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Occupational Wage Survey

NORFOLK-PORTSMOUTH AND
NEWPORT NEWS-HAMPTON, VIRGINIA
JUNE 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-82




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
NORFOLK-PORTSMOUTH AND
NEWPORT NEWS-HAMPTON, VIRGINIA




JUNE 1961

B u lle t in N o . 1 2 8 5 -3 2
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sole by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The C om m u n ity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m

I n t r o d u c t io n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Bureau, o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a rea w id e w age s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l
cen ters.
T h e stu d ie s, m ade fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
re la te to o c cu p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied. T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s a d d ition a l
data not in clu d e d in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r 's s u r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le t io n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin fo r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b le s:

1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y -------------------

2

A:

O ccu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s: *
A - 1.
O ffice o c cu p a tio n s ___________________________________________
A -2 .
P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ___________________
A - 3.
M ain ten an ce and p o w e r plant o c cu p a tio n s -------------------------A -4 .
C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s -----------------

4
5
6
7

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age p r o v is io n s : *
B-l.
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ____________________________________________
B -2 .
M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s _
B -3 .
S ch edu led w eek ly h o u r s _____________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s _________________________________________________
B - 5.
P a id v a c a t i o n s ________________________________________________
B -6 .
H ealth, in s u r a n c e , and p en sion p la n s _____________________

9
10
11
12
13
15

B:
T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o ffic e in A tlan ta , G a., by D onald M . C r u s e , u nder the d i­
r e c t io n o f L o u is B . W oytych , A s s is ta n t R eg ion a l D ir e c t o r
fo r W age s a n d In d u stria l R e la tio n s .




1

A p p en dix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip t io n s _____________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta bu la tion s fo r th ese and oth er it e m s
a r e a v a ila b le in the N o r fo lk — o r ts m o u th (H am pton R oa d s)
P
a r e a r e p o r t fo r F e b r u a r y 1952.
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g
date o f study and the p r ic e o f th is r e p o r t , a s w e ll a s o f
r e p o r t s fo r oth er m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.
Union s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls
in the N o r fo lk a r e a , a r e a ls o a v a ila b le fo r sev en s e le c t e d
b u ild in g tr a d e s .

iii

17




Occupational Wage Survey—Norfolk-Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, Va.
Introduction

This a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r ’ s B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In this a r e a , data w e r e obtain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s
to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e esta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in six b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o rta tio n , 1
c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il
tra d e; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l esta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u stry g ro u p s e x clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e ra tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n s stud ied to w a r ­
rant in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , se p a r a te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r e a ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To obtain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In com b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts stud ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
latin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a ,
ex­
ce p t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.
O ccu p a tion s and E arn in gs
The o ccu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a se d on a u n ifo r m se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in du ties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See ap pen dix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip t io n s . ) E a rn in gs data a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p o w erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in g s data ex clu d e
p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se stu d ie s ,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stud ied s in c e July 1959, e x c e p t B a lti­
m o r e (S e p te m b e r 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O c to b e r 1959),
C lev ela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A u gu st 1959).




late s h ifts.
N on p rod u ction b o n u se s a r e ex clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u se s and in cen tiv e ea rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sc h e d u le s (roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese
occu p a tio n s h ave b e e n roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese o c cu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u str ie s and e sta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific du ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the occu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er a v e r a g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a r e em p lo y e d w ith in the sa m e rate ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lis h m e n ts to
a llow f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g esta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ifi c duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
esta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e ca u se of d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong
e sta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o c cu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtain ed
fr o m the sa m p le o f esta b lis h m e n ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la t iv e im p o rta n ce of the jo b s stu d ied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
pa tion a l stru c tu re do n ot m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E s ta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en tary W age P r o v is io n s
In form a tion is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The te rm " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
in this b u lle tin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l o r re la te d fu n ctio n s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu din g le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) en gaged in n o n o ffic e fu n ctio n s.
A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u tiliz e d as a se p a ra te w o rk f o r c e a r e e x clu d e d .
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e ex clu d e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .

2

T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o rk ers within scope of su rve y and num ber studied in N orfolk —P o rtsm o u th and N ew port New s—H am pton, V a. , 1 by m a jo r in du stry d iv isio n , 2 June 1961

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f s tu d y

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in
scope of
s tu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T otal

4

O ffice

P la n t

T otal

4

_______________________________________________________

50

292

93

6 3 ,9 0 0

7 , 100

49, 800

4 2 , 2 70

M a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 _____________________________________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ________________
______
R e t a il t r a d e ____________________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ______________________
S e r v i c e s 7 _____
___

50
50

105
187

34
59

3 2 , 7 00
3 1, 200

2

, 100
5, 0 00

2 8 ,4 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0

2 5 , 270
1 7 ,0 0 0

50
50
50
50
50

40

18

9 , 000
2, 3 00
1 4 ,4 0 0
2, 500
3, 0 00

1, 200

5, 8 00

7 , 0 40
1, 040
6 , 700
1, 140
1 ,0 8 0

21

6

81
14
31

21

4
10

( 6)
6)
( 6)
( 6)

