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Occupational Wage Survey

WILMINGTON, DELAWARE-NEW JERSEY
SEPTEM BER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-12




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clog**, Commissiofiwr




Occupational Wage Survey
W IL M IN G T O N , D E L A W A R E - N E W J E R S E Y




SEPTEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-12
December I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commissionor

For iolo

by

tho Suptrintondtnt of Docunrtonts, U.S. Govommortt Printing Offico, Washington 25, D.C. - Prko

conts




Contents

Preface

Page
T he C o m m u n ity W age S u r v e y P r o g r a m
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u l a r l y co n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n t e r s . T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s tu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m o n th fo llo w in g
th e p a y r o l l p e r io d s tu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d a ta n ot in c lu d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s o f a l l o f the
y e a r * s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le tio n o f th e f in a l a r e a
b u lle tin f o r th e c u r r e n t ro u n d o f s u r v e y s .
T h is
o f fic e in N e w
d ir e c t io n o f
D ir e c to r fo r




In tro d u c tio n ____________________________________________________

1

T a b le s :

1.

A:

r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u * s r e g io n a l
Y o r k , N . Y . , b y E l l io t t A . B r o w a r , u n d e r the
F r e d e r i c k W. M u e lle r , A s s i s t a n t R e g io n a l
W a g e s and I n d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s .

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y __________

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1.
O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s __________________________________
A - 2.
P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t i o n s _______________
A - 3.
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a t i o n s ______________
A -4.
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s _________

B:

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e
p r o v is io n s : *
B -l.
S h ift d if f e r e n t ia ls ___________________________________
B - 2.
M in im u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s _
_
B - 3.
S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s _____________________________
B -4.
P a id h o l i d a y s _______________________________________
B -5.
P a id v a c a t io n s ______________________________________
B -6 .
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p l a n s _________________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ______________________________

* N O T E : S i m i l a r ta b u la tio n s f o r th e s e and o t h e r it e m s a r e
a v a ila b le in the r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s in o t h e r m a j o r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a tin g d a te o f s tu d y and th e p r i c e o f the
r e p o r t s is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.
U n ion s c a l e s , in d ic a t iv e o f p r e v a il in g p a y l e v e l s ,
a r e a ls o a v a ila b le f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d b u ild in g t r a d e s in
the W ilm in g to n a r e a .

iii

2

4

6
7
8

10

n
12
13
14
18
17




Occupational Wag* Survey—Wilmington, Del.-N. J.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is on e o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r ls B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d w age b en e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In this a r e a , data w e r e ob ta in ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u rea u fie ld e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e sta b lis h m e n ts
w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u fa ctu rin g; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e ta il
tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s try g ro u p s e x clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e om itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th ey fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c cu p a tio n s stu d ied to w a r ­
ran t in clu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , se p a r a te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . T o obtain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u s tr y g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied .
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to
take a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in du ties w ith in the sa m e
jo b . (See a p pen dix f o r lis tin g o f th e se d e s c r ip t i o n s .) E a rn in g s data a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c) m a in te ­
n an ce and p o w e rp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

la te s h ifts .
N on p rod u ction b on u ses a r e e x clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in ce n tiv e ea rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as f o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o rk sc h e d u le s (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s f o r th ese
o c cu p a tio n s have b een roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in p a y le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th e se o c cu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c if i c du ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in len gth o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u al s a la r ie s a r e a d ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e ra te ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o se u se d in in d iv id u a l esta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s a m on g esta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c if i c du ties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and n ot the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l s t r u c tu r e a m on g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o ccu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t ob ta in ed
fr o m the s a m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied .
T h e se d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in gs data.
E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v is io n s

In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
la te to o ffic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
The te r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
O ccu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a rn in g s data a r e sh ow n f o r
in th is b u lletin , in clu d e s w ork in g S u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
fu ll-t i m e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th o se h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la te d fu n c tio n s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in g s data e x clu d e
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o rk e rs'* in ­
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) en ga ged in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s.
A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
e
1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se stu d ie s ,x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u tiliz e d as a s e p a r a te w o rk f o r c e a r e e x clu d e d .
w e r e in clu d e d in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e Ju ly 1959, e x c e p t
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and r ou tem en a r e e x clu d e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s ­
B a ltim o r e , B u ffa lo , C le v e la n d , and S e a ttle .
R a ilr o a d s a r e n ow in ­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .
clu d ed in the s c o p e o f a ll la b o r -m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s .




2

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Wilmington, D e l.— J. , 1 by major industry division, 2 September I960
N.
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions

_____

__

__

_____

__

Within
scope of
study 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

12,600

4 0 ,3 0 0

58,450

8,900
3,7 0 0

31,100
9, 200

4 7 ,2 3 0
11,220

700

3, 100

5, 280

50

_

_____
__

__

_____

__
_

_

__

__

__

„

__

__

_
__

__

Studied

Studied

184

89

6 9 ,7 0 0

50
50

__

Manufacturing ______
__
__ __
Nonmanufacturing __
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5 _
__
—
W holesale trade __ _
Retail trade
_ _ _ _ _
_T
_____ __
______
Finance, insurance, and real estate
__
S e rv ic e s7 _____
__
__ *
_______

Number of establishments

96
88

50
39

5 3,500
16,200

50
50
50
50
50

16
10
40
11
11

12
4
11
5
7

5,6 0 0
1,000
5 ,800
2 ,300
1,500

1

(* )

(6)

(6)

(6)

(6)

(6 )

(6)

(6)

T otal4

590

2,610
1,610
1, 130

1 The Wilmington Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea (New Castle County, D e l ., and Salem County, N. J .) .
The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide
a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other
area employment indexes to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period
studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
s Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or more of the following reasons:
(1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate t udy, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure f individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m embership organizatit is; and engineering and architectural services.




3
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f tota l pla n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount ap plyin g to
a m a jo r it y w as u s e d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to ia m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a t io n " o t h e r " w as u sed .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o r m a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
if it a p p lied to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s.

M in im u m e n tra n ce ra tes (ta ble B -2 ) r e la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h ey a r e p r e s e n te d on an e sta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n s io n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th e se a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch ed u led h ou rs a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th e se a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f roun din g, su m s o f in div id u al ite m s in th ese
ta bu la tion s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The f i r s t p a rt o f the p a id h olid a y s ta ble p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h o lid a y s a c tu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h ole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow total h o lid a y t i m e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
plan s f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n ^ co m p e n s a tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such pla n s in clu d e th o se
u n d erw ritten b y a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n ce com p a n y and th o se p r o v id e d
th rou gh a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t
o p e ra tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath
b en e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
S ick n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su r a n ce u n d er w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a ym en ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
to the in s u r e d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n ce la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p la n s a r e in clu d e d o n ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts o f the la w . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's pa y d u rin g a b s e n c e fr o m w o rk
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te tabu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r t ia l pa y o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In ad d ition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lica ted tota l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .

The su m m a r y o f v a c a tio n plan s is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , ex clu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g ra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com p u tin g v a ca tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
as tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r fla t -s u m am ou n ts.
H o w e v e r, in the ta bu la tion s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the eq u iv a len t o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

C a ta strop h e in s u r a n ce , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to as ex ten d ed
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in clu d e s th o se pla n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a ym en t o f d o c t o r s 1 f e e s . Such plan s m a y b e u n d e rw ritte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su r a n ce c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th o se pla n s that p r o v id e m on th ly p a ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 An e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o li c y if it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g co n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ifts .
3 S ch ed u led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
ta ble B -3 ) in s u r v e y s m a de p r io r to Ju ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4 The t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Isla n d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s.,
5 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h avin g a fo r m a l p la n i f
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a ys o f s ic k le a v e that
cou ld be e x p e cte d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S uch a p la n n e e d n ot b e w ritten ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x clu d e d .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, D el.— J . , September I960)
N.
A nuoi

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

*

S
$
S
1
%
S
S
S
S
S
S
»
1
S
$
<
We y
e ld j
Under 45.00 *50. 00 55. 00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00125.00130.00135.00 140.00 145.00
hours1
and
(Sta d rd
n a )(Stan ard $
d
)
and
45.00 under
50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00130.00135.00 140.00 145.00 over

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A __
Manufacturing______________
New Castle County______

194
170
170

39.5 $112.50
39.5 114.50
39.5 114.50

Clerks, accounting, class B __
Manufacturing______________
New Castle County---------

58
39
31

38. 5
80.00
' 34.5
88.50
39.5
84.50

Clerks, p ayroll________________
Manufacturing______________

28
26

Office b o y s_____________________
Manufacturing______________
New Castle County______

40
34
34

57.00
39.5
46 0
§9TM
40. 0
59.00

3
1
1

4
16
10

Tabulating-machine operators,
class A _______________________
Manufacturing______________
New Castle County______

43
34
34

39.0 115.50
39.6 120.00
120.00
39. 5

_
*

_
-

83
63
50

97.00
39.0
39.5 105.00
100.00
39. 5

.
“

_
■

40.0
40.0

113.00
115.00

Tabulating-machine operators,
Manufacturing______________
New Castle County______

1
1

-

-

.

_

.
-

-

-

13
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

10
13
13

5

-

"

-

-

-

13

7
1
1

-

-

7

1
1

4
4
3

6

-

1

"

1
1
1

4

4
4
4

19
4
5

12

4

3

7

16

1

-

-

-

_
-

_

_
*
_
-

_

_
-

_
-

-

_

1

4

_

7

■

-

~

“

-

!

1

9

10

1
7

1
1
1

1
1

-

-

-

2

3
3
3

-

14

14
14

-

1

-

l6

2
2

3
1

10

4
4

4
4

7

"

1

-

15
5

4
6
6
7
7
3

2
2

_
4

-

6
6

4
2

4
4
4

2
2

4

5

5

1

29
28
28

3
3

2
2
2

1

6

1
1
1
1
1

13
13
13

19

16
19

1
1
16
10

13
12
12

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

10
10

3
3

_

-

12

9

2
----2
2

.

12

9

r ~ T2 —

—

_
_
_

_

"

-

-

2
2
2

2
2
2

3

-

8
8

10
8
8

2
2
2

1

1

2

2
2

10

_

-

-

2

5
4
4

3

2

4

5
4
4

2

2
2

2

2
5

2
2
5

2
2

.
_

2

!

14

2
2
2

2

2

9
9
9

_

1

18
18
5

3

1

_

_

4

5
5

1
1

_

_

_

_

.

_

.

_

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

“

2

2
2

1
1
1

_
_
_
-

2
2
2

_

_

_
_

_
_

.
_

_
_

4

3

1
3

-

1

Women
Billers, machine (billing machine)

48

39. 5

60.50

Billers, machine (bookkeeping
m achine)__________________________

31

39. 5

52.00

2

2

24

6

12

1
7

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
Nonmanufacturing______________
Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing______________

31
30

36. 5
70.50
36. 5
70.50

126

36. 5
57.50
36. 0
5430

“ToS

47
45

_

4

_

_

2
2
2

-

4

-

-

6

15
2
2
13

90.50
39.5
40.0
92.50
92.00
40. 0

_
-

251
203
182
48

39.
39.
39.
40.

Clerks, file, class A _____________
Manufacturing__________________
New Castle County__________

107
95
94




22
22

-

_
-

Clerks, accounting, class B --------Manufacturing__________________
New Castle County__________
Nonmanufacturing______________

5
5
5
0

6

.

82.50
89.00
86.50
57.00

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
40.0

21

■

_
-

148
115
115
33

3
3

”

94.50
101.00
101.00
73.50

Clerks, accounting, class A ______
Manufacturing__________________
New Castle County__________
Nonmanufacturing______________

6
6

■

6

'

.
-

_
-

■
18
18
21

2
2

2
2

-

6
3
3
3

21
13
13
8

12
10
10
2

5
5

5
5

6
5

5
5

_

2
2

35
27
25
13
24
13
22
2
2
1
1

15
14

5

“
5
4

20
6
5
6
14

5
16
13
5
13
3
-

1
1

2
2
2

9
9
9

17
17
17

-

-

-

-

1

15
6
13
26
23
16
13
25
13
6
23
6
13
25
23
16
13
2
1
7

4

_

-

7
7

14
12
12

13
1
1
1
1

9
8
8

16
15
15

16

9
9
9

27
27
20

8
8
8

1
1

15
14
14

1
1
1
1

12
12
12

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
3

2
2
2

_
-

1

_
_

6

5

5

1
1
1

-

5

1
19
19
6

6

5

2
2

2

1
1

1
1
1

_
;

-

”

5
Table A-l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Wilmington. D el.— .J. . September I960)
N
A
verao
*
N me
u b r
o
f
w rk rs
o e

Sex. occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

S
S
%
s
I
1
S
s
*
S
$
s
W e ly Under 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70.00 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
e k
e rn gs
a in 1
and
d
)
(Stan ard (Stan ard $
d
)
and
under
45. 00 50. 00
55.00 60.00 65. 00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over

W omen— Continued

Clerks, file, class B
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Manufacturing _ _
New Castle County .
Nonmanufacturing _
Clerks, order

169
95
95
74
26

Clerks, payroll
_ _ _
_ _ _
Manufac tur in g
New Castle County _
_
Nonmanufacturing .
...

