crop, to develop m ethods of growing
superior trees in a shorter period o f
time, and to do research in the fields
o f plant genetics and fertilization.
Em ploym ent of foresters will p ro b ­
ably continue to grow faster in p ri­
vate industry th an in the F ederal
G o v ern m en t w here budget lim ita­
tions may restrain growth. State gov­
ernm ent agencies will probably hire
more foresters through Federal-State
cooperative program s for fire co n ­
trol, protection against insects and
disease, recreation, and technical as­
sistance to owners of forest lands.
The expected rapid increase in the
em ploym ent of forestry technicians
will reduce the am ount of time spent
by foresters in perform ing routine
tasks, but the forester will have to
devote m ore and m ore time to super­
visory work and to the general m an­
agem ent o f the forest.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The average starting salary for fo r­
esters in 1976 was \$10,000 a year,
while experienced foresters averaged
over \$ 18,000, according to the limit­
ed data available.
In private industry, starting forest­
ers averaged \$10,300 a year in 1976
and the overall average salary was
\$17,700, according to the lim ited
data available.
G raduates entering the Federal
G overnm ent as foresters in 1977
with just a bachelor’s degree started

at \$9,303 a year. However, because
o f keen com petition, most foresters
hired by the Federal Governm ent
either held a m aster’s degree or had
some experience, and generally
started a t \$1 1,523 a year. Ph. D .’s
generally started at \$14,097 or
\$17,056 a year. The m edian annual
salary in 1977 for federally employed
foresters exceeded \$20,000.
In local government, foresters gen­
erally began at about \$10,700 a year
in 1976, while their median annual
salary was \$15,400. State govern­
m ents paid about \$9,200 annually to
start in 1976, and State m edian sala­
ries were \$15,400 per year. College
professors generally started at about
\$ 11,000 annually in 1976, while their
m edian salary was over \$20,000 per
year. Many faculty foresters supple­
m ent their regular salaries with in­
com e from lecturing, consulting, and
writing.
Many experienced foresters ad ­
vance to jobs which require them to
spend m ost of their time in an office.
H o w ev er, th e b eginning fo re ste r
spends considerable time outdoors in
all kinds of w eather, sometimes in
rem ote areas. F oresters may also
work extra hours on emergency duty,
as in firefighting or search and rescue
missions.

Information
G eneral information about the for­
estry profession, lists of reading m a­
terials, and lists of schools offering
education in forestry are available
from:
Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Washington, D.C. 20014.
National Forest Products Association, 1619
Massachusetts Ave., NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

G eneral career inform ation is also
available from:
American Forest Institute, 1619 Massachu­
setts Ave. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Forestry Association, 1319 18th St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

For details on forestry careers in
the Forest Service, contact:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Ser­
vice, Washington, D.C. 20250.

G EO G R APH ER S
(D.O.T. 017.281, 029.088, and
059.088)

Nature of the Work
G eographers study the spatial
characteristics of the e a rth —and all
that is found on it. Such studies help
to explain changing patterns of hu­
man settlem ent—where people live,
why they are located there, and how
they earn a living.
G eographers are involved in a vari­
ety o f activities. M ost are college or
university teach ers; o th ers are in­
volved in research, writing, and other
n o n te a c h in g a c tiv itie s. T h e ir r e ­
search includes the study and analy­
sis of the distribution o f land forms,
clim ate, soils, vegetation, m ineral,
w ater, and hum an resources. They
also analy ze th e d istrib u tio n and
structure o f political organizations,
tra n s p o rta tio n system s, m arketing
systems, urban systems, agriculture,
an d in d u s try . M any g e o g ra p h e rs
sp en d c o n s id e ra b le tim e in field
study, using surveying and m eteoro­
logical in stru m en ts. T hey analyze

maps, aerial photographs, and data
transm itted by rem ote sensing equip­
m ent on satellites, and apply a d ­
vanced statistical techniques in their
work. Some geographers also co n ­
struct maps, graphs, and diagrams.
Econom ic geographers deal with
the geographic distribution of eco ­
nom ic activ ities—including m an u ­
facturing, mining, agriculture, trade,
and com m unications. Political geog­
raphers study the relationship o f geo­
graphic conditions to political affairs.
Urban geographers study cities and
their problem s and m ake recom m en­
dations about com m unity planning
and developm ent, including housing,
transportation, and industrial plant
sites. (See statem ent on Urban Plan­
ners elsew here in the Handbook.)
The physical characteristics and p ro ­
cesses affecting the earth are the
co n c ern s of physical geographers.
Typically, they specialize in a p ar­
ticular branch of physical geography
such as hydrology—the study of w a­
ter and its effects, or geomorphology,
which is the study of land forms. R e­
gional geographers study the physical,
ec o n o m ic , p o litica l, and cu ltu ra l
characteristics of a particular region

or area, which may range in size from
a river basin or an island, to a State,
a country, or even a continent. Car­
tographers com pile and in te rp re t
data and design and construct maps
and charts. They also conduct re­
search in surveying and m apping
techniques and procedures. A grow­
ing num ber of medical geographers
are concerned with the geographic
aspects of hum an health problem s
and planning o f health services. They
study the effect of the natural envi­
ronm ent on health, including such
factors as climate, vegetation, m iner­
al traces in water, and atm ospheric
pollution, as well as the geographic
distribution of hum an health prob­
lems and health care facilities.
Form al training in geography p ro ­
vides th e background for a wide
range of jobs requiring expertise in
environm ental resources and plan­
ning, research m ethods, and a variety
of other areas. Examples of such jobs
are aerial photo interpreter, clim a­
to lo g ist, com m unity develop m en t
specialist, ecologist, intelligence ana­
lyst, m ap analyst, land econom ist,
m arketing analyst, regional planner,
research analyst, site researcher, and
transportation planner. Jobs such as
these generally require knowledge
not only of geography, but of other
disciplines as well. Particularly useful
com binations include geography and
economics, political science, sociol­
ogy, anthropology, or urban plan ­
ning.

Places of Employment

Some geographers specialize in making maps.

About 10,000 persons worked as
geographers in 1976, excluding those
teaching in secondary schools.
Colleges and universities employ
about three-fifths of all geographers.
However, the Federal G overnm ent is
an im portant em ployer of geogra­
phers, and many work in the W ash­
ington, D.C. area. For these geogra­
phers, em ployed mostly by mapping
and intelligence agencies, skills in
cartography, aerial photograph inter­
pretation, and remote sensing are im­
portant.
The principal Federal employers
are the Departm ents of Defense, In­
terior, Com m erce, and Agriculture.
O ther agencies include the D epart­
ments o f State; Transportation; and
119

Health, E ducation, and W elfare; and
the Environm ental Protection A gen­
cy (E P A ), N atio n al A e ro n au tical
and Space A dm inistration (N A SA ),
Energy R esearch and D evelopm ent
Agency (E R D A ), and C entral Intelli­
gence Agency (CIA).
State and local governm ents em ­
ploy a growing num ber of geogra­
phers, mostly on city and State plan­
ning and developm ent commissions.
Private industry em ploys a small
but growing num ber o f geographers
involved in research, planning, and
location analysis. M ost work for text­
b o o k an d m ap p u b lish e rs, trav e l
agencies, m anufacturing firms, real
estate developm ent corporations, in­
surance com panies, com m unications
and tran sp o rta tio n firm s, or chain
sto res. O th ers w ork fo r scientific
foundations and research organiza­
tions, or run their own research or

Training, Other Qualifications,
The minimum educational require­
m ent for beginning positions in geog­
raphy in governm ent, industry, or
secondary schools usually is a bache­
lo r’s degree with a m ajor in the field.
B achelor’s degree holders would find
it helpful to have training in a spe­
cialty such as carto g rap h y , aerial
photograph or rem ote sensing data
interpretation, statistical analysis, or
environm ental analysis.
A m aster’s degree usually is the
minimum requirem ent for the posi­
tion of college instructor, and is im­
and governm ent. In m any colleges
and universities, however, a Ph. D.
degree usually is required for a p ro ­
fessorship and often is necessary to
gain tenure. The Ph. D. degree often
is necessary for senior level planning,
research , and adm inistrative posi­
tions in governm ent, industry, re ­
search organizations, and consulting
firms.
In the Federal G overnm ent, geog­
raphers generally must have a m ini­
mum of 24 sem ester hours in geogra­
phy or related fields. R equirem ents
may vary for certain specialties such
as cartography.
A bout 400 colleges and universi­
ties offered program s in geography in
120

1976. U ndergraduate study provides
a general introduction to the field o f
geography and often includes field
study. Research m ethods and writing
skills also are taught. Typical courses
offered are physical geography, cul­
tural geography, climatology and m e­
teorology, econom ic geography, p o ­
litical geography, urban geography,
and quantitative m ethods in geogra­
phy. C ourses in cartography, rem ote
sensing, historical geography, ecol­
ogy, natural resource planning, social
geography, geography of transporta­
tion, geographic aspects of pollution,
and geography o f various regions
also are offered. Geography m ajors
should take appropriate electives in
o th e r d e p a rtm e n ts. For exam ple,
courses in economics, architecture,
urban planning, and urban and rural
sociology are im portant for planners;
courses in drawing, design, com puter
science, and m athem atics are im por­
tant for cartographers; and courses in
physics, botany, and geology are im ­
portant for physical geographers.
In 1976, about 150 institutions of­
fered m aster’s degree programs; 55
offered Ph. D. programs. Applicants
are required to have a bachelor’s d e­
gree in any of the social or physical
scien ces w ith a su b stan tial b a c k ­
ground in geography. Requirem ents
for advanced degrees include field
and laboratory work as well as ad ­
vanced classroom study in geography
and preparation of a thesis. M any
graduate schools also require course
work in advanced m athem atics, sta­
tistics, and c o m p u ter science b e ­
cause of the increasing emphasis on
these areas in the field. A language
may be required for those students
who plan to enter the field of foreign
regional geography.
Students should select graduate
schools that offer appropriate areas
of specialization and good research
opportunities in nearby libraries, a r­
chives, laboratories, and field sta ­
tions. Em ployment often is available
at area governm ent agencies or re ­
search, scientific, or industrial firms.
Persons who w ant to becom e geog­
raphers should enjoy reading, study­
ing, and research because they m ust
keep abreast of developm ents in the
field. G eographers m ust work with
abstract ideas and theories as well as

do practical studies. They also must
be able to work independently and
com m unicate their ideas orally and
in writing.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment of geographers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
mid-1980’s. However, most openings
are likely to result from deaths, re­
tire m e n ts , and o th e r sep a ra tio n s
from the labor force.
Little growth is anticipated in col­
lege and university teaching, the tra­
ditional em ployer o f m any highly
qualified geographers; as a result,
m any such geographers may seek
nonacadem ic positions. Many oppor­
tunities are becoming available in the
fields of health services planning and
e n v iro n m e n ta l m a n a g e m e n t an d
planning, including such areas as
land and w ater resources planning
and flood m anagem ent. Significant
growth in the num ber of jobs requir­
ing know ledge of rem ote sensing,
cartography, and climatology also is
expected. The Federal Governm ent
will n eed additional personnel to
w ork in program s such as h ealth
planning, regional developm ent, en­
vironm ental quality, and intelligence.
Em ployment of geographers in State
and local government is expected to
expand, particularly in areas such as
health planning, conservation, envi­
ronm ental quality, highway planning,
and city, com m unity, and regional
planning and developm ent. Private
industry is expected to hire increas­
ing num bers of geographers for m ar­
ket research and location analysis.
The em ploym ent outlook for geog­
raphers with the Ph. D. is expected to
be favorable through the m id-1980’s
for research and administrative posi­
tions in governm ent, industry, re­
search organizations, and consulting
firms. Ph. D. ’s may face com petition
fo r acad em ic po sitio n s, alth o u g h
those graduating from high-ranking
universities should have an advan­
tage. Those with the m aster’s degree
are likely to face com petition for
academ ic positions, but should have
godd opportunites for planning and
m arketing positions in governm ent
and industry.

G rad u ates with a b a c h e lo r’s d e­
gree in geography are expected to
face com petition for jobs as geogra­
phers. Some may find jobs as cartog­
ra p h ers, clim ato lo g ists, o r in te lli­
gence analysts, while m any of these
degree holders may find em ploym ent
in governm ent and industry as m an­
agem ent trainees, research assistants,
or adm inistrative assistants. O thers
may obtain em ploym ent as research
or teaching assistants in educational
in stitu tio n s while studying for ad ­
vanced degrees. Some b ach elo r’s d e­
gree holders teach at the high school
level, although in som e States the
m aster’s degree is becom ing essential
for high school teaching positions.
O thers earn library science degrees
and becom e m ap librarians.

\$9,303 or \$11,523 a year in 1977,
depending on their college achieve­
m ent. Those with a m aster’s degree
started at \$14,097 a year, and those
with the Ph. D. at \$17,056. G eogra­
phers and cartographers in the F ed­
eral G overnm ent averaged around
\$21,100 in 1977.
G eographers som etimes m ust do
field work in primitive regions o f the
world, requiring an ability to adapt to
different social and cultural environ­
ments.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Association of American Geographers, 1710
16th St. NW„ Washington, D.C. 20009.

A ccording to the 1975-76 College
Placem ent Council Salary Survey,
bach elo r’s degree candidates in the
social sciences received offers aver­
aging around \$10,000 a year; m as­
te r’s degree candidates in the social
sciences, around \$12,000.
A ccording to an Association of
A m erican G eographers survey, Ph.
D .’s with no teaching experience
earned starting salaries betw een
\$12,000 and \$14,000 for the ac a­
dem ic year 1975-76, while the aver­
age salary o f geographers em ployed
in c o lle g e s an d u n iv e rs itie s was
\$19,000. Salaries o f geographers in
planning positions in business and in­
dustry are com parable to those in the
Federal G overnm ent.
G eographers in educational insti­
tutions usually have an opportunity
to earn incom e from other sources,
such as consulting w ork, special re­
search, and publication of books and
articles. In general, salaries of experi­
enced geographers are higher than
the average for all nonsupervisory
w orkers in private industry, except
farming.
The Civil Service Com mission rec­
ognizes education and experience in
certifying applicants for entry level
positions in the Federal G overnm ent.
In general, geographers in the F eder­
al G overnm ent with the bachelor’s
degree and no experience started at

Information
For additional inform ation on c a ­
reers and job openings for geogra­
phers, and on schools offering var­
ious program s in geography, contact:

G E O LO G ISTS
(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work
G e o lo g ists study th e s tru c tu re ,
c o m p o sitio n , an d h isto ry o f th e
ea rth ’s crust. By examining surface
rocks and drilling to recover rock
cores, they determ ine the types and
d istrib u tio n o f rocks b en e ath th e
e a rth ’s surface. They also identify
rocks and m inerals, conduct geologi­
cal surveys, draw maps, take m ea­
surem ents, and record data. Geologi­
cal research helps to determ ine the
structure and history o f the earth and
may result in significant advances
such as the ability to predict ea rth ­
quakes. An im portant application o f
geologists’ work is locating oil and
other minerals.
Geologists use many tools and in­
strum ents such'as ham m ers, chisels,
levels, transits (m ounted telescopes
used to m easure angles), gravity m e­
ters, cam eras, compasses, and seis­
m ographs (instrum ents that record
the intensity and duration of ea rth ­
q u ak es and ea rth tre m o rs). T hey
may evaluate inform ation from p h o ­
tographs taken from aircraft and sat­

ellites and use com puters to record
and analyze data.
Geologists also examine chemical
and physical properties of specimens
in laboratories under controlled tem ­
p e ra tu re and pressure. They may
study fossil remains of animal and
vegetable life or experim ent with the
flow o f w ater and oil through rocks.
L aboratory equipm ent used by ge­
ologists in clu d es com plex in s tru ­
m ents such as the X-ray diffractom ­
eter, which determ ines the structure
of minerals, and the petrographic mi­
cro sco p e, used for close study of
rock formations.
B esides lo catin g re so u rces an d
working in laboratories, geologists
also are called on to advise construc­
tio n com panies and governm ental
agencies on the suitability o f certain
locations for constructing buildings,
dams, or highways. Some geologists
adm inister and manage research and
exploration programs. Others teach
and work on research projects in col­
leges and universities.
Geologists usually specialize in one
or a com bination of three general
a re a s—ea rth m aterials, earth p ro ­
cesses, and earth history.
Economic geologists locate earth
m aterials such as minerals and solid
fuels. Petroleum geologists search for
and recover oil and natural gas.
Some petroleum geologists work
near drilling sites and others co rre­
late petroleum related geologic infor­
mation for entire regions. Engineer­
ing geologists determ ine suitable sites
for the construction of roads, air­
fields, tunnels, dams, and other struc­
tu res. T hey d ec id e , for exam ple,
whether underground rocks will bear
the weight of a building or whether a
p ro p o se d stru ctu re may be in an
e a rth q u a k e -p ro n e a re a . M in era l­
ogists analyze and classify minerals
and p re cio u s stones according to
c o m p o sitio n and stru c tu re . G eo­
chemists study the chem ical com po­
sition and changes in minerals and
rocks to understand the distribution
and m igration o f elem ents in the
ea rth ’s crust.
Geologists concerned with earth
processes study land forms and their
rock masses, sedim entary deposits
(m atter deposited by w ater or wind)
121

thirds w ork in five States: Texas,
California, Louisiana, C olorado, and
O klahom a. Some are employed by
A m erican firms overseas for varying
periods of time.

Training, Other Qualifications,

and eru p tiv e forces such as volca­
noes. Volcanologists study active and
inactive volcanoes, and lava flows
and o th er eruptive activity. Geomor­
phologists exam ine landform s and
those forces, such as erosion and gla­
ciation, which cause them to change.
O th er geologists are prim arily con­
cerned with earth history. Paleontolo­
gists study plant and anim al fossils to
trace the evolution and developm ent
o f past life. Geochronologists d eter­
mine the age o f rocks and land forms
by the radioactive decay o f their ele­
ments. Stratigraphers study the distri­
bution and arrangem ent of sedim en­
tary rock layers by examining their
fossil and m ineral content.
M any geologists specialize in new
fields th at require knowledge of an­
oth er science as well. Astrogeologists
study geological conditions on other
plan ets. Geological oceanographers
study the sedim entary and other rock
on the ocean floor and continental
shelf. (See statem ents on oceanogra­
phers and mining elsew here in the
Handbook.)
122

Places of Employment
M ore than 34,000 people worked
as geologists in 1976. M ore than
three-fifths o f all geologists work in
private industry. M ost industrial ge­
ologists work for petroleum com pa­
nies. Geologists also work for mining
and quarrying com panies. (See state­
m ents on the mining and petroleum
industries elsew here in the H and­
book.) Some are em ployed by co n ­
struction firms. O thers are indepen­
d e n t c o n su lta n ts to in d u stry an d
governm ent.
The Federal G overnm ent employs
over 2,000 geologists. Two-thirds
work for the D epartm ent of the Inte­
rior in the U.S. Geological Survey,
the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau
of Reclam ation. State agencies also
employ geologists, some working on
surveys in cooperation with the U.S.
Geological Survey.
Colleges and universities employ
about 9,500 geologists. Some work
for nonprofit research institutions
and museums.
Em ploym ent of geologists is co n ­
centrated in those States with large
oil and m ineral deposits. Almost two-

A bachelor’s degree in geology or
a related field is adequate for entry
into some geology jobs. An advanced
degree is helpful for prom otion in
most types of work, and is essential
for college teaching and many re­
search positions.
About 300 colleges and universi­
ties offer a bachelor’s degree in geol­
ogy. U ndergraduate students devote
about one-fourth of their time to ge­
ology courses, including physical,
stru c tu ra l and h isto rical geology,
m ineralogy, petrology, and inverte­
brate paleontology, about one-third
of their time taking m athem atics, re­
lated sciences—such as physics and
chem istry—and engineering; and the
rem ainder on general academic sub­
jects.
M ore than 160 universities award
ate students take advanced courses
in geology and specialize in one
branch o f the science.
Students planning careers in explo­
ration geology should like the o u t­
doors, and must have physical stam ­
ina.
Geologists usually begin their ca­
reers in field exploration or as re­
se a rc h assistan ts in la b o ra to rie s.
With experience, they can be p ro­
m oted to project leader, program
m anager, or other m anagem ent and
research positions.

Employment Outlook
Employment opportunities in geol­
ogy are expected to be good for those
with degrees in geology or in a relat­
ed science with courses in geology.
The em ploym ent of geologists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
mid-1980’s. This growth will create
many new openings each year. Many
additional openings will be created
each year by geologists who retire,
die, or leave the occupation.

Increased prices for petroleum and
the necessity to locate new sources of
other m inerals as older sources be­
com e exhausted will stim ulate d o ­
mestic exploration activities and re­
q u ire m any ad d itio n al geologists.
A d d itio n al geologists also will be
n eeded to discover new resources
and their potential uses. For exam ­
ple, geologists will help determ ine
the feasibility o f using geotherm al
energy (steam from the e a rth ’s interi­
o r) to generate electricity. Geologists
are needed to devise techniques for
exploring deeper within the ea rth ’s
crust and to develop m ore efficient
m ethods o f mining resources. They
also are needed to develop adequate
w ater supplies and w aste disposal
m ethods, and to do site evaluation
for construction activities.

information
G eneral inform ation on training
and career opportunities for geolo­
gists is available from:
American Geological Institute, 5205 Leesburg
Pike, Falls Church, Va. 22041.

For inform ation on Federal Gov­
ernm ent careers, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.
N W , Washington, D.C. 20415.

G EO P H Y S IC IS TS
(D.O.T. 024.081)

Nature of the Work
Earnings and Working
Conditions
Geologists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings over
twice those of nonsupervisory work­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing.
According to a survey done by the
College Placem ent Council, in early
1977 graduates with bach elo r’s de­
grees in oth er physical and earth sci­
ences received average starting of­
fers o f \$13,300 a year. G raduates
with m aster’s degrees in geology and
related geological sciences received
average starting offers of \$14,900
per year.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, geologists having a bachelor’s
degree could begin at \$9,303 or
\$1 1,523 a year, depending on their
college records. Those having a m as­
te r’s degree could start at \$ 11,523 or
\$14,097 a year; those having the Ph.
D. degree at \$17,056 or \$20,442. In
1977, the average salary for geolo­
gists em ployed in the Federal Gov­
ernm ent was over \$25,000 a year.
C onditions of work vary. Explora­
tion geologists often work overseas.
Geologists travel to rem ote sites by
helicopter and jeep, and cover large
a re a s by fo o t, o fte n w o rk in g in
team s. Geologists in m ining som e­
times work underground. W hen not
working outdoors, they are in com ­
fortable, well-lighted, well-ventilated
offices and laboratories.

Geophysicists study the com posi­
tion and physical aspects of the earth
and its electric, m agnetic, and gravi­
ta tio n a l fields. G eo p h y sicists use
highly com plex instrum ents such as
the m agnetom eter which m easures
variations in the e a rth ’s m agnetic
field, and the gravim eter which m ea­
sures m inute variations in gravita­
tional attraction. They often use sat­
ellites to conduct tests from outer
space and com puters to collect and
analyze data.
Geophysicists usually specialize in
1 of 3 general phases of the science—
solid earth, fluid earth, and upper
atm osphere. Some may also study
other planets.
Solid earth geophysicists search for
oil and m ineral deposits, map the
e a r th ’s su rfa ce, and study e a r th ­
quakes. Exploration geophysicists use
seismic prospecting techniques to lo­
cate oil and m ineral deposits. They
send sound waves into the earth and
record the echoes bouncing off the
rock layers below to determ ine if
conditions are favorable for the a c ­
cum ulation of oil.
Seismologists study the ea rth ’s in­
terior and earth vibrations caused by
ea rth q u ak es and m anm ade explo­
sions. They explore for oil and m iner­
als, study underground detection of
nuclear explosions, and provide in­
form ation for use in co n stru ctin g
bridges, dams, and buildings. For ex­
ample, in constructing a dam, seis­

mologists determ ine where bedrock
(so lid ro c k b e n e a th th e so il) is
closest to the surface so the best dam
site can be selected. They use explo­
sives o r o th e r m ethods to c reate
sound waves that reflect off bedrock;
the time it takes for the shock wave
to return to the surface indicates the
depth of bedrock. Seismologists also
seek to u n derstand the causes of
earth q u ak es so th at one day they
might be predicted.
Geodesists study the size, shape,
and gravitational field of the earth
and o th er planets. T heir principal
task is precise m easurem ent of the
ea rth ’s surface. With the aid of satel­
lites, geodesists determ ine the posi­
tions, elevations, and distances be­
tw ee n p o in ts on th e e a rth , an d
measure the intensity and direction
of gravitational attraction.
Hydrologists are concerned with
the fluid earth. They may study the
distribution, circulation, and physical
properties of underground and sur­
face waters, including glaciers, snow,
and perm afrost. They also may study
rainfall and its rate of infiltration into
soil. Some are concerned with water
supplies, irrigation, flood control,
and soil erosion. (See statem ent on
oceanographers, som etim es classi­
fied as geophysical scientists, else­
where in the Handbook.)
Geophysicists also study the atm o­
sphere, investigate the earth ’s mag­
netic and electric fields, and com ­
pare its outer atm osphere with those
of o th e r planets. Geomagneticians
study th e e a rth ’s m agnetic field.
Paleomagneticians learn about past
m agnetic fields from rocks or lava
flows. Planetologists study the com ­
p o sitio n and a tm o sp h e re o f th e
moon, planets, and other bodies in
the solar system. They gather data
from geophysical instrum ents placed
on interplanetary space probes or
from equipm ent used by astronauts
during the Apollb missions. Meteo­
rologists sometimes are classified as
geophysical scientists. (See s ta te ­
m ent on m eteorologists elsewhere in
the Handbook.)

Places of Employment
About 12,000 people worked as
geophysicists in 1976. Most work in
123

ics, physics, geology, m athem atics,
chemistry, and engineering.
Geophysicists doing research or
supervising exploration activities
should have graduate training in geo­
physics or a related science. Those
planning to teach in colleges or do
basic research should acquire a Ph.
D. degree.
About 50 colleges and universities
award the bachelor’s degree in geo­
physics. O th e r program s offering
training for beginning geophysicists
include geophysical technology, geo­
physical engineering, engineering ge­
ology, petroleum geology, and geod­
esy.
More than 60 universities grant the
m aster’s and Ph. D. degree in geo­
physics. C andidates with a bachelor’s
degree which includes courses in ge­
ology, m athem atics, physics, engi­
neering, or a com bination of these
subjects can be adm itted.
Geophysicists often work as part of
a team. They should be curious, an a­
lytical, and able to com m unicate ef­
fectively.
Most new geophysicists begin their
careers doing field m apping or explo­
ration. Some assist senior geophysi­
cists in research laboratories. With
ex p e rien ce , geophysicists can a d ­
vance to jobs such as project leader
or program m anager, or other m an­
agement and research jobs.
Some geophysicists work in research laboratories.

private industry, chiefly for petrole­
um and natural gas com panies. (See
statem ent on the mining and p etrole­
um industry elsewhere in the Hand­
book.) O thers are in mining com pa­
n ies, e x p lo ra tio n an d co n su ltin g
firms, and research institutes. A few
are in d e p e n d e n t c o n s u lta n ts and
some do geophysical prospecting on
a fee or co n tract basis.
Geophysicists are em ployed in
many southw estern and western
States, and in those on the G ulf
Coast, w here large oil and natural gas
fields are located. Som e geophysi­
cists are em p lo y ed by A m erican
firms overseas for varying periods of
time.
A lm ost 2,300 geophysicists, ge­
odesists, and hydrologists worked for
124

F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t ag en cies in
1976, m ainly the U.S. G eological
Survey; the N ational O ceanic and
A tm o s p h e ric A d m in is tra tio n
(N O A A ); and the Defense D epart­
ment. O ther geophysicists work for
colleges and universities, State gov­
ernm ents, and nonprofit research in­
stitutions.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A bachelor’s degree in geophysics
or a geophysical specialty is suffi­
cient for most beginning jobs in geo­
physics. A bachelor’s degree in a re ­
lated field of science or engineering
also is adequate preparation, provid­
ed the person has courses in geophys­

Employment Outlook
Em ployment opportunities are ex­
pected to be very good for graduates
with a degree in geophysics or a re­
lated field, though few openings are
expected. Nevertheless, the num ber
of people qualified to enter the field
may fall short of requirem ents if p re­
sent trends in the num ber obtaining
geophysics training continue.
Employment of geophysicists is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
m id-1980’s. As known deposits of
petroleum and other minerals are de­
pleted, petroleum and mining com ­
panies over the next decade will need
increasing num bers of geophysicists
who can use sophisticated electronic
techniques to find less acessible fuel
and m ineral deposits.
vanced training will be needed to do

research on radioactivity and cosmic
and solar radiation and to investigate
the use of geotherm al pow er (steam
from the e a rth ’s interior) as a source
of energy to generate electricity.
Federal agencies are expected to
hire m ore geophysicists for new and
expanding programs. Through the
m id-1980’s, jobs will depend heavily
on funds for research and develop­
m ent in earth sciences as the G overn­
m ent su p p o rts energy research in
b o th e s ta b lis h e d an d a lte rn a tiv e
sources. T he G overnm ent also may
fund research to locate m ore natural
resources and to p rev en t environ­
m ental dam age through better land
use.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Geophysicists have relatively high
salaries, with average earnings more
than twice those of nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming.
According to a survey done by the
College Placem ent C ouncil, in early
1977 graduates with bachelor’s d e­
grees in oth er physical and earth sci­
ences received average starting of­
fers o f \$13,300 a year. G raduates
with m aster’s degrees in geology and
related geological sciences received
average starting offers of \$14,900
per year.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, geophysicists having a bache­
lo r’s degree could begin at \$9,303 or
\$1 1,523 a year, depending on their
college records. Geophysicists hav­
ing a m aster’s degree could start at
\$1 1,523 o r \$14,841 a year; those
having a Ph. D. degree, at \$17,056 or
\$20,442. In 1977, the average salary
for geophysicists em ployed by the
F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t w as a b o u t
\$24,500 a year.
Many geophysicists work outdoors
and m ust be willing to travel for
extended periods of time. Some work
at research stations in rem ote areas,
or aboard ships and aircraft equipped
with sophisticated geophysical equip­
ment. W hen not in the field, geo­
physicists w ork in m o d e rn , wellequipped, well-lighted laboratories
and offices.

information
G eneral inform ation on career o p ­
portunities, training, and earnings for
geophysicists is available from:
American Geophysical Union, 1909 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O.
Box 3098, Tulsa, Okla. 74101.

For inform ation on Federal Gov­
ernm ent careers, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.,
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

HEALTH A ND
REGULATORY
IN SPEC TO R S
(G O V E R N M E N T)
(D.O.T. 168.168, and .287)

Nature of the Work
Protecting the public from health
and safety hazards, prohibiting unfair
trade and em ploym ent practices, and
raising revenue are included in the
wide range of responsibilities of gov­
ernm ent. Health and regulatory in­
spectors help insure observance of
the laws and regulations that govern
these responsibilities. For discussion
of a third type of inspector, see the
statem ent on construction inspectors
(G o v e rn m e n t) e lse w h e re in th e
Handbook.
The duties, titles, and responsibil­
ities of F ed eral, S tate, and local
health and regulatory inspectors vary
widely. Som e types o f in sp ecto rs
work only for the Federal G overn­
m ent while others also are employed
by S tate and local g o v ern m en ts.
Many other workers employed as a c ­
countants, agricultural cooperative
extension service workers, and other
agricultural professionals also have
inspection duties.
Health Inspectors. Health inspectors
work with engineers, chemists, m i­
crobiologists, and health workers to
insure com pliance with public health
and safety re g u la tio n s g o v erning
food, drugs, and various other co n ­

sum er products. They also adminis­
ter regulations that govern the quar­
a n tin e o f p e rso n s an d p ro d u c ts
entering the United States from for­
eign countries. The major types of
health in sp ecto rs are: Food and
drug, m eat and poultry, and agricul­
tural quarantine inspectors. In addi­
tion, some inspectors work in a field
that is closely related to food inspec­
tio n —agricultural com m odity grad­
ing.
Most food and drug inspectors spe­
cialize in one area of inspection such
as food, feeds and pesticides, weights
and measures, or drugs and cosm et­
ics. Some, especially those who work
for the Federal Governm ent, may be
proficient in several of these areas.
W orking individually or in teams un­
der the direction of a senior or super­
visory inspector, they travel through­
out a geographical area to check
periodically firms that produce, han­
dle, store, and m arket food, drugs,
and cosm etics. They look for evi­
dence of inaccurate product labeling,
decomposition, chemical or bacteri­
ological contam ination, and oth er
factors that could result in a product
b e c o m in g h arm fu l to c o n s u m e r
health. They assemble evidence of
vio latio n s, using p o rta b le scales,
cam eras, ultraviolet lights, container
sam pling devices, th erm o m eters,
chemical testing kits, and other types
of equipm ent.
Product samples collected as part
of their examinations are sent to
laboratories for analysis. After com ­
pleting their inspection, inspectors
discuss their observations with the
m anagem ent of the plant and point
out any areas where corrective m ea­
sures are needed. They prepare writ­
ten rep o rts of their findings, and,
when necessary, com pile evidence
that may be used in court if legal
actions m ust be taken to effect com ­
pliance with the law.
Federal and State laws empower
meat and poultry inspectors to inspect
m eat, poultry, and their byproducts
to insure that they are wholesome
and safe for public consum ption.
Working as part of a constant onsite
team under the general supervision
of a veterinarian, they inspect m eat
and poultry slaughtering, processing,
and packaging operations. They also
125

check to see th at products are la­
beled correctly and that proper sani­
tation is m aintained in slaughtering
and processing operations.
Agricultural quarantine inspectors
p rotect A m erican agricultural prod­
u c ts fro m th e in tr o d u c tio n an d
spread o f foreign plant pests and ani­
mal diseases. To safeguard crops,
fo rests, an d gardens, they inspect
ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and m o­
to r v eh icle s e n te rin g th e U n ited
States for the presence of restricted
or prohibited plant or anim al m ateri­
als.
Environmental health inspectors, or
sanitarians, work prim arily for State
and local g o v ern m ents. T hese in­
spectors perform a variety of inspec­
tion duties to help insure that the
fo o d p e o p le e a t, th e w a te r theydrink, and the air they breathe m eet
governm ent standards. They check
the cleanliness and safety of food and
beverages produced in dairies and
processing plants, or served in res­
taurants, hospitals, and other institu­
tions. They often exam ine the han­
dling, processing, and serving of food
for com pliance with sanitation rules
and regulations.
Environm ental health inspectors
concerned with waste control over­
see the tre a tm e n t and disposal of
sewage, refuse, and garbage. They
examine places where pollution is a
danger, perform tests to detect pollu­
tants, and collect air or w ater sam ­
ples for analysis. They determ ine the
n ature and cause o f the pollution,
then initiate action to stop it.
In large local and State health or
ag ric u ltu re d e p a rtm e n ts, en v iro n ­
m ental h ealth inspectors may spe­
cialize in areas of work such as milk
and dairy products, food sanitation,
waste control, air pollution, institu­
tional sanitation, and occupational
health. In rural areas and small cities,
they may be responsible for a wide
range o f environm ental health activi­
ties.
Agricultural com modity graders ap­
ply quality standards to various com ­
modities to insure th at retailers and
consum ers receive good and reliable
products. They generally specialize
in an area such as eggs and egg prod­
ucts, processed or fresh fruits and
vegetables, grain, or dairy products.
126

Most health and regulatory inspectors are employed
by the Federal Government
1976 em ploym ent (in thousands)

10

20

30

40

50

60

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

They inspect samples of a particular
product to determ ine its quality and
grade, and issue official grading ce r­
tificates. G raders also may inspect
the plant and equipm ent to insure
th at adequate sanitation standards
are m aintained.
Regulatory Inspectors. R egulatory
inspectors insure com pliance with
various laws and regulations that p ro ­
te c t the public welfare. Im portant
types o f regulatory inspectors are:
Immigration; customs; aviation safe­
ty; mine; wage-hour com pliance; al­
cohol, tobacco, and firearm s; and
occupational safety inspectors.
Im m igration inspectors interview
and examine people seeking adm is­
sion, readmission, or the privileges o f
passing through or residing in the
United States. They inspect the pass­
ports of those seeking to enter the
United States to determ ine w hether
they are legally eligible to enter and
to verify their citizenship, status, and
identity. Immigration inspectors also
prepare reports, m aintain records,
and process applications and p eti­
tions by aliens for privileges such as
immigrating to or living tem porarily
in the United States.
C ustom s inspectors en fo rce th e
laws governing U.S. imports and ex­
ports. Stationed at airports, seaports,
and b o rd e r crossing points, they
count, weigh, gauge, m easure, and

sample com m ercial cargoes entering
and leaving the United States to de­
term ine the am ount o f tax that must
be paid. They also inspect baggage
and articles worn or carried by the
passengers and crew of ships, air­
craft, and m otor vehicles to insure
that all m erchandise being brought
through ports of entry is declared
and the proper taxes paid.
Aviation safety officers insure that
(FA A ) regulations that govern the
quality and safety of aircraft equip­
m ent and personnel are maintained.
Aviation safety officers may inspect
a ir c r a f t m a n u fa c tu rin g , m a in te ­
n an c e, or op eratio n s p ro ced u res.
They usually specialize in inspecting
eith er com m ercial or general avi­
ation aircraft. They are responsible
for the inspection of aircraft m anu­
facturing and of major repairs. They
a lso c e rtify a ir c r a f t p ilo ts a n d
schools, pilot exam iners, flight in­
structors, and instructional materials.
Mine inspectors work to insure the
health and safety of miners and to
prom ote good mining practices. To
insure com pliance with safety laws
and regulations, mine inspectors visit
mines and related facilities to obtain
inform ation on health and safety
conditions.
Mine inspectors discuss their find­
ings w ith the m anagem ent of the
mine, prepare written reports that in­

c o rp o rate th eir findings and d eci­
sions, and issue notices of findings
th at describe violations and hazards
th at m ust be corrected. They also in­
v estig ate an d p re p a re re p o rts on
mine accidents and d irect rescue and
firefighting operations when fires or
explosions occur.
Wage-hour compliance officers in­
spect the em ployer’s tim e, payroll,
and personnel records to insure com ­
pliance with the provisions o f various
F ed eral laws on m inim um wages,
overtim e, pay, em ploym ent o f mi­
nors, and equal em ploym ent oppor­
tunity. They often interview em ploy­
ees to verify the em ployer’s records
and to check for any com plaints.
Alcohol, tobacco, and firearm s in­
spectors insure th a t th e industries
which m an u factu re these products
comply with the provisions of rev­
enue laws and o ther regulations on
operating procedures, unfair com pe­
titio n , an d tra d e p ra c tic e s. T hey
spend m ost of their tim e inspecting
distilleries, wineries, and breweries;
cigar and cig arette m anufacturing
plants; wholesale liquor dealers and
im porters; firearm s and explosives
m an u factu rers, dealers, and users;
and oth er regulated facilities. They
p erio d ically au d it th ese estab lish ­
m ents to determ ine th at appropriate
taxes are correctly determ ined and
paid.

Places of Employment
A bout 115,000 persons worked as
health and regulatory inspectors in
1976. Nearly two-thirds of all health
and regulatory inspectors work for
the F ederal G overnm ent, although
State and local governm ents also em ­
ploy large num bers. The largest sin­
gle em ployer o f food and drug in­
spectors is the U.S. Food and Drug
A d m in is tra tio n , b u t th e m ajority
work for State governm ents. M eat
and poultry inspectors and com m od­
ity graders who work in processing
plants are employed mainly by the
U.S. D epartm ent o f A griculture. Ag­
ricultural quarantine inspectors work
either for the U.S. Public Health Ser­
vice or the U.S. D epartm ent o f Agri­
cu ltu re . E n v iro n m en tal health in ­
spectors work primarily for State and
local governments.

Regulatory inspectors work for
various agencies within the Federal
G overnm ent, mainly in regional and
district offices throughout the U nited
States. Aviation safety officers work
for the Federal Aviation A dm inistra­
tion; wage-hour com pliance officers,
for the D epartm ent o f Labor; mine
inspectors, the D epartm ent o f the In­
terior; and alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arm s inspectors, the T reasury D e­
partm ent. Im m igration, custom s, and
a g ric u ltu ra l q u a ra n tin e in sp ecto rs
work at U.S. airports, seaports, b o r­
d er crossing points, and at foreign
airports and seaports. They are em ­
ployed by the Justice and Treasury
D epartm ents.

Other Qualifications
Because inspectors perform such a
wide range of duties, qualifications
for em ploym ent in these positions
vary greatly. The F ederal G overn­
m ent requires a passing score on the
Professional and Adm inistrative C a­
reer Exam ination (PA C E) for sever­
al inspector occupations, including
im m ig ra tio n ; cu sto m s; w age and
hour com pliance; alcohol, tobacco,
and firearm s; occu p atio n al safety;
an d c o n s u m e r sa fe ty (fo o d an d
drug). To take this exam ination, a
bachelor’s degree or 3 years of re ­
sponsible work experience, o r a com ­
bination of the two, are required. In
some cases, agencies will give prefer­
ence to an applicant whose course
work or work experience is related to
the field o f em ploym ent.
O ther Federal inspectors m ust pass
an exam ination based on specialized
knowledge, in addition to having
work experience in related fields.
These include com m odity inspectors
such as those in m eat, poultry, live­
stock, and egg products.
Air safety inspectors m ust have
considerable experience in aviation
m aintenance, and an FAA Air Fram e
and Power Plant certificate. In addi­
tion, various pilot certificates and
considerable flight experience are re ­
quired, with the type dependent on
the inspection duties. Many air safety
inspectors receive both their flight
training and m echanical training in
the Arm ed Forces. No written exam i­
nation is required.

Applicants for mine safety inspec­
to r positions generally m ust have
specialized work experience in mine
m anagem ent or supervision, or pos­
sess a skill such as electrical engi­
neering (for mine electrical inspec­
to r s ) . In som e c a se s, a g e n e ra l
aptitude test may be required.
Some Civil Service registers, in­
cluding those for agricultural quaran­
tine inspectors and fruit and vegeta­
ble graders, rate applicants solely on
their experience and education and
require no written examination.
Qualifications for inspectors at the
State and local level usually are simi­
lar to those for Federal employees.
However, this may vary among gov­
ernm ent em ployers, particularly at
the local level. Environm ental health
inspectors, called sanitarians in many
States, m ust have a bachelor’s degree
in environm ental health or the phys­
ical or biological sciences. In 35
States, they are licensed and their
qualifications regulated by examin­
ing boards.
All inspectors are trained in the
laws and inspection procedures relat­
ed to their specific field through a
com bination of classroom and onthe-job training. In general, people
who w an t to becom e h ea lth and
regulatory inspectors should be able
to accept responsibility and like de­
tailed work. They should be neat and
personable and able to express them ­
selves well orally and in writing.
All F ederal G overnm ent inspec­
tors are prom oted on a Civil Service
“ career ladder.” This means that, as­
suming satisfactory work perform ­
ance, w orkers will advance autom ati­
cally, usually at 1-year intervals, to a
specified maximum level. Above this
level (usually supervisory positions),
advancem ent is com petitive, based
on needs of the agency and individ­
ual m erit.

Employment Outlook
*

Em ployment of health and regula­
tory inspectors as a group is expected
to increase faster than the average
for all occupations through the mid1980’s. The growth in em ploym ent
of health inspectors is expected to be
m ore rapid than that of regulatory
inspectors. In addition to job oppor127

requiring additional inspectors to in­
sure com pliance.
A v ia tio n in d u stry g ro w th , in ­
creased international travel, and in­
creases in the volume of U.S. imports
and exports should continue to cre­
ate new openings for aviation safety
officers, quarantine and immigration
inspectors, and custom s inspectors.
Increasing coal mining activity and
concern over mine safety should cre­
ate additional mine inspector jobs.
C ontinued public pressure for equal
em ploym ent rights should cause a
growing need for wage-hour com pli­
ance officers.

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Public concern for improved quality and safety of consumer products will require
additional inspectors to insure compliance.

tunities stem m ing from growth, many
inspectors will be needed each year
to replace those who die, retire, or
transfer to oth er occupations.
Increased
food
consum ption
caused by population growth and
greater public concern over potential
128

health hazards should create addi­
tional jobs for food and drug, m eat
and poultry, and other com m odity
inspectors and graders. Public co n ­
cern for im proved quality and safety
of consum er products also should re ­
sult in new legislation in these areas,

With the exception o f mine inspec­
tors and aviation safety officers, the
Federal Governm ent paid health and
reg u lato ry inspectors and graders
starting salaries of \$9,303 or \$ 11,523
a year in 1977, depending on the
type of position and the qualifica­
tions of the applicant. Aviation safety
officers and mining inspectors usual­
ly re c e iv e d s ta rtin g s a la rie s o f
\$14,097.
Salaries of experienced m eat and
poultry inspectors, egg product in­
spectors, agricultural quarantine in­
spectors, alcohol, tobacco, and fire­
arm s inspectors, and custom s and
im m igration inspectors were over
\$14,000 a year in 1977. Experienced
food and drug inspectors (consum er
safety officers), mine inspectors, and
wage-hour com pliance officers usu­
ally r e c e iv e d s a la r ie s o f a b o u t
\$20,000 from the Federal G overn­
m ent in 1977. Experienced aviation
s a f e ty o f f ic e r s a v e r a g e d o v e r
\$24,000 a year.
Nonsupervisory
environm ental
health inspectors working for select­
ed U.S. cities and counties received
a v e ra g e s ta r tin g s a la r ie s a b o u t
\$11,000 in 1976; those working for
State governments started at about
\$1,000 less. Experienced environ­
mental health inspectors working for
State governm ents earned betw een
\$11,500 and \$15,200, but those in
top supervisory and adm inistrative
p o s itio n s h a d s a la r ie s b e tw e e n
\$15,500 and \$20,500 in 1976.
Most health and regulatory inspec­
tors live an active life, m eeting many

people and working in a variety of
environm ents. Many travel frequent­
ly and are usually furnished with an
autom obile or reim bursed for travel
expenses.
At tim es inspectors m ust work un­
der unfavorable working conditions.
For exam ple, m eat and poultry, and
alcohol, to b acco , and firearm s in­
spectors frequently com e in contact
with strong, unpleasant odors; mine
inspectors often spend a great deal of
time in mines where they are exposed
to the same hazards as miners. Many
inspectors work long and often ir­
regular hours.

Information
For facts about inspector careers
in the Federal G overnm ent, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

M ore detailed inform ation on
qualifications for Federal jobs is
available from local Civil Service
Commission offices or from individ­
ual Federal agencies.
Inform ation about career opportu­
nities as inspectors in State and local
governm ents is available from State
civil service commissions, usually lo­
cated in each State capital, or from
local governm ent offices.

staff o f assistant adm inistrators in
larger organizations. Health adm inis­
trators m ake m anagem ent decisions
on m atters such as the need for addi­
tional personnel and equipm ent, c u r­
rent and future space requirem ents,
and the budget.
Some health services adm inistra­
tors, including those who m anage
hospitals or nursing hom es, oversee
nursing, food services, and in-service
training programs. Assistant adm inis­
trators usually direct the daily o p era­
tions of these departm ents; however,
the chief executive keeps inform ed
through formal and informal m eet­
ings with the assistants, the m edical
staff, and others. In addition to these
m anagem ent activities, many health
a d m in istra to rs help to c a rry o u t
fundraising drives and prom ote pub­
lic participation in health program s.
This phase of the adm inistrator’s jo b
often includes speaking before civic
groups, arranging publicity, and c o ­
ordinating the activities of the o r­
ganization with those o f governm ent
or com m unity agencies.

