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Occupational Wage Survey

CHATTANOOGA, TEN NE SSE E -G EO RGIA
SEPTEM BER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-14




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
lames P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE-GEORGIA




SEPTEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-14
December I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program

Introduction

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the
year's surveys is issued after completion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of surveys.

1

Tables:
1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey -------------------

2

A:

Occupational earnings:*
A - 1.
Office occupations -------------------------------------------------------------A - 2 . P rofessional and technical occupations------------------------------A - 3.Maintenance and powerplant occupations--------------------------------A - 4.Custodial and m aterial movement occupations-----------------------

4
5
6
7

B.
This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional
office in Atlanta, Ga. , by Donald M. C ruse, under the
direction of Louis B. Woytych, A ssistan t Regional Director
for Wages and Industrial Relations.




----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions:*
B -l.
Shift differentials -------------------------------------------------------------B -2 . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours --------------------------------------------------------B - 4.
Paid holidays -----------------------------------------------------------------B - 5.
Paid vacations ----------------------------------------------------------------B - 6. Health, insurance, and pension p la n s----------------------------------

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions ---------------------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for these items are available
in the reports for surveys in other m ajor a reas.
A d irec­
tory indicating date of study and the price of the reports,
is available upon request.
Union sca le s, indicative of prevailing pay lev els,
are also available for seven selected building trades in the
Chattanooga area.

iii

9
10
10
11
12
14
15




Occupational Wage Survey—Chattanooga, Tenn.-Ga.
Introduction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U. S. Department of Labor rs Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide basis. In this area, data were obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field economists to representative establishments
within six broad industry divisions:
Manufacturing; transportation,1
communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail
trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv ices. M ajor in­
dustry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to w ar­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex ­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial movement.

late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but c o s t-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties p e r ­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of se r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Information is presented also (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they r e ­
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
late to office and plant workers.
The term "o ffice workers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
fu ll-tim e workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant w orkers" in­
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative,
executive, and professional em ployees, and force-account construction
1
Railroads, form erly excluded from the scope of these studies,
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Baltim ore, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Seattle.
Railroads are now in­
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
cluded in the scope of all labor-m arket wage surveys.
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.




2

Table

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Chattanooga, T e n n .-G a .

Industry division

A ll divisions

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------ ------------- Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5 --------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade ___________________________________________
Retail trade -------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate -----------------------------S e r v ic e s7 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ -

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Number of establishments
W ithin
scope of
study 3

by m ajor industry division,2 September I960
W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
Total 4

Office

Plant

T o ta l4

50

199

94

51. 600

5, 500

39, 300

35, 940

50
50

126
73

53
41

38, 900
12, 700

2, 700
2, 800

31, 700
7, 600

26, 170
9, 770

50
50
50
50
50

10
10
30
8
15

10
5
13
6
7

3, 300
800
4, 300
2, 500
1, 800

400
(6)

0

(6)
(6)

2, 000
( 6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

3, 300
450
3, 030
2, 040
950

1 The Chattanooga Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Hamilton County, T e n n ., and W alker County, G a .).
The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide
a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other
area employment indexes to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably
in advance of the payroll
period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
M ajor changes from the earlier edition (used in
the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail)
to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
Chattanooga's electric utilities are municipally operated, and are therefore excluded by definition from the scope
of the studies.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the divisions is to sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially toperm it separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to perm it separate presentation, (4)
there
is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment
data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




3
Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment p o lic y ,2 presented in terms of total plant worker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sification "other*' was used.
In establishments in which some la teshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.

Minimum entrance rates (table B -2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a m a ­
jority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the
practices listed. Scheduled hours are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority
are covered. 3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items in these
tabulations may not equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided.
The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation,
social security, and railroad retirem ent.
Such plans include those
underwritten by a com m ercial insurance company and those provided
through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which require e m ­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes m ore than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick -leave plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) .plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to form al arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or fla t-su m amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Catastrophe insurance, som etim es referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial,
payment of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-in su red . Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
w orker's life.

2 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
3 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B -3) in surveys made prior to July 1957 were presented in
term s of the proportion of women office workers employed in offices
with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick -lea ve allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-1. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Chattanooga, Tenn. -G a. , September I960)
A ra u si
Number
of
workers

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNING8 OF—

$
$
$
4 0. 00 4 5. 00 50. 00 55. 00
and
u n d er
4 5. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 0 0

<
Weekly
hour*1
(Standard)

(Standard)

U n der
$
4 0. 00

S
00

65. 00

65. 00

7 0. 00

60.

S

7 0. 00
7 5. 00

$

75. 00 *80.
80.

