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Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses in the United States
by Industry, 1978
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
August 1980
Bulletin 2078




Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses in the United States
by Industry, 1978
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1980
Bulletin 2078




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $4.25




Preface

Data for this publication were collected in accor­
dance with the provisions of the Occupational Safety
and Health Act of 1970. The estimates guage the oc­
currence of injuries and illnesses resulting from work­
ing conditions over which the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration of the U.S. Department of La­
bor, the Mine Safety and Health Administration of the
U.S. Department of Labor, and the Federal Railroad
Administration of the U.S. Department of Transporta­
tion exercise statutory authority.
The estimates represent the injury and illness expe­
rience of employers in private sector establishments for
the years 1972-78.For each survey, report forms were
mailed to employers in the year following the reference
year of the survey.
In recent years, the survey sample has been reduced
in response to the proposal of the Office of Manage­
ment and Budget and the Commission on Federal Paper­
work to reduce the amount of paperwork required of
employers. The reduction resulted in less detailed sta­
tistics in the nonmanufacturing industries surveyed, ex­
cept for the construction industry and some 3-digit in­
dustries which historically have had high incidence
rates. The number of sample units selected for the con­




struction and manufacturing industries was not reduced
and, therefore, there was no loss in statistical detail for
these industries.
To further decrease the paperwork burden on small
employers, employers with fewer than 11 employees in
low-risk industries were not required to participate in
the 1978 survey. In order to maintain comparability
with the data published in previous years, a statistical
method based on the previous experience of these lowrisk industries was used to represent them in the private
sector.
This bulletin was prepared in the Office of Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Statistics by the staff of the
Division of Periodic Surveys, under the direction of
William Mead. Data were collected and tabulated in
the Office of Statistical Operations with the coopera­
tion of the regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics and participating State agencies identified in ap­
pendix C. State data on occupational injuries and ill­
nesses will be released in a separate publication.
Unless specifically identified as copyright, material
in this publication is in the public domain and may, with
appropriate credit, be reproduced without permission.

iii

Contents

Page
Total injuries and illnesses..........................................................................................................................................
Incidence rates....................................................................................................................................................
Number of injuries and illnesses.........................................................................................................................

1
1
2

Injuries.......................................................................................................................................................................
Incidence rates...........................*.......................................................................................................................
Incidence rates by establishment size.................................................................................................................
Number of injuries........................................................................................

3
3
4
4

Worktime lost.............................................................................................................................................................
Injuries involving days away from work and days of restricted work activity..................................................
Incidence rates. . . <.....................................................................................................................................
Number of cases..........................................................................................................................................
Lost workdays due to injuries..............................................................................
Incidence rates.................................................................................................
Number of lost workdays...........................................................................................................................
Comparison with time lost from work stoppages..............................................................................................

4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

Injury incidence rate trends since 1972.......................................................................................................................

6

Fatalities.............................................................
Incidence rates..........................................
Number of fatalities..................................
Objects or events associated with fatalities

v vo vo vo
©

Illnesses.......................................................................................................................................................................
Incidence rates....................................................................................................................................................
Number of illnesses............................................................................................................................................

7
8
8

Text tables:
1. Industries with the highest injury and illness incidence rates in 1978 and percent change from 1977,
United States..........................................................................................................................................
2. Injuries and illnesses and employment by industry division, United States, 1977 and 1978.....................
3. Percent distribution of major industry groups by percent change in total injury rate, lost workday
injury rate, and incidence rate of lost workdays, private sector, United States, 1977 to 1978............
4. Industries with the highest incidence rates of lost workday injuries in 1978 and percent change from
1977, United States.................................................................................................................................
5. Percent of worktime lost from injuries and illnesses, and percent of days of idleness from work stop­
page^, private sector, United States, 1973-78 ......................................................................................
6. Injury incidence rates by extent of case and average lost workdays per lost workday injury, private sec­
tor, United States, 1972-78 ...................................................................................................................
7. Number and rate of fatalities for employers with 11 or more employees, private sector, United States,
1974-78 ..................................................................................................................................................
8. Fatalities and employment for employers with 11 or more employees by industry division, United
States, 1978............................................................................................................................................




2
2
3
4
5
6
6
7

Contents—Continued
Page
Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Injury and illness incidence rates by industry division, United States, 1978............................................
Percent distribution of private sector establishments by total injury and illness incidence rate interval
and employment-size group, United States, 1978...............................................................................
Percent distribution of private sector establishments by lost workday injury and illness incidence rate
interval and employment-size group, United States, 1978.................................................................
Mean and median distribution of total injury and illness incidence rates for 3-digit SIC industries with
the highest total case rates, United States, 1978...................................................................................
Mean and median distribution of lost workday injury and illness incidence rates for 3-digit SIC in­
dustries with the highest lost workday case rates, United States, 1978......................... . ..................
Percent change in total injury incidence rates and lost workday injury incidence rates by industry divi­
sion, United States, 1977 to 1978.........................................................................................................
Injury incidence rates by employment-size group, United States, 1978..................................................
Percent of lost workday injuries involving days of restricted work activity only by industry division,
United States, 1977 and 1978...............................................................................................................
Percent of lost workday injuries involving restricted work activity only for the industries with the
highest lost workday case rates, United States, 1978...........................................................................
Injuries involving days away from work and days of restricted work activity only, as a percent of total
lost workday injuries, by employment-size group, United States, 1978............................................
Ranking of 3-digit SIC industries with the highest injury incidence rate of lost workdays, United
States, 1978..........................................................................................................................................
Injury incidence rates .for total injuries, lost workday injuries, and lost workdays, private sector,
United States, 1972-78 .......................................................................................................................
Percent of injury and illness fatalities for employers with 11 or more employees by cause, private sec­
tor, United States, 1978.......................................................................................................................
Percent distribution of total illnesses by category of illness, United States, 1978..................................

Reference tables:
1. Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry, United States, 1977 and 1978...................
2. Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and employment size, United States,1978.
3. Number of occupational iniuries and illnesses, and lost workdays by industry division, United States,
1977 and 1978.....................................................................................................................................
4. Number of occupational injuries and illnesses by industry, United States, 1978.....................................
5. Occupational injury incidence rates by industry, United States, 1977 and 1978.....................................
6. Occupational injury incidence rates by industry division and employment size, United States, 1977
and 1978.........................................................
7. Occupational injury incidence rates for lost workday cases by industry division, United States, 1977
and 1978....................................................................................
8. Percent of occupational injury and illness fatalities for employers with 11 or more employees by in­
dustry division and cause, private sector, United States, 1978............................................................
9. Occupational illness incidence rates by industry division and extent of case, United States, 1977 and
1978 ...........................................................................................................................................
10. Number of occupational illnesses by category of illness and industry division, United States,1978___

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
32
59
60
62
71
71
72
73
73

Appendixes:
A. Scope of survey and technical notes..........................................................................................................

74

Tables:
A-l. Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and illnesses, and occupational
injuries by industry, United States, 1978............................................................................................
A-2. Relative standard errors for injury and illness fatalities by industry division, United States, 1978..
A-3. Relative standard errors for measures of occupational illnesses by industry, United States, 1978..

77
85
86




v

Contents—Continued
Page
Appendixes-Continued
B. OSHA No. 200S report form and instructions......................................................................................
C. State agencies participating in the 1978 survey......................................................................................
D. Glossary of terms....................................................................................................................................




87
91
92

Occupational Injuries
and Illnesses, 1978

ufacturing to 6 percent in mining. Construction indus­
tries, which experienced about a 3-percent increase in
the injury and illness rate, had the largest percentage
increase in employment between 1977 and 1978—11
percent.
The injury and illness incidence rates for the special
product sawmills, mobile homes, and meatpacking in­
dustries continued to be the highest in the private sec­
tor. Text table 1 provides 1978 data for the industries
with the highest injury and illness incidence rates, and
comparable rates and rank positions for these industries
in 1977. The reclaimed rubber industry experienced the
greatest overall increase in injuries and illnesses between
the years—moving from a rate of 20.5 and a rank po­
sition of 64 in 1977 to a rate of 30.5 and a rank of 5 for
1978. Sanitary services was the only nonmanufacturing
industry among this list of industries.
Chart 2 provides the distribution of private sector
establishments by establishment size and incidence rate
interval for 1978. It shows that, on average, the pro­
portion of establishments in which virtually no injuries
or illnesses occurred varied inversely with establish­
ment size, while the proportion of establishments with
rates between 0.1 and 9.9 varied directly with estab­
lishment size. About 90 percent of the establishments
with fewer than 20 employees experienced virtually no
injuries and illnesses. The greatest percentage of estab­
lishments experiencing high rates of injuries and ill­
nesses—10.0 or greater—was in the 100 to 249 employ­
ee-size group, a pattern generally experienced by pri­
vate sector industries. Chart 3 furnishes comparable em­
ployment size-class data by the incidence rate interval
for lost workday cases—the more serious injuries and
illnesses. Distribution patterns were similar to those of
total injuries and illnesses.
The average (mean) rates are sometimes inflated by
the presence of a few reporting units with a high inci­
dence of cases. However, the upward bias inherent in
the average rate is not reflected in the quartile rates.
Quartile data show that, although on average establish­
ments in the private sector experienced 9.4 injuries and
illnesses per 100 full-time workers, three-fourths of these
establishments experienced virtually no injuries or ill­
nesses (table 2). In construction, the industry division
with the highest overall rate, one-half of the establish­
ments had a rate of 0.0 and three-fourths had a rate of
less than 9.0.

Total Injuries and Illnesses
Incidence rates

During 1978, approximately 1 out of every 11 Amer­
ican workers in the private sector suffered an injury or
illness caused by exposure to hazards in the work en­
vironment. This translates into an incidence rate of 9.4
injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers during
the year (table 1). The estimates encompass job-related
cases resulting in death, diagnosed illness, and most in­
juries requiring more than minor first-aid treatment.
They represent the experience of 71.5 million workers
in about 5 million establishments in the private sector
of the American economy. Self-employed individuals
and farms with fewer than 11 employees are not in­
cluded in the estimates.
The incidence rate of 9.4 experienced in 1978 was
virtually unchanged from the rate of 9.3 for 1977. In
terms of hours of exposure on the job, 1 injury or ill­
ness was recorded for every 21,300 hours worked in
1978; the comparable ratio for 1977 was 1 case for ev­
ery 21,500 hours.
Incidence rates for the major industry divisions
ranged from 16.0 in construction to 2.1 in finance, in­
surance, and real estate in 1978 (chart 1). Goods-producing industries (agriculture, forestry, and fishing; min­
ing; construction; and manufacturing) experienced high­
er injury and illness rates than service-producing indus­
tries (transportation and public utilities; wholesale and
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv­
ices). The composite 1978 rate for goods-producing in­
dustries was 13.5 and 6.7 for service-producing indus­
tries; in 1977 the comparable rates were 13.3 and 6.6,
respectively. The percentage increase in employment
between 1977 and 1978 was nearly similar for goodsproducing industries and service-producing industries—
5 and 6 percent, respectively. The rates for all goodsproducing industries and one service-producing indus­
try (transportation and public utilities) have been high­
er than the private sector average for the past several
years. Manufacturing, with nearly 30 percent of private
sector employment and about 80 percent of the goodsproducing work force, had a rate of 13.2.
Between 1977 and 1978, total injury and illness inci­
dence rates increased in 7 of the 8 industry divisions;
the rate for the services industries remained at the 1977
level. Increases in rates ranged from 0.8 percent in man­




1

Text table 1. Industries with the highest injury and illness incidence rates in 1978 and percent change from 1977,
United States
1977

1978

Percent
change

Industry

SIC code1

Rank

Incidence rate2

Rank

Incidence rate2

2429
2451
2011
2439
303

Special product sawmills, n.e.c.........................................
Mobile hom es.......................................................................
Meatpacking plants............................................................
Structural wood members, n.e.c.......................................
Reclaimed rubber.................................................................

1
2
3
4
5

43.6
34.8
32.8
31.2
30.5

2
1
3
11
64

35.1
35.7
33.6
27.1
20.5

24.2
-2 .5
-2 .4
15.1
48.8

3261
3713
3493
3792
334

Vitreous plumbing fixtures................................................
Truck and bus bodies..........................................................
Steel springs, except w ire..................................................
Travel trailers and cam pers................................................
Secondary nonferrous m etals............................................

6
7
8
9
10

29.5
29.5
29.0
28.3
27.6

7
17
4
6
5

28.5
25.8
30.0
28.6
29.3

3.5
14.3
-3 .3
-1 .0
-5 .8

2083
2999
3316
3317
3715

M a lt .........................................................................................
Petroleum and coal products, n.e.c...................................
Cold finishing of steel shapes...........................................
Steel pipe and tu bes............................................................
Truck trailers.........................................................................

11
12
13
14
15

27.3
27.2
27.1
27.1
26.7

(3
)
22
10
43
8

(3
)
25.0
27.8
22.0
28.2

(3
)
8.8
-2 .5
23.2
-5 .3

3325
2077
2086
241
495

Steel foundries, n.e.c...........................................................
Animal and marine fats and o ils .......................................
Bottled and canned soft drinks.........................................
Logging camps and logging contractors........................
Sanitary services.................................................................

16
17
18
19
20

26.6
26.5
26.4
25.9
25.9

35
21
13
15
23

23.4
25.0
26.6
26.3
24.8

13.7
6.0
-.8
-1 .5
4.4

1 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972 Edition.
2 Incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers. See appendix D for definition and method of calculation.
3 Comparable 1977 data did not meet publication guidelines.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

than one case for every establishment in the private
sector (table 3). This represented an increase of 6 per­
cent, or about 340,000 cases, from the 5.46 million cases
experienced during 1977. However, during this period
there was a 5-percent increase in employment (text ta­
ble 2). Among the eight industry divisions, only agri­
culture, forestry, and fishing experienced decreases in
both the number of injuries and illnesses and employ­
ment. Injuries and illnesses rose about 12 percent in
mining industries, more than double the percentage in­
crease in mining employment.
Manufacturing, transportation and public utilities, and

Chart 4 indicates that among the 3-digit industries
with the highest total case rates, the median rate was
at least one-half the mean rate in 7 of the 10 industries.
Furthermore, the first quartile rate was greater than
zero in only two industries—wood buildings and mo­
bile homes (8.7) and iron and steel foundries (9.7). Chart
5 illustrates the mean and median distribution of lost
workday case rates.
Number of injuries and illnesses

There were about 5.8 million work-related injuries
and illnesses in 1978—or an average of slightly more

Text table 2. Injuries and illnesses and employment by industry division, United States, 1977 and 1978
Injuries and illnesses

Industry division

Number
(in thousands)
1977

5,460.3

5,799.4

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing...................
M in in g ...................................................................
Construction........................................................
M anufacturing....................................................

74.9
88.2
507.9
2,466.5

Transportation and public utilities.................
Wholesale and retail trade................................
Finance, insurance, and real es tate...............
Services.................................................................

428.6
1,169.9
77.2
647.2

Percent
change

1978

Private sector.............................................

Annual average employment




Numoer
(in thousands)

Percent
change

1977

1978

6.2

67,871.0

71,532.8

5.4

67.1
98.4
576.6
2,581.6

-1 0 .4
11.6
13.5
4.7

970.0
809.0
3,833.0
19,647.0

890.8
851.0
4,271.0
20,476.0

-8 .2
5.2
11.4
4.2

462.9
1,252.2
85.2
675.5

8.0
7.0
10.4
4.4

4,696.0
18,492.0
4,452.0
14,972.0

4,927.0
19,499.0
4,727.0
15,891.0

4.9
5.4
6.2
6.1

2

rates and lost workday injury rates. General building
contractors experienced the largest percentage increase
in total injury rates.
Manufacturing, the largest industry division with
nearly 30 percent of the private sector work force, reg­
istered a slight increase in the total injury rate between
1977 and 1978—from 12.6 to 12.8 injuries per 100 full­
time workers. Eleven major manufacturing industry
groups experienced increases in rates; six, decreases;
and three, no change. Primary metal and printing and
publishing industries had the largest percentage increase
in the rate, 5 percent; tobacco manufacturers had the
largest decrease, 6 percent. Wholesale and retail trade
experienced increases in every industry group, except
food stores, where the rate dropped from 11.3 to 10.6.
Among the 68 major industry groups shown in table
5, 40 showed increases in total injury rates; 22, de­
creases; and 6, no change. Rates for injuries involving
lost worktime increased in 54 of these industries while
injury-related lost workday incidence rates increased in
43 industry groups. The percent change in total injury
rates for most major industry groups was small—57
percent of all changes were between 1 and 5 percent
(text table 3). However, changes in lost workday inju­
ry rates were of larger magnitude—almost half were
between 6 and 11 percent.
Lost workday injury rates increased in 7 of the 8 in­
dustry divisions between 1977 and 1978; only in the fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate division did the rate
remain at the 1977 level. Industry division rates ranged
from 0.8 per 100 full-time workers in finance, insurance,
and real estate to 6.4 in mining. Increases in rates ranged
from 5 percent in services to 10 percent in the manu­
facturing and transportation and public utilities
industries.

wholesale and retail trade, with about 63 percent of to­
tal private sector employment, had nearly 75 percent
of all private sector injuries and illnesses. Construction
industries, with 6 percent of employment, had 10 per­
cent of injuries and illnesses. On the other hand, finance,
insurance, and real estate and services industries had
nearly 30 percent of employment and only 13 percent
of injuries and illnesses. The remaining industries had
nearly even proportions of employment and injuries and
illnesses.
As in years past, almost all cases were injuries—ill­
nesses constituted only 2.5 percent of the total. This
proportion ranged from 1 percent in wholesale and re­
tail trade to 5 percent in agriculture, forestry, and fish­
ing (table 4).

Injuries
Occupational injuries are caused by work accidents
or from exposure involving a single incident in the work
environment. These are recorded if they result in death,
worktime lost, medical treatment other than minor first
aid, loss of consciousness, restriction of work or mo­
tion, transfer to another job, or termination of
employment.
Incidence rates

The incidence rate for job-related injuries in 1978
was 9.2 for every 100 full-time workers in the private
sector (table 5). This is a 2-percent increase from the
rate of 9.0 recorded in 1977 (chart 6). The increase oc­
curred primarily in injuries which involved lost work­
time—those serious enough to require the injured em­
ployee to be restricted in work activity or to take days
off from work—which constituted 43 percent of total
injuries. The rate for these cases rose from 3.7 in 1977
to 4.0 in 1978. The rate for injuries without lost work­
time decreased slightly, from 5.3 to 5.2.
Injury incidence rates increased in 7 of the 8 indus­
try divisions between 1977 and 1978, with the rate for
the services division remaining at the 1977 level. In­
creases ranged from 2 percent in manufacturing indus­
tries to 5 percent in mining and finance, insurance, and
real estate.
The change in the rate for the mining division was
largely due to increases of over 30 percent in the rates
for metal mining—from 7.4 to 9.9; and for nonmetallic
minerals, except fuels—from 5.1 to 6.8. Oil and gas ex­
traction, the largest mining industry in terms of em­
ployment, also experienced an increase in the total case
rate—from 12.7 to 13.7, or 8 percent.
Construction employers experienced the largest ab­
solute increase in the injury incidence rate between 1977
and 1978—their rate rose from 15.2 to 15.8. This 4-per­
cent increase took place along with an 11-percent in­
crease in employment. Every major industry group in
construction experienced increases in both total injury



Text table 3. Percent distribution of major industry groups by
percent change in total injury rate, lost workday injury rate, and
incidence rate of lost workdays, private sector, United States,
1977 to 1978

Percent change

Total
injury
rate
(N = 68)

Lost
workday
injury rate
(N = 68)

Rate of
lost
workdays
(N = 68)

T o ta l..........................

100.0

100.0

Increase............................
24 or m ore...................
18-23..............................
12-17..............................
6-11..............................
1-5................................

58.8
4.4
.0
2.9
13.2
38.2

79.4
8.8
1.5
20.6
38.2
10.3

63.2
11.8
1.5
10.3
22.1
17.6

No change........................

8.8

8.8

.0

D ecrease..........................
1-5................................
6-11..............................
12-17..............................
18-23..............................
24 or m ore....................

3

100.0

32.4
19.1
5.9
1.5
2.9
2.9

11.8
1.5
5.9
1.5
.0
2.9

36.8
19.1
11.8
2.9
1.5
1.5

Text table 4. Industries with the highest incidence rates of lost workday injuries in 1978 and percent change from 1977, United
States
1978
SIC code1

1977

Percent
change

Industry
Rank

Incidence rate2

Rank

Incidence rate2

2429
303
2083
241
2451

Special product sawmills, n.e.c.........................................
Reclaimed rubber.................................................................
M a lt .........................................................................................
Logging camps and logging contractors........................
Mobile hom es.......................................................................

1
2
3
4
5

24.3
17.4
16.6
15.5
15.1

1
33
(3)
2
3

18.5
10.2
(3
)
15.4
14.6

31.2
70.6
(3
)
.6
3.4

2439
495
2011
3261
3493

Structural wood members, n.e.c.............................
Sanitary services...................................................................
Meatpacking p la n ts ............................................................
Vitreous plumbing fixtures................................................
Steel springs, except w ire..................................................

6
7
8
9
10

15.0
15.0
14.8
14.5
13.5

5
7
4
8
6

13.9
13.4
14.4
12.7
13.4

7.9
11.9
2.8
14.2
.7

3259
2077
446
2063
3441

Structural clay products, n.e.c............................................
Animal and marine fats and o ils .......................................
W ater transportation services...........................................
Beet s u g a r.............................................................................
Fabricated structural m etal...............................................

11
12
13
14
15

12.9
12.6
12.1
12.0
11.9

10
12
18
25
24

12.5
11.4
11.0
10.5
10.6

3.2
10.5
10.0
14.3
12.3

3462
2084
2452
2086
176

Iron and steel forgings........................................................
Wines, brandy, and brandy spirits.....................................
Prefabricated wood buildings...........................................
Bottled and canned soft drinks.........................................
Roofing and sheet-metal w ork...........................................

16
17
18
19
20

11.9
11.9
11.8
11.8
11.7

9
42
13
11
36

12.7
9.3
11.3
11.5
9.7

-6 .3
28.0
4.4
2.6
20.6

1 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972 Edition.
2 Incidence rates represent the number of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers. See appendix D for definition and method of calculation.
3 Comparable 1977 data did not meet publication guidelines.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.

Special product sawmills had the highest lost work­
day injury rate in 1978, 24.3—up 31 percent from 1977
(text table 4). Eight of the 10 industries having the high­
est lost workday injury rates in 1978 were also among
the 10 highest for 1977. Seven of these industries also
ranked among the 10 industries with the highest total
case injury rate. Eighteen of the 20 industries with the
highest lost workday injury rate had increases in the
rate between 1977 and 1978. These ranged from less
than 1 percent in logging camps and logging contrac­
tors to about 71 percent in reclaimed rubber industries
(which increased in rank position from 33 to 2 between
1977 and 1978).

classes, remained the same in three, and decreased in
the 50 to 99 and the 250 to 499 groups.
Number of injuries

Approximately 5.66 million job-related injuries were
experienced during 1978. This represents an increase of
7 percent from the 5.3 million injuries recorded for
1977. Employment increased proportionately during the
same period.
Manufacturing accounted for 44 percent of all pri­
vate sector injuries—nearly 1 1/2 times its share of pri­
vate sector employment. Besides manufacturing, con­
struction, transportation and public utilities, and whole­
sale and retail trade employers experienced greater per­
centages of injuries than of employment.
The number of lost workday injuries increased from
approximately 2.1 million in 1977 to nearly 2.4 million
in 1978. All industry divisions, with the exception of
agriculture, forestry, and fishing, showed increases of
12 to 21 percent. The largest change took place in the
construction industry, up 21 percent from 1977. About
44 percent of the increase in the number of cases oc­
curred in manufacturing industries.

Incidence rates by establishment size

The injury incidence rates for establishments employ­
ing fewer than 50 employees or more than 1,000 con­
tinued to be lower than the rates for establishments in
the mid-size classes (table 6 and chart 7). Rates contin­
ued to be highest for establishments with 100 to 249
employees. Injury rates for agriculture, forestry, and
fishing generally rose with the number of employees.
However, rates for establishments in mining, construc­
tion, and transportation and public utilities peaked in
the 50 to 99 employee-size group; establishments in
manufacturing and wholesale and retail trade in the 100
to 249 group; and establishments in finance, insurance,
and real estate and services in the 250 to 499 group.
Private sector rates increased in three employment-size



Worktime Lost
Worktime lost includes both days away from work
and days of restricted work activity. The data for cases
which involve days away from work include those
4

in six of the industry divisions, they decreased in con­
struction and agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Al­
though the lost workday injury case rate rose in con­
struction and agriculture, forestry, and fishing, the av­
erage number of days lost per case was down from 19
to 17 in construction and from 16 to 15 in agriculture,
forestry, and fishing because of the decrease in the rate
of lost workdays.
Forty-four of the 68 major industry groups had in­
creases in the lost workday injury rate. The finance, in­
surance, and real estate division, with the largest in­
crease in lost workday rates—19 percent—had increases
ranging from 6 to 40 percent in each major industry.
The water transportation services industries had the
highest injury incidence rate of lost workdays among
3-digit industries—454.0 per 100 full-time workers
(chart 11).

which result in days away from the job, or both days
away from work and days of restricted work activity.
On the other hand, the data for cases which involve
restricted work activity include only those which re­
sult solely in restricted work activity (the employee was
on the job but could not perform all the duties of the
job).
Injuries involving days away from work and days
of restricted work activity

Incidence rates. The rate for cases involving days away
from work was 3.7, while the rate for cases involving
restricted work activity only was 0.3 (table 7). Con­
struction industries had the highest rate of cases involv­
ing days away from work—6.2; finance, insurance, and
real estate had the lowest—0.8. Manufacturing had the
highest rate of cases involving restricted work activi­
ty—0.5 cases per 100 full-time workers.

Number o f lost workdays. About 38.2 million lost work­
days resulted from work-related injuries during 1978—
up from 35.2 million in 1977. This represents a loss
equivalent to a full year’s work for about 153,000 em­
ployees, compared to 141,000 in 1977. Forty percent of
the increase was in manufacturing industries, where 1.16
million more days were lost than in 1977. Among in­
dustry divisions, the number of lost workdays decreased
only in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industries.
On average, there were 16 lost workdays per lost
workday injury case in the private sector in 1978—the
same as in 1977. This average measures the length of
time (not counting the day of injury) the employee was
away from work or could not perform all regularly as­
signed duties because of a job-related injury. The av­
erage number of days lost ranged from 14 in wholesale
and retail trade to 22 in mining.

Number o f cases. Nearly 94 percent of the 2.4 million
lost workday injuries resulted in days away from work.
The remaining 6 percent involved days of restricted
work activity only. Manufacturing industries accounted
for 42 percent of cases involving days away from work
and 64 percent of those which resulted in days of re­
stricted work activity. By industry division, the pro­
portion of lost workday injuries involving restricted
work activity ranged from slightly more than 2 percent
in construction and agriculture, forestry, and fishing to
nearly 10 percent in manufacturing (chart 8). Chart 9
shows the proportion of lost workday injuries involv­
ing restricted work activity only for the 10 industries
with the highest lost workday injury rates.
Forty-three percent of the injuries were serious
enough to require the injured employee either to take
time off from work or be restricted in work or motion.
This ratio ranged from 57 percent of total injuries in
transportation and public utilities industries to 40 per­
cent in construction and wholesale and retail trade in­
dustries. Private sector lost workday injuries have in­
creased as a proportion of total injuries since 1972.
The proportion of lost workday injuries involving
restricted work activity generally varied directly with
establishment size—accounting for 3 percent in estab­
lishments with fewer than 100 employees and about 26
percent in the largest establishment group (chart 10).

Comparison with time lost from work stoppages

Work stoppage data represent the number of work­
days employees did not work because of a dispute be­
tween labor and management which resulted in a strike
or lockout. As in 1977, the percent of total worktime
lost in the private sector in 1978 was higher for job-re­
lated injuries and illnesses than the percent lost due to
work stoppages (text table 5). The percent of worktime
Text table 5. Percent of worktime lost from injuries and ill­
nesses, and percent of days of idleness from work stoppages,
private sector, United States, 1973-78

Lost workdays due to injuries

Incidence rates. The incidence rate of lost workdays
indicates the severity of injuries by relating the number
of days lost to a common base of exposure on the job.
The injury incidence rate of lost workdays rose, from
60.0 in 1977 to 62.1 in 1978.
Three industry divisions posted rates above 100.0—
mining at 142.3, construction at 108.1, and transporta­
tion and public utilities at 101.3. While rates increased



Year

1 9 7 3 ................................
1 9 7 4 ................................
1 9 7 5 ................................
1 9 7 6 ................................
1 9 7 7 ................................
1 9 7 8 ................................

5

Injuries
and
illnesses

Work
stoppages

0.18
.19
.19
.21
.21
.22

0.16
.28
.18
.23
.19
.20

lost from injuries and illnesses has risen gradually since
1973; however, the percent of worktime lost from work
stoppages has increased in alternate years.

Text table 7. Number and rate of fatalities for employers with
11 or more employees, private sector, United States, 1974-78

Year

Injury incidence rate trends since 1972
1974..................................
1975..................................
1976..................................
1977..................................
1978..................................

Although increasing slightly since 1975, the total in­
jury incidence rate declined between 1972 and 1978—
from 10.5 to 9.2, or 12 percent (text table 6 and chart
12). Injuries without lost workdays (the less serious
type) have been primarily responsible for the decrease
in the total injury rate. The rate for these cases dropped
29 percent—from 7.3 to 5.2. The average annual de­
cline in the rate for injuries without lost time was about
5 percent and 2 percent for the total injury rate since
1972. However, during the same period the rate of lost
workday injuries climbed from 3.2 to 4.0, or 25 percent,
and the severity of these cases—as measured by the in­
cidence rate of lost workdays—rose from 46.3 to 62.1,
or 34 percent. Since 1972, the average annual increase
in the rates for lost time injuries and lost workdays were
4 and 5 percent, respectively.

Between 1977 and 1978 the fatality rate fell from 0.91
to 0.82 per 10,000 full-time workers, or 10 percent (text
table 7). Between 1974 and 1978 the rate fell 16 percent.
Number of fatalities

In 1978, about 4,590 work-related deaths were esti­
mated for employers with 11 or more employees. The
comparable figure in 1977 was 4,760; therefore, the es­
timate for 1978 represents a decrease of 4 percent de­
spite a rise in employment from 1977 of 5 percent. Ap­
proximately 500 of the fatalities which occurred in 1978
were related to illnesses—primarily associated with
heart attacks. Since 1974 the number of fatalities has
dropped 8 percent.
Among industry divisions, manufacturing industries
had the most fatalities in 1978 and agriculture, forestry,
and fishing had the least (text table 8). However, the
proportion of fatalities in manufacturing—26 percent—
was less than the proportion of employment in manu­
facturing industries for employers with 11 or more em­
ployees—33 percent. The same relationship also held
for wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; and services. These industries accounted for
52 percent of the fatalities and 85 percent of the em­
ployment. Conversely, in agriculture, forestry, and fish­
ing; mining; construction; and transportation and pub­
lic utilities combined, the proportion of fatalities was
slightly more than 3 times their 15-percent share of
employment.

Incidence rates1

10.5
10.6
10.0
8.8
8.9
9.0
9.2

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.2
3.4
3.7
4.0

1 9 72......................
1 9 73......................
1 9 7 4 ......................
1 9 75......................
1 9 76......................
1 9 7 7 ......................
1 9 7 8 ......................

Average
Nonfatal
lost
injuries
workdays
Lost
without
workdays per lost
lost
workday
workdays
injury

7.3
7.3
6.6
5.6
5.5
5.3
5.2

46.3
51.2
53.1
54.6
57.8
60.0
62.1

14
15
16
17
17
16
16

Objects or events associated with fatalities

The 1978 annual survey was the first to obtain infor­
mation from employers on the object or the event as­
sociated with job-related fatalities. In the total private
sector, about 4 of every 10 fatalities were associated
with the operation of motor vehicles and industrial ve­
hicles and equipment (table 8 and chart 13). The fol-

1 1ncidence rates represent the number of injuries and lost workdays
per 100 full-time workers. See appendix D.
NOTE: Data for 1972 did not include estimates for agricultural produc­
tion, railroads, and most of mining. Separate injury detail for all of mining,
except oil and gas extraction, was also not available for 1973. Data for
1975-78 exclude farms with fewer than 11 employees.




0.98
.94
.79
.91
.82

Incidence rates

Text table 6. Injury incidence rates by extent off case and
average lost workdays per lost workday injury, private sector,
United States, 1972-78

Total
injuries

4,970
4,570
3,940
4,760
4,590

NOTE: The average number of fatalities a year for employers with fewer
than 11 employees for these 5 years was 900. A comparable figure for
fatalities for all classes of employers can be derived by adding the average
of 900 fatalities to the estimate for employers with 11 or more employees.

The data which follow cover only employers with
11 or more employees because the reduction in the sur­
vey sample in 1978 affected primarily employers with
fewer than 11 employees. The reduction for employers
in low-risk industries was in response to the Presiden­
tial directive on reduction of paperwork in survey op­
erations. The sample reduction results in larger sam­
pling errors in the fatality data (statistically rare occur­
rences), making year-to-year comparisons for this group
of employers of questionable reliability.

Lost
workday
injuries

Incidence rate
per 10,000
workers1

1 The incidence rates represent the number of fatalities per 10,000 full­
time workers and were calculated as:
(N/EH) x 20,000,000, where
N = number of fatalities
EH = hours worked by employees during calendar year
20,000,000 = base for 10,000 full-time equivalent workers
(working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year).

Fatalities

Year

Number
of
fatalities

6

lowing is a summary by industry division and for the
oil and gas extraction industry of the objects or events
associated with fatalities.

Finance, insurance, and real estate—200 fatalities.
These industries experienced relatively few fatalities
during the year. Car accidents accounted for threefourths of these.

Manufacturing—1,170 fatalities: Motor vehicle opera­
tion accounted for 19 percent of the deaths; industrial
vehicles added another 12 percent. The operation of
plant machinery and falls each were responsible for 9
percent of the deaths, and 10 percent of the employees
killed were struck by falling or flying objects. Fires and
explosions accounted for 12 percent of the deaths in this
industry division. Two out of every three fire-related
deaths happened in manufacturing industries, as did four
out of every ten deaths from explosions.

Oil and gas extraction—165 fatalities. Fatalities caused
by vehicles and equipment accounted for 50 percent of
the deaths in this sector of the mining industry—of
which 31 percent were due to industrial vehicles or
equipment. Falls from elevations and airplane or heli­
copter crashes accounted for another 27 percent of the
fatalities.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing—95 fatalities. Overthe-road motor vehicle accidents accounted for 32 per­
cent of the deaths in this industry division. When in­
dustrial farm vehicles are included, about one-half of
the deaths can be attributed to the operation of vehi­
cles. Twenty-one percent of all other deaths were from
contact with electricity or being caught in, under, or
between objects other than vehicles or machinery.

Construction— 925 fatalities. Twenty-nine percent of
the deaths resulted from falls from heights. This was
equal to the number caused by cars, trucks, and indus­
trial vehicles in the industry. An additional 10 percent
of the deaths were due to contact with electric current.
Fires and explosions accounted for 5 percent of the fa­
talities, and falling or flying objects for 6 percent.

Illnesses

Transportation and public utilities—835fatalities. Twothirds of the fatalities in these industries involved
automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Contact with elec­
tricity accounted for another 10 percent, primarily in
public utilities.

Occupational illnesses include any abnormal condi­
tion or disorder, other than one resulting from an oc­
cupational injury, caused by exposure to environmen­
tal factors associated with employment. The incidence
of occupational illnesses measured by the annual sur­
vey refers to the number of new illness cases occurring
during a year, and does not measure continuing condi­
tions of illness reported in previous surveys. Illnesses
are recorded only in the year in which they are diag­
nosed and recognized as work related.
The recording and reporting of illnesses continue to
present some measurement problems since employers
(and even doctors) are often unable to recognize some
illnesses as being work related. The annual survey in-

Wholesale and retail trade— 655 fatalities. Employees
in this industry experienced over one-half of all private
sector fatalities due to gunshots, and over one-third of
all fatal heart attacks.
Services—365 fatalities. Nearly one-half of all deaths
in services industries involved aircraft, cars, and trucks,
while heart attacks were responsible for 17 percent.
Falls accounted for another 8 percent.

Text table 8. Fatalities and employment for employers with 11 or more employees by industry division, United States, 1978
(Annual average employment In thousands)
1978 annual
average
employment

Fatalities
Industry
Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Private sector................................................................................

4,590

100

59,297

100

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing......................................................
M ining......................................................................................................
C onstruction.........................................................................................
M anufacturing......................................................................................

95
345
925
1,170

2
8
20
26

838
787
3,028
19,759

1
1
5
33

Transportation and public u tilitie s..................................................
Wholesale and retail trade.................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real es tate..................................................
S ervices.................................................................................................

835
655
200
365

18
14
4
8

4,464
14,410
3,711
12,300

8
24
6
21

NOTE: Because of rounding, components may not add to totals.




7

total injuries and illnesses than in previous years—only
2.5 percent.
Manufacturing accounted for a much larger propor­
tion of illnesses than its 30-percent share of total em­
ployment—about 60 percent of all illnesses. Five of the
twenty major manufacturing industries accounted for
nearly 60 percent of the illnesses in manufacturing: Food
and kindred products; fabricated metal products; ma­
chinery except electrical; electric and electronic equip­
ment; and transportation equipment. The health serv­
ices industry had over 46 percent of the illnesses oc­
curring in services industries while accounting for only
30 percent of services employment. This industry ac­
counted for 15 percent of the illnesses recorded in all
nonmanufacturing industries.
Skin diseases or disorders continued to account for
a disproportionately large percentage of illnesses—near­
ly 1 out of every 2 cases recorded in 1978 (chart 14).
This is largely because they are more readily observ­
able than other occupational illnesses. Skin diseases or
disorders ranged from 32 percent of total illnesses in
mining industries to 65 percent of total illnesses in ag­
riculture, forestry, and fishing. Dust diseases of the lungs
accounted for the lowest proportion of total illnesses—
1 percent. However, in mining industries nearly 1 out
of every 5 illnesses fell within this category (table 10).
Also, nearly 9 out of 10 disorders associated with re­
peated trauma (conditions of repeated motioh, vibra­
tion, or pressure) occurred in the manufacturing and
transportatipn and public utilities industries. Manufac­
turing industries accounted for 55 percent of the poi­
soning cases.

eludes data only on current and visible illnesses of work­
ers. To the extent that occupational illnesses are unrec­
ognized and therefore, unreported, the survey estimates
understate their occurrence.
Incidence rates

Occupational illnesses occurred at a rate of 0.2 per
100 full-time workers in the private sector, or 2.3 cases
per 1,000 employees in 1978 (table 9). This was a de­
crease from the rate of 2.8 per 1,000 for 1977, and was
the lowest recorded since the survey was initiated. Ill­
ness incidence rates ranged from 0.5 per 1,000 in fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate to 5.9 per 1,000 in ag­
riculture, forestry, and fishing. Manufacturing experi­
enced the second highest illness incidence rate, 4.4 ill­
nesses per 1,000 employees, and the highest illness in­
cidence rate of lost workdays (25.7 days)—a measure
of severity. Illness incidence rates decreased in every
industry division between 1977 and 1978, except min­
ing, where the rate rose from 1.4 to 1.9 illnesses per
1,000 employees. Most of the increase was in the less
serious cases which did not require the ill employee to
be absent from his or her job or to be restricted from
performing all regularly assigned duties.
Number of illnesses

During 1978, private sector workers experienced
about 143,500 new cases of occupational illness—down
11 percent from the 161,900 contracted during 1977.
This occurred during a period of rising employment
and increases in the number of injuries experienced—
hence illnesses accounted for a smaller proportion of




8

Chart 1
INJURY AND ILLNESS incidence
rates by industry division, United
States, 1978

Industry division

Private sector

Construction

Manufacturing

Agriculture, forestry,
and fishing

Mining

Transportation
and public utilities

Wholesale and
retail trade

Services

Finance, insurance,
and real estate




5.0

10.0
Incidence rate per 100 full-time workers

9

15.0

20.0

Chart 2
Percent distribution of private sector
establishments by total INJURY AND
ILLNESS incidence rate interval
and employment-size group,
United States, 1978

Employment-size
group

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.3

1.6

1.0

0.6

0.1

Incidencpifate intervals (injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers).
1 0.0

H iO .1 - 9 . 9

10.0-19.9

20.0-49.9

50.0+

NOTE: A rate of 0.0 indicates that no case of an injury or illness was reported or, if recordable cases occurred, they were
insignificant in terms of exposure hours (the rate calculated was less than .05 per 100 full-time workers).




10

Chart 3
Percent distribution of private
sector establishments by lost
workday INJURY AND ILLNESS
incidence rate interval and
employment-size group, United
States, 1978

Employment-size
group

1.5 2.3 2.0

0.6

0.2

3.3

1.9

1.8

Incidence rate intervals (injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers).
0.0

|

10.1-9.9

10.0-19.9

20.0-49.9

50.0+

NOTE: A rate of 0.0 indicates that no case of an injury or illness was reported or, if recordable cases occurred, they were
insignificant in terms of exposure hours (the rate calculated was less than .05 per 100 full-time workers).




11

Chart 4
Mean and median distribution of
total INJURY AND ILLNESS
incidence rates for 3-digit SIC
industries with the highest total
case rates, United States, 1978

Industry

¥

f

=

Wood buildings and
mobile homes (SIC 245)

Meat products
(SIC 201)

f =

I
□

Secondary nonferrous
metals (SIC 334)

Sanitary services
(SIC 495)

Logging camps and logging
contractors (SIC 241)

I

0.0

0.0

Iron and steel
foundries (SIC 332)

Miscellaneous transportation
equipment (SIC 379)

Leather tanning and
finishing (SIC 311)

Nonferrous foundries
(SIC 336)

Beverages
(SIC 208)

40.0

30.0
20.0
10.0
Mean incidence rate




0.0

10.0
20.0
30.0
Median incidence rate

12

40.0

Chart 5
Mean and median distribution of
lost workday INJURY AND ILLNESS
incidence rates for 3-digit SIC
industries with the highest lost
workday case rates, United States,
1978

Mean incidence rate

Median incidence rate

Industry

I

H -------------- U—
Reclaimed rubber
(SIC 303)

Logging camps and logging
contractors (SIC 241)

0.0

Sanitary
services (SIC 495)

0.0

Secondary nonferrous
metals (SIC 334)

Wood buildings and
mobile homes (SIC 245)

Meat
products (SIC 201)

0.6

Water transportation
services (SIC 446)

0.0

Leather tanning and
finishing (SIC 311)

0.0

Roofing and sheetmetal work (SIC 176)

0.0

Iron and steel
foundries (SIC 332)

18.0

12.0

6.0

0.0

0.0

6.0

NOTE: Dash indicates median rate not available because fewer than 25 establishments reported.




13

12.0

18.0

Chart 6
Percent change in total INJURY
incidence rates and lost workday
INJURY incidence rates by industry
division, United States, 1977 to
1978

Percent change

Private Agriculture,
sector forestry,
and fishing

Mining

Percent change in total injury
incidence rate

(




Construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

[

Trans­
portation
and
public
utilities

Whole­
sale
and
retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

j Percent change in lost workday
injury incidence rate

14

Services

Chart 7
INJURY incidence rates by
employment-size group, United
States, 1978
Incidence rate per 100 full-time workers
24.0

20.0

16.0

12.0

8.0

All other industries

4.0

1-19




20-49

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

Employment-size group

15

1,000-2,499

2,500
and over

Chart 8
Percent of lost workday INJURIES
involving days of restricted work
activity only by industry division,
United States, 1977 and 1978

Percent of total lost workday injuries

Private
sector




Construction

Agriculture,
forestry, and
fishing

Services

Wholesale
and retail
trade

16

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Mining

Transportation Manufacturing
and public
utilities

Chart 9
Percent of lost workday INJURIES
involving restricted work
activity only for the industries
with the highest lost workday
INJURY rates, United States,
1978

Percent

Private
sector

Vitreous
plumbing
fixtures
(SIC 3261)




Malt
(SIC 2083)

Meat
packing
plants
(SIC 2011)

Reclaimed
rubber
(SIC 303)

Logging
camps
and
logging
contractors
(SIC 241)

17

Sanitary
services
(SIC 495)

Mobile
homes
(SIC 2451)

Special
product
sawmills,
n.e.c.
(SIC 2429)

Structural
wood
members,
n.e.c.
(SIC 2439)

Steel
springs,
except
wire
(SIC 3493)

Chart 10
INJURIES involving days away
from work and days of restricted
work activity only, as a percent
of total lost workday INJURIES
by employment-size group,
United States, 1978




18

Chart 11
Ranking of the 3-digit SIC industries
with the highest INJURY incidence
rates of lost workdays, United
States, 1978

Industry

Water transportation
services (SIC 446)

Reclaimed rubber
(SIC 303)
Logging camps
and logging
contractors (SIC 241)

Oil and gas field
services (SIC 138)

Sanitary
services (SIC 495)

Roofing and
sheet-metal
work (SIC 176)

Tires and inner
tubes (SIC 301)

Leather tanning and
finishing (SIC 311)

Ship and boat
building and
repairing (SIC 373)

Sawmills and
planing mills (SIC 242)




0

100.0

200.0

300.0

Lost workday incidence rate per 100 full-time workers

19

400.0

500.0

Chart 12
INJURY incidence rates for total
injuries, lost workday injuries,
and lost workdays, private sector,
United States, 1972-78

Total injury
and lost
workday injury
incidence rates

Lost workday
incidence rate

NOTE: Incidence rates represent the number of total injuries, lost workday injuries,
or lost workdays per 100 full-time workers.




20

Chart 13
Percent of INJURY AND ILLNESS
fatalities for employers with
11 or more employees by cause,
private sector, United States,
1978

Over-the-road
motor vehicles
29%
Struck by objects
other than vehicles
or equipment
5%




Aircraft
crashes
7%

Electrocutions
7%
Heart
attacks
9%

Industrial vehicles
and equipment
9%

21

Chart 14
Percent distribution of total
ILLNESSES by category of illness,
United States, 1978




22

Table 1. Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States, 1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

SIC
code
3/

Industry 2/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

1977

1978

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

1977

1978

1977

Lost
workdays

1978

1977

1978

63.5

Private sector 7/......................

71,532.8

9.3

9.4

3.8

4.1

5.5

5.3

61.6

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7/........

890.8

11.5

11.6

5.1

5.4

6.3

6.2

81.1

80.7

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

11.9
11.0
13.0
6.3

12.8
10.3
11.0
4.1

5.3
4.9
5.3
2.3

5.8
5.0
5.1
2.4

6.6
6.1
7.6
4.0

7.0
5.3
5.9
1.6

79.4
87.4
63.6
45.3

81.3
80.2
79.1
75.3

Agricultural production 7/.................
Agricultural services.............. ........
Forestry...................................
Fishing, hunting, and trapping.............

01-02
07
08
09

Mining 8/....................................

851.0

10.9

11.5

6.0

6.4

4.9

5.0

128.8

143.2

Metal mining 8/....................... .
Anthracite mining 8/.......................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining 8/......