Places of Employment
About 160,000 persons worked as
health services adm inistrators in
1976. M ost adm inistrators work in
health facilities, including hospitals
(which em ployed about half of all
adm inistrators), nursing and person­
al care homes, and health m anage­
m ent firms that provide adm inistra­
tive services to health facilities at a
specified contract price.
Some health adm inistrators work
for governm ent agencies, including
State and local health departm ents
and the U.S. Public Health Service.
In addition, the Federal Governm ent
hires adm inistrators in Veterans A d­
m inistration and Armed Forces hos­
pitals and clinics. O thers work for
voluntary health agencies that con­
duct research and provide care and
treatm ent for victims of particular
diseases or physical impairments.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Educational
requirem ents
for
health services adm inistrators vary

HEALTH SER VIC ES
A D M IN IS T R A T O R S
(D.O.T. 169.168, 187.118, and
187.168)

Nature of the Work
M edical and health care is provid­
ed by organizations th at vary from
larg e te a c h in g h o sp itals to sm all
w alk-in clinics. E ach o f these re ­
quires effective m anagem ent to func­
tion properly. Health adm inistrators,
u n d e r th e g en eral su p erv isio n o f
boards o f directors or other govern­
ing bodies, provide this m anagem ent.
Adm inistrators coordinate the var­
ious fu n c tio n s and activ ities th a t
m ake a h ealth o rganization work.
They may do this personally, where
the organization is small, or direct a

Administrators coordinate the various activities of a health organization.
129

according to the position’s level of
responsibility and the size o f the o r­
ganization. Generally, larger organi­
zations with m ore com plicated ad ­
m inistrative structures require higher
credentials than sm aller ones.
A pplicants with m aster’s degrees
in health o r hospital adm inistration
may be hired as associate or assistant
adm inistrators in hospitals, while
those with m aster’s degrees in public
health often find work as program
analysts or program representatives
in public health departm ents. Very
few m aster’s degree recipients take
entry positions in nursing or personal
care hom es, although many nursing
education while em ployed.
B achelor’s degree recipients usual­
ly begin their careers as adm inistra­
tive assistants or dep artm ent heads in
hospitals, o r as assistant adm inistra­
tors in nursing hom es. G raduates of
2-year, asso ciate d egree program s
generally are hired as unit directors
or assistant d epartm ent heads in hos­
pitals, o r as assistants to program
representatives in public health d e­
p artm en ts. Some associate degree
holders find assistant adm inistrator
jobs in small nursing hom es.
T he Ph. D. degree usually is re­
quired for positions in teaching or
research, and is an asset for those
seeking adm in istrative jobs in the
larger, m ore prestigious health or­
ganizations. A lthough some public
health departm ents still require chief
adm inistrators to be physicians, the
trend is away from this.
A dm inistrators in A rm ed Forces
hospitals usually are career military
personnel.
In 1976, over 40 bachelor and
associate degree program s in health
se rv ic e s a d m in is tra tio n w ere o f­
fered—the majority w ere 4-year curriculum s. In ad d itio n , th ere w ere
ab o u t 52 program s in hospital or
health services adm inistration th at
led to the m aster’s degree, and 19
schools o f public health offered p ro ­
grams leading to a m aster’s degree in
public health.
To en ter graduate program s, appli­
cants m ust have a b ach elo r’s degree,
with courses in natural sciences, psy­
ch o lo g y , so ciology, sta tistic s, a c ­
counting, and econom ics. C om peti­
tion for entry to these program s is
130

keen, and applicants need above av­
program s generally last about 2 years
and may include some supervised ad ­
m inistrative experience in hospitals,
clinics, or health agencies. Programs
may include courses such as hospital
organization and m anagem ent, a c ­
counting and budget control, person­
nel adm inistration, public health ad ­
m inistration, and the econom ics o f
health care.
All States and the D istrict of C o­
lum bia require that the adm inistrator
of a nursing or personal care hom e
be licensed. R equirem ents are not
uniform, but they generally specify a
level of education, such as a b ache­
lo r’s degree, plus some am ount of
experience in the field.
Personal qualifications needed for
success as a health adm inistrator in­
clude initiative and an interest in
h elp in g th e sick. A d m in istra to rs
should be able to work with and m o­
tivate people, and organize and di­
rect large-scale activities. They also
should enjoy public speaking.
the profession by taking increasingly
m ore responsible positions. For ex­
am ple, some hospital adm inistrators
begin their careers in small hospitals
in positions with broad responsibil­
ities, such as assistant adm inistrator.
They advance by moving to jobs as
associate or chief adm inistrator in
larger hospitals. M ore com m only,
they start in a large institution in a
position th at is som ewhat narrow in
scope—for example, as departm ent
head in charge o f purchasing. R e­
gardless o f the path of advancem ent
chosen, the ultim ate occupational
goal in hospitals and nursing homes is
the job of chief executive or chief

Employment Outlook
The num ber of graduate program s
in h e a lth a d m in is tra tio n has in ­
creased rapidly in recent years and
ate degrees in other fields also have
entered the profession. C onsequent­
ly, it may becom e m ore difficult for
those with less than graduate educa­
tion to enter health adm inistration in
top m anagem ent positions. In addi­
tion, som e adm inistrative jobs will

continue to be filled by registered
nurses, physicians, and members of
religious communities.
Em ployment of health services ad­
m in istra to rs is ex p e cted to grow
m uch faster than the average for all
occupations to 1985 as the quantity
o f p a tie n t services increases and
h e a lth serv ic es m an ag e m en t b e ­
com es m ore complex. The dem and
for adm inistrators will be stimulated
by th e fo rm a tio n o f m ore g roup
medical practices and health m ainte­
nance organizations (facilities th at
offer subscribers a broad range of
medical services for a monthly fee
paid in ad v a n ce). A d m in istrato rs
also will be needed in nursing and
convalescent homes to handle the in­
creasing am ount o f adm inistrative
work expected as these facilities ex­
pand in size.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of hospital adm inistrators
depend on factors such as the level of
job responsibility; the size, type, and
location of the hospital; and the size
of its administrative staff and budget.
Chief adm inistrators in hospitals
with up to 199 beds earned an aver­
age of \$25,500 a year in 1976. Some,
in la rg e r h o sp ita ls, e a rn e d o v er
\$45,000. R ecent recipients of m as­
te r’s degrees in health administration
starting work in V eterans Adminis­
t r a t i o n (V A ) h o s p ita ls e a r n e d
\$14,097 a year in 1977. The average
salary paid adm inistrators of Federal
hospitals was \$26,700.
Commissioned officers in the
Armed Forces who work as hospital
adm inistrators hold ranks ranging
from second lieutenant to colonel or
from ensign to captain. Commanding
officers of large Armed Forces hospi­
tals are generally physicians, who
may hold higher ranks. Hospital ad­
m inistrators in the U.S. Public Health
Service are com m issioned officers
holding ranks ranging from lieuten­
ant (junior grade) to captain in the
Navy.
Adm inistrators of nursing and p e r­
sonal care hom es usually earn lower
salaries than those paid hospital ad­
m inistrators in facilities having simi­
lar num bers of beds. Most adminis­
trators em ployed by voluntary health

agencies earn ed betw een \$15,000
and \$30,000 a year in 1976.
H ealth adm inistrators often work
long hours. Because health facilities
such as nursing hom es and hospitals
operate around the clock, adminis­
trators in these institutions may be
called at all hours to settle em ergen­
cy problem s. Also, som e travel may
be required to attend m eetings or, in
the case o f regional, State or local
public health d epartm ent and volun­
tary health agency adm inistrators, to
inspect facilities in the field.

Information
tration and the academ ic program s in
this field offered by universities, col­
leges, and com m unity colleges is
available from:
American College of Hospital Administration,
840 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago,
Illinois 60611.
Association of University Programs in Health
Administration, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
American Public Health Association, Division
of Program Services, 1015 18th St., NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
National Health Council, Health Careers Pro­
gram, 1740 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
10019.
American College of Nursing Home Adminis­
trators, 4650 East-West Hwy., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20014.

H IS TO R IA N S
(D .O .T. 052.038 and .088)

Nature of the Work
History is the record o f past
events, institutions, ideas, and peo­
ple. Historians describe and analyze
the past through writing, teaching,
and re s e a rc h . T h ey re la te th e ir
know ledge o f the p ast to cu rren t
events in an effort to explain the pre­
sent.
Historians may specialize in the
history of a specific country or area,
or era—ancient, m edieval, or m od­
ern. They also may specialize in the
history of a field, such as economics,

Some historians are adm inistrators in
governm ent or researchers who p re­
pare studies, articles, and books on
their findings.

Places of Employment

Colleges and universities employ about
70 percent of all historians.

m edicine and disease, philosophy, re ­
ligion, science, culture, military af­
fairs, the labor m ovem ent, art, or a r­
c h ite c tu re . O th e r sp e c ia ltie s a re
concerned with historic preservation,
women, business, archives, quantita­
tive analysis, and the relationship b e ­
tw een technological and o th er as­
pects of historical developm ent.
In this country, many historians
specialize in the social or political
history of either the United States o r
m odem Europe; however, a growing
num ber are specializing in African,
Latin Am erican, Asian, or N ear East­
ern history. Some historians special­
ize in phases of a larger historical
field, such as the A m erican Civil
War.
M ost historians work in colleges
and universities and are prim arily
concerned with teaching. They often
lecture, write, and do research o u t­
side the academ ic setting. O ther his­
torians em ployed in colleges and uni­
versities are involved in research and
d ev elo p m en t, ad m in istratio n , and
other non-teaching activities. Some
specialists, called archivists, work for
museums, special libraries, historical
societies, and o th er organizations.
They co llect historical docum ents
and objects, prepare historical exhib­
its, and edit and classify historical
m aterials for use in research and o th ­
er activities. A growing num ber of
historians are concerned with the in­
terpretation and preservation of his­
to ric b u ild in g s, tre a s u re s , d o c u ­
ments, and other items. A few serve
as consultants to editors, publishers,
and producers of m aterials for radio,
te le v is io n , an d m o tio n p ic tu re s .

An estim ated 22,500 persons
worked as professional historians in
1976, excluding those teaching in
secondary schools. Colleges and uni­
versities employ about seventy p er­
cent of all historians. Historians also
work in archives, libraries, museums,
research organizations, historical so­
cieties, publishing firms, large corpo­
rations, and governm ent agencies.
Historians employed in the Federal
Governm ent work principally in the
National Archives, Smithsonian In­
stitution, or in the Departm ents of
Defense, Interior, and State. O ther
Federal agencies that employ histori­
ans include the National Aeronautics
and Space A dm inistration, Central
Intelligence Agency, National Secu­
rity Agency, and the Departm ents of
Agriculture, Com merce, Transporta­
tion, and Health, Education and W el­
fare. A small but growing num ber
w ork fo r S tate and local govern­
ments.
Historians are employed in virtual­
ly all U.S. institutions of higher edu­
cation. M ost historians who work for
th e F e d e ra l G o v e rn m e n t are in
W ashington, D.C. Historians in o th ­
er types of employment usually work
in localities having museums or li­
braries with collections adequate for
historical research.

Training, Other Qualifications,
G raduate education usually is n ec­
essary for em ploym ent as a historian.
A m aster’s degree in history is the
minimum requirem ent for the posi­
tion of college instructor. A Ph. D.
degree usually is required for a p ro ­
fessorship and for administrative po­
sitions, and almost always is neces­
sary to gain tenure.
W hile historians in the F ederal
G overnm ent generally must have 24
sem ester hours in history, require­
ments may vary for certain specialists
such as archivists, who usually must
have 30 hours of graduate work in
history. Most historians in the F eder­
a l

al G overnm ent and in nonprofit o r­
ganizations have Ph. D. degrees, or
their equivalent in training and expe­
rience.
A lthough a bach elor’s degree with
a m ajor in history is sufficient train­
ing for som e beginning jobs in gov­
ernm ent— either Federal, State, or
lo cal— advan cem en t opportunities
may be lim ited for persons w ithout at
least a m aster’s and preferably a Ph.
D. degree in history. Since beginning
jobs are likely to be concerned with
collection and p reservation of his­
torical data, a knowledge of archival
Training for historians is available
in many colleges and universities.
Over 1,250 schools offer program s
for the b ach elo r’s degree; about 440,
the m aster’s; and about 145, d o cto r­
ates.
H istory cu rricu lu m s in the N a­
tio n ’s colleges and universities are
varied; however, each basically pro­
vides training in research m ethods,
writing, and speaking. These are the
basic skills essential for historians in
all positions. Q uantitative m ethods
o f analysis, including statistical and
com puter techniques, are increasing­
ly im portant for historians; many col­
lege program s include them . M ost
d o c to ra l c a n d id a te s m u st ex h ib it
com petence in a foreign language.
Historians spend a great deal of
time studying, doing research, w rit­
ing p apers and reports, and giving
lectures and presentations. T here­
fore, they m ust possess analytical
skills and the ability to com m unicate
their ideas effectively, orally and in
writing. T he ability to work both
independently and as p art of a group
also is essential.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f historians is ex­
pected to grow more slowly than the
av£ age for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. Job openings will re­
sult chiefly from deaths, retirem ents,
and other separations from the labor
force.
Only a small num ber of historians
will be needed to fill positions in
colleges and universities, junior col­
leges, libraries, archives, museums,
secondary schools, research organi­
zations, publishing firms, and govern­
132

m ent agencies. Persons with training
in historical specialties such as his­
toric preservation and business histo­
ry, in addition to those well-trained
in quantitative m ethods in historical
research are expected to have the
m ost fav o rab le jo b o p p o rtu n ities.
Those who are able to teach several
areas of history should have the best
opportunities for jobs in colleges and
universities.
Although inform ation is limited on
patterns o f entry to the field, it is
clear th at the num ber of persons
seeking to enter the occupation will
greatly exceed available positions.
As a result, historians with a Ph. D.
are expected to face keen com peti­
tion for positions through the mid1980’s. Those graduating from pres­
tigious universities should have some
advantage in this highly com petitive
situation. Since academ ic institutions
a re th e tra d itio n a l em p lo y ers o f
many highly qualified historians and
com petition for these jobs is expect­
ed to be particularly keen, many Ph.
D .’s are expected to accep t p arttim e, tem porary assignm ents as in­
structors with little o r no hope o f
gaining tenure. Persons with the m as­
te r’s degree in history will encounter
very keen com petition for jobs as his­
torians. However, some of them will
find teaching positions in com m unity
and junior colleges or high schools;
such jobs may have State certifica­
tion requirem ents.
People with a bachelor’s degree in
history are likely to find very limited
opportunities for em ploym ent as p ro ­
fessional historians. However, an u n ­
d erg rad u ate m ajor in history p ro ­
vides an excellent background for
some jobs in international relations,
journalism , and other areas, and for
continuing education in law, business
a d m in stra tio n , and re la te d d isc i­
plines. Many graduates will find jobs
in secondary schools or in govern­
m ent, business, and industry as m an­
agem ent or sales trainees, or as re ­
search or adm inistrative assistants.

Earnings
A ccording to the 1975-76 College
P lacem ent C ouncil Survey, b ac h e­
lo r’s degree candidates in the social
sciences received offers averaging
around \$10,000 a year; m aster’s d e ­

gree candidates in the social scienc­
es, around \$12,000.
According to inform ation from the
A m erican Historical Association,
large public colleges and universities
offered starting salaries ranging from
year 1975-76. Smaller public and pri­
vate academ ic institutions generally
offered lower salaries. Full professors
and top ad m in istrato rs may earn
\$25-\$30,000 a year or more. In gen­
eral, salaries of experienced histori­
ans are higher than the average for
all nonsupervisory workers in private
industry, except farming.
The Civil Service Commission rec­
ognizes education and experience in
certifying applicants for entry level
positions in the Federal Governm ent.
In general, historians having a bache­
lor’s degree could start at \$9,303 or
\$11,523 a year in 1977, depending
upon the applicant’s academ ic rec­
ord. Starting salaries for those having
a m aster’s degree were \$14,097 a
year, and for those having a Ph. D.,
\$17,056. Historians and archivists in
the F ederal G overnm ent averaged
around \$22,400 a year in 1977.
Many historians, particularly those
in college teaching, supplem ent their
income by teaching summer classes,
writing books or articles, or giving
lectures.

Information
Additional information on careers
and job openings for historians, and
on schools offering various programs
in history, is available from:
American Historical Association, 400 A St.
SE., Washington, D.C. 20003.

For inform ation on careers and
schools offering programs in historic
preservation, contact:
National Trust for Historic Preservation, 740
Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20006.

A dditional inform ation on n o n ­
teaching opportunities for historians
is available from:
Organization of American Historians, Indiana
University, 112 North Bryan St., Bloom­
ington, Ind. 47401.

H O M E EC O N O M IS TS
(D.O.T. 096.128)

Nature of the Work
Hom e econom ists w ork to improve
products, services, and practices that
affect the com fort and well-being of
the family. Some specialize in specif­
ic areas, such as consum er econom ­
ics, h o u sin g , h om e m an ag e m en t,
hom e fu rn ish in g s and eq u ip m en t,
food and nutrition, clothing and tex­
tiles, an d child d e v e lo p m e n t and
family relations. O thers have a broad
knowledge of the whole professional
field.
M ost hom e econom ists teach.
Those in high schools teach students
about foods and nutrition; clothing
selection, construction and care;
child developm ent; consum er educa­
tion; housing and hom e furnishings;
family relations; and o th er subjects
related to family living and hom e­
making. They also perform the regu­
lar duties o f other high school teach­
e r s t h a t a r e d e s c r i b e d in th e
s ta te m e n t on s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l
teachers elsew here in the Handbook.
T eachers in adult education pro­
grams help men and wom en to in­
crease their understanding of family
relations and to im prove their hom e­
m aking skills. T hey also co n d u c t
tra in in g p ro g ra m s on se c o n d a ry ,
postsecondary, and adult levels for
jobs related to hom e econom ics. Spe­
cial em phasis is given to teaching
those w ho are d isad v an tag ed and
handicapped. College teachers may
com bine teaching and research and
often specialize in a particular area
of hom e econom ics.
Hom e econom ists em ployed by
ciations prom ote the developm ent,
use, and care o f specific hom e prod­
ucts. T hey m ay do re searc h , test
p ro d u c ts , an d p re p a re a d v e rtise ­
m ents and in stru ctio n al m aterials.
They also may prepare and present
program s for radio and television;
serve as consultants; give lectures
and dem onstrations before the pub­
lic; and conduct classes for sales per­
sons and appliance service workers.
Some hom e econom ists study con­
sum er needs and help m anufacturers
tra n s la te th ese n eed s in to useful
products.

Some hom e econom ists conduct
research for the F ed eral G o v ern ­
m ent, State agricultural experim ent
stations, colleges, universities, and
private organizations. The U.S. D e­
partm ent o f Agriculture employs the
largest group o f researchers to do
work such as study the buying and
spending habits o f families in all so­
cio ec o n o m ic g roups and d evelop
budget guides.
Home econom ists who work for
the C ooperative Extension Service
conduct adult education program s
and 4-H Club and other youth p ro ­
grams in areas such as hom e m anage­
m ent, consum er education, family
relations, and nutrition. Extension
Service hom e econom ists also train
and supervise volunteer leaders and
paid aides w ho te a c h ad u lts and
youth. (See statem ent on C oopera­
tive Extension Service workers else­
where in the Handbook.)
Federal, State, and local govern­
m ents and private agencies employ
hom e econom ists in social welfare
program s to advise and counsel cli­
ents on the practical knowledge and
skills needed for effective everyday
family living. They also may help
handicapped hom em akers and their
families adjust to physical as well as

social and em otional limitations by
changing the arrangem ents in the
home; finding efficient ways to m an­
age activities of daily living; aiding in
the design, selection, and arrange­
m ent o f equipm ent; and creating o th ­
er m ethods and devices to enable dis­
abled people to function at th eir
highest possible level. O ther hom e
econom ists in welfare agencies su­
pervise o r train workers who provide
te m p o ra ry o r p a rt-tim e h elp to
households disrupted by illness.
Home economists in health serv­
ices provide special help and guid­
ance in home m anagem ent, consum ­
er education, and family econom ics
as these relate to family health and
well-being. Activities of hom e econo­
mists working in health programs in­
clude the following: collaboration
and consultation with other profes­
sionals on economic and home m an­
agem ent needs of patients and their
families; d irect service to patients
through hom e visits; clinic dem on­
strations and classes in homemaking
skills and child care; counseling in
the m anagem ent of time and resourc­
es, including financial aspects; assist­
ing socially and m entally h a n d i­
capped parents in developing their
p o ten tial skills for child care and

Some home economists work with children.
133

hom e m an ag em en t; w orking w ith
agencies and com m unity resources;
and supervising hom em aker aides.

Places of Employment
A bout 141,000 people w orked in
h o m e e c o n o m ic s p ro f e s s io n s in
1976. This figure includes 45,000 di­
etitians and 5,600 C ooperative Ex­
tension Service w orkers who are dis­
c u s s e d in s e p a r a t e s t a t e m e n t s
elsew here in the Handbook.
A bout 75,000 hom e econom ists
are teach ers, ab out 50,000 in sec­
ondary schools and 7,000 in colleges
and universities. M ore than 15,000
are adult education instructors, some
of whom teach p art tim e in second­
ary schools. O thers teach in com m u­
nity co lleg es, e lem e n ta ry schools,
kindergartens, nursery schools, and
recreation centers.
M ore th an 5,000 hom e econom ists
work in private business firms and
associations. Several thousand are in
re s e a rc h an d so cial w elfare p ro ­
grams. A few are self-employed.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A bout 350 colleges and universi­
ties offer a b ach elo r’s degree in hom e
econom ics, which qualifies graduates
for m ost entry positions in the field.
A m aster’s o r d o c to r’s degree is re­
quired for college teaching, for cer­
tain research and supervisory posi­
tio n s , fo r w o rk as an e x te n sio n
specialist, and for m ost jobs in nutri­
tion.
Hom e econom ics m ajors study sci­
ences and liberal arts—particularly
social sciences—as well as special­
ized hom e econom ics courses. They
may co n centrate in a particular area
o f hom e econom ics o r in w hat is
called general hom e econom ics. A d­
vanced courses in chem istry and nu­
tritio n are im p o rtan t for w ork in
foods and nutrition; science and sta­
tistics for research work; and journal­
ism for advertising, public relations
work, and all other work in the com ­
m u nications field. To teach hom e
econom ics in high school, students
m ust com plete the courses required
for a te a c h e r’s certificate.
Scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships are available for under­
134

g ra d u a te and g ra d u ate study. A l­
though colleges and universities offer
m ost o f these financial grants, gov­
ernm ent agencies, research founda­
tions, businesses, and the A m erican
Hom e Econom ics Association F oun­
dation provide additional funds for
Hom e econom ists m ust be able to
work with people of various incom es
and cultural backgrounds and should
have a capacity for leadership. Poise
and an interest in people also are
essential for those who deal with the
public. The ability to write and speak
well is im portant. Am ong the sub­
jects recom m ended for high school
students interested in careers in this
field are hom e econom ics, speech,
English, health, m athem atics, chem ­
istry, and the social sciences.

Employment Outlook
Home economists, especially those
wishing to teach in high schools, will
face keen com petition for jobs
through the m id-1980’s. O ther areas
of hom e econom ics also will experi­
ence com petitive job m arket condi­
tions as those unable to find teaching
jobs look for other positions. How­
ever, for those willing to continue
their education toward an advanced
d eg ree, em p lo y m en t p ro sp ects in
college and university teaching are
expected to be good.
Although little change is expected
in the em ploym ent of hom e econo­
mists, many jobs will becom e avail­
able each year to replace those who
die, retire, or leave the field for other
reasons. The growth that is expected
to occur will result from increasing
awareness of the contributions th at
can be m ade by hom e economists in
child care, nutrition, housing and fur­
nishings design, clothing and textiles,
consum er education, and ecology.
They also will be needed to prom ote
home products, to act as consultants
to consum ers, and to do research for
im provem ent of hom e products and
services.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Home econom ics teachers in p u b ­
lic schools generally receive the same
salaries as other teachers. In 1976,
the average annual salary for public

s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l te a c h e r s w as
\$12,395, according to the National
E d u c a tio n A sso ciatio n . T ea ch ers
with a bachelor’s degree in school
systems with enrollm ents of 6,000 or
m ore received starting salaries aver­
aging \$8,233 per year in the 1974-75
school year. Beginning teachers with
a m aster’s degree started at \$9,159 a
year. Annual salaries for teachers at
the college and university level in
1975-76 ranged from an average
minimum of \$7,272 for instructors in
private 2 -year institutions to an aver­
age maximum of \$25,387 for profes­
sors at 4-year public institutions.
The Federal Governm ent paid
hom e econom ists with bachelor’s de­
grees starting salaries of \$9,300 and
\$11,500 in 1977, depending on their
scholastic record. Those with addi­
tional education and experience gen­
e ra lly e a r n e d fro m \$1 1 ,5 0 0 to
\$20,400 or more, depending on the
type of position and level of responsi­
bility. In 1977, the Federal G overn­
m ent paid experienced home econo­
mists average salaries of \$20,500 a
year.
Cooperative Extension Service
workers on the county level averaged
\$14,000 per year in 1976; those on
the State level received substantially
higher salaries. In general, hom e
econom ists earn about 1 1 /2 times as
m uch as the average for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private industry,
except farming.
Home economists usually work a
40-hour week. Those in teaching and
extension service positions, however,
freq u en tly work longer hours b e ­
cause they are expected to be avail­
able for evening lectures, dem onstra­
tions, and other work. Most hom e
econom ists receive fringe benefits,
such as paid vacation, sick leave, re­
tirem ent pay, and insurance benefits.

Information
A list of schools granting degrees
in home economics and additional
inform ation about hom e economics
careers and graduate scholarships
are available from:
American Home Economics Association,
2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036

HOTEL M A N A G ER S A ND
A SS IS TA N TS
(D .O .T. 163.118 and 187.118,
.168)

Nature of the Work
Hotel m anagers are responsible for
operating their establishm ents profit­
ably and satisfying guests. They d e­
term ine room rates and credit policy,
direct the operation o f the kitchen
and dining rooms, and m anage the
housekeeping, accounting, and m ain­
ten an ce d ep artm en ts o f the hotel.
Handling problem s and coping with
the unexpected is an im portant part
o f the job.
M anagers who work in small hotels
may do m uch o f the front office
clerical w ork, such as taking room
reservations and assigning rooms. In
some small hotels and m any m otels,
the m anager is also the owner and
may be responsible for all aspects of
G eneral m anagers o f large hotels
usually have several assistants who
m anage various parts o f the opera­
tion. B ecause the h otel restau ran t
and cocktail lounge are im portant to
the success o f the entire establish­
m ent, they alm ost always are operat­
ed by m anagers with experience in
the restaurant field. O ther areas that
usually are handled separately are
advertising, ren tal o f b an q u et and
m eeting facilities, personnel, and ac­
counting.
Large hotel and m otel chains often
centralize some activities, such as

General managers of large hotels usually
have several assistants who manage var­
ious parts of the operation.

individual hotels in the chain may not
n ee d m an ag ers for th ese d e p a rt­
m e n ts. M a n a g e rs w ho w o rk fo r
chains may be assigned to organize a
newly built or purchased hotel or to
reorganize an existing hotel or m otel
that is not operating successfully.
A bout 137,000 hotel and m otel
m anagers worked in 1976. M ore
than a third were self-employed.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Experience generally is the m ost
im portant consideration in selecting
managers. However, employers in­
creasingly are em phasizing college
education. A b a c h e lo r’s degree in
hotel and restaurant adm inistration
provides particularly strong prepara­
tion for a career in hotel m anage­
ment. In 1976, about 30 colleges and
universities offered 4-year program s
in this field. However, applicants to
these program s may face increasing
com petition in the coming years. T he
courses in hotel work that are avail­
able in m any ju n io r colleges and
technical institutes and through the
Am erican Hotel and M otel Associ­
atio n also p ro v id e a good b a c k ­
ground.
A college program in hotel m an­
agem ent usually includes courses in
h o tel a d m in istra tio n , ac co u n tin g ,
econom ics, d a ta processing, food
service m anagem ent and catering,
and hotel m aintenance engineering.
Students are encouraged to work in
hotels or restaurants during sum m er
v acations because the ex perience
gained and the contacts m ade with
employers may help them to get b e t­
ter hotel jobs after graduation.
M anagers should have initiative,
self-discipline, and the ability to o r­
ganize work and direct the work o f
others. They m ust be able to concen­
trate on details and solve problem s.
Some large hotels have special onth e-jo b m an ag em en t train e e p ro ­
grams in which trainees rotate am ong
various d ep a rtm en ts to acquire a
thorough knowledge o f the h o tel’s
o p eratio n . O utstanding em ployees
who have not had college training
may receive financial assistance to
help them acquire a degree.

Most hotels prom ote employees
with proven ability, usually front of­
fice clerks, to assistant m anager and
eventually to general manager. New­
ly built hotels, p articu larly those
w ithout well-established on-the-job
training programs, often prefer expe­
rienced personnel for managerial po­
sitions. Hotel chains may offer better
opportunites for advancem ent than
independent hotels, because employ­
ees can transfer to another hotel in
the chain or to the central office if an
opening occurs.

Employment Outlook
Employment of hotel m anagers is
expected to grow m ore slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Some job
openings will occur as additional ho­
tels and motels are built and chain
and fran ch ise o p e ra tio n s spread .
However, most openings will occur
as experienced managers die, retire,
or leave the occupation. Applicants
having college degrees in hotel ad­
m inistration will have an advantage
in seeking entry positions and later
See the statem ent on the Hotel
Industry elsewhere in the Handbook
for inform ation on earnings and
working conditions, sources of addi­
mation on em ploym ent outlook.

IN D U S TR IA L DESIG NERS
(D.O.T. 142.081)

Nature of the Work
W hen people buy a product,
whether it’s a home appliance, a new
car, or a ball point pen, they want it
to be as attractive, safe, and easy to
use as possible. Industrial designers
com bine artistic talent with knowl­
edge o f m arketing, m aterials, and
m ethods o f production to improve
the appearance and functional design
of products so that they com pete fa­
vorably with similar goods on the
market.
As the first step in their work, in­
dustrial designers com pare the prod135

Places of Employment
A bout 12,000 persons were em ­
ployed as in d u strial designers in
1976. Most worked for large m anu­
facturing com panies designing either
consum er or industrial products or
for design consulting firms. Others
did freelance work, or were on the
staffs of architectural and interior de­
sign firms. A few taught industrial
art schools.
Industrial design consultants work
mainly in large cities such as New
York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San
Francisco. Industrial designers with
industrial firms usually work in or
near the m anufacturing plants of
their com panies, which often are
located in small and medium-sized
cities.

Training, Other Qualifications,

u c t with com peting p roducts, and
gather inform ation about such things
as the needs of the user of the prod­
uct, fashion trends, and effects of the
p ro d u ct on its environm ent. A fter
the initial research, industrial design­
ers sketch different designs and con­
sult with engineers, production su­
p e rv is o rs , and sales and m a rk e t
research personnel about the practi­
cability and sales appeal of each idea.
Team w ork is im p o rtant to get the
best inform ation ab out specialized
areas o f concern, such as engineering
problem s o r new production or m ar­
keting m ethods.
A fter com pany officials select the
most suitable design, the industrial
designer or a professional m odeler
makes a m odel, often of clay so that
it can be easily changed. After any
necessary revisions, a final or w ork­
ing m odel is m ade, usually of the m a­
terial to be used in the finished prod­
uct. The approved m odel then is put
into production.
Although most industrial designers
are pro d u ct designers, many others
136

employed by business organizations
are involved in different facets of d e ­
sign. Some industrial designers seek
to create favorable public images for
com panies and for governm ent serv­
ices such as transportation by devel­
oping tradem arks or symbols that app e a r o n t h e f i r m ’s p r o d u c t ,
advertising, brochures, and statio ­
nery. Some design containers and
packages that both protect and p ro ­
mote their contents. O thers prepare
small display exhibits or the entire
layout for industrial fairs. Some d e­
sign the interior layout of special p u r­
pose com m ercial buildings such as
restaurants and superm arkets.
C orporate designers em ployed by
a m anufacturing com pany usually
work only on the products made by
their employer. This may involve fill­
ing day-to-day design needs of the
com pany or long-range planning o f
new products. C onsultant designers
who serve more than one industrial
firm often plan and design a great
variety of products.

Com pleting a course of study in
industrial design in an art school, in
the design or art departm ent o f a
university, or in a technical college is
the usual requirem ent for entering
this field of work. Persons majoring
in engineering, architecture, and fine
arts may qualify as industrial design­
ers if they have appropriate experi­
ence and artistic talent. Most large
m anufacturing firms hire only indus­
trial designers who have a bachelor’s
degree in the field.
In 1976, 33 colleges and art
schools offered programs in industri­
al design that were either accredited
by th e N a tio n a l A sso c ia tio n o f
Schools of A rt or recognized by the
In d u s tria l D e sig n e rs S o ciety o f
America.
Industrial design programs may
take either 4 or 5 years, and lead to a
bachelor’s degree in industrial design
or fine arts. Some schools require
applicants to submit sketches and
other examples of their artistic ability
for prior approval. Some schools also
award a m aster’s degree in industrial
design.
Industrial design programs differ
considerably among schools. M ost
college and university programs
maintain a balance between science,
hum anities, and art; art schools gen­
erally stress a strong foundation in

art. In m ost program s, students spend
m uch tim e in the lab designing ob­
jects in three dim ensions. In studio
courses, students m ake m odels with
clay, w ood, plaster, and other easily
w orked m aterials. In schools th at
have the necessary m achinery, stu­
dents m ake m odels o f their designs
while learning to use m etalworking
and w oodw orking m achinery. Stu­
dents also take courses in drawing,
drafting, and other visual com m uni­
cations skills.
M any industrial design program s,
particularly those th at are part o f a
liberal arts college or university, also
include courses in basic engineering,
in the physical and natural sciences,
in the behavioral sciences, and in
tion.
Industrial designers m ust have cre­
ative talent, drawing skills, and the
ability to see familiar objects in new
ways. T h ey m ust u n d e rsta n d and
m eet the needs and tastes o f the pub­
lic, ra th e r than design only to suit
their own artistic sensitivity. Design­
ers should not be discouraged when
th eir ideas are re je c te d —often de­
signs m u st be re s u b m itte d m any
times before one is accepted. Since
industrial designers m ust cooperate
with engineers and o th er staff m em ­
bers, the ability to work and com m u­
nicate with others is im portant. A
sound understanding o f m arketing,
sales w ork, and oth er business prac­
tices is im portant for design consul­
tants.
A pplicants for jobs should assem­
ble a “ p o rtfo lio ” o f draw ings and
sketches to dem o n strate th eir cre­
ativity and ability to com m unicate
ideas.
New graduates o f industrial design
program s frequently do simple as­
signments for experienced designers.
As they gain experience, they may
becom e supervisors w ith m ajor re­
sponsibility for the design o f a prod­
u ct or a group o f products. Those
who have an established reputation
and the necessary funds may start
their own consulting firms.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent in this relatively
small occupation is expected to grow
more slowly than the average for all

occupations. In recent years, the
trend has been away from frequent
redesign o f household products, au ­
tom obiles, and industrial equipm ent.
However, continued em phasis on is­
sues such as ecology and p ro d u c t
safety should increase dem and for in­
dustrial designers.
D em and for industrial designers
may fluctuate over short-run periods.
During econom ic dow nturns when
the m arket for new products is dam p­
ened, the need for these workers also
tends to decline.
Em ploym ent opportunities are ex­
pected to be best for college gradu­
ates with degrees in industrial design.
In a d d itio n to openings re su ltin g
from growth, some em ploym ent o p ­
portunities will arise each year as d e­
signers die, retire, or transfer to other
fields.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries for inexperienced industri­
al designers with a bachelor’s degree
gen erally ra n g ed from \$ 9 ,0 0 0 to
\$12,000 a year in 1976, according to
limited data. A fter several years’ ex­
p e r ie n c e , it is p o ssib le to e a rn
\$14,000 to \$18,000 a year. Salaries
o f those with many years of experi­
ence averaged m ore than \$25,000 a
year in 1976, but varied according to
individual talen t and the size and
type of firm.
Earnings of industrial designers
who own their consulting firms fluc­
tuate greatly, but in general tend to
be higher than the average earnings
of corporate industrial designers.
Industrial designers generally work
a 5-day, 35-40 hour week, with occa­
sional overtim e necessary to m eet
prod u ctio n deadlines. Independent
consultants, who often are paid by
th e assignm ent, may w ork lo n g er
hours.

Information
A brochure about careers and a list
o f schools offering courses and d e ­
grees in industrial design are avail­
able for 50 cents from:
Industrial Designers Society of America, 1750
Old Meadow Rd., McLean, Va. 22101.

IN D U S T R IA L TR AFFIC
M ANAG ERS
(D.O.T. 184.168)

Nature of the Work
Industrial firms want to receive
raw m aterials and deliver custom ers’
goods prom ptly, safely, and with
minimum cost. Arranging for the
transportation of m aterials and fin­
ished products is the job of an indus­
trial traffic manager. Industrial traf­
fic m a n a g e r s a n a ly z e v a r io u s
tr a n s p o r ta t io n p o s s ib ilitie s an d
choose the m ost efficient type for
th e ir c o m p a n ie s’ n e e d s—rail, air,
road, w ater, pipeline, o r some com bi­
nation. T hen they select the route
and the particular carrier. To m ake
their decision, traffic managers con­
sider factors such as freight classifi­
c a tio n s a n d re g u la tio n s , fre ig h t
charges, time schedules, size o f ship­
ments, and loss and damage ratios.
(This statem ent does not cover traf­
fic m anagers who sell transportation
services for railroads, airlines, tru ck ­
ing firms, and other freight carriers.)
Activities of industrial traffic m an­
agers range from checking freight
bills to deciding whether the com pa­
ny should buy its own fleet of rail
cars or trucks or contract for servic­
es. They route and trace shipments,
arrange with carriers for transporta­
tion services, prepare bills of lading
and other shipping docum ents, and
handle claim s for lost or dam aged
goods. Traffic m anagers keep re c ­
ords of shipm ents, freight rates, com ­
modity classifications, and applicable
governm ent regulations. They also
must stay inform ed about changing
transportation technology.
Traffic managers often consult
with other company officials about
the firm ’s transportation needs. They
may, for example, work with produc­
tion departm ent personnel to plan
shipping schedules, or with mem bers
o f the purchasing departm ent to de­
term ine what quantities of goods can
be transported most economically.
Since many aspects of transporta­
tion are subject to Federal, State, and
local governm ent regulations, traffic
m anagers must know about these and
any other legal m atters that apply to
137

Industrial traffic managers arrange the transportation of materials and finished
products.

th e ir c o m p a n ie s ’ sh ip p in g o p e r a ­
tions. High level traffic m anagers
re p re s e n t th e ir co m p an ie s b efo re
ra te m ak in g and re g u lato ry bodies
such as th e In te rsta te C om m erce
Com mission, State commissions, and
local traffic bureaus.

Places of Employment
M ore than 21,000 persons were
involved in industrial traffic m anage­
m ent in 1976. A lthough m ost jobs
are found in m an ufacturing firm s,
som e tra ffic m a n a g e rs w ork fo r
wholesalers or for large retail stores.
Some traffic m anagers work for con­
sulting firms th at handle transporta­
tion problem s for clients; a few run
their own consulting businesses.
138

Training, Other Qualifications,
A lthough high school graduates
with ex p erien ce in traffic d e p a rt­
ments som etim es are hired as traffic
managers, a college education is in ­
creasingly im portant in this field. F or
some kinds o f work, college training
is required. To argue cases before th e
In terstate C om m erce C om m ission,
for exam ple, a traffic m anager m ust
m eet standards that include at least 2
years o f college. Som e em ployers
p refer g ra d u ates o f technical an d
trade school program s in traffic m an­
agem ent. O thers seek college and
university graduates who have either
m ajored, or taken courses, in tran s­
portation, logistics, physical distribu­
tion, m anagem ent, econom ics, statis­

tics, m arketing, com puter science,
and com m ercial law.
Industrial traffic training is avail­
able through colleges and universi­
ties, technical and trade schools, and
sem inars sponsored by professional
associations. M ore than 100 colleges
and universities offer program s or
courses in traffic m anagem ent. C ol­
lege courses in this field often are
offered as part o f a m ajor program in
leges and universities, however, traf­
fic m anagem ent is taught in d ep art­
m ents o f logistics, transportation, or
m arketing and distribution. In addi­
tion to degree program s at the asso­
ciate, b ac calau reate, and graduate
levels, a num ber of colleges and uni­
versities offer workshops, seminars,
and o th e r short-term program s in
tran sp o rtatio n and traffic m anage­
ment.
Industrial traffic m anagers should
be able to analyze num erical and
technical data such as freight rates
and classifications to solve transpor­
tatio n problem s. T he jo b also re ­
quires th e ability to work indepen­
d e n tly an d to p re s e n t fa c ts an d
figures in a convincing m anner.
Newly hired traffic specialists of­
ten co m p lete shipping docu m en ts
and calculate freight charges. A fter
gaining experience, they do m ore
tec h n ic a l w ork such as analyzing
tran sp o rtatio n statistics. A com pe­
tent w orker may advance to a super­
visory jo b such as supervisor o f rates
and routes; a few are prom oted to
assistant traffic m anager and eventu­
ally to traffic m anager. Industrial
traffic m anagers can sometimes help
th eir chances for advancem ent by
participating in com pany-sponsored
tra in in g p ro g ra m s o r ta k in g a d ­
vanced courses in traffic m anage­
ment. A growing num ber are certi­
fied by th e A m erican Society o f
Traffic and Transportation, Inc.

Employment Outlook
Industrial traffic m anagem ent is a
relatively small occupation and is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s. Openings will occur
each year as new jobs are created,
and as traffic m anagers die, retire, or
leave the field for other reasons. C ol­

lege graduates with a m ajor in traffic
m anagem ent or tran sp o rtatio n can
ex p e ct first co n sid eratio n for the
available jobs.
Grow th in the occupation will stem
from an increasing em phasis on re­
ducing the cost o f receiving raw m a­
terials and distributing finished prod­
u c ts . A s th e d i s ta n c e b e tw e e n
m arkets becom es g reater and rate
schedules and regulations governing
transportation m ore com plex, m anu­
facturers increasingly will require the
expertise o f the traffic m anager.

American Trucking Associations, Inc., 1616 P
St. NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.

F or in fo rm atio n on p ro p rie ta ry
schools that offer program s in traffic
m anagem ent, contact:
National Association of Trade and Technical
Schools, 2021 L St. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

IN S U R A N C E A G EN TS A ND
BROKERS

Earnings and Working
Conditions

(D.O.T. 250.258)

Industrial traffic specialists’ sala­
ries started at about \$ 11,000 a year
in 1976, according to the limited in­
form ation available. A lthough earn­
ings o f experienced traffic m anagers
vary, in general they are m uch higher
than the average for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private industry, ex­
cept farm ing. Some traffic executives
earned \$50,000 a year o r more.
A lthough industrial traffic m anag­
ers usually have a standard w ork­
week, some of them have to spend
time outside regular working hours
p reparing rep o rts, attending m eet­
ings, and traveling to hearings before
State and Federal regulatory agen­
cies.

Nature of the Work

Information

Insurance agents and brokers sell
policies th at protect individuals and
businesses against future losses and
financial pressures. They may help
plan financial protection to m eet the
special needs of a custom er’s family;
an autom obile, hom e, business, or
other property; or help a policyhold­
er obtain settlem ent o f an insurance
claim.
Agents and brokers usually sell
one or m ore of the three basic types
of insurance: life, property-liability
(casu alty ), and health. Life in su r­
ance agents, som etim es called life
underw riters, offer policies that pay
survivors when a policyholder dies.

Depending on the policyholder’s in­
dividual circum stances, a life policy
can be designed to provide retire­
m ent incom e, funds for the educa­
tion o f children, or other benefits.
Casualty insurance agents sell poli­
cies th a t p ro te c t in d iv id u al p o l­
icyholders from financial losses as a
result o f autom obile accidents, fire
or theft, or other losses. They also
sell industrial or com m ercial lines,
su ch as w o rk e rs ’ c o m p e n s a tio n ,
product liability, or medical m alprac­
tice insurance. Health insurance poli­
cies offer protection against the costs
o f hospital and medical care or loss
of incom e due to illness or injury,
and many life and casualty agents of­
fer health insurance in addition to
other lines. Many agents also offer
securities, such as m utual fund shares
or variable annuities.
An insurance agent may be either
an insurance com pany employee or
an independent business person au­
thorized to represent one insurance
com pany or more. Brokers are not
under exclusive co n tract with any
single com pany; instead, they place
policies directly with the com pany
that best m eets a client’s needs. O th­
erwise, agents and brokers do much
the same kind of work.
They spend most of their time dis­
cussing insurance needs with p ro ­
sp ec tiv e and existing cu sto m ers.
Some time must be spent in office
work to prepare reports, m aintain

Answers to specific questions
about a career in traffic m anagem ent
are available from:
American Society of Traffic and Transporta­
tion, Inc., 547 West Jackson Blvd., Chica­
go, 111. 60606.

For a list o f colleges, universities,
and technical institutes that offer in­
struction in transportation and relat­
ed areas, see: Directory o f Transpor­
tation Education, published in 1976
by the U.S. D epartm ent of Transpor­
tation (W ashington, D.C., U.S. Gov­
ernm ent Printing O ffice). The direc­
tory is available in m any school and
public libraries.
For a copy of the A m erican T ruck­
ing A ssociation’s Directory o f Trans­
portation Education in U.S. Colleges
and Universities, write:

Insurance agents plan insurance programs that are tailored to prospects’ needs.
139

re c o rd s, p lan in su ran ce program s
th at are tailored to prospects’ needs,
and draw up lists o f prospective cus­
tom ers. Specialists in group policies
may help an em ployer’s accountants
set up a system o f payroll deductions
for em ployees covered by the policy.