00

00

8 5. 00

$
$
85. 00 9 0 .
9 0.

00

00

9 5. 00

S

*95. 00 f o o .
1 0 0 .0 0

00

1 0 5 .0 0

11 0 .0 0

115. 00

105. 00

11 0 .0 0

115. 00

12 0 . 00

1 2 0 . 00

and
over

M en
C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A _ ---------------- -------- --------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------- -------------------------------------

34
28

4 0. 0
4 0. 0

$ 9 7 . 50
9 9. 50

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
3

C l e r k s , o r d e r ________ _____ ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________________

20

4 0. 0
4 0. 0

8 0. 0 0
7 8. 00

_

_

15

-

-

2
2

1
1

-

1
1

32
26

39. 5
39. 0

55. 50
54. 50

_

13

2

7

_

2

_

_

-

11

2

6

-

1

-

-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ----------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________ _____ ________________

23

39. 5
4 0. 0

105. 00
1 1 3 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ----------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _______
__
---------------------------------------

27

39. 5
4 0. 0

7 3. 00
7 3. 50

_

_

_

_

5

-

-

-

2
2

1

-

5
5

-

_

l

_

2

9

3

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

-------- ---------

-------- ----- _ ----------

16

16

_

_

1

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

2
2

10
8

2
2

3

3

2

2

1
1

2
1

_

3

l

_

4

3
3

_

2

1
1

8

-

1

-

2

6

_

_

.

_

_

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

4
3

1

2

_

1

-

1
1

2

4

8

_

1

7

-

_

_

_

_

3
-

1

5
5

3

1

2

-

_

_

_

2

2

7
7

_

1

1

-

-

38
8

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a ch in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e ) ______________

16

4 0. 0

63. 50

1

1

2

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A -------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________________________

35

40. 0
40. 0

7 2 . 50
7 1 .0 0

-

-

-

1

2
2

5
5

6
6

6

21

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _____________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________________________

103
94

40. 0
40. 0

52. 50
52. 00

4
4

12
12

20

28
28

23
17

12
12

3
3

1
1

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------- ------------------ —
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ------- --------------------------- ----------------

59
36
23

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

7 6 . 00
7 8. 00
7 2. 50

_
"

_
-

_
"

_
-

4

7

9

2
2

2

6

7
5

5

3

C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s B
-------- ------------------ —
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________________ ___
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------ __ — —
----- __ __ ---------

143
80
63

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

6 1 .0 0
67. 0 0
53. 00

_
-

2

17

33

-

2

6

24
14

-

2

15

27

10

24
15
9

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ---------------------------------------------------------

37

38. 5

56. 50

_

_

8

10

4

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ---------- -------- ----------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________________________________ __ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------- ------------- —

112

39. 0
39. 5
38. 5

4 8 . 00
52. 50
4 7 . 50

1

25
9

8

6

1

25
25

50

-

44

16

8

28

40. 0
4 0. 0

6 2. 0 0
6 2. 50

114
91
23

4 0. 0
40. 0
39. 0

130
70
60

27

C l e r k s , o r d e r _________ __ ----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __ ------------- -------C l e r k s , p a y r o ll

-----------------— -------- ---------

__________________ _____________

N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g

------

__

_ __

-----------------------------------------------

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s _ ----- ----- __ __ ---------- -------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------- -------- __ --------------------- --------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________ ___________ __ --------O ffic e g ir ls

_____

______

_________________________ ____

S e c r e t a r ie s ------ __ ----- -------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ---------- ----------------- ------------- --------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _ ------- ----- ---------- --------------------

17
95
29

333
228
105

17

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

1
1

6

2

5
3

_
-

1
1

..
-

_
_

_
_

2

14
9
5

3

2

-

1

-

-

9
9
-

14
14
-

7
7
-

13
13
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

10

3

2

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

2
1
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

2
2

1
1

_
_

1
1

_

_

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

_
-

_
-

_
-

1

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

4
3

3

9

6
6

3
3

1

1

-

-

_

_

6

“

5

4
4

2

-

2

8
8

2
2

1
1

6 5. 00
64. 50
6 6 . 00

_
-

1

11
10

18
17

12

25
22

15
9

1

1

7
5

9
7

3

2

6

39. 0
4 0. 0
38. 5

55. 50
59. 0 0
5 1 .0 0

3
3

37
16

14
13

7
5

1

21

31
14
17

27

-

2

5
5
-

39.

0

4 8 . 00

_

13

4

6

4

.

_

_

4 0. 0
40. 0
39. 5

7 6. 50
7 8. 50
7 3 . 00

25

-

5
5

7

-

1
6

22

50
33
17

39
23
16

34
24

55
39
16

1
1

12

15

3

.

