View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

PORTLAND, MAINE
NOVEMBER 1960

Bulletin N o . 1285-19




U N ITED S T A T E S D EP A R TM EN T OF LA B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

E w a n C la g u e , C o m m is s io n e r




Occupational Wage Survey




PORTLAND, MAINE
NOVEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-19
Jan u ary 1 9 6 1

U N ITED S T A T E S D EP A R TM EN T OF LA B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
B U R E A U OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

Ewan C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey P rogram

1.
2.

Establishm ents and w ork ers within scope of survey -----P ercen ts of in crea se in standard weekly salaries and
straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupational

A:

Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. O ffice occupations -------------------------------------------------A -2 . P ro fe ssio n a l and technical occupations ----------------A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations --------------A - 4. Custodial and m aterial m ovem ent o ccu p a tio n s------

Appendix:

Occupational description s

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations are available in the Portland
area report fo r Novem ber 1959, which a lso includes data
on establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary wage p r o v i­
sion s.
A d ire cto ry indicating date of study and the p rice
of this report, as w ell as of reports fo r other m ajor
areas, is available upon request.
Union sca le s , indicative of prevailing pay levels
in the Portland area, are a lso available fo r seven selected
building trades.

r*-




T a b les:

ld no

This report was prepared in the B ureau's regional
office in B oston, M ass. , by Leo E pstein , under the d ir e c t
tion of Paul V. Mulkern, A ssistant Regional D ire cto r for
Wages and Industrial R elations.

1
3

^

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regu la rly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
cen ters. The studies, made from late fall to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplem entary
benefits. A prelim in ary rep ort is available on' com pletion
of the study in each a rea , usually in the month follow ing
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the e a rlie r rep ort.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin sum m arizing the results of all of the
y e a r's surveys is issued after com pletion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of su rveys.

Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends fo r selected occupational g r o u p s ---------------------------------------

9




Occupational Wage Survey—Portland, Maine
Introduction
This a rea is one o f s e v e ra l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U. S. Departm ent of Labor*s Bureau of L abor Statistics
conducts su rveys of occupational earnings and rela ted wage b en efits
on an area b a s is .
The bulletin p re se n ts cu rre n t occu pation al em ploym ent and
earnings inform ation obtained la rg e ly by m a il fr o m the establishm ents
v isited by Bureau fie ld e con om ists in the la st p rev iou s survey fo r o c c u ­
pations rep orted in that e a r lie r study.
P e rso n a l v is its w ere made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents rep orting unusual changes
sin ce the p rev iou s survey.
In each area, data a re obtained fr o m rep resen ta tiv e e sta b lish ­
m ents within six b roa d industry d iv isio n s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o r­
tation, 1 com m unication, and other pu blic u tilities; w h olesa le trade; r e ­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor
industry groups excluded fr o m these studies a re governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and extra ctive in d u stries. E stablishm ents having
few er than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber of w o rk e rs a re om itted a lso b eca u se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occu pation s studied to w a r­
rant in clusion. W h erever p o s s ib le , separate tabulations a re p rovid ed
fo r each of the b roa d industry d iv isio n s.
These su rveys a re conducted on a sam ple b a sis b eca u se of the
u n n ecessary c o s t involved in surveying a ll establish m en ts. T o obtain
appropriate a ccu ra cy at m inim um co s t, a grea ter p ro p o rtio n of la rg e
than of sm all establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ev er, a ll establishm ents a re given th eir app rop riate weight. E stim ates
based on the establishm ents studied a re p resen ted , th e re fo re , as r e ­
lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept fo r those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
Occupations and E arnings
The occu pation s se le cte d fo r study a r e com m on to a v a riety
o f manufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is b a sed on a u niform set o f jo b d e scrip tio n s design ed to

1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s e stu d ie s,
w e r e in clu d e d in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e J u ly 1959, e x c e p t
B a ltim o r e , B u ffa lo, C lev ela n d , and S ea ttle.
R a ilr o a d s a r e now in ­
c lu d e d in the s c o p e o f a l l la b o r -m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s .