39. 5
40. 0
40.0
39. 5
38. 0

$60. 50
70. 50
70. 50
47. 50
68. 00

96
67
56
29

39. 5
79. 50
84. 00
39. 0
80. 50
39. 5
39. 5
69. 00

Comptometer operators _
Manufacturing
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
New Castle County _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

30
30
30

40. 0
40.0
40. 0

86. 50
86. 50
86. 50

Duplicating-machine operators
(Mimeograph or Ditto)
__
_
Manufacturing
New Castle County

30
io
29

40. 0
40. 6
40.0

72. 50
i t . 50
72. 00

200
159
140
41

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
38.0

Keypunch operators
Manufacturing
New Castle County
Nonmanufacturing

.

_ .
_
__

.. .
.

Office girls
_
Manufacturing
New Castle County

91
87
87

Secretaries
Manufacturing
New Castle County
Nonmanufacturing _ _ . .

80.
84.
80.
67.

50
00
50
00

52. 50
39. 5
39. 5 “ 5 3 ."86
53. 00
39. 5

1.265
1.185
1.093
80

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
38.0

110.00
112. 00
111.00
84.00

Stenographers, general
Manufacturing
---New Castle County
Nonmanufacturing

984
878
797
106

39.0
*9. 5
39. 5
36. 5

80. 00
82. 00
79. 50
64. 50

Stenographers, technical
Manufacturing
New Castle County

179
157
157

39. 0
39.5
39.5

89. 50
92. 50
92. 50

Switchboard operators
Manufacturing _
_
New Castle County
Nonmanufacturing

.........

_
Switchboard operator-receptionists _
Manufacturing
New Castle County
....

See footnotes at end of table,




112
65
53
47
59
$0
48

39.0
i9.o
39.0
38. 5
39.0
5976
39. 0

79. 00
85. 00
82. 00
71.00
2
66. 50
68. 00
68. 00

2 19
2 19

25
25

20
2
2
18

25
16
16
9

9

1

4
4

5
5
5

.

2

.
-

5
2

-

-

*

3

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

4

_

*

18
17
17

-

1

1

-

9
9
9

23
16
16
7

3
-

1
1
3
3

10
9
9

14
13
12

44
33
33
1
1

57
77
44
66
44
65
13
11

89
79
79
10

60
60
57

52
50
49
2

13
_

3

8

26
8
8
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

_

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

3
3

_
-

_

10
2
1

1

1

117
105 153
96
101 133
12 6
102
126 102
100
129
21
4
20
15
7
1
1

14
8
8

17
12
------- “ — 5“
5
3
6
14
6
17
16
16

16
16
16

11
9
9
16
10
10
6
6
6
6

24
18
18
10
9
8

94
94
2

1
1

-

20
20
20

11

4

4
1

1

1

8

.

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

14
9
3
5

82
14
7
7
7

3

8
8
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

_

_
-

95
95
75

54
54
48

-

-

3

_

*

88
88

&8
-

_

_

-

-

_

_

.

-

-

.

-

_

_

-

-

-

"

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

_
-

■

2
2
2

_

2
2
2

■

50
27
50
27
50
27

-

3
3
-

-

_
-

“

-

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_

3

-

_

■

-

-

-

_

_

4
4

-

-

_

.

4
4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

5
5
5

8

_
-

-

-

6
6
6
.

4

1
1
1

15
1
4
1
1
1

_
-

-

■

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

82
31
30

13
13
13

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_
-

-

-

_

-

-

_

_

1
1
1

1
1

-

22
22
3

2
2

9

-

-

-

_

97 100
100
92
127
90
125
98
98
91
87
97
97
66
91
2
2
7
2
1

31
59
59
1

16
16
16

9
8
6

-

1

60

2

2

1

■

113
108
108
5

16
16
16

1

1
1

-

25
25
25
9
5
4

7

_
•

-

13
12
12

5
1

_

-

147

-

-

•

13
-

-

-

"

10
7

_

-

-

7

_

-

_

-

-

-

1
1

-

_
-

_

-

1

•

_

3
3
3

-

*

-

7
7
7

-

-

-

8

-

13
13
13

17
17
1
7

9
9
9

_

-

2
2
2

-

_

-

2
3
3
3

-

-

4
4
4

1

_

1
1
1
1
1
1

-

-

9
9
9

1

2
2
1

-

-

-

2
2
2

_

6
7
------- ~
5
7
6
7
4

_

1

-

-

1

2

-

4
4

-

2
2

-

_

-

_

2
1
1

1
2
2

2
2
2

-

3

-

2

-

-

2

_
-

1
-

_
-

1
1

9
9
4

5

-

-

_

2
2
1

13
6

1
1

9
9
9

_

2

1
1
1
-

55
14
14
54
54
14

3

_

6
5
5
3

-

18
14
14
4

9

_

8

4
4

-

23
19
19
4

9
-

-

_

7

4

-

27
20
20
7

-

_

-

-

19
6
6
13

—

7
7
7

-

-

3
3
3

9
9
9

3
r
i
2

-

-

-

8

6
6
6

3
3
3

4

2
-

-

10
10
1
0

-

4
-

_
-

-

_

20
8
8
12

-

1
1
1

-

_

12
12
12

19
19
19

1

-

-

-

-

20
17
17
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
Table A-l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O
F

A
veraob
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N me
u b r
o
f

|

s
$
S
$
S
$
S
$
$
S
$
$
S
S
$
$
*
$
S
W e ly W e ly Under 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
e k
e k
130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
hu 1 e
o rs i arn gs1
in «
and
(Sta d rd ; (Stan ard
n a )
d
)
and
under
50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00
135.00 140.00 145.00 over

%

Women— Continued
Transcribing-machine operators,
general _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _
_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_
Manufacturing ---------------------------- —
New Castle County --------------------------------

109
91
91

Typists, class A ------------------------- -----------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------- —
New Castle County -------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

244
197
187
47

39. 0 ; 84. 00
40. 0
89. 00
40. 0
88. 00
, 63.00
36. 0

Typists, class B -------------------- — ---------- —
Manufacturing -------------------- ------------------------New Castle County ------------------—
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