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

1 The N orfolk —P ortsm ou th and New port N ew s— am pton Standard M e trop olitan S ta tistica l A r e a s (C itie s o f H am pton, N ew port N e w s, N o r fo lk , P o r tsm o u th , South N o rfo lk , and V irg in ia B each;
H
N o r fo lk , P r in c e s s A nn e, and Y ork C ou n tie s).
The "w o r k e r s within scope of stu d y " e s tim a te s shown in this table provide a r ea so n a b ly accu rate d e sc r ip tio n of the siz e and com p o sitio n of the la b o r
fo r c e included in the su rv e y .
The e stim a te s are not intended, h ow ever, to se r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r iso n with other a r e a em ploym en t in dexes to m e a s u r e em ploym en t trend s o r le v e ls sin ce
(1) planning of wage su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of esta b lish m en t data c om p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in advance of the p a y ro ll p eriod studied, and (2) s m a ll e sta b lish m e n ts are exclu d ed fr o m the scope of
the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v ise d edition of the Standard In d ustrial C la s s ific a tio n M anual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g esta b lish m en ts by in du stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r edition (used in the
B u r e a u 's lab or m a rk et wage su rv e y s conducted p r io r to July 1958) a re the tr a n sfe r of m ilk p a ste u riz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d con crete esta b lish m e n ts fr o m tra d e (w h o lesa le or retail) to
m an ufacturin g, and the tra n sfe r o f radio and te le v isio n b r oad castin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 Includes a ll e sta b lish m en ts with total em ploym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the area) of com p an ies in su ch in d u strie s as tra d e , fin a n ce, auto rep air
s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs a r e c o n sid ere d as 1 esta b lish m en t.
4 Includes ex ec u tive, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o rk ers exclu ded fr o m the sep arate o ffic e and plant c a te g o r ie s .
5 T ax ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w ater tra n sp ortation w ere exclu d ed .
6 This in du stry d iv isio n is rep r e se n te d in e stim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s .
S ep arate p resen ta tio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade
fo r one or m o r e o f the follow in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p loym en t in the d iv isio n is too sm a ll to provide enough data to m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sam p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep arate
p resen tation , (3) r esp o n se w as in su fficie n t or inadequate to p e r m it sep arate p resen tation , (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e of individual esta b lish m en t data.
7 H otels; p er so n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r ep a ir sh ops; m otion p ictu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip org a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




3
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u factu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f tota l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In e sta b lish m en ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r ity w as u sed o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n ''o t h e r " w as u sed .
In esta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
if it a p p lied to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u rs.

M in im u m en tra n ce ra tes (table B -2 ) re la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is it e d .
T h ey a r e p r e s e n te d on an esta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an em p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a r e a p p lica b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a re e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch ed u led h ou rs a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a jo r ity
a re c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f roun din g, su m s o f in div id u al ite m s in th ese
tabu lation s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The f ir s t p a rt o f the p a id h olid a y s ta ble p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w hole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow total h olid a y t im e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n
plan s f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
ex ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such plan s in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n ce com p a n y and th o se p r o v id e d
th rough a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r re n t
o p e ra tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r this p u r p o s e .
D eath
b e n e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
S ick n e ss and a c c id e n t in su r a n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
s u r a n ce u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a ym en ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
to the in su r e d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch plan s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r co n trib u te s .
H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n ce la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plans a r e in clu d ed o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ire m e n ts o f the law . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll pa y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's p a y d u rin g a b s e n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) plan s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r tia l pa y o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In a d dition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n du plica ted tota l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .

The su m m a ry o f v a ca tio n plan s is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m en ts, ex clu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is gra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com pu tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
as tim e p a y m en ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s, o r fla t -s u m am ou n ts.
H ow ev er, in the tabu lation s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e re c o n v e rte d ; fo r e x a m p le , a pa ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the eq u iv a len t o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

C a ta strop h e in s u r a n ce , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as ex ten ded
m e d ic a l in s u r a n ce , in clu d e s th o se p la n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v olv in g e x p e n s e s b eyon d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s.
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r tia l
p a ym en t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . Such p la n s m a y be u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su r a n ce co m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th o se pla n s that p r o v id e m on th ly p a ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 An esta b lish m en t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o li c y if it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g co n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the su r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ifts.
3 S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
ta ble B -3 ) in su r v e y s m a de p r io r to Ju ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ica te d w eek ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4 The te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Islan d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n trib u tio n s.
5 A n e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h aving a fo r m a l p la n if
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f da ys o f s ic k le a v e that
c o u ld be e x p e cte d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a p la n n eed n ot b e w ritten ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u al b a s is ,
w e r e e x clu d e d .




A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Norfolk—Portsm outh and Newport News—
Hampton, Va. , June 1961)
Average
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
30. 00
Weekly
Weekly
hours 1
earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d er
35. 00

$
35. 00

$
4 0. 00

$
4 5. 00

$
55. 00

60. 00

$
6 5 .0 0

$
$
7 0. 00 7 5. 00

$
80. 00

$
$
85. 00 9 0. 00

4 0. 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00 _5 5 i_O L 60. 00
O

65. 00

7 0. 00

7 5. 00 _80_._00_

8 5. 00

90. 00

$
50. 00

$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 100. 00 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 115. 00
and

9 5, 00 100_00_ 105. 00 n o . o o l i m n .