1

10

_
-

6
6

8
6
2

9
9
-

1

-

_
-

_

_

1

_

24
14

36
24

11

10

12

15
4

5

17
14
3

10

1

2
1

'

See footnotes at end of table.




5

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Chattanooga, T e n n .-G a ., September I960)
Ay u i o i
Number
of
workeri

S ex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

40. 00

$
45. 00

45. 00

50. 00

9

Weekly
boon 1
(Standard)

Weekly ^ U n der
(Standard)

4 0. 00

9

50. 00

t

55. 00

55. 00

6 5. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

-

-

-

-

6 5 .0 0

70. 00

75. 00

t

*

60.

6 0 .0 0

00

$
8 0.

$
00

8 5. 00

$
90

.

00

-

80.

90. 00

95. 00

$
95. 00

-

85. 00

00

-

1 0 0 .0 0

$
s
$
$
1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0
and
1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 o v e r
9
10 0 .0 0

-

W o m e n — C on tin u ed
_
-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l --------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------------- ----------------------------- -----------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------

211

139
72

39. 5
4 0. 0
3 9 .0

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ------ -------- ----------------------------- _
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------

44
33

4 2. 0
4 2. 5

54. 50
49. 00

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n is t s ----------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------

83
60
23

4 0. 0
4 0. 0
39. 5

5 9. 50
6 0. 50
56. 50

_
-

.

_

$

. 50
64. 50
7 1. 00

66

3

16

17

10
6

12

39
27

5

24
17
7

12

35
31
4

27

1
2

_

5

5

-

2
2

2

4

2
2

6

14

11

6

8

-

6

9
4
5

10
1

4

15
15

36

3 9 .5

66

86

3 8 .5

T y p is t s , c l a s s A --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------

55
28
27

3 9 .0
4 0. 0
3 8 .5

64. 50
71. 50
5 7. 00

1

5

-

-

19

8

10

1

11
8

7

9

1

1

T y p is t s , c l a s s B -------------------------- ------------- ----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________ - ________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------

253
57
196

38. 5
4 0 .0
38. 5

4 9. 50
55. 00
48. 00

.
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4
3

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

l
l

_
_

.
_

_
_

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

4

_

6

.
"

12

2

4

2

_

4

11

18

11

11

7

2

11

11
11

4
4

-

-

7
3
4

2
2

1
1

-

_
_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

9

51
15
36

4
3

10
1

11

125
16
109

37
37

-

.
_

_

2

2

1

_
_

_

.
-

1

00

13
_
13

_
_

-

1
1

4
4

23

.
-

Standard
Workers
Workers
Workers

_

1

56. 50

------------------

5
4

_
-

2

12

4

-

-----------------

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s C

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l

17
5

7

18
15
3

20

16
7
9

1

20

16
4

_

2

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

6

1

-

-

-

-

hours reflect the workweekfor which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
were distributed as follows: 3 at $ 1 35 to $ 140; 1 at $ 140 to $ 145; 2 at $ 145 to $ 150; 1 at $ 150 to$ 155.
were distributed as follows 2 at $ 120 to $ 125; 5 at $ 1 30 to $ 1 35; 1 at $ 1 35 to $
140.
were distributed as follows 1 at $ 25 to $ 30; 12 at $ 30 to $ 35; 2 at $ 35 to $ 40.

Table A-2. Professional qnd Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Chattanooga, T en n .-G a., September I960)
A v iu a i

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

at

w orkers

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

9

N u m ber
W e e k ly
houn 1
(S ta n da rd )

W e e k ly x
(Sta n da rd)

9

55. 00
and
under
60. 0 0

60.

9

$
S
125. 00 130. 00

80.

00

8 5. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 0 0

-

85. 00

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

8
8

6
6

22
22

17
17

15
15

18
18

8
8

4
4

12
12

3
3

3
3

1
1

1
1

5
5

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

-

1
1

-

65. 00

$

S

9

$

9

75. 00

65. 00

9
90

$

9

70. 00

00

.

00

95. 00

-

-

90. 00

95. 00

1 0 0 .0 0

-

S

1 0 0 .0 0
-

9

<

1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0
-

-

-

1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0

1 2 0 . 00

1 2 0 . 00

1 2 5 .0 0 130.

00

and
over

M en
D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r ------------- ---------- ------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------

no
no

40. 0
4 0. 0

$ 1 1 3 .0 0
1 13.00

_

4 0. 0
4 0. 0

88.5 0
88.5 0

2
2

_

-

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) ------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------

24
24

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.