take account of inter establishm ent variation in duties within the same
job . (See appendix fo r listing of these d e s c r ip t io n s .) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the follow in g types of occu p a ­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical; (c) m ain te­
nance and pow erplant; and (d) cu stod ial and m a teria l m ovem ent.
Occupational em ploym ent and earnings data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs, i. e . , those h ired to w ork a regu lar w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ss ifica tio n .
E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay fo r ov ertim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olidays, and
late shifts.
N onproduction bon uses a re excluded a lso , but c o s t - o f living bon uses and incentive earnings a re included.
W here w eekly
hours a re rep orted , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l occu pation s, r e fe re n ce is
to the w ork sch edules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) fo r which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s a re paid; average w eekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest h alf d olla r.

A verag e earnings o f m en and w om en a re p resen ted sep arately
fo r se le cte d occu pation s in which both sex es a re com m on ly em ployed.
D iffe re n ce s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in these occu pation s a re
la rg e ly due to (1) d iffe re n ce s in the distribu tion of the sexes among
in du stries and esta blish m en ts; (2) d iffe re n ce s in s p e cific duties p e r ­
form ed , although the occu pation s a re ap p rop riately c la s s ifie d within
the sam e su rvey jo b d e scrip tio n ; and (3) d iffe re n ce s in length of s e r v ­
ic e or m e rit re v ie w when individual sa la rie s a re adjusted on this b a s is .
L onger a verage s e r v ic e of m en would re su lt in higher average pay
when both se x e s a re em ployed within the sam e rate range.
Job
d e scrip tio n s used in cla ss ify in g em p loyees in these su rveys a re u su ­
ally m o r e g e n era lized than those used in individual establish m en ts to
allow fo r m in or d iffe r e n ce s am ong establish m en ts in sp e c ific duties
p e rfo rm e d .

O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates re p re se n t the total in all
establish m en ts within the scop e o f the study and not the num ber actu ­
ally su rveyed. B eca u se o f d iffe re n ce s in occu pation al stru ctu re among
esta blish m en ts, the estim ates of occu pation al em ploym ent obtained
fr o m the sam ple of establish m en ts studied s e rv e only to in dicate the
re la tiv e im p ortan ce o f the jo b s studied. T hese d iffe re n ce s in o c c u ­
pational stru ctu re do not m a teria lly a ffe ct the a ccu ra cy o f the ea rn ­
ings data.

2




Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Portland, Maine,
by major industry division,2 November I960
Number of establishments
Industry division

Within scope
of study 3

Workers in establishments

Studied

Within scope
of study

Studied

All divisions ---------------------------------------------------

128

71

21,500

16, 880

Manufacturing-------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 4 ---- --------- ----- -----Wholesale trade 5 --------------------------------------------Retail trade 3 _______________________________-_
Finance, insurance, and real estate5 -----------------Services5 6-----------------------------------------------------,

41
87

25
46

10, 100
11, 400

8, 740
8, 140

19
26
23
11
8

14
11
11
6
4

3, 700
1, 800
3, 700
1, 500
700

3, 460
800
2, 430
950
500

1 The Portland Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Portland, South Portland, Westbrook cities; Cape Elizabeth and Falmouth
towns in Cumberland County). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate descrip­
tion of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a
basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys
requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are
excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry
division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are
the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing,
and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities
division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation (50 employees). All outlets (within
the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair services, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1
establishment.
4 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
5 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A tables. Separate
presentation of data for this division is not made for one or more of following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to
provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was
insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
6 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and
engineering and architectural services.

Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
•straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups
in Portland, Maine, November 1959 to November I960
Occupational group

Office clerical (women) -------------------Industrial nurses (women)----------------Skilled maintenance (men)----------------Unskilled plant (men)-------------------------