Places of Employment
A bout 465,000 agents and brokers
sold insurance full tim e in 1976. In
addition, thousands o f others w orked
part time. A bout half o f the agents
and brokers specialized in life insur­
ance; the rest, in some type of property/liability insurance. A growing
num ber o f agents (called m ulti-line
agents) offer both life and propertyliability policies to th eir custom ers.
Agents and brokers are em ployed
in cities and towns throughout the
country, b u t m ost work near large
population centers.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A lthough many em ployers prefer
college graduates for jobs selling in­
surance, m ost will hire high school
graduates with p otential or proven
sales ability. C ollege training may
help the agent grasp the fundam en­
tals and procedures o f insurance sell­
ing m o re quickly. C ourses in a c ­
c o u n t i n g , e c o n o m ic s , f in a n c e ,
business law, and insurance subjects
All agents and m ost brokers m ust
obtain a license in the State where
they plan to sell insurance. In m ost
States, licenses are issued only to
applicants who pass w ritten exam ina­
tions covering insurance fundam en­
tals and the State insurance laws.
Agents who plan to sell m utual fund
shares and other securities also m ust
be licensed by the State. New agents
usually receive training at the agen­
cies where they will work and fre­
quently also at the insurance com pa­
n y ’s h o m e o f f i c e . B e g i n n e r s
so m etim es a tte n d c o m p a n y -sp o n ­
sored classes to prepare for exam ina­
tions. O thers study on their own and
accom pany experienced sales w ork­
ers when they call on prospective cli­
ents.
140

Agents and brokers can broaden
their knowledge of the insurance
business by taking courses at colleges
and universities and attending insti­
tu te s, c o n fe re n c e s, and sem in ars
sp o n so red by in su ran ce o rg an iza­
tions. The Life U nderw riter Training
Council (LU TC ) awards a diplom a
in life insurance m arketing to agents
who successfully com plete the C oun­
c il’s 2-year life program . T here is
also a course in health insurance. As
agents o r brokers gain experience
and knowledge, they can qualify for
th e C h a r te r e d L ife U n d e rw rite r
(C LU ) designation by passing a se­
ries o f exam inations given by the
A m erican College of Bryn Mawr, Pa.
In m uch the same way, a propertyliability agent can qualify for th e
C hartered Property Casualty U nder­
w riter (C PC U ) designation by pass­
ing a series of exam inations given by
the A m erican Institute for Property
and Liability Underwriters. The CLU
and CPCU designations are recog­
nized m arks o f achievem ent in their
respective fields.
Agents and brokers should be en ­
thusiastic, self-confident, and able to
com m unicate effectively. B ecause
agents usually work w ithout supervi­
sion, they need initiative to locate
new prospects. For this reason, many
em ployers seek peo p le who have
been successful in other jobs.
Insurance agents who show unusu­
al sales ability and leadership may
becom e a sales m anager in a local
office or assume a m anagerial job in
a hom e office. A few agents may ad ­
vance to top positions as agency su­
perintendents or com pany vice-presi­
dents. M any who have built up a
good clientele prefer to rem ain in
saleswork. Some, particularly in the
property-liability field, eventually es­
tablish their own independent agen­
cies or brokerage firms.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of insurance agents
and brokers is expected to grow
about as fast as the average for all
occupations through the m id-1980’s
as the volume of insurance" sales co n ­
tinues to expand. M any additional
jobs will open as agents and brokers
die, retire, or leave their jobs to seek

other work. Due to the highly com ­
petitive nature o f insurance selling,
many beginners leave the field be­
cause they are unable to establish a
sufficiently large clientele. T h ere­
fore, opportunities should be quite
favorable for am bitious people who
enjoy saleswork.
Future dem and for agents and
brokers depends on the volume of
insurance sales. Volume should in­
crease rapidly over the next decade
as a larger proportion of the popula­
tion enters the period o f peak earn­
ings and family responsibilities. Life
insurance sales should grow as m ore
families select policies designed to
provide educational funds for their
children and retirem ent income. Ris­
ing incom es also may stimulate the
sales of equity products such as m u­
tual funds, variable annuities, and
other investments. Sales of propertyliability in su ran ce should rise as
m ore co nsum er purchases are in­
sured and as complex types of com ­
mercial coverage, such as product li­
ability and w orkers’com pensation,
are expanded.
However, em ploym ent of agents
and brokers will not keep pace with
the rising level of insurance sales
because more policies will be sold to
groups and by mail. In addition, each
agent should be able to handle m ore
business as com puters take over
some of the time-consuming clerical
tasks. The trend toward multi-line
agents also will cause em ploym ent to
rise m ore slowly than the volume of
insurance sales.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginners in this occupation often
are guaranteed a m oderate salary
while they are learning the business
and building a clientele. In many
large com panies, new agents receive
about \$800 a month during this train­
ing period, which can last up to 6
months or longer. Thereafter, m ost
agents are paid on a commission ba­
sis. The size of the commission de­
pends on the type and am ount of in­
s u ra n c e so ld , an d w h e th e r th e
transaction is a new policy or a re­
newal. A fter a few years, an agent’s
commissions on new policies and re-

sion. Starting salaries can range from
the m inim um wage plus a small com ­
mission to a fixed salary o f \$140 a
week o r higher. Firms in large m etro­
politan areas usually pay the highest
salaries.
Some experienced interior design­
ers are paid straight salaries, some
receiv e salarie s plus com m issions
based on the value o f th eir sales,
while o th ers work entirely on com ­
missions.
Incom es of experienced designers
vary greatly. M any persons earn from
\$6,000 to \$12,000 a year, and highly
successful designers can earn m uch
m ore. A small num ber o f nationally
recognized professionals earn well
over \$50,000 annually.
The earnings of self-em ployed d e­
signers vary widely, depending on the
volume o f business, th eir profession­
al reputation, the econom ic level of
their clients, and their own business
com petence.
D esigners’ work hours are som e­
tim es long and irregular. Designers
usually adjust their workday to suit
the needs o f their clients, m eeting
with them during the evenings or on
w eekends when necessary.

Information
For inform ation about careers in
interior design and a list o f schools
offering program s in this field, con­
tact:
American Society of Interior Design, 730 Fifth
Ave., New York, N.Y. 10019.

IN TE R P R E TE R S
(D .O .T. 137.268)

Nature of the Work
Interpreters help people o f differ­
en t natio n s and d iffe ren t cultures
overcom e language barriers by trans­
lating what has been said by one per­
son into a language th a t can be un­
derstood by others.
T here are two basic types o f oral
translation or interpretation: simul­
taneous and consecutive. In sim ulta­
neous interpretation, the interpreter

translates w hat is being said in one
language as the speaker continues to
talk in another. This technique re ­
quires speed and fluency in the for­
eign language on the p art o f the in­
terp reter and it is m ade possible by
th e use o f e le c tro n ic eq u ip m en t,
which allows for the transm ission o f
the sim ultaneous speeches. C onfer­
ence in te rp re te rs often w ork in a
g lass-e n clo sed b o o th from w hich
they can see the speaker. W hile lis­
tening through earphones to w hat is
being said, they sim ultaneously give
the translation by speaking into a m i­
crophone. People attending the co n ­
ference who do not understand the
language being spoken may listen to
an in terp reter’s rendition by simply
pushing a button or turning a dial to
get the translation in the language
they know. Sim ultaneous interpreta­
tion generally is preferred for confer­
ences, and the developm ent o f p o rta­
ble equipm ent has extended its use to
other large-scale situations.
Consecutive interpretation also in­
volves oral translation. However, the
sp e a k e r an d th e in te rp re te r ta k e
turns speaking. A consecutive in ter­
preter m ust have a good m em ory and
generally needs to take notes in o rder
to give a com plete and exact transla­
tion. The chief draw back of consecu­
tive interpretation is th at the process
is tim e c o n su m in g , b e c a u se th e
speaker m ust wait for the translation
before proceeding.
Since interpreters are needed
w henever people find language a b a r­
rier, the work involves a variety o f
topics and situations. In terp reters
may be needed, for example, to ex­
plain various aspects of A m erican
life to a group of foreign visitors, o r
they may be required to in terp re t
highly technical speeches and discus­
sions for m edical or scientific gather­
ings. They may work at the U nited
N a tio n s, o r find th em selv es in a
courtroom or escorting foreign lead­
ers or business people visiting the
United States.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 175 persons w orked
full time as interpreters in the U nited
States in 1976. The largest single
concentration of interpreters was at
the U nited Nations in New Y ork

where about 90 people held full-time
posts. V arious other international o r­
g a n iz a tio n s, lo c a te d p rim arily in
W ashington, D .C ., also em ployed
reg u lar staff in te rp re te rs. A m ong
these are the Organization of A m eri­
can States, the International M one­
tary Fund, the Pan Am erican Health
Organization, and the W orld Bank.
W ithin the Federal Governm ent, the
D ep artm en ts o f S tate and Ju stice
w ere th e m ajor em ployers o f full­
time interpreters.
An estim ated 500 persons worked
as freelance interpreters. Freelance
interpreters may work for various
em p lo y ers u n d er sh o rt-term c o n ­
tracts. A bout four-fifths were under
contract on a tem porary basis to the
D epartm ent of State and the Agency
for In tern atio n al D evelopm en t to
serve as escort interpreters for fo r­
eign visitors to the U nited States.
Some o f these interpreters worked a
g re a t p o rtio n o f th e year; o th ers
worked for only a few days. The re­
m ainder of the freelance interpreters
worked in the freelance conference
field. These interpreters provided for
both the supplem entary needs o f the
international and Federal agencies
an d fo r th e p e rio d ic , sh o rt-te rm
needs o f various international co n ­
ferences that are held in this country.
The Organization of A m erican States
employs many people in this area.
Besides persons who work strictly as
in terpreters, many others do some
interpretation work in the course of
their jobs.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A com plete com m and of two lan­
guages o r m ore is the usual require­
m ent for becoming an interpreter. In­
terpreters m ust instantaneously call
to mind words or idioms correspond­
ing to the foreign ones. An extensive
working vocabulary and ease in m ak­
ing the transition from one language
structure to another are necessary.
Students who want to becom e in­
terpreters should becom e fluent in
several languages. Interpreters who
work at the United Nations, for ex­
ample, m ust know at least three of
the six official U.N. languages: A ra­
bic, Chinese, English, French, R us­
sian, and Spanish. Portuguese and, to
143

ory, students m ust pass a qualifying M o st o p p o r t u n i t ie s , t h e r e f o r e ,
exam ination in o rd e r to en ter the should result from the need to re­
tra n sla tio n o r in te rp re ta tio n p ro ­ p lace w orkers who die, retire, or
gram . T his qualifying exam ination leave their jobs for other reasons. Ex­
usually takes place after two sem es­ perience has shown that any slight or
sporadic increase in the dem and for
ters o f work at the Institute.
M any individuals may qualify as interpreters can be m et by the exist­
interpreters on the basis o f their for­ ing pool of freelance workers. Only
eign back g ro u n d s fo r positions in highly qualified applicants will find
w hich extensive experience and a jobs.
Qualified interpreters also may
broad education are not as crucial as
for other types o f interpretation. F or find work abroad. The dem and for
exam ple, co n secu tiv e in te rp re te rs interpreters in Europe, where so
em ployed by the Im m igration and many different languages are spoken,
N aturalization Service o f the U.S. is far greater than in the United
D epartm ent o f Justice serve prim ar­ States.
People who have linguistic abilities
ily in interpreting legal proceedings,
also may find some em ploym ent op­
such as hearings for aliens.
Interpreters must instantaneously call to
B esides being p ro fic ie n t in la n ­ p o rtu n itie s as translators. In fact,
mind words or idioms corresponding to
guages, interpreters are expected to many interpreters find the ability to
foreign ones.
be g en e rally w ell in fo rm ed on a do translation work, if not requisite,
broad range o f subjects, often includ­ an occupational asset. Foreign lan­
som e extent, Japanese and G erm an ing technical subjects such as m edi­ guage com petence also is im portant
are also valuable to interpreters in cine or scientific or industrial tech ­ for careers in the fields of foreign
the U nited States.
nology. W ork as a tran slato r m ay service, international business, and
Two schools in the U nited States serve as a useful background in m ain­ language education.
offer special program s for interpreter taining an up-to-date vocabulary in
training. B oth req u ire foreign lan­ v a rio u s s p e c ia liz e d o r te c h n ic a l
Earnings and Working
guage proficiency upon entry. The a re a s . T h e e x p e rie n c e o f living
Conditions
G e o rg eto w n U n iv ersity S chool o f abroad also is very im portant for an
Languages and Linguistics in W ash­ interpreter.
Salaries of interpreters depend
in g to n , D .C ., has a 1- o r 2 -y e ar
Although there is no standard re ­ upon the type of interpreting done as
course o f study leading to a C ertifi­ quirem ent for entry into the profes­ well as the ability and perform ance
cate o f Proficiency as a conference sion, a university education usually is of the individual. The tax-free annual
in terp reter. The certificate is recog­ considered essential.
starting salary for conference inter­
nized by th e In tern atio n al A ssoci­
People interested in becom ing in­ preters at the U nited Nations was
atio n o f C o n fe re n c e In te rp re te rs.4 terpreters should be articulate speak­ \$14,300 in 1976. Outstanding U.N.
A pplicants to G eorgetow n University ers and have good hearing. The ex­ interpreters could expect to earn al­
m ust qualify on the basis of an en ­ a c tin g n a tu re o f th is p ro fe ssio n m ost \$30,000.
trance test and a m inim um o f previ­ requires quickness, alertness, and a
Beginning salaries for interpreters
ous studies at the university level; c o n s ta n t a tte n tio n to a c c u ra c y . in various other international organi­
successful candidates usually hold a W orking with all types o f people re ­ zations were over \$15,000 a year,
b ac h elo r’s degree, o ften a m aster’s quires good sense, tact, and the em o­ according to the limited inform ation
degree. T h e M o nterey Institute o f tional stam ina to deal with the te n ­ available. In addition, international
Foreign Studies in M onterey, Calif., sions o f the job. It is essential th at organizations often paid supplem en­
through its D epartm ent o f T ransla­ interpreters m aintain confidentiality tary living and family allowances.
tion and Interp retation, offers a 2- in their work and th at they give hon­
Junior interpreters who worked for
year graduate program leading to a est interpretations.
the U.S. D ep artm en t of State re ­
A dvancem ent in the interpreting ceived \$ 17,056 a year in 1977. Start­
m a s t e r ’s d e g re e in I n te r c u ltu r a l
C om m unication and a graduate c e r­ field generally is based on satisfac­ ing salaries were som ewhat lower for
tificate in either translation, transla- tory service. T here is some advance­ interpreters in other Federal agen­
tion/interpretation, o r in conference m ent from escort level interpreting cies.
in terp re tatio n . A pplications to the to conference level work.
In the freelance field, interpreters
are paid on a daily basis. C onference
Institute m ust have a b ach elo r’s d e­
interpreter salaries ranged from
gree and pass an aptitude test. They
Employment Outlook
about \$125 to \$160 a day in 1976.
m ust be fluent in English, plus one
Interpreters traditionally face very The U.S. D epartm ent of State paid a
o th er language if studying tran sla­
tion, o r in two o th er languages if stiff com petition for the limited num ­ daily salary of \$125.
F reelance escort interpreters re­
wishing to en ter the interpretation ber of openings. Little change is ex­
field. A fter taking the basic courses pected in the num ber of full-time in­ ceived salaries ranging from about
in translation and interpretation th e ­ te rp reters through the m id-1980’s. \$40 to over \$80 a day, based on the
144

individual’s skill and prior perform ­
ance. Interpreters on assignm ent usu­
ally could expect to be paid for a 7day week. Interpreters are paid trans­
portation expenses by the employing
agency and also receive an allowance
to co v er th e co st o f acco m m o d a­
tions, m eals, and oth er expenses inci­
dental to their assignments.
The conditions under which inter­
preters w ork vary widely. In freelanc­
ing, th ere is little jo b security be­
cause of dem and fluctuations, and
the duration o f various freelance as­
signments ranges from a few days for
a typical conference to several weeks
fo r som e e sc o rt assignm ents. A l­
though the hours interpreters work
are not necessarily long, they are of­
ten irregular. In some instances, es­
pecially for escort freelance workers,
a great deal of travel to a wide variety
o f locations is required.

and com m ercial zones. Landscape
architects design these areas to satis­
fy functional needs as well as p eo ­
p le’s aesthetic sense.
Landscape architects assist many
types of organizations in planning
and designing a project, from a real
estate firm starting a new suburban
developm ent to a city constructing
an airport or park. They may plan
and arrange trees, shrubbery, w alk­
ways, open spaces, and o th er fe a­
tures as well as supervise the neces­

sary g ra d in g , c o n s tru c tio n , an d
planting.
Landscape architects first consider
the nature and purpose of the proj­
ect, the funds available, and the p ro­
posed buildings in planning a site.
Next, they study the site and map
features such as the slope of the land
and the position o f existing buildings,
roads, walkways, and trees. They also
observe the sunny parts of the site at
different times o f the day, soil tex­
ture, existing utilities, and many oth-

Information
Inform ation on the interpreting
profession is available from:
The American Association of Language Spe­
cialists, 1000 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Suite 9, Washington, D.C. 20036.

For inform ation on entry require­
m ents and courses o f study at the two
sch o o ls o fferin g sp e c ia liz e d p ro ­
grams for interpreters, contact:
Division of Interpretation and Translation,
School of Languages and Linguistics,
Georgetown University, Washington,
D.C. 20057.
Department of Translation and Interpretation,
Monterey Institute of Foreign Studies,
P.O. Box 1978, Monterey, Calif. 93940.

In fo rm a tio n a b o u t em p lo y m en t
opportunities is available from:
Language Services Division, U.S. Department
of State, Washington, D.C. 20520.
Secretariat Recruitment Service, United Na­
tions, New York, N.Y. 10017.

LA N DSC A PE A R C H ITEC TS
(D.O.T. 019.081)

Nature of the Work
E veryone enjoys attractively d e­
signed residential areas, public parks,

Persons planning careers in landscape architecture should be interested In art and
nature.
145

er lan d scap e features. T hen, after
consulting with the project architect
or engineer, they draw up plans to
develop the site. If the plans are ap ­
proved, landscape architects prepare
working drawings showing all exist­
ing an d p ro p o se d featu res. L an d ­
scape architects outline in detail the
m ethods o f constructing features and
draw up lists o f building m aterials.
They then may invite landscape co n ­
tractors to bid for the work.
A lthough landscape architects
help design and supervise a wide
variety o f projects, some specialize in
certain types o f projects such as
parks and playgrounds, hotels and
resorts, shopping centers, or public
housing. Still o th e rs specialize in
services such as regional planning
and resource m anagem ent, feasibility
and cost studies, or site construction.

Places of Employment
A bout 13,000 persons worked as
landscape architects in 1976. M ost
were self-em ployed or w orked for ar­
chitectural, landscape architectural,
o r en g ineering firm s. G overnm ent
agencies concerned with forest m an­
agem ent, w ater storage, public hous­
ing, city planning, urb an renew al,
highways, parks, and recreation also
em p lo y ed m any la n d sc a p e a r c h i­
tects. T he Federal G overnm ent em ­
ployed o v er 550 landscape a rc h i­
tects, m ainly in the D epartm ents of
A griculture, D efense, and Interior.
Some landscape architects were em ­
ployed by landscape contractors, and
a few taught in colleges and universi­
ties.
Em ploym ent o f landscape archi­
tects is co n cen trated around large
m etropolitan areas, prim arily on the
East and W est Coasts. However, em ­
ploym ent opportunities have recen t­
ly been growing in the Southwest.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A b ach elo r’s degree in landscape
architecture which takes 4 or 5 years
is usually the minimum educational
requirem ent for entering the profes­
sion. The A m erican Society o f L and­
scape A rchitects accredits about 40
colleges and universities th at offer
146

su ch p ro g ra m s. A b o u t 60 o th e r
sc h o o ls a lso o ff e r p ro g ra m s o r
courses in landscape architecture.
A person interested in landscape
architecture should take high school
courses in m echanical or geom etrical
drawing, art, botany, and m ore
m athem atics than the minimum re ­
quired for college entrance. A good
background in English gram m ar also
is im portant, since landscape archi­
tects m ust be able to express their
ideas verbally as well as graphically.
College courses include technical
subjects such as surveying, landscape
construction, sketching, design com ­
m unications, and city planning. O th ­
er courses include horticulture and
botany as well as English, science,
and m athem atics. M ost college p ro ­
grams also include field trips to view
and study examples o f landscape a r­
chitecture.
T h irty -eig h t S tates require a li­
cense, based on the results of a uni­
form national licensing exam ination,
for in d ep en d e n t p ra ctice of lan d ­
scape architecture. Admission to the
licensing ex a m in a tio n usually r e ­
quires a degree from an accredited
school of landscape architecture plus
2 to 4 years o f experience. Lengthy
apprenticeship training (6-8 years)
under an experienced landscape a r­
chitect som etimes may be substituted
for college training.
Persons planning careers in land­
scape architecture should have c re ­
ative im agination, draw ing talen t,
and an appreciation for nature. Selfem ployed landscape architects also
m ust understand business practices.
W orking for landscape architects o r
landscape contractors during sum ­
m er vacations helps a person un d er­
stand the practical problem s of the
profession, and may be helpful in o b ­
taining em ploym ent after graduation.
New graduates usually begin as
junior drafters, tracing drawings and
doing other simple drafting work.
After gaining experience, they help
prepare specifications and construc­
tion details and handle other aspects
of project design. A fter 2 or 3 years
th ey can u su ally c a rry a d esig n
through all stages of developm ent.
Highly qualified landscape architects
may becom e associates in p rivate
firms; landscape architects who p ro ­

gress this far, however, often open
their own office.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of landscape archi­
tects is expected to grow faster than
th e a v e ra g e fo r all o c c u p a tio n s
through the m id-1980’s. Additional­
ly, new entrants will be needed as
replacem ents for landscape arch i­
tects who retire or die.
A nticipated rapid growth in new
construction is expected to play a
m ajor role in increasing dem and for
landscape architects. However, d u r­
ing slow periods the dem and could
be limited.
A nother factor underlying the in­
creased dem and for landscape archi­
tects is the growing interest in city
and regional environm ental p lan ­
ning. M etropolitan areas will require
landscape architects to plan efficient
and safe land use for growing popula­
tions. Legislation to prom ote envi­
ronm ental protection could also spur
dem and for landscape architects to
participate in planning and designing
transportation systems, outdoor rec­
reation areas, and land reclam ation
projects, as well as to ensure safe
industrial growth.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Newly graduated landscape archi­
tects generally earned from \$10,500
to \$12,500 a year in 1976. Most ex­
p e r ie n c e d la n d s c a p e a r c h ite c ts
e a r n e d b e tw e e n \$ 1 5 ,0 0 0 a n d
\$20,000 a year, although some highly
skilled persons earned salaries of
over \$30,000 a year. Salaries of selfe m p lo y e d la n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s
ranged from \$10,000 a year to well
over \$25,000 a year, depending on
the individual’s educational b a c k ­
ground, experience, and geographic
location.
The Federal Governm ent, in 1977,
paid new graduates with a bachelor’s
degree annual salaries of \$9,300 or
\$11,500 depending on their qualifi­
cations. Those with an advanced de­
gree had a starting salary of \$14,100
a year. Landscape architects in the
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a v e ra g e d
\$22,500 a year.

Salaried em ployees both in gov­
ernm ent and in landscape architec­
tu ra l firm s usu ally w ork re g u la r
hours, although em ployees in private
firms may also work overtim e during
seasonal rush periods o r to m eet a
deadline. Self-employed persons of­
ten work long hours.

Information
A dditional inform ation, including
a list of colleges and universities of­
fering accredited courses of study in
landscape architecture, is available
from:
American Society of Landscape Architecture,
Inc., 1750 Old Meadow Rd., McLean, Va.
22101 .

For inform ation on a career as a
lan d sca p e a rc h ite c t in the F o rest
Service, write to:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Serv­
ice, Washington, D.C. 20250.

LAW YERS
(D .O .T. 110.108, .118, and
119.168)
Laws perm eate every aspect o f our
so ciety . T h ey re g u la te the en tire
spectrum o f relationships am ong in­
dividuals, groups, businesses, and
governm ents. They define rights as
well as restrictions, covering such di­
verse hum an activities as judging and
punishing crim inals, granting p a t­
ents, drawing up business contracts,
paying taxes, settling labor disputes,
constructing buildings, and adminis­
tering wills.
Because social needs and attitudes
are continually changing, the legal
system th at regulates o u r social, po­
litical, and econom ic relationships
also is subject to change. The task of
keeping the law responsive to hum an
needs is the work o f lawyers. Also
called attorneys, lawyers are the link
between the legal system and society.
To perform this role, they m ust un­
derstand the world around them and
be sensitive to the num erous aspects
of society th at are touched by the
law. They m ust com prehend not only
the words o f a particular statute, but

the hum an circum stances it address­
es as well.
As our body of laws grows m ore
volum inous and com plex, as the legal
system takes on new regulatory tasks
in social welfare, racial integration,
energy conservation, and other
areas, the work of lawyers takes on
wider significance.

Nature of the Work
Lawyers perform a wide variety o f
tasks, but certain basic activities are
com m on to nearly every attorney’s
work. Probably the m ost fundam ent­
al of all is interpretation of the law.
Every attorney, w hether representing
the defendant in a m urder trial or the
plaintiff (suing party) in a lawsuit,
com bines an understanding o f the
relevant laws with knowledge o f the
facts in the particular case in order to
determ ine how the first affects the
second. Based on this determ ination,
the attorney decides what courses o f
action would best serve the interests
o f the party he o r she represents.
In order to interpret the law
knowledgeably, lawyers do research.
They m ust stay abreast of their field,
in both legal and nonlegal m atters.
An attorney representing electronics
m anufacturers, for example, m ust
follow trade journals as well as the
latest Federal regulations affecting
his or her clients. Attorneys in the
State D epartm ent m ust remain wellversed in current events and interna­
tio n al law, while divorce law yers
spend a certain portion of their tim e
reading about the changing role o f
the family in m odern society. R e­
sea rch also in clu d es specific, indepth reading on the legal questions
or substantive m atters of an individ­
ual case. In any event, the o v e r­
whelming volume of literature to be
digested requires a lawyer to conduct
research efficiently, quickly picking
out and evaluating the substance of a
particular article or court case.
Usually a law yer’s work also in ­
volves co n tact with people. A tto r­
neys consult with their clients to d e ­
term ine the details of their specific
problem s, advise them o f the law,
and suggest actions th at m ight o r
m ust be taken. To be effective, a law­
yer learns to deal with people in a
courteous, efficient fashion.

Finally, most lawyers must do
some writing in the course of their
work. This may take the form of
reports, legal briefs, or adm inistra­
tive paperwork. In all cases, the at­
torney calls upon his or her ability to
com m unicate clearly and precisely.
The m ore detailed aspects of the
legal profession depend upon the
lawyer’s individual field and position.
Most lawyers are engaged in general
practice and handle all kinds of legal
work for clients. They counsel the
individual who wants to buy proper­
ty, make a will, sign a contract, or
settle an estate. These lawyers p er­
form whatever tasks are necessary to
help their client comply with the law.
A significant num ber specialize in
one branch of law, such as corporate,
criminal, labor, patent, real estate,
tax, or international law. Com m uni­
cations lawyers, for example, may
rep resen t radio and television sta­
tions in their dealings with the Feder­
al C o m m u n ic a tio n s C om m ission
(F C C ). They help established sta­
tions prepare and file license renewal
applications, em ploym ent reports,
and other docum ents required by the
FCC on a regular basis. They also
keep their clients informed of chang­
es in FCC regulations. Com m unica­
tions lawyers give similar assistance
to individuals or corporations wish­
ing to buy or sell a station or establish
a new one.
O ther lawyers specialize in repre­
senting public utilities before the
Federal Power Commission (FPC )
and o th er regulatory agencies. For
example, they handle m atters involv­
ing th e re a so n a b le n e ss o f u tility
rates. They help a firm develop its
case, assist in preparing strategy, ar­
guments, and testimony, prepare the
case for presentation at a trial or ad­
ministrative hearing, and argue the
case. These lawyers also keep clients
inform ed about changes in regula­
tions and advise them as to the legal­
ity of their actions.
Private practitioners specialize in
other areas, too. Some draw up wills,
trusts, contracts, mortgages, and o th ­
er legal documents; conduct out-ofcourt negotiations; and do investiga­
tive and other legal work to prepare
for trials. Some may act as trustees
by managing a person’s property and
147

m aining 116,000, about one-third
were em ployed as house counsel by
various business firm s; one-fourth
worked in the Federal Governm ent;
the rem ainder held positions in State
and local government. In addition,
about 8,000 lawyers taught full or
part time in law schools. Some sala­
ried lawyers also have independent
practices; others do legal work part
time while in another occupation.

Training, Other Qualifications,

funds, o r as executors by seeing that
the provisions of their client’s will are
carried out. A small num ber of law­
yers d ev o te them selves entirely to
courtroom work. An increasing num ­
ber handle only so-called public in­
terest cases. These cases, either civil
or crim inal, have a potential im pact
extending well beyond the individual
clien t. A tto rn ey s who tak e these
cases hope to use them as a vehicle
for legal and social reform .
Some lawyers are em ployed full
tim e by a single client. Known as
house counsel, these lawyers usually
work for a corporate firm, advising
and acting on legal questions th at
arise from the co m p any’s business
activities. These questions may in­
volve patents for new productions,
FTC regulations, a business contract
with an o th er com pany, or a collec­
tive b arg ain in g ag re e m e n t w ith a
union.
A ttorneys em ployed at the various
levels of governm ent constitute still
another category. Crim inal lawyers
may work in the office of a State
attorney general; they also may be
148

em ployed by a prosecutor’s or public
defender’s office, or by the court
itself. At the Federal level, attorneys
perform investigations for the Justice
D epartm ent and regulatory agencies.
Lawyers at every level of governm ent
also help develop laws and program s;
they prepare drafts of proposed legis­
latio n , establish law e n fo rc e m e n t
procedures, and argue cases.
Many people who have legal train­
ing do not work as lawyers but use
their knowledge of law in other o ccu­
pations. They may, for example, be
journalists, m anagem ent consultants,
financial analysts, insurance claim
adjusters, tax collectors, probation
officers, and credit investigators. A
legal background also is an asset to
those seeking or holding public o f­
fice.

Places of Employment
About 396,000 persons worked as
lawyers in 1976. Almost threefourths of them , 280,000, practiced
privately, with about 40 percent in
solo practice and the other 60 p e r­
cent working in law firms. O f the re ­

In o rder to practice law in the
courts o f any State, a person must be
adm itted to its bar. Applicants for
admission to the bar must pass a
written examination; however, a few
States drop this requirem ent for
graduates of their own law schools.
Lawyers who have been adm itted to
the bar in one State occasionally may
be adm itted in another without tak ­
ing an exam ination provided they
m eet th at S tate’s standards of good
moral character and have a specified
period o f legal experience. Each Fed­
eral c o u rt or agency sets its own
qualifications for those practicing be­
fore it.
To qualify for the bar examination
in most States, an applicant must
have com pleted 3 years of college
and have graduated from a law
school approved by the American
Bar Association (ABA) or the proper
State authorities. (ABA approval sig­
nifies th at the law school meets the
minimum standards necessary to al­
low its graduates to take the bar
exam and practice law in any State.
G raduates of nonapproved schools
are restricted to the State in which
the school is located.) A few States
accept the study of law wholly in a
law office or in com bination with
study in a law school; only California
accepts the study of law by co rre­
spondence as qualification for taking
the bar exam. Several States require
registration and approval of students
by the State Board o f Examiners, ei­
ther before they enter law school or
during the early years of legal study.
In a few States, candidates must com ­
plete clerkships before they are ad­
m itted to the bar.
Although there is no nationwide
bar exam, m ost States and the Dis­

trict o f C olum bia participate in the
M ultistate Bar Exam ination (M BE).
The MBE, covering issues o f broad
interest, is given in addition to the
State b ar exam; how the MBE score
is treated varies from State to State.
T he required college and law
school education usually takes 7
years o f full-time study after high
school—4 years o f undergraduate
study followed by 3 years in law
school. Although a num ber o f law
schools accep t students after 3 years
of college, an increasing num ber re­
quire applicants to have a b ach elo r’s
degree. To m eet the needs o f stu­
dents who can attend only p art time,
a num ber o f law schools have night
or part-tim e divisions which usually
require 4 years o f study. In 1976,
ab o u t one-fifth o f all graduates of
A B A -approved schools w ere parttime students.
C om petition for adm ission to law
school has becom e intense in the last
few years. Enrollm ents rose very rap­
idly betw een 1969 and 1972, and,
according to one estim ate, applica­
tions ou tn u m b ered available open­
ings by alm ost 10 to 1 in the mid1970’s. Although the increase in en­
rollm ents is expected to slow by the
1980’s, law school adm ission will re­
main the first o f several hurdles for
prospective lawyers.
P reparation for a career as a law­
yer really begins in college. Although
there is no such thing as a “ prelaw
m ajor,” the undergraduate program
alm ost always m akes a difference.
C ertain courses and activities are de­
sirable because they give the student
the skills needed to succeed both in
law school and in the profession. Es­
sential skills—the ability to write, to
read and analyse, to think conceptu­
ally and logically, and to com m uni­
cate v erb ally —are le a rn e d during
high school and college. The best un­
dergraduate program is one th at cul­
tivates these skills while at the same
time broadening the stu d en t’s view of
the world. M ajors in the social sci­
ences, natural sciences, and hum an­
ities all fill the bill, as long as the
student does not specialize too nar­
rowly.
Students interested in a particular
aspect o f the law may find it helpful
to take related courses; for example,

engineering and science courses for
the prospective p atent attorney, and
accounting for the future tax lawyer.
for convenience in law school.
A cceptance by m ost law schools
depends on the applicant’s ability to
dem onstrate an aptitude for the
study o f law, usually through good
grades and the Law School Adm is­
sion Test (LSA T), adm inistered by
the Educational Testing Service. In
1976, 163 law schools had A m erican
Bar Association approval. O thers—
c h ie fly n ig h t s c h o o ls —w e re a p ­
proved by State authorities only.
The first year or year and a half o f
law school generally is devoted to
fundam ental courses such as consti­
tutional law, contracts, property law,
and ju d icial p ro ced u re. In the re ­
maining tim e, students may elect spe­
cialized courses in fields such as tax,
labor, or corporation law. Practical
experience often is acquired by p a r­
ticipation in school-sponsored legal
aid activities, in the school’s practice
court where students conduct trials
under the supervision o f experienced
lawyers, and through writing on legal
issues for the school’s law journal.
G raduates receive the degree o f juris
doctor (J.D .) from m ost schools as
th e first professional d egree. A d ­
vanced study often is desirable for
those planning to specialize, do re ­
search, o r teach in law schools.
The practice of law involves a
great deal of responsibility. Persons
planning careers in law should like to
work with people and ideas, and be
able to win the confidence of their
clients.
M ost beginning lawyers start in
salaried positions, although some go
into independent practice im m edi­
ately after passing the bar exam ina­
tion. Newly hired salaried attorneys
usually act as research assistants (law
clerks) to ex perienced law yers o r
judges. A fter several years of p ro ­
gressively responsible salaried em ­
p lo y m e n t, m any law yers go in to
practice for themselves. Some law­
yers, after years of practice, becom e
judges.

Employment Outlook
A rapid increase in the num ber o f
law school graduates has created

keen com petition for the available
jobs. In the years ahead, the num ber
of graduates is expected to increase
further and intensify this com peti­
tion.
Em ployers will be selective in hir­
ing new lawyers. G raduates of wellknown law schools and those who
rank high in their classes should find
salaried positions with law firms, on
the legal staffs o f corporations and
g o v ern m en t agencies, and as law
clerks for judges. G raduates of less
p ro m in en t schools and those with
lower scholastic ratings will experi­
ence some difficulty in finding sala­
ried jobs. However, many will find
opportunities in fields where legal
training is an asset but not normally a
requirem ent.
The em ploym ent of lawyers is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for other occupations through
the m id-1980’s as increased business
activity and population create a de­
m and for attorneys to deal with a
growing num ber of legal questions.
Suprem e C ourt decisions extending
the right to counsel for persons ac­
cused of lesser crimes, the growth of
legal action in the areas of consum er
p ro te c tio n , the enviro n m en t, and
safety, and an expected increase in
the use of legal services by middleincome groups through prepaid legal
service program s also should provide
em p lo y m en t o p p o rtu n itie s. O th er
jobs will be created by the need to
replace lawyers who die, retire, or
leave the occupation for other rea­
sons.
Prospects for establishing a new
practice probably will continue to be
best in small towns and expanding
suburban areas, as long as there al­
ready exists an active m arket for le­
gal services in which the new lawyer
can find clients. In such comm unities
com petition is likely to be less than in
big cities and new lawyers may find it
easier to becom e known to potential
clients; also, rent and other business
costs are somewhat lower. N everthe­
less, starting a new practice will re­
main an expensive and risky proposit i o n t h a t s h o u ld b e w e ig h e d
carefully. Salaried positions will be
limited largely to urban areas where
the chief employers of legal talen t—
governm ent agencies, law firms, and
big corporations—are concentrated.
149

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Lawyers entering practice in 1976
earned a wide range o f starting sala­
ries—from about \$ 10,000 to \$23,000
a year. M ost fell in the \$15,000 to
\$18,000 range. Factors affecting the
salaries offered to new graduates in­
clude: th eir academ ic records; type,
size, and location o f th eir em ployers;
and w hether the new lawyer has any
specialized educational background
th at the em ployer requires. The field
o f law m akes a difference, too. P at­
e n t law yers, fo r ex am ple, ten d to
earn m ore th an general corporate a t­
to rn e y s . L aw y ers w ith a t le a st a
y ear’s experience working in m anu­
facturing and business firms earned
ab out \$18,000 a year; those with a
few y e a rs o f e x p e rie n c e e a rn e d
\$ 3 0 ,0 0 0 o r m ore annually. In the
Federal G overnm ent, annual starting
salaries for attorneys in 1977 were
\$ 14,097 o r \$ 17,05 6, depending upon
ac a d e m ic an d p e rs o n a l q u a lific a ­
tions. F ed eral attorneys with some
experience earned \$24,308 or m ore
a year.
Beginning lawyers engaged in le­
gal-aid w ork usually receive the low­
est s ta rtin g salaries. N ew law yers
starting th eir own practices may earn
little m ore than expenses during the
first few years and may need to work
p art tim e in o th er occupations.
L a w y e rs o n sa la ry re c e iv e in ­
creases as they assum e g reater re­
sponsibility. Incom es o f lawyers in
private p ractice usually grow as their
practices develop. Private practition­
ers who are partners in law firms gen­
erally e a rn m ore th a n those who
practice alone.
Lawyers often work long hours
and are under considerable pressure
when a case is being tried. In addi­
tion, they m ust keep abreast o f the
latest laws and co u rt decisions. How­
ever, since lawyers in private p rac­
tice can determ ine th eir own hours
and w orkload, many stay in practice
well past th e usual retirem ent age.

information
Persons considering law as a ca­
re e r will find in fo rm atio n on law
schools and prelaw study in the Pre­
150

law Handbook, published annually
( P rin ceto n ^N .J.: Educational T est­
ing Service). Copies may be available
in public o r school libraries. In addi­
tion, many colleges and universities
have a prelaw advisor who counsels
un d erg rad u ates ab o u t their u n d er­
graduate course work, the LSAT, law
school applications, and other m at­
ters.
Inform ation on law schools and
law as a career is available from:
Information Services, The American Bar As­
sociation, 1155 East 60th St., Chicago, 111.
60637. (There may be a slight charge for
publications.)

Inform ation on law school accredi­
tation is available from:
Association of American Law Schools, Suite
370, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Washington,
D.C. 20036.

For advice on financial aid, co n ­
tact a law school financial aid officer.
The specific requirem ents for ad ­
m ission to the bar in a p articu lar
State may be obtained at the State
capital from the clerk o f the Suprem e
C ourt or the secretary of the Board
o f Bar Examiners.

LIB R A R IA N S
(D .O .T. 100.118 through .388)

Nature of the Work
Librarians m ake inform ation avail­
able to people. They serve as a link
betw een the public and the millions
o f sources o f inform ation by select­
ing and organizing m aterials, making
them accessible, and assisting in their
use.
Library work is divided into two
areas: user services and technical
services. L ib rarian s in u ser se rv ­
ic e s—fo r exam ple, re fe re n c e an d
ch ild ren ’s librarians—work directly
with the public helping them find the
inform ation they need. Librarians in
technical services—such as acquisi­
tion lib rarian s—are prim arily c o n ­
cerned with preparing m aterials for
use and do not frequently deal with
the public. They order, classify, and
catalog all types of materials.
The size of the library usually d e ­
term ines the scope o f a librarian’s

job. In small libraries, the jo b may
include both user and technical serv­
ices. The librarian may select and o r­
ganize m aterials, publicize services,
do research, and give reference help
to groups and individuals. In large
libraries, librarians usually specialize
in either user or technical services
and specialize further in certain sub­
je c t areas, such as science, business,
the arts, or medicine. A librarian in
technical services who specializes in
engineering, for exam ple, may re ­
view books or write sum m aries o f ar­
ticles on new engineering develop­
ments.
Regardless of the nature of their
work, librarians generally are classi­
fied according to the type of library
in which they work: public libraries,
school m edia centers, college and
university libraries, and special li­
braries.
Public librarians serve all kinds of
people—children, students, research
w orkers, teach ers, and others. In­
creasingly, public librarians provide
special m aterials and services to cul­
turally and educationally deprived
persons, and to persons who, because
o f physical handicaps, cannot use
conventional print.
The professional staff of a large
public library system may include the
chief librarian, an assistant chief, and
several division heads who plan and
coordinate the work of the entire
library system. The system also may
include librarians who supervise
branch libraries and specialists in
certain areas of library work. T he
duties of some of these specialists are
described briefly in the following
paragraphs.
Acquisition librarians purchase
books and other m aterials to m ain­
ta in a w e ll-b a lan ce d library th a t
m eets the needs and interests of the
public. Catalogers classify these m a­
terials by subject and otherwise de­
scribe them to help users find w hat
they are looking for. Reference librar­
ians answ er specific questions and
suggest sources of inform ation.
Some librarians work with specific
groups o f readers. Children's librar­
ians serve the special needs of young
people by finding books they will en­
joy and showing them how to use the
library. They may plan and conduct

School librarian showing students how to use the library.

special program s such as story hours
or film program s. T heir work in serv­
ing children often includes working
with school and com m unity organi­
zations. Adult services librarians sug­
gest m aterials suited to the needs and
interests o f adults. They may cooper­
ate in planning and conducting edu­
cation program s, such as com m unity
developm ent, public affairs, creative
arts, p ro b lem s o f th e aging, and
home and family. Young adult servic­
es librarians help ju n io r and senior
high school students select and use
books and oth er m aterials. They may
o rg a n iz e p ro g ram s o f in te re st to
young adults, such as book or film
discussions or concerts o f recorded
music. They also may coordinate the
library’s work with school programs.
E x te n sio n or o u trea ch librarians
working in bookmobiles offer library
services to people n o t adequately
served by a public library such as
those in inner city neighborhoods,
m igrant cam ps, rural com m unities,

and institutions, including hospitals
and hom es for the aged.
School librarians instruct students
in the use of the school library and
help them choose from the m edia
ce n te r’s collection of print and non­
print m aterials items that are related
to their interests and to classroom
subjects. W orking with teachers and
supervisors, school librarians famil­
iarize students with the library’s re ­
sources. They prepare lists of m ateri­
als on certain subjects and help select
m aterials for school programs. They
also select, order, and organize the
library’s m aterials. Increasingly, the
school library is viewed as part of the
en tire in stru ctio n al system ra th e r
than a resource that students use l o r
2 hours a week. As a result, the scope
of the duties of many school librar­
ians’ has widened. In some schools,
librarians work with teachers to d e ­
velop units of study o r independent
study program s, and also may partici­
pate in team teaching.

Very large high schools may em ­
ploy several school librarians, each
responsible for a particular function
o f the library program or for a special
subject area. Media specialists, for ex­
am ple, d evelop audio-visual p ro ­
grams to be included in or to supple­
m ent the curriculum . They also may
develop m aterials and w ork w ith
teachers on curriculum .
College and university librarians
serve students, faculty members, and
research workers in institutions of
higher education. They may provide
general reference service or may
work in a particular subject field,
such as law, medicine, economics, or
music. Those working on university
research projects operate docum en­
tation centers that use com puters to
record, store, and retrieve special­
ized information. College and univer­
sity librarians may teach classes in
the use o f the library.
Special librarians work in libraries
m aintained by governm ent agencies
and by commercial and industrial
firms, such as pharm aceutical com ­
panies, banks, advertising agencies,
and research laboratories. They p ro ­
vide m aterials and services covering
subjects of special interest to the o r­
ganization. They build and arrange
the o rg an izatio n ’s inform ation re ­
sources to suit the needs of the li­
brary users. Special librarians assist
users an d may co n d u c t lite ratu re
sea rch e s, com pile b ib lio g rap h ies,
and in o th er ways provide inform a­
tion on a particular subject.
O thers called information science
specialists, like special librarians,
work in technical libraries or infor­
m ation centers of com m ercial and
industrial firms, governm ent agen­
cies, and research centers. Although
they perform many duties of special
librarians, they must possess a more
extensive tech n ic al and scientific
background and a knowledge of new
techniques for handling information.
Inform ation science specialists ab­
stract com plicated information into
condensed, readable form, and inter­
pret and analyze data for a highly
specialized clientele. Among oth er
duties, they develop classification
system s, prep are coding and p ro ­
gramming techniques for com puter­
ized inform ation storage and retriev­
a l

al s y s te m s , d e s ig n in f o r m a tio n
n etw o rk s, and d ev elop m icrofilm
technology.
Inform ation on library technicians
and assistants is found in a separate
statem ent in the Handbook.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 128,000 professional
librarians w ere em ployed in 1976.
School librarians accounted for m ore
than two-fifths o f the total, and pub­
lic libraries and colleges and univer­
sities each em ployed about one-fifth.
The rem ainder w orked in special li­
braries, including those in govern­
m ent agencies, or in institutions such
as correctional facilities and hospi­
tals. A small num ber served as con­
sultants, as State and Federal Gov­
e r n m e n t a d m in is tr a to r s , an d as
faculty in schools o f library science.
In late 1975, the F ederal G overn­
m ent em ployed about 3,300 profes­
sional librarians.
M ost librarians work in cities and
towns. Those attached to bookm o­
bile u n its serve w idely sc a tte re d
population groups.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A professional librarian ordinarily
m ust com plete a 1-year m aster’s d e­
gree program in library science. A
Ph. D. d eg ree is an advantage to
those who plan a teaching career in
library schools or who aspire to a top
adm inistrative post, particularly in a
college o r university library or in a
large library system. For those who
are interested in the special libraries
field, a m aster’s degree or doctorate
in the subject of the library’s special­
ization is highly desirable.
In 1976, 58 library schools in the
United States were accredited by the
Am erican Library Association and
offered a m aster’s degree in library
science (M .L.S.). In addition, many
o th er colleges offer graduate p ro ­
grams or courses within 4-year un­
M ost graduate schools o f library
science require graduation from an
accredited 4-year college or universi­
ty, a good undergraduate record, and
a reading knowledge o f at least one
foreign language. Some schools also
152

courses in library science. Most p re­
fer a liberal arts background with a
m ajor in an area such as the social
sciences, the arts, or literature. Some
schools require en tran ce exam ina­
tions.
L ibrary science students usually
specialize in the area in which they
plan to work. An aspiring inform a­
tion science specialist, for example,
takes courses on data processing fun­
dam entals and com puter languages
in addition to the required library
science courses. A student wishing to
becom e a m edia specialist concen­
trates on courses in the use and d e ­
velopm ent o f audio-visual materials.
Special librarians and inform ation
science specialists m ust have exten­
sive knowledge of their subject m at­
ter as well as training in library sci­
ence. They usually earn a bachelor’s
or higher degree in chemistry, for ex­
ample, plus a m aster’s or Ph. D. in
library or inform ation science.
M ost States require that public
school librarians be certified and
trained both as teachers and librar­
ians. They also may require that m e­
dia specialists, for example, have spe­
cialized in m edia within the M.L.S.
program. Some States require certifi­
cation of public librarians em ployed
in areas such as municipal, county, o r
regional library systems. The specific
education and experience necessary
for certification vary according to
State and the school district. The lo­
cal superintendent of schools and the
State departm ent o f education can
provide inform ation about specific
requirem ents in an area.
In the Federal G overnm ent, begin­
ning positions require com pletion o f
a 4-year college course and a m as­
te r ’s degree in library science, o r
dem onstration o f the equivalent in
experience and education by a pass­
ing grade on an examination.
Many students attend library
schools under cooperative workstudy program s that com bine the
academ ic program with practical
work experience in a library. Schol­
arships for training in library science
are available under certain State and
Federal program s and from library
schools, as well as from a num ber of
the large libraries and library associ­

ations. Loans, assistantships, and fi­
nancial aid also are available.
E x p erien ced librarians may ad ­
vance to administrative positions or
to specialized work. Prom otion to
these positions, however, is limited
primarily to those who have com plet­
ed g ra d u a te train in g in a library
school, o r to those who have special­
ized training.

Employment Outlook
The em ploym ent outlook for li­
brarians is expected to be somewhat
com petitive through the m id-1980’s.
Although em ploym ent in the field is
expected to grow over the period, the
supply o f persons qualified for librarianship is likely to expand as an in­
creasing num ber of new graduates
and labor force reentrants seek jobs
as librarians.
Em ployment prospects are expect­
ed to be best in public libraries. The
growth o f a better educated popula­
tion coupled with greater emphasis
on adult and community education
program s will require additional li­
brarians. The educationally disad­
vantaged, the handicapped, and var­
ious minority groups also will need
qualified librarians to provide special
services. Also, the expanding use of
com puters to store and retrieve in­
form ation will contribute to the in­
creased dem and for information spe­
c ia lis ts a n d lib ra ry a u to m a tio n
specialists in all types of libraries.
The dem and for school librarians
on the other hand, will not increase
significantly. Enrollments in higher
education, however, are expected to
rise until the m id-1980’s, resulting in
a greater num ber of librarians in
post-high school institutions.
In addition to openings from
growth, replacem ents will be needed
each year for librarians who retire,
die, transfer to other types of work,
or leave the labor force.
Em ploym ent opportunities will
vary not only by type of library but
also by the librarian’s educational
qualifications and area of specializa­
tion. A lthough the overall em ploy­
m ent outlook is com petitive, persons
who are willing to work in libraries
located away from the large East or
W est C oast cities will have better op­
portunities. New graduates having

m ore re cen t training m ay have an
em ploym ent advantage over re e n ­
tra n ts, d elayed e n tra n ts, o r those
who transfer into the profession. This
is especially true for those wanting
positions as inform ation specialists
where knowledge o f the latest com ­
p uter technologies is im portant. New
g rad u ates usually com m and low er
b e g in n in g s a la rie s , c o m p a re d to
m ore experienced w orkers, and this
also may be an em ploym ent advan­
tage.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries o f librarians vary by type
of library, the individual’s qualifica­
tions, and the size and geographical
location o f the library.
Starting salaries o f graduates of
library school m aster’s degree p ro ­
grams accredited by the Am erican
Library Association average \$10,594
a year in 1975, ranging from \$9,692
in p u b lic lib rarie s to \$ 1 0 ,9 0 0 in
school libraries. Average salaries for
librarians in college and university
libraries ranged from \$ 11,400 a year
for those with less than 5 years of
experience to over \$20,000 for direc­
tors o f libraries. In general, librarians
earned ab out 1 1 /2 tim es as m uch as
the average for all nonsupervisory
w orkers in private industry, except
farming.
In the Federal G overnm ent, the
entrance salary for librarians with a
m aster’s degree in library science
was \$14,097 a year in 1977. The
average salary for all librarians in the
Federal G overnm ent was about
\$ 20 , 000 .