M en

----------------------------------------------

56
32

39. 5
3 9. 5

O ffic e b o y s

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

38

40. 0

60.5 0

47
37

39. 5
39. 5

55.0 0
5 1.50

2

$ 1 0 4 .5 0
109 .00

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A

5
4

3

8
4

4

10
6

7
5

4
2

13
~ n r “

11

6

2

4

1

2

1

3

5

4
4

9
9

13
11

4
4

6
6

5
1

1

3

“

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

11
11

16
2
14

21
9
12

20
10
10

3
2
1

4
4
“

10
3
7

_

-

-

1
1

-

_

6
6

-

-

14
6
8

-

“

-

-

_
-

2
2

43
3
40

80
80

42
1
41

33
6
27

58
5
53

12
5
7

4
1
3

_
-

14
14

1
1

1
1

.
-

.
“

-

-

-

■

■

"

"

-

-

-

1
-

7
6

3

-

6
5

4
4

17
17

8
5

3
2

2
2

7
7

2
2

-

"

-

-

3
3

6
6

23
4
19

36
10
26

29
4
25

30
13
17

31
10
21

5
2
3

3
1
2

4
4
"

2
2
_

5
5

3
3
”

-

-

_

"

-

-

39
39

15
15

23
23

6
6

3
3

60

35

21

20

-

-

37
-

10
-

-

-

"

-

"

.

4

12

12

4

.

.

.

_

.

.

.

10
10
-

16
9
7
2

17
7
10

6
6

27

7

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

21
3
18
”

4

"

-

6

3

5

15
7
8
3

3

W om en

B i l l e r s , m a ch in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e ) -----------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________________________

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A _______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _______ - ____ __ __ ____________________ ___
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

106
36
70

4 1 .0
39. 5
41. 5

6 9 .5 0
7 2 .5 0
6 7 .5 0

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________________________

290
35
255

3 9. 5
3 9. 5
3 9. 5

5 3.50
6 8 .0 0
52.0 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ______________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

60
50

40. 0
4 0. 0

8 1 .5 0
8 3 .0 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ______________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

180
58
122

40. 0
39. 5
40. 0

6 4 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
6 1.0 0

"

283
100

40. 0
39. 5

6 5.5 0
4 5 .0 0

2
2

12
12

_______________________________________________

32

40. 0

5 9.50

.

.

.

C l e r k s , p a y r o ll --------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 _____________________________________

117
49
68
26

5
5
5
5

6 7.5 0
6 6.5 0
*68.50
7 4 .0 0

-

-

3
3
-

K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------------------------

78

4 0. 0

7 2 .5 0

S e c r e t a r ie s ___________________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 __________________________ _________

207
92
115
51

4 0.
4 0.
4 0.
39.

8 2 .0 0
8 9 .5 0
7 6 .0 0
7 7 .0 0

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B _______________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________________

C le rk s , o rd e r

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le.




3 9.
3 9.
3 9.
3 8.

0
0
0
5

“
1

■

-

-

'
3

8

-

8
8

6
6

5
2

-

5

4

3

5

22
15

"

8
6
2
_

20

6

3

10

9

2

6

13
3
10
10

20
2
18
11

26
12
14
8

24
13
11
6

28
19

23
14

9

9

1

2

12
2
10
5

"

*

1

4

3
1

2
1
1
1

6
5
1

15
~ * n ~

4

2

5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Norfolk—
Portsm outh and Newport News—
Hampton, V a. , June 1961)
Avebaob
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

of

workers

Weekly.
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly j 30. 00
and
earnings
(Standard) u n d er
3 5. 00

$
35. 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
50. 00

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5. 00

$
9 0. 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

6 5. 00

7.0,00

7 5 .0 0 . _8QJ30

8 5 . 00

90. 00

9 5. 00 100.00

$
9 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00
cLlld
1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 , M

over

W o m e n — C on tin u ed

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -----------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

296
118
178

40. 0
4 0 .0
39. 5

$ 6 9 .5 0
7 5. 00
6 5 . 50

.

.

“

“

2
2

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________________

146
124

41. 0
41. 0

54. 00
51. 50

23
23

4
4

11
11

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n is t s ____________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

58
38

40. 0
40. 0

6 1 .0 0
6 2. 00

_

_

3

“

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l _____________

30

40. 0

71. 00

_

T y p is t s , c l a s s A ____________________________ ____________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 _____________________________________

60
38
34

39. 0
39. 0
38. 5

6 7 . 50
6 5. 00
6 5. 50

~

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ___________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3 ___________ _______________________

151
89
27

40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 0

56. 50
51. 50
55. 00

6
6

12
12

24
7
17

37
6
31

37
6
31

65
36
29

49
21
28

12
6
6

12
6
6

10
7
3

6
r ~

38
33

15
12

17
15

6
3

13
10

1
~

8
7

3
"

-

3
3

15
11

8
7

13
5

4
3

_
"

8
7

2

"

"

1
1

_

_

_

2

1

6

2

7

_

12

_

_

_

_

-

“

“

9
1
1

10
10
7

13
12
12

3
------- 3
3

10
9
9

8
1
-

3
2
2

2
“

2
"

_

3
3

17
15
2

42
31
18

15
9

14
11
3

29
8
4

19

-

-

-

-

-

6
-------6

—

-

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly h ours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 at $ 115 to $ 120; 3 at $ 120 to $ 125; 2 at $ 125 to $ 130; 2 at $ 130 to $ 135; 3 at $ 135 and over.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilitie s.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 7 at $ 115 to $ 120; 1 at $ 120 to $ 125; 2 at $ 125 to $ 130; 1 at $ 130 to $ 135.




Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

Salaries of profession al and technical w orkers are omitted
from this report.
Data do not m eet publication c rite ria .

10
3
7

13
12
1

1

.

_

"

~

_

_

_

“

_

5
4
1
.

l

.

i

■

■
.

.

■

■

-

l
l

■

_

_

_

-

-

“

“

■

■

-

-

-

_

_

-

.

I

1
2
3
4

7
3
4

6
Table A-3. M aintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , N o r fo lk —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o rt N ew s— a m p ton , V a . , June 1961)
H
N U M BER OF WO RK ERS R E CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E HOURLY EARN INGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

C arpenters, maintenance

________________

E le ctrician s, maintenance ----------------------Manufacturing ______________ _____ .

Num
ber
of

1 1 2

176
154

S
$
$
Average
1. 30 1. 40
hourly Under 1 . 2 0
and
earnings1 %
under
1 . 2 0
1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1. 50

F ire m en , stationary b oiler --------------------Manufacturing ____________________ ___

62
40

1 .8 0
1 .7 4

76
72

M echanics, automotive
(maintenance) _____________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------ ----Public utilities 3 ___________________

166
45
1 2 1

109

M ech anics, maintenance ____________ ___
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

134
92
42

P ain ters, maintenance ___________________

65




1
2
3
4

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

2

1 . 9 0

6

.

18

2

-

13
-

2 1

“
_

_

"

■

9
9
“

9
9
■

.

.

.

"

"

■

.
.
2.
2.

-

-

-

-

■

~

“

- .
■

. 59
2 .4 9
2 . 81

-

.
-

_
-

-

2 .4 9

5

26
08
32
33

2

■

"

2

_

.

■

“

2

18
-

*

■

2. 77
2. 74

2

-

2 1

■

-

-

2 1

3
3
3

2

0 0

2

.

1 0

2

.

2

.

1 0

2

.

2 0

2. 30

0 0

1 2

.

2 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2 . 70 2 . 80 2 .
2 .4 0

3

1

2. 50

2 2

l

7
7

2
2

1

“

_

8
2
6
6

13

1

6

1

6

8

■

5

■

4

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 5 at $ 0 . 60 to $ 0 . 70; 6 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 3 . 4 0 to $ 3. 50.

2 0

-

4
4

■

■

9
9

9
9
9

69
-

_

_

~

"

1 2

3
9
9

1

6

1

6

"

41
4
37
33

~
27
_

2
2

4
4
~

_

_

-

-

■

9
16
16
16

5
5

15
1

14
14

14
9
5

2 .9 0

2 ,6 0

2 .7 0

4

5

19

19
19

26
16

36
35

46
46

9 0

S
$
$
S
3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30
3. 10

38

2

. 80

3 .0 0

4

”

-

-

7

_

1 6

3

1
1

35
3
3

1
1

15
15
8

!
1

■

46
1

6

-

"

3

“

3
3

17
17

_
“

2 0

!
-

_
1 1

.

-

-

-

-

"

■

"

18
4
14
14

7

3
18
17

1

.

.

2 1

1 2

-

1 1

1

■

“

1

9

9

2

9

-

.

15
15

1

4
4

_

7
7

1

1

' "

1

15
15

_

~

1

2

_

-

"

1

1 1

~

1

-

1

and
over

4

-

16
16

“

3. 30

!

5
"

3. 20

1

1

.

2

“

16
“

2

$

.

1

2 1

2 1 1
6

6

$

2

9
9

. 06
. 08
2. 05
2

$
. 9 0

4

2 .4 0

M achin ists, maintenance _____ _____ __
Manufacturing
-------- -------- -------- —

1 .6 0

$
$
$
$
1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1

2. 76
2. 74

38

322
75
71

1. 50

$2. 58

E ngin eers, stationary ____________________

H elpers, tra d es, maintenance
---------Nonmanufacturing --------- — ------------Public u tilitie s 3 ______________ __

S

39
38
1

2 0

"

1

1

1

-

1

7
7

"

8

-

_
-

8

1 1

“

3
3
_

1 6

1 6

3

7

4 1 0
1 6

-

-

-

-

■

~

5
5

-

2

■

7

Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Norfolk— ortsm outh and Newport New s—
P
Hampton, V a. , June 1961)
NUM BER OF WORKERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E H OURLY EARN ING S OF—

Occupation

1

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

and industry division

E levator op erators, p assen ger
(women) ___ _____ ______________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

Guards

_____________________________________

Janitors, p o r te r s, and cleaners
(men) _______ __ __ _____ ________ ____
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilitie s 4 __________ ________

61
61

2 2 2

$
$
$
S
Average s
hourly « 0. 50 0 . 60 0. 70 0 . 80 0 . 9
earnings
and
under
. 6 0
. 70
. 80
.9 0 1 . 0

$ 0 .6 3
.6 3

2

.

