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Occupational Wage Survey

NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT
FEBRUARY 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commisaoner




Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices

rv

I

|Mew Esglaad Reg km
18 Oliver Street
Bostoo 10, Mass.
Liberty 2-2115

Occupational Wage Survey
NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT




FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-41
June I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewon C lo gu t, Commitsionsr

For sal* by lh* Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price

cents




Contents

P re fa c e

Page
T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u r v e y P r o g r a m
T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o r ta n t in d u s ­
tr ia l c e n te rs .
T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r ly
s p r in g , r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le ­
m e n ta r y b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on
c o m p le t io n o f the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m onth
f o llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s
a d d itio n a l d ata not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t . A c o n ­
s o lid a te d a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s o f a ll
o f the y e a r * s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le t io n o f the
fin a l a r e a b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t rou n d o f s u r v e y s .

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u 1s r e g io n a l
o f f i c e in B o s to n , M a s s . , b y L e o E p s t e in , u n der the d i r e c ­
tio n o f P a u l V . M u lk e rn , R e g io n a l W a g e and In d u s tr ia l
R e la tio n s A n a ly s t s .




In tr o d u c tio n

_________________________________________________________________________

1

1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y _______________

2

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1.
O f f ic e o c c u p a tio n s _______________________________________________
A - 2.
P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ______________________
A - 3.
M a in ten a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a t io n s _____________________
A - 4.
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s _____________

4
6
7
8

T a b le s :

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p r o v is io n s : *
B - l.
S h ift d if fe r e n t ia ls _________________________________________________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n
o f f ic e w o r k e r s ______________________________________ -____________
_________
B - 3 . S c h ed u le d w e e k ly h ou rs ________________________________ ■
B - 4.
P a id h o lid a y s ______________________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s _____________________________________________________
B -6 .
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p lan s -------------------------------

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s

__________________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s f o r th e s e an d o th e r ite m s a r e
a v a ila b le in the r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s in o th e r m a jo r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a tin g d ate o f stu d y and the p r ic e o f the r e ­
p o r ts is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t .

U n ion s c a le s , in d ic a t iv e o f p r e v a ilin g p a y l e v e l s ,
a r e a v a ila b le f o r the f o llo w in g t r a d e s o r in d u s tr ie s : B u ild ­
in g c o n s tr u c tio n , p r in tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s , and m o t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .

10
11
12
13
14
16

17




Occupational W a g e Survey— New Haven, Conn.
Introduction

This area is one of se v e r a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of Labor* s B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
o n an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry division s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m u nication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu d ies are governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and ex tractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted a lso b ecause
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, sep arate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T h ese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecause of the
u n n ecessary c o st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t for those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform s e t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties within the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) custod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and

late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are inclu ded. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s are paid; average w eekly earn in gs for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are p resen ted sep arately
for selec te d occupations in which both se x e s are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (1) d ifferen ces in the d istrib u tion of the sex es am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ss ifie d w ithin
the sam e su rvey job descrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this b asis.
L onger average se r v ic e of m en would r e su lt in higher average pay
when both se x e s are em ployed w ithin the, sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore g en era lized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts w ithin the scope of the study and not the num ber actu ­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
esta b lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stab lish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as used
in this b ulletin, includes w orking su p erv iso rs and n on su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fu n ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fessio n a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lea d m
1
R ailroad s, form erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice fun ction s. A d m in istrative,
ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-a cco u n t con stru ction
have been added in n ea rly a ll of the areas to be studied during the
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
w in ter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining area s next
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
y ea r. F or scope of su rvey in this a r ea , se e footnote to "transporta­
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s 11 in table 1.




2




T a b le

1.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in N e w H a v e n ,

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N n n m & n t if a r t ii r i n g

.
.

.

.
.

C o n n ., 1 b y m a jo r in d u s tr y d iv i s i o n ,1 F e b r u a r y I9 6 0

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W it h in
scope of
stu d y 9

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o ta l4

O ffic e

P la n t

T o t a l4

51
___

.

.

.

.

.

.
-----

T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d
o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ____________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___
.
.
___ . _
_ __
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e
.
_
S e r v i c e s 7 ___ ________
.
.
_______
_

248

93

6 0 .5 0 0

1 1 ,0 0 0

3 9 .7 0 0

4 3 . 070

51
51

149
99

47
46

38, 700
2 1 ,8 0 0

4, 500
6 ,5 0 0

2 8 ,8 0 0
1 0 ,9 0 0

2 7 , 170
1 5 ,9 0 0

51
51
51
51
51

14
20
31
20
14

12
8
9
9
8

1 0 ,4 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
3 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 0 0

3, 200

4 ,5 0 0

10, 220
810
2, 080
1 ,7 7 0
1 ,0 2 0

( 4)
( 4)
( 4)

( 4)

( 4

l 4)

4
( 4)

1
T h e N e w H a v e n M e t r o p o lit a n A r e a (N e w H a v e n C ity ; B r a n fo r d , E a s t H a v e n , G u ilfo r d , H a m d e n , N o r th H a v e n , O r a n g e , W e s t H a v e n a n d W o o d b r id g e to w n s in N e w
H a v e n C o u n ty ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t im a t e s
s h o w n in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i s e a n d c o m p o s i t io n o f th e la b o r
f o r c e in c lu d e d in th is s u r v e y .
T h e e s t im a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r i s o n w ith o t h e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t
t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
*
T h e 1 9 5 7 r e v i s e d e d it io n o f th e S ta n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C la s s if ic a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s if y i n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n .
M a jo r c h a n g e s f r o m th e
e a r l i e r e d i t i o n ( u s e d i n t h e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e t h e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i s a t i o n p l a n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d
c o n c r e t e e s t a b lis h m e n t s f r o m
tra d e
(w h o le s a le o r r e t a il)
t o m a n u fa c t u r in g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d io a n d t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s t in g f r o m
s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,
c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n .
9
I n c lu d e s a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i s e li m it a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in s u c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e ,
fin a n c e , a u to r e p a ir s e r v ic e , a n d m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4
I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
s R a il r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x ic a b s a n d - s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
4
T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b le s , a lth o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f ic i e n t
to ju s t ify s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n is a t io n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .

9

3
S h ift d iffe r e n t ia l d ata (ta b le B - l ) a re lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s t r ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n i s p re s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o lic y , 2 p re s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o rk e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b) e ffe c tiv e p r a c t ic e , p re s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c if ie d s h if t at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g v a r ie d d if f e r e n t ia ls , the am o u n t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w a s u s e d o r , i f no a m o u n t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n "o th e r" w as u s e d .
In e s t a b lis h m e n ts in w h ich som e la t e s h ift h o u rs a r e p a id a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if fe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u r s .
M in im u m e n tra n c e r a te s (tab le B - 2 ) r e la te o n ly to the e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a re p re s e n te d on an e s t a b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n p la n s a re tre a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is th at th e se a re a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
jo r it y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a re e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify fo r the
p r a c t ic e s lis t e d . S c h e d u le d h o u r s a re tre a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th e se a re a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a re c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s in th ese
ta b u la tio n s m a y not e q u a l to t a ls .
T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the p a id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h o lid a y s a c t u a lly p ro v id e d .
The secon d p a rt
c o m b in e s w hole and h a lf h o lid a y s to show to ta l h o lid a y t im e .

