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Occupational Wage Survey PORTLAND, MAINE NOVEMBER 1960 Bulletin N o . 1285-19 U N ITED S T A T E S D EP A R TM EN T OF LA B O R Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S E w a n C la g u e , C o m m is s io n e r Occupational Wage Survey PORTLAND, MAINE NOVEMBER 1960 Bulletin No. 1285-19 Jan u ary 1 9 6 1 U N ITED S T A T E S D EP A R TM EN T OF LA B O R Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary B U R E A U OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S Ewan C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents Contents Preface Page The Community Wage Survey P rogram 1. 2. Establishm ents and w ork ers within scope of survey -----P ercen ts of in crea se in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupational A: Occupational earnings:* A - 1. O ffice occupations -------------------------------------------------A -2 . P ro fe ssio n a l and technical occupations ----------------A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations --------------A - 4. Custodial and m aterial m ovem ent o ccu p a tio n s------ Appendix: Occupational description s * NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations are available in the Portland area report fo r Novem ber 1959, which a lso includes data on establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary wage p r o v i sion s. A d ire cto ry indicating date of study and the p rice of this report, as w ell as of reports fo r other m ajor areas, is available upon request. Union sca le s , indicative of prevailing pay levels in the Portland area, are a lso available fo r seven selected building trades. r*- T a b les: ld no This report was prepared in the B ureau's regional office in B oston, M ass. , by Leo E pstein , under the d ir e c t tion of Paul V. Mulkern, A ssistant Regional D ire cto r for Wages and Industrial R elations. 1 3 ^ The Bureau of Labor Statistics regu la rly conducts areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial cen ters. The studies, made from late fall to ea rly spring, relate to occupational earnings and related supplem entary benefits. A prelim in ary rep ort is available on' com pletion of the study in each a rea , usually in the month follow ing the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data not included in the e a rlie r rep ort. A consolidated analytical bulletin sum m arizing the results of all of the y e a r's surveys is issued after com pletion of the final area bulletin for the current round of su rveys. Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends fo r selected occupational g r o u p s --------------------------------------- 9 Occupational Wage Survey—Portland, Maine Introduction This a rea is one o f s e v e ra l im portant industrial cen ters in which the U. S. Departm ent of Labor*s Bureau of L abor Statistics conducts su rveys of occupational earnings and rela ted wage b en efits on an area b a s is . The bulletin p re se n ts cu rre n t occu pation al em ploym ent and earnings inform ation obtained la rg e ly by m a il fr o m the establishm ents v isited by Bureau fie ld e con om ists in the la st p rev iou s survey fo r o c c u pations rep orted in that e a r lie r study. P e rso n a l v is its w ere made to nonrespondents and to those respondents rep orting unusual changes sin ce the p rev iou s survey. In each area, data a re obtained fr o m rep resen ta tiv e e sta b lish m ents within six b roa d industry d iv isio n s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o r tation, 1 com m unication, and other pu blic u tilities; w h olesa le trade; r e tail trade; finance, insurance, and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor industry groups excluded fr o m these studies a re governm ent operations and the con stru ction and extra ctive in d u stries. E stablishm ents having few er than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber of w o rk e rs a re om itted a lso b eca u se they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occu pation s studied to w a r rant in clusion. W h erever p o s s ib le , separate tabulations a re p rovid ed fo r each of the b roa d industry d iv isio n s. These su rveys a re conducted on a sam ple b a sis b eca u se of the u n n ecessary c o s t involved in surveying a ll establish m en ts. T o obtain appropriate a ccu ra cy at m inim um co s t, a grea ter p ro p o rtio n of la rg e than of sm all establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how ev er, a ll establishm ents a re given th eir app rop riate weight. E stim ates based on the establishm ents studied a re p resen ted , th e re fo re , as r e lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and area, e x cept fo r those below the m inim um s iz e studied. Occupations and E arnings The occu pation s se le cte d fo r study a r e com m on to a v a riety o f manufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s sification is b a sed on a u niform set o f jo b d e scrip