10
11
12

92.8
n.a.
205.4

7.4
21.6
12.4

10.0
19.6
10.1

4.5
10.6
7.8

5.4
11.5
7.3

2.8
10.6
4.5

4.6
8.0
2.7

83.9
237.6
167.1

113.9
310.5
170.3

Oil and gas extraction.................. .
Crude petroleum and natural gas..........
Oil and gas field services...............

13
131
138

430.0
n.a.
246.1

12.9

13.9
4.4
20.3

6.3
-

6.9
2.1
10.2

6.5
-

6.9
2.3
10.0

143.7

154.4
42.7
229.7

Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels

14

%_/......

-

-

-

119.1

5.1

6.9

3.3

4.1

1.8

2.7

58.0

88.0

4,271.0

Construction.................................

15.5

16.0

5.9

6.4

9.6

9.6

111.5

109.4

General building contractors...............
Residential building construction........
Operative builders.......................
Nonresidential building construction.....

15
152
153
154

1,240.7
657.2
81.4
502.0

15.0
12.9
12.8
17.9

15.9
13.3
15.7
19.2

5.7
5.6
4.7
6.0

6.3
5.9
6.3
6.6

9.3
7.3
8.1
11.9

9.6
7.4
9.3
12.5

100.2
98.9
54.2
109.7

105.3
101.5
76.4
114.9

Heavy construction contractors.............
Highway and street construction..........
Heavy construction, except highway.......

16
161
162

850.5
265.6
584.9

16.0
15.1
16.4

16.6
15.2
17.2

5.7
5.5
5.8

6.2
5.8
6.4

10.2
9.6
10.5

10.3
9.4
10.7

116.7
112.1
118.8

110.9
105.9
113.2

Special trade contractors..................
Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning...
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating....
Electrical work.................. .
Masonry, stonework, and plastering.......
Carpentering and flooring................
Roofing and sheet-metal work.............
Concrete work............................
Water well drilling.................. .
Miscellaneous special trade contractors...

17
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179

2,179.3
517.5
137.5
370.5
350.5
139.1
158.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

15.6
17.1
9.6
13.3
15.6
14.7
21.1
14.6
14.2
16.6

15.8
16.9
9.4
14.0
15.6
13.6
22.5
14.6
12.8
16.9

6.1
5.5
4.5
4.5
7.2
7.2
9.8
6.4
7.2
6.3

6.6
5.9
4.6
4.7
7.4
7.3
11.7
6.6
6.5
7.2

9.5
11.6
5.1
8.8
8.3
7.4
11.3
8.2
7.1
10.2

9.2
11.0
4.8
9.3
8.2
6.3
10.7
7.9
6.2
9.6

115.5
94.5
101.9
92.9
133.4
119.5
197.7
132.1
136.4
122.1

111.0
93.4
99.0
71.4
121.1
128.6
212.7
122.2
126.7
124.4

Manufacturing................................

20,476.0

13.1

13.2

5.1

5.6

8.0

7.6

82.3

84.9

Durable goods...............................

12,246.0

14.0

14.2

5.4

5.9

8.6

8.3

86.4

89.1
178.8

752.4

22.3

22.6

10.4

11.1

11.9

11.5

178.0

Logging camps and logging contractors....

241

85.4

26.3

25.9

15.4

15.6

10.7

10.2

329.9

316.2

Sawmills and planing mills...............
Sawmills and planing mills, general....
Hardwood dimension and flooring........
Special product sawmills, n.e.c.........

242
2421
2426
2429

230.7
190.2
33.5
n.a.

21.1
21.0
19.7
35.1

21.7
21.2
20.8
43.6

10.1
10.3
7.7
18.7

11.1
11.1
8.8
24.8

10.9
10.6
12.0
16.3

10.6
10.2
11.9
18.7

184.1
192.7
117.8
278.2

192.9
195.3
149.4
369.4

Mi11work, plywood, and structural members.
Millwork............ ...................
Wood kitchen cabinets..................
Hardwood veneer and plywood............
Softwood veneer and plywood............
Structural wood members, n.e.c.........

243
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439

222.8
79.3
49.5
27.3
49.5
n.a.

19.7
22.4
17.1
19.2
16.0
27.1

20.4
23.0
17.8
20.0
16.2
31.2

8.7
9.5
7.9
7.7
7.4
13.9

9.6
10.2
8.5
8.9
8.5
15.1

10.9
12.8
9.2
11.5
8.6
13.2

10.8
12.8
9.2
11.1
7.7
16.1

156.3
128.6
107.5
141.6
154.5
190.4

139.6
137.7
114.6
128.7
161.6
172.0

Wood containers..........................
Nailed wood boxes and shook............
Wood pallets and skids.................

244
2441
2448
2449

43.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

20.3
20.4
20.4
19.9

21.4
23.3
21.9
18.5

9.9
9.1
11.0
8.6

10.9
11.4
11.7
8.9

10.3
11.3
9.3
11.2

10.4
11.8
10.2
9.5

161.8
148.5
169.0
160.6

162.1
160.3
172.3
143.0

Wood buildings and mobile homes..........
Mobile homes...........................
Prefabricated wood buildings...........

245
2451
2452

87.0
59.4
n.a.

32.9
35.7
26.4

32.7
34.8
28.2

13.7
14.7
11.4

14.2
15.2
11.9

19.2
21.0
15.0

18.5
19.5
16.3

175.3
192.8
134.2

177.2
196.3
135.6

Miscellaneous wood products........ ......
Wood preserving........................
Particleboard..........................
Wood products, n.e.c...................

249
2491
2492
2499

83.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

19.6
21.3
16.6
19.5

18.5
18.7
13.4
19.1

7.9
8.6
6.0
7.9

8.1
8.9
6.1
8.2

11.7
12.6
10.5
11.6

10.4
9.8
7.2
10.9

140.7
161.5
101.0
139.6

127.2
152.1
122.8
122.4

Lumber and wood products...................

24

25

491.1

17.2

17.5

6.0

6.9

11.2

10.6

92.0

95.9

Household furniture......................
Wood household furniture...............
Upholstered household furniture........
Metal household furniture..............
Mattresses and bedsprings..............
Wood TV and radio cabinets.............
Household furniture, n.e.c.............

251
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519

329.9
146.5
101.6
32.4
32.6
n.a.
n.a.

16.2
15.8
15.4
18.3
18.1
15.7
17.1

16.5
16.4
15.4
17.8
18.1
16.8
20.4

5.5
5.1
5.0
6.7
7.3
6.0
5.8

6.5
6.2
6.1
7.2
8.3
6.2
6.8

10.6
10.7
10.4
11.6
10.7
9.7
11.3

10.0
10.2
9.3
10.6
9.8
10.6
13.5

86.1
87.1
73.3
101.3
103.7
82.9
97.8

91.7
89.4
88.0
96.5
111.9
86.0
85.0

Office furniture.........................
Wood office furniture..................
Metal office furniture.................

252
2521
2522

46.7
n.a.
n.a.

20.5
18.9
21.4

18.4
18.3
18.4

7.2
6.8
7.4

7.7
7.9
7.5

13.3
12.1
13.9

10.7
10.4
10.9

113.4
106.2
117.2

104.3
98.2
107.5

Public building and related furniture....

253

25.6

18.8

21.3

7.5

7.9

11.3

13.4

109.3

107.0

Partitions and fixtures..................
Wood partitions and fixtures...........
Metal partitions and fixtures..........

254
2541
2542

61.7
n.a.
n.a.

18.5
15.9
21.4

20.2
19.1
21.5

6.8
5.8
7.8

8.1
7.7
8.6

11.7
10.0
13.6

12.1
11.4
12.9

98.1
88.9
108.7

105.8
104.7
107.0

Furniture and fixtures.....................

See footnotes at end of table.




23

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 1978’
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures.....
Drapery hardware and blinds and shades..
Furniture and fixtures, n.e.c..........
Stone, clay, and glass products............

259
2591
2599
32

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

27.1
n.a.
n.a.

20.2
17.1
24.3

19.0
16.9
21.7

6.9
5.5
8.7

7.0
5.9
8.5

13.3
11.6
15.5

11.9
10.9
13.2

99.0
91.2
109.2

100.9
76.7
133.3

698.0

16.9

16.8

6.9

7.8

9.9

9.0

120.4

126.3

20.0

19.4

18.1

4.7

5.3

14.7

12.8

98.1

95.8

135.8
76.9
58.9

15.0
16.6
12.9

14.6
15.7
13.1

6.8
8.6
4.4

7.6
9.3
5.3

8.2
8.0
8.5

7.0
6.4
7.8

136.2
182.4
75.0

134.5
176.5
79.1

Flat glass............................ .

321

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown....
Glass containers.......................
Pressed and blown glass, n.e.c..........

322
3221
3229

Products of purchased glass..............

323

47.2

19.9

20.5

6.7

7.7

13.2

12.8

104.0

99.3

Structural clay products.................
Brick and structural clay tile........ .
Ceramic wall and floor tile............
Clay refractories......................
Structural clay products, n.e.c........

325
3251
3253
3255
3259

50.8
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

18.1
20.7
12.6
14.7
24.4

18.5
21.2
14.2
14.6
24.0

8.2
9.2
5.3
6.6
12.7

8.9
10.4
6.0
6.7
13.1

9.9
11.5
7.3
8.1
11.7

9.6
10.8
8.2
7.9
10.9

134.1
149.1
90.2
113.9
189.2

131.4
149.4
83.2
114.5
183.1

Pottery and related products.......... .
Vitreous plumbing fixtures...... .......
Vitreous china food utensils...........
Fine earthenware food utensils...... .
Porcelain electrical supplies..........
Pottery products, n.e.c.......... ......

326
3261
3262
3263
3264
3269

46.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

16.4
28.5
8.3
13.6
12.2
13.8

16.7
29.5
11.0
13.9
14.4
12.2

7.4
13.5
5.7
7.7
5.1
5.1

8.2
15.2
6.9
7.1
5.8
5.8

8.9
15.0
2.6
5.9
7.1
8.7

8.5
14.3
4.1
6.8
8.6
6.4

114.8
185.6
128.6
108.7
99.9
70.2

116.2
216.8
134.9
111.3
77.1
71.5

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products....
Concrete block and brick...............
Concrete products, n.e.c...............
Ready-mixed concrete...................
Lime...................................
Gypsum products........................

327
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275

210.8
24.2
72.2
93.0
n.a.
n.a.

18.4
18.6
24.5
15.9
7.2

18.1
19.4
24.2
15.7
13.3
6.1

7.7
8.3
10.3
6.6
2.2

8.4
9.0
11.7
7.0
6.7
2.1

10.6
10.3
14.1
9.3

127.1
138.8
159.5
111.9

5.0

9.7
10.3
12.5
8.6
6.6
4.0

48.2

135.0
148.1
165.8
123.1
131.4
58.0

Cut stone and stone products.............

328

n.a.

16.6

14.2

7.4

6.3

9.2

7.9

93.8

115.5

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products..........................
Abrasive products......................
Asbestos products......................
Gaskets, packing, and sealing devices...
Mineral wool........................ .
Nonclay refractories...................

329
3291
3292
3293
3296
3297

142.7
28.1
22.3
n.a.
31.1
n.a.

15.9
20.5
15.9
15.2
11.8
19.4

16.7
18.8
17.7
16.5
14.1
18.8

6.3
7.1
7.1
5.5
5.1
9.5

7.7
7.8
9.1
6.7
6.6
10.0

9.6
13.4
8.8
9.6
6.7
9.9

9.0
11.0
8.6
9.8
7.4
8.8

106.6
105.4
158.7
85.1
87.3
158.2

124.1
120.1
166.6
104.8
103.4
167.4

Primary metal industries...................

-

-

1,212.7

16.2

17.0

6.8

7.5

9.4

9.5

119.4

123.6

Blast furnace and basic steel products....
Blast furnaces and steel mills.........
Electrometallurgical products..........
Steel wire and related products..... .
Cold finishing of steel shapes..........
Steel pipe and tubes...................

331
3312
3313
3315
3316
3317

559.6
471.7
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
30.0

12.2
10.4
14.7
22.4
27.8
22.0

13.0
11.1
14.9
20.2
27.1
27.1

4.6
3.8
5.5
10.5
10.3
9.1

5.0
4.1
6.4
9.2
11.8
11.2

7.6
6.6
9.2
11.9
17.4
12.9

8.0
7.0
8.5
11.0
15.3
15.9

94.3
84.4
106.6
165.1
178.1
142.1

95.9
85.8
116.1
149.6
179.5
151.8

Iron and steel foundries.................
Gray iron foundries....................
Malleable iron foundries...............
Steel foundries, n.e.c.................

332
3321
3322
3325

236.4
150.3
22.2
52.6

24.4
25.0
26.7
23.4

24.6
24.4
25.0
26.6

10.9
11.4
11.2
10.3

11.6
11.5
11.1
12.8

13.5
13.6
15.4
13.0

13.0
12.9
13.9
13.8

164.0
162.0
179.1
180.9

169.2
159.1
158.7
215.3

Primary nonferrous metals................
Primary copper.........................
Primary lead........... ................
Primary zinc...........................
Primary aluminum.......................
Primary nonferrous metals, n.e.c.......

333
3331
3332
3333
3334
3339

70.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
35.4
n.a.

12.5
11.4
18.4
14.9
11.6
13.8

13.0
10.4
17.0
17.0
12.5
13.8

5.2
5.8
5.8
7.2
4.6
5.3

6.0
4.7
9.4
9.8
5.4
6.0

7.3
5.6
12.6
7.6
7.0
8.5

7.0
5.7
7.6
7.2
7.1
7.8

113.9
155.7
139.8
175.9
96.1
79.8

110.8
118.8
145.9
181.6
99.3
96.8

33

Secondary nonferrous metals..............

334

n.a.

29.3

27.6

13.8

14.5

15.4

13.0

218.6

265.6

Nonferrous rolling and drawing...........
Copper rolling and drawing.............
Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil..... .
Aluminum extruded products.............
Aluminum rolling and drawing, n.e.c....
Nonferrous rolling and drawing, n.e.c...
Nonferrous wire drawing and insulating..

335
3351
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357

208.8
32.0
33.7
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
84.2

14.2
17.7
11.4
14.7
10.9
13.2
14.2

15.5
19.4
11.5
17.6
11.9
15.1
15.3

5.8
6.7
4.4
6.4
3.7
4.5
6.2

7.0
8.6
4.4
8.8
5.5
5.4
7.2

8.4
11.0
6.9
8.3
7.2
8.7
8.0

8.5
10.8
7.1
8.8
6.4
9.7
8.1

102.6
123.7
71.6
118.1
63.4
79.1
108.5

116.6
145.0
69.4
154.4
88.6
93.5
118.1

Nonferrous foundries.....................
Aluminum foundries.... .................
Brass, bronze, and copper foundries....
Nonferrous foundries, n.e.c............

336
3361
3362
3369

92.9
52.7
n.a.
n.a.

22.6
22.8
23.9
21.0

23.0
22.8
25.8
21.0

10.4
10.8
10.7
9.3

11.2
11.5
11.7
10.2

12.2
12.0
13.2
11.7

11.8
11.3
14.1
10.8

166.2
171.6
173.3
147.2

158.7
148.7
167.9
173.8

Miscellaneous primary metal products.....
'Metal heat treating....................
Primary metal products, n.e.c..........

339
3398
3399

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

20.5
21.8
19.0

21.4
23.5
18.9

9.2
9.8
8.5

10.5
11.5
9.3

11.3
11.9
10.5

10.9
12.0
9.6

155.5
140.0
174.4

139.2
146.4
130.3

1,673.4

19.1

19.3

7.2

8.0

11.9

11.3

109.0

112.4

Metal cans and shipping containers........
Metal cans.............................
Metal barrels, drums, and pails........

341
3411
3412

78.8
65.2
n.a.

18.7
18.0
22.1

18.4
17.6
22.5

6.5
6.3
7.9

7.2
6.9
8.5

12.2
11.7
14.2

11.2
10.6
14.0

116.1
109.2
151.2

112.3
108.5
130.9

Cutlery, hand tools, and hardware........
Cutlery................................
Hand and edge tools, n.e.c.............
Hand saws and saw blades.... .
Hardware, n.e.c..... ...................

342
3421
3423
3425
3429

183.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
103.6

16.0
13.3
19.0
19.3
14.8

17.8
15.0
21.1
19.6
16.4

6.0
4.3
6.9
6.3
5.8

7.2
5.1
8.4
7.1
7.0

10.0
9.0
12.1
13.0
9.0

10.6
9.9
12.7
12.4
9.4

91.9
65.2
99.2
87.2
93.0

106.0
74.2
119.9
91.2
105.0

Fabricated metal products..................

34

See footnotes at end of table.




24

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illnesss incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Plumbing and heating, except electric....
Metal sanitary ware.... ...............
Plumbing fittings and brass goods......
Heating equipment, except electric.....

343
3431
3432
3433

74.3
n.a.
27.9
35.5

20.2
22.4
14.9
23.6

19.3
22.3
14.1
22.5

7.4
8.5
6.2
8.1

7.7
7.3
6.4
8.8

12.7
13.8
8.7
15.5

11.6
15.0
7.7
13.7

109.1
108.3
92.9
122.6

108.5
97.9
92.5
124.8

Fabricated structural metal products.....
Fabricated structural metal............
Metal doors, sash, and trim............
Fabricated plate work..................
Sheet-metal work.......................
Architectural metal work...............
Prefabricated metal buildings..........
Miscellaneous metal work...............

344
3441
3442
3443
3444
3446
3448
3449

503.8
98.9
85.9
145.9
103.9
30.5
n.a.
n.a.

22.4
25.4
24.1
19.4
23.6
22.1
20.1
21.0

22.5
25.7
22.2
19.9
24.0
21.4
21.3
23.0

8.6
10.8
8.6
7.5
8.6
7.4
7.6
8.3

9.3
12.1
8.2
8.2
9.3
9.1
8.2
9.7

13.8
14.5
15.5
11.8
15.0
14.7
12.5
12.7

13.2
13.5
14.0
11.7
14.7
12.3
13.1
13.3

127.6
160.4
120.8
110.5
136.5
108.3
106.1
131.5

127.8
176.9
106.1
108.5
121.6
123.7
132.4
144.9

Screw machine products, bolts, etc.......
Screw machine products.................
Bolts, nuts, rivets, and washers.......

345
3451
3452

110.0
52.4
57.6

16.5
15.9
17.1

17.0
16.8
17.1

5.4
5.0
5.7

6.2
5.6
6.7

11.1
10.9
11.3

10.8
11.2
10.4

83.9
73.8
92.6

81.1
70.5
90.9

Metal forgings and stampings.............
Iron and steel forgings................
Nonferrous forgings........ ...........
Automotive stampings...................
Crowns and closures....................
Metal stampings, n.e.c.................

346
3462
3463
3465
3466
3469

304.0
50.8
n.a.
116.1
n.a.
126.1

18.4
28.1
11.3
13.3
14.6
19.9

18.4
24.8
14.0
13.1
14.5
21.0

7.1
12.9
4.4
5.0
6.9
7.0

7.8
12.1
7.0
5.6
7.1
8.0

11.2
15.1
6.9
8.2
7.7
12.9

10.6
12.7
7.0
7.4
7.4
13.0

113.9
212.6
72.5
72.7
167.5
113.5

114.8
194.5
143.5
73.2
123.2
118.0

Metal services, n.e.c....................
Plating and polishing..................
Metal coating and allied services......

347
3471
3479

103.3
70.9
32.5

17.8
16.6
20.5

18.1
17.7
19.0

7.2
6.9
8.0

7.8
7.8
7.8

10.5
9.7
12.5

10.3
9.9
11.2

99.1
92.6
113.9

106.1
95.4
132.6

Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c..........
Small arms ammunition..................
Ammunition, except for small
arms, n.e.c..........................
Small arms.............................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c........

348
3482

60.4
n.a.

8.6
5.0

9.3
5.0

3.3
1.9

3.8
2.0

5.2
3.1

5.5
2.9

57.2
37.6

59.4
33.7

3483
3484
3489

26.3
n.a.
n.a.

8.9
9.1
11.4

9.7
10.3
12.2

3.2
4.2
4.2

3.6
4.9
4.9

5.7
4.8
7.2

6.1
5.3
7.3

59.6
64.9
62.6

57.4
79.6
60.6

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products...
Steel springs, except wire.............
Valves and pipe fittings...............
Wire springs...........................
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products..
Metal foil and leaf........ ............
Fabricated pipe and fittings...........
Fabricated metal products, n.e.c.......

349
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499

255.8
n.a.
101.2
n.a.
53.0
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

19.8
30.0
18.6
18.4
21.5
19.7
21.1
18.6

19.4
29.0
18.1
16.6
21.0
20.1
20.9
18.9

7.3
13.5
6.8
5.8
8.3
7.6
7.5
6.4

8.1
13.5
7.3
6.2
8.9
8.1
8.8
8.0

12.5
16.5
11.8
12.6
13.2
12.1
13.6
12.1

11.3
15.4
10.8
10.3
12.0
12.0
12.0
10.9

104.4
179.3
91.6
95.7
135.5
126.5
103.0
86.7

113.4
188.2
100.2
107.1
122.2
107.6
132.5
108.5

2,319.2

14.0

14.4

4.7

5.4

9.3

9.0

69.9

75.1

Engines and turbines..^..................
Turbines and turbine generator sets.....
Internal combustion engines, n.e.c.....

351
3511
3519

134.8
43.2
91.6

12.2
10.2
13.3

12.4
9.3
14.0

4.2
3.5
4.6

5.2
3.1
6.2

8.0
6.7
8.7

7.2
6.2
7.8

70.9
51.3
82.4

89.2
47.9
110.2

Farm and garden machinery.................
Farm machinery and equipment...........
Lawn and garden equipment..............

352
3523
3524

162.7
143.5
n.a.

18.2
18.2
17.6

18.2
17.6
23.4

6.6
6.7
5.7

6.9
6.8
7.9

11.5
11.5
11.9

11.3
10.8
15.4

89.2
90.4
79.7

88.5
86.8
102.0

Construction and related machinery.......
Construction machinery.................
Mining machinery.......................
Oil field machinery....................
Elevators and moving stairways.........
Conveyors and conveying equipment......
Hoists, cranes, and monorails..........
Industrial trucks and tractors.........

353
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537

376.0
165.5
35.0
77.2
n.a.
32.9
n.a.
35.8

17.1
16.3
20.1
16.5
15.5
18.7
20.5
15.9

18.5
17.2
21.5
19.8
13.4
21.7
17.8
18.4

6.6
6.3
7.5
7.0
5.1
6.7
7.5
6.1

7.8
7.4
7.8
8.7
4.4
8.8
7.1
7.9

10.5
10.0
12.6
9.4
10.4
11.9
13.0
9.8

10.7
9.8
13.6
11.1
9.0
12.9
10.7
10.5

96.9
90.2
109.1
105.9
94.2
78.8
130.1
93.7

106.4
96.0
116.9
123.1
63.5
120.0
111.6
108.0

Metalworking machinery....... ........
Machine tools, metal cutting types.....
Machine tools, metal forming types.....
Special dies, tools, jigs, and fixtures.
Machine tool accessories...............
Power driven hand tools................
Rolling mill machinery.................
Metalworking machinery, n.e.c..........

354
3541
3542
3544
3545
3546
3547
3549

346.7
71.6
24.9
129.9
62.4
34.5
n.a.
n.a.

14.1
13.6
14.9
14.0
13.6
13.9
13.5

14.0
13.0
16.7
14.4
13.1
13.3
16.4
15.3

4.0
4.1
4.5
3.9
4.1
3.5
4.1

4.5
4.5
5.9
4.3
4.4
4.0
5.5
4.4

10.1
9.5
10.3
10.1
9.5
10.4
9.4
~

9.5
8.5
10.8
10.1
8.7
9.3
10.9
10.9

62.7
69.4
61.2
61.5
59.4
50.4
92.8

66.2
70.4
79.1
64.0
55.1
66.3
101.1
68.5

Special industry machinery........... .
Food products machinery................
Textile machinery......................
Woodworking machinery..................
Paper industries machinery........... .
Printing trades machinery..............
Special industry machinery, n.e.c......

355
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3559

197.9
45.7
26.6
n.a.
n.a.
37.7
n.a.

15.4
16.2
12.0
17.1
18.0
13.5
16.3

15.9
19.4
12.2
18.1
18.0
11.3
17.1

4.8
5.4
3.9
5.4
5.2
4.1
5.1

5.5
6.6
4.1
7.0
6.0
3.9
6.0

10.5
10.7
8.1
11.7
12.8
9.4
11.2

10.4
12.8
8.0
11.1
12.0
7.4
11.1

74.5
82.1
68.7
87.0
87.7
59.2
73.0

79.9
102.3
66.8
86.5
81.2
61.2
79.3

General industrial machinery.............
Pumps and pumping equipment............
Ball and roller bearings...............
Air and gas compressors................
Blowers and fans.......................
Industrial patterns....................
Speed changers, drives, and gears.......
Industrial furnaces and ovens..... .
Power transmission equipment, n.e.c....
General industrial machinery, n.e.c....

356
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569

311.9
60.0
56.6
30.5
39.3
n.a.
25.4
n.a.
24.0
n.a.

15.3
17.7
10.6
13.3
18.1
18.8
17.9
14.3
15.0

15.2
16.0
10.9
12.9
18.4
12.4
19.5
18.8
15.7
15.1

5.1
6.5
3.9
4.3
5.8
5.7
5.2
5.3
4.7

5.5
6.3
3.8
4.6
6.7
3.5
6.7
6.3
6.1
5.5

10.2
11.2
6.7
9.0
12.3
13.1
12.6
9.0
10.3

9.7
9.7
7.1
8.3
11.7
8.9
12.8
12.5
9.6
9.6

73.7
86.8
58.7
78.0
79.0
84.9
80.5
79.0
62.3

77.8
88.6
59.5
73.6
88.3
34.4
90.7
85.9
89.7
73.9

Office and computing machines............
Electronic computing equipment.........
Calculating and accounting machines....
Scales and balances, except laboratory..
Office machines, n.e.c.................

357
3573
3574
3576
3579

345.6
272.9
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

4.7
3.9
13.5
8.8

4.9
4.4
4.3
11.2
8.9

1.8
1.6
3.3
2.8

2.0
1.9
1.6
3.0
3.3

2.8
2.3
10.2
6.0

2.9
2.5
2.7
8.2
5.6

27.1
23.7
50.7
34.3

27.1
24.4
23.8
49.1
49.3

Machinery, except electrical...............

35

See footnotes at end of table.




25

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 61/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

5.3
6.9
5.4
5.1

6.5

1 1 .1

1 0 .8

77.0

8 .8
6 .6

15.5
14.4
10.3
13.2

16.0
16.1

8 6 .8

1 0 .1
1 2 .0

1 2 .0

11.5

10.4
8.3
10.7

5.9
10.7

69.8
78.8

6 8 .1

6 8 .2

76.9

Refrigeration and service machinery......
Automatic merchandising machines.......
Commercial laundry equipment...........
Refrigeration and heating equipment....
Measuring and dispensing pumps.........
Service industry machinery, n.e.c......

358
3581
3582
3585
3586
3589

184.2
n.a.
n.a.
128.4
n.a.
n.a.

16.4
22.5
19.8
15.4
19.3
17.2

17.3
24.9
22.7
16.4
18.8
17.8

Miscellaneous machinery, except
electrical................ .
Carburetors, pistons, rings, valves.....
Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c....

359
3592
3599

259.4
40.4
219.0

15.5
13.6
15.8

15.9
10.7
16.8

6 .1

5.2

5.1
5.3
5.1

6.3
6.7
6.3

5.9
4.8
6 .1

1977

1978

1 0 .0

1977

79.7
76.6
108.3
69.6

1978

86.7
96.4
8 8 .2

85.8
94.7
8 6 .0

75.6

1,999.5

8 .6

8.7

3.0

3.3

5.6

5.4

46.7

50.3

Electric distributing equipment..........
Transformers.......................... .
Switchgear and switchboard apparatus....

361
3612
3613

122.3
55.2
67.2

1 1 .6

3.6
4.3
3.0

4.0
4.6
3.5

8 ,0

7.4
7.9
6 .8

51.9
61.9
43.5

57.7

1 0 .2

11.4
12.5
10.3

Electrical industrial apparatus..........
Motors and generators..................
Industrial controls.................. .
Welding apparatus, electric............
Carbon and graphite products...........
Electrical industrial apparatus, n.e.c..

362
3621
3622
3623
3624
3629

247.3
136.0
65.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

10.5

10.4

3.6
3.9
3.0
4.4
3.6

8.9

8 .0

2 .6

4.0
4.4
2.9
5.3
3.9
2.7

6.9
7.2
5.9
9.9
4.4
6.3

6.4
6.7
5.6
9.7
3.8
5.3

58.3
66.5
42.0
62.7
72.3
34.7

64.6
74.9
45.0
67.5
78.6
41.0

Household appliances.....................
Household cooking equipment............
Household refrigerators and freezers....
Household laundry equipment............
Electric housewares and fans...........
Household vacuum cleaners..............
Sewing machines............. ...........

363
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636

184.1
n.a.
45.3
23.2
52.9
n.a.
n.a.

13.6
19.7
10.3
12.7
13.0
7.6
11.5

1 2 .6

4.5
6.9
3.3
3.2
3.9
4.1
1.7

9.2

8 .0

1 2 .8

10.5
5.7

8 .8

4.4
6.9
3.1
3.8
4.2
3.4
1.9

62.1
111.7
44.2
39.1
52.3
64.2
43.3

70.0
118.2
43.6
52.8
55.7
86.4
29.1

Electic lighting and wiring equipment....
Electric lamps................ ........
Current-carrying wiring devices.........
Noncurrent-carrying wiring devices.....
Residential lighting fixtures..........
Commercial lighting fixtures...........
Vehicular lighting equipment...........
Lighting equipment, n.e.c..............

364
3641
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648

217.8
37.6
90.0

11.7
7.1
9.8

1 .6

2 .2

3.1

3.4

2 1 .2

8 .6

8 .6

26.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

13.7
19.2
5.9

13.7

4.2
5.9
1.9

5.3
7.6

61.6
31.1
53.8
124.0
70.2
103.0
33.2

67.7
36.4
59.8
126.8
63.8
127.9
47.9
71.3

Radio and TV receiving equipment.........
Radio and TV receiving sets............
Phonograph records.....................

365
3651
3652

117.2
91.9
n.a.

8 .8

Communication equipment................ .
Telephone and telegraph apparatus......
Radio and TV communication equipment....

366
3661
3662

493.2
152.3
340.9

4.7
5.9
4.2

Electronic components and accessories....
Electron tubes, receiving type.........
Cathode ray television picture tubes....
Electron tubes, transmitting...........
Semiconductors and related devices.....
Electronic capacitors..................
Electronic resistors...................
Electronic coils and transformers......
Electronic components, n.e.c...........

367
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3679

455.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
167.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
180.7

9.0
7.9
5.3
6.5
9.5

369
3691
3692
3693
3694

1-62.6
30.5
n.a.
n.a.
77.0

10 .0

21.4
5.7
7.8

9.4
18.2
6.4
5.8
7.3

3699

n.a.

8 .6

14.1

1,991.7

1 1 .8

11.5
11.3

4.9
4.2
9.7
4.7

Electric and electronic equipment..........

Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies.............................
Storage batteries......................
Primary batteries, dry and wet.........
X-ray apparatus and tubes..............
Engine electrical equipment............
Electrical equipment and
supplies, n.e.c................. .
Transportation equipment................ .

36

37

2 2 .1

13.2

1 1 .1

1 1 .2

9.0
14.3

8.5
15.1
7.7

8 .0

1 1 .1

5.9
1 0 .0
2 0 .1

"

9.1
7.6

7.2
2 .8

1 1 .2

8.4

Motor vehicles and equipment.......... .
Motor vehicles and car bodies..........
Truck and bus bodies...................
Motor vehicle parts and accessories....
Truck trailers..................... .

371
3711
3713
3714
3715

997.2
463.3
46.1
455.8
32.0

11.5
9.4
25.8
11.3
28.2

Aircraft and parts.......................
Aircraft...............................
Aircraft engines and engine parts......
Aircraft equipment, n.e.c..............

372
3721
3724
3728

525.5
289.4
132.5
103.5

6 .0

Ship and boat building and repairing.....
Ship building and repairing............
Boat building and repairing............

373
3731
3732

Railroad equipment.......................
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.........

4.6

17.4
9.1
1 1 .8

11.3
8.9

3.7

2 0 .8

6.5
13.5

4.3

2 .6

3.1
3.0
3.4

9.0
5.1

3.4
3.2
4.1

6 .2

1 .8
2 .6

2 .0
2 .8

4.6

1.5

1.7

7.7
3.9
10.7
7.4
6.4
5.9
9.0

2.4
1.5
4.6

2.7
1.4
6.5

2 .1

2.3

2 .0

2 .0

3.2
2.9
2.5

1 0 .1
8 .8

2 .1

1.9

3.1
2.9
2.9

4.2
9.6
7.4
4.3
6.9
11.5
9.5
13.3
4.0

8 .6

7.4
4.8
7.1
7.4
4.9
6.4
1 2 .6

8.4
13.2
3.9
8 .1

50.2

4.2

5.4
5.6
4.9

47.2
45.2
54.9

52.7
51.4
57.4

2.9
3.3
2.7

3.0
3.4
2.9

30.6
45.3
24.1

35.8
60.9
24.8

4.8
1.3
4.4
5.8
3.3
4.5
6.3

5.0
2.5
4.2
5.2
4.1
3.9
5.9
7.1
5.9

34.9
24.5
30.4
30.8
36.1
53.3
29.4
33.2

34.1
24.0
94.9
38.1
28.8
24.7
41.7
32.0
35.5

66.7
187.5
24.1
46.5

62.9
178.5
26.6
23.4
42.1
69.7

5.6
6 .0

8 .2

5.9

8 8 .2

4.1

4.1

5.8

5.3

10 .2

1 0 .8

8 .0

3.1

1.7
1.7
2.9

3.9
4.7

4.7
4.1
4.4

3.4

6 .0

5.2

8 .1

50.5

5.0

5.1

6 .8

6.3

79.3

78.0

5.1
4.0
11.9
5.1
11.9

6 .6

6 .1

5.2
16.1

70.3
54.6
140.3
73.6
164.4

73.9
52.7
132.6
81.7
178.2

1 .8

8 .1

17.0

4.1
17.5
6.3
14.8

2.5
3.4

2.5
1.9
3.0
3.7

3.8
2.9
3.6
6.7

4.0
2.9
4.1
7.5

35.5
29.0
39.8
49.7

37.7
31.6
43.1
49.6

1 0 .8
1 1 .0

1 0 .8
1 1 .0

1 1 .8
1 0 .6

10.4
9.8

9.9

29.5
11.4
26.7

9.9

16.3

1 2 .8

203.3
219.0
144.3

195.5
211.5
136.0

7.8
4.9

9.1
5.8

11.9
10.7

10.5
10.5

162.1
76.9

143.6
70.8

1.5
1.4
2.5
1.7

1 .8
1 .6

2.7

3.4

4.7
3.1

20.4
19.6
27.3
-

23.0
20.3
38.0
23.6

15.8
18.1
7.8
13.2

14.2
17.3
4.8

130.0
141.9
69.5
130.2

104.2
114.2
46.5

1 1 .2

6.5
4.8
7.1

2 .2
1 .6

1 1 .2

2 2 .6

21.3

21.7
26.2

2 0 .8
2 2 .8

374
375

63.0
n.a.

19.7
15.6

19.7
16.3

Guided missiles, space vehicles, and
parts................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles.....
Space propulsion units and parts.......
Space vehicle equipment, n.e.c.........

376
3761
3764
3769

92.3
73.5
n.a.
n.a.

3.0
2.7
4.9

4.2
3.6
7.2
4.8

1 .1
1 .1

Miscellaneous transportation equipment....
Travel trailers and campers............
Tanks and tank components..............
Transportation equipment, n.e.c........

379
3792
3795
3799

72.5
51.1
n.a.
n.a.

25.9
28.6
13.9
24.6

23.9
28.3
9.2

1 0 .1

9.7

10.5

1 1 .0

2 0 .8

11.4

26

8 .8

6 6 .1

1 0 .6

223.1
169.3
53.7




7.2
8.9

5.4

8 .8
8 .8

6 .1
1 0 .1

See footnotes at end of table.

8.9
7.2

j

1.5

_

6 .1

4.4
9.7

6 .6

_

2 .2

1 1 .1

1 2 0 .0

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 1978*
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry

If

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

1977

1978

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

1977

1978

1977

Lost
workdays

1978

1977

1978

38

653.5

7.0

6.9

2.4

2.6

4.6

4.3

37.4

37.0

Engineering and scientific instruments....

381

65.7

6.2

6.2

2.0

2.1

4.2

4.1

31.2

28.5

Measuring and controlling devices........
Environmental controls.................
Process control instruments............
Fluid meters and counting devices......
Instruments to measure electricity.... .
Measuring and controlling
devices, n.e.c.......................

382
3822
3823
3824
3825

215.6
48.2
48.7
n.a.
82.3

7.6
9.0
7.4
11.3
6.0

7.3
9.7
6.5
12.4
5.1

2.5
3.1
2.4
3.6
2.1

2.8
3.8
2.6
4.3
2.2

5.1
5.8
5.0
7.7
3.9

4.5
5.9
3.9
8.1
2.9

41.6
58.8
39.9
52.4
32.2

40.5
64.9
33.3
55.3
29.3

3829

n.a.

8.3

8.6

2.3

2.5

6.0

6.1

31.6

31.7

Optical instruments and lenses...........

383

27.8

6.5

6.1

2.5

2.4

4.0

3.7

46.0

36.6

Medical instruments and supplies....... .
Surgical and medical instruments.......
Surgical appliances and supplies.......
Dental equipment and supplies..........

384
3841
3842
3843

137.4
57.8
62.3
n.a.

7.6
7.3
7.5
9.1

7.7
7.5
7.1
10.2

2.5
2.2
2.7
2.7

2.9
2.7
2.9
3.7

5.1
5.1
4.8
6.4

4.8
4.8
4.2
6.5

36.4
29.0
41.9
38.7

39.8
40.7
37.3
46.6

Ophthalmic goods.........................
Photographic equipment and supplies......
Watches, clocks, and watchcases..........

385
386
387

43.9
132.9
30.1

8.0
6.0
5.5

7.7
5.7
6.7

3.2
2.2
1.9

2.9
2.1
2.3

4.8
3.8
3.6

4.8
3.6
4.3

35.6
34.9
32.1

39.4
32.7
34.5

39

454.0

11.5

11.8

4.0

4.5

7.5

7.3

58.7

66.4

63.8
42.1
n.a.
n.a.

6.1
4.6
9.9
-

6.2
4.9
10.3
6.4

2.2
1.4
5.0

2.5
1.6
5.2
2.4

3.8
3.2
4.9
-

3.7
3.3
5.1
3.9

32.9
17.2
86.6
-

41.5
25.3
88.5
47.7

Instruments and related products......... .

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.....
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware.....
Jewelry, precious metal................
Silverware and plated ware.............
Jewelers' materials and lapidary work...

391
3911
3914
3915

Musical instruments......................

393

25.2

13.8

13.8

5.0

4.4

8.8

9.4

72.6

54.3

Toys and sporting goods..................
Dolls..................................
Games, toys, and children's vehicles....
Sporting and athletic goods, n.e.c.....

394
3942
3944
3949

121.6
n.a.
n.a.
62.3

13.8
7.8
12.8
15.4

13.9
8.4
14.1
14.5

5.0
3.5
5.1
5.2

5.4
2.4
5.6
5.6

8.7
4.3
7.7
10.1

8.5
5.9
8.5
8.9

70.9
44.3
78.8
68.2

81.7
28.7
85.4
85.0

Pens, pencils, office and art supplies....
Pens and mechanical pencils............
Lead pencils and art goods.............
Marking devices........................
Carbon paper and inked ribbons.........

395
3951
3952
3953
3955

37.7
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

10.4
8.1
14.4
7.4
13.7

12.0
9.8
15.5
9.6
15.2

3.9
3.0
5.7
2.2
5.8

5.0
3.8
6.5
3.4
7.6

6.4
5.0
8.6
5.2
7.9

7.0
5.9
9.0
6.2
7.6

58.3
47.7
71.2
32.1
103.2

58.8
52.6
69.9
42.8
81.0

Costume jewelry and notions......... .
Costume jewelry........................
Artificial flowers.....................
Buttons................................
Needles, pins, and fasteners...........

396
3961
3962
3963
3964

63.5
35.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

8.1
6.4
7.6
10.4

8.1
5.6
12.3
7.8
11.0

2.6
2.3

5.5
4.1

2.3
3.0

3.2
2.3
4.5
3.0
4.3

5.3
7.4

4.9
3.3
7.7
4.8
6.7

40.4
34.4
30.3
50.4

46.0
33.4
51.7
44.2
63.8

Miscellaneous manufactures...............
Brooms and brushes.....................
Signs and advertising displays.........
Burial caskets.........................
Hard surface floor coverings...........
Manufacturing industries, n.e.c.........

399
3991
3993
3995
3996
3999

142.3
n.a.
47.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

13.3
14.5
14.3
16.3
12.0
11.5

13.7
13.7
14.5
17.0
11.2
12.4

4.4
5.2
4.5
4.5
5.3
3.9

5.2
5.8
5.2
5.6
5.5
4.7

8.9
9.2
9.8
11.7
6.7
7.6

8.5
7.9
9.3
11.4
5.7
7.6

65.5
89.3
64.8
74.8
67.2
55.3

77.3
94.3
79.7
64.2
117.9
64.9

Nondurable goods.......... .................
Food and kindred products..................

-

-

8,230.0
20

11.8

11.8

4.7

5.0

7.1

6.8

76.3

78.4

1,721.2

19.5

19.4

8.5

8.9

11.0

10.5

130.1

132.2

16.0
18.0
14.0
14.2

15.2
16.8
13.7
13.6

171.1
202.3
147.5
137.0

168.9
201.3
158.1
125.8

12.5

13.5

115.4

115.0

8.6

114.4
87.5
93.7
120.5
122.1

114.1
81.5
111.6
81.5
107.0
120.0

Meat products............................
Meatpacking plants............... .....
Sausages and other prepared meats......
Poultry dressing plants................
Poultry and egg processing.............

201
2011
2013
2016
2017

353.9
168.8
71.0
101.1
n.a.

28.8
33.6
25.2
23.6
20.6

28.4
32.8
24.9
23.6
22.8

12.8
15.6
11.2
9.4
8.1

13.2
16.0
11.2
9.9
9.3

Dairy products...........................
Creamery butter.......................
Cheese, natural and processed..........
Condensed and evaporated milk..........
Ice cream and frozen desserts..........
Fluid milk.............................

202
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026

184.2
n.a.
32.1
n.a.
n.a.
117.7

15.1
13.7
12.'3
16.7
15.4

15.8
14.4
15.9
13.2
15.4
16.1

6.5
5.9
5.4
7.1
6.7

7.3
5.8
8.0
6.1
7.4
7.3

7.7
6.9
9.6
8.7

8.5
8.6
7.9
7.1
8.0
8.8

Preserved fruits and vegetables..........
Canned specialties.....................
Canned fruits and vegetables...........
Dehydrated fruits, vegetables, soups....
Pickles, sauces, and salad dressings....
Frozen fruits and vegetables...........
Frozen specialties.....................

203
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2038

252.1
26.7
95.6
n.a.
n.a.
51.5
n.a.

17.3
12.9
18.0
18.1
17.3
20.5
13.9

17.1
11.9
19.2
17.6
15.6
19.4
13.2

7.4
5.4
7.2
8.7
7.9
9.2
6.2

8.0
5.5
8.5
9.7
6.7
9.8
6.5

9.9
7.5
10.8
9.4
9.3
11.2
7.6

9.1
6.4
10.7
7.9
8.9
9.6
6.7

122.7
103.7
113.7
140.4
112.8
164.6
103.3

124.9
90.6
122.9
140.6
143.0
152.9
99.8

Grain mill products......................
Flour and other grain mill products....
Cereal breakfast foods.................
Rice milling...........................
Blended and prepared flour.............
Wet corn milling.......................
Dog, cat, and other pet food...........
Prepared feeds, n.e.c..................

204
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048

144.7
25.8
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
59.1

14.9
15.3
16.5
18.3
15.0
10.4
17.7
14.2

15.0
15.3
15.1
18.0
12.7
10.4
17.2
15.3

6.5
6.9
7.1
9.1
6.8
5.5
7.3
5.9

6.9
7.2
6.9
9.1
6.5
4.1
8.2
6.9

8.4
8.4
9.4
9.1
8.2
4.9
10.4
8.3

8.1
8.1
8.2
8.8
6.2
6.3
9.0
8.4

115.2
126.1
148.5
175.6
127.6
85.8
126.7
96.5

126.0
125.8
175.9
214.2
97.5
73.0
166.2
109.1

Bakery products..........................
Bread, cake, and related products......
Cookies and crackers...................

205
2051
2052

234.8
192.0
42.8

14.2
14.4
13.3

13.8
13.7
14.1

6.3
6.4
5.7

6.4
6.4
6.5

7.9
7.9
7.6

7.4
7.3
7.6

114.9
113.7
121.0

119.3
115.9
136.1

See footnotes at end of table.




27

-

-

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Sugar and confectionery products.........
Raw cane sugar.........................
Cane sugar refining....................
Beet sugar.............................
Confectionery products.................
Chocolate and cocoa products...........
Chewing gum............................

206
2061
2062
2063
2065
2066
2067

110.5
n*a.
n.a.
n.a.
57.8
n.a.
n.a.

15.0
20.0
12.8
21.3
13.5
11.1
15.8

14.8
25.5
11.9
22.3
13.1
10.9
11.0

6.6
8.7
5.5
11.1
5.9
4.1
6.2

7.1
11.7
6.7
12.7
5.8
4.1
5.9

8.3
11.1
7.3
10.2
7.6
7.0
9.6

7.7
13.7
5.1
9.6
7.3
6.8
5.1

105.2
129.6
107.7
133.1
95.3
76.9
127.8

104.2
134.9
166.2
125.0
87.6
62.1
117.7

Fats and oils............................
Cottonseed oil mills...................
Soybean oil mills......................
Vegetable oil mills, n.e.c.............
Animal and marine fats and oils........
Shortening and cooking oils............

207
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079

42.0
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

21.9
20.3
17.5
15.6
25.0
23.5

20.2
18.0
16.5
12.8
26.5
18.3

9.1
8.6
6.7
6.6
11.7
8.7

9.2
7.9
7.8
4.9
12.8
7.6

12.8
11.7
10.8
8.9
13.3
14.7

11.0
10.0
8.7
7.9
13.7
10.7

139.9
161.4
131.3
122.3
165.8
107.7

144.7
165.4
126.5
83.6
181.3
115.2

Beverages................................
Malt beverages.........................
Malt...................................
Wines, brandy, and brandy spirits......
Distilled liquor, except brandy........
Bottled and canned soft drinks.........
Flavoring extracts and syrups, n.e.c....

208
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087

231.6
50.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
135.6
n.a.

22.7
19.2

9.3
6.1
9.5
6.2
11.5
3.4

10.0
6.7
16.8
12.2
7.6
11.8
3.7

13.3
13.1
9.5
9.8
15.0
4.4

13.0
12.6
10.5
11.2
8.5
14.5
4.5

129.0
116.8
-

19.1
16.0
26.6
7.8

23.0
19.3
27.3
23.4
16.1
26.4
8.2

110.9
117.8
143.4
47.1

132.7
123.3
249.9
153.3
123.2
141.4
52.7

Miscellaneous foods and kindred products..
Canned and cured seafoods..............
Fresh or f.rozen packaged fish..........
Macaroni and spaghetti.................
Food preparations, n.e.c...............