T he typical workw eek for librar­
ians is 5 days, ranging from 35 to 40
hours. T he work schedule of public
and college librarians may include
som e w eekend and evening work.
School librarians generally have the
same workday schedule as classroom
teac h ers. A 4 0 -h o u r w eek during
norm al business hours is com m on for
governm ent and other special librar­
ians.
The usual paid vacation after a
year’s service is 3 to 4 weeks. V aca­
tions may be longer in school librar­
ies, and som ewhat shorter in those
operated by business and industry.

Many librarians are covered by sick
leave; life, health, and accident insur­
ance; and pension plans.

information
A dditional inform ation, particular­
ly on accredited program s and schol­
arships or loans, may be obtained
from:
American Library Association, 50 East Huron
St., Chicago, 111. 60611.

For inform ation on requirem ents
for special librarians, write to:
Special Libraries Association, 235 Park Ave.,
South, New York, N.Y. 10003.

Inform ation on Federal assistance
for graduate school library training
under the Higher Education A ct o f
1965 is available from:
Office of Libraries and Learning Resources,
Office of Education, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20202.

T hose in tere ste d in a ca ree r in
Federal libraries should write to:
Secretariat, Federal Library Committee,
Room 310, Library of Congress, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20540.

M aterial on inform ation science
specialists may be obtained from:
American Society for Information Science,
1140 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20036.

Individual State library agencies
can furnish inform ation on scholar­
ships available through their offices,
on re q u irem en ts for ce rtificatio n ,
and general inform ation about career
p ro sp e c ts in th e ir regions. S ta te
boards of education can furnish in­
form ation on certification req u ire­
m en ts an d jo b o p p o rtu n itie s fo r
school librarians.

LIFE S C IE N TIS TS
(D.O.T. 040.081, 041.081, 041.168,
041.181, 041.281)

Nature of the Work
Life scientists, who study all as­
pects of living organisms, emphasize
the relationship of animals and plants
to their environm ent.

About one-third of all life scien­
tists are prim arily involved in re ­
search and development. Many con­
duct basic research to increase our
knowledge of living organisms which
can be applied in m edicine, in in­
creasing crop yields, and in improv­
ing the natural environm ent. W hen
working in laboratories, life scientists
must be familiar with research tech ­
n iq u e s an d c o m p le x la b o ra to ry
equipm ent such as electron m icro­
scopes. Knowledge of com puters also
is useful in conducting experiments.
N ot all research, how ever, is p e r­
formed in laboratories. For example,
a botanist who explores the volcanic
Alaskan valleys to see what plants
grow there also is doing research.
About one-third of all life scien­
tists teach in colleges or universities;
many also do independent research.
A lm ost one-fifth work in m anage­
m ent or adm inistration ranging from
planning and administering programs
for testing foods and drugs to direct­
ing activities at zoos or botanical gar­
dens. Some life scientists work as
consultants to business firms or to
governm ent in their areas of special­
ization. O thers write for technical
p u b lic a tio n s o r te s t and in sp e c t
foods, drugs, and o th er products.
Some work in technical sales and ser­
vices jobs for industrial com panies
w here, for exam ple, they dem o n ­
strate the proper use of new chem i­
cals or technical products.
Scientists in many life science
areas often call themselves biologists.
However, the majority are classified
by the type of organism they study or
by the specific activity they perform.
Botanists deal primarily with plants
and their environm ent. Some study
all aspects of plant life, while others
work in specific areas such as identi­
fying and classifying plants or study­
ing the structure of plants and plant
cells. O ther botanists concentrate on
causes and cures of plant diseases.
Agronomists, who are concerned
with the mass developm ent of plants,
improve the quality and yield of
crops, such as com , wheat, and co t­
ton, by developing new growth m eth­
ods or by controlling diseases, pests,
and weeds. They also analyze soils to
determ ine ways of increasing acreage
yields and decreasing soil erosion.
153

H orticulturists w ork w ith o rc h ard
and garden plants such as fruit and
n u t trees, vegetables, and flowers.
They seek to improve plant culture
m eth o d s fo r th e b ea u tific atio n o f
com m unities, homes, parks, and o th ­
er areas as well as for increasing crop
quality and yields.
Zoologists study various aspects of
animal life—its origin, behavior, and
life processes. Some conduct experi­
m ental studies with live animals in
co n tro lled or n atu ral surroundings
while others dissect anim als to study
the structure o f their parts. Zoolo­
gists are usually identified by the ani­
m al g ro u p stu d ie d —o rn ith o lo g ists
(birds), entom ologists (insects), and
m am m alogists (m am m als).
Animal husbandry specialists do re­
search on the breeding, feeding, and
diseases o f dom estic farm animals.
Veterinarians study diseases and ab­
norm al functioning in animals. (See
statem ent on veterinarians elsewhere
in the Handbook.)
Anatomists study the structure of
organisms, from cell structure to the
form ation of tissues and organs.
M any specialize in hum an anatomy.
R esearch m ethods may entail dissec­
tions or the use o f electron m icro­
scopes.
Some life scientists apply their spe­
cialized knowledge across a num ber
of areas, and may be classified by the
functions perform ed. Ecologists, for
example, study the relationship b e­
tween organism s and their environ­
m ents, particularly the effects o f en ­
v iro n m e n ta l in flu e n c e s su c h as
rainfall, tem perature, and altitude on
organism s. For exam ple, ecologists
extract samples of plankton (m icro­
scopic plants and anim als) from bod­
ies of w ater to determ ine the effects
of pollution, and m easure the radio­
active co n ten t of fish.
Embryologists study the develop­
m ent o f an animal from a fertilized
egg through the hatching process or
g estation p erio d . T hey investigate
the causes of healthy and abnorm al
developm ent in animals.
Microbiologists are life scientists
who investigate the growth and char­
acteristics o f m icroscopic organisms
such as bacteria, viruses, and molds.
They isolate and grow organisms for
close ex am in atio n u n d er a m icro­
154

Life scientists study living organisms and their life processes.

scope. Medical microbiologists are
concerned with the relationship b e­
tween bacteria and disease or the ef­
fect o f antibiotics on bacteria. O ther
microbiologists may specialize in soil
bacteriology (effect o f m icroorga­
nisms on soil fertility), virology (vi­
ruses), or immunology (m echanism s
that fight infections).
N utritionists exam ine the bodily
processes through which food is uti­
lized and transform ed into energy.
They learn how vitamins, m inerals,
proteins, and o th er nutrients build
and repair tissues.
Pharmacologists conduct tests on
animals such as rats, guinea pigs, and
monkeys to determ ine the effects of
drugs, gases, poisons, dusts, and o th ­
er substances on the functioning of
tissues and organs. They may devel­
op new or improved drugs and m edi­
cines.
Pathologists specialize in the ef­
fects of diseases, parasites, and in­
sects on hum an cells, tissues, and o r­
gans. O thers may investigate genetic
variations caused by drugs.
Biochemists and biological oceanog­

raphers, who are also life scientists,
are included in separate statem ents
elsewhere in the Handbook.

Places of Employment
An estim ated 205,000 persons
worked as life scientists in 1976. Al­
most 40,000 were agricultural scien­
tists, about 100,000 were biological
scientists, and about 65,000 were
medical scientists.
Colleges and universities employ
nearly three-fifths of all life scien­
tists, in both teaching and research
jobs. M edical schools and hospitals
also employ large num bers of m edi­
cal investigators. Sizable numbers of
specialists in agronomy, horticulture,
animal husbandry, entomology, and
related areas work for State agricul­
tural colleges and agricultural experi­
m ent stations.
18,000
life scientists
worked for the Federal G overnm ent
in 1976. O f these, over half worked
for the D epartm ent of Agriculture,
with large num bers also in the D e­
partm ent of the Interior, and in the
N ational Institutes of Health. State
and local governm ents com bined

em ployed ab o u t 22,000 life scien­
tists.
A pproxim ately 40,000 life scien­
tists w o rk e d in p riv a te in d u stry ,
mostly in the pharm aceutical, indus­
trial chem ical, and food processing
in d u s trie s in J 9 7 6 . A b o u t 6 ,0 0 0
w orked fo r n o n p ro fit research o r­
ganizations and foundations; a few
were self-employed.
Life scientists are distributed fairly
evenly throughout the U nited States,
but em ploym ent is cencentrated in
some m etropolitan areas—for exam ­
ple, nearly 6 percen t o f all agricultur­
al and biological scientists work in
the W ashington, D.C., m etropolitan
area. Life science teachers are con­
centrated in com m unities with large
universities.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Persons seeking a career in the life
sciences should plan to obtain an
advanced degree. The Ph. D. degree
generally is required for college
teaching, for independent research,
and for many adm inistrative jobs. A
m aster’s degree is sufficient for some
jobs in applied research and college
teaching. A health science degree is
necessary for some jobs in m edical
research (See section on health
occupations elsew here in the Hand­
book. )
The b ach elo r’s degree is adequate
preparation for some beginning jobs,
but prom otions often are limited for
those who hold no higher degree.
New graduates with a b ach elo r’s d e­
gree can start their careers in testing
and inspecting jobs, or becom e tech ­
nical sales and service re p resen ta­
tives. T hey also m ay becom e a d ­
vanced tech n ician s, particularly in .
m edical research or, with courses in
e d u c a tio n , a high sch o o l biology
teacher. (See statem ent on second­
ary school teachers elsew here in the
Handbook.)
M ost colleges and universities of­
fer life science curriculum s. How­
ever, different schools may em pha­
size only certain areas o f life science.
F o r ex am ple, liberal arts colleges
may em phasize the biological scienc­
es, while many State universities and
land-grant colleges offer program s in
agricultural science.

Students seeking careers in the life
sciences should obtain the broadest
in biology and other sciences.
C ourses taken should include biol­
ogy, chem istry, physics, and m athe­
matics.
Many colleges and universities
confer advanced degrees in the life
sciences. R equirem ents for advanced
degrees usually include field work
and laboratory research as well as
classroom studies and preparation o f
a thesis.
Prospective life scientists should
be able to work independently or as
part o f a team and m ust be able to
com m unicate their findings in clear
and concise language, both orally
and in writing. Some life scientists,
such as those conducting field re ­
search in rem ote areas, m ust have
good physical stam ina.
Life scientists who have advanced
degrees usually begin in research or
teaching jobs. W ith experience, they
may advance to jobs such as supervi­
sors of research programs.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for life
scientists are expected to be good for
those with advanced degrees through
the m id-1980’s, but those with lesser
degrees may experience com petition
for available jobs. However, a life
science degree also is useful for entry
to occupations related to life science
such as laboratory technology and
the health care occupations. Em ploy­
m ent in the life sciences is expected
to increase faster than the average
for all occupations over this period.
In addition, some openings will occur
as life scientists retire, die, or transfer
to other occupations.
Em ploym ent in the life sciences
will grow as a result of increased
interest in preserving the natural e n ­
vironm ent and a continuing interest
in m edical research . E m ploym ent
opportunities in industry and govern­
m ent should grow as environm ental
research and developm ent increases
and new laws and standards p ro tec t­
ing the environm ent are enacted. A d­
ditional life science teachers will be
needed if college and university e n ­
rollm ents increase as expected.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Life scientists receive relatively
high salaries; their average earnings
are m ore than twice those of nonsupervisory workers in private industry,
except farming.
Beginning salary offers in private
industry in 1976 averaged \$10,900 a
year for bachelor’s degree recipients
in agricultural science and \$10,200 a
year for bachelor’s degree recipients
in biological science.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, life scientists having a bache­
lo r’s degree could begin at \$9,303 or
\$11,523 a year, depending on their
college records. Life scientists having
the m aster’s degree could start at
\$11,523 or \$14,097, depending on
their academ ic records or work expe­
rience. Those having the Ph. D. d e­
g re e c o u ld begin a t \$ 1 7 ,0 5 6 o r
\$20,442 a year. Agricultural and bio­
logical scientists in the Federal Gov­
ernm ent averaged \$21,600 a year.
Earnings of all life scientists aver­
aged about \$20,300 a year in 1976,
according to the limited data avail­
able. Life scientists who have the
M .D. degree generally earn m ore
than other life scientists but less than
physicians in private practice.
Most life scientists work in welllighted, well-ventilated, and clean
laboratories. Some jobs, however, re­
quire w orking outdoors under ex­
tre m e w e a th e r co n d itio n s, doing
strenuous physical labor.

Information
G eneral inform ation on careers in
the life sciences is available from:
American Institute of Biological Sciences,
1401 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Va.
22209.
American Society for Horticultural Science,
National Center for American Horticul­
ture, Mt. Vernon, Va. 22121.
American Physiological Society, Education
Office, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda,
Md. 20014.

Special inform ation on Federal
G overnm ent careers is available
from:
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington
Area Office, 1900 E St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20415.

155

with wholesalers and other custom ­ credit ratings. In addition, they must
ers.
plan their work schedules, draw up
Sales w orkers who deal in highly lists o f p ro sp e cts, m ake a p p o in t­
technical products, such as electron­ m ents, handle some correspondence,
ic equipm ent, often are called sales and study literature relating to their
(D .O .T. 260. through 298.458)
engineers or industrial sales workers. products.
In a d d itio n to having a th o ro u g h
Places of Employment
knowledge o f their firm s’ products,
Nature of the Work
they m ust be able to help prospective
Over 360,000 people were m anu­
buyers with technical problem s. For fa c tu re r s ’ sales w orkers in 1976.
Practically all m anufacturers—
w hether they m ake com puters or can exam ple, they may try to determ ine A bout 15,000 were sales engineers.
the proper m aterials and equipm ent Some work out of their com pany’s
openers—em ploy
sales workers.
M an u factu rers’ sales w orkers sell for a firm ’s m anufacturing process. hom e office, often located at a m anu­
m ainly to o th e r businesses—fa cto ­ They then present this inform ation to facturing plant. The m ajority, how­
ries, railro ad s, banks, w holesalers, com pany officials and try to negoti­ ever, work out of branch offices, usu­
and retailers. They also sell to hospi­ ate a sale, w hich m ay tak e m any ally in big cities n ea r prospective
tals, schools, libraries, and o th er in­ m onths. O ften, sales engineers work custom ers.
with the research-and-developm ent
M ore sales workers are em ployed
stitutions.
M ost m an u factu rers’ sales w orkers departm ents o f their own com panies by com panies that produce food
sell n o n te c h n ic a l p ro d u c ts. T hey to devise ways to adapt products to a products than by any other industry.
m ust be well inform ed about their cu sto m er’s specialized needs. Sales Large num bers also work in the
firm s’ pro d u cts and also about the w orkers who handle technical p ro d ­ printing and publishing, chemical,
special requirem ents o f their custom ­ ucts som etim es train their custom ers’ fabricated m etal products, and elec­
ers. W hen sales w orkers visit firms in e m p lo y e e s in th e o p e ra tio n an d trical and o th er m achinery indus­
their territory, they use an approach m aintenance o f new equipm ent, and tries. M ost sales engineers <bvork for
adapted to the p articular line o f m er­ m ake frequent return visits to be c e r­ com panies that produce heavy m a­
chandise. A sales w orker who han­ tain th at it is giving the desired ser­ chinery, transportation equipm ent,
fabricated metal products, and p ro ­
dles crack ers o r cookies, for exam ­ vice.
Although m anufacturers’ sales fessional and scientific instrum ents.
ple, em phasizes the w holesom eness,
attractive packaging, and variety of w orkers spend m ost of their tim e
Training, Other Qualifications,
th e s e p ro d u c ts . S o m e tim e s sales visiting prospective custom ers, they
w orkers prom ote th eir products by also do paperw ork, including reports
displays in hotels and conferences on sales prospects or custom ers’
A lthough a college degree is in­
creasingly desirable, the type and
level o f education a sales w orker
needs depend largely on the product
and its m arket.
M anufacturers of nontechnical
products often hire college graduates
who have a degree in liberal arts or
tions, how ever, require specialized
training. D rug sales w orkers, also
known as pharm aceutical detailers,
usually need training at a college of
pharm acy. M anufacturers of electri­
cal equipm ent, heavy machinery, and
some types o f chem icals prefer to
hire people who have studied engi­
neering or chemistry. (Inform ation
on chem ists, engineers, and others
with the technical training suitable
fo r w ork as m a n u fa c tu re rs ’ sales
w orkers is given elsew here in the
Handbook.)
Beginning sales workers may take
specialized training before they start
on the job. Some com panies, espe­
cially those that m anufacture com ­
Manufacturer’s sales worker takes order for camera equipment from department store
plex technical products, have formal

M A N U F A C T U R E R S ’ SALES
W O RK ER S

156

training program s th at last 2 years or
longer. In some of these program s,
trainees rotate am ong jobs in several
departm ents of the plant and office
to learn all phases o f production, in­
stallatio n , and d istrib u tio n o f the
product. O ther trainees take form al
class in stru ctio n a t the plant, fol­
low ed by on -th e-jo b training in a
branch office under the supervision a
field sales m anager.
A pleasant personality and appear­
ance, and the ability to m eet and get
along well with many types of people
are im portant. Because sales workers
may have to walk or stand for long
p eriods o r carry p ro d u c t sam ples,
some physical stam ina is necessary.
As in m ost selling jobs, arithm etic
skills are an asset.
Sales representatives who have
good sales records and leadership
ability may advance to sales supervi­
sors, b ra n ch m an ag ers, or district
m an ag ers. T hose w ith m anagerial
ability eventually may advance to
sales m anager o r oth er executive po­
sitions; m any top executive jobs in
industry are filled by people who
started as sales workers.
Because o f frequent contact with
business people in other firms, sales
workers often are able to transfer to
other jobs. Some go into business for
them selves as independent represen­
ta tiv e s . O th e r e x p e rie n c e d sales
w orkers find opportunities in adver­
tising and m arketing research.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent in this field is expect­
ed to grow about as fast as the aver­
age for all occupations. Grow th will
occur because o f the rising dem and
for technical products and the result­
ing need for trained sales workers. In
a d d itio n , in d u s tria l firm s, c h a in
stores, and institutions th at purchase
large quantities o f goods at one time
fre q u e n tly buy d ire c tly from the
m an u fa ctu rer. T he n ee d for sales
workers will increase as m anufactur­
ers em phasize sales activities to com ­
pete for the growing num ber o f these
valuable accounts.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
According to the limited inform a­
tion available, salaries for inexperi­

en ced sales w orkers ranged from
\$6,000 to over \$24,000 a year in
1976, exclusive o f commissions and
bonuses. The highest starting salaries
generally were paid by m anufactur­
ers o f e le c tric a l eq u ip m en t, food
products, and rubber goods. The av­
e ra g e e x p e rie n c e d sales w o rk e r
e a r n e d b e t w e e n \$ 1 7 ,0 0 0 a n d
\$30,000 in 1976, depending upon
the firm and its product. The highest
paid sales workers som etim es earned
upwards o f \$40,000 and \$50,000.
Some m anufacturing concerns pay
experienced sales w orkers a straight
commission, based on their dollar
am ount o f sales (as in the case o f
independent representatives); others
pay a fixed salary. The m ajority,
however, use a com bination o f salary
and commission, salary and bonus, or
salary, commission, and bonus. C om ­
missions vary according to the sales
w orkers’ efforts and ability, the com ­
m ission rate, the location o f their
sales territory, and the type of p ro d ­
uct sold. Bonus paym ents may d e­
pend on individual perform ance, on
perform ance of all sales workers in
the group or district, or on the com ­
pany’s sales. Some firms pay annual
bonuses; others offer bonuses as in­
centive paym ents on a quarterly or
m onthly basis.
Some m anufacturers’ sales w ork­
ers have large territories and do co n ­
siderable traveling. O thers usually
work in the neighborhood of their
“ hom e b a s e .” W hen on business
trips, sales w orkers are reim bursed
for expenses such as transportation
and hotels. Some com panies provide
a car or pay a mileage allowance to
sales workers who use their own cars.
M anufacturers’ sales workers call
at the time m ost convenient to cus­
tom ers and may have to travel at
night or on w eekends. Frequently,
they spend evenings writing reports.
However, some plan their schedules
for time off when they want it. M ost
sales w orkers who are not paid a
straight com m ission receive 2 to 4
w eeks’ paid vacation, depending on
their length of service. They usually
share in com pany benefits, including
life insurance, pensions, and hospital,
surgical, and m edical benefits.

Information
For m ore inform ation on the occu­
pation o f m anufacturers’ sales w ork­
er, write:
Sales and Marketing Executives International,
Career Education Division, 380 Lexing­
ton Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Manufacturer’s Agents National Association,
P.O. Box 16878, Irvine, Cal. 92713.

M A R K ETIN G RESEARCH
W ORKERS
(D.O.T. 050.088)

Nature of the Work
Businesses require a great deal of
inform ation to make sound decisions
on how to m arket their products.
M arketing research workers provide
m uch of this information by analyz­
ing available data on products and
sales. If additional information is re­
quired but not available, they con­
d u ct m arketing surveys, by in te r­
view ing th o se likely to have the
needed data. They also prepare sales
fo recasts and m ake recom m enda­
tions on product design and advertis­
ing.
Most m arketing research starts
with the collection of facts from
sources such as com pany records,
published materials, and experts on
the subject under investigation. For
exam ple, m arketing research w ork­
ers making sales forecasts may begin
by studying the growth of sales vol­
ume in several different cities. This
growth may then be traced to in­
creases in population, size of the
com pany’s sales force, or am ount of
m oney spent on advertising. O ther
m a rk e tin g re se a rc h w orkers m ay
study changes in the quantity of com ­
pany goods on store shelves or m ake
door-to-door surveys to get inform a­
tion on company products.
M arketing research workers often
are concerned with custom ers’ opin­
ions and tastes. For example, to help
decide on the design and price o f a
new line of television sets, m arketing
157

Market research workers often test reactions to a company’s product.

research w orkers may survey co n ­
sum ers to find o u t w hat styles and
price ranges are m ost popular. This
type o f survey usually is supervised
by m arketing researchers who spe­
cialize in consum er goods; th at is,
m erchandise sold to the general pub­
lic. They may be helped by statisti­
cians who select a group (o r sam ple)
to be interview ed and “ m otivational
re s e a r c h ” sp ec ia lists w ho p h ra se
questions to produce reliable infor­
m ation. O nce the investigation is un­
derw ay, th e m ark etin g re searc h er
may supervise the interview ers as
well as direct the office workers who
tabulate and analyze the inform ation
collected.
M arketing surveys on products
used by business and industrial firms
may be conducted differently from
surveys for consum er goods. M arket­
ing researchers often conduct the in­
terviews them selves to gather opin­
ions o f the product. They also may
speak to co m p an y officials about
new uses for it. They m ust therefore
have specialized knowledge o f both
m arketing techniques and the indus­
trial uses o f the product.

Places of Employment
A bout 25,000 full-time m arketing
research workers were em ployed in
158

1976. M ost jobs for m arketing re ­
search workers are found in m anu­
fa c tu rin g c o m p a n ie s, ad v e rtisin g
agencies, and independent research
organizations. L arge num bers are
employed by stores, radio and televi­
sion firms, and new spapers; others
work for university research centers
and governm ent agencies. M arketing
research organizations range in size
from one-person enterprises to firms
with a hundred em ployees or m ore.
New York City has a large num ber
of m arketing research workers.
Many m ajor advertising agencies, in­
dependent m arketing organizations,
and central offices of large m anufac­
tu rers are lo cated there. A n o th er
large co n c en tratio n is in Chicago.
However, m arketing research w ork­
ers are em ployed in many other cities
as well—w herever there are central
offices o f large m anufacturing and
sales organizations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Although a bachelor’s degree usu­
ally is sufficient for trainees, gradu­
ate education is necessary for many
specialized positions in m arketing re ­
search. G raduate study usually is re ­
quired for advancem ent, and a siz­

able num ber of m arket researchers
have a m aster’s degree in business
gree as well as a bachelor’s degree in
m arketing. Some people qualify for
jobs through previous experience in
o th er types o f research; university
teachers o f m arketing or statistics,
for example, may be hired to head
m arketing research departm ents in
cies.
B achelor’s program s in m arketing
and related fields, including courses
in statistics, English com position,
speech, psychology, and economics,
are valuable preparation for work in
m arketing research. Some m arketing
research positions require special­
ized skills such as engineering, or
substantial sales experience and a
thorough knowledge of the com pa­
n y ’s products. Knowledge of d ata
processing is helpful because of the
increasing use of com puters in sales
forecasting, d istribution, and cost
analysis.
College graduates may find their
first job in any of a num ber of places:
in the m arket research departm ent of
a large company, with a research
firm, in a governm ent planning
agency, or even in a university m ar­
keting departm ent.
Trainees usually start as research
assistants or junior analysts. At first,
they may do considerable clerical
work, such as copying data from pub­
lished sources, editing and coding
questionnaires, and tabulating survey
returns. They also learn to conduct
interviews and write reports on sur­
vey findings. As they gain experi­
ence, assistants and junior analysts
may assume responsibility for specif­
ic m arketing research projects, or ad­
vance to supervisory positions. An
exceptionally able w orker may be­
come m arketing research director or
vice p re sid e n t for m arketin g and
sales.
Either alone or as part of a team ,
m arketing research workers must be
able to analyze problem s objectively
and apply various techniques to their
solution. As advisers to m anagem ent,
they should be able to write clear
reports informing com pany officials
of their findings.

Employment Outlook
O pportunities should be best for
applicants with graduate training in
m arketing research or statistics. The
growing complexity o f m arketing re­
search techniques also may expand
o p p o rtu n ities in this field for psy­
chologists, econom ists, and other so­
cial scientists.
M arketing research em ploym ent
rises as new products and services
are developed, particularly when
business activity and personal in­
com es are expanding rapidly. In p e­
riods o f slow econom ic growth, how­
e v e r , th e r e d u c e d d e m a n d fo r
m arketing services may limit the hir­
ing o f research workers.
O ver the long run, population
growth and the increased variety of
goods and services th at businesses
and individuals will require are ex­
pected to stimulate a high level of
m arketing activity. As a result, em ­
p lo y m e n t o f m a rk e tin g re se a rc h
w orkers is expected to grow m uch
fa ste r th a n the av erage for o th e r
occupations through the m id-1980’s.
C om petition am ong m anufactur­
ers o f both consum er and industrial
products will m ake the appraising of
m arketing situations increasingly im ­
portant. As techniques improve and
statistical d ata accum ulate, com pany
officials are likely to turn more often
to m arketing research workers for in­
form ation and advice.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries for m arketing research
trainees were about \$ 11,000 a year
in 1976, according to the limited
inform ation available. Persons with
m aster’s degrees in business adm inis­
tra tio n an d re la ted fields usually
started with salaries around \$15,000
a year. Starting salaries varied ac­
cording to the type, size, and location
of the firm as well as the exact nature
o f the position. G enerally, though,
starting salaries were som ewhat high­
er and prom otion som ew hat slower
than in oth er occupations requiring
similar training.
Experienced w orkers such as sen­
ior analysts received salaries over
\$19,000 a year. Earnings were high­
est, however, for w orkers in m anage­

m ent positions of great responsibil­
ity. D irectors of m arketing research
earned well over \$25,000 a year in
1976.
M arketing research workers usual­
ly work in m odem , centrally located
offices. Some, especially those em ­
p lo y e d by in d e p e n d e n t re s e a rc h
firm s, m ay trav el fo r th e ir w ork.
Also, they may frequently work u n ­
der pressure and for long hours to

Information
A pam phlet, “ C areers in M arket­
ing” (M onograph Series No. 4), may
be purchased for \$1.50 from:
American Marketing Association, 222 South
Riverside Plaza, Chicago, 111. 60606.

M A TH E M A TIC IA N S
(D.O.T. 020.088)

Nature of the Work
M athem aticians work with one o f
the oldest and m ost vital of all scienc­
es. M athem aticians today are e n ­
gaged in a wide variety of activities,
ranging from the creatio n o f new
theories to the translation of scientif­
ic and m an ag erial p ro b lem s in to
m athem atical terms.
M athem atical work falls into two
theoretical (pure)
m athem atics; and applied m athem at­
ics. However, these classes are not
sharply defined and often overlap.
T h e o re tic a l m athem aticians a d ­
vance m athem atical science by d e­
veloping new principles and new rela tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n e x is tin g
principles of m athem atics. Although
they seek to increase basic know l­
edge w ithout necessarily considering
its practical use, this pure and ab ­
stra c t know ledge has been in stru ­
m ental in producing many scientific
and engineering achievem ents. For
example, in 1854 Bernard Riem ann
in v en ted a seem ingly im p rac tica l
non-Euclidian geom etry that was to
becom e part of A lbert Einstein’s th e ­
ory o f relativity. Years later, this th e ­
ory contributed to the creation o f
atom ic power.

M athem aticians in applied work
use m athem atics to develop theories,
techniques, and approaches to solve
practical problem s in business, gov­
ernm ent, engineering, and the natu­
ral and social sciences. Their work
ranges from analysis of the m athe­
m atical aspects of launching earth
satellites to studies of the effects of
new drugs on disease.
M uch work in applied m athem at­
ics, however, is carried on by persons
other than m athem aticians. In fact,
the num ber of workers who depend
upon m athem atical expertise is many
times greater than the num ber actu­
ally designated as mathem aticians.

Places of Employment
About 38,000 persons worked as
m athem aticians in 1976. Roughly
three-fourths of all m athem aticians
worked in colleges and universities.
Most were teachers; some worked
mainly in research and developm ent
with few or no teaching duties.
Most
other
m athem aticians
worked in private industry and gov­
ernm ent. In the private sector, m ajor
employers were the aerospace, com ­
m unications, machinery, and electri­
cal equipm ent industries. The D e­
p a r t m e n t o f D e fe n s e a n d th e
N ational Aeronautics and Space A d­
m inistration em ployed most of the
m athem aticians working in the Fed­
eral Governm ent.
M athem aticians work in all States,
but are concentrated in those with
large industrial areas and large col­
lege a n d u n iv ersity en ro llm e n ts.
Nearly half of the total are employed
in seven S ta te s—C alifo rn ia, New
Y ork, M assachusetts, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Maryland, and New Jersey.
O f the total, one-fourth live in three
m etropolitan areas—New York City;
W ashington, D.C.; and Los AngelesLong Beach, California.

Training, Other Qualifications,
An advanced degree is the basic
requirem ent for beginning teaching
jobs, as well as for most research
positions. In most colleges and uni159

r e s e a r c h a n d ta k in g a d v a n c e d
courses.
For work in applied m athem atics,
training in the field in which the
m athem atics will be used is very im­
p o rta n t. Fields in w hich applied
m athem atics is used extensively in­
clude physics, engineering, and op­
erations research; of increasing im­
portance are business and industrial
m anagem ent, econom ics, statistics,
chem istry and life sciences, and the
behavioral sciences.
M athem aticians should have a
good know ledge o f com puter p ro ­
g ra m m in g s in c e m o s t c o m p le x
m athem atical com putation is done
by com puter.
M athem aticians need good reason­
ing ability, persistence, and the abil­
ity to apply basic principles to new
types of problem s. They must be
able to com m unicate well with others
since th ey often m ust listen to a
nonm athem atician describe a p ro b ­
lem in general term s, and check and
recheck to m ake sure they un d er­
stand the m athem atical solution that
is needed.

Employment Outlook

Mathematicians should have a good knowledge of computer programming since most
com plex m ath e m a tic a l com putation is done by com puter.

versities, the Ph. D. degree is neces­
sary for full faculty status.
Although the bachelor’s degree
may be adequate preparation for
some jobs in private industry and
governm ent, em ployers usually re ­
quire an ad v an ced degree. Those
bachelor’s degree holders who find
jobs usually assist senior m athem ati­
cians by perform ing com putations
and solving less advanced problem s
in applied m athem atics. H owever,
a d v a n c e m e n t o fte n d e p e n d s on
achieving an advanced degree. O ther
b achelor’s degree holders work as re­
search or teaching assistants in col­
leges and universities while studying
for an advanced degree.
The b ach elo r’s degree in m athe­
m atics is offered by m ost colleges
160

a n d u n iv e r s itie s . M a th e m a tic s
courses usually required for a degree
are analytical geom etry, calculus,
d iffe ren tial eq u a tio n s, probability
and statistics, m athem atical analysis,
and m odern algebra. A prospective
college m athem atics student should
take as many m athem atics courses as
possible while still enrolled in high
school.
M ore than 400 colleges and uni­
versities have program s leading to
the m aster’s degree in m athem atics;
about 150 also offer the Ph. D. In
graduate school, students build upon
the basic knowledge acquired in e a r­
lier studies. They usually concen­
trate on a specific field of m athem at­
ics, such as algebra, m athem atical
analysis, or geom etry, by conducting

Em ployment of m athem aticians is
expected to increase more slowly
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. Although
the num ber of degrees granted in
m athem atics each year is expected to
decline, the num ber o f people seek­
ing em ploym ent is expected to ex­
ceed job openings. As a result, p er­
s o n s s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t as
m athem aticians are likely to face
keen com petition throughout the pe­
riod.
Theoretical mathem aticians, who
have traditionally found jobs in col­
leges and universities, are expected
to experience the most difficulty in
finding em ploym ent because colleges
and universities are not expected to
increase their employm ent of m athe­
maticians much, if any, beyond p re­
sent levels.
Holders of advanced degrees in
applied m athem atics should have the
least difficulty in finding satisfactory
employm ent. Although some limited
opportunities may be available to

th eo retical m athem aticians in nonacadem ic areas, m ost em ployers will
seek applied m athem aticians who are
c a p a b le o f applying th e ir special
m athem atical skills to practical p ro b ­
lems. P rivate industry and govern­
m ental agencies will n eed applied
m athem aticians for w ork in opera­
tions research , n u m erical analysis,
com puter systems program m ing, ap­
plied m athem atical physics, m arket
re searc h an d co m m ercial surveys,
and as consultants in industrial labo­
ratories. W ork in applied m athem at­
ics requires both a high degree of
m a th e m a tic a l c o m p e te n c e an d a
knowledge o f the field o f application.
A lthough m athem atician jobs may
be difficult to obtain, college gradu­
ates w ith d eg rees in m ath em atics
should find their background helpful
for careers in oth er areas. Many jobs
rely heavily on th e application of
m athem atical theories and m ethods.
M athem atics m ajors are likely to find
openings in statistics, actuarial work,
c o m p u te r p ro g ra m m in g , system s
an alysis, ec o n o m ic s, en g in ee rin g ,
and physical and life sciences. Em ­
p lo y m e n t o p p o rtu n itie s in th e se
fields will probably be best for those
who com bine a m ajor in m athem atics
with a m inor in one o f these subjects.
New graduates may also find open­
ings as h ig h sch o o l m a th e m a tic s
teachers after com pleting profession­
al ed u cation courses and o th er re­
quirem ents for a State teaching cer­
tificate. (See statem ent on secondary
sch o o l te a c h e rs elsew h ere in the
Handbook.)

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In 1976, m athem aticians earned
average salaries over twice as high as
the average for nonsupervisory w ork­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Starting salaries for m athem ati­
c ia n s w ith a b a c h e l o r ’s d e g re e
a v e ra g e d a b o u t \$ 1 1 ,5 0 0 a y ea r.
Those with a m aster’s degree could
s ta rt a t a b o u t \$ 1 4 ,3 0 0 annually.
Salaries for new graduates having the
Ph. D., m ost of whom had some ex­
perience, averaged over \$20,000.
In the Federal G overnm ent in
1977, m athem aticians having the

bachelor’s degree and no experience
could start at either \$9,303 or
\$11,523 a year, depending on their
college records. Those with the m as­
te r ’s degree could start at \$14,097 o r
\$17,056; and persons having the Ph.
D. d e g re e co u ld b eg in a t e ith e r
\$ 17,056 or \$20,442. T he average sal­
ary for all m athem aticians in the F ed ­
eral G overnm ent was about \$23,100
in 1977.
Salaries paid to college and univer­
sity m athem atics teachers are com ­
parab le to those for o th er faculty
m em bers. (See statem ent on college
and university teachers elsew here in
the Handbook.)

Information
Several brochures are available
th at give facts about the field o f
m athem atics, including c a ree r o p ­
p o rtu n itie s, p ro fessio n al train in g ,
and colleges and universities with d e ­
gree program s.
Seeking Em ploym ent in the M athe­
matical Sciences is available for 50
cents from:
American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box
6248, Providence, R.I. 02940.

P r o fe s s io n a l O p p o r tu n itie s in
M athem atics (50 cents) and Guide
Book to Departments in the M athe­
matical Sciences (\$3.00) are provid­
ed by:
Mathematical Association of America, 1225
Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, D.C.
20036.

F or specific inform ation on c a ­
reers in applied m athem atics, co n ­
tact:
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathemat­
ics, 33 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa.
19103.

F or F ed eral G overnm ent c a re e r
inform ation, contact any regional of­
fice o f the U.S. Civil Service C om ­
mission or:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, D.C.
20415.

M E D IC A L LABORATORY
W O RKERS
(D.O.T. 078.128, .168, .281, and
.381)

Nature of the Work
Laboratory tests play an im portant
part in the detection, diagnosis, and
treatm ent o f many diseases. Medical
la b o ra to ry w o rk e rs, o fte n ca lle d
clinical laboratory workers, include
three levels: m edical technologists,
technicians, and assistants. They p er­
form tests under the general direc­
tion of pathologists (physicians who
diagnose the causes and nature of
disease) and other physicians, or sci­
e n tists w ho specialize in clin ical
chem istry, microbiology, or the other
biological sciences. M edical labora­
tory w orkers analyze the blood, tis­
sues, and fluids in the hum an body by
using precision instrum ents such as
m icroscopes and autom atic analyz­
ers.
Medical technologists, who require
4 years of postsecondary training,
perform com plicated chemical, mi­
croscopic, and bacteriological tests.
These may include chem ical tests to
determ ine, for exam ple, the blood
cholesterol level, or m icroscopic ex­
am ination of the blood to detect the
presence of diseases such as leuke­
mia. Technologists m icroscopically
examine other body fluids; m ake cul­
tures of body fluid or tissue samples
to determ ine the presence of b acte­
ria, parasites, or o th er m icroorga­
nisms; and analyze the samples for
chem ical content or reaction. They
also may type and cross-m atch blood
samples.
Technologists in small laboratories
often perform many types of tests.
Those in large laboratories usually
specialize in areas such as m icrobiol­
ogy, p a ra s ito lo g y , b io c h e m is try ,
b lo o d b a n k in g , h em ato lo g y (th e
study o f blood cells), and nuclear
medical technology (the use of radio­
active isotopes to help detect diseas­
es).
M ost m edical technologists co n ­
duct tests related to the examination
and trea tm e n t of patients and are
called on to display in d e p e n d e n t
judgm ent. Some do research, devel161

op laboratory techniques, teach, or
perform adm inistrative duties.
Medical laboratory technicians,
who generally require 2 years of
postsecondary training, perform a
wide range of tests and laboratory
procedures th at require a high level
o f skill b u t not the in-depth know l­
edge o f highly trained technologists.
Like technologists, they may w ork in
several areas o r specialize in one
field.
Medical laboratory assistants, who
generally have a year o f form al train ­
ing, assist m edical technologists and
technicians in routine tests and relat­
ed work th a t can be learned in a rela­
tively sh o rt time. In large laborato­
ries, they m ay c o n c e n tra te in one
area o f w ork. F or exam ple, they may
id en tify ab n o rm a l b lo o d cells on
slides. In addition to perform ing ro u ­
tine tests, assistants m ay store and
label plasm a; clean and sterilize labo­
ratory equipm ent, glassware, and in­
strum ents; prepare solutions follow­
ing standard laboratory form ulas and
p ro ced u res; keep re co rd s o f tests;
and identify specim ens.

Places of Employment
A bout 240,000 persons worked as
m edical laboratory w orkers in 1976.
M ost m edical laboratory personnel
work in hospital laboratories. O thers
work in independent laboratories,
physicians’ offices, clinics, public
health
agencies,
pharm aceutical
firms, and research institutions.
These places are concentrated in
larger cities and populous States.
In 1976, V eterans A dm inistration
hospitals and laboratories em ployed
about 2,400 m edical technologists
and about 2,000 m edical laboratory
technicians and assistants. O thers
w orked for the A rm ed Forces and
the U.S. Public H ealth Service.

Training, Other Qualifications,
The minim um educational require­
m ent for a beginning jo b as a m edical
technologist usually is 4 years of col­
lege training including com pletion o f
a sp ecialized train in g program in
m edical technology.

Most medical laboratory personnel work in hospitals.
162

work
includes
courses in chemistry, biological sci­
ences, and m athem atics. These stud­
ies give the technologist a broad un­
d e r s ta n d in g o f th e s c ie n tif ic
p rin c ip le s u n d e rly in g la b o ra to ry
work. Specialized training usually re­
quires 12 m onths o f study and in­
cludes extensive laboratory work. In
1 9 7 6 , a b o u t 7 0 0 h o s p ita ls a n d
schools offered program s accredited
by the A m erican M edical A ssoci­
ation. These program s were affiliated
w ith c o lleg e s and u n iv ersities; a
bachelor’s degree usually is aw arded
upon com pletion. A few program s
require a bachelor’s degree for entry.
M any universities also offer ad ­
vanced degrees in medical technol­
ogy and related subjects for tech ­
nologists who plan to specialize in a
certain area o f laboratory work o r in
te a c h in g , a d m in is tra tio n , o r r e ­
search.
M edical laboratory technicians
em ployed in 1976 got their training
in a variety of educational settings.
Many attended junior or 4-year col­
leges and universities for 2 years.
Som e w ere train ed in the A rm ed
Forces. M any technicians received
training in private or nonprofit voca­
tional and technical schools. In 1976
the A m erican M edical Association
accredited 38 of these program s and
the Accrediting Bureau of M edical
Laboratory Schools accredited 36.
Most medical laboratory assistants
em ployed in 1976 were trained on
the job. In recent years, however, an
increasing num ber have studied in 1year training program s conducted by
hospitals, junior colleges in coopera­
tion w ith hospitals, or vocatio n al
sc h o o ls. In 1976, th e A m eric an
M edical Association accredited 153
training program s for medical labo­
ratory assistants. Applicants to these
p ro g ra m s sh o u ld be high sch o o l
graduates or have an equivalency di­
plom a with courses in science and
m athem atics. The program s include
classroom instruction and practical
training in the laboratory. They often
begin with a general orientation to
the clinical laboratory followed by
courses in bacteriology, serology,
p arasito lo g y , hem atology, clinical
chem istry, blood banking, and uri­
nalysis.

A fter the successful com pletion of
the appropriate exam inations, m edi­
cal technologists may be certified as
M edical Technologists, M T (A SC P),
by th e B o ard o f R eg istry o f the
A m erican Society o f C linical P a­
thologists; M edical T echnologists,
MT, by the A m erican M edical T ech­
n o lo g ists; o r R e g iste re d M edical
Technologists, RM T, by the Interna­
tional Society o f Clinical Laboratory
T e c h n o lo g y . T h ese o rg a n iz a tio n s
also certify technicians. Laboratory
assistants are certified by the A m eri­
can Society of Clinical Pathologists.
M edical technologists and techni­
cians m ust be licensed in Alabam a,
California, Florida, G eorgia, Hawaii,
Illinois, Nevada, Pennsylvania, T en ­
nessee, New York City, and Puerto
Rico. R equirem ents for licensure in­
clude a w ritten exam ination in some
States.
A ccuracy, dependability, and the
ability to work under pressure are
im portant personal characteristics
for a m edical laboratory worker.
M anual dexterity and norm al color
vision are highly desirable.
Persons interested in m edical labo­
ratory careers should use consider­
able care in selecting a training pro­
gram. They should get inform ation
about the kinds o f jobs obtained by
graduates, educational costs, the ac­
creditation of the school, the length
o f tim e th e train in g program has
been in operation, instructional fa­
cilities, and faculty qualifications.
Technologists may advance to su­
pervisory positions in certain areas of
lab o ra to ry w ork, or, afte r several
years’ experience, to adm inistrative
m edical technologist in a large hospi­
tal. G raduate education in one of the
biological sciences, chem istry, m an­
a g e m e n t, an d e d u c a tio n u su ally
speeds a d v a n cem en t. T echnicians
can advance to technologists by get­
ting additional education and experi­
ence. Sim ilarly, assistants can be­
com e technicians by acquiring m ore
education and experience.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for
medical laboratory w orkers are ex­
pected to be favorable through the
m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. E m ploym ent o f these

w orkers is expected to expand faster
than the average for all occupations
as physicians m ake wider use of labo­
r a to r y te s ts in ro u tin e p h y sic a l
checkups and in the diagnosis and
treatm ent of disease. Indirectly influ­
encing growth in the field are popula­
tio n g ro w th , g re a te r h e a lth c o n ­
s c i o u s n e s s , a n d e x p a n s io n o f
prep ay m en t program s for m edical
care th at m ake it easier for people to
pay for services.
The use of autom ated laboratory
test equipm ent is expected to lead to
an increase in the num ber o f m edical
laboratory technicians and assistants
relative to technologists. Through
and assistants can operate equipm ent
to perform tests which previously re ­
quired the skill o f a technologist.
Technologists will be needed to fill
supervisory positions in all laborato­
ries. Also, some will be needed in
laboratories where they are required
by S ta te licen sin g a u th o ritie s o r
third-party health insurance regula­
tions, and in laboratories not using
the new autom ated equipm ent.
In addition to openings resulting
from growth, many jobs will becom e
available each year because o f the
need to replace m edical laboratory
workers who die, retire, or leave the
field for other reasons.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries of m edical laboratory
workers vary depending on the em ­
ployer and geographic location. In
general, m edical laboratory workers
em ployed on the W est Coast and in
large cities received the highest sala­
ries.
Starting salaries for medical tech ­
nologists in hospitals and m edical
centers averaged about \$10,600 a
year in 1976, according to a survey
conducted by the University of Texas
M edical Branch. Beginning salaries
for laboratory technicians averaged
about \$8,700 a year in 1976; for as­
The Federal G overnm ent paid
newly graduated m edical technolo­
gists with bachelor’s degrees starting
salaries o f \$9,303 a year in 1977.
Those having experience, superior

academ ic achievem ent, or a year of
graduate study entered at \$11,523.
The Federal Governm ent paid m edi­
cal laboratory assistants and techni­
cians starting salaries ranging from
\$5,810 to \$9,303 a year in 1977, de­
pending on the am ount and type of
education and experience. Medical
technologists in the Federal G overn­
m ent averaged \$13,600 a year and
medical technicians \$ 11,800 a year,
in 1977.
M edical laboratory personnel gen­
erally work a 40-hour week. In hospi­
tals, they can expect some night and
w eekend duty. H ospitals norm ally
p ro v id e v ac atio n an d sick leav e
benefits; some have retirem ent plans.
Laboratories generally are welllighted and clean. Although unpleas­
ant odors and specim ens o f many
kinds of diseased tissue often are p re­
sen t, few h azards exist if p ro p e r
m ethods o f sterilization and handling
of specimens, m aterials, and equip­
m ent are used.