tio n s design ed to 1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s e stu d ie s, w e r e in clu d e d in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e J u ly 1959, e x c e p t B a ltim o r e , B u ffa lo, C lev ela n d , and S ea ttle. R a ilr o a d s a r e now in c lu d e d in the s c o p e o f a l l la b o r -m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s . take account of inter establishm ent variation in duties within the same job . (See appendix fo r listing of these d e s c r ip t io n s .) E arnings data are p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the follow in g types of occu p a tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical; (c) m ain te nance and pow erplant; and (d) cu stod ial and m a teria l m ovem ent. Occupational em ploym ent and earnings data a re shown fo r fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs, i. e . , those h ired to w ork a regu lar w eekly sch ed ule in the given occupational cla ss ifica tio n . E arnings data exclude prem ium pay fo r ov ertim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts. N onproduction bon uses a re excluded a lso , but c o s t - o f living bon uses and incentive earnings a re included. W here w eekly hours a re rep orted , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l occu pation s, r e fe re n ce is to the w ork sch edules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) fo r which stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s a re paid; average w eekly earnings fo r these occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest h alf d olla r. A verag e earnings o f m en and w om en a re p resen ted sep arately fo r se le cte d occu pation s in which both sex es a re com m on ly em ployed. D iffe re n ce s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in these occu pation s a re la rg e ly due to (1) d iffe re n ce s in the distribu tion of the sexes among in du stries and esta blish m en ts; (2) d iffe re n ce s in s p e cific duties p e r form ed , although the occu pation s a re ap p rop riately c la s s ifie d within the sam e su rvey jo b d e scrip tio n ; and (3) d iffe re n ce s in length of s e r v ic e or m e rit re v ie w when individual sa la rie s a re adjusted on this b a s is . L onger a verage s e r v ic e of m en would re su lt in higher average pay when both se x e s a re em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job d e scrip tio n s used in cla ss ify in g em p loyees in these su rveys a re u su ally m o r e g e n era lized than those used in individual establish m en ts to allow fo r m in or d iffe r e n ce s am ong establish m en ts in sp e c ific duties p e rfo rm e d . O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates re p re se n t the total in all establish m en ts within the scop e o f the study and not the num ber actu ally su rveyed. B eca u se o f d iffe re n ce s in occu pation al stru ctu re among esta blish m en ts, the estim ates of occu pation al em ploym ent obtained fr o m the sam ple of establish m en ts studied s e rv e only to in dicate the re la tiv e im p ortan ce o f the jo b s studied. T hese d iffe re n ce s in o c c u pational stru ctu re do not m a teria lly a ffe ct the a ccu ra cy o f the ea rn ings data. 2 Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Portland, Maine, by major industry division,2 November I960 Number of establishments Industry division Within scope of study 3 Workers in establishments Studied Within scope of study Studied All divisions --------------------------------------------------- 128 71 21,500 16, 880 Manufacturing-------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and other public utilities 4 ---- --------- ----- -----Wholesale trade 5 --------------------------------------------Retail trade 3 _______________________________-_ Finance, insurance, and real estate5 -----------------Services5 6-----------------------------------------------------, 41 87 25 46 10, 100 11, 400 8, 740 8, 140 19 26 23 11 8 14 11 11 6 4 3, 700 1, 800 3, 700 1, 500 700 3, 460 800 2, 430 950 500 1 The Portland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Portland, South Portland, Westbrook cities; Cape Elizabeth and Falmouth towns in Cumberland County). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate descrip tion of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division. 3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation (50 employees). All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair services, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment. 4 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded. 5 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made for one or more of following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. 6 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services. Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and •straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in Portland, Maine, November 1959 to November I960 Occupational group Office clerical (women) -------------------Industrial nurses (women)----------------Skilled maintenance (men)----------------Unskilled plant (men)------------------------- All industries 2. 4 1.9 5. 3 6. 3 3 W age Trends for Selected Occupational Groups P resen ted in table 2 a re indexes o f s a la rie s o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and industrial n u rses, and o f a vera ge earnings of selected plant w ork er grou p s. In a re a s which w e re not su rveyed during the fis c a l 1953 b a se y ea r (July 1952 to June 1953) this table is lim ited to p ercen ts of change betw een s e le cte d p e rio d s. F or o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and in du strial n u rses, the indexes relate to average w eekly s a la rie s fo r n orm a l hours o f w ork, that is, the standard w ork schedule fo r w hich stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s a re paid. F or plant w ork er groups, they m e a su re changes in stra ig h t-tim e h ourly earnings, excluding p rem iu m pay fo r ov ertim e and fo r w ork on w eek ends, h olidays, and late shifts. The indexes a re b a sed on data fo r selected key occu pation s and include m o st of the n u m erica lly im portant jo b s within each group. The o ffic e c le r ic a l data a re based on w om en in the follow in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s , m achine (billin g m ach in e); b ook k eep in gm achine o p era to rs, c la s s A and B; C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B; cle r k s , o rd e r; c le r k s , p a y ro ll; keypunch o p e ra to rs; o ffice g ir ls ; s e c r e ta r ie s ; sten ograp h ers, gen eral; sw itchboard o p e ra to r s ; sw itchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is ts ; tabulating-m achine o p e ra to r s ; tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e o p e ra to rs, gen era l; and typists, c la s s A and B. The in du strial n urse data a re b a sed on w om en industrial n u rses. Men in the follow in g 10 sk ille d m aintenance jo b s and 3 unskilled jo b s w ere included in the plant w ork er data: Skilled-— ca rp en ters; e le ctricia n s ; m a ch in ists; m ech a n ics; m ech a n ics, autom otive; m ill w righ ts; p ain ters; p ip e fitte rs; sh e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and die m a k ers; unskilled— ja n ito rs, p o r te r s , and cle a n e rs; la b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling; and watchm en. A verag e w eekly sa la rie s or a vera ge hourly earnings w ere com puted fo r each of the se le cte d occu p a tion s. The a v era g e sa la rie s or h ourly earnings w e re then m u ltiplied by the av era g e o f 1953 and 1954 em ploym ent in the jo b . T hese w eighted earnings fo r individual occu pation s w e re then totaled to obtain an aggregate fo r each occu p a tional group. F inally, the ra tio o f these group a ggrega tes fo r a giv^n y ea r to the aggregate fo r the b a se p e r io d (su rv e y month, w inter 1952— 63) was com puted an d the re su lt m u ltiplied by the b a se y ea r index (100) to get the index fo r the given y ea r. S im ilar p ro ce d u re s w ere follow ed in com piling “p ercen ts of change1 in ar4 a s not surveyed during 1953. ' A djustm ents have been m ade w here n e ce s s a ry to m aintain com p a ra b ility so that the y e a r -t o -y e a r com p a rison s a re based on the sam e industry and occu pation al co v era g e. F or exam ple, ra ilroa d s have been included in the cov era g e of the su rveys only sin ce July 1959. In com puting the indexes fo r the fir s t yea r in which ra ilro a d s w ere included, data relating to ra ilroa d s w ere excluded. Indexes fo r su b se quent y e a rs include data fo r ra ilro a d s. The indexes m easu re, p rin cip a lly, the effects of (1) gen eral sa la ry and wage changes; (2) m e rit or other in cre a se s in pay re ce iv e d by individual w o rk e rs while in the sam e jo b ; and (3) changes in the labor fo r c e such as la bor tu rn over, fo r c e expansions, fo r c e re d u c tions, and changes in the p rop ortion o f w ork ers em ployed by estab lishm ents with d ifferen t pay le v e ls . Changes in the la b or fo r c e can cause in c r e a se s or d e cre a s e s in the occu pation al avera g es without actual wage changes. F or exam ple, a fo r c e expansion m ight in crea se the p rop ortion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp e cific occupation and r e sult in a d rop in the average, w h ereas a reduction in the p rop ortion of low er paid w o rk e rs would have the op posite effect. The m ovem ent of a high-paying establishm ent out o f an area could cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates o ccu rre d in other area establishm ents. The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim inates the effects of changes in the p ro p ortion o f w o rk e rs rep resen ted in each jo b in cluded in the data. Nor a re the indexes influenced by changes in standard w ork schedules or in prem iu m pay fo r overtim e, sin ce they a re b a sed on pay fo r stra ig h t-tim e h ours. Indexes fo r the p e rio d 1953 to I960 fo r w ork ers in 20 m a jor labor m ark ets w ill appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, W ages and Related B enefits, 60 L abor M arkets, W inter 1959-60. 