256
162
145
94

63.00
39. 0
39.5
i 69.50
39.5
67.00
37. 5 ' 51. 50

39.5
39.5
39.5

$70. 00
72. 50
72. 50

-

-

5
-

-

-

"

2

8

7

-

-

-

2

8

7

34

26

3

13

-

-

9
9

34

17

-

-

3 13

5
5
5
10
4
4
6

22
1
1
1
1
1
1

48
30
30
18

39
32
32
7

24
2
1
2
1

25
19
19

10
7
7
3
28
28
28

15
15
15

15
15
15

13
1
1
1
1
2

15
14
14
1

23
20
20
3

1
1

2
2
2

15
3
1
15
30
15
30
1
-

8
8
8

9
8

6
6
4

51
48
48
3

9
9

3

1
1
1

30
27
27
3

3
3

6
6
6

1
1
1
1
2

4

2
1
1

3
3
3

8
8
8

8
8
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
10
2

2
2
2

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

1
1
1

-

_

2

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $ 35 to $40; 15 at $40 to $45.
3 All workers were at $40 to $45.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, Del.— J. , September i960)
N.
AtE A B
BG
S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

\
D ra fts m e n ,

fle fh .b r

and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
U nder
$
7 0 . 00

S
7 0 . 00
and
under
7 5 . 00

S

S
7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

t
8 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

~
8 5 . 00

“
9 0 . 00

S

S

9 0 . 00

$
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0

9 5 . 00

”
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0

S
$
$
S
1 0 5 . 0 0 11Q . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0

S
$
S
S
$
1 3 0 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 1 7 0 . 00

“
~
1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 3 0 . 00

1 4 0 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 1 7 0 . 0 0 1 8 0 . 00

“

n o . oo

“

“

"

M en

---------------------------------------------------------.-------------

M a n u fa c t u r in g — — ---------------------------------------------------N e w C a s t l e C o u n t y ---------------------------------------------------------D r a fts m e n , ju n io r
----------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------- --------------------- N e w C a s t l e C o u n t y --------- — — --------- — --------- —

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 4 .5 0
1 0 7 .0 0
1 0 6 .5 0

6

5
5

2
1
1

4
1
1

1 0 4 .5 0
1 0 5 .5 0
1 03 . 50

1
1
1

2
2
2

215
206
1 69

39. 0
39. 0
39. 0

$ 1 3 7 .5 0
138. 50
1 36 . 50

73
64

55

3 9 .0
38. 5
38. 5

41
39
37

3 9 .5
39. 5
39. 5

1
1

7
5

-

5

7
7
6

10
8
8

7
6
6

7
7
6

4
4

3
3

3

3

10
10
7

6
4
4

4
4

-

8
6
6

2
1
1

3

3
3

9
8
8

1
1
1

6
6
6

3
3
3

2
2
2

_
-

3

18
17
17

35
33
29

19
18
13

17
17
10

5
5
.4

15
15
12

3
3

3
3

3

2
2
2

7
7
7

33
33
26

23
23
20

29
29
21

_

_

_

-

-

-

3

-

-

3

-

W om en
N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) --------------------------- —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------N e w C a s t l e C o u n t y --------- — ------------------- —

_
-

“

_
-

"

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.




2
2
2

_

3
1

_
-

_
-

“

“

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, D el.— J. , September I960)
N.
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Carpenters, maintenance
Manufacturing ----------New Castle County-

Number
of
workers

182
165
95

Average
$
$
$
hourly i Under 1.70 1.80
1.90
earnings
and
$
under
1.70
1.80
1. 90 2.00

$3. 01

2
_

2.99
2. 81

_

-

2
1

-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2.60 $
2.70 2. 80 *2. 90 3.00
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 $
2. 20

2. 30

2
2
2

14
14
14

423
405
270

3. 12
3. 10
3. 02

-

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

1

Engineers, stationary --------------------------------------

176
170
114

2. 84
2. 86
2. 65

-

Firemen, stationary boiler __
Manufacturing _____________
New Castle County -------

90
86
68

2. 26
2. 25
2. 33

Helpers, trades, maintenance
Manufacturing -------------------New Castle County ____

252
217
146

2. 23
2. 28
2. 21

39
37
37

2.75
2. 78
2. 78

_
-

-

-

~

Machinist, maintenance ---------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------- >
---New Castle County _____________________

246
240
188

2.95
2. 94
2.88

-

_

_

-

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)
Manufacturing -------------------------------New Castle County ------------------Nonmanufacturing ________________
Public utilities 2 _______________

143
63
33
80
70

2.77
3. 04
2. 88
2. 57
2. 54

_
-

Mechanics, maintenance ------------------Manufacturing ------------------ ------------New Castle County ------------- -----

249
224
179

2. 89
2.90
2. 89

Millwrights ----------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------New Castle County -------------------

403
384
142

3. 22
3. 20
2. 90

Oilers _____________________
Manufacturing --------------New Castle County —

49
47
36

2. 18
2. 16
2. 22

36
36
36

1

Painters, maintenance------Manufacturing --------------New Castle County __

147
142
64

3. 1
1
3. 1
1
2.76

_
_

.
_

Machine-tool operators, toolroom
Manufacturing -------------------------New Castle County --------------

See footnotes at end of table,




2
21
21

20

6
6

9
9
9

_

22
8
5

7
14
14

_

15
15
1
1

6

7
2

14
4

-

-

_

-

-

.
-

_

_

-

_
-

-

_

_

.

_

.
_
-

5
5
4

1
1
_
_

1

_

25
24
9

33
13
33
13
22

_

-

9
9
9

10
8
8

12
12
11

_

14
14
13

7
7
7

3
3
3

2

4
4
4

_
-

10
10
1
5
5
4

.
5
5
5

_
-

3
3

2
3
1
2
2
2

10
5
5
5
5

3
3

27
26
16

1
3
3
1

3
4
3

24
1
1

3. 20

7
7

$
3. 50 $ 60 $ 70
3.
3.