Information
Inform ation about education and
training for medical technologists,
technicians, and laboratory assistants
meeting standards recognized by the
A m erican Medical Association, the
U.S. Office of Education, or both, as
well as career information on these
fields of work, is available from:
American Society of Clinical Pathologists,
Board of Registry, P.O. Box 4872, Chica­
go, 111. 60680.
American Society for Medical Technology,
5555 W. Loop South, Bellaire, Tex.
77401.
American Medical Technologists, 710 Higgins
Rd., Park Ridge, 11 . 60068.
1
Accrediting Bureau of Medical Laboratory
Schools, Oak Manor Office, 29089 U.S.
20 West, Elkhart, Ind. 46514.

For inform ation about other tech ­
nician training programs, contact:
International Society for Clinical Laboratory
Technology, 805 Ambassador Building,
411 N . Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo. 63101.

For a list of training programs for
m edical technologists, technicians,
and assistants that are approved by
the A m erican M edical Association,
write:
163

Department of Allied Health Evaluation,
American Medical Association, 535
North Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 60610.

For a list o f training program s for
m edical lab oratory technicians ac­
credited by the A ccrediting B ureau
o f M e d ic a l L a b o ra to ry S c h o o ls,
write:
Secretary-ABMLS, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elk­
hart, Ind. 46514.

In fo rm a tio n a b o u t e m p lo y m en t
opportunities in V eterans Adm inis­
tration hospitals is available from the
Office o f Personnel (0 5 4 E ), V eter­
ans A d m in is tra tio n , W a sh in g to n ,
D.C. 20420.
Inform ation about clinical and re­
se a rc h em p lo y m en t o p p o rtu n itie s
with the N ational Institutes o f H ealth
is available from the Clinical C enter,
N ational Institutes o f H ealth, Bethesda, M aryland 20014.

M E D IC A L RECO RD
A D M IN IS T R A T O R S
(D .O .T. 100.388)

Nature of the Work
All h ealth care institutions keep
records th a t contain m edical infor­
m ation on each p atien t, including
case histories o f illnesses or injuries,
reports on physical exam inations, Xrays and laboratory tests, doctors’ o r­
ders and notes, and n u rses’ notes.
These records are necessary for cor­
rect and prom pt diagnosis and trea t­
m ent o f illnesses and injuries. They
also are used for research, insurance
claim s, legal actions, evaluation o f
tr e a tm e n t a n d m e d ic a tio n s p r e ­
scribed, and in the training o f m edi­
cal personnel. M edical inform ation
in hospitals also is used to evaluate
patient care provided in the hospital
and as a basis for health care plan­
ning for the community.
M edical record adm inistrators di­
rect the activities o f the medical rec­
ord departm ent and develop systems
fo r d o cu m en tin g , storing, and re ­
trieving m edical inform ation. They
supervise the m edical record staff,
w hich processes and analyzes re c ­
ords and reports on p atien ts’ illnesses
164

Medical record administrators develop systems for documenting, storing, and retriev­
ing medical information.

and treatm ent. They train m em bers
o f the m edical record staff for spe­
cialized jobs, com pile m edical statis­
tics re q u ired by S tate o r national
health agencies, and assist the m edi­
cal staff in evaluations of patient care
or research studies. M edical record
adm inistrators serving as departm ent
heads are a part o f the hospital m an­
agem ent staff and participate fully in
m anagem ent activities. As the a d ­
m in is tra to r s re s p o n sib le fo r th e
m edical in fo rm atio n system , they
may be required to testify in court
ab o u t re c o rd s an d re c o rd p ro c e ­
dures.
The size and type o f institution af­
fect the duties and am ount o f respon­
sibility assigned to m edical reco rd
ad m in istrato rs. In large hospitals,
chief m edical record adm inistrators
supervise other m edical record ad ­
m inistrators, technicians, and clerks.
Smaller hospitals may employ only
two or three persons in the m edical
record departm ent; in nursing hom es
usually one person keeps the m edical
records. In these cases a consulting
medical record adm inistrator usually
advises technical and clerical person­
nel perform ing m edical record func­
tions.

Places of Employment
Most o f the 12,300 medical record
adm inistrators employed in 1976
worked in hospitals. The rem ainder
worked in clinics, nursing hom es,
State and local public health d ep art­
ments, and medical research centers.
Some h ea lth insurance com panies
also em ploy medical record adminis­
trators to help determ ine liability for
p ay m en t o f th e ir clie n ts’ m edical
fees. Some medical record adminis­
trators w ork for firms that m anufac­
tu re equipm ent for recording and
processing medical d ata and develop
and print health insurance and m edi­
cal form s. M any small health care
facilities hire m edical record adm in­
istrators as consultants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
P reparation for a career as a m edi­
cal record adm inistrator is offered in
specialized programs in colleges and
universities. M ost program s last 4
years and lead to a bachelor’s degree
in m edical reco rd adm inistration.
However, concentration in m edical
record adm inistration begins in the
third or fourth year o f study, making

transfer from a junior college possi­
ble. O ne-year certificate program s
also are available for those who al­
ready have a bach elor’s degree and
required courses in the liberal arts
and b io lo g ical scien ces. In 1977,
there were 41 program s in m edical
record adm inistration approved by
the C ouncil on M edical E ducation of
the A m erican M edical A ssociation
and the A m erican M edical Record
A ssociation (A M R A ). High school
c o u r s e s t h a t a re u se fu l in c lu d e
h e a lth , b u s in e s s a d m in is tr a tio n ,
m athem atics, and biology.
T raining for m edical record ad ­
m inistrators includes both classroom
instruction and practical experience.
Anatom y, physiology, fundam entals
o f m edical science, m edical term i­
nology, and medical record science
are am ong the req u ired scientific
co u rses. In ad dition, m anagem ent
courses such as hospital organization
and adm inistration, health law, statis­
tics, d ata processing, and com puter
science are part o f the curriculum .
Experience in the m edical record d e­
partm ents o f hospitals provides stu­
dents with a practical background in
applying standardized m edical rec­
ord p ractices, com piling statistical
reports, analyzing data, and organiz­
ing m edical record systems.
G raduates o f approved schools in
m edical record adm inistration are
eligible for the national registration
exam ination given by AMRA. Pass­
ing this exam ination gives profession­
al recognition as a R egistered R ecord
A d m inistrato r (R R A ). T here were
a b o u t 5 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y ed R R A ’s in
1976, according to AMRA.
M edical record adm inistrators
must be accurate and interested in
detail. They also m ust be able to
com m unicate clearly in speech and
writing. Because m edical records are
confidential, m edical record adm in­
istrators m ust be discreet in process­
ing and releasing inform ation. Super­
visors m ust be able to organize and
an aly ze w o rk p ro c e d u re s and to
work effectively with o th er hospital
personnel.
M edical record adm inistrators
with some experience in smaller
health facilities may advance to posi­
tions as d epartm ent heads in large
hospitals or to higher level positions

in hospital adm inistration. Some co ­
ordinate the medical record d epart­
m ents of several small hospitals. O th­
e rs m ove on to m e d ic a l re c o rd
positions in health agencies. Many
teach in the expanding program s for
m edical record personnel in 2- and 4year colleges and universities.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent opportunities for
graduates o f approved medical re c ­
ord adm inistrator program s are ex­
pected to be good through the mid1980’s. Em ploym ent is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations, with the increasing use
o f health facilities as m ore and m ore
people are covered by health insur­
ance. The detailed inform ation re ­
quired by third-party payers such as
insurance com panies and M edicare
also will cause growth in the occupa­
tion. M ore consultants will be need­
ed to standardize health records in
outpatient clinics, com m unity health
centers, nursing hom es, and hom e
care program s. The im portance of
medical records in research and the
growing use o f com puters to store
and re trie v e m edical in fo rm atio n
also should increase the dem and for
qualified m edical record adm inistra­
tors to develop new m edical inform a­
tion systems. Part-tim e em ploym ent
opportunities also should be avail­
able in teaching, in research, and in
consulting work for health care fa­
cilities.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
The salaries of medical record ad ­
m inistrators are influenced by the lo­
cation, size, and type of employing
institution, as well as by the duties
and responsibilities of the position.
The average starting salary for m edi­
cal record adm inistrators in 1976
was \$12,312 a year, according to a
national survey con d u cted by th e
University of Texas M edical Branch
at Galveston. Top salaries averaged
\$14,916 a year, with some earning as
much as \$27,612.
Newly graduated medical record
adm inistrators em ployed by the F ed­
eral G overnm ent generally started at
\$9,303 a year in 1977; those having

b a c h e lo r’s degrees and good a c a ­
demic records were eligible to begin
at \$11,523. In 1977, the F ederal
G overnm ent paid experienced m edi­
cal re co rd adm inistrators average
salaries of \$15,700 a year.
M edical record adm inistrators
usually work a regular 36- to 40-hour
week and receive paid holidays and
vacations.

Information
Inform ation
approved
schools and employm ent opportuni­
ties is available from:
American Medical Record Association, John
Hancock Center, Suite 1850, 875 N.
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 11 . 60611.
1

M ER CH A NT M A RINE
OFFICERS
Nature of the Work
Every ship has jobs of such im por­
tance to its safe operation that the
persons doing them are identified as
having special responsibilities. These
persons are the ships officers.
In com m and of every oceangoing
vessel is the captain or master
(D.O.T. 197.168) who is the ship­
ow ner’s sole representative. The cap ­
tain has com plete authority and re­
sponsibility for the ship’s operation
and the safety of the crew, passen­
gers, cargo, and vessel.
In addition, while in port, the cap ­
tain may serve as the shipow ner’s
agent in conferring with custom offi­
cials, and in some case may act as
paym aster for the ship. Although not
technically members of a specific de­
partm ent, captains generally are as­
sociated with the deck departm ent,
from whose ranks they have been
prom oted.
Deck Department. Deck officers or
“ m ates,” as they are traditionally
called, direct m ovem ent of the ship
and m aintenance of the deck and
hull. They maintain the authorized
speed and course; plot the vessel’s
position; post lookouts for other
165

The captain has complete authority and responsibility for the ship’s operation.

ships; record inform ation in the
“ log” of the voyage; and immediately
notify the captain of any unusual
occurrences. To com ply with coast
guard regulations for ensuring the
safe and efficient operation of ships,
deck officers must be familiar with
m odern navigational equipm ent,
such as sonar, radar, and radio direc­
tional finders.
The ch ief mate (D.O.T. 197.133),
also known as the first m ate or chief
officer, is the cap tain’s key assistant
in assigning duties to the deck crew
and m aintaining order and discipline.
The chief m ate also plans and super­
cargo, and assists the captain in tak ­
ing the ship in and out of port. On
some ships, the chief m ate also may
be in charge of first-aid treatm ent.
166

By tradition, the second mate
(D.O.T. 197.133) is the navigation
officer. The second m ate sees that
the ship is provided with the neces­
sary navigation charts and that navi­
g a tio n e q u ip m e n t is m a in ta in e d
properly.
Third mates (D.O.T. 197.133), the
most junior-rated deck officers act as
signal officers and are in charge of all
signaling equipm ent. They also assist
and unloading. The third m ate fre­
quently in sp ects lifesaving e q u ip ­
m ent to be sure it is ready for use in
fire, shipw reck, or other em ergen­
cies.
Engine Department. M arine en g i­
neers operate and m aintain all e n ­
gines and m achinery aboard ship.

The chief engineer (D.O.T. 197.130)
supervises the engine departm ent,
and is responsible for the efficient
operation of engines and other m e­
chanical equipm ent. The chief engi­
neer oversees the operation of the
main pow erplant and auxiliary equip­
m ent while the vessel is underway
and keeps records of equipm ent p er­
form ance and fuel consumption.
The first assistant engineer (D.O.T.
197.130) supervises engineroom p er­
sonnel and directs operations such as
starting, stopping, and controlling
the speed of the main engines. The
first assistant engineer also oversees
and inspects the lubrication of en­
gines, pum ps, generators, and other
m achinery and, with the chief engi­
neer, directs all types of repairs.
The second assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) has charge of the
boiler and associated equipm ent
such as the water-feed system and
pumps. The second assistant engi­
neer also makes sure proper steam
pressure and oil and water tem pera­
tures are maintained and supervises
the cleaning of boilers.
The
third assistant engineer
(D.O.T. 197.130) supervises the op­
eration and m aintenance of the lubri­
cation system and a variety of other
engineroom equipm ent. Some third
assistant engineers are responsible
for the electrical and refrigeration
systems aboard ships.
Other officers. A ship keeps con­
tact with the shore and other vessels
th ro u g h its radio officer (D .O .T .
193.282), who also maintains radio
equipm ent. These officers send and
receive messages by voice or Morse
code. They periodically receive and
record time signals, w eather reports,
position reports, and other inform a­
tion. Radio officers also may m ain­
tain depth recording equipm ent and
Some freighters and all passenger
vessels
carry
pursers
(D.O.T.
197.168). The purser or staff officer
does the extensive paperwork th at is
required before a ship enters or
leaves a port. They prepare payrolls
and assist passengers as required. In
recent years, the Staff Officers Asso­
ciation has established a program to
train pursers to act also as physician’s
assistan ts. This in stru ctio n is de-

signed to improve the m edical care
aboard freighters and tankers and fa­
cilitate U.S. Public H ealth Service
clearance when a ship arrives in port.
All passen g er ships m ust carry li­
censed doctors and nurses.

Places of Employment
A bout 13,300 officers were em ­
ployed aboard U.S. oceangoing ves­
sels during 1976. Deck officers and
engineering officers accounted for
m ore than four-fifths of the total, and
radio officers made up most of the
rem ain d er. Due to long vacations
and other breaks in service such as
those resulting from illness there are
about two officers em ployed for ev­
ery job on a ship.
A bout two-thirds o f the officers
were aboard freighters and m ost of
the rem ainder were aboard tankers.
Only a small percentage were on
passenger vessels.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A pplicants for an officer’s license
in the deck or engineering d ep art­
m ents o f oceangoing vessels m ust
m eet c e rta in legal re q u ire m e n ts.
C aptains, ch ief and second m ates,
and chief and first assistant engineers
must be at least 21 years old. The
minimum age for third m ates, third
assistant engineers, and radio opera­
to rs is 19. In ad d itio n , applicants
must present pro o f of U.S. citizen­
ship and obtain a U.S. Public Health
Service certificate attesting to their
vision, color perception, and general
physical condition.
Besides legal and m edical require­
ments, candidates m ust also have at
least 3 years of appropriate sea expe­
rience or be a grad uate of an ap­
proved training program . Deck offi­
c e r c a n d id a te s m u st pass C o a st
G uard exam inations th at require ex­
tensive knowledge o f navigation, car­
go handling, and deck departm ent
operations. M arine engineering offi­
cer candidates m ust dem onstrate indepth knowledge o f propulsion sys­
tems, electricity, plum bing and steam
fitting, m etal shaping and assembly,
and ship structure. To advance to
higher ratings, officers m ust pass pro­

gressively m ore difficult exam ina­
tions.
For a C oast G uard license as a
radio officer, applicants must have a
first or second-class radiotelegraph
o p erato r’s license issued by the F ed­
eral C om m unications Com mission.
For a license to serve as the sole ra ­
dio operator aboard a cargo vessel,
th e C o ast G uard also re q u ire s 6
m onths of radio experience at sea.
Unlike most professions, no educa­
tion requirem ents have been estab­
lished for officers. A sailor with 3
years’ experience in the deck or e n ­
gine departm ent may apply for either
a third m ate’s license or for a third
assistant e n g in e e r’s license. H ow ­
ever, because of the com plex m a­
chinery, and navigational and elec­
tronic equipm ent on m odern ships,
formal training usually is needed to
pass the C oast G uard’s exam ination
The fastest and surest way to b e ­
c o m e a w e ll- tr a in e d o f f ic e r is
through an established training p ro ­
gram. Such program s are available at
the U.S. M erchant M arine Academ y
at Kings Point, N.Y., and at six State
m erchant marine academies: C ali­
fornia M aritim e Academ y, Vallejo,
Calif.; G reat Lakes M aritina A cad­
emy Traverse City, Michigan; M aine
M aritime Academ y, Castine, Maine;
M assachusetts M aritim e A cadem y,
H y an n is, M ass.; T exas M aritim e
Academ y, Galveston, Tex.; and State
U niversity o f New Y ork M aritim e
College, Fort Schuyler, New Y ork,
N.Y. A bout 500 students graduate
each year from these schools; about
one-half are trained as deck officers
and on e-h alf as m arine engineers.
Admission to the U.S. M erchant M a­
rine Academ y is through nom ination
by a m em ber of Congress, w hereas
entrance to the other academ ies is
m ade through written application di­
rectly to the school.
Most of the academ ies offer 4-year
program s in nautical science or m a­
rin e e n g in e e rin g , w hich in c lu d e
courses such as navigation, m athe­
m atics, electronics, propulsion sys­
tem s, electrical engineering, naval
architecture, languages, history, and
shipping m an ag e m en t, as well as
p ractical experience at sea. A fter
C o a s t G u a rd e x a m in a tio n s a r e

passed, licenses are issued for either
third m ate or third assistant engineer.
commissions as ensigns in the U.S.
Naval Reserve.
Because o f their thorough ground­
ing in theory and its practical appli­
cation, academ y graduates are in the
best position to move up to m aster
and c h ie f en gineer ratings. T h eir
w ell-rounded education also helps
qualify them for shoreside jobs such
as m arine superintendent, operating
m anager, design engineers, naval ar­
chitects, or shipping executive.
The U.S. M erchant Marine A cad­
emy now selects about 15 percent of
the approxim ately 250 persons who
enter the academy each year to be
train ed as “ o m n ico m p eten t” offi­
cers. They are taught both naviga­
tional and technical skills so they can
work in either the deck or engine
departm ent. G raduates of the U.S.
M erchant M arine Academy have an
obligation to serve a minimum o f 3
years as officers in the m erchant m a­
rine or in the military service of the
United States.
A num ber of trade unions in the
maritime industry provide officer
training. These unions include the
International O rganization of M as­
ters, M ates and Pilots; the Seafarers’
International Union of North A m er­
ica; the Brotherhood of Marine Offi­
cers; and the National Marine Engi­
n e e r s ’ B e n e f ic ia l A s s o c ia tio n
(M EBA). However due to a crowded
job m arket in recent years, all but the
M EBA-operated Calhoon Engineer­
ing School in Baltimore, Md., have
restricted training program s to up­
The Calhoon School, which produc­
es about 90 graduates every year, of­
fers a third assistant engineer’s li­
cense. The program consists of both
classroom instruction and sea experi­
ence and provides free room , board,
medical care, and text books in addi­
tion to a m onthly grant. T rainees
must agree to serve at least 3 years in
the m erchant marine after the 3-year
training period.
A dvancem ent for deck and engine
officers is along well-defined lines
and depends primarily upon speci­
fied sea experience, passing a C oast
G uard exam ination, and leadership
167

ability. D eck officers start as third
m ates. A fter 1 y ear’s sea service they
are eligible to take a second m ate
exam ination. A second m ate may ap ­
ply for a ch ief m ate’s license after 1
year o f sea service. Officers in the
en g in e d e p a rtm e n t s ta r t as th ird
assistant engineers. A fter 1 year o f
service, they may apply for a second
assistant’s license and finally a chief

Employment Outlook

than in the near future as the balance
betw een the supply and dem and for
officers becom es m ore favorable.
Since m aritim e unions control a
m ajority o f jobs, graduates from
union training program s have the
best opportunities to obtain jobs
ab o ard ocean-going vessels. H ow ­
ever, graduates o f m erchant m arine
academ ies who cannot find jobs on
m erchant ships generally have little
trouble finding jobs in related fields.
F o r exam ple, tra in e d officers are
needed on oceanographic research
vessels, on vessels that carry supplies
to offshore oil drilling rigs, and on
dredges operated by the Army C orps
o f Engineers. O thers find jobs with
the m aritim e industry.

E m ploym ent o f sh ip ’s officers is
e x p e c te d to in crease m ore slowly
th an th e average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s.
Since W orld W ar II, th e num ber o f
vessels in o u r m erch ant m arine has
Earnings and Working
d eclin ed steadily as th e ow ners o f
Conditions
A m erican ships have registered them
ou tsid e th e co u n try . T h e transfers
Earnings o f officers depend upon
occu rred because ships registered in their rank and the type of ship.
th e U n ite d S ta te s m u s t e m p lo y W ages are highest on large ships. T he
tabulation
shows
A m e ric a n crew s a n d , b ec au se o f accom panying
th eir higher wages, cost about twice m onthly base wages for officers
as m uch to o p erate as ships regis­ aboard an average freighter in 1976.
tered abro ad and m anned with for­ Additional paym ents for overtim e o r
eign crews. T he incentive o f obtain­ for assuming extra responsibilities
in g g r e a t e r p r o f its b y lo w e rin g generally average about 50 percent
operating costs pro m pted m any own­ o f base pay. For exam ple, a second
ers to register their ships outside the m ate with a m onthly base pay o f
\$1,278 may regularly earn about
U S.
L ittle fu rth er decline in the num ­ \$ 1,917 each m onth.
Officers and their dependents e n ­
b er o f ships is ex p ected, how ever,
because the Federal G overnm ent has joy substantial pension and welfare
taken steps to insure th a t ships regis­ benefits. V acations range from 90 to
tered in th e U.S. and operated by 180 days a year. O fficers with 20
A m e ric a n crew s are av a ila b le to years o f service have the option o f a
transport essential cargo. T o m ain­ monthly pension o f \$325 o r 37 1/2
tain this capability, the G overnm ent percent o f their m onthly rate o f pay.
pays the difference in wages if U.S. Those who have 25 years o f service
crews are used, and helps pay for the are eligible for \$425 a m onth or 50
c o n s tru c tio n o r p u rc h a se o f new percent o f their m onthly rate. Offi­
ships. Some jo b openings will occur cers forced to retire prem aturely due
as a result o f the need to replace ex­
perienced workers who retire, die or
Base
ta k e s h o re sid e e m p lo y m e n t. R e ­
pay 1
placem ent needs are relatively high Captain................................................ \$3,717
because ships’ officers are som ewhat Chief engineer.................................... 3,158
older, on the average, than w orkers First assistant engineer..................... 1,888
in oth er occupations and the liberal First mate........................................... 1,802
pension plans offered by the m er­ Radio officer...................................... 1,604
Second assistant engineer................ 1,338
c h a n t m arin e in d u stry en c o u rag e Second mate....................................... 1,278
early retirem ent. Also, some officers Third assistant engineer................... 1,202
find they prefer the stability o f shore- Third m ate......................................... 1,147
side em ploym ent.
Purser..................................................
1,055
Job opportunities are expected to
1 East Coast wages in June 1976 aboard a
becom e m ore favorable in the 1980’s 12,000-17,000 power ton single screw ship.
168

to a perm anent disability receive p ar­
tial pensions. Com prehensive m edi­
cal care and hospitalization are p ro ­
vided for officers and their families
th ro u g h e m p lo y er o r unio n p ro ­
grams.
The workw eek aboard ship is con­
siderably different from the w ork­
week on shore. A t sea, m ost officers
are required to work 7 days a week.
G e n erally , they w ork tw o 4 -h o u r
w atches (sh ifts) d uring every 24hour period and have 8 hours off b e­
tw een ea ch w atch. Som e o fficers
work 8 hours a day, M onday through
Friday. All officers are paid overtim e
fo r w o rk o v er 40 h o u rs a w eek.
W hen th e ship is in port, the basic
w o r k w e e k is 4 0 h o u r s f o r a ll
crewm em bers.
The duties aboard ship are hazard­
ous com pared to other industries. At
sea, there is always the possibility of
injuries from falls o r the danger of
fire, collision, o r sinking.
A lm ost 90 percent of all officers
belong to maritim e unions. The two
largest are the International O rgani­
zation o f Masters, M ates and Pilots,
representing deck officers, and the
N ational M arine Engineers’ Benefi­
cial A ssociation, representing engi­
neering officers. The Brotherhood of
M arine Officers represents deck and
engine officers on some ships. T he
Staff O fficers A ssociation and the
M arine S taff O fficers A ssociation
re p re se n ts pursers aboard c e rtain
freighters. Radio officers are rep re­
sented by the Am erican Radio Asso­
c ia tio n an d th e R a d io O ffic e rs
Union. In addition, a num ber o f in­
dependent unions organize officers
on tankers. Officers’ unions may re­
q u ire in itia tio n fe e s as h ig h as
\$4,000.

Information
For general inform ation about
m erchant marine officer’s jobs, write
to:
Office of Maritime Manpower, Maritime Ad­
ministration, U.S. Department of Com­
merce, Washington, D.C. 20235.

Inform ation about job openings,
qualifications for em ploym ent, wage
scales, and other particulars is avail­
able from local m aritim e officers’

unions. If no m aritim e union is listed
in the local telephone directory, con­
tact:
International Organization of Masters, Mates
and Pilots, 39 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
10006.
National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Associ­
ation, 17 Battery PI., New York, N.Y.
10004.

M E TE O R O LO G IS TS
(D.O.T. 025.088)

Nature of the Work
M eteorology is the study o f the a t­
m osphere, which is the air th at sur­
rounds the earth. M eteorologists d e­
scrib e an d try to u n d e rsta n d the
a tm o sp h e re ’s physical ch a rac te ris­
tics, m otions, and processes, and d e­
term ine the way the behavior o f the
atm osphere affects the rest o f our
p h y s ic a l e n v iro n m e n t. T h e b e st
known application o f this knowledge
is in understanding and forecasting
th e w e a th e r. M e te o ro lo g ic a l r e ­
search is also applied in many other
areas n o t directly related to w eather
fo recastin g such as u n d erstanding
and solving air pollution problem s
and studying trends in the ea rth ’s cli­
m ate.
M eteorologists who specialize in
forecasting the w eather, known pro­
fessionally as synoptic meteorologists,
are the largest group o f specialists.
They study current w eather inform a­
tion, such as air pressure, tem pera­
ture, hum idity, and wind velocity, in
order to m ake short-range and longrange predictions. T heir data come
from w eather satellites and observers
in many parts o f the world. Although
som e fo recasters still p rep are and
analyze w e ath er m aps, m ost d ata
now are p lo tte d and analyzed by
com puters.
Some m eteorologists are engaged
in basic and applied research. For
e x a m p le , p h y sic a l m eteo ro lo g ists
study th e chem ical an d electrical
properties o f the atm osphere. They
do research on the effect o f the at­
m osphere on transm ission o f light,
sound, and radio waves, as well as

study factors affecting form ation o f
clouds, rain, snow, and other w eather
phenom ena. O th er m eteorologists,
know n as climatologists, study cli­
m atic trends and analyze past re c­
ords on wind, rainfall, sunshine, and
tem perature to determ ine the gener­
al pattern o f w eather that m akes up
an area’s clim ate. These studies are
useful in planning heating and cool­
ing systems, designing buildings, and
aiding in effective land utilization.
O ther m eteorologists apply their
knowledge in the study o f the rela­
tionship betw een w eather and specif­
ic hum an activities, biological p ro c­
esses, and agricultural and industrial
operations. For example, they may
m ake w eather forecasts for individ­
ual com panies, or may work on p ro b ­
lems such as smoke control and air
pollution abatem ent.
A bout one-third of all civilian m et­
eorologists work prim arily in w eather
forecasting, and an o th er one-third
work in research and developm ent.
Almost one-fifth of all civilian m e­

teorologists are in administrative or
m anagem ent positions.
Some meteorologists teach or do
r e s e a r c h —fr e q u e n tly c o m b in in g
both activities—in colleges and uni­
versities. In colleges w ithout separate
d ep artm en ts o f m eteorology, they
may teach geography, m athem atics,
physics, chem istry, o r geology, as
well as meteorology.

Places of Employment
About 5,500 persons worked as
m eteorologists in 1976. In addition to
these civilian m eteorologists, th o u ­
sands o f m em bers o f the A rm ed
Forces did forecasting and other m e­
teorological work.
The largest em ployer of civilian
m eteorologists was the National O ce­
anic and A tm ospheric A dm inistra­
tio n (N O A A ), w here over 1,800
worked at stations in all parts of the
United States and in a small num ber
of foreign areas. The D epartm ent of
Defense employed over 200 civilian
m eteorologists.
169

A lm ost
2,000
m eteorologists
w orked for private industry. C om ­
m ercial airlin es em ployed several
h undred to forecast w eather along
flight ro u tes and to b rief pilots on
a tm o s p h e r ic c o n d itio n s . O th e rs
w orked for private w eather consult­
ing firms, for com panies that design
and m anufacture m eteorological in­
stru m en ts, and fo r firm s in a e ro ­
space, insurance, engineering, utili­
ties, radio and television, and other
industries.
C o lle g e s an d u n iv e rs itie s e m ­
ployed over 1,300 m eteorologists in
research and teaching. A few worked
for State and local governm ents and
for nonprofit organizations.
Although m eteorologists work in
all parts o f the country, nearly onefifth live in just two States—C alifor­
nia and M aryland. A lm ost one-tenth
o f all m eteo ro lo g ists w ork in the
W ashington, D.C. area.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A b ach elo r’s degree with a m ajor
in m eteorology is the usual minimum
requirem ent for beginning jobs in
w eather forecasting. However, a
b ach elo r’s degree in a related science
or engineering, along with some
courses in m eteorology, is acceptable
for some jobs. For exam ple, the Fed­
eral G overnm ent’s minim um require­
m ent for beginning jobs is a bache­
lo r’s degree with at least 20 sem ester
hours o f study in m eteorology and
courses in physics and m athem atics,
in clu d in g calculus. H ow ever, em ­
ployers prefer to hire those with an
degree is increasingly necessary for
For research and college teaching
and for many top-level positions in
o ther m eteorological activities, an
advanced degree, preferably in m ete­
orology, is essential. However, p eo ­
ple with graduate degrees in other
sciences also may qualify if they have
ad v an ced co urses in m eteorology,
physics, m athem atics, and chemistry.
In 1976, 44 colleges and universi­
ties offered a b ac h elo r’s degree in
m eteorology or atm ospheric science;
59 schools offered advanced degrees.
Many o th er institutions offered some
courses in m eteorology.
170

The Arm ed Services give and sup­
p o rt m eteorological training, b oth
undergraduate education for enlisted
personnel and advanced study for o f­
ficers.
NOAA has a program under which
some o f its m eteorologists attend col­
lege fo r ad v a n ced o r sp ec ia liz ed
training. College students can obtain
sum m er jobs with this agency or en ­
roll in its cooperative education p ro ­
gram in which they work at NOAA
p art of the year and attend school
part of the year. In addition to help­
ing students finance their education,
this program gives them experience
valuable for finding a job when they
Beginning m eteorologists often
start in jobs involving routine d ata
collection, com putation, or analysis.
Experienced m eteorologists may ad ­
vance in academ ic rank or to various
supervisory or adm inistrative jobs. A
few very well qualified m eteorolo­
gists with a background in science,
tr a tio n m ay e s ta b lis h th e ir ow n
w eather consulting services.

Employment Outlook
Job opportunities for m eteorolo­
gists should be favorable through the
m id-1980’s. Although the num ber o f
openings created by growth in the
occupation and replacem ent needs is
not expected to be large, the num ber
o f persons obtaining degrees in m ete­
orology also is small. If trends in the
num ber o f degrees granted continue,
the num ber of people seeking entry
to the field will about equal require­
ments.
Em ploym ent in the field, as a
whole, is expected to increase about
as fast as the average for all occupa­
tions. Em ploym ent of m eteorologists
in industry and in w eather consulting
firms is expected to grow as private
industry realizes the im portance o f
m eteorology to understanding and
preventing air pollution. Many com ­
panies are also recognizing the value
of having their own w eather forecast­
ing an d m e te o ro lo g ic a l se rv ic e s
w hich can be tailo red to fit th eir
needs. T here also should be som e
openings in radio and television as
stations increasingly rely on th eir

own m eteorologists to prepare and
deliver their w eather reports. Colleg­
es and universities will offer some job
oppo rtu n ities, especially for those
with advanced degrees. The em ploy­
m ent o f civilian m eteorologists by
the Federal G overnm ent is not ex­
p e c te d to grow significantly , a l­
though there will be openings creat­
ed by replacem ent needs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
M eteorologists have relatively high
earnings; their salaries are about
twice the average for nonsupervisory
workers in private industry, except
farming.
In 1977, meteorologists in the Fed­
eral G overnm ent with a bachelor’s
degree and no experience received
starting salaries of \$9,303 or \$11,523
a year, depending on their college
grades. Those with a m aster’s degree
could start at \$11,523 or \$14,097,
and those with the Ph. D. degree at
\$17,056 or \$20,442. The average sal­
ary for meteorologists employed by
th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t w as
\$24,500 in 1977.
Airline m eteorologists’ salaries
ranged from about \$16,000 to
\$24,000 a year in 1976, depending
on experience. (See Statem ent on
O ccupations in Civil Aviation else­
where in the Handbook.)
Jobs in w eather stations, which are
operated around the clock 7 days a
week, often involve nightwork and
rotating shifts. Most stations are at
airports or in or near cities; some are
in isolated and rem ote areas. M eteo­
rologists in smaller w eather stations
generally work alone; in larger ones,
they work as part of a team.

Information
G eneral inform ation on career op­
portunities in meteorology is avail­
able from:
American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon
St., Boston, Mass. 02108.
American Geophysical Union, 1909 K St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

For facts about job opportunities
with the NOAA N ational W eather

Service and its student cooperative
education program , contact:
Personnel Operations Branch, AD 41, Nation­
al Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra­
tion, 6001 Executive Blvd., Rockville,
Md. 20852.

M U S IC IA N S
(D .O .T. 152.028 and .048)

Nature of the Work
T he im portant role that music
plays in m ost people’s lives m akes it
difficult to imagine a world without
musicians. Professional musicians
are those whose livelihoods depend
upon perform ing for th e enjoym ent
o f others. These professionals—
w hether they play in a symphony
orchestra, dance band, rock group,
o r jazz com bo—generally have be­
hind them many years of formal or
inform al study and practice. As a
rule, m usicians specialize in either
popular or classical music; only a few
play both types professionally.
M usicians who specialize in popu­
lar music usually play the trum pet,
trom bone, clarinet, saxophone, o r­
gan, or one o f the “ rhythm ” instru­

m ents—the piano, string bass, drum s,
o r guitar. D ance bands play in night­
clubs, restaurants, and at special p a r­
ties. T he b est know n bands, jazz
groups, rock groups, and solo p e r­
form ers som etimes perform on tele­
vision.
C lassical m usicians play in sym­
phonies, opera, ballet and theater o r­
chestras, and for o th er groups th at
require orchestral accom panim ents.
These m usicians play string, brass,
woodwind or percussion instrum ents.
Some form small groups—usually a
string quartet or a trio —to give co n ­
certs o f cham ber music. Many pia­
nists accom pany vocal or instrum en­
tal soloists, choral groups, or provide
background music in restaurants o r
other places. M ost organists play in
churches; often they direct the choir.
A few exceptional musicians give
their own concerts and appear as
soloists with symphony orchestras.
Both classical and popular musicians
m ake individual and group record­
ings.
In addition to perform ing, many
musicians teach instrum ental and vo­
cal music in schools and colleges, o r
give private lessons in their own stu­
dios or in pupils’ homes. Others com ­
bine careers as perform ers with work
as arrangers and composers.

Since a high quality of performance requires constant study and practice,
self-discipline is vital.

A few musicians specialize in li­
brary science or psychology for work
in music libraries or in the field of
m usic therapy in hospitals. O thers
w ork as o rc h e stra co n d u c to rs or
band directors.

Places of Employment
About 127,000 persons worked as
perform ing musicians in 1976. M any
thousands m ore taught in elem entary
and secondary schools and in colleg­
es and universities. (See the state­
m ents on teachers elsewhere in the
Handbook.) Almost every town and
city has at least one private music
teacher.
Most performing musicians work
in cities where entertainm ent and
recording activities are concentrat­
ed, such as New Y ork, Chicago, Los
A ngeles, Nashville, M iami B each,
and N ew O rleans. M any p erform
with one of the 31 m ajor symphony
groups, the 76 m etropolitan orches­
tras, or the hundreds of community
orchestras. Many communities have
orchestras and dance bands which
offer at least part-tim e work. T he
v a rio u s b ra n c h e s o f th e A rm e d
Forces also offer career opportuni­
ties in a num ber o f different musical
organizations.

Training and Other
Qualifications
Most people who becom e profes­
sional musicians begin studying an
instrum ent at an early age. To ac­
quire great technical skill, a thorough
knowledge of music, and the ability
to in te rp re t m usic, young p eo p le
need intensive training through pri­
vate study with an accomplished m u­
sician, in a college o r university
which has a strong music program , or
in a conservatory of music. For ad­
vanced study in one of these institu­
tions, an audition frequently is neces­
sary. M any teachers in these schools
are accom plished artists who will
train only prom ising young m usi­
cians.
Alm ost 500 colleges, universities,
and music conservatories offer
bachelor’s and/or higher degrees in
instrum ental or vocal music. These
program s provide training in musical
171

perform ance, com position, and th e­
o ry , an d a lso o ffe r lib e ra l a r ts
servatories and colleges and universi­
ties offer a b ac h elo r’s degree p ro ­
gram in music education to qualify
graduates for the State certificate for
elem e n ta ry and sec o n d ary school
teaching positions. College teaching
positions usually require advanced
degrees, b u t exceptions may be m ade
for well-qualified artists.
M usicians who play popular music
m ust have an understanding o f and
feeling for th at style o f music, but
classical training may expand their
em ploym ent opportunities. As a rule,
they take lessons with private teach ­
ers when young, and seize every op­
portunity to play in am ateur or p ro ­
fessional perform ances. Establishing
a reputation with other musicians is
very im portant in getting started in a
career in popular music. Some young
people form small dance bands or
rock groups. As they gain experience
and becom e known, they may audi­
tion for oth er local bands, and still
later, for th e better know n bands and
orchestras.
Y oung persons who consider ca­
reers in music should have m usical
ta le n t, versatility, creativ e ability,
and poise and stage presence to face
large audiences. Since quality o f p er­
fo rm a n ce re q u ires c o n sta n t study
and practice, self-discipline is vital.
M oreover, m usicians who do concert
an d n ig h tc lu b en g a g em en ts m ust
have physical stam ina because o f fre­
q u en t traveling and schedules th at
often include night perform ances.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent o f m usicians is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average through the m id-1980’s, but
com petition for jobs will be keen.
O pportunities for concerts and recit­
als are not num erous enough to pro­
vide adequate em ploym ent for all the
pianists, violinists, and other instru­
m entalists qualified as concert art­
ists. C om petition usually is keen for
positions th at offer stable em ploy­
m ent, such as jobs with m ajor orches­
tras, with the Arm ed Forces, and in
teaching positions. B ecause o f the
ease with which a m usician can enter
172

private music teaching, the num ber
o f m usic te a c h e rs has been m ore
than sufficient and probably will co n ­
tinue to be. Although many opportu­
nities are expected fo r single and
s h o rt-te rm e n g a g e m e n ts, playing
popular music in night clubs and th e­
aters, the supply o f qualified m usi­
cians who seek such jobs is likely to
exceed dem and. On the other hand,
first-class, experienced accom panists
and outstanding players of stringed
instrum ents are likely to remain rela­
tively scarce.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
T he am ount received for a p e r­
form ance by either classical or popu­
lar musicians depends on their geo­
graphic location as well as on their
professional re p u ta tio n . M inim um
salaries for musicians in the 31 m ajor
symphony orchestras in the U nited
States in 1976 ranged from \$200 to
\$ 4 0 0 a w e e k , a c c o rd in g to th e
A m e ric a n S y m p h o n y O r c h e s tr a
League. M inimum wages for m usi­
cians in m etropolitan symphony o r­
chestras were generally betw een \$20
and \$40 p er concert. Some musicians
earned substantially m ore than the
minimums, however.
The m ajor symphony orchestras
have seasons ranging from 45 to 52
weeks. A bout half o f them have 50to 52-week seasons. Few o f the m et­
ropolitan or com m unity orchestras
have seasons o f 50 to 52 weeks, how ­
ever.
Musicians in large m etropolitan
areas who played at dances, club
dates, variety shows, ballets, musical
comedies, concerts, and industrial
shows generally earned minimums
ranging from \$40 to \$53 for 3 hours
of work. Musicians in these areas
who had steady engagem ent c o n ­
tracts earned betw een \$6 and \$8 p er
hour for a 5-day week. Wages for the
same types of engagem ents tended to
be less in smaller cities and towns.
Musicians em ployed in m otion pic­
ture recording earned a minimum o f
\$93 for a 3-hour session; those em ­
ployed in telev isio n co m m ercials
earned a minimum of \$48 for a 1hour session. M usicians em ployed by
m a n u fa ctu rers o f p h o n o g rap h r e ­

cordings were paid a minimum of
\$110 for a 3-hour session.
Music teachers in public schools
earn salaries com parable to those of
other teachers. (See statem ents on
elem entary and secondary school
teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Many teachers give private music
lessons to supplem ent their earnings.
However, earnings often are uncer­
tain and vary according to the musi­
c ia n ’s re p u ta tio n , th e n u m b er of
teachers and students in the locality,
and the econom ic status o f the com ­
munity.
M usicians custom arily work at
night and on weekends, and they
m ust spend considerable time in
practice and in rehearsal. Performing
engagem ents usually require some
travel.
Many musicians, primarily those
em ployed by symphony orchestras,
work under m aster wage agreem ents,
which guarantee a season’s work up
to 52 weeks. Musicians in other
areas, however, may face relatively
long periods of unem ploym ent b e­
tween jobs. Thus, their earnings gen­
erally are lower than those o f many
other occupations. M oreover, since
they may not work steadily for one
em ployer, some perform ers cannot
qualify for unem ploym ent com pen­
sation, and few have either sick leave
or vacations with pay. For these rea­
sons, m any m usicians tak e o th e r
types o f jobs to supplem ent th eir
earnings as musicians.
M ost professional m usicians b e­
long to the Am erican Federation of
M usicians ( AFL-CIO). C oncert solo­
ists also belong to the A m erican
Guild of Musical Artists, Inc. (AFLCIO).

Information
For information about wages,
hours o f work, and working condi­
tions for professional musicians, co n ­
tact:
American Federation of Musicians (AFLCIO), 1500 Broadway, New York, N.Y.
10036.

In fo rm atio n ab o u t the re q u ire ­
m ents for certification of organists
and choir m asters is available from:
American Guild of Organists, 630 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N.Y. 10020.

A list o f accredited schools o f m u­
sic and degree program s offered is
available from:
National Association of Schools of Music,
11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, Va.
22090.

F urth er inform ation about careers
in music is available from:
Music Educators National Conference, 1902
Association Dr., Reston, Va. 22091.

A book entitled Careers in Music
can be obtained for \$1 from:
American Music Conference, 150 E. Huron,
Chicago, 111. 60611.

N EW SPA PER REPORTERS
(D.O.T. 132.268)

Nature of the Work
N ew spaper reporters gather infor­
m ation on current events and use it
to write stories for publication in dai­
ly or weekly new spapers. In covering
events, they may interview people,
review public records, attend news
events, and do research. As a rule,
reporters take notes or use tape re­
corders while collecting facts, and
write their stories upon return to the
office. Som etim es, to m eet deadlines,
they telephone their inform ation or
stories to rew riters who write or tran ­
scribe the stories for them .
L arg e d ailies fre q u e n tly assign
some reporters to “ b eats,” such as
police stations o r the courts, to gath­
er news originating in these places.
G eneral assignm ent reporters handle
various types o f local news, such as a
story about a lost child o r an obituary
of a com m unity leader. Specialized
reporters with a background in a par­
ticular subject in terp ret and analyze
the news in fields such as m edicine,
politics, science, education, business,
labor, and religion.
R eporters on small new spapers
may cover not only all aspects of
local news, but also may take photo­
graphs, write headlines, lay out pag­
es, and w rite edito rials. On som e
small weeklies, they also may solicit
ad v ertisem en ts, sell subscriptions,
and perform general office work.

Reporters gathering news information.

Places of Employment
M ore than 40,000 persons worked
as new spaper reporters in 1976. The
majority of reporters work for urban
daily newspapers; others work for
suburban, com m unity, or small town
weekly papers and press services.
R eporters work in cities and towns
of all sizes. O f the 1,762 daily and
7,579 weekly newspapers, the great
majority are in medium-sized towns.
However, m ost reporters work in
cities, since big city dailies employ
m any re p o rte rs , w h ereas a sm all
town paper generally employs only a
few.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Most new spapers consider only ap­
plicants who have a college educa­
tion. G raduate work is increasingly
im p o rta n t. M any e d ito rs p re fe r
graduates who have a degree in jo u r­
nalism, which usually includes train ­
ing in the liberal arts along with p ro ­
fessional journalism training. Some
editors consider a liberal arts degree
sufficient. O thers prefer applicants
who have a liberal arts bachelor’s de­
gree and a m aster’s degree in jo u rn al­
ism. High school courses th at are
useful include English, journalism ,
social science, and typing.
173

B achelor’s degree program s in
journalism are available in alm ost
250 colleges. A bout three-fourths of
the courses in a typical undergrad­
uate journalism curriculum are in lib­
eral arts. Journalism courses include
reporting, copyreading, editing, fea­
tu re w riting, history o f journalism ,
law, and the relation o f the press to
society.
M ore th an 500 ju n io r colleges of­
fer journalism program s. Twelve to
fifte e n h o u rs o f c r e d it e a rn e d is
transferable to m ost 4-year college
program s in journalism . A few junior
colleges also offer program s especial­
ly designed to p rep are the student
directly for em ploym ent as a general
assignm ent rep o rter on a weekly or
small daily new spaper. The A rm ed
Forces also provide som e training in
journalism .
A m aster’s degree in journalism
was offered by m ore th an 90 schools
in 1976; ab o u t 20 schools offered the
Ph. D. degree. Some graduate pro­
gram s are intended prim arily as p rep­
aration for news careers, while others
co n cen trate on preparing journalism
teach ers, researchers and theorists,
and advertising and public relations
workers.
Persons who wish to prepare for
new spaper work through a liberal
arts curriculum should take English
courses th a t include writing, as well
as subjects such as sociology, politi­
cal science, econom ics, history, psy­
c h o lo g y , c o m p u te r s c ie n c e , an d
speech. Ability to read and speak a
foreign language is desirable. Those
who look forw ard to becom ing re­
porters in a specialized field such as
s c ie n c e s h o u ld c o n c e n t r a t e on
course w ork in their subject m atter
areas. Skill in typing is essential b e­
cause rep o rters type their own news
stories. O n small papers, knowledge
o f news photography also is valuable.
The N ew spaper Fund and individ­
ual new spapers offer sum m er intern­
ships th a t provide college students
with an opportunity to practice the
rudim ents o f reporting o r editing. In
addition, m ore than 2,700 journalism
scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships w ere aw arded to college
journalism students by universities,
new spapers, and professional organi­
zations in 1976.
174

News reporting involves a great
deal o f responsibility, since w hat a
reporter writes frequently influences
the opinion of the reading public.
R eporters should be dedicated to
serving the public’s need for accurate
and im partial news. Although re p o rt­
ers work as part of a team , they have
an opportunity for self-expression.
Im p o rtan t personal ch a rac te ristic s
include a “ nose for new s,” curiosity,
persistence, initiative, resourceful­
ness, an accurate m em ory, and the
physical stam ina necessary for an a c ­
tive and often fast-paced life.
Some who com pete for full-time
reporter jobs find it is helpful to have
had experience as a new spaper
“ stringer” —a part-tim e reporter who
covers the news in a particular area
of the com m unity and is paid on the
basis o f the stories printed. High
school and college new spapers, and
church o r com m unity new sletters,
also provide writing and editing ex­
perience th at may be helpful in get­
ting a job.
M ost beginners start on weekly o r
on small daily new spapers as general
assignm ent reporters or copy editors.
A few outstanding journalism gradu­
ates are hired by large city papers,
but this is the exception rather than
the rule. Large dailies generally re ­
quire several years o f reporting expe­
rience, which usually is acquired on
smaller newspapers.