4 A* Occupational Earnings Table A-l. O ffice Occupations (A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I9 6 0 ) Avebage S e x , o c c u p a t io n , an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n Number of workers Weeklyj Weekly j (Standard) (Standard) N U M B E R OF W O RK ER S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A RN IN G S OF— $ 35. 00 $ 40 . 00 $ 4 5 . 00 $ 50. 00 $ 55. 00 $ 60. 00 $ 65. 00 $ 70. 00 $ 75. 00 $ 80. 00 $ under 4 0 . 00 45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 " - - - 2 2 7 7 4 4 ~ 2 2 - 1 “ 4 - 2 2 4 2 3 3 5 5 9 9 8 2 _ _ _ 1 1 _ 85. 00 $ 9 0 . 00 $ 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 % $ S $ $ 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 and 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 over M en C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s A N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ 52 38 39. 5 40. 0 $ 9 8 .0 0 93. 00 C l e r k s , o r d e r _________________ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ 29 26 41. 5 42 . 0 84. 00 84. 50 _ . _ _ - - 3 3 _ - 3 3 _ " - - 8 6 - 1 1 “ 6 6 4 4 2 2 - O ffic e b o y s 21 40. 0 55. 00 - 2 9 4 _ 2 1 _ - - 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) ______ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________ 44 38 38. 0 37. 5 53. 00 52. 00 “ 8 8 8 8 12 11 6 5 6 2 3 3 - - - 1 1 - - - - B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A 15 39. 5 71. 50 _ _ _ 1 1 _ 4 4 1 2 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________ 94 87 39. 5 39. 5 4 9 . 00 4 8 . 50 _ 48 46 17 16 6 6 6 4 2 1 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ " 13 13 " ~ ~ ~ ~ “ - C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A ________ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________ 82 73 39. 0 38. 5 71. 00 69. 00 _ _ 1 1 1 1 15 15 16 16 4 4 13 13 2 18 15 8 7 _ 1 3 _ _ _ . - 1 - - - - - C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s B ________ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________ P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _________________ 233 190 49 37. 5 37. 0 38. 5 60. 00 57. 50 70. 00 24 24 - 25 25 - 19 18 3 31 26 3 18 15 1 8 5 1 15 13 51 47 11 32 15 15 8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 2 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - 61 57 37. 5 37. 0 4 6 . 50 4 6 . 00 14 14 3 3 26 23 15 14 2 2 _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ “ ” 1 1 “ " ~ " " C l e r k s , o r d e r ____________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------- 30 16 38. 0 37. 0 60. 00 59. 00 _ 1 - 2 - 8 8 . 10 4 5 3 3 - 1 _ _ _ . - 1 - - - - C l e r k s , p a y r o l l __________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ 75 36 39 38. 5 39. 5 38. 0 64. 50 67. 50 61. 50 4 7 7 - 15 5 10 6 2 4 12 3 9 2 2 - 6 4 2 14 7 7 6 3 3 1 1 - - C o m p to m e te r, o p e r a to r s N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 __ 69 56 24 37. 5 37. 5 39. 0 68. 00 68. 50 7 9 .0 0 22 1 1 1 2 2 _ - _ - - 15 15 15 K eyp u n ch o p e r a to r s _ N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g P u b lic u tilitie s 2 76 68 28 38. 5 38. 0 3 9 .5 60. 50 58. 50 76. 00 132 39. 0 39. 0 38. 5 73. 00 82. 00 69. 50 _____________________ 1 W om en C le r k s , file , c la s s B N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________________ ___________________ S e c r e t a r ie s ___________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g S e e fo o t n o t e s a t en d o f ta b le , 33 99 - - - 4 - 1 3 - 2 2 3 3 8 3 10 5 20 - 4 4 4 1 1 - “ 2 2 " _ 19 19 8 8 16 16 3 3 3 1 5 1 - - - 2 2 2 2 - - 5 5 5 _ - _ - _ - 3 15 34 5 29 - 2 1 - 15 2 2 2 2 20 - - - 8 7 6 1 21 8 13 - 8 2 2 _ . - - 13 13 13 5 3 . _ _ - _ - - - - - - - - _ - _ - _ - - - _ . - 2 2 2 2 - “ ~ 1 - _ - . 2 2 _ - - _ _ _ . . . - - - - - - - - - 3 3 _ - 1 1 1 - - 4 1 6 6 3 - 1 5 Table A-l. O ffice Occupations-Continued (A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I 9 6 0 ) A verage o c c u p a t io n , Number of workers a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n Weekly hours 1 (Standard) N U M B E R OF W O RK ER S R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A RN IN G S OF— * 3 5 . 00 Weekly earnings 1 and (Standard) u n d e r *4 0 . 00 *4 5 . 0 0 * 5 0. 0 0 * 5 5. 0 0 *60. 00 *6 5 . 0 0 *7 0 . 0 0 *7 5 . 0 0 *80. 00 *85. 00 *9 0 . 0 0 * 9 5 .0 0 100.00 f 0 5 .0 0 $ 110.00 $ 1 1 5 .0 0 $ 1 2 0 .0 0 4 0 . 00 Sex, 4 5 . 00 50. 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 .0 0 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0. 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 110.00 1 1 5 .0 0 120.00 over 19 15 21 3 18 6 5 1 4 4 17 12 5 5 5 1 4 4 1 2 _ “ " and W o m e n — C o n tin u e d 0 5 0 5 $ 6 5 .0 0 7 1 .0 0 6 3 . 