All industries

2. 4
1.9
5. 3
6. 3

3

W
age Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
P resen ted in table 2 a re indexes o f s a la rie s o f o ffic e c le r ic a l
w o rk e rs and industrial n u rses, and o f a vera ge earnings of selected
plant w ork er grou p s.
In a re a s which w e re not su rveyed during the
fis c a l 1953 b a se y ea r (July 1952 to June 1953) this table is lim ited
to p ercen ts of change betw een s e le cte d p e rio d s.
F or o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and in du strial n u rses, the indexes
relate to average w eekly s a la rie s fo r n orm a l hours o f w ork, that is,
the standard w ork schedule fo r w hich stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s a re paid.
F or plant w ork er groups, they m e a su re changes in stra ig h t-tim e h ourly
earnings, excluding p rem iu m pay fo r ov ertim e and fo r w ork on w eek ­
ends, h olidays, and late shifts.
The indexes a re b a sed on data fo r
selected key occu pation s and include m o st of the n u m erica lly im portant
jo b s within each group. The o ffic e c le r ic a l data a re based on w om en in
the follow in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s , m achine (billin g m ach in e); b ook k eep in gm achine o p era to rs, c la s s A and B; C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs; c le r k s , file ,
c la s s A and B; cle r k s , o rd e r; c le r k s , p a y ro ll; keypunch o p e ra to rs;
o ffice g ir ls ; s e c r e ta r ie s ; sten ograp h ers, gen eral; sw itchboard o p e ra ­
to r s ; sw itchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is ts ; tabulating-m achine o p e ra ­
to r s ; tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e o p e ra to rs, gen era l; and typists, c la s s A
and B.
The in du strial n urse data a re b a sed on w om en industrial
n u rses. Men in the follow in g 10 sk ille d m aintenance jo b s and 3 unskilled
jo b s w ere included in the plant w ork er data: Skilled-— ca rp en ters;
e le ctricia n s ; m a ch in ists; m ech a n ics; m ech a n ics, autom otive; m ill­
w righ ts; p ain ters; p ip e fitte rs; sh e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and die
m a k ers; unskilled— ja n ito rs, p o r te r s , and cle a n e rs; la b o r e r s , m a ­
te ria l handling; and watchm en.
A verag e w eekly sa la rie s or a vera ge hourly earnings w ere
com puted fo r each of the se le cte d occu p a tion s.
The a v era g e sa la rie s
or h ourly earnings w e re then m u ltiplied by the av era g e o f 1953 and
1954 em ploym ent in the jo b . T hese w eighted earnings fo r individual
occu pation s w e re then totaled to obtain an aggregate fo r each occu p a ­
tional group. F inally, the ra tio o f these group a ggrega tes fo r a giv^n
y ea r to the aggregate fo r the b a se p e r io d (su rv e y month, w inter 1952—
63)
was com puted an d the re su lt m u ltiplied by the b a se y ea r index (100) to
get the index fo r the given y ea r.




S im ilar p ro ce d u re s w ere follow ed in com piling “p ercen ts of
change1 in ar4 a s not surveyed during 1953.
'
A djustm ents have been m ade w here n e ce s s a ry to m aintain
com p a ra b ility so that the y e a r -t o -y e a r com p a rison s a re based on the
sam e industry and occu pation al co v era g e.
F or exam ple, ra ilroa d s
have been included in the cov era g e of the su rveys only sin ce July 1959.
In com puting the indexes fo r the fir s t yea r in which ra ilro a d s w ere
included, data relating to ra ilroa d s w ere excluded. Indexes fo r su b se­
quent y e a rs include data fo r ra ilro a d s.
The indexes m easu re, p rin cip a lly, the effects of (1) gen eral
sa la ry and wage changes; (2) m e rit or other in cre a se s in pay re ce iv e d
by individual w o rk e rs while in the sam e jo b ; and (3) changes in the
labor fo r c e such as la bor tu rn over, fo r c e expansions, fo r c e re d u c­
tions, and changes in the p rop ortion o f w ork ers em ployed by estab­
lishm ents with d ifferen t pay le v e ls .
Changes in the la b or fo r c e can
cause in c r e a se s or d e cre a s e s in the occu pation al avera g es without
actual wage changes. F or exam ple, a fo r c e expansion m ight in crea se
the p rop ortion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp e cific occupation and r e ­
sult in a d rop in the average, w h ereas a reduction in the p rop ortion
of low er paid w o rk e rs would have the op posite effect. The m ovem ent
of a high-paying establishm ent out o f an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates o ccu rre d in other
area establishm ents.
The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim inates the effects
of changes in the p ro p ortion o f w o rk e rs rep resen ted in each jo b in ­
cluded in the data.
Nor a re the indexes influenced by changes in
standard w ork schedules or in prem iu m pay fo r overtim e, sin ce they
a re b a sed on pay fo r stra ig h t-tim e h ours.
Indexes fo r the p e rio d 1953 to I960 fo r w ork ers in 20 m a jor
labor m ark ets w ill appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, W ages and Related
B enefits, 60 L abor M arkets, W inter 1959-60.