D a ta a re p re s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n
p la n s f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t i s b o rn e b y the e m p lo y e r*
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n t s su c h a s w o rk m e n 1 s c o m p e n s a tio n
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y . S u c h p la n s in c lu d e th o se u n d e rw ritte n b y a c o m ­
m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e co m p a n y and th o se p ro v id e d th ro u g h a u n io n fund o r
p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e ra tin g fu n d s o r f r o m
a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u rp o s e . D e a th b e n e fits a re in c lu d e d a s a
f o r m o f lif e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e i s lim it e d to th at type o f in ­
s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ich p re d e te rm in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m ad e d ir e c t ly
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g il ln e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo r m a tio n i s p re s e n te d fo r a ll su c h p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u t e s .
H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o r k and N ew J e r s e y * w h ich
h ave e n a cte d te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ic h r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s , 4 p la n s a re in c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r ( 1 ) c o n ­
tr ib u t e s m o re than i s le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r ( 2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ic h e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n t s o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s ic k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim it e d to f o r m a l p la n s 5 w h ic h p ro v id e
f u ll p a y o r a p r o p o rtio n o f the w o r k e r 's p ay d u r in g a b s e n c e f r o m w o rk
b ecau se of illn e s s .
S e p a ra te ta b u la tio n s a r e p ro v id e d a c c o r d in g to
( 1 ) p la n s w h ich p ro v id e f u ll p ay and no w a itin g p e rio d , and ( 2 ) p la n s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r t ia l pay o r a w a itin g p e rio d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p ro p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s who a re p ro v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s i c k le a v e , an u n d u p lic a te d to ta l is
show n of w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fits .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s i s lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x c lu d in g in f o r m a l p la n s w h e re b y tim e o ff w ith p ay i s g ra n te d
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a ra te e s t im a t e s a r e p ro v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in c o m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts, s u c h
a s tim e p a y m e n ts, p e rc e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m o u n ts.
H o w e v e r, in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e re c o n v e rte d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
a n n u al e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 1 s p a y .

C a ta s tro p h e in s u ra n c e * s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to a s exten d ed
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o se p la n s w h ic h a r e d e s ig n e d to p ro te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s beyond
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n * m e d ic a l* and s u r g i c a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s 1 f e e s . S u c h p la n s m a y be u n d e rw ritte n b y c o m m e r ­
c i a l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n is a t io n s o r th e y m a y be
s e lf - in s u r e d .
T a b u la t io n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a re lim it e d to
th o se p la n s th a t p ro v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's lif e .

* A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y i f it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s: ( 1 ) O p e ra te d la te s h ift s at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r ( 2 ) h ad f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h if t s .
3
S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m ad e p r io r to la te 1 9 5 7 and e a r ly 1 9 5 8 w e re
p re s e n te d in te r m s o f the p ro p o rtio n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d in o f fic e s w ith the in d ic a t e d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w o m en w o r k e r s .

4
T h e te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lif o r n ia and Rh o d e Is la n d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u t io n s .
3
A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n i f
o t e s t a b lis h e d a t le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s i c k le a v e that
if
c o u ld be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S u c h a p la n n eed no t be w ritte n *
b u t in f o r m a l s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is *
w e re e x c lu d e d .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis
by industry division, New Haven, C on n., February I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly.
Weekly, U n der
hours
earnings1
(Standard) (Standard) $
4 5 . 00

$
4 5 .0 0
and
under
5 0 .0 0

$5 0 .0 0

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

6 5 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0. 00

6 5. 00

7 0 . 00

S
$
$
$
7 0. 00 *75. 00 8 0 . 00 8 5. 00 9 0 .0 0
8 0. 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

2

7 5. 00

$9 5. 00 f o o . 00 f 0 5. 00 f i o . o o f 15. 00 f 2 0 .0 0 f 2 5 . 00
and

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0

105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0

over

M en

C lerks, accounting, c la ss A --------------------M anufacturing________________________—
N onm anufacturing--------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ------------------------------C lerks, accounting, c la ss B --------------------C lerks, order -------------------------------------------M anufacturing--------------------------------------Office boys _______________________________
M anufacturing__________________________
N onm anufacturing--------------------------------Tabulating-m achine operators, c la ss B —
N onm anufacturing--------------------------------Women
B ille r s, m achine (billing m achine) ------------------------B ille r s, m achine (bookkeeping m achine) ---------------Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss A _________
Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss B _________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing-----------------------------------------------C lerks, accounting, c la ss A _______________________
M anufacturing___________________________________
N onm anufacturing_______________________________
C lerks, accounting, c la ss B _______________________
M anufacturing___________________________________
N onm anufacturing-----------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ______________________________
C lerks, file, c la ss A ______________________________
C lerks, file, c la ss B ---------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing-----------------------------------------------C lerks, order ______________________________________
M anufacturing___________________________________
C lerks, p a y r o ll_____________________________________
M anufacturing___________________________________
N onm anufacturing_______________________________

83
33
50
28

4 0 .0
40. 0
39. 5
4 0 .0

$ 1 0 1 .5 0
1 0 4 .00
1 0 0 .00
1 0 5 .50

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
2
2
-

8
2
6
-

9
6
3
1

4
3
1

-

2
-

60

40. 0

9 6 .0 0

_

_

_

_

1

_

1

-

16

2

10

69
44

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 4 .5 0
9 0 0

.

_

_

-

-

4
4

-

2
-

-

6
1

10
6

8
6

3
3

60
25
35

3 9. 5
4 0 .0
39. 5

6 0 .5 0
5 0.5 0
6 8 .0 0

35
5
-

16
9
7

11
5
6

5
4
1

2
2

2
1
1

_
-

_
-

15
15

43
«

38. 5
38. 0

8 6 .0 0
6 7 .6 0

_

.

_

_

2
2

2
2

_

5

1

3

_

28

3 9 .5

6 8 .0 0

2

28

3 8 .0

7 5 .0 0

3

2

5

2

_

2

6

1

1

4
5

18
3
15
10

5
2
3
3

4
3
1
1

1
1
-

5
5
-

1

22
5
17
12

-

-

2

6

14

5

3

-

-

4
2

4
2

3
1

3
3

1

8
6

7
7

6
2

3
1 '
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

■ -

10
8

6
2

1
1

16
16

1

-

_

_

_

_

6

4

3

1

3

_

_

_

_

4

_

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

_
-

_
.

_
.

_
.