1 0

3

26
26

9
9

_

_

1 .4 2
1 .8 7
1. 15
1. 52

-

5
5
"

168
156

Janitors, p o r te r s, and cleaners
(women) __________________________________

252
409
56

. 92

35
35

4

.8 8

_

_
-

6 6 1

1 0

6

6

-

10

_

10

10

-

1

10

*
L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling ___________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilitie s 4 ___ _______________

Order fille r s _______________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

P a c k e rs, shipping

911
541
370
205

131
T W

________________________

27

Receiving clerk s __________________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

108
54
54

Shipping and receiving clerks

__________

35

T ru ckdrivers 6 _____ _____ _______________
Manufacturing __ ______________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilitie s 4 ___________________

972
262
710

T ru ck d rivers, light (upder
IV 2 tons) --------- ----------------------------Nonmanufacturing

_

T ru ck d rivers, medium ( l 1/? to and
including 4 tons) _____________________
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Public utilities 4 ___

See footnotes at end of table.




2 1 6

1 .7 5
1 . 8 6

. 60
1 .8 2
1

1 .4 9
1 .4 5

2

2

1

.

1 0

$

1

.

10

1

.

1

.

2 0

1. 30

2 0

. 16
2. 67
1 .6 5

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1. 90 2 .
1 .4 0

3
3

_

_

3

4

_

172

94
7
87
7

78
15
63
7

23

6

-

8

-

164
"

18
18

75
74

_
-

65
47
18

6

.

_

.

.

"

"

'

"

“

6
6

4
4

53
1

52

38
38

9
Q
7

57
30
27

8

15
2

9

1
1

.
.

2 0

4

1

. 80

1 .9 0

2

.

0 0

29

38
14
24
19

14

1 2

2

7
5
5

-

-

-

10

4

.

_

1

"

4

-

10

2

.

2 0

2. 30

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

3

-

-

46
27
19

73
73

54
48

7
7
7

51
49

15
51
42

2

6

6 6

6 6

1

4

53
25
28
9

"

4
4

31
31

3

2

1 1 6

114

i
6

1 2

1 6

1 2

1

6

1 2

16

1 1

1

2

6

3

.

2 0

$
s
$
$
$
2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 .6 0 2 .7 0
and
2 .4 0

2. 50

2

. 60

2. 70

over

4

1 0

1

1

5

1

1

1

-

2

1

1

4

3

9

2

2

3

3

10

”

*

"

-

-

-

-

*

'

"

35
35

-

-

-

8
8

104
17

1 2 1

6

113
1 1
1 0 2
8

29
29

42
42

56
3
53

56
1 1

45

.

76

2

17

1

1

1

-

-

1

1

15
15
-

16
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

60
28
32
32

30
30
28

53
49
4

62

.
-

.
-

-

60
46
14
14

-

"

-

-

"

"

4
"

"

4

3
3

-

1 6

-

73
15
58

17
17

26
8

32
24

18

8

-

43
42
-

59
3
56
49

-

1

2 0

6

10

1

-

6

-

-

■

-

2

“

"

24
16
8

8

50
14
36

6

6

2
2

6 2

-

1
1

1 2

2

115
“

44
41
3
3

-

6

1 2 1

24

-

6

192
116
76
-

45

7

2 2

4

“

-

2

56
52
4
4

2 2

4
“

8

"

.

10

-

1 1

6

“

2

.

-

48
37

1

“

16

1 .4 8
1 .4 8
1 .4 9
2 .0 2

1 1

4

1 . 6 1

117

1. 70

$

2

1

1 .8 2

1 .4 9
. 66
2. 07

1 .6 0

9

.

2

1

1. 50

$
0 0

4
4

1 . 6 1

1 1 0

481
223
258
56

-

0

_

1 2

_

1 . 0 0

-

1 2

1 0

$
0

15
4
1 1

8

1

7

9

1
1

1

_

3

6

18

1
8

8

2

8

-

1 6

-

8

16

-

3
9
9

18

83
31
52
48

1

2

-

-

2

2

2

~ Z T

1

■

2 1

5 20

39
33

52
28
24
20

1
1

1 6

-

8
8
1

6

1

1

-

-

-

123
123
56

-

-

-

"

"

■

4
3

-

2

16

42
33
9

-

"

1 2

26

1

7

8

2

-

4
3
1

1
1

-

1

1

"

2

1

2
2

1

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , N o r fo lk — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o rt N ew s— a m pton, V a. , June 1961)
P
H
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

292
3l
261
126

$
$
s
$
S
Average
hourly , 0 . 5 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 7 0 0 . 8 0 0 . 9 0
and
earnings
u nder
. 80
. 70
.9 0 1 .0 0
. 60

$2.
1.
2.
2.