Beginning reporters are assigned
duties such as reporting on civic and
club
meetings,
summarizing
speeches, writing obituaries, in ter­
view ing im p o rta n t visitors to the
c o m m u n ity , and co v e rin g p o lice
court proceedings. As they gain ex­
perience, they may report more im­
p o rta n t events, cover an assigned
“ b eat,” or specialize in a particular
field.
New spaper reporters may advance
to reporting for larger papers or press
services. Some experienced reporters
becom e columnists, correspondents,
editorial writers, editors, or top ex­
ecutives; these positions rep resen t
the top o f the field and com petition
for them is keen. O th er rep o rters
transfer to related fields such as pub­
lic relations, writing for magazines,
or preparing copy for radio and tele­
vision news programs.

Employment Outlook
C om petition for new spaper rep o rt­
ing jo b s is ex p e cted to co n tin u e
through the m id-1980’s. If en ro ll­
m ents continue at record levels as
they have in the past few years, re c­
ord num bers of journalism graduates
will be looking for jobs. However,
em ploym ent in the com m unications
field is not expected to expand suffi­
ciently to absorb all those seeking
jobs, and a sizable num ber of journal-

ism graduates will have to launch ca­
reers in o ther fields.
N ew spaper reporters in particular
face heightened jo b com petition. Al­
though the com m unications field is
expected to expand through the mid19 8 0 ’s, new spapers are not expected
to share fully in this growth. As a
result, em ploym ent of reporters will
increase m ore slowly than the aver­
age for all o ccu p ations. M ost job
openings will arise from the need to
replace reporters who are prom oted
to editorial or adm inistrative posi­
tions, transfer to oth er fields o f work,
retire, o r leave the profession for oth­
er reasons.
Bright, energetic persons with ex­
ceptional writing ability will have the
best opportunities for beginning jobs
as n ew sp a p er re p o rte rs. T alen ted
writers who are able to handle news
about highly specialized scientific or
technical subjects will also be at an
ad v an tag e in th e co m p etitiv e jo b
m arket.
W eekly or daily new spapers locat­
ed in small towns and suburban areas
are ex p ected to co n tin u e to offer
m ost o f the opportunities for begin­
ners en terin g new spaper reporting.
Openings arise on these papers as re­
porters gain experience and move up
to o ther editorial positions or trans­
fer to reporting jobs on larger news­
papers or to o ther types of work. Be­
ginning reporters able to help with
p h o tography and o th er specialized
aspects o f new spaper work and who
are acquainted with the com m unity
are likely to be given preference in
em ploym ent on small papers.
M ost big city dailies require expe­
rience and do not ordinarily hire new
graduates. Sometim es, however, new
graduates find newsroom jobs on m a­
jo r m etropolitan dailies because of
outstanding credentials in an area for
which a particular paper has a press­
ing need. Occasionally, the experi­
ence and contacts gained through an
internship program lead to a report­
ing job directly after graduation.
In addition to new spaper report­
ing, college graduates who have m a­
jored in journalism have the back­
ground for jobs in related fields such
and technical publishing, radio and
television, and law. Because contin­

Inform ation on union wage rates is
available from:

ued high enrollm ent is foreseen in
journalism education program s, o p ­
portunities to teach journalism are
expected to be good. College teach ­
ing jobs currently require profession­
al experience and at least a m aster’s
degree.

For general inform ation about ca­
reers in journalism contact:

Earnings and Working
Conditions

American Council on Education for Journal­
ism, School of Journalism, University of
Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 65201.

R eporters working for daily news­
papers having contracts negotiated
by The Newspaper Guild had aver­
age starting salaries o f \$10,600 in
late 1976. In general, earnings o f
new spaper reporters in 1976 were
above average earnings received by
nonsupervisory workers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
Minimum salaries o f reporters hav­
ing 4 or 5 years of experience who
w orked for daily new spapers with
Guild contracts averaged \$16,700 in
1976. The m inim um s ranged from
\$9,960, paid by the smallest dailies,
to m ore than \$26,000 paid by the
largest. M any re p o rters, how ever,
were paid salaries higher than these
m inim um s. R ep o rters w orking for
national wire services received annu­
al salaries of at least \$19,000.
Most new spaper reporters general­
ly w ork a 5-day, 35- o r 4 0 -h o u r
week. R eporters working for m orn­
ing papers usually start work in the
late aftern oon and finish at about
midnight. M ost reporters also receive
b e n e fits such as p aid v a c a tio n s,
group insurance, and pension plans.

Information
Inform ation about opportunities
for reporters with daily newspapers is
available from:
American Newspaper Publishers Association
Foundation, P.O. Box 17407, Dulles In­
ternational Airport, Washington, D.C.
20041.

For inform ation on opportunities
in the new spaper field and starting
salaries o f journalism graduates, as
well as a list of journalism scholar­
ships, fellowships, assistantships, and
loans available at colleges and uni­
versities, write to:
The Newspaper Fund, Inc., Box 300, Prince­
ton, N.J. 08540.

The Newspaper Guild, Research and Informa­
tion Department, 1125 15th St. NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20005.

Association For Education in Journalism, 102
Reavis Hall, Northern Illinois University,
Dekalb, 11 . 60115.
1
The Society of Professional Journalists, Sigma
Delta Chi, 35 East Wacker Dr., Chicago,
11 . 60601.
1

Inform ation on opportunities for
women in newspaper reporting and
other com m unications fields is avail­
able from:
Women In Communications, Inc., P.O. Box
9561, Austin, Tex. 78766.

Names and locations of daily news­
papers and a list of schools and de­
p artm e n ts o f journalism are p u b ­
lished in the Editor and Publisher
International Year Book, available in
m ost public libraries and large news­
paper offices.

O C C U PA TIO N A L
THERAPISTS
(D.O.T. 079.128)

Nature of the Work
O ccupational therapists plan and
direct educational, vocational, and
recreational activities designed to
help m entally and physically disabled
patients becom e self-sufficient. They
evaluate the capacities and skills of
clients, set goals, and plan a therapy
program together with the client and
m em bers of a m edical team which
m ay in clu d e physicians, physical
th e ra p ists, v o catio n al counselo rs,
nurses, social workers, and other spe­
cialists.
About two therapists out of five
work with emotionally handicapped
patients, and the rest work with
physically disabled persons. These
clients represent all age groups and
degrees of disability. Patients partici­
pate in occupational therapy to de175

Occupational therapists help handicapped people prepare for employment.

term ine the extent o f abilities and
limitations; to regain physical, m en­
tal, or em otional stability; to relearn
daily routines such as eating, dress­
ing, writing, and using a telephone;
and, eventually, to prepare for em ­
ploym ent.
O c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p is ts te a c h
m anual and creative skills such as
weaving and leath er w orking, and
business and industrial skills such as
typing and the use of power tools.
These skills are taught to restore m o­
bility and coordination and to help
the patient regain physical and em o­
tional stability. T herapists also plan
and direct games and o th er activities,
especially for children. They may de­
sign and m ake special equipm ent or
splints to help disabled patients.
Besides working with patients,
occupational therapists supervise
student therapists, occupational th e r­
apy assistants, volunteers, and auxil­
iary nursing workers. The chief occu­
pational therap ist in hospitals may
teach m edical and nursing students
the principles o f occupational th er­
apy. M any therapists supervise occu­
176

pational therapy departm ents, coor­
d in a te p a tie n t a c tiv itie s , o r a re
consultants to local and State health
departm ents and m ental health agen­
cies. Some teach in colleges and uni­
versities.

Places of Employment
A bout 10,600 occupational th era­
pists were em ployed in 1976. A bout
4 out of 10 occupational therapists
work in hospitals. Rehabilitation cen ­
ters, nursing homes, schools, o u tp a­
tie n t c lin ic s, c o m m u n ity m e n ta l
health centers, and research centers
em ploy m ost o f the others. Some
work in special sanitarium s or cam ps
for handicapped children, others in
State health departm ents. Still others
work in hom e-care program s for p a ­
tien ts unable to a tte n d clinics o r
workshops. Some are m em bers of the
Arm ed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A degree or certification in o ccu­
pational therapy is required to enter

the profession. In 1976, 49 colleges
and universities offered programs in
occupational therapy which were ac­
credited by the Am erican M edical
Association and the Am erican O ccu­
pational Therapy Association. All of
these schools offer bachelor’s degree
program s. Some have 2-year p ro ­
grams and accept students who have
com pleted 2 years of college. Some
also offer shorter program s, leading
to a certificate or a m aster’s degree
in occupational therapy for students
who have a bachelor’s degree in an­
other field. A graduate degree often
is required for teaching, research, or
Course work in occupational th er­
apy program s includes physical, bio­
logical, and behavioral sciences and
the application o f occupational th er­
apy th eo ry and skills. These p ro ­
grams also require students to work
for 6 to 9 m onths in hospitals or
health agencies to gain experience in
clinical practice. G raduates of ac­
credited educational program s are
eligible to take the Am erican O ccu­
pational Therapy Association certifi­
cation exam ination to become a reg­
is te re d o c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p is t
(O TR). O ccupational therapy assis­
tants who are certified by the associ­
ation (C O T A ’s) and have 4 years of
approved work experience also are
eligible to take the examination to
b e c o m e re g is te re d o c c u p a tio n a l
therapists. Those C O TA ’s consider­
ing this path of entry to the occupa­
tion should contact the Director of
Certification of the Am erican O ccu­
p a tio n a l T h erap y A sso cia tio n to
identify the types of experience re­
quired to qualify for the examination
and to determ ine the availability of
suitable work settings.
Entry to educational program s is
keenly com petitive and applicants
are screened carefully for previous
academ ic perform ance to select
those m ost likely to com plete their
studies successfully. Persons consid­
e rin g th is p ro fe ssio n , th e re fo re ,
should have above average academ ic
perform ance and consistent grades
of “ B” o r better in science courses,
in clu d in g biology and chem istry .
College students who consider trans­
ferring from another academ ic disci­
pline to an occupational therapy p ro ­

gram in th eir sophom ore or junior
year need superior grades because
c o m p e titio n fo r e n tra n c e to p ro ­
grams is m ore intense after the fresh­
man year.
Personal qualifications needed in
the profession include a sym pathetic
but objective approach to illness and
disability, m aturity, patience, imagi­
nation, m anual skills, and the ability
to teach. In addition to biology and
chem istry, high school students inter­
e ste d in c a re e rs as o c c u p a tio n a l
therapists are advised to take courses
in health, crafts, and the social sci­
ences.
therapists generally begin as staff
therapists. A dvancem ent is chiefly to
supervisory or adm inistrative posi­
tions; som e th era p ists p ursue ad ­
vanced education and teach or do
research.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent in this occupation is
expected to grow m uch faster than
the average for all occupations due
to public interest in the rehabilitation
o f disabled persons and the success
o f established occupational therapy
program s. M any th erapists will be
needed to staff hospital rehabilitation
departm ents, com m unity health cen­
ters, extended care facilities, psychi­
atric c e n te rs, schools for children
with developm ental and learning dis­
a b ilitie s , an d c o m m u n ity h o m e
health program s.
H ow ever, the increasing num ber
o f graduates from occupational th er­
apy program s may exceed the num ­
ber o f openings th at will occur each
year due to growth in the occupation
and replacem ent of those who will
die or retire. As a result, new gradu­
ates may face com petition in some
geographic areas through the mid1980’s.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginning salaries for new gradu­
ates o f o ccu p atio n al th erap y p ro ­
grams working in hospitals averaged
about \$12,000 a year in 1976, ac­
cording to a national survey conduct­
ed by the University of Texas M edi­
c a l S c h o o l. S o m e e x p e r ie n c e d

t h e r a p i s t s e a r n e d as m u c h as
\$17,000, and some adm inistrators as
m uch as \$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 to \$30,000. In
1976, the average salary o f experi­
enced occupational therapists was 1
1/2 times the average earnings for all
nonsupervisory w orkers in private in­
dustry, except farming.
In 1977, beginning therapists em ­
ployed by the V eterans A dm inistra­
tion (V A ) earned starting salaries o f
\$10,370 a year. The average salary
paid occupational therapists working
for the VA was about \$ 16,000 at th at
time.
Many part-tim e positions are avail­
ab le fo r o c c u p a tio n a l th e ra p ists.
Many therapists work for m ore than
one em ployer and m ust travel b e ­
tween job locations.

Information
For m ore inform ation on occupa­
tional therapy as a career, write to:
American Occupational Therapy Association,
6000 Executive Blvd., Rockville, Md.
20852.

Those C O T A ’s interested in quali­
fying for the exam ination to becom e
a registered occupational therapist
(O T R ) through acquired work expe­
rience should contact the D irector o f
Certification at the above address.

O C C U P A TIO N A L SAFETY
A ND HEALTH W O RKERS
(D.O.T. 010.081; 012.081 and .188;
079.188; 168.168, .268, and .284;
379.387; 821.387; and 909.128)

Nature of the Work
People in the occupational safety
and health field have the challenging
job o f insuring a safe and healthful
environm ent for w orkers and safe
products for consum ers. Safety and
health w orkers in a num ber of differ­
e n t o c c u p a tio n s strive to c o n tro l
occupational accidents and diseases,
property losses, and injuries from u n ­
safe products. This statem en t dis­
cusses occupations in private indus­
try ; fo r a d isc u ssio n o f re la te d
occupations in governm ent, see the

statem ent on health and regulatory
inspectors elsew here in the Hand­
book.
The largest group of safety work­
ers is safety engineers. Although all of
them are concerned with preventing
accidents, their specific tasks depend
on where they work. For example,
the safety engineer working in a large
m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t ( D .O .T .
012.081) may develop a com prehen­
sive safety program covering several
thousand employees. This usually en­
tails detailed analysis of each job in
the plant to identify potential hazards
so that preventive m easures can be
tak en . W hen accidents do o ccu r,
safety engineers in m anufacturing
plants investigate to determ ine the
cause. If poor design, im proper m ain­
tenance, or m echanical failure is in­
volved, they use their technical skills
to correct the situation and prevent
its recurrence. W hen hum an error is
the cause of an accident, safety engi­
neers may establish training courses
for plantworkers and supervisors or
reem phasize existing ones.
Safety engineers who w ork for
t r u c k i n g c o m p a n i e s ( D .O .T .
909.128) study schedules, ro u tes,
loads, and speeds to determ ine their
in flu e n c e on tru c k in g ac cid en ts.
They also inspect heavy rigs, such as
trucks and trailers, to suggest ways of
safer operation. In the mining indus­
t r y , s a f e ty e n g in e e r s ( D .O .T .
010.081) may inspect underground
or open-pit areas to insure com pli­
ance with State and Federal laws, de­
sign protective equipm ent and safety
devices for mine machinery, or lead
rescue activities during emergencies.
Many safety engineers are directly
concerned with the safety of their
com pany’s product. They work
closely with design engineers to de­
velop m odels th at m eet all safety
sta n d a rd s, and they m o n ito r the
m anufacturing process to insure the
safety of the finished product.
Safeguarding life and property
against loss from fire, explosion, and
related hazards is the job of the fire
p r o t e c t i o n e n g i n e e r (D .O .T .
012.188). Those who specialize in
research investigate problem s such
as fires in high-rise buildings or the
m anufacture, handling, and storage
of flammable materials. Fire protec177

Safety engineers inspecting plant machinery for potential hazards.

tion engineers in the field use these
research findings to identify hazards
and devise ways to co rrect them . For
exam ple, new findings concerning
fla s h p o in ts (th e te m p e ra tu re s a t
which different m aterials will ignite)
are valuable to the engineer design­
ing storage facilities in a chem ical
plant.
Like safety engineers, fire p ro tec­
tion engineers may have different job
d u tie s d e p e n d in g on w here they
w ork. O ne who w orks for a fire
equipm ent m anufacturing com pany
may design new fire protection de­
vices, while engineers in consulting
firms work with architects and others
178

to insure that fire safety is built into
new structures. In contrast, fire p ro ­
tection engineers working for insur­
ance rating bureaus (organizations
th at calculate basic costs o f insur­
ance coverage in particular areas) in­
spect private, com m ercial, and in ­
dustrial p roperties to evaluate the
adequacy of fire protection for the
entire area. Many fire protection en ­
gineers have special expertise in one
area or m ore of fire protection, such
as sprinkler or fire detection systems.
Losses in the workplace cannot be
reduced without m easures to elim i­
nate hazards to w orkers’ health. D e­
signing and m aintaining a healthful

work environm ent is the job of the
i n d u s t r i a l h y g i e n i s t (D .O .T .
079.188). These health professionals
are concerned with how noise, dust,
vapors, and other hazards com m on
to the industrial setting affect work­
ers’ health. After a problem is detect­
ed, perhaps by analyzing employee
m edical records, the industrial hy­
gienist a t the jobsite may take air
sam ples, m onitor noise levels, or
m easure radioactivity levels in the
areas under investigation.
O ther industrial hygienists work in
private laboratories or in those m ain­
tained by large insurance com panies
or industrial firms. Laboratory hy­
gienists analyze air samples, do re­
search on the reliability o f health
equipm ent such as respirators, or in­
vestigate the effects of exposure to
chem icals or radiation. Some hygien­
ists specialize in problem s of air and
w ater pollution. For example, these
health professionals may work with
governm ent officials, environm ental
g ro u p s, la b o r o rg a n iz atio n s, an d
plant m anagem ent to develop a sys­
tem to screen harmful substances b e­
fore they enter and pollute a river.
L oss co n tro l an d occu p a tio n a l
health consultants (D.O.T. 168.168)
in property-liability insurance com ­
panies perform many services for
their clients. These range from co r­
recting a single hazard in a small
business to devising a program to
elim inate or reduce all losses arising
out of a large firm ’s operation. W hen
dealing with a new account, the co n ­
sultant m akes a thorough inspection
of the plant and then confers with
m anagem ent to formulate a program
that m eets the com pany’s needs. The
consultant may, for example, help set
up plant health program s and m edi­
cal services, assist plant personnel to
insure th at a new facility m eets all
safety requirem ents, or train plant
safety people. Safety and health co n ­
sultants also help their com pany’s
underw riters determ ine w hether a
risk is acceptable and the am ount of

Places of Employment
An estim ated 28,000 persons were
engaged in occupational safety and
h ealth w ork in 1976. A bout onequarter of these carried the profes­

sional designations, C ertified Safety
Professional; C ertified Industrial Hy­
gienist; o r M em ber, Society o f Fire
P rotectio n Engineers. M any others
who are n o t certified perform ed p ro ­
fessional level work, while a relative­
ly small num ber were em ployed in
the occupational safety and health
field as technicians and inspectors.
Property and liability insurance com ­
panies em ploy m any o ccu p atio n al
safety and health w orkers to provide
engineering, consulting, and inspec­
tion services to their clients. O thers
w orked for a variety o f industrial,
m anufacturing, and com m ercial con­
cerns.
These w orkers are needed w herev­
er large num bers o f people are con­
c e n tra te d and in d u strial d ev e lo p ­
m ent occurs. Insurance consultants
generally have their headquarters in
a region’s m ajor city and travel to
and from the sites they visit.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Entry level safety and health p ro ­
fessionals generally need at least a
b achelor’s degree in engineering or
science. A m ore specialized degree,
such as one in safety m anagem ent,
industrial safety, o r fire protection
engineering, often is helpful in get­
ting a good job. M any em ployers p re­
fer applicants with a graduate degree
in areas such as industrial hygiene,
safety engineering, or occupational
safety an d h e a lth engineering, or
those with prior industrial work ex­
perience. Some em ployers will hire
graduates o f 2-year college curriculums as technicians, particularly if
they have work experience related to
the job.
C ontinuing education is necessary
to stay abreast o f changing technol­
o g ies, n ew id e a s , a n d e m e rg in g
trends. M any insurance com panies
offer training sem inars and c o rre ­
spondence courses for th eir staffs.
The O ccupational Safety and Health
A d m in istratio n (O S H A ) co n d u cts
courses for safety and health workers
on topics such as occupational injury
investigation and radiological health
hazards. T he recognized m arks of
achievem ent in the field are the des­
ignations C ertified Safety Profession­

al; C ertified Industrial Hygienist; and
M em ber, Society o f Fire P rotection
Engineers. C ertification is conferred
by the Board o f C ertified Safety P ro ­
fessionals, the A m erican Board of In­
dustrial Hygiene, or the Society o f
Fire P rotection Engineers after the
candidate com pletes the required ex­
perience and passes an exam ination.
In addition to possessing technical
com petence, safety and health w ork­
ers m ust be able to com m unicate
w ell an d m o tiv a te o th e rs . T h ey
should be able to adapt quickly to
different situations, being equally at
ease with a representative o f a local
union, a supervisor in the welding
shop, or a corporate executive. B e­
cause physical activity is basic to th e
job, good physical condition is neces­
sary.
In the insurance industry, safety
and health w orkers can be prom oted
to departm ent m anager in a small
branch office, move up to larger
branch offices, and finally take an
executive position in the hom e o f­
fice. In industrial firms, they can ad ­
vance to plant safety and health m an­
ag e r o r c o r p o ra te m a n a g e r o v e r
several plants. A lthough extensive
experience is required, technicians
can advance to professional safety
and health positions.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent o f safety and health
workers is expected to increase faster
than the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s as growing
concern for occupational safety and
health and consum er safety contin­
ues to generate program s and jobs.
Many openings will arise also to re ­
p lace w orkers w ho die, re tire , o r
leave their jobs for o th er reasons.
M uch o f the em ploym ent growth is
expected to occur in industrial and
m anufacturing firms. Many firms
now w ithout a safety and health p ro ­
gram are expected to establish one,
and others will upgrade and expand
existing program s in response to gov­
ernm ent requirem ents, union in ter­
est, and rising insurance costs. T he
num ber o f safety and health w orkers
in casualty insurance com panies also
will increase as m ore small em ploy­
ers request the services o f their insur­
e r ’s engineering o r loss control d e ­

partm ent. Prospects should be best
for graduates o f occupational safety
or health curriculums.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries o f safety and health w ork­
ers vary widely according to ed u ca­
tion, experience, and specialty. In
m anufacturing firms, persons with a
bachelor’s degree generally started at
between \$ 12,000 and \$ 15,000 a year
in 1976, according to the lim ited
d ata available. Those with a graduate
degree usually received higher start­
ing salaries, and technicians som e­
what low er ones. Safety and health
workers with several years’ experi­
ence averaged \$18,000 to \$22,000,
and co rp o rate m anagers well over
\$25,000 a year.
The am ount o f travel required d e­
pends upon job specialty and geo­
graphic location. F or example, the
plant safety engineer may travel only
to sem inars and conferences, while
the insurance consultant may spend
about h alf the tim e traveling betw een
worksites. Usually, a car is furnished
or w orkers are reim bursed for the
expenses o f using their own vehicles.

Information
F o r g e n e ra l in fo rm atio n a b o u t
safety careers, write to:
American Society of Safety Engineers, 850
Busse Highway, Park Ridge, 111. 60068.

Also available from the Society is a
booklet th at lists colleges and univer­
sities offering degree program s in the
occupational safety and health field.
Inform ation concerning a career in
industrial hygiene is available from:
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 66
S. Miller Rd., Akron, Ohio 44313.

C a re e r in fo rm a tio n co n c ern in g
fire protection engineering may be
obtained from:
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, 60 Batterymarch St., Boston, Mass. 02110.

C areer inform ation on insurance
loss control consulting is available
from the hom e offices of many p ro p ­
erty-liability insurance com panies.
The National Institute for O ccupa­
tional Safety and H ealth of the U.S.
Public H ealth Service provides gen­
179

eral inform ation on requirem ents for
various careers in the occupational
safety and health field, as well as lists
o f college and universities th at aw ard
degrees in the various occupational
safety and health disciplines. This in­
form ation is available from:
Division of Training and Manpower Develop­
ment, National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Labo­
ratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cin­
cinnati, Ohio 45226.

OCEANOGRAPHERS

theories about the ocean. For exam ­
ple, they may study and test the th e ­
ory o f continental drift, which states
th at the continents w ere once joined
together, have drifted to new posi­
tions, and continue to drift, causing
the sea floor to spread in places. T o
present the results o f their studies,
oceanographers p rep are charts, ta ­
bulations, and reports, and write p a ­
pers for scientific journals.
O ceanographers explore and study
the ocean with surface ships, aircraft,
and various types o f underw ater
craft. T hey use specialized in stru ­
m ents to m easure an d re co rd th e

findings o f th eir explorations an d
studies. Special cam eras equipped
with strong lights are used to ph o to ­
g ra p h m arin e life an d th e o ce an
floor. Sounding devices are used to
m easure, m ap, and locate ocean m a­
terials.
M ost oceanographers specialize in
one branch o f the science. Biological
oceanographers (m arine biologists)
study plant and anim al life in the
o cean . T h e biological o ce a n o g ra ­
p h e r’s research has practical applica­
tions in im proving and controlling
com m ercial and sport fishing and in
determ ining the effects of pollution

(D .O .T. 024.081 and 041.081)

Nature of the Work
O c e a n s c o v e r m o re th a n tw othirds o f the e a rth ’s surface and are a
source o f valuable foods, fossil fuels,
and m inerals. They also influence the
w eather, serve as a “ highw ay” for
transportation, and offer many kinds
o f re cre atio n . O ceanographers use
th e p rin c ip le s a n d te c h n iq u e s o f
n a tu ra l scien ce, m athem atics, and
engineering to study o ceans—their
m ovem ents, physical properties, and
plant and anim al life. T heir research
n o t o nly e x te n d s b a sic scien tific
know ledge, b u t also helps develop
p ra c tic a l m eth o d s fo r fo reca stin g
w eather, developing fisheries, m ining
ocean resources, and im proving n a­
tional defense.
M ost oceanographers test their
ideas ab o u t the ocean by m aking
observations and conducting experi­
m ents a t sea. They m ay study and
collect d ata on ocean tides, currents,
an d o th e r p h en o m en a. T hey m ay
study undersea m ountain ranges and
valleys, oceanic interactions with the
atm osphere, and layers o f sedim ent
on and beneath the o cean floor.
M any o cean o g rap h ers w ork p ri­
marily in laboratories on land w here,
for exam ple, they m easure, dissect,
and photograph fish. T hey also study
sea specim ens and p lankton (floating
m icro sco p ic p lan ts a n d anim als).
M uch o f th eir work entails identify­
ing, cataloging, and analyzing differ­
ent kinds o f sea life and minerals. A t
o th er lab o rato ries, oceanographers
plot m aps o r use com puters to test
180

Four out of 10 oceanographers work in just three States—California, Maryland, and
Virginia.

on m arine life. Physical oceanogra­
phers (physicists and geophysicists)
study the physical properties o f the
ocean. T heir research on the rela­
tionships betw een the sea and the at­
m osphere may lead to m ore accurate
prediction o f the w eather. Geological
oceanographers (m arine geologists)
study the o ce an ’s underw ater m oun­
tain ranges, rocks, and sedim ents.
Locating regions where minerals, oil,
and gas m ight be found under the
ocean floor is an application of their
work. Chemical oceanographers in­
vestigate the chem ical com position
of ocean w ater and sedim ents as well
as ch e m ic al re a c tio n s in th e sea.
Oceanographic engineers and elec­
tronic specialists design and build in­
s tru m e n ts fo r o c e a n o g ra p h ic r e ­
search and operations. They also lay
ca b le s an d su p erv ise u n d e rw a te r
construction.
M any o th er scientists also work on
problem s related to oceans, but are
counted in oth er scientific fields such
as biology, chem istry, or geology.

Places of Employment
A bout 2,700 persons w orked as
oceanographers in 1976. A bout onehalf w orked in colleges and universi­
ties, and m ore than one-fourth for
th e F ed eral G o v ern m en t. F ed eral
agencies em ploying substantial num ­
bers of oceanographers include the
Navy and the National O ceanic and
A tm o s p h e ric A d m in is tr a tio n
(N O A A ). S om e o c e a n o g ra p h e rs
work in private industry; a few work
for fishery laboratories o f State and
local governm ents.
M ost oceanographers work in
States th at border on the ocean, al­
though th ere are som e oceanogra­
p h e rs e m p lo y ed in a lm o st every
State. Four out of 10 oceanographers
work in ju st three S tates—California,
M aryland, and Virginia.

Training, Other Qualifications,
The minimum requirem ent for b e­
ginning professional jobs in oceanog­
raphy is a b achelor’s degree with a
m ajo r in o c e a n o g ra p h y , biology,
earth or physical sciences, m athe­
m atics, o r en g in eerin g . H ow ever,

m ost jobs in research, teaching, and
high-level positions in m ost o th e r
types of oceanographic work require
graduate training in oceanography or
a basic science, and a doctoral d e­
gree is often preferred or required
for many oceanography positions.
A bout 35 colleges and universities
offered undergraduate degrees in
oceanography or m arine sciences in
1976. However, undergraduate train­
ing in a basic science and a strong
interest in oceanography may be ad e­
quate preparation for some begin­
ning jobs and is the preferred b ack­
g ro u n d fo r g ra d u a te tra in in g in
oceanography.
College courses needed to prepare
for graduate study in oceanography
include m athem atics, physics, chem ­
istry, geophysics, geology, m eteorol­
ogy, and biology. In general, students
should specialize in the p articu lar
science that is closest to their area o f
oceanographic interest. For example,
s tu d e n ts in te r e s te d in c h e m ic a l
oceanography could obtain a degree
in chemistry.
In 1976, about 65 colleges offered
advanced degrees in oceanography
and m arine sciences. In graduate
schools, students take advanced
courses in oceanography and in basic
sciences.
G raduate students usually work
part of the time aboard ship, where
they do oceanographic research and
becom e familiar with the sea and
with techniques used to obtain
oceanographic inform ation. U niver­
sities having oceanographic research
facilities along our coasts offer sum ­
m er courses for both graduate and
undergraduate students. O ceanogra­
phers should have the curiosity need­
ed to do research and the patience to
c o lle c t d a ta and co n d u c t e x p e ri­
ments.
Beginning oceanographers with
the bachelor’s degree usually start as
research or laboratory assistants, or
in jobs involving routine data collec­
tion, com putation, or analysis. M ost
beginning o cean o g rap h ers receive
on-the-job training. The extent of the
training varies with the background
and needs of the individual.
Experienced oceanographers often
direct surveys and research program s
or advance to adm inistrative or su­

pervisory jobs in research laborato­
ries.

Employment Outlook
Persons seeking jobs in oceanogra­
phy may face com petition through
the m id-1980’s. Those with a Ph. D.
degree should have more favorable
em ploym ent opportunities than o th ­
ers, while those with less education
may find o p p o rtu n ities lim ited to
routine analytical work as research
assistants or technicians. P ersons
who com bine knowledge o f other sci­
en tific o r engineering fields w ith
oceanographic studies should have
b etter em ploym ent prospects than
others whose knowledge is limited to
oceanography.
Employment of oceanographers is
expected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations. This
growth will result from increased
awareness of the need for ocean re­
search for understanding and co n ­
trolling pollution, for recovering off­
shore oil and other natural resources,
and for national defense. However,
growth in employm ent may not be
rapid enough to create enough open­
ings for all those expected to seek
entry into this relatively small field.
Since the F ederal G overnm ent fi­
n a n c e s m o st o c e a n o g ra p h ic r e ­
search, a large increase in Federal
spending in oceanography could im­
prove em ploym ent prospects.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
O ceanographers have relatively
high earnings. Their average salaries
were m ore than twice the average
received by nonsupervisory workers
in private industry, except farming.
In 1977, oceanographers in the
Federal G overnm ent with a bache­
lo r’s degree received starting salaries
of \$9,303 or \$ 11,523 a year, depend­
ing on their college grades. Those
with a m aster’s degree could start at
\$11,523 or \$14,097; and those with a
Ph. D. degree at \$17,056 or \$20,442.
The average salary for experienced
oceanographers in the Federal G ov­
ernm ent in 1977 was about \$23,800
a year.
O ceanographers in educational in­
stitutions generally receive the same
salaries as other faculty m em bers.
181

(See statem ent on College and U ni­
versity T each ers elsew here in the
H andbook.) In ad d ition to regular
salaries, m any earn ex tra incom e
from consulting, lecturing, and w rit­
ing.
O c e a n o g ra p h e rs engaged in r e ­
search th at requires sea voyages are
fre q u e n tly aw ay fro m h om e fo r
weeks or m onths at a time. Som e­
times they live and work in cram ped
quarters. People who like the sea and
ocean o g rap h ic research often find
these voyages satisfying and do not
consider the time spent at sea a dis­
advantage of their work.

Information
For inform ation about careers in
oceanography, contact:
Dr. C. Schelske, Secretary, American Society
of Limnology and Oceanography, Great
Lakes Research Division, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109.

Federal G overnm ent career infor­
m ation is available from any regional
office of the U.S. Civil Service C om ­
mission or from:
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington
Area Office, 1900 E St. NW., Washing­
ton, D.C. 20415.

The booklet, Training and Careers
in Marine Science, is available for fif­
ty cents from:
International Oceanographic Foundation,
3979 Rickenbacker Causeway, Virginia
Key, Miami, Fla. 33149.

S om e in fo rm a tio n on o c e a n o ­
graphic specialties is available from
p ro fe ssio n a l so cieties listed e lse ­
where in the Handbook. (See state­
ments on Geologists, Geophysicists,
Life Scientists, M eteorologists, and
Chem ists.)

O P TO M E TR IS TS
(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
About one out of every two p er­
sons in the United States wears co r­
rective lenses. O ptom etrists provide
most of this care. They examine p eo ­
182

About 1 out of every 2 persons in the United States wears corrective lenses.

p le’s eyes for vision problems, dis­
ease, and other abnorm al conditions,
and test for proper depth and color
perception and the ability to focus
and coordinate the eyes. W hen n ec­
essary, they p re scrib e lenses and
treatm ent. W here evidence of dis­
ease is present, the optom etrist refers
the patient to the appropriate m edi­
cal practitioner. M ost optom etrists
supply the prescribed eyeglasses and
fit and adjust contact lenses. O ptom ­
etrists also prescribe corrective eye
exercises or other treatm ent not re ­
quiring drugs or surgery.
Although most optom etrists are in
general practice, some specialize in
work with the aged or with children.
Others work only with persons hav­
ing partial sight who can be helped
w ith m ic ro s c o p ic o r te le s c o p ic
lenses. Still others are concerned
with the visual safety of industrial
workers. A few optom etrists teach or
do research.
O ptom etrists should not be co n ­
fused with either ophthalm ologists,

sometimes referred to as oculists, or
with dispensing opticians. O phthal­
mologists are physicians who special­
ize in m edical eye care, eye diseases
and injuries, perform eye surgery,
and p rescrib e drugs or o th er eye
treatm ent, as well as lenses. Dispens­
ing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses
according to prescriptions written by
ophthalm ologists or o ptom etrists;
they do not examine eyes or p re ­
scribe treatm ent. (See statem ent on
dispensing opticians.)

Places of Employment
In 1976, there were about 19,700
practicing optom etrists. The majority
of optom etrists are in solo practice.
Others are in partnership or group
practice with other optom etrists or
doctors as part of a professional
health care team.
Some optom etrists work in special­
ized hospitals and eye clinics or teach
in schools o f op to m etry . O thers
work for the V eterans A dm inistra­

tion, public and private health agen­
cies, and industrial health insurance
com panies. A bout 500 optom etrists
serve as com m issioned officers in the
Arm ed Forces. O ptom etrists also act
as consultants to engineers specializ­
ing in safety or lighting, consultants
to educators in rem edial reading, or
participants on health advisory com ­
m ittees to Federal, State, and local
governm ents.
A bout two optom etrists out o f five
practice in towns o f under 25,000
inhabitants.

Training, Other Qualifications,
All States and the D istrict of C o­
lum bia require th at optom etrists be
m ust have a D o cto r o f O ptom etry
degree from an accredited optom etric school and pass a State board ex­
am ination. In som e States, appli­
cants are perm itted to substitute the
National Board of O ptom etry exam i­
nation, given in the third and fourth
year o f optom etric school, for part or
all o f the w ritten State examination.
Several States allow applicants to be
licensed w ithout lengthy examination
if th ey have a license in an o th er
State.
The D octor of O ptom etry degree
requires a minimum o f 6 years of
college consisting of a 4-year profes­
sional degree program preceded by
at least 2 years o f p re o p to m e tric
study at an accredited university, col­
lege, o r ju n io r college. In 1976,
there were 12 schools and colleges of
optom etry approved by the Council
on O p to m e tric E d u c a tio n o f the
A m erican O ptom etric A ssociation.
One new school was seeking accredi­
tation. R equirem ents for admission
to th e se sch o o ls u su ally in clu d e
c o u rses in E nglish, m a th e m a tic s,
physics, chem istry, and biology, or
zoology. Some schools also require
courses in psychology, social studies,
literatu re, philosophy, and foreign
languages. Admission to optom etry
schools is com petitive. Each year,
qualified applicants exceed available
places, so serious applicants need su­
perior grades in their preoptom etric
co lleg e co u rses to e n h a n c e th e ir
chances for acceptance.

Because m ost optom etrists are
self-employed, business ability, selfdiscipline, and the ability to deal with
patients tactfully are necessary for
success.
Many beginning optom etrists enter
into associate practice with an o p ­
tom etrist or other health profession­
al. O thers purchase an established
practice or set up a new practice.
Some take salaried positions to o b ­
tain experience and the necessary
funds to enter their own practice.
O ptom etrists wishing to advance in
a specialized field may study for a
M aster’s o r D octor of Philosophy d e­
gree in physiological optics, neuro­
physiology, public health adm inistra­
tio n , h e a lth in fo rm a tio n an d
com m unication, or health education.
Optom etrists who enter the Arm ed
Forces as career officers have the
o p p o rtu n ity to w ork to w ard a d ­
vanced degrees and to do vision re ­
search.

Employment Outlook
Em ployment opportunities for o p ­
tom etrists are expected to be favor­
able through the m id-1980’s. The
n u m b e r o f new g ra d u a te s fro m
schools of optom etry is expected to
be adequate to fill the positions m ade
available by em ploym ent growth and
the need to replace optom etrists who
die and retire.
Em ploym ent of optom etrists is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations. An in­
crease in the total population, espe­
cially in the group m ost likely to need
glasses—o ld er p e o p le —is a m ajor
factor contributing to the expected
growth in the occupation. G reater
re co g n itio n o f th e im p o rtan ce o f
good vision and the possibility th at
m ore persons will have health insur­
ance to cover optom etric services,
also should increase the dem and for
optom etric services.

enced optom etrists averaged about
\$ 3 3 ,0 0 0 a n n u a lly . O p to m e tris ts
working for the Federal Governm ent
earned an average of \$19,300 a year
in 1977. Incomes vary greatly, de­
pending upon location, specializa­
tion, and other factors. However, af­
te r several years, o p to m etrists in
associateship or partnership practice
may ea rn substantially m ore than
their solo practitioner counterparts.
Independent practitioners can set
their own work schedule. Some work
over 40 hours a week, including Sat­
urday. B ecause the w ork is not
physically strenuous, optom etrists of­
ten can continue to practice after the
normal retirem ent age.

Information
Inform ation on optom etry as a ca­
reer and a list of scholarships and
loan funds offered by various State
associations, societies, and institu­
tions are available from:
American Optometric Association, 7000
Chippewa St., St. Louis, Mo. 63119.

Federal Health Professions Loans
are available for optom etric students
who m eet certain financial needs re­
quirem ents. For inform ation on this
financial aid, on the availability of
F ed eral sch o larsh ip s, and on re ­
quired preoptom etry courses, co n ­
ta c t individual optom etry schools.
The Board of Optom etry in the capi­
tal of each State can supply a list of
optom etry schools approved by that
State, as well as licensing require­
ments.

OSTEOPATHIC
P H YSIC IA N S
(D.O.T. 071.108)

Earnings and Working
Conditions

Nature of the Work

In 1976, net earnings of new o p ­
\$15,500, but som e graduates who
started work in the optom etry d e ­
p a r tm e n t o f c h a in re ta il s to re s
earned considerably m ore. E xperi­

O steopathic physicians diagnose
and treat diseases or maladies of the
hum an body. They are particularly
concerned about problems involving
the muscles or bones. One of the ba­
sic treatm ents or therapies used by
183

Training and Other
Qualifications

Osteopathic physicians are particularly concerned about problems involving the
muscles or bones.

o steo p ath ic physicians cen ters on
m anipulating these systems with the
hands. O steopathic physicians also
use surgery, drugs, and all other ac­
cepted m ethods of m edical care.
M ost o steopathic physicians are
“ family docto rs” who engage in gen­
eral practice. These physicians usual­
ly see patients in their offices, m ake
house calls, and treat patients in os­
teopathic and o ther private and pub­
lic hospitals. Some doctors o f osteop­
athy teach, do research, or write and
edit scientific books and journals.
In recent years, specialization has
increased. In 1976, about 25 percent
o f all osteopathic physicians were
practicing in specialties, including in­
ternal m edicine, neurology and psy­
chiatry, ophthalm ology, pediatrics,
an esth esio lo g y , physical m edicine
and rehabilitation, derm atology, ob­
stetrics and gynecology, pathology,
proctology, radiology, and surgery.
184

Places of Employment
A bout 15,000 osteopathic physi­
cians practiced in the United States
in 1976. Almost 85 percent of the
active osteopathic physicians were in
private practice. A small num ber had
full-time salaried positions in osteo­
pathic hospitals and colleges, private
industry, o r governm ent agencies.
O steopathic physicians are located
chiefly in those States that have os­
teopathic hospital facilities. In 1976,
three-fifths o f all osteopathic physi­
cians w ere in F lo rid a, M ichigan,
P en n sy lv an ia, New Jersey , O hio,
T exas, and M issouri. T w enty-one
States and the D istrict o f C olum bia
each had fewer than 50 osteopathic
physicians. M ore than half of all gen­
e ra l p ra c titio n e rs a re lo c a te d in
towns and cities having fewer than
50,000 people; specialists, however,
practice mainly in large cities.

All 50 States and the District of
C olum bia require a license to prac­
tice osteopathic medicine. To obtain
a licen se, a can d id a te m ust be a
graduate o f an approved school of
o s te o p a th ic m ed icin e and pass a
S ta te b o a r d e x a m in a tio n In six
States, candidates m ust pass an ex­
am ination in the basic sciences be­
fore they are eligible to take the p ro ­
fessional examination; 37 States and
the District o f C olum bia also require
a period o f internship in an approved
hospital after graduation from an oste o p a th ic sch o o l. T h e N a tio n a l
Board o f Osteopathic Examiners also
gives an exam ination which is ac­
cepted by most States as a substitute
for State examination. All States ex­
cept A laska and Florida grant licens­
es w ithout fu rth e r exam ination to
properly qualified osteopathic physi­
cians already licensed by an o th er
State.
The m inimum educational require­
m ent for entry to one o f the schools
o f osteopathic medicine is 3 years of
college work, but in practice alm ost
all o s te o p a th ic s tu d e n ts h av e a
b a c h e lo r’s degree. P reo steo p ath ic
education m ust include courses in
chemistry, physics, biology, and Eng­
lish. O steo p ath ic colleges req u ire
successful com pletion of 3 to 4 years
of professional study for the degree
o f D o c to r o f O steo p ath y (D .O .).
During the first half of professional
training, emphasis is placed on basic
sciences, such as anatom y, physiol­
ogy, and pathology, and on the prin­
ciples o f osteopathy; the rem ainder
o f the tim e is devoted largely to clini­
cal experience with patients in hospi­
tals and clinics.
After graduation, nearly all d o c­
tors of osteopathic medicine serve a
12-month internship at 1 of the 79
osteopathic hospitals approved by
the A m erican O steopathic Associ­
ation fo r in tern a n d /o r residency
training. Those who wish to becom e
specialists must have 2 to 5 years of
The osteopathic physician’s train ­
ing is very costly because of the
length o f time it takes to earn the
D.O. degree. However, Federal and

private funds are available for loans
for stu d en ts, and scholarships are
available to those who qualify and
agree to a m inimum o f 2 years’ Fed­
eral service.
In 1977, there were 12 schools of
osteopathic m edicine. Schools adm it
students on the basis o f grades re­
ceived in college, scores on the re­
quired New M edical College Admis­
sions T est, and reco m m en d atio n s
from prem edical college counselors.
The ap p lican t’s desire to serve as an
osteopathic physician rath er than as
a d o cto r train ed in o th er fields of
m edicine is a very im portant qualifi­
cation. T he colleges also give consid­
erable weight to a favorable recom ­
m e n d a t i o n by a n o s t e o p a t h i c
physician fam iliar w ith th e ap p li­
c a n t’s background.
Newly qualified doctors o f osteo­
p a th ic m e d icin e u sually establish
their own practice, although a grow­
ing num ber are entering group prac­
tice. Some work as assistants to expe­
r i e n c e d p h y s ic ia n s o r b e c o m e
associated with osteopathic and allo­
pathic (M .D .) hospitals. In view of
the variation in State laws, persons
w ho wish to b eco m e o ste o p a th ic
physicians should study carefully the
professional and legal requirem ents
of the S tate in which they plan to
practice. T he availability o f osteo­
pathic hospitals and clinical facilities
also should be considered.
Persons who wish to becom e os­
te o p a th ic physicians m ust have a
strong desire to pursue this career
above all others. They m ust be will­
ing to study a great deal throughout
their career to keep up with the latest
advances in o steo p ath ic m edicine.
They should exhibit leadership, em o­
tional stabiliy, and self-confidence. A
pleasant personality, friendliness, p a­
tience, and the ability to deal with
people also are im portant.

The greatest dem and probably will
continue to be in States where osteo­
pathic m edicine is a widely known
and accepted m ethod o f treatm ent,
such as Pennsylvania, Florida, and a
num ber of M idwestern States. G en­
erally, prospects for beginning a suc­
cessful practice are likely to be best
in rural areas, small towns, and city
suburbs, where young doctors o f os­
teopathy may establish their profes­
sional reputations m ore easily than in
the centers of large cities.
The osteopathic profession is ex­
pected to grow faster than the aver­
age for all occupations through the
m id -1 9 8 0 ’s because o f po p u latio n
grow th, the establishm ent o f addi­
tional osteopathic hospital facilities,
and th e ex ten sio n o f p re p ay m en t
p ro g ram s fo r h o sp ita liz a tio n an d
m edical care including M edicare and
M edicaid.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
In osteopathic m edicine, as in
many of the other health professions,
incom es usually rise m arkedly after
the first few years of practice. E arn­
ings of individual practitioners are
determ ined mainly by ability, experi­
ence, geographic location, and the
in c o m e lev el o f th e c o m m u n ity
served. In 1974, the average incom e
o f general practitioners after busi­
ness expenses was about \$31,000, a c ­
cording to the limited data available.
This incom e is very high in com pari­
son with o ther professions. Special­
ists usually had higher incomes than
general practitioners.
Many osteopathic physicians work
m ore than 50 or 60 hours a week.
Those in general practice work
longer and m ore irregular hours than
specialists.

Information

Employment Outlook
O pportunities for osteopathic phy­
sicians are expected to be very good
through 1985. M any localities are
without m edical practitioners o f any
kind; many more have few or no os­
te o p a th ic physicians. In addition,
many new osteopaths will be needed
to replace those who retire or die.

People who wish to practice in a
given State should find out about the
requirem ents for licensure directly
from the board of exam iners of th at
State. Inform ation on Federal schol­
arships and loans is available from
the D irector o f Student Financial Aid
at the individual schools o f osteop­
athy. For a list o f State boards, as

well as general inform ation on oste­
opathy as a career, contact:
American Osteopathic Association, Depart­
ment of Public Relations, 212 East Ohio
St., Chicago, 111. 60611.
American Association of Colleges of Osteo­
pathic M edicine, 4720 Montgomery
Lane, Washington, D.C. 20014.