-

-

_

_

_

27

37. 5

7 0 .5 0

1

_

1

4

1

5

2

9

_

3

_

l

_

157
55
102

3 9 .0
40. 6
3 9 .0

5 6 .0 0
6 3 .6 0
5 2 .5 0

13

36
7
29

18
13
5

17
5
12

16
15
1

2
2

4
4
-

2
2
-

3
3

_
-

_
-

-

6
4
2

!
-

3 13

39
3
36

1

-

-

-

107
61
46

3 9 .5
~4676
3 9 .0

8 4 .5 0
8 3 .6 6
8 6 .5 0

_

_

_

4
4
"

5
3
2

10
7
3

18
9
9

20
15
5

8

3

14
9
5

5
3
2

_

8

19
10
9

168
75
93
25

39. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

6 5 .5 0
59750
6 2 .5 0
7 4 .0 0

28

39. 5

7 3 .5 0

145
119

3 8. 5
~367o
3 8 .0

5 3.0 0
506"
5 1.5 0

54
39

39. 5
39. 5

194
138
56

3 9 .0
3 9. 5
3 8 .0

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

3
3

11
7
4
-

24
4
20
1

21
8
13
3

27
10
17
5

26
17
9
6

16
7
9
4

6
3
3
3

5
4
1
1

4
4

2

1
1

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

19
4
15
-

_

1

2

2

2

3

8

4

_

1

1

1

3

10

49
5
44

25
7
18

18
9
9

5
3
2

2

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

10

36
2
34

2

-

-

-

-

-

7 3 .5 0
7 8 .0 0

4
-

1
”

5
5

4
2

7
4

7
5

7
7

4
4

_

“

3
-

4
4

1
1

7 1 .5 0
7 2 .0 6
7 0 .5 0

.
-

6
4
2

9
4
5

11
4
7

12
10
2

42
3
10

32
29
3

45
25”
20

15
11
4

12
12

5
4

3
2
1

-

-

1

-

-

3

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

.

_

_

_

.

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

--

-

-

_

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

.

-

-

_

_

1
-

_

5
5

_

_

-

-

1
'

See footnotes at end of table,




5
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , New Haven, Conn. , F ebruary i960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-T!(ME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Avbhaqb
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

$
Weekly,
Weekly x U n d er 4 5 .0 0
earnings
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
tind er
4 5 . 00 5 0 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
7 0 .0 0

S
7 5. 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0. 00

55. 00

6 0 .0 0

6 5. 00

7 0 .0 0

7 5. 00

8 0. 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 .0 0

9 5. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00
and
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00 o v e r

W o m e n — C on tin u ed

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s
— -------- — —
M a n u fa ctu r in g ----- ----- — — ~ —
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------ — . . — — —

$ 7 9 . 50
50
8 2 . 50

it.

3
3

2
2

5
5

12
5
7

14
8
6

6
6
-

7
5
2

3
2
1

5
5
2

19
3
16

14
1
13

24
1
23

7
7

.

.

_

_

*

-

-

“

“

5
5
5
0

7 1 . 50
6 8 .0 0
7 2. 50
7 4. 00

1
1
-

1
1
-

19
7
12
10

47
6
41
39

28
14
14
4

25
14
11
3

27
8
19
1

3
3
1

52
52
52

3
3
-

_
-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

.
-

-

18
3
15
8

-

-

-

40. 0

59. 50

1

10

12

.

4

4

2

_

4

_

1

1

.

_

_

_

_

.

39. 0
" 4 &:t '
38. 0
39. 0

8 5. 50
$ 5. 00
8 6 .0 0
1 0 3 .0 0

-

7
1
6
-

20
6
14
-

29
7
22
-

63
36
27
-

92
57
35
3

56
44
12
2

52
42
10
5

52
28
24
16

29
15
14
6

23
17
6
6

24

-

27
9
18
-

7
4
3
1

34
n —
21
10

37
23
14
8

67

21
13

28
8
20
14

24
n>—
9
2

3
3
-

2
2
2

.
-

-------------------- ---------------— ---------------

121
54
87

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g — ----- --------------------- -----------------------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------ ----------------------------------------- ----P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 --------------------------------------------------------

224
56
168
118

38.
39.
38.
39.

O f f i c e g ir ls

---------------------------------- — — ----------

-----

39

S e c r e t a r ie s --------------------------------------------- -----------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
---------------------------- -------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
--------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 ---------- . __ _____________________

500
“ "Z5S
220
66

”

-

2
2
-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ------------------- -------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g —------ ------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------- --------------------------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 --------------------------------------------------------

336
136
200
113

39. 0
4 0 .0
38. 5
39. 0

7 3 .0 0
7 1. 50
7 4 .0 0
8 0. 50

_
-

6
6
-

21
6
15
4

50
12
38
14

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n ic a l
------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________________

79
60

40. 0
40. 0

7 7. 50
7 3. 50

_

_

_

.

'

■

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------

85
62

3 9 .0
38. 5

67. 50
6 6 .0 0

2
2

7
7

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ____________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
----------------- -------- --------------------------- __

74
54

39. 0
39. 5

66. 50
67. 00

1
-

-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B

____________

30

40. 0

8 8 . 50

.

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s C

------------------------

104

37. 5

69. 50

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l ------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
—__ -___________________ __ ___ ___ ___ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------ --------------------------- -------- __

106
67
39

39. 5
40. 0
38. 5

T y p is t s , c l a s s A
_________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
_____ _______________________ ____ _____ _
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
---------------------------------------------------------

240
117
123

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ----------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
---------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------ —

286
134
152

1
2
3
4

-----

-

1
1

_

.

_

.

~

~

■

■

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

17

_

.

_

.

_

.

.

.

.

_

.

.

2
1
1

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
3
1

12
12

12
1
11

I
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

.
-

_
-

1
1

.
-

.
-

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

■

8
8

16
13

13
ll

6
6

8
6

5
■

4
1

10
lo

4
3

5
5

24
13

11
6

4
2

4
1

12
12

2
1

6
1

19
16

17
14

10
8

9
9

2
1

2
-

1

-

6
4

_

.

.

_

1

_

8

1

3

.

.

2

8

12

32

20

30

66. 00
68. 00
6 2. 50

-

6
6

4
4

13
3
10

19
10
9

24
20
4

20
20
-

16
13
3

39. 0
40. 0
38. 5

66. 50
67. 00
66. 50

-

_
-

, 34
3
31

34
14
20

61
32
29

49
38
11

19
12
7

38. 5
39. 5
37. 5

60. 00
60. 00
59. 50

4
4

17
8
9

54
21
33

78
37
41

6?
26
43

14
12
2

30
14
16

1

■

4
4
-

10
10

12
10
2

7
1
6

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
A ll w orkers w ere at $40 to $45.
W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 12 at $125 to $130; 1 at $130 to $135.




1
16
— 5—
------1
----13
4 13
-

5
1

-

13
13

4T ~

14
14

.
-

24
3
21
15

—

-T o —

25
12
-------- F " — 3—
23
9
21
9

1

3
----- 2----1
1

.
-

.