209
2091
2092
2098
2099

167.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

16.8
20.7
21.7
17.0
14.8

16.3
22.3
20.4
17.5
14.7

7.6
8.8
9.6
7.0
6.7

7.5
10.2
10.0
9.2
6.5

9.2
11.9
12.1
10.0
8.1

8.8
12.1
10.3
8.3
8.2

120.6
145.2
113.7
166.9
107.1

120.6
173.5
150.0
163.6
102.4

21

69.6

9.1

8.7

3.8

4.0

5.3

4.6

66.7

58.6

211
212
213
214

44.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

7.4
9.0
12.1
15.0

7.7
6.9
11.8
13.6

3.9
2.7
3.2
5.0

4.1
2.7
3.3
5.1

3.5
6.3
8.9
10.0

3.5
4.2
8.5
8.5

73.9
44.8
54.4
61.0

60.0
41.4
49.3
69.0

7.3

6.8

57.4

Tobacco manufactures.......................
Cigarettes...............................
Cigars......................... ..... .
Chewing and smoking tobacco..............
Tobacco stemming and redrying............
Textile mill products......................

-

22

900.2

10.2

10.2

2.9

3.4

Weaving mills, cotton....................
Weaving mills, synthetics................
Weaving and finishing mills, wool........
Narrow fabric mills......................

221
222
223
224

149.8
125.0
20.9
26.0

_

_

8.1
12.9
10.6

7.7
7.7
14.9
10.9

1.9
5.4
3.3

1.9
2.2
6.6
4.1

Knitting mills...........................
Women's hosiery, except socks..........
Hosiery, n.e.c..... ....................
Knit outerwear mills...................
Knit underwear mills...................
Circular knit fabric mills........ .
Warp knit fabric mills.................
Knitting mills, n.e.c..................

225
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259

236.4
28.2
34.9
79.3
33.9
34.6
n.a.
n.a.

7.8
4.4
5.4
6.5
9.0
11.4
10.4
13.0

8.5
5.1
5.8
7.5
9.4
12.0
12.1
14.3

2.6
1.6
2.0
2.1
3.1
4.1
2.7
5.9

Textile finishing, except wool...........
Finishing plants, cotton...............
Finishing plants, synthetics...........
Finishing plants, n.e.c................

226
2261
2262
2269

79.3
33.5
29.3
n.a.

13.0
11.8
14.3
13.2

13.0
11.1
13.7
15.6

Floor covering m i l l s ........................

Woven carpets and rugs............... .
Tufted carpets and rugs................
Carpets and rugs, n.e.c................

227
2271
2272
2279

61.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

12.7
12.6
12.9
"

Yarn and thread mills....................
Yarn mills, except wool................
Throwing and winding mills.............
Wool y a m mills................ ........
Thread mills.... .................

228
2281
2282
2283
2284

131.5
87.8
22.2
n.a.
n.a.

Miscellaneous textile goods..............
Felt goods, except woven felts and hats.
Lace goods.............................
Paddings and upholstery filling........
Processed textile waste................
Coated fabrics, not rubberized.........
Tire cord and fabric...................
Nonwoven fabrics.......................
Cordage and twine......................
Textile goods, n.e.c...................

229
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299

70.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

19.3
13.0
15.8
16.3
14.7
14.0

1,332.5
91.1

Apparel and other textile products.........

23

_

_

61.5

6.2
7.5
7.3

5.8
5.4
8.3
6.8

45.4
97.2
58.0

48.5
44.9
118.6
62.4

3.1
2.0
2.3
2.6
3.5
4.4
3.5
7.4

5.1
2.8
3.3
4.4
5.9
7.3
7.7
7.1

5.4
3.1
3.4
4.9
5.9
7.6
8.5
6.9

40.2
22.2
25.1
34.3
36.3
71.1
45.1
92.1

46.5
36.3
34.9
35.9
49.2
70.3
61.1
66.9

4.5
4.1
5.0
4.1

4.9
4.4
5.2
5.2

8.5
7.7
9.3
9.1

8.1
6.7
8.5
10.4

79.3
82.4
78.6
74.4

91.4
84.8
95.4
98.2

13.9
10.0
14.7
8.7

3.4
2.9
3.5
"

4.2
3.5
4.4
4.7

9.3
9.7
9.3
-

9.6
6.5
10.3
4.0

76.0
56.3
80.6

73.7
66.0
75.4
62.5

12.0
12.2
11.2
13.2
-

11.7
11.8
11.3
15.3
7.7

2.8
2.6
2.8
5.0
-

3.2
3.0
3.4
5.5
2.4

9.2
9.6
8.4
8.2
-

8.4
8.7
7.9
9.8
5.3

56.9
59.0
42.5
83.5

61.7
61.5
49.3
101.3
45.9

14.3
18.9

15.0
23.5
10.9
18.4
16.3
16.7
6.8
14.0
14.9
13.2

5.6
7.1
8.9
5.8
6.9
5.8
5.3
4.9

6.3
10.8
3.1
9.9
6.5
6.7
2.9
5.4
6.1
5.0

8.7
11.7

10.5
9.4
9.0

8.7
12.7
7.8
8.4
9.7
9.9
3.9
8.6
8.8
8.2

105.2
136.5
154.1
84.0
136.3
116.4
90.0
95.9

105.5
164.6
70.8
176.4
91.0
128.6
68.8
92.6
87.0
64.6

6.7

6.5

2.0

2.2

4.7

4.3

31.7

32.4

6.5

6.3

2.4

2.3

4.1

4.0

36.8

37.4

-

-

10.4
7.2
8.9
-

Men's and boys' suits and coats..........

231

Men's and boys' furnishings..............
Men's and boys' shirts and nightwear....
Men's and boys' underwear..............
Men's and boys' neckwear...............
Men's and boys' separate trousers......
Men's and boys' work clothing..........
Men's and boys' clothing, n.e.c........

232
2321
2322
2323
2327
2328
2329

369.3
106.8
n.a.
n.a.
81.8
97.3
n.a.

8.3
6.0
7.5
3.0
7.6
11.7
8.5

7.7
5.8
8.0
3.5
7.0
10.4
8.2

2.6
1.7
2.4
.7
2.4
3.9
2.2

2.7
2.0
2.8
.9
2.5
3.8
2.5

5.7
4.2
5.1
2.3
5.2
7.8
6.2

5.0
3.8
5.2
2.6
4.5
6.5
5.7

39.7
24.4
37.5
15.5
36.9
66.2
30.1

40.4
27.4
42.0
25.2
36.7
61.1
37.3

Women's and misses' outerwear............
Women's and misses' blouses and waists..
Women's and misses' dresses............
Women's and misses' suits and coats....
Women's and misses' outerwear, n.e.c....

233
2331
2335
2337
2339

438.7
60.2
167.6
65.1
145.9

4.7
4.2
3.2

4.8
4.6
3.4
4.5
6.6

1.2
1.0
.8

1.3
1.0
.9
1.3
1.9

3.5
3.2
2.4

3.5
3.6
2.4
3.2
4.7

21.3
19.4
11.4

17.6
13.9
11.6
18.5
25.1

-

6.2

See footnotes at end of table.




28

-

1.6

-

4.6

-

28.8

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Women's and children's undergarments.....
Women's and children's underwear........
Brassieres and allied garments.........

23A
2341
2342

92.9
72.7
20.3

5.8
6.1
4.6

6.2
6.3
5.5

1.5
1.6
1.2

1.7
1.8
1.7

4.3
4.5
3.4

4.4
4.5
3.8

21.4
22.0
19.5

30.2
30.4
29.3

Hats, caps, and millinery............. .
Millinery..............................

235
2351

n.a.
n.a.

6.8

7.5
4.4

2.0
-

2.7
.9

4.7

4.8
3.5

32.6

33.1
10.3

Children's outerwear.......... ..........
Children's dresses and blouses.........
Children's outerwear, n.e.c............

236
2361
2369

69.6
26.9
n.a.

5.8
5.7
6.1

5.3
4.3
5.4

1.6
1.3
1.9

1.8
1.2
2.2

4.2
4.4
4.1

3.4
3.1
3.2

23.5
16.3
30.0

29.5
20.9
33.0

Miscellaneous apparel and accessories....
Fabric dress and work gloves...........
Robes and dressing gowns...............
Waterproof outergarments...............
Leather and sheep lined clothing.......
Apparel belts..........................
Apparel and accessories, n.e.c.........

238
2381
2384
2385
2386
2387
2389

60.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

6.1
6.4
5.8
6.2
7.6
4.5

6.4
5.3
6.0
7.0
5.7
8.3
6.5

2.0
2.5
1.9
1.8
2.1
1.4

2.2
2.3
1.6
1.9
2.5
2.6
2.4

4.1
3.9
3.8
4.4
5.5
3.1

4.2
3.0
4.3
5.1
3.1
5.7
4.1

32.1
42.8
32.4
29.5
32.3
23.3

31.9
38.6
24.7
34.7
35.3
31.3
22.8

Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products.............................
Curtains and draperies.................
House furnishings, n.e.c...............
Textile bags...........................
Canvas and related products............
Pleating and stitching.................
Automotive and apparel trimmings.......
Schiffli machine embroideries..........
Fabricated textile products, n.e.c.....

239
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2399

190.9
30.8
51.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
36.5
n.a.
n.a.

8.7
7.1
9.9
14.0
10.9
4.7
7.4
9.0
9.8

8.9
8.6
9.7
11.9
10.9
6.1
7.2
6.2
9.8

2.8
2.2
2.8
4.7
3.9
1.9
2.6
2.7
3.0

3.3
3.2
3.6
4.5
3.8
2.5
2.8
2.8
3.5

5.9
4.9
7.1
9.3
6.9
2.8
4.8
6.3
6.8

5.6
5.3
6.1
7.4
7.1
3.6
4.4
3.4
6.3

44.9
38.8
44.1
68.8
45.2
29.5
57.8
32.5
38.0

49.1
50.3
47.3
90.1
59.6
35.4
43.0
49.2
47.8

_

26

700.9

13.6

13.5

5.0

5.7

8.5

7.8

101.6

103.3

Pulp mills...............................
Paper mills, except building paper.......
Paperboard mills.........................

261
262
263

n.a.
168.0
69.1

13.1
10.6
13.6

11.1
10.3
12.3

3.3
4.1
5.0

3.5
4.6
4.9

9.7
6.5
8.6

7.6
5.7
7.4

87.4
107.0
111.5

82.7
106.5
106.7

Miscellaneous converted paper products....
Paper coating and glazing..............
Envelopes....... .......................
Bags, except textile bags..............
Die-cut paper and board................
Pressed and molded pulp goods...........
Sanitary paper products................
Stationery products....................
Converted paper products, n.e.c........

264
2641
2642
2643
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649

219.9
56.4
24.2
49.7
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

13.9
12.6
16.8
15.9
12.7
16.2
9.7
16.7
14.0

14.0
10.8
16.8
16.2
13.4
17.9
10.3
15.8
16.4

5.2
4.5
6.7
5.6
5.3
7.9
3.1
6.4
5.3

5.8
4.4
6.6
6.8
6.1
7.5
3.9
6.4
7.2

8.7
8.1
10.1
10.3
7.4
8.3
6.6
10.3
8.7

8.2
6.4
10.1
9.4
7.3
10.4
6.4
9.4
9.1

88.5
73.8
107.0
100.8
68.2
137.2
59.6
105.3
104.7

89.9
67.6
100.3
99.3
90.7
136.6
83.2
83.9
105.6

Paperboard containers and boxes..........
Folding paperboard boxes...............
Set-up paperboard boxes................
Corrugated and solid fiber boxes.......
Sanitary food containers...............
Fiber cans, drums, and similar
products.............................

265
2651
2652
2653
2654

214.1
45.8
n.a.
106.9
28.4

15.9
14.4
13.4
18.1
11.2

16.4
15.7
12.9
18.5
12.4

5.9
5.1
5.2
6.7
4.4

6.8
6.3
5.2
7.7
5.5

10.0
9.3
8.1
11.4
6.8

9.6
9.4
7.7
10.7
6.9

105.1
90.7
82.1
122.0
81.6

114.0
99.3
92.5
127.7
104.3

2655

n.a.

16.2

15.5

5.8

5.9

10.4

9.6

97.3

98.7

Building paper and board mills...........

266

n.a.

13.6

13.3

5.8

5.7

7.8

7.6

144.7

106.7

Paper and allied products..................

27

1,193.1

6.8

7.0

2.7

2.9

4.1

4.1

41.7

43.8

Newspapers...............................
Periodicals............................. .

271
272

407.4
79.5

5.3
2.6

5.8
2.9

2.3
1.0

2.6
1.2

3.0
1.6

3.2
1.7

42.1
13.2

44.2
16.9

Books.................. .
Book publishing........................
Book printing..........................

273
2731
2732

100.4
71.5
29.0

7.2
4.8
12.4

7.2
4.8
12.3

2.6
1.7
4.3

2.7
2.0
4.2

4.6
3.0
8.0

4.5
2.8
8.1

34.6
20.9
63.0

36.6
24.3
63.4

Printing and publishing....................

Miscellaneous publishing.................

274

Commercial printing......................
Commercial printing, letterpress.......
Commercial printing, lithographic......
Engraving and plate printing...........
Commercial printing, gravure...........

275
2751
2752
2753
2754

45.8

3.4

2.7

1.6

1.2

1.8

1.5

32.8

19.0

391.6
167.8
201.2
n.a.
n.a.

8.4
7.5
8.6
7.7
17.9

8.7
7.7
9.1
8.0
16.0

3.2
3.0
3.1
2.8
9.0

3.6
3.3
3.6
2.7
8.4

5.2
4.5
5.5
4.9
8.9

5.1
4.4
5.5
5.3
7.6

47.4
46.1
44.5
45.3
117.1

53.0
50.8
52.5
55.0
94.5

Manifold business forms..................
Greeting card publishing.................

276
277

44.8
n.a.

11.3
7.1

11.7
6.4

4.7
2.7

4.9
2.7

6.6
4.4

6.7
3.7

69.8
37.4

57.4
32.4

Blankbooks and bookbinding...............
Blankbooks and looseleaf binders.......
Bookbinding and related work...........

278
2782
2789

61.0
n.a.
n.a.

11.0
10.3
12.0

11.0
10.7
11.4

4.3
4.0
4.7

4.2
4.3
4.0

6.7
6.3
7.3

6.8
6.4
7.3

55.2
47.7
66.5

58.4
52.6
67.5

Printing trade services...... ............
Typesetting............................
Photoengraving.........................
Electrotyping and stereotyping.........
Lithographic platemaking services......

279
2791
2793
2794
2795

40.0
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

2.9
1.8
4.4
~

2.5
1.6
3.2
5.8
4.3

.9
.6
1.3
-

.9
.6
1.3
1.8
1.4

2.0
1.2
3.1
-

13.8
9.6
28.4
-

-

1.6
1.0
1.9
4.0
2.9

14.1
10.8
15.2
17.6
24.9

1,096.3

8.0

7.8

3.1

3.3

4.9

Chemicals and allied products..............

28

4.5

51.4

50.9

Industrial inorganic chemicals...........
Alkalies and chlorine..................
Inorganic pigments........... ..........
Industrial inorganic chemicals, n.e.c...

281
2812
2816
2819

166.3
n.a.
n.a.
108.3

6.7
5.1
11.1
6.3

6.2
5.1
10.0
5.9

2.6
2.3
4.7
2.3

2.6
2.4
4.9
2.2

4.1
2.8
6.4
4.0

3.6
2.7
5.1
3.7

53.8
56.5
101.1
46.8

49.6
54.9
88.6
40.7

Plastics materials and synthetics........
Plastics materials and resins..........
Synthetic rubber...... .......... ......
Organic fibers, noncellulosic...........

282
2821
2822
2824

215.9
83.7
n.a.
96.8

5.9
9.3
10.0
2.8

5.7
8.7
10.7
2.5

2.1
3.5
4.5
.9

2.3
3.8
4.8
.8

3.7
5.8
5.5
1.9

3.4
4.9
5.9
1.7

37.5
54.1
67.6
21.7

35.8
53.3
62.6
17.9

See footnotes at end of table.




29

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time; workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
[in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Drugs....................................
Biological products....................
Medicinals and botanlcals..............
Pharmaceutical preparations............

283
2831
2833
2834

186.4
n.a.
n.a.
149.2

6.3
5.5
7.5
6.3

6.7
6.4
7.1
6.7

2.7
2.3
3.0
2.7

3.0
3.1
4.0
2.9

3.6
3.2
4.5
3.5

3.7
3.3
3.1
3.8

39.3
40.7
44.6
38.5

42.7
49.0
58.2
40.0

Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods.........
Soap and other detergents..............
Polishes and sanitation goods..........
Surface active agents..................
Toilet preparations....................

284
2841
2842
2843
2844

136.1
40.8
n.a.
n.a.
55.6

10.0
10.0
11.9
14.6
8.3

9.8
8.7
12.8
14.2
8.5

3.9
4.3
3.8
6.0
3.4

4.5
4.5
5.2
5.9
3.9

6.1
5.7
8.1
8.6
4.9

5.3
4.1
7.6
8.3
4.6

58.1
67.4
57.0
64.2
50.6

68.0
69.1
81.8
78.9
58.2

Paints and allied products...............

285

68.9

13.7

14.3

5.3

6.0

8.4

8.2

73.1

78.1

Industrial organic chemicals.............
Gum and wood chemicals.................
Cyclic crudes and Intermediates........
Industrial organic chemicals, n.e.c....

286
2861
2865
2869

165.9
n.a.
36.8
n.a.

6.6
11.4
9.4
5.5

6.2
9.2
9.9
5.0

2.6
5.3
3.6
2.2

2.5
4.0
3.8
2.1

4.0
6.0
5.8
3.3

3.7
5.2
6.0
2.9

49.2
192.1
69.3
34.1

41.4
64.3
63.1
33.8

Agricultural chemicals...................
Nitrogenous fertilizers................
Phosphate fertilizers..................
Fertilizers, mixing only...............
Agricultural chemicals, n.e.c..........

287
2873
2874
2875
2879

67.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

10.3
10.0
9.5
13.6
9.1

9.1
7.8
8.4
13.4
7.9

3.6
3.2
2.3
5.3
3.8

3.6
2.9
2.9
4.8
3.7

6.7
6.8
7.1
8.2
5.3

5.5
4.9
5.5
8.6
4.2

57.4
54.7
59.1
72.9
48.3

56.7
43.1
62.0
79.5
49.4

Miscellaneous chemical products..........
Adhesives and sealants.................
Explosives.............................
Printing ink...........................
Carbon black...........................
Chemical preparations, n.e.c...........

289
2891
2892
2893
2895
2899

89.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

12.8
16.6
5.8
13.4
9.9
14.0

11.6
14.2
5.7
13.4
7.3
12.4

4.8
5.9
2.3
4.6
3.3
5.6

5.1
5.9
2.4
5.3
4.3
5.6

7.9
10.7
3.5
8.8
6.6
8.4

6.5
8.3
3.3
8.1
3.0
6.8

79.9
103.2
45.3
64.3
86.9
87.3

73.4
81.8
53.1
71.4
86.5
75.8

Petroleum and coal products................

29

208.7

8.1

7.9

3.3

3.4

4.8

4.5

59.2

58.3

Petroleum refining.......................

291

164.9

5.8

6.0

2.6

2.7

3.2

3.3

45.4

46.0

Paving and roofing materials.............
Paving mixtures and blocks........... .
Asphalt felts and coatings.............

295
2951
2952

32.6
n.a.
n.a.

15.6
11.8
17.8

14.4
11.1
16.3

5.3
4.2
6.0

5.7
4.1
6.6

10.3
7.5
11.8

8.7
7.0
9.7

101.8
79.2
114.5

105.7
71.4
125.8

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal
products.............................
Lubricating oils and greases...........
Petroleum and coal products, n.e.c......

299
2992
2999

n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

17.8
15.7
25.0

16.6
13.8
27.2

7.2
6.3
9.9

7.1
5.9
11.4

10.6
9.3
15.1

9.5
7.9
15.7

132.6
102.0
237.2

92.1
79.0
140.9

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products..
Tires and inner tubes....................
Rubber and plastics footwear...... .......
Reclaimed rubber.........................
Rubber and plastics hose and belting.....
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c........
Miscellaneous plastics products..........

30

751.9

16.8

17.1

7.6

8.1

9.1

9.0

118.1

125.5

301
302
303
304
306
307

127.4
24.0
n.a.
n.a.
114.6
461.6

15.5
10.8
20.5
13.0
17.4
17.6

15.4
12.9
30.5
13.9
17.0
18.1

10.8
4.3
10.3
7.1
8.0
6.7

11.4
6.6
17.4
6.9
8.2
7.2

4.7
6.5
10.1
5.9
9.4
10.9

3.9
6.3
13.1
7.0
8.8
10.9

181.1
81.1
240.3
122.0
128.7
95.7

207.1
84.7
373.3
118.1
125.3
104.2

31

255.6

11.5

11.7

4.4

4.7

7.1

6.9

68.9

72.5

Leather tanning and finishing............
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings.....

311
313

22.5
n.a.

24.1
14.4

23.8
16.0

11.3
5.0

11.8
6.0

12.8
9.4

11.9
10.0

166.8
74.8

203.1
96.2

Footwear, except rubber..................
House slippers....... ..................
Men's footwear, except athletic........
Women's footwear, except athletic......
Footwear, except rubber, n.e.c.........

314
3142
3143
3144
3149

157.8
n.a.
64.3
62.0
n.a.

10.3
10.1
10.2
10.0
11.5

10.4
9.0
10.9
9.5
11.4

3.8
3.4
4.0
3.7
3.3

4.1
4.0
4.5
3.6
4.4

6.5
6.6
6.2
6.3
8.2

6.2
5.0
6.4
5.9
7.0

63.3
53.1
61.9
70.0
52.5

62.6
65.0
61.9
62.5
64.3

Leather gloves and mittens...............
Luggage..................................

315
316

n.a.
17.3

6.4
12.1

5.4
11.2

2.2
4.7

2.4
4.5

4.2
7.4

3.0
6.7

31.1
68.2

23.2
52.6

Handbags and personal leather goods......
Women's handbags and purses............
Personal leather goods, n.e.c..........

317
3171
3172

32.3
n.a.
n.a.

7.8
6.7
9.2

9.2
7.9
10.5

2.4
1.7
3.3

2.9
2.0
3.8

5.4
4.9
5.9

6.3
5.9
6.6

35.4
22.1
52.6

39.7
31.8
47.8

4,927.0

9.7

10.1

5.3

5.7

4.3

4.3

95.9

102.3

536.2
257.6

10.8
8.4

12.0
8.7

6.6
4.6

7.6
4.7

4.2
3.7

4.3
4.0

89.4
92.1

99.6
84.9

8.3
8.4
6.9

6.6
6.4
9.6

6.8
6.7
8.0
8.4

158.9
162.8
103.3

177.1
182.1
105.7
176.4

Leather and leather products...............

Transportation and public utilities..... .
Railroad transportation 8/ .................
Local and interurban passenger transit.....

40
41

Trucking and warehousing...................
Trucking, local and long distance........
Public warehousing.......................
Trucking terminal facilities.............

42
421
422
423

1,312.4
n.a.
90.4
n.a.

15.0
14.9
16.5
-

16.2
16.3
15.5
17.9

-

9.4
9.5
7.4
9.5

Water transportation.......................
Water transportation services............

44
446

211.7
n.a.

14.4
21.1

14.4
21.9

7.4
11.1

7.8
12.2

6.9
10.0

6.6
9.6

292.5
473.0

272.1
459.5

Transportation by air......................
Pipelines, except natural gas..............

45
46

404.5
19.5

14.0
5.0

13.4
4.7

8.0
2.0

8.4
1.9

5.9
3.0

4.9
2.8

97.2
32.4

95.8
29.3

Transportation services.... .............
Miscellaneous transportation services....

47
478

169.0
n.a.

5.5
19.5

5.5
17.9

2.5
8.4

2.7
7.6

3.0
11.0

2.8
10.3

39.5
126.5

41.7
119.8

Communication...............................

48

Electric, gas, and sanitary services.......
Sanitary services........................

49
495

1,238.7

2.8

2.7

1.6

1.5

1.2

1.2

30.2

28.7

777.4
43.1

9.0
24.8

9.0
25.9

4.2
13.9

4.4
15.1

4.8
10.8

4.6
10.8

69.0
206.1

76.5
223.0

See footnotes at end of table.




■

30

Table 1. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 5/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

1978
annual
average
employment
(in thousands)
4/

Total
cases 6/

1977

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

1978

1977

Lost
workdays

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Wholesale and retail trade...................

19,499.0

7.7

7.9

2.9

3.2

4.8

4.7

44.0

Wholesale trade............................

4,957.0

8.5

8.9

3.6

3.9

4.9

5.0

52.5

57.5

2,887.0
2,070.0

8.2
9.0

8.6
9.3

3.2
4.1

3.6
4.4

5.0
4.9

5.0
4.9

44.0
64.2

51.8
65.8

Wholesale trade— durable goods...........
Wholesale trade— nondurable goods........

50
51

Retail trade...............................
Building materials and garden supplies....
General merchandise stores...............
Food stores............... .......... .
Automotive dealers and service stations...
Apparel and accessory stores.............
Furniture and home furnishings stores.....
Eating and drinking places...............
Miscellaneous retail.....................

14,542.0

7.4

7.5

2.7

2.8

4.7

4.7

40.5

39.7

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

607.1
2,304.0
2,194.6
1,860.7
905.4
594.7
4,258.1
1,816.7

9.4 1
8.7
11.4
7.8
2.0
5.0
7.3
3.6

9.8
9.1
10.7
8.0
2.3
5.1
7.5
3.8

3.7
3.3
4.4
2.6
.7
2.1
2.4
1.3

4.2
3.8
4.2
2.5
.9
2.4
2.5
1.6

5.7
5.4
6.9
5.2
1.3
2.9
4.9
2.3

5.6
5.3
6.5
5.4
1.4
2.6
4.9
2.1

62.1
45.2
71.2
41.8
13.6
42.3
30.0
22.3

60.6
48.6
67.2
39.0
14.8
38.6
28.7
23.8

4,727.0

2.0

2.1

.8

.8

1.2

1.2

10.4

12.5

60
61
62
63
64
65

1,421.9
515.4
189.8
1,176.9
403.7
890.0

1.5
1.1
1.1
1.7
.7
4.7

1.5
1.1
.8
1.9
.8
4.9

.6
.3
.5
.7
.2
2.0

.6
.4
.3
.7
.3
2.2

.9
.8
.6
1.0
.4
2.6

.9
.7
.5
1.2
.4
2.6

6.6
4.0
4.0
8.6
5.2
28.7

7.4
5.2
4.6
12.1
33.6

Finance, Insurance, and real estate..........
Banking............ .......................
Credit agencies other than banks...........
Security, commodity brokers, and services...
Insurance carriers.........................
Insurance agents, brokers, and service.....
Real estate................................

15,891.0

5.5

5.5

2.2

2.4

3.3

3.1

35.4

36.2

970.6
904.3
2,613.9
547.2

8.9
3.6
4.8
7.6

9.2
3.5
4.9
8.2

3.2
1.6
2.0
3.1

3.6
1.5
2.2
3.4

5.7
2.0
2.8
4.5

5.6
1.9
2.7
4.8

47.3
29.8
31.9
43.5

51.5
28.1
34.9
42.2

258.9
n.a.

10.4
12.8

10.0
12.4

4.3
5.3

4.5
5.4

6.0
7.4

5.5
7.0

77.2
87.5

69.3
80.4

78
79
80
82
83

210.4
709.8
4,808.3
1,051.7
978.5

4.2
8.4
6.8
3.2
6.0

-

5.1
4.1
2.0
3.4

2.9
4.7
3.7
1.9
3.4

_

4.9
2.8
1.2
2.0

1.3
3.7
3.0
1.3
2.6

-

10.1
6.9
3.2
5.4

56.4
46.7
20.3
29.8

25.7
46.7
48.1
19.5
37.8

84
89

n.a.
865.8

7.6
2.2

7.3
1.9

2.7
.9

2.7
.7

4.9
1.3

4.6
1.2

41.3
15.2

35.1
10.3

Services............................ .........
Hotels and other lodging places............
Personal services..........................
Business services............... ..........
Auto repair, services, and garages.........

70
72
73
75

Miscellaneous repair services..............
Miscellaneous repair shops................

76
769

Motion pictures............... .............
Amusement and recreation services..........
Health services............................
Educational services.......................
Social services............................
Museums, botanical and zoological
gardens................................
Miscellaneous services.....................

_

1 In order to maintain the com parability o f the 1978 survey data w ith the data published
in previous years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the 19 7 8 estimates to
represent the small nonfarm employers in low-risk industries which were not surveyed. The
estimating procedure involved averaging the data reported by small employers fo r the 1975,
1976, and 1977 annual surveys.
* Totals fo r divisions and 2- and 3-digit SIC codes include data fo r industries not shown
separately.
3 Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1972 Edition.
4 Annual average em ploym ent fo r nonagricultural industries is based on the em ploym ent
and earnings survey conducted by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics, in cooperation w ith the State
agencies. The em ployment estimate fo r the services division is adjusted to exclude the em­
ploym ent fo r (a) nonfarm portion o f agricultural services and (b) nonclassifiable establish­
ments. Annual average em ploym ent fo r the agriculture, forestry, and fishing division is a com­
posite o f data from State unem ploym ent insurance programs, and estimates o f hired-farm
workers engaged in agricultural production provided by the U.S. Departm ent o f Agriculture.
The agricultural production em ploym ent estimate as originally published by the Departm ent
o f Agriculture is adjusted to exclude em ploym ent on farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.
s The incidence rates represent the number o f injuries and illnesses or lost workdays per
100 fu ll-tim e workers and were calculated as: (N /E H ) X 20 0 ,0 0 0 , where




44.9

31

N
EH
2 0 0 ,0 0 0

■ number o f injuries and illnesses or lost workdays
=
= to tal hours w orked by all employees during calendar year
* base fo r 100 full-tim e equivalent workers (working 4 0 hours per week,
5 0 weeks per year).

* Includes fatalities. Because o f rounding, the difference between the to tal and the sum
o f the rates fo r lost workday cases and nonfatal cases w ith o u t lost workdays does not reflect
the fatality rate.
7 Excludes farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.
* Data conforming to O S H A definitions fo r coal and lignite mining (SIC 11 and 12) and
metal and nonmetal mining (SIC 10 and 14), and fo r railroad transportation (SIC 4 0 ) were
provided by the Mine Safety and Health A dm inistration, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor, and by
the Federal Railroad Adm inistration, U.S. D epartm ent o f Transportation.
N O T E : Dashes indicate data th at do not meet publication guidelines.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
n.a. = Data not available.
SO UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor.

Table 2. Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and employment
size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers _3/

Middle range
Industry and enyloyment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Mean
4/

Median
4/

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Private sector 5/:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

9.4
4.1
9.1
11.8
13.1
12.6
10.8
9.0
7.2

0.0
.0
.0
7.2
9.2
9.2
8.2
6.8
5.9

0.0
.0
.0
.0
2.7
3.8
3.6
3.1
2.8

0.0
.0
13.2
17.9
19.3
18.1
15.2
12.7
10.4

11.6
6.9
10.9
14.1
15.4
17.4
14.6
22.6

.0
.0
3.6
10.5
13.1
15.5
12.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.6
5.8
7.6
7.1
(6)

.0
.0
14.4
21.5
22.6
21.9
23.7
(6)

12.8
8.7
9.8
13.6
15.5
18.2
15.0
27.1

1.8
.0
3.4
9.9
13.0
16.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.3
6.1
9.5
(6)
(6)

14.3
11.6
13.1
20.2
22.0
24.5
(6)
(6)

10.3
6.2
13.8
15.0
15.7
15.9
15.5
8.5

.0
.0
2.9
12.5
13.7
13.7
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.0
5.5
4.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
18.7
26.3
24.5
28.3
(6)
(6)

11.0
8.0
11.9
21.5
10.8

.0
.0
6.5
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
(6)
(6)

9.1
.0
17.5
(6)
(6)

4.1
2.9
4.5
20.2

.0
.0
.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
(6)

.0
.0
6.2
(6)

11.5
7.6
12.7
13.8
13.0
13.0
9.6
8.6
.9

.0
.0
6.2
8.2
8.6
9.6
8.3
7.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.7
3.1
3.9
3.9
3.2
(6)

7.5
.0
17.8
20.1
19.0
18.1
14.4
11.8
(6)

10.0
10.2
12.7
10.8
10.3
9.2
8.4
12.0

1.7
.0
8.4
8.8
7.5
7.6
7.1
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.6
3.6
4.5
3.5
(6)

12.1
.0
17.7
16.2
13.8
12.1
12.0
(6)

19.6
13.9
26.5
19.7

.0
.0
16.5
(6)

.0
.0
6.4
(6)

9.9
.0
31.8
(6)

10.1
7.0
8.5
9.2
10.3

sizes..................... ............
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

.0
.0
3.1
6.3
8.6

.0
.0
.0
1.4
3.9

9.2
.0
13.6
13.0
15.2

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

sizes.................................
to 19............ .....................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Agricultural production.......................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Agricultural services.........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

07

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Forestry......................................
All
1
20
50
100

01-02

sizes........... .....................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

08

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Fishing, hunting, and trapping................
All sizes.................................
1 to 19.................................
20 to 49.................................
50 to 99.................................

09

Mining:




All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Metal mining 5/...............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Anthracite mining 5/..........................
All
1
20
50

11

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................

Bituminous coal and lignite mining V .... .
All
1
20
50
100

10

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

12

sizes............................. ••••
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

See footnotes at end of table.

32

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

Z.I

Middle range .4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Oil and gas extraction........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

5_/ .........

Third
quartile

0.0
.0
9.5
13.4
12.4
12.5
4.3
(6)
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
2.4
3.0
2.7
2.1
(6)
(6)

10.3
.0
24.5
26.8
27.6
29.8
19.7
(6)
(6)

4.4
5.1
6.2
6.4
3.9
5.8
2.7
.8
.4

.0
.0
.0
2.7
2.3
3.3
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1.4
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
8.2
9.6
4.6
7.5
(6)
(6)
(6)

20.3
11.7
20.4
22.1
23.2
25.3
17.0
9.1

.0
.0
16.7
21.2
21.6
23.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
5.2
8.9
11.0
14.2
(6)
(6)

20.1
.0
29.6
30.7
33.4
41.5
(6)
(6)

6.9
5.8
7.8
7.7
6.8
6.2
9.2

.0
.0
3.4
5.4
5.3
6.3
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.7
1.8
3.2
(6)

.6
.0
11.4
10.7
10.2
9.5
(6)

16.0
9.6
18.1
21.5
21.4
21.0
18.7
17.7
6.5

.0
.0
13.7
20.3
19.7
19.1
15.9
13.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
9.0
10.1
10.5
8.6
6.8
(6)

9.0
.0
27.7
31.7
32.0
29.6
26.6
28.7
(6)

15.9
9.2
18.5
22.1
21.9
21.5
20.5
18.5
9.6

.0
.0
14.5
21.5
21.2
18.9
19.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
10.1
8.7
10.4
9.3
(6)
(6)

6.7
.0
27.7
32.5
34.0
30.3
27.9
(6)
(6)

13.3
8.5
18.1
21.7
19.6
22.8
38.4

.0
.0
12.2
19.7
18.0
17.7
(6)

0.0
0.0
0.0
7.2
2.4
7.5
(6)

.0
.0
28.1
33.7
31.7
29.2
(6)

15.7
7.8
14.3
15.5
16.7
15.3
14.2

.0
.0
9.1
12.6
16.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.5
6.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
19.4
24.1
25.8
(6)
(6)

19.2
12.4
19.4
23.3
24.3
21.5
16.6
12.8

.0
.0
16.4
23.3
22.9
20.3
18.3
(6)

.0
.0
1.3
12.1
11.5
11.5
9.1
(6)

22.7
11.9
28.1
32.9
35.8
31.3
27.0
(6)

131

138

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Nonmetallic minerals, except fuels

First
quartile

13.9
8.9
16.2
17.3
16.7
16.2
9.1
3.7
.4

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Oil and gas field services..................

Median
4/

13

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................... .............
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Crude petroleum and natural gas.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

14

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Construction:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over......................... .

General building contractors..................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Residential building construction...........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

153

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Nonresidential building construction........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

152

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Operative builders..........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

15

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999............ ....................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

154

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




33

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978




Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Heavy construction contractors................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100

.0
.0
14.9
20.8
19.0
22.5
13.7
14.1
(6)

.0
.0
3.8
10.1
10.6
12.7
8.1
6.2
(6)

19.7
.0
26.9
30.5
32.9
34.4
20.8
28.7
(6)

.0
.0
13.6
20.9
20.8
18.0
13.9
(6)

.0
.0
.0
9.2
10.9
9.0
7.5
(6)

7.0
.0
28.5
33.1
33.1
28.8
28.3
(6)

16.9
9.7
19.2
23.6
24.8
23.2
26.2
38.4

.0
.0
15.6
22.3
23.3
20.8
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
1.1
12.0
12.1
11.2
(6)
(6)

9.1
.0
30.3
33.0
36.5
31.6
(6)
(6)

9.4
5.5
11.4
16.4
16.9

.0
.0
6.0
10.8
13.7

.0
.0
.0
3.0
3.6

.0
.0
17.3
24.1
25.7

14.0
8.8
15.5
20.4
18.5
16.0
12.4

.0
.0
12.8
19.7
18.0
13.3
(6)

.0
.0
.0
9.5
8.0
7.6
(6)

9.6
.0
24.5
28.9
28.4
25.5
(6)

15.6
8.9
17.9
22.6
23.9
23.7

.0
.0
13.4
21.4
23.6
(6)

.0
.0
.0
10.3
13.2
(6)

2.9
.0
28.0
32.1
31.9
(6)

13.6
8.5
16.7
25.0
28.6
36.4

.0
.0
10.4
22.0
31.8
(6)

.0
.0
.0
8.8
13.9
(6)

.0
.0
26.2
36.8
42.5
(6)

22.5
15.8
28.1
27.6
24.2

.0
.0
24.3
27.2
22.2

.0
.0
7.5
12.3
11.8

22.9
13.7
42.7
42.2
38.1

171

172

173

174

175

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Roofing and sheet-metal work................

16.7
.0
21.2
25.2
24.3
23.3
(6)

15.8
9.7
18.3
22.6
22.5
20.8
17.7
23.6

sizes.............. ...................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Carpentering and flooring...................

.0
.0
2.5
6.1
9.0
10.7
(6)

17

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Masonry, stonework, and plastering..........

.0
.0
11.7
14.1
17.1
17.6
(6)

17.2
10.4
18.0
21.1
21.7
23.8
17.9
16.0
6.3

sizes............................... .
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Electrical work.............................

18.5
.0
25.2
28.3
29.2
30.2
21.5
27.9
(6)

Third
quartile

162

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Painting, paper hanging, and decorating.....

0.0
.0
3.3
8.1
10.1
11.8
8.8
6.2
(6)

15.2
9.6
14.3
16.0
16.8
16.8
18.7

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning.....

0.0
.0
13.1
18.1
17.9
19.9
15.4
13.7
(6)

First
quartile

161

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Special trade contractors.....................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

16.6
10.1
16.5
19.0
19.8
21.2
18.1
16.3
6.3

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Heavy construction, except highway..........

Median
4/

16

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Highway and street construction.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

Mean
4/

176

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

See footnotes at end of table.

34

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100i full-time workers

3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1
J
SIC
code
2/

Concrete work...............................
All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250

14.6
9.4
15.4
23.1
20.1
30.5

0.0
.0
9.1
18.7
16.8
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
8.2
11.0
(6)

10.8
.0
22.1
28.9
32.5
(6)

12.8
9.6
20.4
18.3

.0
.0
20.2
(6)

.0
.0
9.4
(6)

.0
.0
28.7
(6)

16.9
11.6
19.2
22.0
23.0
19.8

.0
.0
13.7
19.6
19.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
7.0
11.7
(6)

13.3
.0
29.1
36.2
31.8
(6)

13.2
8.6
15.1
18.1
18.3
15.7
12.5
9.5
7.0

.0
.0
8.6
13.4
14.3
12.5
9.7
7.3
5.9

.0
.0
.0
4.5
6.7
6.4
5.0
3.4
2.8

16.6
.0
22.9
26.0
26.1
22.0
17.5
13.3
9.6

14.2
10.9
18.6
21.7
21.1
17.8
13.5
9.9
7.1

2.8
.0
13.4
17.6
17.8
14.6
11.1
7.8
6.1

.0
.0
.0
7.8
8.8
7.7
5.7
3.6
2.9

21.0
8.2
28.3
31.0
30.2
25.2
19.0
14.1
9.8

22.6
15.6
24.3
26.6
25.5
21.1
15.9
13.7

.0
.0
20.3
23.0
22.7
16.9
13.7
(6)

.0
.0
7.2
11.6
12.4
10.1
9.0
(6)

26.7
17.1
35.4
37.3
36.6
31.3
19.6
(6)

25.9
21.0
30.5
48.9
21.9
17.5
20.9

.0
.0
27.3
48.7
18.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
11.8
30.4
10.4
(6)
(6)

28.3
23.2
46.5
76.8
32.2
(6)
(6)

21.7
14.1
24.5
24.5
24.6
19.7
16.8
11.8

5.8
.0
19.7
20.7
22.0
14.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
6.8
11.5
11.9
9.1
(6)
(6)

26.2
16.8
34.7
34.2
34.8
27.9
(6)
(6)

20.4
11.5
22.1
23.3
24.6
19.0
14.3
19.4

4.9
.0
18.3
21.7
21.3
16.3
13.1
(6)

.0
.0
5.9
9.5
12.4
9.0
8.7
(6)

23.2
8.7
33.1
32.6
34.6
26.6
18.5
(6)

21.4
14.6
24.2
25.3
23.0
16.0

7.3
.0
21.3
22.2
22.2
(6)

.0
.0
7.5
11.9
9.9
(6)

27.5
22.5
36.2
38.1
31.6
(6)

First
quartile

Third
quartile

178

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................

Miscellaneous special trade contractors.....

Median
4/

177

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Water well drilling.........................
All
1
20
50

Mean
4/

179

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Manufacturing:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Durable goods:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Lumber and wood products......................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Logging camps and logging contractors.......
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

243

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Wood containers.............................
All
1
20
50
100
250

242

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Mlllwork, plywood, and structural members....
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

241

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Sawmills and planing mills..................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

24

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

244

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

See footnotes at end of table.




35




Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and

employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Wood buildings and mobile homes.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
100
250
500
1,000

6.2
.0
13.0
18.6
18.5
17.1
13.1
11.6
(6)

.0
.0
1.6
9.0
9.6
9.9
7.5
7.2
(6)

20.5
.0
24.7
28.9
28.8
28.3
21.8
21.6
(6)

6.8
.0
12.5
18.0
17.5
16.6
11.6
(6)

.0
.0
1.3
8.9
8.6
9.2
6.7
(6)

19.7
.0
22.8
28.0
27.5
26.0
18.1
(6)

18.4
15.2
20.9
21.9
21.4
18.7
14.9

9.4
9.5
17.0
18.8
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
2.9
2.5
11.6
(6)
(6)
(6)

22.6
23.4
26.7
26.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

21.3
8.8
19.5
23.2
24.5
24.0
16.9

12.9
(6)
18.7
18.8
23.7
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
3.4
13.4
17.2
(6)
(6)

27.0
(6)
32.8
33.3
33.3
(6)
(6)

20.2
10.8
19.9
23.3
22.8
24.8
15.0

7.1
.0
17.2
22.2
22.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
4.3
10.9
12.1
(6)
(6)

23.9
9.8
28.5
31.8
32.3
(6)
(6)

19.0
4.4
12.1
17.4
19.5
33.8
27.0

.0
.0
7.6
13.1
17.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
7.3
7.8
(6)
(6)

9.0
.0
15.4
28.3
28.7
(6)
(6)

16.8
10.2
19.9
21.2
19.6
16.7
15.5
12.5
13.4

4.2
.0
15.7
19.2
17.8
13.8
13.2
10.8
(6)

.0
.0
3.6
9.2
8.8
7.1
8.1
6.8
(6)

20.7
10.2
28.3
31.6
28.6
23.8
20.4
17.0
(6)

18.1
20.0
35.5
14.7
27.5
19.0
20.8

16.6
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

1.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

39.8
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

252

253

254

259

32

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49..... ............................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Flat glass..................................

21.9
11.8
29.7
33.1
32.2
(6)
(6)

16.5
8.3
14.5
20.1
19.8
18.0
13.3
13.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Stone, clay, and glass products...............

.0
.0
4.7
8.2
9.2
(6)
(6)

251

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures........

1.5
.0
17.7
17.5
15.9
(6)
(6)

17.5
8.5
15.8
20.6
20.6
19.8
14.8
14.4
12.0

sizes...... ...........................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Partitions and fixtures.....................

43.1
31.3
43.8
47.9
42.9
55.7
(6)

Third
quartile

25

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Public building and related furniture.......

8.7
.0
11.5
17.1
18.8
14.6
(6)

18.5
10.9
20.2
20.9
21.4
21.0
10.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Office furniture............... .............

24.4
.0
19.3
30.2
31.2
34.6
(6)

First
quartile

249

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99 .................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Household furniture............. ...........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

32.7
19.9
29.4
34.9
32.5
36.0
25.6

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Furniture and fixtures........................

Median
4/

245

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Miscellaneous wood products.............. .
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

Mean
4/

321

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

36

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 10Cl full-time workers _3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Glass and glassware, pressed and blown......
All
50
100
250
500
1,000

1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

1
20
50
100
250
500

to
to
to
to
to
to

All
1
20
50
100

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

.0
.0
4.5
10.2
13.2
(6)
(6)

26.0
.0
29.6
28.9
29.6
(6)
(6)

.0
7.2
10.6
22.5
18.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
2.2
12.0
8.7
(6)
(6)

10.1
18.7
23.7
35.8
34.0
(6)
(6)

18.1
10.8
20.3
23.4
18.3
15.1
26.6

3.5
.0
16.5
21.5
15.9
11.6
(6)

.0
.0
5.2
11.7
7.6
5.7
(6)

21.1
13.0
28.3
32.5
26.8
24.5
(6)

14.2
8.5
16.9
15.6
25.8

.0
.0
14.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
3.9
(6)
(6)

13.1
.0
26.5
(6)
(6)

16.7
10.3
17.5
18.7
21.0
16.1
14.5
10.0

6.3
.0
12.7
15.3
19.1
12.9
13.8
(6)

.0
.0
.0
6.6
9.7
6.9
7.6
(6)

20.3
9.5
26.4
30.6
29.1
22.6
18.1
(6)

17.0
14.4
25.8
31.2
27.5
23.8
18.3
12.6
9.2

15.2
.0
19.7
26.3
23.5
20.4
15.3
8.9
8.0

.0
.0
7.3
14.0
12.5
11.2
9.4
5.8
4.7

32.3
16.1
39.3
42.9
38.9
32.6
27.2
18.7
12.5

13.0
26.5
34.5
29.2
26.5
23.4
18.8
10.2
9.4

18.4
8.8
31.3
21.6
22.6
21.6
17.1
9.5
8.3

7.8
.0
12.5
12.8
9.6
8.5
8.9
5.9
4.3

38.7
44.6
47.9
45.6
37.9
32.7
27.7
14.4
13.0

24.6
23.1
34.6
39.1
34.8
32.9
21.5
20.4
8.0

24.2
9.6
26.1
33.4
30.4
27.7
18.6
18.9
(6)

9.7
.0
8.9
15.8
17.6
17.6
12.4
8.7
(6)

44.1
26.8
46.7
54.4
47.7
44.7
31.4
29.5
(6)

328

329

33

331

332

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




12.7
.0
17.6
18.4
21.8
(6)
(6)

327

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49............. ...................
to 99........... ......................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over......................... .