26
24
23

24
20

21
21
9

28
28
3

54
49
48

37
37
36

39
39
30

4

8
8
8

9
9
9

14
14
13

1
1
1
1

4
4

22
22
9

-

5
-

-

"

-

.
-

4
4
4

4
4
4
.
-

5
5
2

_

•

-

5
5

-

-

-

_
-

_

_
-

•

-

7
6
6

3

4
3
4

_

_

-

-

3
8
3

52
52
5
1

2
2
2
-

6
4
4
2
2

6

6
6
6

1

4
2
2

8

_

3
1

-

1

10
-

5
5
5
5

14
14
14

-

14
25
14
25
8
18

37
19
18

12
12
12

16
16
15

1
1
1

32
32
30

-

-

-

-

-

5
4
3

5
5

8
8
8

4

-

3
-

-

-

2

"

-

-

_

-

_
-

■

-

-

■

■

-

"

16
16
6

8
8

6
6

6
-

-

-

-

30
14

.
■

19
19
4
-

19
19
19

64
64
46

-

-

7

2
2
2

-

*

.
-

.
-

-

19

-

-

5
1
5
1

5
5
5

_
13

.

19
1
7
1

1
-

"

-

3
2

-

-

7
7

5
1 147
13
5
1
147

-

1
-

-

-

8
8
6

-

3
-

■

-

.

-

"

-

~

30

-

7
7
“

3

-

-

-

.
-

33
33
33

3
3

3

-

"

6
6
1

5

8
2
2
2

59
57
52

5

1

10
3

20
20
20

5

!

10

12
12
12

2

10
-

3

.

5
5
5

2

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

15
12
12

-

~

2
2
2

21
21
21

9
-

64
10
10
63
6

-

1
1
1
1
1
1

4
4

6
6

4

43
43
1
1

over

3. 70

.

9
9
9

-

8
16
5
5
5
5
3
1
1
6
3

15
15
1

97
97
54

1
1

3. 60

3. 50

19
19
19

7.

1
1

12
12

3.40

3. 30

13
13
13

4

3

32
5
27
25

3
1
2
2

-

3
3

1
3

25

1
8
8

3. 10

3
3
3

1

1
_

5
5

-

25
25

8

3. 00

4

5

_

*

2.90

-

10
10
10

-

-

_

-

9
5
5

-

1

-

2
2
2

1
1

6
78
6
77
60

15
9
6
6

_
-

9
8
8

2.80

-

_

_

-

_

-

_
_

15
14
11

19
19
10

2.70

10
10
10

-

8
8
8

1
1

-

_

-

3
3
3

-

_

_

_
_

_
_

1

-

_

4
4

8
2
1

1

l
-

6

1
_

4

2

4
_

_

2
2
2

10
10

7
6

20
13
20
13
14
7

-

14

15
• 15

6
6
6

_

2..60

7
7
5

20
20
20

-

2. 50

2.40

8
8
4

!

21

$
$
3. 30 3.40

and
2. 10

Electricians, maintenance -----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------New Castle County ---------------------------------

New Castle County ---------------------------------

$ 10 *3. 20
3.

.
-

3
3

4
4

_
-

8
Table A -3.

M aintenance and Pow erplant O cc u p a tio n s— Continued

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workera

Average
hourly , U n d e r
earnings1 $

1. 70

P ip e f it t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______
N ew C a s tle C ou n ty

---------------------------------------—
— ______________
------------------

405
3 62
1 79

$ 3. 28
3. 19
2. 98

S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s (m a in t e n a n c e )
-------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________ ________________
N e w C a s t l e C o u n t y ----------------- -------------------------

57
57
26

3. 17
3. 17
3. 0 3

-----------------

—

T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
_____________________ ____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------N e w C a s t l e C o u n t y -----------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

1 60
1 52
1 50

$
1 .7 0
under
1 .8 0

$
1 .8 0

$
2 . 00

$

1 .9 0

$

2 . 10

X- 2.Q 2. 00
L

2 . 10

2 . 20

2. 30

8
8
7

-

-

"

-

-

7
7
7

3
3
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

"

"

-

■

$
2 . 30

$

$

2. 4 0

$

2. 50

$

$

2 . 60

2 . 70

2. 80

S
2 . 90

$

3. 10

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

2 . 50

-

2. 70

4
4
4

2
2
-

2
2
2

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
5
5

4
4
4

-

2. 80

2 . 90

3. 0 0

3. 10

3. 2 0

3. 30

3. 30

$
3. 4 0

$
3. 5 0
-

%

e
3. 7 0
and

3 .6 0
-

3. 4 0

3. 50

3. 6 0

3. 7 0

over

8
8
8

6
6

6
6
6

18
18
15

71
71
64

50
50
38

40
40
2

104
104
2

18
18
2

2
2
2

.

8
8
8

9
9
9

12
12

13
13

6
6

2
2

_

_

4

-

-

-

-

-

39
38
38

10

14
14
14

1
1
1

“

.

-

2. 6 0

5
5
5

4
4
2

.
-

2. 4 0

$
3. 2 0

s

"

$

3. 0 0

“

-

-

3. 08
3. 10
3 . 10

$
2 . 20

4
4
4

13
13
11

2
2
2

1
1
1

36
36
36

32
32
32

6
6
6

_

-

7

5
5

2
2

4 43
-

_
■

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 1 at $ 1. 30 to $ 1.40; 4 at $ 1.40 to $ 1.50; 1 a t $ 1 . 6 0 t o $ 1 .7 0 .
All workers were at $4 to $ 4 . 10.

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly 2
earnings'

$

Under 1. 10
and
$
1. 10 under
1 20
.

Manufacturing ------— —--------------------------------New Castle County -------------------------------- Nonmanufacturing ------------------ ---------------------

219
185
177
34
752
637
566
115
32

1.99
2.07
2.05
1.52
1.92

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) -----Manufacturing — -----------—----------------- —-------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------- -

70
28
42

1.54
1.85
1. 34

Laborers, material handling -------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------New Castle County --------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------

879
638
546
241
136

2. 23
2. 22
2. 28
2. 26
2. 33

See footnotes at end of table,




$
$
1. 30 1. 40

■
■
1.40
1. 30

3

$ 2. 26
2. 35
2. 36
1.81

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) -------- Manufacturing --------------------------------------------New Castle County --------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------

t
1. 20

9

4

-

4

-

_
■

13
5

-

5

2

2

-

1.80

1.90

$
$
$
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20

1.70

■
1.80

~
1 90
.

■
2. 00

~
■
2. 10 2. 20

“
1 60
.

■

n

1

1 70
.

$

1. 50

2
2
9

$

21
17
1
1
4

17
13
13
4
2

41
38
24
3
3

1

1

3
3

9
4
4

19
3
3
26

40
14
14

■

1

3
“

15
7
8

2
2

21
2
1
21

15
15
9

-

-

21

5

16

3

3
1
1
6
6
5

13

13
8

8

3

4
2

2
2

$

6
2
2
4

3

-

13

1 50
.