_

6
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
.(A verage str a ig h t-tim e w eek ly hours and earn in gs for selec ted occup ation s studied on an area b a sis
by in dustry d iv isio n , New Haven, C on n., F eb ruary I960)
Avs IAUB
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly . U n d e r
earnings
(Standard) $
6 5 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0
and
t in d e r
7 0 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
$
1 0 5 . 00 1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 2 0 .0 0

$
$
$
$
1 2 5 . 00 1 3 0 . 00 1 3 5 . 00 1 4 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

5Q . 00

9 5 . 00_ 1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 . 00 1 1 5 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 3 0 .0 0

1 3 5 .0 0

1 4 0 .0 0

$
1 4 5 ,0 0
and

1 4 5 .0 0

over

8
~ ~ 5--------

M en

D r a f t s m e n , l e a d e r -------------------------------------------------- -------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------- -------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

■

“

“

■

"

“

8
8

_

“

~

■

4
4

14
14

2
2

8
$

22
22

-

2
2

-

3
3

24
23

8
8

3
3

22
22

22
22

29
26

33
31

7
6

4
3

2
2

1
1

---- 2

-

8 2 . 00
79715

8
6

.

7
7

11
9

31
30

14
11

10
8

2

5

.

.

.

"

■

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

9 1 .5 0
9 0 . 00

.

4
2

5
5

16
14

2
1

5
4

5
4

1
1

6
3

4
2

1
1

2
2

_

66
66

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 1 3 5 .0 0
1 3 5 .0 0

D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ---------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g — ---------------------------------------------------------------------

167

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 7 .5 0
1 0 7 .0 0

.

159

D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r
------------ ------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g - ------- ------------------------------------------ -------------- --------

88
73

3 9 .5
40. 0

52

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

-

W om en

N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l (r e g is t e r e d )
----------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g — --------------- ------ -------------------------------------------------

1

39

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .




1

5
--------

-

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., F e b r u a r y I9 6 0 )
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
workers

O c c u p a tio n an d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e — .................... . ...............
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ;-----------------------------------------------—
—
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------- -----------------

Average
U nder
J S S .1 $
1. 50

W
29

$ 2 .4 2
2 .4 0
2 .4 5

88

$
• i.,0
and
under
1 .6 0

* 1 .6 0

* 1 .7 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

$

$

$

$

2. 20

2 . 30

2 .4 0

2 . 50

$ 2. 60

$ 2 .7 0

2. 80

2 .9 0

3. 00

3 . 10
and

1 -5 0

2 .0 0

2 . 10

2. 20

2 . 30

2 .4 0

2 . 50

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 . 10

over

2
1
1

7
7

23
6
17

18
16
2

8
8

1
-

7
7

-

4
-

-

1

“

-

4

-

14
13

29

9
9

5
2

18
18

37
87

4
4

_

13
13

2
2

47
24
23

27
is

4
4

_

5
5

9

20
4
16

3
3

2
2

5
5

-

.

-

-

1
1

10
lb

-

-

_
-

2
2

-

1
l

-

_

-

-

5
5

12
8
4

6
6

10
10

16
16

15
15

-

1
1

-

-

-

3

-

1
1

4
....... T .......
l

*

. . — ----------------________________ _

137

2 .3 9
2.

-

-

-

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y ____
____________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_________

..
~
_____________
____ ____

170
113
57

2 .4 1
2 . 39
2 .4 3

1
-

2
-

-

1

2

F i r e m e n , s t a t i o n a r y b o i l e r _____ __
__
-----M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ _______ ____
__ ____ ______ ___

122
116

2 .1 7
2.

.

-

2
2

21
20

4
4

4

4

4
4

5
5

64
62

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ---------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
— —
__
___________ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 1 ______ ________ ____ ____ _

148
105
43
34

1 .9 9
1 .9 3
2 . 11
2. 20

8
4
4

15
15
-

11
ii

16
13
3

“

“

■

"

"

6
5
1
1

15
5
10
10

17
16
1
1

29
19
10
10

17
8

-

8
8
-

9
9

4
1
3
3

M a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g — — — ---------------------- —
—
—

69
6$

2 . 38
2 . 3$

2
2

.

m

_

-

-

*
*

-

21
21

8
8

M a c h i n i s t s , m a i n t e n a n c e -------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
__ __
____
— __ —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____
__ . .
..
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 __
____________ __

239
177
62
62

2 . 50
2 .4 9
2 . 52
2 . 52

8
8
-

.
-

4
4
-

50
36
14
14

14
14
—

M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e ( m a i n t e n a n c e ) ______ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________ _______
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ........................................................

179
T5B------134

2 .4 4
2.
2 .4 2

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________

____ ______
______ __

244
216

Z7J3

M i l l w r i g h t s . — .............—
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______

59
59

2. 48

__

52
51

1 .9 7
1 .99

m a i n t e n a n c e --------------------------------------------------

40

2 . 35

_

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ________________________ _____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________

72
72

2 . 57
2 .5 7

*

S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ,

26

2 . 52

_

212

2 .6 8

____ —
--------_

------

------------

rvi 1o t a
M a n u fa c tu r in g _
P a in t e r s ,

---------------

-----------------------------

m a i n t e n a n c e ---------------------

T o o l a n d d i e m a k e r s ___________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------- — —---------------------------

1
2
*

ill

ii

4}

2 . 56

1748

-

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

3
-------- 3—

-

1
-

-

-

-

1

_

_

_
-

“

5
5

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

2
-

-

2

-

-

-

“

“

“

"

"

34
34

.

.

-

2
2

.

-

1
1

_

-

18
18
-

19
19
-

4
1
3
3

25
21
4
4

"
_

_

■

-

1
1

-

-

-

18
13
5
5

-

-

60
26
34
34

-

18
l6
2
2

.

-

2
1
1

28
25
28

45
45
35

4
3
3

35
23
17

21
21
21

2
2
2

16
16
16

17
15
11

7
4

_
-

-

-

-

-

6
6

9
9

13
13

69
69

15
14

11
1

75
75

13

16
8

_

2

3 15
15

2
2

10
lff“

4
4

13
13

2
2

11
11

5
5

1
1

11
11

_

.

-

-

-

8
8

.

8
8

1
1

-

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

“

-

.

3

3

16

1

3

5

.

-

_

_

6

■

2
2

“

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

“

-

“

-

-

_

_

-

1
1
-

_

.

.

-

-

-

*

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2

4
4

6

6

2
2

... 9

k

10
l6

_

1

1

6

1

-

*

*

-

-

6

1
1

7

*

7

8
8

19
19

19
19

*

10
10

_

_

_

_

_

2

3

_

1

1

12

3

-

2

-

2

-

.

_

.

_

3

11
11

26
26

20
20

52
52

34
34

28
28

36

_

36

l

-

2
1

1. 68

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e a n d f o r w d fk o n w e e k e n d s ,
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t il it ie s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 3 .1 0 to $ 3. 2 0 .




$

$ 2 . 10

-

-

$

2 .0 0

-

-

$

1 1 .9 0

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a i n t e n a n c e _____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________

..
____

$

* 1 .8 0

— T * '

_

“
_

8

h o lid a y s ,

a n d la te s h ift s .