Iron and steel foundries....................

24.6
.0
43.3
37.1
41.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

16.7
12.8
14.7
23.6
21.9
13.9
11.2

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over........... ............

Blast furnace and basic steel products......

.0
.0
3.6
7.9
17.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

326

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Primary metal industries......................

.0
.0
21.5
23.7
26.9
(6)
(6)
(6)

18.5
4.6
19.5
20.8
22.9
17.4
8.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products...

23.0
(6)
23.7
19.5
20.8
17.9
(6)

325

19.................................
49.................................
99.................................
249................................
499................................
999................................

Cut stone and stone products................

3.0
(6)
2.8
7.7
10.5
7.2
(6)

20.5
6.4
33.0
23.6
30.7
25.1
10.0
16.9

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products......

13.5
(6)
14.2
13.5
14.4
11.6
(6)

323

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Pottery and related products................
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

14.6
26.1
16.1
14.6
16.7
12.7
9.2

19.................................
49.................................
99.................................
249................................
499................................
999................................
2,499..............................

Structural clay products....................

Median
4/

322

sizes.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Products of purchased glass.................

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean
4/

37

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and

employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/

Industry and employment size 1/

Primary nonferrous metals...................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250




All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

12.4
(6)
14.1
28.1
20.3
(6)

.0
(6)
.0
16.2
13.9
(6)

32.5
(6)
37.5
35.6
51.6
(6)

12.7
.0
13.2
24.0
18.8
14.4
13.2
7.5
(6)

3.7
.0
5.5
13.8
10.3
8.4
8.3
3.8
(6)

24.7
10.3
24.0
37.0
31.2
23.4
19.4
12.5
(6)

23.0
11.2
22.6
28.2
26.5
24.3
22.3
6.3

11.1
.0
18.5
25.2
22.8
20.8
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
2.2
14.3
13.4
13.1
(6)
(6)

27.5
11.7
38.0
37.7
37.6
36.6
(6)
(6)

21.4
13.3
24.1
28.7
23.1
16.4

13.2
.0
21.1
26.1
18.9
(6)

.0
.0
6.9
15.6
9.5
(6)

28.4
.0
34.4
43.3
38.3
(6)

19.3
12.8
21.4
25.1
24.5
21.3
17.3
11.0
7.0

8.7
.0
17.1
21.5
22.0
19.1
15.1
9.0
6.6

.0
.0
4.5
11.2
12.6
11.1
8.6
4.2
3.3

26.0
12.4
32.5
34.3
34.1
29.8
22.6
17.1
8.8

18.4
15.2
19.2
25.5
20.1
18.0
15.4
17.1

14.6
.0
16.4
21.2
17.4
16.2
(6)
(6)

3.0
.0
7.5
12.0
11.4
10.4
(6)
(6)

27.0
.0
28.1
37.9
26.0
23.9
(6)
(6)

17.8
8.2
18.3
26.0
23.8
21.7
17.1
13.2
5.6

7.2
.0
14.4
22.4
22.0
20.7
14.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
12.9
13.0
13.2
9.9
(6)
(6)

23.1
.0
27.6
34.1
30.4
31.6
19.5
(6)
(6)

19.3
7.6
15.2
31.3
20.2
22.4
17.5
8.3

8.9
.0
8.8
24.0
18.0
18.7
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
13.7
10.9
10.7
(6)
(6)

25.7
.0
26.6
39.2
29.4
28.1
(6)
(6)

336

339

34

341

342

sizes............................. .
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over............... ..... .........

Plumbing and heating, except electric.......

22.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
15.6
(6)

15.5
8.0
16.9
26.9
22.4
17.0
15.5
8.7
9.3

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Cutlery, hand tools, and hardware...........

5.7
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
7.9
(6)

335

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499.......................... .
and over..............................

Metal cans and shipping containers..........

11.8
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
12.8
(6)

27.6
7.8
21.3
32.6
31.2
30.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Fabricated metal products.....................

Third
quartile

334

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous primary metal products........

First
quartile

13.0
17.9
24.6
18.1
13.1
13.7
14.3
12.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over............... ...............

Nonferrous foundries........................

Median
4/

333

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Nonferrous rolling and drawing..............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99......... .......................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Secondary nonferrous metals..................
All
1
20
50
100
250

SIC
code
2/

343

19.................................
49.................................
99.................................
249................................
499................................
999................................
2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

38

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle :
range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Fabricated structural metal products........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




20.4
9.6
27.1
30.6
25.4
26.0
(6)
(6)

15.4
.0
20.6
23.6
24.7
23.4
18.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
7.0
13.1
13.9
13.8
8.6
(6)
(6)

30.7
20.1
34.0
34.2
37.0
37.0
31.4
(6)
(6)

18.1
9.8
17.1
21.9
24.9
17.9
22.6

.0
.0
12.4
17.9
23.1
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.9
8.7
13.4
(6)
(6)

17.6
9.7
25.3
30.7
37.8
(6)
(6)

9.3
9.0
9.9
23.4
21.0
17.7
12.7
5.0

6.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

19.3
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

19.4
11.0
19.1
20.6
23.4
19.5
17.0
17.7

7.3
.0
14.8
17.0
21.1
16.1
16.6
(6)

.0
.0
2.9
8.2
11.7
8.8
10.5
(6)

22.2
.0
27.9
28.6
33.0
26.8
21.2
(6)

14.4
10.2
18.1
20.2
20.6
17.6
13.5
10.6
7.8

.0
.0
14.0
16.9
18.2
15.4
11.9
8.9
5.8

.0
.0
1.6
7.5
9.5
8.0
6.6
4.9
2.8

19.6
8.6
27.9
29.3
29.7
25.3
19.5
14.8
9.5

12.4
21.0
15.7
18.9
16.2
13.2
11.4
11.3

11.3
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

2.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

22.9
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

18.2
19.1
24.6
28.7
23.6
21.4
21.0
10.2
11.0

16.0
.0
22.6
25.8
21.5
19.1
18.5
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
6.8
12.6
13.1
13.3
13.3
(6)
(6)

32.7
24.5
37.0
43.9
34.2
28.4
31.6
(6)
(6)

348

349

35

351

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Farm and garden machinery...................

.0
.0
2.3
8.7
11.0
9.4
(6)
(6)

347

sizes.................................
to 19......................... ........
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Engines and turbines....... ....... .........

5.1
.0
14.0
17.7
18.2
14.1
(6)
(6)

18.4
14.4
23.1
25.0
27.0
26.6
20.2
11.3
8.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Machinery, except electrical......... .......

30.8
19.0
38.3
40.2
37.6
30.5
21.6
(6)
(6)

346

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999............. ...................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products.....

0.0
.0
7.7
12.8
13.8
11.8
9.5
(6)
(6)

17.0
9.3
17.1
19.8
19.9
16.9
13.2
14.3

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c.............

11.6
.0
21.7
25.1
24.4
21.7
14.6
(6)
(6)

345

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Metal services, n.e.c............... .
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

22.5
15.9
25.4
28.8
26.9
21.8
17.9
10.7
3.8

sizes...................... ...........
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Metal forgings and stampings................

Median
4/

344

sizes...... ...........................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Screw machine products, bolts, etc..........

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean
4/

352

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978




Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

3/

Middle range

M

Industry and employment size JV
SIC
code
2/

Construction and related machinery..........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

15.4
.0
23.4
23.0
27.7
21.8
16.2
17.9
(6)

8.4
.0
13.7
16.8
16.8
15.6
11.8
(6)

.0
.0
5.5
7.9
8.5
10.2
7.5
(6)

22.9
13.6
28.8
26.6
26.7
22.8
17.8
(6)

15.2
7.9
19.9
20.5
22.2
17.1
12.9
10.5
8.3

5.3
.0
16.3
17.8
19.5
15.7
12.3
9.5
(6)

.0
.0
5.6
8.4
9.7
8.3
7.2
5.4
(6)

20.1
.0
28.9
30.2
32.1
24.7
19.0
14.0
(6>

4.9
5.6
4.9
7.6
7.3
7.4
5.8
4.6
3.2

2.6
.0
.0
2.3
5.9
5.7
5.4
4.1
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.9
2.7
2.6
2.2
(6)

8.2
.0
7.6
8.8
9.9
9.7
8.6
7.7
(6)

17.3
7.4
20.3
23.3
23.6
21.7
17.0
14.1
8.5

9.0
.0
14.4
19.3
20.3
22.3
16.4
13.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
11.3
11.7
11.8
8.6
8.3
(6)

22.8
.0
26.9
34.1
31.5
32.5
23.3
21.6
(6)

15.9
11.5
18.1
21.6
20.8
19.6
13.5
10.2

.0
.0
13.9
20.3
18.2
19.1
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
10.4
11.3
10.7
(6)
(6)

18.0
10.9
29.1
21.6
29.1
29.7
(6)
(6)

8.7
5.4
9.0
13.1
13.7
12.8
8.8
6.4
5.0

3.1
.0
2.7
9.5
10.6
10.3
6.6
5.1
4.5

.0
.0
.0
2.8
5.3
5.2
3.0
2.5
2.3

12.5
.0
13.4
19.8
19.3
17.7
12.0
9.1
8.3

11.4
4.3
14.2
14.3
17.4
16.1
11.0
7.1
6.7

6.5
.0
9.6
11.8
12.9
12.8
8.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
'6.1
7.4
5.9
4.5
(6)
(6)

17.7
.0
27.9
16.8
23.8
24.9
16.0
(6)
(6)

357

358

359

36

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Electric distributing equipment.............

.0
.0
.0
6.0
10.7
8.4
7.5
7.2
(6)

356

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Electric and electronic equipment.............

.0
.0
12.3
13.6
18.3
14.5
11.5
11.4
(6)

15.9
10.3
18.2
19.2
18.4
17.1
13.5
10.9

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Miscellaneous machinery, except electrical...

30.6
21.8
33.5
39.3
35.3
31.1
23.9
23.3
(6)

Third
quartile

355

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over...............................

Refrigeration and service machinery.........

2.6
.0
7.1
11.3
13.1
12.3
9.1
8.7
(6)

14.0
7.8
15.1
15.7
19.2
16.2
12.9
12.5
6.8

sizes.... .............................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Office and computing machines...............

16.3
.0
17.7
22.9
24.0
20.2
15.8
14.4
(6)

First
quartile

354

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

General industrial machinery................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

18.5
13.8
22.4
27.0
24.8
21.9
16.9
16.4
11.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over............. .................

Special industry machinery..................

Median
A/

353

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..................... .........

Metalworking machinery......................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
A/

361

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

40

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100i full-time workers _3/
_________ - ' . : ■ '____________
'A*
Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Electrical Industrial apparatus.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

9.1
.0
(6)
13.8
14.8
13.8
12.9
8.6
(6)

.0
.0
(6)
6.8
6.7
8.9
5.5
6.3
(6)

21.3
.0
(6)
24.1
27.0
22.5
22.7
13.9
(6)

4.4
.0
6.0
12.5
13.3
12.0
6.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
5.4
7.3
6.7
3.0
(6)
(6)

15.2
.0
14.6
22.5
23.4
21.4
12.0
(6)
(6)

8.8
6.8
6.7
11.1
15.5
10.1
7.6
4.5

.0
.6
1.4
9.2
13.3
8.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.5
8.1
3.3
(6)
(6)

6.4
10.5
11.6
14.7
18.8
17.5
(6)
(6)

5.1
5.8
7.4
11.0
10.2
8.6
4.9
3.9
3.6

3.8
.0
.0
7.5
8.6
7.5
4.0
3.5
3.5

.0
.0
.0
2.8
3.5
3.4
2.0
1.8
1.9

9.6
9.3
10.8
20.4
14.3
13.3
7.7
5.9
5.5

7.7
5.2
6.0
11.4
11.0
10.1
7.5
4.6
5.6

2.2
.0
.0
8.2
9.2
8.1
6.4
4.6
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.8
4.4
4.1
3.1
2.5
(6)

11.4
.0
10.3
16.5
15.4
13.6
9.6
7.7
(6)

9.4
5.4
12.6
17.5
16.0
15.6
8.5
4.8
3.1

5.0
.0
5.6
13.5
12.8
12.9
7.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
5.8
6.5
5.3
3.5
(6)
(6)

14.9
.0
17.5
27.8
23.4
22.5
12.5
(6)
(6)

11.5
13.3
21.3
25.4
25.9
20.5
15.4
12.1
7.1

7.4
.0
15.6
19.4
22.6
17.8
13.6
9.1
6.3

.0
.0
.0
9.3
11.9
8.8
6.7
3.6
3.0

25.2
6.8
31.5
34.0
36.9
30.3
22.4
17.4
10.5

366

367

369

37

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




12.3
.0
11.3
21.5
23.5
17.5
8.7
12.5
(6)

365

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Transportation equipment......................

0.0
.0
.0
2.8
5.5
6.5
3.1
4.0
(6)

11.7
7.8
9.9
15.6
16.4
14.8
8.4
8.3
7.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99... ..............................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies..................................

3.0
.0
3.0
11.2
9.9
11.4
6.3
7.7
(6)

364

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Electronic components and accessories.......

Third
quartile

12.6
6.8
24.8
15.7
17.7
16.0
16.2
10.1
8.6

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Communication equipment.....................

First
quartlie

± /

363

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Radio and TV receiving equipment............
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

10.4
3.7
8.2
16.1
15.5
13.0
7.7
9.5
6.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Electric lighting and wiring equipment......

Median

362

sizes......................... ........
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99............................... .
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over................ ..............

Household appliances........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

41

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978




Incidence■ rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size J /
L
SIC
code
2/

Motor vehicles and equipment................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

20.2
11.4
23.0
22.4
28.3
23.3
19.2
11.4
6.3

.0
.0
25.6
24.2
28.6
26.4
18.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
11.1
12.1
12.6
13.3
11.2
(6)
(6)

25.5
.0
42.0
42.7
45.7
37.7
32.5
(6)
(6)

19.7
31.2
24.1
28.9
19.9
18.2
21.5
14.6

18.7
(6)
(6)
23.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

9.4
(6)
(6)
13.9
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

32.5
(6)
(6)
35.6
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

16.3
11.6
19.2
15.3
26.5
16.4

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

4.2
12.3
9.6
6.7
5.8
7.7
5.5
2.8

3.7
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

23.9
13.2
25.7
33.5
29.4
29.0
20.8
17.4

6.9
.0
19.0
26.4
26.2
27.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
6.5
14.6
17.7
11.6
(6)
(6)

31.2
9.7
41.1
37.9
39.5
36.4
(6)
(6)

6.9
4.4
6.3
9.7
10.0
8.9
7.8
4.2
4.9

.0
.0
.0
8.0
7.9
7.7
6.5
3.8
4.6

.0
.0

8.1
.0
10.5
15.1
14.0
13.3
11.4
6.7
7.5

6.2
5.2
13.1
10.0
7.5
4.7
4.1

.0

.0
.0

11.9
7.2
7.2
(6)
(6)

2.9
2.4
3.9
(6)
(6)

375

376

379

38

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Engineering and scientific instruments......

.0
.0
.0
6.3
5.7
7.0
5.6
3.2
1.9

374

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Instruments and related products..............

6.2
.0
7.0
12.9
14.6
10.8
12.1
6.6
3.7

21.3
11.5
26.7
29.3
30.9
25.8
21.2
29.8
15.5

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Miscellaneous transportation equipment......

27.4
21.0
29.3
33.5
36.8
28.4
21.6
14.8
10.4

Third
quartile

373

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 2,499..............................

Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts...

0.0
.0
.0
8.3
12.5
11.0
6.6
3.0
3.4

6.5
10.8
14.6
15.3
18.9
14.0
12.9
7.4
4.1

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts............

11.2
.0
14.2
20.7
23.3
18.9
12.9
6.8
6.8

First
quart!le

372

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Railroad equipment..........................
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

11.3
17.0
21.2
26.9
26.4
21.1
15.1
9.6
7.6

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Ship and boat building and repairing........

Median
4/

371

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Aircraft and parts..........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

.0

2.0
3.3
3.7
3.0
2.0
2.5

381

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

42

.9

9.7
8.4
19.1
14.4
11.2
(6)
(6)

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Measuring and controlling devices...........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500

7.9
12.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
3.0
8.8
7.7
7.9
5.8
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.8
3.3
4.0
2.7
(6)

6.4
.0
12.9
14.0
16.2
14.5
10.6
(6)

.0
8.6
(6)
8.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
(6)
3.4
(6)
(6)

.4
16.8
(6)
12.9
(6)
(6)

5.7
14.4
5.0
8.1
9.8
10.3
4.8
3.4
4.6

3.6
(6)
(6)
5.4
7.5
9.1
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
2.8
2.3
3.5
(6)
(6)
(6)

13.3
(6)
(6)
14.7
18.3
14.4
(6)
(6)
(6)

6.7
11.7
8.6
9.6
6.4
3.8

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.8
5.3
9.8

.0
.0

.0
.0

7.5

.0
2.2

13.6

12.7

.8
9.5

15.4
13.9
12.1
9.5
11.0

12.3
10.9
10.8
7.2
(6)

5.1
6.5
5.6
3.9
(6)

20.8
19.3
19.3
12.5
(6)

6.2

.0
.0

.0
.0

.0
.0

.0

.0
.0

.4
11.3
12.1
(6)
(6)
(6)

386

387

39

.0
19.0

391

1. 1

2.5
6.5
8.2
9.0
10.7
8.0

3.2
6.8
(6)
(6)
(6)

13.8
4.7
15.1
23.0
12.4
12.2

.0

.0

(6)
(6)
12.5
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
6.6
(6)
(6)

2.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

393

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

See footnotes at end of table.




.0
.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.7
8.4
6.3
8.4
8.0
13.2

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Musical instruments.........................

.0
.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

385

All sizes.................................
1 to 19.................................
20 to 49.................................
50 to 99.................................
100 to 249..... ...........................
250 to 499................................
500 to 999................................
1,000 to 2,499..............................
2,500 and over..............................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware........

9.4
.0
7.5
13.9
13.7
13.3
14.1
7.7
(6)

7.7
3.9
8.0
10.1
10.5
9.0
7.1
4.2

sizes.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

liscellanous manufacturing industries.........

0.0
.0
.0
1.6
4.2
3.8
3.7
2.3
(6)

384

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Watches, clocks, and watchcases.............

0.3
.0
.0
6.6
8.3
7.7
8.5
4.2
(6)

6.1
8.2
10.4
9.5
8.8
5.9
3.2

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Photographic equipment and supplies.........

Third
quartile

383

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Ophthalmic goods............................

First
quartile

7.3
4.9
5.2
8.8
10.5
9.1
9.6
4.5
5.7

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Medical instruments and supplies............

Median
4/

382

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Optical instruments and lenses........ .....
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Mean
4/

43

5.9
(6)
(6)
21.6
(6)
(6)

Table 2. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers _3/

Middle range
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code

Mean
4/

Toys and sporting goods.....................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

0.0
.0
8.2
12.7
12.8
12.5
(6)
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
3.5
5.4
7.3
(6)
(6)

15.2
.0
20.9
23.8
20.7
21.8
(6)
(6)

12.0
1.4
15.8
12.6
15.4
17.5
14.3
4.6

.0
.0
9.2
9.3
13.4
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.9
8.3
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.4
.0
24.1
17.5
21.2
(6)
(6)
(6)

8.1
3.4
4.4
8.5
10.7
12.6
8.7
9.4

.0
.0
.0
6.0
6.6
11.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.1
7.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.3
12.2
13.5
17.0
(6)
(6)

13.7
8.0
11.8
14.8
18.5
13.6
13.9
10.5

.0
.0
6.4
12.0
17.0
9.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
5.1
9.5
6.2
(6)
(6)

12.6
.0
18.4
20.9
25.9
19.6
(6)
(6)

11.8
5.1
10.4
13.9
15.4
13.4
11.1
8.8
6.2

.0
.0
2.3
9.3
11.6
10.3
8.5
6.6
5.1

.0
.0
.0
1.5
5.1
5.4
4.2
3.1
2.6

11.1
.0
14.8
20.1
21.6
18.4
14.7
11.9
9.0

396

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous manufactures..................

Third
quartile

395

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Costume jewelry and notions.................

First
quartile

394

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99........................... ......
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Pens, pencils, office and art supplies......

Median
4/

13.9
6.8
13.5
15.1
14.9
16.0
12.1
12.4

2/

399

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Nondurable goods:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Food and kindred products.....................

20

All sizes.................................
1 to 19.................................

19.4
9.5

7.0
.0

.0
.0

21.6
5.8

20 to 4 9 ..................................................................................

16.0

11.0

.0

23.2

20.4
23.2
21.7
18.2
16.1
12.7

16.9
20.3
18.6
15.2
12.5
(6)

8.8
11.5
11.4
9.0
6.1
(6)

28.6
31.4
29.4
23.5
24.1
(6)

28.4
10.0
22.2
31.0
34.5
29.4
28.5
27.1
17.0

.0

.0

.0

16.4
26.1
29.7
24.5
23.8
26.6
(6)

1.6
13.4
16.8
15.1
15.5
17.9
(6)

32.6
41.4
44.6
38.4
37.0
32.9
(6)

6.8
.0

.0
.0

9.9
14.3
17.2
16.1
(6)
(6)

.9
7.9
9.8
9.1
(6)
(6)

18.7
9.8
19.5
22.1
24.2
27.5
(6)
(6)

50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Meat products...............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Dairy products..........................................................................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

15.8
8.5
13.2
16.5
18.2
18.7
12.9
1.9

.0

28.2

203
17.1
13.4
13.9
21.7
21.5
20.3
13.3
12.0

sizes..................................................................................
to 19 ..................................................................................
to 49 ..................................................................................
to 99 ..................................................................................
to 249...............................................................................
to 499 ...............................................................................
to 999 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..........................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




8.6

202

sizes..................................................................................
to 19 ..................................................................................
to 49 ..................................................................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Preserved fruits and vegetables.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

201

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499 ...............................................................................
to 999 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..............................
and over ..........................................................................

44

8.8
.0

9.3
19.5
18.6
18.7
12.6
(6)

.0
.0

22.3

.0

18.1
31.5
28.8
29.6
20.8
(6)

9.2
10.7
12.1
7.5
(6)

.0

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100i full-time workers _3/

Middle range _4/
Industry and employment size JL/
SIC
code
2/

Grain mill products.........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
50
100
250

.0
.0
4.6
10.9
9.0
5.9
(6)

12.7
15.4
21.5
28.6
23.5
17.0
(6)

14.5
.0
18.4
21.3
20.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
8.9
10.9
12.5
(6)
(6)

28.2
19.3
33.9
32.5
27.1
(6)
(6)

23.0
12.6
20.5
22.4
28.5
28.1
19.2
17.6

14.6
.0
18.1
21.0
26.3
27.0
17.5
(6)

.0
.0
6.7
12.0
15.9
16.4
10.6
(6)

28.6
12.8
30.9
30.7
36.6
37.8
26.6
(6)

16.3
10.7
12.2
19.3
19.0
19.3
14.0
14.8

1.2
.0
6.5
14.5
17.7
17.7
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
6.7
8.7
11.3
(6)
(6)

21.4
11.5
20.3
27.5
26.7
27.7
(6)
(6)

8.7
3.7
11.8
10.4
11.6
11.5
7.6
4.8
8.3

.9
.0
(6)
(6)
8.9
11.3
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
(6)
(6)
3.2
6.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.4
.0
(6)
(6)
19.8
14.5
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.7
7.8
4.8
8.3

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

6.9
12.4
3.6
6.2
9.2
4.4

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

3.8
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.8
9.8
9.0
14.3

6.6
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

14.4
(6)
(6)
(6)

209

21

211

212

213

sizes.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

See footnotes at end of table*




.0
3.5
12.4
16.8
14.2
9.4
(6)

208

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Chewing and smoking tobacco.................

13.0
.0
9.3
17.3
23.2
17.9
16.6
(6)

20.2
14.1
24.2
23.7
21.2
16.3
11.6

sizes.................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Cigars......................................

.0
.0
.0
6.6
9.9
9.1
12.0
(6)

207

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Cigarettes..................................

1.7
.0
.0
11.7
15.3
14.2
15.8
(6)

14.8
9.9
15.7
22.2
17.1
11.9
11.6

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249............... ................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Tobacco manufactures..........................

20.0
11.4
25.7
29.2
27.9
23.5
18.3
(6)

Third
quartile

206

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49................................ *
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous foods and kindred products....

0.0
.0
5.1
9.8
11.3
7.7
6.1
(6)

13.8
3.3
6.0
13.4
17.1
14.7
14.8
8.9

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Beverages...................................

6.4
.0
14.0
18.1
17.6
16.2
9.9
(6)

First
quartile

205

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Fats and oils...............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

15.0
10.2
17.4
19.0
19.7
16.0
12.7
5.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249..... ...........................
to 499................................
to 999........ ........................
to 2,499..............................

Sugar and confectionery products............

Median
4/

204

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Bakery products.............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Mean
4/

45

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

21

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Tobacco stemming and redrying...............
All
20
50
100
250

All
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

6.0
(6)
(6)
6.4
7.5
6.5
(6)

1.1
(6)
(6)
3.1
4.6
3.2
(6)

10.3
(6)
(6)
9.9
10.5
8.9
(6)

5.5
(6)
(6)
9.6
8.6
6.0
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
3.3
4.4
3.0
(6)
(6)

11.7
(6)
(6)
14.5
13.0
8.9
(6)
(6)

14.9
9.9
17.8
16.5
18.0
12.2

10.6
(6)
(6)
13.3
(6)
(6)

2.3
(6)
(6)
9.3
(6)
(6)

15.5
(6)
(6)
22.0
(6)
(6)

10.9
7.9
5.3
11.4
11.1
14.3
10.4

6.0
.0
2.2
9.5
6.9
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.1
5.9
(6)
(6)

15.5
23.7
7.9
17.5
15.4
(6)
(6)

8.5
1.9
5.2
9.2
9.0
9.7
8.1
8.8

.9
.0
.0
4.2
6.8
7.7
6.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.4
3.9
2.9
(6)

9.2
.0
8.4
13.5
12.4
12.6
11.3
(6)

13.0
15.6
16.0
20.3
12.0
10.9
6.9

7.0
7.2
12.7
18.7
11.4
8.8
(6)

.0
.0
7.0
11.1
6.3
5.5
(6)

18.0
22.9
22.0
29.1
17.5
20.8
(6)

13.9
8.9
19.7
14.5
20.1
11.7
11.5
9.9

10.7
(6)
(6)
11.5
19.4
9.9
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
7.9
8.5
6.5
(6)
(6)

23.4
(6)
(6)
21.8
29.2
17.9
(6)
(6)

11.7
4.9
16.0
13.7
15.1
11.2
10.0
7.0

9.6
.0
13.8
11.9
12.1
10.4
8.9
(6)

2.4
.0
2.3
5.6
6.2
5.5
4.2
(6)

18.4
.0
23.2
21.6
21.5
15.6
14.0
(6)

224

225

226

227

228

sizes.................................
to 19 .................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




14.3
.0
16.8
19.5
19.3
14.6
11.9
9.6
(6)

223

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Yarn and thread mills.......................

.0
.0
.0
2.4
5.2
4.7
3.8
3.3
(6)

7.7
8.0
12.8
10.2
8.6
6.6
6.1
8.7

sizes............................ .
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Floor covering mills........................

5.6
.0
5.1
10.0
10.6
9.1
7.4
6.5
(6)

222

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Textile finishing, except wool..............

17.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.7
14.9
10.5
7.3
8.8
6.4
7.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Knitting mills..............................

0.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

221

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Narrow fabric mills.........................

5.6
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

10.2
4.6
11.4
13.1
13.8
10.7
8.9
7.2
8.0

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Weaving and finishing mills, wool...........

Third
quartile

22

sizes.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Weaving mills, synthetics...................

First
quartile

13.6
9.2
17.7
15.8
13.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Weaving mills, cotton.......................

Median
4/

214

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Textile mill products.........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

46

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

3/

Middle range _ /
4
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Miscellaneous textile goods.................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

4.3
.0
.0
7.7
10.7
11.8
12.3
8.6
(6)

1.1
3.9
6.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.8
2.7
(6)
(6)

6.6
10.7
10.6
(6)
(6)

3.0
.0
4.1
6.6
7.6
6.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.7
3.8
2.9
(6)

8.9
2.7
9.7
11.1
12.3
11.6
(6)

4.8
1.3
1.3
3.7
6.2
7.7
10.3
16.3

.0
.0
.0
.0
4.3
6.9
9.9
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.3
3.6
4.8
(6)

1.4
.0
..0
5.6
9.0
9.8
13.9
(6)

6.2
2.3
3.1
7.1
7.2
5.9

.0
.0
.2
6.0
6.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.2
2.8
(6)

6.0
.0
3.9
8.9
9.7
(6)

7.5
2.1
5.1
10.3
11.9
9.8

.0
.0
2.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
(6)

.0
1.9
10.7

(6)

(6)
(6)

(6)

(6)

(6)

5.3
2.7
5.1
5.5
5.9
8.1

.0
.0
2.3
3.8
4.8
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.2
(6)

5.1
.0
8.4
8.5
8.7
(6)

6.4
.7
2.7
6.4
7.1
8.5
8.5

.0
.0
.0
3.6
5.2
7.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.9
3.3
(6)

4.1
.0
.7
8.8
10.6
13.3
(6)

8.9
2.9
6.5
11.4
12.0
13.0
9.6
2.7

.0
.0
.0
7.5
9.6
10.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
5.1
6.1
(6)
(6)

3.8
.0
9.3
17.2
16.8
17.0
(6)
(6)

233

234

235

(6)

236

238

239

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




.0
.0
.0
.0
1.5
3.5
3.3
2.6
(6)

7.7
3.0
6.8
7.8
8.6
8.2
6.8

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Miscellaneous fabricated textile products....

.0
.0
.0
1.2
5.9
7.2
7.2
4.8
(6)

232

sizes...............................
to 49...............................
to 99...............................
to 249..............................
to 499..............................
to 999..............................

Miscellaneous apparel and accessories.......

20.8
.0
28.3
27.7
25.6
21.6
(6)
(6)

6.3
6.4
7.1
7.5
5.4

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Children's outerwear........................

0.0
.0
3.7
6.2
8.4
6.3
(6)
(6)

231

sizes.................. ...............
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Hats, caps, and millinery...................

8.1
.0
12.8
15.5
14.4
13.7
(6)
(6)

6.5
1.9
2.6
5.4
7.5
8.6
8.5
6.2
4.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Women's and children's undergarments........

Third
quartile

23

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Women's and misses' outerwear...............

First
quartile

15.0
8.3
17.2
19.1
18.7
14.4
10.1
5.9

sizes.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Men's and boys' furnishings.................

A/

229

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Men's and boys' suits and coats..............

Median

A/

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Apparel and other textile goods...............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean

47

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Paper and allied products.....................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500




All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

21.6
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

8.8
(6)
(6)
10.9
12.0
8.5
7.8
(6)

1.1
(6)
(6)
9.4
7.1
5.5
4.1
(6)

16.4
(6)
(6)
24.6
15.9
14.1
11.6
(6)

12.3
11.3
26.2
18.6
12.4
8.7
8.6

13.3
(6)
(6)
18.7
10.5
(6)
(6)

7.1
(6)
(6)
12.5
6.5
(6)
(6)

22.0
(6)
(6)
23.7
17.5
(6)
(6)

14.0
6.3
16.1
18.6
18.4
15.9
12.3
6.3

8.7
.0
13.3
16.0
16.8
15.8
11.5
(6)

.0
.0
.9
7.3
10.1
9.2
7.5
(6)

19.5
0.0
23.1
24.5
25.2
22.8
14.9
(6)

16.4
17.9
16.8
18.3
17.8
14.5
8.4
9.6

12.6
.0
14.2
15.9
15.6
12.2
(6)
(6)

4.0
.0
5.6
7.7
9.0
7.3
(6)
(6)

23.2
13.7
25.3
24.8
24.1
19.4
(6)
(6)

13.3
22.6
26.2
12.9
10.0
10.0

11.4
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

2.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

21.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

7.0
1.8
4.5
7.7
9.4
9.1
9.0
8.2
7.4

.0
.0
.0
4.9
7.1
6.7
7.5
7.6
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.3
3.0
4.3
4.1
(6)

.0
.0
6.8
11.8
13.3
12.7
11.6
11.6
(6)

5.8
1.7
4.2
5.4
5.8
8.5
9.0
9.3

.0
.0
2.6
4.3
5.2
7.4
8.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.2
2.4
5.4
5.7
(6)

.0
.0
7.7
8.2
8.4
9.5
11.4
(6)

264

265

266

27

sizes..... ...........................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Newspapers..................................

7.8
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

263

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Printing and publishing.......................

21.3
9.8
24.4
24.8
24.1
20.5
14.1
11.1
(6)

10.3
14.3
21.5
17.1
14.2
10.5
7.8
5.3

sizes.............. ...................
to 19................... ..............
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499....................... .......

Building paper and board mills..............

0.0
.0
4.0
7.8
9.3
7.3
5.8
4.2
(6)

262

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Paperboard containers and boxes...... .

11.0
.0
13.6
16.2
16.0
12.9
9.4
7.5
(6)

11.1
10.9
11.9
10.3
16.0
6.1

sizes................................ .
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous converted paper products......

Third
quartile

261

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Paperboard mills............................

First
quartile

13.5
11.2
16.5
19.1
17.8
14.3
10.8
7.6
3.9

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Paper mills, except building paper..........

Median
4/

26

sizes.................................
to 19......................... ........
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..................... .

Pulp mills..................................
All
1
100
250
500
1,000

Mean
4/

271

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999......................... .......
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

48

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100I full-time workers 3/

Middle : ange 4/
r
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Periodicals.................................
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
20
50
100
250
500

All
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

.0
.0
.0
3.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
2.8
7.1
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
1.5
8.6
11.9
15.4
11.6
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.2
6.6
7.8
8.3
(6)

.0
.0
9.4
14.5
18.3
20.4
14.5
(6)

11.7
12.7
16.0
11.9
11.2
9.6

6.0
9.2
10.8
10.6
9.5
(6)

.0
.0
7.5
5.8
6.9
(6)

16.3
18.5
23.0
17.5
12.8
(6)

6.4
14.1
12.4
13.0
10.6
4.5

2.7
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

8.9
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.0
3.8
8.9
12.7
13.2
10.5
8.0

.0
.0
4.7
10.9
11.2
10.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
5.2
5.8
4.3
(6)

11.0
.0
13.8
20.3
17.5
16.2
(6)

2.5
.9
2.0
3.4
5.4
2.5

.0
.0
.0
1.5
3.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.2
(6)

.0
.0
1.3
3.9
7.5
(6)

7.8
7.9
14.4
16.4
12.7
8.7
6.6
4.2
2.9

1.4
.0
9.8
12.5
8.9
7.1
4.5
3.8
3.1

.0
.0
.0
4.7
3.7
3.2
2.3
2.0
1.6

14.0
.0
22.1
22.7
18.8
13.2
9.0
6.0
4.6

6.2
8.9
12.0
11.6
9.8
7.1
5.2
3.9
1.7

3.3
.0
9.3
7.5
6.3
4.6
3.8
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.4
2.6
2.3
1.9
(6)
(6)

14.1
7.8
20.8
16.7
13.2
10.6
7.0
(6)
(6)

277

278

279

28

281

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499.............. ..................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




.0
2.5
5.5
11.9
9.6
17.5
(6)
(6)

276

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99................... ..............
to 249............................. .
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Industrial inorganic chemicals..............

.0
.0
.0
1.3
2.2
2.7
(6)
(6)

8.7
2.5
6.0
10.2
13.6
15.3
11.4
11.8

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Chemicals and allied products.................

.0
.0
.3
4.9
5.3
5.8
(6)
(6)

275

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Printing trade services.....................

0.0
.0
1.5
3.5
4.5
(6)
(6)

2.7
1.7
2.3
4.1
3.0
5.4

sizes.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Blankbooks and bookbinding..................

0.0
.0
.0
.0
1.1
(6)
(6)

274

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Greeting card publishing....................

0.0
.0
.0
1.0
2.8
(6)
(6)

7.2
3.3
4.4
7.8
8.4
10.7
6.8
5.5

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Manifold business forms.....................

Third
quartile

273

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Commercial printing.........................

First
quartile

2.9
.9
2.4
3.1
4.4
4.6
1.9

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Miscellaneous publishing....................

Median
4/

272

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Books.......................................
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

49

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

1/

SIC
code
2/

Plastics materials and synthetics...........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500




1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

7.7
.0
7.0
14.7
13.7
14.4
12.5
7.5
(6)

.0
.0
8.0
11.9
11.0
7.6
7.7
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
5.6
5.2
3.5
4.6
(6)
(6)

11.2
.0
18.7
26.9
19.6
14.1
12.2
(6)
(6)

14.3
6.7
14.0
18.9
16.1
10.9
15.5

1.0
.0
11.3
16.1
13.0
11.0
(6)

.0
.0
1.3
8.4
4.5
3.9
(6)

16.7
.0
23.5
26.5
21.9
16.0
(6)

6.2
19.0
18.0
10.6
8.4
5.2
3.6
2.6

3.0
9.6
11.8
7.7
6.3
4.0
(6)
(6)

.0
2.1
5.3
3.8
3.0
1.9
(6)
(6)

11.7
27.9
26.2
12.7
9.9
9.1
(6)
(6)

9.1
10.5
15.4
14.3
9.6
8.0
3.8
4.6

4.7
.0
12.1
11.8
7.5
5.5
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
6.0
3.9
2.8
(6)
(6)

16.4
14.4
24.5
18.7
13.4
8.7
(6)
(6)

11.6
8.7
14.7
14.5
14.7
9.3
7.3

.5
.0
11.1
12.7
12.1
7.2
(6)

.0
.0
2.6
3.7
2.8
3.3
(6)

16.0
9.7
23.9
20.4
23.1
17.0
(6)

7.9
7.0
13.3
14.6
15.5
8.5
5.8
3.5
5.8

.7
.0
8.0
11.9
13.2
6.9
4.3
3.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.2
6.4
3.4
2.2
1.4
(6)

13.4
.0
18.4
22.0
22.6
11.8
8.3
4.5
(6)

6.0
8.7
8.2
13.9
12.5
7.2
5.0
3.5
5.8

5.2
.0
6.5
11.6
10.8
5.8
3.9
3.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.8
4.6
2.9
2.0
1.4
(6)

13.5
14.1
13.3
23.3
18.6
9.4
7.5
4.5
(6)

286

287

289

29

to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over...............................

Petroleum refining..........................

.0
.0
.0
6.3
2.8
5.3
2.6
2.2
(6)

285

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Petroleum and coal products...................

.0
.0
.0
11.1
7.2
8.6
5.4
4.3
(6)

9.8
6.8
13.5
18.4
14.3
9.2
9.2
6.4
3.7

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous chemical products.............

19.8
.0
33.9
28.8
27.5
12.5
6.9
5.8
(6)

Third
quartile

284

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Agricultural chemicals......................

0.9
.0
10.4
2.9
4.4
3.5
1.9
1.8
(6)

6.7
7.2
6.2
12.8
10.6
10.4
8.1
4.8
4.8

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Industrial organic chemicals................

6.5
.0
20.4
11.8
11.8
7.2
3.7
3.4
(6)

First
quartile

283

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Paints and allied products..................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

5.7
5.8
23.3
22.0
16.7
8.2
4.8
3.4
1.7

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods............

Median
4/

282

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Drugs.......................................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Mean
4/

291

to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footontes at end of table.

50

Table 2. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers _3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Paving and roofing materials................
All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
100

All
1
50
100
250
500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

8.9
.0
13.0
17.9
19.1
16.0
12.0
11.5
(6)

.0
.0
.9
8.5
10.7
8.1
6.6
4.2
(6)

23.5
7.4
26.2
29.3
30.8
24.1
23.4
21.1
(6)

12.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
16.0
(6)

4.6
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
4.9
(6)

28.7
(6)
(6)
(6)
(«
(6)
(6)
24.1
(6)

12.9
4.5
23.5
16.6
16.7
18.5
5.7

11.2
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

2.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

25.5
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

30.5
14.3
41.0
35.2

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

13.9
24.9
23.7
21.9
15.6
23.9

16.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

3.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

33.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

17.0
7.8
19.7
18.7
21.2
15.7
15.1
14.2

10.6
.0
17.3
17.1
18.6
14.2
13.7
(6)

.0
.0
4.1
6.8
10.3
9.0
8.3
(6)

25.8
.0
34.2
28.1
29.6
21.5
22.5
(6)

18.1
9.0
18.1
21.0
21.1
18.3
13.9
9.1

8.4
.0
12.6
18.2
19.0
17.3
11.1
(6)

.0
.0
.5
9.0
10.7
8.0
6.1
(6)

23.0
7.2
24.8
29.8
30.5
25.2
22.1
(6)

11.7
2.5
9.1
13.2
12.9
12.2
10.8
10.5

1.0
.0
1.7
8.8
10.5
10.7
11.1
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.1
4.8
6.3
6.8
(6)

12.1
.0
13.6
17.4
17.3
16.1
15.5
(6)

303

304

306

307

31

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




16.1
.0
28.6
17.9
(6)

302

sizes............................ .....
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Leather and leather products..................

.0
.0
1.5
3.7
(6)

15.4
11.2
22.6
10.6
38.2
13.5
18.6
14.9
13.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Miscellaneous plastics products.............

.0
.0
12.8
11.1
(6)

301

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Fabricated rubber products, nec.............

12.4
.0
20.8
22.5
26.9
(6)

17.1
9.2
18.4
20.6
21.5
17.3
15.5
13.1
11.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 249................................

Rubber and plastics hose and belting........

0.0
.0
.0
3.5
7.9
(6)

30

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Reclaimed rubber............................

0.0
.0
7.2
12.6
15.6
(6)

16.6
7.1
22.7
13.3
19.9

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Rubber and plastics footwear................

Third
quartile

299

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over....... .......................

Tires and inner tubes.......................

First
quartile

14.4
6.2
12.8
16.0
17.8
12.9

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products....

Median
4/

295

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal products....

Mean
4/

51

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers J3/

Middle range _4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Leather tanning and finishing...............
All
20
50
100
250
500

All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100

All
20
50
100
250
500

0.0
5.8
16.1
17.0
(6)
(6)

16.9
28.8
42.5
36.5
(6)
(6)

16.0
13.3
15.9
19.1
21.2

7.4
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

17.8
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

10.4
4.5
8.4
10.4
11.0
10.1
10.4

6.0
.0
6.9
9.7
9.5
10.4
(6)

.0
.0
1.9
4.5
6.0
6.5
(6)

12.1
4.9
11.6
14.8
14.4
14.1
(6)

5.4
9.3
6.3
4.4
5.2

1.2
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

8.1
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

11.2
6.5
10.0
12.5
12.9
13.4

2.7
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

14.3
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

9.2
5.8
7.2
10.9
12.2
10.8

.0

.0

.0

.0

4.5
9.1
(6)
(6)

.0

3.8
(6)
(6)

4.8
8.9
10.8
13.6
(6)
(6)

.0

.0

Third
quartile

314

315

316

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Handbags and personal leather goods.........

0.0
17.4
24.4
24.8
(6)
(6)

First
quartile

313

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Luggage.....................................
All
1
20
50
100
250

23.8
18.2
28.8
29.8
20.8
22.0

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Leather gloves and mittens..................

A/

311

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499......... ......................

Footwear, except rubber.....................

Median

A/

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Boot and shoe cut stock and findings........
All
20
50
100
250

Mean

317

sizes......... .......................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Transportation and public utilities:
10.1
6.4
10.6
12.7
10.3

All
1
20
50
100

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99..................... ............
to 249................................
25 0 to 4 9 9 ................................
500 to 999................................
1,000 to 2,499..............................
2,500 and over..............................
Railroad transportation _5/...................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

12.0
6.5
12.5
15.0
12.9
13.5
13.3
12.8
11.5

8.7
1.4
4.8
8.0
10.5
14.5
14.6
18.8

6.0

1.9

15.7

6.0
6.9
8.0
9.7

2.4
2.7
3.3
5.7

14.0
15.3
14.9
14.6

1.2

.0

12.6

.0

.0
.0

.8

5.3
5.9
11.2
11.6
12.5
12.9
11.0

3.9
5.6
7.0
8.9
9.6
7.7

.0

.0

.0

14.1
18.4
17.7
18.7
16.6
16.8
11.9

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

2.5
8.0
8.9
14.1

.0

3.2
10.9
15.1
18.9
21.2

(6)

1.9
6.4
8.7
(6)

(6)

42
16.2
8.5
14.4
19.5
20.7
20.0
20.7
17.5
20.2

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 9 9 .................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table*




.0

16.1
19.5

41

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..............................

Trucking and warehousing......................

.0
.0

40

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Local and interurban passenger transit........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

10.1

10.5
9.4
10.2

6.6

.0

4.3
8.5

52

.0
.0
10.2
17.2
18.9
18.1
18.4
16.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
8.8
10.5
10.7
11.4
7.9
(6)

.0
.0
21.6
27.4
28.8
26.8
28.3
26.4
(6)

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/

Industry and employment size 1/

SIC
code

Trucking, local and long distance...........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250

16.3
8.7
14.2
19.6
20.6
20.1
20.5
17.5
20.2

All
20
50
100

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
20
50
100

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

17.7
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
3.6
8.6
17.0
23.3
27.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.2
2.6
7.5
16.2
(6)

7.4
.0
21.4
23.5
34.6
37.0
40.4
(6)

.0

.0

9.5

.0

.0

.0

12.1
17.5
31.4
29.4
28.9

.0

3.9
17.0
19.9
18.3

30.7
32.7
47.9
43.5
48.8

(6)

(6)

(6)

.0

.0

11.6

.0

.0
.0

45
13.4
7.6
9.1
15.0
14.8
18.8
16.5
12.7
12.5

4.7
10.2
12.1
13.7
13.7
11.1
13.5

3.1
5.7
6.8
8.1
5.9
8.3

.0

.0

.0

.0
.0

.0

13.6
23.5
21.6
28.1
22.0
17.5
19.1

46
4.7
3.8
6.4
5.1
4.0
1.5

2.6
.0

.0

10.3
8.7

(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)

.0
.0

.0
.0

.0

.0
.0

.0

2.8

.0
.0

1.8
9.1
18.9

(6)

(6)

(6)

.0

4.2
3.6

47
5.5
.8
5.1
8.6
12.3
14.7

.0

478
17.9
11.7
27.1
26.3

.0

.0

25.6

7.5

1.7
15.8
30.4

(6)

(6)

( 6)

.0

48
2.7
2.4
3.3
2.8
3.1
2.9
1.3
2.1
3.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 9 9 .................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ................................
to 2,499..............................
and over................ .............

See footnotes at end of table.




.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

21.9
8.3
18.3
19.9
28.6
31.3
25.0
20.4

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Communication.................................