03
44
11
12

-

1. 10

1 .2 0

1. 30

1 .4 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

6
6
4

11
11
6

5
5

8
8
-

35
35

47
47
40

12
12
-

9
3
6

■

"

"

15
15
8

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

33
33
-

9
9
-

70
21
49

9
9

13
11
2

■

“

"

■

_

'

"

■

"

58
lo
48
48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

■

■

1
1

-

"

~

"

42
25
17

7

4
3

52
24
28

12
12

"

151
149

1. 7 4
1 .7 3

-

-

"

"

176

1. 16
1. 27
1. 08

75

8

3

3

5

8

3

3

38
— §—
30

"

2
_
2

I----------1
2
3
4
5
6
7

$
$
1. 8 0 1 . 9 0

$
$
$
$
$
2 . 0 0 2 . 10 2 . 2 0 2 . 30 2. 4 0

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2 .7 0

2 . 10

2. 20

2 . 30

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

over

-

7
7
-

-

1
1

-

-

■

"

"

“

29
1
28
28

-

-

107
1 07
40

4
2
2

17
3
14
14

-

6
6
-

5
5
-

7
4
3

29
2? r
3

2
2
_

"

42
26
16
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

_

“

-

11
r

_

-

-

-

and

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( o t h e r th a n
fo r k lift)
_____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________




$
$
1. 30 1 . 4 0

-

1. 69
1. 76
1 .6 1
1. 72

99

$
1 .2 0

-

356
194
162
80

77

$
1. 10

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift)
______________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 4 ____________________

W a t c h m e n --------------------------------------------------------XAannfa r t n r i n g

$
1 .0 0

!

D a ta lim it e d t o m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h ift s .
I n c l u d e s 10 w o r k e r s a t $ 0. 30 t o $ 0. 40.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 7 a t $ 2. 80 t o $ 2. 9 0; 6 a t $ 2. 90 t o $ 3; 6 a t $ 3 t o $ 3. 10; 1 a t $ 3. 10 t o $ 3. 20.
In c lu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e an d ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 0. 40 t o $ 0. 50.

"

1
i
-

3
3
-

■

“

48
32
16
16

1 16
1 16

8
8

2
2

2
r

2
2

—

o
o

T r u c k d r i v e r s : 6— C o n t in u e d
T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s,
t r a i l e r ty p e )
___________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 4 --------------------------

Number
of
workers

2 .4 0

11
11

_
-

t

_
-

B • Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

9

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s b y t y p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l ,
N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h a n d N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . , J u n e 1 9 6 1 )
H
P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —
S e c o n d s h i ft
w ork

T ota l

______________________

___________________________

W it h s h i ft p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l




T h ir d o r o th e r
s h i ft w o r k

12

.

9

5. 1

12

.

84. 9

23. 2

2 2 .4

c e n t s __________________________________________
2 V2 cen ts
_______________________________________
3 c e n t s __________________________________________
4 cen ts _
5 c e n t s __________________________________________
6 c e n t s __________________________________________
7 cen ts
l l!z c e n t s
8 cen ts
1 2 cen ts
_
I 2 V 2 c e n t s _________________________________
1 3 z/ 5 c e n t s ______________________________________
16 c e n t s ___________ _____________________ ___
1 7 V 2 c e n t s ______________________________________
20 cen ts
_________________________________________

1. 1

_

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e

______________________________

p ercen t _ _
7 percen t
______________________________________
10 p ercen t
5

N o s h i ft p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ___

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h i ft

85. 7

85. 7

2

S e c o n d s h i ft

8 6 .4

_______________________

U n ifo r m ce n ts (p e r h o u r )

A c t u a lly w o r k in g on—

.6

3. 9
2. 3
4. 7
-

3. 0
-

8

5. 0

3. 5

1. 5

. 1
. 2
. 2
. 1
1. 0
. 1
. 5
-

_
. 1
. 3

3. 9
2. 8
.8
2. 6

. 3
1. 5
1. 4
1. 1
1 .4
2. 0
2. 5
.8
2. 6

62. 5

62. 5

9. 3

3. 5

4. 1
5 8 .4

5 8 .4
4. 1

. 3
. 0

_
3. 5

-

(2)

.6

-

-

.8

1 I n clu d e s e s t a b lis h m e n t s
c u r r e n t ly o p e r a t in g la te s h ift s ,
e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i f t s .
2
L e s s th a n 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .

6

.8

an d e s t a b lis h m e n t s

. 9
. 3
-

(2)
. 2
(2)
. 1
. 3
.4

.

1

-

9

. 2

w it h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

. 2

c o v e r i n g la t e

s h ifts

10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women O ffice W orkers
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h an d N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p to n , V a . , J u n e 1961)
H
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts

M in im u m w e e k ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

O th e r in e x p e r i e n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c tu r in g

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s ch e d u le s

M a n u fa c tu r in g
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a se d . on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

93

34

XXX

59

XXX

93

34

XXX

59

XXX

_________________________

21

9

8

12

6

28

10

9

18

11

$ 3 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 2 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
$ 3 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 5 . 0 0 ____________________________________________
$ 3 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 7 . 5 0 ________________________________ _____ _______
$ 3 7 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 4 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
$ 4 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 5 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 4 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 7 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 5 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 2 . 5 0 --------------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 5 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 7 . 5 0 _____________________________________________
$ 5 7 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 6 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 2 . 5 0 _____________________________________________
$ 6 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 . 0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 6 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 7 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
O v e r $ 6 7 .5 0
______________________________________________________________