6
_

-

“

2

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e h o urly earn in g s for selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
by in d u stry division, New H aven, C onn., F e b ru a ry I960)
N U M B E R O F WORKERS3 R E C E U PING S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

O ccu pation1 and in d u stry d iv ision

of
workers

hourly
earnings

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
* 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1.“ 40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.~ 10 2. 20 2.“ 30 2.4 0 2. 50 2.6 0 2. 70 2. 80 2.9 0 3. 00 3. 10
and
“
~
~
“
~
“
■
■
~
under
1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 __U80_ 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 over
2
"

~

8
6

3
1

4
4

18
18

6
2

39
39

9
8

16
16

-

~

16
9

-

"

'

-

-

-

89
89
■

52
4
48
~

79
47
32
1

76
42
34
■

37
33
4
~

55
40
15
"

84
50
34
31

62
42
20
18

43
17
26
24

53
48
5
5

_
~

.
~

"

_
■

_
~

.
■

“

_
■

~

_
"

8
-

8
8

1

“

12
12

3
3

9
9

1
1

3
2

8
“

2
2

“

“

"

"

"

-

-

-

-

_

_
“

3
3
■

4
4

j
1
"

22
22
"

4
4
“

29
20
9
“

138
133
5
~

70
55
15
“

134
124
10
~

48
43
5
“

26
5
~

80
57
23
18

150
35
115
115

82
52
30
30

3
3
“

4
4
“

2
2
“

2

_
~

.
■

.
~

.
"

-

-

2
-

2

2
-

1
~

8
8

13
8

2
-

10
~

44
28

4
"

2
.
"

“

G uards --------- — ---- ----- ------------ --------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------

121
103

$ 2 .0 3
2.0 2

Ja n ito rs , p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (m en) -------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing --------- ---- ----- — ------— —
P ublic u tilitie s 3
— ------------ — -

642
331
311
79

1.6 4
1.75
1.53
1.97

?
8
1
"

3
3
■

Ja n ito rs , p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs
(women) ---- - — —
- — — ---- —
M a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------

55
37

1.59
1.58

_
-

L a b o re rs, m a te ria l handling ---- ------------------..
.— .
M anufacturing ____ _____ _
N onm anufacturing - -- —
———
P u blic u tilitie s 3 --------------------------- —----

802
551
251
163

1.94
1.91
2. 02
2. 25

O rd e r f ille rs - — -------- — — - — — ---- M anufacturing — ---------------- -— --------- — .—

98
48

2. 16
2. 18

"

8
4

li

~

t
~

~

-

-

.

_
~

.
■

"

.

_

.

_

1

-

-

“

P a c k e rs, shipping (men) ------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------—-------—

174
173

1.83
1.83

“

1
-

2
2

8
6

18
lft

8
6

30
30

8
8

43
43

8
8

7
7

13
13

10
10

18
18

_
~

P a c k e rs, shipping (women) --------------------------

33

1.62

3

5

2

10

.

.

_

.

.

8

_

_

_

_

2

1

1

1

R eceiving c le rk s ------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------ ------------------------

60
52

2. 00
2.01

-

'

2
-

-

"

-

9
9

6
6

3
1

3
3

8
8

12
11

8
8

5
l

1
~

2
2

■

"

Shipping c l e r k s ---- ----------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------

76
53

2. 17
2.09

1

_

.
■

_
"

8
8

_
■

9
9

7
7

29
13

6
6

3
3

_
“

4
4

_

5
”

_
■

i
i

3
1

_
“

Shipping and receiv in g c le rk s ----------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------

75
63

2. 16
2. 13

.
-

-

.
"

.
"

_
“

.
"

1
1

15
10

17
17

20
19

10
10

1
1

_
“

_

3
1

_
"

_
“

_

4

.

■

■

4
4

T ruckd r ive r s 4 -----------— ---- —-----------------------M anufacturing — --------------------------- —---- -—
N onm anufacturing --------- -------------------------—
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 --------------------- -------------

939
355
584
248

2. 32
2. 19
2.3 9
2. 30

“

“

■

~

-

19
5
14
“

30
21
9

28
16
12
12

4
3
1
1

35
29
6
6

41
12
29
9

227
212
15
15

317
32
285
204

21
20
1
1

6
2
4
"

68
68
“

50
50
-

_
“

.
“

T ru c k d riv e rs , light (under l*/2 t o n s ) ------M anufacturing -------------------------------------N onm anufacturing ---------------- —------------P u blic u tilitie s 3 -------------------------- —

110
37
73
25

1.82
1.90
1.79
2. 18

-

-

.
-

_
-

-

26
26

18
5
13

29
20
9

8
8
8

_
-

1
1
-

8
8
-

_
-

18
1
17
17

_
-

2
2
-

_

.
"
_

62
62

■

31
3
28
"

_

-

_
-

_

-

_
"

See footnotes at end of tab le.




"

1

.

- -

■

-

-

“

1

-

“

-

-

.

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e h o urly earn in g s fo r selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
by in d u stry division, New Haven, C o n n ., F e b ru a ry I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

O ccupation1 and in d u stry division

T ru ck d riv e rs: 4— Continued
T ru ck d riv e rs, m edium ( l 1^ to and
including 4 tons) -------------- — ------- ----

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
» *1.00 $1. 10 $1 .20 $1.30 $1 .40 $1.50 $1 .60 *1.70 $ 1.80 1.90 $2. 00 *2.10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2.4 0 *2.50 $2. 60 $2.70 $2. 80 $2.90 $3. 00 *3.10
and
and
under
1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.0 0 2. 10 2.20 2.30 2.4 0 2. 50 2.6 0 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3. 10 over

71

$ 2 .1 9

-

-

-

-

-

5

1

-

9

3

T ru c k d riv e rs, heavy (over 4 ton s,
tr a ile r type) _ — — — —
— — > 413
M anufacturing _ — ------61
N on m an u factu rin g ----------------------------------352

2. 50
2. 25
2. 54

"

"

“

“

~

-

”

~

"

18
- " '"IT1 1
”
■

T ru c k d riv e rs, heavy (over 4 ton s,
oth er than tr a ile r ty p e ) __ — ---N o n m an u factu rin g ------------- — __ __

292
73

2. 31
2.4 0

'

-

■

“

■

-

"

“

5
4

1
1

8
6

195
172

1.99
1.97

_
“

_

_
~

_
“

.
■

13
13

16
l6

12
12

35
...35

19
19

21
21

47
30

T ru c k e rs, pow er (o ther than forklift)
M an u fac tu rin g ----------------------------------------------

89
84

2.19
2.1 9

.
"

.

.
■

.
~

.
■

2
2

4
4

6
6

-

7
7

7
7

W atchm en __ „ — ------- --------------------- — ----M anufacturing _ __ —
N onm anufacturing __ ____ ____
__ -

217
117
100

1. 50
...1756 "
1. 31

54
54

14
14

21
18
3

9
3

12
6

14
14

29
29

11
11

4
4

10
10

12
12

T ru c k e rs, pow er (forklift) ---M an u fac tu rin g ---------- ------------

1
2
5
4

---— —

~ z —

D ata lim ite d to m en w o rk e rs except w here o th erw ise ind icated.
E xcludes prem iu m pay for o v ertim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, ho lidays, and late sh ifts.
T ran sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and o th er public u tilitie s.
Includes a ll d riv e rs re g a rd le s s of size and type of tru c k o p erated .