.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

446

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Miscellaneous transportation services.......

11.9
.0
25.3
27.3
30.7
(6)

14.4
7.0
9.6
12.3
15.7
17.9
22.4
20.4

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Transportation services.......................

.0
.0
.5
7.0
7.7
(6)

44

sizes............. ....................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99........................... ......
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Pipelines, except natural gas.................

.0
.0
12.6
17.0
20.5
(6)

17.9
14.1
21.3
26.1

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Transportation by air.........................

11.9
.0
21.4
27.4
28.7
26.4
27.5
26.4
(6)

423

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Water transportation services...............

0.0
.0
.0
9.0
10.6
10.9
11.4
7.9
(6)

15.5
7.4
16.2
18.1
22.2
17.7

sizes.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................

Water transportation....... ...................

0.0
.0
9.8
17.2
18.7
18.1
18.1
16.2
(6)

First
quartile

422

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Trucking terminal facilities................

Median
4/

421

sizes................................ .
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Public warehousing..........................

Third
quartile

Mean
4/

2/

53

.0

.0

2.5

.0

.0

.0

.0

.0

.8
2.5
2.9
2.3
2.8

.0

1.5

2.6
4.3
4.6
4.7
3.7
4.2

(6)

(6)

( 6)

.5
1.1
.9

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Electric, gas, and sanitary services..........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Median
4/

First
quartile

Third
quartile

49

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Sanitary services................ ...........
All
1
20
50
100
250

Mean
4/

9.0
9.4
12.5
12.4
10.3
9.2
7.8
7.1
7.4

0.0
.0
8.1
9.3
7.8
7.4
7.0
5.7
7.1

0.0
.0
.5
3.7
3.6
3.7
3.8
2.8
3.5

11.2
.0
17.2
16.7
13.8
12.4
9.8
10.5
11.2

25.9
17.2
27.8
29.1
38.9
34.8

.0
.0
23.6
22.9
38.3
(6)

.0
.0
10.1
12.5
23.8
(6)

23.1
13.2
41.5
41.0
56.6
(6)

7.9
3.3
8.0
10.3
11.9
11.4
11.4
11.2
10.2

.0
.0
.0
7.5
9.5
9.4
9.4
9.3
9.0

.0
.0
.0
.0
3.1
3.8
4.4
4.4
5.6

.0
.0
12.0
15.9
18.0
17.2
16.3
15.2
16.0

8.9
4.6
9.1
11.5
12.8
12.0
11.0
7.5

.0
.0
2.9
7.7
9.3
8.3
7.8
4.6

.0
.0
.0
.2
2.7
2.9
3.0
2.4

.0
.0
13.5
17.6
19.2
19.5
16.9
12.5

8.6
4.9
9.5
11.8
11.6
9.6
6.3
7.3

.0
.0
3.4
7.4
8.3
6.1
4.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.4
2.2
2.1
(6)

.0
.0
14.1
17.8
17.0
14.0
10.5
(6)

9.3
4.3
8.5
11.0
14.2
15.3
16.2
7.7

.0
.0
2.1
8.2
10.7
13.4
15.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.4
3.3
4.3
6.2
(6)

.0
.0
12.8
17.4
20.9
25.5
24.0
(6)

7.5
2.7
7.5
9.8
11.5
11.2
11.5
11.8
10.3

.0
.0
.0
7.4
9.6
9.7
9.6
9.6
9.1

.0
.0
.0
.0
3.3
4.1
5.0
5.1
5.8

.0
.0
11.4
15.3
17.7
16.7
16.3
15.7
16.0

9.8
5.3
12.6
14.9
16.3
12.5
14.2
7.5

.0
.0
8.4
13.5
13.3
10.6

.0
.0
.0
3.9
6.5
2.7
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
18.9
22.2
22.3
19.4
(6)
(6)

9.1
2.2
5.2
9.6
11.2
11.4
9.3
8.8
7.3

.0
.0
.0
7.1
9.5
10.1
8.3
8.3
7.5

.0
.0
.0
1.6
4.1
4.9
4.4
4.4
1.9

5.8
.0
7.1
13.4
17.2
15.8
13.0
13.0
6.9

495

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Wholesale and retail trade:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Wholesale trade:
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Wholesale trade— durable goods................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Wholesale trade— nondurable goods.............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

50

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
51

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Retail trade:




All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Building materials and garden supplies........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

General merchandise stores....................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

52

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..............................

(6)
(6)

53

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 9 9 ..................................................................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

See footnotes at end of table.

54

Table 2. Continued—Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers _3/

Middle range _4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC
code
2/

Food stores............................ .......
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Third
quartlie

0.0
.0
.0
3.4
6.9
7.1
8.7
11.1
(6)

0.0
.0
13.7
20.6
22.6
21.0
19.9
26.2
(6)

.0
.0
6.5
10.2
12.5
7.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
2.9
7.1
2.9
(6)

.0
.0
14.7
16.5
18.0
16.6
(6)

2.3
.9
1.5
2.3
4.0
4.9
4.8
9.5

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.9
3.1
3.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1.1
1.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
3.5
5.4
5.9
6.6
(6)

5.1
3.1
5.8
7.5
9.0
8.9
15.3

.0
.0
.0
5.7
7.2
7.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
2.7
(6)

.0
.0
7.6
12.2
14.8
13.3
(6)

7.5
2.1
7.3
8.5
11.2
12.7
19.7
15.0
20.1

.0
.0
.0
5.3
9.1
11.5
18.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
2.1
4.0
13.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
13.7
17.5
20.2
26.6
(6)
(6)

3.8
1.6
4.7
6.0
7.6
5.9
8.1
9.6
10.4

.0
.0
.0
1.5
5.7
5.9
6.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.1
2.6
3.4
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
6.1
7.8
11.0
8.7
10.8
(6)
(6)

2.1
1.4
1.7
2.1
2.7
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.1

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.6
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.6

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.9
1.3
1.4
1.4

.0
.0
.0
2.5
3.9
4.1
4.0
4.0
3.8

1.5
1.1
1.1
1.0
1.9
2.6
2.3
1.8
1.8

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.4
3.6
4.0
3.9
3.9
(6)

1.1
.6
.5
.9
1.6
2.0
2.4
2.9

.0
.0
.0
.0
.6
2.3
2.7
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.7
1.4
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.3
3.3
3.8
4.1
(6)

56

57

58

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over............. .................

Miscellaneous retail..........................

0.0
.0
4.6
12.2
14.4
14.6
15.8
16.2
(6)

8.0
4.2
9.5
10.9
13.0
9.5
10.7

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Eating and drinking places....................

First
quartlie

55

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Furniture and home furnishings stores.........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

10.7
2.5
9.0
13.4
15.6
15.1
16.2
22.7
19.0

sizes..................... ............
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Apparel and accessory stores..................

Median
4/

54

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over.............. ................

Automotive dealers and service stations.......
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

Mean
4/

59

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499............ ....................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Finance, insurance, and real estate:

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Banking.......................................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Credit agencies other than banks..............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

60

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249........... .....................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................
61

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

See footnotes at end of table.




55

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size

I f

SIC
code

Mean
A/

2/

Security, commodity brokers and services......
All
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
.8
2.2
(6)
(6)
(6)

1.9
.8
1.1
1.6
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.3

.0
.0
.0
.6
1.9
2.4
2.6
2.7
2.7

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.9
1.3
1.4
1.5

.0
.0
.0
3.2
3.7
3.9
3.9
4.0
3.9

.8
.4
.7
1.2
1.7
2.2
1.8
2.0

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.2
2.5
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
1.1
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
1.6
3.4
3.9
(6)
(6)

sizes................ .................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ...............................................................................
to 2,499..............................

4.9
2.7
5.2
6.7
9.0
8.0
8.4
5.2

.0
.0
.0
3.0
7.3
6.8
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.7
2.3
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
9.2
11.2
13.5
13.4
(6)
(6)

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 9 9 ..................................................................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 9 9 9 ................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

5.5
1.8
3.7
6.2
7.7
8.0
7.9
7.8
5.8

.0
.0
.0
1.5
4.7
6.3
6.2
6.2
4.2

.0
.0
.0
.0
.4
2.3
2.8
3.0
2.2

.0
.0
2.5
9.3
12.6
12.5
11.2
10.1
8.4

9.2
1.5
4.4
7.5
10.9
12.7
14.3
14.4
12.9

.0
.0
.0
5.6
10.8
12.5
12.9
12.9
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
5.5
7.6
9.1
7.9
(6)

.0
.0
6.4
12.4
16.2
18.1
17.7
18.3
(6)

3.5
.8
3.1
7.8
10.8
8.6
6.3

.0
.0
.0
3.2
8.5
4.0
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.8
.6
(6)

.0
.0
.7
10.6
16.2
12.9
(6)

4.9
2.4
4.2
4.6
6.4
7.0
6.5
4.9
2.4

.0
.0
.0
.0

3.1
4.8
4.6
4.2
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

8.2
6.0
10.6
14.1
14.5
19.1
1.8

3.4
11.8
11.6
(6)
(6)

63

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................ ................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................
64

sizes........ .........................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Real estate....... ............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

Third
quartile

0.8
.5
.3
.6
.6
1.6
2.4
1.8

Insurance agents, brokers, and service........
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

First
quartile

62

sizes........................... ......
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Insurance carriers............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Median
A/

65

Services:




All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Hotels and other lodging places...............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

sizes ................ ...................

to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................... .............
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Personal services.............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

73

sizes........................... ......
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Auto repair, services, and garages............
All
1
20
50
100
250
500

72

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

Business services.............................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

70

1.7
2.2
2.2
(6)

.0
.0

3.1
6.6
8.9
10.5
9.5
8.1
(6)

75

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

See footnotes at end of table.

56

.0
.0

.0
.0
.0

1.3
4.0
(6)
(6)

.0
.0

16.7
20.4
23.3
(6)
(6)

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 3/

Middle range 4/
Industry and employment size 1/
SIC

Miscellaneous repair services.................
All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

All
1
20
50
100
250
500

.0
.0
.0
.7
2.6
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
4.6
5.9
(6)
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
6.2
6.8
9.6
11.5
11.5
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
1.9
2.9
.9
6.6
(6)

.0
.0
7.0
14.1
13.9
18.9
20.8
13.9
(6)

80
6.8
.3
2.6
7.9
9.4
10.1
8.5
8.0
6.7

.0
.0
.0

4.3
7.4
8.6
6.8
6.4
5.8

.0
.0
.0
.0

2.2
4.1
3.3
3.1
2.9

.0
.0

.2
12.0
15.4
14.4
11.4
9.8
9.2

82
3.2
1.3
1.5
1.8
3.3
4.3
5.0
4.7
3.5

.0
.0
.0
.0

2.3
3.4
4.1
5.7
3.2

.0
.0
.0
.0
.0

.0
.0
.0

1.2
1.8
2.7
1.7

.3
4.9
6.5
7.3
8.6
4.8

83
.0

6.0
1.9
3.3
5.1
8.5
7.2
7.6
13.7
4.1

.0
.0
1.8
6.0
5.1
6.2
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.6
1.2
2.6
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
2.2
8.4
13.4
11.0
12.3
(6)
(6)

7.3
4.4
6.1
6.4
6.3
9.5
17.0

.0
.0
5.5
1.5
5.5
(6)
(6)

.0
.0
.0
.0
.7
(6)
(6)

3.4
.0
10.5
8.4
9.4
(6)
(6)

84

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................

See footnotes at end of table.




.0
.0
23.8
28.2
21.9
(6)

8.4
2.3
4.9
10.6
9.3
11.7
13.0
12.1
15.8

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Museums, botanical and zoological gardens.....

.0
.0
.0
10.2
3.8
(6)

79

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Social services...............................

.0
.0
11.3
14.3
15.8
(6)

4.2
1.6
1.5
2.9
4.1
4.5
7.2
13.0

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Educational services..........................

0.0
.0
18.9
22.7
27.1
0.0

Third
quartile

78

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

Health services...............................

0.0
.0
.0
5.8
5.3
.0

12.4
8.5
15.5
20.5
20.9
16.7

sizes................................ .
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................

Amusement and recreation services.............

0.0
.0
7.9
13.6
16.1
.0

First
quartile

769

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Motion pictures...............................

Median
4/

76

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................

Miscellaneous repair shops..................

Mean
4/

10.0
6.4
13.0
17.6
19.3
16.6

C
|/e

57

Table 2. Continued— Occupational injury and illness incidence rates by industry and
employment size, United States, 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers .3/

Middle range k_!
Industry and employment size 1 /
SIC
code
2/

Miscellaneous services........................
All
1
20
50
100
250
500
1,000
2,500

Median
4/

First
quartile

Third
quartile

89
1.9
1.6
1.9
2.2
2.0
2.5
2.2
1.6
2.3

sizes.................................
to 19.................................
to 49.................................
to 99.................................
to 249................................
to 499................................
to 999................................
to 2,499..............................
and over..............................

1 To tals for divisions and 2- and 3-digit SIC codes include data for in­
dustries not shown separately.
1 S tandard Industrial C la ssificatio n M anual. 1972 Edition.
* T he incidence rate represents the num ber of injuries and illnesses per
100 full-tim e workers.
4 T he m ean incidence rate is calculated as:
(N/EH) X 200,000, where




Mean
4/

N
“ number of injuries and illnesses or lost workdays.
EH
- t o t a l hours worked by all em ployees during calendar year.
200,000 “ Ibase for 100 full-tim e equivalent workers (working 40 hours
per week. 50 weeks per year).

0.0
.0
.0
.0
.2
2.4
2.7
(6)
(6)

0.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.5
1.3
(6)
(6)

establishm ents have a rate lower than or equal to th e first quartile rate and
one-fourth have a rate higher than or equal to the third qu artile rate.
1 D ata c onform ing to the O S HA d efinitions for coal and lig n ite m ining (SIC
11 and 12) and m etal and nonm etal mining (SIC 10 and 14), and for railroad
transportation (SIC 40) w ere provided by the M ine Safety and Health Ad­
m inistration, U.S. D epartm ent of Labor, and by th e Federal Railroad Ad­
m inistration, U.S. D epartm ent of Transportation.
' Indicates th at qu artile rates were not derived b ecause few er than 25
estab lish m en t reports were included in th e industry e m ploym ent-size group.
n .e .c .-n o t elsew here classified.

The m iddle range (in terquartile) is defined by 2 measures; one-fourth o f the

58

0.0
.0
.0
3.2
3.3
4.3
4.1
(6)
(6)

SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. D epartm ent of Labor.

Table 3. Number of occupational injuries and illnesses, and lost workdays by industry division.
United States, 1977 and 19781
(In thousands)

Total cases 2/

Lost workday
cases

Industry division
1977

1977

1978

1978

Nonfatal cases
without lost
workdays

Lost workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

INJURIES AND ILLNESSES
5,460.3

5,799.4

2,203.6

2,492.0

3,250.6

3,302.0

36,140.3

39,015.4

74.9
88.2
507.9
2,466.5
428.6
1,169.9
377.9
791.9
77.2
647.2

67.1
98.4
576.6
2,581.6
462.9
1,252.2
413.8
838.4
85.2
675.5

33.4
48.4
192.9
959.3
234.3
443.7
158.5
285.2
30.9
260.7

31.4
55.0
230.9
1,084.4
264.5
499.0
182.5
316.5
35.2
291.6

41.4
39.3
313.7
1,506.0
192.7
725.5
219.0
506.5
46.1
385.8

35.6
42.9
344.5
1,495.9
197.4
752.4
231.0
521.4
49.8
383.5

530.7
1,042.9
3,648.9
15,458.6
4,253.4
6,665.4
2,323.8
4,341.6
409.7
4,130.9

467.0
1,229.2
3,945.1
16,567.7
4,706.9
7,113.4
2,675.8
4,437.5
519.5
4,466.6

Private sector 3/....... .........

5,298.5

5,656.0

2,146.8

2,438.5

3,145.9

3,212.5

35,234.4

38,173.9

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3/..
Mining................................
Construction..........................
Manufacturing.........................
Transportation and public utilities....
Wholesale and retail trade............
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade........................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Services..............................

70.1
87.2
497.9
2,370.2
419.5
1,154.2
371.2
783.0
74.9
624.5

63.7
96.8
568.8
2,494.9
454.9
1,237.2
408.4
828.8
83.3
656.4

31.7
48.0
189.6
925.7
230.3
438.9
157.0
282.0
30.0
252.5

30.2
54.5
228.5
1,053.2
260.9
492.6
180.5
312.0
34.3
284.4

38.3
38.6
307.0
1,443.4
187.6
714.7
213.9
500.8
44.9
371.5

33.4
41.9
339.2
1,440.6
193.1
744.0
227.6
516.4
48.8
371.6

515.5
1,038.8
3,589.4
14,903.0
4,210.1
6,579.0
2,296.0
4,283.0
401.0
3,997.5

453.5
1,221.7
3,899.8
16,066.7
4,661.1
7,012.2
2,644.2
4,368.0
502.1
4,356.7

Private sector V ....... .........

161.9

143.5

56.8

53.5

104.7

89.5

906.0

841.4

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3/..
Mining................................
Construction..........................
Manufacturing.........................
Transportation and public utilities....
Wholesale and retail trade............
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade........................
Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Services..............................

4.8
1.1
10.0
96.3
9.1
15.7
6.7
8.9
2.3
22.7

3.4
1.6
7.8
86.7
7.9
15.0
5.4
9.6
1.9
19.2

1.6
.4
3.3
33.6
4.0
4.8
1.6
3.2
.9
8.3

1.2
.5
2.4
31.3
3.5
6.4
2.0
4.4
.9
7.2

3.2
.7
6.7
62.6
5.1
10.8
5.1
5.7
1.3
14.4

2.2
1.1
5.3
55.3
4.4
8.4
3.4
5.0

15.2
4.1
59.5
555.6
43.2
86.4
27.7
58.6
8.6
133.4

13.5
7.5
45.2
500.9
45.8
101.1
31.6
69.5
17.4
109.9

Private sector 3/................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3/..
Mining................................
Construction..........................
Manufacturing.........................
Transportation and public utilities....
Wholesale and retail trade............
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade......... ...............
Finance, insurance, and real estate....
Services..... .........................
INJURIES

ILLNESSESS

1 In order to maintain the com parability o f the 1978 survey data w ith the data
published in previous years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the 1978
estimates to represent the small nonfarm employers in low-risk industries which were
not surveyed. The estimating procedure involved averaging the data reported by small
employers fo r the 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 7 6 , and 1977 annual surveys.
3 Includes fatalities.




1.0
11.9

3 Excludes farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, components may not add to totals, and the difference
between the total and the lost w orkday cases and nonfatal cases w ith o u t lost workdays
may n ot be equal to the fatality estimate.
SO UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor.

59

Table 4. Number of occupational injuries and illnesses by industry. United States, 19781
(Total cases and lost workday cases in thousands)

Injuries and illnesses

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Private sector 4/............ ........

5,799.4

2,492.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4/..... .

67.1

31.4

42.0
23.3
1.3
.6

19.1
11.3
.6
.3

Agricultural production 4/..............
Agricultural services...................
Forestry........... .....................
Fishing, hunting, and trapping..........

01-02
07
08
09

Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

Injuries

Illnesses

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

16

5,656.0

2,438.5

15

63.7

30.2

14
16
16
31

39.9
22.0
1.2
.5

18.5
10.8
.6
.3

Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

16

143.5

53.5

16

15

3.4

1.2

12

14
16
16
30

2.0
1.3
.1
.1

.7
.5
(6)
(6)

12
8
38

98.4

55.0

22

96.8

54.5

22

1.6

.5

-

10
11
12
13
14

8.3
.4
20.0
59.6
10.2

4.5
.2
14.5
29.7
6.1

21
27
23
22
21

8.1
.4
19.5
58.7
10.0

4.4
.2
14.4
29.5
6.0

21
27
23
22
21

.1
(6)
.4
.8
.2

.1
(6)
.1
.3
.1

12
20
18
12

576.6

230.9

17

568.8

228.5

17

7.8

2.4

19

15
16
17

160.7
133.7
282.2

63.2
50.3
117.4

17
18
17

158.7
131.0
279.1

62.6
49.7
116.2

17
18
17

2.0
2.7
3.1

.6
.6
1.2

19
17
19

Manufacturing...............................

2,581.6

1,084.4

15

2,494.9

1,053.2

15

86.7

31.3

16

Durable goods................. ............

1,674.0

698.7

15

1,617.3

678.9

15

56.7

19.8

17

24
25
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

159.3
80.4
114.9
200.3
309.8
329.0
166.1
222.4
43.0
48.9

78.3
31.6
53.1
88.0
127.4
123.5
62.4
99.7
16.0
18.7

16
14
16
17
14
14
15
15
14
15

157.5
79.0
111.7
194.8
301.2
318.7
155.1
212.3
40.1
46.9

77.6
31.1
52.0
86.3
124.6
119.9
58.5
96.1
14.8
17.9

16
14
16
16
14
14
15
15
14
15

1.7
1.4
3.2
5.5
8.6
10.4
10.9
10.1
3.0
2.0

.6
.5
1.1
1.7
2.8
3.6
3.9
3.6
1.2
.8

15
16
15
22
13
16
19
17
16
18

907.6

385.7

16

877.6

374.2

16

30.0

11.5

15

20
21
22
23
26
27
28
29

318.5
5.6
90.2
75.3
94.9
72.8
83.1
16.5

146.4
2.6
29.9
25.1
39.7
30.2
35.4
7.1

15
14
18
15
18
15
15
17

307.1
5.5
88.4
73.3
93.2
71.5
77.2
16.0

141.4
2.6
29.4
24.4
39.0
29.8
33.5
6.9

15
14
18
15
18
15
16
17

11.4
.1
1.7
1.9
1.8
1.3
5.9
.5

5.0
(6)
.5
.7
.7
.5
2.0
.1

13
19
18
17
18
22
11
18

30
31

124.5
26.1

58.6
10.6

16
15

120.6
24.7

57.3
10.0

15
15

3.9
1.4

1.4
.6

20
13

462.7

264.5

18

454.9

260.9

18

7.9

3.5

13

61.2
17.2
200.5
27.1
47.5
.9
8.4
32.2
67.9

38.9
9.3
115.9
14.7
29.9
.4
4.2
18.2
33.0

13

35
11
15
15
19
17

59.5
17.1
199.0
26.7
46.1
.9
8.3
31.3
66.2

38.2
9.2
115.3
14.5
28.9
.4
4.1
17.9
32.5

13
18
19
35
12
16
15
19
18

1.7
.2
1.5
.5
1.5
<6>
.1

.7
.1
.7
.2
1.0
.3

8
21
22
28
7
19

1.6

.4

9

1,252.2

499.0

14

1,237.2

492.6

14

15.0

6.4

16

413.8

182.5

15

408.4

180.5

15

5.4

2.0

16

236.3
177.4

98.2
84.3

14
15

233.6
174.8

97.3
83.2

14
15

2.8
2.7

1.0
1.0

11

838.4

316.5

14

828.8

312.0

14

9.6

4 .4

16

52.9
156.9
179.2
141.0
15.2
26.6
213.4
53.2

22.7
64.6
70.5
45.0
6.0
12.8
72.1
22.8

14
13
16
15
17
16
11
15

52.4
154.9
178.1
139.6
14.9
26.2
210.2
52.4

22.4
63.6
69.7

15
13
16
15
17
16

.5
1.9

15

3.1
.7

85.2

35.2

15

83.3

34.3

15

60
61

19.5
5.0

7.7
1.8

12
13

19.2
5.0

7.6
1.8

12
13

62
63
64
65

1.5
21.1
2.7
33.8

.6

14
17
15
15

1.5
20.9
2.6
32.6

.6

7.7
1.2
15.5

7.6
1.2
14.9

14
17
15

Mining......................................
Metal mining 5/.........................
Anthracite mining 5/....................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining 5/....
Oil and gas extraction..................
Nonmetallie minerals, except fuels 5/....
Construction................................
General building contractors............
Heavy construction contractors..........
Special trade contractors...............

Lumber and wood products................
Furniture and fixtures..................
Stone, clay, and glass products.........
Primary metal industries................
Fabricated metal products........ .
Machinery, except electrical............
Electric and electronic equipment...... .
Transportation equipment.......... .
Instruments and related products........
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries...
Nondurable goods...........................
Food and kindred products.......... .
Tobacco manufactures........... .
Textile mill products......... .........
Apparel and other textile products......
Paper and allied products...............
Printing and publishing........... ......
Chemicals and allied products..... .....
Petroleum and coal products.............
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products...................... ..... .
Leather and leather products.............
Transportation and public utilities.........
Railroad transportation V ........... ..
Local and interurban passenger transit...
Trucking and warehousing................
Water transportation..... ...... .......
Transportation by air......... .
Pipelines, except natural gas........ .
Transportation services...*........ .
Communication............. ..........
Electric, gas, and sanitary services....

40
41
42
44
45
46
47
48
49

Wholesale and retail trade..................
Wholesale trade.......... .................
Wholesale trade— durable goods..........
Wholesale trade— nondurable goods.......

50
51

Retail trade..............................
Building materials and garden supplies...
General merchandise stores.... .........
Food stores......... ...................
Automotive dealers and service stations..
Apparel and accessory stores............
Furniture and home furnishings stores....
Eating and drinking places...... .
Miscellaneous retail.... ................

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

Finance, insurance, and real estate.........
Banking............. ....................
Credit agencies other than banks..... .
Security, commodity brokers, and
services..................... .........
Insurance carriers.........
Insurance agents, brokers, and service....
Real estate...... .......................

See footnotes at end of table.




18
19

4 4 .4

6.0
12.5
70.8
22.6

11

.9

1 .1

.3
1 .1
.8

22

8
9

16

.5
(6)
.2
1.3
-

33

1.9

.9

20

.3

.1

-

(6)

(6)

1.5
.3
.4

15

-

-

.2

.1

1.2

-

31
-

.6

11

Table 4. Continued—Number of occupational injuries and illnesses by industry. United States, 19781
(Total cases and lost workday cases in thousands)

Injuries and illnesses

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Lost
workday
cases

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

675.5

291.6

15

656.4

284.4

15

19.2

7.2

15

68.8
24.6
100.5
37.9
21.9
6.4
39.7
262.4
22.7
42.9

26.8
10.8
45.1
15.8
9.9
2.0
17.5
117.8
9.0
18.7

14
18
16
12
15
20
13
16
15
14

67.6
23.7
98.5
37.4
21.3
6.2
38.1
253.6
21.9
41.8

26.3
10.4
44.4
15.6
9.7
1.9
16.8
114.7
8.6
18.1

14
18
16
12
16
20
13
16
16
15

1.2
.8
2.0
.5
.6
.2
1.6
8.8
.8
1.1

.5
.4
.7
.1
.2
(6)
.6
3.1
.4
.6

11
40
9
12
15
8
10

84
89

1.7
15.4

.6
5.5

13
15

1.6
14.5

.6
5.3

13
15

.1
.9

(6)
.2

8
9

1
In order to maintain the com parability o f th e 19 78 survey data w ith the data
published in previous years, a statistical m ethod was developed fo r generating the 19 78
estimates to represent th e small nonfarm employers in low-risk industries which were
n ot surveyed. T h e estimating procedure involved averaging the data reported b y small
employers fo r th e 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 7 6 , and 1977 annual surveys.
1 Industry division totals include data fo r industries n ot shown separately.
1 Standard Industrial Classification M anual. 19 72 Edition.
4 Excludes farms w ith few er than 11 employees.
* Data conforming to O S H A definitions fo r coal and lignite m ining (SIC 11 and 12)
and metal and nonmetal mining (SIC 10 and 14 ), and fo r railroad transportation (S IC 4 0 )
were provided by th e M ine Safety and Health Adm inistration, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor,
and by th e Federal Railroad A dm inistration, U.S. Departm ent o f Transportation.




Average
lost
workdays
per lost
workday
case

Illnesses

70
72
73
75
76
78
79
80
82
83

Services.......... ..........................
Hotels and other lodging places.........
Personal services......... .............
Business services..... .................
Auto repair, services, and garages......
Miscellaneous repair services...........
Motion pictures.........................
Amusement and recreation services.......
Health services.........................
Educational services....................
Social services....... ....... ..........
Museums, botanical and zoological
gardens...............................
Miscellaneous services..................

Total
cases

Injuries

61

*

-

Fewer than 5 0 cases.

N O T E : Dashes indicate • th at data do n o t meet publication guidelines. Because o f
rounding, components may n ot add to totals.
The number o f lost workdays fo r the 2-digit SIC levels shown in this table can be
approxim ated by m ultiplying the num ber o f lost workday cases by th e average lost
workdays per lost workday case.
Approxim ations o f average lost workdays per lost w orkday case fo r 3- and 4-digit
SIC levels can be derived by dividing th e incidence rate fo r lost workdays by th e inci­
dence rate fo r lost workday cases (tables 1 and 5).
SO U R C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.

Table 5. Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States, 1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4J

SIC
code
3/

Industry 2/,

Total
cases 5/

1977

6 f

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

9.0

........

Agricultural production 6/.................
Agricultural services......................
Forestry...................................
Fishing, hunting, and trapping.............

1977

Lost
workdays

01-02
07
08
09

Mining.......................................

9.2

3.7

4.0

5.3

5.2

60.0

10.7

Private sector 6/......................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

1978

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

11.0

4.8

5.2

5.8

5.8

78.8

78.3

11.2
10.1
12.5
6.0

12.2
9.7
10.4
3.7

5.1
4.6
5.3
2.2

5.6
4.8
5.0
2.1

6.1
5.5
7.2
3.8

6.5
4.9
5.3
1.6

77.0
85.4
63.4
39.7

78.9
78.5
78.9
62.4

62.1

10.8

11.3

5.9

6.4

4.8

4.9

128.3

142.3

Metal mining 7/...................... ......
Anthracite mining 7/.......................
Bituminous coal and lignite mining 7/......

10
11
12

7.4
21.6
12.3

9.9
19.3
9.8

4.5
10.6
7.8

5.4
11.3
7.3

2.8
10.6
4.4

4.5
7.9
2.5

83.9
237.6
167.0

113.1
306.7
169.6

Oil and gas extraction.................... .
Crude petroleum and natural gas..........
Oil and gas field services...............

13
131
138

12.7
-

13.7
4.4
20.0

6.2

6.9
2.0
10.1

6.4

6.8
2.3
9.8

142.7

"

153.4
42.3
228.4

Nonmetallie minerals, except fuels 7/......

14

-

-

-

-

-

5.1

6.8

3.3

4.1

1.8

2.6

58.0

87.4

. 15.2

Construction.................................

15.8

5.8

6.3

9.4

9.4

109.7

108.1

General building contractors...............
Residential building construction........
Operative builders.......................
Nonresidential building construction.....

15
152
153
154

14.8
12.8
12.6
17.6

15.7
13.2
15.5
18.9

5.6
5.5
4.7
5.8

6.2
5.9
6.2
6.6

9.2
7.2
7.9
11.7

9.5
7.3
9.3
12.3

97.7
97.3
53.8
105.9

104.1
100.0
76.2
114.1

Heavy construction contractors.............
Highway and street construction..........
Heavy construction, except highway.......

16
161
162

15.6
14.8
16.0

16.2
15.0
16.8

5.6
5.3
5.7

6.2
5.7
6.4

9.9
9.3
10.2

10.0
9.2
10.4

114.8
108.6
117.5

105.5
104.7
111.7

Special trade contractors..................
Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning...
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating....
Electrical work..........................
Masonry, stonework, and plastering.......
Carpentering and flooring................
Roofing and sheet-metal work.............
Concrete work............................
Water well drilling......................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors...

17
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179

15.3
16.8
9.4
13.1
15.3
14.4
20.9
14.3
14.1
16.1

15.6
16.7
9.3
13.9
15.4
13.5
22.3
14.4
12.7
16.7

6.0
5.4
4.4
4.4
7.1
7.2
9.7
6.3
7.0
6.2

6.5
5.8
4.6
4.7
7.3
7.2
11.7
6.6
6.5
7.1

9.3
11.4
4.9
8.6
8.2
7.2
11.1
8.0
7.0
9.8

9.1
10.9
4.7
9.2
8.1
6.2
10.6
7.8
6.2
9.5

114.1
93.6
101.1
91.9
130.9
118.8
195.5
130.1
134.2
120.6

109.8
92.3
98.2
70.3
119.9
127.0
211.2
121.1
126.1
122.6

Manufacturing................................

12.6

12.8

4.9

5.4

7.7

7.4

79.3

82.3

Durable goods...............................

13.5

13.7

5.2

5.8

8.3

7.9

83.3

86.3
177.5

Lumber and wood products...................

24

22.0

22.3

10.3

11.0

11.7

11.3

175.8

Logging camps and logging contractors....

241

25.8

25.6

15.4

15.5

10.3

9.9

327.0

315.5

Sawmills and planing mills...............
Sawmills and planing mills, general....
Hardwood dimension and flooring........
Special product sawmills, n.e.c........

242
2421
2426
2429

20.8
20.7
19.4
34.6

21.5
21.1
20.6
42.9

10.0
10.2
7.6
18.5

11.0
11.0
8.8
24.3

10.8
10.5
11.7
16.0

10.5
10.0
11.8
18.6

181.5
189.8
116.7
277.5

191.4
193.7
149.2
366.3

Millwork, plywood, and structural members.
Millwork...............................
Wood kitchen cabinets..................
Softwood veneer and plywood............
Stuctural wood members, n.e.c..........

243
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439

19.3
22.0
16.8
18.8
15.6
27.0

20.2
22.6
17.6
19.7
15.9
30.9

8.6
9.4
7.8
7.6
7.2
13.9

9.5
10.1
8.5
8.8
8.4
15.0

10.7
12.6
8.9
11.2
8.4
13.1

10.6
12.5
9.1
10.9
7.5
15.9

134.4
125.9
106.7
140.4
152.0
190.2

138.0
136.2
113.8
127.2
159.0
170.7

Wood containers..........................
Nailed wood boxes and shook............
Wood pallets and skids.................
Wood containers, n.e.c.................

244
2441
2448
2449

20.0
20.2
20.2
19.6

21.2
23.1
21.9
18.4

9.8
9.0
10.9
8.5

10.9
11.3
11.7
8.9

10.2
11.2
9.2
11.1

10.3
11.7
10.2
9.5

158.6
148.0
167.5
151.4

161.5
159.9
171.3
142.7

Wood buildings and mobile homes..........
Mobile homes...........................
Prefabricated wood buildings...........

245
2451
2452

32.6
35.3
26.2

32.4
34.5
27.9

13.6
14.6
11.3

14.1
15.1
11.8

19.0
20.7
14.9

18.3
19.3
16.1

174.0
191.3
133.3

176.4
195.4
135.0

Miscellaneous wood products..............
Wood preserving........................
Particleboard..........................
Wood products, n.e.c...................

249
2491
2492
2499

19.3
21.1
16.4
19.1

18.2
18.4
13.2
18.8

7.8
8.6
6.0
7.8

8.0
8.7
6.1
8.0

11.5
12.5
10.4
11.3

10.2
9.7
7.1
10.7

138.5
160.3
98.9
137.2

125.4
150.8
121.4
120.5

Hardwood veneer and plywood.............

25

16.8

17.2

5.9

6.8

10.9

10.4

89.9

94.3

Household furniture.................. .
Wood household furniture...............
Upholstered household furniture........
Metal household furniture..............
Mattresses and bedsprings..............
Wood TV and radio cabinets.............
Household furniture, n.e.c.............

251
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519

15.8
15.4
15.1
17.9
17.8
14.7
16.8

16.2
16.1
15.2
17.5
17.9
15.9
19.9

5.4
5.0
5.0
6.6
7.2
5.5
5.6

6.4
6.1
6.0
7.1
8.2
5.8
6.7

10.4
10.4
10.1
11.3
10.5
9.2
11.2

9.8
10.0
9.2
10.4
9.6
10.1
13.2

84.1
85.6
72.0
98.9
102.1
71.6
97.6

90.0
88.0
86.5
95.2
109.7
81.7
83.0

Office furniture....................... .
Wood office furniture..................
Metal office furniture.................

252
2521
2522

20.0
18.6
20.8

18.0
18.0
18.0

7.1
6.7
7.3

7.5
7.8
7.3

12.9
11.9
13.5

10.5
10.2
10.7

111.2
105.5
114.3

102.3
97.6
104.8

Public building and related furniture....

253

18.1

20.7

7.2

7.7

10.9

13.0

104.5

102.2

Partitions and fixtures....... ......... .
Wood partitions and fixtures...........
{fetal partitions and fixtures..........

254
2541
2542

18.2
15.7
21.1

20.0
18.9
21.2

6.7
5.7
7.7

8.0
7.6
8.5

11.5
9.9
13.4

12.0
11.3
12.7

96.2
87.5
106.2

104.9
104.4
105.5

Furniture and fixtures.....................

See footnotes at end of table.




62

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures.....
Drapery hardware and blinds and shades..
Furniture and fixtures, n.e.c..........

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

259
2591
2599

19.8
16.7
23.9

18.8
16.8
21.5

6.8
5.4
8.6

7.0
5.9
8.4

13.0
11.3
15.3

11.8
10.8
13.1

96.8
88.0
108.5

100.3
76.4
132.5
123.8

32

16.3

16.4

6.7

7.6

9.6

8.7

116.0

Flat glass...............................

321

19.3

17.9

4.7

5.3

14.6

12.6

96.8

94.0

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown....
Glass containers.......................
Pressed and blown glass, n.e.c.........

322
3221
3229

14.2
15.5
12.6

14.2
15.3
12.7

6.3
7.9
4.3

7.3
9.0
5.1

7.9
7.6
8.3

6.9
6.3
7.6

125.3
164.8
73.0

130.8
170.8
78.0

Products of purchased glass..............

323

19.1

20.1

6.3

7.5

12.8

12.5

99.8

96.4

Structural clay products.................
Brick and structural clay tile.........
Ceramic wall and floor tile............
Clay refractories......................
Structural clay products, n.e.c........

325
3251
3253
3255
3259

17.8
20.4
12.2
14.3
24.1

18.3
21.0
14.0
14.4
23.6

8.1
9.0
5.1
6.5
12.5

8.8
10.3
5.9
6.6
12.9

9.7
11.3
7.1
7.8
11.6

9.4
10.7
8.1
7.7
10.7

131.4
146.0
88.5
111.6
186.4

130.2
148.8
82.6
113.9
176.5

Pottery and related products.............
Vitreous plumbing fixtures.............
Vitreous china food utensils...........
Fine earthenware food utensils.........
Porcelain electrical supplies..........
Pottery products, n.e.c................

326
3261
3262
3263
3264
3269

15.6
27.1
7.5
13.0
11.7
13.2

16.0
28.1
10.5
13.6
14.0
11.7

7.1
12.7
5.1
7.4
5.0
5.0

7.9
14.5
6.6
7.0
5.6
5.6

8.5
14.4
2.3
5.6
6.7
8.2

8.1
13.6
3.9
6.6
8.4
6.0

109.2
180.4
114.5
99.1
93.1
69.0

110.7
205.4
121.1
110.5
73.3
69.9

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products....
Concrete block and brick...............
Concrete products, n.e.c...............
Ready-mixed concrete.... ...............
Lime...................................
Gypsum products........................

327
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275

17.9
18.4
23.6
15.6

7.5
8.3
10.1
6.4

7.1

17.7
19.2
23.5
15.5
13.0
6.0

2.2

8.3
8.9
11.5
7.0
6.6
2.1

10.3
10.1
13.5
9.1
4.9

9.4
10.2
12.0
8.5
6.3
3.9

124.8
137.0
155.8
110.1
48.2

133.6
146.3
163.7
122.0
131.1
57.8

Cut stone and stone products.............

328

16.5

14.1

7.3

6.2

9.2

7.8

90.3

115.2

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products.............................
Abrasive products......................
Asbestos products......................
Gaskets, packing, and sealing devices...
Mineral wool...........................
Nonclay refractories...................

329
3291
3292
3293
3296
3297

15.1
19.3
14.6
14.6
10.9
18.5

15.9
17.8
16.6
16.2
12.9
18.3

6.1
6.8
6.8
5.3
4.9
9.3

7.5
7.6
8.8
6.6
6.4
9.8

9.0
12.4
7.7
9.2
6.0
9.2

8.4
10.2
7.8
9.6
6.4
8.5

103.7
101.5
155.0
81.7
85.0
155.9

121.0
117.5
156.1
103.3
101.6
164.9

Stone, clay, and glass products............

-

-

33

15.7

16.5

6.6

7.3

9.1

9.2

115.9

120.5

Blast furnace and basic steel products....
Blast furnaces and steel mills.........
Electrometallurgical products..........
Steel wire and related products........
Cold finishing of steel shapes.........
Steel pipe and tubes...................

331
3312
3313
3315
3316
3317

11.7
10.0
14.1
21.9
27.4
21.4

12.6
10.7
14.6
19.8
26.6
26.6

4.5
3.7
5.4
10.3
10.2
9.0

4.9
4.0
6.3
9.1
11.6
11.0

7.2
6.2
8.7
11.6
17.1
12.4

7.7
6.7
8.3
10.7
14.9
15.5

93.2
83.3
104.4
161.8
177.6
141.3

95.1
85.2
115.7
147.4
177.9
150.5

Iron and steel foundries..... ............
Gray iron foundries....................
Malleable iron foundries...............
Steel foundries, n.e.c.................

332
3321
3322
3325

24.0
24.5
26.2
23.0

24.3
24.0
24.8
26.3

10.7
11.2
11.0
10.2

11.4
11.3
10.9
12.6

13.2
13.3
15.2
12.7

12.9
12.7
13.9
13.6

160.6
158.3
176.5
177.7

166.7
156.5
157.2
212.1

Primary nonferrous metals................
Primary copper.............. ...... .
Primary lead.......... .
Primary zinc..................... .
Primary aluminum.......................
Primary nonferrous metals, n.e.c.......

333
3331
3332
3333
3334
3339

12.1
11.1
18.1
14.1
11.3
13.2

12.7
10.0
16.1
16.7
12.3
13.4

5.0
5.6
5.6
6.9
4.5
5.0

5.8
4.6
8.8
9.7
5.4
5.7

7.0
5.4
12.5
7.2
6.8
8.2

6.8
5.4
7.3
6.9
6.9
7.6

110.1
153.2
134.7
172.5
91.9
75.6

108.9
117.6
129.2
181.4
98.0
95.6

Primary metal industries...................

Secondary nonferrous metals...............

33 4

26.2

24.8

11.6

12.6

14.5

12.2

178.1

185.5

Nonferrous rolling and drawing...........
Copper rolling and drawing.............
Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil........
Aluminum extruded products.............
Aluminum rolling and drawing, n.e.c....
Nonferrous rolling and drawing, n.e.c...
Nonferrous wire drawing and insulating..

335
3351
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357

13.6
16.9
10.9
14.3
10.3
12.4
13.6

15.0
18.7
11.3
17.0
10.9
14.4
14.8

5.6
6.7
4.3
6.1
3.6
4.3
5.9

6.8
8.5
4.3
8.5
4.9
5.3
7.0

8.0
10.2
6.6
8.1
6.7
8.1
7.7

8.2
10.2
6.9
8.5
6.0
9.1
7.8

98.8
120.9
70.6
115.0
62.6
76.0
102.7

114.2
144.4
69.0
150.1
85.7
91.5
115.0

Nonferrous foundries.....................
Aluminum foundries.....................
Brass, bronze, and copper foundries....
Nonferrous foundries, n.e.c............

336
3361
3362
3369

22.0
22.2
23.2
20.4

22.4
22.3
25.2
20.2

10.2
10.6
10.4
9.1

11.0
11.3
11.5
9.9

11.8
11.6
12.8
11.3

11.4
11.0
13.7
10.3

157.5
166.8
150.7
141.8

155.0
145.8
162.4
169.3

Miscellaneous primary metal products......
Metal heat treating....................
Primary metal products, n.e.c..........

339
3398
3399

20.0
21.2
18.6

21.1
23.2
18.5

9.0
9.6
8.4

10.4
11.4
9.2

11.0
11.6
10.2

10.7
11.8
9.3

152.9
136.5
172.9

137.8
144.7
129.4

34

18.5

18.8

7.0

7.8

11.5

11.0

106.3

110.0

Metal cans and shipping containers.......
Metal cans.............................
Metal barrels, drums, and pails........

341
3411
3412

18.2
17.5
21.7

18.0
17.2
22.2

6.4
6.1
7.8

7.1
6.9
8.4

11.8
11.4
13.9

10.9
10.3
13.8

113.1
105.9
149.5

111.6
107.7
130.1

Cutlery, hand tools, and hardware........
Cutlery................................
Hand and edge tools, n.e.c.............
Hand saws and saw blades...............
Hardware, n.e.c........................

342
3421
3423
3425
3429

15.1
12.3
18.0
18.4
14.0

17.0
14.0
20.3
18.8
15.7

5.7
3.9
6.6
6.1
5.5

7.0
4.8
8.1
6.9
6.7

9.4
8.4
11.3
12.3
8.5

10.0
9.2
12.2
11.9
9.0

87.7
60.8
95.5
85.0
88.3

102.4
68.5
116.7
89.3
101.4

Fabricated metal products..................

See footnotes at end of table.




63

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Plumbing and heating, except electric....
Metal sanitary ware....................
Plumbing fittings and brass goods......
Heating equipment, except electric.....

343
3431
3432
3433

19.6
21.9
14.4
23.1

18.7
21.9
13.4
22.0

7.3
8.4
6.0
7.9

7.5
7.2
6.2
8.6

12.3
13.4
8.4
15.1

11.2
14.7
7.2
13.4

107.3
107.6
90.1
121.1

105.9
96.5
88.8
122.7

Fabricated structural metal products.....
Fabricated structural metal............
Metal doors, sash, and trim............
Fabricated plate work..................
Sheet-metal work.......................
Architectural metal work........... .
Prefabricated metal buildings..........
Miscellaneous metal work...............

344
3441
3442
3443
3444
3446
3448
3449

22.0
24.9
23.7
18.8
23.2
21.9
19.9
20.7

22.2
25.2
21.9
19.5
23.7
21.0
21.0
22.8

8.4
10.6
8.5
7.3
8.5
7.3
7.5
8.3

9.2
11.9
8.1
8.1
9.2
9.0
8.1
9.6

13.6
14.3
15.2
11.5
14.7
14.6
12.4
12.4

12.9
13.3
13.8
11.4
14.5
12.0
12.9
13.2

126.2
159.1
119.1
108.6
135.4
106.9
105.8
129.5

126.8
175.7
105.5
107.0
121.2
122.8
132.1
143.7

Screw machine products, bolts, etc.......
Screw machine products.................
Bolts, nuts, rivets, and washers.......

345
3451
3452

15.7
14.9
16.4

16.3
16.0
16.5

5.2
4.8
5.6

6.0
5.4
6.5

10.5
10.1
10.8

10.3
10.6
10.0

81.8
71.2
91.0

79.0
67.4
89.8

Metal forgings and stampings.............
Iron and steel forgings................
Nonferrous forgings............. ......
Automotive stampings...................
Crowns and closures....................
Metal stampings, n.e.c.................

346
3462
3463
3465
3466
3469

17.9
27.5
11.2
13.0
14.2
19.4

17.9
24.3
13.9
12.7
14.4
20.4

7.0
12.7
4.3
4.9
6.9
6.8

7.6
11.9
6.9
5.5
7.1
7.8

10.9
14.8
6.9
8.0
7.3
12.5

10.3
12.4
6.9
7.2
7.3
12.6

111.5
205.4
72.3
71.6
163.1
111.6

111.8
189.2
141.9
71.7
123.2
114.3

Metal services, n.e.c....................
Plating and polishing..................
Metal coating and allied services......