_

6
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t -t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , C h a tta n o o g a , T e r m .—G a . , S e p te m b e r I9 6 0 )
NU M B ER OF W O RK ER S R E CE IVIN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E HOURLY EA RN IN G S OF—

O c c u p a tio n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n c e -------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________________

Number
of
workers

42
40

Average
hourly .
earnings

%
1 .0 0
and
u n d er
1. 10

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

1 .2 0

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

1 .6 0

$

1 .7 0

E n g in e e r s ,

s t a tio n a r y ----------------------------------------------

F i r e m e n , s t a tio n a r y b o ile r ______________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________________________

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------- ------ ---------

M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n c e ----- -----------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) ---------M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------

1 .9 0

2 . 00

$2 . 4 0

$2 . 50

*2. 60

* 2 .7 0

$2 . 8 0

$2 . 9 0

$3 . 00

$3 . 10

2. 10

2 . 20

2 . 30

2 .4 0

2 . 50

2 . 60

2. 70

2 .8 0

2. 90

3 . 00

3 . 10

3 . 20

1
1

-

6
6

6
6

11
11

4
4

5
5

2

!

_

8
8

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

-

33

2 . 59

_

_

_

_

2

1

_

_

_

95
91

1 .4 8
1. 50

2 24
21

24
24

7
7

5
5

5
4

8
8

“

1
1

2 . 14
2 . 14

.
"

2
2

_

2 . 60
2 . 60

_

_

_

_

“

■

2 . 10
2 . 05

_

_

_

_

_

2

16

"

~

"

“

"

16

_

_

_

_

_

~

“

“

3
3

_

"

_

.

.

~

■

"

.

10
10

.

■

~

~

1
1

8
8

_

_

_

_

“

■

“

_

_

_

M ill w r ig h t s ___________________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------- ------- ----------------------------------

87
87

2 . 76
2 . 76

.

O i l e r s ________________________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------

74
70

2 . 03
2. 02

8
8

P a i n t e r s , m a in te n a n c e ____________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________________________

67
67

2 . 30
2 . 30

_

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a in te n a n c e _________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------

43
43

2. 75
2. 75

.

2 . 73
2. 73

_

62
62

$
2 . 30

_

“
_

“

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s
In c lu d e s 3 w o r k e r s at $ 0 . 8 0 to $ 0 . 9 0 .

"

_

-

2
2
----------T -------- 2

_

h o lid a y s ,

and la te

—

_

2
3
2
r --------2~1 --------- r
_

_

-

"

_
■

5
5

8
8

_

_

17
l6

9
9

6
6

_

-

■

5
4

~

1
1

_

_

2
2

14
14

18
18

2
2

22
22

_

_

_

"

■ —

1
r~

.

“

13
13

~

.

_

_

_

_

"

~

~

_

1
1

_

4
4

_

■
_

_

_

j

s h ift s .

_

_

1

3
3

20
1

5
--------- 5“

_

2
2

1
1

“

_

_

_

■

■
_

_

6
5

9
8

“

5
5

23
23

41
41

10
9

4
4

47
47

_
“

22
22

_

_

7

1

_

6

2

1

10

7
7

5
5

~

-

“

*

.

_

“

‘

_

64
--------- W ~

$
2. 20

2
2

'

2. 58
2 . 38

140
137

$
2 . 10

“

‘

186
185

83
81

2. 00

11
11

'

2. 51
2 . 51




1 .8 0

$

3
3

"

32 7
322

1
2

$
1. 9 0

8
8

"

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e ---------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________________________

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s _______________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________________________

$
1 .8 0

3
3

$ 2 . 19
2 . 18
'

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n c e _______________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________________

70

V

_

22
22

9
8

2
2

_

6
i
i

<
>

17
17

4
4

~

■

.

.

.

"

■

9
9

18
15

2
1

5
4

6
6

“

8
8

57
56

100
100

8
4

1
1

2
2

4
4

8
8

_

8
8

.

_

34
30 '

6
---------5“

56
56

3

-

-

2
2

5
5

-

15
15

.

1
1

.

“

2
---------T

~

48
48

30
30

“

4
4

11
11

.

4
4

2
2

52
52

-

~

_

-

11
11

_

_

~

“

*

_

_
-

21
21

_

~

_

_

_

~

2
2

34
34

2
2

5
5

_

_

“

'

1
1

1

_
“

4
4

2
2

10
10

_

_

_

_

1

~

■

_

“

1
1

43
43

8
8

_

_

8
8

3
3

_

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Chattanooga, Tenn.— a ., September I960)
G
NUM BER OF W O RK ERS RE CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E H OURLY EARN ING S OF—
Number

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

of

workers

$
Average
0. 50
hourly
and
earnings 2

$

$

$

$

$1 .0 0

$90 10
1.