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. O ffice Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I9 6 0 )

Avebage
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weeklyj

Weekly j

(Standard)

(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O RK ER S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A RN IN G S OF—

$
35. 00

$
40 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

$
80. 00

$

under
4 0 . 00

45 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

"

-

-

-

2
2

7
7

4
4

~

2
2

-

1
“

4
-

2
2

4
2

3
3

5
5

9
9

8
2

_

_

_

1
1
_

85. 00

$
9 0 . 00

$
95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0

%

$
S
$
$
105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0
and

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00

over

M en

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s A
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________

52
38

39. 5
40. 0

$ 9 8 .0 0
93. 00

C l e r k s , o r d e r _________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________

29
26

41. 5
42 . 0

84. 00
84. 50

_

.

_

_

-

-

3
3

_

-

3
3

_

"

-

-

8
6

-

1
1

“

6
6

4
4

2
2

-

O ffic e b o y s

21

40. 0

55. 00

-

2

9

4

_

2

1

_

-

-

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e )
______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________

44
38

38. 0
37. 5

53. 00
52. 00

“

8
8

8
8

12
11

6
5

6
2

3
3

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A

15

39. 5

71. 50

_

_

_

1

1

_

4

4

1

2

1

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________

94
87

39. 5
39. 5

4 9 . 00
4 8 . 50

_

48
46

17
16

6
6

6
4

2
1

2
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

13
13

"

~

~

~

~

“

-

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________

82
73

39. 0
38. 5

71. 00
69. 00

_

_

1
1

1
1

15
15

16
16

4
4

13
13

2

18
15

8
7

_

1

3

_

_

_

.

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s B
________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _________________

233
190
49

37. 5
37. 0
38. 5

60. 00
57. 50
70. 00

24
24
-

25
25
-

19
18
3

31
26
3

18
15
1

8
5
1

15
13

51
47
11

32
15
15

8

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

2
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61
57

37. 5
37. 0

4 6 . 50
4 6 . 00

14
14

3
3

26
23

15
14

2
2

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

”

1
1

“

"

~

"

"

C l e r k s , o r d e r ____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------

30
16

38. 0
37. 0

60. 00
59. 00

_

1
-

2
-

8
8

.

10
4

5
3

3
-

1

_

_

_

.

-

1

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l __________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___

75
36
39

38. 5
39. 5
38. 0

64. 50
67. 50
61. 50

4

7
7
-

15
5
10

6
2
4

12
3
9

2
2
-

6
4
2

14
7
7

6
3
3

1
1
-

-

C o m p to m e te r, o p e r a to r s
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 __

69
56
24

37. 5
37. 5
39. 0

68. 00
68. 50
7 9 .0 0

22

1
1
1

2
2

_
-

_
-

-

15
15
15

K eyp u n ch o p e r a to r s
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u tilitie s 2

76
68
28

38. 5
38. 0
3 9 .5

60. 50
58. 50
76. 00

132

39. 0
39. 0
38. 5

73. 00
82. 00
69. 50

_____________________

1

W om en

C le r k s , file , c la s s B
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

__________________
___________________

S e c r e t a r ie s
___________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

S e e fo o t n o t e s a t en d o f ta b le ,




33

99

-

-

-

4

-

1
3

-

2
2

3
3

8
3

10
5

20

-

4
4
4

1
1

-

“

2

2

"

_

19
19

8
8

16
16

3
3

3

1

5

1

-

-

-

2

2

2
2

-

-

5
5
5

_
-

_
-

_
-

3

15

34
5
29

-

2
1

-

15

2

2
2
2
20

-

-

-

8

7
6
1

21
8
13

-

8

2
2

_

.