00 7 4 . 50 _ 3 - - - - 3 6 15 - - ' 19 2 - 26 13 13 3 62 54 3 9 .5 39. 0 5 2 . 50 5 0 . 50 4 4 17 17 12 12 7 6 6 5 2 2 7 4 38 16 22 39. 5 39. 5 40. 0 5 5 . 50 5 2 . 00 5 8 . 00 _ 7 5 2 7 6 1 8 2 - 2 3 1 2 1 8 7 3 4 24 21 38. 5 38. 5 5 2 . 50 5 3 . 00 _ 6 6 8 6 5 4 3 3 _ “ 2 2 _ _ “ 30 30 38. 5 38. 5 5 9. 00 5 9 . 00 _ _ _ --------- - " 9 9 9 -------- 9 134 1 25 3 7 .5 37. 5 4 9 . 50 4 9 . 00 _ 28 28 27 24 8 8 S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _____________________________________ M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------- -----__ __ __ N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g __ -------------------__ __ _ _ _ P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 ___ __ ___ __ __ S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s __ -----N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______ — __ ____ S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s M a n u fa c tu r in g _____ ____ N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -----__ _ T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g — T y p i s t s , c l a s s A __ __ ---------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __ — T y p i s t s , c l a s s B ______ __ N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _ _ 1 2 -----__ ____ ____ gen era l _ __ _ ---------— ------— __ _____ _ ------------------------ 126 32 94 28 39. 39. 39. 39. S t a n d a r d h o u r s re^ fcect th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s . t h e ir - " r e g u la r 6 - - 55 54 s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s - --------- 3 8 -------- 5 ^ 15 10 1 1 a n d th e e a rn in g s 4 _ - - 1 1 4 2 - - 3 1 2 1 _ _ _ - 4 4 - - _ _ 2 _ _ - - - - 1 _ _ - - - - - _ _ _ _ - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 1 1 - _ - - 1 1 - 2 1 _ - - - _ _ _ _ _ " " - - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - 1 1 _ - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 5 .0 0 $ 120.00 $ 1 2 5 .0 0 $ 1 3 0 .0 0 120.00 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 over corresp on d to th ese _ w e e k ly h ou rs. Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations (A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I 9 6 0 ) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— A verage S e x , o c c u p a t io n , Number an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n of workers Weekly hours 1 (Standard) $ 5 0 . 00 and under 5 5 . 00 $ 5 5 . 00 *6 0 . 0 0 $ 6 5 . 00 $ 7 0 . 00 $ 7 5 . 00 $ 8 0 . 00 $ 8 5 . 00 $ 9 0 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 2 U nder Weekly earnings 1 (Standard) t o . 00 1 1 $ $ 100.00 * 9 5 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 $ 110.00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 110.00 1 1 5 .0 0 s and W om en N u rses, 1 in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e fle c t _ 10 ------- th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h 40. 0 e m p lo y e e s $ 7 8 . 50 r e c e iv e t h e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s an d th e 5 e a rn in g s corresp on d 1 to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s . 6 Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry d ivision, Portland, M ain e, N ovem ber I960) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Occupation and industry division O f workers hourly , earnings ______________________ C arp en ters, maintenance 54 57 51 2. 33 2. 37 $ 1 .4 0 under 1. 50 $2 . 18 ____________________ _____ __ Under $ 1 .4 0 E le c tr ic ia n s, maintenance Manufacturing _ $ 1. 50 " 1. 60 $ 1. 60 “ 1. 70 $ 1. 70 “ 1. 80 1 1 ~ 1 " 1. 80 " 1. 90 $ 1. 90 $ 2. 10 “ 2. 00 2. 10 " 2. 20 12 10 “ " 5 5 _ 2 ~ $ 2. 20 $ 2. 30 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2. 50 2 4 4 11 8 27 27 " " 20 4 4 8 5 2 20 4 3 1 1 _ _ _ - ■ - _ _ 4 - - " ~ - F ir e m e n , stationary boiler Manufacturing __ Nonmanufacturing _ ___ _ _ _ __ — 56 40 16 1. 86 1. 75 2. 12 3 2 1 12 12 “ 1 1 14 10 4 . . . . . " - - - - ~ 4 4 _ . _ 16 12 4 . " M a c h in ists , maintenance __ 37 2. 50 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 5 2 18 M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) ___ Manufacturing _ __ ___ __ __ ___ Nonmanufacturing _ _ ___ ________ Public utilities 2 __ ___ _ ___ 70 17 53 45 2. 2. 2. 2. 9 4 3 1 3 7 3 4 4 2 3 3 3 3 - 4 1 3 3 13 4 9 9 M ech anics, maintenance Manufacturing _ __ 99 84 2. 22 2. 18 4 4 7 7 25 23 27 22 13 13 1 _ P a in ters, maintenance Manufacturing __ ___ _ __ __ ______ ____ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ _ - _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ ------ 26 16 19 13 20 09 1. 90 2. 02 " - - ~ 9 9 _ 4 4 _ 2 2 8 _ _ " _ _ Excludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts, Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities. W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20; 1 at $ 3. 30 to $ 3. 