PARK, RECR EA TIO N, A ND
LEISUR E SER VIC E
W O RKERS
(D.O.T. 079.128, 159.228, 187.118,
195.168, 195.228)

Nature of the Work
Participation in organized recre­
ation is m ore im portant today than
ever before as many Americans find
the am ount of leisure time in their
lives increasing. P ark, re cre atio n ,
and leisure service workers plan, or­
ganize, and d irec t individual and
group activities that help people en­
joy their leisure hours. They work
with people of various ages and so­
cio eco n o m ic groups; the easy-toreach, and those who have tuned out
society; the sick and the well; the
em otionally and physically h andi­
capped. Employment settings range
from the wilderness to rural to subur­
ban and urban, including the inner
city. Jobs can be found in municipal,
county, special district, State and
Federal tax-supported agencies; vol­
untary youth service organizations;
com m ercial enterprises; and colleges
and universities.
The park, recreation, and leisure
service field provides career oppor­
tunities in two m ajor areas which,
despite some overlap, involve dis­
tinctive characteristics and training
requirem ents. Activity with and for
people is the chief characteristic of
Recreation Program Services. Exam ­
ples of recreation program jobs in­
clude playground leaders; program
specialists in dance, dram a, karate,
tennis, the arts, and other physical
activity; recreation center directors;
th e ra p e u tic re c re a tio n specialists;
cam p c o u n se lo rs an d w ild ern e ss
185

ers; civilian special services directors
in the A rm ed Forces; and industrial
recreation directors. Participants en ­
gage in re c re a tio n a l activity as a
m eans o f achieving personal satisfac­
tion and oth er goals. Skilled leader­
ship is required. The o th er m ajor ca­
reer area is Park M anagem ent and
Natural Resources, w hich focuses on
activities in natural and constructed
areas, facilities, and environm ents.
Job exam ples include outdoor re cre­
ation planners and p ark m anagers.
T hese personnel w ork closely with
others including grounds and facili­
ties m a in te n a n c e p e rso n n e l; p ark
rangers; landscape architects; forest­
ers; and soil, range and wildlife con­
servationists. An u n d erstan d in g of
th e n a tu ra l e n v iro n m e n t, physical
planning, and m aintenance and o p ­
e ra tio n a re essen tial jo b re q u ire ­
ments. (S eparate statem ents on for­
esters, range m an ag ers, landscape
architects, soil conservationists, life
scientists, and oth er closely related
occupations are found elsew here in
the Handbook).
Park, recreatio n , and leisure serv­
ice w orkers in full-tim e, year-round
jobs occupy a variety o f positions at
different levels o f responsibility. Rec­
reation program leaders and park
technicians and aides provide face-toface leadership, give instruction in
crafts, gam es, and sports, keep re c­
ords, m aintain recreatio n facilities,
assist p ark rangers, and staff visitor
centers.
Specialists include those trained in
dance, dram a, and the arts, in land­
scape arch itectu re, horticulture, for­
estry, biology, and a variety o f other
fields. T hese specialists are em ployed
by many park and recreation agen­
cies and often are involved in p ro ­
gram developm ent, planning, im ple­
m entation, and m anagem ent.
Supervisors plan program s; super­
vise recreation leaders or park p e r­
sonnel; m anage recreation facilities;
provide direction in areas o f special­
ization such as arts and crafts, music,
dram a, dance, and sports; or super­
vise leadership personnel over an en ­
tire region.
Administrators include directors of
p ark s and re c re a tio n , su p e rin te n ­
dents of parks and/or recreation, and
various division heads. These individ­
186

uals have overall responsibility for
ad m in istratio n , budget, personnel,
program m ing and/or park m anage­
ment.
Educators teach p ark and re c re ­
ation courses, supervise field work
students, do research, and provide
public service expertise.

Places of Employment
A bout 85,000 persons were p ri­
marily em ployed year round as park,
recreation, and leisure service w ork­
ers in 1976. The m ajority worked in
public, tax -su p p o rted agencies in ­
cluding 2,018 m unicipal park and
r e c r e a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s , 1, 211
county park and recreation agencies,

345 special districts, and the State
park systems. In addition to these
public agencies, a num ber of other
em ploym ent settings provide yearround jobs for park, recreation, and
leisure service workers.
Several thousand persons work for
the F ederal G overnm ent as re c re ­
ation specialists (sports, art, music,
theatre, therapeutic), outdoor recre­
ation planners, park m anagers and
technicians, and recreation assistants
and aides. They work primarily for
the Forest Service and Soil C onser­
vation Service of the D epartm ent of
Agriculture; the Corps of Engineers
and A rm ed Forces R ecreation of the
D epartm ent of Defense; the V eter­
ans Adm inistration; and the National

Park Service, Bureau o f Land M an­
agem ent, Bureau o f O utdoor R ecre­
atio n , and U.S. Fish and W ildlife
Service o f the D epartm ent of Interi­
or.
P eac e C o rp s an d V ista em ploy
park and recreation personnel in 68
foreign countries and in the United
States to plan and supervise recrea­
tional activities for deprived persons.
Boys’ and G irls’ Clubs provide a
variety o f recreational, guidance, and
sters grow and work together, to dis­
cover their needs, understand them ­
s e lv e s , a n d a c h ie v e a se n se o f
responsibility.
Senior centers and retirem ent
com m unities offer older people a
range o f recreation and leisure activi­
ties, and often employ trained staff to
supervise and coordinate the assist­
ance provided by volunteers.
T herapeutic recreation is a rapidly
growing specialized field which p ro ­
vides services to help an individual
recover or adjust to illness, disability,
or a specific social problem . Places
w here recreatio n al therapists work
include hospitals, correctional insti­
tu tio n s, h e a lth an d re h a b ilita tio n
centers, nursing hom es, and private
schools and cam ps for the m entally
retarded, em otionally disturbed, and
physically handicapped. Therapeutic
recreatio n w orkers, in conjunction
with physicians, prescribe activities
on a one-to-one basis.
M any jobs for park, recreation,
and leisure service w orkers are found
in p riv ate and co m m ercial re c re ­
atio n —including am usem ent parks,
sports an d e n te rta in m e n t cen ters,
wilderness and survival enterprises,
tou rist attractio n s, vacation excur­
sions, resorts and cam ps, health spas,
clu b s, a p a rtm e n t co m p lex es, and
other settings.
The park, recreation, and leisure
service field is characterized by an
unusually large num ber o f part-tim e,
seasonal, and volunteer jobs. V olun­
teers represent perhaps three out of
every fo u r individuals perform ing
service in public park and recreation
agencies. Some serve on local park
and recreation boards and com m is­
sions. The vast m ajority serve as vol­
unteer activity leaders a t local play­
grounds, or in youth organizations,

nursing hom es, hospitals, senior cen­
ters, and other settings. Many park
and re c re a tio n professionals have
found that volunteer experience, as
well as part-tim e work during school,
can lead directly to a full-time job. A
m ajority o f all paid em ployees in the
park, recreation, and leisure service
field are part-tim e or seasonal w ork­
ers. T ypical jo b s include sum m er
cam p co u n se lo rs and p lay g ro u n d
leaders, lifeguards, craft specialists,
after school and w eekend recreation
program leaders, park rangers, m ain­
tenance personnel, and others. Many
o f these jobs are filled by teachers
and college students.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A college degree with a m ajor in
parks and recreation is increasingly
im portant for those seeking full-time
career positions in the park, recre­
ation, and leisure service field. G en­
erally, an applicant’s level of form al
education and training determ ine the
type of job he or she can get.
A num ber of aide, recreation p ro ­
gram leader, and park technician p o ­
sitions currently are filled by high
school grad u ates. H ow ever, those
seeking career potential should o b ­
tain a minimum o f an associate d e ­
gree. Some jobs at the re creatio n
leader level require specialized train ­
ing in a particular field, such as art,
music, dram a, or athletics.
Positions as specialists norm ally
require a minimum o f a baccalaure­
ate degree. However, the degree usu­
ally is in the area of specialization,
such as forestry or biology, rath er
than in parks and recreation.
M ost supervisors have a baccalau­
reate degree plus experience. A d e ­
gree in parks and recreation may imp ro v e c h a n c e s fo r c a re e r
A baccalaureate degree and expe­
rience are considered minimum re ­
quirem ents for adm inistrators. H ow­
e v e r, in c re a s in g n u m b e rs a re
obtaining m aster’s degrees in parks
and recreation as well as in related
disciplines. Many persons with b ack ­
grounds in other disciplines including
social work, forestry, and resource
m an ag em en t pu rsu e g rad u ate d e ­
grees in recreation.

In 1975, over 1,200 educators
taught parks and recreation in junior
and com m unity colleges and senior
colleges and universities. On the ju ­
nior college level, 90 percent of the
faculty had a m aster’s degree or less
while on the senior college level,
one-half had a m aster’s degree and
the other half had a doctorate.
In 1975, about 165 2-year com m u­
nity colleges offered associate degree
recreation leadership and park tech ­
nician programs; 180 4-year colleges
and universities offered park and rec­
re a tio n cu rricu lu m s. In ad d itio n ,
over 80 m aster’s degree program s
and a b o u t 25 d o c to ra l program s
were offered. Programs in therapeu­
tic recreation were offered by about
45 com m unity and ju n io r colleges
and 95 4 -year colleges and universi­
ties. A num ber of graduate programs
were taught.
The N ational Recreation and Park
Association (N R PA ) is beginning a
process o f accrediting park and rec­
reation curriculums. Students in ac­
credited baccalaureate degree p ro ­
grams will devote about one-half of
th e ir tim e to g e n e ra l e d u c a tio n
co u rses in w hich th ey m ay gain
knowledge of the natural and social
sciences including an understanding
of hum an growth and developm ent
and of people as individuals and as
social beings; history and apprecia­
tion of hum an cultural, social, intel­
l e c t u a l , s p i r i t u a l , a n d a r ti s t i c
achievem ents; and other areas of in­
terest. A nother one-fourth of their
time will involve exposure to profes­
sional park and recreation education
including history, theory, and p h i­
losophy; com m unity organization;
recreation and park services; leader­
ship supervision and administration;
understanding of special populations
such as the elderly or handicapped;
and field work experience. Students
may spend the rem ainder of their
tim e develo p in g c o m p ete n cies in
specialized professional areas such as
th era p eu tic recreation (courses in
psychology, health, education, and
sociology are recom m ended), park
m an ag em en t, o u td o o r re c re a tio n ,
park and recreation adm inistration,
industrial or com m ercial recreation
187

are reco m m en d ed ), cam p m anage­
m ent, and oth er areas.
Persons planning park, recreation,
and leisure service careers m ust be
good at m otivating people and sensi­
tive to their needs. G ood health and
physical stam ina are required. A c­
tivity planning calls for creativity and
resourcefulness. W illingness to ac­
cept responsibility and the ability to
ex e rc ise ju d g m e n t a re im p o rta n t
qualities since park and recreation
personnel often work alone. To in­
crease their leadership skills and un­
derstanding o f people, students are
advised to obtain related work expe­
rience in high school and college.
O pportunities for part-tim e, sum m er,
or after-school em ploym ent, or for
volunteer w ork, may be available in
local p a rk and re c re a tio n d e p a rt­
m ents, youth service agencies, reli­
gious o r w elfare agencies, nursing
hom es, cam ps, parks, or nature cen­
ters. Such experience may help stu­
dents decide w hether their interests
really point to a hum an service ca­
reer. Students also should talk to lo­
cal park and recreation profession­
als, school guidance counselors, and
others.
A fter a few years o f experience,
aides o r recreation program leaders
may becom e supervisors. However,
additional education may be desired.
A lthough prom otion to adm inistra­
tive positions may be easier for p er­
m ent usually is possible through a
com bination of education and expe­
rience.
An effort currently is underway to
establish professional status and rec­
ognition for the field o f parks and
recreation (accreditation of curriculums is discussed earlier in the state­
m ent). T here currently is no licens­
ing re q u ir e m e n t fo r in d iv id u a ls
em ployed in public park and recre­
ation agencies. However, NRPA has
d ev e lo p e d n a tio n a l sta n d a rd s fo r
professional and technical personnel,
including both education and experi­
ence requirem ents. N RPA expects
many States to adopt these standards
in the com ing years. Some therapeu­
tic recreation w orkers are subject to
m andatory requirem ents that denote
com petence to practice their profes­
sion. T h o se w orking in long-term
188

care facilities m ust be registered by
th e N R P A , N atio n al T h e ra p e u tic
R ecreation Society’s Board of Regis­
tration, or by the State in which they
work.

Employment Outlook
The need for trained park, recre­
ation, and leisure service workers is
expected to grow as physical fitness
and recreation becom e increasingly
im portant to millions o f Am ericans;
as the num ber o f older people using
senior centers and nursing hom es in­
creases; as the d em and for cam p
sites, lakes, stream s, trails, and picnic
areas increases; as correctional insti­
tutions recognize the need for such
personnel; as the need develops for
creative expression in the arts and
hum anities; and as the citizen’s un­
derstanding of the use of our leisure
an d n a tu ra l re s o u rc e s in c re a se s.
However, because o f financial u ncer­
tainty in both the public and private
sectors, this need for trained person­
nel may not necessarily result in ac­
tu a l e m p lo y m e n t g ro w th . M any
openings, nevertheless, will arise an ­
nually from deaths, retirem ents, and
o th e r se p a ra tio n s from th e la b o r
force.
A 1976 National R ecreation and
Park Association study indicates th at
com petition is keen for many jobs in
m unicipal, county, special district,
and State park systems. C ontributing
to the com petitive job situation are
recent sizable increases in the num ­
ber o f park and recreation graduates
and the austerity budgets adopted by
many local governm ents and m unici­
palities since the early 1970’s.
The long-term em ploym ent o u t­
look is difficult to assess, largely b e ­
cause o f un certain ty ab o u t fu tu re
funding levels for these and o th er
public services. F u rth erm o re, p e r­
sons with a wide variety of experi­
ence and education may seek to b e ­
com e park, recreation, and leisure
service w orkers. However, persons
with form al training and experience
in parks and recreation are expected
to have the best job opportunities in
this field; those with graduate d e ­
grees should have the best opportuni­
ties for supervisory and adm inistra­
tive positions. If the num ber of park
and recreation curriculum s contin­

ues to grow, m aster’s and Ph. D. de­
g ree h o ld e rs m ay find fav o rab le
teaching opportunities.
Additional job opportunities are
expected in therapeutic recreation,
private and com m ercial recreation,
and—to a lesser extent—in senior
centers and youth organizations. O p­
p o rtu n itie s fo r sp ec ia lly tra in e d
therapeutic recreation workers are
likely to be favorable, in line with the
anticipated need for additional staff
in many health-related occupations.
By contrast, com petition for jobs as
cam p directors is expected to be very
keen.
Job experience prior to graduation
will greatly help a graduate find a
position. Although com petition is ex­
pected to be keen, many opportuni­
ties for part-tim e and summer em ­
p lo y m e n t w ill b e a v a ila b le fo r
recreation program leaders and aides
in local governm ent recreation p ro ­
grams. M any of the sum m er jobs will
be for counselors and craft and ath ­
letic specialists in camps.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Starting salaries in State and local
governments for recreation program
leaders with a bachelor’s degree av­
eraged about \$9,300 in 1976, ac­
cording to a survey by the Interna­
tio n a l P e rs o n n e l M a n a g e m e n t
Association. There was a wide salary
range am ong em ployers—in general,
salaries were highest in the West and
lowest in the South. Average earn ­
ings for park and recreation workers
are higher than those for nonsupervisory workers in private industry, ex­
cept farming.
A ccording to NRPA, 2-year asso­
ing salaries ranging from \$6,500 to
\$9,500 in 1976. Individuals with b ac­
c a la u re a te degrees obtained p ark
and recreation positions with annual
salaries that were in the \$7,200 to
\$12,000 range. Persons with gradu­
ate degrees generally received higher
salaries. All salaries varied widely de­
pending on the size and type of em ­
ploying agency and geographic area.
Supervisors’ salaries ranged from
\$10,000 to \$20,000. Salaries for spe­
cialists varied greatly, but generally
were equivalent to those of supervi­

sory personnel. The average salary
fo r c h ie f ad m in istrato rs in public
p ark and re cre atio n agencies was
ab o u t \$20 ,0 0 0 , and ranged up to
\$45,000.
The average annual starting salary
for recreational therapists (positions
requiring a college degree in recrea­
tional therapy or a related field) in
hospitals and m edical centers was
about \$10,200 in 1976, according to
a survey conducted by the University
of Texas M edical School. Top sala­
ries fo r e x p e rie n c e d re c re a tio n a l
therapists in these settings averaged
\$12,200, and some were as high as
\$17,800.
Starting salaries for recreation and
park professionals in the Federal
G overnm ent in 1977 were \$9,303 for
applicants with a bachelor’s degree;
\$11,523 for those with a bachelor’s
degrees plus 1 year o f experience;
\$14,097 for those with a bachelor’s
plus 2 y ears’ experience or a m aster’s
degree; and \$17,056 for those with a
bach elo r’s plus 3 y ears’ experience
or a Ph. D. R ecreation and park
assistants, aides, and technicians
earn considerably less than these
professionals.
The average week for recreation
and park personnel is 35-40 hours.
Many cam p recreation workers live
at the cam ps where they work, and
their room and board are included in
their salaries. M ost public and pri­
vate recreation agencies provide va­
cation and oth er fringe benefits such
as sick leave and hospital insurance.
People entering the park, recre­
ation, and leisure service field should
expect som e night work and irregular
ho urs. In ad d itio n , w o rk ers often
spend m uch o f their tim e outdoors
when the w eather permits.

Information
In fo rm atio n ab o u t parks, re c re ­
ation, and leisure services as a ca­
reer, em ploym ent o p p o rtu n ities in
the field, colleges and universities of­
fering park and recreation curricula,
accred itatio n , and registration and
certificatio n standards is available
from:
National Recreation and Park Association, Di­
vision o f Professional Services, 1601
North Kent St., Arlington, Va. 22209.

For inform ation on careers in in­
dustrial recreation, contact:
National Industrial Recreation Association, 20
North Wacker Dr., Chicago, 11 . 60606.
1

F o r in fo rm a tio n on c a re e rs in
cam ping and job referrals, send post­
paid return envelope to:
American Camping Association, Bradford
Woods, Martinsville, Ind. 46151.

PE R S O N N E L A N D LABOR
R ELA TIO N S W O RKERS
(D.O.T. 166.088 through .268;
169.118)

Nature of the Work
A ttracting the best em ployees
available and m atching them to the
jobs they can do best is im portant for
the success of any organization. T o ­
day, most businesses are m uch too
large for close contact between ow n­
ers and their employees. Instead, p er­
sonnel and labor relations w orkers
provide the link betw een m anage­
m ent and em ployees—assisting m an­
agem ent to m ake effective use o f em ­
p lo y e e s ’ s k ills , a n d h e lp in g
employees to find satisfaction in their
jo b s and w orking conditions. A l­
though some jobs in this field require
only limited contact with people o u t­
side the office, m ost involve frequent
contact with other people. Dealing
with people is an essential part of the
job.
Personnel workers and labor rela­
tions workers concentrate on differ­
en t aspects of em ployer-em ployee
relations. Personnel w orkers in ter­
view, select, and recom m end appli­
cants to fill job openings. They h an ­
dle wage and salary adm inistration,
train in g and c a re e r developm ent,
and employee benefits. “ Labor rela­
tions” usually m eans union-m anage­
m ent relations, and people who spe­
cialize in this field work for the m ost
part in unionized business firms and
governm ent agencies. They help offi­
cials prepare for collective bargain­
ing sessions, participate in contract
negotiations with the union, and h an ­
dle labor relations m atters that com e
up every day.

In a small company, personnel
work consists mostly of interviewing
and hiring, and one person usually
can handle it all. By contrast, a large
organization needs an entire staff,
which m ight include recruiters, inter­
view ers, counselors, jo b analysts,
wage and salary analysts, education
and training specialists, and labor re­
lations specialists, as well as techni­
cal and clerical workers.
Personnel work often begins with
the personnel recruiter or employment
interviewer (D.O.T. 166.268), who
works on a person-to-person basis
with p re sen t and prospective em ­
ployees. Recruiters travel around the
country, often to college campuses,
in the search for promising job appli­
cants. Interviewers talk to applicants,
and selec t and recom m end those
who appear qualified to fill vacan­
cies. They often administer tests to
applicants and interpret the results.
H iring and p la c e m e n t specialists
need to be thoroughly familiar with
the organization and its personnel
policies, for they must be prepared to
discuss wages, working conditions,
and prom otional opportunities with
prospective and newly hired employ­
ees. They also need to keep informed
about equal employm ent opportunity
and affirm ative action guidelines.
Equal em ploym ent opportunity is a
complex and sensitive area of p er­
sonnel work which in some large or­
ganizations is handled by special
EEO counselors or coordinators. The
w ork o f em p lo y m en t co u n selo rs,
which is similar in a num ber of ways,
is described in a separate statem ent
elsewhere in the Handbook.
Job analysts (D.O.T. 166.068) and
salary and wage administrators
(D.O.T. 169.118) do very exacting
work. Job analysts collect and ana­
lyze detailed inform ation on jobs, job
qualifications, and worker character­
istics in order to prepare job descrip­
tions, sometimes called position clas­
sifications, that tell exactly what the
duties o f a job are and what training
and skills it requires. W henever a
governm ent agency or large business
firm introduces a new job or evalu­
ates existing ones, it calls upon the
expert knowledge of the job analyst.
A ccurate information about job du­
ties also is required when a firm
evaluates its pay system and consid­
189

ers changes in wages and salaries. Es­
tablishing and m aintaining pay sys­
tem s is th e p rincipal jo b o f wage
adm inistrators. They devise ways of
making sure th at pay rates within the
firm are fair and equitable, and con­
duct surveys to see how their pay
rates com pare with those elsewhere.
Being sure th at the firm ’s pay system
complies with laws and regulations is
another p art of the job, one th at re­
quires know ledge o f com pensation
structures and labor law.
Training specialists supervise or
conduct training sessions, prepare
m anuals and oth er m aterials for
these courses, and look into new
m ethods o f training. They also coun­
sel em ployees on training opportuni­
ties, which may include on-the-job,
apprentice, supervisory, or m anage­
m ent training.
Em ployee-benefits supervisors and
other personnel specialists handle
the em ployer’s benefits program ,
w hich often includes health insur­
ance, life insurance, disability insur­
ance, and pension plans. These w ork­
ers also coordinate a wide range of
em ployee services, including cafete­
rias and snack bars, health room s,
re c re a tio n a l facilities, new sletters
and com m unications, and counseling
for w ork-related personal problem s.
Counseling em ployees who are ap­
proaching retirem ent age is a partic­
ularly im portant p art o f the job of
these workers.
O ccupational safety and health
program s are handled in various
ways. Q uite often, in small com pa­
nies especially, accident prevention
and industrial safety are the responsi­
bility of the personnel departm ent—
or o f the labor relations specialist, if
the union has a safety representative.
In creasin g ly , h o w ev er, th e re is a
separate safety d epartm ent under the
direction o f a safety and health p ro ­
fessional, generally a safety engineer
or industrial hygienist. (The work of
occupational safety and health work­
ers is d iscussed elsew h ere in the
Handbook.)
Labor relations specialists (D.O.T.
169.118) advise m anagem ent on all
aspects of union-m anagem ent rela­
tions. W hen the co n tract is up for
n e g o tia tio n , th e y p ro v id e b a c k ­
ground in fo rm atio n and technical
support, a jo b that requires extensive
190

knowledge o f econom ics, labor law, in re c e n t years, as union strength
and collective bargaining trends. A c­ am ong g o v e rn m e n t w o rk e rs has
tual negotiation o f the agreem ent is grown. This has created a need for
conducted at the top level, with the m ore and better trained workers to
director o f labor relations or other handle negotiations, grievances, and
top-ranking official serving as the arbitration cases on behalf of Feder­
em ployer’s representative, but m em ­ al, State, and local governm ent agen­
bers o f the com pany’s labor relations cies.
staff play an im portant role through­
out the negotiations.
Places of Employment
M uch o f the everyday work of the
labor relations staff concerns inter­
In 1976, about 335,000 people
pretation and adm inistration o f the were personnel and labor relations
contract, the grievance procedures in workers. Nearly 3 out of 4 worked in
particular. M em bers o f the labor re ­ private industry, for m anufacturers,
lations staff m ight w ork with th e banks, insurance com panies, airlines,
union on seniority rights under the departm ent stores, and other busi­
layoff procedure set forth in the co n ­ ness concerns. Some worked for pri­
tract, for example. L ater in the day, vate em ploym ent agencies, including
they might m eet with the union stew ­ executive job-search agencies, “ of­
ard a b o u t a w o rk e r’s g riev a n ce. fice tem poraries” agencies, and o th ­
Doing the jo b well m eans staying ers.
abreast of current developm ents in
A large num ber of personnel and
labor law, including arbitration deci­ labor relations workers, over 90,000
sions, and m aintaining continuing li­ in 1976, worked for Federal, State,
aison with union officials.
and local government agencies. Most
Personnel workers in governm ent of these were in personnel adminis­
agencies generally do the same kind tration; they handled recruitm ent, in­
o f work as those in large business terviewing, testing, job classification,
firms. There are some differences, training, and other personnel m atters
however. Public personnel w orkers for the N ation’s 15 million public
deal with employees whose jobs are employees. Some were on the staff of
governed by civil service regulations. the U.S. Em ploym ent Service and
Civil service jobs are strictly classi­ State em ploym ent agencies. Still o th ­
fied as to duties, training, and pay. ers worked for agencies that oversee
This requires a great deal of em pha­ com pliance with labor laws. Some,
sis on job analysis and wage and sal­ for example, were wage-hour com pli­
ary classification; m any people in ance officers; their work is described
public personnel work spend th eir in another part of the Handbook, in
time classifying and evaluating jobs, the statem ent on health and regula­
or devising, administering, and scor­ tory inspectors (G overnm ent). O ther
ing com petitive examinations given public employees in this field carried
to job applicants.
out research in economics, labor law,
Knowledge o f rules and reg u la­ personnel practices, and related sub­
tions pertaining to affirmative action jects, and sought new ways of ensur­
and equal opportunity program s is ing that w orkers’ rights under the law
im portant in public personnel work. are understood and protected.
In 1972, the U.S. Civil Service C om ­
In com parison with private indus­
mission established a specialization try, labor unions do not employ a
for Federal personnel workers co n ­ la rg e n u m b e r o f p ro fe s s io n a lly
cerned with prom oting equal oppor­ trained labor relations workers. An
tunity in hiring, training, and a d ­ elected union official generally han ­
v a n c e m e n t. S im ilar a tte n tio n to dles labor relations m atters at the
equal em ploym ent opportunity, a c ­ com pany level. At national and inter­
com panied by a need for qualified national union headquarters, how ­
staff, is evident in State and local ever, th e research and edu catio n
governm ent agencies.
staff usually includes specialists with
Labor relations is an increasingly a degree in industrial and labor rela­
im portant specialty in public person­ tions, econom ics, or law.
A few personnel and labor rela­
nel adm inistration. Labor relations in
this field have changed considerably tions w o rk ers are in business for

them selves as m anagem ent consul­
tants o r labor-m anagem ent relations
experts. In addition, som e people in
the field teach college or university
courses in personnel adm inistration,
industrial relations, and related sub­
jects.
M ost jo b s for personnel and labor
relations w orkers are located in the
highly industrialized sections o f the
country.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Many em ployers seek to fill begin­
ning positions in personnel and labor
re la tio n s w ith co lleg e g ra d u a te s.
Some em ployers look for graduates
who have m ajored in personnel ad­
m inistration or industrial and labor
relations, while others prefer college
g ra d u ates with a g eneral business
back g ro u n d . Still o th e r em ployers
feel th at a well-rounded liberal arts
education is the best preparation for
personnel work. A college m ajor in
p erso n n el ad m in istratio n , political
science, or public adm inistration can
be an asset in looking for a job with a
governm ent agency.
At least 200 colleges and universi­
ties have program s leading to a de­
gree in the field o f personnel and
labor relations. (W hile personnel ad­
m in istra tio n is w idely tau g h t, the
num ber o f program s th a t focus pri­
m arily on lab o r re la tio n s is quite
small.) In addition, m any schools of­
fer course w ork in closely related
fields. A n in te rd isc ip lin a ry b a c k ­
ground is appropriate for work in this
area, and a com bination of courses in
the social sciences, behavioral sci­
ences, business, and econom ics is
useful.
Prospective personnel workers
might include courses in personnel
m an ag em en t, business ad m in istra­
tion, public adm inistration, psychol­
ogy, sociology, political science, eco­
nom ics, an d statistics. C ourses in
labor law, collective bargaining, la­
bor econom ics, labor history, and in­
dustrial psychology provide valuable
backgound for the prospective labor
relations worker.
G raduate study in industrial or la­
bor relations is often required for
work in labor relations. While a law

degree seldom is required for jobs at
the entry level, m ost o f the people
with responsibility for contract nego­
tiations are lawyers, and a com bina­
tion o f industrial relations courses
and a law degree is becom ing highly
desirable.
A college education is im portant,
but it is not the only way to enter
personnel work. Some people en ter
the field at the clerical level, and
advance to professional positions on
the basis of experience. They often
find it helpful to take college courses
part tim e, however.
New personnel w orkers usually e n ­
ter formal or on-the-job training p ro ­
grams to learn how to classify jobs,
interview applicants, or adm inister
em ployee benefits. A fter the training
period, new workers are assigned to
specific areas in the com pany’s em ­
ployee relations departm ent. A fter
gaining experience, they usually can
advance within their own com pany
or transfer to another employer. A t
this point, some people move from
personnel to labor relations work.
A growing num ber of people enter
the labor relations field directly, as
trainees. They usually are graduates
of m aster’s degree program s in indus­
trial relations, or may have a law d e ­
gree. Quite a few people, however,
begin in personnel work, gain experi­
ence in that area, and subsequently
move into a labor relations job.
W orkers in the middle ranks of a
large organization often transfer to a
top job in a sm aller one. Em ployees
with exceptional ability may be p ro ­
m oted to executive positions, such as
director o f personnel or director o f
labor relations.
Personnel and labor relations
workers should speak and write ef­
fectively and be able to work with
people of all levels of education and
experience. They also m ust be able
to see both the em ployee’s and the
em ployer’s points of view. In addi­
tion, they should be able to work as
part o f a team . They need superviso­
ry abilities and must be able to a c ­
cept responsibility. Integrity and fairm indedness are im portant qualities
for people in personnel and labor re ­
lations work. A persuasive, congenial
personality can be a great asset.

Employment Outlook
The num ber o f personnel and la­
bor relations workers is expected to
grow faster than the average for all
occupations through 1985, as em ­
ployers, increasingly aw are o f the
benefits to be derived from good la­
bor-m anagem ent relations, continue
to su p p o rt sound, capably staffed
em ployee relations programs. In ad­
dition to new jobs created by growth
o f the occupation, m any openings
will becom e available each year be­
cause o f the need to replace workers
who die, retire, or leave their jobs for
other reasons.
Legislation setting standards for
em ploym ent practices in the areas of
occupational safety and health, equal
em ploym ent opportunity, and p en ­
sions has stimulated dem and for p er­
sonnel and labor relations workers.
C ontinued growth is foreseen, as em ­
ployers throughout the country re­
view existing program s in each of
these areas and, in many cases, estab­
lish entirely new ones. This has creat­
ed job opportunities for people with
appropriate expertise. The effort to
e n d d is c rim in a to ry e m p lo y m e n t
p ractices, for exam ple, has led to
scrutiny o f the testing, selectio n ,
p lacem en t, and prom otion p ro c e ­
dures in many com panies and gov­
ernm ent agencies. The findings are
causing a ^num ber o f employers to
modify these procedures, and to take
steps to raise the level of profession­
alism in their personnel departm ents.
Substantial em ploym ent growth is
foreseen in the area of public person­
nel a d m in istratio n . O p p o rtu n ities
probably will be best in State and
local governm ent, areas that are ex­
pected to experience strong em ploy­
m ent growth over the next decade.
By c o n tra st, F ed eral em ploym ent
will grow slowly. M oreover, as union
stren g th am ong public em ployees
continues to grow, State and local
agencies will need many more w ork­
ers qualified to deal with labor rela­
tions. E nactm ent of collective b a r­
gaining legislation for State and local
governm ent employees could greatly
stim ulate dem and for labor relations
workers knowledgeable about public
sector negotiations.
Although the num ber of jobs in
both personnel and labor relations is
191

projected to increase over the next
decade, com petition for these jobs
also is increasing. Particularly keen
com petition is anticipated for jobs in
labor relations. A small field, labor
relations traditionally has been diffi­
cult to b reak into, and opportunities
are best fo r applicants with a m as­
te r’s degree o r a strong undergrad­
u ate m ajo r in in d u strial relations,
econom ics, o r business. A law degree
is an asset.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginning jo b analysts in private
industry started at \$ 11,200 a year in
1976, according to a Bureau o f L a­
b o r S tatistics survey. E xperienced
jo b analysts earned \$19,200 a year,
about twice the average for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private indus­
try, except farming. W age and salary
an d p erso n n el m an agers averaged
\$21,100, according to a survey con­
ducted by the Adm inistrative M an­
agem ent Society. T op personnel and
lab o r relatio n s executives in large
c o rp o ra tio n s e a rn e d co n sid erab ly
more.
A verage salaries for personnel spe­
cialists em ployed by S tate govern­
m e n ts r a n g e d fr o m \$ 9 ,9 0 0 to
\$13,000 a year in 1976, according to
a survey co n ducted by th e U.S. Civil
Service Com mission. Personnel spe­
cialists who had supervisory respon­
sibilities averaged from \$14,800 to
\$19,500 and State directors o f p e r­
sonnel earn ed average salaries rang­
ing from \$27,400 to \$31,900 a year.
In the Federal G overnm ent, new
graduates with a b ach elo r’s degree
generally started a t \$9,300 a year in
1977. T hose with a m aster’s degree
started a t ab out \$14,100 a year. Av­
erage salaries o f F ederal employees
in several different areas o f person­
nel w ork ranged from about \$19,300
to \$24,500 in 1977, as follows:

Federal em ployees in the field o f
labor relations had generally com pa­
rab le salaries. L ab o r-m an ag em en t
and em ployee relations specialists
and labor-m anagem ent relations offi­
ce rs av e rag e d \$ 2 1 ,8 0 0 a y ea r in
1977. F e d e ra l m e d ia to rs ’ salaries
were higher, about \$30,800 a year,
on the average.
Em ployees in personnel offices
generally w ork 35 to 40 hours a
week. As a rule, they are paid for
holidays and vacations, and share in
retirem ent plans, life and health in­
su ran ce plans, and o th e r benefits
available to all professional w orkers
in their organizations.

Information
For general inform ation on careers
in personnel and labor relations
work, write to:
American Society for Personnel Administra­
tion, 19 Church St., Berea, Ohio 44017.

For inform ation concerning a c a ­
reer in em ployee training and devel­
opm ent, contact:
American Society for Training and Develop­
ment, P.O. Box 5307, Madison, Wis.
53705.

Inform ation about careers in p u b ­
lic personnel adm inistration is avail­
able from:
International Personnel Management Associ­
ation, 1313 E. 60th St., Chicago, 111.
60637.

A brochure describing a career in
la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t re la tio n s as a
field exam iner is available from:
Director of Personnel, National Labor Rela­
tions Board, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave.
N W , Washington, D.C., 20570.

P H A R M A C IS TS
(D.O.T. 074.181)

Nature of the Work
Staffing specialists..........................
Position classifiers..........................
Personnel management specialists..
Employee development
specialists.....................................
Salary and wage administrators....
Occupational analysts....................
Mediators..........................................
192

\$19,300
21,100
21,800
21,800
21.800
24,500
30,800

Pharm acists dispense drugs and
medicines prescribed by medical and
dental practitioners and supply and
advise people on the use of m any
medicines that can be obtained w ith
and w ithout prescriptions. P harm a­
cists m ust understand the use, com ­

position, and effect o f drugs and of­
ten test them for purity and strength.
They may m aintain patient m edica­
tion profiles and advise physicians on
the p roper selection and use o f m edi­
c in e s. C o m p o u n d in g —th e a c tu a l
mixing o f ingredients to form pow ­
ders, tab lets, capsules, ointm ents,
and solutions—is now only a small
part of pharm acists’ practice, since
m ost m ed icin es a re p ro d u c ed by
m anufacturers in the form used by
the patient.
M any p h arm acists em ployed in
com m unity p h arm acies also have
o th e r d u tie s . B esides d isp en sin g
m ed icin es, som e pharm acists buy
and sell n o n p h a rm a c e u tic a l m e r­
chandise, hire and supervise person­
nel, and oversee the general o p era­
tio n o f th e p h a rm a c y . O th e r
pharm acists, however, operate p re­
scription pharm acies th at dispense
only m edicines, m edical supplies,
and health accessories.
Pharm acists in hospitals and clin­
ics dispense prescriptions and advise
the m edical staff on the selection and
effects o f drugs; they also m ake ster­
ile solutions, buy m edical supplies,
teach in schools o f nursing and allied
health professions, and perform ad­
m inistrative duties. A n increasing
num ber o f pharm acists work as co n ­
sultants to the medical team in m at­
ters related to daily patient care in
hospitals, nursing hom es, and oth er
health care facilities. T heir role is
crucial to safe, efficient, and proper
therapeutic care.
Some pharm acists, employed as
sales or m edical service representa­
tives or pharm aceutical detailers by
drug m anufacturers and wholesalers,
sell m edicines to retail pharm acies
and to hospitals, and inform health
personnel about new drugs. O thers
teach in colleges of pharm acy, super­
vise the m anufacture of pharm aceu­
ticals, or are involved in research and
the developm ent of new medicines.
Some pharm acists edit or write tech ­
n ical a rtic le s fo r p h a rm a c e u tic a l
journals, or do administrative work.
Some com bine pharm aceutical and
legal training in jobs as patent law ­
yers or consultants on pharm aceuti­
cal and drug laws.

Places of Employment
A bout 120,000 persons worked as
licensed pharm acists in 1976. Over
90,000 pharm acists w orked in com ­
m unity pharm acies. O f these, more
th a n tw o -fifth s o w ned th e ir own
pharm acies; the others were salaried
em ployees. M ost o f the rem aining
salaried pharm acists worked for hos­
pitals, p h arm aceutical m anufactur­
ers, and w holesalers. Q uite a few
com m unity and hospital pharm acists
did c o n s u ltin g w o rk fo r n u rsin g
homes and other health facilities in
addition to their prim ary jobs. As a
rule, pharm acy services in nursing
hom es are provided by consultants
rather than by salaried em ployees.
Some pharm acists were civilian
em ployees of the F ederal G overn­
m ent, w orking chiefly in hospitals
and clinics of the V eterans Adminis­
tration and the U.S. Public Health
Service. A dditional Federal agencies
em ploying pharm acists include the

D epartm ent o f D efense, the Food
and Drug A dm inistration and other
b ra n c h e s o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f
Health, Education, and W elfare, and
the Drug E nforcem ent A dm inistra­
tion. O ther pharm acists served in the
Arm ed Forces or taught in colleges
of pharm acy. State and local health
agencies, and p h arm aceu tical and
other professional associations, also
employ pharmacists.
Most towns have at least one p h ar­
macy with one pharm acist or m ore in
attendance. M ost pharm acists, how ­
ever, practice in or near cities, and in
those S tates th at have the largest
populations.

Training, Other Qualifications,
A license to practice pharm acy is
required in all States and the District
of Columbia. To obtain a license, one
m ust be a graduate of an accredited
pharm acy college, pass a State board

exam ination and—in nearly all
States—have a specified am ount of
practical experience or internship
under the supervision of a registered
pharm acist. Internships generally are
served in a community or hospital
pharm acy. In 1976, all States except
California, Florida, and Hawaii
granted a license w ithout reexam ina­
tion to qualified pharm acists already
licensed by a n o th e r S tate. M any
pharm acists are licensed to practice
in more than one State.
At least 5 years of study beyond
high school are required to graduate
from one of the degree program s
accredited by the Am erican Council
on Pharm aceutical Education in the
72 colleges of pharmacy. M ost
ence (B.S.) or a Bachelor of Pharm a­
cy (B. Pharm .) degree. About onethird of the colleges of pharm acy also
offer advanced professional degree
p rogram s leading to a D o cto r o f
Pharm acy (Pharm . D.) degree; three
of the schools offer only the Pharm.
D. degree. The Pharm. D. degree as
well as the B.S. or B. Pharm. degrees
may serve as the entry degree for
purposes of licensure as a pharm a­
cist. T he profession is considering
standardizing requirem ents and of­
fering only one professional degree
instead o f two.
Admission requirem ents vary. A
few colleges admit students directly
from high school. M ost colleges of
pharm acy, however, require entrants
to have com pleted 1 or 2 years of
prepharm acy education in an accred­
ited junior college, college, or uni­
versity. A prepharm acy curriculum
usually emphasizes m athem atics and
basic sciences, such as chemistry, bi­
ology, and physics, but also includes
courses in the hum anities and social
sc ie n c e s. B ecause en try re q u ire ­
m ents vary among colleges of p h ar­
macy, prepharm acy students should
lum required by colleges they plan to
attend.
The bachelor’s degree in pharm a­
cy is the minimum educational quali­
fication for most positions in the p ro ­
fession. An increasing num ber of
students are enrolled in advanced
professional programs leading to the
Pharm. D. degree. A m aster’s or Ph.
193

D. degree in pharm acy or a related
field usually is required for research
work and a Pharm . D., m aster’s, or
Ph. D. usually is necessary for adm in­
istrative w ork or college teaching.
While a num ber o f pharm acy gradu­
ates in tere ste d in fu rth e r training
pursue a Pharm . D. or a m aster’s or
Ph. D. in pharm acy, th ere are other
options. Some en ter m edical, dental,
o r law sch o o l, and o th e rs pursue
graduate degrees in science or engi­
neering.
Areas o f special study include
pharm aceutics and pharm aceutical
chem istry (study o f physical and
chem ical properties o f drugs an dos­
age form s), pharm acology (study of
the effects of drugs on the body),
pharm acognosy (study o f the drugs
d e r iv e d fr o m p l a n t o r a n im a l
sources), hospital pharm acy, clinical
pharm acy, and pharm acy adm inistra­
tion (study of the social and econom ­
ic factors related to pharm acy p rac­
t i c e ) . C lin ic a l p h a rm a c y is th e
synthesis o f the basic science educa­
tio n a n d th e a p p lic a tio n o f th is
k n o w le d g e to d ru g m a n a g e m e n t
p ro b lem s in th e ca re o f p atien ts.
C ourses in pharm acy adm inistration
are particularly helpful to pharm a­
cists who en ter executive or m anage­
rial positions.
All colleges of pharm acy offer
courses in pharm acy p ractice, d e­
signed to ed u c ate stu d en ts in the
skilled processes required for com ­
pounding and dispensing p rescrip ­
tions, and to give students an appre­
ciatio n fo r th e p ro fession and an
understanding o f the responsibilities
pharm acists have in th eir relation­
ships with physicians and patients.
Many colleges of pharm acy increas­
ingly are emphasizing direct patient
care as well as consultative services
to oth er health professionals in their
academ ic program s.
A limited num ber o f Federal schol­
arships and loans are available for
students studying full tim e tow ard a
degree in pharm acy. A num ber of
scholarships also are aw arded annu­
ally by drug m an u facturers, chain
drugstores, corporations, State and
national pharm acy associations, col­
leges o f pharm acy, and other organi­
zations.
194

Since many pharm acists are self- the elderly; availability o f a wider
em ployed, prospective pharm acists range of drug products for preventive
with interest in this type of practice an d th e ra p e u tic uses; th e rising
should have some business ability, as sta n d a rd o f health care; and the
well as an interest in m edical science growth o f public and private health
and the ability to gain the confidence insurance programs that provide pay­
o f their clients. Honesty, integrity, m ent for prescription drugs.
Em ployment of pharmacists in
and orderliness are im portant attri­
butes for the profession. In addition, hospitals, nursing homes, and other
accuracy is needed to com pound and health facilities is expected to rise
dispense m edicines as well as keep faster than in other work settings.
records required by law.
Pharm acists increasingly provide di­
P harm acists often begin as e m ­ re ct p atien t care and consultative
ployees in com m unity pharm acies. services to physicians and other p ro­
A fter they gain experience and o b ­ fessionals in these health facilities.
tain the necessary funds they may Because drug m anufacturers are ex­
becom e ow ners o r part-ow ners o f periencing lower rates of return on
pharm acies. A pharm acist who gains investm ent in research and develop­
experience in a chain drugstore may m ent due to increasing government
advance to a m anagerial position, regulation, pharmacists may face de­
and later to a higher executive posi­ creasing opportunities in production,
tion w ithin the com pany. H ospital re se a rc h , d istrib u tio n , and sales.
pharm acists who have the necessary Pharm acists with advanced training
training and experience may advance will be needed for college teaching
to director of pharm acy service or to and top administrative posts.
other adm inistrative positions. P har­
macists in industry often have oppor­
Earnings and Working
tunities for advancem ent in m anage­
Conditions
m ent, sales, research, quality control,
Based on limited information, the
and other areas.
starting salary for pharmacists gener­
ally ranges from \$14,000 to \$17,000
a year. E xperienced pharm acists,
Employment Outlook
particularly owners or managers of
The em ploym ent outlook for p h ar­ pharm acies, often earn considerably
macists is expected to be favorable more. In general, salaries of experi­
through the m id-1980’s. However, if enced pharm acists are higher than
th e n u m b e r o f p h arm a cy college the average for all nonsupervisory
graduates continues to rise as rapidly workers in private industry, except
as it has in recent years, the job m ar­ farming.
The minimum entrance salary in
ket may change; graduates may begin
to experience com petition for jobs. the Federal G overnm ent for a new
Grow th is expected to be about as graduate with a bachelor’s degree
fast as the average for all occupa­ from an approved college of pharm a­
tions. M ost openings, however, will cy was \$ 1 1,523 a year in 1977. How­
result from deaths, retirem ents, and ever, m ost graduates qualified for a
o th e r se p a ra tio n s from the lab o r beginning salary of \$14,097 a year;
force.
those with 2 years of graduate work,
Em ploym ent will grow as new \$ 17,056 a year. Pharm acists with ad­
pharm acies are established, in large ditional years of experience may start
residential areas as well as in small at a higher salary. The average salary
towns and rural locations. Many for all federally em ployed pharm a­
com m unity pharm acies, also, are ex­ cists was about \$18,600.
The average annual starting salary
pected to hire additional pharm acists
because o f a trend towards shorter for pharm acists in hospitals and
working hours. D em and for pharm a­ medical centers was about \$14,600
cists also will be generated by such in 1976, according to a survey con­
fa c to rs as p o p u latio n grow th; in ­ ducted by the University of Texas
creased life expectancy; greater d e ­ Medical School. Top salaries for ex­
m and for drugs, particularly am ong perienced pharm acists in these set­

tings averaged \$18,300, and some
were as high as \$26,200. Pharm acists
who do consulting work in addition
to their prim ary jo b m ay have total
earnings considerably higher than
this.
A ccording to a survey conducted
by the Am erican Association of Col­
leges o f Pharm acy, average annual
salaries o f full-time personnel in col­
leges o f pharm acy during 1977 were
as follow s: deans, ab o u t \$36,000;
assistant and associate deans, about
\$ 2 5 ,0 0 0 ; fu ll p ro fe sso rs, aro u n d
\$ 3 0 ,0 0 0 ; a s s o c ia te p r o f e s s o r s ,
around \$23,000; and assistant pro­
B ased o n th e la te s t P h arm ac y
M anpow er Inform ation Project initi­
ated by the Am erican Association of
Colleges o f Pharm acy, pharm acists
average 44 hours a week in their pri­
m ary w ork setting. M any pharm a­
cists w ork in a secondary setting
where they average 15 hours a week.
P harm acists in com m unity settings
generally w ork lo nger hours than
those em ployed in institutional set­
tings. Pharm acies often are open in
the evenings and on weekends, and
all States require a registered phar­
m acist to be in attendance during
store hours. Self-employed pharm a­
cists often w ork m ore hours than
those in salaried positions.

information
A dditional inform ation on p h ar­
m acy as a ca ree r, preprofessional
and professional requirem ents, pro­
grams offered by colleges o f pharm a­
cy, and student financial aid is avail­
able from:
American Association of Colleges of Pharma­
cy, Office of Student Affairs, 4630 Mont­
gomery Ave., Suite 201, Bethesda, Md.
20014.

G eneral inform ation on pharm acy
is available from:
American Pharmaceutical Association, 2215
Constitution Ave. NW., Washington,
D.C. 20037.

In fo rm a tio n a b o u t c h a in d ru g ­
stores is available from:
National Association of Chain Drug Stores,
1911 Jefferson Highway, Arlington, Va.
22202.