-

-

13
13
13

5

3

.

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_

.

-

2
2
2 2

-

“

~

1

-

_
-

.

2
2
_
-

-

_

_

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

_
-

1

1
1

-

-

4
1

6
6

3

-

1

5
Table A-l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I 9 6 0 )
A verage

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O RK ER S R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A RN IN G S OF—

* 3 5 . 00
Weekly
earnings 1
and
(Standard) u n d e r

*4 0 . 00

*4 5 . 0 0

* 5 0. 0 0

* 5 5. 0 0

*60. 00

*6 5 . 0 0

*7 0 . 0 0

*7 5 . 0 0

*80. 00

*85. 00

*9 0 . 0 0

* 9 5 .0 0

100.00

f

0 5 .0 0

$
110.00

$
1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 2 0 .0 0

4 0 . 00

Sex,

4 5 . 00

50. 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 .0 0

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0. 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

110.00

1 1 5 .0 0

120.00

over

19

15

21
3
18
6

5
1
4
4

17
12
5
5

5
1
4
4

1

2

_

“

"

and

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d
0
5
0
5

$ 6 5 .0 0
7 1 .0 0
6 3 . 00
7 4 . 50

_

3

-

-

-

-

3

6

15

-

-

'

19
2

-

26
13
13
3

62
54

3 9 .5
39. 0

5 2 . 50
5 0 . 50

4
4

17
17

12
12

7
6

6
5

2
2

7
4

38
16
22

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0

5 5 . 50
5 2 . 00
5 8 . 00

_

7
5
2

7
6
1

8

2

-

2

3
1
2

1

8

7
3
4

24
21

38. 5
38. 5

5 2 . 50
5 3 . 00

_

6
6

8
6

5
4

3
3

_

“

2
2

_

_

“

30
30

38. 5
38. 5

5 9. 00
5 9 . 00

_

_

_

---------

-

"

9
9

9
-------- 9

134
1 25

3 7 .5
37. 5

4 9 . 50
4 9 . 00

_

28
28

27
24

8
8

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
------------------------- -----__
__ __
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g __
-------------------__ __
_ _ _
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2
___ __
___
__ __
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
__
-----N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g
_ _ _ _ _ _

_

______

—

__

____

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_____ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
-----__
_
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
—
T y p i s t s , c l a s s A __ __ ---------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
__
—
T y p i s t s , c l a s s B ______ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_ _

1
2

-----__

____

____

gen era l
_
__

_

---------—

------—

__
_____

_

------------------------

126
32
94
28

39.
39.
39.
39.

S t a n d a r d h o u r s re^ fcect th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .

t h e ir

-

"

r e g u la r

6

-

-

55
54

s tr a ig h t-tim e

s a la r ie s

-

---------

3

8
-------- 5 ^

15
10

1
1

a n d th e

e a rn in g s

4

_

-

-

1
1

4
2

-

-

3
1
2
1

_

_

_

-

4
4

-

-

_

_

2

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

_

-

-

1
1

-

2

1

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1 1 5 .0 0

$
120.00

$
1 2 5 .0 0

$
1 3 0 .0 0

120.00

1 2 5 .0 0

1 3 0 .0 0

over

corresp on d

to

th ese

_

w e e k ly

h ou rs.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r I 9 6 0 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n ,

Number

an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

of

workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

$
5 0 . 00
and
under
5 5 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

*6 0 . 0 0

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

2

U nder
Weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)
t o . 00

1

1

$

$
100.00

*

9 5 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

$
110.00

1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

110.00

1 1 5 .0 0

s

and

W om en

N u rses,

1

in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )

S ta n d a rd h o u r s




r e fle c t

_

10

-------

th e w o r k w e e k f o r

w h ic h

40. 0

e m p lo y e e s

$ 7 8 . 50

r e c e iv e

t h e ir

re g u la r

s tr a ig h t-tim e

s a la r ie s

an d th e

5

e a rn in g s

corresp on d

1

to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

6
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, Portland, M ain e, N ovem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