-

24

-

9

1

-

-

_

1. 60

$

■

$

1
1

-

-

2

5

3

4
4

33
33

9
9
9

■
2. 30 2. 40

14
14
14

40
40
40

-

-

138
122
122
16
16

57
55
55
2
2

40
40
36

131
131
125

"

"

1

124
55
55
115
52
115
9
8
_

2
1
98
92
43
6

5

19
17
1
7

$
2. 30

-

3
3

6
6

42
20
20

60

22
22

60
55

4
4

-

3

8
8
8

-

-

1

“
_
-

-

-

-

“
75
65
65
10
10

S

$

2. 40

■
2. 50

$

2. 50

$

2. 60

2. 70

■
■
2. 60 2. 70 2. 80

4

24

27
27
27

$
$
s
2. 80 2. 90
■
2.

3_
0

-

-

-

33
28
28
5

44
44

■

■

■

_
■

■

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
“

_
■

4

24
22

4

-

466
370
369
96
24

25

2
23
23

-

5

1

3
2
2

1

-

3. 00

S
3. 00

3. 10

3. 10

and
over

-

-

-

-

_
■

-

■

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division* Wilmington* Del. — J. . September I960)
N.
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Occupation 1 and industry division

Avenge
hourly g
earnings

Under 1. 10
and
under
i .i o
1. 20

S

Packers* shipping
Manufacturing
New Castle County

2. 10

2. 20

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

t
1.40

S
1. 50

*1.60

$
1.70

S
1.80

1
1.90

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2. 00

*

S

2. 30

S
2.40

2. 50

2.60

2. 70

S
2.80

*2. 90

1. 00

2.40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3.00

3. 10

85
59
53

_

Shipping clerks
Manufacturing

Shipping and receiving clerks
Manufacturing
_____ ____
_
New Castle C o u n ty ______________________
Truckdrivers * __
Manufacturing
New Castle County _
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities *

_

-

-

1
1

-

8
8
8

-

4
4
4

10
10
6

11
1
1

1
1
1

11
1
1

2
2
2

2. 14
1.89
1.89

.
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

7
7
7

3
3
3

14
14
14

18
16
18

_
-

6
-

2
l
2

10

6

85
74
39

2. 70
2.82
2. 37

_
-

.
-

_
-

1

_
-

7

-

_
-

1

-

-

1
1

4
4
3

2
1
1

8
8
6

7
5
5

t

3.05
3. 19

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

5
3

_

-

6
6

_

-

11
2

.

-

1
1

.

-

-

85
76
75

2.44
2. 51
2. 52

.
■

_
”

.
“

.
-

_
-

4
“

3

1
1
1

3
3
3

1
1

_
"

4
4
4

4
4
4

_
-

509
----- 258
196
251
77

_

-

89

_

$ 2 .0 5
2. 15
2. 13

98
60
60

_

Receiving clerks
_
Manufacturing
_
New Castle C o u n ty ----------------------------------

2. 54
"2.~57
2.43
2. 52
2. 52

.
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

10

8
8
8

5

15
3

10
10

10

-

3

1
12

7
-

3
3
3
-

20

-

1
1

4 ------ 4
r
4
4
3
-

10

_

4

12

1

_

2

.

3
r
3

1
1
1

18
18
18

1
1
-

2
2

-

“

-

7

-

4
------ 7 T
4
-

62

2. 19

.

.

_

_

Truckdrivers, medium ( l 1/* to and
including 4 tons)
Manufac tur ing
New Castle County

148
76
51

2.47
2. 37
2.09

.
-

-

-

-

4
------ 44

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type)
Manufacturing
New Castle County

157
115
91

2.76
2.76
2.62

~

-

-

■

435
425
255

2.41
FTI
2.40

_
-

_
-

39
*6
34

1. 72
1. 67

.
-

68

1.66

61
54

1. 64

3
-------r
3

Truckdrivers* light (under lVi tons)

_____

Truckers, power ( f o r k l i f t ) ____________________
Manufacturing
__
New Castle County
Truckers, power (other than forklift)
Manufacturing
New Castle County
__

1.68

.

2
2

8
- ------ 8~
8
-

1
1
1

2
2 —

“

“

-

“

"

.
■

_
-

1
■

1
1
1

_
-

80
80
9

-

-

-

*

4
4
4

-

-

19
19
19

_
-

2

4
4
4

10
10

3
-

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends* holidays* and late shifts.
Transportation* communication* and other public utilities.
All workers were at $ 3.40 to $ 3. 50.
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 3. 30 to $ 3.40; 66 at $ 3.40 to $ 3. 50.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
Workers were distributed as follows: 1 at $ 3. 30 to $ 3.40; 20 at $ 3.40 to $ 3. 50.




1

V 30

100

Order fillers
Manufacturing
New Castle County

Watchmen
Manufacturing

t

1. 20

10

-

"

”

6

19
19

ii

3
3

27

1

12
12
12

8
8
8

-

■

"

1
1
1

30
30
30

15
14
7

.

1

_

-

28
28
28

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

_
-

38
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

12

6
6
6

_
-

_
-

_
-

4 32

-

12

-

1
1

1
1

1
1

-

2
2

4
4

*68
>68

36
35
35

7
7
7

_
■

11

10

ll

9
9

_
"

-

1
1
1

39
25
25
14
14

174

62
3

152
62

103
103
93
-

16
16
4
-

30
30
-

2

_

22

1
1
1

14

71

12
12

1
1

"

“

"

87
87
87

42
"

25
25
14

135
132
116

61
55
55

5
5
5

3
3

_

_

_

_

-

10

10
2
2

3
3
3

— rr

22
21

11

_

2
-------F
-

-

32
-

1
1

1

59
-

-

-

8

_

_

1

_

_

2
2

1
1

■

"

12
12

9
9
■

1
1

”

4
4
4

721
7n ■

2

2

“

2

"

3

-

12
12
10

3. 10
and
over

27

1

15
15

56
56

2

2

2

i
i
■

_

_

_

_

.

i




10

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
Shift differential

In establishments having form al
provisions 1 for—
Second shift
work

Total ----------------------- : .....................................................