-

48

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

_

1 22 213
1 “ T r ­ 20
185
" io

3
2
1

2
2

66
66

“

26
26

62
62

■

"

9
9

18

2
2

2
2

"

— ZT

24

-

■

"

6
4

16
12

_
■

8
18

1
1

.
~

1
------ r

"

■

32
27

3
3

.
■

-

28
28

.
-

-

“

-

“

-

14
2
12

7
5
2

2
2

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

202
21 — 5—
20




10

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(P ercen t of m anufacturing plant w orkers in establishm ents having form al provisions for shift w ork, and in establishm ents
actually operating late shifts by type and amount of differential, New Haven, C o nn., F eb ru ary i960)
In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 for—
T hird or other
Second shift
w ork
shift w ork

In establishm ents actually
operating—
T hird or other
Second shift
shift

79.9
W ith shift pay differential
— - U niform cents (per hour) ------------------------------3 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------5 cents -------__ . . ----------------------------------,—
- — ----- 6 cents ___ — ------ —
7 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------7Vz cents __ 8 cents ... . ________ ______________
-----------8 l / i cents — — — - - —
1O r- » n t m
..........
12 cents ___________________________________
131/* cents —___________ ________________ ____
14 cents
— ----—— - —
15 cents _ ________ _____ __________________________
O ver 15 cents _
—- U niform percentage ---------------------------------------5 percen t ______ . . .
. . . .
7 l /z percen t
----- — ---- —
. —
10 percen t
.
. ___
15 percen t ----- ._ . . . .
O ther form al pay d if f e r e n tia l_____________ ___
No shift pay differential
___

67. 3

14.3

6. 5

78. 2
68. 5
2.9
11. 3
2. 2
9.0
1.7
1.7
2. 2
16.4
16.8
1.0
1.7
1.6
8. 1
5. 0
2. 5
.6
1.6
1.7

67. 3
44. 6
.
2.0
6. 1
13.7
4 .0
1.0
12. 5
3.7
1.6
7. 5
3. 5
1. 5
2. 5

14. 0
12.7
.8
1. 1
.6
1. 1
.3
.4
.2
2.0
5.4
.2
.1
.5
1. 2
1. 1
.1
"
.1
.3

6. 5
3. 6

15. 2

-

.9
1.0
.4
.2
.7
.1
.2
.5
.1
.3
.1
'
2.4

1
Includes establishm ents c u rren tly operating late sh ifts, and establishm ents w ith form al provisions covering late shifts even
though they w ere not c u rre n tly operating late shifts.

11
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D istrib ution of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv ision s by m inim um en tran ce sa la ry for se le cte d c a te g o ries
o f in ex perienced w om en office w o rk e rs, New H aven, C onn., F e b ru a ry i960)
Inexp erienced ty p ists
M inim um w eekly s a la r y 1

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

— —------------------- ..

A ll
in d u strie s

N onm anufacturing
M anufacturing
B ased on stand ard w eekly h o u rs* of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
371/*
schedules
schedules

A ll

O ther inex perienced c le ric a l w o r k e rs 2
N onm anufacturing
M anufacturing
B ased on stan d ard w eekly h o u rs 1 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
37l/z
schedules
schedules

--------

93

47

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

93

47

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

E sta b lish m e n ts having a specified m inim um — — — __
U nder $ 37. 50 ..................................................$ 3 7 .5 0 and un der $ 4 0 .0 0 ..........................................................
$ 40. 00 and un der $ 42. 50 --------------- —--------------- --------$ 42. 50 and under $ 45. 00 -------- — --------- —
$ 45. 00 and under $ 47. 50 ---------------- ----------------- -------$ 47 .50 and un der $ 50. 00 - .. — $50. 00 and under $ 5 2 .5 0 — — ---- ---...
$ 5 2 .5 0 and un d er $ 5 5 .0 0 ..........................................................
$55. 00 and un der $ 5 7 .5 0 - .......................................................
$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $6 0. 00 ------------------------------------------$ 60. 00 and under $ 62. 50 — — ---- --------- --------------$ 62. 50 and under $ 65. 00 . .. ------------ ..
-----------$6 5. 00 and un der $ 6 7 .5 0 —----- ---- ---- --------- —
$ 6 7 .5 0 and ov er — ------- ------- — _
__ _. — —
E sta b lish m e n ts having no specified m inim um ------------E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not em ploy w o rk e rs in
th is categ ory ----- — — — — — ------- __
-------

48
3
2
5
13
5
4
1
4
2
1
2
3
3
12

25
_
1
3
7
2
1
4
2
1
2
1
1
9

22
_
1
3
6
.
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
XXX

23
_
3
1
2
6
5
2
.
2
2
3

6
_
1
3
1
.
.
1
XXX

9
_
_
1
3
1
1
.
.
1
2
XXX

42
1
2
5
7
7
6
3
1
2
1
1
3
3
13

22
_
.
2
4
6
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
8

19
_
.
2
3
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
XXX

20
1
2
3
3
1
5
1
.
2
2
5

6
_
1
.
1
2
1
.
.
.
1
XXX

7
_
.
1
1
.
2
_
.
_
.
1
2
XXX

33

13

XXX

20

XXX

XXX

38

17

XXX

21

XXX

XXX

_

L ow est sa la ry ra te fo rm ally estab lish ed fo r h irin g in ex perienced w o rk e rs fo r typing o r o th e r c le ric a l jo b s.
R ates app licable to m e sse n g e rs, office g irls , o r sim ila r su b c le ric a l jobs a re not co n sid ered .
H ours re fle c t the w orkw eek for w hich em ployees rec e iv e th e ir re g u la r stra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s . D ata a re p re se n te d fo r a ll w orkw eeks com bined, and fo r the m o st com m on w orkw eeks rep o rted .




12
Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P e rc e n t d istrib u tio n of office and plant w o rk e rs in all in d u strie s and in in d u stry div ision s by scheduled w eekly h o urs
of firs t-s h ift w o rk e rs, New H aven, Conn. , F e b ru a ry I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

W eekly ho urs

All w o rk e rs —
———
—- U nder 35 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------35 ho urs ---------------------------------------------------------O ver 35 and under 37 h o urs --------------------------37 h o urs -------------------------------------------------------37V2h o urs ----------------------------------------------------O ver 3,7l/z and under 40 ho urs ---------------------40 h o urs ---------------------------------------------------------O ver 40 and un der 44 h o urs — — ----44 ho u rs -------------------------------------------------------45 ho u rs -------------------------------------------------------O ver 45 ho urs — ___ __ —
---- — —
1
2
3
4

All industries

100
2
1
<4)
8
25
4
58
(4)
(4 )

1

M anufacturing

100
(4)
1
(4 )
3
2
93
1

PLAN T W ORKERS

Public utilities 2

100
_
(4)
(4)
5
7
4
3
-

All industries3

Manufacturing

100
_
5
4
5
70
3
2
5
5

Includes data for w ho lesale trad e; re ta il tra d e ; finance, in su ran ce , and re a l e sta te; and se rv ic e s in addition to tho se in d u stry divisions shown se p a rate ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s.
Includes data for w holesale tra d e , re ta il tra d e , read e sta te , and se rv ic e s in addition to tho se in d u stry divisions shown se p a rate ly .
L ess than 0. 5 p e rce n t.