G e n e ra l in fo rm a tio n on re ta il
pharm acies is available from:
National Association of Retail Druggists, 1750
K St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20006.

For a list o f accredited colleges o f
pharm acy, contact:
American Council on Pharmaceutical Educa­
tion, One East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.
60601.

Inform ation on requirem ents for
licensure in a particular State is avail­
able from the Board o f Pharm acy o f
th at State or from:
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy,
One East Wacker Dr., Chicago, 111.
60601.

Inform ation on college entrance
requirem ents, curriculum s, and fi­
nancial aid is available from the dean
o f any college o f pharmacy.

PHOTOGRAPHERS
(D.O.T. 143.062, .282, and .382)

Nature of the Work
Photographers use their cam eras
and film to portray people, places,
and events m uch as a writer uses
words. Those who are skillful can
capture the personality of individuals
or the m ood o f scenes which they
photograph. Some photographers
specialize in scientific, m edical, o r
engineering photography, and their
pictures enable thousands of persons
to see a world normally hidden from
view.
Although their subject m atter var­
ies widely, all photographers use the
same basic equipm ent. The m ost im ­
portant piece, o f course, is the cam ­
era, and m ost p h o tographers own
several. U nlike snapshot cam eras,
which have a lens perm anently a t­
tached to the cam era body, profes­
sional cam eras are constructed to use
a variety o f lenses designed for closeup, medium -range, or distance p h o ­
tography.
Besides cam eras and lenses, p h o ­
tographers use a variety o f film and
colored filters to obtain the desired
effect under different lighting condi­

tions. W hen taking pictures indoors
or after dark, they use electronic
flash units, floodlights, reflectors,
and other special lighting equipm ent.
Some photographers develop and
print their own photographs in the
darkroom and may enlarge or oth er­
wise a lte r th e basic image. M any
p h o tographers send th eir work to
photographic laboratories for p ro ­
cessing.
Because the procedures involved
in still photography are quite differ­
en t from those in m otion p ictu re
photography, many photograp h ers
specialize in one or the other. How­
ever, there is a growing dem and for
photographers who have training in
both areas.
In addition to knowing how to use
their equipm ent and m aterials, p h o ­
tographers must be capable of com ­
posing the subjects o f their photo­
graphs and recognizing a potentially
good photograph.
Many photographers specialize in
a p artic u la r type o f photography,
such as portrait, com m ercial, or in­
dustrial work. Portrait photographers
take pictures o f individuals or groups
o f persons and often work in their
own studios. For special events, such
as w eddings or christenings, how ­
e v e r, th e y ta k e p h o to g ra p h s in
churches and homes. Portrait pho­
tographers in small studios frequent­
ly do all the operations, including
scheduling appointm ents and setting
up and adjusting equipm ent before

Com mercial photographers must be
imaginative and original.
195

taking the pictures, as well as devel­
oping and retouching negatives, d e­
veloping proofs, and m ounting and
framing pictures. They also may be
the ones to co llect paym ents and
keep records, and therefore m ust be
C om m ercial photographers photo­
graph a wide range o f subjects in­
cluding livestock, m anufactured arti­
cles, buildings, and large groups of
people. They frequently do photog­
raphy for catalogs. Those in advertis­
ing take pictures to prom ote such
items as clothing, furniture, autom o­
biles, and food, and may specialize in
one such area. Advertising photogra­
phers m ust know how to use many
different photographic techniques.
The work of industrial photogra­
phers is used in com pany publica­
tions to report to stockholders or to
advertise com pany products or ser­
vices. Industrial photographers also
photograph groups of people for em ­
ployee news magazines or may take
m otion pictures of w orkers operating
equipm ent and m achinery for m an­
agem ent’s use in analyzing produc­
tion or work m ethods. They may also
use special photographic techniques
as research tools. For exam ple, m edi­
cal researchers often use ultraviolet
and in frared photography, fluores­
cence, and X-rays to obtain inform a­
tion not visible under norm al condi­
tio n s . T im e la p s e p h o to g r a p h y
(w h ere tim e is stre tc h e d o r c o n ­
densed), photom icrography (w here
the subject of the photography may
be m ag n ified 50 o r 70 tim es o r
m o re), and p h o to g ram m etry (su r­
veying an area using aerial photogra­
phy) are o th er special techniques.
O ther photographic specialties in­
clude photojournalism , o r press pho­
tography, which com bines a “ nose
for new s” with photographic ability;
and educational photography (p re ­
paring slides, filmstrips, and movies
for use in the classroom ).

Places of Employment
A bout 85,000 photographers were
employed in 1976. The greatest p ro ­
portion worked in com m ercial stu­
dios; many others worked for news­
papers and magazines. G overnm ent
agencies, pho to g rap hic equipm ent
196

suppliers and dealers, and industrial
firms also em ployed large num bers o f
p h o to g rap h e rs. In ad d itio n , som e
photographers taught in colleges and
universities, or m ade films. Still o th ­
ers worked freelance, taking pictures
to sell to advertisers, magazines, and
other custom ers. A bout one-third o f
all p h o to g ra p h e rs w ere se lf-e m ­
ployed.
Jobs for photographers are found
in all parts of the country—both
small towns and large cities—but are
concentrated in the m ore populated
areas.

Training, Other Qualifications,
Photographic training is available
in colleges, universities, junior col­
leges, and art schools. Over 75 col­
leges and universities offer 4-year
curriculum s leading to a bachelor’s
degree in photography. Some colleg­
es and universities grant m aster’s d e ­
grees in specialized areas, such as
photojournalism . In addition, some
colleges have 2-year cu rricu lu m s
leading to a certificate or an asso­
ciate degree in photography. A for­
mal education in photography gives a
solid fundam ental background in a
variety of equipm ent, processes, and
techniques. A rt schools offer useful
training in design and com position,
but not the technical training needed
for professional photographic work.
(See the statem ent on com m ercial
artists elsewhere in the Handbook.)
The A rm ed Forces also train many
young people in photographic skills.
Although a high school education
is desirable, the photography profes­
sion has no set entry requirem ents
with regard to formal education or
training. However, the training a p ro ­
spective p h o to g ra p h e r has d e te r­
mines the type o f work for which he
or she qualifies.
People may prepare for work as
photographers in a com m ercial stu­
dio through 2 or 3 years of on-the-job
training as a photographer’s assist­
ant. Trainees generally start in the
darkroom where they learn to mix
c h e m ic a ls, d ev elo p film , and do
photoprinting and enlarging. L ater
they may set up lights and cam eras or
help an experienced photographer
take pictures.

A m ateur experience is helpful in
getting an entry job with a com m er­
cial studio, but post-high school edu­
cation and training usually are need­
ed fo r in d u s t r i a l o r s c ie n tif ic
photography. Here success in pho­
to g rap h y depends on being m ore
than ju st a com petent photographer,
and adequate career preparation re­
quires some knowledge of the field in
which the photography is used. For
example, work in scientific, medical,
and engineering research, such as
p h o to g rap h in g m icro sco p ic o rg a ­
nisms, requires a background in the
p a rtic u la r science o r engin eerin g
specialty as well as skill in photogra­
phy.
Photographers m ust have good
eyesight and color vision, artistic
ability, and manual dexterity. They
also should be patient and accurate
and enjoy working with detail. Some
knowledge of m athem atics, physics,
and chemistry is helpful for under­
standing the use o f various lenses,
films, light sources, and developm ent
processes.
Some photographic specialties re­
quire additional qualities. C om m er­
cial or freelance photographers must
be imaginative and original in their
thinking. Those who specialize in
photographing news stories must be
able to recognize a potentially good
photograph and act quickly, for o th ­
erwise an opportunity to capture an
im portant event on film may be lost.
Photographers who specialize in p o r­
trait photography need the ability to
help people relax in front of the cam ­
era.
Newly hired photographers are
given relatively routine assignments
that do not require split-second cam ­
era adjustm ents or decisions on what
subject m atter to photograph. News
photographers, for example, may be
assigned to cover civic meetings or
photograph snow storms. After gain­
ing experience they advance to m ore
dem anding assignm ents, and some
may move to staff positions on na­
tional new s m agazines. P h o to g ra­
phers with exceptional ability may
gain national recognition for their
work and exhibit their photographs
in art and photographic galleries, or
publish them in books. A few indus­
trial or scientific photographers may

be p ro m o ted to su pervisory posi­
tions. Magazine and news photogra­
phers may eventually becom e heads
o f graphic arts departm ents or pho­
tography editors.

Employment Outlook
E m ploym ent of photographers is
expected to grow m ore slowly than
the average for all occupations
through the m id-1980’s. In addition
to openings resulting from growth,
others will occur each year as work­
ers die, retire, or transfer to other
occupations.
G row th o f em ploym ent in business
and industry is occurring as greater
im portance is placed upon visual aids
for use in meetings, stockholders’
reports, sales campaigns, and public
relations work. Video and m otion
picture photography are becom ing
increasingly im portant in industry.
Photography also is becom ing an in­
creasingly im portant p a rt o f law en­
forcem ent work, as well as scientific
and m edical research, where oppor­
tunities are expected to be good for
those possessing a highly specialized
background.
The em ploym ent of portrait and
com m erical photographers is expect­
ed to grow slowly, and com petition
fo r jo b s as p o r t r a it an d
com m ercial photographers and pho­
tographers’ assistants is expected to
be keen. These fields are relatively
crowded since photographers can go
into business for them selves with a
m odest financial investm ent, or work
part time while holding another job.
The increased use o f self-processing
cam eras in com m ercial photography
also has contributed to the crowding
in this field, since little photographic
training is required for such work.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Beginning photographers who
worked for new spapers that have
contracts with The N ew spaper Guild
had weekly earnings betw een \$128
and \$432 in 1976, with the majority
earning betw een \$175 and \$225.
Newspaper photographers with some
experience (usually 4 or 5 years)
averaged about \$320 a week in 1976.

Alm ost all experienced new spaper
photographers earned over \$225; the
top salary was nearly \$505 a week.
Photographers in the Federal G ov­
e r n m e n t e a r n e d an a v e ra g e o f
\$14,900 a year in 1976. D epending
on their level o f experience, newly
hired photographers in the Federal
G overnm ent earned from \$8,320 to
\$11, 520 a year. M ost experienced
p h o t o g r a p h e r s e a r n e d b e tw e e n
\$11,520 and about \$18,460 a year.
Experienced photographers gener­
ally earn salaries th at are above the
average for nonsupervisory w orkers
in private industry, except farming.
A lthough self-em ployed and fre e ­
lance photographers often earn m ore
than salaried workers, their earnings
are affected greatly by general busi­
ness conditons and the type and size
of their com m unity and clientele.
Photographers who have salaried
jobs usually work a 5-day, 35-40
hour week and receive benefits such
as paid holidays, vacations, and sick
leave. Those in business for them ­
selves usually w ork longer hours.
F ree la n ce, press, and com m ercial
photographers travel frequently and
may have to work in uncom fortable
surroundings. Som etim es the work
can be d a n g e ro u s, especially fo r
news photographers assigned to cov­
er stories on natural disasters or mili­
tary conflicts.

Information
C areer inform ation on photogra­
phy is available from:
Photographic Art & Science Foundation, 111
Stratford Rd., Des Plaines, 111. 60016.
Professional Photographers of America, Inc.
1090 Executive Way, Des Plaines, 111.
60018.

PH YSIC A L TH ER A PISTS
(D.O.T. 079.378)

Nature of the Work
Physical therapists help persons
with muscle, nerve, joint, and bone
diseases o r injuries to overcom e their
disabilities. Their patients include a c ­

cident victims, crippled children, and
d isa b le d o ld e r p erso n s. P hysical
therapists perform and interpret tests
a n d m e a s u r e m e n ts fo r m u s c le
strength, m otor developm ent, func­
tional capacity, and respiratory and
circulatory efficiency to develop p ro­
grams for treatm ent in cooperation
with the p a tie n t’s physician. They
ev a lu a te th e effectiv en ess o f the
treatm ent and discuss the patients’
progress with physicians, psycholo­
gists, o ccupational therapists, and
o th e r specialists. W hen advisable,
physical therapists revise the th era­
peutic procedures and treatm en ts.
They help disabled persons to accept
their physical handicaps and adjust
to them. They show m em bers o f the
p a tien ts’ families how to continue
treatm ents at home.
T h erap eu tic p ro ced u res include
exercises for increasing strength, en­
durance, coordination, and range of
motion; electrical stimuli to activate
paralyzed muscles; instruction in c a r­
rying out everyday activities and in
the use o f helping devices; and the
ap p lica tio n o f m assage, h ea t and
cold, light, w ater, o r electricity to
relieve pain or improve the condition
o f muscles and skin.
Most physical therapists provide
direct care to patients as staff m em ­
bers, supervisors, or self-employed
practitioners. Physical therapists usu­
ally perform their own evaluations of
patients; in large hospitals and nurs­
ing hom es, however, the director or
assistan t d ire c to r o f the physical
therapy departm ent may handle this
work, which requires extensive train ­
ing and experience. Therapists may
treat patients with a wide variety of
problem s, or they may specialize in
pediatrics, geriatrics, am putations,
arthritis, or paralysis. Others teach or
are consultants.

Places of Employment
About 25,000 persons worked as
licensed physical therapists in 1976.
The largest num ber work in hospi­
tals. Nursing homes employ a grow­
ing num ber o f physical therapists,
and also contract for the services of
se lf-em p lo y ed th e ra p ists . O th e rs
w ork in re h a b ilita tio n ce n te rs or
197

Physical therapists develop programs for treatment of disabled persons of all ages.

schools for crippled children. Some
who work for public health agencies
trea t chronically sick patients in their
own hom es. Still others work in phy­
sicians' offices or clinics, teach in
physical th era p y ed u c atio n al p ro ­
grams, or work for research organi­
zations. A few serve as consultants in
governm ent and voluntary agencies
o r a re m e m b e rs o f th e A rm e d
Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
All States and the D istrict of C o­
lum bia require a license to practice
physical therapy. A pplicants for a li­
cense m ust have a degree or certifi­
c a te from an a c c re d ite d physical
therapy educational program and to
198

qualify m ust pass a State board ex­
am ination. Applicants may prepare
for State board exam inations in phys­
ical th erap y through one o f th ree
types of program s, depending upon
p re v io u s a c a d e m ic stu d y . H igh
school graduates can earn a 4-year
bachelor’s degree in physical therapy
at a college or university. Students
who already hold a bachelor’s degree
in another field, such as biology o r
physical education, can earn a sec­
ond bachelor’s degree or a certifica­
tion in physical therapy through spe­
c ia l p ro g ra m s la s tin g 12 to 16
months. These applicants also have
the option of working for a m aster’s
degree in physical therapy.
In 1976, 11 certificate program s,
76 bach elo r’s degree program s and 5
m aster’s degree program s were a c ­
credited by the A m erican Physical

Therapy Association and the Am eri­
can M edical Association to provide
entry level training. There were also
17 o th er m aster’s degree programs
th at provided advanced training to
those already in the field. One of the
c e rtific a te program s is sponsored
jointly by the U.S. Army and Baylor
U niversity; graduates are com m is­
sioned as officers in the Army.
The physical therapy curriculum
includes science courses such as
anatom y, physiology, neuroanatom y,
and neurophysiology; it also includes
specialized courses such as biom e­
chanics o f m otion, hum an grow th
and developm ent, and m anifestations
of disease and traum a. Besides re­
ceiving classroom instruction, stu ­
dents get supervised clinical experi­
ence adm inistering physical therapy
to patients in a hospital or treatm ent
center.
C om petition for entry to all phys­
ical therapy program s is keen. Insti­
tutions offering a physical therapy
program each year receive m any
m ore applications than the num ber
of existing places. Consequently, stu­
dents seriously interested in atten d ­
ing a physical therapy program m ust
attain superior grades in their earlier
studies, especially in science courses.
Personal traits that physical th era­
pists need include patience, tact, re­
sourcefulness, and em otional stabil­
ity to help patients and their families
understand the treatm ents and adjust
to their handicaps. Physical th era­
pists also should have manual dexter­
ity and physical stamina. Many p er­
sons who want to determ ine whether
they h av e th e p e rso n a l q u alitie s
needed for this occupation volunteer
for sum m er or part-tim e work in the
physical therapy d ep a rtm en t o f a
h o s p ita l o r c lin ic . H igh s c h o o l
c o u rs e s th a t are u se fu l in c lu d e
h e a lth , b io lo g y , so c ia l s c ie n c e ,
m athem atics, and physical ed u c a ­
tion.
A graduate degree com bined with
clinical experience increases oppor­
tunities for advancem ent, especially
to teaching, research, and adminis­
trative positions.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent of physical therapists
is expected to grow faster than the

average for all occupations through
the m id-1980’s because o f increased
public recognition o f the im portance
of rehabilitation. As program s to aid
crippled children and o th er rehabili­
ta tio n a c tiv itie s e x p a n d , an d as
growth takes place in nursing homes
and o th er facilities for the elderly,
m any new p o sitio n s fo r physical
therapists are likely to be created.
Many part-tim e positions should con­
tinue to be available.
H o w e v e r, th e ra p id ly grow ing
num ber o f new graduates is expected
to exceed the num ber of openings
th a t will o c c u r each year due to
grow th in the o cc u p atio n and re ­
placem ent of those who will die or
retire. As a result, new graduates are
expected to face some com petition
th ro u g h th e m id -1 9 8 0 ’s. E m ploy­
m ent o p p o rtu n ities will be best in
surburban and rural areas.

P H Y S IC IA N S
(D.O.T. 070.101 and .108)

Nature of the Work
Physicians perform m edical exam i­
nations, diagnose diseases, and treat
people who are suffering from injury
or disease. They also try to prevent
illness by advising patients on selfcare related to d iet and exercise.
P hysicians generally exam ine and
treat patients in their own offices and

in hospitals, but they also may visit
patients at home.
A decreasing percentage of the
physicians who provide patient care
are general practitioners (about 15
percent in 1976); most specialize in
one of the 34 fields for which there is
graduate training. The largest spe­
cialties are internal medicine, gener­
al surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, p s y c h ia try , p e d ia tric s ,
mology, pathology, and orthopedic
surgery. The m ost rapidly growing

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Starting salaries for new physical
\$11,200 a year in 1976, according to
a national survey conducted by the
University o f Texas M edical School.
Earnings o f experienced physical
therapists averaged about \$14,000,
about one and a half tim es as much
as average earnings for all nonsupervisory w orkers in private industry,
except farming.
Beginning therapists em ployed by
the V eterans A dm inistration (V A )
earned starting salaries o f \$10,473 a
year in 1977. The average salary paid
therapists em ployed by the VA in
1977 was \$15,700 annually; supervi­
s o ry t h e r a p i s t s m ay e a rn o v e r

Almost two-thirds of all physicians practice in the
seven largest specialties
Num ber of physicians, 1975 (in thousands)

\$ 20 , 000 .

Information
A dditional inform ation on a career
as a physical therapist and a list of
accredited educational program s in
physical therapy are available from:
American Physical Therapy Association, 1156
15th St. N W , Washington, D.C. 20005.

Source: American Medical Association

199

specialty is family practice which em ­
phasizes general m edicine.
S om e p h y s ic ia n s c o m b in e th e
practice of m edicine with research or
teaching in medical schools. O thers
hold full-tim e research or teaching
positions o r perform adm inistrative
work in hospitals, professional asso­
ciations, and oth er organizations. A
few are prim arily engaged in writing
and editing m edical books and m aga­
zines.

Places of Employment
A bout 360,000 physicians were
professionally active in the U nited
States in 1976—alm ost 9 out of 10
providing patient care services.
Nearly 215,000 o f these had office
practices; m ore than 94,000 others
worked as residents or full-time staff
in hospitals. T he rem aining physi­
cians—ab out 28,000—taught or p er­
fo rm ed ad m in istrative or research
duties.
In 1975, 19,000 graduates of for­
eign m edical schools served as hospi­
tal residents in this country. To be
appointed to approved residencies in
U.S. hospitals, these graduates, ex­
cept in special instances, m ust obtain
a certificate after passing an exam i­
n a tio n given by th e E d u c a tio n a l
C o m m issio n fo r F o reig n M edical
The N ortheastern States have the
highest ratio of physicians to popula­
tion and the Southern States the low­
est. Because physicians have tended
to locate in urban areas, close to hos­
pital and educational centers, many
rural areas have been underserved by
m edical personnel. C urrently, m ore
m edical students are being exposed
to practice in rural com m unities with
the d ire c t su p p o rt o f ed u c atio n al
centers and hospitals in more popu­
lous areas. In addition, some rural
areas o ffer physicians g u aran teed
minimum incom es to offset the rela­
tively low earnings typical in rural
medical practice.

Training and Other
Qualifications
All States, the D istrict of C olum ­
bia, and P uerto Rico require a li­
cense to practice m edicine. R equire­
m e n ts fo r l ic e n s u r e in c lu d e

200

Competition for entry into medical school is intense even though the number of schools
has increased.

graduation from an accredited m edi­
cal school, successful com pletion o f
a licensing exam ination, and, in m ost
States, a period of 1 o r 2 years in an
accredited graduate m edical educa­
tion program (resid en cy ). The li­
censing exam ination taken by m ost
graduates o f U.S. m edical schools is
the National Board of Medical Ex­
am iners (NBM E) test. Licensure ap ­
p lican ts who have n o t ta k e n th e
NBME test m ust be sponsored by a
State in order to sit for the F eder­
a tio n L ic e n s u re E x a m in a tio n
(FLEX ) th at is accepted by all juris­
d ic tio n s. A lth o u g h p h y sician s li­
censed in one State usually can get a
license to practice in another w ithout
fu rth e r ex a m in atio n , som e S tates
limit this reciprocity.

In 1976, there were 116 accredited
schools in the United States in which
students could begin the study of
m edicine. Of these, 114 awarded the
d e g r e e o f D o c to r o f M e d ic in e
(M .D .); two schools offered a 2-year
program in the basic medical scienc­
es to students who could then trans­
fer to regular medical schools for the
last sem esters of study.
The minimum educational require­
m ent for entry to a medical school is
3 years of college; some schools re­
quire 4 years. A few medical schools
allow selected students who have ex­
ceptional qualifications to begin their
professional study after 2 years of
college. M ost students who e n te r
m edical schools have a b ach elo r’s
degree.

R e q u ire d p re m e d ic a l stu d y in ­ a specialty spend from 2 to 4 years—
cludes undergraduate work in Eng­ depending on the specialty—in ad ­
lish, physics, biology, and inorganic vanced residency training, followed
an d o rg a n ic ch e m istry . S tu d e n ts by 2 years of practice or m ore in the
should take courses in the hum an­ specialty. Then they must pass the
ities, m athem atics, and the social sci­ specialty board examinations. Some
ences to acquire a broad general edu­ physicians who want to teach or do
cation.
M edicine is a popular field of to a m aster’s or Ph. D. degree in a
study, and com petition for entry to field such as biochem istry or m icro­
m edical school is intense. In 1976, biology.
there were about 42,000 applicants
M edical training is very costly b e­
for only 15,613 positions. Alm ost all cause of the long tim e required to
o f those accepted had prem edical earn the m edical degree. However,
college grades averaging ‘B‘ or bet­ financial assistance in the form o f
te r. O th e r fa c to rs c o n sid e re d by loans and scholarships is available
m edical schools in adm itting students primarily from the Federal G overn­
in clu d e th e ir sco res on th e New m ent, and to a lesser extent from
M ed ical C ollege A dm ission T est, State and local governm ent and pri­
which is taken by alm ost all appli­ vate sources. Some o f this aid re ­
cants. C onsideration also is given to quires the student to com m it a m ini­
the app lican t’s character, personal­ m um o f 2 y e a rs’ tim e to F ederal
ity , an d le a d e rs h ip q u a litie s , as service upon graduation and/or to es­
shown by personal interviews, letters tablish financial need.
o f recom m endation, and ex tracu r­
Persons who wish to becom e phy­
ricu lar activities in college. Many sicians m ust have a strong desire to
State-supported m edical schools give serve the sick and injured. They m ust
preference to residents of their par­ be willing to study a great deal to
ticular States and, som etimes, those keep up with the latest advances in
m ed ical scien ce. S in cerity and a
o f nearby States.
M ost m edical students take 4 years pleasant personality are assets that
to com plete the curriculum for the help physicians gain the confidence
M .D. degree. M any schools, how ­ o f patients. Prospective physicians
ever, allow students who have dem ­ should be em otionally stable and
onstrated outstanding ability to fol­ able to m ake decisions in em ergen­
lo w a s h o r t e n e d c u r r i c u l u m , cies.
The majority of newly qualified
g en e ra lly lastin g 3 y ears. A few
schools offer the M.D. degree within physicians open their own offices or
join associate or group practices.
6 years of high school graduation.
The first sem esters of medical Those who have com pleted 1 year o f
school training are spent primarily in graduate medical education (a 1laboratories and classroom s, learning year residency) and enter active mili­
basic m edical sciences such as anat­ tary duty initially serve as captains in
omy, biochem istry, physiology, phar- the Army or Air Force or as lieuten­
am acology, m icrobiology, and p a­ ants in the Navy. G raduates of m edi­
thology. Additionally, many schools cal schools are eligible for com m is­
are integrating some clinical experi­ sions as senior assistant surgeons
ence with patients into the first 2 (e q u iv a le n t to lie u te n a n ts in th e
years of study. During the last sem es­ Navy) in the U.S. Public Health Ser­
ters, students spend the majority of vice, as well as for Federal Civil Ser­
their time in hospitals and clinics un­ vice professional medical positions.
der the supervision o f experienced
physicians. They learn to take case
Employment Outlook
histories, perform exam inations, and
recognize diseases.
The em ploym ent outlook for phy­
After graduating from medical sicians is expected to be very good
school, alm ost all M .D .’s serve a 1- or through the m id-1980’s. However,
2-year residency. Those planning to anticipated increases in the num bers
work in general practice often spend o f graduates of existing and develop­
an additional year in a hospital resi­ ing U.S. m edical schools, com bined
dency. Those seeking certification in with foreign m edical graduate e n ­

trants, point to a greatly improved
supply situation. This may result in
an increasing m ovem ent of physi­
cians into rural and other areas that
have experienced shortages in the
past. Also, some specialties will have
sufficient num bers of practitioners
by 1980 or 1985 so that new gradu­
ates will be encouraged to specialize
in one o f the primary care areas such
as family practice, pediatrics, or in­
ternal medicine.
Growth in population will create
m uch o f the need for m ore physi­
cians, and a larger percentage of the
population will be in the age group
over 65, which uses m ore physicians’
services. Also, the effective dem and
for physicians’ care will increase be­
cause of greater ability to pay, result­
ing from extension o f prepaym ent
p ro g ram s fo r h o sp italiz atio n and
m edical care, including M edicare
and M edicaid, and continued Feder­
al G overnm ent provision of medical
ca re fo r m em bers o f the A rm ed
Forces, their families, and veterans.
M ore physicians will be needed, in
a d d itio n , fo r m e d ic a l re s e a rc h ,
teaching in medical schools, and the
continuing growth in the Fields of
public health, rehabilitation, indus­
trial m edicine, and m ental health.
To some extent, the rise in the
dem and for physicians’ services will
be offset by developments that will
enable physicians to care for more
patients. For example, increasing
num bers of medical technicians are
assisting physicians; new drugs and
new medical techniques are shorten­
ing illnesses; and growing numbers of
physicians are using their time more
effectiv ely by engaging in group
practice.
The extent to which the develop­
ing health occupations, such as those
of physicians’ assistants and nurse
practitioners, will enable each physi­
cian to trea t more patients is still un­
known. It is possible that these new
health personnel will increase physi­
cians’ productivity significantly.
The n et effect of expected growth
in requirem ents for physicians and of
increases in their num ber and p ro ­
ductivity is likely to be an improved
availability of m edical care. New
physicians will have little difficulty
e sta b lish in g p ra c tic e s , h o w ev er.
201

Even in the unlikely event that some
urban areas becom e overserved and
need no additional doctors, many re ­
m ote and rural areas are w ithout
M .D .’s. If some proposed incentives
are im plem ented, physicians may be
able to practice in these underserved
areas w ith o u t fo rfeitin g access to
c o n s u lta tio n w ith sp e c ia lists and
w ithout earning an incom e signifi­
cantly below th at of m ost colleagues
located in cities.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Salaries o f m edical school gradu­
ates serving as residents in hospitals
vary according to the type of residen­
cy, geographic area, and size o f hos­
p ital, b u t earn in g s o f \$12,000 to
\$13,000 a year are com m on. Many
hospitals also provide full or partial
room , board, and other m aintenance
allowances to their residents.
G raduates who have com pleted an
approved 3-year residency but have
no oth er experience could expect to
start working at a V eterans Adminis­
tration hospital for an annual salary
o f betw een \$27,000 and \$31,500 a
year in 1977. In addition, those who
work full tim e could expect another
\$5,500 to \$5,800 in o th er cash bene­
fits or “ special” paym ents.
Newly qualified physicians who es­
tablish their own practice m ust m ake
a sizab le fin an c ial in v estm en t to
equip a m odern office. During the
first year or two of independent p rac­
tice, physicians probably earn little
m ore than the minimum needed to
pay expenses. As a rule, however,
th eir earnings rise rapidly as their
practice develops.
Physicians have the highest aver­
age annual earnings o f any occupa­
tional group. The net incom e of phy­
sicians who provided p atient care
services averaged alm ost \$54,000 in
1976, according to the limited infor­
mation available. Earnings of physi­
cians depend on factors such as the
region o f the country in which they
practice; the p atients’ incom e levels;
and the physician’s skill, personality,
and professional reputation, as well
as the length of experience. Self-em­
ployed physicians usually earn m ore
than those in salaried positions, and
202

specialists usually earn considerably
m o re th a n g en e ral p ra c titio n e rs.
Many physicians have long working
days and irregular hours. Most spe­
cialists work fewer hours each week
than general practitioners. As doc­
tors grow older, they may ac cep t
fewer new patients and tend to work
shorter hours. However, many co n ­
tin u e in p ra c tic e well beyond 70
years of age.

Information
Persons who wish to practice in a
given State should find out about the
requirem ents for licensure directly
from the board of medical examiners
of that State. Inform ation on Federal
scholarships and loans is available
from the director o f student financial
aid at the individual medical schools.
For a list of approved medical
schools, as well as general inform a­
tion on prem edical education, finan­
cial aid, and m edicine as a career,
contact:
Council on Medical Education, American
Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn
St., Chicago, III. 60610.
Association of American Medical Colleges,
Suite 200, One Dupont Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.

PH YSIC ISTS
(D.O.T. 023.081 and.088)

Nature of the Work
The flight of astronauts through
space, the probing of ocean depths,
or even the safety of the family car
depend on research by physicists.
Through systematic observation and
experim entation, physicists describe
in m athem atical term s the structure
of the universe and interaction o f
m atter and energy. Physicists devel­
op theories that describe the funda­
m ental forces and laws o f nature.
Determ ining such basic laws govern­
ing phenom ena such as gravity, elec­
trom agnetism , and nuclear interac­
tio n l e a d s to d i s c o v e r ie s a n d
innovations. For instance, the devel­
opm ent of irradiation therapy equip­
m e n t w h ic h d e s t r o y s h a r m f u l

growths in humans without damaging
o th e r tissues re su lted from w hat
ation. Physicists have contributed to
scientific progress in recent years in
areas such as nuclear energy, elec­
tronics, com m unications, aerospace,
and medical instrum entation.
The majority of all physicists work
in research and developm ent. Some
do basic research to increase scientif­
ic knowledge. For example, they in­
vestigate the fundam entals of nuclear
structure and the forces between nu­
cleons (n u c le a r dy n am ics). T he
equipm ent that physicists design for
their basic research can often be ap­
plied to other areas. For example,
lasers (devices that amplify light and
em it electrom agnetic waves in a n ar­
row, intense light beam ) are utilized
in surgery; m icrow ave devices are
used for ovens; and m easurem ent
techniques and instrum ents devel­
oped by physicists can detect and
measure the kind and num ber of cells
in blood or the am ount of mercury or
Some engineering-oriented physi­
cists do applied research and help
develop new products. For instance,
their knowledge of solid-state physics
led to the developm ent of transistors
and m icrocircuits used in electronic
equipm ent that ranges from hearing
aids to missile guidance systems.
Many physicists teach and do re­
search in colleges and universities. A
small num ber work in inspection,
quality control, and other pro d u c­
tion-related jobs in industry. Some
do consulting work.
Most physicists specialize in one
branch or more of the science—ele­
m en tary -p article physics; n u clea r
physics; atom ic, electron, and m o­
lecular physics; physics of condensed
m atter; optics, acoustics, and plasma
physics; and the physics of fluids.
Some specialize in a subdivision of
one of these branches. For example,
w ithin solid-state physics subdivi­
sions include ceramics, crystallogra­
phy, and sem iconductors. However,
since all physics specialties rest on
the same fundam ental principles, a
physicist’s work usually overlaps sev­
eral specialties.
Growing numbers of physicists are
specializing in fields combining phys­
ics and a related science—such as

Physicist developing a coating for optical fibers.

astro p h y sics, biophysics, chem ical
physics, and geophysics. F u rth er­
m ore, the practical applications of
phy sicists’ work have increasingly
m erged with engineering.

three States—California, New Y ork,
and M assachusetts.

Places of Employment

G raduate training in physics or a
closely related field is almost essen­
tial for m ost entry level jobs in phys­
ics and for advancem ent in all types
o f work. The doctorate usually is
required for full faculty status at col­
leges and universities and for indus­
trial or governm ent jobs adm inister­
ing r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t
programs.
Those having m aster’s degrees
qualify for many research jobs in
private industry and in the Federal
G overnm ent. Some work in colleges
and universities, instructing and as­
sisting in research while studying for
their Ph. D.
Those having bachelor’s degrees
qualify for some applied research
and developm ent jobs in private in­
dustry and in the Federal G overn­
m ent. Some are em ployed as re ­
se a rc h a ssista n ts in colleges and
universities while studying for a d ­
vanced degrees. Many with a bach e­
lo r’s degree in physics apply th eir
physics training prim arily in jobs in
e n g in e e rin g an d o th e r s c ie n tific
fields. (See statem ents on engineers,
geophysicists, program m m ers, and

A bout 48,000 people w orked as
physicists in 1976. Private industry
em ployed nearly one o u t o f three
physicists, prim arily in com panies
m anufacturing chem icals, electrical
equipm ent, and aircraft and missiles.
M any o th e rs w orked in hospitals,
c o m m e rc ia l la b o ra to rie s , and in ­
dependent research organizations.
Nearly one-half o f all physicists
taught or did research in colleges and
universities; some did both. About
8,000 physicists were em ployed by
the Federal G overnm ent in 1976,
m ostly in th e D epartm ents o f D e­
fense and Com m erce.
Although physicists are employed
in all parts of the country, their em ­
ploym ent is g reatest in areas th at
have heavy industrial concentrations
and large college and university en­
rollm ents. Nearly one-fourth of all
physicists work in four m etropolitan
a re a s—W ashington, D .C .; B oston,
Mass.; New York, N.Y.; and Los An­
geles-Long Beach, Calif., and more
than one-third are concentrated in

Training, Other Qualifications,

system s analysts elsew here in the
Handbook.)
Over 800 colleges and universities
offer a bachelor’s degree in physics.
In addition, many engineering
schools offer a physics m ajor as part
of the general curriculum . The un­
dergraduate program in physics p ro ­
vides a broad background in the sci­
ence and serves as a base for later
s p e c ia liz a tio n e ith e r in g ra d u a te
school o r on the job. Some typical
physics courses are m echanics, elec­
tricity and magnetism, optics, th er­
m odynam ics, and atom ic and m o ­
lecular physics. Students also take
courses in chem istry and re q u ire
many courses in m athem atics.
About 300 colleges and universi­
ties offer advanced degrees in phys­
ics. In graduate school, the student,
with faculty guidance, usually works
in a specific field. The graduate stu­
dent, especially the candidate for the
Ph. D. degree, spends a large portion
of his or her time in research.
Students planning a career in phys­
ics should have an inquisitive mind,
m athem atical ability, and im agina­
tion. They should be able to work on
their own, since physicists, particu­
larly in basic research, often receive
only limited supervision.
Physicists often begin their careers
doing routine laboratory tasks. After
some experience, they are assigned
m ore com plex tasks and may ad ­
vance to work as project leaders or
research directors. Some work in top
m anagem ent jobs. Physicists who de­
velop new products frequently form
th eir ow n com panies or join new
firms to exploit their own ideas.

Employment Outlook
Em ploym ent
opportunities
in
physics are expected to be favorable
through the m id-1980’s for persons
with graduate degrees in physics. Al­
though em ploym ent of physicists is
expected to grow m ore slowly than
the average for all occupations over
the period, fewer physicists are ex­
pected to enter the labor force than
in the past. The num ber of graduate
degrees awarded annually in physics
has been declining since 1970, and
this tren d is expected to continue
through the m id-1980’s. M ost job
openings will arise as physicists re­
203

tire, die, o r transfer to o th er occupa­
tions.
M any physicists work in research
and developm ent (R & D ). The antici­
pated rapid increase in R&D expen­
d itu r e s th ro u g h th e m id - 1 9 8 0 ’s
should result in increased req u ire­
m ents for physicists. If actual R& D
expenditure levels and patterns were
to differ significantly from those as­
su m ed , ho w ev er, th e o u tlo o k fo r
physicists would be altered.
Some physicists with advanced d e­
grees will be needed to teach in col­
leges and universities, b u t com peti­
tion for these jobs is expected to be
keen. T he num ber o f teaching jobs is
expected to decline as th e num ber o f
physics degrees aw arded falls over
the 1976 to 1985 period.
Persons with only a b ach elo r’s de­
gree in physics are expected to face
keen com petition for physicist jobs
through the m id-1980’s. Some new
graduates will find em ploym ent as
engineers o r technicians. O thers will
find o p p o rtu n itie s as high school
physics teachers after com pleting the
required educational courses and ob­
taining a State teaching certificate.
However, they are usually regarded
as teachers rath er than as physicists.
(See statem en t on secondary school
teachers elsew here in the Handbook.)

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Physicists have relatively high sala­
ries, with average earnings m ore than
twice those o f nonsupervisory w ork­
ers in private industry, except farm ­
ing. Starting salaries for physicists
who had a b ach elo r’s degree aver­
aged ab o u t \$12,600 a year in m anu­
facturing industries in 1976; a m as­
te r’s degree, \$13,600; and a Ph. D.,
\$19,000.
D epending on th eir college re c­
ords, physicists with a b achelor’s d e­
gree could start in the Federal Gov­
ernm ent in 1977, at eith er \$9,303 or
\$11,523 a year. Beginning physicists
having a m aster’s degree could start
at \$11,523 o r \$14 ,0 97, and those
having the Ph. D. degree could begin
a t \$ 1 7 ,0 5 6 o r \$ 2 0 ,4 4 2 . A verage
earnings for all physicists in the F ed­
e ra l G o v e rn m e n t in 1977 w e re
\$23,850 a year.
204

Starting salaries on college and
university faculties for physicists hav­
ing a m a s t e r ’s d e g re e a v e ra g e d
\$10,800 in 1976, and for those hav­
ing the Ph. D., \$12,800. (See state­
m ent on college and university teac h ­
ers e lsew h ere in th e H andbook.)
Many faculty physicists supplem ent
their regular incom es by working as
consultants and taking on special re ­
search projects.

Information
G eneral inform ation on career o p ­
p o rtu n itie s in physics is available
from:
American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th
St., New York, N.Y. 10017.

F or inform ation on Federal G ov­
ernm ent careers, contact:
Interagency Board of U.S. Civil Service Exam­
iners for Washington, D.C., 1900 E St.
NW., Washington, D.C. 20415.

P O D IA TR IS TS
(D.O.T. 079.108)

Nature of the Work
Podiatrists diagnose and treat foot
diseases and deform ities. They p e r­
form surgery, fit corrective devices,
and prescribe drugs, physical th e r­
apy, and p roper shoes. To help in
diagnoses, they take X-rays and p e r­
form o r prescribe blood and o th er
pathological tests. Am ong the condi­
tions podiatrists treat are corns, b u n ­
ions, calluses, ingrown toenails, skin
and nail diseases, deform ed toes, and
arch disabilities. They refer patients
to m edical doctors w henever the feet
show symptoms o f m edical disorders
affecting other parts o f the body—
such as arthritis, diabetes, o r heart
disease—while continuing to tre a t
for the foot problem .
Some podiatrists specialize in foot
surgery, orthopedics (bone, m uscle,
and jo in t disorders), podopediatrics
(children’s foot ailm ents), or podogeriatrics (foot problem s o f the e l­
derly). H ow ever, m ost provide all
types of foot care.

Places of Employment
A bout 7,500 persons practiced po­
diatry in 1976, m ost o f them located
in large cities. Those who had full­
tim e salaried positions worked m ain­
ly in hospitals, podiatric medical col­
leges, o r for other podiatrists. T he
V eterans A dm inistration and public
health d epartm ents em ploy p o d ia­
trists on either a full- or part-tim e
basis. O thers serve as commissioned
officers in the Arm ed Forces.

Training, Other Qualifications,
All States and the D istrict o f C o ­
lum bia require a license for the p rac­
tice of podiatry. To qualify for a li­
cense, an applicant m ust graduate
from an accredited college o f podia­
tric m edicine and pass a written and
oral State board proficiency exam i­
nation. F our States—Georgia, M ichi­
gan, New Jersey, and Rhode Island—
also require applicants to serve a 1year residency in a hospital or clinic
afte r graduation. T hree-fourth s o f
the States grant licenses w ithout fu r­
th e r exam ination to podiatrists li­
censed by another State.
M inimum entrance requirem ents
at the colleges o f podiatric m edicine
include 3 years o f college work with
courses in English, chemistry, biol­
ogy or zoology, physics, and m athe­
m atics. M ost en tra n ts to podiatry
schools have com pleted at least 3
years o f college. C om petition for en­
try to these schools is strong, how ­
ever, and m ost entrants surpass the
m inimum requirem ents. M ore than
90 percent o f the entering class of
1976 held at least a bachelor’s de­
gree, and the average enrollee had an
overall grade point average of ‘B‘ or
better. All colleges o f podiatric m edi­
cine require applicants to take the
New M edical C ollege A dm issions
T est. O f th e 4 y ears in p o d iatry
school, th e first 2 are spent in class­
room in s tru c tio n an d la b o ra to ry
w o rk in a n a to m y , b a c te rio lo g y ,
ch em istry , pathology, physiology,
pharm acology, and other basic sci­
ences. During the final 2 years, stu ­
d e n ts o b ta in c lin ic a l e x p e rie n c e
w hile c o n tin u in g th e ir ac a d e m ic
studies. T he degree o f D o cto r of
P o d ia tr ic M e d ic in e (D .P .M .) is

also is expected to spur dem and for
podiatric services. M ore podiatrists
will be needed to work in hospitals,
extended care facilities, and public
health programs.

Earnings and Working
Conditions
Newly licensed podiatrists build
their practices over a num ber of
years. Incom e during the first several
years will be less than in later years.
T he average incom e o f all p o d ia­
trists, after expenses but before tax­
es, was over \$42,000 in 1976, ac­
cording to the lim ited inform ation
available.
The workweek o f podiatrists is
generally 40 hours, and they may set
their hours to suit their practice.

Information
Inform ation on license re q u ire ­
m ents in a particular State is avail­
able from that S tate’s board o f exam ­
iners in the State capital.
Inform ation on colleges of podia­
tric m e d ic in e , e n tra n c e re q u ir e ­
ments, curriculum s, and student fi­
nancial aid is available from:
American Association of Colleges of Podiatric
Medicine, 20 Chevy Chase Circle, NW.,
Washington, D.C. 20015.

For additional inform ation on po­
diatry as a career, contact:
American Podiatry Association, 20 Chevy
Chase Circle, NW., Washington, D.C.
20015.
Podiatrists diagnose and treat foot problems.

al education and experience general­
ly are necessary to practice in a spe­
cialty. F ed eral, S tate, and private
loans are available for needy students
to pursue full-time study leading to a
degree in podiatric m edicine.
Persons planning a career in podia­
try should have scientific aptitude
and m anual dexterity, and like d e­
tailed work. A good business sense
and congeniality also are assets in the
profession.
M ost newly licensed podiatrists set
up their own practices. Some pur­
chase established practices, or obtain
salaried positions to gain the experi­

ence and m oney need ed to begin
their own.

PO LIC E OFFICERS
Employment Outlook
O pportunities for graduates to es­
tablish new practices, as well as to
en ter salaried positions, should be fa ­
vorable through the m id-1980’s.
Em ploym ent o f podiatrists is ex­
pected to grow about as fast as the
average for all occupations as an ex­
panding population dem ands m ore
health services. The growing num ber
of older people who need foot care
and those who are entitled to certain
podiatrists’ services under M edicare,

(D.O.T. 375.118 through .868, and
377.868)

Nature of the Work
The security of our N ation’s cities
and tow ns greatly depends on the
work o f local police officers whose
jobs range from controlling traffic to
preventing and investigating crimes.
W hether on or off duty, These offi­
cers are expected to exercise their
authority whenever necessary.
205

cers in practically all large cities and
in many small ones. Candidates must
be U.S. citizens, usually at least 21
years of age, and must m eet certain
height and weight standards. Eligi­
bility fo r appointm ent depends on
perform ance in com petitive exami­
nations as well as on education and
experience. The physical examina­
tions often include tests of strength
and agility.
Because personal characteristics
such as honesty, good judgm ent, and
a sense o f responsibility are especial­
ly im portant in police work, candi­
dates are interviewed by a senior of­
ficer at police h ea d q u arters, and
their character traits and background
are investigated. In some police de­
partm ents, candidates also may be
interview ed by a psychiatrist o r a
pyschologist, or be given a personal­
ity test. A lthough police officers
work independently, they must p er­
form their duties in line with laws and
departm ental rules. They should en­
Police officers often work independently in carrying out their duties.
joy working with people and serving
Police officers who w ork in a small b eco m e th o ro u g h ly fam iliar w ith the public.
In large police departm ents, where
com m unity have many duties. In the conditions throughout their area and,
course o f a d ay’s w ork, they may while on patrol, rem ain alert for any­ most jobs are found, applicants usu­
direct traffic at the scene o f a fire, thing unusual. They note suspicious ally m ust have a high school educa­
investigate a housebreaking, and give circum stances, such as open w in­ tion. A few cities require some col­
first aid to an accident victim. In a dows or lights in vacant buildings, as lege tra in in g and som e hire law
large police departm ent, by contrast, well as hazards to public safety such enforcem ent students as police in­
officers usually are assigned to a spe­ as burned-out street lights or fallen terns. A few police departm ents ac­
cific type o f duty. M ost officers are trees. Officers also watch for stolen cept applicants who have less than a
detailed either to patrol or to traffic autom obiles and enforce traffic regu­ high school education as recruits,
duty; sm aller num bers are assigned lations. A t regular intervals, they re ­ particularly if they have worked in a
to special work such as accident p re­ port to police headquarters through field related to law enforcement.
M ore and m ore, police d e p a rt­
vention o r operation o f com m unica­ call boxes, by radio, or by walkietions systems. O thers work as d etec­ talkie. They prepare reports about m ents are encouraging applicants to
tives (plainclothes officers) assigned their activities and may be called on take post-high school training in soci­
to crim inal investigation; still others, to testify in court when cases result in ology and psychology. As a result,
more than 1,000 junior colleges, col­
as experts in chem ical and m icro­ legal action.
leges, and universities now offer p ro ­
scopic analysis, firearm s identifica­
Places of Employment
grams in law enforcem ent or criminal
tion, and handwriting and fingerprint
justice. O ther courses helpful in p re­
identification. In very large cities, a
A bout 500,000 full-time officers paring for a police career include
few officers may work with special
worked for local police departm ents English, American history, civics and
units such as m ounted and m otorcy­
in 1976. Some cities have very large
governm ent, business law, and phys­
cle police, harbor patrols, helicopter
p olice fo rces. F o r exam ple, New
ics. Physical education and sports
patrols, canine corps, m obile rescue
York has about 30,000 police offi­
team s, and youth aid services.
are especially helpful in developing
cers and Chica```