1 . 00

1 . 10

1 . 20

-

-

-

5

11

0 .60

0. 70

0 .80

.7 0

.8 0

.9 0

“

-

30

13

0.

$

1 . 20

%

$

$

$

1.

1 . 7 0 $1. 8 0

$

$
1. 9 0

2 . 00

2 . 00

2 . 10

1. 30

1. 4 0

$1 . 5 0

1. 30

1. 4 0

1.50

1.60

1. 7 0

1.80

1. 90

2
2

8
8

3
3

7

-

"

7

17
16

8
8

54
54

117
48

112

77

19

28

1

17

53
53

69
3

50

49

16
18
13

34
28

18

28

91
80

34

62

18

11
1

60

$2 .

10

$

2 . 20

%

$

5

$

$

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2.60

2. 70

2.80

2. 40

2. 50

2.

2.70

2.80

over

-

-

-

-

-

11
11

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

under
. 60

G uards
--------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------

J a n ito rs, p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
------------------------------------- — --------------(m e n )
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 --------------------------------

164

$ 1.97

163

1.97

669
358

1. 30
1.45

11

311

1 . 12
1.50

11

and
60

14

|

24

30

13

5

11

"

"

"

-

1 . 12

43

-

1

10

19 1
46

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l in g -----------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------

994
835

1 . 66
1.68

_

12

-

-

.
-

_
-

159

1.52

-

12

-

-

-------------------------------------------------O rd er fille r s
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------

70
57

1.62
1.62

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

P a c k e r s , s h i p p in g
--------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___
_
_

92

1.26
1.26

15

1. 31

-

---------------

2. 30

14

40
40

-

11
1

1

6

1

13

i
|

5

-

14

I 12
j
2

2

"
|

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
( w o m e n ) ----------------------------------------------------------

2 . 20

92

100

!
i 21

8

14

.
-

10
10

5

_

5

17

5

5

2
2

4
4

!
j
:
i

2

_

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

~

"

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

|

2
2

-

94

72

20

68
4

7
13

132
114
18

38
31
7

10

142
136

52
52

41
41

22
22

231
231

52

60
34

_

_

63
63

_

6
_

_

_

7

6

-

-

-

-

52

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

_

_

12
12

4

_

3

_

.

'!

“

-

18
17

.

"

4
3

_

-

4
4

_

-

6
6

4

-

12
12

37
37

17
17

19

6

-

1

9

9

19

_

_

-

3
3

-

-

8
8

4
4

-

-

-

4

4

6
1

R e c e iv in g c le r k s
M a n u fa c t u r in g

--------------------------------------------------------- ------------- —

59
45

1

4

1. 7 4

1 .8 6

9
5

S h ip p in g c l e r k s
--------------------- — --------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------

51
41

2 . 02
2 . 19

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s
----------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------ ---------------------

19
15

1. 9 9

T r u c k d r i v e r s 6 ---------- --------- --------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------l-J AO ^

280
163
117
27

1.81
1.82

46
36

1.49
1.59

-

1.80

-

2

1

2
2

3
3

-

12
10

5
5

7

6

1
1

?. 4 7

T r u c k d r i v e r s , li g h t ( u n d e r
l l /2 t o n s )
_______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------

4

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d i u m ( l 1/2 t o
a n d in c lu d in g 4 to n s )
------- --------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g —
— --------- —
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 -------------------------

154
84
70
19

1.69

1.79

1.71
1.90
2. 38

4




8

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

1

-

1

4

25
16

28
18

9

10

-

-

-

1

1

4

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

1

1

4

-

-

-

1

1

4

-

21
11
10

-

4
4

8

-

7
7

-

2
2

-

2
2

-

20

24

2

-

8
8

33
31

16

-

10

2
2

2

-

7

-

7

1
1

5

-

2

18

7

13

2

2

3

1

-

3

1

"

6
6
-

4
4

7

11

3

3
-

2

-

4

3

-

-

-

5
5

2
2

.

_

_

"

-

1

9

5

16

2
1

6

18
15

2

36
34

7

3
3

-

3

18

6

6

-

2

.

-

4

9

.

_

3

10

9

1
1

4

6

11

1
1

13
13

18

15

2
2

-

2

1

7

3

18

7

-

_

2

1

18

-

34
32

16

1

18

2

16

10

i
See footnotes at end of table.

4

"

-

3
3

.