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—
Second shift

Third or other
shift

94. 8

88. 0

18. 4

7. 4

91. 7

8 5 .4

18. 3

7. 3

----------------------------

62. 3

54. 9

9. 6

5. 4

Under 5 cents ------------------------------------------5 cents ------------------------------------------------------6 cents ------------------------------------------------------7 cents ------------------------------------------------------7l/z cents _________________________________
8 cents --------------------------------------------------- 9 cents ------------------------------------------------------10 cents —_______________ ___ __ ___________ _
11 cents ----------------------------------------------------12 cents or 1 h cents --------------------------1 3 cents
------ ------------------------------------------15 cents ----------------------------------------------------16 cents ----------------------------------------------------17 cents ----------------------------------------------------Over 17 cents -------------------------------------------

.8
8. 8
3. 6
4. 3
.5
6. 4
1. 2
6. 3
1 .8
24. 4
3. 2

.8
1. 1

( 2)
1 .3
.7
.9

With shift pay differential

--------------------------------

Uniform cents (per hour)

-

_
-

.9

2. 3
3. 2
3 .5
2. 6
5 .9
1 .9
3. 5
1. 1
20. 7
3. 0
2. 1
3. 2

-------------------------------------

24. 5

24. 6

7. 6

.7

5 percent --------------------------------------------------7 percent --------------------------------------------------73/ 4 percent ----------------------------------------------10 percent -------------------------------------------------

22. 4
.8
1. 2
"

.8
23. 8

6. 9
.4
.3
-

( 2)
.7

Other form al pay differential ----------------------

4. 9

5. 9

1. 1

1. 1

No shift pay differential ------------------------------------

3. 1

2. 5

.2

.1

Uniform percentage

-

-

1.7
1. 3
.2
2. 3
.9
-

.4

.2
.2
.3
.4
.8
.4
.5
-

1.
.
.
.

9
3
3
2

-

1 Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments with form al provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent.

11

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Wilmington, D e l.— J. , September I960)
N.
In e x p e rie n c e d t y p is ts

O th e r in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r i c a l w o r k e r s 2

M a n u fa c tu r in g
M in im u m w e e k ly s a l a r y 1

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d

3 7 1/ 2

XXX

XXX

39

40

_____________

89

50

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d
m i n i m u m ____ ____________ __ _____

44

27

5

21

1
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

3
1
3
7
5
1
1
-

2
-

1
3
5
4
1
1
-

$ 35 . 00
$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 55 . 00
$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 . 00
$ 6 2 . 50
$ 6 5 . 00
$ 6 7 . 50
$ 7 0 .0 0
$ 7 2 . 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
under
under
u nder
u nder
u nder
unde r
u nder
under
u nder
under
u nder
u nder
under
over

$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 55. 00
$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 . 50
$ 6 5 . 00
$ 6 7 . 50
$ 7 0 . 00
$ 7 2 .5 0
$ 7 5. 00

_________
----------------------------_________
_________
----------------------------------_________
-------------_________
_________
--------------------------_________
_________
$ 77. 50
----------------------------------------

6
1
3
2
4
4
8
5
1
1
1

M a n u f a c t u r in g

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 3 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

1
2

2
1
-

A ll
sc h e d u le s

35

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

B a s e d o n s ta n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

A ll
i ndus t r i 6 s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

35

40

XXX

XXX

39

XXX

XXX

37V 2

XXX

XXX

89

50

17

5

10

52

30

5

24

22

6

14

1
-

_

1
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

9
1
6
6
8
4
6
3
1
1
1
-

2
-

_
-

_
_

2
-

4
-

4
3
3
3
5
3
1
1
1
-

3
1
-

2
1
-

4
-

1
2

6
1
1
4
1
1
-

1
1
-

2

-

2

1
5

1
1
1
-

2
2
3
3
3
2
1
1
1
-

1

2
2
1
-

1

7
1
2
3
5
1
1
-

3

-

3

2

_

1
1
_
-

2
2
2
1
1
-

'

2

2
5

3

-

3

___

8

6

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

12

6

XXX

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n ot
e m p l o y w o r k e r s in t h is
c a t e g o r y __________
_________ _____

37

17

XXX

XXX

20

XXX

XXX

25

14

XXX

XXX

11

XXX

XXX

$ 75. 00
$ 77. 50

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g no
s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m ___________

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
Rates applicable to m essen gers, office g irls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweeks reported.




12

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
pf first-sh ift workers, Wilmington, Del.— J. , September I960)
N.
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries1

All workers

----------------------------------------------------------

Under 35 hours --------------------- ----------------------- 35 hours —-------------- ---------------------------- ----------Over 35 and under 37l /2 hours -----------------------3 7 V 2 hours ----------------------------------------------------------Over 3 7 V 2 and under 40 hours -----------------------40 hours ----------- ------------------ ---------------- ----- ——
Over 40 and under 48 hours —--------------------------48 hours
-----------------------------------------------------------Over 48 hours ----------------------- ---------------------------

1
2
3
4

100

1
14
1
10
1
73
(4)
(4)

M anufacturing

100
2
1
2
12
(4)
83
(4)
-

Public utilities2

100

All industries3

M anufacturing

100

100

19

2
1
1
1

3
1
1
1

-

-

-

77

87
3
6
(4)

90
1
3

2
-

-

2

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




Pu blic utilities2

100

_

_
_

90
10
_

13
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Wilmington, D e l.— J. , September I960)
N.
O F FIC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Item
All industries1

A ll workers

_

__

_

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays
_
___
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

99

100

■

“

2

1

1
12
18
28

2
7

■

Number off days
5 holidays
6 holidays
6 holidays plus
6 holidays plus
7 holidays
7 holidays plus
7 holidays plus
8 holidays
8 holidays plus
9 holidays
9 holidays plus
11 holidays
13 holidays __

(4)
4

1 half d a y ______________________
2 half days
1 half day
2 half days

____________________

1 half day
1 half day

(4)

8
14
1

(4)

2
1
9
12
1
1
74
-

1
-

(4)

(4)

3
10
2

1
34
1
2
-

'

(4)

56
2

25
1
22
2
48
-

'

(4)

1

-

-

23
27
1
1
38
“

(4)

40
-

32
3
23
"

Total holiday time5
13 or m ore days
11 or m ore days
9 l/z or m ore d a y s ----------------------------------------------9 or m ore d a y s --------------------------------------------------8 1/* or m ore days
_
_
_
8 or m ore d a y s ---------------------------------------------------7 Vz or m ore d a y s _______________________________
7 or m ore days
6 l/t or m ore days _
6 or m ore days
5 or m ore days
_
_
------

2
11
14
14
16
72
73
96
96
99
100

_
-

75
76
98
98
99
100

_

_

.