O
f
workers

hourly ,
earnings

______________________

C arp en ters, maintenance

54

57
51

2. 33
2. 37

$

1 .4 0
under
1. 50

$2 . 18

____________________
_____ __

Under
$
1 .4 0

E le c tr ic ia n s, maintenance
Manufacturing _

$

1. 50
"
1. 60

$

1. 60
“
1. 70

$

1. 70
“
1. 80

1

1

~

1
"

1. 80
"
1. 90

$

1. 90

$

2. 10

“
2. 00

2. 10

"
2. 20

12

10

“

"

5
5
_

2

~

$

2. 20

$

2. 30

$

2 .4 0

$
2. 50

2

4
4

11
8

27
27

"

"

20
4
4

8
5
2

20
4
3

1
1

_

_

_

-

■

-

_

_

4

-

-

"

~

-

F ir e m e n , stationary boiler
Manufacturing
__
Nonmanufacturing _ ___

_
_ _
__ —

56
40
16

1. 86
1. 75
2. 12

3
2
1

12
12
“

1
1

14
10
4

.

.

.

.

.

"

-

-

-

-

~

4
4
_

.

_

16
12
4

.

"

M a c h in ists , maintenance

__

37

2. 50

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

5

2

18

M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) ___
Manufacturing _
__ ___
__ __ ___
Nonmanufacturing _
_ ___ ________
Public utilities 2
__ ___
_ ___

70
17
53
45

2.
2.
2.
2.

9

4
3
1

3

7
3
4
4

2

3
3

3
3
-

4
1
3
3

13
4
9
9

M ech anics, maintenance
Manufacturing
_ __

99
84

2. 22
2. 18

4
4

7
7

25
23

27
22

13
13

1

_

P a in ters, maintenance
Manufacturing __ ___

_

__

__

______

____

__

__ __ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ __ ___

_
- _
__
_ __ _ __ _

__

_

_ __

_
------

26
16

19
13
20
09

1. 90
2. 02

"

-

-

~

9
9

_

4
4

_

2
2

8

_

_

"
_

_

Excludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts,
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20; 1 at $ 3. 30 to $ 3. 40 .




-

-

-

2
2

-

2
2
.
"

6
6

"

6
6

1
1

"

1
1

2
2
_
-

“

4
4

4
4
4

■

1
-

.
-

■

1

_

_

39

4
-

-

-

“

-

4
-

4
1
3
-

1

2

-

"

'

“

1
1

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

~

~

8
3

5---------

and
over

.

1
1
"

6
—

3. 00

-

4
1
3
3

-

3. 00

"

11
11
11

"
2. 90

$

.

_

1
1

$
2. 90

-

_

-

2 .8 0

6
6

_

1

2. 80

$

1

-

-

2. 70

14

2. 19
2. 19
2. 20

1
1
"

~
2. 70

$

11

2. 60

69
29
22

9
9
9

2. 60

2 .4 0

2. 30

~

_ _ _ _ _
__ __
_
__ _

-

$

_
2. 50

E n gin eers, stationary __
Nonmanufacturing _____
Public u tilitie s 2 ____

1
1

_

$
2. 00

1

1

~

$

■

-

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, P ortland, M aine, N ovem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation 1 and industry division

hourly 2 Under
earnings
$
1. 10

$

1. 10
and
under
1. 20

31
30

$1 . 00
1 .0 0

31
30

.

227
129
98

1. 61
1. 77
1 .4 0

29
1
3 28

10
3
7

J anitors, p o r te r s,'a n d clean ers (women), ____
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _
_
__

67
57

1. 22
1. 17

34
34

L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling
Manufacturing
_
__
__
__
Nonmanufacturing _ __ __
_ —
_
Public utilities 4 __________________________

372
109
263
45

1. 89
1. 78
1 .9 3
2. 38

19
1
18
-

Order fille r s _ _
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

274
71
203

1. 88
1 .9 3
1. 86

6
6

104
------- 3?