347
3471
3479

16.7
15.4
19.6

17.2
16.6
18.6

6.9
6.5
7.7

7.5
7.4
7.7

9.8
8.8
11.9

9.6
9.1
10.9

95.5
88.1
112.1

102.3
90.8
130.7

Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c..........
Small arms ammunition..................
Ammunition, except for small
arms, n.e.c..........................
Small arms.............................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c........

348
3482

7.7
4.8

8.4
4.7

3.0
1.8

3.5
1.8

4.7
3.0

4.9
2.9

48.6
36.2

52.8
29.4

3483
3484
3489

7.8
7.7
11.1

8.8
8.9
11.7

2.7
3.6
4.1

3.4
4.2
4.7

5.1
4.1
7.0

5.4
4.7
6.9

49.4
50.3
59.6

54.1
63.6
59.6

Miscellaneous fabricated metal products...
Steel springs, except wire.............
Valves and pipe fittings...............
Wire springs...........................
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products..
Metal foil and leaf....................
Fabricated pipe and fittings...........
Fabricated metal products, n.e.c.......

349
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499

19.2
29.8
17.8
17.7
20.7
19.1
20.4
18.1

18.9
28.6
17.6
16.1
20.3
19.8
20.4
18.3

7.1
13.4
6.6
5.5
8.0
7.3
7.4
6.4

7.9
13.5
7.2
6.1
8.7
8.0
8.7
7.8

12.1
16.3
11.2
12.2
12.7
11.8
13.0
11.7

10.9
15.1
10.4
10.0
11.5
11.8
11.6
10.5

101.6
178.9
89.3
90.6
129.7
121.6
101.8
85.8

111.1
188.0
96.9
103.7
120.4
106.2
131.9
107.1

Machinery, except electrical...............

35

13.5

13.9

4.6

5.2

8.9

8.7

67.4

72.6

Engines and turbines.....................
Turbines and turbine generator sets....
Internal combustion engines, n.e.c.....

351
3511
3519

11.3
9.7
12.2

11.7
9.0
13.0

3.9
3.4
4.2

4.8
3.0
5.7

7.4
6.3
8.1

6.9
5.9
7.3

62.0
49.9
69.0

79.6
47.3
96.2

Farm and garden machinery................
Farm machinery and equipment...........
Lawn and garden equipment..............

352
3523
3524

17.3
17.4
16.5

17.8
17.2
22.4

6.4
6.5
5.4

6.7
6.6
7.5

10.9
10.9
11.1

11.0
10.6
14.8

85.8
87.8
69.3

86.5
85.3
96.3

Construction and related machinery.......
Construction machinery.................
Mining machinery.......................
Oil field machinery....................
Elevators and moving stairways.........
Conveyors and conveying equipment......
Hoists, cranes, and monorails..........
Industrial trucks and tractors.........

353
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537

16.6
15.9
19.8
16.1
15.2
18.2
20.2
15.4

18.1
16.7
21.3
19.3
13.0
21.4
17.5
17.7

6.5
6.2
7.4
6.9
5.0
6.6
7.4
5.9

7.6
7.3
7.8
8.6
4.1
8.6
7.0
7.7

10.1
9.7
12.4
9.2
10.2
11.6
12.7
9.5

10.4
9.4
13.5
10.7
8.9
12.7
10.5
10.0

95.4
89.1
107.9
104.4
92.9
77.1
127.8
90.7

104.1
94.5
115.6
121.6
58.5
117.8
109.6
101.0

Metalworking machinery...................
Machine tools, metal cutting types.....
Machine tools, metal forming types.....
Special dies, tools, jigs, and fixtures.
Machine tool accessories..... .........
Power driven hand tools................
Rolling mill machinery.................
Metalworking machinery, n.e.c..........

354
3541
3542
3544
3545
3546
3547
3549

13.6
13.2
14.6
13.6
13.0
12.9
13.3

13.7
12.7
16.5
14.2
12.6
12.3
16.3
14.7

3.9
3.9
4.5
3.8
3.9
3.3
4.0
-

4.4
4.4
5.8
4.2
4.2
3.7
5.4
4.3

9.7
9.3
10.1
9.8
9.1
9.5
9.3
-

9.3
8.3
10.6
10.0
8.4
8.6
10.8
10.4

60.6
66.8
59.7
59.5
57.6
47.1
92.5
"

64.3
67.8
78.5
62.3
53.1
62.6
100.6
68.0

Special industry machinery...............
Food products machinery................
Textile machinery......................
Woodworking machinery..................
Paper industries machinery.............
Printing trades machinery..............
Special industry machinery, n.e.c......

355
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3559

14.9
15.5
11.6
16.8
17.7
13.2
15.9

15.6
19.0
11.9
17.7
17.8
10.9
16.9

4.7
5.3
3.6
5.2
5.2
4.0
5.0

5.4
6.4
4.0
6.9
6.0
3.8
5.9

10.2
10.2
8.0
11.5
12.5
9.2
10.9

10.2
12.6
7.9
10.8
11.8
7.1
10.9

71.8
80.5
60.3
84.2
86.2
58.7
70.9

78.3
99.8
65.4
83.9
81.0
59.3
78.5

General industrial machinery....... .....
Pumps and pumping equipment............
Ball and roller bearings...............
Air and gas compressors................
Blowers and fans.......................
Industrial patterns....................
Speed changers, drives, and gears......
Industrial furnaces and ovens..........
Power transmission equipment, n.e.c....
General industrial machinery, n.e.c....

356
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569

14.8
17.0
9.9
12.8
17.4
13.1
18.4
17.4
13.8
14.6

14.7
15.3
10.0
12.6
17.8
12.1
18.9
18.3
15.3
14.7

5.0
6.3
3.7
4.1
5.6
3.1
5.6
5.1
5.1
4.6

5.4
6.2
3.5
4.5
6.6
3.4
6.6
6.1
5.9
5.4

9.8
10.7
6.2
8.7
11.8
9.9
12.8
12.3
8.7
10.0

9.3
9.1
6.5
8.1
11.2
8.7
12.3
12.2
9.3
9.3

71.7
84.5
55.8
75.0
77.5
45.1
83.3
79.1
74.9
61.9

75.6
86.1
55.3
71.6
87.3
33.1
88.5
84.5
87.5
73.2

Office and computing machines............
Electronic computing equipment.........
Calculating and accounting machines....
Scales and balances, except laboratory..
Office machines, n.e.c.................

357
3573
3574
3576
3579

4.5
3.7
12.8
8.5

4.6
4.2
4.1
10.7
8.6

1.7
1.5
3.0
2.7

1.9
1.8
1.4
2.9
3.2

2.8
2.2
9.8
5.8

2.7
2.4
2.6
7.8
5.4

25.5
22.2

25.4
22.8
23.3
47.2
47.1




See footnotes at end of table.

64

-

49.9
34.0

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 1978*
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

SIC
Lost
workday
cases

Total
cases 5/

Industry 2/
3/

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Refrigeration and service machinery......
Automatic merchandising machines.......
Commercial laundry equipment...........
Refrigeration and heating equipment....
Measuring and dispensing pumps.........
Service industry machinery, n.e.c......

358
3581
3582
3585
3586
3589

15.6
21.1
19.0
14.7
18.7
16.6

16.5
24.4
22.4
15.4
17.8
17.4

5.0
6.6
5.1
4.9
5.9
5.0

6.2
8.6
6.6
6.0
6.4
6.1

10.6
14.5
13.9
9.8
12.8
11.6

10.3
15.8
15.8
9.4
11.4
11.3

73.4
81.2
78.4
72.4
105.6
68.3

82.9
94.1
88.0
81.3
93.3
83.2

Miscellaneous machinery, except
electrical...........................
Carburetors, pistons, rings, valves....
Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c....

359
3592
3599

15.1
13.0
15.4

15.5
10.3
16.4

5.0
5.1
5.0

5.8
4.7
5.9

10.1
7.9
10.4

9.7
5.6
10.4

68.4
74.9
67.3

74.2
66.4
75.6

8.0

8.1

2.8

3.1

5.2

5.0

42.9

46.5

Electric distributing equipment..... .....
Transformers...........................
Switchgear and switchboard apparatus....

361
3612
3613

11.0
12.6
9.7

10.8
12.0
9.8

3.4
4.1
2.9

3.8
4.4
3.4

7.6
8.4
6.8

7.0
7.6
6.4

50.1
59.7
42.0

55.7
63.4
48.7

Electrical industrial apparatus..........
Motors and generators..................
Industrial controls....................
Welding apparatus, electric............
Carbon and graphite products...........
Electrical industrial apparatus, n.e.c..

362
3621
3622
3623
3624
3629

9.8
10.3
8.4
13.6
7.6
8.5

9.7
10.4
7.9
14.3
7.4
7.4

3.4
3.6
2.9
4.3
3.4
2.5

3.7
4.2
2.7
5.2
3.7
2.5

6.4
6.7
5.5
9.3
4.2
6.0

6.0
6.2
5.2
9.1
3.7
4.9

55.7
63.0
39.9
62.1
70.4
33.8

61.4
71.3
41.4
67.0
77.6
38.2

Household appliances.....................
Household cooking equipment............
Household refrigerators and freezers....
Household laundry equipment............
Electric housewares and fans...........
Household vacuum cleaners..............
Sewing machines........................

363
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636

12.7
18.8
9.3
12.2
12.0
6.8
10.9

11.8
16.8
8.4
10.9
10.6
7.9
7.9

4.0
6.4
2.7
3.6
3.8
3.0
1.9

4.2
6.7
3.1
2.9
3.6
3.6
1.6

8.6
12.4
6.6
8.6
8.2
3.8
9.0

7.5
10.1
5.3
8.0
7.0
4.2
6.2

55.5
99.7
37.5
37.5
44.1
59.7
42.9

64.9
108.1
40.2
47.2
51.2
80.8
27.9

Electic lighting and wiring equipment....
Electric lamps.........................
Current-carrying wiring devices........
Noncurrent-carrying wiring devices.....
Residential lighting fixtures..........
Commercial lighting fixtures...........
Vehicular lighting equipment...........
Lighting equipment, n.e.c..............

364
3641
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648

10.6
5.7
9.5
19.1
13.3
18.9
5.7
"

11.2
6.8
9.3
20.6
13.4
20.5
6.3
13.0

3.6
1.6
3.0
8.2
4.1
5.9
1.9
“

4.1
2.1
3.2
8.4
5.2
7.6
2.5
5.2

7.0
4.1
6.5
10.9
9.2
13.0
3.8

7.1
4.7
6.1
12.2
8.2
12.9
3.8
7.8

59.4
29.8
51.3
118.9
67.2
102.9
32.5

65.7
35.3
56.5
125.9
63.3
127.1
46.2
70.2

Radio and TV receiving equipment.........
Radio and TV receiving sets............
Phonograph records.................. .

365
3651
3652

8.3
8.5
7.3

8.5
8.4
8.8

2.9
2.8
3.3

3.3
3.0
4.1

5.3
5.7
4.0

5.2
5.3
4.7

43.2
41.3
50.4

49.2
47.0
56.8

Communication equipment..................
Telephone and telegraph apparatus......
Radio and TV communication equipment....

366
3661
3662

4.3
5.2
3.9

4.7
5.4
4.3

1.6
2.2
1.4

1.8
2.4
1.6

2.7
3.0
2.5

2.8
3.0
2.7

27.2
36.5
23.1

30.4
47.5
22.9

Electronic components and accessories....
Electron tubes, receiving type.........
Cathode ray television picture tubes....
Electron tubes, transmitting...........
Semiconductors and related devices.....
Electronic capacitors............ ......
Electronic resistors...................
Electronic coils and transformers......
Electronic components, n.e.c...........

367
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677
3679

6.4
2.6
8.5
7.4
4.5
5.8
8.8
10.2
7.4

7.0
3.8
10.3
6.9
5.5
5.5
8.0
9.1
8.1

2.2
1.4
4.3
2.0
1.7
1.9
3.0
2.8
2.3

2.5
1.3
6.2
2.0
2.0
1.9
2.8
2.7
2.7

4.2
1.2
4.2
5.4
2.8
3.9
5.8
7.4
5.1

4.5
2.5
4.1
4.8
3.5
3.6
5.2
6.3
5.4

32.6
24.2
85.4
28.2
27.8
34.4
51.4
27.3
31.3

31.7
23.1
91.8
35.1
25.7
23.2
40.5
29.7
33.6

369
3691
3692
3693
3694

9.0
18.2
5.3
7.4

8.8
16.5
5.9
5.3
7.0

3.7
8.8
1.6
3.0

3.8
9.1
1.6
1.6
2.8

5.3
9.4
3.6
4.4

5.0
7.3
4.3
3.6
4.2

56.0
140.0
23.0
43.6

56.6
149.1
25.0
22.4
40.1

Electric and electronic equipment..........

Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies.............................
Storage batteries......................
Primary batteries, dry and wet.........
X-ray apparatus and tubes..............
Engine electrical equipment............
Electrical equipment and
supplies, n.e.c......................

36

8.2

13.7

3.3

5.9

4.9

7.8

48.0

67.9

37

11.2

11.0

4.8

5.0

6.4

6.0

76.1

74.7

Motor vehicles and equipment.............
Motor vehicles and car bodies..........
Truck and bus bodies...................
Motor vehicle parts and accessories....
Truck trailers.........................

371
3711
3713
3714
3715

11.0
8.9
25.1
10.7
27.2

10.8
7.7
28.6
10.8
26.0

4.6
3.9
9.5
4.5
11.0

4.9
3.8
11.5
4.9
H.5

6.4
5.0
15.5
6.2
16.2

5.9
3.9
17.0
5.9
14.4

66.1
50.5
137.8
69.0
160.3

69.1
47.1
128.7
77.6
171.8

Aircraft and parts.......................
Aircraft................................
Aircraft engines and engine parts......
Aircraft equipment, n.e.c..............

372
3721
3724
3728

5.7
4.4
5.9
9.5

6.2
4.6
6.8
10.6

2.1
1.6
2.4
3.2

2.4
1.8
3.0
3.6

3.6
2.8
3.4
6.3

3.8
2.8
3.8
7.0

34.1
28.4
37.9
46.7

36.5
30.8
42.2
47.0

Ship and boat building and repairing.....
Ship building and repairing............
Boat building and repairing............

373
3731
3732

21.2
20.2
25.0

19.8
19.2
21.9

10.4
10.7
9.5

10.5
10.7
9.7

10.8
9.5
15.5

9.3
8.5
12.1

199.0
214.4
141.3

192.5
208.3
133.8

Railroad equipment................ ......
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.........

374
375

19.1
15.0

19.2
15.7

7.6
4.7

9.0
5.6

11.5
10.3

10.2
10.1

159.4
73.1

142.1
68.3

Guided missiles, space vehicles, and
parts................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles.....
Space propulsion units and parts.......
Space vehicle equipment, n.e.c.........

376
3761
3764
3769

2.8
2.5
4.6
"

4.0
3.4
6.9
4.4

1.1
1.1
1.4

1.5
1.3
2.4
1.7

1.7
1.4
3.2

19.7
19.1
24.4

~

2.5
2.1
4.5
2.8

22.4
19.9
35.7
23.6

Miscellaneous transportation equipment....
Travel trailers and campers............
Tanks and tank components..............
Transportation equipment, n.e.c........

379
3792
3795
3799

25.2
27.8
13.6
24.1

23.3
27.9
8.9
19.7

9.9
10.4
6.1
11.2

9.5
10.8
4.3
9.4

15.3
17.4
7.5
12.9

13.8
17.1
4.6
10.3

127.9
139.0
69.5
129.6

101.1
110.4
46.0
117.1

Transportation equipment...................

3699

See footnotes at end of table.




65

_

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

Instruments and related products...........

kj

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

38

6.5

6.4

2.2

2.4

4.3

4.0

34.8

34.0

Engineering and scientific instruments....

381

6.0

5.9

1.9

2.0

4.1

3.9

30.7

26.5

Measuring and controlling devices........
Environmental controls.................
Process control instruments.... .
Fluid meters and counting devices......
Instruments to measure electricity.....
Measuring and controlling
devices, n.e.c............ ...........

382
3822
3823
3824
3825

7.0
8.0
7.0
10.7
5.4

6.9
9.1
6.1
11.8
4.7

2.3
2.9
2.3
3.4
1.9

2.6
3.6
2.4
4.1
1.9

4.7
5.1
4.7
7.3
3.5

4.3
5.5
3.7
7.7
2.8

38.3
53.3
38.4
50.9
28.5

36.8
60.5
32.0
53.3
24.0

3829

8.0

8.3

2.2

2.4

5.7

5.9

30.1

29.4

Optical instruments and lenses...........

383

6.0

5.8

2.3

2.3

3.7

3.5

44.3

35.0

Medical instruments and supplies.........
Surgical and medical instruments.......
Surgical appliances and supplies.......
Dental equipment and supplies..........

384
3841
3842
3843

7.2
6.7
7.1
8.8

7.2
6.7
6.8
9.9

2.3
2.0
2.5
2.6

2.7
2.4
2.7
3.5

4.8
4.7
4.6
6.2

4.4
4.2
4.1
6.4

34.1
27.4
38.7
37.3

37.5
36.8
36.1
44.9

Ophthalmic goods.........................
Photographic equipment and supplies......
Watches, clocks, and watchcases..........

385
386
387

6.7
5.6
5.1

6.7
5.3
6.1

2.7
2.0
1.8

2.4
1.9
2.1

4.0
3.6
3.3

4.3
3.4
4.0

31.3
32.2
30.6

34.3
30.0
31.8

10.9

11.3

3.8

4.3

7.1

7.0

56.0

63.0

5.6
4.1
9.3

5.9
4.6
9.9
6.2

2.1
1.3
4.8

2.4
1.5
5.0
2.3

3.5
2.8
4.5

3.5
3.1
4.9
3.8

30.7
14.9
83.5

40.0
23.9
86.3
46.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.....

39

Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware.....
Jewelry, precious metal.................
Silverware and plated ware.............
Jewelers' materials and lapidary work...

391
3911
3914
3915

Musical instruments......................

393

13.2

13.4

4.9

4.2

8.3

9.2

70.9

51.3

Toys and sporting goods..................
Dolls..................................
Games, toys, and children's vehicles....
Sporting and athletic goods, n.e.c.....

394
3942
3944
3949

12.8
7.7
12.4
13.9

13.1
8.3
13.7
13.2

4.7
3.5
4.9
4.7

5.0
2.4
5.4
5.1

8.1
4.2
7.5
9.2

8.1
5.9
8.3
8.1

65.5
44.1
74.7
61.0

74.4
28.7
80.7
74.8

Pens, pencils, office and art supplies....
Pens and mechanical pencils............
Lead pencils and art goods.............
Marking devices........................
Carbon paper and inked ribbons.........

395
3951
3952
3953
3955

9.9
7.5
13.8
6.9
13.3

11.6
8.9
15.3
9.2
15.0

3.8
2.8
5.5
2.2
5.7

4.8
3.6
6.4
3.3
7.5

6.1
4.7
8.3
4.7
7.6

6.8
5.3
8.9
5.9
7.4

55.3
41.4
69.0
31.7
101.3

55.5
43.3
69.5
42.0
80.9

Costume jewelry and notions..............
Costume jewelry........................
Artificial flowers.....................
Buttons.................... ............
Needles, pins, and fasteners...........

396
3961
3962
3963
3964

7.7
5.9
7.4
10.1

7.8
5.3
11.9
7.6
10.5

2.5
2.1

5.2
3.8
5.1
7.1

4.7
3.1
7.5
4.7
6.4

38.1
31.5

2.3
3.0

3.0
2.2
4.4
2.9
4.1

29.8
49.2

43.6
31.0
50.8
43.7
60.6

Miscellaneous manufactures.'..............
Brooms and brushes.....................
Signs and advertising displays.........
Burial caskets.........................
Hard surface floor coverings...........
Manufacturing industries, n.e.c........

399
3991
3993
3995
3996
3999

12.9
13.6
14.0
15.8
11.5
11.2

13.3
13.0
14.3
16.7
10.4
12.0

4.3
4.9
4.4
4.5
5.1
3.8

5.0
5.6
5.1
5.5
5.4
4.6

8.6
8.7
9.6
11.3
6.4
7.3

8.2
7.4
9.2
11.2
5.0
7.4

64.4
85.1
64.1
74.3
66.1
54.7

75.9
91.9
78.4
63.1
116.3
63.6

Nondurable goods............................

-

-

11.3

11.4

4.5

4.9

6.8

6.5

73.5

76.3

20

18.7

18.7

8.1

8.6

10.6

10.1

125.0

128.4

Meat products............................
Meatpacking plants.....................
Sausages and other prepared meats......
Poultry dressing plants................
Poultry and egg processing.............

201
2011
2013
2016
2017

26.8
31.5
24.6
20.4
19.4

26.4
30.6
24.3
21.2
21.7

11.8
14.4
10.8
8.2
7.7

12.2
14.8
10.9
9.0
9.0

14.9
17.0
13.8
12.2
11.6

14.2
15.8
13.4
12.2
12.7

156.4
183.8
143.1
120.0
112.1

156.9
185.2
153.2
115.2
111.8

Dairy products...........................
Creamery butter........................
Cheese, natural and processed..........
Condensed and evaporated milk..........
Ice cream and frozen desserts..........
Fluid milk.............................

202
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026

14.8
13.3
12.0
16.6
15.2

15.6
14.2
15.7
12.9
15.4
15.9

6.4

7.2
5.6
7.8
6.0
7.3
7.2

8.4
7.6
6.7
9.5
8.6

8.4
8.6
7.8
6.9
8.0
8.7

113.0

5.7
5.3
7.1
6.6

85.2
92.7
119.7
120.9

113.4
79.4
110.3
80.7
106.6
119.5

Preserved fruits and vegetables..........
Canned specialties.....................
Canned fruits and vegetables...........
Dehydrated fruits, vegetables, soups....
Pickles, sauces, and salad dressings....
Frozen fruits and vegetables...........
Frozen specialties.....................

203
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2038

16.5
12.3
17.1
17.1
16.7
19.2
13.5

16.3
11.3
18.5
16.6
15.3
18.2
12.9

7.1
5.2
6.9
8.3
7.7
8.7
6.1

7.7
5.3
8.3
9.0
6.6
9.3
6.3

9.4
7.1
10.2
8.8
9.0
10.4
7.4

8.6
6.0
10.2
7.6
8.7
8.9
6.6

118.5
98.0
110.8
133.9
110.1
158.1
99.6

122.3
89.3
121.4
135.7
142.5
146.5
98.1

Grain mill products.................. .
Flour and other grain mill products....
Cereal breakfast foods.................
Rice milling...........................
Blended and prepared flour.............
Wet corn milling.......................
Dog, cat, and other pet food...........
Prepared feeds, n.e.c..................

204
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048

14.6
15.0
16.0
17.7
14.7
10.2
17.1
13.8

14.7
15.0
14.9
17.5
12.5
10.1
17.0
14.9

6.4
6.8
6.9
8.9
6.7
5.4
7.1
5.8

6.8
7.1
6.9
9.0
6.3
4.0
8.1
6.8

8.2
8.2
9.1
8.8
7.9
4.8
10.0
8.0

7.9
7.9
8.0
8.5
6.2
6.1
8.9
8.1

112.4
124.9
142.3
164.6
125.0
85.4
124.0
94.2

124.6
125.4
175.6
213.8
93.8
71.0
165.1
107.3

Bakery products..........................
Bread, cake, and related products......
Cookies and crackers...................

205
2051
2052

14.0
14.2
13.0

13.7
13.6
13.8

6.3
6.4
5.6

6.3
6.3
6.4

7.7
7.8
7.4

7.3
7.3
7.4

112.7
111.8
117.3

118.2
114.9
134.0

Food and kindred products..................

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

-

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence races per 100 full-time workers 4/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5 /

Nonfatal
cases
wi thout
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

Sugar and confectionery products.........
Raw cane sugar.........................
Cane sugar refining....................
Beet sugar.............................

206
2061
2062
2063

14.5
19.6
12.7
20.0

14.5
25.0
11.7
21.3

6.5
8.6
5.5
10.5

7.0
11.5
6.7
12.0

8.0
10.9
7.2
9.4

7.5
13.5
5.0
9.2

102.9
127.9
107.5
129.4

102.6
133.7
163.2
121.5

Confectionery products.................
Chewing gum.............. *.............

2065
2066
2067

13.2
10.6
15.4

12.9
10.6
10.6

5.8
3.9
6.1

5.8
4.0
5.6

7.4
6.7
9.3

7.1
6.6
5.0

92.9
74.2
125.4

87.3
60.7
112.9

Fats and oils...................... .
Cottonseed oil mills...................
Soybean oil mills......................
Vegetable oil mills, n.e.c.............
Animal and marine fats and oils........
Shortening and cooking oils............

207
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079

21.3
19.8
17.1
15.5
24.1
22.9

19.8
17.8
16.2
12.8
26.1
17.9

8.9
8.4
6.6
6.6
11.4
8.5

9.0
7.9
7.7
4.9
12.6
7.4

12.4
11.3
10.5
8.8
12.7
14.3

10.8
9.9
8.5
7.8
13.5
10.5

137.5
159.7
129.3
122.3
162.8
104.8

143.2
164.2
125.9
83.6
177.7
114.5

Beverages................................
Malt beverages.........................
Malt...................................
Wines, brandy, and brandy spirits......
Distilled liquor, except brandy........
Bottled and canned soft drinks.........
Flavoring extracts and syrups, n.e.c....

208
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087

22.5
18.9
18.3
15.7
26.4
7.5

22.8
19.0
26.8
22.4
15.8
26.3
7.9

9.3
6.0
9.3
6.1
11.5
3.4

10.0
6.6
16.6
11.9
7.5
11.8
3.7

13.2
12.9
9.0
9.6
14.9
4.1

12.8
12.3
10.2
10.5
8.2
14.5
4.2

128.3
116.5
106.2
116.4
142.9
47.0

132.0
122.4
248.8
151.4
122.7
140.9
52.6

Miscellaneous foods and kindred products..
Canned and cured seafoods..............
Fresh or frozen packaged fish..........
Macaroni and spaghetti.................
Food preparations, n.e.c...............

209
2091
2092
2098
2099

16.0
18.9
19.6
16.7
14.5

15.6
20.6
18.5
17.2
14.3

7.3
7.9
8.9
6.9
6.6

7.3
9.5
9.3
9.2
6.4

8.7
11.0
10.7
9.8
7.9

8.3
11.1
9.2
8.0
7.9

115.8
120.4
107.1
163.0
106.2

116.3
156.3
140.6
162.7
100.9

Tobacco manufactures.......................
Cigarettes...............................
Cigars...................................
Chewing and smoking tobacco..............
Tobacco stemming and redrying............

9.0

8.5

3.8

4.0

5.2

4.5

66.0

57.6

211
212
213
214

21

7.3
8.6
11.9
14.8

7.6
6.7
11.6
13.5

3.8
2.6
3.1
4.9

4.1
2.6
3.2
5.0

3.5
6.0
8.8
9.9

3.5
4.1
8.4
8.4

73.5
42.1
54.3
60.6

58.7
41.3
48.7
68.7

2.9

3.3

7.1

6.7

56.4

60.5

-

1.9
5.4
3.3

1.9
2.2
6.4
4.1

6.0
7.2
7.2

5.7
5.3
8.0
6.6

44.6
95.4
57.4

48.0
44.8
111.4
61.8

8.4
4.9
5.6
7.4
9.2
11.9
12.0
13.8

2.6
1.6
2.0
2.1
3.0
4.0
2.6
5.7

3.0
1.9
2.3
2.5
3.5
4.4
3.5
7.2

5.0
2.7
3.2
4.3
5.6
7.1
7.5
6.8

5.4
3.0
3.3
4.8
5.7
7.5
8.4
6.6

39.2
21.0
24.5
33.1
34.8
70.4
44.3
90.5

45.3
31.5
34.6
35.0
48.2
70.1
60.7
63.8

12.6
11.5
13.8
12.9

12.7
10.8
13.5
15.2

4.4
4.1
4.9
4.0

4.8
4.3
5.1
5.1

8.2
7.4
8.8
8.9

7.9
6.4
8.4
10.1

77.9
81.4
76.6
73.2

90.4
84.0
94.8
96.3

227
2271
2272
2279

12.4
11.9
12.7
"

13.7
9.8
14.5
8.3

3.4
2.8
3.5
"

4.2
3.4
4.3
4.7

9.0
9.1
9.2
-

9.5
6.4
10.2
3.6

75.3
56.1
79.9
"

73.4
65.5
75.2
62.5

Yarn and thread mills....................
Yarn mills, except wool................
Throwing and winding mills.............
Wool yarn mills...................... .
Thread mills...........................

228
2281
2282
2283
2284

11.8
12.0
10.9
13.1

11.5
11.7
10.8
14.8
7.6

2.8
2.6
2.7
4.9
~

3.2
3.0
3.3
5.4
2.3

9.0
9.4
8.2
8.1

8.3
8.7
7.5
9.4
5.3

55.7
57.5
41.8
83.1

61.2
61.1
48.4
101.0
44.7

Miscellaneous textile goods............ .
Felt goods, except woven felts and hats.
Lace goods.............................
Paddings and upholstery filling........
Processed textile waste................
Coated fabrics, not rubberized.........
Tire cord and fabric...................
Nonwoven fabrics.......................
Cordage and twine......................
Textile goods, n.e.c...................

229
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299

13.9
18.2
18.6
12.9
14.8

5.5
7.0
8.7
5.8
6.6

9.9
7.1
8.2
10.2
9.3
8.9

8.4
11.9
7.8
8.4
9.6
9.1
3.8
8.5
8.6
8.0

104.0
135.9

5.6
5.3
4.9

6.2
10.5
3.0
9.8
6.5
6.4
2.8
5.3
6.1
4.9

8.3
11.2

15.8
14.6
13.8

14.6
22.4
10.8
18.3
16.1
15.5
6.7
13.8
14.7
12.9

152.1
84.0
134.4
114.9
89.5
95.5

102.6
162.3
54.2
174.5
89.7
123.6
67.9
92.1
86.8
62.3
31.3

22

10.0

10.0

Weaving mills, cotton....................
Weaving mills, synthetics................
Weaving and finishing mills, wool........
Narrow fabric mills......................

221
222
223
224

_
7.9
12.6
10.5

7.6
7.5
14.4
10.7

Knitting mills...........................
Women's hosiery, except socks..........
Hosiery, n.e.c.........................
Knit outerwear mills...................
Knit underwear mills...................
Circular knit fabric mills.............
Warp knit fabric mills.................
Knitting mills, n.e.c..................

225
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259

7.6
4.3
5.2
6.4
8.6
11.1
10.1
12.6

Textile finishing, except wool...........
Finishing plants, cotton...............
Finishing plants, synthetics...........
Finishing plants, n.e.c................

226
2261
2262
2269

Floor covering mills.....................
Woven carpets and rugs.................
Tufted carpets and rugs................
Carpets and rugs, n.e.c................

Textile mill products......................

-

-

-

-

-

23

6.5

6.4

1.9

2.1

4.5

4.3

30.7

Men's and boys' suits and coats...... .

231

6.4

6.3

2.3

2.3

4.1

3.9

35.1

36.6

Men's and boys' furnishings..............
Men's and boys' shirts and nightwear....
Men's and boys' underwear..............
Men's and boys' neckwear...............
Men's and boys' separate trousers......
Men's and boys' work clothing..........
Men's and boys' clothing, n.e.c........

232
2321
2322
2323
2327
2328
2329

8.1
5.9
7.2
2.9
7.4
11.4
8.2

7.5
5.7
7.9
3.3
6.8
10.0
8.0

2.5
1.7
2.3
.7
2.4
3.7
2.2

2.6
2.0
2.7
.9
2.5
3.7
2.4

5.6
4.2
4.9
2.2
5.0
7.6
5.9

4.9
3.7
5.2
2.4
4.3
6.3
5.6

38.5
23.6
35.8
14.7
35.9
63.9
29.9

39.1
26.8
41.2
13.9
36.2
59.0
36.6

Women's and misses' outerwear............
Women's and misses' blouses and waists..
Women's and misses' dresses............
Women's and misses' suits and coats....
Women's and misses' outerwear, n.e.c....

233
2331
2335
2337
2339

4.6
4.1
3.2
6.1

4.7
4.6
3.3
4.5
6.4

1.2
1.0
.8
1.6

1.3
1.0
.9
1.3
1.9

3.4
3.1
2.3
4.5

3.4
3.6
2.4
3.2
4.5

20.6
18.1
11.2
27.9

16.9
13.6
10.9
18.3
24.2

Apparel and other textile products.........

See footnotes at end of table.




67

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4/

Industry 2/

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

Lost
workdays

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

6 .0
6 .1

1.5

6 .0

1.7
1.7
1.7

4.2
4.4
3.4

4.3
4.4
3.7

1977

1978

Women's and children's undergarments.....
Women's and children's underwear.......
Brassieres and allied garments.........

234
2341
2342

5.7
4.6

5.4

1 .6
1 .2

Hats, caps, and millinery................
Millinery..............................

235
2351

6.5

7.3
4.4

1.9
"

2 .6

4.5
-

4.6
3.5

30.5

.9

31.4
10.3

Children's outerwear.....................
Children's dresses and blouses.........
Children's outerwear, n.e.c............

236
2361
2369

5.7
5.6
5.9

5.1
4.3
5.2

1 .6

1 .8
1 .2
2 .0

4.1
4.3
4.0

3.3
3.1
3.2

22.9
16.1
29.1

28.6

1.3

Miscellaneous apparel and accessories....
Fabric dress and work gloves...........
Robes and dressing gowns...............
Waterproof outergarments...............
Leather and sheep lined clothing.......
Apparel belts..........................
Apparel and accessories, n.e.c.........

238
2381
2384
2385
2386
2387
2389

5.9

6.3
5.2
5.7
6.9
5.6

2 .1
2 .2

3.9
3.7
3.6
4.2

4.2
3.0
4.2
5.0
3.1
5.£
4.1

31.4
42.5
32.3
28.9

31.1
37.2
24.3
33.4
35.3
30.7

Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products.............................
Curtains and draperies.................
House furnishings, n.e.c...............
Textile bags...........................
Canvas and related products...... .
Pleating and stitching.................
Automotive and apparel trimmings.......
Schiffli machine embroideries..........
Fabricated textile products, n.e.c.....

5.4
5.2

46.7
49.8
45.8

6 .1

5.5
6 .0

1 .8
2 .0

2.3
1.9
1 .8

1.5
1.9
2.5
2.5
2.4

-

-

30.0
30.1
29.3

2 0 .0

31.9

7.3
4.5

8 .1

2 .0

6.5

1.4

239
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2399

8.4
6.9
7.7
13.6

8 .6

2.7

8.4
9.6

2 .2
2 .8

4.6

1 1 .6
1 0 .6
6 .1

6 .8

6.3

9.0
9.3

6 .2

9.5

4.5
3.9
1.9
2.4
2.7
2.9

3.3

5.7
4.7
6.9
9.1
6.7
2.7
4.4
6.3
6.4

6 .2

43.3
38.7
43.6
62.6
42.8
27.3
54.3
32.5
37.0

26

13.3

13.3

4.9

5.6

8.3

7.7

99.6

101.5

Pulp mills...............................
Paper mills, except building paper.......
Paperboard mills.........................

261
262
263

12.3

10.5

1 0 .2

1 0 .0
1 2 .0

3.0
3.9
4.9

3.4
4.5
4.8

9.2
6.3
8.3

7.1
5.5
7.2

83.0
103.2
109.5

81.5
103.3
105.8

Miscellaneous converted paper products....
Paper coating and glazing...............
Envelopes..............................
Bags, except textile bags..............
Die-cut paper and board................
Pressed and molded pulp goods..........
Sanitary paper products................
Stationery products....................
Converted paper products, n.e.c........

264
2641
2642
2643
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649

5.1
4.4

5.7
4.3

6 .6

6 .6
6 .6
6 .0

8.5
7.8
9.9

8 .0
6 .2
1 0 .0

6 6 .8
1 0 0 .0

1 0 .1

9.3
7.2
10.4

87.1
72.0
105.2
99.0

Paperboard containers' and boxes..........
Folding paperboard boxes...............
Set-up paperboard boxes................
Corrugated and solid fiber boxes.......
Sanitary food containers...............
Fiber cans, drums, and similar
products..................... .......

265
2651
2652
2653
2654

15.7
14.2
13.3
17.9

2655

Building paper and board mills...........

266

Paper and allied products..................

Printing and publishing....................

1 0 .6

13.2
13.6
1 2 .2

16.5
15.7
12.5
15.9
9.5
16.6
13.8

13.8
10.5
16.6
16.0
13.2
17.8
1 0 .0

15.7
16.2
16.2
15.4

-

2 1 .2

21.7
19.4

5.6
5.2
7.8
3.0
6.3
5.3

1 2 .8

5.8
5.0
5.2

18.3

6 .6

1 1 .0

1 2 .2

4.3

16.0

15.3

13.4

13.1

3.2
3.2
3.5
4.4
3.8
2.5
2.3
2 .8

7.4
3.8
6.4
7.1
6.7

5.3
3.1

7.3
8 .1

6 .1

7.2
6 .8

3.6
4.0
3.4

6.4

6 .2

1 0 .2

9.3
9.0

8.5
9.9
9.1

29.0
23.3

2 2 .8

8 8 .8

58.1
35.4
35.4
48.8
46.5

88.7

137.0
58.2
105.2
103.6

96.9
89.5
136.5
81.3
83.8
104.9

104.2

1 1 2 .6

8 8 .8

96.8
89.2
126.9
102.4

6 8 .0

5.1
7.7
5.4

8 .1

9.5
9.2
7.6

11.3
6.7

1 0 .6
6 .8

5.8

5.9

1 0 .2

9.4

96.8

98.4

5.7

5.6

7.6

7.5

144.1

104.6

6 .2

82.1
121.4
80.2

27

6 .6

6.9

2 .6

2.9

4.0

4.0

40.2

42.8

Newspapers...............................
Periodicals..............................

271
272

5.2

5.8
2 .8

2 .6
1 .1

2.9

2 .6

2.3
1 .0

3.2
1.7

41.4
13.1

43.2
16.8

Books....................................
Book publishing........................
Book printing..........................

273
2731
2732

Miscellaneous publishing.................

274

Commercial printing......................
Commercial printing, letterpress.......
Commercial printing, lithographic......
Engraving and plate printing...........
Commercial printing, gravure...........

275
2751
2752
2753
2754

Manifold business forms..................
Greeting card publishing.................

1 .6

7.1
4.6

7.0
4.7

1.9
4.1

4.6
2.9
7.9

4.4

1 2 .1

2.5
1.7
4.2

2 .6

1 2 .2

2 .8
8 .0

33.2
19.8
60.9

35.2
23.5
60.6

3.1

2 .6

1.4

1 .2

1.7

1.4

2 1 .6

18.5

8 .2

7.3
8.4
7.2
17.0

8.5
7.6
9.0
7.8
15.5

3.1
2.9
3.1
2.7
8.5

3.5
3.2
3.6
2.7
8 .1

5.0
4.4
5.3
4.5
8.5

5.0
4.3
5.4
5.1
7.4

45.8
45.1
42.7
43.5
110.5

51.7
49.3
51.3
55.0
92.9

276
277

1 1 .2
6 .8

11.5
6.3

4.6
2.5

4.9

6 .6

6 .6

2 .6

4.3

3.7

68.7
34.6

57.2
31.9

Blankbooks and bookbinding...............
Blankbooks and looseleaf binders.......
Bookbinding and related work...........

278
2782
2789

1 0 .8
1 0 .0

10.7
10.4
11.3

4.2
3.9
4.6

4.2
4.2
4.0

6 .6
6 .1

6.5
6 .1

54.7
47.1

11.9

7.3

7.3

6 6 .0

57.9
52.1
67.0

Printing trade services..................
Typesetting............................
Photoengraving.........................
Electrotyping and stereotyping.........
Lithographic platemaking services......

279
2791
2793
2794
2795

2.7
1.7
4.3
-

.9

1.9

1.5
1 .0
1.9
3.9

13.3
9.0
28.4
-

2.4
1 .6

.8
.6

.6
1 .2

3.2
5.4
4.2

1.3
"

1.5
1.4

1 .1

3.0
-

2 .8

13.8
1 0 .8

14.0
17.0
24.9

28

7.3

7.2

2.9

3.1

4.4

4.1

48.0

48.9

Industrial inorganic chemicals...........
Alkalies and chlorine..................
Inorganic pigments.....................
Industrial inorganic chemicals, n.e.c...

281
2812
2816
2819

6 .2

2.4

3.8
2.7

3.3

4.2

2.4
2.3
4.5

6 .0

5.8

5.8
4.9
9.5
5.5

49.9
50.8
89.9
43.7

48.4
54.3
81.3
40.0

Plastics materials and synthetics.........
Plastics materials and resins..........
Synthetic rubber.......................
Organic fibers, noncellulosic..........

282
2821
2822
2824

5.5
8.5
9.3
2.7

5.3
7.9
9.9
2.4

35.7
52.0
66.5

34.7
51.4
60.7
17.6

Chemicals and allied products..............

See footnotes at end of table.




4.9
1 0 .2

2 .2

2 .6

2 .2

2 .1

3.6

5.0
3.4

2 .0

2 .2

3.3
4.3

3.5
4.5
.7

3.4
5.2
5.0
1.9

3.1
4.4
5.4
1.7

.8

2 0 .0

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 4/

Industry 27

SIC
code
3/

Total
cases 5/

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workday
cases

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

2.5

2 .8

2 .2
2 .8

3.1
2.9
4.1
3.1

3.3
3.0

Drugs....................................
Biological products.............. ......
Medicinals and botanicals..............
Pharmaceutical preparations............

283
2831
2833
2834

5.6
5.1
6.9
5.6

6 .1
6 .0
6 .1

2.5

2.9
3.7
2.7

Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods.........
Soap and other detergents..............
Polishes and sanitation goods..........
Surface active agents..................
Toilet preparations....................

284
2841
2842
2843
2844

9.3
9.3
10.9
13.6
7.9

9.3

4.3
4.4
5.0
5.8
3.7

5.6
5.2
7.3

13.4
7.9

3.7
4.1
3.6
5.5
3.2

Paints and allied products...............

285

1 2 .6

13.6

5.0

5.9

Industrial organic chemicals..... .
Gum and wood chemicals............... .
Cyclic crudes and intermediates........
Industrial organic chemicals, n.e.c....

286
2861
2865
2869

5.8
9.9
8.4
4.8

5.6
8.7

2.3
4.6
3.3
1.9

2.3
3.8
3.4
1.9

Agricultural chemicals...................
Nitrogenous fertilizers................
Phosphate fertilizers..................
Fertilizers, mixing only........... .
Agricultural chemicals, n.e.c..........

287
2873
2874
2875
2879

9.5
9.5
9.1
13.0
7.5

7.4

3.3
3.0

8 .0

2 .2

13.0
7.0

5.0
3.2

2.7
4.6
3.2

Miscellaneous chemical products..... .
Adhesives and sealants.................
Explosives.............................
Printing ink...........................
Carbon black...........................
Chemical preparations, n.e.c...........

289
2891
2892
2893
2895
2899

1 2 .0

1 1 .0

15.3
5.5
12.3
9.7
13.3

13.2
5.5

4.6
5.7

6.5

8 .2
1 2 .1

8 .8

4.4
8 .6

1 2 .8

7.2
1 1 .8

Lost
workdays

2 .2

4.3
3.3
5.3

1977

1978

3.4

36.5
37.2
43.5
35.6

39.5
46.2
57.2
36.4

4.6

4.9
3.8
7.1
7.6
4.1

56.1
64.1
55.8
61.0
49.4

64.5
67.5
72.9
78.2
56.1

7.6

7.7

69.6

77.3

3.5
5.2
5.1
2.9

3.3
4.9
5.4
2.5

41.8
107.4
64.5
31.0

39.1
62.4
60.8
31.6

3.3

6 .2

2 .8

6.5
6.9
7.9
4.3

5.2
4.5
5.3
8.4
3.8

54.8
53.2
57.5
71.6
43.2

54.8
42.3
60.0
78.7
46.0

6 .1

77.6
100.4
43.1
63.6
86.9
84.6

71.8
80.0
51.9
70.0
86.5
73.9

8 .1

7.4
9.6
3.3

4.9
5.6
2.3
5.2
4.3
5.4

6.4
7.9

8 .0

2 .8

7.6
3.1
7.5
2.9
6.4

29

7.8

7.7

3.2

3.3

4.6

4.3

57.9

57.2

Petroleum refining...... .................

291

5.5

5.7

2.5

2 .6

3.0

3.1

44.3

45.0

Paving and roofing materials.............
Paving mixtures and blocks.............
Asphalt felts and coatings.............

295
2951
2952

15.3
11.5
17.5

14.0

5.2
4.0
5.9

5.6
3.9
6.5

1 0 .1

8.4

1 0 0 .2

7.4

6 .8

1 1 .6

9.4

78.4
112.4

104.0
69.5
124.3

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal
products.......... ...................
Lubricating oils and greases...........
Petroleum and coal products, n.e.c.....

299
2992
2999

17.3
15.2
24.6

16.2
13.2
27.2

7.0

7.0
5.8
11.4

10.3
9.1
14.8

9.2
7.4
15.7

137.8
99.4
224.6

90.9
77.5
140.9

30

16.1

16.6

7.4

7.9

8.7

8.7

112.9

121.7

301
302
303
304
306
307

15.1

15.0
1 2 .1

1 1 .2
6 .2

4.5

1 0 .0

10.5
4.0

20.4

1 0 .2
6 .8

17.4

16.7
16.8

30.5
13.5
16.4
17.5

7.8
6.4

5.8
8.9
10.4

169.4
73.7
237.0
117.4
124.6
92.5

196.7
78.1
373.3
115.3
122.9

7.0

3.7
5.8
13.1
6.7
8.4
10.5

31

1 0 .8

1 1 .0

4.1

4.5

6.7

6.5

65.1

68.9

Leather tanning and finishing............
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings.....

311
313

2 1 .8

2 1 .8

1 1 .1

15.5

11.3
9.1

1 0 .6

13.8

10.5
4.7

157.1
72.3

194.6
92.2

Footwear, except rubber............. .
House slippers.........................
Men's footwear, except athletic........
Women's footwear, except athletic......
Footwear, except rubber, n.e.c.........

314
3142
3143
3144
3149

9.8
9.8
9.7
9.5

9.8
8.7
10.5
9.1

5.9
4.8

1 0 .2

3.9
3.9
4.3
3.5
3.7

6 .2

1 1 .0

3.6
3.4
3.9
3.5
3.1

7.9

5.6
6.5

60.1
50.4
58.4
67.0
49.3

59.3
63.4
58.9
59.1
59.9

Leather gloves and mittens...............
Luggage..................................

315
316

6 .1
1 1 .6

5.4

2 .1

1 0 .8

4.5

2.4
4.3

4.0
7.1

3.0
6.5

27.9
63.1

23.2
48.5

Handbags and personal leather goods......
Women's handbags and purses....... .
Personal leather goods, n.e.c..........

317
3171
3172

8 .8

2.3
1.7
3.1

2 .8
2 .0

5.7

3.6

5.1
4.6
5.8

6 .0

7.7
9.8

6 .2

32.7
21.7
46.9

37.0
31.2
42.9

Petroleum and coal products................