48
50
50
74
74
99
99
100
100

-

-

2
3
3
38
38
84
84
96
98

-

39
40
90
90
97
99

.
-

23
27
27
59
59
99
99
100
100

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
5 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




14

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries *

All workers

---------------------------

-----------------------

-

100

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 2

M anufacturing

100

100

100

100

Public utilities 2

100

Method of paymont
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations --------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e payment -----------------------------Percentage payment -------------------------------------F lat-su m payment ---------------------------------------Othe r --------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations ----------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
90

100

100

90

100

-

-

-

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

5

7

_

"

"

1

(5)
88
6

1

"

~

Amount of vacation p a y 4
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week ___________________ ____________ 1 week
----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks -------------------------------2 weeks
----------------------------------------------- --------------

77

5
5

_
23
-

_

16

17

9

4

-

-

-

-

-

62

31

2

-

4
95

42
58

62
1

1

35

36

20

53
5
41

57
6

36

37

63

34
66

After 1 year of service
week -------------------------------------------- ---------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------- ;----------------------2 weeks
1

12
-

88

62
3
35

After 2 years of service
week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks -------------------------------2 weeks
------------------------------------------------------- -----1

6

3

1

1

94

96

4
76

( 5)

After 3 years of service
1 week ------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------------------- -----2 weeks
______________________ __________________
3 weeks ,.---------------------------------------------------------------

4

1

17

22

20

1

2

95

83

26

94

50

34
46

1

2

"

1

1

-

After 5 years of service
week ------------------------------------ --------------- --------Over 1 and under 2 weeks -------------------------------2 weeks
__________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------------------------1

1

(5)

95

0

( 5)

96

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

4

3

_
100
-

3

3

1

93

1

1
2

( 5)

2

92
1

99
-

15

Table B-5. Paid Vacatbns-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Wilmington, D e l.— .J . , September I960)
N
Oi l It E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ER S

Vacation policy
All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities-2

All industries3

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

Amount of vocation p a y 4— Continued

After 10 years of service
1 week __
2 weeks
_
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _ ____ ___
3 weeks ______
__
__ ___ __

1
26
1
73

( 5)

13
2
85

_
92
-

8

3
39
19
38

3
32
24
41

3
7
88
1

3
3
95

2
97

-

-

3
6
54
35

3
3
54
41

(5)

85
-

15

After 15 years of service
1 week _________
2 weeks
3 weeks __________________________________________
4 weeks

1
4
95

99

( 5)

_
5
95

-

( 5)
( 5)

(5)

After 20 years of service
1 week
2 weeks
3 weeks
4 weeks

_

_ _
__

......... .

1
4
40
56

26
73

1
4
24
1
70

23
2
75

( 5)
( 5)

_
2
98

( 5)

97
3

After 25 years of service
1 week
2 weeks

...................

3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks
4 weeks __
...............

1
2
3
4
service
5

_ __
_

( 5)
( 5)

_
2
50
_
48

3

6
47
2
40

3

( 5)

3

49
3

43

74
-

26

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.

NOTE; In tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted to
an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




16
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Wilmington, Del.— .J ., September I960)
N
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Type of benefit
All industries1

A ll workers

_______

____________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M anufacturing

Pu blic u tilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance ----------------------------------------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance -------------------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 4 ------------------------------------

97

99

81

88

96

70

22

15

27

36

36

39

96

99

8
1

88

95

70

Sickness and accident insurance ----------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) --------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) -------------------------------- ------

63

86

5

80

94

15

80

91

11

30

33

-

9

2

68

8

4

55

Hospitalization insurance ------------------------ Surgical insurance ---------- ----------------------- Medical insurance -------------------- ----------------Catastrophe insurance ---------------------------------Retirement pension --------- --------------------------No health, insurance, or pension plan ------

95
93
87
16
90

99
97
95
6
94
(5)

76
76
72
26
74

93
90
77
13
79
3

98
95
84
9
88
2

71
71
61
41
68

W orkers in establishments providing:

1

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 Less than 0. 5 percent.




17

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B ille r , m achine (b illin g m achine )—

Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r , machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




C la ss A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C la ss B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping*
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

C la s s A — Under general direction o f a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

IB

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting sirriple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

19

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-m achine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D oes not in clu d e transcribing-m achine work .
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls.
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or c le r ic a l work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

C la ss A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors,performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la ss B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la ss C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerical work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C la s s A — Performs one or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
C la s s B — Performs one or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A ND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May assist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
-structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p encil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21
MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PLAN T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary du ties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers prim arily engaged in in sta llin g and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are e xclu d e d .

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U S T O D IA L A ND M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte-*
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In clu d e s gatemen who are station ed at gate and check on id e n tity o f em ployees and
other persons entering .
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshorem en , who load and unload sh ip s are exclu d ed .
ORDER FILLER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R e c e iv in g cle rk
Shipping cle rk
Shipping and re ce iv in g cle rk
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are exclu ded.

PACKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in vo lve one or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e rs who a lso make wooden
boxes or cra tes are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in v o lv e s: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work in v o lv e s: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s i z e s listed separately)
Truckdriver light (under lV2 ton s)

,

T ru ckd rive r , medium (1% to and in clu din g 4 to n s)
T ru ckd rive r , heavy (o ve r 4 to n s , tra ile r type)
T ru ckd rive r , heavy (o v e r 4 to n s , other than tra ile r type)
TRUCKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
T ru cke r , pow er (fo rk lift)
T ru cke r , pow er (other than fo rk lift)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 0 — 577584

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25» D .C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, w ill be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady-Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
Buffalo, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Charleston, W. V a.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285*11
Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285*
Dallas, T ex .— Bull. 1285Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, C olo.-—Bull. 1285Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T ex .— Bull. 1285-

* Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T ex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la.— Bull. 1285Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285Lou isville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, T ex.— Bull. 1285♦ Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285*
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285*
Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.-—Bull. 1285*
N ew O r le a n s , L a . — B u ll. 1285*

New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285*
Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton— assaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285P
Philadelphia, P a.— Bull. 1285Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285*
Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285*
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285**R aleigh , N.C.— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285St. Louis, Mo.-111.— Bull. 1285-10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285San Antonio, T ex.— Bull. 1285*
* San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C a lif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C a lif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8
Seattle, Wash.:— Bull. 1285-7
Sioux F alls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285*
Spokane, Wash.-—Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285*
Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285*
Washington, D .C .—
Md.—
Va.— Bull. 1285Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285*9
Wilmington, D el.—
N.J .— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, P a.— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do noi order copies in advance.

*
*♦

Price, 20 cents.
Price, 25 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102