53

-

-

3
2
2

-

-

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

■

■

'

6
6
6

-

-

6
6
-

14

-

-

14
14

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Chattanooga, Tenn.— a ., September I960)
G
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
N u m b er

Occupation1 and industry division

of

% %

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ 50 0. 60 V 70 $0.80 $0. 90 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1. 60 1. 70 1.80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2. 70 2.80
0.
hourly
and
earn in gs *
and
under
.6 0
. 70
.8 0
.9 0 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1. 70 1.80 1. 90 2.00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2.80 over
A v e ra g e

T ruckd rivers:6— Continued
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ---- ------- ------------ —
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------

52
37

$ 1 .9 4
1. 75

-

Truckers, power (forklift) -----------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

274
258
16

1.76
1.77
1.61

_
-

Truckers, power (other than
forklift) _______________________________
Manufacturing
------------ __ ------------

34
24

1.64
1.45

■

130
121

1. 37
1. 39

Watchmen

1
2
3
4
5
6




-------------------------- -----------------

-

-

"

'

"

-

.
“

.
~

_
■

_
“

_
■

-

"

■

■

"

■
15
11

2

1
1

1
1

-

-

27
27
~

13
13

10
9
1

52
52
“

-

6
6

4
4

■

8
■

6
6

6
6

1

4
4

5
5

1
■

18
18

"

-

12
12
-

21
21

41
37
4

19
11
8

30
30

12
12

_

■

■

2
2

43
42

8
8

24
24

3
2

4
4

1
1

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes 1 worker at $ 0 . 4 0 to $ 0 . 5 0 .
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 3. 40 to $ 3. 50; 1 at $ 3. 60 to $ 3. 70.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.

~

18
18

-

-

8
-

6
-

8
8

_
"

"

_

45
43
2

_
~

.
■

1
1
“

2
2
■

-

~

*

1

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Chattanooga, Term.—
Ga. , September I960)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers---In establishments having formal
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

Actually working on—

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

Third or other
shift

9 .5

-.......................

86.6

82. 0

19.4

-----------------------------

65.4

69.3

13.7

6. 8

Uniform cents (per hour) __________________

50.7

56.8

9 .4

4. 6

2 cents __________________ ______________
4 cents _ ________________________________
5 cents __________________________________
6 cents --------------- ---------------------------------7 cents
__ _____________________
___ _
8 cents ____________________ _____________
9 cents ____________ ____ ____ _______
10 cents _________________ _____________
11 cents ________________________ _______
1 1 V5 c e n t s --- ---------------------- — — ___
12 cents
121/j cents ______________________________
I3 V3 cents ______________________________
14 cents _______________ 1
_________________
15 cents _________________ ______________

4. 3
10. 2
7. 3
4. 2
16.9
4 .8
2. 3
.7
-

_
1.6
11.9
_
5. 1
3. 0
8.3
2 .4
1.8
4 .6
2. 3
.7
3. 3
11.7

.1
.5
1.7
1.0
4 .9
_
.7
_
_
_
.1
.3
_
-

Uniform percentage -------------------------------------

12.4

12.4

3 .4

2. 2

5 percent ________________________________
7 V2 percent __________ ________ _______
10 percent ________________________ ________

6. 1
6. 4

3.7
2. 3
6 .4

1.9
1.6

.4
.3
1. 5

Total ___________ _____ - ..............
With shift pay differential

Other formal pay differential ____

_______

No shift pay differential ------------------------ ------

2. 2
21. 2

_

_
1.3
_

_

.2
.5
.2
.2
.2
.2
.1
.1
.5
1. 1

-

.9

-

12. 7

5. 7

2. 6

1
Includes establishments currently operating late shifts and establishments with formal provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.

10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W ork ers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga. , September I960)
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum weekly salary 1

All
industries

Other inexperienced clerical workers 2
Nonmanufacturing

All
schedules

40

All
schedules

Manufactu ring
A ll
industries

Based on standard weekly hours ;* of—

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—
All
schedules

40

40

All
schedules

40

Establishments studied ------------------------------------------------------------------

94

53

XXX

41

XXX

94

53

XXX

41

XXX

Establishments having a specified minimum ----------------------------

21

11

11

10

6

34

18

18

16

12

Under $ 4 0 .0 0 ............................................................................................
$ 40. 00 and under $ 42. 50 -------------------------------------------------------$ 42. 50 and under $ 45. 00 _____________________________________
$ 45. 00 and under $ 47. 50 -------------------------------------------------------$ 47. 50 and under $ 50. 00 -----------------------------------------------------$ 5 0 .0 0 and under $ 52. 50 -------------------------------------------------------$ 5 2 .5 0 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 -------------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 -------------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 60. 00 -------------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 62. 50 -------------------------------------------------------Over $ 62. 50 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
5
5
3
1
2
2
1
1

_
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

_
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

1
3
3
1
1
1
"

1
3
1
1
-

1
12
7
3
2
4
1
1
2
1

_
7
3
2
1
1
1
2

_
7
3
2
1
1
1
2

1
5
4
1
1
4
-

1
5
1
1
_
4
_
_
_
_

1

1

Establishments having no specified minimum -------------------------Establishments which did not employ workers in
this category --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6

5

XXX

1

XXX

18

14

XXX

4

XXX

67

37

XXX

30

XXX

42

21

XXX

21

XXX

“

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweek reported.