1 .9 5
1. 34

10
10

38

1. 88

1

72
61

1 .9 6
1. 96

Shipping clerk s ____
_ _ ___
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

44
31

1. 86
1. 81

Shipping and receivin g clerk s
_____
Manufacturing
__
_ __ __

38
23

1. 74
1. 94

-

293
46
247
70

2. 23
1. 87
2. 30
2 .4 0

_
-

56
17
39

1. 84
1. 88
1. 82

-

-

159
151

2. 55
2. 57

Elevator op era to rs, passen ger ( w o m e n ) ______
Nonmanufacturing ____
J anitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (men)
Manufacturing
_
_____
Nonmanufacturing

______

P a c k e r s, shipping (men)
Nonmanufacturing

__
_ _
_ _ __ __

__ _ _ _ _ _
_ __
_
_ _ _ _ _ _

P a c k e r s, shipping (women)
R eceiving clerk s
Nonmanufacturing

_

_.
_

___
. .................
_
__

__

Tru ck d rivers 5
__
__ __
__ _ _
Manufacturing
_
_
__
__
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public u tilitie s4
T ru ck d riv ers, m edium (lV z to and
including 4 t o n s ) __
_ _
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
__ _
_

_ __

T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) __
__
__
_____
Nonmanufacturing
_ _______
T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type)
T r u c k e r s, power (forklift)
Manufacturing
- —
Nonmanufacturing _
W atchmen ___ ___ __ ___
Nonmanufacturing __

1
2
3
4
5
6

__

_

_
_

$

1. 20
1. 30

1. 30
1 .4 0

$

1 .4 0

$
1. 50

1. 50

1. 60

.

1. 60
1. 70

$

1. 70
1. 80

$

1. 80
1. 90

$

2. 00

$

2. 00
2. 10

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
4
10

26
4
22

11
6
5

9
7
2

15
15
-

48
43
5

4
4

18
12

-

1
1

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

6
2

34
34
-

-

-

39
8
31
_
"

19
19
-

7
3
4
_
-

28
18
10
-

26
14
12
-

7
2
5
-

4
2
2
-

27
7
20
-

56
56

_
-

24
6
18

31
4
27

32
32
-

24
24
_
-

_

11
11

2
2

2
2

_

_

_

-

2

-

-

-

12
11

7

16

_

6
------ 6------

7
7

-

-

9
9

3
-

3
3

7
4

_

1
-

2

8
8

8
8

_

1
-

4
4

_

1
-

3
3

3
-

_

-

-

1
-

7
7
-

1
1
-

7
7
-

16
16
-

24
8
16
-

8
8
-

8
4
4
-

-

1
1

-

16
16

2
2

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

8

7
7

-

-

-

7
------- 6—

$

2. 10

$
2. 20

2. 20

2. 30

_

1. 90

.

_

.

$

$
2 .4 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

.

.

.

.

-

-

_
-

_
"
-

_
-

_
-

-

2. 50

$

$

2. 30

-

"

$

2. 60

2. 70
and

over

-

16
16

3
3

4
4

-

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
6
2
2

55
10
45
_
-

46
10
36
13

30
30
30

-

14
14
-

89
89

1
1
-

1
1
-

1
1

15
15
-

7
-

_

_

_

12

9
-

-

-

-

1
1

29
29

2
2

-

2
-

2
1

6
6

1
-

-

-

4
4
_
-

2
-

4
-

_

1
_

3
-

.

5
2

1
-

1
1

6
4

9
9

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

17
17
-

9
9
-

1
1
-

1
1
1

7
3
4
4

65
65
65

77
77
-

_
-

42
642
-

4
4
-

-

10
10
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

-

4
4

9
9

-

-

-

-

"

-

4
4

-

3
-

2
-

-

-

-

-

3
-

28
28

77
77

"

42
42

-

26
26
-

-

-

_

"
45
-

.

-

_
1

_

51

_

___
_ _ _
_ _ _ _ _

2. 04

-

-

-

-

-

22

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

28

-

-

-

79
51
28

1. 88
1. 90
1. 84

.