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products..
Tires and inner tubes....................
Rubber and plastics footwear.............
Reclaimed rubber.........................
Rubber and plastics hose and belting.....
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c........
Miscellaneous plastics products..........
Leather and leather products...............

1 2 .6

7.4
6.3
8.9

1 0 .8

15.9

6 .1

9.8

6 .8
8 .0

5.8

6 .0
1 0 .1

6.4
5.8
6 .0

9.7

6 .2

1 0 2 .0

9.5

9.9

5.2

5.7

4.2

4.2

95.0

101.3

Railroad transportation 7/.................
Local and interurban passenger transit.....

40
41

10.5
8.3

11.7
8.7

6.5
4.6

7.5
4.7

4.0
3.7

4.2
4.0

88.3
91.5

98.5
84.2

Trucking and warehousing...................
Trucking, local and long distance........
Public warehousing.......................
Trucking terminal facilities.............

42
421
422
423

14.9
14.8
16.3
“

16.1
16.1
15.2
17.9

8.3
8.4
6.9
"

9.3
9.5
7.4
9.5

6.5
6.3
9.4

6.7
7.8
8.3

157.9
161.6
103.1
“

176.0
180.9
104.5
176.4

Water transportation.......................
Water transportation services............

44
446

14.2
20.9

14.1
21.5

7.3

7.7

6 .8

1 1 .0

1 2 .1

9.8

6.4
9.4

289.7
470.7

268.9
454.0

Transportation by air......................
Pipelines, except natural gas..............

45
46

13.5
4.7

12.9
4.6

7.7
1.9

8 .1

5.8

1.9

2 .8

4.8
2.7

95.2
31.1

93.7
29.2

Transportation services....................
Miscellaneous transportation services....

47
478

5.4
19.2

5.5
17.8

2.5
8.4

2.7
7.6

2.9
10.7

2.7
1 0 .1

39.3
126.1

41.4
119.4

Communication..............................

48

2.7

2 .6

1 .6

1.5

1 .1

1 .1

30.0

28.2

Electric, gas, and sanitary services.......
Sanitary services........................

49
495

8.7
23.5

8 .8

4.0
13.4

4.3
15.0

4.6

4.5
10.7

67.0
203.4

76.0
222.4

Transportation and public utilities...........

See footnotes at end of table.




25.8

1 0 .1

6 .6

Table 5. Continued—Occupational injury incidence rates by industry. United States,
1977 and 19781

1 In order to m aintain the com parability o f the 1978 survey data w ith the data
published in previous years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the
19 78 estimates to represent the small nonfarm employers in low-risk industries which
were n ot surveyed. The estimating procedure involved averaging the data reported
by small employers fo r the 1975, 1976, and 1977 annual surveys.
1 Totals fo r divisions and 2- and 3-digit SIC codes include data fo r industries not
shown separately.
3 Standard Industrial Classification Manual. 1972 Edition.
4 The incidence rates represent the number o f injuries or lost workdays per 100
full-tim e workers and were calculated as: (N /E H ) X 20 0 ,0 0 0 , where
N
EH
2 0 0 ,0 0 0




“ number o f injuries or lost workdays
“ to tal hours worked by all employees during calendar year
-base fo r 100 full-tim e equivalent workers (working 4 0 hours per
week, 5 0 weeks per year).

70

3 Includes fatalities. Because o f rounding, the difference between the total and the
sum o f the rates fo r lost w orkday cases and nonfatal cases w ith o u t lost workdays does
not reflect the fatality rate.
‘ Excludes farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.
7 Data conforming to the O S H A definitions fo r coal and lignite mining (SIC 11 and
12) and metal and nonmetal mining (SIC 10 and 14), and fo r railroad transportation
(SIC 4 0 ) were provided b y the M ine Safety and Health A dm inistration, U.S. D epart­
ment o f Labor, and the Federal Railroad A dm inistration, U.S. D epartm ent o f Trans­

portation.
N O T E : Dashes indicate th at data do not meet publication guidelines.
n.e.c.= not elsewhere classified.
S O UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.

Table 6. Occupational injury incidence rates by industry division and employment size. United States, 1977 and 1978
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 1/

1 to 19
employees

Industry division

1977

1978
2/

Private sector 3/...............

3.9

4.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3/.....
Mining....................................
Construction..............................
Manufacturing.............................
Transportation and public utilities.......
Wholesale and retail trade................
Wholesale trade.........................
Retail trade....... .....................
Finance, insurance, and real estate.......
Services..................................

6.7

6.5
7.5
9.4
8.5
6.4
3.2
4.5

6 .6

9.2
8 .6

4.8
3.2
4.3
2.7

2 .6

1.3

1 .1
2 .1

1 .8

20 to 49
employees

1977

50 to 99
employees

250 to 499
employees

500 to 999
employees

1,000 to 2,499
employees

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

1977

1978

8 .8

9.0

1 1 .8

1 1 .6

1 2 .8

1 2 .8

12.3

1 2 .2

10.3

10.4

10.3

10.4
12.5
17.9
14.8
10.5

13.4
14.2
20.9
17.3
12.7

13.5
13.4
21.3
17.7
12.5

14.3

14.6

16.5

11.9

14.0

1 2 .2
2 0 .8

1 2 .8
2 1 .1

1 2 .8

1 1 .0

9 .5

20.7
15.2

17.6

1 0 .8
1 2 .1
1 0 .2
2 .1

1 0 .2

1 2 .0

11.4
9.7

11.7

1 0 .2
1 1 .8
1 2 .6

18.3
11.9
10.4
11.3

5.6
16.7
8.9
9.0

8 .0

15.1
10.7
19.4
14.8
10.4
12.7

1 2 .1

11.3

2 .1
6 .0

2.4
7.8

2 .6

1 2 .8

17.9
14.6
10.5
7.6
8.7
7.0
1.7
3.8

9.0
7.5
1.7
3.6

6.5

Th e incidence rates represent the number o f injuries per 100 fu ll-tim e workers and were calculated
as: (N /E H ) X 20 0 ,0 0 0 , where
N
EH
2 0 0 ,0 0 0

100 to 249
employees

17.5
9.7

17.8

7.5

1 1 .6

1 0 .0

1 2 .2

9.7

11.3

1 1 .2
1 1 .8
1 1 .0

1 1 .8
1 1 .1
2 .8

12.9
2.7
7.8

2.7
7.8

7.8

1977

2,500 employees
or more

1978

1977

1978

8 .6

8 .6

6.9

6.9

2 2 .8

_

_

1 0 .8

6.9

21.7
8.4
17.4
9.0
9.2
10.9
7.1

11.5
2.5
7.6

1 2 .8

1 1 .6

8.9

2.5
7.5

2.3
7.5

1 .8

1 0 .2
2 .1

5.7

5.6

1 1 .8

.4
6 .2

6.9
9.4

.9
6 .2
6 .6

9.9

8 .6
.8

1 0 .0

1.3

years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the 19 78 estimates to represent the small nonfarm
employers in low-risk industries which were not surveyed. The estimating procedure involved averaging
the data reported by small employers fo r the 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 7 6 , and 1977 annual surveys.
3 Excludes farms with few er than 11 employees.

=num ber o f injuries
“ total hours worked by all employees during calendar year
“ base fo r 10 0 fu ll-tim e equivalent workers (working 4 0 hours per week, 5 0 weeks
per year).

NOTE:

Dashes indicate th at data were n ot reported or th at data do n ot meet publication guidelines.

SO UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. D epartm ent o f Labor.
2 In order to m aintain the com parability o f the 19 78 survey data w ith the data published in previous

Table 7. Occuoational injury incidence rates for lost workday case* by industry division. United States, 1977 and 19781
Incidence rates per 100 full-time workers 2/

Lost workdays

Lost workday injuries

Industry division

Total cases

1977

1978

3.5

3.7

0 .2

0.3

60.0

62.1

56.0

4.7
5.7
5.7
4.5
4.8

5.1

.1
.2
.1

.1

.4
.4

.5
.4

.1
.1

.1
.2
.1

78.8
128.3
109.7
79.3
95.0
43.5
51.9
40.0

78.3
142.3
108.1
82.3
101.3
44.3
56.8
39.1

(6)

1 0 .2

1 2 .1

.1

34.2

35.4

75.2
125.7
106.0
72.3
86.9
41.3
49.0
38.2
9.6
32.7

1978

1977

Private sector 5/.............

3.7

4.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5/......
Mining.....................................
Construction...............................
Manufacturing..............................
Transportation and public utilities........
Wholesale and retail trade.................
Wholesale trade..........................
Retail trade.............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate........
Services....................................

4.8
5.9
5.8
4.9
5.2
2.9
3.5

5.2
6.4
6.3
5.4
5.7
3.1
3.9

2 .6
.8
2 .2

2 .8
.8

2 .6
.8
2 .1

2 .8

3.4

6 .0
6 .2

4.9
5.2
3.0
3.7
2.7

(6)
(6)
(6)

.8
2 .2

1 In order to m aintain the com parability o f the 19 78 survey data w ith the data published in previous
years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the 19 78 estimates to represent the small non­
farm employers in low-risk industries which were not surveyed. The estimating procedure involved
averaging the data reported by small employers fo r the 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 7 6 , and 1977 annual surveys.
2 The incidence rates represent the number o f injuries or lost workdays per 100 full-tim e workers
and were calculated as: (N /E H ) X 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 where,
N
EH
2 0 0 ,0 0 0

“ number o f injuries o r lost workdays
“ to tal hours worked by all employees during the calendar year
“ base fo r 100 fu ll-tim e equivalent workers (working 4 0 hours per week, 50 weeks
per year).




71

.4
.1

1977

1978

Number of days
of restricted
work activity 4/

Number of
days away
from work

Total lost
workdays

1978

1977

2.3

Cases involving
days of restricted
work activity only

Cases : nvolving
I
days away
from work 3/

1977

1977

1978

57.4

4.0

4.7

74.2
134.5
103.3
74.2
93.1
41.6
52.8
37.0
11.3
33.5

3.7

4.1
7.8
4.8

1978

2 .6

3.7
7.0

8 .1

2.9

8.3
2.7
4.0

1 .8
.6

2 .1
.8

1.5

1.9

8 .1
2 .1

3 Also includes cases w hich involved both days away from w o rk and days o f restricted w o rk activity.
4 The number o f days o f restricted w o rk activity include those resulting from cases involving re­
stricted w o rk activity only and days resulting from cases involving days away from w o rk and days of
restricted w ork activity.
5 Excludes farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.
6 Incidence rates less than .05.
SO UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.

Table 8. Percent of occupational injury and illness fatalities for employers with 11 or more employees
by industry division and cause, private sector, United States,1978
Cause 1/

Total
2/

Agriculture,
forestry,
and fishing

Miningoil and gas
extraction
only

Construc­
tion

Manufac­
turing

100

100
19

Transpor­
tation and
public
utilities 3/

Whole­
sale and
retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

100

100

100

100

49

33

74

26

13

1

8

Services

Total - all causes............

100

100

100

Over-the-road motor vehicles........

29

32

19

1
6

Falls...............................

13

5

15

29

9

4

Industrial vehicles and
equipment.........................

9

21

31

13

12

3

5

0

3

Heart attacks.......................

9

5

1

8

6

5

23

8

17

Electrocutions......................

7

13

7

10

6

10

1

4

2

Aircraft crashes....................

7

8

12

2

2

18

1

0

22

Struck by objects other than
vehicles or equipment.............

5

2

2

6

10

2

(4)

0

6

Caught in, under, or between
objects other than vehicles
or equipment............... ......

4

8

0

9

5

1

(4)

0

1

Explosions..........................

4

0

3

3

6

1

3

7

7

Plant machinery operations..........

3

0

2

(4)

9

1

1

0

1

Fires...............................

3

0

3

2

6

1

1

0

0

Gas inhalations.....................

3

2

1

1

6

1

2

0

2

Gunshots ...........................

3

0

0

0

1

1

16

3

2

All other...........................

2

4

5

1

4

3

1

4

4

1
1
3
4

N O T E : Percentages may not add to 100 due t o rounding.

Cause is defined as the object o r event associated w ith the fatality.
Excludes coal, metal and nonmetal mining, and railroads, fo r which data are n ot available.
Excludes railroads.
Less than 1 percent




S O UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U. S. Departm ent o f Labor.

72

Table 9. Occupational illness incidence rates by industry division and
extent of case, United States, 1977 and 1978

1 T h e incidence rates represent the n u m b e r of illnesses or lost
w o r k d a y s per 1,000 full-time workers a n d w e r e calculated as:
(N/EH) X 2,000,000, w h e r e
N

= n u m b e r of illnesses or lost w o r k d a y s

EH

S O U R C E : B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics, U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Labor,

-total hours w o r k e d by all e m p l o y e e s during calendar
'year

2,000,000=b a s e for 1,000 full-time equivalent workers (working 40
hours per week, 50 w e e k s per year).

Table 10. Number of occupational illnesses by category of illness and industry division. United States, 19781
(In thousands)
Number of illnesses by category

Industry division

Total
illnesses

Skin
diseases
disorders

Private sector........... ...........
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2/......
Mining........................... .........
Construction...............................
Manufacturing..............................
Transportation and public utilities........
Wholesale and retail trade.................
Wholesale trade..........................
Retail trade.............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate........
Services...................................

Dust
diseases
of the
lungs

Respiratory
conditions
due to
toxic agents

Disorders
due to
physical
agents

Disorders
associated
with repeated
trauma

All other
occupa­
tional
illnesses

143.5

65.9

1.6

13.6

5.6

16.7

20.2

19.9

3.4
1.6
7.8
86.7
7.9
15.0
5.4
9.6
1.9
19.2

2.2
.5
3.3
42.1
3.3
5.1
2.1
2.9
.7
8.7

(3)
.3
.2
.8
.1
.2
.2
(3)
(3)
.1

.1
.1
1.1
7.9
1.1
1.6
.4
1.2
.2
1.6

.4
.1
.5
3.0
.3
.7
.2
.4
.1
.5

.2
.2
1.1
10.4

.1
.1
.4
16.9
1.1
.7
.3
.4
.1
.9

.4
.3
1.2
5.6
1.1
5.3
1.6
3.6
.6
5.4

1 In order to maintain the com parability o f the 1978 survey data w ith the data published
in previous years, a statistical method was developed fo r generating the 19 78 estimates t o repre­
sent the small nonfarm employers in low-risk industries which were not surveyed. The estimating
procedure involved averaging the data reported by small employers fo r the 1 9 7 5 ,1 9 7 6 , and 1977
annual surveys.
1 Excludes farms w ith fewer than 11 employees.




Poisoning

73

1.0
1.6
.5
1.1
.1
2.0

3 Fewer than 5 0 cases.
N O T E: Because o f rounding, the components may n ot add to totals.
S O UR C E: Bureau o f Labor Statistics, U.S. Departm ent o f Labor.

Appendix A. Scope of Survey
and Technical Notes

Scope of survey

cooperative program and the data had to meet the needs
of those State agencies which generated statewide data,
the universe frame was stratified by State/industry/
employment-size prior to sample selection. An optimum
allocation was achieved by distributing the sample to
each size group proportional to the total employment
and the variation among size groups. The sampling
ratios for the various employment-size groups ranged
from all units above a certain size class selected with cer­
tainty through declining proportions in each smaller
employment-size group. The certainty strata were usual­
ly greater than 100 employees, although these may have
ranged downward in employment size depending upon
the total employment in the industry. The ratios deter­
mined for each industry/employment-size group were
used to select a sample within a State/industry/employment-size estimating cell.

The occupational injury and illness data reported
through the annual survey were based on the records
which employers in the following private industries
maintain under the Occupational Safety and Health
Act: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, SIC 01-09; oil
and gas extraction, SIC 13; construction, SIC 15-17;
manufacturing, SIC 20-39; transportation and public
utilities, SIC 41-42 and 44-49; wholesale and retail
trade, SIC 50-59; finance, insurance, and real estate,
SIC 60-67; and services, SIC 70-87 and 89. Excluded
from the survey were self-employed individuals; farmers
with fewer than 11 employees; employers regulated by
other Federal safety and health laws; and Federal, State,
and local government agencies. Although the 1978 an­
nual survey covered employers in virtually all private
sector industries, employers with fewer than 11
employees in low-risk industries were not required to
participate. This was in response to a Presidential direc­
tive to reduce the paperwork burden in survey opera­
tions. To maintain comparability with data published in
previous years, a statistical method based on the pre­
vious experience of these low-risk industries was used to
represent them in the private sector.
Data conforming to definitions of recordable occupa­
tional injuries and illnesses for coal, metal, and nonmetal mining, and railroad transportation were pro­
vided by the Mine Safety and Health Administration,
U.S. Department of Labor, and the Federal Railroad
Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. In
a separate reporting system, agencies of the Federal
Government are filing reports on occupational injuries
and illnesses with the Secretary of Labor comparable
with those of private industry. At this time, State and
local government agencies are not represented in the na­
tional statistics.
About 280,000 sample units were selected nationwide
to participate in the 1978 survey. Replies were received
from approximately 91 percent of the eligible sample
units—or about 256,000. The 1978 estimates were based
on reports from about 95,000 establishments in manu­
facturing industries and 161,000 in nonmanufacturing
industries.

Estimating procedures

Weighting. Weights were determined by the inverse of
the sampling ratios for the size class from which the unit
was selected. Using a weighting procedure, sample units
were made to represent all units in their size class for a
particular industry. Each sample member was assigned
a State weight and a national weight which wejre often
different since the sample unit may have represented a
different proportion of the universe in each case. In pro­
ducing estimates for the Nation as a whole, the State
weight of the sample units from States for which state­
wide estimates would be generated was used; the na­
tional weight was used for the remaining States.
Weights of responding units were adjusted in each
sampling cell to account for the nonresponse in that cell.
Units were then shifted into the estimating cell deter­
mined by industry classification and reported employ­
ment. Each unit carried into the estimating cell the
weight of its sampling cell, which was adjusted for nonreponse. Data for each unit were multiplied by the ap­
propriate nonresponse-adjusted weight. The products
were then aggregated to obtain totals for the estimating
cell.
Benchmarking. Data were further adjusted to reflect the
actual employment in an industry during the survey
year. Since the universe file which provides the sample
frame was not current to the reference year of the sur-

Sample design

The sample was selected to represent virtually all
private industries. Because the survey is a Federal-State



74

vey, it was necessary to benchmark the data to reflect
current employment levels.
The benchmarking procedure related the employment
estimate used in sampling to the actual employment for
the reference year of the survey. The ratio of the actual
employment to the weighted employment estimate is
called the benchmark factor. The aggregated weighted
nonresponse-adjusted characteristics of the estimating
cell were multiplied by the benchmark factor so that the
cell became more representative of the universe during
the survey reference year.

variability. Errors of response and reporting are mini­
mized through comprehensive edit procedures and
followup contacts with employers.
The relative error is a measure of sampling variability
—variations which occur by chance because only a sam­
ple of the establishments is in the survey. In conjunction
with the estimates, the relative standard error serves to
define the confidence intervals or ranges that would in­
clude the comparable complete coverage value. The
chances are about 2 out of 3 that the estimate would
have been produced in the range of 1 standard error
above to 1 standard error below the estimated value,
and about 19 out of 20 that the estimate would have
been in the range of 2 standard errors above and below
the estimated value.
Because of the complex two-stage ratio estimation
procedure, most relative errors were computed using a
simplified form of the variance-estimatiqn formulas.
The more complex variance formulas were used for a
few of the items, resulting in some higher estimates and
some lower estimates of relative errors. The relative
errors approximate the sampling errors of the incidence
rates.
As an example of the use of the relative errors, gen­
eral building contractors (SIC 15) has an estimated in­
cidence rate for total cases of 15.9 per 100 full-time
workers and a relative error of 2 percent. The chances
are 2 out of 3 that a complete census would produce a
rate between 16.2 and 15.6, and the chances are 19 out
of 20 that the rate produced from a complete count
would be between 16.5 and 15.3. For the number of jobrelated injuries and illnesses resulting in lost workdays,
the published rate is 6.3 per 100 full-time workers with a
2-percent relative error. The chances are 2 out of 3 that
a census would show a rate between 6.4 and 6.2 and 19
out of 20 that the rate could be between 6.6 and 6.0.
Similarly, the number of occupational injuries and ill­
nesses estimated for SIC 15 was 160,700 with a relative
error of 2 percent. Thus, the chances are 2 out of 3 that
a census would show a number between 163,900 and
157,500 and 19 out of 20 that the number would be
within a range of 167,100 and 154,300.

Estimates fo r small nonfarm employers. Data were col­
lected for nonfarm employers with fewer than 11
employees in high-risk industry groups. Data were not
collected for small nonfarm employers in the following
(low-risk) groups:
SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC

41
44 (except 446)
45-46
47 (except 478)
48
50-51

SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC
SIC

53
55-59
60-67
70-73
78-79
80-87 and 89

The injury and illness experience of these low-risk in­
dustries was represented in the estimates, however,
through a statistical method incorporating the previous
experience of these industries for the years 1975, 1976,
and 1977.
Federal-State cooperation

Under grant arrangements with State agencies, re­
spondents completed a single reporting form which was
used to generate both national and State estimates. This
eliminated duplicate reporting and, together with the
use of identical techniques at the national and State
levels, ensured maximum comparability of estimates.
Rounding of published estimates

The original tabulations on which the numbers of
recorded fatalities and nonfatal injuries and illnesses
were based showed all estimates to the nearest whole
unit. Estimates of the numbers of injuries and illnesses
were rounded. Derived percents were computed after
rounding.

Publication guidelines

The BLS tabulating system generates occupational in­
jury and illness estimates for approximately 625 SIC in­
dustry levels. This bulletin, however, excludes estimates
for several 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC levels if one of the
following situations occurred:

Industrial classification

Reporting units were classified into industries by their
principal product or activity. The data were tabulated
according to the 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual.

.
Estimates for the industry level were based on
reports from fewer than three companies. Moreover, if
three or more companies reported data for the industry,
the employment of one firm could not constitute 50 per­
cent or more of the employment for the industry, or two
companies combined could not equal or exceed 75 per­
cent of the industry employment.
1

Reliability of estimates

Estimates based on a sample may differ from figures
that would have been obtained had a complete census of
establishments been possible using the same schedules
or procedures. As in any survey, the results are subject
to errors of response and reporting, as well as sampling



75

2. 1978 annual average employment for the industry
was less than 10,000. However, industries with annual
average employment of fewer than 10,000 were published
if the majority of the employment for an industry was
reported in the survey.
3. Relative standard error for lost workday cases at 1
standard deviation was more than 15 percent for the in­
dustry level in manufacturing and 20 percent in non­
manufacturing.




4.
Benchmark factor for the industry level was less
than 0.90 or greater than 1.49.
Data for an unpublished industry were included in the
total shown for the broader industry level of which it is
a part. In addition to deleting industries, selected items
of data were suppressed for publishable industries when
the relative standard error for the estimate was equal to
or exceeded 60 percent.

76

Table A-1. Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and illnesses, and
occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses

Injuries

Industry

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Private sector.........................

(3)

(3)

(3)

1

(3)

(3)

(3)

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing...........

2

2

2

4

2

2

2

4

2
4
6
14

3
4
10
16

3
5
7
20

4
7
14
20

2
4
7
15

3
4
9
17

3
5
7
20

4
7
14
22

13
131
138

3
5
3

3
6
3

3
6
4

4
14
4

3
5
3

3
6
3

3
6
4

4
9
4

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

General building contractors...............
Residential building construction........
Operative builders.......................
Nonresidential building construction.....

15
152
153
154

2
3
3
2

2
3
4
3

2
4
4
2

3
6
9
4

2
3
3
2

2
3
4
3

2
4
4
2

3
6
9
4

Heavy construction contractors.............
Highway and street construction..........
Heavy construction, except highway.......

16
161
162

2
3
3

3
4
3

3
4
3

4
7
5

2
3
3

3
4
3

3
4
3

4
7
5

Special trade contractors..................
Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning...
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating....
Electrical work..........................
Masonry, stonework, and plastering.......
Carpentering and flooring................
Roofing and sheet-metal work.............
Concrete work............................
Water well drilling......................
Miscellaneous special trade contractors...

17
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179

1
2
6
2
2
5
2
6
5
3

1
2
9
3
3
6
3
7
6
3

1
2
7
2
3
6
3
7
6
4

2
4
11
5
5
10
5
12
9
5

1
2
6
2
2
5
2
6
5
3

1
2
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3

1
2
8
2
3
6
3
7
6
4

2
4
11
5
5
10
5
12
9
5

SIC
code
1/

Agricultural production....................
Agricultural services......................
Forestry...................................
Fishing, hunting, and trapping.............

01-02
07
08
09

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

1

Mining.......................................
Oil and gas extraction.....................
Crude petroleum and natural gas..........
Oil and gas field services...............
Construction.................................

Manufacturing................................

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

Durable goods..............................

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

24

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Logging camps and logging contractors....

241

4

4

6

5

4

4

6

6

Sawmills and planing mills...............
Sawmills and planing mills, general....
Hardwood dimension and flooring........
Special product sawmills, n.e.c........

242
2421
2426
2429

1
2
2
5

2
2
2
5

2
2
3
6

2
2
4
8

1
2
2
5

2
2
2
5

2
2
3
6

2
2
4
8

Millwork, plywood, and structural members.
Millwork...............................
Wood kitchen cabinets..................
Hardwood veneer and plywood............
Softwood veneer and plywood............
Structural wood members, n.e.c.........

243
2431
2434
2435
2436
2439

1
1
3
2
2
3

1
2
3
2
2
4

1
2
4
2
3
5

2
3
5
2
2
6

1
1
3
2
2
3

1
2
3
2
2
4

1
2
4
2
4
4

2
3
5
2
2
6

Wood containers..........................
Nailed wood boxes and shook............
Wood pallets and skids.................
Wood containers, n.e.c.................

244
2441
2448
2449

2
4
3
3

3
5
4
4

3
5
4
4

4
6
6
7

2
4
3
3

3
5
4
4

3
5
4
4

4
6
6
7

Wood buildings and mobile homes..........
Mobile homes...........................
Prefabricated wood buildings...........

245
2451
2452

2
2
5

2
2
5

2
3
6

3
3
8

2
2
5

2
2
5

2
3
6

3
3
8

Miscellaneous wood products..............
Wood preserving........................
Particleboard.......... ................
Wood products, n.e.c...................

249
2491
2492
2499

2
4
2
2

2
5
3
2

2
4
2
2

2
5
4
3

2
4
2
2

2
5
3
2

2
4
3
2

2
5
4
3

Lumber and wood products...................

25

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Household furniture......................
Wood household furniture...............
Upholstered household furniture........
Metal household furniture..............
Mattresses and bedsprings..............
Wood TV and radio cabinets.............
Household furniture, n.e.c.............

251
2511
2512
2514
2515
2517
2519

1
1
2
3
2
3
7

1
2
2
4
3
3
8

1
1
2
3
3
4
9

2
2
4
6
4
6
10

1
1
2
3
2
3
7

1
2
2
3
3
3
9

1
1
2
3
3
3
8

2
2
4
6
4
6
10

Office furniture...................... .
Wood office furniture..................
Metal office furniture.................

252
2521
2522

2
3
2

2
4
2

2
4
3

2
5
3

2
3
2

2
4
2

2
5
3

2
5
3

Public building and related furniture....

253

2

3

3

4

2

3

3

4

Partitions and fixtures..................
Wood partitions and fixtures...........
Metal partitions and fixtures..........

254
2541
2542

2
3
3

3
5
4

3
4
4

4
5
5

2
3
3

3
5
4

3
4
4

4
5
5

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures.....
Drapery hardware and blinds and shades..
Furniture and fixtures, n.e.c..........

259
2591
2599

2
3
3

4
5
5

3
4
4

4
4
7

2
3
3

4
5
5

3
4
4

4
5
7

Furniture and fixtures.....................

See footnotes at end of table.




77

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses

Injuries

Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

32

1

1

1

1

i

1

1

1

Flat glass............. .................

321

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

1

Glass and glassware, pressed or blown....
Glass containers.......................
Pressed and blown glass, n.e.c.........

322
3221
3229

2
2
4

2
2
5

2
2
4

2
2
4

2
2
3

2
2
5

2
2
4

2
2
4

Products of purchased glass..............

323

3

4

3

4

3

4

3

4

Structural clay products.................
Brick and structural clay tile.........
Ceramic wall and floor tile............
Clay refractories......................
Structural clay products, n.e.c........

325
3251
3253
3255
3259

2
3
4
3
2

2
3
4
4
2

2
3
5
4
3

3
5
4
6
3

2
3
4
3
2

2
3
4
4
2

2
3
4
4
3

3
5
3
6
2

Pottery and related products.............
Vitreous plumbing fixtures.............
Vitreous china food utensils...........
Fine earthenware food utensils.........
Porcelain electrical supplies..........
Pottery products, n.e.c................

326
3261
3262
3263
3264
3269

1
1
2
(3)
2
5

2
1
(3)
(3)
3
7

2
1
4
(3)
3
6

2
1
4
(3)
4
11

1
1
1
(3)
2
5

2
1
1
(3)
3
7

2
1
5
(3)
3
6

2
1
1
(3)
4
11

Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products....
Concrete block and brick...............
Concrete products, n.e.c...............
Ready-mixed concrete...................
Lime...................................
Gypsum products...... ..................

327
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275

2
3
3
2
5
5

2
4
3
2
5
6

2
4
4
3
9
4

3
7
5
4
7
8

2
3
3
2
5
5

2
4
3
2
5
6

2
4
4
3
9
4

3
7
5
4
7
8

Cut stone and stone products.............

328

5

5

6

16

5

5

6

16

Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products.............................
Abrasive products......................
Asbestos products......................
Gaskets, packing, and sealing devices...
Mineral wool...........................
Nonclay refractories...................

329
3291
3292
3293
3296
3297

2
3
5
3
4
4

2
3
5
3
4
6

2
4
9
4
4
3

2
3
6
4
6
6

2
3
5
3
4
4

2
3
5
3
4
6

2
4
9
4
5
3

2
3
6
4
6
6

Stone, clay, and glass products............

33

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Blast furnace and basic steel products....
Blast furnaces and steel mills.........
Electrometallurgical products..........
Steel wire and related products........
Cold finishing of steel shapes.........
Steel pipe and tubes...................

331
3312
3313
3315
3316
3317

2
3
2
3
2
2

2
3
2
3
3
2

2
3
3
3
3
3

2
2
1
3
4
2

2
3
2
3
2
2

2
3
2
3
3
2

2
3
3
3
3
3

2
2
1
3
4
2

Iron and steel foundries.................
Gray iron foundries....................
Malleable iron foundries...............
Steel foundries, n.e.c.................

332
3321
3322
3325

1
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2

Primary nonferrous metals.... .
Primary copper.........................
Primary lead...........................
Primary zinc................ ...........
Primary aluminum.......................
Primary nonferrous metals, n.e.c.......

333
3331
3332
3333
3334
3339

1
(3)
1
(3)
1
5

2
(3)
2
(3)
3
4

1
(3)
3
(3)
(3)
8

2
(3)
3
(3)
3
6

1
(3)
1
(3)
1
5

2
(3)
2
(3)
3
4

2
(3)
2
(3)
(3)
3

2
(3)
1
(3)
3
6

Primary metal industries...................

Secondary nonferrous metals..............

334

4

5

5

6

5

6

6

9

Nonferrous rolling and drawing...........
Copper rolling and drawing.............
Aluminum sheet, plate, and foil........
Aluminum extruded products.............
Aluminum rolling and drawing, n.e.c....
Nonferrous rolling and drawing, n.e.c...
Nonferrous wire drawing and insulating..

335
3351
3353
3354
3355
3356
3357

1
2
1
2
10
9
2

2
3
2
3
14
12
3

2
3
1
3
11
9
2

2
2
2
4
10
10
3

1
2
1
2
11
8
2

2
3
2
3
16
11
3

2
3
2
3
12
9
2

2
2
2
4
10
8
3

Nonferrous foundries.....................
Aluminum foundries.....................
Brass, bronze, and copper foundries....
Nonferrous foundries, n.e.c............

336
3361
3362
3369

1
2
2
3

2
3
3
3

2
3
3
4

3
4
5
4

1
2
2
3

2
3
3
3

2
3
3
4

3
4
6
4

Miscellaneous primary metal products.....
Metal heat treating....................
Primary metal products, n.e.c..........

339
3398
3399

3
3
5

3
3
5

3
4
6

4
6
7

3
3
5

3
3
5

3
4
6

4
6
7

34

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Metal cans and shipping containers.......
Metal cans.............................
Metal barrels, drums, and pails........

341
3411
3412

1
1
3

1
2
4

1
2
3

2
2
4

1
1
3

1
2
4

1
2
3

2
2
4

Cutlery, hand tools, and hardware........
Cutlery................................
Hand and edge tools, n.e.c..............
Hand saws and saw blades...............

342
3421
3423
3425
3429

2
5
2
4
4

2
4
2
5
4

3
7
2
5
5

3
2
3
5
4

2
5
2
4
4

2
4
2
5
4

3
7
2
5
5

3
2
3
5
4

Fabricated metal products..................

See footnotes at end of table.




78

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code

y

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Injuries

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Plumbing and heating, except electric....
Metal sanitary ware....................
Plumbing fittings and brass goods......
Heating equipment, except electric.....

343
3431
3432
3433

2
3
3
3

2
3
4
4

2
5
3
4

2
5
5
3

2
3
3
3

2
3
4
4

2
5
4
4

2
5
5
3

Fabricated structural metal products.....
Fabricated structural metal............
Metal doors, sash, and trim............
Fabricated plate work..................
Sheet-metal work.......................
Architectural metal work...............
Prefabricated metal buildings..........
Miscellaneous metal work......... .....

344
3441
3442
3443
3444
3446
3448
3449

1
1
2
2
2
4
3
4

1
2
3
2
3
5
4
5

1
2
3
2
3
5
4
6

1
3
3
3
3
8
8
7

1
1
2
2
2
4
3
4

1
2
3
2
3
5
4
5

1
2
3
2
3
5
4
6

1
3
4
3
3
8
8
7

Screw machine products, bolts, etc.......
Screw machine products.................
Bolts, nuts, rivets, and washers.......

345
3451
3452

1
2
2

2
3
2

2
3
2

3
5
5

1
2
2

2
3
2

2
3
2

3
5
5

Metal forgings and stampings.............
Iron and steel forgings................
Nonferrous forgings....................
Automotive stampings...................
Crowns and closures....................
Metal stampings, n.e.c.................

346
3462
3463
3465
3466
3469

1
2
4
3
4
2

2
2
2
3
6
3

2
3
6
4
6
3

2
2
2
3
6
4

1
2
4
3
4
2

2
2
2
3
6
3

2
3
6
3
5
3

2
3
2
3
6
4

Metal services, n.e.c....................
Plating and polishing..................
Metal coating and allied services......

347
3471
34 79

2
3
4

3
3
6

3
3
4

5
5
10

2
3
4

3
3
6

3
3
4

5
5
10

Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c..........
Small arms ammunition..................
Ammunition, except for small

348
3482

2
5

2
3

2
6

2
3

2
5

2
4

2
6

3
3

3483
3484
3489

1
3
7

(3)
3
8

2
3
7

1
3
9

1
3
7

(3)
3
8

4
3
7

1
3
9

349
3493
3494
3495
3496
3497
3498
3499

1
2
2
3
3
4
3
4

2
3
2
3
4
4
3
5

2
2
2
3
3
5
3
5

2
8
3
5
4
6
4
5

1
2
2
3
3
4
3
4

2
3
2
4
4
4
3
5

2
2
2
3
3
5
4
5

2
8
3
6
4
6
4
5

Small arms.............................
Ordnance and accessories, n.e.c........
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products...
Steel springs, except wire.............
Valves and pipe fittings...............
Wire springs...........................
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products..
Metal foil and leaf....................
Fabricated pipe and fittings...........
Fabricated metal products, n.e.c.......

35

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Engines and turbines.....................
Turbines and turbine generator sets....
Internal combustion engines, n.e.c.....

351
3511
3519

2
3
2

2
3
2

3
4
3

2
4
2

2
3
2

2
3
2

3
4
3

2
4
2

Farm and garden machinery................
Farm machinery and equipment...........
Lawn and garden equipment..............

352
3523
3524

2
2
3

2
2
4

2
2
3

3
3
5

2
2
3

2
2
4

2
2
3

3
3
5

Construction and related machinery.......
Construction machinery.................
Mining machinery.......................
Oil field machinery....................
Elevators and moving stairways.........
Conveyors and conveying equipment......
Hoists, cranes, and monorails..........
Industrial trucks and tractors.........

353
3531
3532
3533
3534
3535
3536
3537

1
2
2
2
4
3
2
4

1
3
2
3
5
4
2
4

1
2
2
3
4
3
3
5

2
2
3
3
10
4
7
3

1
2
2
2
4
3
2
4

1
3
2
3
5
4
2
4

1
2
2
3
4
3
3
5

2
2
3
3
10
5
7
4

Metalworking machinery................. .
Machine tools, metal cutting types.....
Machine tools, metal forming types.....
Special dies, tools, jigs, and fixtures.
Machine tool accessories...............
Power driven hand tools............ .
Rolling mill machinery.................
Metalworking machinery, n.e.c...........

354
3541
3542
3544
3545
3546
3547
3549

1
2
3
3
2
2
4
3

2
3
3
4
3
2
4
5

1
3
3
3
3
2
5
3

2
3
3
5
5
1
4
5

1
2
3
3
2
2
4
3

2
3
3
4
3
2
4
5

1
3
3
3
3
2
5
4

2
3
3
5
5
1
4
5

Special industry machinery...............
Food products machinery................
Textile machinery......................
Woodworking machinery..................
Paper industries machinery.............
Printing trades machinery..............
Special industry machinery, n.e.c......

355
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3559

2
3
4
3
2
6
4

2
4
5
4
3
9
5

2
3
4
3
2
6
4

3
7
6
4
3
14
5

2
3
4
3
2
6
4

2
4
5
4
3
9
5

2
3
4
3
2
7
4

3
6
6
5
3
14
5

General industrial machinery.............
Pumps and pumping equipment......... .
Ball and roller bearings...............
Air and gas compressors................
Blowers and fans.......................
Industrial patterns....................
Speed changers, drives, and gears......
Industrial furnaces and ovens..........
Power transmission equipment, n.e.c....
General industrial machinery, n.e.c....

356
3561
3562
3563
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569

1
2
3
5
3
4
3
4
2
2

1
3
4
5
4
8
3
5
3
3

1
3
4
6
4
6
3
4
2
3

1
3
3
5
5
10
3
4
4
3

1
3
3
5
3
6
3
4
2
2

1
3
4
5
4
8
3
5
4
3

1
3
4
6
3
6
3
4
3
3

1
3
3
5
5
11
3
4
4
3

Office and computing machines............
Electronic computing equipment.........
Railroad equipment.....................
Scales and balances, except laboratory..
Office machines, n.e.c.................

357
3573
3574
3576
3579

3
3
5
6
4

3
3
4
10
6

3
4
5
7
4

3
4
2
15
2

3
4
5
7
4

3
3
4
10
5

3
4
5
7
4

3
5
2
16
2

Machinery, except electrical...............

See footnotes at end of table.




79

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Injuries

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Refrigeration and service machinery......
Automatic merchandising machines.......
Commercial laundry equipment...........
Refrigeration and heating equipment....
Measuring and dispensing pumps.... .
Service industry machinery, n.e.c......

358
3581
3582
3585
3586
3589

2
4
5
2
(3)
3

2
5
7
3
(3)
3

2
4
7
2
(3)
3

2
5
11
3
(3)
4

1
4
6
2
(3)
3

2
5
7
3
(3)
3

2
4
7
2
(3)
3

2
5
11
3
(3)
4

Miscellaneous machinery, except
electrical...........................
Carburetors, pistons, rings, valves....
Machinery, except electrical, n.e.c....

359
3592
3599

2
3
2

3
3
3

2
4
2

5
3
5

2
3
2

3
3
3

2
4
2

5
3
5

36

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Electric distributing equipment..........
Transformers...........................
Switchgear and switchboard apparatus....

361
3612
3613

2
2
4

3
3
6

3
3
5

4
3
7

2
2
5

3
3
6

3
3
5

4
3
8

Electrical industrial apparatus..........
Motors and generators..................
Industrial controls....................
Welding apparatus, electric............
Carbon and graphite products...........
Electrical industrial apparatus, n.e.c..

362
3621
3622
3623
3624
3629

2
2
3
3
3
7

2
2
4
4
3
6

2
3
4
3
5
9

2
3
4
4
6
8

2
2
3
3
3
8

2
2
4
4
3
7

2
3
4
3
5
9

2
3
4
4
6
8

Household appliances.....................
Household cooking equipment............
Household refrigerators and freezers....
Household laundry equipment............
Electric housewares and fans...........
Household vacuum cleaners..............
Sewing machines........................

363
3631
3632
3633
3634
3635
3636

3
3
(3)
1
3
1
3

4
4
(3)
1
3
(3)
9

2
2
(3)
(3)
4
1
2

5
2
(3)
1
3
(3)
4

3
3
(3)
1
3
1
4

4
4
(3)
1
3
(3)
10

2
2
(3)
(3)
4
1
2

5
2
(3)
1
3
(3)
4

Electric lighting and wiring equipment....
Electric lamps.........................
Current-carrying wiring devices........
Noncurrent-carrying wiring devices.....
Residential lighting fixtures..........
Commercial lighting fixtures...........
Vehicular lighting equipment...........
Lighting equipment, n.e.c..............

364
3641
3643
3644
3645
3646
3647
3648

1
5
2
2
3
4
3
8

2
6
3
2
4
5
2
9

2
5
3
3
3
5
3
11

3
14
5
3
5
10
2
16

1
5
2
2
3
4
3
8

2
7
3
2
4
5
2
10

2
6
3
3
4
6
3
10

3
15
5
3
5
10
2
17

Radio and TV receiving equipment.........
Radio and TV receiving sets............
Phonograph records.............. .

365
3651
3652

3
4
4

4
5
4

4
4
4

4
5
3

3
4
4

4
5
4

4
4
4

4
5
3

Communication equipment..................
Telephone and telegraph apparatus......
Radio and TV communication equipment....

366
3661
3662

2
3
3

3
4
4

3
4
4

3
3
4

2
3
3

3
4
4

3
4
4

3
4
4

Electronic components and accessories....
Electron tubes, receiving type.........
Cathode ray television picture tubes....
Electron tubes, transmitting...........
Semiconductors and related devices.....
Electronic capacitors........... .
Electronic resistors...................
Electronic coils and transformers......

367
3671
3672
3673
3674
3675
3676
3677

1
3
2
4
2
4
3
4

1
3

2
2
1
8
3
9
3
9

2

3

1
3
2
4
2
3
3
4
2

2
5
5
5
3
5
3
5

36 7 9

2
2
1
7
2
9
3
9
4

1
3
1
5
2
4
3
5

Electronic components, n . e . c ............................

2
5
5
5
3
5
3
5
3

3

3

3

369
3691
3692
3693
3694

2
2
3
3
4

2
2
4

3
4
2
4
5

2
3
4
5
4

2
2
3
3
4

2
2
5
8
4

3
4
3
4
5

2
3
4
6
4

3699

5

5

7

5

5

5

7

5

37

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Motor vehicles and equipment.............
Motor vehicles and car bodies..........
Truck and bus bodies...................
Motor vehicle parts and accessories....
Truck trailers.........................

371
3711
3713
3714
3715

1
2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
3
3

1
2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2
2

1
2
2
2
2

1
2
2
3
3

2
2
2
2
2

Aircraft and parts.......................
Aircraft..... ..........................
Aircraft engines and engine parts.......
Aircraft equipment, n.e.c..............

372
3721
3724
3728

2
3
3
2

2
3
4
3

2
3
4
3

3
3
9
3

2
3
3
2

2
3
4
3

2
3
4
4

3
3
9
3

Ship and boat building and repairing.....
Ship building and repairing............
Boat building and repairing............

373
3731
3732

2
2
2

2
2
2

3
3
2

3
3
3

2
2
2

2
2
3

3
4
3

2
3
3

Railroad equipment..................... .
Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts.........

374
375

2
3

2
4

2
3

2
5

2
3

2
4

2
3

2
6

Guided missiles, space vehicles, and
parts................................
Guided missiles and space vehicles.....
Space propulsion units and parts.......
Space vehicle equipment, n.e.c.........

376
3761
3764
3769

5
8
1
8

2
3
1
8

8
13
1
10

3
4
(3)
14

6
9
(3)
9

2
3
(3)
8

9
13
1
11

3
4
(3)
14

Miscellaneous transportation equipment....
Travel trailers and campers............
Tanks and tank components..............
Transportation equipment, n.e.c........

379
3792
3795
3799

2
2
(3)
5

2
2
(3)
6

2
2
(3)
5

3
3
1
5

2
2
(3)
5

2
2
(3)
6

2
2
(3)
5

3
3
1
5

Electric and electronic equipment..........

Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies............ .................
Storage batteries......................
Primary batteries, dry and wet.........
X-ray apparatus and tubes..............
Engine electrical equipment............
Electrical equipment and
supplies, n.e.c......................
Transportation equipment...................

1

5
2

4
3

5

8

3

See footnotes at end of table.




80

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Injuries

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

38

i

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

Engineering and scientific instruments....

381

4

4

5

5

4

5

5

5

Measuring and controlling devices........
Environmental controls.................
Process control instruments............
Fluid meters and counting devices......
Instruments to measure electricity.....
Measuring and controlling
devices, n.e.c.......................

382
3822
3823
3824
3825

2
2
5
2
3

2
2
6
2
3

2
3
6
2
5

2
2
6
1
4

2
2
5
2
3

2
2
6
2
4

2
3
6
2
5

2
2
6
1
5

3829

6

5

8

6

6

5

8

6

Optical instruments and lenses...... .

383

5

7

6

12

5

7

6

13

Medical instruments and supplies.........
Surgical and medical instruments.......
Surgical appliances and supplies.......
Dental equipment and supplies..........

384
3841
3842
3843

2
3
3
3

3
3
3
10

3
4
4
8

3
3
3
10

2
3
3
8

3
4
3
10

3
4
4
8

3
3
3
11

Ophthalmic goods.........................
Photographic equipment and supplies......
Watches, clocks, and watchcases..........

385
386
387

8
3
6

9
3
9

8
4
7

6
3
8

9
3
6

11
3
9

9
4
7

7
3
8

Instruments and related products...........

39

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware.....
Jewelry, precious metal................
Silverware and plated ware.............
Jewlers' materials and lapidary work....

391
3911
3914
3915

2
4
4
5

3
4
3
9

3
4
6
6

10
9
3
49

2
4
4
5

3
4
3
9

3
4
6
6

10
9
3
50

Musical instruments..... .................

393

4

3

6

3

4

3

6

3

Toys and sporting goods..................
Dolls..................................
Games, toys, and children's vehicles....
Sporting and athletic goods, n.e.c.....

394
3942
3944
3949

2
7
2
3

2
7
3
3

2
9
2
3

3
16
3
4

2
7
2
3

2
7
3
3

2
9
2
3

3
16
3
4

Pens, pencils, office and art supplies....
Pens and mechanical pencils............
Lead pencils and art goods.............
Marking devices........................
Carbon paper and inked ribbons.........