100
_
6
6
74
1
3
6
3

Pu blic utilities 2

100
_
87
9
2
2

13

Table EM Paid Holidays
.
(P e rc e n t d istrib u tio n of office and plant w o rk e rs in all in d u strie s and in in d u stry div ision s by num ber of paid holidays
provided annually, New H aven, C o n n ., F e b ru a ry I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

All industries 1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

---------

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in e sta b lish m e n ts providing
paid holidays
_______ ___ ____ _____
W orkers in e sta b lish m e n ts providing
no paid h o lid a y s___ ___ — --------- — --------

100

100

100
-

96
4

100

■

96
4

8
4
2
1
■

1
1
5
1
32
4
2
35
7
3
1
1
1
1
1

1
4
2
24
4
3
42
10
3
1
1

3
9
_
40
2
21
6
7
5
6
”

7
7
15
15
15
98
98
99
99
99
100
100
100

1
2
3
4
7
15
51
55
87
88
94
95
96
96

1
1
2
2
6
16
61
65
89
90
95
95
96
96

6
11
18
24
24
45
48
88
88
97
100
100
100

A ll w o rk e rs ---------------------- ------------

N um ber of d a y s
L e ss than 5 holidays — — ------5 h o lid a y s --------------------------------------------------------6 holidays _ --------- --------------------- --------6 holidays plus 1 half day ----- — ---------------6 holidays plus 2 o r 3 half d a y s ----------------------7 holidays —_________________________ —________
7 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y __
. — __ __
7 holidays plus 2 half days —
— ..
8 holidays ____
___ ___
8 holidays plus 1 half day __ — .. ____
8 holidays plus 2 half days _____ — ------9 holidays ___ —
_______ ____ —
9 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____________________
9 holidays plus 3 half days -------- --- —
10 h o lid a y s ----------------- — -------------------------- —
10 holidays plu s 1 half day -------------------------—
10 holidays p lu s 2 half d a y s ......................................
11 h o lid a y s ____________________________________

(4)
(4)
2
2
12
2
1
44
11
(4)
5
3
1
1
1
(4)
15

1
5
22
4
1
38
26
1
2
\

-

(4)
-

2
83
-

-

T o ta l h o lid a y tim e 8
11 days — ------- ---- ---- ---- — —
10*/z o r m o re days ------------- ---- ------- — _
10 o r m o re d a y s ----------------------------------------------91/a o r m o re days -----------------------------------------9 o r m o re d a y s ------------------------------------------------8*/i o r m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------8 o r m o re days __ --------------------- — — —
7 l h o r m o re d a y s ------------------------—-----------------7 o r m o re days -----------------------------------------------61Iz o r m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------6 o r m o re d a y s --- ------------------- ---- —
5 o r m o re d a y s --- ------------------__ __
4l /g o r m o re days __ ______ _ --------- -------2 o r m o re days _ ___ __ __ _ _
1
z
5
4
*
no Half

16
18
19
22
27
37
83
86
98
98
99
99
99
100

1
1
3
29
68
77
99
99
100
100
100
100

Includes d ata fo r w holesale trad e; re ta il trad e; finance, in su ran ce , and re a l e sta te; and se rv ic e s in addition to those in d u stry div ision s shown se p a rate ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and o th e r public u tilitie s.
Includes data for w holesale tra d e , re ta il tra d e , re a l e sta te , and se rv ic e s in addition to those in d u stry div ision s shown se p a rate ly .
L e ss than 0. 5 p e rce n t.
A ll com binations of full and half days th a t add to the sam e am ount a re com bined; for exam ple, the pro p o rtio n of w o rk e rs receivin g a to tal of 7 days includes those w ith 7 full days and
days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. P ro p o rtio n s w ere then cum ulated.




Table £-5, Pgfcl Vacations
(P e rc e n t d istrib u tio n of office and plant W orkers in all in d u strie s and in in d u stry div ision s by vacation pay
pro v isio n s, New H aven, C onn., F e b ru a ry i960)
V acation policy

OFFICE WORKERS
All industrial1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public Utilities 2

All industries *

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
.

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
65
32
3
.

100
52
44
4
.

100
100

-

■

“

"

"

-

A fter 6 m onths of se rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek — ----- . . . .
1 w eek — — — ----- ------— -----------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ------------------------—
2 w e e k s ---------------------— -------------------------- —

5
64
7
4

1
72
.
6

_
65
2
"

28
22
1
1

34
17
.
1

_
33
5
-

A fter
U nder 1 w eek 1 w eek
—
O ver 1 and under
2 w eeks
3 w eeks
.

_
18
.
82
-

_
16
84
“

_
29
.
71
-

5
67
2
25
(B)

6
73
3
17
1

_
62
.
38
-

3
8
87
1
1

7
93
_
-

(*)
28
72

5
58
5
31
.
1

6
66
8
19
.
1

52
.
48

3
29
6
60
1
1

4
27
8
58
.
1
2

A ll w o rk e rs — ----- — — ------ ----------M e th o d o f p o y m i l
W o rk ers in e stab lish m en ts providing
paid v a c a t i o n s ---- — ------------------------— —...
L en g th -o f-tim e paym ent —--------— --------P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t--------------—-------------F la t-s u m paym ent ------ --------------------- —
O ther
— — - — ------------------------------W o rk ers in esta b lish m e n ts providing
ho paid v acations —--------------------------— —

-

.

A m o u n t o f v o c a tio n p a y 4

1- y e a r of se rv ic e
—
—
—
2 w e e k s -------------------—---— — . -------------. .
. —— . _

A fter 2 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek ~
. . . .
1 w eek ----- — -— — ---- ---- — ;----- ------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s --------------- --------- 2 Weeks
. . . . .. . . . .
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks -------------------------3 w eeks
--------------------- _ _
A fter 3 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek
- 1 w eek . .. — —
—
. _ —
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
. . ------- —
2 w eeks
—
..
------- .. _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks -------------------------3 w eeks
. ----------- . ------------ —
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks -------------------------See footnotes at end of tab le.




_

3
.
95
1
1

_

6
.
94
-

.

-

_

(•)
99
-

-

_

-

_

46
.
54
.
-

15
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e rc e n t d istrib u tio n of office and plant w o rk e rs in all in d u strie s and in in d u stry divisions by vacation pay
p ro v isio n s, New H aven, Conn. , F e b ru a ry i960)
V acation policy

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE W0RKER8
All industries1

Manufacturing

Publio utilities 2

All industries2

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

.