_

_

4
1
3

8
8
-

10
10
-

3
2
1

2
1
1

9
9

6
6
-

-

-

10
10
-

-

-

4
4

_

-

19
9
10

-

-

4
4

41
30

1. 57
1. 68

11
8

4
3

3
1

3
•

_

1
-

_

1

_

8
8

_

"

7
7

"

-

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except w here otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 4 at $ 0 . 8 0 to $ 0 . 90; 24 at $1 to $ 1 . 10.
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $ 2. 70 to $ 2. 80; 13 at $ 2. 80 to $ 2. 90; 21 at $ 2. 90 to $ 3.




$

“

-

-

$

*

~

_

3
3

_

-

-

_

_

_

“

"

“




9
Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes Jq applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners,beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

O FFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and in voices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

,

Biller machine (billing machine)— U ses a specia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of car Don cop ies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f
sales and credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep­
aration o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s of a
complete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an e s ­
tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and

10

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocation s. May
assist in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct cla ss B accounting clerks.
Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
CLERK, FILE
Class A — Responsible for maintaining an established filing

system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or a ssists in locating ma­
terial in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the
following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

11

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and
making phone ca lls ; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
while at switchboard.

posi­
also
This
time

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing
machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

-

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data On forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition
operate auxiliary machines.

,

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing

.

-

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

machine work

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll in or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerica l work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

12

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licie s, etc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O FE SSIO N A L AND TEC H N ICA L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-se ctio n s, e tc ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications* May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

13

MAINTENANCE

D PO W ERPLAN T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chin ist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

14

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler-*
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded

.

15

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C USTO DIAL AND M ATERIA L MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office buildings
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

16

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen* who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales slip s, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and custom ers' houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver
Truckdriver
Truckdriver
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

(combination o f sizes listed separately)

, light (under 1% tons)
, medium (PA to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type)

heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

,

Trucker power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1961

O - 580796

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— B u ll. 1285Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285
Albuquerque, N. M ex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—E aston ,
P a .- N .J .— B ull. 1285Atlanta, G a .— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— B u ll. 1285Beaumont—Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la .— Bu ll. 1285“
B o ise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, M a ss.— Bull. 1285-15
Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Burlington, V t.— B ull. 1285Canton, Ohio— B ull. 1285Charleston, W. V a .— Bu ll. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285£ ^Chattanooga, T e n n .—G a .— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—K y .— Bull. 1285*
* * Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
Columbus, Ohio— B u ll. 1285D a lla s, T e x .— Bull. 1285- 21
Davenport—Rock Island—Moline, Iowa—111.—
Bu ll. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, C o lo .— Bull. 1285Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, M ich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T e x .— Bu ll. 1285-23

* Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la .— Bull. 1285Kansas City, Mo.—Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—Haverhill, Mass.—N.H.— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285*3
Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—Clifton—Passaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

P o r tla n d , M a in e — B u ll.
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W

P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t , R . I . —M a s s . — B u l l .




1285-

**R aleigh , N.C___ Bull. 1285*5
R i c h m o n d , V a . — B u l l . 1285R o c k f o r d , 111.— B u l l . 1285* * S t . L o u i s , M o .—111.— B u l l . 1285-10
S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h — B u l l . 1285-

San Antonio, Tex. — B u l l . 1285*San Bernardino—Riverside—Ontario,
C a l i f . — B u l l . 1285-4
S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . — B u l l .

1285-

1285^ S c r a n t o n , P a . — B u l l . 1285-8
* * S e a t t l e , W a s h . — B u l l . 1285*7
* * * S i o u x F a l l s , S . D a k . — B u l l . 1285-17
S o u t h B e n d , I n d . — B u l l . 1285S a v a n n a h , G a .— B u ll.

128512851285-

S p o k a n e , W a s h .— B u l l .
T o le d o , O h io — B u ll.
T re n to n ,

N .J. —

B u ll.

W a sh in g to n , D .C .- M d .- V a .— B u ll.

1285-22

W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . — B u l l . 1285W a t e r l o o , I o w a — B u l l . 1285-20

1285-9
Wilmington, D el.—N .J.— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-

* * W ic h ita , K a n s .— B u ll.

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
Price, 20 cents.
**
Price, 25 cents.
* * * Price, 15 cents.

12851285' 19
a s h . — B u l l . 1285-

P ittsb u rg h , P a .— B u ll.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102