40 . - - - 2 2 - 2 2 . " 6 6 " 6 6 1 1 " 1 1 2 2 _ - “ 4 4 4 4 4 ■ 1 - . - ■ 1 _ _ 39 4 - - - “ - 4 - 4 1 3 - 1 2 - " ' “ 1 1 _ _ _ _ 1 _ _ ~ ~ 8 3 5--------- and over . 1 1 " 6 — 3. 00 - 4 1 3 3 - 3. 00 " 11 11 11 " 2. 90 $ . _ 1 1 $ 2. 90 - _ - 2 .8 0 6 6 _ 1 2. 80 $ 1 - - 2. 70 14 2. 19 2. 19 2. 20 1 1 " ~ 2. 70 $ 11 2. 60 69 29 22 9 9 9 2. 60 2 .4 0 2. 30 ~ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ - $ _ 2. 50 E n gin eers, stationary __ Nonmanufacturing _____ Public u tilitie s 2 ____ 1 1 _ $ 2. 00 1 1 ~ $ ■ - 7 Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, P ortland, M aine, N ovem ber I960) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— N ber um of w orkers Occupation 1 and industry division hourly 2 Under earnings $ 1. 10 $ 1. 10 and under 1. 20 31 30 $1 . 00 1 .0 0 31 30 . 227 129 98 1. 61 1. 77 1 .4 0 29 1 3 28 10 3 7 J anitors, p o r te r s,'a n d clean ers (women), ____ Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 67 57 1. 22 1. 17 34 34 L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling Manufacturing _ __ __ __ Nonmanufacturing _ __ __ _ — _ Public utilities 4 __________________________ 372 109 263 45 1. 89 1. 78 1 .9 3 2. 38 19 1 18 - Order fille r s _ _ Manufacturing Nonmanufacturing 274 71 203 1. 88 1 .9 3 1. 86 6 6 104 ------- 3? 1 .9 5 1. 34 10 10 38 1. 88 1 72 61 1 .9 6 1. 96 Shipping clerk s ____ _ _ ___ N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________ 44 31 1. 86 1. 81 Shipping and receivin g clerk s _____ Manufacturing __ _ __ __ 38 23 1. 74 1. 94 - 293 46 247 70 2. 23 1. 87 2. 30 2 .4 0 _ - 56 17 39 1. 84 1. 88 1. 82 - - 159 151 2. 55 2. 57 Elevator op era to rs, passen ger ( w o m e n ) ______ Nonmanufacturing ____ J anitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (men) Manufacturing _ _____ Nonmanufacturing ______ P a c k e r s, shipping (men) Nonmanufacturing __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P a c k e r s, shipping (women) R eceiving clerk s Nonmanufacturing _ _. _ ___ . ................. _ __ __ Tru ck d rivers 5 __ __ __ __ _ _ Manufacturing _ _ __ __ Nonmanufacturing ____________________________ Public u tilitie s4 T ru ck d riv ers, m edium (lV z to and including 4 t o n s ) __ _ _ Manufacturing Nonmanufacturing __ _ _ _ __ T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler type) __ __ __ _____ Nonmanufacturing _ _______ T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra iler type) T r u c k e r s, power (forklift) Manufacturing - — Nonmanufacturing _ W atchmen ___ ___ __ ___ Nonmanufacturing __ 1 2 3 4 5 6 __ _ _ _ $ 1. 20 1. 30 1. 30 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1. 50 1. 50 1. 60 . 1. 60 1. 70 $ 1. 70 1. 80 $ 1. 80 1. 90 $ 2. 00 $ 2. 00 2. 10 - - - - - - 14 4 10 26 4 22 11 6 5 9 7 2 15 15 - 48 43 5 4 4 18 12 - 1 1 6 6 - - - - - 6 2 34 34 - - - 39 8 31 _ " 19 19 - 7 3 4 _ - 28 18 10 - 26 14 12 - 7 2 5 - 4 2 2 - 27 7 20 - 56 56 _ - 24 6 18 31 4 27 32 32 - 24 24 _ - _ 11 11 2 2 2 2 _ _ _ - 2 - - - 12 11 7 16 _ 6 ------ 6------ 7 7 - - 9 9 3 - 3 3 7 4 _ 1 - 2 8 8 8 8 _ 1 - 4 4 _ 1 - 3 3 3 - _ - - 1 - 7 7 - 1 1 - 7 7 - 16 16 - 24 8 16 - 8 8 - 8 4 4 - - 1 1 - 16 16 2 2 8 8 - - - - - - - - - - _ 8 7 7 - - - 7 ------- 6— $ 2. 10 $ 2. 20 2. 20 2. 30 _ 1. 90 . _ . $ $ 2 .4 0 2 .4 0 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 . . . . - - _ - _ " - _ - _ - - 2. 50 $ $ 2. 30 - " $ 2. 60 2. 70 and over - 16 16 3 3 4 4 - 6 6 - - - - - - - - 8 6 2 2 55 10 45 _ - 46 10 36 13 30 30 30 - 14 14 - 89 89 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 15 15 - 7 - _ _ _ 12 9 - - - - 1 1 29 29 2 2 - 2 - 2 1 6 6 1 - - - 4 4 _ - 2 - 4 - _ 1 _ 3 - . 5 2 1 - 1 1 6 4 9 9 2 2 _ _ _ - - - - - 3 3 - 17 17 - 9 9 - 1 1 - 1 1 1 7 3 4 4 65 65 65 77 77 - _ - 42 642 - 4 4 - - 10 10 - 1 1 - 1 1 - - 4 4 9 9 - - - - " - 4 4 - 3 - 2 - - - - - 3 - 28 28 77 77 " 42 42 - 26 26 - - - _ " 45 - . - _ 1 _ 51 _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. 04 - - - - - 22 - - - - - - 1 - 28 - - - 79 51 28 1. 88 1. 90 1. 84 . _ _ 4 1 3 8 8 - 10 10 - 3 2 1 2 1 1 9 9 6 6 - - - 10 10 - - - 4 4 _ - 19 9 10 - - 4 4 41 30 1. 57 1. 68 11 8 4 3 3 1 3 • _ 1 - _ 1 _ 8 8 _ " 7 7 " - Data lim ited to m en w orkers except w here otherw ise indicated. Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 4 at $ 0 . 8 0 to $ 0 . 90; 24 at $1 to $ 1 . 10. Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities. Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated. W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $ 2. 70 to $ 2. 80; 13 at $ 2. 80 to $ 2. 90; 21 at $ 2. 90 to $ 3. $ “ - - $ * ~ _ 3 3 _ - - _ _ _ “ " “ 9 Appendix: Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes Jq applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners,beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. O FFICE BILLER, MACHINE BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, b ills, and in voices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. , Biller machine (billing machine)— U ses a specia l billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of car Don cop ies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’ bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and credit slip s. Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay roll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep aration o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c counting department. CLERK, ACCOUNTING Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s of a complete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an e s tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and 10 CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex perience in making proper assignations and allocation s. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting clerks. Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers, accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func tional basis among several workers. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’ earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COMPTOMETER OPERATOR Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of other duties DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO) CLERK, FILE Class A — Responsible for maintaining an established filing system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties. Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has already been classified, or locates or a ssists in locating ma terial in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties. CLERK, ORDER R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others. OFFICE BOY OR GIRL Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work. 11 SECRETARY SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making phone ca lls ; handling personal and important or confidental mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties. typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's while at switchboard. posi also This time TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type writer. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing machine work (see transcribing-machine operator). - Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans lated data On forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine; does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition operate auxiliary machines. , TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing . - Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general. machine work SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office calls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to persons who ca ll in or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist. TYPIST Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May do clerica l work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing incoming mail. 12 TYPIST— Continued TYPIST— Continued Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy; combining material from several sources, or planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s, etc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. P R O FE SSIO N A L AND TEC H N ICA L DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR (Assistant draftsman) Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction of a draftsman. DRAFTSMAN, LEADER Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad ministrative nature. DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-se ctio n s, e tc ., to sca le by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications* May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting. NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. TRACER Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. 13 MAINTENANCE D PO W ERPLAN T CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of electrician 's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded . HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma chin ist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and 14 MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued MILLWRIGHT— Continued operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler-* ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines. MILLWRIGHT Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout OILER Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment. PAINTER, MAINTENANCE Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating system s are excluded . 