2
4
3
4
4

_
2
-

_

2
-

1
1
2
1

3
1
-

_
-

_

3
1
-

2
_
_
_

9
-

3
-

6
-

4
-

-

3
2
3
-

1
2
2
_
_
_
_

E s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d

____________________________________________________

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g s p e c i f ie d m in im u m

XXX

16

XXX

43

18

XXX

25

XXX

1
1
1

1
-

1
-

-

-

5

XXX

12

XXX

20

XXX

35

XXX

55

2

-

6

-

E s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
i n t h i s c a t e g o r y _____________________________________________ _______ _______

1

-

22

-

17

3

1
1
1

-

____________________

3
2
2

L o w e s t s a la r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll w o r k w e e k s




3
1
2
1
1
1

-

1
1
1
1

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i fie d m in im u m

2
-

3
4
5
1
1
1

2
2
1
1
1

-

2
1
2

2
2
-

c o m b in e d ,

an d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k r e p o r t e d .

11
Table B-3. Scheduled W eek ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h an d N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . , J u n e 1961)
P
H
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

W e e k ly h o u r s
All industries 3

A ll w o r k e r s

_____________________________________________

U n d e r 3 7 V 2 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------3 7 1/z h o u r s ________________ ____________________________
O v e r 3 7 1/2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s -------------------------------4 0 h o u r s ___________________________________________________
_______________________
O v e r 40 and u n d er 44 h o u rs
4 4 h o u r s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 4 4 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s _______________________
48 h ou rs
______________________________________
5 0 h o u r s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 5 0 h o u r s ___________________________________________

1
2
3
4

100

1
6
9
76
3
1
1
2
-

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

2

Manufacturing

100

3

3
4

32

91
1
2
-

64

-

All industries3

-

2
-

(4 )
2
74
4
5
4
3
5
2

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .




100

2
1

Public utilities 2

100

-

-

-

90

78

-

-

2
2

12
6

-

1
2

-

3

12
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h a n d N e w p o r t N e w s -H a m p t o n , V a . , J u n e 196 1)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

___________________

________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id h o lid a y s
_________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s ______________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

10 0

100

10 0

100

97

99

99

89

95

88

(4 )

11

5

12

3
1
2
7
24
1
2
43
5

1
4
2
18
1
4
64
1

-

5
50
51
75
83
85
86
86
89

1
69
70
88
90
94
95
95
95

3

1

Number of days

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
7
7
8

h o lid a y
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s
h o lid a y s

__________________________________________________
p l u s 1 h a l f d a y -----------------------------------------_________________________________________________
______________________
________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
p l u s 1 h a l f d a y ___________________________
p l u s 2 h a l f d a y s __________________________
______________ ______ ________________________
p l u s 2 h a l f d a y s __________________________
______________ __ ____________________________

.
c>
(V
(4 )
7
50
(4 )
1
32
(4 )
6

_

_

1
5
27
1
2
61
1
2

1
1
13
1
57
28

2
66
66
93
98

28
85
85
98
98

99
99
99
99

99
99
99
99

2
16
1
44
26

Total holiday time5

8 days
7 or m
6 V2 o r
6 or m
5 or m
4 or m
3 or m
2 1/ 2 o r
1 or m

______________________________________________________
o r e d a y s _________________________________________
m o r e d a y s _____________________________________
o r e d a y s _________________________________________
o r e d a y s ___________ ____________________________
o r e d a y s _________________________________________
o r e d a y s _________________________________________
m o r e d a y s _____________________________________
o r e d a y s _________________________________________

6
39
39
89
96
96
96
97
97

26
70
70
86
86
86
88
88
88

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
5 A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f f u l l an d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s t h o s e w it h 7 f u l l d a y s and
n o h a l f d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s an d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , an d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n w e r e th e n c u m u la t e d .
1

2
3




13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —H a m p to n , V a . , J u n e 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries1

A ll w o rk e r s

_________________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Puttie utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

4 95

93

99

99

100

60

36

98
97

( 5)

1

33

58

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

_

“

"

“

5

7

2

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s ____________________________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _____________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ___________________________
F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t ____________________________
O t h e r _____________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s ________________________________

Amount of vacation p a y 6
A fte r

6

m on th s o f s e r v i c e

U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________

2

2

_

3

2

1

17

16

3

6

6

2

1

2

-

-

-

-

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w eeks

( 5)
40
_
60

1

_

1

1

_

27
_
73

84

84

87

_
16

(5)
9

93
3
2

_
5

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w eeks
______________________________________________

1

1

20

7

67

85

4
78

_
80

25

2

_

68

25

7

(5)

1

_

17

_
15
15
67

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s
_______________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________

1

_

(5)
7

8

1

_

-

_

93

91

98
2

(5)

-

1

1

_

49
4

67

4

6

1

41

20

90

( 5)

-

3

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
_______________________________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s
_______________________
______________________________________________
O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s
_______________________
3 w eeks
______________________________________________

2 w eeks

S e e fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .