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Chattanooga, Tenn.—G a ., September I960)
PLAN T WORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Weekly hours
A ll industries 1

A ll workers

--------------------------------------------------------

2l z
>
ll

Under
hours ---------------------------------------------3 7 V 2 hours ---------------------------------------------------------Over 3 7 V 2 and under 40 hours ----------------------40 hours -------------------------------------------------------------Over 40 and under 44 hours ----------------------------44 hours -------------------------------------------------------------Over 44 and under 48 hours ----------------------------48 hours -------------------------------------------------------------Over 48 hours -------------------- — ----------------------1
2
3
4

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

2

4
-

3
7
90
~

22

5
67
1
1
1
(4)
(4)

-

94
1
”

All industries 3

M anufacturing

100

100

100

2

1
1
96
1
I

3
88
9
"

1
(4)
89
2

1
1
3
2

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




Pu ttie utilities2

11
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Chattanooga, Tenn.—Ga. , September I960)
PLAN T W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Item
All industries 3

A ll workers

----------

------------------

--------------

-------

-

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays ---------------------------------------------------------- -----------Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays
— ------------------ —
---------

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

99

99

10 0

1

1

M anufacturing

Pu blic utilities 2

100

100

72

69

97

28

31

3

3
3

6

3
3
1
2
13
10
1
26
14
(4)

6
6
76
76
95
10 0
100
100
100
100

(4)
15
40
41
51
63
66
66
69
72

Number of days
1
3
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
9

holiday
-------- -------------------- ---------------- — — —
holidays _____ _______ —
__
--------------------- holidays ______________ ____
_________ ~
---------------------------------------holidays plus 1 half day
holidays -------------- -----------------------------------------—
— --------- holidays _ --------------------- _ -------------holidays plus 1 half day ------------------------------------------holidays --------------------------- —
---------------- h o lid a y s _________
____ —
-------------- — h o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total ho lid a y time

_

_

2
4
2
13
28
3
28
19

-

(4)
10
31
44
71
95
96
98
99
99

19
46
50
77
91
92
96
99
99

-

5
19
-

70
-

'

.
-

-

-

3
5
11
1
25
18

-

"

9
8
-

75
-

4

5

9 days
-------------------------------------------------------------- 8 or m ore days ____________________ __ --------- _
7 or m ore days ------------------ -----------------------------------6V2 or m ore days ------------------------------------------------------------6 or m ore days -------------- —
------------------------5 or m ore days -------- ---------- ------------------------------ _ _
41 or m ore days _____________________________
4 or m ore days ________________________________
3 or m ore days ---------------- ---------- ------- -----1 or m ore days
_______
___
___

h

(4)
1
2
1
24
26
14
21
9
(4)

18
43
44
55
60
63
63
65
69

4
4
80
80
88
97
97
97
97
97

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
5 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days
half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.




and no

12
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Chattanooga, Tenn.— a ., September I960)
G
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Vacation policy
A ll industries1

A ll workers

--------------------------------

--------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

99
97
1

99
96
3

100
100
-

All industries3

100

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

97
61
37

100
100

-

-

_
_

Method of payment
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations -------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e payment ----------------------------Percentage payment -----------------------------------F lat-su m payment --------------------------------------Other -------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations --------------------------------------------

96
66
29
1
(4)

-

-

-

1

-

-

(4)

1

“

4

3

"

2
55
6
3

2
52
2
5

6
23
-

18
4
1
“

4
38
_

-

15
6
1
-

_
43
(4)
55
1

_
30
67
2

_
84
16
-

2
84
(4)
10
-

_
86
11
-

_
94

_
11
7
80

_
12
85
2

_
6
63
31
"

2
69
5
20
-

_
76
5
16
-

_
36
12
52
-

_
7
1
91
1

_
7
90
2

_
3
97
-

1
52
9
35
-

_
57
10
30
-

2
1
92
1
3

4
89
2
4

11
2
81
1
1

11
84
1
1

Amount of vacatio n p a y 5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

"

After 1 year of service
Under 1 week ------------------------ -------------------------1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____________________