A m o unt o f v o c a tio n p a y 4 — C o n tin u e d
A fter 5 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek ---------- .-----------. ---------------- — —
1 w eek ... —
-------_ .
.. .
2 w eeks .......------------------... ---- ------ ----- ,----------O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks — --------— . — .. .
3 w eeks
-----... — ----------------------Q ver 3 and un der 4 w eeks — . — ---------,— ..—
A fter 10 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 2 w eeks
----------- — —
2 w eeks . . — ...
O ver 2 and un der 3 w eeks
..
3 w eeks -.r____________ n
^
v— T
4 w eeks ---------------------,---------,------------------------

.
(’)
93
5
2
-

.
1
95
2
2
-

_
100
*
-

3
5
86
1
4
l

4
5
84
2
3
2

99
1
-

(8)
76
6
17
■

1
80
7
12
■

.
87
13
"

8
68
4
19
1

9
72
5
12
2

.
72
.
27
1

A fter 15 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 2 w eeks ----- --------------------- —-------— —
2 w eeks «--------— ------_.
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks --------------------------—
3 w eeks ___— T------------------ T — — --------— r
Q ver 3 and under 4 w eeks ---— —4 w eeks ---------------- —--------------------- ----------- -—

(*)
7
88
4
~

1
8
89
2
■

(*)
99
■

7
16
1
74
1
1

7
14
1
74
2
2

.
4
95
1

(*)
7
87
5

1
8
89
2

(*)
99

7
15
71
7

7
14
75
4

.
4
95
1

(•)
6'
64
1
29

1
7
44
2
46

3
4
13
50
1
29

4
3
11
51
2
29

p
4
77
19

A fter 20 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 2 w e e k s ---------- — --------------...--------------2 w eeks
— ... . . — . ..----- ------------------------3 w eeks ---------------------------------------------------------4 w eeks ..— ,--------------------—--------- — --------------- A fter 25 y e a rs of se rv ic e
U nder 1 w eek —
------...-----------------1 w eek ....-----------------*- — -------------------2 w e e k s --------- ------------—---------------- -----------------3 w eeks —-------- -----— -----------------—----------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks . . — ---- ------------------4 w eeks ------------------------------ ---- —

-

-

(*)
88
H

-

-

1 Includes data for w holesale tra d e ; re ta il tra d e ; finance, in su ran ce , and re a l e state; and se rv ic e s in addition to tho se in d u stry divisions shown se p a rate ly ,
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and o th er public u tilitie s,
2 Includes d ata for w holesale tra d e , re ta il tra d e , re a l e sta te , and se rv ic e s in addition to those in d u stry divisions shown se p a rate ly .
4
P e rio d s of se rv ic e w ere a rb itra rily c h o sfn and do not n e c e ssa rily re fle c t the individual p rov ision s for p ro g re ss io n s . F o r exam ple, the changes in pro p o rtio n s ind icated at 10 y e a rs '
se rv ic e include changes in p rov ision s o c c u rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a rs .
s L ess than 0, 5 p e rce n t.
NOTE; In the tabu latio ns of vacation allow ances by y e a rs of se rv ic e , paym ents oth er than "length of tim e ," such as p ercen tag e of annual e arnin gs o r flat-su m p ay m ents, w ere con verted
to an equivalent tim e b asis; fo r exam ple, a paym ent of 2 p e rce n t of annual earnin gs w as co n sid ered as 1 w eek 's pay.




16
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d i n i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
- h e a lth , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f i t s , N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS
T y p e o f b e n e f it

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------------------------- —-----------------------

All Industrie*1

100

Manufacturing

100

PLANT WORKERS
Publio utilities 2

100

All industries 3

100

Manufacturing

Publio utilities 2

100

100

W o r k e r s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L if e i n s u r a n c e ------- --------- --------- ----------- .
A c c id e n t a l d e a t h a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 4 ----------------------------------------

98

99

99

97

99

93

52

61

58

40

42

31

86

60

97

98

90

98

S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ---------S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y an d n o
w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) -------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e (p a r tia l p a y o r
w a i t i n g p e r io d ) ---------- - ----------- . . . . .

49

88

5

76

93

18

71

79

97

16

6

41

-

-

-

5

7

-

H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e ----------------- . . —
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ------------ —------- — ----------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e
- ----------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n — ------------------------------- —
N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ------

78
73
52
49
80
1

97
96
66
43
82
(•)

45
44
41
38
71

86
83
46
23
74

97
95
50
22
80

77
77
70
52
56

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c lu d e s d a ta fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v ic e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e in d u s tr y d iv is io n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e ly .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w . S i c k - l e a v e p l a n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h i c h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t
th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s 1 p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . I n fo r m a l s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a ii s a r e e x c lu d e d .
* L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.




17

A ppendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE

BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Class A— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class 4 — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super*
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any com bination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders receiTed, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPUCATING-MACfflNE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate; and staple completed material.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

19

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position, Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office calls.
May record toll calls and take messages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some f ir ­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.

Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports op scientific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerical work involving little special training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

TYPIST—-Continued
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B— Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May assist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specifications; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing .of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;,
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21

MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE
Perforins the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more them one engineer are excluded.




D POWERPLANT

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is oermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

23

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND M ATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

TRUCKDRIVER

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: .Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail.establishm ents, or between retail establishm ents
and customers9 houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, andjceep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (llA to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
*

U .S . G O VER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : I 9 6 0 0 — 5 5 4 6 2 4

O c c u p a tio n a l W age S u r v ey s

Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown on inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1961.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Baltimore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*7, price 15 cents
Boston, Mass., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*8, price 25 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*10, price 25 cents
Cincinnati, Ohio—Ky., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*31» price 25 cents
Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*1, price 20 cents
Dallas, Tex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*3* price 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*9, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*11, price 25 cents
Des Moines, Iowa, February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*30, price 25 cents
Detroit, Mich., January I960—BJLS Bull. 1265*25, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, Tex., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*13, price 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*22, price 25 cents
J ackson, Miss., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*26, price 25 cents
acksonville, Fla., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*14, price 25 cents
Kansas City, Mo.—Kans., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*23, price 25 cents
Memphis, Tenn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*19, price 25 cents
Miami, Fla., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*6, price 20 cents
Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*21, price 25 cents
Newark and Jersey City, N.J., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*28, price 25 cents
Philadelphia, Pa., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265—16, price 25 cents
Pittsburgh, Pa., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*20, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*12, price 20 cents
Richmond, Va., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*24, price 25 cents
St. Louis, Mo., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*5, price 25 cents
San Bernardino—Riverside—Ontario, C alif., November 1959—
BLS Bull. 1265*15, price 25 cents
San Francisco—Oakland, Calif., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265*17, price 25 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*2, price 25 cents
Sioux Falls, S. Dak., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*29, price 20 cents
Washington, D.C.—Md.— December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*18, price 25 cents
Va.,
York, Pa., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*27, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102