4
(5)
93
1

2

10

2

1

_

1

1

_

94
2

94

81

89

93

_

1

1

5

2

_
3

3

1

2

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacarions-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s , a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , N o r f o l k —P o r t s m o u t h an d N e w p o r t N e w s — a m p t o n , V a . , J u n e 196 1)
H
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries1

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

p a y 6 -------- C o n t i n u e d

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k ____________________________ _________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________________ , _____
3 w e e k s _______________________________________________

4
( 5)
70
14
13

3

1

10

2

2

1

94
5

1

1

67
4
14

75

92

33
46
17

6

1

9

3

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w eek —
_
____ _
_
_____________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s _______________________________________________

4
( 5)
47
49

3

1

1

14
85

14
82

2

2

1

1

49

10

63

1

1
26

19
77

35

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k ____________________
_________________________
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s — -------------------------------3 w e e k s _______________________________________________
4 w e e k s _______________________________________________

4

3

( 5)
47
42
7

1

14

1
-

10
1

2

14

49

2
-

63

1

-

-

1

1

81

84

27

26

19
70

2

1

8

1

6

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k _______________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s _______________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ____ _________________
4 w e e k s _______________________________________________

4
( 5)
44
34
18

3

1

1

14
38
47

14
80
2

2

2

1

1

49

63

19
28
49

10

1

1

19

23

1

1

16

2

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4
I n c lu d e s p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t p r o v i d e v a c a t i o n s u n t il a ft e r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
5 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
6
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n an d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d ic a t e d at 10 y e a r s '
in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
1

2
3

N O T E : In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " le n g t h o f t i m e " s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m
a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




p a y m en ts,

s e r v ic e

w e r e c o n v e r t e d to

15

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t of office and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s em p loyed in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
health, in su ran ce , or pen sion b en efits, N orfolk —P ortsm ou th and N ew port N ew s— am pton, V a . , June 1961)
H
OFFICE WORKERS

PLAN T W O RK ERS

T y p e o f b e n e fit
All industries1

A ll w o rk e r s

_________________________________________

100

M anufacturing

100

Public utilities 2

All industries3

100

100

M anufacturing

100

Public utilities 2

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L if e i n s u r a n c e
_________________________________
A c c id e n ta l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e ______________________________________
S ic k n e s s an d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 4 __________________________

94

94

96

85

90

98

62

75

41

67

77

54

69

79

83

68

78

87

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e ________
S ic k le a v e (f u l l p a y a n d n o
w a it in g p e r i o d ) ____________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r io d ) ____________________________

25

27

19

34

31

31

48

68

54

45

58

46

3

-

-

3

1

4

H o s p i t a l iz a t io n i n s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e ____________________________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
_______________ _____________
C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e ________________________
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n ____________________________
N o h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n ____

91
89
60
59
64
2

94
94
33
15
82
4

70
70
63
84
52
2

85
84
33
23
60
6

92
92
23

65
65
57
67
64
2

8

84
4

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; finance, in su ran ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
2 T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e, r e ta il tra d e, r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
4 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s r ec eiv in g sic k le a v e or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su ran ce shown se p a r a te ly b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans are lim ite d to those w hich d efin ite ly e sta b lish at le a s t the
m in im u m num ber of d a y s' pay that can be expected by each em p lo y e e .
In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e allo w a n ces d eterm in ed on an individual b a sis a re exclu d ed .







17

Appendix*.

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
B IL L E R , M AC H IN E

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:
B ille r , machine (b illin g m ach in e) —

Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r , m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m ach in e) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
C la s s A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
C la s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — .Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COM PTOM ETER O PER ATO R

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C L E R K , F IL E
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve an y com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing onier sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D IT T O )

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

19

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in aa ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STEN O G RAPH ER , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar macnine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s not include transcribing-m achine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STE N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e w ork .
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s not in clu de working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

20

T Y P IS T

T Y P I S T — Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little specia l training,'
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C la s s A —

Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la s s B — Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s,
etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND TE C H N IC A L
D R A F T S M A N , JU N IO R

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSM AN , L E A D E R

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R — Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bina tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21
M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , TO O L R O O M
E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .

E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
Supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .
FIR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.




M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, ancf
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

22

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

PATTERNMAKER, WOOD

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work in /olves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling ma 'hines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

Builds wooden patterns, core boxes, or match plates. Work in­
volves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from blue­
prints, drawings, or models; making standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work; using a variety of patternmaker’ s handtools such
as saws, planes, ch ise ls, gauges, and mallets; operating various wood­
working machines such as band saws, circular saws, borers, routers,
lathes, planers, drill presses, sanders, and shapers; checking work with
calipers, rules, protractors, squares, straight-edges, and other measuring
instruments; assembling patterns and sections of patterns by gluing, nail­
ing, screwing, and doweling; working to required tolerances and allowances;
selecting the materials for the construction of a particular pattern. May
also make sweeps (templates) for making molds by the sweep-moiding
method. In general, the work of the patternmaker requires a rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired througn a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.




PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates; installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

C U S T O

D I A L

A N D

M

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

A T E R I A L

M

O V E M

E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver,heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U .S . G O V E R N M E N T

P R IN T IN G

O F F I C E : 1961

O - 603435


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102