6
-

After 2 years of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week -------------------- ------------- -------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ____________________
2 weeks ----------------------- ------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks __ ------------------ -----

1

Aiter 3 years of service
Under 1 week
1 week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------------------------

_
34

_

66
-

After 5 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------- ------- — -----------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------- ------- --------------------------

See footnotes at end of table,




_
-

100
-

_
_
100
-

13
Table B-5. Paid V acations-C ontinued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Chattanooga, T e n n .-G a ., September I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Vacation policy
All industries1

M
anufacturing

P
ublic u
tilities2

A in u
ll d stries 3

M
anufacturing

10
2
61
6
18

11
59
8
19

10
2
39

11

_

-

-

P
ublic u
tilities2

Am ount o f v a c a t io n p a y 5 — Continued

After 10 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------- -------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

4

_

_

2
80
3
13

68
7
21

2

4

_

-

-

-

37
1
59
1

38
2
53
2

-

-

94
-

44
2

38
46
2

97
-

_

10
2
38

11

_

-

-

37

-

-

94
-

6

_

94
_
6

After 15 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks — -------------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks -------------------------------

6

3
-

After 20 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------- — -------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks — — -------------------4 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

2

4

-

-

-

37
1
53
1
5

38
2
43
2
10

6
94

2

4

_

-

-

-

32
1
36

38
2
31

-

-

-

39
2
6

40
2
7

11

6

10
2
38

-

-

-

21
3
24

21
3
25

-

-

3
-

95
_

2

After 25 years of service
1 week ------------------------------------ -------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------- -----------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------3 weeks _________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ------------------------------4 weeks ----------------------- ------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
service

_

28

68

-

-

24

26

_

37

_
_

3
-

56
_

42

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

N OTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of time, " such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments,
to an equivalent time b asis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay.




were converted

14
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Chattanooga, T e n n .-G a . , September I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Type of benefit
All industries 1

A ll workers

___

_____

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

______

100

100

All industries3

M anufacturing

100

100

Pu blic utilities,2

100

W orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance __ __
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
_______ __ __ — ------ — —
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4
__ __
Sickness and accident, insurance ---------Sick leave (full pay-and no
waiting period) ________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ________________________
Hospitalization insurance _ ____
Surgical insurance ____________
Medical insurance __
Catastrophe insurance _ --------Retirement pension _ __
No health, insurance, or pension

1
2
3
4

— __ _
_________
------plan -----

91

93

37

83

87

56

42

53

30

45

49

42

64

73

64

66

73

42

38

61

9

59

69

36

27

48

4

3

3

7

96
96
48
58
58
3

96
96
56
42

91
91
85
85
28

68
4

6

2

4

5

3

31

89
89
36
19
45
7

93
93
37
17
50
4

59
59
55
55
51

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days ' pay that can be expected by each em ployee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.




15

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller , machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application ‘of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections o f
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— .Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical, keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

17

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations andday-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­

terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety o f all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

19
MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PLA N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are*also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded .

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U STO D IA L AND M A T E R IA L MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload ships are excluded .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various tvpes of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the bars is o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% ton s)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
' f r U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1 9 6 0

O -----5 7 8 2 3 3

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents pU.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25> D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, G a.— Bull. 1285Baitimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—Port Arthur, T ex .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la.— Bull. 1285Boise, Idaho— Pull. 1285Boston, M ass.— Bull. 1285-15
Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Charleston, W. V a.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285Chattanooga, Tenn.— a.— Bull. 1285-14
G
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—Ky.— Bull. 1285“
Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285Dallas, T ex.— Bull. 1285Davenport—Rock Island—Moline, Iowa—111.—
Bull. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, C olo.— Bull. 1285Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*
Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-

*Green Bay, W is.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T ex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F ia.— Bull. 1285Kansas City, Mo.—Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—Haverhill, Mass.— .H .— Bull. 1285N
**L ittle Rock—North Little Rock, Ark.— Buil. 1285-6
Los Angeles—Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285^Manchester, N .H .— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.-— Bull. 1285N ew O r le a n s , L a . — Bull. 1285-

New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News —
Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—Clifton—Passaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, P a.— Bull. 1285Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—Pawtucket, R .I.—M ass.— Bull. 1285*
* *Raleigh, N .C .— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, V a.— Bull. 1285Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285St. Louis, M o .-I ll.— Bull. 1285- 10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285*San Bernardino—Riverside—Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285**Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8
**S e a ttle , Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285“
Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N .J.— Bull. 1285Washington, D .C .—
Md.—Va.-— Bull. 1285Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285* * Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9
Wilmington, D e l.-N .J .— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, M ass.— Bull. 1285York, P a.— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*

Price, 20 cents.
Price, 25 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102