395
3951
3952
3953
3955

2
4
2
8
7

3
4
3
3
7

3
5
3
9
8

4
4
4
13
10

2
4
2
6
7

3
4
3
8
7

3
5
3
8
8

4
5
4
13
10

Costume jewelry and notions..............
Costume jewelry........................
Artificial flowers.....................
Buttons................................
Needles, pins, and fasteners...........

396
3961
3962
3963
3964

4
4
4
13
7

4
5
8
15
8

4
5
5
15
8

6
7
10
9
12

4
4
4
13
7

4
5
8
12
8

4
5
5
16
7

6
7
10
9
12

Miscellaneous manufactures...............
Brooms and brushes.....................
Signs and advertising displays.........
Burial caskets........ .................
Hard surface floor coverings...........
Manufacturing industries, n.e.c........

399
3991
3993
3995
3996
3999

2
3
3
5
3
4

2
3
4
7
1
5

2
3
3
5
4
5

4
5
9
8
3
8

2
3
3
5
3
4

2
3
4
7
1
5

2
3
3
5
4
5

4
5
9
8
3
8

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.....

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

(3)

20

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Meat products......... ...................
Meatpacking plants.....................
Sausages and other prepared meats......
Poultry dressing plants................
Poultry and egg processing.............

201
2011
2013
2016
2017

1
1
2
2
3

1
2
2
3
4

1
2
3
2
3

1
2
3
3
6

1
1
2
2
3

1
2
2
3
4

1
2
3
2
3

1
2
3
2
7

Dairy products...........................
Creamery butter........................
Cheese, natural and processed..........
Condensed and evaporated milk..........
Ice cream and frozen desserts..........
Fluid milk.............................

202
2021
2022
2023
2024
2026

1
5
3
4
4
2

2
6
4
5
4
2

1
6
3
4
4
2

3
8
7
6
5
4

1
5
3
4
4
2

2
5
4
5
4
2

1
6
3
4
4
2

3
8
7
6
5
4

Preserved fruits and vegetables..........
Canned specialties.....................
Canned fruits and vegetables...........
Dehydrated fruits, vegetables, soups....
Pickles, sauces, and salad dressings....
Frozen fruits and vegetables...........
Frozen specialties.....................

203
2032
2033
2034
2035
2037
2033

1
4
2
6
5
3
3

2
4
3
8
6
3
3

2
5
3
6
6
4
5

2
5
3
10
9
3
4

1
4
2
5
5
3
3

2
4
3
7
6
3
3

2
5
3
6
6
4
5

2
5
3
10
9
3
4

Grain mill products......................
Flour and other grain mill products....
Cereal breakfast foods.................
Rice milling...........................
Blended and prepared flour.............
Wet corn milling.......................
Dog, cat, and other pet food...........
Prepared feeds, n.e.c..................

204
2041
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048

2
3
1
3
2
3
3
3

2
3
2
3
3
4
4
4

2
3
2
3
2
2
3
4

2
4
1
5
3
3
4
6

2
3
1
3
2
3
3
3

2
3
1
3
3
4
4
4

2
3
2
3
3
2
3
4

2
4
1
5
3
3
4
6

Bakery products..........................
Bread, cake, and related products......
Cookies and crackers...................

205
2051
2052

2
2
3

2
3
4

2
3
3

3
4
5

2
2
3

2
3
4

2
3
3

3
4
5

Nondurable goods...........................
Food and kindred products..................

See footnotes at end of table.




81

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Injuries

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
l08t
workdays

Lost
workdays

Sugar and confectionery products.........
Raw cane sugar.........................
Cane sugar refining....................
Beet sugar.............................
Confectionery products.................
Chocolate and cocoa products...........
Chewing gum............................

206
2061
2062
2063
2065
2066
2067

i

2

2

2

i

1

2

2

2
1

4

3

4

3

4

1

2

2
1

4

1

1

1

2

3

3

3
3
5

3

2
8

5
3
7

3

2
6

2
6

2

3
3
5

7

5

12

6

7

9
4

5
3
7
12

6

Fats and oils............ ................
Cottonseed oil mills...................
Soybean oil mills.... ..................
Vegetable oil mills, n.e.c.............
Animal and marine fats and oils........
Shortening and cooking oils............

207
2074
2075
2076
2077
2079

2

2

2

2

3
3
5
4
4

4
4

1
2

2

3
3
3
3

3
3
6
8
6

3
3
3

4
4

3

2

3
3
5
4
3

2

3

Beverages................................
Malt beverages.........................
Malt...................................
Wines, brandy, and brandy spirits......
Distilled liquor, except brandy........
Bottled and canned soft drinks...... .
Flavoring extracts and syrups, n.e.c....

208
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087

1
2

1

1

2

1
2

1

1

2

Miscellaneous foods and kindred products..
Canned and cured seafoods..............
Fresh or frozen packaged fish..........
Macaroni and spaghetti.................
Food preparations, n.e.c...............

209
2091
2092
2098
2099

2

Tobacco manufactures.......................
Cigarettes...............................
Cigars...................................
Chewing and smoking tobacco..............
Tobacco stemming and redrying............

2

2

3
3

3
3

3
5

8
2
1
6

12
2
2
6
2

3
4
4
3

3
4
5
4
3

21

2

211
212

2
2

213
214

4
3

3
8
1
1

5

3
6
8
2
2
8

3
8
1
1

5
2

2

3

3
3

3
5

8
2
1
6

12
2
2
6

3
4
4

4

3
4
4
3

3
4
5
4
3

4

3
4
7
5
4

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

1

2

2
2

1

2

3
4
3

4
4
4
3

1

3
4
6

7
7
3

6

4
3

3
4
3

4
4
4
3

22

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

221
222

2
2

2
2

2

2
2

3
4

4
5

11

3
4
4
5

2
2

223
224

3
4
4
5

Knitting mills...........................
Women's hosiery, except socks..........
Hosiery, n.e.c.........................
Knit outerwear mills...................
Knit underwear mills...................
Circular knit fabric mills.............
Warp knit fabric mills.................
Knitting mills, n.e.c..................

225
2251
2252
2253
2254
2257
2258
2259

2
6

2

2

4

7
4
5
4
4
7

12
11
11

6

5
4
5
3
4
5

5

6

6

Textile finishing, except wool...........
Finishing plants, cotton..... .........
Finishing plants, synthetics...........
Finishing plants, n.e.c................

226
2261
2262
2269

2

3
3

2

Floor covering mills.....................
Woven carpets and rugs.................
Tufted carpets and rugs................
Carpets and rugs, n.e.c................

227
2271
2272
2279

Yarn and thread mills....................
Yarn mills, except wool................
Throwing and winding mills........ .....
Wool yarn mills........................
Thread mills...........................

228
2281
2282
2283
2284

Miscellaneous textile goods..............
Felt goods, except woven felts and hats.
Lace goods.............................
Paddings and upholstery filling........
Processed textile waste................
Coated fabrics, not rubberized.........
Tire cord and fabric...................
Nonwoven fabrics........................
Cordage and twine......................
Textile goods, n.e.c...................

229
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299

3
4
3
4

3
4
4
4
2

5
16
2
2

5
3
2
2

5
5
5
5

5

3
5
5

4
3
5
14

5
3
5
25

2

2
2
6

6

3
7
3
3

4
2

2

2

7

5
5

12

5
6

6
6

(3)
4
3
9

3
(3)
7
4
15

3
(3)
5
4
7

2

3
6
8
2
2
8

3
4
7
5
4

Weaving mills, cotton....................
Weaving mills, synthetics................
Weaving and finishing mills, wool........
Narrow fabric mills......................

Textile mill products......................

3
3
6
8
6

5
5

9
8
6
6

4
4
7
6

4
3
5

3
4
2
6

2

2
8

2

5
5
11

4

6

5
4
4
3
4
5

4
5
4
4
7

5

6

6

7

2

3
3

3
3
5
5

4
4
7

3
4
3
4

3
4
4

5

4

4

6

2

2

21

5
15

5
14

3
4

2
2

2

8

5
3

5
4

4
5

7
7
3

2
2

3
7
14
7
9
5
(3)
25
5
16

(3)
4
3
9

5
5
5
5
2

3
7
3
3

11
11
11

9
8
6

6

5
3
5
23

21

2
2
6

8

4
2

2

2

7

5
5

4
3
5

3
4
5
4

4
15

3
(3)
5
4
7

3
7
18
7
9
5
(3)
25
5
17

12

5
6

3
(3)
8

6
6

Apparel and other textile products.........

23

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

Men's and boys' suits and coats...... .

231

4

3

6

4

4

3

6

4

Men's and boys' furnishings..............
Men's and boys' shirts and n i g h t w e a r . .
Men's and boys' underwear..............
Men's and boys' neckwear...............
Men's and boys' separate trousers......
Men's and boys' work clothing..........
Men's and boys' clothing, n.e.c........

232
2321
2322
2323
2327
2328
2329

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

4
4
28
7
3

4
4
26
7
3

Women's and misses' outerwear............
Women's and misses' blouses and waists..
Women's and misses' dresses............
Women's and misses' suits and coats....
Women's and misses' outerwear, n.e.c....

233
2331
2335
2337
2339

3

3

4

2
11

2
11

2

3

4
3
4

2

4
3
4

3

4
2
12

3

4
3
4

4
3
5

3

3
5

12

8

14

7
4

10

2

4

5

3
4
7
7
3

3
5

12

6
8

8

13

7
3

13
4

7
4

11

82

3
2
11

6

6

See footnotes at end of table.




13
4
3
5

3
2
10

7

6
8
12

4

6

5

7

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Women's and children's undergarments.....
Women's and children's underwear.......
Brassieres and allied garments.........

234
2341
2342

3
4
4

4
5
6

4
4
4

7
9
7

3
3
4

4
5
6

3
4
4

7
9
7

Hats, caps, and millinery................
Millinery..............................

235
2351

8
6

15
8

5
6

17
10

8
6

15
8

5
6

18
10

Children'8 outerwear.....................
Children's dresses and blouses.........
Children's outerwear, .................

236
2361
2369

4
6
5

7
6
6

5
7
7

7
14
10

4
6
6

7
6
7

5
7
7

7
14
11

Miscellaneous apparel and accessories....
Fabric dress and work gloves.......... .
Robes and dressing gowns...............
Waterproof outergarments...............
Leather and sheep lined clothing.......
Apparel belts..........................
Apparel and accessories, n.e.c.........

238
2381
2384
2385
2386
2387
2389

2
5
5
5
10
6
5

3
5
6
7
10
8
6

3
7
7
5
16
6
7

5
6
17
13
21
7
11

3
4
6
4
10
6
5

3
4
7
7
10
8
6

3
7
7
5
16
6
7

5
6
17
13
21
7
11

Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products.............................
Curtains and draperies..................
House furnishings, n.e.c...............
Textile bags...........................
Canvas and related products............
Pleating and stitching.................
Automotive and apparel trimmings.......
Schiffli machine embroideries..........
Fabricated textile products, n.e.c.....

239
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2399

2
4
5
5
5
7
7
9
4

3
5
7
8
7
9
9
9
6

2
5
5
5
6
8
7
15
5

3
7
8
12
10
14
7
23
7

2
4
5
5
5
7
8
9
4

3
5
7
8
7
9
10
9
6

2
5
5
6
6
8
8
15
5

3
7
8
13
10
14
8
23
7

26

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Pulp mills...............................
Paper mills, except building paper.......
Paperboard mills............. ............

261
262
263

1
2
2

3
2
2

1
2
2

2
2
3

1
2
2

3
2
2

1
2
2

2
2
3

Miscellaneous converted paper products....
Paper coating and glazing..............
Envelopes..............................
Bags, except textile bags..............
Die-cut paper and board................
Pressed and molded pulp goods..........
Sanitary paper products................
Stationery products....................
Converted paper products, n.e.c........

264
2641
2642
2643
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649

1
2
2
3
5
5
2
5
5

2
4
3
3
6
6
3
6
5

2
2
2
3
7
6
3
7
6

2
4
4
4
5
6
4
8
6

1
2
2
3
5
5
3
5
5

2
4
3
4
6
6
3
6
5

2
2
2
3
7
6
3
7
6

2
4
4
4
5
6
4
8
6

Paperboard containers and boxes..........
Folding paperboard boxes...............
Set-up paperboard boxes................
Corrugated and solid fiber boxes.......
Sanitary food containers...............
Fiber cans, drums, and similar
products.............................

265
2651
2652
2653
2654

1
2
3
2
3

1
3
4
2
4

1
3
4
2
4

3
4
6
3
12

1
2
3
2
3

1
3
4
2
4

1
3
4
2
5

3
4
6
3
12

2655

3

4

4

5

3

4

4

5

Building paper and board mills...........

266

5

6

5

5

5

6

5

5

27

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

Newspapers...............................
Periodicals..............................

271
272

2
7

2
9

2
8

2
14

2
7

2
10

2
8

2
14

Books....................................
Book publishing........................
Book printing..........................

273
2731
2732

3
5
2

3
6
2

3
6
3

5
9
3

3
5
2

4
6
3

3
5
3

5
10
3

Paper and allied products..................

Printing and publishing....................

Miscellaneous publishing.................

274

7

8

9

12

7

8

9

12

Commercial printing......................
Commercial printing, letterpress.......
Commercial printing, lithographic......
Engraving and plate printing...........
Commercial printing, gravure...........

275
2751
2752
2753
2754

2
2
2
4
3

2
3
3
6
2

2
3
3
6
5

3
5
4
22
4

2
2
2
4
3

2
3
3
6
2

2
3
3
6
5

3
5
4
22
4

Manifold business forms..................
Greeting card publishing.................

276
277

4
4

4
4

5
6

7
4

4
4

4
4

5
6

7
4

Blankbooks and bookbinding...............
Blankbooks and looseleaf binders.......
Bookbinding and related work...........

278
2782
2789

3
4
4

3
4
4

3
4
5

5
7
7

3
4
4

3
4
4

3
4
5

5
7
8

Printing trade services..................
Typesetting............................
Photoengraving.........................
Electrotyping and stereotyping.........
Lithographic platemaking services......

279
2791
2793
2794
2795

3
6
7
9
6

6
10
12
(3)
9

4
7
7
12
7

10
12
13
(3)
27

3
6
7
9
6

6
10
12
(3)
9

4
7
7
12
7

10
12
14
(3)
28

Chemicals and allied products....... .......

28

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Industrial inorganic chemicals...........
Alkalies and chlorine..................
Inorganic pigments.....................
Industrial inorganic chemicals, n.e.c...

281
2812
2816
2819

3
4
5
4

4
5
5
5

4
5
6
5

4
7
4
5

3
4
4
4

4
4
4
5

4
5
6
4

4
7
4
5

Plastics materials and synthetics........
Plastics materials and resins..........
Synthetic rubber.......................
Organic fibers, noncellulosic..........

282
2821
2822
2824

2
4
3
5

3
5
4
5

3
4
3
5

3
3
3
7

2
3
3
5

3
4
4
5

3
4
3
6

3
4
3
7

See footnotes at end of table.




83

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries and illnesses

Injuries

Industry

SIC
code

Total
cases

If

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Drugs....................................
Biological products....................
Medicinals and botanical...............
Pharmaceutical preparations............

283
2831
2833
2834

2
5
5
2

2
5
6
2

3
7
6
3

3
7
7
4

2
6
5
2

2
5
6
2

3
8
6
3

3
7
8
4

Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods.........
Soap and other detergents..............
Polishes and sanitation goods..........
Surface active agents..................
Toilet preparations....... .............

284
2841
2842
2843
2844

2
4
4
6
3

2
5
4
5
4

2
5
4
7
4

3
4
8
12
5

2
4
4
6
3

2
5
4
6
4

2
5
5
8
4

3
4
7
12
5

Paints and allied products...............

285

2

3

3

5

2

3

3

5

Industrial organic chemicals.............
Gum and wood chemicals.................
Cyclic crudes and intermediates........
Industrial organic chemicals, n.e.c....

286
2861
2865
2869

3
5
6
4

4
5
8
6

3
7
6
5

4
5
7
4

3
5
5
4

4
5
7
4

3
7
5
4

4
5
8
4

Agricultural chemicals...................
Nitrogenous fertilizers................
Phosphate fertilizers...... ...........
Fertilizers, mixing only...............
Agricultural chemicals, n.e.c..........

287
2873
2874
2875
2879

3
9
3
7
5

4
10
6
9
6

4
12
3
8
6

6
10
4
17
6

3
8
3
7
5

4
10
6
9
6

4
11
4
8
6

6
10
4
17
6

Miscellaneous chemical products..........
Adhesives and sealants.................
Explosives.............................
Printing ink...........................
Carbon black...........................
Chemical preparations, n.e.c...........

289
2891
2892
2893
2895
2899

2
3
5
5
8
4

3
5
4
7
12
6

3
4
6
6
7
5

4
5
3
10
11
6

2
3
5
5
8
4

3
5
4
7
12
6

3
4
6
6
7
5

4
5
3
10
11
6

29

2

2

2

3

2

2

2

3

Petroleum refining..... ..............

291

3

3

3

4

3

3

3

4

Paving and roofing materials.............
Paving mixtures and blocks.............
Asphalt felts and coatings.............

295
2951
2952

3
9
2

4
11
3

3
9
2

4
14
3

3
9
2

4
11
3

3
10
2

4
14
3

Miscellaneous petroleum and coal
products.............................
Lubricating oils and greases....... .
Petroleum and coal products, n.e.c......

299
2992
2999

4
4
9

4
5
7

5
5
10

8
11
6

4
4
9

4
5
7

5
5
10

8
11
6

30

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

301
302
303
304
306
307

2
4
1
3
2
2

2
5
2
2
2
2

3
6
2
5
2
2

2
6
3
2
3
2

2
5
1
3
2
2

2
5
2
2
2
2

3
7
2
5
2
2

2
6
3
2
3
2

Petroleum and coal products................

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products..
Tires and inner tubes....................
Rubber and plastics footwear........ .
Reclaimed rubber.........................
Rubber and plastics hose and belting.....
Fabricated rubber products, n.e.c........
Miscellaneous plastics products..........

31

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

Leather tanning and finishing............
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings.....

311
313

3
4

3
3

4
4

4
6

3
3

4
3

4
4

5
6

Footwear, except rubber..................
House slippers.........................
Men's footwear, except athletic........
Women's footwear, except athletic......
Footwear, except rubber, n.e.c.........

314
3142
3143
3144
3149

2
4
2
4
3

2
5
2
3
4

2
5
2
5
4

3
7
2
7
4

2
4
2
4
3

2
5
2
3
3

2
6
2
5
4

3
7
2
5
4

Leather gloves and mittens...............
Luggage..................................

315
316

8
5

8
5

12
7

9
4

8
5

8
5

12
7

9
4

Handbags and personal leather goods......
Women's handbags and purses............
Personal leather goods, n.e.c..........

317
3171
3172

4
4
6

5
6
6

4
5
7

6
8
8

4
4
6

5
6
6

4
5
7

6
8
9

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Local and interurban passenger transit.....

41

3

3

3

5

3

3

3

5

Trucking and warehousing...................
Trucking, local and long distance........
Public warehousing.......................
Trucking terminal facilities.............

42
421
422
423

1
1
3
6

1
1
4
9

2
2
4
6

2
3
6
15

1
1
3
6

1
1
4
9

2
2
4
6

2
3
6
15

Water transportation.......................
Water transportation services............

44
446

3
3

3
3

4
4

3
4

3
3

3
3

4
4

3
4

Transportation by air......................
Pipelines, except natural gas..............

45
46

1
6

1
7

2
7

2
12

1
6

1
7

2
7

2
12

Transportation services............
Miscellaneous transportation services....

47
478

5
8

5
12

6
8

10
18

5
8

5
12

6
8

10
18

Communication..............................

48

3

3

5

4

3

3

5

4

Electric, gas, and sanitary services.......
Sanitary services........................

49
495

1
4

1
5

1
6

2
6

1
4

1
5

1
6

2
6

Leather and leather products...............

Transportation and public utilities..........

See footnotes at end of table.




84

Table A-1. Continued— Relative standard errors for measures of occupational injuries and
illnesses, and occupational injuries by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard error (percent) 2/

Injuries

Injuries and illnesses
Industry
SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

Nonfatal
cases
without
lost
workdays

Lost
workdays

Wholesale and retail trade...................

i

2

2

3

i

2

2

3

Wholesale trade............................

2

2

2

4

2

2

2

4

3
3

4
3

3
3

6
5

3
3

4
3

3
3

6
5

50
51

Wholesale trade— durable goods...........
Wholesale trade— nondurable goods........

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

3
3
3
2
6
5
5
5

4
3
3
3
9
6
6
7

4
4
3
2
7
6
5
6

7
5
15
6
16
8
12
14

3
3
3
2
6
5
5
5

4
3
3
3
8
6
6
7

4
4
3
2
7
6
5
6

7
5
15
6
16
8
12
13

2

3

3

6

2

3

3

6

60
61
62
63
64
65

5
6
8
4
10
5

7
12
8
5
16
6

6
7
10
4
11
6

15
16
15
8
8

5
6
8
4
10
5

7
11
8
5
16
6

6
7
10
4
12
6

13
16
15
8
8

1

2

2

Retail trade...............................
Building materials and garden supplies....
General merchandise stores...............
Food stores..............................
Automotive dealers and service stations...
Apparel and accessory stores.............
Furniture and home furnishings stores....
Eating and drinking places...............
Miscellaneous retail.....................
Finance, insurance, and real estate..........
Banking....................................
Credit agencies other than banks...........
Security, commodity brokers, and services...
Insurance carriers.........................
Insurance agents, brokers and service......
Real estate................................

-

3

1

2

2

3

Hotels and other lodging places............
Personal services........ ..................
Business services..........................
Auto repair, services, and garages.........

70
72
73
75

2
5
5
5

3
5
6
6

3
6
5
6

6
10
10
9

2
5
5
5

3
5
6
6

3
6
5
6

6
11
10
9

Miscellaneous repair services..............
Miscellaneous repair shops...............

76
769

5
6

6
7

6
7

9
10

5
6

6
7

6
7

9
11

Motion pictures..... .......................
Amusement and recreation services..........
Health services............................
Educational services.......................
Social services............................
Museums, botanical and zoological
gardens........... ....................
Miscellaneous services.....................

78
79
80
82
83

6
7
2
4
5

9
6
2
6
5

7
10
3
5
6

24
8
4
11
8

6
7
2
5
5

9
6
2
6
5

7
10
3
5
6

25
8
4
12
8

84
89

5
6

6
8

6
7

7
20

5
6

6
8

6
7

8
21

Services.....................................

Relative standard errors w e r e not calculated for mi n i n g division, coal a n d

1 Standard Industrial Classification M a n u a l . 1972 Edition.
2 S e e discussion of reliability of estimates.

lignite mining (SIC 11-12), metal a n d n o n m e t a l min i n g a n d quarying (SIC 10

3 Relative standard error of zero or less than 0.5.

a n d 14), a n d railroad transportation (SIC 40).

N O T E : D a s h e s indicate data that d o not m e e t publication guidelines.

n.e.c. = not els e w h e r e classified.




Table A-2. Relative standard errors for injury
and illness fatalities by industry division,
United States, 1978
Relative
'Standard
error
(percent) 1 /

Industry

Private sector..................

8

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing....
Mining...............................
Construction.........................
Manufacturing........................
Transportation and public utilities...
Wholesale and retail trade........ .
Finance, insurance, and real estate...
Services........................... ..

26
8
23
3
7
23
34
54

1 S e e discussion of reliability of estimates.

85

Table A-3. Relative standard errors for measures of occupational illnesses by industry, United States, 1978
Relative standard
error (percent) 2/

Relative standard
error (percent) 2/

Industry

SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Industry

Lost
workday
cases

SIC
code
1/

Total
cases

Lost
workday
cases

12
2
36
47
10
4

13
2
12
6

Private sector..............

1

2

Transportation and public utilities continued.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing.

7

12

01-02
07
08
09

8
14
16
27

11
25
55
30

Water transportation......... ..............
Transportation by air......................
Pipelines, except natural gas........ .
Transportation services....................
Communication..............................
Electric, gas, and sanitary services.......
Wholesale and retail trade...................

9

13

13

14

23

Wholesale trade............................

13

18

7

16

Wholesale trade— durable goods...........
Wholesale trade— nondurable goods........

50
51

20
17

22
27

11
10
13

16
24
28

12

17

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

30
27
19
18
34
33
30
37

43
43
24
29
48
40

14

20

60
61
62
63
64
65

47
33
18
17

59
56
-

6

7

70
72
73
75
76
78
79
80
82
83

17
19
34
33
19
17
19

27
23
37
59
42
28
31

16

18
20

84
89

20
23

42
27

Agricultural production...... .
Agricultural services.........
Forestry..................... .
Fishing, hunting, and trapping.
Mining...........................
Oil and gas extraction....... .
Construction.....................
General building contractors..............
Heavy construction contractors............
Special trade contractors.................

15
16
17

Manufacturing.................................

1

Durable goods...............................

1

Building materials and garden supplies....
General merchandise stores...............
Food stores..............................
Automotive dealers and service stations...
Apparel and accessory stores.............
Furniture and home furnishings stores....
Eating and drinking places...............
Miscellaneous retail.....................

5
5
4
3

2
2
2
2
2

Retail trade...............................

1

4
3
3
3

2
2
2
2

Lumber and wood products..................
Furniture and fixtures....................
Stone, clay, and glass products...........
Primary metal industries..................
Fabricated metal products.................
Machinery, except electrical..............
Electric and electronic equipment.........
Transportation equipment..................
Instruments and related products..........
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries....

24
25
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

Food and kindred products.................
Tobacco manufactures......................
Textile mill products.....................
Apparel and other textile products........
Paper and allied products.................
Printing and publishing...................
Chemicals and allied products.............
Petroleum and coal products...............
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products..............

20
21
22

23
26
27
28
29
30
31

41
42

1 Standard Industrial Classification M a n u a l , 1972 Edition.
2 S e e discussion of reliability of estimates.




Finance, insurance, and real estate..........

3

3
5
2

Banking....................................
Credit agencies other than banks...........
Security, commodity brokers, and services...
Insurance carriers.........................
Insurance agents, brokers and service......
Real estate................................

2

2

Services......................................

3
3
5
3
5
3

5
5
4
10
5

Hotels and other lodging places............
Personal services................. .........
Business services..........................
Auto repair, services, and garages..........
Miscellaneous repair services..............
Motion pictures............................
Amusement and recreation services..........
Health services............................
Educational services.......................
Social services............................
Museums, botanical, and zoological
gardens.................................
Miscellaneous services.....................

6

6

8

4
3

5
5

2

Transportation and public utilities...........
Local and interurban passenger transit....
Trucking and warehousing.................

1

1

Nondurable goods............................

44
45
46
47
48
49

4

18
9

26
16

6
11

-

22

26

8

N O T E : D a s h e s indicate data that d o not m e e t publication guidelines. Relative standard errors
w e r e not calculated for the mi n i n g division, coal a n d lignite mi n i n g (SIC 11-12), metal a n d n o n m e t a l
mining a n d quarrying (SIC 10 a n d 14), a n d railroad transportation (SIC 40).

86

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration

The in form ation collected on this form will be used for statistical pur- T ~ THIS REPORT IS MANDATORV UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-596. FAILURE TO REPORT
poses only by the BLS, OSHA. and the cooperating State Agencies.
CAN RESULT IN THE ISSUANCE OF CITATIONS AND ASSESSMENT OF PENALTIES.
St.
Sch. No.
Ck.
Suf.
SIC
EDIT
I. ANNUAL AVERAGE
EMPLOYMENT IN 1978

00
■Nl

Enter the average number
of employees who worked
during calendar year 1978
in the establishment(s)
covered by this report. In­
clude all classes of employ­
ees: full-time, part-time, see
sonal, temporary, etc. See
the instructions for an exam­
ple of an annual average em­
ployment calculation.
(Round to the nearest whole
number.)

II. TOTAL HOURS
WORKED IN 1978

Complete this report whether or n o t there were
recordable occupational injuries or illnesses.
PLEASE READ THE ENCLOSED INSTRUCTIONS

III. NATURE OF BUSINESS IN 1978

A. Check the box which
Enter the total number of best describes the general
type of activity performed
hours actually worked
by the establishment(s) in­
during 1978 by all em­
cluded in this report.
ployees covered by this
report. DO NOT include □ Agriculture
D Forestry
any non-worktime even
□ Fishing
though paid such as vaca­ G Mining
tions, sick leave, etc. If
□ Construction
employees worked low
□ Manufacturing
hours in 1978 due to lay­ □ Transportation
□ Communication
offs, strikes, fires, etc.,
explain under Comments □ Public Utilities
(Section VII). (Round to □ Wholesale Trade
□
the nearest whole number. ) ] Retail Trade
□ Finance
□ Insurance
□ Real Estate
□ Services

B. Enter in order of im­
portance the principal
products, lines of trade,
services or other activi­
ties. For each entry also
include the approximate
percent of total 1978
annual value of produc­
tion, sales or receipts.

1. □ Central
administration
2. D Research, develop­
ment and testing
3. □ Storage
(warehouse)
4. □ Other (specify)

OSHA No. 200-S




If you answered "Yes” to
either of the above. ENTE R
the DATA in Section VI
and complete Section VII.

box blank.)
To:

Complete and return ONLY
THIS FORM within 3 weeks

V. RECORDABLE INJURIES
IV. MONTH OF OSHA
AND ILLNESSES
INSPECTION
Indicate below whether the
If the establishment(s)
employees covered by this
covered by this report
report experienced during
had either a Federal or
calendar year 1978 any:
State OSHA compliance
inspection during calen­
A. Recordable INJURIES
dar year 1978. please
1. □ No 2. □ Yes
enter the name of the
month in which the first
B. Recordable ILLNESSES
inspection occurred.
1. □ No 2. □ Yes

(Leave this

□.E^sAtfminiaraiign
REPORT LOCATION AND IDENTIFICATION
Complete this report for the establishment(s) covered by the description below:

C. If this report includes
any establishment(s)
which perform services
for other units of your
company, indicate the
primary type of service
or support provided.
(Check as many as
apply.)

O.M.B. No. 44-R1652
Approval Expires: December 1980

If you answered "N o " to
both, complete only
Section VII.
SEE REVERSE
RETURN REPORT TO:

Appendix B. OSHA No. 200S
Report Form and Instructions

1978 OSHA No. 200-S
Annual Occupational Injuries and illnesses
Survey Covering Calendar Year 1978

V I.

OCCUPATIONAL IN JU R Y AND ILLNESS SUMMARY (Covering Calendar Year 1978)
•
•
•
•

Complete this section by copying the totals from the annual summary o f your 1978 OSHA No. 200.
Leave Section VI blank if there were no OSHA recordable injuries or illnesses during 1978.
Please check your figures to be certain that the sum of entries in columns (7a) + (7b) + (7c) + (7d) + (7e) + (7f) + (7g) = the sum of entries in columns (8) + (9) + (13).
Note: First aid even when administered by a doctor or nurse is not recordable.

OCCUPATIONAL IN JU R Y CASES|

OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS CASES

InjuryInjuries with Lost Workdays
Related
Fatalities
Total lost
workday
injuries

Number
of entries
in col. 1
of the log

Number of
checks in
col. 2 of the
log

Total injuries Days away
involving
from work
days away
from work

Injuries
Without
Lost
Workdays
Days of
restricted
work activity

Type of Illness:

.E

Number of
checks in
col. 6 of the
log

Illnesses with Lost Workdays
IllnessRelated
Fatalities

Illnesses
Without Lost
Workdays

-

c
o
1
TD

.2

O

•9

■§

1
g

Number of Sum of days in Sum of days in
col. 4 of the log col. 5 of the log
checks in
col. 3 of the
log

Enter the number of checks
from the appropriate
columns in the log.

1

8 |
.
o

8

1 a
a i
-O

£

o>

O -o

a,

Q

O

1
«

.9
k O
x
O
>

(0

±

**

o

0 3
)
0 c 6

H
0)
ra

£
£
>
jn

■ E
g
®

E

3

X
O

o

£

O

U 0 82
5
D
0 h— in C S 8
5
c o
C
1 8 1 i
8 I 8 '5. o x:
D
o t

a at
.

Q

Total lost
workday
illnesses

(D
c
o

Days away
from work

Number of
checks in
col. 9 of the
log

Number of
checks in
col. 10 of
the log

Sum of days Sum of days Number of
in col. 11 of in col. 12 of checks in
the log
the log
col. 13 of
the log

(9)

(10)

(11)

a
u
o

Days of
restricted
work
activity

O

Q 1

Number
of entries
o i in col. 8
< = of the log

(f)

a

Total
illnesses
involving
days away
from work

()
9

05
JC

(7)
(1)

V II.




(2)

COMMENTS

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(8)

REPORT PREPARED BY (please prin t or type)

TITLE

_________________

SIGNATURE ___________
AREA CODE AND PHONE
DATE

_________________

(12)

(13)




-1

SURVEY REPORTING REGULATIONS
Title 29, Part 1904.20-22 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires that, each
employer shall return the completed survey form, OSHA No. 200-S, w ithin 3 weeks
of receipt in accordance with the instructions shown below.____________________

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE OSHA NO. 200-S FORM
1978 OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES A ND ILLNESSES SURVEY
(Covering Calendar Year 1978)
Change of Ownership—
When there has been a change of ownership during the report period, only
the records of the current owner are to be entered in the report. Explain fu lly under Comments
(Section VII).
Partial-Year Reporting—For any establish mentis) which was not in existence for the entire report
year, the report should cover the portion of the period during which the establishment(s) was in
existence. Explain fully under Comments (Section VII).
ESTABLISHMENTS INCLUDED IN THE REPORT
This report should include only those establishments located in, or identified by, the Report Loca­
tion and Identification designation which appears next to your mailing address. This designation
may be a geographical area, usually a county or city, or it could be a brief description of your
operation within a geographical area. If you have any questions concerning the coverage of this
report, please contact the agency identified on the OSHA No. 200-S report form.
DEFINITION OF ESTABLISHMENT
An ESTABLISHM ENT is defined as a single physical location where business is conducted
or where services or industrial operations are performed. (For example: a factory, mill,
store, hotel, restaurant, movie theatre, farm, ranch, bank, sales office, warehouse, or
central adm inistrative o ffic e .)

For firms engaged in activities such as construction, transportation, communication, or
electric, gas and sanitary services, which may be physically dispersed, reports should cover
the place to which employees normally report each day.
Reports for personnel who do not primarily report or work at a single establishment, such
as traveling salesmen, technicians, engineers, etc., should cover the location from which
they are paid or the base from which personnel operate to carry out their activities.

-

SECTION I.

ANNUAL AVERAGE EMPLOYMENT IN 1978

Enter in Section I the average number of full and part-time employees who worked during calen
dar year 1978 in the establishment(s) included in this report. If more than one establishment is
included in this report, add together the annual average employment for each establishment and
enter the sum. Include all classes of employees— seasonal, temporary, administrative, supervi­
sory, clerical, professional, technical, sales, delivery, installation, construction and service per
sonnet, as well as operators and related workers.
Annual Average employment should be computed by summing the employment from all pay
periods during 1978 and then dividing that sum by the total number of such pay periods through
out the entire year, including periods w ith no employment. For example, if you had the
following monthly employment— Jan.-10; Feb.-10; Mar.-10; Apr.-5; May-5; June-5; July-5;
Aug.-O; Sept.-O; Oct.-O; Nov.-5; Dec.-5— you would sum the number of employees for each
monthly pay period (in this case. 60) and then divide that total by 12 (the number of pay periods
during the year) to derive an annual average employment of 5.
SECTION II.

TOTAL HOURS WORKED IN 1978

Enter in Section II the total number of hours actually worked by all classes of employees during
1978. Be sure to include ONLY time on duty. DO NOT include any non-work time even though
paid, such as vacations, sick leave, holidays, etc. The hours worked figure should be obtained
from payroll or other time records wherever possible; if hours worked are not maintained sep­
arately from hours paid, please enter your best estimate. If actual hours worked are not avail­
able for employees paid on commission, salary, by the mile, etc., hours worked may be estimated
on the basis of scheduled hours or 8 hours per workday.
For example, if a group of 10 salaried employees worked an average of 8 hours per day, 5 days a
week, for 50 weeks of the report period, the total hours worked for this group would be
10 x 8 x 5 x 50 = 20,000 hours for the report period.
SECTION III.

NATURE OF BUSINESS IN 1978

In order to verify the nature of business code, we must have information about the specific eco­
nomic activity carried on by the establishment(s) included in your report during calendar
year 1978.
Complete Parts A, B and C as indicated in Section III on the OSHA No. 200-S form. Complete
Part C only if supporting services are provided to other establishments of your company. Leave
Part C blank if a) supporting services are not the primary function of any establishment(s) in­
cluded in this report or b) supporting services are provided but only on a contract or fee basis for
the general public or for other business firms. (Instructions continued on page 2.)




2

NOTE:
If more than one establishment is included, information in Section III should reflect
the combined activities of all such establishments. One code w ill be assigned which best indicates
the nature of business of the group of establishments as a whole.
SECTION IV.

MONTH OF OSHA INSPECTION

Enter the name of the first month in 1978 during which your establishment(s) had an OSHA
compliance inspection. Include inspections under the Federal or State equivalents of the Occupa­
tional Safety and Health Act by Federal or State inspectors and other inspections which may re­
sult in penalties for violations of safety and health standards. Do not include inspections limited
to elevators, boilers, fire safety or those which are consultative in nature.
SECTION V.

RECORDABLE INJURIES OR ILLNESSES

Check the appropriate boxes in both Parts A and B. If you checked "Yes” in either A or B, com­
plete Sections VI and VII on the back of the form. If you checked "N o " in both A and B, com­
plete only Section VII.
SECTION VI.

OCCUPATIONAL INJURY AND ILLNESS SUMMARY

This section can be completed easily by copying the totals from the annual summary of your 1978
OSHA No. 200 form (Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses). Please note that
if this report covers more than one establishment, the final totals on the "Lo g " for each must be
added and the sums entered in Section VI.
Leave Section VI blank if the employees covered in this report experienced no recordable injuries
or illnesses during 1978.
If there were recordable injuries or illnesses during the year, please review your OSHA No. 200
form for each establishment to be included in this report to make sure that all entries are correct
and complete before completing Section VI. Each recordable case should be included on the "Lo g "
in only one of the six main categories of injuries or illnesses:
1. IN JU RY—related deaths (Log column 1)
2. INJURIES w ith lost workdays (Log column 2)

Also review each case to ensure that the appropriate entries have been made for the other columns
if applicable. For example, if the case is an Injury with Lost Workdays, be sure that the check for
an injury involving days away from work (Log column 3) is entered if necessary. Also verify that
the correct number of days away from work (Log column 4) and/or days of restricted work ac­
tivity (Log column 5) are recorded. A similar review should be made for a case which is an Illness
w ith Lost Workdays (including Log columns 10, 11 and 12). Please remember that if your em­
ployees' loss of workdays is still continuing at the time the annual summary for the year is com­
pleted, you should estimate the number of future workdays they w ill lose and add this estimate
to the actual workdays already lost.
Also, for each case which is an Illness, make sure that the appropriate column indicating Type of
Illness (Log columns 7a-7g) is checked.
After completing your review of the individual case entries on the "Lo g ," please make sure that the
"Totals" line has been completed by summarizing Columns 1 through 13 according to the in­
structions on the back of the "L o g " form. Then, copy these "Totals" onto Section VI of the
OSHA No. 200-S form.
FIRST AID
Fmally, please remember that all injuries which, in your judgement, required only First Aid Treat­
ment, even when administered by a doctor or nurse, should not be included in this report. First
Aid Treatment is defined as one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches
cuts, burns, splinters, etc., which do not ordinarily require medical care.

3. INJURIES w ithout lost workdays (Log column 6)
4. ILLNESS—related deaths (Log column 8)
5. ILLNESSES w ith lost workdays (Log column 9)
6. I LLNESSES w ithout lost workdays (Log column 13)

SECTION V II.

COMMENTS AND IDENTIFICATION

Please complete all parts including your area code and telephone number. Then return the OSHA
No. 200-S form in the pre-addressed envelope. KEEP your file copy.
g p o 937-450

Appendix C. State Agencies
Participating in the
1978 Survey

Michigan Department of Labor
Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry
Missouri Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
Montana Workers' Compensation
Nebraska Workmen’s Compensation Court

The 1978 survey was conducted in cooperation with
agencies which received operating grants in 39 States,
the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam,
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. These agencies
shared half the cost with the Federal Government for
collecting, processing, analyzing, and publishing the
survey data. Also, national data for 5 of the 11 States
which did not have operating grants were collected by
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and for the other 6—
Colorado, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Ohio,
and Texas—under contract. Following are the State
agencies which received operating grants:

Nevada Department of Occupational Safety
and Health
New Mexico Health and Environment Department
North Carolina Department of Labor
Oregon Workers’ Compensation Department
Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry

Alabama Department of Labor
Alaska Department of Labor
American Samoa Department of Manpower Resources
Arizona Industrial Commission
Arkansas Department of Labor

Puerto Rico Department of Labor and Human
Resources
Rhode Island Department of Labor
South Carolina Department of Labor
South Dakota Department of Health
Tennessee Department of Labor

California Department of Industrial Relations
Connecticut Labor Department
Delaware Department of Labor
District of Columbia Department of Labor
Florida Department of Labor and Employment
Security
Guam Department of Labor

Utah Industrial Commission
Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
Virgin Islands Department of Labor
Virginia Department of Labor and Industry
Washington Department of Labor and Industries

Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial
Relations
Idaho Industrial Commission
Indiana Division of Labor
Iowa Bureau of Labor
Kansas Department of Health and Environment

West Virginia Department of Labor
Wisconsin Department of Industry, Labor and
Human Relations
Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics
Requests for data by industry for the States listed
above can be obtained directly from these agencies or by
contacting the Bureau of Labor Statistics regional office
which services your area. Addresses and telephone num­
bers of the regional offices are found on the inside back
cover.

Kentucky Department of Labor
Louisiana Department of Labor
Maine Department of Manpower Affairs
Maryland Department of Licensing and Regulation
Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries




91

Appendix D. Glossary of Terms

Average lost workdays per lost workday case

The number of workdays lost divided by the number of
lost workday cases.

Cooperative program

A program jointly conducted by the States and the
Federal Government to collect injury and illness
statistics.

Employment-size group

A grouping of establishments with a specified range of
employment.

Incidence rate

Mean. Number of injuries and/or illnesses, or lost
workdays experienced by 100 full-time workers. The
rate is calculated as:
N
X

200,000 where

N

= number of occupational injuries and/or
illnesses, or lost workdays

EH

= total hours worked by all employees dur­
ing calendar year

2 0 0 ,0 0 0

= base for 100 full-time equivalent workers
(working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per
year).

The fatality rate, however, represents the number of
fatalities per 10,000 workers.
Median. The middle measure in the distribution—onehalf of the establishments have an incidence rate more
than and half less than the median rate.
Middle range. Defined by two measures—one-fourth of
the establishments have a rate less than the first quartile
and one-fourth a rate more than the third quartile rate.
Cases which involve days away from work, or days of
restricted work activity, or both
(1) Lost workday cases involving days away from
work: Those cases which result in days away from
work, or a combination of days away from work
and days of restricted work activity.

Lost workday cases

(2) Lost workday cases involving restricted work ac­
tivity: Those cases which result in restricted work
activity only.
Lost workdays




The number of workdays (consecutive or not) the
employee was away from work or limited to restricted
work activity because of an occupational injury or ill­
ness.
92

(1) Lost workdays away from work: The number of
workdays (consecutive or not) on which the em­
ployee would have worked but could not because
of occupational injury or illness.
(2) Lost workdays stricted work activity: The number
of workdays (consecutive or not) on which,
because of injury or illness: (1) The employee was
assigned to another job on a temporary basis, or
(2) the employee worked at a permanent job less
that full time, or (3) the employee worked at a
permanently assigned job but could not perform
all duties normally connected with it.
The number o f days away from work or days o f re­
stricted work activity does not include the day of injury
or onset of illness or any days on which the employee
would not have worked even though able to work.
Medical treatment

Includes treatment administered by a physician or by
registered professional personnel under the standing
orders of a physician. Medical treatment does not in­
clude first-aid treatment (one-time treatment and sub­
sequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns,
splinters, and so forth, which do not ordinarily require
medical care) even though provided by a physician or
registered professional personnel.

Occupational illness

Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one
resulting from an occupational injury, caused by ex­
posure to environmental factors associated with em­
ployment. It includes acute and chronic illnesses or
diseases which may be caused by inhalation, absorption,
ingestion, or direct contact, and which can be included
in the categories listed below. The following categories
were used by employers to classify recordable occupa­
tional illnesses:




(21) Occupational skin diseases or disorders. Ex­
amples: Contact dermatitis, eczema, or rash
caused by primary irritants and sensitizers or
poisonous plants; oil acne; chrome ulcers; chemi­
cal burns or inflammations; etc.
(22) Dust diseases of the lungs (pneumoconioses). Ex­
amples: Silicosis, asbestosis, coal worker’s
pneumoconioses, byssinosis, and other pneumo­
conioses
(23) Respiratory conditions due to toxic agents. Exam­
ples: Pneumonitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis or acute
congestion due to chemicals, dusts, gases, or
fumes; farmer’s lung; etc.
(24) Poisoning (systemic effects of toxic materials).
Examples: Poisoning by lead, mercury, cadmium,
arsenic, or other metals; poisoning by carbon
monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, or other gases;
poisoning by benzol, carbon tetrachloride, or
other organic solvents; poisoning by insecticide
93

sprays such as parathion, lead arsenate; poisoning
by other chemicals such as formaldehyde,
plastics, and resins; etc.
(25) jDisorders due to physical agents (other than toxic
materials). Examples: Heatstroke, sunstroke,
heat exhaustion, and other effects of environ­
mental heat; freezing, frostbite, and effects of ex­
posure to low temperatures; caisson disease; ef­
fect of ionizing radiation (isotopes, X-rays,
radium); effects of non-ionizing radiation
(welding flash, ultraviolet rays, microwaves, sun­
burn); etc.
(26) Disorders associated with repeated trauma. Ex­
amples: Noise-induced hearing loss; synovitis,
tenosynovitis, and b ursitis; R aynaud’s
phenomena; and other conditions due to repeated
motion, vibration, or pressure.
(29) All other occupational illnesses. Examples:
Anthrax, brucellosis, infectious hepatitis, malig­
nant and benign tumors, food poisoning, histo­
plasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, etc.
Occupational injury

Any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation,
etc., which results from a work accident or from ex­
posure involving a single incident in the work environ­
ment.

Occupational injuries and illnesses

Any occupational injury or illness resulting in:
(1) Fatalities, regardless of the time between the in­
jury and death, or the length of the illness; or
(2) Lost workday cases, other than fatalities, that
result in lost workdays; or
(3) Nonfatal cases without lost workdays, which
result in transfer to another job or termination of
employment, or require medical treatment, or involve
loss of consciousness, or restriction of work or mo­
tion. This category also includes any diagnosed oc­
cupational illnesses which are reported to the
employer but are not classified as fatalities or lost
workday cases.

Report form

Refers to survey form OSHA No. 200S which is com­
pleted and returned by the selected sample unit.

Standard Industrial Classficiation (SIC)

A classification system developed by the Office of
Management and Budget, Executive Office of the Presi­
dent, for use in the classification of establishments by
type of activity in which engaged. Each establishment is
assigned an industry code for its major activity which is
determined by the product or group of products, or ser­
vices rendered. Establishments may be classified in
2-digit, 3-digit, or 4-digit industries, according to the
degree of information available.


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