15 TOOL AND DIE MAKER PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv alent training and experience. SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. (Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker) Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s; using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . C USTO DIAL AND M ATERIA L MOVEMENT ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued Transports passengers between floors of an office buildings apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors are excluded. or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded. GUARD Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and other persons entering. JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER (Sweeper; charwoman; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or 16 LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen* who load and unload ships are excluded. ORDER FILLER (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales slip s, customers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s: Receiving clerk Shipping clerk Shipping and receiving clerk TRUCKDRIVER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and custom ers' houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. PACKER, SHIPPING Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size o f container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis o f trailer capacity.) Truckdriver Truckdriver Truckdriver Truckdriver, Truckdriver, (combination o f sizes listed separately) , light (under 1% tons) , medium (PA to and including 4 tons) heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type) heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type) TRUCKER, POWER boxes or crates are excluded. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de partments; maintaining necessary records and file s. Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of truck, as follow s: , Trucker power (forklift) Trucker, power (other than forklift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. ☆ U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1961 O - 580796 Occupational Wage Surveys Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover. A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962. Akron, Ohio— B u ll. 1285Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285 Albuquerque, N. M ex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—E aston , P a .- N .J .— B ull. 1285Atlanta, G a .— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— B u ll. 1285Beaumont—Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la .— Bu ll. 1285“ B o ise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, M a ss.— Bull. 1285-15 Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Burlington, V t.— B ull. 1285Canton, Ohio— B ull. 1285Charleston, W. V a .— Bu ll. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285£ ^Chattanooga, T e n n .—G a .— Bull. 1285-14 Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—K y .— Bull. 1285* * * Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11 Columbus, Ohio— B u ll. 1285D a lla s, T e x .— Bull. 1285- 21 Davenport—Rock Island—Moline, Iowa—111.— Bu ll. 1285-16 Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, C o lo .— Bull. 1285Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, M ich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T e x .— Bu ll. 1285-23 * Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2 Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la .— Bull. 1285Kansas City, Mo.—Kans.— Bull. 1285-18 Lawrence—Haverhill, Mass.—N.H.— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock— North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6 Los Angeles— Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1 Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis— St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon— Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News— Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285*3 Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1285-13 Paterson—Clifton—Passaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24 Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285- P o r tla n d , M a in e — B u ll. P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t , R . I . —M a s s . — B u l l . 1285- **R aleigh , N.C___ Bull. 1285*5 R i c h m o n d , V a . — B u l l . 1285R o c k f o r d , 111.— B u l l . 1285* * S t . L o u i s , M o .—111.— B u l l . 1285-10 S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h — B u l l . 1285- San Antonio, Tex. — B u l l . 1285*San Bernardino—Riverside—Ontario, C a l i f . — B u l l . 1285-4 S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . — B u l l . 1285- 1285^ S c r a n t o n , P a . — B u l l . 1285-8 * * S e a t t l e , W a s h . — B u l l . 1285*7 * * * S i o u x F a l l s , S . D a k . — B u l l . 1285-17 S o u t h B e n d , I n d . — B u l l . 1285S a v a n n a h , G a .— B u ll. 128512851285- S p o k a n e , W a s h .— B u l l . T o le d o , O h io — B u ll. T re n to n , N .J. — B u ll. W a sh in g to n , D .C .- M d .- V a .— B u ll. 1285-22 W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . — B u l l . 1285W a t e r l o o , I o w a — B u l l . 1285-20 1285-9 Wilmington, D el.—N .J.— Bull. 1285-12 Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285- * * W ic h ita , K a n s .— B u ll. An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and price of the bulletin. Please do not order copies in advance. * Price, 20 cents. ** Price, 25 cents. * * * Price, 15 cents. 12851285' 19 a s h . — B u l l . 1285- P ittsb u rg h , P a .— B u ll.